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Sample records for pigs fed prevalent

  1. Factorial analysis of slaughter characteristics of fattening pigs fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... Slaughter characteristics in three groups of fattening pigs fed in different ways were ... INTRODUCTION. Probiotic preparations are used as food additives ...... Effect of use of Vitaprotein 50 as fish meal substitute in nutrition of.

  2. Growth Performance and Hematological Traits of Weaner Pigs Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    http://www.ajol.info/index.php/njb/index and ... for their growth and haematological parameters when fed graded levels of raw ... significant (P<0.05) differences among treatments in feed intake, weight gain, ... Keywords: Growth Performance, Bambara nut wastes, Weaner Pigs and ... waste used in the feeding of pigs (Okeke,.

  3. Growth Performance and Hematological Traits of Weaner Pigs Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty Weaner pigs with an average initial live weight of 6.81 ± 1.0kg were studied for their growth and haematological parameters when fed graded levels of raw bambara waste (BW) using a completely randomized design (CRD). They were fed five diets containing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 percentage composition for 5 months ...

  4. Production performance of pigs reared in different systems and fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental material comprised 90 growing-finishing pigs, divided into six groups of 15 animals that were diverse in terms of rearing (with or without free access to outdoor runs) and feeding systems (fed increased metabolizable energy (ME) content diets with or without green alfalfa). Different feeding regimes and ...

  5. Bioactive Whey Protein Concentrate and Lactose Stimulate Gut Function in Formula-fed Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Ninh Nguyen, Duc; Obelitz-Ryom, Karina

    2018-01-01

    -processing are important factors. METHOD:: Ninety-two caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were fed increasing doses of formulas for 5 days (24–120?mL/kg/d). In Experiment 1, four groups of pigs (n?=?15–16) were fed lactose- or maltodextrin-dominant formulas (lactose/maltodextrin ratios 3:1 or 1:3, respectively), containing...... WPC with either high or low levels of IgG (WPC1 or WPC2, respectively). In Experiment 2, two groups of pigs (n?=?15–16) were fed lactose-dominant formulas with either a bioactive WPC (BioWPC, produced by reduced thermal-processing) or a conventional WPC (ConWPC). RESULTS:: In Experiment 1, pigs fed...... formula with WPC1 had higher villi, hexose absorption, and lactase activity in small intestine, relative to WPC2, but predominantly with the lactose-dominant formula (all P?

  6. Genome Sequences of Two Copper-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Copper-Fed Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüthje, Freja L.; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequences of two copper-resistant Escherichia coli strains were determined. These had been isolated from copper-fed pigs and contained additional putative operons conferring copper and other metal and metalloid resistances.......The draft genome sequences of two copper-resistant Escherichia coli strains were determined. These had been isolated from copper-fed pigs and contained additional putative operons conferring copper and other metal and metalloid resistances....

  7. Epidemiological evidence of listeriosis in guinea pigs fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium that infects livestock and humans. We report the first outbreak of invasive listeriosis caused by L. monocytogenes in a guinea pig breeding colony. Eighty to 100% mortality rate was recorded in the colony of 80 guinea pigs within four weeks outbreak. On epidemiologic investigation ...

  8. Performance of growing pigs of different genetic groups fed varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 39: 102-114. Bressani R (1974). In Annual Report For 1973. (Institute de Nutricion da Centro America, America Y Panama, INCAP, Quatemala City. Cameron CW, Ashton GC (1969). The Local Black and Large White breeds of pigs for meat Production in Ghana. Legion J. Agric. 2: 19-.

  9. Growth and reproductive performances of weaner pigs fed maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Cassava replacing maize in the diet of grower pigs was investigated. A total of thirty six 5 week old male weaner large white \\landrace cross pigs were used for thestudy. These were divided into four groups A – D "S (n = 9)"" followng two weeks of acclimatization. The basic ingredients in their diets were soybean ...

  10. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and bioavailability of isoflavones in pigs fed soy bean based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Gerda; Hennig, U; Kalbe, Claudia; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Ren, M Q; Moors, S; Degen, Gisela H

    2004-08-01

    A growth trial with 38 weaners (castrated male pigs) was designed to compare the growth performance and carcass quality of pigs fed diets containing either soy bean meal or soy protein concentrate in a pair-feeding design. Soy bean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) differed in isoflavone (daidzein plus genistein) content (782 microg/g in SBM and 125 microg/g in SPC, respectively). During the experiment, all pigs were fed four-phases-diets characterized by decreasing protein concentrations with increasing age (weaner I, weaner II, grower, finisher diets). Rations of control and experimental groups were isoenergetic, isonitrogenous, and isoaminogen. The weanling pigs with an initial live weight of 8.4 +/- 1.1 kg were allotted to flat deck boxes. During the growing/finishing period (days 70-170 of age), the pigs were housed in single boxes. Both, the weaning and the grower/finishing performances (daily body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio) were similar in both groups. No differences were found between the groups in carcass composition (percentages of cuts, tissues, and protein/fat), and meat quality of pigs. Moreover, the IGF-1R mRNA expression in longissimus muscle was not influenced by the kind of soy product. However, circulating levels of isoflavones were clearly different between pigs fed SBM (genistein 239 +/- 44; daidzein 162 +/- 42; equol 12 +/- 4 ng/ml plasma) and animals fed SPC (genistein 22 +/- 9 and daidzein 8 +/- 3, and equol 10 +/- 3 ng/ml plasma). The results confirm the expected differences in the bioavailability of soy isoflavones, yet, there were no significant differences in performance of pigs fed either soy bean meal or soy protein concentrate.

  11. Growth Performance and Behaviour in Grouped Pigs Fed Fibrous Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Bakare

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding fibrous diets on growth performance and occurrence of aggressive behaviours in growing pigs. Sixty healthy castrated pigs (initial body weight: 46.7±4.35 kg were used. A basal diet was diluted with maize cobs to two levels (0 and 160 g/kg dry matter. Behavioural activities were observed using video cameras for three weeks, 8 h/d starting at 0800 h. Pigs subjected to control diet gained more weight compared to pigs receiving fibrous diet in week 1 (0.47 vs 0.15 kg, respectively and 2 (1.37 vs 1.04, respectively (p<0.05. Average daily gain was not affected by treatment diet in the third week. Pigs on high fibrous spent more time eating, lying down, standing, walking and fighting (p<0.05 compared to pigs on control diet. Time spent eating increased as the weeks progressed whilst time spent lying down decreased. Time of day had an effect on time spent on different behavioural activities exhibited by all pigs on different treatment diet (p<0.05. Inactivity was greatest in 5th (1200 to 1300 h hour of the day for all the pigs on different dietary treatments. Skin lesions appeared the most on neck and shoulder region followed by chest, stomach and hind leg region, and finally head region (p<0.05. Pigs on high fibre diet had more skin lesions in all body regions compared to pigs on control diet (p<0.05. It can be concluded that the high fibrous diet with maize cobs did not affect growth performance and also did not reduce aggressive behaviours. Aggressive behaviours emanated out of frustration when queuing on the feeder. The findings of this study suggest that maize cobs can be included at a level of 160 g/kg in diets of pigs. However, to reduce the level of aggression more feeding space should be provided.

  12. Growth performance and economy of production of grower pigs fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meal-based diets. ... International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems ... Twenty-four landrace x large white grower pigs were used to study the effect of maize-cob- meal-based diets on the growth performance and economy of ...

  13. Residues of dioxins and PCBs in fat of growing pigs and broilers fed contaminated feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Kan, C.A.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Weg, van der G.; Onstenk, C.G.M.; Traag, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the kinetics of PCBs and dioxins, 3 week old broilers and 3 month old pigs were fed with a 10-fold diluted feed from the Belgium crisis for one week, followed by a period on clean feed. In the case of broilers this resulted in levels for dioxins, non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs in fat

  14. Growth Performance and Bio-Economics of Growing Pigs Fed Diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the performance, haematology, nutrient digestibility and economics of production of growing pigs fed diets containing differently fermented cassava starch residue (CSR) and cassava peels (CP) altogether referred to as cassava tuber wastes (CTW). The CSR and CP were each ...

  15. Digestibility of energy and lipids and oxidative stress in nursery pigs fed commercially available lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of lipid source on GE and ether extract (EE) digestibility, oxidative stress, and gut integrity in nursery pigs fed diets containing 10% of soybean oil (SO), choice white grease (CWG), palm oil (PO), or 2 different distillers corn oils (DCO-1 and DC...

  16. Nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon excretion and losses in growing pigs fed Danish or Asian diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Vu, Van Thi Khanh; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine inputs and outputs of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) and to estimate the nutrient losses during housing and storage in order to address these important parts of the whole manure management systems in pigs fed different diets....

  17. Prevalence of Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in Finnish Slaughter Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahikainen Ibañez, T; Laukkanen-Ninios, R; Hakkinen, M; Johansson, T; Vilar, M; Korkeala, H

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was determined in tonsil and intestinal content samples from 388 healthy fattening pigs at the four biggest Finnish slaughterhouses. These slaughterhouses process 73% of pigs in Finland. Tonsil samples were tested by PCR targeted for yadA, and intestinal samples were cultured. All pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates represented bioserotype 4/O:3. The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsil samples was 60% (95% confidence limit, 55.4 to 65.1%), and its prevalence in intestinal samples was 26% (95% confidence limit, 22.1 to 31.2%). The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsil and intestinal samples varied between the four slaughterhouses. The tonsil prevalence of Y. enterocolitica was higher in slaughterhouse B, and the prevalence in intestinal content was higher in slaughterhouse C. There were more positive results in both tonsil and intestinal samples in pigs coming from fattening farms than in pigs coming from farrowing-and-fattening farms. A seasonal variation was observed in the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in intestinal samples, with the highest prevalence during July and August, but no seasonal variation was detected in tonsil samples.

  18. Fresh meat and further processing characteristics of ham muscles from finishing pigs fed ractopamine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boler, D D; Holmer, S F; Duncan, D A; Carr, S N; Ritter, M J; Stites, C R; Petry, D B; Hinson, R B; Allee, G L; McKeith, F K; Killefer, J

    2011-01-01

    Ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) has consistently led to an advantage in carcass cutting yields of finishing pigs and remains a common feed additive in US finishing pig diets. Less is known about the effect of RAC on further processing characteristics. Some researchers have reported advantages in ultimate pH of the LM in pigs fed RAC. If a greater ultimate pH was also observed in hams, the increased pH could affect further processing characteristics and lead to better protein interaction and improved textural properties. The objective of this experiment was to determine if RAC-fed pigs yielded hams with a greater ultimate pH, and if so, whether or not that advantage improves textural properties and water retention of further processed hams. Two hundred hams from barrows and gilts fed RAC or control diets were selected based on HCW. Hams were fabricated into 5 separate pieces to determine cutting yields, and 6 muscles were evaluated for ultimate pH. Hams were processed to make cured and smoked hams. Ractopamine increased cutting yields of the whole ham (P processed ham characteristics.

  19. Changes in bacterial community structure in the colon of pigs fed different experimental diets and after infection with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leser, Thomas D.; Lindecrona, Rikke Hvid; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2000-01-01

    Bacterial communities in the large intestines of pigs were compared using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis targeting the 16S ribosomal DNA. The pigs were fed different experimental diets based on either modified standard feed or cooked rice supplemented with die......Bacterial communities in the large intestines of pigs were compared using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis targeting the 16S ribosomal DNA. The pigs were fed different experimental diets based on either modified standard feed or cooked rice supplemented...

  20. Trace metal concentrations in Tilapia fed with pig and chicken manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M.H.; Chan, K.M.; Liu, W.K.

    1984-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the effects of adding pig manure and chicken manure as supplementary feeds for rearing Sarotherodon mossambicus (Tilapia mossambica) in the laboratory. The feeding test lasted for four weeks under stable aerated conditions. Various portions (10%, 40%, 60% w/w) of the two types of manure were mixed with dried tubifex worm pellets, whilst the control group consisted of tubifex worm alone. The metals studied were Mn, Fe, Cu and Pb. The diets supplemented with 40% and 60% manure contained significantly (p < 0.05) greater amounts of all the metals tested except iron. The concentration of metals in the fish tissues (gill, viscera, flesh) was related to the amount of manure supplement. Harmful effects were reflected by significantly lower (p < 0.05) protein content in fish fed on manure-supplement diets, with the sole exception of the 10% pig manure supplement. Histological damage was also observed in the gills and the hepatopancreas of fish fed on diets supplemented with 60% pig manure and with 40% or 60% chicken manure. Of the two kinds of animal manure investigated as potential supplementary feeds for rearing tilapia, the results indicate that pig manure is likely to be the better choice.

  1. Enteral but not parenteral antibiotics enhance gut function and prevent necrotizing enterocollitis in forumula-fed newborn preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene M; Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted

    2016-01-01

    , relative to CON pigs (P pigs were intermediate with few affected parameters (reduced lactic acid levels and density and adherence of Gram-positive bacteria, relative to CON pigs, P antimicrobial resistance following the treatments. We......Preterm infants are susceptible to infection and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and are often treated with antibiotics. Simultaneous administration of enteral and parenteral antibiotics during the first days after preterm birth prevents formula-induced NEC lesions in pigs, but it is unknown which...... administration route is most effective. We hypothesized that only enteral antibiotics suppress gut bacterial colonization and NEC progression in formula-fed preterm pigs. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs (90–92% of gestation) were fed increasing amounts of infant formula from birth to day 5 and given saline (CON...

  2. Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in flaxseed meal fed to growing and finishing pigs without or with phytase supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J W; Ndou, S P; Mejicanos, G A; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in flaxseed meal (FM) and the effect of dietary microbial phytase on the digestibility of P in FM fed to growing and finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, eighteen growing barrows (26.6 ± 1.8 kg BW) were allotted to 1 of 3 experimental diets consisting of a diet containing 32% FM that was fed with or without phytase at 500 phytase units (FTU/kg and a P-free diet in a completely randomized design to give 6 replicates per diet. The experimental period lasted 12 d including first 7 d for adaptation and 5 d for total collection of feces. Pigs were fed their assigned diets at 4% of BW at the beginning of the experiment. The daily feed allowance was offered in 2 equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h. All experimental diets were provided in mash form. Results indicated that pigs fed the diets containing FM with dietary phytase had less ( phytase supplementation. Also, phytase supplementation increased ( phytase supplementation had less ( phytase supplementation. Also, daily P output was reduced ( = 0.08) when pigs were fed the FM diets with phytase compared to those fed the FM diets without phytase. The ATTD of P in FM diets was increased ( phytase supplementation. The basal EPL was calculated at 164 ± 19 mg/kg of DMI in finishing pigs fed the P-free diet. In conclusion, the ATTD and STTD of P in FM fed to growing pigs were 37.3% and 43.2%, respectively, whereas respective values for finishing pigs were 31.4%, and 37.8%, respectively. Also, dietary phytase supplementation improved both ATTD and STTD of P in FM for both stages of pigs by an average of 33%.

  3. Prevalence of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Bacterial Isolates from Manured Agricultural Soils and Pig Slurry in the United Kingdom▿

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne-Bailey, K. G.; Gaze, W. H.; Kay, P.; Boxall, A. B. A.; Hawkey, P. M.; Wellington, E. M. H.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalences of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2, and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) resistance were determined in bacteria isolated from manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples in the United Kingdom over a 2-year period. Slurry from tylosin-fed pigs amended with SCP and oxytetracycline was used for manuring. Isolates positive for sul genes were further screened for the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons. Phenotypic resistance to SCP was significantly higher...

  4. Factors influencing Salmonella carcass prevalence in Danish pig abattoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitas de Matos Baptista, Filipa; Dahl, J.; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2010-01-01

    The Danish Salmonella Surveillance-and-Control Programme in finisher pigs includes both herd and carcass surveillance. Herd surveillance consists of serological testing of meat-juice samples and classification of herds into three Salmonella seroprevalence levels. At the abattoirs, carcass swabs...... from five pigs are collected daily and analysed as a pooled sample to evaluate the Salmonella carcass prevalence. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with Salmonella carcass prevalence in Denmark. A total of 20,196 pooled carcass swabs collected in 23 Danish abattoirs were included...... in the analysis. A multilevel logistic regression model was used taking into account the two-level data structure (abattoir, carcass pool) and adjusting the parameter estimates to the random variation at the abattoir level. Study results indicated that carcass contamination was mainly influenced...

  5. Stereomicroscopic and histologic changes in the colon of guinea pigs fed degraded carrageenan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1980-01-01

    A colitis-like state induced in Guinea Pigs fed degraded carrageenan orally. By means of a combined semimacroscopic and histologic technique the course of the disease was followed during 28 days. The changes were primarily seen and became most prominent in the caecum. The first lesions were...... observed following 24 hours of treatment as small rounded foci initially with degenerative changes and inflammation in the surface epithelium, later forming superficial focal ulcerations. Ulcerative changes gradually progressed during the experiment, forming linear and later large, geographical ulcerations...

  6. Prevalence of fur mites (Chirodiscoides caviae) in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Santoro, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Chirodiscoides caviae is the most common fur mite affecting guinea pigs; infestation is generally asymptomatic. No studies have been published on the prevalence of such mites in guinea pigs in southern Italy. We sought to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical signs of C. caviae infestation in guinea pigs in southern Italy. Clinical records of guinea pigs evaluated from August 2012 to July 2013 were retrospectively searched. In this retrospective matched case-control study, records of guinea pigs with evidence of C. caviae infestation were selected. The prevalence of C. caviae infestation was evaluated and exposure variables were assessed among guinea pigs with and without infestation using stepwise conditional logistic regression. Guinea pigs seen during the same time period, but without a diagnosis of C. caviae, were included as control animals. The prevalence of C. caviae was 32% (42 of 131); 66.6% of affected guinea pigs (28 of 42) originated from pet shops, whereas 28% (14 of 42) were privately owned. Thirty-one guinea pigs (73.8%) were asymptomatic, whereas 11 (26.1%) showed clinical signs (pruritus, alopecia, erythema and scaling). The most frequently affected area was the lumbosacral region (38 of 42). Guinea pigs in pet shops were more likely to be affected by C. caviae than owned guinea pigs (odds ratio, 5.12; 95% confidence interval, 2.32-11.29; P guinea pigs in southern Italy. Chirodiscoides mites should be sought in guinea pigs, particularly in animals coming from pet shops. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  7. Microbial production of volatile sulphur compounds in the large intestine of pigs fed two different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, H V; Jensen, B B; Finster, K; Spence, C; Whitehead, T R; Cotta, M A; Canibe, N

    2012-07-01

      To investigate the production of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) in the segments of the large intestine of pigs and to assess the impact of diet on this production.   Pigs were fed two diets based on either wheat and barley (STD) or wheat and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Net production of VSC and potential sulphate reduction rate (SRR) (sulphate saturated) along the large intestine were determined by means of in vitro incubations. The net production rate of hydrogen sulphide and potential SRR increased from caecum towards distal colon and were significantly higher in the STD group. Conversely, the net methanethiol production rate was significantly higher in the DDGS group, while no difference was observed for dimethyl sulphide. The number of sulphate-reducing bacteria and total bacteria were determined by quantitative PCR and showed a significant increase along the large intestine, whereas no diet-related differences were observed.   VSC net production varies widely throughout the large intestine of pigs and the microbial processes involved in this production can be affected by diet.   This first report on intestinal production of all VSC shows both spatial and dietary effects, which are relevant to both bowel disease- and odour mitigation research. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Thomassen, Anne-Marie; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates a...

  9. Prevalence of Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Pigs in Jos, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a growing concern for pig parasites as a bottleneck for low productivity and reduction in the market value of pork meat. The economic losses resulting from gastrointestinal parasites of pigs are quite enormous. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of pigs in Jos Plateau ...

  10. High prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in pig cheeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Maijala, Riitta; Korkeala, Hannu

    2014-10-01

    Samples from pork cuts for minced meat and cheeks from processing plants and a slaughterhouse, and modified atmosphere (MA) packaged pork from retail were studied to estimate the prevalence of pathogenic, i.e. virulence plasmid bearing, Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pork, as well as to quantify pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in pork cuts. Pathogenic (virF-positive) Y. enterocolitica was isolated from 17 pig cheeks (23%) but not from any of the MA-packaged 54 retail pork samples and only from one of the 155 pork cut (0.6%). Most (16/17) of the cheek samples were contaminated with pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 and one with bioserotype 2/O:9. No Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated. The prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was clearly higher (39%) in 155 pork cuts when studied with nested PCR targeting yadA on the virulence plasmid pYV although the contamination level was low varying between 0.1 and 1.6 MPN/g. Raw pork cuts and especially pig cheeks may serve as possible sources for yersiniosis caused by pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nitrogen utilization in pigs fed diets with soybean and rapeseed products leading to different ileal endogenous nitrogen losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grala, W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Huisman, J.; Wasilewko, J.

    1998-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) balance was determined in 36 pigs (BW 24 to 30 kg) fed diets inducing different ileal endogenous N losses (ENL). We tested the hypothesis that enhanced ENL may be indicative of a higher recycling of endogenous proteins that will induce a greater urinary N loss and a lower efficiency of

  12. PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCES OF TWO ITALIAN CROSSBRED PIGS FED HIGH ENERGY DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. FORTINA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the trial was to compare the average daily gain (ADG, the carcass characteristics, and the meat and fat quality of 18 Italian crossbred pigs fed high energy diets formulated for improved genotypes (digestible energy: DE >14 MJ/kg DM. Nine “Fumati” crossbreds (Large White x Mora Romagnola; average initial live weight: 84 kg and nine “Borghigiana” (Large White x Nera di Parma; average initial live weight: 90 kg, reared under similar environmental and nutritional conditions, were slaughtered at the average final weight of 180 kg (285 days. Calculated dry matter intake (DMI and feed conversion index (FCI were similar; no significant differences were observed with respect to average daily gain (ADG: 679 vs. 658 g/d. At slaughtering, the dressing percentage of the Fumati was significantly lower than that of the Borghigiana (80.9 vs. 84.5. The Fumati seemed more prone to fattening than the Borghigiana, as confirmed by the statistically higher percentage of belly (14.9 vs.12.2, and fat (3.9 vs. 2.4 and marbling of M. longissimus dorsi (2.7 vs. 1.4. On colour analysis, the Fumati had statistically higher L* and hue values, and lower a* of M. longissimus dorsi. The fatty acid composition of meat was similar between crossbreds; backfat fatty acid composition of the Fumati showed a significantly higher percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, and lower amounts of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA than in the Borghigiana. Results showed that performances and meat quality of local crossbreeds still bred in semi-intensive systems, like Fumati and Borghigiana, can be positively influenced when fed diets considered suitable for improved pig genotypes.

  13. Prediction of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy Content of Rice Bran Fed to Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. X. Shi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME content of 19 rice bran samples and to develop prediction equations for DE and ME based on their chemical composition. The 19 rice bran samples came from different rice varieties, processing methods and regions. The basal diet was formulated using corn and soybean meal (74.43% corn and 22.91% soybean meal and 2.66% vitamins and minerals. The 19 experimental diets based on a mixture of corn, soybean meal and 29.2% of each source of rice bran, respectively. In Exp. 1, 108 growing barrows (32.1±4.2 kg were allotted to 1 of 18 treatments according to a completely randomized design with 6 pigs per treatment. The treatment 1 was the control group which was fed with basal diet. The treatments 2 to 18 were fed with experimental diets. In Exp. 2, two additional rice bran samples were measured to verify the prediction equations developed in Exp. 1. A control diet and two rice bran diets were fed to 18 growing barrows (34.6±3.5 kg. The control and experimental diets formulations were the same as diets in Exp. 1. The results showed that the DE ranged from 14.48 to 16.85 (mean 15.84 MJ/kg of dry matter while the ME ranged from 12.49 to 15.84 (mean 14.31 MJ/kg of dry matter. The predicted values of DE and ME of the two additional samples in Exp. 2 were very close to the measured values.

  14. /sup 15/N study on dietary urea utility in young pigs fed with a low protein diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niiyama, M; Kagota, K; Iwase, T; Namioka, S [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1978-10-01

    To investigate effect of a low protein diet on urea utilization, a tracer study was conducted with /sup 15/N-urea on pigs fed a low protein diet (DCP 5.7%) with 2% urea (group B), and on pigs fed and optimal protein diet (DCP 13.3%) with 2% urea (group A). /sup 15/N was incorporated into protein of liver, serum and muscle, which were obtained 8 days after the last administration of /sup 15/N-urea. The /sup 15/N incorporation rate into the tissue protein tended to be higher in group B than in group A. Approximately 70% of /sup 15/N, however, was excreted into urine within 48 hours in group B. A comparison was made on growth and urea level in blood and urine to evaluate efficacy of the administered urea on growth between group B pigs and pigs fed the same low protein diet without urea supplementation (group C). Since group B pigs always maintained a higher level of blood urea, they were considered to have had more ammonia nitrogen which was available for protein synthesis than group C animals. A similar amount of urea to ingested dose, however, was excessively eliminated in urine. The increased ammonia nitrogen by urea ingestion may be excreted in form of urinary urea in group B pigs. There was no difference in growth between group B and group C animals; therefore, poor efficacy of administered urea on growth may have resulted not only from its loss into urine in early stage after ingestion, but also to poor utility of ammonia for protein synthesis.

  15. A 15N study on dietary urea utility in young pigs fed with a low protein diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niiyama, Masayoshi; Kagota, Katsumoto; Iwase, Toshio; Namioka, Shigeo

    1978-01-01

    To investigate effect of a low protein diet on urea utilization, a tracer study was conducted with 15 N-urea on pigs fed a low protein diet (DCP 5.7%) with 2% urea (group B), and on pigs fed and optimal protein diet (DCP 13.3%) with 2% urea (group A). 15 N was incorporated into protein of liver, serum and muscle, which were obtained 8 days after the last administration of 15 N-urea. The 15 N incorporation rate into the tissue protein tended to be higher in group B than in group A. Approximately 70% of 15 N, however, was excreted into urine within 48 hours in group B. A comparison was made on growth and urea level in blood and urine to evaluate efficacy of the administered urea on growth between group B pigs and pigs fed the same low protein diet without urea supplementation (group C). Since group B pigs always maintained a higher level of blood urea, they were considered to have had more ammonia nitrogen which was available for protein synthesis than group C animals. A similar amount of urea to ingested dose, however, was excessively eliminated in urine. The increased ammonia nitrogen by urea ingestion may be excreted in form of urinary urea in group B pigs. There was no difference in growth between group B and group C animals; therefore, poor efficacy of administered urea on growth may have resulted not only from its loss into urine in early stage after ingestion, but also to poor utility of ammonia for protein synthesis. (author)

  16. Meat quality in pigs fed diets with gradual ractopamine supplementation and nutritional adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects that gradual ractopamine supplementation in diets with nutritional adjustments on pig meat. Were used 80 finishing crossbred barrows in a randomized block design with a 2×5 factorial arrangement (two diets: with and without nutritional adjustment; five levels of ractopamine supplementation: 5-5, 10-10, 20-20, 5-10 and 10-20 ppm in the 14 initial and 14 final study days, four replicates with two animals by experimental unit. Higher shear force values (P<0.05 were obtained using the 5-5 and 10-20 ppm ractopamine supplementation plans in the diets without nutritional adjustment. With nutritionally adjusted diets, the 5-10 ppm of ractopamine supplementation plan yielded higher shear force values (P<0.05. Water retention capacity was higher (P<0.05 for animals fed adjusted diets and 5-5 and 10-20 ppm of actopamine plans. In the 10-20 ppm of ractopamine supplementation plan, meat pH was higher (P<0.05 for diets without nutritional adjustment, whereas in the 20-20 ppm of supplementation plan, pH was higher for adjusted diets.

  17. Pectin isolated from prickly pear (Opuntia SSP) modifies LDL metabolism in cholesterol-fed guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.L.; McNamara, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of dietary pectin on plasma and hepatic cholesterol (CH) levels, plasma lipoprotein profiles, hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) binding to hepatic membranes were investigated by feeding 1% pectin to guinea pigs on a high CH diet. Animals were fed either chow + 0.25% CH (HC diet) or the CH diet + 1% prickly pear pectin (HC-P diet) for 25 days. Plasma CH levels were decreased 26% by the HC-P with 33% decreases in LDL and KDL. LDL peak density shifted from 1.040 to 1.055 g/ml with pectin. Hepatic total, free and esterified CH levels were reduced 60, 40 and 85% respectively by the HC-P diet. In contrast, HMG-CoA reductase activity was unaffected. 125 I-LDL binding to hepatic membranes was increased by intake of the HC-P diet compared to the HC diet. The affinity of the apo B/E receptor for LDL was not affected by dietary pectin while the receptor number was increased 1.5-fold in animals on the HC-P diet. These data suggest that the parameters of HC metabolism affected by dietary pectin are consistent with an increased demand on the hepatic CH pools which possibly results from increased fecal excretion of bile acids

  18. Hepatitis E virus is highly prevalent in the Danish pig population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Deus, Nilsa de

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the Danish pig population. Faecal samples from 97 pigs, 1–5 months of age were analysed for HEV RNA by a new PriProET real time RT-PCR assay. In addition, serum samples from 71 sow herds were screened...

  19. Controlling Salmonella infection in weanling pigs through water delivery of direct-fed microbials or organic acids: Part II. Effects on intestinal histology and active nutrient transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of water-delivered direct-fed microbials (DFM) or organic acids on intestinal morphology and active nutrient absorption in weanling pigs following deliberate Salmonella infection. Pigs (n = 88) were weaned at 19 ± 2 d of age and assigned to one...

  20. Quality traits of Ciauscolo salami from meat of pigs fed rosemary extract enriched diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ranucci

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological, chemical-physical and organoleptic characteristics of four batches of Ciauscolo salami, two made from meat of pigs fed diet integrated with 0.2% of rosemary extract (RS and two controls (CSs, were considered. Three samples for each batch were in double analyzed for total bacterial count at 30°C, enumeration of lactococci, lactobacilli, staphylococcus coagulase positive, enterococci, Enterobacteriaceae, and isolation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, after filling and at 7 and 20 days of ripening. On the same samples, measurement of pH (pHmeter MP120; Mettler-Toledo Spa, Schwerzenbach, Switzerland, activity water (aw (Hygroscope BT-RS1 Rotronic; PBI International, Milan, Italy and CIE L*a*b* colour (Chromameter Minolta C400; Minolta Ltd., Osaka, Japan were performed. Proximal composition, NaCl content (AOAC, 1990 thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARs and panel test (ISO 8586-1:1993 and ISO 8586 were performed only on samples obtained at the end of the ripening time. No difference in proximal composition, pH, aw values and microbial counts between CS and RS samples were observed along the whole production period. Colour analyses reveal higher a* values in RS (10.79 vs 9.68, P<0.05. Higher TBARs mean value was recorded in CS at the end of ripening (1.12 vs 0.91 mg MDA/100g, P<0.01. Even if no statistical differences were recorded in all the parameters considered in sensory evaluation, the overall acceptance of RS samples tended to be higher than CS.

  1. FEDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  2. Haematology and Serum Indices of Weaner Pigs Fed Raw Pride of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen (16) weaner pigs with an average weight of 3-6kg were used in an 8th weeks feeding trial to evaluate the haematological and serological response of the pigs to four levels of raw pride of barbados based diets. The animals were alloted into four treatments groups comprising four animals per group and two animals ...

  3. Prevalence of antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus among pigs in Bali and East Java, Indonesia, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Mulyatno, Kris Cahyo; Susilowati, Helen; Hendrianto, Eryk; Utsumi, Takako; Amin, Mochamad; Lusida, Maria Inge; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Konishi, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a fatal disease in Asia. Pigs are considered to be the effective amplifying host for JEV in the peridomestic environment. Bali Island and Java Island in Indonesia provide a model to assess the effect of pigs on JEV transmission, since the pig density is nearly 100-fold higher in Bali than Java, while the geographic and climatologic environments are equivalent in these areas. We surveyed antibodies to JEV among 123 pigs in Mengwi (Bali) and 96 pigs in Tulungagung (East Java) in 2008 by the hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) test. Overall prevalences were 49% in Bali and 6% in Java, with a significant difference between them (P Java. In addition, 2-mercaptoethanol-sensitive antibodies were found only from Bali samples. Further, the average HAI antibody titer obtained from positive samples was significantly higher in Bali (1:52) than Java (1:10; P Java.

  4. Determination of quarantine period in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed with pig (Sus sp.) offal to assure compliance with halal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Norhana, M N; Dykes, G A; Padilah, B; Ahmad Hazizi, A A; Masazurah, A R

    2012-12-01

    Pig (Sus sp.) and pig by-products are considered as najasa (impurities) in Islam and forbidden in Muslim consumer products. Animals fed on najasa are categorised as al-jallālah (contaminated animals) which are allowed to be consumed as long as they have been quarantined for a certain period of time. During this quarantine period the animals will have undergone a natural purification process or istihālah. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) are commonly consumed in Malaysia and may be fed on najasa. This study was carried out to estimate the istihālah period for catfish after feeding with pig offal, based on the absence of pig DNA in catfish gut and to suggest the quarantine period in catfish fed with pig offal. The results indicated that the maximum istihālah period could reach 36h in the stomach, 6h in the midgut and less than 2h in the hindgut although in many cases shorter periods were observed. Based on these results it is estimated that the minimum quarantine period for catfish fed with pig offal is 1.5days. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative aspects of the metabolism of lignans in pigs fed fibre-enriched rye and wheat bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lærke, Helle N; Mortensen, Marianne A; Hedemann, Mette S

    2009-01-01

    A diet rich in lignans has been suggested to be protective against a range of chronic diseases. The distribution and metabolic fate of lignans is, however, very poorly understood. We fed high-fibre wheat breads low in lignans (n 8) or high-fibre rye breads (n 9) rich in plant lignans to pigs for ......, liver, breast and brain at a much higher level with rye than with wheat, but only in the form of enterolactone. The importance and implications of systemic exposure to plant lignans remain to be elucidated....

  6. Salmonella risk to consumers via pork is related to the Salmonella prevalence in pig feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnqvist, M; Välttilä, V; Ranta, J; Tuominen, P

    2018-05-01

    Pigs are an important source of human infections with Salmonella, one of the most common causes of sporadic gastrointestinal infections and foodborne outbreaks in the European region. Feed has been estimated to be a significant source of Salmonella in piggeries in countries of a low Salmonella prevalence. To estimate Salmonella risk to consumers via the pork production chain, including feed production, a quantitative risk assessment model was constructed. The Salmonella prevalence in feeds and in animals was estimated to be generally low in Finland, but the relative importance of feed as a source of Salmonella in pigs was estimated as potentially high. Discontinuation of the present strict Salmonella control could increase the risk of Salmonella in slaughter pigs and consequent infections in consumers. The increased use of low risk and controlled feed ingredients could result in a consistently lower residual contamination in pigs and help the tracing and control of the sources of infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of carryover effect of prior fibre consumption on growth, serum and tissue metabolic markers in Ossabaw pigs fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, V V; Yan, H; Nakatsu, C H; Ajuwon, K M

    2018-04-14

    Carryover effect of prior fibre consumption on metabolic markers was investigated. Treatments were arranged in 2 × 2 factorial with 2 fibre sources, 4% inulin or cellulose (Solka-Floc®) and fat levels (5 or 15%) for the low-fat diet (LFD) and high-fat diet (HFD) respectively. Pigs were fed the two fibre diets for the first 56d (nursery phase), and thereafter fed either the LFD or HFD containing no added fibre source from d56 to 140 (growing phase). Pigs on the HFD were heavier (p = .05) than those on LF (64.61 vs. 68.38 kg), regardless of prior fibre type consumed. Pigs that were fed cellulose during the nursery and later fed the HFD had the highest ADG (p Inulin increased (p ≤ .02) jejunal expression of SREBP-1c and CL-4, but reduced (p inulin and cellulose fed pigs at the end of the nursery and finishing phases. Therefore, inulin feeding before a HFD may lead to reduction in ADG and inflammatory markers in the small intestine of pigs, and thus prevent future metabolic disorders. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Prevalence of dermatophytes and other superficial fungal organisms in asymptomatic guinea pigs in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, D; Grable, S L; Ferrara, M; Santoro, D

    2014-07-01

    Guinea pigs have been indicated as a potential source of zoophilic dermatophytes that cause human dermatomycosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dermatophytes as well as saprophytic fungi in asymptomatic pet guinea pigs in Southern Italy. Two-hundred pet guinea pigs were enrolled from both private veterinary clinics and pet shops in the Campania region, Italy, from August 2012 to September 2013. Samples were collected using the MacKenzie's toothbrush technique. The plates were incubated for four weeks at 25°C and identification of the fungal colonies was based on both macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Two pathogenic dermatophytes were isolated in 9 (4·5%) of 200 guinea pigs; Epidermophyton species in 2 (1%) and Scopulariopsis species in 7 (3·5%). Saprophytic dermatophytes were isolated from 151 (75·5%) animals enrolled. No fungal growth was observed in 40 (20%) guinea pigs. The results of this study indicate a low prevalence of pathogenic dermatophytes in pet guinea pigs in Southern Italy but the presence of Epidermophyton and Scopulariopsis species in asymptomatic pet guinea pigs. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  9. Prevalence of the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium on three organic pig farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi H.; Jianmin, Wang; Mejer, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Pigs are a potential source of contamination with Cryptosporidium spp., which can lead to infection in humans. Two species C. parvum and C. hominis can cause an acute diarrheal illness in humans, which can become severe in e.g. patients with HIV. The oocyst can survive for long periods in the env......Pigs are a potential source of contamination with Cryptosporidium spp., which can lead to infection in humans. Two species C. parvum and C. hominis can cause an acute diarrheal illness in humans, which can become severe in e.g. patients with HIV. The oocyst can survive for long periods...... in the environment and is resistant to many common disinfectants. In order to estimate the prevalence of the zoonotic parasite Cryptosporidium in organic pigs and to improve our knowledge of the parasite epidemiology, the prevalence was monitored four times between September 2011 and June 2012 in three Danish...... organic pig farms. Faecal samples were collected for examination of Cryptosporidium spp. with a total of 994 pigs grouped as sows, fatteners, young pigs and piglets. The number of pigs in each age group was 298, 232, 315 and 161 respectively, distributed on the three farms. Faecal samples were collected...

  10. Differences in metabolic parameters and gene expression related to osteochondrosis/osteoarthrosis in pigs fed 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, David; Farquharson, Colin; Thomson, Jill; Smith, William; Seawright, Elaine; McCormack, Heather; Whitehead, Colin

    2002-01-01

    Osteochondrosis/osteoarthrosis (OC/OA) are common terms for various joint pathologies that occur in pigs. Pathologies that may contribute to these disorders have been described, but the primary cause(s) remain unknown. We hypothesised that as OC has some similarities to dyschondroplasia, which involves a failure of growth plate chondrocytes to fully differentiate and hypertrophy, treatment with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-D) might reduce the incidence and/or severity of lesions in pigs, as it does in chickens with dyschondroplasia. Control pigs were fed a commercial diet ad libitum. In the treated group this diet was supplemented with 25-D at 0.1 mg/kg. Ten pigs from each of the control and treated groups were sampled at 7, 12, 16 and 21 weeks. Treatment with 25-D had no effect on the incidence or severity of OC/OA lesions. Cartilage dry weight, total collagen content and proteoglycan content, and plasma levels oftotal calcium, inorganic phosphorous, vitamin C, insuline-like growth factor-I, parathyroid hormone and tumour necrosis factor alpha were unaffected by treatment. In addition, none of these parameters were correlated with the incidence or severity of OC/OA lesions. The mRNA expression levels of 21 out of 23 genes assayed by RT-PCR were unaltered in articular cartilage from OA lesion samples as compared to normal articular cartilage. However, collagen type II was reduced and collagen type X increased in OA lesion and near lesion samples. These results suggest that OA in pigs may share some features of osteoarthritis in other mammalian species.

  11. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Canadian market-age pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajadhar, A A; Aramini, J J; Tiffin, G; Bisaillon, J R

    1998-08-01

    During 1991 and 1992, 2,800 market-age pigs were sampled at federally inspected abattoirs from across Canada. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG at titers of > or =1:32 were found in 240 pigs examined by a commercial, latex agglutination test. Seroprevalences ranged from 3.5 to 13.2% in the different regions of the country. Tissue hybridization studies using a previously developed probe demonstrated T. gondii ribosomal RNA in 9 of 36 animals, whereas mouse bioassay testing of heart muscle and diaphragm from all 2,800 pigs failed to demonstrate the presence of infective stages of T. gondii in tissues. Although serology results from this study indicated that Canadian market-age pigs are infected with T. gondii at rates similar to those reported from other parts of North America, mouse bioassay results suggested that Canadian pork products contain low levels of infective organisms. This apparent discrepancy suggests that serological evidence of T. gondii infection in pigs alone does not accurately assess the public health risks associated with consuming improperly cooked pork products.

  12. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica in Pigs Slaughtered in Chinese Abattoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junrong; Wang, Xin; Xiao, Yuchun; Cui, Zhigang; Xia, Shengli; Hao, Qiong; Yang, Jinchuan; Luo, Longze; Wang, Shukun; Li, Kewei; Yang, Haoshu; Gu, Wenpeng; Xu, Jianguo; Kan, Biao

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of Yersinia enterocolitica in slaughtered pigs in China was studied. A total of 8,773 samples were collected and examined from different pig abattoirs in 11 provinces from 2009 to 2011. Of these, 4,495 were oral-pharyngeal swab (tonsils) samples from pigs, 1,239 were from intestinal contents, and 3,039 were feces samples from abattoirs or local pigpens. The data showed that 1,132 strains were obtained, from which the isolation rate for Yersinia enterocolitica was 19.53% (878/4,495) from the tonsil samples, 7.51% (93/1,239) from intestinal contents, and 5.30% (161/3,039) from feces. Of the 850 pathogenic Yersinia strains, except for three of bioserotype 2/O:9 and three of bioserotype 4/O:3, most (844/850) were of bioserotype 3/O:3. Interestingly, pathogenic Y. enterocolitica accounted for the majority of the isolated strains from most provinces (85.17% to 100%), whereas from Heilongjiang, 96.52% (111/115) were classified as nonpathogenic biotype 1A with various serotypes, and only 3.48% of the strains (4/115) were pathogenic 3/O:3. All of the pathogenic strains were analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and 49 patterns were obtained for the O:3 pathogenic strains; most of them were K6GN11C30021 (53.13%: 450/847) and K6GN11C30012 (21.37%: 181/847). Several strains from diarrhea patient samples revealed PFGE patterns identical to that from samples of local pigs, suggesting a possible link between porcine isolates and human infection. The results above suggested that Yersinia enterocolitica in slaughtered pigs from Chinese abattoirs was characterized by region-specific PFGE patterns and confirmed that strains isolated from pigs are closely related to those from human infections. PMID:22327599

  13. Effect of supplementation of lecithin and carnitine on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy Saseendran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of dietary supplementation of lecithin and carnitine on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed high-fat diet. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 weaned female large white Yorkshire piglets of 2 months of age were selected and randomly divided into three groups allotted to three dietary treatments, T1 - Control ration as per the National Research Council nutrient requirement, T2 - Control ration plus 5% fat, and T3 - T2 plus 0.5% lecithin plus 150 mg/kg carnitine. The total dry matter (DM intake, fortnightly body weight of each individual animal was recorded. Digestibility trial was conducted toward the end of the experiment to determine the digestibility coefficient of various nutrients. Results: There was a significant improvement (p0.05 among the three treatments on average daily gain, feed conversion efficiency, and nutrient digestibility during the overall period. Conclusion: It was concluded that the dietary inclusion of animal fat at 5% level or animal fat along with lecithin (0.5% and carnitine (150 mg/kg improved the growth performance in pigs than non-supplemented group and from the economic point of view, dietary incorporation of animal fat at 5% would be beneficial for improving growth in pigs without dietary modifiers.

  14. Effects of microbial phytase on apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in calcium supplements fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that differences in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca exist among Ca supplements and that inclusion of microbial phytase increases the ATTD and STTD of Ca. One hundred and four growing barrows (average initial BW of 17.73 ± 2.53 kg) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 13 dietary treatments and 8 pigs per treatment. A basal diet containing corn, cornstarch, potato protein isolate, soybean oil, calcium carbonate, monosodium phosphate, vitamins, and minerals was formulated. Five additional diets were formulated by adding monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP), calcium carbonate, Lithothamnium calcareum Ca, or a high-Ca sugar beet co-product to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. Six additional diets that were similar to the previous 6 diets with the exception that they also contained 500 units per kilogram of microbial phytase were also formulated. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected using the marker-to-marker approach. Results indicated that regardless of inclusion of microbial phytase, MCP had the greatest (P calcareum Ca, or sugar beet co-product. Inclusion of microbial phytase increased (P calcareum Ca, or the sugar beet co-product, but pigs fed calcium carbonate diets had greater ( P< 0.05) ATTD of P than pigs fed L. calcareumCa or the sugar beet co-product. Regardless of Ca source, inclusion of microbial phytase increased (P < 0.001) the ATTD of P. In conclusion, MCP has the greatest ATTD and STTD of Ca among the calcium supplements used in this experiment, followed by DCP. Basal, MCP, and DCP diets had greater ATTD of P than the other diets, and inclusion of microbial phytase increased the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in the diets.

  15. Effects of alcohol consumption on biomarkers of oxidative damage to DNA and lipids in ethanol-fed pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitpas, F; Sichel, F; Hébert, B; Lagadu, S; Beljean, M; Pottier, D; Laurentie, M; Prevost, V

    2013-03-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is known to result in tissue injury, particularly in the liver, and is considered a major risk factor for cancers of the upper respiratory tract. Here we assessed the oxidative effects of subchronic ethanol consumption on DNA and lipids by measuring biomarkers 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and malondialdehyde (MDA), respectively. Physiological responses of pigs (n = 4) administered ethanol in drinking water for 39 days were compared with those of water-fed pigs (n = 4). Alcoholisation resulted in serum ethanol concentration of 1.90 g L(-1) and in a moderate but significant increase in alanine aminotransferase activity, an index of liver injury. However, between the alcoholised and control groups there were no significant differences in the levels of 8-oxodG (8-oxodG per 10(6) 2'deoxyguanosine) from leucocytes (2.52 ± 0.42 Vs 2.39 ± 0.34) or from target organs, liver, cardia and oesophagus. Serum MDA levels were also similar in ethanol-fed pigs (0.33 ± 0.04 μM) and controls (0.28 ± 0.03 μM). Interestingly, levels of 8-oxodG in cardia were positively correlated with those in oesophagus (Spearman correlation coefficient R = 1, P alcohol consumption may not cause oxidative damage to DNA and lipids as measured by 8-oxodG and MDA, respectively. The duration of alcoholisation and the potential alcohol-induced nutritional deficiency may be critical determinants of ethanol toxicity. Relevant biomarkers, such as factors involved in sensitization to ethanol-induced oxidative stress are required to better elucidate the relationship between alcohol consumption, oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. [Proximal composition, lipid and cholesterol content of meat from pigs fed peach-palm meal (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) and synthetic lysine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez-Timaure, Nancy; Rivero, Janeth Colina; Araque, Humberto; Jiménez, Paola; Velazco, Mariela; Colmenares, Ciolys

    2011-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the proximal composition, lipids and cholesterol content of meat from pigs fed diets with peach-palm meal (PPM), with or without addition of synthetic lysine (LYS). In experiment 1, 24 pigs were randomly allotted into six treatments with three levels of PPM (0.16 and 32%) and two levels of LYS (0 and 0.27%). In experiment II, 16 finishing pigs were fed with two levels of PPM (0 and 17.50%) and two levels of LYS (0 and 0.27%). At the end of each experiment (42 and 35 d, respectively), pigs were slaughtered and loin samples were obtained to determine crude protein, dry matter, moisture, ash, total lipids, and cholesterol content. In experiment I, pork loin from 16% PPM had more dry matter (26.45 g/100 g) and less moisture (73.49 g/100g) than pork loin from 32% PPM (25.11 y 75.03 g/100g, respectively). Meat samples from pigs without LYS had higher (p < 0.05) content of lipids (2.11 g/100 g) than meat from pigs that consumed LYS (1.72 g/100 g). In experiment II, the proximal, lipids and cholesterol content were similar among treatments. The PPM addition to pig diets did not affect the proximal composition of pork, while LYS addition indicated a reduction of total lipids, which could result as an alternative to obtain leaner meat.

  17. Prevalence and characterization of plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes among Escherichia coli from pigs, pig carcasses and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuyu; Dalsgaard, Anders; Hammerum, Anette M; Porsbo, Lone J; Jensen, Lars B

    2010-07-30

    Sulfonamide resistance is very common in Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to characterize plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3) in E. coli isolated from pigs and humans with a specific objective to assess the genetic diversity of plasmids involved in the mobility of sul genes. A total of 501 E. coli isolates from pig feces, pig carcasses and human stools were tested for their susceptibility to selected antimicrobial. Multiplex PCR was conducted to detect the presence of three sul genes among the sulfonamide-resistant E. coli isolates. Fifty-seven sulfonamide-resistant E. coli were selected based on presence of sul resistance genes and subjected to conjugation and/or transformation experiments. S1 nuclease digestion followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to visualize and determine the size of plasmids. Plasmids carrying sul genes were characterized by PCR-based replicon typing to allow a comparison of the types of sul genes, the reservoir and plasmid present. A total of 109/501 isolates exhibited sulfonamide resistance. The relative prevalences of sul genes from the three reservoirs (pigs, pig carcasses and humans) were 65%, 45% and 12% for sul2, sul1, and sul3, respectively. Transfer of resistance through conjugation was observed in 42/57 isolates. Resistances to streptomycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim were co-transferred in most strains. Class 1 integrons were present in 80% of sul1-carrying plasmids and 100% of sul3-carrying plasmids, but only in 5% of sul2-carrying plasmids. The sul plasmids ranged from 33 to 160-kb in size and belonged to nine different incompatibility (Inc) groups: FII, FIB, I1, FIA, B/O, FIC, N, HI1 and X1. IncFII was the dominant type in sul2-carrying plasmids (52%), while IncI1 was the most common type in sul1 and sul3-carrying plasmids (33% and 45%, respectively). Multireplicons were found associated with all three sul genes. Sul genes were distributed widely in E. coli isolated

  18. Prevalence and characterization of plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes among Escherichia coli from pigs, pig carcasses and human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammerum Anette M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfonamide resistance is very common in Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to characterize plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3 in E. coli isolated from pigs and humans with a specific objective to assess the genetic diversity of plasmids involved in the mobility of sul genes. Methods A total of 501 E. coli isolates from pig feces, pig carcasses and human stools were tested for their susceptibility to selected antimicrobial. Multiplex PCR was conducted to detect the presence of three sul genes among the sulfonamide-resistant E. coli isolates. Fifty-seven sulfonamide-resistant E. coli were selected based on presence of sul resistance genes and subjected to conjugation and/or transformation experiments. S1 nuclease digestion followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to visualize and determine the size of plasmids. Plasmids carrying sul genes were characterized by PCR-based replicon typing to allow a comparison of the types of sul genes, the reservoir and plasmid present. Results A total of 109/501 isolates exhibited sulfonamide resistance. The relative prevalences of sul genes from the three reservoirs (pigs, pig carcasses and humans were 65%, 45% and 12% for sul2, sul1, and sul3, respectively. Transfer of resistance through conjugation was observed in 42/57 isolates. Resistances to streptomycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim were co-transferred in most strains. Class 1 integrons were present in 80% of sul1-carrying plasmids and 100% of sul3-carrying plasmids, but only in 5% of sul2-carrying plasmids. The sul plasmids ranged from 33 to 160-kb in size and belonged to nine different incompatibility (Inc groups: FII, FIB, I1, FIA, B/O, FIC, N, HI1 and X1. IncFII was the dominant type in sul2-carrying plasmids (52%, while IncI1 was the most common type in sul1 and sul3-carrying plasmids (33% and 45%, respectively. Multireplicons were found associated with all three sul genes

  19. The effects of Sepiolite-SPLF on heavy pigs fed liquid diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Parisini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquid feed delivery systems for pigs have tended to be more common in areas where liquid by-products (i.e. dairy whey are readily available and where the size of the production unit can justify the capital expenditure involved. The potential advantages of liquid feeding include: a reduction of feed loss during handling and feeding; b improvement in the pig's environment due to the reduction of dust in the atmosphere; c improved pig performance and feed conversion rate (Jensen and Mikkelsen, 1998; Dell’Orto et al., 1992; d flexibility in raw material use (opportunity to utilise more economic food source, i.e. silages; e improved dry matter intake in lactating sows. However, very few studies have been done concerning technical quality of the liquid feed with respect to homogeneity, fluidity and sedimentation (Hoppenbrock et al., 1998...

  20. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in pigs in Lusaka, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Siwila

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in pigs which were being raised in intensive management systems. Faecal samples were collected from pigs of all age groups from three different piggery units. Samples were collected directly from the rectum for piglets and weaners and from the floor within 2 min – 5 min of excretion for sows and boars. At the time of collection, faecal consistency was noted as being normal, pasty or diarrhoeic. Samples were analysed further using the Merifluor® Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence assay. All piggeries had at least one pig infected with either parasite. From a total 217 samples collected, 96 (44.2%; confidence interval [CI] = 37.6% – 50.9% were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., whilst 26 (12%; CI = 7.6% – 16.3% had G. duodenalis parasites. Of all the pigs, 6.9% (15/217 harboured both parasites. With regard to Cryptosporidium spp. infection, statistically significant differences were observed amongst the three units (p = 0.001, whereas no significant differences were observed for G. duodenalis infection (p = 0.13. Prevalence was higher in weaners as compared to other pig classes for both parasites, with significant differences being observed for G. duodenalis infection (p = 0.013. There was, however, no difference in infection between male and female pigs for both parasites. Furthermore, most infections were asymptomatic. From the study results it was clear that Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis infections were prevalent amongst pigs in the piggeries evaluated and, as such, may act as a source of infection for persons who come into contact with them.

  1. The fattening results of pigs fed with a diet with the participation of silage from steamed potatoes

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    MARIA BOCIAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study included 60 finishers of the F1 crossbreds (Polish Large White x Polish Landrace, a half of gilts and barrows. Animals were divided into two groups of 30 individuals each. The control group (K amounted to pigs fed with a complete mixtures, while the experimental group (D - was fed a mixture with the participation of silage from steamed potatoes (26% DM. The mixtures were prepared on the basis of their own cereal pellets and a concentrate. Fattening animals started at body weight of about 30 kg and continued to the average body weight of about 115 kg. The body weight of animals and the quantity of the consumed feed mixtures were recorded during the fattening period. Meatiness of carcasses was evaluated according to the current classification of the EUROP apparatus IM-03.The analysis has been subjected to the following features: total weight gain, fattening period, average daily weight gain, slaughter age and consumption of feed during the fattening and slaughter features: warm carcass weight, slaughter efficiency, fat thickness, the depth of loin muscle and meat content in the carcass. The assessment also includes: the sales value of porker in accordance with the evaluation of their carcasses according to the EUROP and the cost of feeding porker during the whole period of fattening. It has been shown that the pigs in group K had a higher growth rate and earlier reached the slaughter weight than pigs from group D (P<0.01, whereas group D demonstrated a lower feed consumption. Group K was characterized by thinner backfat, higher loin muscle and higher meatiness than the carcasses of pigs from the group D (P<0.01. Carcasses of finishers from the group K were qualified to the most valuable classes S, E, U whereas group D to class E, U, R and O. Lower costs of porker production were shows in group D, whereas in the group K a higher value from the sale was attained. Nutrition with the participation of silage from steamed potatoes was less

  2. Characterisation of the gastrointestinal bacterial community in pigs fed fermented liquid feed and dry feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Ole; Knudsen, B.; Canibe, N.

    2001-01-01

    Feeding pigs with fermented liquid feed (FLF) has been shown to reduce the number of enteropathogens such as Salmonella and Brachyospira hyodysenteriae as well as coliform bacteria in general in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Also the commensal bacterial populations have been shown to respond...

  3. Prevalence of Chlamydial Infections in Fattening Pigs and Their Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Karolin; Schott, Franziska; Donati, Manuela; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Hässig, Michael; Wanninger, Sabrina; Sidler, Xaver; Borel, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydial infections in pigs are associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea, conjunctivitis and other pathologies. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae in Swiss fattening pigs by applying sensitive and specific detection methods and to correlate prior antibiotic treatment and farm related factors with differences in prevalence. Conjunctival and fecal swabs were collected from 636 pigs in 29 Swiss fattening pig farms with and without antibiotic treatment, at the beginning and the end of the fattening period. The swabs were screened by real-time PCR for Chlamydiaceae. For the chlamydial detection and species-identification, a DNA-microarray analysis was performed. All farms were positive for Chlamydiaceae with 94.3 and 92.0% prevalence in fecal swabs as well as 45.9 and 32.6% in conjunctival swabs at the first and second time points, respectively. Antibiotic treatment could not clear the infection on herd level. Potential contact with wild boars was a significant risk factor, while hygiene criteria did not influence chlamydial prevalence. A correlation of chlamydial positivity to diarrhea, but not to conjunctivitis was evident. Chlamydia suis was the predominant species. Mixed infections with C. suis and C. pecorum were common, with a substantial increase in C. pecorum positivity at the end of the fattening period, and this finding was associated with ruminant contact. C. abortus was detected in one conjunctival swab. In this study, C. suis inhabited the intestinal tract of nearly all examined pigs, implying a long-term infection. C. pecorum was also common and might be transmitted to pigs by ruminants. PMID:26619187

  4. Prevalence of Chlamydial Infections in Fattening Pigs and Their Influencing Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolin Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Chlamydial infections in pigs are associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea, conjunctivitis and other pathologies. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae in Swiss fattening pigs by applying sensitive and specific detection methods and to correlate prior antibiotic treatment and farm related factors with differences in prevalence. Conjunctival and fecal swabs were collected from 636 pigs in 29 Swiss fattening pig farms with and without antibiotic treatment, at the beginning and the end of the fattening period. The swabs were screened by real-time PCR for Chlamydiaceae. For the chlamydial detection and species-identification, a DNA-microarray analysis was performed. All farms were positive for Chlamydiaceae with 94.3 and 92.0% prevalence in fecal swabs as well as 45.9 and 32.6% in conjunctival swabs at the first and second time points, respectively. Antibiotic treatment could not clear the infection on herd level. Potential contact with wild boars was a significant risk factor, while hygiene criteria did not influence chlamydial prevalence. A correlation of chlamydial positivity to diarrhea, but not to conjunctivitis was evident. Chlamydia suis was the predominant species. Mixed infections with C. suis and C. pecorum were common, with a substantial increase in C. pecorum positivity at the end of the fattening period, and this finding was associated with ruminant contact. C. abortus was detected in one conjunctival swab. In this study, C. suis inhabited the intestinal tract of nearly all examined pigs, implying a long-term infection. C. pecorum was also common and might be transmitted to pigs by ruminants.

  5. Livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs - prevalence, risk factors and transmission dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, an association between human carriage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and contact with pigs was found. To assess the implications of this finding for veterinary and public health more insight into the prevalence, risk factors and transmission dynamics of

  6. Prevalence of sulfonamide resistance genes in bacterial isolates from manured agricultural soils and pig slurry in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne-Bailey, K G; Gaze, W H; Kay, P; Boxall, A B A; Hawkey, P M; Wellington, E M H

    2009-02-01

    The prevalences of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2, and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) resistance were determined in bacteria isolated from manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples in the United Kingdom over a 2-year period. Slurry from tylosin-fed pigs amended with SCP and oxytetracycline was used for manuring. Isolates positive for sul genes were further screened for the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons. Phenotypic resistance to SCP was significantly higher in isolates from pig slurry and postapplication soil than in those from preapplication soil. Of 531 isolates, 23% carried sul1, 18% sul2, and 9% sul3 only. Two percent of isolates contained all three sul genes. Class 1 and class 2 integrons were identified in 5% and 11.7%, respectively, of sul-positive isolates. In previous reports, sul1 was linked to class 1 integrons, but in this study only 8% of sul1-positive isolates carried the intI1 gene. Sulfonamide-resistant pathogens, including Shigella flexneri, Aerococcus spp., and Acinetobacter baumannii, were identified in slurry-amended soil and soil leachate, suggesting a potential environmental reservoir. Sulfonamide resistance in Psychrobacter, Enterococcus, and Bacillus spp. is reported for the first time, and this study also provides the first description of the genotypes sul1, sul2, and sul3 outside the Enterobacteriaceae and in the soil environment.

  7. Prevalence of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Bacterial Isolates from Manured Agricultural Soils and Pig Slurry in the United Kingdom▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne-Bailey, K. G.; Gaze, W. H.; Kay, P.; Boxall, A. B. A.; Hawkey, P. M.; Wellington, E. M. H.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalences of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2, and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) resistance were determined in bacteria isolated from manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples in the United Kingdom over a 2-year period. Slurry from tylosin-fed pigs amended with SCP and oxytetracycline was used for manuring. Isolates positive for sul genes were further screened for the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons. Phenotypic resistance to SCP was significantly higher in isolates from pig slurry and postapplication soil than in those from preapplication soil. Of 531 isolates, 23% carried sul1, 18% sul2, and 9% sul3 only. Two percent of isolates contained all three sul genes. Class 1 and class 2 integrons were identified in 5% and 11.7%, respectively, of sul-positive isolates. In previous reports, sul1 was linked to class 1 integrons, but in this study only 8% of sul1-positive isolates carried the intI1 gene. Sulfonamide-resistant pathogens, including Shigella flexneri, Aerococcus spp., and Acinetobacter baumannii, were identified in slurry-amended soil and soil leachate, suggesting a potential environmental reservoir. Sulfonamide resistance in Psychrobacter, Enterococcus, and Bacillus spp. is reported for the first time, and this study also provides the first description of the genotypes sul1, sul2, and sul3 outside the Enterobacteriaceae and in the soil environment. PMID:19064898

  8. Effects of cell wall degrading enzymes on carbohydrate fractions and metabolites in stomach and ileum of pigs fed wheat bran based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Inborr, J.; Bakker, J.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Pigs were fed diets containing 40 heat bran incubated with a water:acetic acid mixture (control, C) and a cellulase (Cel-i) or xylanase (Xyl-i) preparation or with addition of the cellulase (Cel-a) or xylanase (Xyl-a) preparation immediately before feeding. Stomach and ileal samples were analysed

  9. Methane content and potential of biogas' production by manure of pigs fed with corn or sorghum-based diets in different phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Adelia Pereira; Lucas Junior, Jorge de; Thomaz, Maria Cristina; Fukayama, Ellen Hatsumi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this trial was to value the methane content and potential of biogas' production by manure of pigs fed with corn or sorghum-based diets (energy's source) in different phases. The manures were daily collected, diluted in water and homogeneous. Were used 267 mL of influent with 6% total solids concentration for supply of continuous-flow laboratory anaerobic digesters, with 30 days of detention time (DT) and temperature of 35 deg C. The experiment was completely randomized design with 2 treatments (corn or sorghum) and 3 phases of growth (initial x growing x finishing) in 10 replications (anaerobic digesters). The methane contents by manure of pigs fed with corn were greater (p<0.01) than pigs fed with sorghum (65.19 and 67.32%) on the phases of growing and finishing, respectively. The most potential of biogas' production (0.181, 0.138 and 0.162 m{sup 3}/kg of manure) was with manure of pigs fed with corn on the phases of initial, growing and finishing, respectively (p<0.01). Considering all the phases, the most potential of biogas' production (p<0.01) was observed in the initial phase, in both treatments. (author)

  10. Campylobacter coli in Organic and Conventional Pig Production in France and Sweden: Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Kempf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter coli in conventional and organic pigs from France and Sweden. Fecal or colon samples were collected at farms or at slaughterhouses and cultured for Campylobacter. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and gentamicin were determined by microdilution for a total of 263 French strains from 114 pigs from 50 different farms and 82 Swedish strains from 144 pigs from 54 different farms. Erythromycin resistant isolates were examined for presence of the emerging rRNA methylase erm(B gene. The study showed that within the colon samples obtained in each country there was no significant difference in prevalence of Campylobacter between pigs in organic and conventional productions [France: conventional: 43/58 (74%; organic: 43/56 (77% and Sweden: conventional: 24/36 (67%; organic: 20/36 (56%]. In France, but not in Sweden, significant differences of percentages of resistant isolates were associated with production type (tetracycline, erythromycin and the number of resistances was significantly higher for isolates from conventional pigs. In Sweden, the number of resistances of fecal isolates was significantly higher compared to colon isolates. The erm(B gene was not detected in the 87 erythromycin resistant strains tested.

  11. Fresh meat quality of pigs fed diets with different fatty acid profiles and supplemented with red wine solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThree groups of pigs were fed three different diets, namely a diet rich in saturated fatty acids (palm oil-based, PO, a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-rich diet (corn oil-based, CO, and a PUFA-rich diet (corn oil-based supplemented with red wine solids (RWS, which was added to the diet (CO+RWS in order to assess the protective effect on the oxidative status of the pork meat. The addition of corn oil favourably modulates the FAs profile of the backfat, and to a lesser extent of the intramuscular fat of semimembranosus muscle, without causing adverse effects on the meat quality or on its oxidative stability. Moreover, these parameters were not affected by the addition of the RWS in the CO+RWS diet.

