WorldWideScience

Sample records for pigments

  1. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  2. Monascus pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanli; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2012-12-01

    Monascus pigments (MPs) as natural food colorants have been widely utilized in food industries in the world, especially in China and Japan. Moreover, MPs possess a range of biological activities, such as anti-mutagenic and anticancer properties, antimicrobial activities, potential anti-obesity activities, and so on. So, in the past two decades, more and more attention has been paid to MPs. Up to now, more than 50 MPs have been identified and studied. However, there have been some reviews about red fermented rice and the secondary metabolites produced by Monascus, but no monograph or review of MPs has been published. This review covers the categories and structures, biosynthetic pathway, production, properties, detection methods, functions, and molecular biology of MPs.

  3. Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (PVNS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OverviewWhat is pigmented villonodular synovitis?Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a joint problem that usually affects the ... ankle, elbow, hand or foot.When you have PVNS, the lining of a joint becomes swollen and ...

  4. Oral pigmentation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, C; Ramakrishnan, K; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations.

  5. Neovascularisation by tattoo pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razack E

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Split skin grafting for the removal of a tattoo resulted in the appearance of pigmented papules in the periphery of the grafted skin as well as distal to it on the normal skin. Histologically they showed large vascular laminae containing red blood corpuscles and pigment deposits, a hitherto not documented complication of tattoo pigment.

  6. Overview of plant pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids and betalains are four major classes of biological pigments produced in plants. Chlorophylls are the primary pigments responsible for plant green and photosynthesis. The other three are accessary pigments and secondary metabolites that yield non-green colors and...

  7. Pigments in Thermophilic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Somasundaram, T.; Rao, Sanjay SR; Maheshwari,R.

    1986-01-01

    UV and visible absorption spectra of thermophilic fungi were obtained by photoacoustic spectroscopy. Based on these data as well as on the chem. properties and IR spectra, it is suggested that the pigments may be hydroxylated polycyclic quinones.

  8. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Kuczynska; Malgorzata Jemiola-Rzeminska; Kazimierz Strzalka

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvestin...

  9. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kuczynska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries.

  10. Laugier-hunziker pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Laugier-Hunziker pigmentation (LHP is an acquired disorder of hypermelanosis characterized by mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation. LHP may resemble various disorders characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentation. A 58-year-old lady presented with progressively increasing number of variable sized, hyperpigmented macules over the lips, fingers, toes and nails. There was no family history of similar illness. Systemic examination and all relevant investigations were within normal limits. Histopathology of a skin lesion had features consistent with LHP. The diagnosis of LHP must be made only after relevant investigations to rule out any associated systemic involvement. This case further highlights that LHP is not restricted to European countries.

  11. True bursal pigmented villonodular synovitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry [Department of Radiology, New York Methodist Hospital, Affiliated with New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Kenan, Samuel [Department of Orthopedics, New York University Medical Center, NY (United States); Steiner, German C. [Department of Pathology, Hospital for Joint Diseases/Orthopedic Institute, New York, NY (United States); Abdul-Quader, Mohammed [Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2002-06-01

    We describe two cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis affecting true bursae. This study was also designed to discuss the term ''pigmented villonodular bursitis'', not confined to true synovial bursae, sometimes creating misunderstanding. (orig.)

  12. Raman af hvide pigmenter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeler, Nini Elisabeth Abildgaard; Nielsen, Ole Faurskov; Sauer, Stephan P. A.;

    2013-01-01

    Et samspil mellem kunst og kemi. I et samarbejde mellem Statens Museum for Kunst og Kemisk Institut på KU er Ramanspek-troskopi brugt til at definere sammensætningen af blandinger af blyhvidt og calcit i maleriers hvide pigmenter....

  13. Pigmented villonodular synovitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Nakshabandi, N.A.; Ryan, A.G.; Choudur, H.; Torreggiani, W.; Nicoloau, S.; Munk, P.L. E-mail: plmunk@interchange.ubc.ca; Al-Ismail, K

    2004-05-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare benign proliferative growth of the synovium of obscure aetiology with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and imaging findings. The purpose of this review is to acquaint the reader with the spectrum of imaging features of PVNS using a variety of imaging techniques.

  14. Using of cyanobacteria pigments

    OpenAIRE

    Кардаш, О. В.; Національний авіаційний університет; Курейшевич, А. В.; Інститут гідробіології НАН України; Васильченко, О. А.; Національний авіаційний університет

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthetic apparatus of all organisms contains light absorbing pigments. Cyanobacteria pigments may be divided into three groups – chlorophylls, carotenoids and phycobiliproteins. Pigments may be used in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Cyanobacteria pigments features and usage possibilities are observed. Фотосинтезирующий аппарат всех организмов состоит из поглощающих свет пигментов. Пигменты цианобактерий можно разделить на три группы – хлорофиллы, каротиноиды и фикобилипротеины...

  15. Raman af hvide pigmenter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeler, Nini Elisabeth Abildgaard; Nielsen, Ole Faurskov; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Et samspil mellem kunst og kemi. I et samarbejde mellem Statens Museum for Kunst og Kemisk Institut på KU er Ramanspek-troskopi brugt til at definere sammensætningen af blandinger af blyhvidt og calcit i maleriers hvide pigmenter....

  16. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    Microalgal pigments are regarded as natural alternatives for food colorants. To facilitate optimization of microalgae-based pigment production, this thesis aimed to obtain key insights in the pigment metabolism of phototrophic microalgae, with the main  focus

  17. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    Microalgal pigments are regarded as natural alternatives for food colorants. To facilitate optimization of microalgae-based pigment production, this thesis aimed to obtain key insights in the pigment metabolism of phototrophic microalgae, with the main  focus

  18. Determination of pigments in vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoefs, Benoît

    2004-10-29

    Plant pigments are responsible for the shining color of plant tissues. They are also found in animal tissues and, eventually in transformed food products as additives. These pigments have an important impact on the commercial value of products, because the colors establish the first contact with the consumer. In addition plant pigments may have an influence on the health of the consumers. Pigments are labile: they can be easily altered, and even destroyed. Analytical processes have been developed to determine pigment composition. The aim of this paper is to provide a brief overview of these methods.

  19. Pigmentos maculares Macular pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Canovas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A luteína e a zeaxantina são pigmentos amarelos que se localizam na mácula. Devido à sua localização, diminuem e filtram a quantidade de luz principalmente azul que chega aos fotorreceptores, atuam como antioxidantes e podem melhorar a qualidade visual. Esta é uma revisão do seu mecanismo de incorporação, ação, possíveis aplicações e conhecimento científico a respeito.Lutein and Zeaxanthin are yellow pigments located at the macula. Because of your location macular pigments decrease and filter the amount of blue light that reach photoreceptors, protect the outer retina from oxidative stress and may improve the vision quality. This is a review regarding incorporation mechanism, function and knowledge update.