  12. Soluble arabinoxylan enhances large intestinal microbial health biomarkers in pigs fed a red meat-containing diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Barbara A; Zhang, Dagong; Lisle, Allan T; Mikkelsen, Deirdre; McSweeney, Christopher S; Kang, Seungha; Bryden, Wayne L; Gidley, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how moderately increased dietary red meat combined with a soluble fiber (wheat arabinoxylan [AX]) alters the large intestinal microbiota in terms of fermentative end products and microbial community profiles in pigs. Four groups of 10 pigs were fed Western-type diets containing two amounts of red meat, with or without a solubilized wheat AX-rich fraction for 4 wk. After euthanasia, fermentative end products (short-chain fatty acids, ammonia) of digesta from four sections of large intestine were measured. Di-amino-pimelic acid was a measure of total microbial biomass, and bacterial profiles were determined using a phylogenetic microarray. A factorial model determined effects of AX and meat content. Arabinoxylan was highly fermentable in the cecum, as indicated by increased concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (particularly propionate). Protein fermentation end products were decreased, as indicated by the reduced ammonia and branched-chain ratio although this effect was less prominent distally. Microbial profiles in the distal large intestine differed in the presence of AX (including promotion of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii), consistent with an increase in carbohydrate versus protein fermentation. Increased di-amino-pimelic acid (P < 0.0001) suggested increased microbial biomass for animals fed AX. Solubilized wheat AX has the potential to counteract the effects of dietary red meat by reducing protein fermentation and its resultant toxic end products such as ammonia, as well as leading to a positive shift in fermentation end products and microbial profiles in the large intestine. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in slaughter-aged pigs during a one-year survey, 2010-2011, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondrevez, M; Minvielle, B; Labbé, A; Houdayer, C; Rose, N; Esnault, E; Denis, M

    2014-03-17

    The prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in French slaughter-aged pigs was estimated by sampling 3120 pigs from 96 batches in 16 slaughterhouses from January 2010 to February 2011. Respectively, 36 batches (20 pigs/batch) and 60 batches (40 pigs/batch) were considered during the cold period and the warm period. Tonsils were swabbed before the chilling step. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was detected after enrichment in ITC and streaking on CIN and YeCM media. Typical isolates were confirmed as Y. enterocolitica and biotyped by biochemical tests as described in the ISO 10273:2003 method. Of the tested pigs, 13.7% (CI95% [10.1-17.3]) were found positive for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and 74.3% (CI95% [64.8-83.8]) of the pig batches contained at least one positive pig. The percentage of positive pigs per batch was generally low; 60.3% of positive batches contained fewer than 5 positive pigs. The prevalence of the pathogen at the batch level remained unchanged throughout this one-year study, but the prevalence in pigs was significantly higher during the warm period than during the cold period. Biotype 4 was the most prevalent biotype among the 827 isolated strains (91.9% of the isolates), followed by biotype 3 (7.25% of the isolates). Six isolates were of biotype 5 and one of biotype 2. Biotype 4 was found in all the 16 participating slaughterhouses, biotype 3 in ten slaughterhouses and biotype 5 in four. This study provides valuable recent figures for the prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in French pigs. It also highlights the seasonal aspect of the carriage of this pathogen by pigs, a pattern which differs from those in other countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets....... The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg......, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver funtion were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended...

  15. Isoleucine requirement of pigs weighing 8 to 18 kg fed blood cell–free diets1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Shresta, Aruna; Krogh, Uffe

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the minimum requirement of Ile in young pigs, enabling feeding of balanced low-CP diets. Most previous studies have used experimental diets that included blood cells, which are particularly high in Leu and known to antagonize the use of Ile. One week....... In conclusion, the average estimation of requirement in this dose-response study using blood cell–free diets was 0.52 SID Ile:Lys during a 21-d experimental period from 8 kg BW....... after weaning at d 28, 100 crossbred female pigs weighing 7.9 ± 0.7 kg were allocated to 1 of 5 dietary treatments. Diets were formulated to contain 1.15 g standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys/MJ NE and were free of blood cells. The SID Ile was 0.42, 0.47, 0.53, 0.58, and 0.62 relative to Lys...

  16. Salmonella prevalence and microbiological contamination of pig carcasses and slaughterhouse environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Piras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In seven EC swine abattoirs Salmonella prevalence (ISO 6579/2002 and serotypes of 25 piglets, 61 finishing pigs (lymph nodes, colon content, carcass and liver surface and slaughterhouse environments (scalding water, surfaces in contact with meat and not in contact with meat were investigated. Moreover, aerobic colony count [total viable count (TVC; ISO 4833] and Enterobacteriaceae (ISO 21528-2 of piglets and finishing pigs’ carcasses were evaluated, and the results compared with EU process hygiene criteria (Reg. EC 2073/2005. Salmonella was not isolated in any of the piglets samples. Prevalence differed between slaughterhouses (P<0.5, and Salmonella was isolated from 39 of 244 samples of finishing slaughtered pigs (15.9% and from 4 of 45 environmental samples (8.9%. In pig samples, carcasses showed the highest prevalence (18% followed by colon content (14.8%, lymph nodes (13% and liver (1.6%. S. Anatum was the most prevalent serotype (71.8%, followed by S. Derby (33.3%, S. Bredeney (5% and S. Holcomb (2.5%. Between environmental samples, S. Anatum (50%, S. Bredeney and S. Derby (25% were identified. Total viable mean counts (log10 CFU/cm2 of carcass surfaces ranged from 4.6 and 5.7 for piglets, and from 4.6 and 5.9 for finishing pigs, while Enterobacteriaceae ranged between 1.1 and 5 for piglets and between 2.1 and 5.3 for finishing pigs. These results were not in compliance with EU performance criteria. Total aerobic viable counts and Enterobacteriaceae mean levels of environmental samples appeared critical, particularly referred to surfaces in contact with meat (splitting equipment and indicated an inadequate application of good manufacturing and hygiene practices during slaughtering and sanitisation.

  17. Risk factors for prevalence of pig parasitoses in Mbeya Region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabululu, Mwemezi Lutakyawa; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Kimera, Sharadhuli Iddi; Lekule, Faustin Paul; Kimbi, Eliakunda Casmir; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-09-15

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine risk factors for prevalence of common endo- and ectoparasites of pigs kept by smallholder farmers in Mbozi and Mbeya (Rural) districts of Mbeya Region, in Tanzania. A total of 482 pigs from 220 households of 16 villages, eight in each district were randomly selected and examined. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis was 11.5%, gastrointestinal nematodes 63.7% and ectoparasites 21.2% based on Ag-ELISA, McMaster technique and full body searches/ear scrapings, respectively. Nematode eggs identified were strongyles (Oesophagostomum spp. and Trichostrongylus spp.), Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis and Strongyloides ransomi with prevalence of 57.4%, 17.5%, 5.3% and 1.1%, respectively. Four groups of ectoparasites were identified, i.e. lice (Haematopinus suis), ticks (Rhipicephalus spp., Amblyomma spp., Haemaphysalis spp. and Boophilus spp.), fleas (Ctenocephalides canis) and mites (Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis and Demodex phylloides), with prevalence of 19.1%, 2.1%, 0.4%, and 1.2%, respectively. Pigs in Mbeya (Rural) District had higher odds for porcine cysticercosis (OR=2.63, 95% CI: [1.22-5.55]). Poor pen hygiene and infrequent antiparasitic treatment were identified to be risk factors for prevalence of nematode infections (OR=1.95 [1.09-3.52] and OR=1.78 [1.06-2.94], respectively). The odds for high nematode burdens increased in cases of poor pen hygiene (OR=4.20 [2.54-6.62]) and poor feed quality (OR=3.7 [1.66-8.33]). Pigs not treated with antiparasitic drugs within the last three months had higher odds for ectoparasite (OR=4.0 [1.78-9.09]) and lice infestations (OR=8.33 [1.96-14.28]) than treated pigs. This study has shown that parasitoses constitute a major burden for smallholder pigs in Mbeya Region and major risk factors included infrequent antiparasitic treatment, poor pen hygiene and poor feed quality. Cost-effective intervention strategies are needed to improve pork production, secure pig welfare and ensure

  18. Sampling, prevalence and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on two Belgian pig farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Dewaele

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the spread of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on two Belgian pig farms. Pigs of different ages (from farrowing to slaughter age and sows as well as the barn environment were screened extensively on two occasions three months apart. A subset of MRSA isolates was tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to 16 antibiotics and was further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Ninety-five percent and 77% of the tested pigs on farm A and farm B, respectively, were colonized with MRSA. MRSA positive animals were detected in all age categories sampled on each sampling day. Piglets were already colonized in the farrowing unit with the same or other MRSA strains than their mother. The prevalence of MRSA colonized pigs increased significantly after weaning and decreased during the fattening period. Pigs carried MRSA mainly in the nares, followed by the perineum and skin and to a lesser degree the rectum. A pig could be contaminated or colonized with different MRSA strains at the same time. The barn environment was also found to be contaminated with different MRSA strains, including the air inlet and outlet. All isolates tested on both farms were resistant to both tetracycline and trimethoprim, while they were susceptible to rifampicin, mupirocin and linezolid. There was a significant difference in resistance prevalence between the two farms for the antibiotics gentamicin, kanamycin, tobramycin, tylosin, lincomycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Furthermore, several antibiotic resistance profiles were observed within one farm. This study clearly indicates that several MRSA strains circulate on one farm, from the nursery unit to the fattening unit. This is important to consider when attempts are made to remediate these farms.

  19. Salmonella enterica prevalence in finishing pigs at slaughter plants in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Alpigiani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Finishing pigs carrying Salmonella enterica are believed to be the main source of carcass contamination at the beginning of slaughtering. The aim of this study was to assess the S. enterica carrier status of finishing pigs at herd level by sampling pooled faeces on farm and mesenteric lymph nodes at slaughter in the North East of Italy. Environmental faecal samples belonging to 30 batches of pigs were collected on farm. At slaughter, mesenteric lymph nodes were collected from five randomly selected pigs per batch. S. enterica was isolated from 16 lymph nodes out of 150 (10.6% and from seven out of 30 (23.3% faecal samples. Four batches (13.3% were positive to S. enterica both in lymph nodes and in faeces. The number of batches positive to S. enterica either in lymph nodes or in faeces was 13 out of 30 (43.3%. The most prevalent serovars from lymph nodes were S. Derby (25.0% and S. Typhimurium monophasic variant 1, 4,[5],12:i:- (18.6%, which were also isolated from faecal material (14.3 and 42.8% respectively. Contaminated faecal material or lymph nodes could be a primary source of carcass contamination at slaughter during evisceration. S. enterica contamination is widespread on pig farms and carrier pigs pass undetected the inspection visits at slaughter, entering the food chain. Therefore, in order to control S. enterica in pigs, the need to quantify possible risk factors at slaughter and develop effective management strategies on farm is of paramount importance to ensure food safety.

  20. Post-weaning and whole-of-life performance of pigs is determined by live weight at weaning and the complexity of the diet fed after weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie L. Collins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The production performance and financial outcomes associated with weaner diet complexity for pigs of different weight classes at weaning were examined in this experiment. A total of 720 weaner pigs (360 entire males and 360 females were selected at weaning (27 ± 3 d and allocated to pens of 10 based on individual weaning weight (light weaning weight: pigs below 6.5 kg; medium weaning weight: 6.5 to 8 kg; heavy weaning weight: above 8.5 kg. Pens were then allocated in a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with the respective factors being weaning weight (heavy, medium and light; H, M and L, respectively, weaner diet complexity (high complexity/cost, HC; low complexity/cost, LC, and gender (male and female. Common diets were fed to both treatment groups during the final 4 weeks of the weaner period (a period of 39 days. In the first 6 d after weaning, pigs offered the HC diets gained weight faster and used feed more efficiently than those offered the LC diets (P = 0.031. Pigs fed a HC diet after weaning tended to be heavier at the sale live weight of 123 d of age compared with pigs fed the LC diet (P = 0.056. There were no other main effects of the feeding program on growth performance through to slaughter. Weaning weight had a profound influence on lifetime growth performance and weight at 123 d of age, with H pigs at weaning increasing their weight advantage over the M and L pigs (101.3, 97.1, 89.6 kg respectively, P < 0.001. Cost-benefit analyses suggested there was a minimal benefit in terms of cost per unit live weight gain over lifetime when pigs were offered a HC feeding program to L, with a lower feed cost/kg gain. The results from this investigation confirm the impact of weaning weight on lifetime growth performance, and suggest that a HC feeding program should be focused on L weaner pigs (i.e., weaning weight less than 6.5 kg at 27 d of age in order to maximise financial returns.

  1. Effects of Adding Clostridium sp. WJ06 on Intestinal Morphology and Microbial Diversity of Growing Pigs Fed with Natural Deoxynivalenol Contaminated Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FuChang Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is commonly detected in cereals, and is a threat to human and animal health. The effects of microbiological detoxification are now being widely studied. A total of 24 pigs (over four months were randomly divided into three treatments. Treatment A was fed with a basal diet as the control group. Treatment B was fed with naturally DON-contaminated wheat as a negative control group. Treatment C was fed with a contaminated diet that also had Clostridium sp. WJ06, which was used as a detoxicant. Growth performance, relative organ weight, intestinal morphology, and the intestinal flora of bacteria and fungi were examined. The results showed that after consuming a DON-contaminated diet, the growth performance of the pigs decreased significantly (p < 0.05, the relative organ weight of the liver and kidney increased significantly (p < 0.05, and the integrity of the intestinal barrier was also impaired, though the toxic effects of the contaminated diets on growing pigs were relieved after adding Clostridium sp. WJ06. The data from MiSeq sequencing of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 gene suggested that the abundance of intestinal flora was significantly different across the three treatments. In conclusion, the application of Clostridium sp. WJ06 can reduce the toxic effects of DON and adjust the intestinal microecosystem of growing pigs.

  2. Prevalence and zoonotic risks of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Cheyletiella spp. in guinea pigs and rabbits in Dutch pet shops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overgaauw, P.A.M.; van Avermaete, K. H.A.; Mertens, C. A.R.M.; Meijer, M.; Schoemaker, N. J.

    2017-01-01

    Young rabbits and guinea pigs are often purchased as pets for children and may be infected with zoonotic skin infections. To assess the risk of acquiring such an infection from rabbits or guinea pigs, this study investigated the prevalence of the fungus Trichophyton mentagrophytes and the fur mite

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of endo- and ectoparasitic infections in smallholder pigs in Angónia district, Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chilundo, Abel G.; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Pondja, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    their knowledge and perceptions of health and pig management and an observational study was conducted to determine their pig management practices. The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis by Ag-ELISA was 12.6%, GI nematodes 21.4%, Eimeria spp. 8.0% and ectoparasites 37.8%. Four helminths species namely...

  4. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauson Anne-Helene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07 with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters.

  5. Prevalence and dietetic management of mild gastrointestinal disorders in milk-fed infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D Infante Pina; X Badia Llach; B Ari(n)o-Armengol; V Villegas Iglesias

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prevalence of mild gastrointestinal disorders in milk-fed infants in paediatric practice, and to evaluate the effectiveness and satisfaction with dietetic treatment.METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was first carried out. A total of 285 paediatricians included 3487 children seen during a period of one week. In a second phase an observational, prospective and multicentre study was conducted and 2069 milk-fed infants with mild gastrointestinal disorders (colic,constipation, regurgitation and diarrhoea) were included.There was a baseline visit (start of treatment) and a final visit four weeks later. The effectiveness of the various Novalac formulas, as well as the satisfaction of the parents/tutors and paediatricians with the dietetic treatment were assessed at the final visit.RESULTS: The prevalence of mild gastrointestinal disorders was 27.8% of all paediatrician consultations (9.2%, 7.8%, 6.1% and 4.6% in relation to colic,constipation, regurgitation and diarrhoea, respectively).The several Novalac adapted milk formulas resolved 88.4% of the mild gastrointestinal disorders. Depending on the type of disorder, differences in response rate were observed. The highest effectiveness was recorded with respect to diarrhoea (92.6%), followed by constipation (91.6%), colic (87.6%) and regurgitation (81%). Overall,91% of the paediatricians and 88.8% of the parents/tutors were satisfied or very satisfied with the Novalac adapted milk formulas.CONCLUSION: Mild gastrointestinal disorders show a high prevalence in paediatric practice. The Novalac adapted milk formulas have been shown to be effective in treating mild gastrointestinal disorders in milk-fed infants in the context of routine clinical practice.

  6. Prevalence, serotypes and resistance patterns of Salmonella in Danish pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arguello, Hector; Sørensen, Gitte; Carvajal, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Typhimurium in finishers and Salmonella Derby in breeding herds while the most prevalent phage types of the S. Typhimurium isolates were DT 12 and DT 120. The antimicrobial resistance analysis yielded a 35.2% of the isolates from the slaughter pigs resistant to one or more antimicrobials while 19.3% were...... resistant to four or more antimicrobials. A significantly higher percentage of resistance to antimicrobials was found in the S. Typhimurium isolates (χ2=4.72, p=0.029), where 42.9% presented resistance to one or more compounds. In breeding herds, just S. Typhimurium and S. 4,5],12:i: – isolates were tested......The objective of this paper is to analyse in further detail the Danish results of the EFSA baseline studies in slaughter pigs and breeding herds, and compare them with the results obtained in (1) the pre-implementation study that was carried out to establish the initial prevalence values...

  7. Prevalence of intestinal pathogens in Danish finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of the intestinal bacteria: Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Serpulina intermedia, Brachyspira innocens, Brachyspira pilosicoli, pathogenic Escherichia coli (serogroups 0138, 0139, 0141 and 0149) and Salmonella enterica in Danish...... were collected and examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or culture. L. intracellularis was found in 74 herds (93.7%), B. hyodysenteriae in two herds (2.5%), S. intermedia in 10 herds (12.7%), B. innocens in 27 herds (34.2%), B. pilosicoli in 15 herds (19.0%), pathogenic E. call in 19 herds (24...

  8. Ileal microbiota of growing pigs fed different dietary calcium phosphate levels and phytase content and subjected to ileal pectin infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Vahjen, W; Baumgärtel, T; Rodehutscord, M; Mosenthin, R

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments with growing pigs were conducted to determine the effects of dietary P and Ca levels, phytase supplementation, and ileal pectin infusion on changes in bacterial populations in the ileum and on ileal and fecal fermentation patterns. Growing pigs (BW 30.1 +/- 1.3 kg) were fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum and were fed a low-P corn-soybean meal control diet (3 g of P/kg), or the control diet supplemented with either 15 g of monocalcium phosphate (MCP)/kg (Exp. 1) or 1,000 phytase units of phytase/kg (Exp. 2). Daily infusion treatments consisted of either 60 g of pectin dissolved in 1.8 L of demineralized water or 1.8 L of demineralized water as a control infusion, infused via the ileal cannula. In each experiment, 8 barrows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments according to a double incomplete 4 x 2 Latin square design. The dietary treatments in Exp. 1 were the control diet with water infusion, the control diet with pectin infusion, the MCP diet with water infusion, or the MCP diet with pectin infusion. In Exp. 2, the pigs received the same control treatments as in Exp. 1 and the phytase diet in combination with water or pectin infusion. Gene copy numbers of total bacteria, Lactobacillus spp., Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus amylovorus/Lactobacillus sobrius, Lactobacillus mucosae, Enterococcus spp., Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, bifidobacteria, the Clostridium coccoides cluster, the Clostridium leptum cluster, the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyrmonas group, and Enterobacteriaceae were determined by quantitative PCR in DNA extracts of ileal digesta. In Exp. 1, addition of MCP reduced ileal gene copy numbers of Enterococcus spp. (P = 0.048), E. faecium (P = 0.015), and the C. leptum cluster (P = 0.028), whereas pectin infusion enhanced (P = 0.008) ileal d-lactate concentration. In Exp. 2, supplemental phytase led to greater ileal gene copy numbers of the C. coccoides (P = 0.041) and C. leptum (P = 0.048) clusters and

  9. High susceptibility prevalence for F4+ and F18+Escherichia coli in Flemish pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ut V; Coddens, Annelies; Melkebeek, Vesna; Devriendt, Bert; Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Poucke, Mario Van; Peelman, Luc; Cox, Eric

    2017-04-01

    F4 and/or F18 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (F4 + /F18 + ETEC) are responsible for diarrhea while F18 + verotoxigenic E. coli (F18 + VTEC) cause edema disease in pigs. Both infections can result in severe economic losses, which are mainly the result of the medication, growth retardation and mortality. The susceptibility of piglets to these pathogens is determined by the presence of F4 and F18 receptors (F4R and F18R). Understanding the composition of the susceptibility phenotypes of pigs is useful for animal health and breeding management. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the F4 ETEC susceptibility phenotypes and F18 + E. coli susceptibility among Flemish pig breeds by using the in vitro villous adhesion assay. In this study, seven F4 ETEC susceptibility phenotypes were found, namely A (F4 ab R + , ac R + , ad R + ; 59.16%), B (F4 ab R + , ac R + , ad R - ; 6.28%), C (F4 ab R + , ac R - , ad R + ; 2.62%), D (F4 ab R - , ac R - , ad R + ; 6.28%), E (F4 ab R - , ac R - , ad R - ; 24.08%), F (F4 ab R + , ac R - , ad R - ; 1.05%) and G (F4 ab R - , ac R + , ad R - ; 0.52%). F4ab and F4ac E. coli showed a stronger degree of adhesion to the intestinal villi (53.40% and 52.88% strong adhesion, respectively), compared to F4ad E. coli (43.46% strong adhesion). Furthermore, the correlation between F4ac and F4ab adhesion was higher (r=0.78) than between F4ac and F4ad adhesion (r=0.41) and between F4ab and F4ad adhesion (r=0.57). For F18 + E. coli susceptibility, seven out of 82 pigs were F18R negative (8.54%), but only two of these seven pigs (2.44%) were also negative for F4R. As such, the chance to identify a pig that is positive for a F4 ETEC variant or F18 + E. coli is 97.56%. Therefore, significant economic losses will arise due to F4 + and/or F18 + E. coli infections in the Flemish pig population due to the high susceptibility prevalence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Heat-treatment, phytase and fermented liquid feeding affect the presence of inositol phosphates in ileal digesta and phosphorus digestibility in pigs fed a wheat and barley diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Jørgensen, H.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of heat-treatment, microbial phytase addition and feeding strategy (dry feeding v. fermented liquid feeding) on degradation of phytate (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP6) and formation and further degradation of lower inositol phosphates (myo-inositol pentaki......The aim was to evaluate the effect of heat-treatment, microbial phytase addition and feeding strategy (dry feeding v. fermented liquid feeding) on degradation of phytate (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP6) and formation and further degradation of lower inositol phosphates (myo...... × 4 Latin square with four pigs fed four diets. A basal wheat/barley-based diet was fed either as non-heat-treated or heat-treated (steam-pelleted at 90°C). The heat-treatment resulted in an inactivation of plant phytase below detectable level. Diet 1 (non-heat-treated basal diet fed dry); diet 2...... (heat-treated basal diet fed dry); diet 3 (as diet 2 but with microbial phytase (750 FTU/kg as fed) fed dry); diet 4 (as diet 3 fed liquid (fermented for 17.5 h nighttime and 6.5 h daytime at 20°C with 50% residue in the tank)). Chromic oxide (Cr2O3) was included as marker and ATTD was determined both...

  11. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs entering the food chain in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lian Francesca; Harrison, Leslie Jayne Stevenson; Toye, Philip; de Glanville, William Anson; Cook, Elizabeth Anne Jesse; Wamae, Claire Njeri; Fèvre, Eric Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Three hundred forty-three pigs slaughtered and marketed in western Kenya were subjected to lingual examination and HP10 Ag-ELISA for the serological detection of Taenia solium antigen. When estimates were adjusted for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic assays, prevalence of T. solium cysticercosis estimated by lingual exam and HP10 Ag-ELISA was between 34.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 19.4-49.4%) and 37.6% (95% CI 29.3-45.9%), respectively. All pigs, however, were reported to have passed routine meat inspection. Since T. solium poses a serious threat to public health, these results, if confirmed, indicate that the introduction of control strategies may be appropriate to ensure the safety of pork production in this region.

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in finishing pigs: Implications on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Wonhee; Fratamico, Pina M; Ruth, Leah E; Bowman, Andrew S; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Manning, Shannon D; Funk, Julie A

    2018-01-02

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important food-borne pathogens, which can cause serious illnesses, including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. To study the epidemiology of STEC in finishing pigs and examine the potential risks they pose for human STEC infections, we conducted a longitudinal cohort study in three finishing sites. Six cohorts of pigs (2 cohorts/site, 20 pigs/cohort) were randomly selected, and fecal samples (n=898) were collected every two weeks through their finishing period. Eighty-two pigs (68.3%) shed STEC at least once, and the proportion of STEC-positive pigs varied across sites (50-97.5%) and cohorts (15-100%). Clinically important serotypes, O157:H7 (stx 2c , eae) and O26:H11 (stx 1a , eae), were recovered from two pigs at sites C and A, respectively. The most common serotype isolated was O59:H21 (stx 2e ), which was particularly prevalent in site B as it was recovered from all STEC positive pigs (n=39). Each cohort showed different patterns of STEC shedding, which were associated with the prevalent serotype. The median shedding duration of STEC in pigs was 28days, consistent with our prior study. However, among pigs shedding O59:H21 at least once, pigs in cohort B2 had a significantly longer shedding duration of 42days (P<0.05) compared to other cohorts. Stx2e was the most commonly observed stx variant in finishing pigs (93.9%), in accordance with the previous studies. Stx2e has been reported to be significantly associated with edema disease in pigs, however, the pathogenicity in humans warrants further investigations. Nonetheless, our findings affirm that pigs are an important reservoir for human STEC infections, and that the circulating serotypes in a cohort and site management factors may significantly affect the prevalence of STEC. Molecular characterization of STEC isolates and epidemiological studies to identify risk factors for shedding in pigs are strongly warranted to further address the

  13. Low-carbohydrate diets reduce lipid accumulation and arterial inflammation in guinea pigs fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jose O; DeOgburn, Ryan; Ratliff, Joseph; Su, Randy; Smyth, Joan A; Volek, Jeff S; McGrane, Mary M; Dardik, Alan; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2010-04-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets (LCD) efficiently induce weight loss and favorably affect plasma lipids, however, the effect of LCD on atherosclerosis is still argued. To evaluate the effect of LCD on the prevention of atherosclerosis. Twenty guinea pigs were fed either a LCD or a low-fat diet (LFD) in combination with high-cholesterol (0.25g/100g) for 12 weeks. The percentage energy of macronutrient distribution was 10:65:25 for carbohydrate:fat:protein for the LCD, and 55:20:25 for the LFD. Plasma lipids were measured using colorimetric assays. Plasma and aortic oxidized (oxLDL) were quantified using ELISA methods. Inflammatory cytokines were measured in aortic homogenates using an immunoassay. H&E stained sections of aortic sinus and Schultz stained sections of carotid arteries were examined. LDL cholesterol was lower in the LCD compared to the LFD group (71.9+/-34.8 vs. 81.7+/-26.9mg/dL; p=0.039). Aortic cholesterol was also lower in the LCD (4.98+/-1.3mg/g) compared to the LFD group (6.68+/-2.0mg/g); p<0.05. The Schultz staining method confirmed less aortic cholesterol accumulation in the LCD group. Plasma oxLDL did not differ between groups, however, aortic oxLDL was 61% lower in the LCD compared to the LFD group (p=0.045). There was a positive correlation (r=0.63, p=0.03) between oxLDL and cholesterol concentration in the aorta of LFD group, which was not observed in LCD group (r=-0.05, p=0.96). Inflammatory markers were reduced in guinea pigs from the LCD group (p<0.05) and they were correlated with the decreases in oxLDL in aorta. These results suggest that LCD not only decreases lipid deposition, but also prevents the accumulation of oxLDL and reduces inflammatory cytokines within the arterial wall and may prevent atherosclerosis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Daily Feed Intake, Energy Intake, Growth Rate and Measures of Dietary Energy Efficiency of Pigs from Four Sire Lines Fed Diets with High or Low Metabolizable and Net Energy Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Schinckel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to: i evaluate the BW growth, energy intakes and energetic efficiency of pigs fed high and low density diets from 27 to 141 kg BW, ii evaluate sire line and sex differences when fed both diets, and iii to compare ME to NE as predictor of pig performance. The experiment had a replicated factorial arrangement of treatments including four sire lines, two sexes (2,192 barrows and 2,280 gilts, two dietary energy densities and a light or heavy target BW, 118 and 131.5 kg in replicates 1 to 6 and 127 and 140.6 kg in replicates 7 to 10. Pigs were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.27 Mcal ME/kg corn-soybean meal based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.53 to 3.55 Mcal ME/kg with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Pigs were weighed and pen feed intake (11 or 12 pigs/pen recorded at 28-d intervals. The barrow and gilt daily feed (DFI, ME (MEI and NE (NEI intake data were fitted to a Bridges function of BW. The BW data of each sex were fitted to a generalized Michaelis-Menten function of days of age. ME and NE required for maintenance (Mcal/d were predicted using functions of BW (0.255 and 0.179 BW^0.60 respectively. Pigs fed LE diets had decreased ADG (915 vs. 945 g/d, p<0.001 than pigs fed HE diets. Overall, DFI was greater (p<0.001 for pigs fed the LE diets (2.62 vs. 2.45 kg/d. However, no diet differences were observed for MEI (8.76 vs. 8.78 Mcal/d, p = 0.49 or NEI (6.39 vs. 6.44 Mcal/d, p = 0.13, thereby indicating that the pigs compensated for the decreased energy content of the diet. Overall ADG:DFI (0.362 vs. 0.377 and ADG:Mcal MEI (0.109 vs. 0.113 was less (p<0.001 for pigs fed LE compared to HE diets. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.6% greater ADG:Mcal MEI above maintenance and only 1.3% greater ADG:Mcal NEI (0.152 versus 0.150, therefore NEI is a more accurate predictor of

  15. Evaluation of commercially available enzymes, probiotics, or yeast on apparent total-tract nutrient digestion and growth in nursery and finishing pigs fed diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of enzymes, direct fed microbials, or yeast to enhance nutrient utilization or growth performance in nursery or finishing pigs fed diets containing increased levels of corn fiber from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is largely unknown. Ten commercially available feed additiv...

  16. Profiling of composition and metabolic activities of the colonic microflora of growing pigs fed diets supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Balaskas, Christos; Fava, Fransesca; Tuohy, Kieran M; Gibson, Glenn R; Fegeros, K

    2006-08-01

    It is evident that quantitative information on different microbial groups and their contribution in terms of activity in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and animals is required in order to formulate functional diets targeting improved gut function and host health. In this work, quantitative information on levels and spatial distributions of Bacteroides spp, Eubacterium spp, Clostridium spp, Escherichia coli, Bifidobacterium spp and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus spp. along the porcine large intestine was investigated using 16S rRNA targeted probes and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH). Caecum, ascending colon (AC) and rectum luminal digesta from three groups of individually housed growing pigs fed either a corn-soybean basal diet (CON diet) or a prebiotic diet containing 10 g/kg oligofructose (FOS diet) or trans-galactooligosaccharides (TOS diet) at the expense of cornstarch were analysed. DAPI staining was used to enumerate total number of cells in the samples. Populations of total cells, Bacteroides, Eubacterium, Clostridium and Bifidobacterium declined significantly (P Eubacterium that was higher in the AC digesta. FISH analysis showed that the sum of all bacterial groups made up a small percentage of the total cells, which was 12.4%, 21.8% and 10.3% in caecum, AC and rectum, respectively. This supports the view that in swine, the diversity of GI microflora might be higher compared to other species. In terms of microflora metabolic activity, the substantially higher numerical trends seen in FOS and TOS treatments regarding total volatile fatty acid, acetate concentrations and glycolytic activities, it could be postulated that FOS and TOS promoted saccharolytic activities in the porcine colon.

  17. Prevalence and characterization of plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes among Escherichia coli from pigs, pig carcasses and human

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Shuyu; Dalsgaard, Anders; Hammerum, Anette M; Porsbo, Lone J; Jensen, Lars B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sulfonamide resistance is very common in Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to characterize plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3) in E. coli isolated from pigs and humans with a specific objective to assess the genetic diversity of plasmids involved in the mobility of sul genes. Methods A total of 501 E. coli isolates from pig feces, pig carcasses and human stools were tested for their susceptibility to selected antimicrobial. Multip...

  18. Within-batch prevalence and quantification of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in tonsils of pigs at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanantwerpen, Gerty; Van Damme, Inge; De Zutter, Lieven; Houf, Kurt

    2014-03-14

    Yersiniosis is a common bacterial zoonosis in Europe and healthy pigs are known to be the primary reservoir of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. However, little information is available about the prevalence of these pathogens within pig batches at time of slaughter. The tonsils of 7047 fattening pigs, belonging to 100 farms, were aseptically collected immediately after evisceration in two Belgian slaughterhouses. The batch size varied between 70 and 930 pigs. On average, 70 pigs were sampled per batch. The tonsils were examined by direct plating on cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar plates and the number of suspect Yersinia colonies was counted. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica serotype O:3 were found in tonsils of 2009 pigs (28.5%), originating from 85 farms. The within-batch prevalence in positive farms ranged from 5.1 to 64.4%. The number of Y. enterocolitica in positive pigs varied between 2.01 and 5.98 log10 CFU g(-1) tonsil, with an average of 4.00 log10 CFU g(-1) tonsil. Y. pseudotuberculosis was found in seven farms, for which the within-batch prevalence varied from 2 to 10%. In five of these farms, both Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis were simultaneously present. Human pathogenic Yersinia spp. are widespread in slaughter pig batches in Belgium as 87% of the tested batches were infected with these pathogens at the time of slaughter. The large variation of the prevalence between batches may lead to different levels of contamination of carcasses and risks for public health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence and zoonotic risks of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Cheyletiella spp. in guinea pigs and rabbits in Dutch pet shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaauw, P A M; Avermaete, K H A van; Mertens, C A R M; Meijer, M; Schoemaker, N J

    2017-06-01

    Young rabbits and guinea pigs are often purchased as pets for children and may be infected with zoonotic skin infections. To assess the risk of acquiring such an infection from rabbits or guinea pigs, this study investigated the prevalence of the fungus Trichophyton mentagrophytes and the fur mite Cheyletiella parasitovorax in asymptomatic rabbits and guinea pigs in Dutch pet shops. In 91 pet shops a total of 213 rabbits and 179 guinea pigs were sampled using the Mackenzie technique and cultured. Clean cultures were examined microscopically and a PCR was performed on at least one sample from each pet shop. All animals were investigated for fur mite using a flea comb, a magnifying glass and white paper. From the fur of 3.8% (8/213) of the rabbits and 16.8% (30/179) of the guinea pigs, T. mentagrophytes was isolated. From 1 guinea pig (0,6%) Chrysosporium keratinophilum was isolated. Dermatophyte-positive rabbits and guinea pigs originated from 5.6% (5/90) and 27.3% (24/88) of the investigated pet shops, respectively. Fur mites were not found. Pet shops can play an important role in preventing transmission of zoonotic ringworm infections (dermatophytosis) and educating their customers. Specific preventive measures such as routine screening examinations and (prophylactic) treatment of rabbits and guinea pigs are recommended next to regular hygiene when handling animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. DGGE and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis of bacterial communities in colon content and feces of pigs fed whole crop rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Feng; Zhu, Wei-Yun; Yao, Wen; Liu, Jian-Xin

    2007-01-01

    The effect of feeding whole crop rice (WCR) to growing-finishing pigs at three levels 0 (Control), 10% and 20% on bacterial communities in colon content and feces was analyzed using 16S rDNA-based techniques. Amplicons of the V6-V8 variable regions of bacterial 16S rDNA were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), cloning and sequencing. The total number of DGGE bands and Shannon index of diversity for feces samples were higher in the pigs fed WCR-containing diets compared with the control, while a decrease trend was observed in these two parameters for colon content samples with the inclusion of WCR in the diets, although statistical differences were not significant. In general, the intestinal bacterial communities were prone to form the cluster for pig fed the same diet. Feeding of WCR induced the presence of special DGGE band with the sequence showing 99% similarity to that of Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 20016T). The sequences of seven amplicons in total nine clones showed less than 97% similarity with those of previously identified or unidentified bacteria, suggesting that most bacteria in gastrointestinal tracts have not been cultured or identified. The results suggest that the diet containing WCR did not affect the major groups of bacteria, but stimulated the growth of L. reuteri-like species.

  1. Models to quantify excretion of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon in growing pigs fed regional diets

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Henry; Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Vu, Van Thi Khanh; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2013-01-01

    Modern pig production contributes to many environmental problems that relate to manure, especially in areas with highly intensive production systems and in regions like Asia where the regulative control is not effective. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use three different pig diets varying in dietary protein, fibre and fat as representative for Danish (DK), Thai (TH) and Vietnamese (VN) pig production to develop and evaluate different approaches to predict/calculate excretion fr...

  2. Prevalence of African swine fever virus and classical swine fever virus antibodies in pigs in Benue State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asambe, A; Sackey, A K B; Tekdek, L B

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) antibodies in pigs in Benue State, Nigeria. Serum samples were collected from a total of 460 pigs, including 416 from 74 piggeries and 44 from Makurdi slaughter slab. The samples were analysed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit to detect the presence of ASFV antibodies, while competitive ELISA test kit was used to detect antibodies to CSFV. Our findings showed a total ASF prevalence of 13 (2.8%), while prevalences of 7 (1.7%) and 6 (13.6%) were observed in piggeries and in Makurdi slaughter slab, respectively. However, no CSFV antibody sera were detected in this study. Relatively higher ASFV antibody-positive pigs were detected in the slaughter slab than in piggeries. The difference in prevalence of ASF between the two locations was significantly associated (p = 0.017). These findings suggest the presence of ASFV antibody-positive pig in Benue State, Nigeria. Continuous surveillance and monitoring of these diseases among pigs in Nigeria to prevent any fulminating outbreak are recommended.

  3. Meta-analysis of classical swine fever prevalence in pigs in India: A 5-year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S. S.; Suresh, K. P.; Saha, S.; Prajapati, A.; Hemadri, D.; Roy, P.

    2018-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the overall prevalence of classical swine fever (CSF) in pigs in India, through a systematic review and meta-analysis of published data. Materials and Methods: Consortium for e-Resources in Agriculture, India, Google Scholar, PubMed, annual reports of All India Coordinated Research Project on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance, and All India Animal Disease database of NIVEDI (NADRES) were used for searching and retrieval of CSF prevalence data (seroprevalence, virus antigen, and virus nucleic acid detection) in India using a search strategy combining keywords and related database-specific subject terms from January 2011 to December 2015 in English only. Results: A total of 22 data reports containing 6,158 samples size from 18 states of India were used for the quantitative synthesis, and overall 37% (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.24, 0.51) CSF prevalence in India was estimated. The data were classified into 4 different geographical zones of the country: 20% (95% CI=0.05, 0.55), 31% (95% CI=0.18, 0.47), 55% (95% CI=0.32, 0.76), and 34% (95% CI=0.14, 0.62). CSF prevalence was estimated in northern, eastern, western, and southern regions, respectively. Conclusion: This study indicates that overall prevalence of CSF in India is much lower than individual published reports. PMID:29657420

  4. Assessing Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Excreta from Grower-finisher Pigs Fed Prevalent Rations in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van, Vu Thi Khanh; Sommer, Sven G.; Vu, C. C.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock production in Vietnam is, as in most Asian countries, increasing rapidly and changing into specialized highly intensified operations. The volume of animal excreta generated exceeds the capacity of the operation land base and cannot be utilized efficiently. As a consequence, there is a l......Livestock production in Vietnam is, as in most Asian countries, increasing rapidly and changing into specialized highly intensified operations. The volume of animal excreta generated exceeds the capacity of the operation land base and cannot be utilized efficiently. As a consequence....... Furthermore, equations for assessing the excretion were tested, which can be used in farm models for optimal recycling of manure while focusing on reducing pollution. The results indicated that fecal production and nutrient excretion were affected by the different rations tested. This study showed that five...... farms. The study also showed that about 12% of nitrogen excreted was emitted during housing. Waste water contains more than half of the nitrogen excreted, mainly in ammonium form which has a high potential for gaseous emission....

  5. Nutritional value of high fiber co-products from the copra, palm kernel, and rice industries in diets fed to pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Hans Henrik; Casas, Gloria Amparo; Abelilla, Jerubella Jerusalem; Liu, Yanhong; Sulabo, Rommel Casilda

    2015-01-01

    High fiber co-products from the copra and palm kernel industries are by-products of the production of coconut oil and palm kernel oil. The co-products include copra meal, copra expellers, palm kernel meal, and palm kernel expellers. All 4 ingredients are very high in fiber and the energy value is relatively low when fed to pigs. The protein concentration is between 14 and 22 % and the protein has a low biological value and a very high Arg:Lys ratio. Digestibility of most amino acids is less than in soybean meal but close to that in corn. However, the digestibility of Lys is sometimes low due to Maillard reactions that are initiated due to overheating during drying. Copra and palm kernel ingredients contain 0.5 to 0.6 % P. Most of the P in palm kernel meal and palm kernel expellers is bound to phytate, but in copra products less than one third of the P is bound to phytate. The digestibility of P is, therefore, greater in copra meal and copra expellers than in palm kernel ingredients. Inclusion of copra meal should be less than 15 % in diets fed to weanling pigs and less than 25 % in diets for growing-finishing pigs. Palm kernel meal may be included by 15 % in diets for weanling pigs and 25 % in diets for growing and finishing pigs. Rice bran contains the pericarp and aleurone layers of brown rice that is removed before polished rice is produced. Rice bran contains approximately 25 % neutral detergent fiber and 25 to 30 % starch. Rice bran has a greater concentration of P than most other plant ingredients, but 75 to 90 % of the P is bound in phytate. Inclusion of microbial phytase in the diets is, therefore, necessary if rice bran is used. Rice bran may contain 15 to 24 % fat, but it may also have been defatted in which case the fat concentration is less than 5 %. Concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) are slightly less in full fat rice bran than in corn, but defatted rice bran contains less than 75 % of the DE and ME in

  6. Models to quantify excretion of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon in growing pigs fed regional diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Prapaspongsa, Trakarn

    2013-01-01

    used in a digestibility and balance experiment. Excretion of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) of the experimental diets were determined. Due to the highest dietary fibre content, VN had the lowest digestibility of N, P and C (73, 49, and 73%, respectively) compared......Modern pig production contributes to many environmental problems that relate to manure, especially in areas with highly intensive production systems and in regions like Asia where the regulative control is not effective. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use three different pig diets...... varying in dietary protein, fibre and fat as representative for Danish (DK), Thai (TH) and Vietnamese (VN) pig production to develop and evaluate different approaches to predict/calculate excretion from growing pigs in comparison with the experimentally determined values. Nine female growing pigs were...

  7. NMR-based metabonomic studies reveal changes in the biochemical profile of plasma and urine from pigs fed high fibre rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne C.; Bach Knudsen, Knud E.; Serena, Anja

    2006-01-01

    This study presents an NMR-based metabonomic approach to elucidate the overall endogenous biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet. Two diets with similar levels of dietary fibre and macronutrients, but with contrasting levels of wholegrain ingredients, were prepared from wholegrain rye (wholegrain...... diet (WGD)) and non-wholegrain wheat (non-wholegrain diet (NWD)) and fed to four pigs in a crossover design. Plasma samples were collected after 7 d on each diet, and 1H NMR spectra were acquired on these. Partial least squares regression discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) on spectra obtained for plasma...

  8. Xylanase Increased the Ileal Digestibility of Non-Starch Polysaccharides and Concentration of Low Molecular Weight Non-Digestible Carbohydrates in Pigs Fed High Levels of wheat DDGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Brøgger; Yu, Shukun; Arent, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of a commercially available xylanase (CAX), an experimental xylanase (EX), and EX in combination with protease (EXP) on the degradation of nondigestible carbohydrates (NDC) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients in wheat distillers dried grains...... with solubles (wDDGS). The control and 3 enzyme diets contained 96% wDDGS supplemented with vitamins, minerals, l-lysine, and chromic oxide as a digestibility marker in addition to enzyme premix. Eight ileal cannulated pigs were fed 4 experimental diets containing 96% wDDGS—a control diet or 1 of 3 diets...

  9. Comparison of Respiratory Disease Prevalence among Voluntary Monitoring Systems for Pig Health and Welfare in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J I Eze

    Full Text Available Surveillance of animal diseases provides information essential for the protection of animal health and ultimately public health. The voluntary pig health schemes, implemented in the United Kingdom, are integrated systems which capture information on different macroscopic disease conditions detected in slaughtered pigs. Many of these conditions have been associated with a reduction in performance traits and consequent increases in production costs. The schemes are the Wholesome Pigs Scotland in Scotland, the BPEX Pig Health Scheme in England and Wales and the Pig Regen Ltd. health and welfare checks done in Northern Ireland. This report set out to compare the prevalence of four respiratory conditions (enzootic pneumonia-like lesions, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia lesions and abscesses in the lung assessed by these three Pig Health Schemes. The seasonal variations and year trends associated with the conditions in each scheme are presented. The paper also highlights the differences in prevalence for each condition across these schemes and areas where further research is needed. A general increase in the prevalence of enzootic pneumonia like lesions was observed in Scotland, England and Wales since 2009, while a general decrease was observed in Northern Ireland over the years of the scheme. Pleurisy prevalence has increased since 2010 in all three schemes, whilst pleuropneumonia has been decreasing. Prevalence of abscesses in the lung has decreased in England, Wales and Northern Ireland but has increased in Scotland. This analysis highlights the value of surveillance schemes based on abattoir pathology monitoring of four respiratory lesions. The outputs at scheme level have significant value as indicators of endemic and emerging disease, and for producers and herd veterinarians in planning and evaluating herd health control programs when comparing individual farm results with national averages.

  10. Comparison of Respiratory Disease Prevalence among Voluntary Monitoring Systems for Pig Health and Welfare in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, J I; Correia-Gomes, C; Borobia-Belsué, J; Tucker, A W; Sparrow, D; Strachan, D W; Gunn, G J

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of animal diseases provides information essential for the protection of animal health and ultimately public health. The voluntary pig health schemes, implemented in the United Kingdom, are integrated systems which capture information on different macroscopic disease conditions detected in slaughtered pigs. Many of these conditions have been associated with a reduction in performance traits and consequent increases in production costs. The schemes are the Wholesome Pigs Scotland in Scotland, the BPEX Pig Health Scheme in England and Wales and the Pig Regen Ltd. health and welfare checks done in Northern Ireland. This report set out to compare the prevalence of four respiratory conditions (enzootic pneumonia-like lesions, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia lesions and abscesses in the lung) assessed by these three Pig Health Schemes. The seasonal variations and year trends associated with the conditions in each scheme are presented. The paper also highlights the differences in prevalence for each condition across these schemes and areas where further research is needed. A general increase in the prevalence of enzootic pneumonia like lesions was observed in Scotland, England and Wales since 2009, while a general decrease was observed in Northern Ireland over the years of the scheme. Pleurisy prevalence has increased since 2010 in all three schemes, whilst pleuropneumonia has been decreasing. Prevalence of abscesses in the lung has decreased in England, Wales and Northern Ireland but has increased in Scotland. This analysis highlights the value of surveillance schemes based on abattoir pathology monitoring of four respiratory lesions. The outputs at scheme level have significant value as indicators of endemic and emerging disease, and for producers and herd veterinarians in planning and evaluating herd health control programs when comparing individual farm results with national averages.

  11. Prevalence of common gastrointestinal nematode parasites in scavenging pigs of different ages and sexes in Eastern Centre province, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H. Tamboura

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The range and infestation intensities of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode species depend on the type of swine production system. The present study focused mainly on nematodes of veterinary importance in scavenging pigs in Burkina Faso, and aimed at determining the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites by means of faecal egg per gram (EPG counts. Between November 2001 and October 2002, faecal samples from 383 pigs of different sexes and ages ( 12 months were collected from the rectum and examined for gastrointestinal nematodes parasites using the Mc Master method. Of the 383 pigs examined, 91 % were infected by one or more para sites. Ascaris suum (40 %; 100-1 400 EPG was the most prevalent parasite followed by Strongyloides ransomi (21 %; 100-4 200 EPG, Oesophagostomum spp. (18 %; 100-1 000 EPG, Hyostrongylus rubidus (11 %; 100-1 800 EPG, Globocephalus spp. 10 %; 100-400 EPG and Trichuris suis (1 %; 100-200 EPG. The prevalence was significantly higher in female pigs (n = 239 than in males. In addition, females excreted significantly (P < 0.05 more eggs in their faeces than males, except in the case of Globocephalus spp. The age of the animal had no effect on the prevalence of A. suum whereas there were significant differences in age categories concerning S. ransomi, H. rubidus, Oesophagostumum spp. and Globocephalus spp. Unexpectedly, the high prevalence of these common parasites was not accompanied by elevated EPG values, which suggests the existence of moderate infestations. The present work indicates that the common nematode infestations in pigs do not necessarily need a systematic herd anthelmintic treatment, as only a small number of worms is required to induce immunity. A further study is needed to formulate appropriate and cost-effective strategies for the control of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites in pigs in Burkina Faso.

  12. Effect of inclusion level and adaptation duration on digestible energy and nutrient digestibility in palm kernel meal fed to growing-finishing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Stein, Hans Henrik; Zhao, Jinbiao; Li, Defa

    2018-01-01

    Objective An experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of inclusion level of palm kernel meal (PKM) and adaptation duration on the digestible energy (DE) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of chemical constituents in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs. Methods Thirty crossbred barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Large White) with an average initial body weight of 85.0±2.1 kg were fed 5 diets in a completely randomized design. The diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and 4 additional diets in which corn and soybean meal were partly replaced by 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% PKM. After 7 d of adaptation to the experimental diets, feces were collected from d 8 to 12, d 15 to 19, d 22 to 26, and d 29 to 33, respectively. Results The DE and ATTD of gross energy (GE), dry matter (DM), ash, organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and crude protein (CP) in diets decreased linearly as the dietary PKM increased within each adaptation duration (p 0.05). Considering a stable determination, 21 days of adaptation to a diet containing 19.5% PKM is needed in pigs and a longer adaptation time is recommended as dietary PKM increases. PMID:28920411

  13. Determination and Prediction of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy from the Chemical Composition of Chinese Corn Gluten Feed Fed to Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME contents of corn gluten feed (CGF for finishing pigs and to develop equations predicting the DE and ME content from the chemical composition of the CGF samples, as well as validate the accuracy of the prediction equations. In Exp. 1, ten CGF samples from seven provinces of China were collected and fed to 66 finishing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire with an initial body weight (BW of 51.9±5.5 kg. The pigs were assigned to 11 diets comprising one basal diet and 10 CGF test diets with six pigs fed each diet. The basal diet contained corn (76%, dehulled soybean meal (21% and premix (3%. The ten test diets were formulated by substituting 25% of the corn and dehulled soybean meal with CGF and contained corn (57%, dehulled soybean meal (15.75%, CGF (24.25% and premix (3%. In Exp. 2, two additional CGF sources were collected as validation samples to test the accuracy of the prediction equations. In this experiment, 18 barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire with an initial BW of 61.1±4.0 kg were randomly allotted to be fed either the basal diet or two CGF containing diets which had a similar composition as used in Exp. 1. The DE and ME of CGF ranged from 10.37 to 12.85 MJ/kg of dry matter (DM and 9.53 to 12.49 MJ/kg of DM, respectively. Through stepwise regression analysis, several prediction equations of DE and ME were generated. The best fit equations were: DE, MJ/kg of DM = 18.30–0.13 neutral detergent fiber–0.22 ether extract, with R2 = 0.95, residual standard deviation (RSD = 0.21 and p<0.01; and ME, MJ/kg of DM = 12.82+0.11 Starch–0.26 acid detergent fiber, with R2 = 0.94, RSD = 0.20 and p<0.01. These results indicate that the DE and ME content of CGF varied substantially but the DE and ME for finishing pigs can be accurately predicted from equations based on nutritional analysis.

  14. Intestinal Microbiota and Microbial Metabolites Are Changed in a Pig Model Fed a High-Fat/Low-Fiber or a Low-Fat/High-Fiber Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja N Heinritz

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota and its metabolites appear to be an important factor for gastrointestinal function and health. However, research is still needed to further elaborate potential relationships between nutrition, gut microbiota and host's health by means of a suitable animal model. The present study examined the effect of two different diets on microbial composition and activity by using the pig as a model for humans. Eight pigs were equally allotted to two treatments, either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF, or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF diet for 7 weeks. Feces were sampled at day 7 of every experimental week. Diet effects on fecal microbiota were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR, DNA fingerprinting and metaproteomics. Furthermore, fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA profiles and ammonia concentrations were determined. Gene copy numbers of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria (P0.05. Results provide evidence that beginning from the start of the experiment, the LF diet stimulated beneficial bacteria and SCFA production, especially butyrate (P<0.05, while the HF diet fostered those bacterial groups which have been associated with a negative impact on health conditions. These findings correspond to results in humans and might strengthen the hypothesis that the response of the porcine gut microbiota to a specific dietary modulation is in support of using the pig as suitable animal model for humans to assess diet-gut-microbiota interactions. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003447.

  15. Fecal microbiome of growing pigs fed a cereal based diet including chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) or ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L.) forage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicksved, Johan; Jansson, Janet K.; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2015-12-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate how inclusion of chicory forage or ribwort forage in a cereal-based diet influenced the fecal microbial community (microbiome) in newly weaned (35 days of age) piglets. The piglets were fed a cereal-based diet without (B) and with inclusion (80 and 160 g/kg air-dry forage) of vegetative shoots of chicory (C) and leaves of ribwort (R) forage in a 35-day growth trial. Fecal samples were collected at the start (D0), 17 (D17) and 35 (D35) days after weaning and profiles of the microbial consortia were generated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). 454-FLX pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was used to analyze the microbial composition in a subset of the samples already analyzed with T-RFLP. RESULTS: The microbial clustering pattern was primarily dependent on age of the pigs, but diet effects could also be observed. Lactobacilli and enterobacteria were more abundant at D0, whereas the genera Streptococcus, Treponema, Clostridium, Clostridiaceae1 and Coprococcus were present in higher abundances at D35. Pigs fed ribwort had an increased abundance of sequences classified as Treponema and a reduction in lactobacilli. However, the abundance of Prevotellaceae increased with age in on both the chicory and the ribwort diet. Moreover, there were significant correlations between the abundance of Bacteroides and the digested amount of galactose, uronic acids and total non-starch polysaccharides, and between the abundance of Bacteroidales and the digested amount of xylose. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that both chicory and ribwort inclusion in the diet of newly weaned pigs influenced the composition of the fecal microbiota and that digestion of specific dietary components was correlated with species composition of the microbiota. Moreover, this study showed that the gut will be exposed to a dramatic shift in the microbial community structure several weeks after weaning.

  16. Femur morphometry, densitometry, geometry and mechanical properties in young pigs fed a diet free of inorganic phosphorus and supplemented with phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba, Grzegorz; Sobol, Monika; Raj, Stanisława

    2017-02-01

    The study investigated in piglets the effect of replacing dietary inorganic P by addition of microbial phytase and its impact on performance, nutrient digestibility and on the geometrical characteristics and mineralisation of the femur. Sixteen pigs on day 58 of age were divided into two groups and fed either a diet free of additional inorganic phosphorus (P) and supplemented with phytase (Diet LP, 4.23 g total P/kg diet) or a diet with a mineral source of P and not supplemented with phytase (Diet SP, 5.38 g total P/kg diet). Performance data and the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients were estimated between days 58 and 114, and 72 and 86 of age, respectively. On day 114 of age, the pigs were slaughtered, the femur was dissected and the mineral content and mineral density, maximum strength and maximum elastic strength, cortical wall thickness, cross-sectional area and cortical index were analysed. The growth performance and digestibility of nutrient fractions (with exception of P) did not differ between treatment groups. The P-digestibility was significantly higher in Group LP. The femur of pigs in Group LP had significantly greater cortical wall thickness, cortical index, bone mineral content, bone mineral density, maximum strength and maximum elastic strength than Group SP. Femur maximum strength and maximum elastic strength were correlated with cortical wall thickness and cortical index. Resulting from the different supply of digestible P, the femur geometrical, densitometric and mechanical properties of Group LP were better than those of Group SP. The mechanical properties of the femur of pigs depended more on its geometrical characteristics than on the degree of its mineralisation.

  17. Herd prevalence of Salmonella enterica infections in Danish slaughter pigs determined by microbiological testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Bager, Flemming

    1996-01-01

    As a part of a nationwide programme to survey and control salmonella in pig herds, a microbiological survey of 1363 pig herds was performed in Denmark. A total of 13 468 slaughter pigs were examined at slaughter by culture of 5 g of caecal contents. Overall, 30 different serotypes of Salmonella...

  18. Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, L A; Walk, C L; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing diets fed to growing pigs with fat sources differing in their composition of fatty acids on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals. A diet based on corn, potato protein isolate, and 7% sucrose was formulated. Five additional diets that were similar to the previous diet with the exception that sucrose was replaced by 7% tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil were also formulated. Diets were formulated to contain 0.70% Ca and 0.33% standardized total tract digestible P. Growing barrows ( = 60; 15.99 ± 1.48 kg initial BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 30 pigs, 6 dietary treatments, and 10 replicate pigs per treatment. Experimental diets were provided for 12 d with the initial 5 d being the adaptation period. Total feces were collected for a 5-d collection period using the marker-to-marker approach, and the ATTD of minerals, ether extract, and acid hydrolyzed ether extract was calculated for all diets. Digestibility of DM was greater ( soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease or the basal diet, with all other diets being intermediate. The ATTD of Ca, S, and P was greater ( soybean oil, corn oil, palm oil, or tallow than for pigs fed the basal diet or the diet containing choice white grease. The ATTD of Mg, Zn, Mn, Na, and K were not different among dietary treatments. The ATTD of ether extract was greater ( oil, corn oil, or soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease, and the ATTD of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in the diet containing soybean oil was also greater ( oil, corn oil, or soybean oil may increase the ATTD of some macrominerals, but that appears not to be the case if choice white grease is used. There was no evidence of negative effects of the fat sources used in this experiment on the ATTD of any minerals.

  19. Ileal endogenous nitrogen recovery is increased and its amino acid pattern is altered in pigs fed quebracho extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steendam, C.A.; Tamminga, S.; Boer, H.; Jong, de E.J.; Visser, G.H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Ileal endogenous nitrogen recovery (ENR) in pigs (9 ± 0.6 kg body weight) was estimated simultaneously using the 15N-isotope dilution technique (15N-IDT) and the peptide alimentation ultrafiltration (UF) method. Diets were cornstarch, enzyme-hydrolyzed casein with no (control) or high (4%) content

  20. Ileal endogenous nitrogen recovery is increased and its amino acid pattern is altered in pigs fed quebracho extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steendam, C.A.C.; Tamminga, S.; Boer, H.; de Jong, E.J.; Visser, G.H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    lleal endogenous nitrogen recovery (ENR) in pigs (9 +/- 0.6 kg body weight) was estimated simultaneously using the N-15-isotope dilution technique (N-15-IDT) and the peptide alimentation ultrafiltration (UF) method. Diets were cornstarch, enzyme-hydrolyzed casein with no (control) or high (4%)

  1. Prevalence and correlates of influenza-A in piggery workers and pigs in two communities in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awosanya, Emmanuel Jolaoluwa; Ogundipe, Gabriel; Babalobi, Olutayo; Omilabu, Sunday

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, three Influenza-A virus subtypes (H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2) in swine are major public health issues. In Nigeria, the existence of these subtypes in pigs has not been well studied. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and correlates of Influenza-A viruses circulating in piggery workers and pigs in Oke-aro and Goshen communities in Lagos, Nigeria. Nasal swabs were taken from 197 consenting piggery workers and 281 randomly selected pigs to determine the prevalence of Influenza-A (H1, H3, H5) using Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction test (gene M). An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect information on demography, Influenza-A related symptoms experienced, personal hygiene and management practices from the piggery workers. Descriptive statistics was used and chi square test performed at 5% significant level. All piggery workers and pigs' nasal swabs tested negative for Influenza-A viruses, hence, association could not be tested. Mean age of piggery workers was 41 ± 13.6 years and 60% were females. Forty two percent were farm attendants, 38.0% were pig farmers and the rest butchers. Nineteen percent had history of headache; 14.0% had catarrh and cough; 4.0% had sore-throat; 5.0% had diarrhea; while 48.0% had muscle pain at the time of data collection. The mean body temperature for the pig workers was 36.5 ± 0.5 °C. A significant difference (pInfluenza-A (H1, H3, H5) viruses. The current practices of the piggery workers should be encouraged.

  2. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among pigs on German farms and import of livestock-related MRSA into hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köck, R; Harlizius, J; Bressan, N; Laerberg, R; Wieler, L H; Witte, W; Deurenberg, R H; Voss, A; Becker, K; Friedrich, A W

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among pigs and estimate the impact of this animal reservoir on human healthcare. Nasal swabs were derived from 1,600 pigs at 40 German farms. The MRSA were

  3. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among pigs on German farms and import of livestock-related MRSA into hospitals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kock, R.; Harlizius, J.; Bressan, N.; Laerberg, R.; Wieler, L.H.; Witte, W.; Deurenberg, R.H.; Voss, A.; Becker, K.; Friedrich, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among pigs and estimate the impact of this animal reservoir on human healthcare. Nasal swabs were derived from 1,600 pigs at 40 German farms. The MRSA were

  4. The prevalence, organ distribution and fertility of cystic echinoccosis in feral pigs in tropical North Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lidetu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to study the prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus hydatidosis in feral pigs (Sus domesticus in the Charters Towers region of tropical North Queensland. Data were collected from a total of 238 carcasses, which were hunted and shot in the Burdekin River catchment area. Organs of the abdominal, thoracic, and pelvic cavities were examined for the presence of hydatid cysts. In the laboratory, cysts and hydatid cyst fluids were examined under a stereoscopic binoc ular microscope and a compound microscope. An overall prevalence of E. granulosus hydatid cysts in feral pigs was found to be 31.1%. There was no significant difference in either sex or age between infected and non-infected feral pigs. The predilection sites of cysts were livers (23% and lungs (62%, with more cysts in lungs (252 than livers (48. The ratio of livers to lungs infected with fertile cysts was 1:4 compared to 1:8 sterile cysts. The overall fertility of cysts was 70.1%. The percentage of fertile cysts in liver and lung was 79.2% and 68.7%, respectively. The diameter of fertile cysts ranged from 15 to over 60 mm. There was no significant difference in size between fertile and non-fertile cysts in lungs. The high prevalence rate and fertility of cysts in feral pigs confirm that feral pigs can take part in the sylvatic cycle of the parasite in the region. The public health significance of this observation is potentially very important.

  5. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica in/on tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes of slaughtered pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdolec, Nevijo; Dobranić, Vesna; Filipović, Ivana

    2015-03-01

    A total of 156 tonsils and 156 mandibular lymph nodes from fattening pigs originating from 13 farms were sampled in Croatian slaughterhouses and examined for Salmonella spp. (n=78 per organ) and Yersinia enterocolitica (n=78 per organ) by cultural methods. Salmonella was isolated from two tonsils only, both originated from animals from the same farm (5.12%), while Y. enterocolitica were recovered from 26 tonsils (33.33%) which could be traced back to 10 farms. Salmonella was absent in mandibular lymph nodes, and Y. enterocolitica was isolated from eight lymph nodes (10.25%) which originated from six farms. Y. enterocolitica was present inside the lymph nodes of two pigs. The high prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in/on pig tonsils could be the result of cross-contamination during splitting the carcasses with head. This procedure may result in higher prevalence of Y. enterocolitica on surface of mandibular lymph nodes than in their depth. Traditional veterinary postmortem examination of pig halves will not necessarily contribute to cross-contamination with Salmonella or Yersinia under conditions of present slaughter practice.

  6. Effect of diet grinding and pelleting fed either dry or liquid feed on dry matter and pH in the stomach of pigs and the development of gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mösseler, A; Wintermann, M; Sander, S J; Kamphues, J

    2012-12-01

    The physical form of diets has a marked impact on the development of gastric ulcers in pigs. Earlier studies showed effects of fine grinding and pelleting on the integrity of gastric mucosa as well as on local intragastric milieu. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dry or liquid feeding on intragastric milieu (DM and pH) in pigs. The 23 piglets were housed individually and fed with test diets and water ad lib for 6 wk. Both experimental diets [coarsely ground diet fed as mash (CM) vs. finely ground pelleted diet (FP)] were identical in ingredients (39.5% wheat, 34% barley, 20% soybean meal) and chemical composition and were either offered dry or in liquid (25% DM) form. At the end of the trial the animals were slaughtered; the stomach was removed and samples were taken from different localizations. Feeding diets dry or liquid had no effect on the pH (P > 0.05). The diet noticeably affected the gastric content. The FP diets resulted in a more liquid chyme (P pH did not differ between regions. Feeding CM caused marked effects of localization regarding pH (highest values: pars nonglandularis; lowest values: fundus). None of the pigs fed CM showed signs of gastric ulcers, but the score was markedly higher (P < 0.05) when pigs were fed FP. Therefore the predominant factor for development of gastric ulcers seems to be the structure (particle size) of the diet.

  7. Narasin effects on energy, nutrient, and fiber digestibility in corn-soybean meal or corn-soybean meal-dried distillers grains with soluble diets fed to 16-, 92-, and 141-kg pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three experiments were conducted determine the effect of narasin on growth performance, and on GE and nutrient digestibility in nursery, grower, and finishing pigs fed either a corn-soybean (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet supplemented with distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), in combination with...

  8. Effects of zinc oxide and microbial phytase on digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in maize-based diets fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blavi, L; Sola-Oriol, D; Perez, J F; Stein, H H

    2017-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of Zn at a pharmacological level in diets fed to pigs affects apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of Ca and P and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca. The second hypothesis was that inclusion of microbial phytase increases the ATTD of Ca and P and the STTD of Ca regardless of the concentration of Zn in the diet. Fifty-six growing barrows (15.4 ± 1.9 kg average BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 7 dietary treatments and 8 pigs per treatment. A maize-based basal diet was formulated with either 0 or 2,400 mg/kg Zn from ZnO and 0, 1,000, or 3,000 units of phytase (FTU) per kilogram. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Experimental diets were fed for 13 d, and feces were collected from the feed provided from d 6 to 11 using the marker-to-marker approach; urine was also collected from d 6 to 11. Retention of Ca, ATTD of Ca, and STTD of Ca increased ( phytase in the diet increased and were less ( phytase increased in the diet, but the increase was greater if ZnO was not added than if ZnO was added to the diet (interaction, phytase in the diets. Inclusion of microbial phytase increased the ATTD and STTD of Ca in diets and also the ATTD of P.

  9. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs...... (initial BW: 9.15 ± 0.06 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design with 12 dietary treatments and 9 pens per treatment. A control diet based on corn and SBM and 4 diets containing 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV were formulated to a similar NE by adjusting inclusion of choice white grease....... Four additional diets also contained 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV, but no additional choice white grease, and NE in these diets, therefore, was less than in the control diet. The control diet and the diets containing 30% CM-HP or CM-CV without increased choice white grease were also formulated...

  10. Apparent or Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids of Diets Containing Different Protein Feedstuffs Fed at Two Crude Protein Levels for Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Adebiyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study determined the apparent or standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids (AID or SID of AA in growing pigs fed diets containing three protein feedstuffs with different fiber characteristics at two dietary crude protein (CP levels. Twenty boars (Yorkshire×Landrace with average initial body weight of 35 (±2.6 kg were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. These pigs were offered six diets containing soybean meal (SBM, canola meal (CM or corn distillers dried grains with solubles (corn-DDGS that were either adequate (19% or marginal (15% in CP using a triplicated 6×2 Youden Square Design. Except for Met, Trp, Cys, and Pro, AID of AA was greater (p<0.05 in the SBM diet compared with the CM diet. Apparent ileal digestibility for Gly and Asp was greater (p<0.05 in the SBM diet compared with the corn-DDGS diet. The AID of Ile, Leu, Phe, Val, Ala, Tyr, and Asp was greater (p<0.05 in the corn-DDGS diet compared with the CM diet. Standardized ileal digestibility of AA was greater (p<0.05 in the SBM diet compared with the CM diet for all AA except Trp and Pro. The SID of Ile, Leu, Val, Ala, Tyr, and Asp was greater (p<0.05 in the corn-DDGS diet compared with the CM diet. It was concluded that protein feedstuff affects ileal AA digestibility and is closely related to dietary fiber characteristics, and a 4-percentage unit reduction in dietary CP had no effect on ileal AA digestibility in growing pigs.

  11. Effects of rapeseed meal fiber content on phosphorus and calcium digestibility in growing pigs fed diets without or with microbial phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bournazel, M; Lessire, M; Duclos, M J; Magnin, M; Même, N; Peyronnet, C; Recoules, E; Quinsac, A; Labussière, E; Narcy, A

    2018-01-01

    The optimization of dietary phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) supply requires a better understanding of the effect of dietary fiber content of co-products on the digestive utilization of minerals. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary fiber content from 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) on P and Ca digestibility throughout the gastrointestinal tract in growing pigs fed diets without or with microbial phytase. In total, 48 castrated male pigs (initial BW=36.1±0.4 kg) were housed in metabolic crates for 29 days. After an 8-day adaptation period, pigs were allocated to one of the eight treatments. The impact of dietary fiber was modulated by adding whole RSM (wRSM), dehulled RSM (dRSM) or dRSM supplemented with 4.5% or 9.0% rapeseed hulls (dRSMh1 and dRSMh2). Diets contained 0 or 500 phytase unit of microbial phytase per kg. From day 14 to day 23, feces and urine were collected separately to determine apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent retention (AR) of P and Ca. At the end of the experiment, femurs and digestive contents were sampled. No effect of variables of interest was observed on growth performance. Microbial phytase increased ATTD and AR of P (Pphytase (Pphytase which increased AR of Ca and femur characteristics (Pphytase but cecal recovery was considerably reduced by microbial phytase (Pphytase and R 2=0.24, P=0.026 with microbial phytase). The inclusion of hulls improved the solubility of iP (Pphytase in releasing phosphate in the stomach. Moreover, dietary fiber may affect solubilization process in the cecum which potentiates the effect of microbial phytase on P digestibility.

  12. Effect of dietary soybean oil and soybean protein concentration on the concentration of digestible amino acids in soybean products fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Pahm, S K; Stein, H H

    2008-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure the effect of adding soybean oil to soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) on apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of CP and AA by growing pigs. A second objective was to compare AID and SID of AA in a new high-protein variety of full fat soybeans (FFSB) to values obtained in other soybean products. Commercial sources of FFSB (FFSB-CV), SBM, and SPC, and of a new high-protein variety of FFSB (FFSB-HP) were used in the experiment. Four diets were prepared using each soybean product as the sole source of CP and AA in 1 diet. Two additional diets were formulated by adding soybean oil (7.55 and 7.35%, respectively) to the diets containing SBM and SPC. A nitrogen-free diet was also used to measure basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. The 2 sources of FFSB were extruded at 150 degrees C before being used in the experiment. Seven growing barrows (initial BW = 26.2 kg) were prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a 7 x 7 Latin square design. Ileal digesta were collected from the pigs on d 6 and 7 of each period. All digesta samples were lyophilized and analyzed for DM, CP, AA, and chromium, and values for AID and SID of CP and AA were calculated. The addition of oil improved (P oil and SPC, but these values were lower (P oil. In conclusion, the addition of oil improved the SID of most AA in SBM and SPC fed to growing pigs, and the SID of AA in FFSB-HP were greater than in SBM and similar to the SID of AA in SBM with oil and in SPC.

  13. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in European soya bean and rapeseed products fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewtapee, C; Mosenthin, R; Nenning, S; Wiltafsky, M; Schäffler, M; Eklund, M; Rosenfelder-Kuon, P

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility coefficients (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) of European soya bean and rapeseed products in pigs. Six soya bean and two rapeseed products were used as the sole dietary source of CP and AA, including raw (FFSB) and roasted full-fat soya beans (FFSB R oasted ), soya bean (SBC) and rapeseed cake (RSC), and rapeseed meal (RSM) from Bavaria (Germany), soya bean meal (SBM) from the Danube region (Austria; SBM A ustria ), a commercially available standard SBM (SBM S td ) and an imported genetically modified organism-free SBM (SBM GMO -free ). Eight ileal- cannulated pigs with an initial body weight of 32 ± 2 kg were allotted to a row-column design with eight diets and six periods of seven days each. Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) ranged from 1.8 in SBM S td to 24.5 mg/g DM in FFSB. The SID of CP and all AA in FFSB R oasted were greater than in FFSB, but lower when compared to SBC and SBM A ustria (p soya bean and rapeseed products as influenced by differences in processing conditions. European SBC and SBM A ustria can be used as alternative to imported SBM GMO -free and SBM S td in diets for growing pigs. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Prevalence of resistance to 11 antimicrobials among Campylobacter coli isolated from pigs on 80 grower-finisher farms in Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Varela, Norma P.; Friendship, Robert; Dewey, Cate

    2007-01-01

    We carried out a cross-sectional study to investigate antimicrobial resistance patterns of Campylobacter coli isolated from Ontario grower-finisher pigs. From January to June 2004, 1200 samples were collected from 80 farms by obtaining a constant number (15) of fecal samples per farm. Susceptibility of the isolates to 11 antimicrobial drugs was determined by the agar-dilution technique. The overall prevalence of resistance to 1 or more antimicrobials among the isolates was 99.2%. High levels ...

  15. Comparative energy content and amino acid digestibility of barley obtained from diverse sources fed to growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liang Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Two experiments were conducted to determine the content of digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME as well as the apparent ileal digestibility (AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID of crude protein (CP and amino acids (AA in barley grains obtained from Australia, France or Canada. Methods In Exp. 1, 18 growing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire; 31.5±3.2 kg were individually placed in stainless-steel metabolism crates (1.4×0.7×0.6 m and randomly allotted to 1 of 3 test diets. In Exp. 2, eight crossbred pigs (30.9±1.8 kg were allotted to a replicate 3×4 Youden Square designed experiment with three periods and four diets. Two pigs received each diet during each test period. The diets included one nitrogen-free diet and three test diets. Results The relative amounts of gross energy (GE, CP, and all AA in the Canadian barley were higher than those in Australian and French barley while higher concentrations of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, total dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber and β-glucan as well as lower concentrations of GE and ether extract were observed in the French barley compared with the other two barley sources. The DE and ME as well as the SID of histidine, isoleucine, leucine and phenylalanine in Canadian barley were higher (p<0.05 than those in French barley but did not differ from Australian barley. Conclusion Differences in the chemical composition, energy content and the SID and AID of AA were observed among barley sources obtained from three countries. The feeding value of barley from Canada and Australia was superior to barley obtained from France which is important information in developing feeding systems for growing pigs where imported grains are used.

  16. Comparative energy content and amino acid digestibility of barley obtained from diverse sources fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong Liang; Shi, Meng; Xu, Xiao; Ma, Xiao Kang; Liu, Ling; Piao, Xiang Shu

    2017-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the content of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) as well as the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in barley grains obtained from Australia, France or Canada. In Exp. 1, 18 growing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire; 31.5±3.2 kg) were individually placed in stainless-steel metabolism crates (1.4×0.7×0.6 m) and randomly allotted to 1 of 3 test diets. In Exp. 2, eight crossbred pigs (30.9±1.8 kg) were allotted to a replicate 3×4 Youden Square designed experiment with three periods and four diets. Two pigs received each diet during each test period. The diets included one nitrogen-free diet and three test diets. The relative amounts of gross energy (GE), CP, and all AA in the Canadian barley were higher than those in Australian and French barley while higher concentrations of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, total dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber and β-glucan as well as lower concentrations of GE and ether extract were observed in the French barley compared with the other two barley sources. The DE and ME as well as the SID of histidine, isoleucine, leucine and phenylalanine in Canadian barley were higher (penergy content and the SID and AID of AA were observed among barley sources obtained from three countries. The feeding value of barley from Canada and Australia was superior to barley obtained from France which is important information in developing feeding systems for growing pigs where imported grains are used.

  17. Comparative nontargeted profiling of metabolic changes in tissues and biofluids in high-fat diet-fed Ossabaw pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanhineva, Kati; Barri, Thaer; Kolehmainen, Marjukka

    2013-01-01

    to reveal metabolite groups for generating new hypotheses of obesity-related metabolic disturbances produced in an animal model. A large spectrum of metabolites in the semi-polar region, including small water soluble molecules like betaine and dihydroxyindole, and a wide range of bile acids as well...... as various lipid species were detected. The high fat diet influenced metabolic homeostasis of Ossabaw pigs, especially the lipid metabolome, throughout all the analyzed sample types, including plasma, urine, bile, liver, pancreas, brain cortex, intestinal jejunum and proximal colon. However, even dramatic...... and lipids, thus pointing to the pathways of metabolism affected by the dietary treatment....

  18. Effect of adding macro and micro minerals in pig feces fed diets with different levels of probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Alcides Robles Huaynate

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the effect of diets with different doses (0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of probiotic on daily fecal production (DFP and level of macro and micro minerals in feces of nursing (1st and 2nd initial phases and growing pigs and during total period. The DFP, as percentage of body weight, was different (P0.05 among treatments, with exception of calcium and sodium excretion at 1st initial phase and calcium, zinc and nickel during total period. The addition of a poliprobiotic to diets do not affect fecal production of nursing and growing pigs. However, the presence of microorganisms, added (levels of 200 and 300 ppm in diets for nursing and growing pigs reduced fecal excretion of calcium, zinc and nickel.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar dietas contendo diferentes doses (0, 100, 200 e 300 ppm de probiótico sobre a produção diária de fezes (PDF e teor de macro e microminerais nas fezes de suínos, nas fases de creche e de crescimento e no período total. A PDF, como porcentagem do peso vivo, somente apresentou diferença estatística (P0,05 entre tratamentos, a exceção de cálcio e sódio na fase inicial 1 e cálcio, zinco e níquel no período total. A adição de um poliprobiótico às dietas, não afetou a produção de fezes dos suínos nas fases de creche e de crescimento. Entretanto, a presença de microrganismos, adicionados (níveis de 200 e 300 ppm às dietas reduziu a excreção fecal de cálcio, zinco e níquel.

  19. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRRS VIRUS IN SEMEN OF BOARS IN PIG FARMS OF YUCATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aremi Jordan-Craviotto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of and to determine the risk factors associated with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, American strain in semen of boars in pig herds of Yucatan, Mexico. Ninety two boars from 26 herds were ejaculated once. Semen samples were processed by the RT-nPCR test using the ORF7 primer to detect the PRRS virus. The true prevalence estimated was 10.1% (95% CI = 4.1-16.1%. Significance of risk factors was determined by Fisher-exact test. The odds of detecting genetic material of the PRRSV was greater (OR = 9.2 in semen of boars used under natural mating than those used in artificial insemination. In herds where boar’s acclimatization was not practiced the odds of a positive boar was 4.3. Another risk factor (P < 0.05 was the origin of the animals. In conclusion, the prevalence of the PRRSV in boar semen was smaller to the notified in the literature and determinate in blood serum. Management practices, such as the use of the artificial insemination and acclimatization of the boar, could be useful in reducing the prevalence of the PRRS virus in the pig farms.

  20. Metabolic profiling of lymph from pigs fed with ß-glucan by high-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2010-01-01

    To gain information about the effect of ingesting different β-glucan sources on intestinal lymph metabolic profile, 10 growing pigs (30-36 kg) were fitted with a catheter in the jejunal lymphatic trunk, and lymph samples collected continuously -1 to 8 h postprandial and again at 24 h after feeding...... a diet containing either 0.4% added yeast or barley β-glucan and compared to a Control diet. The lymph samples were analysed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy and subsequently subjected to chemometric analysis. The dominant resonances in the 1H NMR spectra of lymph arose...... of increased lymph viscosity induced by barley β-glucan compared to yeast β-glucan were observed...

  1. Analyses of prevalence and polymorphisms of six replication-competent and chromosomally assigned porcine endogenous retroviruses in individual pigs and pig subspecies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niebert, Marcus; Toenjes, Ralf R.

    2003-01-01

    As porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) productively infect human cells in vitro, they pose a serious risk in xenotransplantation and xenogeneic cell therapies. We have analyzed the prevalence of six well-characterized full-length PERV, five of them being replication-competent and four of them being chromosomally assigned (J. Virol. 75 (2001) 5465; J. Virol. 76 (2002) 2714). These analyses revealed a heterogeneous distribution of PERV among individuals and, as no PERV is present in every pig, it seems feasible to generate pigs free of functional PERV by conventional breeding. Conversely, as PERV are polymorphic, single proviruses may have escaped detection and this kind of assay must be performed for every herd used in xenotransplantation or xenogeneic cell therapies. In addition, specific proviruses show internal point mutations which significantly affect their replicational capacities. As there are two different types of PERV LTR structures showing varying levels of transcriptional capacity (J. Virol. 75 (2001) 6933), an analysis of 21 distinct chromosomal locations revealed that PERV which harbor highly active LTRs with repeat elements in U3 are dominant

  2. Prevalence of carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from German pig-fattening farms during the years 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschanski, Nicole; Friese, Anika; von Salviati-Claudius, Christina; Hering, Johanna; Kaesbohrer, Annemarie; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Roesler, Uwe

    2017-02-01

    Since recently Enterobacteriaceae carrying bla VIM-1 genes have been isolated in German animal husbandries, the monitoring of carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in livestock became a major topic within the European Union. Nevertheless, due to missing surveillance studies the worldwide situation in livestock and livestock associated surroundings might still be underestimated. The here described study provides an overview of the CPE-prevalence in German pig-fattening farms during the years 2011-2013 (period when previously described bla VIM-1 findings occurred on pig-fattening farms (Efsa, 2011; Fischer et al., 2012, 2013a)). Therefore, a collection of 238 bacterial anacultures derived from pooled faeces and boot swab samples, collected in a cross-sectional study including 58 pig-fattening farms throughout Germany, were investigated. The bacteria were selected on MacConkey agar plates containing 0.125μg/ml meropenem. Enterobacteriaceae which were able to grow on these plates were further investigated for the presence of carbapenemase genes. Out of eight CPE-suspicious strains, two Escherichia (E.) coli strains-deriving from the same farm-contained the carbapenemase gene bla VIM-1 . For the remaining six Enterobacteriaceae it seems to be likely that they possess other resistance mechanisms, leading to reduced carbapenem susceptibility. Based on the obtained results, the overall CPE prevalence for German pig-fattening farms, sampled during the years 2011-2013 was 1.7%; 95% CI: 0-10. However, as it is of great importance to prevent a further spread of these bacteria between farms and livestock populations as well as their introduction into the food chain, an understanding of their routes of introduction and spread in combination with intensified monitoring programs are considered necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Amino acid utilization and body composition of growing pigs fed processed soybean meal or rapeseed meal with or without amino acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, T G; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H; Bikker, P

    2017-07-01

    Feed ingredients used in swine diets are often processed to improve nutritional value. However, (over-)processing may result in chemical reactions with amino acids (AAs) that decrease their ileal digestibility. This study aimed to determine effects of (over-)processing of soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) on post-absorptive utilization of ileal digestible AAs for retention and on body AA composition of growing pigs. Soybean meal and RSM were processed by secondary toasting in the presence of lignosulfonate to obtain processed soybean meal (pSBM) and processed rapeseed meal (pRSM). Four diets contained SBM, pSBM, RSM or pRSM as sole protein source. Two additional diets contained pSBM or pRSM and were supplemented with crystalline AA to similar standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA level as the SBM or RSM diet. These diets were used to verify that processing affected AA retention by affecting ileal AA digestibility rather than post-absorptive AA utilization. The SID AA levels of the protein sources were determined in a previous study. In total, 59 pigs were used (initial BW of 15.6±0.7 kg) of which five were used to determine initial body composition at the start of the experiment. In total, 54 pigs were fed one of six experimental diets and were slaughtered at a BW of 40 kg. The organ fraction (i.e. empty organs plus blood) and carcass were analyzed separately for N and AA content. Post-absorptive AA utilization was calculated from AA retention and SID AA intake. An interaction between diet type, comprising effects of processing and supplementing crystalline AA, and protein source was observed for CP content in the organ fraction, carcass and empty body and for nutrient retention. Processing reduced CP content and nutrient retention more for SBM than for RSM. Moreover, processing reduced (P<0.001) the lysine content in the organ fraction for both protein sources. Supplementing crystalline AA ameliorated the effect of processing on these variables. Thus

  4. Responses of dietary ileal amino acid digestibility to consumption of different cultivars of potatoes and conventional fibers in grower pigs fed a high-fat basal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Yang, X; Leonard, S; Archbold, T; Sullivan, J A; Duncan, A M; Ma, W D L; Bizimungu, B; Murphy, A; Htoo, J K; Fan, M Z

    2012-12-01

    Whereas dietary fibers are well recognized for nutritional management of human health issues, fiber is also known to be one of the dietary factors potentially affecting digestive use of dietary proteins. As a staple food, potato (Solanum tuberosum) may be a significant dietary fiber source. The objective of this study was to examine effects of dietary supplementation of six potato cultivar-genotype samples that differ in soluble fiber content and two conventional fiber components (i.e., cellulose and guar gum) on the apparent ileal AA digestibility in pigs fed a high-fat basal diet. The basal diet was formulated as a zero-fiber negative control (NC) to contain 41.5% poultry meal, 4% casein, 15% animal fat-oil blend, 2.8% sucrose, 31% corn (Zea mays) starch, 0.50% salt, and 0.40% trace mineral-vitamin supplement with fat contributing to 47% of the dietary GE. The two fiber diets were formulated by respectively diluting the basal diet with 10% guar gum and 10% cellulose at the expense of corn starch. Six other test diets were formulated by including 8.5% guar gum and further diluting the basal diet with 25.1% one of the six cultivar-genotype samples of dehydrated potato tuber powder to contain about 10% total dietary fiber at the expense of corn starch. Eighty-one 25-kg barrows were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed the diets according to a completely randomized block design with each block lasting 28 d. Compared with the NC, the ileal digestibility of Ala, Gly, and Pro were decreased (P guar gum whereas the digestibility of Gly was reduced (P guar gum compared with the NC. Our results suggest that dietary inclusion of fiber at 10% from guar gum and cellulose and contributed by potatoes may adversely affect digestive use of dietary protein.

  5. Prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli virulence genes in the feces of slaughtered cattle, chickens, and pigs in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagambèga, Assèta; Martikainen, Outi; Siitonen, Anja; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of the virulence genes specific for five major pathogroups of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in primary cultures from feces of animals slaughtered for human consumption in Burkina Faso. For the study, 704 feces samples were collected from cattle (n = 304), chickens (n = 350), and pigs (n = 50) during carcass processing. The presence of the virulence-associated genes in the mixed bacterial cultures was assessed using 16-plex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Virulence genes indicating presence of DEC were detected in 48% of the cattle, 48% of the chicken, and 68% of the pig feces samples. Virulence genes specific for different DECs were detected in the following percentages of the cattle, chicken, and pig feces samples: Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) in 37%, 6%, and 30%; enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) in 8%, 37%, and 32%; enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) in 4%, 5%, and 18%; and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) in 7%, 6%, and 32%. Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) virulence genes were detected in 1% of chicken feces samples only. The study was the first of its kind in Burkina Faso and revealed the common occurrence of the diarrheal virulence genes in feces of food animals. This indicates that food animals are reservoirs of DEC that may contaminate meat because of the defective slaughter and storage conditions and pose a health risk to the consumers in Burkina Faso. PMID:23170227

  6. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Taenia solium taeniasis in a rural pig farming community of north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kashi N; Prasad, Amit; Gupta, Rakesh K; Pandey, Chandra M; Singh, Uttam

    2007-12-01

    There is a lack of information on the disease burden due to Taenia solium taeniasis and its associated risk factors in pig farming communities throughout the world. The present study was conducted in a rural pig farming community of north India to estimate the prevalence of T. solium taeniasis and associated factors. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected from 1181 subjects in 210 households in 30 villages. Stool specimens from 924 subjects were examined for eggs of Taenia and other parasites. Identification of T. solium was confirmed by morphological features of segments and species-specific DNA detection from segments and stool. The prevalence of T. solium taeniasis was 18.6% (172/924); factors associated with taeniasis on multivariate analysis were age above 15 years, history of passage of Taenia segments in stool, undercooked pork consumption and poor hand hygiene (hand-washing with clay/water after defecation). Seventy-eight subjects (6.6%) with epilepsy were identified. The study showed alarmingly high rates of epilepsy and T. solium taeniasis in the study community; it highlights the need for large-scale imaging-based surveys to identify the factors associated with epilepsy including neurocysticercosis. Health education, mass anthelminthic therapy and other preventive measures are required to control the menace of the disease.

  7. Prevalence and sustainable control of Balantidium coli infection in pigs of Ranchi, Jahrkahnd, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Bauri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pigs had a higher degree of gastrointestinal protozoa infection 93 out of 100 faecal samples. Balantidium coli infected pigs were controlled effectively by oxytetracycline (100% on 3rd day of observation and Metronidazole +Furazolidone combination (100% on 5th day of observation. Initially B. coli infected pigs had decreased haemoglobin, pack cell volume and total erythrocyte count values, but these pigs returned towards normal ranges after 7th day of observation. The differential leukocyte count values of B. coli infected pigs showed decreased values of neutrophils, and lymphocytes, and increased eosinophils values come towards normal range on 7th day of observation. The average body weight gain in oxytetracycline and metronidazole + furazolidone combination treated Tampworth & Desi piglets showed higher viz.35.25 ± 1.64 kg and 28.08 ± 1.75 kg of body weight respectively than untreated infected control piglets (15.75 ± 2.39. The average body weight gain in Oxytetracycline and metronidazole + furazolidone combination treated desi piglets were higher body weight viz. 36.67±1.07 kg and 32.50±0.96 kg respectively than untreated infected control piglets (22.00±0.88 kg. In both the treatment group, the group treated with Oxytetracycline had significantly higher body weight gain 35.25 ± 1.64 kg and 36.67±1.07 kg in both T & D and desi piglets respectively than metronidazole +furazolidone combination treated T & D and desi piglets (28.08 ± 1.75 kg, 32.50±0.96 kg respectively. The observation on different hematological parameters during B. coli infection and their treatment indicated that the harm caused by B. coli in pigs could be reduced to a greater extent by suitable therapeutic management. Application of suitable control packages were found to be very encouraging for maintaining optimum health and economical pig production. Oxytetracycline drugs showed higher efficacy than metronidazole + furazolidone combination and it show significantly

  8. Prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporinase (ESC)-producing Escherichia coli in Danish slaughter pigs and retail meat identified by selective enrichment and association with cephalosporin usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Pedersen, Karl

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporinase (ESC)-producing Escherichia coli in pigs at slaughter and retail meat, and possible associations with the consumption of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. METHODS: During 2009, faecal samples from Danish pigs...... (n = 786) were collected at slaughter, and 866 meat samples [Danish: pork (153), broiler meat (121) and beef (142); and imported: pork (173), broiler meat (193) and beef (84)] were randomly collected in retail stores and outlets. E. coli was isolated after enrichment in MacConkey broth.......7%–3.3% in other meat types. ESC E. coli from imported broiler meat (n = 69) contained blaCMY-2 (48%), blaCTX-M-1 (25%) and blaSHV-12 (16%). Without selective enrichment, no ESC E. coli from pigs and only 4.1% from imported broiler meat were found. CONCLUSIONS: The usage of cephalosporins for slaughter pigs may...

  9. Biogas Production from Protein-Rich Biomass: Fed-Batch Anaerobic Fermentation of Casein and of Pig Blood and Associated Changes in Microbial Community Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Etelka; Wirth, Roland; Maróti, Gergely; Bagi, Zoltán; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted as a fact in the biogas technology that protein-rich biomass substrates should be avoided due to inevitable process inhibition. Substrate compositions with a low C/N ratio are considered difficult to handle and may lead to process failure, though protein-rich industrial waste products have outstanding biogas generation potential. This common belief has been challenged by using protein-rich substrates, i.e. casein and precipitated pig blood protein in laboratory scale continuously stirred mesophilic fed-batch biogas fermenters. Both substrates proved suitable for sustained biogas production (0.447 L CH4/g protein oDM, i.e. organic total solids) in high yield without any additives, following a period of adaptation of the microbial community. The apparent key limiting factors in the anaerobic degradation of these proteinaceous materials were the accumulation of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Changes in time in the composition of the microbiological community were determined by next-generation sequencing-based metagenomic analyses. Characteristic rearrangements of the biogas-producing community upon protein feeding and specific differences due to the individual protein substrates were recognized. The results clearly demonstrate that sustained biogas production is readily achievable, provided the system is well-characterized, understood and controlled. Biogas yields (0.45 L CH4/g oDM) significantly exceeding those of the commonly used agricultural substrates (0.25-0.28 L CH4/g oDM) were routinely obtained. The results amply reveal that these high-energy-content waste products can be converted to biogas, a renewable energy carrier with flexible uses that can replace fossil natural gas in its applications. Process control, with appropriate acclimation of the microbial community to the unusual substrate, is necessary. Metagenomic analysis of the microbial community by next-generation sequencing allows a precise determination of the alterations in

  10. Biogas production from protein-rich biomass: fed-batch anaerobic fermentation of casein and of pig blood and associated changes in microbial community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etelka Kovács

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted as a fact in the biogas technology that protein-rich biomass substrates should be avoided due to inevitable process inhibition. Substrate compositions with a low C/N ratio are considered difficult to handle and may lead to process failure, though protein-rich industrial waste products have outstanding biogas generation potential. This common belief has been challenged by using protein-rich substrates, i.e. casein and precipitated pig blood protein in laboratory scale continuously stirred mesophilic fed-batch biogas fermenters. Both substrates proved suitable for sustained biogas production (0.447 L CH4/g protein oDM, i.e. organic total solids in high yield without any additives, following a period of adaptation of the microbial community. The apparent key limiting factors in the anaerobic degradation of these proteinaceous materials were the accumulation of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Changes in time in the composition of the microbiological community were determined by next-generation sequencing-based metagenomic analyses. Characteristic rearrangements of the biogas-producing community upon protein feeding and specific differences due to the individual protein substrates were recognized. The results clearly demonstrate that sustained biogas production is readily achievable, provided the system is well-characterized, understood and controlled. Biogas yields (0.45 L CH4/g oDM significantly exceeding those of the commonly used agricultural substrates (0.25-0.28 L CH4/g oDM were routinely obtained. The results amply reveal that these high-energy-content waste products can be converted to biogas, a renewable energy carrier with flexible uses that can replace fossil natural gas in its applications. Process control, with appropriate acclimation of the microbial community to the unusual substrate, is necessary. Metagenomic analysis of the microbial community by next-generation sequencing allows a precise determination of the

  11. Evaluation of energy digestibility and prediction of digestible and metabolizable energy from chemical composition of different cottonseed meal sources fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J T; Li, D F; Zang, J J; Yang, W J; Zhang, W J; Zhang, L Y

    2012-10-01

    The present experiment was conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) content, and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in growing pigs fed diets containing one of ten cottonseed meals (CSM) collected from different provinces of China and to develop in vitro prediction equations for DE and ME content from chemical composition of the CSM samples. Twelve growing barrows with an initial body weight of 35.2±1.7 kg were allotted to two 6×6 Latin square designs, with six barrows and six periods and six diets for each. A corn-dehulled soybean meal diet was used as the basal diet, and the other ten diets were formulated with corn, dehulled soybean meal and 19.20% CSM. The DE, ME and ATTD of gross energy among different CSM sources varied largely and ranged from 1,856 to 2,730 kcal/kg dry matter (DM), 1,778 to 2,534 kcal/kg DM, and 42.08 to 60.47%, respectively. Several chemical parameters were identified to predict the DE and ME values of CSM, and the accuracy of prediction models were also tested. The best fit equations were: DE, kcal/kg DM = 670.14+31.12 CP+659.15 EE with R(2) = 0.82, RSD = 172.02, penergy varied substantially among different CSM sources, and that some prediction equations can be applied to predict DE and ME in CSM with an acceptable accuracy.

  12. Prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in minced meat, pig tongues and hearts at the retail level in the Czech Republic detected by real time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Lorencova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yersiniosis is the third most frequently reported zoonosis in the European Union and Yersinia enterocolitica is the most common species causing human infections. Pigs are assumed to be the main reservoir of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica with the presence of bacteria mainly in the tonsils and intestinal content. Undercooked pork and pork products have been suggested as the primary source of human yersiniosis. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in foodstuffs including pork products are very limited. A molecular based method (real time PCR targeting the ompF gene (detection of Yersinia genus and the ail gene (a chromosomally located virulence marker of Y. enterocolitica was used to determine the prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in minced meat and edible pork offal at the retail level in the Czech Republic. A total of 50 pig tongues, 50 pig hearts, and 93 samples of minced meat containing pork were purchased at nine retail outlets in Brno. High detection rates of Yersinia spp. were found in all types of samples (pig tongues, 80.0%; pig hearts, 40.0%; and minced meat, 55.9%. The highest prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was found in pig tongues (40.0%, followed by pig hearts (18.0% and minced meat samples (17.2%. Although from the point of view of food safety the merely molecular detection of DNA of the pathogenic bacteria could represent a false positive result, our results indicate the presence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in raw pork products at the retail level in the Czech Republic, which may pose a risk of consumer infection. Sufficient heat treatment and prevention of cross-contamination during preparation of food in the kitchen should be recommended.

  13. Prevalence and characterisation of shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from beef cattle fed with prebiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grispoldi, Luca; Bertero, Filippo; Franceschini, Serena; Mastrosimone, Francesco; Sechi, Paola; Iulietto, Maria Francesca; Ceccarelli, Margherita; Cenci-Goga, Beniamino Terzo

    2017-01-01

    Ten Holstein Friesian calves were divided into two groups of five: one group was given prebiotics in their food, while the other group served as the control group. Every two weeks from birth up to 18 months, samples of feces were taken from the rectal ampulla to determine the concentration of E. coli. At each sampling session, three aliquots per sample were collected. The arithmetic mean was calculated and all values (converted into logs) were analysed with GraphPad InStat for analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey-Kramer test. A total of 69 E. coli strains were detected, 29 (42.03%) from treated animals and 40 (57.97%) from the control group. The isolates were analysed by PCR for the presence of the stx-1, stx-2, hly and eae genes and by the Kirby Bauer test for susceptibility to the most commonly used antimicrobials in cattle breeding. Hierarchical clustering of the isolates was done using Ward’s method. Thirty samples were positive for the stx-1 gene, 18 for stx- 2, 12 for both stx-1 and stx-2, 8 for hly, and 10 for eae. 4.3% were resistant to sulfamides, 8.6% to tetracycline, 1.4% to gentamicin, 94.6% to cephalothin, 2.8% to chloramphenicol, 13% to ampicillin, 13% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, 7.2% to sulphonamides, 4.3% to ceftriaxone, 5.7% to nalidixic acid, 34.7% to ticarcillin, 88.5% to erythromycin, and 5.7% to streptomycin. The isolates from the samples taken from day 210 to day 300 were grouped into a single cluster. Bacteriological examinations showed a reduction in the concentration of E. coli in the feces of the treated animals compared to the control group. The presence of strains with shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli virulence profiles and the reduction of these in the treated animal group demonstrated that diet can play an important role in reducing E. coli prevalence in cattle. PMID:29564239

  14. Replacing dietary nonessential amino acids with ammonia nitrogen does not alter amino acid profile of deposited protein in the carcass of growing pigs fed a diet deficient in nonessential amino acid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla, W D; Htoo, J K; de Lange, C F M

    2017-10-01

    Amino acid usage for protein retention, and, consequently, the AA profile of retained protein, is the main factor for determining AA requirements in growing animals. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of supplementing ammonia N on whole-body N retention and the AA profile of retained protein in growing pigs fed a diet deficient in nonessential AA (NEAA) N. In total, 48 barrows with a mean initial BW of 13.6 kg (SD 0.7) were used. At the beginning of the study, 8 pigs were euthanized for determination of initial protein mass. The remaining animals were individually housed and fed 1 of 5 dietary treatments. A common basal diet (95% of experimental diets) was formulated to meet the requirements for all essential AA (EAA) but to be deficient in NEAA N (CP = 8.01%). The basal diet was supplemented (5%) with cornstarch (negative control) or 2 N sources (ammonia or NEAA) at 2 levels each to supply 1.35 or 2.70% extra CP. The final standardized ileal digestible (SID) NEAA content in the high-NEAA-supplemented diet (positive control) was based on the NEAA profile of whole-body protein of 20-kg pigs, and it was expected to reduce the endogenous synthesis of NEAA. Pigs were fed at 3.0 times maintenance energy requirements for ME in 3 equal meals daily. At the end of a 3-wk period, pigs were euthanized and the carcass and visceral organs were weighed, frozen, and ground for determination of protein mass. From pigs in the initial, negative control, high-ammonia, and high-NEAA groups, AA contents in the carcass and pooled visceral organs were analyzed to determine the total and deposited protein AA profile, dietary EAA efficiencies, and minimal de novo synthesis of NEAA. Carcass weight and whole-body N retention linearly increased ( 0.10) between N sources, but Cys content increased ( ammonia in visceral organ protein and deposited protein. The dietary SID EAA efficiency for increasing EAA deposition in whole-body protein increased ( 0.10) between N

  15. Prevalence of resistance to 11 antimicrobials among Campylobacter coill isolated from pigs on 80 grower-finisher farms in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Norma P; Friendship, Robert; Dewey, Cate

    2007-07-01

    We carried out a cross-sectional study to investigate antimicrobial resistance patterns of Campylobacter coli isolated from Ontario grower-finisher pigs. From January to June 2004, 1200 samples were collected from 80 farms by obtaining a constant number (15) of fecal samples per farm. Susceptibility of the isolates to 11 antimicrobial drugs was determined by the agar-dilution technique. The overall prevalence of resistance to 1 or more antimicrobials among the isolates was 99.2%. High levels of resistance were observed for azithromycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline: 91.7%, 82.5%, 81.4%, 70.7%, and 63.7%, respectively. For sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid, resistance was observed in 40.3%, 26.6%, and 22.7% of the isolates, respectively. Although at very low levels, resistance was observed for ciprofloxacin (a fluoroquinolone), chloramphenicol, and gentamicin: in 2.4%, 1.7%, and 0.2%, respectively. Many of the isolates (29.7%) were resistant to 5 antimicrobials, the most common being azithromycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline. Isolates from the same farm showed at least 5 patterns of resistance. Results from this study indicate high levels of resistance to the antimicrobial drugs most commonly used in the Canadian swine industry (macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracyclines) among C. coli isolated from grower-finisher pigs in Ontario. Macrolides and fluoroquinolones are the drugs most commonly used to treat severe human campylobacteriosis. Fortunately, at present, there is little resistance to fluoroquinolones among C. coli from pigs in Ontario.

  16. Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolomics Study of Cloned versus Normal Pigs Fed Either Restricted or Ad Libitum High-Energy Diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Genetically identical cloned pigs should in principle eliminate biological variation and provide more pronounced effects when subjected to, e.g., dietary interventions, but little is known about how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning. Therefore, an investigation...... of the metabolome of cloned pigs compared to normal control pigs was performed to elucidate the variation and possible differences in the metabolic phenotypes during a dietary intervention. A total of 19 control pigs and 17 cloned pigs were given the same high-energy dense diet either ad libitum or in a restricted...... manner (60% of ad libitum) for 6 months, and plasma was subjected to liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry nontargeted metabolomics and biochemical analyses. Low systemic levels of IGF-1 could indicate altered growth conditions and energy metabolism in cloned pigs. In response to ad libitum feeding...

  17. Prevalence of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in Foods and Fecal Specimens Obtained from Cattle, Pigs, Chickens, Asymptomatic Carriers, and Patients in Osaka and Hyogo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Zhang, Shaobo; Zheng, Dongming; Fujihara, Sami; Wakabayashi, Akiyo; Okahata, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Masakazu; Saeki, Atsunori; Nakamura, Hiromi; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Kage-Nakadai, Eriko; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2017-07-24

    The source and routes of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) remain poorly understood. To investigate the involvement of domestic animals in the dissemination of DEC, the prevalence of DEC in foods and fecal specimens from cattle, pigs, chickens, healthy carriers, and patients in Osaka and Hyogo, Japan was investigated using a multiplex real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction assay. The most abundant virulence genes were astA and eae, which had a prevalence 46.8% and 27.4%, respectively. Additionally, stx1 (26.6%) and stx2 (45.9%) were prevalent in cattle feces, while est (8.5%) and elt (7.6%) were prevalent in pig feces. afaB was the second-most prevalent gene in patients and healthy carriers, and it had detection rates of 5.1% and 8.1%, respectively. In contrast, afaB was not detected in animal feces or foods, except for three porcine fecal samples. The aggR gene was more prevalent in humans than in foods or animal feces. Both Shiga toxin-producing E. coli and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli carried by cattle may be sources for diarrheal diseases in humans. Pigs may be a source for human enterotoxigenic E. coli infections, whereas humans are expected to be the reservoir for diffusely adhering E. coli, enteroaggregative E. coli, and enteroinvasive E. coli.

  18. High prevalence of co-infection with multiple Torque teno sus virus species in Italian pig herds.

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    Sylvain Blois

    Full Text Available Torque teno viruses (TTVs are a large group of vertebrate-infecting small viruses with circular single-stranded DNA, classified in the Anelloviridae family. In swine, two genetically distinct species, Torque teno sus virus 1a (TTSuV1a and 1b (TTSuV1b are currently grouped into the genus Iotatorquevirus. More recently, a novel Torque teno sus virus species, named Torque teno sus virus k2b (TTSuVk2b, has been included with Torque teno sus virus k2a (TTSuVk2a into the genus Kappatorquevirus. In the present study, TTSuV1 (TTSuV1a and TTSuV1b, TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b prevalence was evaluated in 721 serum samples of healthy pigs from Sardinian farms, insular Italy. This is the largest study to date on the presence of TTSuV in healthy pigs in Italy. The global prevalence of infection was 83.2% (600/721, being 62.3% (449/721, 60.6% (437/721, and 11.5% (83/721 the prevalence of TTSuV1, TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b, respectively. The rate of co-infection with two and/or three species was also calculated, and data show that co-infections were significantly more frequent than infections with single species, and that TTSuV1+TTSuVk2a double infection was the prevalent combination (35.4%. Quantitative results obtained using species-specific real time-qPCR evidenced the highest mean levels of viremia in the TTSuV1 subgroup, and the lowest in the TTSuVk2b subgroup. Interestingly, multiple infections with distinct TTSuV species seemed to significantly affect the DNA load and specifically, data highlighted that double infection with TTSuVk2a increased the viral titers of TTSuV1, likewise the co-infection with TTSuVk2b increased the titers of TTSuVk2a.

  19. High prevalence of co-infection with multiple Torque teno sus virus species in Italian pig herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Sylvain; Mallus, Francesca; Liciardi, Manuele; Pilo, Cristian; Camboni, Tania; Macera, Lisa; Maggi, Fabrizio; Manzin, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Torque teno viruses (TTVs) are a large group of vertebrate-infecting small viruses with circular single-stranded DNA, classified in the Anelloviridae family. In swine, two genetically distinct species, Torque teno sus virus 1a (TTSuV1a) and 1b (TTSuV1b) are currently grouped into the genus Iotatorquevirus. More recently, a novel Torque teno sus virus species, named Torque teno sus virus k2b (TTSuVk2b), has been included with Torque teno sus virus k2a (TTSuVk2a) into the genus Kappatorquevirus. In the present study, TTSuV1 (TTSuV1a and TTSuV1b), TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b prevalence was evaluated in 721 serum samples of healthy pigs from Sardinian farms, insular Italy. This is the largest study to date on the presence of TTSuV in healthy pigs in Italy. The global prevalence of infection was 83.2% (600/721), being 62.3% (449/721), 60.6% (437/721), and 11.5% (83/721) the prevalence of TTSuV1, TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b, respectively. The rate of co-infection with two and/or three species was also calculated, and data show that co-infections were significantly more frequent than infections with single species, and that TTSuV1+TTSuVk2a double infection was the prevalent combination (35.4%). Quantitative results obtained using species-specific real time-qPCR evidenced the highest mean levels of viremia in the TTSuV1 subgroup, and the lowest in the TTSuVk2b subgroup. Interestingly, multiple infections with distinct TTSuV species seemed to significantly affect the DNA load and specifically, data highlighted that double infection with TTSuVk2a increased the viral titers of TTSuV1, likewise the co-infection with TTSuVk2b increased the titers of TTSuVk2a.

  20. Determining the prevalence of inv-positive and ail-positive Yersinia enterocolitica in pig tonsils using PCR and culture methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelska, Milena Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Yersiniosis is believed to be the third most common intestinal zoonosis in the European Union, after campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis. Yersinia enterocolitica is the most common species responsible for human infections. Pigs are regarded as the biggest reservoir of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, which are mainly isolated from pig tonsils. The aim of this paper is to examine the prevalence of inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica in pigs which were slaughtered in a Polish abattoir. Real-time PCR and culture methods were used to assess the prevalence of patho- genic Y. enterocolitica strains in pig tonsils. Real-time PCR was applied to detect inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica. Y. enterocolitica was also isolated by applying direct plating, unselective (tryptic soy broth) and selective (irgasan-ticarcillin-potassium chlorate bouillon) enrichment. A total of 180 pigs were studied, of which 85% and 32% respectively were found to be infected with inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica. The 92 inv-positive and ail-positive isolates, from 57 culture- positive tonsils, underwent bio- and serotyping. The most common was bioserotype 4/O:3, which was found in 53 (93%) out of 57 culture-positive tonsils. Strains of bioserotypes 2/O:5, 2/O:9 and 2/O:5.27 occurred in significantly lower numbers. The prevalence of inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica was found to be high in the ton- sils of slaughtered pigs, using real-time PCR. The real-time PCR method for the detection and identification of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica is sensitive and specific, which has been verified by specificity and sensitivity tests using the pure cultures. Serotypes were distinguished from each other using PCR serotyping. The PCR method was essential in forming our conclusions.

  1. Prevalence of Malnutrition in Orally and Tube-Fed Elderly Nursing Home Residents in Germany and Its Relation to Health Complaints and Dietary Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Volkert, Dorothee; Pauly, Lioba; Stehle, Peter; Sieber, Cornel C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the prevalence of malnutrition in orally and tube-fed nursing home (NH) residents in Germany and its relation to common health complaints and dietary intake. Methods. In 350 NH residents, subjects' characteristics, Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and several health problems were inquired with the nursing staff using standardised interviews. In a subset of 122 residents, dietary intake was assessed by 3-day weighing records. Results. 7.7% of the participants were t...

  2. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Danish organic pig farms: seasonal and age-related variation in prevalence, infection intensity and species/genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Jianmin, Wang; Katakam, Kiran K.

    2015-01-01

    Although pigs are commonly infected with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis, including potentially zoonotic species or genotypes, little is known about age-related infection levels, seasonal differences and genetic variation in naturally infected pigs raised in organic management systems....... Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess seasonal and age-related variations in prevalence and infection intensity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, evaluate zoonotic potential and uncover correlations between species/genotypes, infection intensity and faecal consistency. Shedding of oocysts...... and cysts ((oo-) cysts) was monitored at quarterly intervals (September 2011 to June 2012) in piglets (n=152), starter pigs (n=234), fatteners (n=230) and sows (n=240) from three organic farms in Denmark. (Oo-) cysts were quantified by immunofluorescence microscopy; and 56/75 subsamples from Cryptosporidium...

  3. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and associated risk factors in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, southern highlands of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komba, Erick V. G.; Kimbi, Eliakunda C.; Ngowi, Helena A.

    2013-01-01

    in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, the major pig rearing region of Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey employing a random sample of 300 pig keepers from 30 villages of Mbozi and Mbeya Rural districts, Mbeya region were used to evaluate pig production systems and practices. Concurrently, 600...... of water from rivers (OR=3.1; 95% CI=1.6-6.3; p... of important risk factors in smallholder pig management that may be addressed (e.g. confinement, quality of pens and water sources) in future interventions and educational campaigns for control of T. solium....

  4. Digestibility and nitrogen balance of diets containing non conventional vegetable proteins fed to pigs of genetic strains suitable for outdoor systems

    OpenAIRE

    L. Sardi; M. Simioli; R. Paganelli; G. Martelli; L. Rizzi

    2010-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate on growing pigs kept in metabolism crates, either belonging to a “traditional” cross-breed (Duroc x Large White – DLW) or a local breed (Cinta Senese – CS), the digestibility and the nitrogen balance of non-conventional vegetable protein sources (field beans, pea and sunflower cake) when compared to soybean meal. The four diets were formulated so as to supply the same crude protein amount. CS pigs showed lower apparent digestibilit...

  5. Kecernaan Nutrien pada Babi Lokal Periode Pertumbuhan yang Diberi Ransum Mengandung Biji Asam Biokonversi Spontan (NUTRIENTS DIGESTIBILITY IN GROWING LOCAL PIG FED WITH DIET COMPOSED OF SPONTENOUS BIOCONVERTED-TAMARIND SEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redempta Wea

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A research aimed to evaluate nutrients digestibility in growing local male pig fed spontaneous bioconverted-tamarind seed has been done in animal feed technology laboratory of Kupang State Agricultural Polytechnic.The research used 25 local male grower pigs with body weight around 3-6 kg. The study used a randomized block design with five treatments, i.e. R0 = ration using tamarind seeds without bioconversion, R1 = ration using spontaneous bioconversion tamarinds for 24 hours, R2 = rations using spontaneous bioconversion tamarinds for 48 hours, R3 = rations using bioconversion tamarinds spontaneous for 72 hours, and R4 = rations using spontaneous bioconversion tamarinds for 96 hours. Each treatment was repeated five times in which each of them used five pigs. Parameters observed were nutrient digestibility (dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash. The data were analyzed by using variance and continued by Duncan’s multiple range test to determine the differences between treatments. The results showed that the time of spontaneous bioconversion of tamarind seeds increased the digestibility of tamarind seed nutrients and it was concluded that the best time of spontaneous bioconversion was for 72 hours.

  6. Effects of a 6-phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of minerals and amino acids in ileorectal anastomosed pigs fed on a corn-soybean meal-barley diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenbuhl, P; Waché, Y; Simoes Nunes, C; Fru, F

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus of plant-based feedstuffs for monogastric animals is mainly in the form of phytic P, which has a very low bioavailability. The nondigested phytic P may contribute to P pollution. Furthermore, phytic acid may reduce digestibility of other minerals and protein. This study evaluated effects of the microbial 6-phytase RONOZYME HiPhos on apparent ileal digestibility of P, phytic acid, Ca, CP, energy, and AA in six 60-d-old ileorectal anastomosed pigs. In a duplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, pigs had free access to alternatively a corn (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) meal-barley (Hordeum vulgare)-based diet or this diet supplemented with RONOZYME HiPhos at either 500 units/kg (RH500) or 1000 units/kg (RH1000). Pigs fed diets supplemented with RH500 or RH1000 increased (P phytase increased apparent ileal digestibility of these indispensable minerals and phytate. The phytase increased digestibility of CP and indispensable AA indicating a better availability of plant-based proteins.

  7. Wheat bran reduces concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets fed to pigs, but energy values in wheat bran determined by the difference procedure are not different from values estimated from a linear regression procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, N W; Liu, D W; Li, D F; Stein, H H

    2016-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine effects on DE, ME, and NE for growing pigs of adding 15 or 30% wheat bran to a corn-soybean meal diet and to compare values for DE, ME, and NE calculated using the difference procedure with values obtained using linear regression. Eighteen barrows (54.4 ± 4.3 kg initial BW) were individually housed in metabolism crates. The experiment had 3 diets and 6 replicate pigs per diet. The control diet contained corn, soybean meal, and no wheat bran. Two additional diets were formulated by mixing 15 or 30% wheat bran with 85 or 70% of the control diet, respectively. The experimental period lasted 15 d. During the initial 7 d, pigs were adapted to their experimental diets and housed in metabolism crates and fed 573 kcal ME/kg BW per day. On d 8, metabolism crates with the pigs were moved into open-circuit respiration chambers for measurement of O consumption and CO and CH production. The feeding level was the same as in the adaptation period, and feces and urine were collected during this period. On d 13 and 14, pigs were fed 225 kcal ME/kg BW per day, and pigs were then fasted for 24 h to obtain fasting heat production. Results of the experiment indicated that the apparent total tract digestibility of DM, GE, crude fiber, ADF, and NDF linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.05) as wheat bran inclusion increased in the diets. The daily O consumption and CO and CH production by pigs fed increasing concentrations of wheat bran linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.05), resulting in a linear decrease ( ≤ 0.05) in heat production. The DE (3,454, 3,257, and 3,161 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively), ME (3,400, 3,209, and 3,091 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively), and NE (1,808, 1,575, and 1,458 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively) of diets decreased (linear, ≤ 0.05) as wheat bran inclusion increased

  8. Productivity of pigs fed with solid-state fermented apple pomace and an enzymatic complex/Productividad de cerdos alimentados con bagazo de manzana fermentado en estado sólido y un complejo enzimático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Héctor Chamorro-Ramírez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The productive performance of pigs fed with solid-state fermented apple pomace (FAP and an enzymatic complex (ENZ was evaluated. Twenty-four Landrace x York (38.9 ± 3.6 kg pigs were fed ad libitum with dierent diet treatments including FAP and ENZ: T0-0 (0 g kg−1 FAP - 0 g kg−1 ENZ, T0-1 (0 g kg−1 FAP + 1 g kg−1 ENZ, T50-0 (50 g kg−1 FAP + 0 g kg−1 ENZ, T50-1 (50 g kg−1 FAP + 1 g kg−1 ENZ, T100-0 (100 g kg−1 FAP + 0 g kg−1 ENZ and T100-1 (100 g kg−1 FAP + 1 g kg−1 ENZ. Productivity; Feed intake, F:G ratio, Weight gain, return on investment by monetary unit (protability index, PI and carcass traits; Carcass dressing percent and primary cuts, were evaluated. Data were analyzed according to the randomized complete block design. Productivity and feeding characteristics were not aected by FAP or ENZ (p > 0.05. Hot dressing percent was aected by ENZ (p = 0.0497. T100-0 and T100-0 showed similar (p > 0.05 value to T0-0. Primary cut yield was not negatively aected (p > 0.05. The best PI was obtained with T50-0 in growing phase. FAP improved PI only in growing phase and ENZ combined with FAP showed variant PI. Results showed that FAP may be considered as a suitable option for feeding pigs because it maintains animal productivity

  9. Analysis of the baseline survey on the prevalence of Salmonella in holdings with breeding pigs in the EU, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bole-Hribovšek, Vojislava; Chriél, Mariann; Davies, Robert

    Union was 54 and 88, respectively. Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Typhimurium predominated in both types of holdings. Breeding pigs may be an important source of dissemination of Salmonella throughout the pig-production chain. The results of this survey provide valuable information for setting......Salmonella is a major cause of food-borne illness in humans. Farm animals and foods of animal origin are important sources of human Salmonella infections. This European Union-wide Salmonella baseline survey was conducted in 2008 in holdings with breeding pigs. A total of 1,609 holdings housing...... and selling mainly breeding pigs (breeding holdings) and 3,508 holdings housing breeding pigs and selling mainly pigs for fattening or slaughter (production holdings) from 24 European Union Member States and two non-Member States, were randomly selected and included in the survey. In each selected breeding...

  10. Prevalence, characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica and Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at slaughter in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, Silvia; Bassi, Luca; Brindani, Franco; D'Incau, Mario; Barco, Lisa; Carra, Elena; Pongolini, Stefano

    2013-05-15

    In 2005-2008, 1152 samples (451 faecal samples, 451 carcass swabs and 250 tonsils) were collected from 451 finishing pigs slaughtered in three abattoirs of northern Italy. In two abattoirs, 34 scalding water samples were collected. The aim of this study was to investigate the faecal and palatine tonsil carriage rate of Salmonella enterica and Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at slaughter and the degree of carcass contamination by these bacteria. Typing of the isolates, virulence characterization and antimicrobial testing were also performed. S. enterica was isolated from 21.5% of the faecal samples, 10.9% of the carcasses and 10.4% of the tonsils, but not from scalding water. Nineteen different serovars were identified among 172 S. enterica isolates. The prevalent serovars were Derby (41.3%), Rissen (12.2%), Typhimurium (11%), 4,[5],12:i:- (8.7%) and Give (4.1%). S. enterica ser. Typhimurium and S. enterica ser. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates were phage-typed and PT DT120 was the most common (23.5%). Y. enterocolitica was detected in 17.1% of the faecal samples, 2.4% of the carcasses, 10.8% of the tonsils and 11.8% of the scalding water samples. A total of 119 isolates were found, four of them in water. Of the 115 Y. enterocolitica isolates of pig origin, 24 (20.9%) were 4/O:3 and 4 (3.5%) were 2/O:9. Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 represented 85.7% of the pathogenic isolates found in all types of samples and 100% of those found in tonsils. In 4/O:3 isolates the most common virulence-associated genes were ystA (100%), inv (95.8%), ail (87.5%) and yadA (54.2%). In 2/O:9 isolates the prevalent genes were ail (100%), inv (100%) and ystA (100%), followed by ystB (25.0%). The majority (75.7%) of Y. enterocolitica isolates was biotype 1A, belonging to 13 serotypes (O:3; O:5; O:4,32-4,33; O:6,30-6,31; O:7,8-8; O:7,8-8-8,19; O:7,13; O:8; O:9; O:13; O:16-16,29; O:41,42-41,43; O:52). The most common virulence genes in 1A isolates were inv (95.4%) and ystB (72.4%). The antimicrobial

  11. Prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli among pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish farms with different in-feed medication policies in Ontario and British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Akwar, Holy T.; Poppe, Cornelis; Wilson, Jeff; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Dyck, Monica; Waddington, Josh; Shang, Dayue; McEwen, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance in pigs on farms that medicated swine ration and those that did not. A total of 940 isolates of Escherichia coli from 188 pooled fecal samples obtained from weaner and finisher pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish swine farms (34 farms used in-feed medication and 13 did not) were tested for susceptibility to 21 antimicrobials using a breakpoint concentration method. The prevalence of resistance ...

  12. Sero-prevalence of Taenia spp. infections in cattle and pigs in rural farming communities in Free State and Gauteng provinces, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotetsi-Khambule, A M; Njiro, S; Katsande, T C; Thekisoe, O M M; Harrison, L J S

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine sero-prevalence of bovine and porcine cysticercosis in cattle and pigs in rural farming communities in Free State and Gauteng Provinces, Republic of South Africa. Blood samples were collected for a period of twelve months from live cattle (n=1315; 1159) and pigs (n=436; 240) and the serum extracted and stored before analysis by a monoclonal antibody based (HP10) antigen detection ELISA. Results revealed a generally high sero-prevalence and wide distribution throughout the two provinces with Free State having a higher sero-prevalence in both cattle and pigs (23% and 34%) than Gauteng province (15% and 14%). Consumption of infected meat that is either not inspected/missed at meat inspection; poor livestock management practices and limited sanitation in rural communities might have contributed to the occurrence of Taenia spp. infections in the two provinces. It is therefore, recommended that cysticercosis status of animals be established before slaughter. This would assist in ensuring that infected animals are not slaughtered for human consumption or zoonosis preventive measures are taken. Furthermore, public awareness programs on life cycles of T. saginata, T. solium and T. hydatigena and the use of more sensitive diagnostic tools are recommended as part of effective control strategies against taeniid infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pen-mate directed behaviour in ad libitum fed pigs given different quantities and frequencies of straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Lahrmann, H. P.; Oxholm, L. C.

    2015-01-01

    Straw stimulates explorative behaviour and is therefore attractive to pigs. Further, it can be effective in reducing negative pen-mate directed behaviours. Under most commercial conditions, straw can only be used in limited amounts as it can be difficult to handle in most vacuum slurry systems...... as a control treatment, against which the other treatments (quantities T25 and T50) and frequencies of straw allocations (T2×50 and T4×25) were tested. Three focal pigs per pen were randomly chosen and observed for 15 min per hour where tail-in-mouth, ear-in-mouth, aggression and other pen-mate directed...... behaviour were recorded. In addition, residual straw in the pens was assessed using four categories ranging from straw in a thin layer; little straw; few straws; and soiled straw. Pigs were active for about 30% of the registered time, but overall no differences in total pen-mate directed behaviour (tail...

  14. Adiponectin induced AMP-activated protein kinase impairment mediates insulin resistance in Bama mini-pig fed high-fat and high-sucrose diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Niu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Adipose tissue is no longer considered as an inert storage organ for lipid, but instead is thought to play an active role in regulating insulin effects via secretion adipokines. However, conflicting reports have emerged regarding the effects of adipokines. In this study, we investigated the role of adipokines in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in obese Bama mini-pigs. Methods An obesity model was established in Bama mini-pigs, by feeding with high-fat and high-sucrose diet for 30 weeks. Plasma glucose and blood biochemistry levels were measured, and intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed. Adipokines, including adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6, resistin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and glucose-induced insulin secretion were also examined by radioimmunoassay. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, which is a useful insulin resistance marker, was examined by immunoblotting. Additionally, associations of AMPK phosphorylation with plasma adipokines and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index were assessed by Pearce’s correlation analysis. Results Obese pigs showed hyperglycemia, high triglycerides, and insulin resistance. Adiponectin levels were significantly decreased (p<0.05 and IL-6 amounts dramatically increased (p<0.05 in obese pigs both in serum and adipose tissue, corroborating data from obese mice and humans. However, circulating resistin and TNF-α showed no difference, while the values of TNF-α in adipose tissue were significantly higher in obese pigs, also in agreement with data from obese humans but not rodent models. Moreover, strong associations of skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation with plasma adiponectin and HOMA-IR index were obtained. Conclusion AMPK impairment induced by adiponectin decrease mediates insulin resistance in high-fat and high-sucrose diet induction. In addition, Bama mini-pig has the possibility of a conformable

  15. Prevalence and distribution of Listeria monocytogenes serotypes and pulsotypes in sows and fattening pigs in farrow-to-finish farms (France, 2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscher, Evelyne; Houard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Martine

    2012-05-01

    This study was undertaken to acquire new data on the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in sows and fattening pigs in farrow-to-finish pig farms, and to analyze distribution of serotypes and genotypes of the bacterium within farms. Detection of L. monocytogenes was carried out on 730 pooled feces samples from sows in 73 pig farms and on 172 pooled feces samples from fattening pigs in 43 of these farms. Isolates were serotyped and typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. For sows, 46% of the farms and 11% of the samples were positive for L. monocytogenes. A total of 124 isolates were collected and distributed in four serotypes: 1/2a (41%), 1/2b (36%), 4b (21%), and 1/2c (2%). Positive farms harbored one to three serotypes. The genetic diversity was high; 51 genetic profiles were obtained with 25, 16, 9, and 1 for the serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, 4b, and 1/2c, respectively. Positive farms harbored 1 to 6 genetic profiles. Isolates showing similar genotypes occurred in several farms. For fattening pigs, 25% of the farms and 14.5% of the samples were positive for L. monocytogenes. The 34 isolates belonged to four serotypes: 1/2a (32%), 1/2b (41%), 4b (24%), and 1/2c (3%). They were distributed in 20 genotypes: 6 for 1/2a; 8 for 1/2b, 5 for 4b, and 1 for 1/2c. Similar serotypes and pulsotypes were recovered in sows and fattening pigs from the same farms, suggesting common sources of contamination.

  16. Prevalence and age-related infection of Cryptosporidium suis, C. muris and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in pigs on a farm complex in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; Hanzlíková, D.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 160, 3/4 (2009), s. 319-322 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP523/07/P117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium infection * age specificity * pigs Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.278, year: 2009

  17. Increased amount of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum and Megasphaera elsdenii in the colonic microbiota of pigs fed a swine dysentery preventive diet containing chicory roots and sweet lupine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Lars; Thomsen, L.E.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To investigate which specific bacterial species that were stimulated or inhibited in the proximal colon of pigs when a fructan-rich diet was compared with a diet that contained resistant carbohydrates. The study focussed especially on Bifidobacterial species by using a noncultureable approa...

  18. Nontargeted LC–MS Metabolomics Approach for Metabolic Profiling of Plasma and Urine from Pigs Fed Branched Chain Amino Acids for Maximum Growth Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assadi Soumeh, Elham; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic response in plasma and urine of pigs when feeding an optimum level of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) for best growth performance is unknown. The objective of the current study was to identify the metabolic phenotype associated with the BCAAs intake level that could be linked to ...

  19. Concentration of volatile sulphur-containing compounds along the gastrointestinal tract of pigs fed a high-sulphur or a low-sulphur diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Canibe, Nuria; Finster, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Volatile sulphur-containing compounds (VSC) are formed in large quantities in the gastrointestinal tract (GI-tract) of pigs and upon excretion from the animal; these compounds are released from the faeces causing emission of foul odour. However, very little is known about the rate and extent of t...

  20. Effect of Phytase on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to 100 kg Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five experiments were conducted to investigate the ability of different sources of phytase supplemented to the diet at graded levels to improve apparent P digestibility in finishing pigs. A corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 0.50% Ca and 0.32% P (0.06% available P) was used in all experiments a...

  1. Effects of exogenous phytase and xylanase, individually or in combination, and pelleting on nutrient digestibility, available energy content of wheat and performance of growing pigs fed wheat-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Y; Fan, Y F; Cao, Y H; Guo, P P; Dong, B; Ma, Y X

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of adding exogenous phytase and xylanase, individually or in combination, as well as pelleting on nutrient digestibility, available energy content of wheat and the performance of growing pigs fed wheat-based diets. In Experiment 1, forty-eight barrows with an initial body weight of 35.9±0.6 kg were randomly assigned to a 2×4 factorial experiment with the main effects being feed form (pellet vs meal) and enzyme supplementation (none, 10,000 U/kg phytase, 4,000 U/kg xylanase or 10,000 U/kg phytase plus 4,000 U/kg xylanase). The basal diet contained 97.8% wheat. Pigs were placed in metabolic cages for a 7-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. Nutrient digestibility and available energy content were determined. Experiment 2 was conducted to evaluate the effects of pelleting and enzymes on performance of wheat for growing pigs. In this experiment, 180 growing pigs (35.2±9.0 kg BW) were allocated to 1 of 6 treatments according to a 2×3 factorial treatment arrangement with the main effects being feed form (meal vs pellet) and enzyme supplementation (0, 2,500 or 5,000 U/kg xylanase). In Experiment 1, there were no interactions between feed form and enzyme supplementation. Pelleting reduced the digestibility of acid detergent fiber (ADF) by 6.4 percentage units (pdigestibility of energy by 0.6 percentage units (pdigestibility of crude protein by 0.5 percentage units (p = 0.07) compared with diets in mash form. The addition of phytase improved the digestibility of phosphorus (pdigestibility of crude protein by 1.0 percentage units (p = 0.09) and increased the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (pdigestibility of phosphorus (pdigestibility (pdigestibility but decreased ADF digestibility. Adding xylanase increased crude protein digestibility and pig performance. Phytase increased the apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium. The combination of

  2. Prevalence of Malnutrition in Orally and Tube-Fed Elderly Nursing Home Residents in Germany and Its Relation to Health Complaints and Dietary Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Dorothee; Pauly, Lioba; Stehle, Peter; Sieber, Cornel C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the prevalence of malnutrition in orally and tube-fed nursing home (NH) residents in Germany and its relation to common health complaints and dietary intake. Methods. In 350 NH residents, subjects' characteristics, Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and several health problems were inquired with the nursing staff using standardised interviews. In a subset of 122 residents, dietary intake was assessed by 3-day weighing records. Results. 7.7% of the participants were tube fed. 24.1% of orally nourished and 57.7% of tube-fed residents were malnourished (MNA Malnutrition was significantly related to nausea/vomiting, constipation, pressure ulcers, dehydration, infections, antibiotic use, and hospitalisation. Mean daily energy intake was 1535 ± 413 kcal and mean protein intake was 54.2 ± 0.9 g/d irrespective of the nutritional state. Conclusion. In Germany, malnutrition is widespread among NH residents and is related to common health problems. The MNA rather reflects health condition than currently reduced dietary intake. PMID:21687611

  3. Prevalence of Malnutrition in Orally and Tube-Fed Elderly Nursing Home Residents in Germany and Its Relation to Health Complaints and Dietary Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Volkert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the prevalence of malnutrition in orally and tube-fed nursing home (NH residents in Germany and its relation to common health complaints and dietary intake. Methods. In 350 NH residents, subjects' characteristics, Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA, and several health problems were inquired with the nursing staff using standardised interviews. In a subset of 122 residents, dietary intake was assessed by 3-day weighing records. Results. 7.7% of the participants were tube fed. 24.1% of orally nourished and 57.7% of tube-fed residents were malnourished (MNA < 17 p.. Malnutrition was significantly related to nausea/vomiting, constipation, pressure ulcers, dehydration, infections, antibiotic use, and hospitalisation. Mean daily energy intake was 1535 ± 413 kcal and mean protein intake was 54.2 ± 0.9 g/d irrespective of the nutritional state. Conclusion. In Germany, malnutrition is widespread among NH residents and is related to common health problems. The MNA rather reflects health condition than currently reduced dietary intake.