  20. Pigment dispersion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Sandhya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report of the rare occurrence of pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS with posterior subcapsular cataract in both eyes in a young male patient. The patient presented with complaints of progressive decrease in vision of one year duration. The patient also had high myopia with mild iridodonesis, phacodonesis and anterior insertion of zonules. Classical signs of PDS like Krukenberg's spindle on the posterior corneal surface were evident on slit lamp examination; transillumination defects in the iris could not be elicited by retroillumination as the iris was heavily pigmented. Gonioscopy revealed heavy and uniform pigmentation of trabecular meshwork. Evidence of a characteristic iris configuration on optical coherence tomography (OCT, namely, posterior bowing of iris in the mid periphery suggested the diagnosis of PDS. This case highlights the importance of OCT in identifying the iris configuration characteristically seen in PDS even in the absence of transillumination defects in the iris and reiterates the need to look for subtle signs like phacodonesis which are important when surgical intervention is planned.

  1. Nonphotosynthetic Pigments as Potential Biosignatures

    CERN Document Server

    Schwieterman, Edward W; Meadows, Victoria S

    2015-01-01

    Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstr...

  2. Natural pigments and sacred art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelekian, Lena, ,, Lady

    2010-05-01

    Since the dawn of mankind, cavemen has expressed himself through art. The earliest known cave paintings date to some 32,000 years ago and used 4 colours derived from the earth. These pigments were iron oxides and known as ochres, blacks and whites. All pigments known by the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans and Renaissance man were natural and it was not until the 18th century that synthetic pigments were made and widely used. Until that time all art, be it sacred or secular used only natural pigments, of which the preparation of many have been lost or rarely used because of their tedious preparation. As a geologist, a mineralogist and an artist specializing in iconography, I have been able to rediscover 89 natural pigments extracted from minerals. I use these pigments to paint my icons in the traditional Byzantine manner and also to restore old icons, bringing back their glamour and conserving them for years to come. The use of the natural pigments in its proper way also helps to preserve the traditional skills of the iconographer. In the ancient past, pigments were extremely precious. Many took an exceedingly long journey to reach the artists, and came from remote countries. Research into these pigments is the work of history, geography and anthropology. It is an interesting journey in itself to discover that the blue aquamarines came from Afghanistan, the reds from Spain, the greens Africa, and so on. In this contribution I will be describing the origins, preparation and use of some natural pigments, together with their history and provenance. Additionally, I will show how the natural pigments are used in the creation of an icon. Being a geologist iconographer, for me, is a sacrement that transforms that which is earthly, material and natural into a thing of beauty that is sacred. As bread and wine in the Eucharist, water during baptism and oil in Holy Union transmit sanctification to the beholder, natural pigments do the same when one considers an icon. The

  3. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725 Food... regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in food-contact... not to exceed 0.45 percent by weight of the pigment. The pigmented articles may contact all...

  4. Comparison of antioxidation systems of retinal pigment epithelium of pigmented and albino animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakina, N.L.; Dontsov, A.E.; Ostrovskiy, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of the lipid peroxidation inhibition process by tissue homogenates of retinal pigment epithelium of pigmented rabbits is higher than that of albino rabbits. The superoxide dismutase and glutathione perioxidase activity is nearly the same in both tissues of the pigment epithelium, the ..cap alpha..-tocopherol content is higher in retinal pigment epithelium tissue of albino animals, and the oxidizability of the lipid fraction of pigment epithelium tissue is higher in pigmented animals than in albinos. It is concluded that the higher resistance of the pigment epithelium of pigmented animals to the effects of prooxidant systems is due to the presence of melanoprotein granules in the pigment epithelium.

  5. A pigmented calcifying odontogenic cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soames, J V

    1982-04-01

    A case of the pigmented variant of the calcifying odontogenic cyst occurring in a 15-year-old West Indian girl is reported. Melanin pigment was widely distributed and appeared in greatest amount in cells exhibiting the appearance of stellate reticulum. Ultrastructural examination demonstrated large numbers of melanosomes in these cells but relatively few in epithelial ghost cells. The latter contained thick bundles of tonofilaments. Melanocytes were identified and two forms were distinguished, depending on their content of premelanosomes and fully melanized melanosomes.

  6. Analysis of Indian pigment gallstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautray, T.R. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)]. E-mail: tapash77@hotmail.com; Vijayan, V. [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751 005, Orissa (India); Panigrahi, S. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)

    2007-02-15

    Particle induced X-ray emission and particle induced {gamma}-ray emission spectroscopic techniques have been carried out to analyse the elemental concentrations of human pigment gallstone samples from eastern region (Orissa) and southern region (Chennai) of India. It was observed that 18 minor/trace elements namely Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb were present in the pigment gallstone samples of both the regions. Our study reveals that average concentration of all elements except Ni in south Indian pigment gallstone samples is higher than that of corresponding values in east Indian pigment gallstone samples whereas elements like Al, P, S, Cl and V did not show much variation between these two regions. Fourier transform infra-red analysis was carried out to identify the functional groups and the classification of the pigment type gallstones of both the regions. The thermal behaviour of pigment gallstones was carried out by thermogravimetry-derivative thermogravimetry analysis.

  7. Pigments, patterns, and fish behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Anna C; Weadick, Cameron J; Shim, Janet; Rodd, F Helen

    2008-12-01

    Color patterns in fish are often multicomponent signals, composed of pigment-based and structural color patches that can be used to communicate within species, in both inter- and intrasexual interactions, and between species. In this review, we discuss some of the roles played by pigment-based elements of color pattern. We begin by discussing general forms of coloration, classifying them by appearance (e.g., cryptic vs. conspicuous) and apparent function (e.g., conspicuous coloration and mating displays, stripes and cooperation, and bars and aggression). We then briefly discuss the roles pigments play in the perception of these color patterns via their presence in the eye. In the last section, we look at the relative importance of carotenoid versus melanic coloration in situations where honest signals to potential rivals and potential mates might be required. In this survey, we have highlighted some recent research, especially studies that consider both the physiological and behavioral processes underlying the evolution and expression of pigment-based color patterns in fish. The nature of pigmented color patterns depends not just on the dynamics of pattern development and physiological regulation, but also on the behavioral roles played by these patterns, both now and in the past. As such, advances in particular fields of study on pigment patterns (physiology, developmental biology, behavioral ecology, evolutionary biology, etc.) will increasingly depend on insights from other fields.

  8. Accuracy of pulse oximetry in pigmented patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reflectance was measured at nine wavelengths. Results. The degree of pigmentation as measured by ... adversely affected by skin pigmentation, and it remains a ... the inner surface of the upper arm and the volar aspect of ..... Ph.D. mesis.