  4. Smallholder pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Mbeya Region, Tanzania, with the aim of describing the distribution and diversity of ectoparasites on pigs, within confinement and free-range production systems of smallholder farms. A total of 128 farms were surveyed, with 96 practising confinement...... and 32 practising free-range production systems. The prevalence of ectoparasites on pigs within confinement and free-range production systems was 24% and 84%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that keeping pigs in a free-range system and the presence of neighbouring pigs were risk...... although highly prevalent within both production systems. Keeping pigs in a free-range system and contact with neighbouring pigs were main risk factors for the presence of ectoparasites. Confinement was highly effective as a preventive tool against hard ticks....

  5. Vitamin E in new Generation Lipid Emulsions Protects Against Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver disease in Parenteral Nutrition-Fed Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Ng; Stoll, Barbara; Chacko, Shaji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Parenteral nutrition (PN) in preterm infants leads to PN-associated liver disease (PNALD). PNALD has been linked to serum accumulation of phytosterols that are abundant in plant oil but absent in fish oil emulsions. Hypothesis: Whether modifying the phytosterol and vitamin E...... composition of soy and fish oil lipid emulsions affects development of PNALD in preterm pigs. Methods: We measured markers of PNALD in preterm pigs that received 14 days of PN that included 1 of the following: (1) Intralipid (IL, 100% soybean oil), (2) Intralipid + vitamin E (ILE, d-α-tocopherol), (3......, OV, and PS compared to IL. Hepatic cholesterol 7-hydroxylase and organic solute transporter-α expression was lower (P E1 fatty acid...

  6. Vitamin E in New-Generation Lipid Emulsions Protects Against Parenteral Nutrition–Associated Liver Disease in Parenteral Nutrition–Fed Preterm Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kenneth; Stoll, Barbara; Chacko, Shaji; de Pipaon, Miguel Saenz; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Gray, Matthew; Squires, E. James; Marini, Juan; Zamora, Irving J.; Olutoye, Oluyinka O.; Burrin, Douglas G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Parenteral nutrition (PN) in preterm infants leads to PN-associated liver disease (PNALD). PNALD has been linked to serum accumulation of phytosterols that are abundant in plant oil but absent in fish oil emulsions. Hypothesis Whether modifying the phytosterol and vitamin E composition of soy and fish oil lipid emulsions affects development of PNALD in preterm pigs. Methods We measured markers of PNALD in preterm pigs that received 14 days of PN that included 1 of the following: (1) Intralipid (IL, 100% soybean oil), (2) Intralipid + vitamin E (ILE, d-α-tocopherol), (3) Omegaven (OV, 100% fish oil), or (4) Omegaven + phytosterols (PS, β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol). Results Serum levels of direct bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transferase, serum triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, and hepatic triglyceride content were significantly lower (P phytosterols to Omegaven did not produce evidence of PNALD. PMID:25596209

  7. Effect of phytate, microbial phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on calculated values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in fish meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of phytate, phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca and on ATTD of P in fish meal fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.16 ± 2.04 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 8 pigs per treatment and placed in metabolism crates. Four diets were used in a 2 ´ 2 factorial design with 2 levels of phytate (0 or 0.7%) and 2 levels of microbial phytase (0 or 500 phytase units/kg). The diet containing no phytate was based on sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil, and the diet containing 0.7% phytate was based on corn, corn germ, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected from d 6 to 13 after a 5-d adaptation period. Results indicated that the ATTD and STTD of Ca in fish meal and the ATTD of P increased ( phytase was used and were greater ( phytase and fiber increased the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in fish meal, but inclusion of soybean oil did not affect digestibility of Ca or P. The observation that values for the ATTD and STTD of Ca and ATTD of P are greater in corn-based diets than in cornstarch-based diets indicates that values for the digestibility of Ca and P obtained in cornstarch-based diets may not always be representative for the digestibility in practical corn-based diets.

  8. Effects of chlortetracycline and copper supplementation on the prevalence, distribution, and quantity of antimicrobial resistance genes in the fecal metagenome of weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agga, Getahun E; Scott, H Morgan; Vinasco, Javier; Nagaraja, T G; Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Bai, Jianfa; Norby, Bo; Renter, David G; Dritz, Steve S; Nelssen, Jim L; Tokach, Mike D

    2015-05-01

    Use of in-feed antibiotics such as chlortetracycline (CTC) in food animals is fiercely debated as a cause of antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens; as a result, alternatives to antibiotics such as heavy metals have been proposed. We used a total community DNA approach to experimentally investigate the effects of CTC and copper supplementation on the presence and quantity of antimicrobial resistance elements in the gut microbial ecology of pigs. Total community DNA was extracted from 569 fecal samples collected weekly over a 6-week period from groups of 5 pigs housed in 32 pens that were randomized to receive either control, CTC, copper, or copper plus CTC regimens. Qualitative and quantitative PCR were used to detect the presence of 14 tetracycline resistance (tet) genes and to quantify gene copies of tetA, tetB, blaCMY-2 (a 3rd generation cephalosporin resistance gene), and pcoD (a copper resistance gene), respectively. The detection of tetA and tetB decreased over the subsequent sampling periods, whereas the prevalence of tetC and tetP increased. CTC and copper plus CTC supplementation increased both the prevalence and gene copy numbers of tetA, while decreasing both the prevalence and gene copies of tetB. In summary, tet gene presence was initially very diverse in the gut bacterial community of weaned pigs; thereafter, copper and CTC supplementation differentially impacted the prevalence and quantity of the various tetracycline, ceftiofur and copper resistance genes resulting in a less diverse gene population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Digestibility and nitrogen balance of diets containing non conventional vegetable proteins fed to pigs of genetic strains suitable for outdoor systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sardi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate on growing pigs kept in metabolism crates, either belonging to a “traditional” cross-breed (Duroc x Large White – DLW or a local breed (Cinta Senese – CS, the digestibility and the nitrogen balance of non-conventional vegetable protein sources (field beans, pea and sunflower cake when compared to soybean meal. The four diets were formulated so as to supply the same crude protein amount. CS pigs showed lower apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs for crude protein (81,38% vs 82,65% and crude fibre (35,97% vs 40,65%. Nitrogen balance was more favourable in DLW pigs (32,12% vs 19,67% which showed a higher nitrogen retention (+69%.With respect to the protein source, no differences were observed for nitrogen balance. Sunflower diet showed the higher ADC for ether extract (+20% compared with soybean diet. Crude fibre digestibility was lowered in sunflower (-33% and field beans (-13% diets. Sunflower and field beans diets showed the lowest gross energy digestibility coefficients. Field pea diet had the highest ADC for crude fibre (+ 12% leading to ADCs for organic matter and gross energy comparable to those of soybean meal. It is concluded that field bean, sunflower cake and field pea could be considered as valuable non-conventional protein sources in swine nutrition.

  10. Effects of dietary lipid sources on performance and apparent total tract digestibility of lipids and energy when fed to nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, S M; van Heugten, E

    2014-02-01

    Acidulated fats and oils are by-products of the fat-refining industry. They contain high levels of FFA and are 10% to 20% less expensive than refined fats and oils. Two studies were designed to measure the effects of dietary lipid sources low or high in FFA on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of lipids and GE in nursery pigs. In Exp. 1, 189 pigs at 14 d postweaning (BW of 9.32 ± 0.11 kg) were used for 21 d with 9 replicate pens per treatment and 3 pigs per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet without added lipids and 6 diets with 6% inclusion of lipids. Four lipid sources were combined to create the dietary treatments with 2 levels of FFA (0.40% or 54.0%) and 3 degrees of fat saturation (iodine value [IV] = 77, 100, or 123) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Lipid sources were soybean oil (0.3% FFA and IV = 129.4), soybean-cottonseed acid oil blend (70.5% FFA and IV = 112.9), choice white grease (0.6% FFA and IV = 74.8), and choice white acid grease (56.0% FFA and IV = 79.0). Addition of lipid sources decreased ADFI (810 vs. 872 g/d; P = 0.018) and improved G:F (716 vs. 646 g/kg; P source. Fat increased (P sources.

  11. Observations on the introduction and dissemination of Salmonella in three previously low prevalence status pig farms in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Francesca; Andres, Victor M; Davies, Rob; Smith, Richard P

    2018-05-01

    In the United Kingdom a serological Salmonella surveillance scheme was run in pigs up to 2012. Farms that maintained a low seroprevalence (animals. The results of this study suggest that incursion of mST was likely to be the main cause of the loss of "Platinum" status and confirm that mST can persist in pigs and their environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Investigating the role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa in the re-emergence of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig herds: a pathological, prevalence and risk-factor study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainity Batista Linhares

    Full Text Available Enzootic pneumonia (EP caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa as a source of re-infection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1 to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2 to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3 to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3-29.3% but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs.

  13. Effects of protein concentration and heat treatment on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on amino acid digestibility in four sources of canola meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Maison, T; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine DE and ME and the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 4 sources of canola meal (high-protein [CM-HP], high-temperature-processed [CM-HT], low-temperature-processed [CM-LT], and conventional [CM-CV] canola meal) and in conventional soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 48 growing barrows (initial BW: 39.7 ± 1.58 kg) were individually housed in metabolism cages and randomly assigned to 6 treatments in a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 24 pigs and 8 replicate pigs per treatment. The 6 diets included a corn-based basal diet and 5 diets that were formulated by mixing corn and 1 of the sources of canola meal (39.0% inclusion) or SBM (28.5% inclusion). Feces and urine were collected for 5 d following a 5-d adaptation period. The DE and ME in each source of canola meal and in SBM were calculated using the difference procedure. The DE and ME in the 4 sources of canola meal were less (P sources of canola meal. In Exp. 2, 12 growing barrows (initial BW: 34.0 ± 1.41 kg) that had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum were randomly allotted to a repeated 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods in each square. Five diets that contained 35% SBM or 45% of 1 of the 4 sources of canola meal as the sole source of CP and AA were formulated, and a N-free diet was also used. Each period lasted 7 d and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The AID and SID of CP and all AA in SBM were greater (P sources of canola meal. Compared with CM-CV, CM-HP had greater (P < 0.05) AID of Ile, Lys, Asp, Cys, and Pro and greater (P < 0.05) SID of Lys and Cys. However, no differences between CM-HT and CM-LT were observed. In conclusion, regardless of the concentration of CP and the processing used, canola meal provides less DE and ME to pigs than corn and SBM, and the SID of AA in canola meal is less than in SBM. The processing

  14. Effects of graded levels of microbial phytase on apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in four sources of canola meal and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Y; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2017-05-01

    One hundred twenty pigs were used to determine effects of graded levels of microbial phytase on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in 4 sources of canola meal and in 1 source of soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. The 4 sources of canola meal were produced from 1 source of high-protein canola seeds and 2 sources of conventional canola seeds with 1 of the conventional canola seeds being divided into 2 separate batches before crushing. Pigs (16.2 ± 5.3 kg initial BW) were individually housed in metabolism crates and were randomly allotted to 1 of 20 diets in a 5 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments with 5 ingredients and 4 levels of phytase. There were 6 replicate pigs per diet. Five basal diets based on high-protein canola meal (CM-HP), high-temperature processed canola meal (CM-HT), low-temperature processed canola meal (CM-LT), conventional canola meal (CM-CV), or SBM were formulated. The basal diets contained no phytase. Fifteen additional diets were prepared by adding approximately 500, 1,500, or 2,500 phytase units/kg to each of the 5 basal diets. Feces were quantitatively collected for 5 d based on the marker-to-marker approach after a 7-d adaptation period. Results indicated that supplementation of microbial phytase increased (linear, phytase also increased (linear and quadratic, phytase was added, but no differences were observed in the ATTD and STTD of P in SBM, CM-HP, CM-HT, or CM-CV if the highest amount of phytase were added (interaction, phytase on the STTD of P in CM-HP, CM-HT, CM-LT, CM-CV, and SBM. In conclusion, inclusion of graded levels of microbial phytase increased the ATTD and STTD of P in CM-HP, CM-HT, CM-LT, CM-CV, and SBM and the response to microbial phytase added to each ingredient can be predicted by regression equations.

  15. Determination of nitrogen absorption and endogenous nitrogen secretion in the digestive tract of pigs fed with nitrogen-15-labelled dried whey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhardt, G.; Souffrant, W.; Koehler, R.; Zebrowska, T.

    1977-01-01

    Two fistulated pigs weighing between 15kg and 54kg were given experimental diets containing 15 N-labelled dried whey. The labelled experimental diets were given once only. Samples of the digesta were taken from the duodenum and terminal ileum at various intervals of time up to 48h after feeding the labelled protein feed. The digesta were separated into the four following fractions: Residue on centrifugation, proteins, peptides and free amino acids. The secretion of endogenous nitrogen in the duodenum was 12.5g/24h in pigs having a live weight of 50kg. The endogenous nitrogen was found to be relatively uniformly distributed among the four fractions. The rate of secretion of endogenous nitrogen showed a continuous decrease during 24h. The secretion of endogenous nitrogen in the terminal ileum was 54 to 60mg of nitrogen per kilogram live weight. After passage through the small intestine the greater part of the free amino acids in digesta was of exogenous origin. In the protein fraction most came from endogenous proteins. A true absorption of 17% of nitrogen was determined in the duodenum. The amount of nitrogen absorbed in the terminal part of the small intestine was, on average, 90% relative to the nitrogen intake. The true digestibility calculated with the amount of 15 N in food and faeces was 98%. (author)

  16. Prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coil among pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish farms with different in-feed medication policies in Ontario and British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akwar, Holy T; Poppe, Cornelis; Wilson, Jeff; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Dyck, Monica; Waddington, Josh; Shang, Dayue; McEwen, Scott A

    2008-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance in pigs on farms that medicated swine ration and those that did not. A total of 940 isolates of Escherichia coli from 188 pooled fecal samples obtained from weaner and finisher pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish swine farms (34 farms used in-feed medication and 13 did not) were tested for susceptibility to 21 antimicrobials using a breakpoint concentration method. The prevalence of resistance varied widely (0.0% to 81.3%) among the antimicrobials tested. Ninety percent of all the isolates tested were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. The most common multi-drug resistance patterns were to 2 to 6 antimicrobials. Resistance was significantly more frequent (P pigs compared to finisher pigs. These findings indicate that resistance to a broad range of antimicrobials was prevalent among fecal E. coli isolates of pigs on study farms, and that this constitutes a potential reservoir for resistance genes that could spread to pathogens. The findings also provide further evidence that use of medication in swine rations provides selective pressure for antimicrobial resistance in E. coli in pigs.

  17. Arsanilic acid blindness in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, R.W.; Kintner, L.D.; Selby, L.A.; Stewart, R.W.; Marlenfeld, C.J.

    1970-06-01

    Blindness in pigs that were given an overdosage of arsanilic acid is reported. A 0.0375% level of arsanilic acid was fed to 640 pigs for 90 days beginning when the animals were 3 months old. Approximately one month after the start of feeding, partial or complete blindness was observed in 50 of the pigs. Clinical signs, pathologic findings and the chemical analysis of hair are discussed. The level of arsanilic acid used was that recommended for the control of swine dysentery, to be fed for only five or six days. The overdosage resulted from a misunderstanding between the farmer and the feed mill.

  18. Prevalence of adhesin and toxin genes in E. coli strains isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic pigs from smallholder herds in northern and eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikwap, Kokas; Larsson, Jenny; Jacobson, Magdalena; Owiny, David Okello; Nasinyama, George William; Nabukenya, Immaculate; Mattsson, Sigbrit; Aspan, Anna; Erume, Joseph

    2016-08-05

    Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) significantly contribute to diarrhea in piglets and weaners. The smallholder pig producers in Uganda identified diarrhea as one of the major problems especially in piglets. The aim of this study was to; i) characterize the virulence factors of E. coli strains isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic suckling piglets and weaners from smallholder herds in northern and eastern Uganda and ii) identify and describe the post-mortem picture of ETEC infection in severely diarrheic piglets. Rectal swab samples were collected from 83 piglets and weaners in 20 herds and isolated E. coli were characterized by PCR, serotyping and hemolysis. The E. coli strains carried genes for the heat stable toxins STa, STb and EAST1 and adhesins F4 and AIDA-I. The genes for the heat labile toxin LT and adhesins F5, F6, F18 and F41 were not detected in any of the E. coli isolates. Where the serogroup could be identified, E. coli isolates from the same diarrheic pig belonged to the same serogroup. The prevalence of EAST1, STb, Stx2e, STa, AIDA-I, and F4 in the E. coli isolates from suckling piglets and weaners (diarrheic and non-diarrheic combined) was 29, 26.5, 2.4, 1.2, 16, and 8.4 %, respectively. However the prevalence of F4 and AIDA-I in E. coli from diarrheic suckling piglets alone was 22.2 and 20 %, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of the individual virulence factors in E. coli from the diarrheic and non-diarrheic pigs (p > 0.05). The main ETEC strains isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic pigs included F4/STb/EAST1 (7.2 %), F4/STb (1.2 %), AIDA/STb/EAST1 (8 %) and AIDA/STb (8 %). At post-mortem, two diarrheic suckling piglets carrying ETEC showed intact intestinal villi, enterocytes and brush border but with a layer of cells attached to the brush border, suggestive of ETEC infections. This study has shown that the F4 fimbriae is the most predominant in E. coli from diarrheic piglets in the study area and

  19. Prevalence of tetracycline resistance and genotypic analysis of populations of Escherichia coli from animals, carcasses and cuts processed at a pig slaughterhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuyu, Wu; Dalsgaard, Anders; Vieira, Antonio R

    2009-01-01

    A Danish pig slaughterhouse was visited in this study to investigate the impact of carcass processing on prevalence of tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli, and to identify the origins of carcass contaminations with E. coli by assessing genetic diversity of E. coli populations on carcasses....... A total of 105 carcasses were sampled at five sequential stages: after stunning, after scalding, after splitting, after cooling and after cutting. Total and tetracycline-resistant E. coli were counted for each sample and tetracycline resistance prevalence per sample was calculated by the fraction...... of tetracycline-resistant E. coli out of total E. coli. From 15 repeatedly sampled carcasses, 422 E. coli isolates from faeces, stunned carcasses, split carcasses and chilled carcasses were examined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. The results showed that E...

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in finishing pigs: implications on public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important food-borne pathogens, which can cause serious illnesses, including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. To examine if pigs are potential animal reservoirs for human STEC infections, we conducted a longitudinal cohort study in ...

  1. Growth performance and pork fat quality as measured by three methods of pigs fed 20% DDGS and slaughtered using a standard industry split marketing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shircliff, K E; Callahan, Z D; Wilmoth, T A; Ohman, C E; Johnson, R C; Wiegand, B R

    2015-10-01

    A total of 40 pens containing 22 crossbred barrows (initial BW = 43.07 ± 1.61 kg; PIC 1050 × PIC 337 genetics) were housed in a commercial wean to finish facility. Pens were randomly allotted to dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 0% or 20%) and chosen for 1 of 3 marketing cuts removing 4, 8, and 10 animals from each pen. Fat tissue samples were removed from the anterior tip of the jowl and posterior to the sternum on the belly edge 1d postmortem. Fatty acid composition was determined via the Folch method, and iodine values (IV) were calculated from chemical titrations, fatty acid profile (GC IV), and in-plant Bruker near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Pearson's correlation coefficients for IV determination methods were estimated. Inclusion of 20% DDGS did not change ( > 0.05) growth performance, whereas marketing cut affected performance, with the second cut producing the most efficient pigs ( marketing time changed growth performance.

  2. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica isolated from broiler chickens, pigs and meat products in Thailand-Cambodia border provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trongjit, Suthathip; Angkititrakul, Sunpetch; Tuttle, R Emerson; Poungseree, Jiratchaya; Padungtod, Pawin; Chuanchuen, Rungtip

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Salmonella isolates from broiler chickens, pigs and their associated meat products in the Thailand-Cambodia border provinces. A total of 941 samples were collected from pigs and broiler chickens at slaughter houses and from carcasses at local fresh markets in Sa Kaeo, Thailand (n = 554) and Banteay Meanchey, Cambodia (n = 387) in 2014 and 2015. From these samples, 345 Salmonella isolates were collected from Sa Keao (n = 145; 23%) and Banteay Meanchey (n = 200; 47%) and assayed for antimicrobial susceptibility, class 1 integrons and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes. Serovars Typhimurium (29%) and Rissen (29%) were the most common serotypes found in Thai and Cambodian isolates, respectively. Multidrug resistance was detected in 34% and 52% of isolates from Sa Keao and Banteay Meanchey, respectively. The majority of the Thai isolates were resistant to ampicillin (72.4%), whereas most Cambodian isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole (71%). Eleven isolates from Sa Keao and 44 from Banteay Meanchey carried class 1 integrons comprising resistance gene cassettes. The most common gene cassette array was dfrA12-aadA2 (61.1%). Six isolates were ESBL producers. The β-lactamase genes found included bla TEM-1 , bla CTX-M-55 and bla CMY-2 . Some of these class 1 integrons and ESBL genes were located on conjugative plasmid. In conclusion, multidrug-resistant Salmonella are common in pigs, chickens and their products in the Thailand-Cambodia border provinces. Our findings indicate that class 1 integrons play a role in spread of AMR in the strains in this study. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Prevalence and potential risk factors for the occurrence of cefotaxime resistant Escherichia coli in German fattening pig farms--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Johanna; Hille, Katja; Frömke, Cornelia; von Münchhausen, Christiane; Hartmann, Maria; Schneider, Bettina; Friese, Anika; Roesler, Uwe; Merle, Roswitha; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2014-09-01

    A cross-sectional study concerning farm prevalence and risk factors for the count of cefotaxime resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) (CREC) positive samples per sampling group on German fattening pig farms was performed in 2011 and 2012. Altogether 48 farms in four agricultural regions in the whole of Germany were investigated. Faecal samples, boot swabs and dust samples from two sampling groups per farm were taken and supplemental data were collected using a questionnaire. On 85% of the farms, at least one sample contained cefotaxime resistant E. coli colonies. Positive samples were more frequent in faeces (61%) and boot swabs (54%) than in dust samples (11%). Relevant variables from the questionnaire were analysed in a univariable mixed effect Poisson regression model. Variables that were related to the number (risk) of positive samples per sampling group with a p-value risk for positive samples involved farm management and hygienic aspects. Farms that had a separate pen for diseased pigs had a 2.8 higher mean count of positive samples (95%-CI [1.71; 4.58], p=0.001) than farms without an extra pen. The mean count was increased on farms with under-floor exhaust ventilation compared to farms with over floor ventilation (2.22 [1.43; 3.46], p=0.001) and more positive samples were observed on farms that controlled flies with toxin compared to farms that did not (1.86 [1.24; 2.78], p=0.003). It can be concluded, that CREC are wide spread on German fattening pig farms. In addition the explorative approach of the present study suggests an influence of management strategies on the occurrence of cefotaxime resistant E. coli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fluxo biológico do fósforo no metabolismo de suínos alimentados com dietas contendo fitase Biological P flow on metabolism of pigs fed diets containg phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Moreira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi conduzida para avaliar o fluxo biológico do P em suínos, na fase de crescimento, alimentados com dietas à base de milho, farelo de soja, farelo de arroz desengordurado e óleo de soja, isentas de P inorgânico e suplementadas com níveis crescentes de fitase (253, 759, 1.265 e 1.748 UF/kg de dieta, e destacar o melhor nível de utilização da enzima, usando modelos matemáticos. O modelo utilizado foi determinístico e compartimental, em que o trato gastrintestinal (C1, o plasma C2, os ossos (C3 e os tecidos moles (ossos, coração, figado, rins e músculos, estudados em conjunto (C4, representaram os compartimentos. Foram utilizados dados de metabolismo e cinética do P nos tecidos, obtidos pela técnica de diluição isotópica. Os parâmetros estimados foram: absorção, retenção, P endógeno que retorna ao trato gastrintestinal, P dietético absorvido, incorporação, reabsorção, balanço de P, P proveniente do osso, dos tecidos moles e do total absorvido que retorna ao trato gastrintestinal. o modelo biomatemático utilizado mostrou-se eficiente em explicar o fluxo do fósforo no organismo de suínos em crescimento. A fitase interferiu no fluxo biológico do P do compartimento C1 para o C3 e no refluxo dos compartimentos C3 e C4 para o C1. O nível 759 UF/kg de ração disponibilizou mais eficientemente o fósforo orgânico para o metabolismo dos suínos.The study was conducted to evaluate the biological flow of P in pigs fed diets based on corn, soybean meal, defatted rice bran (DRB and soybean oil, with increasing phytase levels (253, 759, 1265 and 1748 PU/kg of diet, using mathematics models. The model was deterministic and compartimental, in which the gastrintestinal tract (GIT (C1, the plasma C2, the bones (C3 and the soft tissues (liver, heart, kidney and muscle (C4 represented the compartments. Metabolism data and kinetics of P in tissues were used in the model, obtained by the isotopic dilution technique. The

  5. Amino acid digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles, liquid condensed solubles, pulse dried thin stillage, and syrup balls fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J A; Stein, H H; Singh, V; Shurson, G S; Pettigrew, J E

    2012-04-01

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has low and variable AA digestibility. The variability is often attributed to damage during the heating process, and it has been suggested that the damage happens to the soluble components of DDGS such as reducing sugars. Combining solubles and grains sometimes produces syrup balls (SB); their digestibility is unknown. The objective of this experiment was to identify potential sources of poor and variable AA digestibility in DDGS. Specifically, our objective was to determine whether the problems are associated with the solubles component or with SB. The ingredients evaluated were DDGS, intact SB, ground SB, liquid condensed solubles (LCS), and pulse dried thin stillage (PDTS) obtained from the same ethanol plant. The LCS is produced by evaporation of thin stillage. Each ingredient was used as the only source of AA in an experimental diet. In a duplicate 6 × 6 Latin square design with 7-d adaptation and collection periods, the 6 treatments consisted of an N-free diet and the 5 test ingredients. Pigs had 5 d of adaptation to each diet, and on d 6 and 7 ileal digesta were collected from an ileal cannula for 8 h each day. Both SB treatments had apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA that were similar or greater (P < 0.05) than those of DDGS. The AID and SID values of Lys and a few other AA were similar in LCS (SID Lys: 63.1%) and DDGS (SID Lys: 61.5%), but the digestibility values of most AA in LCS were less than in DDGS (P < 0.05). The low digestibility of AA in LCS was most pronounced for Met (SID: LCS, 41.9% vs. DDGS, 82.8%). The LCS had less (P < 0.05) AID and SID of CP (SID: 67.8%) than intact SB (SID: 85.2%) and ground SB (SID: 85.9%) as well as all AA. The PDTS generally had the least AID and SID and had less (P < 0.05) CP (SID: 55.3%) and several AA, including Lys, compared with LCS. In conclusion, the presence of SB does not decrease AA digestibility of DDGS, and the LCS

  6. The microbiota of pigs influenced by diet texture and severity of Lawsonia intracellularis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølbak, Lars; Johnsen, Kaare; Boye, Mette; Jensen, Tim K; Johansen, Markku; Møller, Kristian; Leser, Thomas D

    2008-04-01

    Pigs with and without naturally occurring Lawsonia intracellularis infection were fed diets with different texture. In a previous study from 79 pig herds using a similar feeding on pelleted or non-pelleted form showed that the non-pelleted diet was associated with a reduced prevalence of L. intracellularis. In this study a mechanistic approach was taken for explaining and testing this observation by studying the microbiota and the occurrence of L. intracellularis in the distal ileum of 54 pigs by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, Real-Time PCR and in situ hybridization. The texture of the diet influenced the microbiota, and from a quantitative discriminative analysis of the terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) of ileum samples it was deduced that Clostridium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were associated with the non-pelleted diet and Streptococcus spp. with the pelleted diet. In experimentally infected pigs it was verified that 89bp and 90bp sized T-RFs (HhaI) from ileum represented L. intracellularis. The non-pelleted diet seemed to reduce the relative amount of L. intracellularis in the total microbiota of the ileum, but the number of pigs detected positive with L. intracellularis by Real-Time PCR was not influenced. The five pigs with highest L. intracellularis content showed T-RFs that were not present in profiles from less or non-infected pigs, which may indicate that some bacterial species were associated with L. intracellularis infection.

  7. A high prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli isolated from pigs and a low prevalence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli from cattle and sheep in Great Britain at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enne, Virve I; Cassar, Claire; Sprigings, Katherine; Woodward, Martin J; Bennett, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of antimicrobial resistance and expressed and unexpressed resistance genes among commensal Escherichia coli isolated from healthy farm animals at slaughter in Great Britain was investigated. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among the isolates varied according to the animal species; of 836 isolates from cattle tested only 5.7% were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, while only 3.0% of 836 isolates from sheep were resistant to one or more agents. However, 92.1% of 2480 isolates from pigs were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Among isolates from pigs, resistance to some antimicrobials such as tetracycline (78.7%), sulphonamide (66.9%) and streptomycin (37.5%) was found to be common, but relatively rare to other agents such as amikacin (0.1%), ceftazidime (0.1%) and coamoxiclav (0.2%). The isolates had a diverse range of resistance gene profiles, with tet(B), sul2 and strAB identified most frequently. Seven out of 615 isolates investigated carried unexpressed resistance genes. One trimethoprim-susceptible isolate carried a complete dfrA17 gene but lacked a promoter for it. However, in the remaining six streptomycin-susceptible isolates, one of which carried strAB while the others carried aadA, no mutations or deletions in gene or promoter sequences were identified to account for susceptibility. The data indicate that antimicrobial resistance in E. coli of animal origin is due to a broad range of acquired genes.

  8. IRON AND HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN PIGS FED PHYTASE-ADDED RATIONS WITH LOWER PHOSPHORUS LEVELS FERRO E IMUNIDADE HUMORAL EM SUÍNOS ALIMENTADOS COM FITASE E NÍVEIS REDUZIDOS DE FÓSFORO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Batista Brito

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Endogenous enzymes such as phytase have been widely used in swine production to increase phosphorus, amino acid and energy availability from feeds. This study aimed to evaluate the immune system through quantification of blood components associated to iron metabolism and determine humoral immune response elements in pigs fed phytase-added diets without micro minerals and vitamins and partial or total deletion of inorganic phosphorus. Forty-eight crossbred females with initial weight of 60 kg were randomly sorted into six groups of eight animals each, as follows: G1 -standard (complete ration (control group; G2 - standard ration except that micromineral and vitamin supplement was deleted; G3 - group 2 ration with phytase, G4 - group 2 ration less 1/3 of inorganic P with phytase, G5 -  group 2 ration less 2/3 of inorganic P with phytase and G6 - group 2 ration without inorganic P with phytase. Statistical difference (p>0,05 was not recorded neither in white cells and platelet counts nor hemoglobin, serum iron levels, considering all the animals in all treatments. Nevertheless, pigs up to 100 kg that consumed diet without micro minerals and vitamins, total deletion of inorganic P and phytase addition presented increased ferritin levels (p>0,05 when compared to animals fed similar diet with inorganic phosphorus and phytase. The enzyme guaranteed maintenance of iron stocks even in the absence of supplementation. Such difference was not recorded with 120-kg animals fed similar rations. Average total protein, IgG and IgM levels were not influenced by phytase, mineral and vitamin supplementation or inorganic phosphorus levels. The results demonstrate that decrease of inorganic phos-phorus, withdrawal of vitamin and mineral supplements and phytase addition in diets of finishing pigs do not lead to significant changes in hematological, biochemical and humoral immune response parameters.

  9. Performance Of Growing Pigs And Finisher Broilers Housed Together

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and cost of feeding young growing pigs and finisher broilers under integrated broiler/pig production system were investigated. Four young growing pigs (the control) were housed in pen A and fed 4% of their body weight as commercial growers feed. Another 4 were housed in pen B with broilers in ...

  10. Salmonella in the lairage of pig slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanenburg, M.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Keuzenkamp, D.A.; Snijders, J.M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if lairages of pig slaughterhouses can act as a source of contamination of slaughtered pigs with Salmonella. The prevalence and variety of serotypes of Salmonella in the lairages of two pig slaughterhouses were determined, and the efficacy of the usual

  11. The Prevalence of the OqxAB Multidrug Efflux Pump amongst Olaquindox-Resistant Escherichia coli in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Jørgensen, Helle S.

    2005-01-01

    The quinoxaline olaquindox has been used extensively as a growth promoter for pigs. Recently, we isolated a plasmid (pOLA52) conferring resistance to olaquindox from swine manure. On this plasmid, the oqxA and oqxB genes encode an RND-family multidrug efflux pump, OqxAB. It facilitates resistance...... to olaquindox as well as resistance to other antimicrobials like chloramphenicol. In this study, 10 of the 556 (1.8%) previously isolated Escherichia coli strains were shown to have an MIC = 64 µg/ml olaquindox. In nine of the ten strains, the oqxA gene was detected. Sequencing of an internal fragment of oqx......A from the oqxA-positive strains showed no variation, indicating highly conserved oqxA genes. All of the oqxA-positive strains contain plasmids with replicons similar to that of pOLA52. It was verified by Southern hybridization that the oqxAB operon was situated on plasmids in most, if not all, resistant...

  12. The prevalence of the OqxAB amongst olaquindox-resistant multidrug efflux pump Escherichia coli in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.H.; Sørensen, S.J.; Jørgensen, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    The quinoxaline olaquindox has been used extensively as a growth promoter for pigs. Recently, we isolated a plasmid (pOLA52) conferring resistance to olaquindox from swine manure. On this plasmid, the oqxA and oqxB genes encode an RND-family multidrug efflux pump, OqxAB. It facilitates resistance...... to olaquindox as well as resistance to other antimicrobials like chloramphenicol. In this study, 10 of the 556 (1.8%) previously isolated Escherichia coli strains were shown to have an MIC >= 64 mu g/ml olaquindox. In nine of the ten strains, the oqxA gene was detected. Sequencing of an internal fragment of oqx......A from the oqxA-positive strains showed no variation, indicating highly conserved oqxA genes. All of the oqxA-positive strains contain plasmids with replicons similar to that of pOLA52. It was verified by Southern hybridization that the oqxAB operon was situated on plasmids in most, if not all, resistant...

  13. Free-range pigs foraging on Jerusalem artichokes (Helianthus tuberosus L.) – Effect of feeding strategy on growth, feed conversion and animal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Horsted, Klaus; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional contributions from free-range foraging, growth, feed conversion and behaviour were investigated in 36 growing pigs foraging on Jerusalem artichokes (JA) and fed concentrates restrictedly (30% of energy recommendations) or ad libitum. Compared to the ad libitum fed pigs, the pigs fed...

  14. Programming Pig

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  15. MRSA CC398 in the pig production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Wolf, van der P.J.; Giessen, van de A.W.; Duijkeren, van E.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Nes, van A.; Mevius, D.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a distinct clone of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA CC398) was found in pigs and people in contact with pigs. The structure of the pig production chain in high technology pig husbandry enables pathogens to spread during animal trading, with an increasing prevalence in

  16. Desempenho bioeconômico de suínos em crescimento e terminação alimentados com rações contendo farelo de coco Bioeconomic performance of growing - finishing pigs fed diet with coconut meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Evânio da Costa Siebra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho de suínos em crescimento e terminação alimentados com rações contendo farelo de coco. Foram utilizados 20 suínos machos castrados mestiços Landrace × Large White com 19,7 ± 2,9 kg de peso vivo inicial e 89,2 ± 5,8 kg de peso vivo final distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos (0, 10, 20 ou 30% de farelo de coco e cinco repetições. Avaliaram-se o desempenho, o ganho de peso médio diário, o consumo de ração médio diário e a conversão alimentar nas fases de crescimento (65 a 107 dias de idade e crescimento-terminação (65 a 149 dias de idade. Os parâmetros econômicos avaliados foram a receita bruta média, o custo médio da alimentação, a margem bruta média e a rentabilidade média. Os melhores resultados de ganho de peso médio diário e receita bruta média na fase de crescimento foram obtidos com o nível de 22,5% de farelo de coco na ração. Na fase de crescimento-terminação, a receita bruta média no período total indica que é possível incluir 22,4% de farelo de coco em dietas para suínos formuladas com farelo residual de milho e farelo de soja.The objective was to evaluate the performance of growing- finishing pigs fed diet with coconut meal. Twenty crossbred Large White × Landrace barrows with initial 19.7 ± 2.9 kg BW and final 89.2 ± 5.8 kg BW were allotted to complete a randomized blocks design with four levels (0, 10, 20 or 30% of coconut meal and five replications. Performance traits, as average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio in grower phase (65 to 107 days old and grower-finisher phase (65 to 149 days old were evaluated. Economic parameters evaluated were: average gross income, average feed cost, gross margin and average return. The best results of average weight daily gain and average gross income in the grower phase were obtained with the level of 22.5% of coconut meal in the diet. In grower

  17. High prevalence of malaria in Zambezia, Mozambique: the protective effect of IRS versus increased risks due to pig-keeping and house construction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A Temu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: African countries are scaling up malaria interventions, especially insecticide treated nets (ITN and indoor residual spraying (IRS, for which ambitious coverage targets have been set. In spite of these efforts infection prevalence remains high in many parts of the continent. This study investigated risk factors for malaria infection in children using three malaria indicator surveys from Zambezia province, Mozambique. The impact of IRS and ITNs, the effects of keeping farm animals and of the construction material of roofs of houses and other potential risk factors associated with malaria infection in children were assessed. METHODS: Cross-sectional community-based surveys were conducted in October of 2006, 2007 and 2008. A total of 8338 children (ages 1-15 years from 2748 households were included in the study. All children were screened for malaria by rapid diagnostic tests. Caregiver interviews were used to assess household demographic and wealth characteristics and ITN and IRS coverage. Associations between malaria infection, vector control interventions and potential risk factors were assessed. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of malaria infection was 47.8% (95%CI: 38.7%-57.1% in children 1-15 years of age, less than a quarter of children (23.1%, 95%CI: 19.1%-27.6% were sleeping under ITN and almost two thirds were living in IRS treated houses (coverage 65.4%, 95%CI: 51.5%-77.0%. Protective factors that were independently associated with malaria infection were: sleeping in an IRS house without sleeping under ITN (Odds Ratio (OR= 0.6; 95%CI: 0.4-0.9; additional protection due to sleeping under ITN in an IRS treated house (OR = 0.5; 95%CI: 0.3-0.7 versus sleeping in an unsprayed house without a ITN; and parental education (primary/secondary: OR = 0.6; 95%CI: 0.5-0.7 versus parents with no education. Increased risk of infection was associated with: current fever (OR = 1.2; 95%CI: 1.0-1.5 versus no fever; pig keeping (OR

  18. The efficacy of a new 6-phytase obtained from Buttiauxella spp. expressed in Trichoderma reesei on digestibility of amino acids, energy, and nutrients in pigs fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers' dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Ragland, D; Plumstead, P; Adeola, O

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen cannulated pigs were used to evaluate the effect of a new 6-phytase derived from Buttiauxella spp. and expressed in Trichoderma reesei on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, N, Ca, P, Na, Mg, K, Cl, and energy. Pigs were fed 4 diets for 2 periods in a crossover design. Within each period, there were 4 blocks of 4 pigs per block with each diet represented within each block. The average initial BW in periods 1 and 2 were 22 and 30 kg, respectively. Each period lasted 9 d with fecal collection on d 5 and 6 and a 12-h ileal digesta collection on d 7, 8, and 9. Pigs received a daily feed allowance of approximately 4.5% of their BW. The experimental diets were based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers dried grain with solubles. Phytase was added at 0; 500; 1,000; or 2,000 phytase units/kg of diet to a basal diet that contained 205, 15, 5.4, and 10 g of CP, Lys, total P (1.6 g of nonphytate P), and Ca/kg diet, respectively. The addition of phytase improved (P phytase supplementation linearly and quadratically increased (P Phytase supplementation of the basal diet improved (P Phytase supplementation increased (P phytase supplementation of the basal diet increased (P phytase supplementation to the basal diet showed a tendency (P phytase supplementation. Increasing the level of phytase supplementation resulted in linear increases (P phytase expressed in Trichoderma reesei enhanced ileal digestibility of N and several AA in growing pigs in a dose-dependent manner.

  19. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, N; Khan, M S U; Hossain, M B; Sazzad, H M S; Rahman, M Z; Ahmed, F; Zeidner, N S

    2017-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare the history of jaundice between pig handlers and people not exposed to pigs and pork. Blood and faecal samples were collected from 100 pigs derived from three slaughterhouses in the Gazipur district of Bangladesh from January to June, 2011. We also interviewed 200 pig handlers and 250 non-exposed people who did not eat pork or handled pigs in the past 2 years. We tested the pig sera for HEV-specific antibodies using a competitive ELISA and pig faecal samples for HEV RNA using real-time RT-PCR. Of 100 pig sera, 82% (n = 82) had detectable antibody against HEV. Of the 200 pig handlers, 28% (56/200) demonstrated jaundice within the past 2 years, whereas only 17% (43/250) of controls had a history of jaundice (p Bangladesh demonstrated evidence of HEV infection, and a history of jaundice was significantly more frequent in pig handlers. Identifying and genotyping HEV in pigs and pig handlers may provide further evidence of the pig's role in zoonotic HEV transmission in Bangladesh. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Improving efficiency in pig production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by adopting different strategies for meat production ... lates to some specific nutritional considerations. ... allowances were made for the correlated effects of any change. ... end of her reproductive life the sow is also usually sold for meat ... the experimental work. ... on pigs of up-to-date genotype fed on modern balanced diets.

  1. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Najmul; Khan, M. S. U.; Hossain, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare...

  2. Porcine circovirus 2 in the North Eastern region of India: Disease prevalence and genetic variation among the isolates from areas of intensive pig rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Priyanka; Karam, Amarjit; Barkalita, Luit; Borah, Prabodh; Chakraborty, Amit Kr; Das, Samir; Puro, Kekungo; Sanjukta, Rajkumari; Ghatak, Sandeep; Shakuntala, Ingudam; Laha, Ram Gopal; Sen, Arnab; Sharma, Indu

    2018-06-01

    Porcine Circovirus type-2 (PCV-2) is considered as a major threat to the piggery sector in India. To ascertain the epidemiological status and infection level of PCV2, a pilot study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of PCV2 in swine population by ELISA and PCR in the interior and border areas of Meghalaya which includes the area where accessibility and medical aid is a rare phenomenon. A total of 249 serum samples were collected from October 2014 to February 2016 from three divisions of Meghalaya: Khasi, Jaintia and Garo Hills Divisions. The mean positivity of PCV-2 antibodies in suspected sera was 83.93% whereas 62.25% of the suspected samples respectively were found to contain PCV2 as detected by PCR. Additional 190 tissue samples were collected during necropsy from both symptomatic and asymptomatic animals following reported outbreak in this region, which indicated a mean positivity of 18.94% (36/190); out of which 13 samples were subjected to sequencing to find out the genetic diversity of PCV2 amongst the field isolates. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of PCV2 isolates based on cap gene depicted genetic diversity among the strains in pig population of Meghalaya as the isolates belonged to PCV2a, PCV2b-1c and PCV2d genotypes; identification of the PCV2d genotype is probably the first report from Meghalaya. Four isolates forming an outlier group in the phylogenetic tree were arising out of natural inter-genotypic recombination between PCV2a and PCV2b. PCV2 being immunosuppressive in nature impairs the host immune response increasing the susceptibility to other co-infections leading to disease severity and high mortality in pig population. This baseline data gives a brief epidemiological status of PCV2 infection and circulating PCV2 genotype in this region which will be useful in the formulation of control and eradication programs in remotes areas of Meghalaya where accessibility is less and vaccination is a rare practice. Copyright

  3. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  4. Association of insulin resistance with hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-diabetic pigs - Effects of metformin at isoenergetic feeding in a type 2-like diabetic pig model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, S.J.; Mroz, Z.; Dekker, R.A.; Corbijn, H.; Ackermans, M.; Sauerwein, H.

    2006-01-01

    Insulin-mediated glucose metabolism was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)¿treated diabetic pigs to explore if the STZ-diabetic pig can be a suitable model for insulin-resistant, type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pigs (40 kg) were meal-fed with a low-fat (5%) diet. Hyperinsulinemic (1, 2, and 8 mU kg¿1

  5. Impact of narasin on manure composition and microbial ecology, and gas emissions from finishing pigs fed either a corn-soybean meal or a corn-soybean meal-dried distillers grains with solubles diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding finishing pigs either a corn-soybean (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet supplemented with 30.34% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), in combination with either 0 or 30 mg narasin/kg of diet, on subsequent manure composition, manure mic...

  6. Subclinical ketosis in post-partum dairy cows fed a predominantly pasture-based diet: defining cut-points for diagnosis using concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood and determining prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, C W R; Young, L; McDougall, S

    2015-09-01

    Firstly, to define, in dairy cows in the first 5 weeks post-calving fed a predominantly pasture-based diet, cut-points of concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in blood, above which there were associations with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD), reduced pregnancy rates (PR) and decreased milk production, in order to better define subclinical ketosis (SCK) in such cattle; and secondly, to determine the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for SCK. An observational field study was conducted in 565 cows from 15 spring-calving and predominantly pasture-fed dairy herds in two regions of New Zealand during the 2010- 2011 dairy season. Within each herd, a cohort of randomly selected cows (approximately 40 per herd) was blood sampled to determine concentrations of BHBA on six occasions at weekly intervals starting within 5 days of calving. The key outcome variables were the presence/absence of PVD at 5 weeks post-calving, PR after 6 weeks (6-week PR) and after the completion of the breeding season (final PR), and mean daily milk solids production. Two cut-points for defining SCK were identified: firstly concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L within 5 days post-calving, which was associated with an increased diagnosis of PVD (24 vs. 8%); and secondly concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L at any stage within 5 weeks post-calving, which was associated with decreased 6-week PR (78 vs. 85%). The mean herd-level incidence of SCK within 5 weeks post-calving was 68 (min 12; max 100)% and large variations existed between herds in peak prevalence of SCK and the interval post-calving at which such peaks occurred. Cows>8 years of age and cows losing body condition were at increased risk of SCK within 5 weeks of calving. Cows with concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L in early lactation had a higher risk of PVD and lower 6-week PR. Cow and herd-level prevalence of SCK varied widely in early lactation. Subclinical ketosis is common and is significantly

  7. Physical activity level is impaired and diet dependent in preterm newborn pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Muqing; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Van Ginneken, Chris

    2015-01-01

    and neonatal physical activity. METHODS: In experiment 1, preterm and term pigs were fed parenteral nutrition (PN) or PN plus bovine colostrum (BC, 16-64 ml/kg/d enterally) for 5 d. In experiment 2, preterm pigs were fed PN+BC or PN+formula for 5 d. In experiment 3, preterm pigs were fed BC, formula, or human...... feeding increased HCA, intestinal weights, and necrotizing enteritis resistance, relative to formula (experiment 3). CONCLUSION: Preterm pigs show decreased physical activity, and the first enteral feeds diet dependently stimulate both gut growth and physical activity. The effects may arise from...

  8. Odor and odorous compound emissions from manure of swine fed standard and dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) supplemented diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the impact diets containing dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) have on emissions of odor and odorous compounds from swine manure storage. Twenty-four pigs were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet containing 35% DDGS. Pigs were fed ...

  9. Protective immunity against influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, Peter Paul

    2002-01-01

    Swine influenza is a highly contagious acute viral disease of the respiratory tract in pigs, which is prevalent world-wide. The disease causes considerable economic damage primarily due to reduced weight gain in finishing pigs and reduced reproductive performance of sows. In addition, influenza is a

  10. Effect of Information about Animal Feeding on Consumer Acceptability of Sausages from Turopolje Pig Breed

    OpenAIRE

    Cerjak, Marija; Petrčić, Mario; Karolyi, Danijel

    2017-01-01

    Th e aim of this study was to examine the infl uence of information about pig feeding (conventional vs. acorn-fed) on consumer acceptability and probability of purchase of sausages made from local Turopolje pig breed. The study was conducted on a sample of 135 respondents using three step procedures: hedonic test in blind conditions, evaluation of expected preferences and informed hedonic test. Results showed that in the blind test sausage from conventionally-fed pigs were rated higher, but i...

  11. Regional, Seasonal, and Temporal Variations in the Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Pigs at Slaughter in Denmark (1997-2005)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatih, E. N.; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and discuss regional, seasonal, and temporal trends in the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from pigs at slaughter in Denmark between 1997 and 2005. Data on antimicrobial-resistant E. coli were obtained from the Danish Integrated...... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme database. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to detect the presence and evaluate the significance of regional, seasonal, and annual trends in the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli for four drugs. Associations between resistance...... of resistant E. coli as compared to the other seasons of the year. Our study provides evidence of statistically significant regional, seasonal, and temporal variations for ampicillin- and streptomycin-resistant E. coli isolated from pigs at slaughter in Denmark between 1997 and 2005....

  12. Prevalence of the Novel Torque Teno Sus Virus Species k2b from Pigs in the United States and Lack of Association with Post-Weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome or Mulberry Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A J; Huang, Y-W; Heffron, C L; Opriessnig, T; Patterson, A R; Meng, X-J

    2017-12-01

    The family Anelloviridae includes a number of viruses infecting humans (Torque teno viruses, TTV) and other animals including swine (Torque teno sus viruses, TTSuV). Two genetically distinct TTSuV species have been identified from swine thus far (TTSuV1 and TTSuVk2), although their definitive association with disease remains debatable. In 2012, a novel TTSuV species was identified from commercial swine serum and classified in the genus Kappatorquevirus as TTSuVk2b. The other Kappatorquevirus species, TTSuVk2a, has been associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) when coinfected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Therefore, in this study, we initially amplified a portion of TTSuVk2b ORF1 and, subsequently, assessed the molecular prevalence of the virus in pigs in the United States. A total of 127 serum and 115 tissue samples were obtained from pigs with PMWS or mulberry heart disease (MHD) in six states and tested by PCR for the presence of TTSuVk2b DNA. Approximately 27.6% of the serum and 21.7% of tissue samples tested positive for TTSuVk2b DNA, and the positive products were confirmed by sequencing. However, we did not detect a correlation between TTSuVk2b infection and PMWS or MHD. The near full-length genomic sequence of US TTSuVk2b was determined, and sequence analysis revealed that the US TTSuVk2b isolates were 95% identical to the TTSuVk2b isolate from Spain, with most of the variations clustering in ORF1. We conclude that the novel TTSuVk2b species is present in pigs in the United States and its potential association with a disease warrants further investigation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Dietary marker effects on fecal microbial ecology, fecal VFA, nutrient digestibility coefficients, and growth performance in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Ziemer, C J

    2015-05-01

    Use of indigestible markers such as Cr2O3, Fe2O3, and TiO2 are commonly used in animal studies to evaluate digesta rate of passage and nutrient digestibility. Yet, the potential impact of indigestible markers on fecal microbial ecology and subsequent VFA generation is not known. Two experiments utilizing a total of 72 individually fed finishing pigs were conducted to describe the impact of dietary markers on fecal microbial ecology, fecal ammonia and VFA concentrations, nutrient digestibility, and pig performance. All pigs were fed a common diet with no marker or with 0.5% Cr2O3, Fe2O3, or TiO2. In Exp. 1, after 33 d of feeding, fresh fecal samples were collected for evaluation of microbial ecology, fecal ammonia and VFA concentrations, and nutrient digestibility, along with measures of animal performance. No differences were noted in total microbes or bacterial counts in pig feces obtained from pigs fed the different dietary markers while Archaea counts were decreased (P = 0.07) in feces obtained from pigs fed the diet containing Fe2O 3compared to pigs fed the control diet. Feeding Cr2O3, Fe2O3, or TiO2 increased fecal bacterial richness (P = 0.03, 0.01, and 0.10; respectively) when compared to pigs fed diets containing no marker, but no dietary marker effects were noted on fecal microbial evenness or the Shannon-Wiener index. Analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis gels did not reveal band pattern alterations due to inclusion of dietary markers in pig diets. There was no effect of dietary marker on fecal DM, ammonia, or VFA concentrations. Pigs fed diets containing Cr2O3 had greater Ca, Cu, Fe, and P (P ≤ 0.02), but lower Ti ( P= 0.08) digestibility compared to pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed diets containing Fe2O3 had greater Ca (P = 0.08) but lower Ti (P = 0.01) digestibility compared to pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed diets containing TiO2 had greater Fe and Zn (P ≤ 0.09), but lower Ti ( P= 0.01) digestibility compared to pigs fed the

  14. Integrated resource-driven pig production systems in a mountainous area of Northeast India: production practices and pig performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Pathak, K A; Das, Anubrata; Bardoloi, R K

    2009-10-01

    Data on pig production system was derived through structured household interviews from a total number of 320 rural households and performance of pigs was assessed. Results revealed that the pig production system represented mixed farming based mainly on the common property resources. Majority of the pigs were reared in intensive system and fed with home made cooked feed (kitchen waste and locally available plants). The body weight of crossbred, Burmese and local pigs were 67, 65.4 and 45.6 kg, respectively at 12 months of age with average daily body weight of 184, 179 and 125 g, respectively. The overall mortality among the pigs was 17.96%. The major causes of mortality in pigs were Swine fever, Swine erysipelas, digestive disorders, nephritis and respiratory disorders. The body weight gain in pigs subjected to deworming and mineral mixture supplementation (218 g/day) was significantly (p pigs, while the corresponding ratio for local pigs was 1:1.2. It is inferred that the smallholder resource driven pig production system is economically viable and sustainable at household level and there is enough scope to improve the smallholder resource driven pig production system.

  15. Impact of narasin on manure composition, microbial ecology, and gas emissions from finishing pigs fed either a corn-soybean meal or a corn-soybean meal-dried distillers grains with solubles diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Brian J; Trabue, Steven L; van Weelden, Mark B; Andersen, Daniel S; Pepple, Laura M

    2018-04-14

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding finishing pigs a corn-soybean (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet supplemented with 30% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), in combination with or without a growth-promoting ionophore (0 or 30 mg narasin/kg of diet), has on manure composition, microbial ecology, and gas emissions. Two separate groups of 24 gilts (initial BW = 145.1 kg, SD = 7.8 kg) were allotted to individual metabolism crates that allowed for total but separate collection of feces and urine during the 48-d collection period. After each of the twice-daily feedings, feces and urine from each crate was collected and added to its assigned enclosed manure storage tank. Each tank contained an individual fan system that pulled a constant stream of air over the manure surface for 2 wk prior to air (day 52) and manure sampling (day 53). After manure sampling, the manure in the tanks was dumped and the tanks cleaned for the second group of pigs. Except for total manure Ca and P output as a percent of intake and for manure methane product rate and biochemical methane potential (P ≤ 0.08), there were no interactions between diet composition and narasin supplementation. Narasin supplementation resulted in increased manure C (P = 0.05), increased manure DM, C, S, Ca, and phosphorus as a percent of animal intake (P ≤ 0.07), and increased manure volatile solids and foaming capacity (P ≤ 0.09). No effect of narasin supplementation was noted on manure VFA concentrations or any of the gas emission parameters measured (P ≥ 0.29). In contrast, feeding finishing pigs a diet containing DDGS dramatically affected manure composition as indicated by increased concentration of DM, C, ammonia, N, and total and volatile solids (P = 0.01), increased manure DM, N, and C as a percent of animal intake (P = 0.01), increased manure total VFA and phenols (P ≤ 0.05), decreased gas emissions of ammonia and volatile sulfur compounds (VSC; P = 0.01), increased

  16. Effect of combined xylanase and phytase on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility, and carcass characteristics in growing pigs fed corn-based diets containing high-fiber coproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y D; Wilcock, P; Boyd, R D; Lindemann, M D

    2017-09-01

    Phytate has been shown to be an antinutrient, and the feeding of high levels of phytase can break down phytate to improve nutrient utilization and pig performance. Dietary xylanase targets arabinoxylan breakdown, thereby improving energy utilization in pigs. However, the effects of simultaneous supplementation have not been clearly determined. Crossbred pigs ( = 45; mean initial weight, 26.4 ± 0.2 kg) were allotted to 1 of 9 treatments to evaluate the effects of both xylanase (endo-1,4-β xylanase [EC 3.2.1.8]) and phytase (6-phytase [EC 3.1.3.26]) supplementation as follows: 1) positive control (PC), a corn-soybean meal-based diet with 15% corn distillers dried grains with solubles, 15% wheat middlings, and 13% corn germ meal; 2) negative control (NC), ME was reduced by 103 kcal/kg from the PC diet by replacement of fat with corn starch; 3) NC + phytase (500 phytase units (FTU)/kg diet); 4) NC + phytase (1,000 FTU/kg diet); 5) NC + phytase (2,000 FTU/kg diet); 6) NC + xylanase (24,000 xylanase units [BXU]/kg diet); 7) NC + phytase (500 FTU/kg diet) + xylanase (24,000 BXU/kg diet); 8) NC + phytase (1,000 FTU/kg diet) + xylanase (24,000 BXU/kg diet); and 9) NC + phytase (2,000 FTU/kg diet) + xylanase (24,000 BXU/kg diet). All diets were formulated to meet nutrient requirements before phytase and xylanase addition to the diets. There were no significant interactions between xylanase and phytase supplementation on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD). The ADG ( phytase level increased. The ATTD of P increased as phytase supplementation level increased ( phytase level increased. Estimated carcass lean percentage and lean gain increased ( phytase level increased. Xylanase supplementation had no effect on growth performance, ATTD, and carcass characteristics. The results demonstrated an improved nutrient digestibility, performance, and carcass response to phytase supplementation beyond P provision because all diets

  17. Metabolizable energy, nitrogen balance, and ileal digestibility of amino acids in quality protein maize for pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background To compare the nutritional value and digestibility of five quality protein maize (QPM) hybrids to that of white and yellow maize, two experiments were carried out in growing pigs. In experiment 1, the energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of growing pigs fed one of five QPM hybrid diets were compared against those of pigs fed white or yellow maize. In experiment 2, the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility (AID and SID, respectively) of proteins and amino acids from the five QPM hybrids were compared against those obtained from pigs fed white and yellow maize. In both experiments, the comparisons were conducted using contrasts. Results The dry matter and nitrogen intakes were higher in the pigs fed the QPM hybrids (P digestibility (P digestible lysine than normal maize. PMID:25045520

  18. Temporal fluctuations in the sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs in Mbeya Region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Lekule, Faustin

    2014-01-01

    Background Porcine cysticercosis is an emerging agricultural problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This has been documented primarily through cross-sectional studies, however detailed knowledge of the transmission dynamics of this disease in sub-Saharan Africa is lacking. This study aims to describe...... variation in local crop production practices. Also, as the Ag-ELISA assay used is not species specific, variation in transmission of Taenia hydatigena could potentially influence the results. The observed fluctuations contradict a theoretical model which predicts a stable equilibrium, which only considers...... a two-compartment (pig and human) model excluding the effect of the environment. Whether the disease has an endemic equilibrium, or undergoes fluctuations dependent on extrinsic and/or socio-economic factors remains to be elucidated....

  19. Prevalence of serogroups and virulence genes in Escherichia coli associated with postweaning diarrhoea and edema disease in pigs and a comparison of diagnostic approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendahl, K.

    2002-01-01

    Identification of Escherichia coli causing porcine postweaning diarrhoea (PWD) or edema disease (ED) requires knowledge regarding the prevalent pathotypes within a given region. This study was undertaken to determine the present distribution of serogroups. hemolytic activity and virulence factor...

  20. Endocrine tumours in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Mayer, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Functional endocrine tumours have long been thought to be rare in guinea pigs, although conditions such as hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been documented with increasing frequency so the prevalence of hormonal disorders may have been underestimated. Both the clinical signs and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs appear to be very similar to those described in feline hyperthyroidism, and methimazole has been proven to be a practical therapy option. Hyperadrenocorticism has been confirmed in several guinea pigs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test using saliva as a non-invasive sample matrix; trilostane has been successfully used to treat a guinea pig with hyperadrenocorticism. Insulinomas have only rarely been documented in guinea pigs and one animal was effectively treated with diazoxide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tiamulin feed premix in the improvement of growth performance of pigs in herds severely affected with enzootic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, D G

    1984-03-03

    Four field trials were carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding tiamulin hydrogen fumarate at 20 and 30 ppm to fattening pigs over an eight week period, on farms with histories of severe, complicated, enzootic pneumonia problems. These farms had a prevalence of pigs with pneumonic lesions from 81 to 94 per cent and a range between individual batches of 69 to 96 per cent. The results of the first three trials showed that tiamulin at 30 ppm significantly improved the weight gains and feed conversion efficiency of pigs, in comparison with controls and was superior to the groups fed 20 ppm tiamulin. A further trial with tiamulin at 30 ppm and controls only, confirmed the original findings. The overall average results showed that tiamulin improved average daily gain by 33 g (4.7 per cent) and feed conversion efficiency by 0.138 (4.7 per cent). This effect did not appear to result from a reduction in the total extent of pneumonic lesions and the possible reasons for this are discussed, but in the fourth trial the number of pigs requiring parenteral treatment was noticeably reduced.

  2. Evaluation of conjugated linoleic acid and dietary antibiotics as growth promotants in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T E; Schinckel, A P; Houseknecht, K L; Richert, B T

    2001-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a growth promotant in weanling swine. Weanling pigs (n = 192; 7.6 kg and 29 d of age) were randomly assigned to four treatments that were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial. Concentrations of dietary CLA (0 or 0.6%) and antibiotics (+/-) constituted the main effect variables. Dietary CLA treatments consisted of a 1% addition of an oil containing 60% CLA isomers or 1% soybean oil, and dietary antibiotic treatments were antibiotics or no antibiotics. The experimental diets were fed for 9 wk in four phases (1, wk 1; 2, wk 2 and 3; 3, wk 4 through 6; and 4, wk 7 through 9), after which all pigs were fed identical medicated diets for the duration of the finishing phase. Live weights were recorded at wk 17 postweaning and at marketing to determine any residual effects of dietary treatments on finisher ADG and days to market. Medicated diets fed during phases 1 and 2 contained 55 mg carbadox/kg; during phase 3 contained 299 mg tilmicosin/kg; and during phase 4 contained 110 mg tylosin and 110 mg sulfamethazine/kg. Pigs fed medicated diets had higher overall ADG than pigs fed unmedicated diets for wk 0 through 9 (P pigs fed medicated diets than for pigs fed unmedicated diets during phase 1 (P residual effects of nursery CLA or antibiotics on finisher ADG and days to market. Blood samples collected from a subset of pigs (n = 72) at the completion of phases 2, 3, and 4 were assayed for serum IGF-I and antibody concentrations to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. There was a tendency for pigs fed medicated diets to have greater IGF-I concentrations than pigs fed unmedicated diets at the completion of phase 4 (P Pigs fed CLA had greater antibody titers (P pigs fed diets without CLA. These results indicate that feeding 0.6% dietary CLA did not enhance growth performance in weanling swine and that the use of dietary antibiotics can

  3. High dietary zinc supplementation increases the occurrence of tetracycline and sulfonamide resistance genes in the intestine of weaned pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Vahjen, Wilfried; Pietruszy?ska, Dominika; Starke, Ingo C.; Zentek, J?rgen

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary zinc oxide is used in pig nutrition to combat post weaning diarrhoea. Recent data suggests that high doses (2.5?g/kg feed) increase the bacterial antibiotic resistance development in weaned pigs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the development of enterobacterial antibiotic resistance genes in the intestinal tract of weaned pigs. Findings Weaned pigs were fed diets for 4?weeks containing 57 (low), 164 (intermediate) or 2425 (high) mg?kg?1 analytical grade...

  4. Innate immune responses to obesity in cloned and wild-type domestic pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Stagsted, Jan

    as a refined pig model for obesity-induced innate host responses by reducing pig-to-pig biological variation compared to wild-type (WT) pigs (n=19). Pigs were fed ad libitum with a high fat/high sucrose diet to induce obesity or kept lean on a restricted diet (60% of ad libitum intake) beginning at three...... months of age. mRNA expression levels were determined for 39 innate immune factors on a high-throughput qPCR system in samples from liver, abdominal fat, mesenteric fat and subcutaneous fat. Previous findings have suggested that cloning may affect certain phenotypic traits of pigs including basic...... concentrations and responsiveness of components of the innate immune system. Terminal body weights at 7½ - 9½ months of age were significantly higher for both (WT and cloned) obese groups compared to the lean groups. However, obese WT pigs weighed significantly more than obese cloned pigs (P

  5. Métodos de colheita de fezes e balanço de minerais em suínos alimentados com dietas suplementadas ou não com probiótico = Methods of feces collection and mineral balance of pigs fed diets supplemented or not with probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Alcides Robles-Huaynate

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois ensaios de metabolismo, utilizando-se oito suínos, machos castrados, em fase de crescimento, em cada ensaio. No ensaio 1, foram comparados os teores de MS, PB, EB, EE, MM e FDN das fezes colhidas por meio de dois métodos: diretamente do reto do animal ou da caixa coletora da gaiola, realizados simultaneamenteem cada suíno. No ensaio 2, foi estudado o balanço de minerais, sendo os animais submetidos a dois tratamentos: T1 - ração basal e T2 - ração basal + 200 ppm de probiótico. Os teores dos nutrientes mensurados foram similares nas fezes colhidas em ambos os métodos, com exceção da MS. Para o balanço de minerais, não houve diferença (p > 0,05 entre os animais alimentados com rações, contendo ou não probiótico. Ambos os métodos de colheita de fezes poderiam ser realizados, simultaneamente, em ensaios de balanço de minerais.Two metabolism assays were conducted, with eight growing castrated male crossbred pigs in each assay. In the first assay, the levels ofDM, CP, GE, EE, MM and NDF were compared in feces, collected through two different methods: directly from the animal’s rectum or from a collection tray, collected simultaneously from each pig. The second assay evaluated the animals’ mineral balance. For this study, the animals were submitted to two treatments: T1 - basal feed and T2 - basal feed + 200ppm of probiotic. The nutrients levels were similar in the feces collected through both methods, with the exception of DM. There was no observable difference (p > 0.05 in mineral balance between the animals fed diets containing or not probiotic. Both collection methods can be undertaken simultaneously in mineral balance assays.

  6. The effect of fermentable carbohydrates on experimental swine dysentery and whip worm infections in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lisbeth E.; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2007-01-01

    ingredients were composed. Both diets were based on triticale and barley and supplemented with either rape seed cake (Diet 1) or dried chicory root and sweet lupins (Diet 2). The study had a three-factorial design, with eight groups of pigs receiving Diet I or Diet 2, +/- B. hyodysenteriae, and +/- T suis......An experiment was conducted to study the effect of diets with contrasting fermentability in the large intestine on experimental infections with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, and the whip worm, Trichuris suis, in pigs. Two diets with organically grown....... Pigs fed Diet 2 and challenged with B. hyodysenteriae did not develop swine dysentery and B. hyodysenteriae was not demonstrated in any of the pigs during the study. In contrast, 94% of the B. hyodysenteriae challenged pigs fed Diet I showed clinical symptoms of swine dysentery and all the pigs were...

  7. Preterm Birth and Necrotizing Enterocolitis Alter Gut Colonization in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene S.; Boye, Mette; Mølbak, Lars

    2011-01-01

    perfringens predisposes to NEC. By using terminal-RFLP and FISH, we characterized the gut microbiota of preterm, caesarean-delivered, formula-fed pigs (n = 44) with or without NEC and of formula- or colostrum-fed term, and vaginally born pigs (n = 13). A different microbiota with high C. perfringens abundance......Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates is dependent on bacterial colonization, but it remains unclear whether a particular microbiota or specific pathogens are involved. We hypothesized that gut colonization differs between preterm and term neonates and that overgrowth of Clostridium...

  8. Diurnal variation in degradation of phytic acid by plant phytase in the pig stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemme, P.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Mroz, Z.; Beynen, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of plant phytase on the gastric degradation of phytic acid and digestibilities of DM and P, and their diurnal variation were evaluated in pigs from 90 to 115 kg BW fitted with simple duodenal T-cannulas. Three diets were fed to three pigs in four collection periods according to a

  9. Slaughterhouse survey of Trichinella infections in pigs of Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A slaughterhouse survey was conducted in five regions of Tanzania to determine the prevalence of the nematode in domestic pigs slaughtered for human consumption in the framework of an OIE Twinning project. At least five grams of diaphragm muscle was taken from each sampled carcass. A total of 1,078 adult pigs were ...

  10. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in breeding pigs in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Azzurra; Tagel, Maarja; Must, Kärt

    2017-01-01

    Background: Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread occurring parasite infecting warm-blooded animals, including pigs and humans. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies and to evaluate risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity in breeding pigs raised in Esto...

  11. Control of Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at herd level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerve, Eystein; Lium, Bjørn; Nielsen, Bent

    1998-01-01

    of slaughter pigs (OR = 0.44) also lowered the herd prevalence. The most expressed risk factor was using an own farm vehicle for transport of slaughter pigs to abattoirs (OR = 12.92). Separation between clean and unclean section in herds (OR = 2.67), daily observations of a cat with kittens on the farm (OR = 2...

  12. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 from slaughter pigs in northeast China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Xiaomei; Yu, Xiaojie; Tao, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Binghua; Dong, Rui; Xue, Chengyu; Grundmann, Hajo; Zhang, Jianzhong

    To describe the prevalence and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that colonize pigs at slaughterhouses in northeastern China, nose swabs were collected from pigs in two slaughterhouses in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China in 2009.S. aureus isolates were characterized by

  13. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Pig Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Voss, Andreas; Loeffen, Frans; Bakker, Judith; Klaassen, Corne; Wulf, Mireille

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a study among a group of 26 regional pig farmers to determine the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence rate and found it was >760 times greater than the rate of patients admitted to Dutch hospitals. While spa-type t108 is apparently a more widespread clone among pig farmers and their environment, we did find other spa-types.

  14. Effects of feeding level and access to rooting material on behaviour of growing pigs in situations with reduced feeding space and delayed feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2010-01-01

    Seventy-two pigs, housed in groups of four, were allocated to either (1) ad libitum feeding with access to wood chip, (2) restrictive feeding with access to wood chip or (3) restrictive feeding without access to wood chip. The effects of feeding level (treatment 1 vs. 2) and access to wood chip......, but the level of manipulating floor in these pigs did not reach the level of manipulating wood chip among pigs on treatment 2. During normal days restrictively fed pigs spent less time feeding on a 24 h basis, but more time feeding during the first hour after feed allocation than ad libitum fed pigs. When...

  15. Treating pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Mie S.; Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores how animal modelling is negotiated and practised in the field of translational neonatology research in Denmark. Based on ethnography from a biomedical research centre, NEOMUNE, in which veterinary and medical scientists worked on developing a ‘preterm pig brain model’, we...... examine how they strived to balance traditional scientific norms of standardisation against clinical researchers’ requests for clinical care in the modelling practice. We develop the notion of ‘patientising’ to capture how the research piglets are made to model not only the biological consequences...... of prematurity, but also the suffering of the human patient entitled to individual care. Based on this ethnographic fieldwork we argue that the demand for clinical relevance in translational research highlights the animal laboratory as also being a “moral laboratory” (Mattingly, 2014). In seeking to align...

  16. Effects of dietary beef tallow and soy oil on glucose and cholesterol homeostasis in normal and diabetic pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woollett, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Toe valuate whether dietary fats of different degrees of unsaturation alter glucose and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-CH) homeostasis, normal and alloxan-diabetic pigs were fed diets containing either beef tallow or soy oil as the primary source of fat for 6 weeks. After intra-arterial and oral doses of glucose, pigs fed soy oil had similar glucose and greater insulin concentrations in plasma when compared with pigs fed beef tallow. Beef tallow-fed pigs additionally were 40% more glucose effective than were soy oil-fed pigs. Disappearance of injected autologous 14 C-VLDL-CH was analyzed in pigs using a two-pool model. Diabetes resulted in a twofold increase in half-lives and a 60-fold increase in pool sizes of the primary and secondary components of VLDL-CH disappearance when compared with those of normal pigs. In normal pigs, feeding beef tallow resulted in longer half-lives of both components of VLDL-CH disappearance and no effect in pool size of both components of VLDL-CH disappearance than did feeding soy oil. In comparison, diabetic pigs fed beef tallow had a similar half-life of the primary component, a twofold shorter half-life of the secondary component, and threefold larger pool size of the primary component, and a similar pool size of the secondary component of VLDL-CH disappearance than did diabetic pigs fed soy oil. Thus, dietary fat seems to play an important role in regulation of glucose and VLDL-CH homeostasis in normal and diabetic animals

  17. Oral microbial profile discriminates breast-fed from formula-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgerson, Pernilla L; Vestman, Nelly R; Claesson, Rolf; Ohman, Carina; Domellöf, Magnus; Tanner, Anne C R; Hernell, Olle; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the effect of diet on the oral microbiota of infants, although diet is known to affect the gut microbiota. The aims of the present study were to compare the oral microbiota in breast-fed and formula-fed infants, and investigate growth inhibition of streptococci by infant-isolated lactobacilli. A total of 207 mothers consented to participation of their 3-month-old infants. A total of 146 (70.5%) infants were exclusively and 38 (18.4%) partially breast-fed, and 23 (11.1%) were exclusively formula-fed. Saliva from all of their infants was cultured for Lactobacillus species, with isolate identifications from 21 infants. Lactobacillus isolates were tested for their ability to suppress Streptococcus mutans and S sanguinis. Oral swabs from 73 infants were analysed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) and by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for Lactobacillus gasseri. Lactobacilli were cultured from 27.8% of exclusively and partially breast-fed infants, but not from formula-fed infants. The prevalence of 14 HOMIM-detected taxa, and total salivary lactobacilli counts differed by feeding method. Multivariate modelling of HOMIM-detected bacteria and possible confounders clustered samples from breast-fed infants separately from formula-fed infants. The microbiota of breast-fed infants differed based on vaginal or C-section delivery. Isolates of L plantarum, L gasseri, and L vaginalis inhibited growth of the cariogenic S mutans and the commensal S sanguinis: L plantarum >L gasseri >L vaginalis. The microbiota of the mouth differs between 3-month-old breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Possible mechanisms for microbial differences observed include species suppression by lactobacilli indigenous to breast milk.

  18. Assessment of the feeding value of South Dakota-grown field peas (Pisum sativum l.) for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H H; Benzoni, G; Bohlke, R A; Peters, D N

    2004-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the feeding value of South Dakota-grown field peas (Pisum sativum L.) for growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 96 pigs (initial BW = 22 +/- 3.35 kg) were allotted to four treatment groups (four pigs per pen, six replicate pens per treatment) and fed growing (0.95% Lys) and finishing (0.68% Lys) diets containing 0, 12, 24, or 36% field peas (as-fed basis). There were no differences among the treatment groups in ADG, ADFI, or G:F. Likewise, there were no differences in backfat thickness or lean meat percent among treatment groups, but pigs fed diets containing 12, 24, or 36% field peas had greater (P feed ingredients. Experiment 4 was an energy balance experiment conducted to measure the DE and ME concentrations in field peas and corn. Six growing pigs (initial BW = 85.5 +/- 6.5 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and fed diets based on field peas or corn and arranged in a two-period switch-back design. The DE values for field peas and corn (3,864 and 3,879 kcal/kg DM, respectively) were similar, but the ME of corn was higher (P Dakota-grown field peas are highly digestible by growing pigs. Therefore, such field peas may be included in diets for nursery pigs and growing-finishing pigs in amounts of at least 18 and 36%, respectively, without negatively affecting pig performance.

  19. Estimation of body composition of pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrell, C.L.; Cornelius, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of deuterium oxide (D2O) for in vivo estimation of body composition of diverse types of pigs. Obese (Ob, 30) and contemporary Hampshire X Yorkshire (C, 30) types of pigs used in the study were managed and fed under typical management regimens. Indwelling catheters were placed in a jugular vein of 6 Ob and 6 C pigs at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 wk of age. The D2O was infused (.5 g/kg body weight) as a .9% NaCl solution into the jugular catheter. Blood samples were taken immediately before and at .25, 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after the D2O infusion and D2O concentration in blood water was determined. Pigs were subsequently killed by euthanasia injection. Contents of the gastrointestinal tract were removed and the empty body was then frozen and later ground and sampled for subsequent analyses. Ground body tissue samples were analyzed for water, fat, N, fat-free organic matter and ash. Pig type, age and the type X age interaction were significant sources of variation in live weight, D2O pool size and all empty body components, as well as all fat-free empty body components. Relationships between age and live weight or weight of empty body components, and between live weight, empty body weight, empty body water or D2O space and weight of empty components were highly significant but influenced, in most cases, by pig type. The results of this study suggested that, although relationships between D2O space and body component weights were highly significant, they were influenced by pig type and were little better than live weight for the estimation of body composition

  20. Effect of the inclusion of dry pasta by-products at different levels in the diet of typical Italian finishing heavy pigs: Performance, carcass characteristics, and ham quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Moschini, M; Giuberti, G; Morlacchini, M

    2016-04-01

    The effect of pasta inclusion in finishing pig diets was evaluated on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ham quality. Pigs (144) were assigned to 4 diets with different pasta levels: 0 (control, corn-based diet), 30, 60, or 80%. Pigs fed pasta had greater (linear, PPasta increased (quadratic, PPasta decreased (linear, Ppasta. Pasta could be considered as an ingredient in the diet for typical Italian finishing heavy pigs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. the evaluation and standardisation of pig rations under south african ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AND ENERGY AT DIFFERENT I-EVELS AND RATIOS TO BACONERS. E.H. Kemm and .... (1971). The energy content of the ground freeze dried samples was then de- termined using an adiabatic bomb calorimeter. All the results were statistically analyzed by the analysis of vari .... Pigs fed an unlimited quantity of the HP.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for Ascaris and Cryptosporidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases in particular parasitic infestation is among the drawbacks to profitable pig production since parasites compromise the production and reproduction performance of infested pigs. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors for Ascaris and Cryptosporidium infestations in pigs ...

  3. Microbial phytase and liquid feeding increase phytate degradation in the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2010-01-01

    The quantitative degradation of inositol phosphates (InsP6 to InsP2) in the stomach and small intestine as influenced by microbial phytase and fermented liquid feeding was compared by combining the results from two experiments. Six pigs (49 kg) were fitted with gastric cannulas ( Exp. 1 ) and 3...... with microbial phytase (750 FTU/kg) fed dry; diet 3, diet 2 fed in liquid form (fermented 17.5 h, 20 °C, 50% residual in the tank). InsP6-P was not present in gastric or ileal digesta in pigs fed diet 3 due to complete InsP6 degradation before feeding. In pigs fed diet 2 the amount of gastric InsP6-P...... was considerably smaller compared with pigs fed diet 1 due to phytase addition (P ≤ 0.001). On the other hand, the amount of ileal InsP6-P was only slightly less in pigs fed diet 2 compared with diet 1 indicating that InsP6 is greatly degraded in the small intestine. Furthermore, the amounts of gastric or ileal...

  4. Modelos matemáticos para o estudo do fluxo biológico do fósforo em suínos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com níveis crescentes de fitase Mathematical models for the study of the biological flow of phosphorus in pigs fed with diets containing increasing levels of phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Moreira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar o fluxo biológico do fósforo entre os compartimentos, fisiológicos ou anatômicos, de suínos mantidos em dietas que continham níveis crescentes de fitase, usando o P-32 como traçador. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, sendo os tratamentos constituídos por níveis de enzima fitase, 253, 759, 1265 e 1748 UF/kg, nas dietas. As variáveis avaliadas foram: ingestão, excreção, atividades específicas e fluxo de P nos compartimentos (trato digestivo, corrente sanguínea, tecidos moles e ossos. A enzima fitase não interferiu nas excreções fecais e urinárias, nas atividades específicas, na incorporação e na reabsorção de P nos ossos e nos tecidos moles e no fluxo bidirecional do trato digestivo e na corrente sanguínea, mas afetou linearmente a absorção e a retenção nos ossos. As respostas mais evidentes dos efeitos da adição da fitase são observadas nos níveis mais baixos.The biological flow of P was evaluated among the physiologic or the anatomical compartments of pigs fed diets with increasing phytase levels, using P-32 as tracer. The experimental design was completely randomized. Treatments consisted of phytase levels in diets (253, 759, 1265, and 1748UF/kg. The evaluated variables were: feed intake, excretion, specific activities and flow of P in the compartments (gut, blood, bone, and soft tissus. Phytase level did not interfere with fecal and urinary excretion, specific activities, incorporation and resorption of bone, and soft tissue P and in the bidirectional flow of gut and blood, but linearly affected P absorption and bone P retention. The best response was observed with the lowest phytase levels.

  5. Nutrient digestibility and performance of pigs fed sorghum varying in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (BPS)and a low polyphenol content class KM cultivar (NS)with maize .... phenol content was determined by the modified Jerumanis pro- ... sunflower oil cake meal (SOC) to formulate the six experimen- tal diets. Bird-proof sorghum of the cultivar SSK 32 with a polyphenol content of 1,42 % and NS of the cultivar NK 283.

  6. Nitrogen balance and morphometric traits of weanling pigs fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of Tithonia diversifolia (wild sunflower) were harvested, processed and subsequently referred to as Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal (TDLM). Proximate composition and amino acid analyses revealed that TDLM is a relative rich protein source at 20.6% crude protein (CP) content. Lysine, leucine and isoleucine were ...

  7. Herd-level risk factors for subclinical Salmonella infection in European finishing-pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dahl, J.; Stege, H.

    2004-01-01

    Our objective was to find herd factors associated with pigs testing seropositive for Salmonella. Data were collected from 359 finishing-pig herds in Germany, Denmark, Greece, The Netherlands and Sweden, between 1996 and 1998. Pigs fed non-pelleted feed (dry or wet) had 2- and 2.5-times lower odds...... recruiting from more than three supplier herds had three-times higher odds to test seropositive than pigs in herds which breed their own replacement stock or recruit from a maximum of three supplier herds....

  8. Effect of feed intake level and dietary protein content on the body temperature of pigs housed under thermo neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A; Ibarra, N; Chávez, M; Gómez, T; Suárez, A; Valle, J A; Camacho, R L; Cervantes, M

    2018-04-01

    Feed intake and diet composition appear to affect the body temperature of pigs. Two trials were conducted to analyse the effect of feed intake level and dietary protein content on the intestinal temperature (IT) of pigs housed under thermo neutral conditions. Ten pigs (64.1 ± 1.3 kg initial body weight) fitted with an ileal cannula were used. A thermometer set to register the IT at 5-min intervals was implanted into the ileum through the cannula. In both trials, the ambient temperature ranged from 19.1 to 21.6°C and the pigs were fed at 07:00 and 19:00 hr (same amount each time). In trial 1, the pigs were fed daily 1.2 or 1.8 kg of a wheat-soybean meal diet. The IT followed a similar pattern along a 24-hr period regardless the feed intake level. The IT rapidly increased up to 0.61 and 0.74°C after the morning meal and up to 0.53 and 0.47°C after the evening meal in pigs fed 1.2 and 1.8 kg/d respectively. The postprandial IT was higher in pigs fed 1.8 kg after each meal (p level. The postprandial IT did not differ between pigs fed the low protein or the high protein (p > .10). The IT rapidly increased up to 0.66 and 0.62°C after the morning meal in pigs fed the high- and low-protein diet (p  .10). In conclusion, the feed intake level affected the IT of pigs housed under TN conditions, but the dietary protein content had no effect. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Impact of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth, efficiency, and carcass traits of finishing pigs in a three-phase marketing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlemann, G D; Allee, G L; Rincker, P J; Ritter, M J; Boler, D D; Carr, S N

    2014-03-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) in a 3-phase marketing strategy. One thousand seven hundred forty pigs were used in 80 single-sex pens in 2 blocks. Each pen housed approximately 22 pigs. Sixteen percent of the total population of pigs was sold during the first marketing period, 18% was sold during the second marketing period, and the remaining 66% was sold during the third marketing period. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design of 2 treatments. Pigs in the second marketing group had greater growth performance indicators than pigs in the first marketing group. Over the entire feeding period, pigs fed RAC were 2.73 kg heavier (P marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (89.73 kg) were 2.1% heavier (P = 0.04) and gained 0.19 kg/d more (P = 0.03) carcass weight than carcasses from pigs not fed RAC (87.89 kg). By the end of the second marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (99.00 kg) were 3.1% heavier (P marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (102.75 kg) were 3.7% heavier (P marketing period, but as duration increased differences diminished. Therefore, RAC can provide the expected growth performance benefits when included in the diet for up to 21 d, but HCW advantages continue to increase throughout the entire 35 d feeding period. Even though carcass benefits were not as evident in pigs sold during the first marketing period, advantages (particularly HCW) continued to increase with each marketing period.

  10. Claw lesions and lameness in zero-grazed cattle fed on brewer\\'s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feet from 218 cattle in 35 zerograzing units were studied from June 2003 to June 2004. Cattle in 20 of the zero-grazing units were fed brewer's grain while 15 of the units did not feed brewer's grain. The units were conveniently selected. Comparing brewer's grain fed and non-grain fed animals, the prevalence of laminitis ...

  11. Fermentation products as feed additives mitigate some ill-effects of heat stress in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Bass, B E; Bandrick, M; Loving, C L; Brockmeier, S L; Looft, T; Trachsel, J; Madson, D M; Thomas, M; Casey, T A; Frank, J W; Stanton, T B; Allen, H K

    2017-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) may result in economic losses to pig producers across the USA and worldwide. Despite significant advancements in management practices, HS continues to be a challenge. In this study, an in-feed antibiotic (carbadox, CBX) and antibiotic alternatives ( [XPC], and [SGX] fermentation products) were evaluated in a standard pig starter diet as mitigations against the negative effects of HS in pigs. A total of 100 gilts were obtained at weaning (6.87 ± 0.82 kg BW, 19.36 ± 0.72 d of age) and randomly assigned to dietary treatments (2 rooms/treatment, 2 pens/room, 6 to 7 pigs/pen). After 4 wk of dietary acclimation, half of the pigs in each dietary group (1 room/dietary treatment) were exposed to repeated heat stress conditions (RHS; daily cycles of 19 h at 25°C and 5 h at 40°C, repeated for 9 d), and the remaining pigs were housed at constant thermal neutral temperature (25°C, [NHS]). Pigs subjected to RHS had elevated skin surface temperature ( treatment. Independent of diet, RHS pigs had significantly shorter ( stress resulted in decreased villus height to crypt depth ratio (V:C) in pigs fed with control diet with no added feed additive (NON) and CBX diets at d 3, whereas the pigs fed diets containing XPC or SGX showed no decrease. Transcriptional expression of genes involved in cellular stress (, , , ), tight junction integrity (, , ), and immune response (, , and ) were measured in the ileum mucosa. Pigs in all dietary treatments subjected to RHS had significantly higher ( natural killer () cell numbers or NK cell lytic activity. In conclusion, pigs subjected to RHS had decreased performance, and supplementation with fermentation products in the feed (XPC and SGX) protected pigs from injury to the jejunum mucosa.

  12. The response of various muscle types to a restriction -re-alimentation feeding strategy in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebret, B; Heyer, A; Gondret, F; Louveau, I

    2007-07-01

    Muscle lipid concentration is known to influence pork eating quality. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of a restriction-re-alimentation feeding strategy on intramuscular fat deposition in pigs. A total of 70 Duroc × (Large White × Landrace) pigs (castrated males and females) were used. Ten pigs were first slaughtered at 30 kg live weight (LW) to determine initial body and muscle composition. From 30 to 80 kg LW (growing period), pigs were either fed ad libitum (AL) or restricted to 70% of the ad libitum intake of AL pigs (RA). From 80 to 110 kg LW (finishing period), both AL and RA pigs were fed ad libitum. In each group, pigs were slaughtered at 80 kg (n = 10) and at 110 kg (n = 20) LW. During the growing period, the growth rate of RA pigs was reduced by 30% (P alimentation up to the level observed in AL pigs (P alimentation of RA pigs increased fat tissue deposition (+160% for females, P alimentation increased lipid (+62%, P alimentation. Therefore, an increased muscle lipid concentration at 110 kg LW could not be reached in RA pigs. Modifications of onset and/or duration of restriction and re-alimentation periods should be tested to optimise effects on muscle lipid deposition and thereby achieve improved pork quality.

  13. Pasteurization Procedures for Donor Human Milk Affect Body Growth, Intestinal Structure, and Resistance against Bacterial Infections in Preterm Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqi; Nguyen, Duc Ninh; de Waard, Marita; Christensen, Lars; Zhou, Ping; Jiang, Pingping; Sun, Jing; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; Bering, Stine Brandt; Sangild, Per Torp

    2017-06-01

    Background: Holder pasteurization (HP) destroys multiple bioactive factors in donor human milk (DM), and UV-C irradiation (UVC) is potentially a gentler method for pasteurizing DM for preterm infants. Objective: We investigated whether UVC-treated DM improves gut maturation and resistance toward bacterial infections relative to HP-treated DM. Methods: Bacteria, selected bioactive components, and markers of antioxidant capacity were measured in unpasteurized donor milk (UP), HP-treated milk, and UVC-treated milk (all from the same DM pool). Fifty-seven cesarean-delivered preterm pigs (91% gestation; ratio of males to females, 30:27) received decreasing volumes of parental nutrition (average 69 mL · kg -1 · d -1 ) and increasing volumes of the 3 DM diets ( n = 19 each, average 89 mL · kg -1 · d -1 ) for 8-9 d. Body growth, gut structure and function, and systemic bacterial infection were evaluated. Results: A high bacterial load in the UP (6×10 5 colony forming units/mL) was eliminated similarly by HP and UVC treatments. Relative to HP-treated milk, both UVC-treated milk and UP showed greater activities of lipase and alkaline phosphatase and concentrations of lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, xanthine dehydrogenase, and some antioxidant markers (all P < 0.05). The pigs fed UVC-treated milk and pigs fed UP showed higher relative weight gain than pigs fed HP-treated milk (5.4% and 3.5%), and fewer pigs fed UVC-treated milk had positive bacterial cultures in the bone marrow (28%) than pigs fed HP-treated milk (68%) ( P < 0.05). Intestinal health was also improved in pigs fed UVC-treated milk compared with those fed HP-treated milk as indicated by a higher plasma citrulline concentration (36%) and villus height (38%) ( P < 0.05) and a tendency for higher aminopeptidase N (48%) and claudin-4 (26%) concentrations in the distal intestine ( P < 0.08). The gut microbiota composition was similar among groups except for greater proportions of Enterococcus in pigs

  14. Anaerobic biodigestion of pigs feces in the initial, growing and finishing stages fed with diets formulated with corn or sorghum Biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de suínos nas diferentes fases alimentados com dietas formuladas com milho ou sorgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adélia P. Miranda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality and the production of biogas and biofertilizer obtained from biodigester supplied with pig feces in the initial, growing and finishing stages, fed with diets formulated based on corn or sorghum. Twenty bench biodigesters were used with hydraulic retention time of 30 days and daily loads that contained 4 to 6% of total solids (TS and 3.6 to 5.2% of volatile solids (VS. In the effluent of the biodigesters, mean levels of TS were observed ranging between 1.6 and 2.0% and of VS between 1.2 and 1.6%. The mean reductions of TS were 57.7 to 64.7% and of VS from 61.7 to 69.0%, and there was only difference in the finishing phase, in which the major averages reductions were produced by the biodigesters supplied with feces from animals fed with diets based on corn. In biodigesters supplied with feces from animals in the initial and growing stages fed with diets based on corn, were observed higher average productions of biogas and the greatest average potentials of biogas production. The average potentials obtained were 0.033; 0.181; 0.685; 0.788 and 1.132 m³ per kg of affluent, manure, TS added, VS added and VS reduced, respectively. No differences were found on the average content of methane in the biogas between diets and stages. The average concentrations of nutrients N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in the biodigester affluent and effluent, ranged between diets and stages.Objetivou-se avaliar a produção e a qualidade do biogás e do biofertilizante obtidos em biodigestores abastecidos com dejetos de suínos, nas fases inicial, crescimento e terminação, alimentados com dietas formuladas à base de milho ou sorgo. Foram utilizados 20 biodigestores de bancada, com tempo de retenção hidráulica de 30 dias, e cargas diárias que continham 4,0 a 6,0% de sólidos totais (ST e 3,6 a 5,2% de sólidos voláteis (SV. Nos efluentes dos biodigestores, foram verificados teores médios de ST

  15. Pig model for diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a transgenic pig comprising a mutated IAPP gene and displaying a phenotype associated with diabetes. The invention also relates to a transgenic blastocyst, embryo, fetus, donor cell and/or cell nucleusderived from said transgenic pig. The invention further relates...... to use of the transgenic pig as a model system for studying therapy, treatment and/or prevention of diabetes....

  16. Cocoa husks in diets of Italian heavy pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrelli, D; Malagutti, L; Galassi, G; Rosi, F

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cocoa husks feeding on liver composition of the Italian heavy pig. Cocoa husks are by-products derived from chocolate production and have a high content of proteins, lipids, and NDF. Cocoa husks are also rich in antioxidants, polyphenols in particular. Eight finishing pigs were divided into 2 groups: control group fed a traditional diet, based on cereals, and treatment group fed a diet obtained by substitution of 10% of the control diet with coarsely ground cocoa husks. The trial was conducted during the hot season and lasted 6 wk, at the end of which all the pigs were slaughtered. Cocoa husks diet reduced dry matter intake (P cocoa husks diet. Treatment did not influence carcass weight and hot dressing percentage but reduced liver weight (P cocoa husks increased liver ether extract (P = 0.05) without affecting cholesterol content. Liver weight loss, reduction of protein synthesis, and a shift toward glycogen use instead of fat oxidation are considered metabolic strategies to reduce heat production under hot conditions. It is possible, therefore, that cocoa husks feeding promoted the process of acclimation because pigs needed less feeding to reach similar body and carcass weight as control pigs.

  17. Influence of partial replacement of soya bean meal by faba beans or peas in heavy pigs diet on meat quality, residual anti-nutritional factors and phytoestrogen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Domenico; Russo, Claudia; Giuliotti, Lorella; Mannari, Claudio; Picciarelli, Piero; Lombardi, Lara; Giovannini, Luca; Ceccarelli, Nello; Mariotti, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The study evaluated the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans (18%) or peas (20%) as additional protein sources in diets destined for typical Italian heavy pig production. It compared animal performances, meat quality, the presence of residual anti-nutritional factors (ANF) and phytoestrogens in plasma and meat and the possible effects on pig health, by evaluating oxidative, inflammatory and pro-atherogenic markers. The results showed that the productive performances, expressed as body weight and feed conversion ratio, of pigs fed with faba bean and pea diets were similar to those of pigs fed only the soybean meal. Meat quality of pigs fed with the three diets was similar in colour, water-holding capacity, tenderness and chemical composition. Despite the higher levels of phytoestrogen in the plasma of pigs fed only the soybean meal, phytoestrogen concentration in the muscle was equivalent to that of animals fed diets with faba beans, whereas pigs fed a diet with peas showed a lower concentration. Inflammation and pro-atherogenic parameters did not show significant differences among the three diets. Overall, the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans appears more interesting than with peas, particularly in relation to the higher amount of polyphenols in the diet and the highest concentration of phytoestrogens found in the plasma and muscle of animals, while the pyrimidine anti-nutritional compounds present in the diet did not appear to accumulate and had no effect on the growth performance of animals.

  18. Optimal slaughter weight of pigs assessed by means of the asymmetric S-curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusec, G.; Kralik, G.; Djurkin, I.; Baulain, U.; Kallweit, E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out on 68 barrows equally distributed into two different feeding groups (intensive and restricted). MR tomography was used to obtain data needed for the calculation of optimal slaughter weight. Growth analyses and predictions were performed using an asymmetric S-function. The differences between the predicted and real time needed to achieve 100 kg live weight calculated for the two feeding groups of pigs were not statistically significant. The prediction was fairly accurate in 88% of the cases for the intensive group and in 79% of the cases for the restrictively fed pigs. The point of muscle growth saturation (tC=51.31 cubic dm) calculated for pigs from the intensive group occurred at 164 days of age. Restrictively fed pigs reached this point after 167 days. It was calculated that at 164 days of age intensively fed pigs reached about 126 kg; the pigs from the restricted group reached about 112 kg at 167 days. These weights can be regarded as optimal slaughter weights for pigs from the present study in the sense of maximum utilisation of muscle growth. Since both groups of pigs reach the same muscle volume of 51 cubic dm at the estimated times, the difference in live weights can be attributed to the volume of fat. This makes the intensive system of feeding undesirable in economical pig production. It is concluded that the obtained parameters of the asymmetric S-function may be used for the growth analysis of other pigs, assuming that they are of the same genetic background and reared in the same conditions

  19. Pig as a Favorable Animal for Taenia Saginata Asiatica Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chin Fan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Taenia saginata in some parts of Asia is confusing, in that beef does not appear to be the source of infection. In some areas, beef is either not available or not eaten raw, whereas pork at times is eaten uncooked. In light of this situation, we have exposed pigs and other animals to infection with strains of T. saginata to establish their ability to serve as intermediate hosts. Eggs of Taiwan Taenia, Korea Taenia, Indonesia Taenia, Thailand Taenia, Philippines Taenia, Ethiopia Taenia, and Madagascar Taenia were fed to 83 pigs of three strains: 43 Small-Ear Miniature (SEM, 34 Landrace Small-Ear Miniature (L-SEM, and 6 Duroc-Yorkshire-Landrace (DYL. We also fed the eggs to 10 Holstein calves, 17 Sannean goats, and 4 monkeys (Macaca cyclopis. We succeeded in infecting SEM (infection rate 88%, cysticercus recovery rate 19.1%, L-SEM (83%, 1.1%, and DYL (100%, 0.3% pigs with Taiwan Taenia; SEM (100%, 1.7%, L-SEM (100%, 5.6%, and DYL (100%, 0.06% pigs with Korea Taenia; SEM (100%, 22% and L-SEM (100%, 1.6% pigs with Indonesia Taenia; SEM (75%, 0.06% pigs with Thailand Taenia SEM (100%, 11% pigs with Philippines Taenia; SEM (80%, 0.005% pigs with Ethiopia Taenia; SEM (100%, 0.2% pigs with Madagascar Taenia. Holstein calves became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (100%, 1.1%, Korea (100%, 0.03%, Thailand (100%, 0.2%, and the Philippines (100%, 6%; however, the cysticerci of Taenia from Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines were degenerated and/or calcified. Sannean goats became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (33%, 0.01% and Korea (50%, 0.02%, while monkeys became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (50%, 0.01%. However, the cysticerci were degenerated and/or calcified. Therefore, these strains of pig seem to be favorable animal models for experimental studies of T. saginata-like tapeworms, with the SEM pig the most favorable.

  20. Molecules produced by probiotics prevent enteric colibacillosis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeste, Ricardo; Tessema, Akalate; Sharma, Sapana; Kovač, Zlatko; Wang, Chuan; Morales, Rocio; Griffiths, Mansel William

    2017-11-15

    With the advent of antimicrobial resistance in animal pathogens, novel methods to combat infectious diseases are being sought. Among these, probiotics have been proposed as a means of promoting animal health but problems with their use has been reported. Research has demonstrated that bioactive molecules produced during the growth of certain probiotics interfere with bacterial cell-to-cell communication, which consequently results in an attenuation of virulence in a number of pathogens, including E. coli. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of the bioactive molecules, termed proteobiotics, produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus in preventing enterotoxigenic E, coli (ETEC) infection in pigs, which is the etiological agent for enteric colibacillosis, a common disease of nursing and young pigs. To achieve this, piglets were fed a preparation of the bioactive at four levels: 0, 0.5×, 1.0× and 2.0× for 7 days prior to challenge with E. coli K88. There were 36 pigs (18 gilts and 18 barrows) per treatment, resulting in 144 piglets in total for the study. Each pen had 6 piglets (3 gilts and 3 barrows). Only piglets with no physical abnormality or conditions were used in the trial and intact male piglets and ridglings were excluded. The bioactive continued to be fed to the pigs post-challenge. Based of fecal and demeanour scores, pigs fed the low and high dose of the proteobiotic were significanlty less likely to show symptoms of illness than pigs fed no bioactive. While not being significant, the weight gain of pigs given the proteobiotics was improved. At day 4 following challenge, almost 50% of piglets that did not receive the proteobiotic were shedding ETEC in their feces, compared with about 15% of animals receiving the supplement. There was also an indication that the proteobiotics reduced colonization of the ileum by E. coli K88 and improved gut health. This study indicates that the bioactive molecules produced by L. acidophilus reduces

  1. Canola meal on starting pigs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Peñuela-Sierra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional values and evaluate the performance of piglets fed on canola meal. In experiment I, a digestibility assay was conducted using fourteen barrow pigs, with an initial body weight of 20.62±3.30 kg. The evaluated feedstuff was canola meal, with a level of 250 g/kg in the basal diet (corn + soybean meal-based. The experimental unit consisted of one pig, with a total of seven experimental units per diet. The values as (fed basis of digestible (DE and metabolizable (ME energy of canola meal were 2,995 kcal/kg and 2,796 kcal/kg, respectively. In experiment II, ileal digestibility assays were carried out to determine the apparent and true ileal digestibility coefficient and digestible amino acids. Three crossbred pigs were used, with a BW of 38.6±1.98 kg. The treatments consisted of two diets, with a single source of protein (canola meal and one protein-free diet (OFD. The values of digestible amino acids in canola meal were as follows: lysine: 11.8 g/kg; methionine+cystine: 9.1 g/kg; threonine: 7.9 g/kg; tryptophan: 2.4 g/kg; leucine: 15.7 g/kg; and isoleucine: 8.7 g/kg. In experiment III, 60 piglets (BW= 15.08±0.72 kg to 30.26±2.78 kg were allotted in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four diets with increasing levels of canola meal (50, 100, 150 and 200 g/kg, six replicates and experimental unit consisted of two pigs. Additionally, a control diet was formulated containing 0.0 g/kg CM. Regression analysis indicates that there was no effect (P?0.05 of the level of canola meal inclusion on pigs performance. The performance results suggest that it is feasible to use up to 200 g/kg of canola meal in starting pigs diet, without impairing performance and the feeding cost.

  2. Effects of withdrawing high-fiber ingredients before marketing on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, and intestinal weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Kyle F; DeRouchey, Joel M; Tokach, Mike D; Dritz, Steve S; Goodband, Robert D; Woodworth, Jason C

    2018-02-15

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the duration of high-fiber ingredient removal from finishing pig diets before marketing to restore carcass yield and carcass fat iodine value (IV), similar to pigs continuously fed a corn-soybean meal diet. In experiment 1, 288 pigs (initially 38.4 ± 0.3 kg body weight [BW]) were used in an 88-d study and fed either a low-fiber corn-soybean meal diet from day 0 to 88 or a high-fiber diet containing 30% corn distillers dried grains with solubles and 19% wheat middlings until day 20, 15, 10, 5, or 0 before slaughter and switched to the low-fiber corn-soybean meal diet thereafter. Diets were not balanced for net energy. From day 0 to 88, pigs continuously fed the high-fiber diet tended to have increased average daily feed intake (P = 0.072) and decreased G:F and carcass yield (P = 0.001) compared with pigs fed the low-fiber corn-soybean meal diet. Pigs continuously fed the high-fiber diet had greater (P market increased carcass yield (experiment 1) or HCW (experiment 2) with the improvement most prominent during the first 5 to 9 d after withdrawal.

  3. Vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in pork and their relationship to vitamin D status in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burild, Anders; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Faqir, Nasrin

    2016-01-01

    The content of vitamin D in pork produced in conventional systems depends on the vitamin D concentration in the pig feed. Both vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) are essential sources of dietary vitamin D; however, bioavailability assessed by serum 25(OH)D3 concentration is reported...... of vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 in the pig feed for 49 d before slaughter. Concurrently, the 25(OH)D3 level in serum was investigated as a biomarker to assess the content of vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 in pig tissues. Adipose tissue, white and red muscle, the liver and serum were sampled from pigs fed feed containing...... either vitamin D3 or 25(OH)D3 at 5, 20, 35 or 50 µg/kg feed for 7 weeks before slaughter. The tissue 25(OH)D3 level was significantly higher in the pigs fed 25(OH)D3 compared with those fed vitamin D3, while the tissue vitamin D3 level was higher in the pigs fed vitamin D3 compared with those fed 25(OH...

  4. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic pigs in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Suzanne S; Crawshaw, Timothy R; Smith, Noel H; Palgrave, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), infects a wide range of wild and domestic mammals. Despite a control programme spanning decades, M. bovis infection levels in cattle in Great Britain (GB) have continued to rise over recent years. As the incidence of infection in cattle and wildlife may be linked to that in swine, data relating to infection of pigs identified at slaughter were examined in this study. Between 2007 and 2011, almost all M. bovis-infected pigs originated from farms in the South-West and West-Midland regions of England. The data suggest that pigs raised outdoors or on holdings with poor biosecurity may be more vulnerable to infection with M. bovis. In the majority of cases, the same strains of M. bovis were found in pigs and cattle, despite that fact that direct contact between these species was rarely observed. Genotyping and geographical mapping data indicated that some strains found in pigs may correlate better with those present in badgers, rather than cattle. In consequence, it is proposed that pigs may represent a useful sentinel for M. bovis infection in wildlife in GB. Given the potential implications of this infection for the pig industry, and for the on-going effort to control bovine TB, the importance of understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of M. bovis infection, as well as monitoring its prevalence, in pigs should not be underestimated. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination and depletion of residues of carbadox, tylosin, and virginiamycin in kidney, liver, and muscle of pigs in feeding experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, M G; Lund, C; Jacobsen, M

    1988-01-01

    The results of residue determinations of the growth promotors carbadox, tylosin, and virginiamycin in kidney, liver, and muscle from pigs in feeding experiments are described as well as the analytical methods used. Residues of the carbadox metabolite quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid were found in liver from pigs fed 20 mg/kg in the diet with a withdrawal time of 30 days. No residues were detected in muscle with zero withdrawal time. The limit of determination was 0.01 mg/kg for both tissues. No residues of virginiamycin and tylosin were found in pigs fed 50 and 40 mg/kg, respectively, in the diet, even with zero withdrawal time. Residues of tylosin of 0.06 mg/kg and below were detected in liver and kidney from pigs fed 200 or 400 mg/kg and slaughtered within 3 h after the last feeding.

  7. Assessment of gastrointestinal pH, fluid and lymphoid tissue in the guinea pig, rabbit and pig, and implications for their use in drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Hamid A; McConnell, Emma L; Liu, Fang; Ramaswamy, Chandrasekaran; Kulkarni, Rucha P; Basit, Abdul W; Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2011-01-18

    Laboratory animals are often used in drug delivery and research. However, basic information about their gastrointestinal pH, fluid volume, and lymphoid tissue is not completely known. We have investigated these post-mortem in healthy guinea pigs, rabbits and pigs, to assess their suitability for pre-clinical studies by comparing the results with reported human literature. The mean gastric pH (fed ad libitum) was 2.9 and 4.4 in guinea pig and pig, respectively. In contrast, a very low pH (1.6) was recorded in the rabbits. The small intestinal pH was found in the range of 6.4-7.4 in the guinea pigs and rabbits, whereas lower pH (6.1-6.7) was recorded in the pig, which may have consequences for ionisable or pH responsive systems when tested in pig. A relatively lower pH than in the small intestine was found in the caecum (6.0-6.4) and colon (6.1-6.6) of the guinea pig, rabbit and the pig. The water content in the gastrointestinal tract of guinea pig, rabbit and pig was 51g, 153g and 1546g, respectively. When normalized to the body weight, the guinea pig, had larger amounts of water compared to the rabbit and the pig (guinea pig>rabbit>pig); in contrast, a reverse order was found when normalized to per unit length of the gut (guinea pigpig). The lymphoid tissue distribution (lymphoid follicles, Peyer's patches and long strips) along the length of the gut in these animals is presented; in particular, an abundance of lymphoid tissue was found in pig's stomach, small intestine and caecum, and rabbit's appendix. Their ample presence indicated the potential utility of these animal species in oral and colonic vaccination. These differences in the gastrointestinal parameters of the guinea pig, rabbit and pig reiterates the crucial importance of correctly selecting animal models for pre-clinical studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of use of bread in fattening of Cinta Senese pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pianaccioli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of use of bakery by-products in substitution of part of a mixture of corn and seed on performance and meat traits of Cinta Senese pigs was tested. Seventeen pigs were employed: 6 pigs were fed mixture (diet M and 11 pigs were fed mixture and bread (diet B. Each group was reared outdoors. The trial was carried out during the fattening period. Diet B showed higher average daily gain (ADG (0.395 vs. 0.239 kg, higher backfat thickness (GM: 6.48 vs. 5.09 cm; LT: 5.67 vs. 4.28 cm and higher inner fat deposition (31.42 vs. 29.09% on sample cut. As regard the physical traits of Longissimus lumborum muscle, cooking loss resulted higher in diet M than diet B (21.0 vs 17.3%.

  9. Induction of cleft palate in newborn pigs by maternal ingestion of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, K E; Keeler, R F; Buck, W B

    1985-06-01

    Cleft palates were induced in newborn pigs of gilts fed Conium maculatum seed or plant during gestation days 30 through 45. Twelve of 23 newborn pigs born to 3 gilts given Utah-grown C maculatum seed and 9 of 12 newborn pigs born to a single gilt given the fresh Utah spring-growth C maculatum plant had cleft palates. The cleft palates ranged from a unilateral cleft, involving only 1 side of the palate, to a full bilateral cleft. Brachygnathia was also observed in some of these newborn pigs with cleft palate. Other malformations were not observed. Chemical analysis of seed and plant samples indicated that gamma-coniceine was the responsible teratogenic alkaloid. A daily dose of plant or seed that provided greater than or equal to 1.07 mg of gamma-coniceine/kg of body weight fed to gilts during the 30th through the 45th day of pregnancy resulted in teratogenic effects.

  10. Congenital skeletal malformations induced by maternal ingestion of Conium maculatum (poison hemlock) in newborn pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, K E; Keeler, R F; Buck, W B

    1985-10-01

    Skeletal malformations were induced in newborn pigs from gilts fed Conium maculatum seed or plant during gestation days 43 through 53 and 51 through 61. The teratogenic effects in groups dosed during gestation days 43 through 53 were more severe than those in groups dosed during the later period, with many newborn pigs showing arthrogryposis and twisted and malaligned bones in the limbs and with 1 pig showing scoliosis and deformity of the thoracic cage. The pigs born to gilts given C maculatum during gestation days 51 through 61 had excessive flexure primarily in the carpal joints, without scoliosis or bone malalignment in the limbs. The teratogenicity of poison hemlock depends on the alkaloid concentration and content. Based on the data presented, we speculate that gamma-coniceine is the teratogenic alkaloid in the poison hemlock fed to the gilts.

  11. The effects of low levels of dietary trace minerals on the plasma levels, faecal excretion health and performance of pigs in a hot African climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Boma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed in order to evaluate the effects of lower than usual industry levels of dietary trace minerals on plasma levels, faecal excretion, performance, mortality and morbidity in growing-finishing pigs in a hot African climate. Group 1 (n =100 pigs received a diet with common industry levels of trace minerals. Group 2 (n =100 pigs received reduced dietary trace mineral levels but were fed the same basic diet as Group 1. Mortality, morbidity, pig performance and carcass measurements were evaluated. Two pigs in Group 1 and three pigs in Group 2 died. Thirteen pigs in Group 1 and 27 pigs in Group 2 were medically treated (P 0.05 by the dietary levels of these trace minerals. Plasma trace mineral concentrations were not affected by the dietary treatment.

  12. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids affect tissue lipid composition but not de novo lipogenesis in finishing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Bee , Giuseppe

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to profoundly affect lipid metabolism and to act as repartitioning agents. Currently, little is known about their effect on the fatty acid profile of tissue lipids in pigs. In the present study we determined the lipid composition of the backfat inner (BFI) and outer layer (BFO), omental fat (OF) and intramuscular fat (IMF) of the longissimus dorsi muscle in 24 Swiss Large White pigs fed diets supplemented eithe...

  13. Spatial relationship between Taenia solium tapeworm carriers and necropsy cyst burden in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pray, Ian W; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gamboa, Ricardo; Muro, Claudio; Moyano, Luz M; Benavides, Victor; Flecker, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H; O'Neal, Seth E

    2017-04-01

    Taenia solium, a parasite that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Geographic hotspots of pigs testing positive for serologic markers of T. solium exposure have been observed surrounding the locations of human tapeworm carriers. This clustered pattern of seropositivity in endemic areas formed the basis for geographically targeted control interventions, which have been effective at reducing transmission. In this study, we further explore the spatial relationship between human tapeworm carriers and infected pigs using necroscopic examination as a quantitative gold-standard diagnostic to detect viable T. solium cyst infection in pigs. We performed necroscopic examinations on pigs from 7 villages in northern Peru to determine the number of viable T. solium cysts in each pig. Participating humans in the study villages were tested for T. solium tapeworm infection (i.e., taeniasis) with an ELISA coproantigen assay, and the distances from each pig to its nearest human tapeworm carrier were calculated. We assessed the relationship between proximity to a tapeworm carrier and the prevalence of light, moderate, and heavy cyst burden in pigs. The prevalence of pig infection was greatest within 50 meters of a tapeworm carrier and decreased monotonically as distance increased. Pigs living less than 50 meters from a human tapeworm carrier were 4.6 times more likely to be infected with at least one cyst than more distant pigs. Heavier cyst burdens, however, were not more strongly associated with proximity to tapeworm carriers than light cyst burdens. Our study shows that human tapeworm carriers and pigs with viable T. solium cyst infection are geographically correlated in endemic areas. This finding supports control strategies that treat humans and pigs based on their proximity to other infected individuals. We did not, however, find sufficient evidence that heavier cyst burdens in pigs would serve as improved targets for

  14. Spatial relationship between Taenia solium tapeworm carriers and necropsy cyst burden in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian W Pray

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium, a parasite that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Geographic hotspots of pigs testing positive for serologic markers of T. solium exposure have been observed surrounding the locations of human tapeworm carriers. This clustered pattern of seropositivity in endemic areas formed the basis for geographically targeted control interventions, which have been effective at reducing transmission. In this study, we further explore the spatial relationship between human tapeworm carriers and infected pigs using necroscopic examination as a quantitative gold-standard diagnostic to detect viable T. solium cyst infection in pigs.We performed necroscopic examinations on pigs from 7 villages in northern Peru to determine the number of viable T. solium cysts in each pig. Participating humans in the study villages were tested for T. solium tapeworm infection (i.e., taeniasis with an ELISA coproantigen assay, and the distances from each pig to its nearest human tapeworm carrier were calculated. We assessed the relationship between proximity to a tapeworm carrier and the prevalence of light, moderate, and heavy cyst burden in pigs. The prevalence of pig infection was greatest within 50 meters of a tapeworm carrier and decreased monotonically as distance increased. Pigs living less than 50 meters from a human tapeworm carrier were 4.6 times more likely to be infected with at least one cyst than more distant pigs. Heavier cyst burdens, however, were not more strongly associated with proximity to tapeworm carriers than light cyst burdens.Our study shows that human tapeworm carriers and pigs with viable T. solium cyst infection are geographically correlated in endemic areas. This finding supports control strategies that treat humans and pigs based on their proximity to other infected individuals. We did not, however, find sufficient evidence that heavier cyst burdens in pigs would serve as

  15. Use of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni in suckling and weaned pig diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanasit, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of stevia supplementation in the diet of suckling pigs with combination of two feeding methods in weaned pigs were studied. Twenty litters with nine piglets each were allocated to four groups and fed four dietary stevia supplementations (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% from 7 days old to 21 days, weanling age. Two male weanlings of average weight of each litter were selected and alloted to one of two feeding methods, one male was fed basal diet 1 continuously while the other was fed by alternating basal diet 2 and basal diet 1 for 35 days of experiment, according to the split plot in randomized complete block design.The results showed that piglets fed with 0.2 and 0.4% stevia in suckling diets had double daily feed intake compared to those fed 0% stevia in the diet (12.36 vs 5.93 g/d, but this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05. The daily feed intake and average daily gain decreased when suckling pigs were fed with 0.6% stevia in the diet. Continuous or alternating feeding had no effect (P>0.05 on feed intake and growth performance of weaned pigs (aged 21-56 days fed with various levels of stevia supplementation in the diets. However, daily feed intake of weaned pigs fed with 0.4% stevia (748 g/d was significantly (P<0.01 higher than that of pigs fed with 0, 0.2 and 0.6% stevia in the diets (617, 649 and 589 g/d, respectively. Average daily gain followed the same pattern (507 vs 419, 455 and 401 g/d, respectively, P<0.01. Moreover, although feed cost per gain of piglets fed with 0.2 and 0.4% stevia in the diets were higher, the income was higher than those fed with 0% stevia in the diet.

  16. Métodos de colheita de fezes e balanço de minerais em suínos alimentados com dietas suplementadas ou não com probiótico - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.999 Methods of feces collection and mineral balance of pigs fed diets supplemented or not with probiotic - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Watanabe

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois ensaios de metabolismo, utilizando-se oito suínos, machos castrados, em fase de crescimento, em cada ensaio. No ensaio 1, foram comparados os teores de MS, PB, EB, EE, MM e FDN das fezes colhidas por meio de dois métodos: diretamente do reto do animal ou da caixa coletora da gaiola, realizados simultaneamente em cada suíno. No ensaio 2, foi estudado o balanço de minerais, sendo os animais submetidos a dois tratamentos: T1 - ração basal e T2 - ração basal + 200 ppm de probiótico. Os teores dos nutrientes mensurados foram similares nas fezes colhidas em ambos os métodos, com exceção da MS. Para o balanço de minerais, não houve diferença (p > 0,05 entre os animais alimentados com rações, contendo ou não probiótico. Ambos os métodos de colheita de fezes poderiam ser realizados, simultaneamente, em ensaios de balanço de minerais.Two metabolism assays were conducted, with eight growing castrated male crossbred pigs in each assay. In the first assay, the levels of DM, CP, GE, EE, MM and NDF were compared in feces, collected through two different methods: directly from the animal’s rectum or from a collection tray, collected simultaneously from each pig. The second assay evaluated the animals’ mineral balance. For this study, the animals were submitted to two treatments: T1 - basal feed and T2 - basal feed + 200ppm of probiotic. The nutrients levels were similar in the feces collected through both methods, with the exception of DM. There was no observable difference (p > 0.05 in mineral balance between the animals fed diets containing or not probiotic. Both collection methods can be undertaken simultaneously in mineral balance assays.

  17. Disconnect Between Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Cardiometabolic Dysfunction in Ossabaw Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Potter, Victoria J.; Lee, Sewon; Bayless, David S.; Scroggins, Rebecca J.; Welly, Rebecca J.; Fleming, Nicholas J.; Smith, Thomas N.; Meers, Grace M.; Hill, Michael A.; Rector, R. Scott; Padilla, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Ossabaw pig is emerging as an attractive model of human cardiometabolic disease due to its size and susceptibility to atherosclerosis, among other characteristics. Here we investigated the relationship between adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in this model. Methods Young female Ossabaw pigs were fed a western-style high-fat diet (HFD) (n=4) or control low-fat diet (LFD) (n=4) for a period of 9 months and compared for cardiometabolic outcomes and adipose tissue inflammation. Results The HFD-fed “OBESE” pigs were 2.5 times heavier (p<0.001) than LFD-fed “LEAN” pigs and developed severe obesity. HFD-feeding caused pronounced dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance (systemic and adipose) as well as induction of inflammatory genes, impairments in vasomotor reactivity to insulin and atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries. Remarkably, visceral, subcutaneous and perivascular adipose tissue inflammation (via FACS analysis and RT-PCR) was not increased in OBESE pigs, nor were circulating inflammatory cytokines. Conclusions These findings reveal a disconnect between adipose tissue inflammation and cardiometabolic dysfunction induced by western diet feeding in the Ossabaw pig model. PMID:26524201

  18. [Salmonella in pig farms. Limitations of counselling and alternatives to the exclusive control of slaughter pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostalski, A

    2015-01-01

    The goal of reducing salmonella prevalence in slaughter pigs using a monitoring system is difficult to realize. Many of the category-III-farms have proper hygiene and clinical signs are often lacking, which makes the implementation of sustainable counselling concepts difficult. The improvement of biological performances and the changes in sow keeping and feeding concepts lays the focus on the breeding and farrowing units. Information on the salmonella status of the delivering pig farms is essential for establishing, for example, vaccination programs. A general inspection duty for all pig-producing units beginning with the breeding herds is reasonable. To achieve this, measurements for stress reduction, changes of the current detection systems and early information of farms with an acute salmonella problem are discussed.

  19. Trends in slaughter pig production and antimicrobial consumption in Danish slaughter pig herds, 2002-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Antonio; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Houe, H.

    2011-01-01

    Overuse of antimicrobials in food-animal production is thought to be a major risk factor for the development of resistant bacterial populations. Data on non-human antimicrobial usage is essential for planning of intervention strategies to lower resistance levels at the country, region or herd...... levels. In this study we evaluated Danish national antimicrobial usage data for five antimicrobial classes used in slaughter pigs in different herd sizes and data on the number of slaughter pigs produced per herd, between 2002 and 2008, in Denmark. The objective was to ascertain...... if there is an association between herd size and amount of antimicrobials consumed. During this period, the overall number of herds with slaughter pigs decreased by 43%, with larger herds becoming more prevalent. The tetracycline treatment incidence (TI) rate increased from 0·28 to 0·70 animal-defined daily dose (ADD)/100...

  20. Manipulating early pig embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Reichelt, B

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of established surgical procedures for embryo recovery and transfer, the early pig embryo can be subjected to various manipulations aimed at a long-term preservation of genetic material, the generation of identical multiplets, the early determination of sex or the alteration of the genetic make-up. Most of these procedures are still at an experimental stage and despite recent considerable progress are far from practical application. Normal piglets have been obtained after cryopreservation of pig blastocysts hatched in vitro, whereas all attempts to freeze embryos with intact zona pellucida have been unsuccessful. Pig embryos at the morula and blastocyst stage can be bisected microsurgically and the resulting demi-embryos possess a high developmental potential in vitro, whereas their development in vivo is impaired. Pregnancy rates are similar (80%) but litter size is reduced compared with intact embryos and twinning rate is approximately 2%. Pig blastomeres isolated from embryos up to the 16-cell stage can be grown in culture and result in normal blastocysts. Normal piglets have been born upon transfer of blastocysts derived from isolated eight-cell blastomeres, clearly underlining the totipotency of this developmental stage. Upon nuclear transfer the developmental capacity of reconstituted pig embryos is low and culture. Sex determination can be achieved either by separation of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa by flow cytometry or by analysing the expression of the HY antigen in pig embryos from the eight-cell to morula stage. Microinjection of foreign DNA has been successfully used to alter growth and development of transgenic pigs, and to produce foreign proteins in the mammary gland or in the bloodstream, indicating that pigs can be used as donors for valuable human pharmaceutical proteins. Another promising area of gene transfer is the increase of disease resistance in transgenic lines of pigs. Approximately 30% of pig spermatozoa bind

  1. Effects of pregelatinized vs. native potato starch on intestinal weight and stomach lesions of pigs housed in barren pens or on straw bedding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Staals, S.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    In a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 16 groups of 12 pigs (approximately 25 kg) were assigned to either barren or straw housing and to native or pregelatinized potato starch included in the diet (35%) to investigate effects on intestinal weight and gastric lesions. Pigs were fed restrictedly (2.5 ×

  2. Dietary fat source affects metabolism of fatty acids in pigs as evaluated by altered expression of lipogenic genes in liver and adipose tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duran-Montge, P; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about pig gene expressions related to dietary fatty acids (FAs) and most work have been conducted in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate how dietary fats regulate fat metabolism of pigs in different tissues. Fifty-six crossbred gilts (62 ± 5.2 kg BW) were fed one of ...

  3. The effects of clinoptilolite on piglet and heavy pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archimede Mordenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of clinoptilolite on piglet and heavy pig production two separated trials have been performed. In the first trial 40 pigs of the initial body weight of 55 kg were used. Animals were homogeneously allocated to two groups: a control group traditionally fed and a clinoptilolite group in which feed contained the additive at 2%. Pigs were slaugh- tered at about 160 kg body weight. Blood samples were taken to determine blood urea nitrogen (BUN. In the second trial a total of 116 piglets from 12 litters was used. Six litters were fed from the 7th day of life a diet containing clinoptilolite at 2%. According to the dietary treatment of the suckling period, 84 weaned piglets were homogeneously allocated to two groups fed up to 33 kg body weight a diet containing or not clinoptilolite at 2%. In both trials daily weight gain, feed intake and pigs’ health were regularly recorded. The dietary inclusion of clinoptilolite at 2% did not resulted in any modification either of growing performances or of uraemia. Piglets on clinoptilolite diet showed a significant (P<0.05 improvement of faecal dry matter content. At slaughtering the dietary inclusion of clinoptilolite resulted in a trend towards an improvement of lean cuts yield and in a significant increase (P<0.05 of the ratio between lean and fat cuts. From our data it is sug- gested that clinoptilolite does not impair pig growing performances, determines a higher dry matter content of piglet fae- ces and improves carcass quality of heavy pigs with particular regard to lean cuts yield and lean to fat cuts ratio.

  4. Oxylipins discriminate between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone intake: a metabolomics study on pig plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    were also found in the flour and the bread consumed by pigs. Since the germ is part of the whole grain flour, the germ is most likely responsible for the elevated level of oxylipins in plasma after whole grain wheat consumption. This finding may also point towards bioactive compounds, which can be used......A pig model was used to investigate the difference in metabolic response of plasma between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone. Six pigs were fed in a cross-over design iso dietary fiber (DF) breads prepared from whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone and with a wash-out diet based on bread produced...

  5. Dietary Fat and Sugar Induce Obesity and Impair Glucose Tolerance in Prepubertal Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    van Eyk, Gregory Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Dietary Fat and Sugar Induce Obesity and Impair Glucose Tolerance in Prepubertal Pigs Abstract A pig model of childhood obesity was used to study the effects of dietary energy on body adiposity, and blood parameters associated with impaired glucose clearance. Prepubertal female pigs weaned at 21 d of age were fed control (CON), refined sugar (SUG), fat (FAT), and sugar-fat (SUGFAT) diets in a completely randomized arrangement for 16 wk. Calories from fat were 8.9% for CON, 5.6% for SU...

  6. Efficacy of ivermectin and oxfendazole against Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo

    2013-01-01

    Smallholder semi-confined pig production is a fast growing practice in sub-Saharan Africa with an unfortunate outcome of high prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses. The widely used anthelmintic for control of endo and ecto-parasites in pigs in the area is ivermectin...

  7. The incidence and pattern of pneumonia in pigs slaughtered at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pneumonia has been identified as a major disease condition limiting the swine production in West Africa; however the data on its implications to swine health has not been fully elucidated. The pattern and prevalence of pneumonia in slaughtered pigs was determined in respect to the age, sex and breed of pigs slaughtered ...

  8. Nutrient Fortification of Human Donor Milk Affects Intestinal Function and Protein Metabolism in Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Jing; Li, Yanqi; Nguyen, Duc Ninh

    2018-01-01

    (BC) may be an alternative nutrient fortifier, considering its high content of protein and milk bioactive factors. Objective: We investigated whether BC was superior to an FF product based on processed bovine milk and vegetable oil to fortify donor human milk (DHM) for preterm pigs, used as a model......) and DHM with or without FF or BC fortification (+4.6 g protein ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ d-1). Results: DPM-fed pigs showed higher growth (10-fold), protein synthesis (+15-30%), villus heights, lactase and peptidase activities (+30%), and reduced intestinal cytokines (-50%) relative to DHM pigs (all P ....05). Fortification increased protein synthesis (+20-30%), but with higher weight gain and lower urea and cortisol concentrations for DHM+BC compared with DHM+FF pigs (2- to 3-fold differences, all P ≤ 0.06). DHM+FF pigs showed more diarrhea and reduced lactase and peptidase activities, hexose uptake, and villus...

  9. Bovine colostrum improves intestinal function following formula-induced gut inflammation in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Thymann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Only few hours of formula feeding may induce proinflammatory responses and predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs. We hypothesized that bovine colostrum, rich in bioactive factors, would improve intestinal function in preterm pigs following an initial...... exposure to formula feeding after some days of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Methods After receiving TPN for 2 days, preterm pigs were fed formula (FORM, n = 14), bovine colostrum (COLOS, n = 6), or formula (6 h) followed by bovine colostrum (FCOLOS, n = 14). Intestinal lesions, function, and structure...... and FCOLOS pigs, relative to FORM pigs. Intestinal gene expression of serum amyloid A, IL-1β, -6 and -8, and bacterial abundance, correlated positively with NEC severity of the distal small intestine. Conclusions Bovine colostrum restores intestinal function after initial formula-induced inflammation...