  9. Clofazimine-induced Hair Pigmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Mariam; Samson, Joan Felicita; Simi, Puthenveedu Salahudeen

    2012-01-01

    A 45-year-old man was treated with WHO multibacillary multidrug therapy for borderline leprosy and high dose daily Clofazimine for lepra reaction. Along with the expected side effect of skin pigmentation, the patient also noticed darkening of previously grey hair. This colour persisted eight months after completing multibacillary multidrug therapy. PMID:23180930

  10. Clofazimine-induced Hair Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Mariam; Samson, Joan Felicita; Simi, Puthenveedu Salahudeen

    2012-07-01

    A 45-year-old man was treated with WHO multibacillary multidrug therapy for borderline leprosy and high dose daily Clofazimine for lepra reaction. Along with the expected side effect of skin pigmentation, the patient also noticed darkening of previously grey hair. This colour persisted eight months after completing multibacillary multidrug therapy.

  11. Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie T Manipadam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD is a rare cause of ACTH-independent Cushing′s syndrome and has characteristic gross and microscopic pathologic findings. We report a case of PPNAD in a 15-year-old boy, which was not associated with Carney′s complex. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the treatment of choice.

  12. Pigmentation associated histopathological variations in sympathetic ophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marak, G E; Ikui, H

    1980-01-01

    The severity of inflammation in sympathetic ophthalmia is related to the degree of pigmentation, and the granulomatous response seems to be related to pigmentation. Eosinophilia is also associated with pigmentation, but this association appears to be fortuitous and is a result of the association of eosinophilia with severity of the inflammation. PMID:7387955

  13. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive... mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications. Paracoccus pigment shall conform to the...

  14. A case of pigmented Bowen's disease*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivan, Márcia Maria; Hirata, Sérgio Henrique; do Nascimento, Liliane Santos; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva

    2017-01-01

    Pigmented Bowen's disease is a rare subtype of Bowen's disease. Clinically it presents as a slow-growing, well-defined, hyperpigmented plaque, and should be included as a differential diagnosis of other pigmented lesions. The authors describe a challenging case of pigmented Bowen's disease with non-diagnostic dermscopy findings. PMID:28225972

  15. Hybrid pigment organelles in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliwa, M; Euteneuer, U

    1979-02-28

    Observations of a number of vertebrate chromatophores have revealed the presence of more than one type of pigment organelles, suggesting that the different types are all derived from an equipotential organelle able to differentiate into any of the major pigment-containing organelles (Bagnara, 1972). Observations are presented concerning the occurrence of hybrid pigment inclusions, i.e., all kinds of intergrades between melanosomes, pterinosomes, and reflecting platelets in pigment cells of the daddy-long-legs. It therefore seems possible that pigment organelles in some invertebrates may also be derived from a common pluripotential primordial organelle.

  16. Availability and Utilization of Pigments from Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Hasina; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Khatoon, Helena; Shariff, Mohamed

    2016-10-02

    Microalgae are the major photosynthesizers on earth and produce important pigments that include chlorophyll a, b and c, β-carotene, astaxanthin, xanthophylls, and phycobiliproteins. Presently, synthetic colorants are used in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. However, due to problems associated with the harmful effects of synthetic colorants, exploitation of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors becomes an attractive option. There are various factors such as nutrient availability, salinity, pH, temperature, light wavelength, and light intensity that affect pigment production in microalgae. This paper reviews the availability and characteristics of microalgal pigments, factors affecting pigment production, and the application of pigments produced from microalgae. The potential of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors is enormous as an alternative to synthetic coloring agents, which has limited applications due to regulatory practice for health reasons.

  17. Skin pigmentation kinetics after UVB exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbak, M.H.; Philipsen, P.A.; Wiegell, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    There have been few previous studies of the kinetics of pigmentation following ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure, and these have included only fair-skinned persons. The current study investigated pigmentation increase to steady state and fading in 12 Scandinavians and 12 Indians/Pakistanis. Over...... a period of 3 weeks the subjects were UV-irradiated 6 times on the right side of the back and 12 times on the left side using a Solar Simulator and narrowband UVB with equal sub-Minimal Melanogenesis Doses (individually predetermined). Pigmentation was measured from skin remittance at 555 urn and 660 nm...... (allowing correction for erythema). The absolute pigmentation increase was independent of pre-exposure pigmentation, therefore the percentage pigmentation increase was higher in fair-skinned volunteers. The UV dose to minimal pigmentation was higher in darker-skinned persons for single and multiple UV...

  18. Holographic films from carotenoid pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Lecona-Sánchez, J. F.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    Carotenoids pigments presents in pineapple can be more than just natural dyes, which is one of the applications that now at day gives the chemical industry. In this research shown that can be used in implementing of holographic recording Films. Therefore we describe the technique how to obtain this kind of pigments trough spay drying of natural pineapple juice, which are then dissolved with water in a proportion of 0.1g to 1mL. The obtained sample is poured into glass substrates using the gravity method, after a drying of 24 hours in laboratory normal conditions the films are ready. The films are characterized by recording transmission holographic gratings (LSR 445 NL 445 nm) and measuring the diffraction efficiency holographic parameter. This recording material has good diffraction efficiency and environmental stability.

  19. Pigmented villonodular synovitis: MRI characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, T.H. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)]|[Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Sartoris, D.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)]|[Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Schweitzer, M.E. [Dept. of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Resnick, D.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)]|[Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 26 patients with histopathologically proven pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), involving joints but excluding tendon sheaths, were reviewed retrospectively. The purpose of this study is to define the spectrum and frequency of MRI characteristics for PVNS using conventional spin echo (in two cases before and after intravenous administration of gadopentate dimeglumine) and also gradient echo techniques. A cystic variety is presented, the MRI appearances of which have not been found in a review of the literature. (orig.)

  20. Nanoscience of an ancient pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Barrett, Christopher A; Sharafi, Asma; Salguero, Tina T

    2013-02-06

    We describe monolayer nanosheets of calcium copper tetrasilicate, CaCuSi(4)O(10), which have strong near-IR luminescence and are amenable to solution processing methods. The facile exfoliation of bulk CaCuSi(4)O(10) into nanosheets is especially surprising in view of the long history of this material as the colored component of Egyptian blue, a well-known pigment from ancient times.

  1. DRUGS CAUSING OROFACIAL PIGMENTATION: AN OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Shamimul Hasan; Nabeel Ishrat Khan; Osama Adeel Khan Sherwani; Shane Rafi; Ayesha Siddiqui

    2013-01-01

    The term “Oro-facial pigmentation” refers to a wide range of lesions or conditions featuring a change of color of Oro-facial tissues. Pigmentation of the Oro-facial tissues is seen in certain races or ethnic groups such as Indians, Africans and Europeans. Broadly classifying, Oro-facial pigmentation is divided into endogenous pigmentation and exogenous pigmentation. Endogenous pigmentation is due to pigments produced within the body. Exogenous pigmentation occurs when foreign bodies get impre...