  10. Project proposal: integrated farming scheme incorporating management of water hyacinth - Water hyacinth as a pig feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    One of the objectives of pig research undertaken by the Research Section of the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fiji), is to evaluate local feed sources in an attempt to reduce importation of pig feeds. Protein is the major limiting nutrient in most local feed sources. Fish and meat meals are incorporated in pig feeds by many farmers but the cost of these are very high. Chemical analysis of water hyacinth taken from Rewa River showed that leaves contain 22% crude protein and stems 8%. This was determined on a dry weight basis. Therefore, water hyacinth could be a good source of protein for pigs. Utilization of water hyacinth was considered in the First Review; meeting on Management of Water Hyacinth conducted by Commonwealth Regional (Asia/Pacific) Rural Technology Programme. Water hyacinth as an animal feed was discussed in that review. It points out that the following has to be taken into account in considering the use of water hyacinth as an animal feed. The objective of the study is to investigate the use of water hyacinth as a feed for pigs in an integrated farming system involving a piggery, biogas digester and a pond and: compare pig preference for water hyacinth when fed fresh or dry compare the performance of pigs when fed water hyacinth only and in combination with a normal diet and cost/benefit analysis

  11. Seroprevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis antibodies in intensive pig farms in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zongxue; Ling, Yong; Tian, Deyu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis (L. intracellularis) is a major concern to the pig industry worldwide. Although 8.3 billion pigs are produced each year in China, few reports on the prevalence of L. intracellularis infection are available. The aim...... prevalence (that is, prevalence corrected for the imperfect sensitivity and specificity of the testing method) was 77% (95% CI 70 to 83%). Conclusions: The highest true prevalence was observed in sows and boars, suggesting that within a herd these stock classes are a reservoir for infection. The prevalence...

  12. C-Kit expression in the gallbladder of guinea pig with chronic calculous cholecystitis and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hua; Wang, Fang; Wang, Changmiao

    2016-07-01

    To study the c-Kit expression in the gallbladder of cholesterol lithogenic guinea pig model and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). A total of 45 guinea pigs were randomly assigned into three groups: the control group (guinea pigs fed a standard diet, normal group); the model group (guinea pigs fed a cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet); and the Chinese medicine group (guinea pigs fed the cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet and treated with A. capillaris through intragastric administration, therapy group). Each group had 15 guinea pigs. The gallbladders of the guinea pigs were harvested after 8 weeks. C-Kit expression was detected using an immunohistochemistry staining, real-time PCR, and Western blot analyses. The effect of A. capillaris on ICCs was evaluated by muscle strip contraction experiments. C-Kit expression significantly decreased in the gallbladder of model group, but increased in the Chinese medicine group. The Contractility of guinea pig gallbladder muscle strip significantly improved in the Chinese medicine group. Our results indicated that A. capillaris improves gallbladder impairment by up-regulating c-Kit expression, and it also can improve the contractile response of in vitro guinea pig gallbladder muscle strips.

  13. Transglycosylated Starch Improves Insulin Response and Alters Lipid and Amino Acid Metabolome in a Growing Pig Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica A. Newman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the functional properties and physiological effects often associated with chemically modified starches, significant interest lies in their development for incorporation in processed foods. This study investigated the effect of transglycosylated cornstarch (TGS on blood glucose, insulin, and serum metabolome in the pre- and postprandial phase in growing pigs. Eight jugular vein-catheterized barrows were fed two diets containing 72% purified starch (waxy cornstarch (CON or TGS. A meal tolerance test (MTT was performed with serial blood sampling for glucose, insulin, lipids, and metabolome profiling. TGS-fed pigs had reduced postprandial insulin (p < 0.05 and glucose (p < 0.10 peaks compared to CON-fed pigs. The MTT showed increased (p < 0.05 serum urea with TGS-fed pigs compared to CON, indicative of increased protein catabolism. Metabolome profiling showed reduced (p < 0.05 amino acids such as alanine and glutamine with TGS, suggesting increased gluconeogenesis compared to CON, probably due to a reduction in available glucose. Of all metabolites affected by dietary treatment, alkyl-acyl-phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins were generally increased (p < 0.05 preprandially, whereas diacyl-phosphatidylcholines and lysophosphatidylcholines were decreased (p < 0.05 postprandially in TGS-fed pigs compared to CON. In conclusion, TGS led to changes in postprandial insulin and glucose metabolism, which may have caused the alterations in serum amino acid and phospholipid metabolome profiles.

  14. Development of large intestinal attaching and effacing lesions in pigs in association with the feeding of a particular diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, N A; McOrist, S; Lysons, R J; Bland, A P; Miller, B G

    1994-10-01

    Hysterotomy-derived piglets were kept in gnotobiotic isolators and artificially colonized at 7 days of age with an adult bovine enteric microflora. At 3 weeks of age, the pigs were transferred to conventional experimental accommodation and weaned, either onto a solid diet that had been associated with field cases of typhlocolitis in pigs or onto a solid control diet. At necropsy at 5 weeks of age, groups of pigs fed the diet associated with field cases of typhlocolitis were found to have developed typhlocolitis. This was absent from the groups fed the control diet. The typhlocolitis was characterized by attaching and effacing lesions typical of those described following experimental inoculation of various species with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. A nonverocytotoxic, eae probe-positive E. coli serotype O116 was isolated from pigs on the colitis-associated diet but not from any of the pigs on the control diet. Coliform bacteria attached to the colonic lesions reacted with polyclonal antiserum to E. coli O116 in an immunoperoxidase assay of histological sections of affected tissue. No reaction with this antiserum was observed in corresponding tissue sections taken from pigs on the control diet. No colon lesions were observed in germfree pigs fed either of the diets. It is postulated that proliferation and possibly expression of pathogenicity of the attaching and effacing E. coli responsible for the lesions are strongly influenced by diet.

  15. Evaluation of the effect of increasing dietary vitamin E in combination with different fat sources on performance, humoral immune responses and antioxidant status of weaned pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    involved a total of 180 pigs of 20 litters. Nine pigs of each litter were allotted to 9 dietary treatments in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design, which was conducted in 20 replicates. The 9 experimental groups were fed 50 g/kg diet of tallow, sunflower oil...... of mucosal samples. When compared to tallow, pigs fed sunflower oil had higher antibody response to sheep red blood cells at days 49 (P

  16. GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF HYBRID PIG PREDICTED BY MEANS OF ASYMMETRIC S-CURVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Kušec

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed on 24 pigs distributed over two MHS-genotypes (NN, Nn and two feeding regimes (intensive, restrictive. These pigs were investigated as the last of four trials in the experiment carried out by Kušec et al. (2005. The data on muscle and fatty tissue volumes were obtained by means of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. For the growth depiction and for the predictions of live weight as well as of muscle and fat tissue, four models developed by Kušec et al. (2007 were used. These models were set up on the basis of the general form of asymmetric S-function. This function seemed to fit well to the data collected in the present study; but the inaccuracy of the models appeared to increase with age. At the age of 124 days, the estimated values of live weight, muscle and fat volumes were close to the actual values measured in the group of intensively fed pigs; in the group of restrictively fed pigs live weight and muscle volume were underestimated while the volume of fat was overestimated. At the time of the last MR imaging (154 days of age, live weight and muscle volume was to some extent overestimated in the pigs fed intensively and underestimated in those fed restrictively. The volume of fatty tissue was estimated with favourable accuracy in all investigated groups of pigs. For further predictions, two approaches were used. In the first approach to predict individual live weights, at the age of 124 days, the predictions were fairly accurate for most of the pigs, falling in the range within one week; 4 of them being estimated falsely by more than ±7 days. Generally, when expressed as absolute value, the average misestimate was ~4 days in all groups, except for the restrictively fed MHS-gene carrier pigs which were estimated with 6 days difference on the average. At the age of 154 days, the predictions were to some extent less accurate; 7 pigs (in total were incorrectly predicted by more than a week. The prediction accuracy

  17. Hypervitaminosis D in Guinea Pigs with α-Mannosidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, JanLee A; Brice, Angela K; Bagel, Jessica H; Mexas, Angela M; Yoon, Sea Young; Wolfe, John H

    2013-01-01

    A colony of guinea pigs (n = 9) with α-mannosidosis was fed a pelleted commercial laboratory guinea pig diet. Over 2 mo, all 9 guinea pigs unexpectedly showed anorexia and weight loss (11.7% to 30.0% of baseline weight), and 3 animals demonstrated transient polyuria and polydipsia. Blood chemistry panels in these 3 guinea pigs revealed high-normal total calcium, high-normal phosphate, and high ALP. Urine specific gravity was dilute (1.003, 1.009, 1.013) in the 3 animals tested. Postmortem examination of 7 animals that were euthanized after failing to respond to supportive care revealed renal interstitial fibrosis with tubular mineralization, soft tissue mineralization in multiple organs, hepatic lipidosis, and pneumonia. Analysis of the pelleted diet revealed that it had been formulated with a vitamin D3 content of more than 150 times the normal concentration. Ionized calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D values were both high in serum saved from 2 euthanized animals, confirming the diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D. This report discusses the clinical signs, blood chemistry results, and gross and histologic findings of hypervitaminosis D in a colony of guinea pigs. When unexpected signs occur colony-wide, dietary differentials should be investigated at an early time point. PMID:23582422

  18. Osteochondrosis, but not lameness, is more frequent among free-range pigs than confined herd-mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etterlin, Pernille Engelsen; Morrison, David A; Österberg, Julia; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Heldmer, Eva; Ekman, Stina

    2015-09-29

    Organic pig production is expanding and amongst the objectives of organic farming are enhancing animal health and welfare. However, some studies have reported a higher prevalence of lameness and joint condemnation at slaughter in free-range/organic pigs than in conventionally raised pigs. Organic slaughter pigs have free-range housing in which indoor and outdoor access is compulsory, while in conventional farming the pigs are commonly confined to indoor pens. The present study evaluated the effects of free-range and confined housing on lameness prevalence in a herd of 106 finisher pigs, and whether osteochondrosis and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae associated arthritis influences these effects. We also evaluated the association between clinical lameness during the rearing period and joint condemnations at slaughter. Seventy free-range and 36 confined housed fattener pigs were scored for their gait twice during the rearing period and 848 joints were evaluated post mortem. Osteochondrosis was more frequent among free-range than confined pigs (P free-range pigs than the confined pigs. E. rhusiopathiae associated arthritis was not diagnosed. The association between gait remarks/clinical lameness and joint condemnations at slaughter was not significant. The results indicate that free-range housing may have both positive and negative effects on locomotory traits. Free-range pigs may be less clinically affected by osteochondrosis than are confined pigs. One explanation for this effect may be strengthening of joint supportive tissue and pain relief promoted by exercise. Visual gait scoring missed serious joint lesions that probably were harmful to the pigs, and should therefore not be used as a sole indicator of joint/leg health in welfare inspection of pigs. The association between gait scores and joint condemnation appeared to be poor. This study was limited to one herd, and so more and larger studies on the effects of free-range housing on lameness severity and

  19. Determination of ether extract digestibility and energy content of specialty lipids with different fatty acid and free fatty acid content, and the effect of lecithin, for nursery pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various specialty lipids are commercially available and used in nursery pig diets, but may have FA profiles and FFA content that affect their caloric value. In each of 2 experiments, 54 barrows (28-d of age) were fed a common diet for 7-d, allotted to dietary treatments and fed their respective expe...

  20. Management practices associated with the carriage of Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at farm level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, María J; Virtanen, Sonja; Heinonen, Mari; Korkeala, Hannu

    2013-07-01

    Pigs are the most important reservoir of Yersinia enterocolitica infections in humans. Knowledge of farm management practices that contribute to the transmission of this bacterial species in pigs is essential to understand how to control this foodborne pathogen in food production. The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica, and other results obtained from an age trend analysis were used to estimate the on-farm risk of transmission of specific management practices for this pathogen in 30 pig farms in Finland. Log-linear analysis revealed that rearing pigs in pens without or with sparse amounts of bedding and buying piglets from more than one farm were the variables that contribute most to the occurrence of Y. enterocolitica. The study also found that using an all-in/all-out management system and supplying water of municipal origin were factors that might reduce the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica, and therefore the risk of transmission of Y. enterocolitica in pig farms.

  1. Dietary supplementation with arginine and glutamic acid modifies growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C J; Jiang, Q Y; Zhang, T; Yin, Y L; Li, F N; Deng, J P; Wu, G Y; Kong, X F

    2017-06-01

    Sixty Duroc × Large White × Landrace pigs with an average initial BW of 77.1 ± 1.3 kg were used to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with arginine and glutamic acid on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs. The animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups (12 pigs/group, male:female ratio 1:1). The pigs in the control group were fed a basal diet (basal diet group), and those in the experimental groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2.05% -alanine (isonitrogenous group), 1.0% -arginine (Arg group), 1% glutamic acid + 1.44% -alanine (Glu group), or 1.0% -arginine + 1.0% glutamic acid (Arg+Glu group). After a 60-d period of supplementation, growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences ( > 0.05) in growth performance and carcass traits of the pigs in the Arg group relative to the basal diet group; however, the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and back fat showed a decrease ( 0.05) on the final BW, phase 2 ADFI, and average daily weight gain in pigs but decreased ( acid composition without affecting growth performance and s.c. fat in pigs, providing a novel strategy to enhance meat quality in growing-finishing pigs.

  2. Opportunities and challenges for smallholder pig production systems in a mountainous region of Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Simon; Schiborra, Anne; Huelsebusch, Christian; Huanming, Mao; Schlecht, Eva

    2012-12-01

    China's small-scale pig keepers are the largest community of pork producers worldwide. About 56 % of the world's pigs originate from such systems, each producing 2-5 head per year. This study analyzes pig smallholders in Xishuangbanna, a prefecture of Yunnan Province. Categorical principal component analysis and two-step cluster analysis were used to identify three main production systems: livestock-corn-based (LB; 41 %), rubber based (RB; 39 %), and pig based (PB; 20 %) systems. RB farms earn high income from rubber and fatten cross-bred pigs, often using purchased feeds. PB farms own similar-sized rubber plantations and raise pigs, with fodder mainly being cultivated and collected in the forest. LB farms grow corn, rice, and tea while also raising pigs, fed with collected and cultivated fodder as well. About one third of pigs were marketed (LB, 20 %; RB, 42 %; PB, 25 %), and local pig meat is highly appreciated in the nearby town. High mortality, low reproductive performance, and widespread malnourishment are the systems' main constraints. Basic training in hygiene and reproduction management could significantly increase production; most effective measures would be counterbalancing seasonal malnourishment and exploration of locally available protein feeds. Through support by external expertise, farmers could more effectively trade their pigs at lucrative town markets.

  3. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  4. Pipeline pig or swipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, H J

    1974-03-26

    A pig or swipe is used for cleaning piplines and for maintaining fluids separated while being transmitted through the line. It is adapted to be propelled through the line by a pressure gradient therein. The pig includes a sponge-like body of foamed plastic material, having an external coating or cover of durable material, such as unfoamed plastic in which reenforcing material, such a wire mesh or glass fabric may be embedded to increase resistance to tearing and wear. The covering is applied to leave openings through which the sponge-like body may project into wiping contact with the surrounding internal surface of the pipe when a longitudinal compressive force is exerted on the pig by the fluid in the pipe in advance of and following the pig therein. The pig also has a barrier layer at one end positioned to close the sponge-like body against the passage of fluid there through and to form a fluid-tight seal with the surrounding pipe. (3 claims)

  5. Plasma proteome profiles associated with diet-induced metabolic syndrome and the early onset of metabolic syndrome in a pig model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinus F W te Pas

    Full Text Available Obesity and related diabetes are important health threatening multifactorial metabolic diseases and it has been suggested that 25% of all diabetic patients are unaware of their patho-physiological condition. Biomarkers for monitoring and control are available, but early stage predictive biomarkers enabling prevention of these diseases are still lacking. We used the pig as a model to study metabolic disease because humans and pigs share a multitude of metabolic similarities. Diabetes was chemically induced and control and diabetic pigs were either fed a high unsaturated fat (Mediterranean diet or a high saturated fat/cholesterol/sugar (cafeteria diet. Physiological parameters related to fat metabolism and diabetes were measured. Diabetic pigs' plasma proteome profiles differed more between the two diets than control pigs plasma proteome profiles. The expression levels of several proteins correlated well with (pathophysiological parameters related to the fat metabolism (cholesterol, VLDL, LDL, NEFA and diabetes (Glucose and to the diet fed to the animals. Studying only the control pigs as a model for metabolic syndrome when fed the two diets showed correlations to the same parameters but now more focused on insulin, glucose and abdominal fat depot parameters. We conclude that proteomic profiles can be used as a biomarker to identify pigs with developing metabolic syndrome (prediabetes and diabetes when fed a cafeteria diet. It could be developed into a potential biomarkers for the early recognition of metabolic diseases.

  6. Effect of barley grinding method and sodium polyacrylate supplement in the diet on the performance and stomach ulcer development of growing finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Alaviuhkola

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Two different grinding methods - rolling and hammer milling - as well as polyacrylate supplement in the diet were studied to evaluate their effect on the performance of pigs and the incidence of gastric lesions. The experiment was carried out in 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with a total of 160 pigs. The grist size of rolled barley was bigger than of hammermilled barley, but the difference in water-binding capacity was insignificant. No significant differences were observed in the performance traits of pigs fed either rolled or hammer-milled barley. The sodium polyacrylate supplement had no effect on the daily gain, feed:gain ratio or carcass quality of the pigs. Gastric ulcers and constrictions of the oesophageal opening of the stomach were more frequent in the groups fed hammer-milled barley than in the groups fed rolled barley, the difference being statistically significant (P

  7. Short-term toxicity studies with triphenyltin compounds in rats and guinea-pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, H.G.; Kroes, R.; Vink, H.H.; Esch, G.J. van

    1966-01-01

    Short-term toxicity studies have been carried out in rats and guinea-pigs fed diets containing triphenyltin acetate (TPTA), triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH) or triethyltin hydroxide (TETH) for 90 days at levels ranging from 0 to 50 ppm. The lowest dietary levels found to retard growth in rats and

  8. Impact of prolonged leucine supplementation on protein synthesis and lean growth in neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most low-birth weight infants experience extrauterine growth failure due to reduced nutrient intake as a result of feeding intolerance. The objective of this study was to determine whether prolonged enteral leucine supplementation improves lean growth in neonatal pigs fed a restricted protein diet. ...

  9. Stratification of Microbial Processes and Populations in Biofilms Treating Pig Farm Waste Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhler, Susanne; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Pedersen, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    Biological air filters have been developed to reduce odor and ammonia emissions resulting from the rapidly expanding pig farm industry in many European countries. In contrast to aqueous biofilm environments, the biofilms of these filters are air-fed, allowing for extreme metabolite accumulation...

  10. Partitioning of dietary nitrogen between body components and waste in young growing pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Tamminga, S.

    1994-01-01

    In experiment 1, 90 female pigs were fed, from 20 to 45 kg, at two energy intake levels (2x and 3x maintenance requirement) and 15 protein intakes ranging from 127 to 350 g/day. Protein deposition increased linearly with increasing protein intake until a plateau in deposition was reached at 106 and

  11. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panichnumsin, Pan; Nopharatana, Annop; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2010-01-01

    digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 C) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m...

  12. Heat production in growing pigs calculated according to the RQ and CN methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, K; Chwalibog, André; Henckel, S

    1988-01-01

    1. Heat production, calculated according to the respiratory quotient methods, HE(RQ), and the carbon nitrogen balance method, HE(CN), was compared using the results from a total of 326 balance trials with 56 castrated male pigs fed different dietary composition and variable feed levels during...

  13. Effects of acidifying pig diets on emissions of ammonia, methane and sulfur from slurry during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    and feces were collected separately from twenty-four pigs fed one of four diets (Control, +BA, +CaCl2, +BA+CaCl2) in metabolic cages, and mixed as slurry. During 103 days of storage, all acidifying diets consistently reduced pH in the slurry by 0.4 - 0.6 units. There was a strong relationship between slurry...

  14. The Ossabaw pig as a model for diet induced atherosclerosis and statin responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Objectives: The Ossabaw pig has been established as a model for obesity, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, when fed an extreme diet (high trans fat and fructose) in caloric excess. To increase the translational nature of this model, we determined i...

  15. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modify gene expression in liver, muscles, and fat tissues of finishing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tous, Nuria; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate underlying mechanisms of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism in various tissues of pigs. Sixteen gilts (73 ± 3 kg) were fed a control (containing sunflower oil) or an experimental diet in which 4% of sunflower oil was replaced by CLA...

  16. Certain dietary carbohydrates promote Listeria infection in a guinea pig model, while others prevent it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, Tine; Jørgensen, Julie Boeck; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2010-01-01

    of five non-digestible carbohydrates on the resistance of guinea pigs to Listeria monocytogenes infections. Animals were fed a diet supplemented with 10% xylooligosaccharides (XOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), inulin, apple pectin or polydextrose for three weeks before oral infection with a mixture...

  17. Estimation of body tissue gain of entire and castrated male pigs at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rates of tissue gain and body composition of 18 entire (E) and 18 castrated (C) male pigs, fed at one of two levels of feeding (high (H) or low (L)), were investigated in a 2x2 factorial experiment. Calorimetric, energy and nitrogen balances were carried out on each animal at 30, 60 and 90 kg live weight. The animals were ...

  18. High-dose ascorbic acid decreases cholesterolemic factors of an atherogenic diet in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filis, Konstantinos; Anastassopoulou, Aikaterini; Sigala, Fragiska; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Manouras, Andreas; Leandros, Emanouel; Sigalas, Panagiotis; Hepp, Wolfgang; Bramis, John

    2007-03-01

    The study evaluates the effect of a high supplemental dose of ascorbic acid (AA) on plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), total lipids (TL), and lipoprotein fractions high-density, very-low-density-, and low-density lipoprotein (HDL, VLDL, LDL) in guinea pigs fed with atherogenic diet. Group I consisted of 5 normally fed guinea pigs plus a low dose of AA (1 mg/100 g/day), group II consisted of 7 guinea pigs fed with food enriched with 2% cholesterol plus a low dose of AA (1 mg/100 g/day), and group III consisted of 7 guinea pigs fed with food enriched with 2% cholesterol plus a high dose of AA (30 mg/100 g/day). Cholesterolemic factors concentrations were determined after nine weeks. Concentrations of TC, TG, TL, LDL, and VLDL were increased in group II compared to group I (p < 0.01 for all differences). Supplementation with a high dose of AA resulted in decreased concentrations of TC (p < 0.01), TG (p < 0.01), TL (p < 0.01), and LDL (p < 0.01) in group III compared to group II. Additionally, concentration of HDL was increased in group III compared to group II (p < 0.01). High-dose AA supplementation to an atherogenic diet decreases concentrations of TC, TG, TL, and LDL and increases concentration of HDL compared to low-dose AA.

  19. Effects of finishing diet and pre-slaughter fasting time on meat quality in crossbred pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the carbohydrate composition of finishing diet (fed from 80 to 107 kg of body weight and the length of pre-slaughter fasting on pork quality were studied in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with 80 crossbred pigs. The control finishing diet was based on barley and soybean meal, and the fibrous finishing diet was based on barley, barley fibre, faba beans, and rapeseed cake. These diets contained 465 and 362 g starch and 177 and 250 g dietary fibre per kg, respectively. The fasting times of 25 and 41 h were obtained by giving the pigs their last meal at different times. Longer fasting lowered the glycolytic potential of the longissimus lumborum muscle (P = 0.01, whereas the finishing diet had no effect. Different muscles responded differently to the treatments. Longer fasting increased the ultimate pH of the semimembranosus muscle (P = 0.02, but did not affect that of the longissimus lumborum and semispinalis capitis muscles. The finishing diets did not affect the ultimate pH of the investigated muscles. A diet × fasting time interaction was seen in the lightness of the semimembranosus muscle (P = 0.05. The fibrous diet resulted in darker meat than the control diet did in pigs that were fasted for 25 h (P < 0.05. Longer fasting darkened the meat colour in pigs fed the fibrous diet (P < 0.05 but not in those fed the control diet. The meat from the semispinalis capitis muscle was darker in pigs fed the fibrous than those fed the control diet (P = 0.04. The treatments did not affect the colour of the longissimus lumborum muscle. Longer fasting decreased drip loss from the meat of pigs fed the control diet (P < 0.05. The eating quality of the pork was not influenced by the finishing diets or the fasting time. The pigs also grew equally fast on both finishing diets. In conclusion, a moderate alteration in the carbohydrate composition of a finishing diet or longer pre-slaughter fasting can have some effects on pork quality in crossbred pigs

  20. Pig Farmers' Homes Harbor More Diverse Airborne Bacterial Communities Than Pig Stables or Suburban Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Ditte V; Holst, Gitte J; Basinas, Ioannis; Elholm, Grethe; Schlünssen, Vivi; Linneberg, Allan; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Finster, Kai; Sigsgaard, Torben; Marshall, Ian P G

    2018-01-01

    Airborne bacterial communities are subject to conditions ill-suited to microbial activity and growth. In spite of this, air is an important transfer medium for bacteria, with the bacteria in indoor air having potentially major consequences for the health of a building's occupants. A major example is the decreased diversity and altered composition of indoor airborne microbial communities as a proposed explanation for the increasing prevalence of asthma and allergies worldwide. Previous research has shown that living on a farm confers protection against development of asthma and allergies, with airborne bacteria suggested as playing a role in this protective effect. However, the composition of this beneficial microbial community has still not been identified. We sampled settled airborne dust using a passive dust sampler from Danish pig stables, associated farmers' homes, and from suburban homes (267 samples in total) and carried out quantitative PCR measurements of bacterial abundance and MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes found in these samples. Airborne bacteria had a greater diversity and were significantly more abundant in pig stables and farmers' homes than suburban homes (Wilcoxon rank sum test P < 0.05). Moreover, bacterial taxa previously suggested to contribute to a protective effect had significantly higher relative and absolute abundance in pig stables and farmers' homes than in suburban homes (ALDEx2 with P < 0.05), including Firmicutes, Peptostreptococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Ruminiclostridium , and Lactobacillus . Pig stables had significantly lower airborne bacterial diversity than farmers' homes, and there was no discernable direct transfer of airborne bacteria from stable to home. This study identifies differences in indoor airborne bacterial communities that may be an important component of this putative protective effect, while showing that pig stables themselves do not appear to

  1. Dietary cinnamaldehyde enhances acquisition of specific antibodies following helminth infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Hansen, Tina V. A.; Krych, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    immune responses during infection with an enteric pathogen. We examined the effect of dietary CA on plasma antibody levels in parasite-naïve pigs, and subsequently acquisition of humoral immune responses during infection with the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Parasite-naïve pigs fed diets supplemented...... with CA had higher levels of total IgA and IgG in plasma, and A. suum-infected pigs fed CA had higher levels of parasite-specific IgM and IgA in plasma 14days post-infection. Moreover, dietary CA increased expression of genes encoding the B-cell marker CD19, sodium/glucose co-transporter1 (SCA5L1...

  2. Introducing enteral feeding induces intestinal subclinical inflammation and respective chromatin changes in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Rhea; Krych, Lukasz; Rybicki, Verena

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyze how enteral food introduction affects intestinal gene regulation and chromatin structure in preterm pigs. MATERIALS & METHODS: Preterm pigs were fed parenteral nutrition plus/minus slowly increasing volumes of enteral nutrition. Intestinal gene-expression and chromatin structure......; no significant differences for colostrum) with corresponding decondensed chromatin configurations. On histology this correlated with mild mucosal lesions, particularly in formula-fed pigs. In CaCo-2 cells, histone hyperacetylation led to a marked increase in TLR4 mRNA and increased IL8 expression upon...... stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (median: 7.0; interquartile range: 5.63-8.85) compared with naive cells (median 4.2; interquartile range: 2.45-6.33; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Enteral feeding, particular with formula, induces subclinical inflammation in the premature intestine and more open chromatin...

  3. Pig design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pasupuleti, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Pig makes Hadoop programming simple, intuitive, and fun to work with. It removes the complexity from Map Reduce programming by giving the programmer immense power through its flexibility. What used to be extremely lengthy and intricate code written in other high level languages can now be written in almost one tenth of the size using its easy to understand constructs. Pig has proven to be the easiest way to learn how to program Hadoop clusters, as evidenced by its widespread adoption. This comprehensive guide enables readers to readily use design patterns to simplify the creation of complex da

  4. The 'Real Welfare' scheme: benchmarking welfare outcomes for commercially farmed pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, F; Stoddart, K; Wainwright, N; Kyriazakis, I; Edwards, S A

    2017-10-01

    Animal welfare standards have been incorporated in EU legislation and in farm assurance schemes, based on scientific information and aiming to safeguard the welfare of the species concerned. Recently, emphasis has shifted from resource-based measures of welfare to animal-based measures, which are considered to assess more accurately the welfare status. The data used in this analysis were collected from April 2013 to May 2016 through the 'Real Welfare' scheme in order to assess on-farm pig welfare, as required for those finishing pigs under the UK Red Tractor Assurance scheme. The assessment involved five main measures (percentage of pigs requiring hospitalization, percentage of lame pigs, percentage of pigs with severe tail lesions, percentage of pigs with severe body marks and enrichment use ratio) and optional secondary measures (percentage of pigs with mild tail lesions, percentage of pigs with dirty tails, percentage of pigs with mild body marks, percentage of pigs with dirty bodies), with associated information about the environment and the enrichment in the farms. For the complete database, a sample of pens was assessed from 1928 farm units. Repeated measures were taken in the same farm unit over time, giving 112 240 records at pen level. These concerned a total of 13 480 289 pigs present on the farm during the assessments, with 5 463 348 pigs directly assessed using the 'Real Welfare' protocol. The three most common enrichment types were straw, chain and plastic objects. The main substrate was straw which was present in 67.9% of the farms. Compared with 2013, a significant increase of pens with undocked-tail pigs, substrates and objects was observed over time (P0.3). The results from the first 3 years of the scheme demonstrate a reduction of the prevalence of animal-based measures of welfare problems and highlight the value of this initiative.

  5. THE OCCURRENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ANTIBODIES IN BACKYARD PIGS AND CATS FROM AN ENDEMIC TROPICAL AREA OF MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Matilde Jimenez-Coello; Karla Y Acosta-Viana; Eugenia Guzman-Marín; Edwin J Gutierrez-ruiz; Roger I Rodriguez-Vivas; Manuel E Bolio-Gonzalez; Antonio Ortega-Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico, backyard animal production system is an important source of food for domestic consumption as in many other developing countries and is characterized by a virtually nonexistent sanitary management. With the objective to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors associated with antibodies against T. gondii in pigs and cats from an endemic area in the Mexican tropics, a cross-sectional study was performed in 30 backyard pigs and 50 cats. Pigs and cats were blood sampled and tested by a...

  6. Effects of the ratio of unsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid on the growth performance, carcass and meat quality of finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandee Tartrakoon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects on finishing pigs (80–100 kg BW fed diets supplemented with oil sources containing different ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (UFA:SFA ratio were evaluated in 15 barrows and 15 gilts (Duroc × Large White × Landrace. Three experimental diets were evaluated using a randomized complete block design, with broken rice, soybean meal and rice bran as the main feedstuffs in the control diet. Diets 2 and 3 consisted of the control diet supplemented with 3% oil, with UFA:SFA ratios of 2.5:1 and 5:1, respectively. Overall, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05 found in the average daily gain (ADG of the pigs fed the treatment diets; however, the pigs fed the control diet and diet 3 had better (P  0.05 among the treatment groups with regard to the carcass quality of the pigs; however, it was found that the gilts had greater (P < 0.01 loin eye areas than the barrows fed diets 2 and 3 and the loin eye area of pig fed diet 2 was the largest (P < 0.05. In the case of the meat quality parameters, it was clearly found that the pigs fed the control diet had a greater (P < 0.05 lightness (L∗ in the meat colour, and the lowest cooking loss was found in the pigs fed the diet supplemented with fat containing the UFA:SFA ratio of 5:1. Overall, the dietary treatment did not significantly affect the drip loss, thawing loss and shear force of the pork. In conclusion, the supplementation of oil with UFA:SFA ratios of 2.5:1 and 5:1 has the potential to improve pork quality.

  7. Comparative carcass and tissue nutrient composition of transgenic Yorkshire pigs expressing phytase in the saliva and conventional Yorkshire pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, C W; Meidinger, R G; Ajakaiye, A; Murray, D; Fan, M Z; Mandell, I B; Phillips, J P

    2014-10-01

    A transgenic line of Yorkshire (YK) pigs named the Cassie (CA) line was produced with a low copy number phytase transgene inserted in the genome. The transgenic line efficiently digests P, Ca, and other major minerals of plant dietary origin. The objectives of this study were to 1) compare carcass and tissue nutrient composition and meat quality traits for third generation hemizygous CA line market BW finisher pigs (n = 24) with age-matched conventional YK finisher pigs (n = 24) and 2) examine effects of outbreeding with high-index conventional YK boars on modifying carcass leanness from the third to sixth generations in CA line finisher boars (n = 73) and gilts (n = 103). Cassie boars (n = 12) and CA gilts (n = 12) were fed diets without supplemental P and comparable numbers of age-matched YK boars and gilts fed diets containing supplement P were raised throughout the finisher phase. The pigs were slaughtered and then fabricated into commercial pork primals before meat composition and quality evaluation. Proximate and major micronutrient composition was determined on tissues including fat, kidney, lean, liver, and skin. The main difference observed was greater (P = 0.033) crude fat content in CA boar carcasses and increased (P phytase action rather than to insertion of the transgene. However, from a meat composition perspective, transgenic expression of phytase in the CA line of YK pigs had little overall effect on meat composition. Outbreeding of high-index CA gilts with high-index commercial YK boars linearly reduced (P = 0.002) back fat thickness with a corresponding linear increase (P = 0.001) in lean yield in finisher CA gilts, although no change in these parameters was observed in CA finisher boars. The increase in lean yield in CA gilts by selective breeding without affecting the level of salivary phytase activity documents the value of conventional genetic selection in conjunction with genetic modification.

  8. Protein and starch concentrates of air-classified field pea and zero-tannin faba bean for weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, C K; Zijlstra, R T; Goonewardene, L A; Beltranena, E

    2010-08-01

    Air-classified pulse (non-oilseed legume) protein and starch may replace specialty protein and starch feedstuffs in diets for weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, three specialty protein sources (5% soy protein concentrate, 5% corn gluten meal, and 5% menhaden meal in the control diet) were replaced with 16% zero-tannin hulled or dehulled faba bean, or 17.5% field pea protein concentrate. In total, 192 group-housed pigs (2 gilts and 2 barrows per pen; BW = 7.5 +/- 1.4 kg) were fed wheat-based diets (3.60 Mcal/kg of DE and 3.3 g of standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal DE) over 28 d for 12 pen observations per each of 4 diets. Overall, protein source did not affect ADFI, ADG, or G:F. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, GE, and P was greater (P bean and field pea protein concentrate diets than the diet with 3 specialty protein sources. In Exp. 2, faba bean and field pea starch concentrates were compared with corn, wheat, tapioca, and potato starch as dietary energy sources. In total, 36 individually housed barrows (BW = 8.0 +/- 1.5 kg) were fed 1 of 6 diets for 15 d. Feces and urine were collected from d 8 to 14, and jugular blood was sampled after overnight fast and refeeding on d 15. Starch source did not affect N retention as a percentage of N intake. For d 0 to 14, ADFI of pigs fed field pea starch was greater (P bean starch. Pigs fed tapioca, field pea, wheat, or corn starch grew faster (P bean or potato starch. For d 0 to 14, pigs fed corn or wheat starch had a 0.1 greater (P bean, field pea, or potato starch. The ATTD of DM, GE, CP, and starch and the DE value of potato starch were much less (P bean, wheat, and potato starch, respectively. However, postprandial plasma insulin tended to be 844 and 577 pmol/L greater (P bean and corn starch, respectively, than for pigs fed potato starch. The high insulin response of pigs fed faba starch could not be explained. In conclusion, air-classified pulse protein concentrates can replace specialty protein feedstuffs in

  9. The effects of pressed sugar beet pulp silage (PBPS and dairy whey on heavy pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Sardi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pressed beet pulp silage (PBPS replacing barley for 10% and 20% (DM basis were studied on heavy pigs fed dairy whey-diluted diets. 60 Hypor pigs (average initial weight of 28 kg, 30 barrows and 30 gilts, were homogeneously allocated to three exper- imental groups: T1 (control in which pigs were fed a traditional sweet whey- diluted diet (the ratio between whey and dry matter was 4.5/1; T2 in which PBPS replaced barley for 10% (DM basis during a first period (from the beginning to the 133rd day of trial and thereafter for 20% (DM basis; T3 in which PBPS replaced barley for 20% (DM basis throughout the experimental period. In diets T2 and T3 feed was dairy whey-diluted as in group T1. No significant (P>0.05 differences were observed concerning growth parameters (ADG and FCR. Pigs on diets contain- ing PBPS showed significantly higher (P<0.05 percentages of lean cuts and lower percentages of fat cuts. On the whole, ham weight losses during seasoning were moderate but significantly (P<0.05 more marked for PBPS-fed pigs as a prob- able consequence of their lower adiposity degree. Fatty acid composition of ham fat was unaffected by diets. With regard to m. Semimembranosus colour, pigs receiving PBPS showed lower (P<0.05 “L”, “a” and “Chroma” values. From an economical point of view it can be concluded that the use of PBPS (partially replacing barley and dairy whey in heavy pig production could be of particular interest in areas where both these by products are readily available.

  10. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group-housed growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, J W; Bakker, G C

    1999-12-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14 pigs were fed one of four diets in a 2x2 factorial arrangement. Factors included 1) gastrointestinal fermentation and 2) dietary bulkiness. Contrasts in fermentation were created by exchanging gelatinized maize starch with raw potato starch on a volume basis. Bulkiness was altered by adding 15% milled wheat straw to the diets. Apart from these differences, amounts of other dietary ingredients fed to the pigs were similar. Pigs were housed in groups. Nitrogen and energy balances were measured per cluster during a 14-d period. Dietary bulkiness did not affect ME intake, heat production, or energy retention. Metabolizability decreased when maize starch was replaced with raw potato starch (P< .01), resulting in a lower energy retention on the potato starch diets (P<.01). However, the lower ME intake on the potato diets was partially compensated by a reduced energy expenditure on physical activity (P< .01), which was 17.6% lower than that of pigs fed the maize starch diets. Dietary bulkiness did not affect physical activity. The effect of fiber-rich diets (nonstarch polysaccharides) on activity in growing group-housed pigs seems to be related to fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract, and not to bulkiness (volume).

  11. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from Tibetan pigs in western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Gang; Rui, Yapei; Li, Kun; Huang, Shucheng; Han, Zhaoqing; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Jiang, Wenteng; Luo, Houqiang; Lan, Yanfang; Li, Jiakui

    2017-10-01

    Enzootic pneumonia (EP), often caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, occurs in Tibetan pigs between October and December in Western China. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae in Tibetan pig herds and also the prevalence of infection. M. hyopneumoniae was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and 16S rRNA sequencing. Twenty-nine inflammatory gross-lesions were observed in 155 lungs of slaughtered pigs. Invasion of focal lymphocytes was confirmed by paraffin sectioning and hematoxylin-eosin staining of lung sections. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from slaughtered Tibetan pigs and nasal swabs from others were assayed using PCR. The prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae in Tibetan pig herds (via ELISA) was 20.48% (93/454) in 3 provinces (Sichuan, Tibet autonomous region, and Qinghai) between October and December of 2014. The difference in prevalence among animals in six different growing stages was statistically significant (P hyopneumoniae antibody was detected in breeding sows (45.83%; 22/48) and piglets (50%; 3/6). PCR and gel electrophoresis of BALF showed that 6.45% (10/155) of pigs were positive for M. hyopneumoniae. The presence of M. hyopneumoniae in serum was higher in piglets and breeding sows than in any other group. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that M. hyopneumoniae is prevalent among Tibetan pigs between October and December in Western China. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first investigation of M. hyopneumoniae prevalence in Tibetan pigs of Western China using serological tests, PCR, and 16S rRNA sequencing.

  12. Social behaviour of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, S. Y,; Oord, R. van; Staay, F.J. van der; Nordquist, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    Improper social behavior development brings problems in later social life. Several time points are known to be crucial for the development and in other words, susceptible to interruptions during those time points. In conventional pigs, those time points could be categorized to three interaction

  13. pig production in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All matings were natural. All sows were mated three times using the same boar at 12 hour intervals after stand- .... up to 21 days was significantly affected by number of pigs born alive, parity, sow breed, farrowing ..... (1991) reported that under hot summer conditions, pregnant or lactating sows eat less, lose more weight and ...

  14. (EPEC) from pig

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-26

    Mar 26, 2014 ... 16 belonged to O60 (94.1%) and 1(5.88%) was untypeable. Virulence genes ..... Figure 4. a) Confluent monolayer of healthy vero cells; b) CPE in verocells after 12 h of incubation with filtrate extracts .... about 5 to 10 pigs near their residence and share the ... of Stx to vero cells remains the 'gold standard' for.

  15. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  16. The impact of maternally derived immunity on influenza A virus transmission in neonatal pig populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerson, Matt; Deen, John; Detmer, Susan E; Gramer, Marie R; Joo, Han Soo; Romagosa, Anna; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2013-01-07

    The commonality of influenza A virus (IAV) exposure and vaccination on swine farms in the United States ensures that the majority of neonatal pigs will have some degree of maternal immunity to IAV. The influence of maternal immunity on IAV transmission in neonatal pig populations will impact virus prevalence and infection dynamics across pig populations. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of maternally derived immunity on IAV transmission in an experimental setting. Neonatal pigs suckled colostrum and derived maternal (passive) immunity from sows in one of three treatment groups: (a) non-vaccinated control (CTRL) or vaccinated with (b) homologous (PASSV-HOM) or (c) heterologous (PASSV-HET) inactivated experimental IAV vaccines. Sentinel neonatal pigs derived from the groups above were challenged with IAV via direct contact with an experimentally infected pig (seeder pig) and monitored for IAV infection daily via nasal swab sampling. A susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) experimental model was used to obtain and estimate transmission parameters in each treatment group via a generalized linear model. All sentinel pigs in the CTRL (30/30) and PASSV-HET (30/30) groups were infected with IAV following contact with the seeder pigs and the reproduction ratio estimates (95% confidence interval) were 10.4 (6.6-15.8) and 7.1 (4.2-11.3), respectively. In contrast, 1/20 sentinel pigs in the PASSV-HOM group was infected following contact with the seeder pigs and the reproduction ratio estimate was significantly lower compared to the CTRL and PASSV-HET groups at 0.8 (0.1-3.7). Under the conditions of this study, IAV transmission was reduced in neonatal pigs with homologous maternal immunity compared to seronegative neonatal pigs and pigs with heterologous maternal immunity as defined in this study. This study provides estimates for IAV transmission in pigs with differing types of maternal immunity which may describe the influence of maternal immunity on

  17. Effects of pig genotype (Iberian v. Landrace × Large White) on nutrient digestibility, relative organ weight and small intestine structure at two stages of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barea, R; Nieto, R; Vitari, F; Domeneghini, C; Aguilera, J F

    2011-02-01

    Although the effects of pig genotype on total-tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) have been widely reported in the literature, there is controversial information on the digestive capacity of indigenous breeds compared with lean-type pigs. The strategy of this study was to test the effects of pig genotype and crude protein (CP) supply on performance, digestive utilization of nutrients, relative organ weight and morphometric analysis of the small intestine. Thirty-eight Iberian (IB) and Landrace × Large White (LD) pigs were used. Three pigs per genotype were slaughtered at approximately 15 kg BW. The remaining pigs were fed one of two diets differing in CP content (13% or 17% as fed) using a pair-fed procedure. Feeding level was restricted at 0.8 × ad libitum of IB pigs. Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance trials were performed at 30 and 80 kg BW. Four pigs per dietary treatment and genotype were slaughtered at approximately 50 and 115 kg BW. The gastrointestinal tract and the rest of the visceral organs were weighed and samples of the small intestine were taken to carry out histological and histometrical studies. Daily gain and gain-to-feed ratio were higher in LD than in IB pigs during the fattening and growing-fattening periods (P LD pigs at 30 kg BW (P LD pigs at 30 and 80 kg BW (30% as mean value). The proportional weight of the small intestine was greater in LD than in IB pigs at 50 and 115 kg BW. Histometry showed that IB presented a lower muscle layer thickness than LD pigs in ileum, irrespective of the BW (P LD pigs showed approximately 10% higher ileal villi length and villi-to-crypt ratio than IB pigs at 115 kg BW. CP supply affected to a larger extent the small intestinal micro-anatomical structure of LD pigs at 50 kg BW. In conclusion, our results suggests that although the higher growth rate, NR and efficiency of NR observed in LD pigs might be associated with presumably more efficient structural aspects of the small intestine, the main

  18. FedScope Employment Cubes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — This raw data set provides Federal civilian employee population data. The scope of this raw data set includes all data elements used in the creation of the FedScope...

  19. Effect of split marketing on the welfare, performance, and carcass traits of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, S; Lawlor, P G; O'Connell, N; Boyle, L A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a split marketing (SM) strategy, in which the heaviest pigs in a group are removed and slaughtered earlier than the others, with an all-out (AO) marketing strategy, in which all pigs are removed from the pen simultaneously and slaughtered on the same day, in terms of welfare, performance, and carcass traits of noncastrated (i.e., intact) male and female pigs. The experimental treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial array with 1) marketing strategy (SM vs. AO) and 2) sex (males vs. females), which yielded 4 treatment groups of 14 pigs (73.1 ± 4.8 kg): male SM, male AO, female SM, and female AO (7 replicates/group). Pigs in AO groups were all slaughtered after 6 wk on trial, whereas in SM groups the 3 heaviest pigs were removed and slaughtered 2 wk before the remainder of the group, which were slaughtered at the same time as the AO pigs. Pigs were fed a liquid diet from a long trough 3 times daily. Behavioral observations were conducted before and after SM, the day of SM, and 1 and 2 wk later. Behavior was recorded both during and between feed events, and skin lesions were scored on all, except the 3 pigs removed from SM groups before and 2 wk after SM. Growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were recorded. The number of aggressive interactions during feed events decreased after the 3 pigs were removed from SM groups. This reduction in aggressive interactions was observed on the day of SM in male groups (before SM: 24.3 vs. the day of SM: 14.7, SED = 3.31, P effect on behaviors recorded between feed events or on the number and severity of skin lesions (P > 0.10). There were no differences between the 11 remaining pigs in SM groups and the 14 pigs in AO groups in terms of growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass traits of female or intact male pigs (P > 0.10). However, reduced within-pen CV in carcass weight was detected in pigs from SM groups compared with pigs from AO groups (8.6 vs. 10.9, SEM = 0

  20. Minimal short-term effect of dietary 2'-fucosyllactose on bacterial colonisation, intestinal function and necrotising enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Bering, Stine B.; Østergaard, Mette V.

    2016-01-01

    enriched with α1,2-fucosyllactose (2'-FL, the most abundant oligosaccharide in human milk) would benefit gut microbial colonisation and NEC resistance after preterm birth. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were fed formula (Controls, n 17) or formula with 5 g/l 2'-FL (2'-FL, n 16) for 5 d; eight 2'-FL pigs...... (50 %) and twelve Controls (71 %) developed NEC, with no difference in lesion scores (P=0·35); 2'-FL pigs tended to have less anaerobic bacteria in caecal contents (P=0·22), but no difference in gut microbiota between groups were observed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation and 454 pyrosequencing...

  1. Effect of vitamins E+C and taurine on the oxidative state of DNA in the liver of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, E.; Strawa, A.; Chwalibog, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    Growing pigs (n=21)at an initial liveweight of 30 kg were divided into three groups of 7 animals each and housed in individual cages for 100 days. The pigs were fed with similar diets (13.5 MJ ME and 178 g crude protein/kg) but with different additions of vitamins C+E and taurine. The antioxidative...... vitamins E and C supplied to diets with high energy concentrations (containing lard) can act as pro-oxidants on liver DNA in growing pigs. Taurine decreased the concentration of products from nucleotide oxidation, but in the presence of vitamin E and C, promoted hepatocyte lesions....

  2. Development of large intestinal attaching and effacing lesions in pigs in association with the feeding of a particular diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Neef, N A; McOrist, S; Lysons, R J; Bland, A P; Miller, B G

    1994-01-01

    Hysterotomy-derived piglets were kept in gnotobiotic isolators and artificially colonized at 7 days of age with an adult bovine enteric microflora. At 3 weeks of age, the pigs were transferred to conventional experimental accommodation and weaned, either onto a solid diet that had been associated with field cases of typhlocolitis in pigs or onto a solid control diet. At necropsy at 5 weeks of age, groups of pigs fed the diet associated with field cases of typhlocolitis were found to have deve...

  3. Influence of genotype and feeding strategy on pig performance, plasma concentrations of micro nutrients, immune responses and faecal microbiota composition of growing-finishing pigs in a forage-based system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    In free-range pig production it is important to reduce the input of nutrients from supplementary feed to reduce nutrient leaching and improve the resource efficiency of the system. A promising development might be to encourage foraging behaviour of the pigs. However, very little is known about pi...... significantly to the nutritional supply of pigs fed restrictedly with supplementary feed. There are indications that the mineral content of the premix is not needed in a forage-based free-range system but cautious need to be taken with regards to the vitamin A, D, E supply.......In free-range pig production it is important to reduce the input of nutrients from supplementary feed to reduce nutrient leaching and improve the resource efficiency of the system. A promising development might be to encourage foraging behaviour of the pigs. However, very little is known about pigs......) of either a traditional (Tamworth×(Landrace×Yorkshire)) or a ‘modern’ crossbreed (Duroc×(Landrace×Yorkshire)) fed a pelleted diet as supplementary feed either according to recommendations (NORM), or restrictedly with (RES+) or without (RES–) a supplementary vitamin and mineral mixture. The pigs ‘strip...

  4. A comparative analysis of the intestinal metagenomes present in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and humans (Homo sapiens)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrand, Falk; Ebersbach, Tine; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an important model for human intestinal research. We have characterized the faecal microbiota of 60 guinea pigs using Illumina shotgun metagenomics, and used this data to compile a gene catalogue of its prevalent microbiota. Subsequently, we compared th...

  5. PORK CARCASS COMPOSITION AND THE MEAT QUALITY OF THE BLACK SLAVONIAN PIG – THE ENDANGERED BREEDS IN THE INDOOR AND OUTDOOR KEEPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Butko

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The research has been made on 20 Black Slavonian Pigs in both ways of keeping them (indoor, outdoor. The pigs have been fed up to 135 kg body weight. The pigs in the outdoor system have been held on a natural pasture ground. Other than pasture, the pigs have consumed, over the summer period, the food offered on stubble-fields after the harvest (barley, wheat and over the winter times after corn harvest. They had only minimal corn consumption; mostly during the winter (average daily consumption was 0.15 kg. Dissection of cold (+40C right sided pig body composition has been made by the modified Weniger et al (1963 method. The meat quality has been determined on a long back muscle sample (musculus longissimus dorsi- MLD taken berween 13th and 14th rib. The pig carcasses in the outdoor system had a very significant (P<0.01 absolute and relative leg share, less belly-rib share and higher meat quantity. Commercially, more valuable parts-legs and back had a greater share of muscle tissue in pigs' carcasses in the outdoor system. The meat of the pigs in the outdoor system had no signifficant differences from the pigs in the indoor system, concerning the pH1, pH2, water holding capacity, colour and marbling. However, the meat of the pigs in the outdoor system had higher content of crude fat from the pigs in the indoor system.

  6. Individual risk factors for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs at the age of weaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, the occurrence and the relevance of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs has been examined in several studies. Whereas most of these studies were focused on sole prevalence estimation within different age groups, follow-up of infected piglets or assessment of pathological findings, none of the studies included a detailed analysis of individual and environmental risk factors. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of M. hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs of endemically infected herds and to identify individual risk factors potentially influencing the infection status of suckling pigs at the age of weaning. Results The animal level prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs examined in three conventional pig breeding herds was 3.6% (41/1127) at the time of weaning. A prevalence of 1.2% was found in the same pigs at the end of their nursery period. In a multivariable Poisson regression model it was found that incidence rate ratios (IRR) for suckling pigs are significantly lower than 1 when teeth grinding was conducted (IRR: 0.10). Moreover, high temperatures in the piglet nest during the first two weeks of life (occasionally >40°C) were associated with a decrease of the probability of an infection (IRR: 0.23-0.40). Contrary, the application of PCV2 vaccines to piglets was associated with an increased infection risk (IRR: 9.72). Conclusions Since single infected piglets are supposed to act as initiators for the transmission of this pathogen in nursery and fattening pigs, the elimination of the risk factors described in this study should help to reduce the incidence rate of M. hyopneumoniae infections and thereby might contribute to a reduced probability of high prevalences in older pigs. PMID:23731650

  7. Energy dense, protein restricted diet increases adiposity and perturbs metabolism in young, genetically lean pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D Fisher

    Full Text Available Animal models of obesity and metabolic dysregulation during growth (or childhood are lacking. Our objective was to increase adiposity and induce metabolic syndrome in young, genetically lean pigs. Pre-pubertal female pigs, age 35 d, were fed a high-energy diet (HED; n = 12, containing 15% tallow, 35% refined sugars and 9.1-12.9% crude protein, or a control corn-based diet (n = 11 with 12.2-19.2% crude protein for 16 wk. Initially, HED pigs self-regulated energy intake similar to controls, but by wk 5, consumed more (P<0.001 energy per kg body weight. At wk 15, pigs were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; blood glucose increased (P<0.05 in control pigs and returned to baseline levels within 60 min. HED pigs were hyperglycemic at time 0, and blood glucose did not return to baseline (P = 0.01, even 4 h post-challenge. During OGTT, glucose area under the curve (AUC was higher and insulin AUC was lower in HED pigs compared to controls (P = 0.001. Chronic HED intake increased (P<0.05 subcutaneous, intramuscular, and perirenal fat deposition, and induced hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, and low-density lipoprotein hypercholesterolemia. A subset of HED pigs (n = 7 was transitioned back to a control diet for an additional six weeks. These pigs were subjected to an additional OGTT at 22 wk. Glucose AUC and insulin AUC did not improve, supporting that dietary intervention was not sufficient to recover glucose tolerance or insulin production. These data suggest a HED may be used to increase adiposity and disrupt glucose homeostasis in young, growing pigs.

  8. Productivity and parasitic infections of pigs kept under different management systems by smallholder farmers in Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipendele, Calvin Paul; Lekule, Faustine Paul; Mushi, Daniel Elias; Ngowi, Helena; Kimbi, Eliakunda Casmir; Mejer, Helena; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-08-01

    An on farm experiment was carried out to assess the effects of production systems on the performance of local pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Six villages from Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania were purposely selected based on the prominent pig production systems: free range, semi-confinement and total confinement. Fifteen pig keeping households were randomly selected from each village to participate in the study. A participatory rural appraisal and structured questionnaire were used for collecting information from the households on pig production and reproduction performance. In addition, a total of 180 weaner pigs, 2-3 months old, were purchased and randomly allocated to the 90 participating households. The pigs were subjected to three production systems: free range (M1), confinement with local diet (M2) and confinement with a compounded diet and anthelmintic treatment (M3). The anthelmintic treatment (piperazine citrate) was administered at 1 g per kg body weight. Faecal and blood samples were collected at month three of the experiment to assess the burden of intestinal helminths and sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis, respectively. Sows kept under free range system were reported to have smaller litter size both at farrowing and at weaning compared to those kept under confinement. The experiment showed pigs under M3 had higher (P pigs in M2 (73 g/day) and M1 (68 g/day). In addition, pigs in M3 had higher body length and heart girth size with the feed to gain ratio of 8.5. Free range pigs tended to have lower faecal egg counts for most worm species compared to permanently confined pigs. Sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis was 26%, with village prevalence ranging from 8 to 52%. Although pigs kept in M3 performed better than the rest, the compounded feed was too expensive for the farmers to afford. Locally available feed types combined with vitamin and mineral supplements may be a more sustainable option.

  9. Spontaneous reproductive pathology in female guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Parga, Tamara; La Perle, Krista M D; Newman, Shelley J

    2016-11-01

    Reproductive pathology of domestic guinea pigs is underreported to date. To provide a comprehensive review of uterine disease in guinea pigs, we performed a retrospective study of the pathology archives of the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine. By histology, 13 of 37 uterine lesions in 23 animals were neoplastic; the other 24 nonneoplastic lesions included cystic endometrial hyperplasia (16 of 24), endometrial hemorrhage (3 of 24), pyometra (2 of 24), polyp (2 of 24), and mucometra (1 of 24). The most common guinea pig uterine neoplasms were uterine leiomyomas (6 of 13), followed by adenomas (3 of 13) and leiomyosarcomas (1 of 13). Other neoplasms included anaplastic tumors of unknown origin (2 of 13) and choriocarcinoma (1 of 13). Both anaplastic tumors and the choriocarcinoma were positive for vimentin. The choriocarcinoma was positive for HSD83B1, indicating a trophoblastic origin and its final diagnosis. All were negative for cytokeratin and smooth muscle. In multiple animals, more than 1 tumor or lesion was reported. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression was nearly 100% in uterine neoplasms. Nearly all animals for which data were available had cystic rete ovarii (18 of 19); the animal with no cystic rete ovarii had paraovarian cysts. In our study, female pet guinea pigs had a tendency to develop cystic endometrial hyperplasia and uterine neoplasia. Factors for the development of these lesions could be cystic rete ovarii, hormone dysregulation, and/or age. Other factors could contribute to the development of uterine lesions. As in other species, early ovariohysterectomy could decrease the prevalence of uterine lesions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Effects of dietary supplementation with tribasic zinc sulfate or zinc sulfate on growth performance, zinc content and expression of zinc transporters in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bo; Zhou, Xihong; Wu, Jie; Long, Ciming; Yao, Yajun; Peng, Hongxing; Wan, Dan; Wu, Xin

    2017-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of zinc sulfate (ZS) and tribasic zinc sulfate (TBZ) as sources of supplemental zinc on growth performance, serum zinc (Zn) content and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Zn transporters (ZnT1/ZnT2/ZnT5/ZIP4/DMT1) of young growing pigs. A total of 96 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire pigs were randomly allotted to two treatments and were fed a basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg Zn from either ZS or TBZ for 28 days. Feed : gain ratio in pigs fed TBZ were lower (P zinc transporter in either duodenum or jejunum of pigs fed TBZ were higher (P < 0.05) than pigs fed ZS. These results indicate that TBZ is more effective in serum Zn accumulation and intestinal Zn absorption, and might be a potential substitute for ZS in young growing pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Bacterial protein meal in diets for growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Kjos, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    This experiment investigated the effects of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on the protein and energy metabolism of pigs from weaning to a live weight of 80 kg. FOur litters with four castrated male pigs in each litter were used. The litters were divided into two...... blocks according to age. One pig from each litter was fed one of the four experimental diets. Soya-bean meal was replaced with BPM on the basis of digestible protein, and the BPM contents in the four diets were 0% (BP0), 5% (BP5), 10% (BP10) and 15% (BP15), corresponding to 0%, 17%, 35% and 52...... by inclusion level of BPM. Retention of energy was 620 (BP0), 696 (BP5), 613 (BP10) and 664 kJ/kg0.75 per day (BP15), the differences among diets being non-significant. The N-free respiratory quotient was similar on all diets. It was concluded that the overall protein and energy metabolism in growing pigs were...

  12. Feeding weaned piglets and growing-finishing pigs with diets based on mainly home-grown organic feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, EU regulations for organic animal production set new guidelines for organic pig feeding requiring that this be based on mainly home-grown organic feedstuffs. Doubts were however raised whether these feeding regimes can maintain good growth performance and carcass quality of pigs. Three experiments were carried out to study different organic feeding regimes in weaned piglets and fattening pigs. In Experiment 1, we evaluated the use of peas and faba beans (0, 120, or 240 g kg-1 in diets for weaned piglets. Piglets fed pea diets performed as well as those fed the control diet, whereas the highest faba bean level resulted in reduced feed intake and growth performance. In Experiment 2, we studied the replacement (0, 33, or 67% of rapeseed cake with blue lupins in fattening pig diets. The dietary lupin level had a quadratic effect on the weight gain of growing pigs, the best performance being observed at the 33% replacement level. However, dietary lupin level did not influence weight gain during the finishing period and total fattening. Back fat became softer with increasing dietary lupin levels. In Experiment 3, different protein supplements were compared in organic diets from weaning to slaughter. In two-phase feeding, the best performance was observed when whey protein was used as the protein supplement, followed by soya bean cake + whey protein and rapeseed cake + fish meal. The effects of a one-phase organic feeding regime with cold-pressed rapeseed cake + whey protein did not differ from those of the two-phase organic feeding regimes. Fattening pigs fed organic diets required from two to seven days longer to reach slaughter weight than those fed conventional diets. Pigs fed organic diets had fatter carcasses, but the eating quality of organic pork did not differ from that of pork from pigs fed conventional diets. Feed costs and the circulation rate of pigs, weaners in particular, were greater and carcass prices lower in the organic

  13. The Pig PeptideAtlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselager, Marianne Overgaard; Codrea, Marius; Sun, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Biological research of Sus scrofa, the domestic pig, is of immediate relevance for food production sciences, and for developing pig as a model organism for human biomedical research. Publicly available data repositories play a fundamental role for all biological sciences, and protein data...... repositories are in particular essential for the successful development of new proteomic methods. Cumulative proteome data repositories, including the PeptideAtlas, provide the means for targeted proteomics, system-wide observations, and cross-species observational studies, but pigs have so far been...... underrepresented in existing repositories. We here present a significantly improved build of the Pig PeptideAtlas, which includes pig proteome data from 25 tissues and three body fluid types mapped to 7139 canonical proteins. The content of the Pig PeptideAtlas reflects actively ongoing research within...

  14. Helminths of the guinea pig, Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Worm burdens were evaluated and compared in two groups of the guinea pig, Cavia poreellus (Linnaeus, 1758: animals of the first group were conventionally maintained in an institutional animal house and those of the second group were openly kept in pet shops in Brazil. Animals from both sources were infected only with the nematode Paraspidodera uncinata (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1914 (10% of prevalence in guinea pigs from lhe institutional facility and 40% in those animals from the pet shop. Other helminth samples recovered from Brazilian guinea pigs during 52 years and that are deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CHIOC were also analyzed. Paraspidodera uncinata and the cestode Monoecocestus parcitesticulatus Rêgo, 1960 were identified in these samples.

  15. The guinea-pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D

    1980-01-01

    14C ring-labelled hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid dissolved in acetone were applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (4 microgram/cm2). Percutaneous absorption was quantified by following the excretion of tracer in urine and faeces for 5 days. Absorption of hydrocortisone and benzoic acid...... was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the skin...

  16. Supplementation of protease, alone and in combination with fructooligosaccharide to low protein diet for finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xin Jian; Cheong, Jin Young; Park, Jae Hong; Kim, In Ho

    2017-12-01

    Effects of adding protease with or without fructooligosaccharide (FOS) to low protein diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and fecal noxious gas emission were evaluated in 160 finishing pigs (57.70 ± 1.16 kg) in a 9-week study. Pigs were randomly divided into four dietary treatments, PC: positive control diet (15.97% crude protein (CP)); NC: negative control diet (12.94% CP); PRO: NC supplemented with 0.05% protease; PROFOS: NC supplemented with 0.05% protease and 0.1% FOS. During weeks 4-9 and weeks 0-9, gain : feed ratio was impaired (P diet compared with those fed PC, PRO and PROFOS diets. Pigs fed PC, PRO and PROFOS diets had higher (P diet. Pigs fed PROFOS diet had reduced (P diets. These data indicate that reducing dietary CP concentrations impaired growth performance, decreased ATTD of CP and reduced ammonia emissions. Supplementation of protease in low CP diet improved growth performance and increased ATTD of CP. Dietary supplementation with protease and FOS in low CP diet improved growth performance, increased ATTD of CP and decreased fecal ammonia emission. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Environmental contamination and transmission of Ascaris suum in Danish organic pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran K.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although Ascaris suum is the most common pig nematode, the on-farm transmission dynamics are not well described. Methods: We performed a 1-year field study on five organic pig farms, mapping egg contamination levels in pens and pasture soil as well as faecal egg counts in starter pigs...... % in starters, finishers, dry and lactating sows, respectively. For starters and finishers, the prevalence varied with season increasing towards the end of the year when 83-96 % of finishing pigs from each farm had fresh liver white spots. Farrowing pastures were contaminated with a mean of 78-171 larvated eggs....../kg dry soil depending on farm, while pastures for starter pigs contained 290-5397 larvated eggs/kg dry soil. The concentration of eggs in soil was highest in the autumn. Indoors, all pen areas were contaminated with A. suum eggs at comparable levels for shallow and deep litter. Overall there were 106...

  18. Oxfendazole as successful treatment of Taenia hydatigena metacestodes in naturally infected pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luis Antonio Gomez-Puerta; Armando Emiliano Gonzalez; Cesar Gavidia; Viterbo Ayvar; Hector Hugo Garcia; Maria Teresa Lopez-Urbina

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of oxfendazole (OFZ) on Taenia hydatigena metacestodes, also called Cysticercus tenuicollis (C. tenuicollis), was studied in 648 raising pigs. This study was performed in Tumbes Department in Peru, an endemic area for cysticercosis. Pigs were randomized in two groups;untreated group (n=142) did not receive any treatment and treated group (n=506) received OFZ treatment at a single dose of 30 mg/kg body weight. Six months after treatment, the pigs were necropsied. The prevalence of infection by C. tenuicollis among the pigs was 27.5%(39/142) and 2.0%(10/506) in untreated and treated groups, respectively. Untreated group was infested only with viable cysts, whereas treated group had no viable cysts. All the cysts found in treated group presented degeneration, with a thick membrane, and they contained milky fluid and fibrous tissue. A single dose of OFZ was effective against C. tenuicollis, thus providing an alternative drug for controlling this parasite in pigs.