  2. Picobiophotonics for the investigation of pigment-pigment and pigment-protein interactions in photosynthetic complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Franz-Josef

    2011-01-01

    Anregungsenergietransfer-(EET)-prozesse wurden in verschiedenen photosynthetischen Pigment-Protein-Komplexen mit zeit- und wellenlängenkorrelierter Einzelphotonenspektroskopie (TWCSPC) analysiert. Ein neuer mobiler 16-Kanal Photomultiplier mit flexibler Faseroptik, austauschbaren Lichtquellen und einem Kryostaten (10 K – 350 K) wurde für die Spektroskopie von Proben in Küvetten, auf Oberflächen oder von ganzen Blättern in vivo aufgebaut. Das System stellt einen mobilen Messplatz auf Grundlage...

  3. Natural food pigments application in food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Janiszewska-Turak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural pigments, food compounds, are responsible for the colour of the products. These additives can impart, to deepen or renew the colour of the product, if it has been lost while processing. They also improve the taste of the product and facilitate its identification. It is hard to imagine today’s food industry without the use of pigments. Presently, more and more conscious con­sumers are demanding products to be coloured with natural pigments or any pigment added to the final product. Artificial pigments are considered to be harmful and undesirable so food manufacturers focus on the use of natural colour substances. 16 natural pigments are presently permitted to be used. These compounds are: betalains – betanin, quinones – cochineal, flavonoids – anthocyan­ins, isoprenoids – carotene, annatto (bixin, norbixin, paprika extract, lutein, canthaxanthin, porphyrins – chlorophylls and chlorophyllins and copper complexes of these compounds, and others: caramels, curcumin, or plant coal.

  4. Argon Laser Photoablation for Postburn Conjunctival Pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Joon Ahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an ocular burn injury from boiling water which resulted in conjunctival pigmentation, 1 week following injury. For cosmetic purposes, 2 sessions of argon laser photoablation were performed. One month after laser treatment, conjunctival pigmentation had been successfully removed and the patient was very satisfied with the results. Argon laser photoablation may be an effective way to remove postburn conjunctival pigmentation.

  5. PRODUCTION OF MONASCUS-LIKE AZAPHILONE PIGMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of biotechnological production of polyketide based colorants from filamentous fungi, in particular a method for preparing a biomass comprising a Monascus-like pigment composition from a nontoxigenic and non-pathogenic fungal source. The present invention...... further relates to use of the Monascus-like pigment composition as a colouring agent for food items and/or non-food items, and a cosmetic composition comprising the Monascus-like pigment composition....

  6. Non-photosynthetic pigments as potential biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieterman, E. W.; Cockell, C. S.; Meadows, V. S.

    2014-03-01

    Photosynthetic organisms on Earth produce potentially detectable surface reflectance biosignatures due in part to the spectral location and strength of pigment absorption. However, life on Earth uses pigments for a multitude of purposes other than photosynthesis, including coping with extreme environments. Macroscopic environments exist on Earth where the surface reflectance is significantly altered by a nonphotosynthetic pigment, such as the case of hypersaline lakes and ponds (Oren et al. 1992). Here we explore the nature and potential detectability of non-photosynthetic pigments in disk-averaged planetary observations using a combination of laboratory measurements and archival reflectance spectra, along with simulated broadband photometry and spectra. The in vivo visible reflectance spectra of a cross section of pigmented microorganisms are presented to illustrate the spectral diversity of biologically produced pigments. Synthetic broadband colors are generated to show a significant spread in color space. A 1D radiative transfer model (Meadows & Crisp 1996; Crisp 1997) is used to approximate the spectra of scenarios where pigmented organisms are widespread on planets with Earth-like atmospheres. Broadband colors are revisited to show that colors due to surface reflectivity are not robust to the addition of scattering and absorption effects from the atmosphere. We consider a èbest case' plausible scenario for the detection of nonphotosynthetic pigments by using the Virtual Planetary Laboratory's 3D spectral Earth model (Robinson et al. 2011) to explore the detectability of the surface biosignature produced by pigmented halophiles that are widespread on an Earth-analog planet.

  7. Ultraviolet pigments in birds evolved from violet pigments by a single amino acid change

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Shozo; Radlwimmer, F. Bernhard; Blow, Nathan S.

    2000-01-01

    UV vision has profound effects on the evolution of organisms by affecting such behaviors as mating preference and foraging strategies. Despite its importance, the molecular basis of UV vision is not known. Here, we have transformed the zebra finch UV pigment into a violet pigment by incorporating one amino acid change, C84S. By incorporating the reverse mutations, we have also constructed UV pigments from the orthologous violet pigments of the pigeon and chicken. These results and comparative...

  8. Spectral tuning of deep red cone pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amora, Tabitha L; Ramos, Lavoisier S; Galan, Jhenny F; Birge, Robert R

    2008-04-22

    Visual pigments are G-protein-coupled receptors that provide a critical interface between organisms and their external environment. Natural selection has generated vertebrate pigments that absorb light from the far-UV (360 nm) to the deep red (630 nm) while using a single chromophore, in either the A1 (11- cis-retinal) or A2 (11- cis-3,4-dehydroretinal) form. The fact that a single chromophore can be manipulated to have an absorption maximum across such an extended spectral region is remarkable. The mechanisms of wavelength regulation remain to be fully revealed, and one of the least well-understood mechanisms is that associated with the deep red pigments. We investigate theoretically the hypothesis that deep red cone pigments select a 6- s- trans conformation of the retinal chromophore ring geometry. This conformation is in contrast to the 6- s- cis ring geometry observed in rhodopsin and, through model chromophore studies, the vast majority of visual pigments. Nomographic spectral analysis of 294 A1 and A2 cone pigment literature absorption maxima indicates that the selection of a 6- s- trans geometry red shifts M/LWS A1 pigments by approximately 1500 cm (-1) ( approximately 50 nm) and A2 pigments by approximately 2700 cm (-1) ( approximately 100 nm). The homology models of seven cone pigments indicate that the deep red cone pigments select 6- s- trans chromophore conformations primarily via electrostatic steering. Our results reveal that the generation of a 6- s- trans conformation not only achieves a significant red shift but also provides enhanced stability of the chromophore within the deep red cone pigment binding sites.

  9. Ultraviolet pigments in birds evolved from violet pigments by a single amino acid change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Shozo; Radlwimmer, F. Bernhard; Blow, Nathan S.

    2000-01-01

    UV vision has profound effects on the evolution of organisms by affecting such behaviors as mating preference and foraging strategies. Despite its importance, the molecular basis of UV vision is not known. Here, we have transformed the zebra finch UV pigment into a violet pigment by incorporating one amino acid change, C84S. By incorporating the reverse mutations, we have also constructed UV pigments from the orthologous violet pigments of the pigeon and chicken. These results and comparative amino acid sequence analyses of the pigments in vertebrates demonstrate that many avian species have achieved their UV vision by S84C. PMID:10861005

  10. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of Chlorophyll Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and discussion of typical results are provided for an experiment on the thin layer chromatography of chlorophyll pigments. The experiment works well in high school, since the chemicals used are the same as those used in paper chromatography of plant pigments. (JN)

  11. Nanoscale porosity in pigments for chemical sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Kemling, Jonathan W.; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2011-01-01

    Porous pigments in which chemically responsive dyes have been immobilized in a matrix of organically modified siloxanes (ormosils) have been prepared and characterized by AFM, TEM, EDS, and optical analysis. In typical chemical sensing applications, an array of 36 different porous ormosil pigments are deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film.

  12. Nanoscale porosity in pigments for chemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemling, Jonathan W; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2011-05-01

    Porous pigments in which chemically responsive dyes have been immobilized in a matrix of organically modified siloxanes (ormosils) have been prepared and characterized by AFM, TEM, EDS, and optical analysis. In typical chemical sensing applications, an array of 36 different porous ormosil pigments are deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film.

  13. Dermatoscopic findings of pigmented purpuric dermatosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Dilek Biyik; Emiroglu, Nazan; Su, Ozlem; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Bahali, Anil Gulsel; Yildiz, Pelin; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Onsun, Nahide

    2016-01-01

    Background Pigmented purpuric dermatosis is a chronic skin disorder of unknown aetiology characterised by symmetrical petechial and pigmented macules, often confined to the lower limbs. The aetiology of pigmented purpuric dermatosis is unknown. Dermatoscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that allows the visualisation of morphological features invisible to the naked eye; it combines a method that renders the corneal layer of the skin translucent with an optical system that magnifies the image projected onto the retina. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the dermatoscopic findings of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. Methods This study enrolled patients diagnosed histopathologically with pigmented purpuric dermatosis who had dermatoscopic records. We reviewed the dermatoscopic images of PPD patients who attended the outpatient clinic in the Istanbul Dermatovenereology Department at the Bezmialem Vakıf University Medical Faculty. Results Dermatoscopy showed: coppery-red pigmentation (97%, n = 31) in the background, a brown network (34%, n = 11), linear vessels (22%, n = 7), round to oval red dots, globules, and patches (69%, n = 22; 75%, n = 24; 34%, n = 11; respectively), brown globules (26%, n = 8) and dots (53%, n = 17), linear brown lines (22%, n = 7), and follicular openings (13%, n = 4). Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the dermatoscopy of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. In our opinion, dermatoscopy can be useful in the diagnosis of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. PMID:27828629

  14. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of Chlorophyll Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and discussion of typical results are provided for an experiment on the thin layer chromatography of chlorophyll pigments. The experiment works well in high school, since the chemicals used are the same as those used in paper chromatography of plant pigments. (JN)

  15. Pigmented skin disorders: Evaluation and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentary disorders are disturbances of human skin color. Minor changes in the cellular physiology of the skin can dramatically affect pigment production in positive or negative manner. In this these, associated diseases, therapeutical options and disease parameters for the pigmentation disorder

  16. Genetic Analysis of Pigmentation in Cordyceps militaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Choi, Sung-Keun; Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Woong

    2005-01-01

    Pigmentation of ascospore-derived isolates from seven different natural specimens of Cordyceps militaris EFCC C-5888, EFCC C-7159, EFCC C-7833, EFCC C-7991, EFCC C-8021, EFCC C-8023 and EFCC C-8179 was observed on the plates of Sabouraud Dextrose agar plus Yeast Extract at 25℃ under continuous illumination (500 lux). Pigmentation of the wild-type isolates of C. militaris was diverse ranging from yellowish white to orange, while white color was believed as a mutant. Inheritance of pigmentation was found to be controlled by both parental isolates when F1 progeny were analyzed. Pigmentation and mating type were shown to be either independent or distantly linked each other due to the high percentage of non-parental phenotypes among F1 progeny. Crosses between white mutant isolates of C. militaris yielded progeny with wild type pigmentations, indicating that the albino mutations in the parents were unlinked to each other. PMID:24049487

  17. Bilateral pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Samir H.; Porrino, Jack A.; Green, John R.; Chew, Felix S.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a disorder resulting in a villous, nodular, or villonodular proliferation of the synovium, with pigmentation related to the presence of hemosiderin. These lesions are almost exclusively benign with rare reports of malignancy. Pigmented villonodular synovitis can occur in a variety of joints and at any age but most often occurs within the knee in the young adult. Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a rare disease entity, and bilateral synchronous or metachronous involvement of a joint is even more uncommon, with few reports previously described in the literature. We present a case of pigmented villonodular synovitis involving both the right and left knee in the same patient, with radiographic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, photograph and video intraoperative imaging, and pathologic correlation. PMID:26649121

  18. Bilateral pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir H. Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a disorder resulting in a villous, nodular, or villonodular proliferation of the synovium, with pigmentation related to the presence of hemosiderin. These lesions are almost exclusively benign with rare reports of malignancy. Pigmented villonodular synovitis can occur in a variety of joints and at any age but most often occurs within the knee in the young adult. Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a rare disease entity, and bilateral synchronous or metachronous involvement of a joint is even more uncommon, with few reports previously described in the literature. We present a case of pigmented villonodular synovitis involving both the right and left knee in the same patient, with radiographic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, photograph and video intraoperative imaging, and pathologic correlation.

  19. Fungal and Bacterial Pigments: Secondary Metabolites with Wide Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Prabhu Narsing Rao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for natural colors is increasing day by day due to harmful effects of some synthetic dyes. Bacterial and fungal pigments provide a readily available alternative source of naturally derived pigments. In contrast to other natural pigments, they have enormous advantages including rapid growth, easy processing, and independence of weather conditions. Apart from colorant, bacterial and fungal pigments possess many biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity. This review outlines different types of pigments. It lists some bacterial and fungal pigments and current bacterial and fungal pigment status and challenges. It also focuses on possible fungal and bacterial pigment applications.

  20. Anthocyanins. Plant pigments and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Mateus, Nuno; De Freitas, Victor

    2014-07-23

    Anthocyanins are plant pigments widespread in nature. They play relevant roles in plant propagation and ecophysiology and plant defense mechanisms and are responsible for the color of fruits and vegetables. A large number of novel anthocyanin structures have been identified, including new families such as pyranoanthocyanins or anthocyanin oligomers; their biosynthesis pathways have been elucidated, and new plants with "a la carte" colors have been created by genetic engineering. Furthermore, evidence about their benefits in human health has accumulated, and processes of anthocyanin absorption and biotransformation in the human organism have started to be ascertained. These advances in anthocyanin research were revised in the Seventh International Workshop on Anthocyanins that took place in Porto (Portugal) on September 9-11, 2013. Some selected papers are collected in this special issue, where aspects such as anthocyanin accumulation in plants, relationship with color expression, stability in plants and food, and bioavailability or biological activity are revised.

  1. Production of Monascus-like pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing one or more Monascus-like pigment composition from Penicillium species comprising: a) providing a cultivation medium comprising a high concentration of C-and N-sources and a high C/N molar ratio, b) adjusting pH to about 5 to 8, c) inoculating...... as colouring agents in food items or non food items. The inventions further relates to Monascus-like pigment composition obtainable by a method of the inventions as well as use of the pigments....