  19. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from pigs and cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Vigre, Håkan; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2007-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis from dairy cattle and pigs in Denmark was determined in the present study. Faecal samples from 1237 pigs and 1150 cattle originating from 50 sow herds and 50 dairy herds, respectively, were analysed for the presence of the two...... parasites by immunofluorescence microscopy. A large proportion of the (oo)cyst containing samples were selected for molecular characterization. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA locus and/or the HSP70 gene of 183 pig and 154 cattle isolates of Cryptosporidium revealed the presence of C....... suis, pig genotype II, C. parvum (cattle genotype), C. bovis, Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype and a novel C. suis-like genotype. For both cattle and pigs, a host age-related change in distribution of species/genotypes was observed. The zoonotic C. parvum (cattle genotype) was most prevalent in young...

  20. [Knowledge and practices concerning taeniasis-cysticercosis in Colombian pig-breeders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Flórez, Piedad; Restrepo, Berta N; Palacio, Luis G

    2009-01-01

    Describing knowledge and practices regarding taeniasis-cysticercosis and cysticercosis prevalence in the village of Andagoya, Colombia. The study design was qualitative and quantitative. The study population consisted of pig breeders and their families, local groups and pigs. Study participants had partial knowledge of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex. They considered taeniasis to be an illness resulting from faecal transmission and not caused by becoming infected with cysticercosis after consuming pork. Pig breeding is not carried out in confined conditions and, although breeders know the right measures for controlling some parasitic illnesses, these practices are not observed. There was 8.7% presence of T. solium antibodies in pig breeders and their relatives and 20.9% in the pigs. An educational programme aimed at raising the population's awareness of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex cycle should be developed; this will facilitate control measures being applied.

  1. Prevalence reduction of pathogens in poultry fed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanelli, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The growth of new antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogens represents a huge problem in poultry rearing. There is evidence that dietary yeast could be effective in the protection against a variety of pathogens that can affect poultry health and cause foodborne diseases in humans. Since still few or contradictory information are available for this topic. Objectives. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of live yeast supplementation in broiler chickens on Salmonella enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni content in feces, cecum, and skin. Method. Supplemented yeast consisted of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Levucell® SB20, type boulardii I-1079, Lallemand, France and was administered at a rate of 1 x 106 CFU·g-1 of feed. On day ten of life, birds were orally challenged with S. enteritidis (1 x 105 CFU/bird and C. jejuni (3 x 105 CFU/bird. Growth performance, and coliforms, yeasts and lactobacilli enumeration were evaluated on day 0, 10, 20 and 38. Ten and eighteen days post infection (PI, 10 animals per replicate were slaughtered and pooled ceca content were analyzed for yeast enumeration and Salmonella and Campylobacter frequency and enumeration. The presence and the enumeration of Salmonella and Campylobacter in neck and breast skin were performed on one subject per replicate. Results. Dietary S. cerevisiae increased yeast and lactobacilli (p = 0.01 count, while Salmonella enumeration and frequency significantly decreased in neck (p = 0.03 and tended to decrease in cecum (p = 0.06, feces (p = 0.06, and breast (p = 0.08. On 10d PI Campylobacter presence was decreased in cecum (p = 0.01, feces (p < 0.01, breast skin (p = 0.04 and neck skin (p < 0.01, while the enumeration was found to be lower in feces (p < 0.01 and neck skin (p = 0.05. At the end of the trial the frequency of this pathogen was decreased in feces (p < 0.01, and breast skin (p = 0.02, while the enumeration was diminished in cecum (p < 0.05 and feces (p < 0.05. Conclusions. The present study shows that the inclusion of Levucell® SB20 can significantly control Campylobacter carriage in chickens with some positive effects also on Salmonella presence, thus reducing the contamination of carcasses at slaughtering and preventing human foodborne diseases.

  2. Fed levels of amino acids are required for the somatotropin-induced increase in muscle protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Fiona A; Suryawan, Agus; Orellana, Renán A; Nguyen, Hanh V; Jeyapalan, Asumthia S; Gazzaneo, Maria C; Davis, Teresa A

    2008-10-01

    Chronic somatotropin (pST) treatment in pigs increases muscle protein synthesis and circulating insulin, a known promoter of protein synthesis. Previously, we showed that the pST-mediated rise in insulin could not account for the pST-induced increase in muscle protein synthesis when amino acids were maintained at fasting levels. This study aimed to determine whether the pST-induced increase in insulin promotes skeletal muscle protein synthesis when amino acids are provided at fed levels and whether the response is associated with enhanced translation initiation factor activation. Growing pigs were treated with pST (0 or 180 microg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) for 7 days, and then pancreatic-glucose-amino acid clamps were performed. Amino acids were raised to fed levels in the presence of either fasted or fed insulin concentrations; glucose was maintained at fasting throughout. Muscle protein synthesis was increased by pST treatment and by amino acids (with or without insulin) (P<0.001). In pST-treated pigs, fed, but not fasting, amino acid concentrations further increased muscle protein synthesis rates irrespective of insulin level (P<0.02). Fed amino acids, with or without raised insulin concentrations, increased the phosphorylation of S6 kinase (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1), decreased inactive 4EBP1.eIF4E complex association, and increased active eIF4E.eIF4G complex formation (P<0.02). pST treatment did not alter translation initiation factor activation. We conclude that the pST-induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis requires fed amino acid levels, but not fed insulin levels. However, under the current conditions, the response to amino acids is not mediated by the activation of translation initiation factors that regulate mRNA binding to the ribosomal complex.

  3. Effects of Graded Levels of Montmorillonite on Performance, Hematological Parameters and Bone Mineralization in Weaned Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. W. Duan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of graded levels of montmorillonite, a constituent of clay, on performance, hematological parameters and bone mineralization in weaned pigs. One hundred and twenty, 35-d-old crossbred pigs (Duroc×Large White×Landrace, 10.50±1.20 kg were used in a 28-d experiment and fed either an unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet or similar diets supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0% montmorillonite added at the expense of wheat bran. Each treatment was replicated six times with four pigs (two barrows and two gilts per replicate. Feed intake declined (linear and quadratic effect, p< 0.01 with increasing level of montmorillonite while feed conversion was improved (linear and quadratic effect, p<0.01. Daily gain was unaffected by dietary treatment. Plasma myeloperoxidase declined linearly (p = 0.03 with increasing dietary level of montmorillonite. Plasma malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels were quadratically affected (p<0.01 by montmorillonite with increases observed for pigs fed the 0.5 and 1.0% levels which then declined for pigs fed the 2.5 and 5.0% treatments. In bone, the content of potassium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese and magnesium were decreased (linear and quadratic effect, p<0.01 in response to an increase of dietary montmorillonite. These results suggest that dietary inclusion of montmorillonite at levels as high as 5.0% does not result in overt toxicity but could induce potential oxidative damage and reduce bone mineralization in pigs.

  4. Longitudinal study on transmission of MRSA CC398 within pig herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broens Els M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the detection of MRSA CC398 in pigs in 2004, it has emerged in livestock worldwide. MRSA CC398 has been found in people in contact with livestock and thus has become a public health issue. Data from a large-scale longitudinal study in two Danish and four Dutch pig herds were used to quantify MRSA CC398 transmission rates within pig herds and to identify factors affecting transmission between pigs. Results Sows and their offspring were sampled at varying intervals during a production cycle. Overall MRSA prevalence of sows increased from 33% before farrowing to 77% before weaning. Overall MRSA prevalence of piglets was > 60% during the entire study period. The recurrent finding of MRSA in the majority of individuals indicates true colonization or might be the result of contamination. Transmission rates were estimated using a Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS-model, which resulted in values of the reproduction ratio (R0 varying from 0.24 to 8.08. Transmission rates were higher in pigs treated with tetracyclins and β-lactams compared to untreated pigs implying a selective advantage of MRSA CC398 when these antimicrobials are used. Furthermore, transmission rates were higher in pre-weaning pigs compared to post-weaning pigs which might be explained by an age-related susceptibility or the presence of the sow as a primary source of MRSA CC398. Finally, transmission rates increased with the relative increase of the infection pressure within the pen compared to the total infection pressure, implying that within-pen transmission is a more important route compared to between-pen transmission and transmission through environmental exposure. Conclusion Our results indicate that MRSA CC398 is able to spread and persist in pig herds, resulting in an endemic situation. Transmission rates are affected by the use of selective antimicrobials and by the age of pigs.

  5. Occurrence of porcine cysticercosis in free-ranging pigs delivered to slaughter points in Arapai, Soroti district, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Zirintunda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poverty, hunger and the need for production of pigs with meagre or zero inputs have made most farmers release their pigs to range freely, thus creating a pig-human cycle that maintains Taenia solium, the pig tapeworm and cause of porcine cysticercosis, in the ecosystem. A preliminary study was designed to establish the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis by postmortem examination of the tongue and carcass of free-range pigs from February to April 2014 in Arapai subcounty, Soroti district, eastern Uganda. The tongue of each pig was extended and examined before deep incisions were made and the cut surfaces were examined. The rest of the carcasses were examined for cysts. Out of 178 pigs examined, 32 were qualitatively positive for porcine cysticercosis, representing a prevalence of 18.0%. This high prevalence represents a marked risk to the communities in the study area of neurocysticercosis, a debilitating parasitic zoonosis. Proper human waste disposal by use of pit latrines, confinement of free-range pigs and treatment with albendazole and oxfendazole are recommended.

  6. The effect of source herd and abattoir factors on pig carcass Salmonella contamination evaluated by multilevel modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baptista, Filipa Matos; Dahl, Jan; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2010-01-01

    In Denmark, a Surveillance-and-Control Programme for Salmonella in pigs has been in place for several years. This study investigated factors associated with Salmonella pig carcass contamination, namely estimated daily number of Salmonella seropositive pigs delivered to slaughter, average Salmonella...... seroprevalence of the source herds that delivered each of five pigs contributing to the pool, weekday, year, season and abattoir size. A total of 20128 pooled carcass swabs collected in 22 Danish abattoirs, from 2002 to 2008, were included in a multilevel logistic regression model. Study results indicate...... that the probability of Salmonella positive carcasses is mainly influenced by the Salmonella herd seroprevalence of the swabbed pigs, the number of seropositive pigs delivered to the abattoir on the same day and weekday. Further reduction in carcass pool Salmonella prevalence may require new or improved methods...

  7. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma-edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  8. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  9. Characterization of smallholder pig production system: productive and reproductive performances of local and crossbred pigs in Sikkim Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, B G; Pathak, P K; Ngachan, S V; Tripathi, A K; Mohanty, A K

    2013-10-01

    The present study was conducted to know the smallholder pig production system in tribal areas of Sikkim State, India. Two hundred tribal farmers were selected randomly from the North and East District of the state. Information on socio-economic characteristics of farmers (gender, occupation, educational status, and farming experience), management practices, disease prevalence, and economics in pig production was collected. The study recorded the mean land holding as 1.2 ± 0.8 ha, and the number of pigs per farm was 5.0 ± 0.28. Pigs were mainly kept as a source of income, and 70 % of farmers reared crossbreed pigs. Ninety percent (90 %) of respondents practiced the intensive system of management whereby kitchen wastes along with cooked mixture comprising maize bhusa, mustard oil cake, pseudostem of banana, tuber, stem, and plant leaves were used to feed their animals. About 40.5 % of farmers procured their breeding stock from government farms that had good records and utilized veterinary services like timely vaccination and deworming. The diseases prevalent in the study area were swine fever, diarrhea, helminthoses, sarcoptic mange, pneumonia, etc. The litter sizes at birth (local, 4.3 ± 0.45; crossbreed, 7.2 ± 0.33), at weaning (local, 2.79 ± 0.24; crossbreed, 6.1 ± 0.21), and age at first farrowing (local, 365.39 ± 7.96 days; crossbreed, 337.24 ± 8.79 days) were recorded. Production costs of meat extracted from local and crossbred pigs were 1.08 $/kg and 0.86 $/kg, respectively.

  10. Effects of a yeast-dried milk product in creep and phase-1 nursery diets on growth performance, circulating immunoglobulin A, and fecal microbiota of nursing and nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H; Bundy, J W; Hinkle, E E; Walter, J; Burkey, T E; Miller, P S

    2014-10-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of yeast-dried milk (YDM) product in creep and phase-1 nursery diets. In Exp. 1, 24 parity-4 litters were allotted to 3 dietary treatments (8 litters/treatment) including no creep (NC), control creep (CTL), and experimental creep (EC; 10% YDM). Creep diets were fed twice daily from d 7 after birth until weaning (23.6 ± 1.8 d). In Exp. 2, 108 weaned pigs were selected based on mean BW of pigs from the respective treatments in Exp. 1. For phase 1 (d 0 to 7 postweaning) of Exp. 2, NC and CTL pigs were fed the CTL diet and EC pigs continued to receive the EC diet. For phase 2 and 3 (d 7 to 28 postweaning) of Exp. 2, all pigs received a common diet containing antibiotics. Blood and fecal samples were collected on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 postweaning to evaluate serum IgA and fecal microbiota. In Exp. 1, pigs fed EC and CTL tended to have greater (P < 0.10) weaning BW compared with NC pigs. Pigs fed EC had greater (P < 0.05) ADFI compared with CTL pigs. In Exp. 2, pigs fed EC tended to have greater BW (P < 0.10) and greater ADG (P < 0.05) and ADFI (P < 0.01) compared with CTL and NC pigs (d 0 to 28). For serum IgA, EC and CTL pigs tended (P < 0.10) to have greater IgA compared with NC pigs. For microbial data, EC pigs had greater (P < 0.01) microbial diversity compared with CTL (d 7 postweaning). On d 7 and 21 postweaning, microbial similarity decreased (P < 0.01) in pigs fed EC compared with NC and CTL. Overall (d 0 to 14), lactobacilli gene copy numbers tended (P < 0.10) to be greater in EC (7.3 log10) compared with NC pigs (6.9 log10). In Exp. 3, 23 parity-1 litters were allotted to 3 dietary treatments as described for Exp. 1. In Exp. 4, 108 weaned pigs were selected based on mean BW of all pigs from Exp. 3 and dietary treatments were the same as described for Exp. 2 except no antibiotic was included in phase-2 diet. In Exp. 3, there were no treatment effects on litter ADFI, ADG, and serum IgA, but a tendency (P < 0

  11. Human milk oligosaccharide effects on intestinal function and inflammation after preterm birth in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine O.; Martin, Lena; Østergaard, Mette V.

    2017-01-01

    (IF) improves intestinal function, bacterial colonization and NEC resistance immediately after preterm birth, as tested in a preterm pig model. Mixtures of HMOs were investigated in intestinal epithelial cells and in preterm pigs (n=112) fed IF supplemented without (CON) or with a mixture of four HMOs...... (4-HMO) or >25 HMOs (25-HMO, 5-10 g/L given for 5 or 11 days). The 25-HMO blend decreased cell proliferation and both HMO blends decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-8 secretion in IPEC-J2 cells, relative to control (P

  12. Pathomorphological and histochemical changes of internal organs of pigs during Granozan poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, V V; Titova, G S; Kochkurova, V N; Efremov, M I; Potapenko, N N

    1972-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of organic mercury compounds on pigs. Pigs were fed grain which contained 1.2-12.5 mercury/kg. Enzyme activities of alkaline phosphatase and succinate dehydrogenase were inhibited in the liver, kidneys, myocardium, and gastric and intestinal epithelia. The onset of mercury poisoning was characterized by glycogen degeneration in the myocardium and granular and fatty dystrophy in the kidneys. The levels of mercury found in the muscles, liver and kidneys were 8, 50-150, and 84-150 mg/kg, respectively.

  13. Effect of amount of straw provided to growing/finishing pigs on gastric ulceration at slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Jespersen, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a current commercial xylanase (DAN) and experimental xylanase (EX), and EX in combination with protease (EXP), on the degradation and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in wheat Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS), was studied in 8 ileum......-cannulated pigs (initial BW 36.6±2.8 kg) following a double 4x4 Latin Square design. The control and three enzyme diets, each containing 96% DDGS, were supplemented with vitamins, minerals, L-lysine, 500 FTU phytase/kg feed, dust-binder and chromic oxide (3 g/kg). The pigs were fed 3 times daily for 1 week...

  14. Effect of feeding spent coffee grounds on the feedlot performance and carcass quality of fattening pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, S S; Chawla, J S

    1986-01-01

    Twelve fattening pigs of large white Yorkshire breed, divided into three equal groups, were fed isonitrogenous concentrate mixture containing 0, 10 and 15% spent coffee grounds (SCG) for 70 days. The crude fibre and ether extract content increased while that of nitrogen-free extract decreased with the increase in the level of SCG. The daily live weight gain and the feed conversion efficiency were depressed significantly at a 15% level of SCG. However, the inclusion of SCG in the rations did not have any adverse effect on carcass quality. It was concluded that SCG at 10% can be included in the ration of pigs safely without affecting their health. 10 references.

  15. Prediction of manure nitrogen and carbon output from grower-finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu Thi Khanh, Van; Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2009-01-01

    Intensive pig production may be a hazard to the environment due to plant nutrient leakage and losses. To facilitate efficient and sustainable manure management and reduce oversupplying of crops with nutrients, there is a need for precise assessment of nutrient content in manure and manure excretion....... This study has developed algorithms for predicting the amount of excreta and manure content of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C). Data compiled from 285 digestibility and N balance experiments with growing-finishing pigs diets fed diets varying widely in chemical composition were used to establish algorithms...

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs reared under different management systems in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hove

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples from 474 domestic pigs (Sus scrofa from Zimbabwe were tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread in Zimbabwean pigs. Seroprevalence was lowest in fattening pigs from large and small-scale commercial farms that practise good hygiene (19.75 % of 238 and highest in backyard scavenging pigs (35.71 % of 70. Only 11.7 % (11 of the 127 positive samples had titres of > 1:400 and nine (81.82 % of these 11 originated from pigs reared under poor hygienic conditions. A prevalence of 3.51 % was found in the same group of fattening pigs using an indirect IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at the single serum dilution of 1:400. The serosurvey shows the importance of modern intensive husbandry systems in reducing the prevalences of T. gondii infection in domestic pigs.

  17. A field evaluation of two vaccines against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Charlotte S; Vinther, Jens; Svensmark, Birgitta; Bækbo, Poul

    2014-04-16

    A field trial was carried out with two Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines in order to investigate the benefit of vaccination under field conditions in modern Danish pig production facilities with pigs being positive for M. hyopneumoniae. The M. hyopneumoniae infection of the herd was confirmed through blood samples that were positive for antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae combined with gross lesions of the lungs related to M. hyopneumoniae at slaughter and detection of M. hyopneumoniae by polymerace chain reaction in these lesions. A total of 2,256 pigs from two herds were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 received 2 mL ThoroVAX®VET, Group 2 received 1 mL Ingelvac®MycoFLEX, and Group 3 was a non-vaccinated control group. The vaccination was performed by a person who was not involved in the rest of the trial and vaccination status thereby blinded to the evaluators.The prevalence of lung lesions related to M. hyopneumoniae were significantly lower for pigs vaccinated with ThoroVAX®VET but not for pigs vaccinated with Ingelvac®MycoFLEX®, when compared to non-vaccinated pigs. There was no significant effect of vaccination on growth rate, antibiotic consumption or mortality. This trial demonstrated that vaccination with Thoro®VAX VET was effective in reducing the prevalence of lung lesion in pig units infected with M. hyopneumoniae.

  18. A Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment for Salmonella in Pigs for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snary, Emma L.; Swart, Arno N.; Simons, Robin R. L.

    2016-01-01

    ,000 and 1 in 10 million servings given consumption of one of the three product types considered (pork cuts, minced meat, and fermented ready‐to‐eat sausages). Further analyses of the farm‐to‐consumption QMRA suggest that the vast majority of human risk derives from infected pigs with a high concentration......A farm‐to‐consumption quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) for Salmonella in pigs in the European Union has been developed for the European Food Safety Authority. The primary aim of the QMRA was to assess the impact of hypothetical reductions of slaughter‐pig prevalence...

  19. Hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected pigs in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Montillo, Marta; Prandi, Alberto; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Johansen, Maria V

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study was to measure hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected and non-infected control pigs and assess the effect of an environmental change on the aforementioned parameters. Three hair patches were obtained from 13 T. solium infected and 15 non-infected controls sows, respectively corresponding to 3 time points (prior to, at and approximately two weeks after arrival at the research facility). Cortisol and DHEA were extracted using methanol and analysed by radio immune assay. Mean hair cortisol concentrations were significantly lower (psolium infected (4.7±3.0pg/mg) compared to control pigs (9.0±3.7pg/mg) prior to arrival at the research facility, however no significant difference was observed between the two groups at arrival and after approximately two weeks. Similar patterns were also observed for DHEA concentrations (infected pigs 253.9±82.3pg/mg, control pigs 387.7±116.4pg/mg) (p<0.001). Results showed that lean animals had significantly higher cortisol concentrations in both groups, infected and controls pigs, while DHEA was not significantly different between lean and normal animals. Results of this study have shown that an environmental change could have an effect on pigs' hormonal levels suggesting an undergoing adaptation process. After the pigs were kept under the same conditions, fed and watered ad libitum, no significant differences were observed between the groups, but a drop in DHEA concentrations was observed in all the pigs. Weight however had an effect on cortisol levels as lean animals had significantly higher cortisol concentrations in both groups, compared to normal pigs. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary supplementation with flaxseed meal and oat hulls modulates intestinal histomorphometric characteristics, digesta- and mucosa-associated microbiota in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndou, S P; Tun, H M; Kiarie, E; Walsh, M C; Khafipour, E; Nyachoti, C M

    2018-04-12

    The establishment of a healthy gastrointestinal milieu may not only offer an opportunity to reduce swine production costs but could also open the way for a lifetime of human health improvement. This study investigates the effects of feeding soluble fibre from flaxseed meal-containing diet (FM) and insoluble fibre from oat hulls-containing diet (OH) on histomorphological characteristics, digesta- and mucosa-associated microbiota and their associations with metabolites in pig intestines. In comparison with the control (CON) and OH diets, the consumption of FM increased (P PERMANOVA analyses showed distinct (P < 0.05) microbial communities in ileal digesta and mucosa, and caecal mucosa in CON and FM-diets fed pigs compared to the OH diet-fed pigs. The predicted functional metagenomes indicated that amino acids and butanoate metabolism, lysine degradation, bile acids biosynthesis, and apoptosis were selectively enhanced at more than 2.2 log-folds in intestinal microbiota of pigs fed the FM diet. Taken together, flaxseed meal and oat hulls supplementation in growing pigs' diets altered the gastrointestinal development, as well as the composition and function of microbial communities, depending on the intestinal segment and physicochemical property of the dietary fibre source.

  1. Non-experimental validation of ethnoveterinary plants and indigenous knowledge used for backyard pigs and chickens in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Georges, K; Brown, G

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on ethnoveterinary medicines used for backyard pigs and backyard chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Research data was collected from 1995 to September 2000. Six plants are used for backyard pigs. Crushed leaves of immortelle (Erythrina pallida, E. micropteryx) are used to remove dead piglets from the uterus. Leaf decoctions of bois canôt (Cecropia peltata) and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) are used for labour pains or leaves are fed as a postpartum cleanser. Boiled green papaya fruit (Carica papaya) is fed to pigs to induce milk let-down. The leaves and flowers of male papaya plants (Carica papaya) are fed to deworm pigs. Sour orange juice (Citrus aurantium) is given to pigs to produce lean meat, and coffee grounds are used for scours. Eyebright and plantain leaves (Plantago major) are used for eye injuries of backyard chickens. Worm grass (Chenopodium ambrosioides) and cotton bush (Gossypium species) are used as anthelmintics. Aloe gel (Aloe vera) is used for internal injuries and the yellow sap from the cut Aloe vera leaf or the juice of Citrus limonia is used to purge the birds. A literature review revealed few toxicity concerns and the potential usefulness of the plants.

  2. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection on pig farms in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qing; Wang, Zhengsong; Feng, Huihui; Fang, Rui; Nie, Hao; Hu, Min; Zhou, Yanqin; Zhao, Junlong

    2011-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that causes severe diseases in mammals, including humans, around the world. In China, pork is the main meat source; accordingly, T. gondii in pigs is considered an important source for human toxoplasmosis. Understanding the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in pig farms is thus important for control of the disease in humans. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the epizootiology of T. gondii infections in pig farms in central China by assessing the seroprevalence and risk factors of this disease. In the present study, 3,558 sera samples were collected from pigs in 37 large-scale pig farms in this region and tested by AG-ELISA. The total seroprevalence was 24.5%, with the greatest prevalence in breeding pigs. The risk factors for toxoplasmosis suggest that high frequency of the contact of pigs with cats (P ≤ 0.01; IC 95%), high density of pig breeding (P ≤ 0.01; IC 95%), the presence of mosquitoes and flies (P ≤ 0.01; IC 95%), semi-patency pens (P ≤ 0.05; IC 95%), and low frequency of scavenging (P ≤ 0.01; IC 95%) were all associated with seroprevalence. In addition, the use of sulfonamides (P ≤ 0.01; IC 95%) significantly decreased seroprevalence. This is the first report of anti- T. gondii antibodies in pigs on large-scale pig farms in central China. The findings will provide useful information for designing control strategies of toxoplasmasis in pig farms.

  3. Genome Sequences of Three Highly Copper-Resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. I Serovar Typhimurium Strains Isolated from Pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Yanan; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium is the causative agent of typhoid fever, which causes nearly 21.7 million illnesses and 217,000 deaths around the world each year. Here, we describe the draft genome sequences of the Salmonella typhimurium strains S7, S15, and S23, isolated from copper-fed pigs in Denmark...

  4. Effects of pectin on fermentation characteristics, carbohydrate utilization, and microbial community composition in the gastrointestinal tract of weaning pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, Lingmin; Bruggeman, Geert; van den Berg, Marco; Borewicz, Klaudyna; Scheurink, Anton J. W.; Bruininx, Erik; de Vos, Paul; Smidt, Hauke; Schols, Henk A.; Gruppen, Harry

    Scope: We aimed to investigate the effects of three different soluble pectins on the digestion of other consumed carbohydrates, and the consequent alterations of microbiota composition and SCFA levels in the intestine of pigs. Methods and results: Piglets were fed a low-methyl esterified pectin

  5. Responses of the biogas process to pulses of oleate in reactors treating mixtures of cattle and pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2006-01-01

    The effect of oleate on the anaerobic digestion process was investigated. Two thermophilic continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were fed with mixtures of cattle and pig manure with different total solid (TS) and volatile solid (VS) content. The reactors were subjected to increasing pulses...

  6. Effects of two different dietary fermentable carbohydrates on activity and heat production in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, M.M.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Schrama, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of two sources of dietary fiber (DF) on behavior and heat production (HP) in group-housed growing pigs were studied. Twenty clusters of 14 barrows (50 kg) were fed one of 10 diets. Diets differed mainly in type,and content of fermentable DF (fDF) and in content of digestible starch. Five

  7. Effect of dietary fiber and diet particle size on nutrient digestibility and gastrointestinal secretory function in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effect of diet composition (DC) and particle size (PS) on nutrient digestibility, gastrointestinal hormones, total bile acids (TBA), total cholesterol and glucose concentrations in plasma were evaluated in finishing pigs (n=8/diet) fed finely (374±29 µm) or coarsely (631±35 µm) ground corn-soybean m...

  8. Antibiotic inclusion in the diet did not alter the standardized ileal digestible tryptophan to lysine ratio for growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two 21-d experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standard ileal digestible (SID) Trp:Lys ratio in growing pigs fed diets supplemented with or without an antibiotic. The primary response variables in both experiments were ADG, ADFI, G:F and plasma urea N (PUN) concentrations with the opti...

  9. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, C; Vial, F; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P; Schwermer, H; Darling, K; Reist, M; Wu, N; Beerli, O; Schöning, J; Cavassini, M; Waldvogel, A

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis E is considered an emerging human viral disease in industrialized countries. Studies from Switzerland report a human seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) of 2.6-21%, a range lower than in adjacent European countries. The aim of this study was to determine whether HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars is also lower in Switzerland and whether it is increasing and thus indicating that this zoonotic viral infection is emerging. Serum samples collected from 2,001 pigs in 2006 and 2011 and from 303 wild boars from 2008 to 2012 were analysed by ELISA for the presence of HEV-specific antibodies. Overall HEV seroprevalence was 58.1% in domestic pigs and 12.5% in wild boars. Prevalence in domestic pigs was significantly higher in 2006 than in 2011. In conclusion, HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland is comparable with the seroprevalence in other countries and not increasing. Therefore, prevalence of HEV in humans must be related to other factors than prevalence in pigs or wild boars. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Enteric Methane Emission from Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    per kg meat produced is increased (Fernández et al. 1983; Lekule et al. 1990). The present chapter will summarise our current knowledge concerning dietary and enteric fermentation that may influence the methane (CH4) emission in pigs. Enteric fermentation is the digestive process by which.......3 % of the worlds pig population. The main number of pigs is in Asia (59.6 %) where the main pig population stay in China (47.8 % of the worlds pig population). The objective of the chapter is therefore: To obtain a general overview of the pigs’ contribution to methane emission. Where is the pigs’ enteric gas...... produced and how is it measured. The variation in methane emission and factors affecting the emission. Possibility for reducing the enteric methane emission and the consequences....

  11. Improving pig husbandry in tropical resource-poor communities and its potential to reduce risk of porcine cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekule, Faustin P; Kyvsgaard, Niels C

    2003-06-01

    To minimise the risk of cysticercosis in pigs it is necessary to raise pigs in confinement. The prevailing production system using free-range pigs is apparently very resilient although economic studies have shown that these traditional production systems are wasteful and unprofitable due to poor feed conversion, high mortality rates, low reproductive rates and poor final products. However, experiences from Africa show that intensive pig farming is stagnant and the sustainability of the traditional sector is better than that of the intensive sector. Examples from various African countries are given on the failure of intensive pig farming. This apparent paradox has various explanations. The lower fixed cost of traditional pig production compared with intensive production is one. Another explanation is that many households have some kind of kitchen waste, which can be exploited by a pig, but there is only enough for the partial feeding of a single pig. A third explanation of the paradox is that the pig has functions that are not reflected in a simple economic balance. The pig is a source of capital income, which can be realised at times of major expenses, and it can also be used as a way to put aside small amounts of money, which alternatively might evaporate. The pig's scavenging behaviour has clear nutritional benefits. Thus, a diet consisting of e.g. maize or sorghum, which are some of the feeds available on the small farms, will only provide approximately 30% of the pigs requirements of lysine and methionine, which are the most limiting amino-acids in pig feeds. Simulations with data available for green feeds and material of animal origin show that a 20% "supplement" from the fields may increase the amino-acid provision to about 80% of the optimum. If pigs are kept enclosed this supplement has to be fed to the pig which involves purchase and labour costs. The paper discusses the various options in terms of feeding, housing and use of genetic resources for the

  12. Effects of two different dietary fermentable carbohydrates on activity and heat production in group-housed growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnen, M M J A; Verstegen, M W A; Heetkamp, M J W; Schrama, J W

    2003-05-01

    The effects of two sources of dietary fiber (DF) on behavior and heat production (HP) in group-housed growing pigs were studied. Twenty clusters of 14 barrows (50 kg) were fed one of 10 diets. Diets differed mainly in type and content of fermentable DF (fDF) and in content of digestible starch. Five diets contained solvent-extracted coconut meal (SECM) and five diets contained soybean hulls (SBH) as the main fDF source. On an as-fed basis, pigs received 3.5, 13.2, 23.0, 32.7, or 42.4 g x kg(-0.75) x d(-1) of SECM or SBH. A total of 280 crossbred growing pigs were used, divided into clusters of 14 pigs each. Pigs were group-housed and fed at 2.5 times the assumed maintenance energy requirements. All clusters were fed similar amounts of NE, ileal-digestible protein and amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Consequently, DMI differed among diets because NE content decreased with increasing DF content. After a 32-d preliminary period, HP was measured per cluster during a 7-d experimental period in environmentally controlled respiration chambers. Behavior of the pigs was recorded using time-lapse video recordings during two different days within the experimental period. Intake of digestible starch and fDF was different (P < 0.001) among diets, whereas intake of digestible CP was similar among diets. On average, pigs spent 153 min standing, 42 min sitting, 202 min lying on their chest, and 1,043 min lying on their flanks each day. Pigs fed SECM diets spent, on average, less time (P < 0.05) lying on their chest than pigs fed SBH diets. Total time spent on physical activity (i.e., standing plus sitting, 195 min/d) was not affected by diet. Total HP and resting HP were affected by diet and were on average lower (P < 0.01) for pigs fed SECM diets than for pigs fed SBH diets. Activity-related heat production (AHP) averaged 65 kJ x kg(-0.75) x d(-1) and was not affected by diet. There was a linear relationship (P < 0.001) between fDF intake and HP, but there was no relationship

  13. High specification starter diets improve the performance of low birth weight pigs to 10 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, S L; Wellock, I; Edwards, S A; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-10-01

    Piglets born with low birth weights (LBiW) are likely to be lighter at weaning. Starter regimes tailored for pigs of average BW therefore may not be optimal for LBiW nursery performance. The objective was to determine if LBiW pigs benefit from a high specification starter regime and the provision of extra feed (additional allowance of last phase diet of the starter regime) in comparison to a standard commercial regime. Additionally, the effect of starter regime on performance of normal birth weight (NBiW) pigs at weaning was determined and compared to that of LBiW pigs. Finally, the cost effectiveness of the treatments was determined. The experiment was therefore an incomplete 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, as the provision of extra feed was given only to LBiW pigs (n = 6 replicates per treatment; 5 pigs per replicate). Treatments comprised birth weight (LBiW or NBiW), starter regime (high specification [HS] or standard starter [SS]), and extra feed 3 quantity (yes [YF] or no [NF], for LBiW pigs only; feed 3 corresponded to the last phase diet of the starter regime). At weaning (d 28), pigs were randomly assigned within each birth weight category to treatment groups. Nutritional treatments were fed ad libitum on a kilogram/head basis for approximately 3 wk followed by a common weaner diet fed ad libitum until d 70. Starter regime (P = 0.019), feed 3 amount (P = 0.010), and their interaction (P = 0.029) had an effect on ADG of LBiW pigs from d 28 to 49, with pigs on HS followed by YF (HY) performing best. An improvement in feed conversion ratio (FCR) was noted between d 28 and 49 for pigs fed the additional feed 3 (P = 0.030); between d 49 and 70, the only residual effect seen was of starter regime (P = 0.017) on ADG. In contrast, there was no significant effect of starter regime from d 28 to 70 on ADG, ADFI, or FCR of NBiW pigs. By d 49 and 70, LBiW pigs on regime HY weighed the same as NBiW pigs (d 70 BW; 30.0 vs. 30.6 kg; P = 0.413), with similar growth rates from

  14. A systematic review on the global occurrence of Taenia hydatigena in pigs and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Man Thi Thuy; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-08-15

    Taenia hydatigena, a non-zoonotic tapeworm species shares the same intermediate hosts with other Taenia zoonotic species, such as Taenia solium in pigs and Taenia saginata in cattle. The occurrence of T. hydatigena in pigs and cattle may cause cross-reactions in immunodiagnostic tests and therefore, complicate the diagnosis of the zoonotic species. This study was conducted to systematically review the data on the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs and cattle, with the aim to assess the potential interference in serological diagnosis of zoonotic Taenia spp. due to T. hydatigena infection. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Africa Journal Online, website http://www.google.com and article reference lists in English, French and Vietnamese with no restriction on research time and publication status. Eligible studies included observational studies that showed the occurrence of T. hydatigena. Twenty-six studies, divided into two animal groups, i.e. pigs and cattle, met the eligibility criteria for qualitative synthesis and 17 studies were included for the meta-analysis in three continents. T. hydatigena was found by necropsy in all included studies, which mostly were abattoir surveys. Overall, results showed the worldwide occurrence of T. hydatigena cysticercosis in pigs and cattle. In pigs, there was a marked higher prevalence in Asia and South America that was 17.2% (95% CI: 10.6-26.8%) and 27.5% (CI: 20.8-35.3%), respectively, compared to a low prevalence of 3.9% (95% CI: 1.9-7.9%) in Africa. Overall, the prevalence of T. hydatigena in cattle was low with a mean of 1.1% (95% CI: 0.2-5.2%). These results show that interpretation of results of sero-diagnostic tests for zoonotic Taenia species in pigs and cattle has to take into account the prevalence of T. hydatigena infections in different settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparative pathological finding in pigs exposed to fumonisin B1 and/or Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pósa, Roland; Stoev, Stoycho; Kovács, Melinda; Donkó, Tamás; Repa, Imre; Magyar, Tibor

    2016-06-01

    A more complicated pathology was observed in female pigs infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, when the same were exposed to 20 ppm dietary levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1) starting 14 days before infection for a period of 42 days as was assessed by gross pathology and pathomorphological examinations or computed tomography, and also manifested by the strong deterioration of the pneumonic process in two pigs and the subsequent euthanizing of one pig. Typical damages in FB1-fed pigs were a strong oedema in the lung and slight oedema in the other internal organs and mild degenerative changes in the kidneys, whereas the typical pathomorphological changes in M. hyopneumoniae-infected pigs corresponded to the morphologic pattern of a catarrhal bronchointerstitial pneumonia more pronounced in the cranial and middle lobes or in the cranial third of the caudal lobe of the lung. The pigs treated by both pathogens (toxic and infectious) revealed strong oedematous changes in the interstitium of lung in addition to deteriorated and extended bronchointerstitial pneumonic process. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of coagulase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of coagulase negative Staphylococci isolated from pigs and in-contact humans in Jos Metropolis, Nigeria. ... (53/401) of the isolates were CoNS species based on confirmatory test with Microgen biochemical kit and were further subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing.

  17. Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong

    2015-01-01

    This thesis, entitled “Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand”, presents many aspects of pig production in Thailand including the characteristics of pig farming system, distribution of pig population and pig farms, spatio-temporal distribution and risk of most important diseases in pig at present, and the suitability area for pig farming. Spatial distribution and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand were studied using time-series pig population data to des...

  18. Pig Farmers’ Homes Harbor More Diverse Airborne Bacterial Communities Than Pig Stables or Suburban Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditte V. Vestergaard

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Airborne bacterial communities are subject to conditions ill-suited to microbial activity and growth. In spite of this, air is an important transfer medium for bacteria, with the bacteria in indoor air having potentially major consequences for the health of a building’s occupants. A major example is the decreased diversity and altered composition of indoor airborne microbial communities as a proposed explanation for the increasing prevalence of asthma and allergies worldwide. Previous research has shown that living on a farm confers protection against development of asthma and allergies, with airborne bacteria suggested as playing a role in this protective effect. However, the composition of this beneficial microbial community has still not been identified. We sampled settled airborne dust using a passive dust sampler from Danish pig stables, associated farmers’ homes, and from suburban homes (267 samples in total and carried out quantitative PCR measurements of bacterial abundance and MiSeq sequencing of the V3–V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes found in these samples. Airborne bacteria had a greater diversity and were significantly more abundant in pig stables and farmers’ homes than suburban homes (Wilcoxon rank sum test P < 0.05. Moreover, bacterial taxa previously suggested to contribute to a protective effect had significantly higher relative and absolute abundance in pig stables and farmers’ homes than in suburban homes (ALDEx2 with P < 0.05, including Firmicutes, Peptostreptococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Ruminiclostridium, and Lactobacillus. Pig stables had significantly lower airborne bacterial diversity than farmers’ homes, and there was no discernable direct transfer of airborne bacteria from stable to home. This study identifies differences in indoor airborne bacterial communities that may be an important component of this putative protective effect, while showing that pig stables

  19. Pig Farmers’ Homes Harbor More Diverse Airborne Bacterial Communities Than Pig Stables or Suburban Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Ditte V.; Holst, Gitte J.; Basinas, Ioannis; Elholm, Grethe; Schlünssen, Vivi; Linneberg, Allan; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Finster, Kai; Sigsgaard, Torben; Marshall, Ian P. G.

    2018-01-01

    Airborne bacterial communities are subject to conditions ill-suited to microbial activity and growth. In spite of this, air is an important transfer medium for bacteria, with the bacteria in indoor air having potentially major consequences for the health of a building’s occupants. A major example is the decreased diversity and altered composition of indoor airborne microbial communities as a proposed explanation for the increasing prevalence of asthma and allergies worldwide. Previous research has shown that living on a farm confers protection against development of asthma and allergies, with airborne bacteria suggested as playing a role in this protective effect. However, the composition of this beneficial microbial community has still not been identified. We sampled settled airborne dust using a passive dust sampler from Danish pig stables, associated farmers’ homes, and from suburban homes (267 samples in total) and carried out quantitative PCR measurements of bacterial abundance and MiSeq sequencing of the V3–V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes found in these samples. Airborne bacteria had a greater diversity and were significantly more abundant in pig stables and farmers’ homes than suburban homes (Wilcoxon rank sum test P < 0.05). Moreover, bacterial taxa previously suggested to contribute to a protective effect had significantly higher relative and absolute abundance in pig stables and farmers’ homes than in suburban homes (ALDEx2 with P < 0.05), including Firmicutes, Peptostreptococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Ruminiclostridium, and Lactobacillus. Pig stables had significantly lower airborne bacterial diversity than farmers’ homes, and there was no discernable direct transfer of airborne bacteria from stable to home. This study identifies differences in indoor airborne bacterial communities that may be an important component of this putative protective effect, while showing that pig stables themselves do not appear

  20. Taenia hydatigena in pigs in Burkina Faso: A cross-sectional abattoir study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, Veronique; Ganaba, Rasmané; Cissé, Assana; Ouedraogo, Boubacar; Millogo, Athanase; Tarnagda, Zékiba; Van Hul, Anke; Gabriël, Sarah; Carabin, Hélène; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-10-30

    Taenia hydatigena is a non-zoonotic cestode that has canines as definitive hosts and ruminants and pigs as intermediate hosts. In pigs, its presence causes cross-reactivity in serological testing for Taenia solium cysticercosis. Therefore, knowledge on the occurrence of T. hydatigena is paramount for validly estimating the seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs. In a cross-sectional abattoir study, we estimated the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs slaughtered in Koudougou, Burkina Faso. Carcasses of 452 pigs were examined by investigators for perceived and suspected T. hydatigena cysticercus lesions in the abdominal cavity or on the surface of abdominal organs. Routine meat inspection was performed by local inspectors to identify T. solium cysticerci. All lesions were subjected to PCR-RFLP analysis in order to differentiate Taenia spp. Additionally, individual blood samples were examined for the presence of circulating cysticercus antigens using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. Perceived T. hydatigena cysticerci were found in 13 pigs, whereas meat inspectors found seven carcasses infected with T. solium cysticerci. All were confirmed by molecular analysis. Of pigs with other suspected lesions, mostly located in the liver, 27 and six were found to harbour T. hydatigena and T. solium cysticerci, respectively. Overall, 8.8% of pigs (40/452) were found infected with T. hydatigena and 2.9% (13/452) with T. solium. Of these positive pigs, one was found infected with both Taenia spp. (0.2%, 1/452). Blood samples of 48.5% of pigs (219/452) were positive in the Ag-ELISA. Pigs with confirmed cysts of T. hydatigena and T. solium had a positive Ag-ELISA result in 57.5% (23/40) and 61.5% (8/13) of cases, respectively. The observed T. hydatigena prevalence in this study is relatively high in comparison to other studies in Africa. Estimates of the occurrence of active porcine T. solium infection using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA should therefore be adjusted for the presence of T

  1. Fate of Transgenic DNA from Orally Administered Bt MON810 Maize and Effects on Immune Response and Growth in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Maria C.; Buzoianu, Stefan G.; Gardiner, Gillian E.; Rea, Mary C.; Gelencsér, Eva; Jánosi, Anna; Epstein, Michelle M.; Ross, R. Paul; Lawlor, Peadar G.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the effect of short-term feeding of genetically modified (GM: Bt MON810) maize on immune responses and growth in weanling pigs and determined the fate of the transgenic DNA and protein in-vivo. Pigs were fed a diet containing 38.9% GM or non-GM isogenic parent line maize for 31 days. We observed that IL-12 and IFNγ production from mitogenic stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreased (PGM maize exposure. While Cry1Ab-specific IgG and IgA were not detected in the plasma of GM maize-fed pigs, the detection of the cry1Ab gene and protein was limited to the gastrointestinal digesta and was not found in the kidneys, liver, spleen, muscle, heart or blood. Feeding GM maize to weanling pigs had no effect on growth performance or body weight. IL-6 and IL-4 production from isolated splenocytes were increased (PGM maize while the proportion of CD4+ T cells in the spleen decreased. In the ileum, the proportion of B cells and macrophages decreased while the proportion of CD4+ T cells increased in GM maize-fed pigs. IL-8 and IL-4 production from isolated intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes were also increased (PGM maize. In conclusion, there was no evidence of cry1Ab gene or protein translocation to the organs and blood of weaning pigs. The growth of pigs was not affected by feeding GM maize. Alterations in immune responses were detected; however, their biologic relevance is questionable. PMID:22132091

  2. Prenatal Iron Deficiency in Guinea Pigs Increases Locomotor Activity but Does Not Influence Learning and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Fiset, Catherine; Rioux, France M.; Surette, Marc E.; Fiset, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine whether prenatal iron deficiency induced during gestation in guinea pigs affected locomotor activity and learning and memory processes in the progeny. Dams were fed either iron-deficient anemic or iron-sufficient diets throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, all pups were fed an iron-sufficient diet. On postnatal day 24 and 40, the pups' locomotor activity was observed within an open-field test, and from postnatal day 25 to 40, th...

  3. Effects of free-range and confined housing on joint health in a herd of fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etterlin, Pernille Engelsen; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Lundeheim, Nils; Heldmer, Eva; Österberg, Julia; Ekman, Stina

    2014-09-11

    Free-range housing, in which pigs have access to both indoor and outdoor areas, is mandatory in organic pig production in Europe, but little is known about the effects of this housing on joint health in pigs. A high level of joint condemnations at slaughter has been reported in organic free-range pigs in Sweden, compared with pigs raised in conventional confined housing. We hypothesised that biomechanical forces imposed on the joints of pigs that range freely promote the development of osteochondrosis and lead to joint condemnation. We compared the prevalence of osteochondrosis and other joint lesions (e.g. arthritis, traumatic) in the elbow and hock joints of 91 crossbred Hampshire (Yorkshire × Landrace) fattening pigs that were housed in a free-range indoor/outdoor system with that in 45 pigs housed in confined indoor pens. A larger proportion of free-range than confined pigs had osteochondrosis in the elbow joints (69 vs. 50%, p free-range pigs showed moderate or severe lesions (33 vs. 16%, p free-range pigs also showed a higher prevalence of osteochondrosis in the hock joints (83 vs. 62%, p free-range pigs had condemned joints, all of which showed severe osteochondrosis, while no joints of confined pigs were condemned. In this experiment the prevalence of osteochondrosis in the elbow and the hock was higher, and lesions were more severe, in free-range than in confined pigs, suggesting that free-range housing increases the risk of acquiring osteochondrosis. Increased biomechanical stress to vulnerable joint structures may be the mechanism behind this effect, however more studies are needed to verify these results. This study suggests that modification of housing, and breeding for joints that are more adapted to free-range movement may be needed in free-range pig production. Severe osteochondrosis is a cause of joint condemnation, but the condemnation rate at slaughter underestimates the actual frequency of joint lesions and hence is a poor assessment of joint

  4. Antimicrobial resistance prevalence of pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli in food-producing animals in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Chantziaras, Ilias; Dewulf, Jeroen; Boyen, Filip; Callens, Benedicte; Butaye, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In this article, detailed studies on antimicrobial resistance to commensal E. coli (in pigs, meat-producing bovines, broiler chickens and veal calves) and pathogenic E. coli (in pigs and bovines) in Belgium are presented for 2011. Broiler chicken and veal calf isolates of commensal E. coli demonstrated higher antimicrobial resistance prevalence than isolates from pigs and bovines. Fifty percent of E. coli isolates from broiler chickens were resistant to at least five antimicrobials, whereas s...

  5. Environmental impacts of precision feeding programs applied in pig production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, I; Hauschild, L; Kipper, M; Pires, P G S; Pomar, C

    2017-12-04

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect that switching from conventional to precision feeding systems during the growing-finishing phase would have on the potential environmental impact of Brazilian pig production. Standard life-cycle assessment procedures were used, with a cradle-to-farm gate boundary. The inputs and outputs of each interface of the life cycle (production of feed ingredients, processing in the feed industry, transportation and animal rearing) were organized in a model. Grain production was independently characterized in the Central-West and South regions of Brazil, whereas the pigs were raised in the South region. Three feeding programs were applied for growing-finishing pigs: conventional phase feeding by group (CON); precision daily feeding by group (PFG) (whole herd fed the same daily adjusted diet); and precision daily feeding by individual (PFI) (diets adjusted daily to match individual nutrient requirements). Raising pigs (1 t pig BW at farm gate) in South Brazil under the CON feeding program using grain cultivated in the same region led to emissions of 1840 kg of CO2-eq, 13.1 kg of PO4-eq and 32.2 kg of SO2-eq. Simulations using grain from the Central-West region showed a greater climate change impact. Compared with the previous scenario, a 17% increase in climate change impact was found when simulating with soybeans produced in Central-West Brazil, whereas a 28% increase was observed when simulating with corn and soybeans from Central-West Brazil. Compared with the CON feeding program, the PFG and PFI programs reduced the potential environmental impact. Applying the PFG program mitigated the potential climate change impact and eutrophication by up to 4%, and acidification impact by up to 3% compared with the CON program. Making a further adjustment by feeding pigs according to their individual nutrient requirements mitigated the potential climate change impact by up to 6% and the potential eutrophication and acidification impact

  6. Influence of various levels of milk by-products in weaner diets on growth performance, blood urea nitrogen, diarrhea incidence, and pork quality of weaning to finishing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to evaluate various levels of milk by-product in weaning pig diet on growth performance, blood profiles, carcass characteristics and economic performance for weaning to finishing pigs. Methods A total of 160 weaning pigs ([Yorkshire×Landrace]×Duroc), average 7.01±1.32 kg body weight (BW), were allotted to four treatments by BW and sex in 10 replications with 4 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were fed each treatment diet with various levels of milk by-product (Phase 1: 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, Phase 2: 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively). During weaning period (0 to 5 week), weaning pigs were fed experimental diets and all pigs were fed the same commercial feed during growing-finishing period (6 to 14 week). Results In the growth trial, BW, average daily gain (ADG), and average daily feed intake (ADFI) in the nursery period (5 weeks) increased as the milk by-product level in the diet increased (linear, pby-product in weaner diet decreased crude protein (quadratic, p = 0.05) and crude ash (Linear, p = 0.05) of Longissimus muscle. In addition, cooking loss and water holding capacity increased with increasing milk product levels in the weaner diets (linear, pby-product treatment had higher feed cost per weight gain compared to non-milk by-products treatment (linear, p = 0.01). Conclusion Supplementation of 10% to 5% milk by-products in weaning pig diet had results equivalent to the 30% to 15% milk treatment and 0% milk by-product supplementation in the diet had no negative influence on growth performance of finishing pigs. PMID:29103280

  7. Assessing the Effectiveness of Tuberculosis Management in Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula, through Indirect Surveillance of Mycobacterium bovis Infection Using Released Sentinel Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nugent

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In New Zealand, wild pigs acquire Mycobacterium bovis infection by scavenging tuberculous carrion, primarily carcasses of the main disease maintenance host, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula. We investigated the utility of captive-reared, purpose-released pigs as sentinels for tuberculosis (TB following lethal possum control and subsequent population recovery. Within 2-3 years of possum control by intensive poisoning, TB prevalence and the incidence rate of M. bovis infection in released sentinel pigs were lower than in an adjacent area where possums had not been poisoned. Unexpectedly, TB did not decline to near zero levels among pigs in the poisoned area, a fact which reflected an unanticipated rapid increase in the apparent abundance of possums. Monitoring infection levels among resident wild pigs confirmed that TB prevalence, while reduced due to possum control, persisted in the poisoned area at >20% among pigs born 2-3 years after poisoning, while remaining >60% among resident wild pigs in the nonpoisoned area. When fitted with radio-tracking devices, purpose-released pigs provided precise spatial TB surveillance information and facilitated effective killing of wild pigs when employed as “Judas” animals to help locate residents. Sentinel pigs offer value for monitoring disease trends in New Zealand, as TB levels in possums decline nationally due to large-scale possum control.

  8. Concentrated Arabinoxylan but Not Concentrated Beta-Glucan in Wheat Bread Has Similar Effects on Postprandial Insulin as Whole-Grain Rye in Porto-arterial Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    wheat bread were fed to six pigs in a randomized crossover design. Blood profiles were collected for 4 h after feeding. Glucose absorption was reduced in pigs fed the AX bread at 60 min postprandial (3.1 mmol/min for AX compared to 9.4 mmol/min for WF, P = 0.02) and insulin secretion was lowered at 30...... min postprandial for AX and GR (74.4 and 129 pmol/min for AX and GR, respectively, compared to 738 pmol/min for WF, P insulin economy, suggesting that arabinoxylan from wheat and rye induces similar outcomes in the metabolic...

  9. Modulation of intestinal inflammation by minimal enteral nutrition with amniotic fluid in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mette Viberg; Bering, Stine Brandt; Jensen, Michael Ladegaard

    2014-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe inflammatory disorder, associated with the difficult transition from parenteral to enteral feeding after preterm birth. We hypothesized that minimal enteral nutrition (MEN) with amniotic fluid (AF), prior to enteral formula feeding, would...... improve resistance to NEC in preterm pigs. Methods: Experiment 1: IEC-6 cells were incubated with porcine (pAF) and human AF (hAF) to test AF-stimulated enterocyte proliferation and migration in vitro. Experiment 2: Cesarean-delivered, preterm pigs were fed parenteral nutrition and MEN with pAF, h...... fed AF as MEN, but NEC incidences were similar (NEC-pAF) or increased (NEC-hAF) compared with controls. Conclusions: Intake of pAF or hAF improved body growth and modulated intestinal inflammatory cytokines during a period of parenteral nutrition, but did not protect against later formula-induced NEC...

  10. Characterization of pig-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Jiang, Nansong; Ke, Yuebin; Feßler, Andrea T; Wang, Yang; Schwarz, Stefan; Wu, Congming

    2017-03-01

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) have been reported in various countries worldwide. However, although China is one of the biggest pig and pork producers, large-scale studies on pig-associated LA-MRSA from China are scarce. The aims of this study were to analyze 2420 non-duplicate samples collected from pigs at swine farms and slaughterhouses in different regions in China during 2014 for the prevalence of pig-associated MRSA and to determine the antimicrobial resistance pheno- and genotypes of the respective isolates. MRSA isolates were identified in 270 (11.2%) samples. The isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and screening for resistance genes. All MRSA isolates belonged to the clonal complex 9 and spa type t899, but showed variable PFGE patterns. All isolates were non-susceptible to oxacillin, cefoxitin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, ciprofloxacin, and valnemulin. High rates of resistance were also observed for tetracycline (99.6%), erythromycin (97.0%), quinupristin-dalfopristin (97.0%), and gentamicin (80.4%). Three linezolid-non-susceptible isolates containing the multi-resistance gene cfr and nine rifampicin-non-susceptible isolates with mutations in rpoB were detected. Resistance to β-lactams was exclusively associated with mecA, while phenicol resistance was mainly attributable to fexA, except in the three cfr-positive isolates. The pleuromutilin-lincosamide-streptogramin A resistance gene lsa(E) was identified in all MRSA isolates, and no other pleuromutilin resistance genes, except cfr in three isolates, were detected. Pigs are the most important hosts of LA-MRSA in China. Screening for pig-associated MRSA is necessary to monitor changes in epidemiology and characteristics of these important pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of pet food by-product as an alternative feedstuff in weanling pig diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, E A; Jones, R D; Azain, M J

    2006-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate pet food by-product (PFB) as a component of nursery starter diets and its effects on pig performance. The PFB used in these studies was a pelleted dog food that contained (as-fed basis) 21% CP, 1.25% total lysine, and 8.3% ether extract. In Exp. 1, 288 early-weaned pigs (5.2 kg at 14 d) were used to determine the effects of replacing animal protein and energy sources with PFB at 0, 10, 30, and 50% (as-fed basis) inclusion levels in phase I (d 0 to 7 after weaning) and phase II (d 7 to 21 after weaning) diets. Phase I diets contained 27.5% whey, 18.75% soybean meal, 1.50% lysine, 0.90% Ca, and 0.80% P, with PFB substituted for corn, fat, plasma protein, fish meal, limestone, and dicalcium phosphate. Phase II diets had a constant 10% whey, 1.35% lysine, and PFB was substituted for blood cells, a portion of the soybean meal, and other ingredients as in phase I diets. In phase I, growth performance by pigs fed PFB-containing diets was similar to that of the control diet. In phase II, ADG (linear; P PFB inclusion. In Exp. 2, 80 weaned pigs (6.7 kg at 21 d) were fed a common phase I diet for 1 wk and used to further evaluate the effect of PFB in phase II diets (same as Exp 1; initial BW = 8.1 kg) on growth performance and apparent total tract nutrient digestibility. There were no differences in ADG, ADFI, or G:F across treatments. Dry matter and energy digestibility did not differ among diets; however, digestibilities of CP (P PFB was increased in the diet. In Exp. 3, the performance by pigs (n = 1 70; 5.5 kg; 21 d of age) fed diets with 0 or 30% PFB in both phases I and II was examined. Growth performance was similar in both diets. These studies demonstrate that pet food by-product can effectively be used as a partial replacement for animal protein sources and grain energy sources in the diets of young nursery pigs.

  12. Digestibility of cow's tritiated milk powder by calf and pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruwaene, R. van; Kirchmann, R.; Charles, P.; Hoek, J. van den

    1976-01-01

    Milk obtained from a lactating cow, maintained in a byre and fed on tritiated drinking water (266 μCi/1), was used in these experiments. Tritium moves into the different metabolic pathways that eventually produce milk. After administration of this continuous oral dose of tritiated water, the tritium content of the whole milk and of the dry matter reaches a plateau 10 days after the beginning of the ingestion of THO. Analysis of the radioactivity in the several milk constituents indicated that tritium was incorporated to different extents in different components. This in vivo tritiated milk powder was fed to two calves and three pigs in their rations. Daily samples of faeces were taken. For determining the digestibility and the incorporation of this milk powder the animals were slaughtered and several organs examined. The tritium activity was determined in the dry matter of the organs and the faeces. The data obtained in these experiments indicate that the milk powder is better absorbed by the calf if the digestibility coefficient is taken into consideration, but the milk powder is better incorporated in the organic matter of the muscle and liver of the pig. (author)

  13. Preclinical electrogastrography in experimental pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Květina, Jaroslav; Varayil, Jithinraj Edakkanambeth; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Kuneš, Martin; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopáčová, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Surface electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive means of recording gastric myoelectric activity or slow waves from cutaneous leads placed over the stomach. This paper provides a comprehensive review of preclinical EGG. Our group recently set up and worked out the methods for EGG in experimental pigs. We gained our initial experience in the use of EGG in assessment of porcine gastric myoelectric activity after volume challenge and after intragastric administration of itopride and erythromycin. The mean dominant frequency in pigs is comparable with that found in humans. EGG in experimental pigs is feasible. Experimental EGG is an important basis for further preclinical projects in pharmacology and toxicology. PMID:21217873

  14. Study on Serum Lipoprotein Profile of Exclusive Breast Fed, Mixed Fed and Formula Fed Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Jaiswal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast feeding is protective for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, obesity, Diabetes Mellitus (DM and hypertension. Serum lipoprotein is principal risk factor for atherosclerosis. There is growing evidence that risk of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD begins to emerge from infancy. Lipoprotein level is affected by different feeding pattern during infancy. Aim: To compare serum lipoprotein profile of exclusively breast fed, mixed fed and formula fed preterm infant. Materials and Methods: A total of two fifty preterm newborn were recruited at birth and divided into three groups. Group A were Exclusively Breast Fed (EBF, Group B were Mixed Fed (MF and Group C were Formula/bovine milk Fed (FF infants. Preterm newborns with severe sepsis, hypoglycemia, Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE stage II and III, meconium stained amniotic fluid, pathological jaundice, Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD, less than 28 weeks gestation, with major congenital anomaly and infants born to mothers with DM, gestational diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia or on long term medications were excluded from the study. Lipoprotein profile estimation was done at four weeks and again at 16 weeks of age. Results: At four weeks of age, Total Cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL were higher in EBF infants as compared to MF and FF infants. For TC, difference was significant between EBF vs. MF (p<0.001, EBF vs. FF (p<0.001 and MF vs. FF (p=0.005 infants. At 16 weeks also, TC and HDL were higher in EBF infants as compared to MF and FF infants. For TC, this difference was significant between EBF vs. MF (p<0.001 and EBF vs. FF (p<0.001 infants. When infants were followed up to 16 weeks of age, TC and LDL level fell significantly (p<0.001 in EBF and MF group, a significant (p<0.05 rise for TC was seen in FF group. At 16 weeks of age, there was no significant rise in HDL in EBF infants, but

  15. Medium-chain triglyceride as an alternative of in-feed colistin sulfate to improve growth performance and intestinal microbial environment in newly weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hung-Che; Lai, Wei-Kang; Lin, Chuan-Shun; Chiang, Shu-Hsing

    2015-01-01

    Five hundred and twenty-eight newly weaned pigs were given four treatments, with eight replicates per treatment. Sixteen to 18 pigs were assigned per replicate and were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 3% medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and 0 or 40 ppm colistin sulfate (CS) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement for 2 weeks. The results showed that dietary supplementation with MCT improved the gain-to-feed ratio during days 3-7 and in the overall period (P environment and the feed utilization efficiency of newly weaned pigs. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Neurotoxicosis in pigs caused by excessive arsanilic acid ingestion: clinical observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, P R

    1975-01-01

    Clinical observations were made at a commercial fattening piggery, in which 560 pigs from a total of 3500, averaging 40 to 50 kg body weight, showed signs of neurotoxicosis. An error in formulation of the feed had been made, such that 2 kg per head of a ration containing 1.5 kg arsanilic acid per ton was fed daily, for a minimum period of 10 to 12 days. The predominant initial nervous signs were those of delayed or defective neuro-muscular synergism, and were as follows: a wide based stance was adopted by both fore and hind limbs; the head was held low in an uncontrolled, rubbery-like swaying motion; aimless circling to both sides in the one animal was common, the pigs being conscious of their surroundings; temperatures and other vital signs were normal, as were eye-preservation reflexes and sight; object vision blindness was not apparent nor were nystagmus or strabismus. When approached or frightened, loss of balance would cause the pigs to jump away and overbalance to one side, but in the majority postural reflexes were sufficiently normal for equilibrium to be regained before the animal fell. Several pigs when attempting to escape by moving forward overbalanced onto their snouts, with front legs wide apart and extended, and remained in that position for several seconds, unable to regain mobility. When attempting to back away, reflex positioning of hind limbs was delayed and the pigs would almost overbalance backward. A few showed hyperaemia of the ears, abdomen and thighs. Most pigs appeared normal and happy when lying in groups, but on being disturbed would act as previously described. Appetite was variable. Most pigs would eat if undisturbed, many with swaying, head-bobbing movements. Scouring was absent. In general the syndrome was that of a happy pig with balance loss and delayed postural reaction time.

  17. Occurrence and characterization of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pig industries of northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchanee, Prapas; Tadee, Pakpoom; Arjkumpa, Orapun; Love, David; Chanachai, Karoon; Alter, Thomas; Hinjoy, Soawapak; Tharavichitkul, Prasit

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in pigs, farm workers, and the environment in northern Thailand, and to assess LA-MRSA isolate phenotypic characteristics. One hundred and four pig farms were randomly selected from the 21,152 in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces in 2012. Nasal and skin swab samples were collected from pigs and farm workers. Environmental swabs (pig stable floor, faucet, and feeder) were also collected. MRSA was identified by conventional bacterial culture technique, with results confirmed by multiplex PCR and multi locus sequence typing (MLST). Herd prevalence of MRSA was 9.61% (10 of 104 farms). Among pigs, workers, and farm environments, prevalence was 0.68% (two of 292 samples), 2.53% (seven of 276 samples), and 1.28% (four of 312 samples), respectively. Thirteen MRSA isolates (seven from workers, four from environmental samples, and two from pigs) were identified as Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec IV sequences type 9. Antimicrobial sensitivity tests found 100% of the MRSA isolates resistant to clindamycin, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline, while 100% were susceptible to cloxacillin and vancomycin. All possessed a multidrug-resistant phenotype. This is the first evidence of an LA-MRSA interrelationship among pigs, workers, and the farm environment in Thailand.

  18. Persistence of Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Field Workers after Short-Term Occupational Exposure to Pigs and Veal Calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cleef, B.A.G.L.; Graveland, H.; Haenen, A.P.J.; van de Giessen, A.W.; Heederik, D.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in pig and veal calf farmers in the Netherlands is estimated at 25 to 35%. However, no information is available about MRSA carriage in humans after short-term occupational exposure to pigs or veal calves. This study

  19. In vivo measurements of nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon in genetically obese and lean pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.; Shypailo, R.J.; Sheng, H.-P.; Pond, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    Characteristic gamma-rays are emitted promptly by elements during exposure to neutrons. These emissions enable a radioanalytical analysis of the body's composition of protein (nitrogen), water (hydrogen), and fat (carbon). We have used this method in vivo to determine the body composition of obese and lean pigs (10 to 20 kg body wt) fed an altered cholesterol diet. (author) 10 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  20. Effect of protein level on performance, nitrogen utilisation and carcass composition in finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Assadi Soumeh, Elham

    2014-01-01

    cages. Feed intake, gain and feed utilisation were not significantly affected. Plasma urea (P carcass tended to increase linearly by reducing CP, but neither nitrogen retention nor carcass meat percentage...... and back fat depth differed among treatments. In conclusion, the study indicated that CP could be decreased to 136 g/kg as-fed for growing pigs in the weight range 50–100 kg without negative impact on growth performance and carcass traits. Moreover, leanness was not affected by excess CP....