  2. Genetic Analysis of Pigmentation in Cordyceps militaris

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Choi, Sung-Keun; Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Woong; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2005-01-01

    Pigmentation of ascospore-derived isolates from seven different natural specimens of Cordyceps militaris EFCC C-5888, EFCC C-7159, EFCC C-7833, EFCC C-7991, EFCC C-8021, EFCC C-8023 and EFCC C-8179 was observed on the plates of Sabouraud Dextrose agar plus Yeast Extract at 25℃ under continuous illumination (500 lux). Pigmentation of the wild-type isolates of C. militaris was diverse ranging from yellowish white to orange, while white color was believed as a mutant. Inheritance of pigmentation...

  3. Old inks: pigments extracted from plants

    OpenAIRE

    Despy, Jessica; Wymeersch, Noémie; Bouchat, Isabelle; Destrée, Caroline; Burette, Anne; Richel, Aurore; OLIVE, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    National audience; Thousands of years ago, natural pigments were discovered and they have been used ever since. Indeed, prehistoric people already used them to paint the walls of the caves in which they were living. A significant example of this is the Cosquer cave (-19,000 to -27,000 years) located near Marseilles. Pigments and dyes can be classified into two broad categories and five families: natural pigments and dyes and those called artificial. The first one of these five families includ...

  4. Review of Prodigiosin, Pigmentation in Serratia marcescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Khanafari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Prodigiosins, a family of natural red pigments characterized by a common pyrrolylpyrromethane skeleton, are produced by various bacteria that first characterized from Serratia marcescens. This pigment is a promising drug owing to its reported characteristics of having antifungal, immunosuppressive and anti-proliferative activity. From an industrial point of view to obtain optimal conditions to enhance the growth of Serratia marcescens and the pigment production is necessity. In present study, the production condition, physicochemical and functional characteristics, structure, genetic and gene expression, apoptosis and toxigenic effects of prodigiosin will be discussed in-order to contribute to the world of Serratia marcescens with respect to its prodigiosin production property.

  5. Genetic Analysis of Pigmentation in Cordyceps militaris

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Choi, Sung-Keun; Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Woong; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2005-01-01

    Pigmentation of ascospore-derived isolates from seven different natural specimens of Cordyceps militaris EFCC C-5888, EFCC C-7159, EFCC C-7833, EFCC C-7991, EFCC C-8021, EFCC C-8023 and EFCC C-8179 was observed on the plates of Sabouraud Dextrose agar plus Yeast Extract at 25℃ under continuous illumination (500 lux). Pigmentation of the wild-type isolates of C. militaris was diverse ranging from yellowish white to orange, while white color was believed as a mutant. Inheritance of pigmentation...

  6. A tattoo pigmented node and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, A; Kanbour-Shakir, A; Bas, O; Bonaventura, M

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, the axillary SLNB has replaced routine ALND for clinical staging in early breast cancer. Studies describe a potential pitfall in the identification of a true sentinel node during surgery due to lymph node pigmentation secondary to migration of tattoo dye. These pigmented “pseudo-sentinel” nodes, if located superficially in the axilla, may mimic the blue sentinel node on visual inspection, therefore missing the true sentinel node and potentially understaging the patient. Here, we present a case report of a breast cancer patient with a tattoo and discuss the importance of tattoo pigment in the LN (Fig. 1, Ref. 8).

  7. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alfredo; Crittenden, Elizabeth L; García, Dana M

    2004-01-01

    Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. Results The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl) carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusions Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion. PMID:15251036

  8. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crittenden Elizabeth L

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. Results The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusions Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  9. Aging of the hair follicle pigmentation system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2009-01-01

    .... The hair follicle pigmentary unit is perhaps one of our most visible, accessible and potent aging sensors, with marked dilution of pigment intensity occurring long before even subtle changes are seen in the epidermis...

  10. Pigments of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stintzing, Florian; Schliemann, Willibald

    2007-01-01

    The complex pigment pattern of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) cap skins has been studied by LC-DAD and mass spectrometry. Among the betaxanthins the corresponding derivatives of serine, threonine, ethanolamine, alanine, Dopa, phenylalanine and tryptophan are reported for the first time to contribute to the pigment pattern of fly agarics. Betalamic acid, the chromophoric precursor of betaxanthins and betacyanins, muscaflavin and seco-dopas were also detected. Furthermore, the red-purple muscapurpurin and the red muscarubrin were tentatively assigned while further six betacyanin-like components could not be structurally allocated. Stability studies indicated a high susceptibility of pigment extracts to degradation which led to rapid colour loss thus rendering a complete characterization of betacyanin-like compounds impossible at present. Taking into account these difficulties the presented results may be a starting point for a comprehensive characterization of the pigment composition of fly agarics.

  11. Silica Pigments for Glossy Ink Jet Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Qi; Michael R. Sestrick; Yoshi Sugimoto; William A. Welsh

    2004-01-01

    Silica is a versatile pigment for ink jet media. Micronized silica gel is the worldwide standard for high performance matte ink jet media. For glossy ink jet media, several different forms of silica are widely used. Submicron silica gel dispersions, with either anionic or cationic surfaces, can be employed in either absorptive basecoat layers or in the glossy ink receptive top layer. Colloidal silica, with a variety of particle sizes and surface modifications, is utilized extensively in glossy top layers. It will show how various silica pigments can be utilized in glossy ink receptive coatings, both in cast based glossy media and RC based glossy media. Several novel silica pigments will be examined by relating the physical properties of the pigments and the formula variables to the print quality of the ink jet media.

  12. Pseudoephedrine may cause "pigmenting" fixed drug eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Esen; Elinç-Aslan, Meryem Sevinç

    2011-05-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a distinctive drug eruption characterized by recurrent well-defined lesions in the same location each time the responsible drug is taken. Two different clinical forms have been described: the common classic pigmenting form and the rare nonpigmenting form. Nonpigmenting FDE is mainly characterized by symmetrical large erythematous plaques and the dermal histopathologic reaction pattern. Pseudoephedrine is known as the major inducer of nonpigmenting FDE. Pigmenting FDE from pseudoephedrine has not been reported previously. Here, the first case of pseudoephedrine-induced pigmenting FDE is reported, showing the characteristic features of classic pigmenting FDE such as asymmetry, normal-sized lesions, and the epidermodermal histopathologic reaction pattern. Moreover, a positive occlusive patch-test reaction to pseudoephedrine could be demonstrated on postlesional FDE skin for the first time.

  13. Pigment production from a mangrove Penicillium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research ... in foodstuff, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical manufac- turing processes (Francis ... marine Penicillium produced pigments (PP-V and PP-R) and these are similar in ...

  14. [Recurrent pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuss, M; Hermanns, B; Wirtz, D C

    2001-01-01

    The pigmented vilionodular synovitis (PVNS) is a tumour like disease of unknown origin that often shows recurrence. The pathogenesis is still unknown and therefore the question of the right therapy is not resolved. With a case report of a patient with recurrence after two arthroscopic synovectomies, PVNS is discussed against the background of the clinical, histological, and radiological features. We performed an open synovectomy and cystic lesions in both condyles of the femur and proximal tibia were filled with homologous and autologous cancellous bone. Three months later the patient had no pain and the bone density in the former cystic lesions was appropriate. The pathogenesis is still unknown. Diagnosis often is obtained much too late due to missing specific symptoms. PVNS occurs in local forms as well as in a diffuse growth pattern. Recurrence rates of up to 78% are very high. Besides arthroscopic and open synovectomy, the treatment with radiosynoviorthesis must be considered. Depending on the growth pattern, the tumour masses, and the affected joint, the therapy has to be chosen very carefully and sometimes different forms have to be combined if a recurrence--free result is to be achieved.

  15. [Bacterial pigment prodigiosin and its genotoxic effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur'ianov, I D; Karamova, N S; Iusupova, D V; Gnezdilov, O I; Koshkarova, L A

    2013-01-01

    The prodigiosin preparation was isolated and purified from Serratia marcescens ATCC 9986, using chromatographic methods. The analysis of the preparation by TLC, NMR-spectrometry and mass-spectrometry allowed to confirm the red pigment fraction as the prodigiosin and detect its purity. Originally, the specific features of the toxic and genotoxic effects of prodigiosin and the possibility of induction of mutations by pigment in the cells of Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 (Ames test) and chromosome damage of mammalian erythroblasts have been determined.

  16. The clinical spectrum of pigmented lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, J V; Bolognia, J L

    2000-07-01

    This article presents the clinical features of a spectrum of pigmented lesions. It begins with benign lesions that may be confused with melanocytic nevi, such as lentigines, seborrheic keratoses, and dermatofibromas. The next section focuses on the various types of melanocytic nevi, including congenital, blue, and Spitz nevi. A description of atypical nevi is provided, followed by an outline of the clinical characteristics of each subtype of cutaneous melanoma. The clinical characteristics of various pigmented lesions are illustrated.

  17. Dermoscopic Features of Facial Pigmented Skin Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharova, Yana; Attia, Enas A. S.; Souid, Khawla; Vasilenko, Inna V.

    2013-01-01

    Four types of facial pigmented skin lesions (FPSLs) constitute diagnostic challenge to dermatologists; early seborrheic keratosis (SK), pigmented actinic keratosis (AK), lentigo maligna (LM), and solar lentigo (SL). A retrospective analysis of dermoscopic images of histopathologically diagnosed clinically-challenging 64 flat FPSLs was conducted to establish the dermoscopic findings corresponding to each of SK, pigmented AK, LM, and SL. Four main dermoscopic features were evaluated: sharp demarcation, pigment pattern, follicular/epidermal pattern, and vascular pattern. In SK, the most specific dermoscopic features are follicular/epidermal pattern (cerebriform pattern; 100% of lesions, milia-like cysts; 50%, and comedo-like openings; 37.50%), and sharp demarcation (54.17%). AK and LM showed a composite characteristic pattern named “strawberry pattern” in 41.18% and 25% of lesions respectively, characterized by a background erythema and red pseudo-network, associated with prominent follicular openings surrounded by a white halo. However, in LM “strawberry pattern” is widely covered by psewdonetwork (87.5%), homogenous structureless pigmentation (75%) and other vascular patterns. In SL, structureless homogenous pigmentation was recognized in all lesions (100%). From the above mentioned data, we developed an algorithm to guide in dermoscopic features of FPSLs. PMID:23431466

  18. Microbial Production of Food Grade Pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dufossé

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The controversial topic of synthetic dyes in food has been discussed for many years. The scrutiny and negative assessment of synthetic food dyes by the modern consumer have raised a strong interest in natural colouring alternatives. Nature is rich in colours (minerals, plants, microalgae, etc., and pigment-producing microorganisms (fungi, yeasts, bacteria are quite common. Among the molecules produced by microorganisms are carotenoids, melanins, flavins, quinones, and more specifically monascins, violacein or indigo. The success of any pigment produced by fermentation depends upon its acceptability on the market, regulatory approval, and the size of the capital investment required to bring the product to market. A few years ago, some expressed doubts about the successful commercialization of fermentation-derived food grade pigments because of the high capital investment requirements for fermentation facilities and the extensive and lengthy toxicity studies required by regulatory agencies. Public perception of biotechnology-derived products also had to be taken into account. Nowadays some fermentative food grade pigments are on the market: Monascus pigments, astaxanthin from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, Arpink Red from Penicillium oxalicum, riboflavin from Ashbya gossypii, b-carotene from Blakeslea trispora. The successful marketing of pigments derived from algae or extracted from plants, both as a food colour and a nutritional supplement, reflects the presence and importance of niche markets in which consumers are willing to pay a premium for »all natural ingredients«.

  19. Proton beam modification of lead white pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, L., E-mail: lucile.beck@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France (C2RMF), Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Gutiérrez, P.C. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France (C2RMF), Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Miserque, F. [CEA, DEN, DPC/SCCME/LECA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thomé, L. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse (CSNSM), CNRS/IN2P3 et Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 108, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2013-07-15

    Pigments and paint materials are known to be sensitive to particle irradiation. Occasionally, the analysis of paintings by PIXE can induce a slight or dark stain depending on the experimental conditions (beam current, dose, particle energy). In order to understand this discoloration, we have irradiated various types of art white pigments – lead white (hydrocerussite and basic lead sulfate), gypsum, calcite, zinc oxide and titanium oxide – with an external 3 MeV proton micro-beam commonly used for PIXE experiments. We have observed various sensitivities depending on the pigment. No visible change occurs for calcite and titanium oxide, whereas lead white pigments are very sensitive. For the majority of the studied compounds, the discoloration is proportional to the beam current and charge. The damage induced by proton beam irradiation in lead white pigments was studied by micro-Raman and XPS spectroscopies. Structural modifications and dehydration were detected. Damage recovery was investigated by thermal treatment and UV-light irradiation. The discoloration disappeared after one week of UV illumination, showing that PIXE experiments could be safely undertaken for pigments and paintings.