  1. Dietary maifanite supplementation did not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li Bai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary maifanite supplementation and fecal collection method on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P and blood parameters in growing pigs. Methods Thirty-six growing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire; 27.0±2.6 kg were allotted to six dietary treatments with 6 pigs per treatment according to body weight in a completely randomized design. The experimental treatments were: i Low Ca+cornstarch (2.25%, ii Low Ca+maifanite (2.25%, iii Medium Ca+cornstarch (1.42%, iv Medium Ca+maifanite (1.42%, v High Ca+cornstarch (0.64%, and vi High Ca+maifanite (0.64%. Feces were collected by the total collection (TC and indicator method (IM. At the beginning and the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected from each pig. Results For the TC method, there were no difference in Ca intake, fecal Ca output, Ca retention and the ATTD of Ca between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. However, urinary Ca excretion was lower (p = 0.01 in pigs fed low Ca diets without maifanite supplementation compared with other dietary treatments. Dietary maifanite supplementation had no effect on the P metabolism in growing pigs. For the IM method, there was no difference in Ca digestibility between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. The ATTD of P was greater (p<0.01 in pigs fed the high Ca diet with maifanite supplementation compared with the high Ca diet with cornstarch treatment. Dietary inclusion of maifanite had no effect on blood parameters in growing pigs. Conclusion Dietary maifanite supplementation had no effect on the ATTD of Ca and P and serum parameters in growing pigs. The IM resulted in lower digestibility values than the TC method.

  2. Exploring the Feasibility of Using Silage-Based Feed with Alternative Sources of Protein in Organic Pig Rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth C. Clements

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Current regulations for organic pig and poultry production systems permit feed ingredients of non-organic origin at an inclusion rate of up to 5 per cent. This is primarily due to concerns that there is an insufficient supply of organic protein on the European Union market, in terms of quality and quantity, to meet the nutritional requirements of pigs and poultry raised on organic farms. However, 100 per cent organic diets for monogastric livestock will become compulsory in the EU from 1 January 2018, and there is therefore a need to develop sustainable feeding strategies based on organic feeds. This feed trial conducted in the UK explores the feasibility of using a silage-based feeding system for Gloucester Old Spot pigs, and compares the inclusion of soya, beans and peas as protein sources in terms of pig growth performance. No significant difference in the pen mean daily live weight gain was observed during the grower phase (pen mean age of 11-14 weeks between the diet groups. However, during the finisher phase (pen mean age of 15-22 weeks, pigs on the soya and pea rations had significantly faster growth rates than pigs fed the bean ration. It is speculated that the slight shortfall in growth rate observed in the pigs fed the bean ration may be offset by the lower cost of production of beans in the UK. This feasibility trial demonstrates that a 100 per cent organic diet for pigs using alternative, locally-grown sources of protein as part of a forage-based ration can provide a viable alternative to a soya-based diet.

  3. Effects of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome on Steroidogenesis and Folliculogenesis in the Female Ossabaw Mini-Pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie E Newell-Fugate

    Full Text Available The discrete effects of obesity on infertility in females remain undefined to date. To investigate obesity-induced ovarian dysfunction, we characterized metabolic parameters, steroidogenesis, and folliculogenesis in obese and lean female Ossabaw mini-pigs. Nineteen nulliparous, sexually mature female Ossabaw pigs were fed a high fat/cholesterol/fructose diet (n=10 or a control diet (n=9 for eight months. After a three-month diet-induction period, pigs remained on their respective diets and had ovarian ultrasound and blood collection conducted during a five-month study period after which ovaries were collected for histology, cell culture, and gene transcript level analysis. Blood was assayed for steroid and protein hormones. Obese pigs developed abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome, including hyperglycemia, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Obese pigs had elongated estrous cycles and hyperandrogenemia with decreased LH, increased FSH and luteal phase progesterone, and increased numbers of medium, ovulatory, and cystic follicles. Theca cells of obese, compared to control, pigs displayed androstenedione hypersecretion in response to in vitro treatment with LH, and up-regulated 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4 transcript levels in response to in vitro treatment with LH or LH + insulin. Granulosa cells of obese pigs had increased 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 transcript levels. In summary, obese Ossabaw pigs have increased transcript levels and function of ovarian enzymes in the delta 4 steroidogenic pathway. Alterations in LH, FSH, and progesterone, coupled with theca cell dysfunction, contribute to the hyperandrogenemia and disrupted folliculogenesis patterns observed in obese pigs. The obese Ossabaw mini-pig is a useful animal model in which to study the effects of obesity and metabolic syndrome on ovarian function and steroidogenesis. Ultimately, this animal model may be

  4. Caracterización genotipica de aislamientos de Escherichia coli obtenidos de cerdos con diarrea posdestete y enfermedad de los edemas Genotypic characterization of toxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from pigs with postweaning diarrhea (PWD and edema disease (ED

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    Fabiana A Moredo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue caracterizar mediante PCR 47 aislamientos de Escheríchia coli recuperados de 32 cerdos con diagnóstico clínico de diarrea posdestete (DPD y de 3 cerdos con enfermedad de los edemas (ED. Sobre 44 aislamientos provenientes de cerdos con DPD, 42 (95,5 % fueron caracterizados como E. coli enterotoxigénicos (ETEC y 2 (4,5 % como E. coli productores de toxina Shiga (STEC. Catorce aislamientos de ETEC (33,3 % fueron positivos para los genes estl/estlI/fedA. El genotipo más complejo fue eltA/estll/east1/faeG/aidA. Los aislamientos provenientes de cerdos con ED se clasificaron como STEC porcinos y fueron portadores de stxJaidA. Once aislamientos (25 % fueron portadores del gen que codifica la expresión de la adhesina AIDA-I. Sin embargo, en ningún aislamiento se detectaron los genes que codifican la expresión de las adhesinas F5, F6, F41, de intimina y de "Paa". La prevención de la DPD y de la ED podría realizarse mediante el desarrollo de vacunas que generen anticuerpos contra las adhesinas de las cepas de E. coli prevalentes en la Argentina.The purpose of this work was to characterize 47 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 32 pigs diagnosed with postweaning diarrhea and tree pigs with edema disease by PCR. Forty two (95.5 % of the strains isolated from diarrheic pigs were characterized as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC and 2 (4.5 % as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC. Fourteen (33.3 % ETEC strains were positive for est/estll/fedA genes. The most complex genotype was eltA/estl/faeG/aidA. Strains isolated from pigs with ED were classified as porcine STEC and were stxjaidA carriers. Eleven (25 % strains carried the gene encoding adhesln protein AIDA-I. However, genes coding for F5, F6, F41, intimin and Paa were not detected. The development of vaccines generating antibodies against prevalent E. coli adhesins in Argentina could be useful for the prevention of PWD and ED.

  5. Pigs in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    of public health, made me re-evaluate both what ‘public’ and what ‘health’ means in public health. In this commentary I provide a short personal account of that intellectual journey. I argue that entanglements between species make it urgent that public health scholars investigate the moral, socio......Animals are rare topics in public health science texts and speech despite the fact that animal bodies and lives are woven into the health of human populations, and vice versa. Years of ethnographic and documentary research – following pigs and their humans in and out of biomedical research – made......-economic, material, and bacterial passages between humans and animals that constitute the various publics of public health and profoundly shape the health of human and animal populations in a globalized world....

  6. INFLUENCE OF FEEDING ON CARCASS QUALITY OF PIGS ON FAMILY FARMS

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    A. Petričević

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This study involved 30 carcasses of Hypor ABCD – Euribrid pigs divided into two groups (A and B, 15 pigs each (8 females and 7 males. Pigs from group A were fattened in very good environmental conditions and fed by a high quality diet containing 16,5% proteins during the whole fattening period; pigs from group B were fattenend in old barns, significantly worse environment with low hygienic conditions and fed by usual home made diets (frequently from low quality and unreliable components-especially corn. Crude protein level untill reaching approximately 60 kg was 16.0% (ST-1, and by the end of the fattenig 14.0% (ST-2. After slaughtering, cooled carcasses were dissected (according to Weniger et al., 1963. Statistically significant differences (P<0.01 were found between muscle tissue shares in carcasses from group A (57.54% and group B (54.29% by dissection and separation into main tissues. The (P<0.01 differences in shares of muscle and fatty tissues were also found in some individual parts of the carcass (ham, loins and shoulder. Meat quality traits (pH1, pH2, W.h.c. and color and chemical composition of muscle and fat, according to calculated means, are within boundaries for «normal» meat in all carcasses involved in the research.

  7. Conjugated linoleic acid mitigates testosterone-related changes in body composition in male guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Susan Q; DeGuire, Jason R; Lavery, Paula; Mak, Ivy L; Weiler, Hope A; Santosa, Sylvia

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesize that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may be effective in preventing the changes in total and regional body composition and increases in interleukin (IL) 6 that occur as a result of hypogonadism. Male guinea pigs (n = 40, 70- to 72-week retired breeders) were block randomized by weight into 4 groups: (1) sham surgery (SHAM)/control (CTRL) diet, (2) SHAM/conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) diet (1%), (3) orchidectomy (ORX)/CTRL diet, and (4) ORX/CLA diet. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed at baseline and week 16 to assess body composition. Serum IL-6 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. Fatty acids (FAs) from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were analyzed using gas chromatography. In ORX/CTRL guinea pigs, percent total body fat increased by 6.1%, and percent lean mass decreased by 6.7% over the 16-week treatment period, whereas no changes were observed for either parameter in ORX/CLA guinea pigs. Guinea pigs fed the CLA diet gained less percent total, upper, and lower body fat than those fed the CTRL diet regardless of surgical treatment. Regional adipose tissue FA composition was reflective of dietary FAs. Serum IL-6 concentrations were not different among groups. In this study, we observed that, in male guinea pigs, hypogonadism resulted in increased fat mass and decreased lean mass. In addition, CLA was effective in reducing gains in body fat and maintaining lean mass in both hypogonadal and intact guinea pigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dynamics of quinolone resistance in fecal Escherichia coli of finishing pigs after ciprofloxacin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kang; Xu, Chang-Wen; Zeng, Bo; Xia, Qing-Qing; Zhang, An-Yun; Lei, Chang-Wei; Guan, Zhong-Bin; Cheng, Han; Wang, Hong-Ning

    2014-09-01

    Escherichia coli resistance to quinolones has now become a serious issue in large-scale pig farms of China. It is necessary to study the dynamics of quinolone resistance in fecal Escherichia coli of pigs after antimicrobial administration. Here, we present the hypothesis that the emergence of resistance in pigs requires drug accumulation for 7 days or more. To test this hypothesis, 26 pigs (90 days old, about 30 kg) not fed any antimicrobial after weaning were selected and divided into 2 equal groups: the experimental (EP) group and control (CP) group. Pigs in the EP group were orally treated daily with 5 mg ciprofloxacin/kg of body weight for 30 days, and pigs in the CP group were fed a normal diet. Fresh feces were collected at 16 time points from day 0 to day 61. At each time point, ten E. coli clones were tested for susceptibility to quinolones and mutations of gyrA and parC. The results showed that the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for ciprofloxacin increased 16-fold compared with the initial MIC (0.5 µg/ml) after ciprofloxacin administration for 3 days and decreased 256-fold compared with the initial MIC (0.5 µg/ml) after ciprofloxacin withdrawal for 26 days. GyrA (S83L, D87N/ D87Y) and parC (S80I) substitutions were observed in all quinolone-resistant E. coli (QREC) clones with an MIC ≥8 µg/ml. This study provides scientific theoretical guidance for the rational use of antimicrobials and the control of bacterial resistance.

  9. Estimation of hepatitis E virus (HEV) pig seroprevalence using Elisa and Western blot and comparison between human and pig HEV sequences in Belgium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiry, D.; Mauroy, A.; Saegerman, C.; Thomas, I.; Wautier, M.; Miry, C.; Czaplicki, G.; Berkvens, D.; Praet, N.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Cariolet, R.; Brochier, B.; Thiry, E.

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is of special concern, particularly in high income countries were waterborne infections are less frequent than in developing countries. High HEV seroprevalences can be found in European pig populations. The aims of this study were to obtain prevalence

  10. Survey of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Noviello, Emilio; Ianniello, Davide; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Little information is available on the occurrence of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in cavies kept as pets in southern Italy. Fresh fecal samples were randomly collected from 60 guinea pigs housed in pet shops or privately owned. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to identify and count helminthic eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts/oocysts. In addition, the specimens were analyzed also by the Remel Xpect® Giardia/Cryptosporidium immunoassay. Intestinal parasites were detected in 19 out of 60 guinea pigs (31.7 %). Paraspidodera uncinata eggs were found in 13.3 % (8/60) of the rodents examined, Nippostrongylus-like eggs in 10 % (6/60), and finally Eimeria caviae oocysts were found in 10 % (6/60) of the animals. In one case, both E. caviae oocysts and P. uncinata eggs were found. None of the samples was positive for Cryptosporidium or Giardia. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first survey of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs in Italy.

  11. Geographic correlation between tapeworm carriers and heavily infected cysticercotic pigs.

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    Seth E O'Neal

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Sustainable community-based interventions are urgently needed to control transmission of the causative parasite, Taenia solium. We examined the geospatial relationship between live pigs with visible cysticercotic cysts on their tongues and humans with adult intestinal tapeworm infection (taeniasis in a rural village in northern Peru. The objective was to determine whether tongue-positive pigs could indicate high-risk geographic foci for taeniasis to guide targeted screening efforts. This approach could offer significant benefit compared to mass intervention.We recorded geographic coordinates of all village houses, collected stool samples from all consenting villagers, and collected blood and examined tongues of all village pigs. Stool samples were processed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens indicative of active taeniasis; serum was processed by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for antibodies against T. solium cysticercosis (EITB LLGP and T. solium taeniasis (EITB rES33.Of 548 pigs, 256 (46.7% were positive for antibodies against cysticercosis on EITB LLGP. Of 402 fecal samples, 6 (1.5% were positive for the presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens. The proportion of coproantigen-positive individuals differed significantly between residents living within 100-meters of a tongue-positive pig (4/79, 5.1% and residents living >100 meters from a tongue-positive pig (2/323, 0.6% (p = 0.02. The prevalence of taeniasis was >8 times higher among residents living within 100 meters of a tongue-positive pig compared to residents living outside this range (adjusted PR 8.1, 95% CI 1.4-47.0.Tongue-positive pigs in endemic communities can indicate geospatial foci in which the risk for taeniasis is increased. Targeted screening or presumptive treatment for taeniasis within these high-risk foci may be an effective and

  12. Geographic Correlation between Tapeworm Carriers and Heavily Infected Cysticercotic Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Diaz, Andre; Rodriguez, Silvia; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Sustainable community-based interventions are urgently needed to control transmission of the causative parasite, Taenia solium. We examined the geospatial relationship between live pigs with visible cysticercotic cysts on their tongues and humans with adult intestinal tapeworm infection (taeniasis) in a rural village in northern Peru. The objective was to determine whether tongue-positive pigs could indicate high-risk geographic foci for taeniasis to guide targeted screening efforts. This approach could offer significant benefit compared to mass intervention. Methods We recorded geographic coordinates of all village houses, collected stool samples from all consenting villagers, and collected blood and examined tongues of all village pigs. Stool samples were processed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens indicative of active taeniasis; serum was processed by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for antibodies against T. solium cysticercosis (EITB LLGP) and T. solium taeniasis (EITB rES33). Findings Of 548 pigs, 256 (46.7%) were positive for antibodies against cysticercosis on EITB LLGP. Of 402 fecal samples, 6 (1.5%) were positive for the presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens. The proportion of coproantigen-positive individuals differed significantly between residents living within 100-meters of a tongue-positive pig (4/79, 5.1%) and residents living >100 meters from a tongue-positive pig (2/323, 0.6%) (p = 0.02). The prevalence of taeniasis was >8 times higher among residents living within 100 meters of a tongue-positive pig compared to residents living outside this range (adjusted PR 8.1, 95% CI 1.4–47.0). Conclusions Tongue-positive pigs in endemic communities can indicate geospatial foci in which the risk for taeniasis is increased. Targeted screening or presumptive treatment for taeniasis within these high

  13. Cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from farm-workers and pigs in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Son T T; Bortolaia, Valeria; Thi, Nhat T

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria may be transmitted between farm workers and livestock. This study aimed to determine and compare the prevalence and the genetic determinants of cefotaxime-resistant and ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in faecal isolates from workers and pigs at 100 farms...... in northern Vietnam. METHODS Farmers were interviewed about antimicrobial usage in livestock. Escherichia coli isolated on MacConkey agar containing 2 mg/L of cefotaxime (CTX) were tested for susceptibility to different cephalosporins by disk diffusion and screened for occurrence of ESBL-encoding genes by PCR......% in pigs. In 76% of farms, CTX-resistant E. coli were shared by pigs and farm workers. ESBL-producing E. coli were detected from pigs and workers at 66 and 69 farms, respectively. The ESBL phenotype was mainly mediated by CTX-M and to a lesser extent by TEM. Occurrence of blaCTX-M was similar in E. coli...

  14. Inulin supplementation reduces the negative effect of a high-fat diet rich in SFA on bone health of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Monika; Raj, Stanisława; Skiba, Grzegorz

    2018-05-01

    Consumption of a high-fat diet, rich in SFA, causes deterioration of bone properties. Some studies suggest that feeding inulin to animals may increase mineral absorption and positively affect bone quality; however, these studies have been carried out only on rodents fed a standard diet. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of inulin on bone health of pigs (using it as an animal model for humans) fed a high-fat diet rich in SFA, having an unbalanced ratio of lysine:metabolisable energy. It was hypothesised that inulin reduces the negative effects of such a diet on bone health. At 50 d of age, twenty-one pigs were randomly allotted to three groups: the control (C) group fed a standard diet, and two experimental (T and TI) groups fed a high-fat diet rich in SFA. Moreover, TI pigs consumed an extra inulin supply (7 % of daily feed intake). After 10 weeks, whole-body bone mineral content (P=0·0054) and bone mineral density (P=0·0322) were higher in pigs of groups TI and C compared with those of group T. Femur bone mineral density was highest in pigs in group C, lower in group TI and lowest in group T (P=0·001). Femurs of pigs in groups TI and C had similar, but higher, maximum strength compared with femurs of pigs in group T (P=0·0082). In conclusion, consumption of a high-fat diet rich in SFA adversely affected bone health, but inulin supplementation in such a diet diminishes this negative effect.

  15. Effect of Fermented Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, Fecal Microbial and Fecal Noxious Gas Content in Growing Pigs

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    L. Yan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 96 growing pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc; BW = 26.58±1.41 kg were used in a 6-wk feeding trail to evaluate the effects of fermented chlorella (FC supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, fecal microbial and fecal noxious gas content in growing pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted into 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens (2 barrows and 2 gilts per treatment. Dietary treatments were: i negative control (NC, basal diet (without antibiotics; ii positive control (PC, NC+0.05% tylosin; iii (fermented chlorella 01 FC01, NC+0.1% FC, and iv fermented chlorella 02 (FC02, NC+0.2% FC. In this study, feeding pigs PC or FC01 diets led to a higher average daily gain (ADG and dry matter (DM digestibility than those fed NC diet (p0.05 was observed on the body weight, average daily feed intake (ADFI, gain:feed (G:F ratio, the apparent total tract digestibility of N and energy throughout the experiment. The inclusion of PC or FC did not affect the blood characteristics (p>0.05. Moreover, dietary FC treatment led to a higher (p<0.05 lactobacillus concentration and lower E. coli concentration than the NC treatment, whereas the antibiotic supplementation only decreased the E. coli concentration. Pigs fed FC or PC diet had reduced (p<0.05 fecal NH3 and H2S content compared with those fed NC diet. In conclusion, our results indicated that the inclusion of FC01 treatment could improve the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial shedding (lower E. coli and higher lactobacillus, and decrease the fecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs when compared with the group fed the basal diet. In conclusion, dietary FC could be considered as a good source of supplementation in growing pigs because of its growth promoting effect.

  16. Influence of feeding thermally peroxidized soybean oil on growth performance, digestibility, and gut integrity in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Martin F; Dilger, Anna C; Boler, Dustin D; Kerr, Brian J

    2018-05-26

    Consumption of peroxidized lipids has been shown to reduce pig performance and energy and lipid digestibility. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effect of feeding soybean oil (SO) with different levels of peroxidation on growth performance, lipid, N, and GE digestibility, plasma Trp, and gut integrity in finishing pigs. Fifty-six barrows (46.7 ± 5.1 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to one of four diets in each of two dietary phases, containing either 10% fresh SO (22.5 °C) or thermally processed SO (45 °C for 288 h, 90 °C for 72 h, or 180 °C for 6 h), each infused with of 15 L/min of air. Peroxide values were 2.0, 17.4, 123.6, and 19.4 mEq/kg; 2,4-decadienal values were 2.07, 1.90, 912.15, and 915.49 mg/kg; and 4-hydroxynonenal concentrations were 0.66, 1.49, 170.48, and 82.80 mg/kg, for the 22.5, 45, 90, and 180 °C processed SO, respectively. Pigs were individually housed and fed ad libitum for 81 d to measure growth performance, including a metabolism period to collect urine and feces for determination of GE, lipid, N digestibility, and N retention. Following the last day of fecal and urine collection when pigs were in the metabolism crates, lactulose and mannitol were fed and subsequently measured in the urine to evaluate gut permeability, while markers of oxidative stress were evaluated in plasma, urine, and liver. There were no differences observed in ADFI (P = 0.91), but average daily gain (ADG) and gain:feed G:F were decreased in pigs fed 90 °C SO diet (P ≤ 0.07) compared to pigs fed the other SO diets. Pigs fed the 90 and 180 °C SO had the lowest (P = 0.05) DE as a % of GE compared to pigs fed the 22.5 °C SO, with pigs fed the 45 °C SO being intermediate. Lipid digestibility was similarly affected (P = 0.01) as energy digestibility, but ME as a % of DE was not affected by dietary treatment (P = 0.16). There were no effects of lipid peroxidation on N digested, N retained, or the urinary lactulose:mannitol ratio (P ≥ 0

  17. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds as protein sources in growing-finishing heavy pig diets: effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics and on fresh and seasoned Parma ham quality

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    Aldo Prandini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pea and faba bean inclusion in growing-finishing heavy pig diets was evaluated. The following iso-lysinic and iso-energetic diets offered to the pigs in three phases (40-80; 80-120; 120-160 kg were compared: CTR, control diet with soybean meal (SBM as protein source; RP, CTR diet where pea replaced SBM; RF, CTR diet where faba bean replaced SBM. 126 animals were randomly distributed in 3 homogeneous groups with 42 animals each (7 pens with 6 animals each per treatment. The RP and RF diets did not negatively affect the carcass characteristics both of the pigs slaughtered at the conventional weight (127.5 kg and heavy pigs (158.5 kg. The pigs fed the RP and RF diets ate similarly to the pigs fed the CTR overall the trial but RF pigs grew better than CTR animals. The subcutaneous fat of the fresh hams destined for Parma ham production and obtained from pigs fed RP diet had a higher omega 3 fatty acid percentage. Moreover, the RP and RF diets resulted in fat with better omega 3/omega 6 ratio compared with CTR. All the fat samples had iodine numbers within the limit value (70 reported by the Production Disciplinary of Parma ham. No treatment effect was found on the analytical and sensorial characteristics of the Parma hams, except for the aged taste which was more intense in the hams obtained from pigs fed the RF diet. These results indicate that pea and faba bean may be used as an alternative to imported SBM.

  18. Experimental and iatrogenic poisoning by sodium selenite in pigs

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    Paulo V. Peixoto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Following a case of iatrogenic selenium poisoning in a young pig, an experimental study was carry out. Sodium selenite was orally and parenterally administered to 13 pigs that were subdivided into three groups (G1, G2 and G3. The animals in groups G1 and G3 received sodium selenite intramuscularly (IM, G1 received a comercial formula, and G3 received sodium selenite mixed with distilled water at different dosages, and those in group G2 were fed commercial sodium selenite. Acute and subacute poisoning was observed in both groups, although the onset of clinical signs was slower in group G2. Only one pig (in group G1 that had received the highest dose showed a peracute course. Apathy, anorexia, dyspnea, vomiting, muscular tremors, proprioceptive deficit, ataxia and paresis of the hind limbs progressing to the front limbs evolving to tetraplegia were observed. Postmortem findings differed whether the animals received the injected (G1 and G3 or oral (G2 sodium selenite. The liver was moderately atrophic in some animals of G2. Some of the animals in groups G1 and G3 presented with lung edema. One pig in G3 had yellowish-brown areas in the ventral horns of the cervical intumescences of the spinal cord. The most important histological changes were present in the ventral horns of the cervical and lumbar intumescences of the spinal cord. In one animal, changes were present in the brainstem and mesencephalon. The initial lesion was a perivascular and astrocyte edema that progressing to lysis and death of astrocytes and neurons. In the chronic stage of the lesions, there were extensive areas of liquefaction necrosis with perivascular lymphocytic and histiocytic infiltration and occasional eosinophils. It seems that disruption of the blood-brain barrier due to astrocyte edema is the most likely mechanism of CNS lesion.

  19. Seroprevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA in pigs in East Sumba, Indonesia

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    Annytha Detha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese Encephalitis (JE, a vector-borne zoonotic viral disease, is mostly prevalent in Asian countries. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurence of JE virus (JEV among pigs in East Sumba, Indonesia. Blood samples (n=52 were randomly collected from 52 apparantly healthy pigs where pig population was high in East Sumba. The samples were subjected for seroprevalence study for the presence of antibodies against JEV using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA. Results showed that 53% (n=28/52 blood samples from the pigs contained antibodies against JEV. This finding is suggestive that the JEV is circulating among pig population in East Sumba, Indonesia. The data may help in designing control strategies of the JEV in the East Sumba, Indonesia.

  20. Some risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in semi-intensively raised pigs in Zuru, Nigeria

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    Moses Gweba

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in live pigs and at post mortem was determined in the Zuru area of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Prevalence rates of 5.85% (n = 205 and 14.40% (n = 118, respectively, were obtained from live pigs examined by lingual palpation and post-mortem examination. There was a significant (p0.05 relationship between age and infectivity. Human taeniosis was assessed by direct microscopy of stool samples from volunteers; a prevalence of 8% (n = 50 was obtained. Environmental (soil, water and water from washed vegetables samples were analysed; one of the water samples and some soil samples were positive for taeniid ova. Of the pig-rearing households that responded to the questionnaire survey 93% (n = 100 allow their pigs to scavenge freely around residential areas and refuse dumps, 2% had epileptic patients and over 80% did not have knowledge on how T. solium infection is acquired and its public health significance. To obtain baseline data for effective control and possible eradication, there is the need for a serological and epidemiological survey of this significant parasitic zoonosis in the study area and other parts of Nigeria where pigs are reared and/or pork is consumed.

  1. Studies on nitrogen retention in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorbek, G; Henckel, S; Chwalibog, André

    1987-01-01

    Nitrogen retention (RN) was measured in 60 barrows of Danish Landrace and a total of 470 balance periods was carried out during the growth period from 20 to 85 kg live weight. In the first serie (Expt A) six different feed compounds of high biological value (HBV) were fed to 48 barrows, while...... in the second serie (Expt B) 12 barrows were measured on feed compounds of HBV or low biological value (LBV). Three different levels of gross energy were used in Expt B. Individual differences of 10-20% in the pigs capability for nitrogen retention were observed. Nitrogen retention increased from 12 to 21 g N....../d on the HBV-compounds and was not influenced by increasing nitrogen or energy intake. Nitrogen retention was curvilinear in relation to metabolic live weight (kg0.75) in both series. A parabolic function on kg0.75 gave the best fit to the data with the following regression equations: Expt A + B: RN, g/d = 1...

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in certified and non-certified pig breeding farms in the Toledo microregion, PR, Brazil Prevalência e fatores de risco para a infecção pelo Toxoplasma gondii em granjas de reprodutores suídeos certificados ou não da microregião de Toledo, PR, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piassa Franciele Rossandra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii infection has been diagnosed in pigs all over the world. Economical losses are generally related to reproductive disorders. Toxoplasma infection is also a matter of public health because tissue cysts of the parasite may remain in pork and pork products, and become sources of human infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma infection in certified and non-certified pig breeding farms in the Toledo microregion, in the State of Paraná, Brazil which includes the cities of Toledo, Nova Santa Rosa, Sao José das Palmeiras and Sao Pedro do Iguaçu. Relative frequency of infection was 13.4%, independently of the type of farm. Logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were associated with infection: absence of workers exclusive for each area of the farm, access of other animals to feeders and drinkers, lack of lids in drinkers, lack of rodent control measures, mean piglet number and weight at weaning per female.A infecção pelo Toxoplasma gondii tem sido diagnosticada em suínos em todo o mundo. Perdas econômicas geralmente estão relacionadas a distúrbios reprodutivos. A infecção pelo Toxoplasma tem também importância em saúde pública, já que cistos teciduais do parasito podem persistir na carne e subprodutos oriundos de suínos, que servirão de fontes de infecção para o ser humano. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a frequência e os fatores de risco associados à infecção pelo Toxoplasma em granjas de reprodutores suídeos certificados ou não da microrregião de Toledo, no Paraná, que inclui os municípios de Toledo, Nova Santa Rosa, São José das Palmeiras e São Pedro do Iguaçú. A frequência relativa de infecção foi 13,4%, sem diferença com o tipo de granja. A análise de regressão logística demonstrou os seguintes fatores associados à infecção: não utilização de funcionários separados por área da

  3. Wean-to-finish feeder space availability effects on nursery and finishing pig performance and total tract digestibility in a commercial setting when feeding dried distillers grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, E K; Stalder, K J; Patience, J F

    2015-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine nursery phase feeder space allowance effects on pig performance when double stocked and, second, to determine feeder space allowance and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion level effects on pig performance and nutrient digestibility during the growing-finishing phase. This study was performed on the same group of pigs within a commercial wean-finish system. For the nursery phase, a completely randomized design was used to compare 3 feeder space allowance treatments (2.1, 2.5, and 2.9 cm/pig). A total of 3,720 pigs were randomly allotted to same-sex pens (10 feeders/treatment) housing 62 pigs/pen. Thirty 7-hole, double-sided feeders were utilized in the study. Differing linear feeder space treatments were established by blocking off sections for the nursery and grow-finish portions of this experiment. All pigs were provided equal floor space (0.26 m2/pig). In the grow-finish phase, a total of 1,860 pigs (n = 60 pens) were utilized in a 2 × 3 factorial design with 3 feeder space allowances (4.1, 4.9, or 5.7 cm/pig) and 2 dietary DDGS treatments (30% [D30] or 60% [D60]). Fecal and diet samples were collected and analyzed to estimate apparent total tract digestibility percentage (ATTD %). In the nursery portion of the trial, there was no feeder space treatment effect on ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.10) from weaning to d 56 postweaning or during any weigh period. In the grow-finish portion of the trial, feeder space allowance and DDGS inclusion level did not affect ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.05) from d 57 postweaning to market. Pigs fed the D30 diet had greater HCW, percent yield, and loin depth than those on the D60 diet (P feeder space allowance did not impact pig performance during the nursery or grow-finish production phases. Inclusion of DDGS at higher levels will decrease ADFI but not ADG or efficiency when isocaloric diets are fed. The inclusion level of DDGS does impact HCW and percent

  4. Prevalence of intestinal parasitism of swine in a North Central State of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Olaniyi Aiyedun

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of parasites in pigs obtained in this work is a consequence of improper husbandry measures and irregular veterinary medical intervention. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 278-281

  5. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  6. FED baseline engineering studies report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept

  7. Distribution of Escherichia coli F4 adhesion phenotypes in pigs of 15 Chinese and Western breeds and a White DurocxErhualian intercross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xueming; Huang, Xiang; Ren, Jun; Zou, Zhengzhi; Yang, Shujin; Ouyang, Jing; Zeng, Weihong; Yang, Bin; Xiao, Shijun; Huang, Lusheng

    2009-08-01

    Diarrhoea in newborn and weaned piglets is mainly caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) with fimbriae F4. To investigate the prevalence of resistance to three fimbrial strains, F4ab, F4ac and F4ad, among Chinese indigenous pigs and Western commercial pigs introduced into China, we determined the ETEC F4 adhesion phenotypes in 292 pure-bred piglets from three Western commercial breeds and 12 Chinese indigenous breeds, and a total of 1093 adult pigs in a White DurocxErhualian intercross, by an in vitro microscopic adhesion assay. All the Tibet and Lantang pigs and a majority of the Erhualian and Rongchang pigs were resistant (nonadherent) to ETEC F4 whereas all the Laiwu pigs and most of the Jiangquhai and Tongcheng pigs were susceptible (adhesive) to at least one of the F4 strains. Yushan Black pigs were uniformly resistant to F4ab, and Jinhua pigs were predominantly resistant to F4ac. Susceptible and resistant animals were observed in the other breeds, indicating that diarrhoea caused by ETEC F4 could be prevalent in these breeds. This study confirmed the existence of eight previously reported F4 adhesion patterns, and supported the assumption that the three F4 receptors are encoded by distinct loci. Expression of the weakly adherent phenotype was observed in six pure-bred piglets and 90 adult F(2)/F(3) animals, and the inheritance of this phenotype and its correlation with susceptibility to disease are still not known.

  8. Influence of sugar beet pulp on feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass quality and gut health of fattening pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laitat, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Dietary fiber is largely used in pig production but some contradictions appear in the literature regarding the effects on performance and health. Objectives. This paper aims to contribute to the clarification of the effects of a diet rich in sugar beet pulp on animal behavior, growth performance, carcass quality and gut health of fattening pigs. Method. Two successive batches of 24 fattening pigs were each divided into two groups fed ad libitum either a standard diet based on cereals (STD, 19% NSP [non-starch-polysaccharides] or a fibrous diet based on 23% sugar beet pulp (HFD, 31% NSP. Results. Pigs activity rate and feeder occupancy duration were increased by 57% and 165% for group fed HFD, respectively (P < 0.05. The fecal bacteria counts showed increases with HFD for Lactobacillus (10.21 vs 9.84 log10 of cfu·g-1 of feces dry matter, P < 0.05 and Bifidobacterium (9.49 vs 8.88, P < 0.01 but decreases for Enterobacteriaceae (4.85 vs 5.97, P < 0.001. Reductions of the average daily gain (788 vs 876 g per day, P < 0.001 and the dressing percentage (75.7 vs 78.9%, P < 0.001 were observed with HFD. Gastric lesion score was decreased with HFD (0.82 vs 1.55, P < 0.05. For pigs fed HFD, the proportion of surface area occupied by goblet cells was increased in the jejunum (10.06 vs 7.99%, P < 0.01 and the number of CD3 lymphocytes was increased in the colon (1.24 vs 0.90·mm-², P < 0.05. Conclusions. HFD contributes to strengthen the gut health of fattening pigs, but it impairs growth performance and carcass traits.

  9. Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of routine meat inspection of danish slaughter pigs using latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne; Toft, Nils; Thomsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    and heart disorders will cause a significant underestimation of the prevalence of diseases reported to the pig producers. Based on our results the true prevalence of diseases (conventional vs. organic slaughter pigs) was (in %): 42 vs. 16, 5 vs. 51, 5 vs. 12 and 9 vs. 5 for RESP, PAR, INT and HEART......Two groups of observers, regular meat inspectors and two veterinary researchers, respectively, conducted independent veterinary meat inspection of organs of slaughter pigs from organic or conventional production systems slaughtered at one abattoir in April 2005. A total of 3054 pigs (899 organic...... and 2155 conventional) were examined. The observed pathological disorders were grouped in four categories; respiratory disorders (RESP), parasitic disorders (PAR), intestinal disorders (INT) and heart disorders (HEART). Using a latent class model, the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of meat...

  10. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharide on nitrogen utilization in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Kiyonori; Min, Xiao; Nishiyama, Ai; Sakaguchi, Ei

    2013-04-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) on the nitrogen (N) utilization and digestibilities of dietary nutrients through cecotrophy in guinea pigs. Adult male guinea pigs that were housed or not housed in wooden frames to prevent cecotrophy were fed a commercial pellet diet (50 g/day) with 3% and 5% glucose or FOS for 8 days in individual metabolism cages. In the guinea pigs allowed cecotrophy, addition of FOS to the diet had no significant effects on body weight gain or apparent digestibility of N, but showed significantly lower value for the urinary N excretion and acid-detergent fiber digestibility (P guinea pigs prevented from cecotrophy, FOS had no effect on N retention, but showed tendencies toward a higher value for fecal N excretion and a lower value for urinary N excretion. These results suggest that FOS stimulates cecal microbial proliferation, thereby improving N utilization in guinea pigs. © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Effect of Natto on Meat Quality and Skatole Content in TOPIGS Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. K. Sheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis natto on meat quality and skatole in TOPIGS pigs. Sixty TOPIGS pigs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (including 5 pens per group, with 4 pigs in each pen and fed with basic diet (control group, basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto (B group, and basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto plus 0.1% B. coagulans (BB group, respectively. All pigs were sacrificed at 100 kg. Growth performance, meat quality, serum parameters and oxidation status in the three groups were assessed and compared. Most parameters regarding growth performance and meat quality were not significantly different among the three groups. However, compared with the control group, meat pH24, fat and feces skatole and the content of Escherichia coli (E. Coli, Clostridium, NH3-N were significantly reduced in the B and BB groups, while serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, the levels of liver P450, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, total antioxidant capability (T-AOC and glutathione peroxidase and Lactobacilli in feces were significantly increased in the B and BB groups. Further, the combined supplementation of B. subtilis natto and B. coagulans showed more significant effects on the parameters above compared with B. subtilis, and Clostridium, and NH3-N. Our results indicate that the supplementation of pig feed with B. subtilis natto significantly improves meat quality and flavor, while its combination with B. coagulans enhanced these effects.

  12. Energy dense, protein restricted diet increases adiposity and perturbs metabolism in young, genetically lean pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kimberly D; Scheffler, Tracy L; Kasten, Steven C; Reinholt, Brad M; van Eyk, Gregory R; Escobar, Jeffery; Scheffler, Jason M; Gerrard, David E

    2013-01-01

    Animal models of obesity and metabolic dysregulation during growth (or childhood) are lacking. Our objective was to increase adiposity and induce metabolic syndrome in young, genetically lean pigs. Pre-pubertal female pigs, age 35 d, were fed a high-energy diet (HED; n = 12), containing 15% tallow, 35% refined sugars and 9.1-12.9% crude protein, or a control corn-based diet (n = 11) with 12.2-19.2% crude protein for 16 wk. Initially, HED pigs self-regulated energy intake similar to controls, but by wk 5, consumed more (Pblood glucose increased (Pblood glucose did not return to baseline (P = 0.01), even 4 h post-challenge. During OGTT, glucose area under the curve (AUC) was higher and insulin AUC was lower in HED pigs compared to controls (P = 0.001). Chronic HED intake increased (PAUC and insulin AUC did not improve, supporting that dietary intervention was not sufficient to recover glucose tolerance or insulin production. These data suggest a HED may be used to increase adiposity and disrupt glucose homeostasis in young, growing pigs.

  13. Meat quality and cut yield of pigs slaughtered over 100kg live weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Bertol

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Meat quality and cut yield of pigs slaughtered between 100 and 150kg live weight were evaluated. Pigs (417 Agroceres PIC barrows and gilts were fed a daily allowance of 2.8kg per head from 80kg until 100.71±0.85, 118.58±0.99, 134.07±1.18 or 143.90±1.24kg live weight. Seventy-one pigs were used for the evaluation of primal and subprimal cuts. There was no interaction between sex and slaughter weight for any of the evaluated parameters. Ham, shoulder, and loin weights linearly increased (P<0.01; R2: 84.3-93.2% with increasing slaughter weight, which, however, had little effect on primal cuts meat yield. Increasing slaughter weight promoted a linear (P<0.05 and a quadratic (P<0.01 increase of red/green coordinate (a* value of the loin and ham, respectively. Shear force showed a quadratic response (P<0.05, with minimum value estimated at 122kg slaughter weight. It was concluded that, under the applied management, increasing slaughter weight increased the volume of meat, but had little effect on meat yield. The meat of pigs slaughtered at heavier weights showed more intense red color and the same intramuscular fat content as lighter pigs, while tenderness was slightly affected.

  14. The effect of dietary phytase supplementation on the N-balance of growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Halas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some studies suggest that dietary phytase enhance the growth rate of pigs fed P-adequate diets. This may be due to an increased N digestibility and/or improved protein gain. The aim was to study the effect of dietary phytase supplementation on the N-balance of growing pigs upon protein limiting condition. A total of 24 hybrid individually kept barrows (25kg BW were assigned into 4 treatments. Diet in AP0 (AP: adequate protein contained 190g/kg crude protein and no phytase supplementation, diets in RP0, RP500 and RP1000 (RP: reduced protein contained 160g/kg crude protein and 0, 500 and 1000 FTU/kg phytase supplementation, respectively. The balance trial consisted of 7 days adaptation and 5 days collection, during which the feces and urine were collected quantitatively. Additional phytase to low protein diets increased the N-retention of the pigs (P0.05. Dietary treatments did not affect the digestibility of protein, however, 500 FTU/kg phytase supplementation increased the efficiency of N-retention. Our results show that the protein content of the feed for pigs of 20-30kg can be reduced from 190 to 160 g/kg if the diet is supplemented with 500 FTU/kg phytase without weakening the N-balance of pigs.

  15. Using Pig skin to treat Burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katebe, R.

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of irradiated Pig Skin for the treatment of Burns, traumatic dermal denudations and poorly healing Decubitus ulcers. It gives a brief history of Pig skin use its characteristics

  16. Serologic Survey for Selected Viral and Bacterial Swine Pathogens in Colombian Collared Peccaries ( Pecari tajacu) and Feral Pigs ( Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Olga L; Roncancio, Nestor; Soler-Tovar, Diego; Cortés-Duque, Jimena; Contreras-Herrera, Jorge; Sabogal, Sandra; Acevedo, Luz Dary; Navas-Suárez, Pedro Enrique

    2018-06-14

    In South America, wild populations of peccaries coexist with domestic and feral pigs, with poorly understood consequences. We captured 58 collared peccaries ( Pecari tajacu) and 15 feral pigs ( Sus scrofa) in locations of Colombia where coexistence of these species is known. Blood samples were tested for antibodies against four viral agents, classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), porcine circovirus (PCV-2), and vesicular stomatitis virus (New Jersey and Indiana subtypes) and two bacterial agents, Brucella spp. and six serovars of Leptospira interrogans. The prevalence of CSFV was 5% (3/58) in collared peccaries and 7% (1/15) in feral pigs. The prevalence of PCV-2 was 7% (1/15) in collared peccaries and 67% (2/3) in feral pigs. Vesicular stomatitis prevalence was 33% (8/24) in collared peccaries and 67% (4/6) in feral pigs. Leptospira prevalence was 78% (39/50) in collared peccary and 100% (8/8) in feral pigs; bratislava, grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, and pomona were the most frequent serovars. Also, the only white-lipped peccary ( Tayassu pecari) sampled was positive for L. interrogans serovar bratislava and for vesicular stomatitis virus, New Jersey strain. No samples were positive for ADV or Brucella. The seroprevalence of antibodies against L. interrogans was similar to that observed in other studies. Icterohaemorrhagiae appears to be a common serovar among in situ and ex situ peccary populations. Positive antibodies against PVC-2 represent a novel report of exposure to this pathogen in Colombian peccaries. Our results indicate the possible transmission of various pathogens, important for pig farms, in the studied pig and peccaries.

  17. Impact of hygiene of housing conditions on performance and health of two pig genetic lines divergent for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelet, A; Gondret, F; Merlot, E; Gilbert, H; Friggens, N C; Le Floc'h, N

    2018-02-01

    Pigs selected for high performance may be more at risk of developing diseases. This study aimed to assess the health and performance of two pig lines divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) (low RFI (LRFI) v. high RFI (HRFI)) and housed in two contrasted hygiene conditions (poor v. good) using a 2×2 factorial design (n=40/group). The challenge period (Period 1), started on week zero (W0) when 12-week-old pigs were transferred to good or poor housing conditions. At week 6 (W6), half of the pigs in each group were slaughtered. During a recovery period (Period 2) from W6 to W13 to W14, the remaining pigs (n=20/group) were transferred in good hygiene conditions before being slaughtered. Blood was collected every three (Period 1) or 2 weeks (Period 2) to assess blood indicators of immune and inflammatory responses. Pulmonary lesions at slaughter and performance traits were evaluated. At W6, pneumonia prevalence was greater for pigs housed in poor than in good conditions (51% v. 8%, respectively, Phygiene conditions, lung lesion scores were lower for LRFI pigs than for HRFI pigs (P=0.03). At W3, LRFI in poor conditions had the highest number of blood granulocytes (hygiene×line, P=0.03) and at W6, HRFI pigs in poor conditions had the greatest plasma haptoglobin concentrations (hygiene×line, P=0.02). During Period 1, growth rate and growth-to-feed ratio were less affected by poor hygiene in LRFI pigs than in HRFI pigs (hygiene×line, P=0.001 and P=0.02, respectively). Low residual feed intake pigs in poor conditions ate more than the other groups (hygiene×line, P=0.002). Irrespective of the line, fasting plasma glucose concentrations were higher in poor conditions, whereas fasting free fatty acids concentrations were lower than in good conditions. At the end of Period 2, pneumonia prevalence was similar for both housing conditions (39% v. 38%, respectively). During Period 2, plasma protein concentrations were greater for pigs previously housed in poor than

  18. Epidemiological investigation and risk factors of Echinococcus granulosus in yaks (Bos grunniens), Tibetan pigs and Tibetans on Qinghai Tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Hui; Lei, Zhixin; Luo, Houqiang; Mehmood, Khalid; Shahzad, Muhammad; Lan, Yanfang; Wang, Meng; Li, Jiakui

    2017-09-01

    Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) is a diverse zoonotic parasite and causes Cystic echinococcosis (CE) disease in humans and livestock. However, scare information is available about the epidemic situation of E. granulosus infection in yaks, Tibetan pigs and native Tibetans on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau. Therefore, a study was carried out to find prevalence and risk factors of E. granulosus in yaks, Tibetan pigs and Tibetans. Serum samples from yaks (1371), Tibetan pigs (454) and Tibetans (600) were collected and assessed by commercial ELISA kits. Multivariable logistic regression model was performed to find the variables possibly associated with exposure of E. granulosus infection in yaks, Tibetan pigs and Tibetan. The overall prevalence of E. granulosus in yaks was 6.49%. In different regions, the prevalence were ranged from 3.43% to 11.79%. In male and female yaks, the prevalence was 5.67% and 7.04%, respectively. In different ages, the prevalence were ranged from 2.20% to 10.9%. While, in different years, the prevalence was 3.61% in 2014, 9.66% in 2015, and 6.33% in 2016. According to the conditional stepwise logistic regression, three factors (region, age and year) were demonstrated to be risk factors influencing the prevalence of E. granulosus in yaks significantly (Pgranulosus with the distribution of 5.47, 5.70 and 13.27% prevalence in Gongbo'gvamda, Mainling, and Nyingchi region, respectively. In male and female Tibetan pigs, the prevalence was 7.12% and 7.49% respectively, while region was considered as a significant (Pgranulosus infection in Tibetan pigs. The total prevalence of E. granulosus infection in Tibetans was 1.83%, while in male and female Tibetans, the prevalence was 1.41% and 2.21%, respectively. In different ages, the prevalence were ranged from 0 to 3.21%. In Tibetans contacting animals or not was 2.41% and 0.54% respectively, and breeding dogs or not was 3.0% and 1.09%, respectively. Risk factors (gender age, contact animal and breed

  19. Impact of a High-Fat or High-Fiber Diet on Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolic Markers in a Pig Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja N. Heinritz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To further elaborate interactions between nutrition, gut microbiota and host health, an animal model to simulate changes in microbial composition and activity due to dietary changes similar to those in humans is needed. Therefore, the impact of two different diets on cecal and colonic microbial gene copies and metabolic activity, organ development and biochemical parameters in blood serum was investigated using a pig model. Four pigs were either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF, or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF diet for seven weeks, with both diets being isocaloric. A hypotrophic effect of the HF diet on digestive organs could be observed compared to the LF diet (p < 0.05. Higher gene copy numbers of Bacteroides (p < 0.05 and Enterobacteriaceae (p < 0.001 were present in intestinal contents of HF pigs, bifidobacteria were more abundant in LF pigs (p < 0.05. Concentrations of acetate and butyrate were higher in LF pigs (p < 0.05. Glucose was higher in HF pigs, while glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT showed higher concentrations upon feeding the LF diet (p < 0.001. However, C-reactive protein (CRP decreased with time in LF pigs (p < 0.05. In part, these findings correspond to those in humans, and are in support of the concept of using the pig as human model.

  20. Chronological study of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection, seroconversion and associated lung lesions in vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibila, M; Nofrarías, M; López-Soria, S; Segalés, J; Valero, O; Espinal, A; Calsamiglia, M

    2007-05-16

    A field trial was conducted to study Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) infection dynamics by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and serology in pigs of a farm affected by enzootic pneumonia (EP). Moreover, correlation of Mh detection at different respiratory tract sites with presence of EP gross and microscopic lung lesions was assessed. These parameters were studied and compared between vaccinated (two doses at 1 and 3 weeks of age versus one dose at 6 weeks of age) and non-vaccinated pigs. Animals were monitored from birth to slaughter by nPCR from nasal swabs and by serology. From 3 to 22 weeks of age, an average of three pigs per treatment and per batch were necropsied (n = 302). The remaining pigs were sent to the slaughter (n = 103). Nasal, bronchial and tonsillar swabs were taken from the necropsied/slaughtered pigs; gross and microscopic EP-suggestive lung lesions were also assessed. Single and double vaccination resulted in earlier seroconversion and higher percentage of Mh seropositive pigs compared to control group. At slaughter, double vaccinated pigs showed lower percentage of EP-compatible gross lung lesions and lower Mh prevalence at upper respiratory tract sites (nasal cavity and tonsil) than control pigs.

  1. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  2. Odors from evaporation of acidified pig urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, H.C.; Hobbs, P.J.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the Dutch Hercules project feces and urine from pigs are collected separately underneath the slatted floor in a pig house and treated in two processes. Feces are composted and urine is concentrated by water evaporation in a packed bed. Exhaust air from the pig house is used for the evaporation in

  3. Reactions of pigs to a hot environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    When compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are relatively sensitive to high environmental temperatures because the pig cannot sweat and is relatively poor at panting. Little information is available about the ambient temperatures above which group-housed pigs start to adapt their

  4. The use of pigs in neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Nanna Marie; Moustgaard, Anette; Jelsing, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    The use of pigs in neuroscience research has increased in the past decade, which has seen broader recognition of the potential of pigs as an animal for experimental modeling of human brain disorders. The volume of available background data concerning pig brain anatomy and neurochemistry has...

  5. Heterogeneity among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Italian pig finishing holdings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battisti, A.; Franco, A.; Merialdi, G.

    2010-01-01

    A survey for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in finishing pig holdings was carried out in Italy in 2008. MRSA isolates were characterised by spa-. SCCmec- and antimicrobial susceptibility typing. A prevalence of 38% (45/118, 95% CI 29.4-46.9%) positive holdings was observed...

  6. Dose-response relationship between antimicrobial drugs and livestock-associated MRSA in pig farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorado-García, Alejandro; Dohmen, Wietske; Bos, M.E.H.; Verstappen, K.M.; Houben, Manon; Wagenaar, J.A.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The farming community can be a vehicle for introduction of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in hospitals. During 2011–2013, an 18-month longitudinal study aimed at reducing the prevalence of LA-MRSA was conducted on 36 pig farms in the Netherlands.

  7. Effects of narasin (Skycis) on live performance and carcass traits of finishing pigs sold in a three-phase marketing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkfeld, E K; Carr, S N; Rincker, P J; Gruber, S L; Allee, G L; Dilger, A C; Boler, D D

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding narasin (Skycis; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs sold in a 3-phase marketing system. Pigs ( = 1,232) were housed in 56 single-sex pens (22 pigs/pen) divided into 2 even blocks based on initiation of treatment. Each treatment × sex combination was replicated 14 times. Pigs were fed either 0 mg/kg narasin (control) or 15 mg/kg narasin for up to 85 d of finishing (initiated at an average of 52.95 kg BW). In each pen, 18% (4 pigs per pen) of pigs were sold in the first marketing group (Day 64 of dietary treatment), 50% (11 of the original 22) were sold in the second marketing group (Day 78), and 32% (the remaining 7 pigs) were sold in the third marketing group (Day 85). Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with pen as the experimental unit. The model included the fixed effects of diet, sex, and their interaction. Block and replicate nested within block were random variables. Carcass data from pigs in marketing group 3 of block 2 was not collected due to inclement weather. Narasin had no effect on growth performance traits ( ≥ 0.15) in phases 1 (Days 1-28) or 2 (Days 29-56), regardless of sex. Barrows fed narasin had a 2.0% greater overall (Day 0-85) ADG than barrows fed the control diet ( carcass composition in marketing groups 1 and 2. Narasin-fed barrows in marketing group 3 had 0.9 percentage units lower ( carcass lean compared with barrows fed control diets (51.0 vs. 52.0%); no difference existed in gilts ( = 0.21). This is likely due to narasin-fed barrows of marketing group 3 tending ( = 0.06) to have 7.7% greater fat depth than control barrows of marketing group 3. Pooled effects (across all 3 marketing groups) of feeding narasin tended ( = 0.08) to reduce loin depth by 1.1% (60.00 vs. 60.66 mm), but there were no effects on fat depth ( = 0.24) or estimated carcass lean ( = 0.11). Overall, narasin can be used during

  8. Early Postnatal Diets Affect the Bioregional Small Intestine Microbiome and Ileal Metabolome in Neonatal Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Brian D; Mercer, Kelly E; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Bowlin, Anne K; Saraf, Manish K; Pack, Lindsay; Chintapalli, Sree V; Shankar, Kartik; Adams, Sean H; Badger, Thomas M; Yeruva, Laxmi

    2017-08-01

    Background: Breastfeeding is known to be protective against gastrointestinal disorders and may modify gut development. Although the gut microbiome has been implicated, little is known about how early diet affects the small intestine microbiome. Objective: We hypothesized that disparate early diets would promote unique microbial profiles in the small intestines of neonatal pigs. Methods: Male and female 2-d-old White Dutch Landrace pigs were either sow fed or provided dairy (Similac Advance powder; Ross Products Abbott Laboratories) or soy (Enfamil Prosobee Lipil powder; Mead Johnson Nutritionals) infant formulas until day 21. Bacterial ecology was assessed in the contents of the small intestine through the use of 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. α-Diversity, β-diversity, and differential abundances of operational taxonomic units were assessed by ANOVA, permutational ANOVA, and negative binomial regression, respectively. Ileum tissue metabolomics were measured by LC-mass spectrometry and assessed by weighted correlation network analysis. Results: Greater α-diversity was observed in the duodena of sow-fed compared with formula-fed neonatal pigs ( P 60% relative abundance in all of the groups. In the duodenum, 77 genera were altered by diet, followed by 48 in the jejunum and 19 in the ileum. Metabolomics analyses revealed associations between ileum tissue metabolites (e.g., acylcarnitines, 3-aminoisobutyric acid) and diet-responsive microbial genera. Conclusions: These results indicate that the neonatal diet has regional effects on the small intestine microbiome in pigs, with the most pronounced effects occurring in the duodena. Regional effects may be important factors when considering gut tissue metabolism and development in the postnatal period. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Nutritional value of yellow-seeded winter rapeseed cakes for growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Święch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study was to compare the composition and nutritional value of a winter brown- (BRC and three yellow-seeded (YRC cold-pressed rapeseed cakes as the components of pigs’ diets, and to assess their effects on colonic bacterial fermentation and the relative weight of organs. In experiment 1, the standardised ileal digestibility (SID of protein and amino acids (AA of cakes was determined in 12 male cannulated pigs. Each diet was fed to six pigs during three seven-day periods. Ileal digesta was collected during the last three days of the period. In experiment 2, five groups each containing six female pigs with initial body weights (BW of 20 kg were fed on diets containing BRC, YRC, or soyabean oil meal (SBM as the main protein source. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nutrients and growth performance were measured untill 60 kg BW was reached, and short chain fatty acids (SCFA concentrations in the colon, as well as the weight of the liver, kidney, heart, and thyroid, were recorded. The main differences between BRC and YRC were found in higher content of fat and protein, lower amounts of fibre and glucosinolates (Gls, and higher ATTD of fibre in YRC. Protein and AA SID, ATTD of nutrients, total SCFA colonic concentration, and growth performance did not significantly differ. The chemical composition of the three YRC was not uniform, the greatest differences were found among the amounts of Gls. The relative weights of the thyroid and heart were greater in pigs fed BRC than in YRC and SBM diets. Thyroid weight was positively correlated with dietary progoitrin, alkenyl Gls, and total Gls, whereas heart weight was positively correlated with progoitrin and alkenyl Gls. It was concluded that winter yellow-seeded rapeseed is a better raw material for cold-pressing than brown-seeded due to having lower Gls and fibre content. 

  10. Transmission pattern of parainfluenza 3 virus in guinea pig breeding herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Gunilla A M; Martin, Krister; Morein, Bror

    2002-07-01

    In searching for the cause of experimental variations in respiratory research data, serology revealed the prevalence of antibodies against parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV 3) in guinea pigs. The aim of the present study was to explore the transmission rate, course, and kinetics of enzootic PIV 3 infection in guinea pig breeding units. In the first part of the study, blood samples to be analyzed for PIV 3 antibodies were collected from guinea pigs of a PIV 3-positive breeding colony at different times after birth. In the same breeding unit, 6 of 12 2-week-old guinea pigs were relocated and separately housed. The PIV 3 serum antibody titers of the two groups were compared at various times from birth to 13 weeks after birth. In the second part of the study, the spread of infectious virus and virus persistence were explored by housing seronegative sentinel animals together with 2- to 3-week-old guinea pigs from three different PIV 3-positive breeding units. The guinea pigs remaining in the breeding colony as well as those removed and housed separately showed declining serum antibody titers for about 1 month after birth, thereafter the titers were stable until about 8 weeks after birth. Five weeks later, the mean antibody titer of the guinea pigs remaining in the breeding colony had increased to a markedly higher level than that of the relocated, separately housed guinea pigs. Seroconversion was demonstrated in 7 of the 14 sentinels housed with the 2- to 3-week-old guinea pigs from PIV 3-positive breeding units. Sentinels housed together with PIV 3-positive guinea pigs 24 weeks after the start of the experiment did not seroconvert. We conclude that young guinea pigs born to PIV 3-positive mothers were protected by maternal immunity against infection with PIV 3 during their first 14 days of life. The guinea pig offspring became infected during the period from about 2 weeks until 8 weeks after birth, as demonstrated by seroconversion of sentinel animals and an increasing

  11. Prevalence of cysticercosis in Estonian pigs and cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorbek-Kilin, Elisabeth; Åhlberg, Tuuli; Tummeleht, Lea

    2018-01-01

    Taenia solium has been ranked as the most important foodborne parasite and Taenia saginata as the most commonly found human Taenia tapeworm worldwide. The last official reports of taeniosis from Estonia were in 2003 for T. solium and 2012 for T. saginata. By law, all animal cases of cysticercosis...

  12. Sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristina Grønbech; Vorslund-Kiær, Mia; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, the World Health Organisation rated toxoplasmosis as one of the most important food borne zoonotic diseases in the world. In addition, recent studies have associated Toxoplasma gondii sero-positivity with severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. Intake of raw or insufficiently cooked...

  13. Whipworms in humans and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawash, Mohamed Bayoumi Fahmy; Betson, Martha; Al-Jubury, Azmi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trichuris suis and T. trichiura are two different whipworm species that infect pigs and humans, respectively. T. suis is found in pigs worldwide while T. trichiura is responsible for nearly 460 million infections in people, mainly in areas of poor sanitation in tropical and subtropical...... on different continents, namely Denmark, USA, Uganda, Ecuador, China and St. Kitts (Caribbean). Additional sequences available from GenBank were incorporated into the analyses. RESULTS: We found no differentiation between human-derived Trichuris in Uganda and the majority of the Trichuris samples from non...

  14. [Spontaneous neoplasms in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khar'kovskaia, N A; Khrustalev, S A; Vasil'eva, N N

    1977-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of the data of foreign literature and the results of their personal studies of spontaneous neoplasms in 40 guinea pigs of national breeding observed during observed during a 5-year period. In 4 of them malignant tumors were diagnosed-lympholeucosis (2 cases), dermoid ovarian cysts and also cancer and adenoma of the adrenal cortex (in one animal). The neoplasms described developed in guinea pigs, aged over 4 years, and they are referred to as mostly common tumors in this species of animals.

  15. Gut health in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pluske, J. R.; Hansen, Christian Fink; Payne, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disturbances can cause large economic losses in the pig industry. Diseases and conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that can cause economic loss have generally been controlled by the use of dietary (and or in the water) antimicrobial compounds, such as antibiotic feed......' and caused enormous interest in alternative means to control diseases and conditions of the GIT. There are now available a wide array of products and strategies available to the pig industry that influence 'gut health'. The products in the market place are characterised predominately not only...

  16. Increased kidney growth in formula-fed versus breast-fed healthy infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Damgaard, Ida N; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2004-01-01

    versus breast feeding on kidney growth in a cohort of 631 healthy children examined at birth, and at 3 and 18 months of age. Kidney size was determined by ultrasonography and related to gender, age, body size, and feeding category (fully breast fed, partially breast fed, or fully formula fed at 3 months...

  17. Status of Taenia solium cysticercosis and predisposing factors in developing countries involved in pig farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Kungu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a disease of pigs and humans populations considered endemic in many developing countries of Latin America, Africa, and South East Asia having serious impact on public health and agriculture. We conducted an in-depth comparative analysis of literature on the disease situation and predisposing factors in selected countries known to be at the interface of poverty-emerging livestock systems-zoonoses and with a growing small holder pig industry. Transmission, methods of diagnosis and employed control strategies of T. solium infection in pig and human populations in these countries are also discussed. Limited knowledge on porcine cysticercosis (PC by various stakeholders expected to be key players in its control has undermined efforts for eliminating this potentially eradicable condition. Poor pig production practices, poor hygiene, and sanitation habits have also been important in the maintenance of the T. solium life-cycle. The major gaps identified in this review include scanty current information on PC prevalence in pigs with hardly any reports on the condition in humans in most developing countries. Factors affecting pattern of the infection and how they interact at the different levels of the pig value chain have not been exhaustively studied. Information on socioeconomic and public health impact is inadequate and not current.

  18. The effect of miscellaneous oral dosage forms on the environmental pollution of sulfonamides in pig holdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Jessica; Zessel, Katrin; Schulz, Jochen; Finke, Jan Henrik; Müller-Goymann, Christel Charlotte; Kietzmann, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Due to antibiotic treatment of humans and animals, the prevalence of bacterial resistances increases worldwide. Especially in livestock farming, large quantities of faeces contaminated with antibiotics pose a risk of the carryover of the active ingredient to the environment. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was the evaluation of the benefit of different oral dosage forms (powder, pellets, granula) in pigs concerning the environmental pollution of sulfadiazine. Two subtherapeutic dosages were evaluated in powder mixtures to gain information about their potential to pollute the pig barn. Furthermore, a new group of pigs was kept in the stable after powder feeding of another pig group to determine the possible absorption of environmentally distributed antibiotics. Pigs were orally treated with three dosage forms. Simultaneously, sedimentation and airborne dust were collected and plasma and urine levels were determined. All formulations result in comparable plasma and urine levels, but massive differences in environmental pollution (powder > pellets, granula). Pigs housing in a contaminated barn exhibit traces of sulfadiazine in plasma and urine. Using pharmaceutical formulations like pellets or granula, the environmental pollution of sulfonamides can significantly be diminished due to massive dust reduction during feeding.

  19. Risk Profile of Hepatitis E Virus from Pigs or Pork in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, B; Fazil, A; Rajić, A; Houde, A; McEwen, S A

    2017-12-01

    The role and importance of pigs and pork as sources of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been debated in Canada and abroad for over 20 years. To further investigate this question, we compiled data to populate a risk profile for HEV in pigs or pork in Canada. We organized the risk profile (RP) using the headings prescribed for a foodborne microbial risk assessment and used research synthesis methods and inputs wherever possible in populating the fields of this RP. A scoping review of potential public health risks of HEV, and two Canadian field surveys sampling finisher pigs, and retail pork chops and pork livers, provided inputs to inform this RP. We calculated summary estimates of prevalence using the Comprehensive Meta-analysis 3 software, employing the method of moments. Overall, we found the incidence of sporadic locally acquired hepatitis E in Canada, compiled from peer-reviewed literature or from diagnosis at the National Microbiology Laboratory to be low relative to other non-endemic countries. In contrast, we found the prevalence of detection of HEV RNA in pigs and retail pork livers, to be comparable to that reported in the USA and Europe. We drafted risk categories (high/medium/low) for acquiring clinical hepatitis E from exposure to pigs or pork in Canada and hypothesize that the proportion of the Canadian population at high risk from either exposure is relatively small. © 2016 Crown copyright.

  20. Prevalence and diversity of Arcobacter spp. isolated from the internal organs of spontaneous porcine abortions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and possible significance of campylobacteria in pig abortions in Denmark, Surface-cauterised liver and kidney samples from 55 aborted pig fetuses submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory were taken and a sensitive isolation procedure used...