  20. The etiology and molecular genetics of human pigmentation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Laura L; Pavan, William J

    2013-01-01

    Pigmentation, defined as the placement of pigment in skin, hair, and eyes for coloration, is distinctive because the location, amount, and type of pigmentation provides a visual manifestation of genetic heterogeneity in pathways regulating the pigment-producing cells, melanocytes. The scope of this genetic heterogeneity in humans ranges from normal to pathological pigmentation phenotypes. Clinically, normal human pigmentation encompasses a variety of skin and hair color as well as punctate pigmentation such as melanocytic nevi (moles) or ephelides (freckles), while abnormal human pigmentation exhibits markedly reduced or increased pigment levels, known as hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation, respectively. Elucidation of the molecular genetics underlying pigmentation has revealed genes important for melanocyte development and function. Furthermore, many pigmentation disorders show additional defects in cells other than melanocytes, and identification of the genetic insults in these disorders has revealed pleiotropic genes, where a single gene is required for various functions in different cell types. Thus, unravelling the genetics of easily visualized pigmentation disorders has identified molecular similarities between melanocytes and less visible cell types/tissues, arising from a common developmental origin and/or shared genetic regulatory pathways. Herein we discuss notable human pigmentation disorders and their associated genetic alterations, focusing on the fact that the developmental genetics of pigmentation abnormalities are instructive for understanding normal pathways governing development and function of melanocytes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Gutierrez-Leon, A.; Castro, G.R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J. [Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, SpLine, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Solis, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sanchez-Hernandez, R. [INAH Subdireccion de Laboratorios y Apoyo Academico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Robles-Camacho, J. [INAH Centro Regional Michoacan, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Rojas-Gaytan, J. [INAH Direccion de Salvamento Arqueologico, Naucalpan de Juarez (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few {mu}g of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as anil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue. (orig.)

  2. Pigments in avocado tissue and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Ofelia B O; Wong, Marie; McGhie, Tony K; Vather, Rosheila; Wang, Yan; Requejo-Jackman, Cecilia; Ramankutty, Padmaja; Woolf, Allan B

    2006-12-27

    Pigments are important contributors to the appearance and healthful properties of both avocado fruits and the oils extracted from these fruits. This study determined carotenoid and chlorophyll pigment concentrations in the skin and three sections of the flesh (outer dark green, middle pale green, and inner yellow flesh-nearest the seed) and anthocyanin concentrations in the skin of Hass avocado during ripening at 20 degrees C. Pigments were extracted from frozen tissue with acetone and measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Pigments were also measured in the oil extracted from freeze-dried tissue sections by an accelerated solvent extraction system using hexane. Carotenoids and chlorophylls identified in the skin, flesh, and oil were lutein, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, chlorophylls a and b, and pheophytins a and b with the highest concentrations of all pigments in the skin. Chlorophyllides a and b were identified in the skin and flesh tissues only. As the fruit ripened and softened, the skin changed from green to purple/black, corresponding to changes in skin hue angle, and a concomitant increase in cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and the loss of chlorophyllide a. In flesh tissue, chroma and lightness values decreased with ripening, with no changes in hue angle. The levels of carotenoids and chlorophylls did not change significantly during ripening. As fruit ripened, the total chlorophyll level in the oil from the flesh sections remained constant but declined in the oil extracted from the skin.

  3. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zargar, Shabnam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn and discuss the importance of an accurate diagnosis for prevention of amblyopia.Methods: We describe a case of an abnormal red reflex seen on a newborn exam.Results: A full-term female born via normal spontaneous vaginal delivery without any complications was seen in the newborn nursery. She was noted to have an abnormal eye exam. Pupils were large with circular dark excrescences of the iris pigment epithelium. She was referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist where she was noted to fixate and follow faces. No afferent pupillary defect was seen. OD red reflex was normal whereas OS red reflex was blocked mostly by dark excrescences. A 2– dark brown lesion was seen in the OD iris and a 3–5 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OS iris, consistent with a pupillary iris pigment epithelial cyst. Central visual axis was clear OU. Glaucoma was not present and patching was not performed. Observations and clinical photographs were recommended with follow-up in three months.Conclusion: Iris pigment epithelial cysts are uncommonly seen in children. The primary care provider first seeing a newborn must be aware of lesions obscuring a red reflex with appropriate follow-up. Follow-up in three months with IOP measurements is recommended. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in children may be a cause of amblyopia, thus prompt evaluation is important for prognostic purposes and the prevention of amblyopia.

  4. Patophysiological mechanism of pigmented purpuric dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujanac Andreja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Patophysiological modeling of pigmented purpuric dermatoses based on venous hypertension. Capillaritis are considered to be patophysiological equivalent, or etiological basis of pigmented purpuric dermatoses. The exact mechanism has not been established and suggests the following: increased venous pressure, odontogenic processes, hypersensitivity to carbamezepine, meprobamate, furosemide, vitamin B1, contact dermatitis (khaki-colour dermatitis, capillary fragility and perforating vein incompetence. In this paper we presented a mechanism based on increased venous pressure. Methods: Graphic presentation of Crank, Krogh and Bessel equation. Results: In Schamberg's disease relative and absolute hemoglobin concentrations are changed much more slowly than in Majocchi disease. Curves based on Bessel function provides better explanation for hemoglobin changes according to clinical presentation. Conclusion: This review study could be starting point for further investigation of pigmented purpuric dermatoses.

  5. Detection of Pigment Networks in Dermoscopy Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayef, Khalid; Li, Yongmin; Liu, Xiaohui

    2017-02-01

    One of the most important structures in dermoscopy images is the pigment network, which is also one of the most challenging and fundamental task for dermatologists in early detection of melanoma. This paper presents an automatic system to detect pigment network from dermoscopy images. The design of the proposed algorithm consists of four stages. First, a pre-processing algorithm is carried out in order to remove the noise and improve the quality of the image. Second, a bank of directional filters and morphological connected component analysis are applied to detect the pigment networks. Third, features are extracted from the detected image, which can be used in the subsequent stage. Fourth, the classification process is performed by applying feed-forward neural network, in order to classify the region as either normal or abnormal skin. The method was tested on a dataset of 200 dermoscopy images from Hospital Pedro Hispano (Matosinhos), and better results were produced compared to previous studies.

  6. Green pigments of the Pompeian artists' palette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliatis, Irene; Bersani, Danilo; Campani, Elisa; Casoli, Antonella; Lottici, Pier Paolo; Mantovan, Silvia; Marino, Iari-Gabriel; Ospitali, Francesca

    2009-08-01

    Green colored samples on wall paintings and green powder from a pigment pot found in Pompeii area are investigated by micro-Raman, FT-IR and, for one sample, SEM-EDX. To obtain the green color, green earths and malachite were used, together with mixture of Egyptian blue and yellow ochre. The mineralogical identification of the green earths has been attempted through the comparison of the vibrational features, discriminating between celadonite and glauconite spectra. Traces of a modern synthetic pigment containing copper phthalocyanine were found in a fresco fragment.

  7. SYNTHESIS OF PLASTIC PIGMENT WITH MULTIHOLLOW STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqiang Jin; Qinghua Xu; Zonglin Liu

    2004-01-01

    The polymer particle possessing hollow structure are playing an increasingly important role in industry.The latex particle with hollow structure as plastic pigment has a low density, strong spreading capacity and good glossiness. So it has been utilized for the manufacture of LWC in paper-making. In this paper,we prepared a kind of novel plastic pigment by the soapless seeded emulsion polymerization, this product with polyacrylate as core and with polystyrene as shell (PA/PS) had hollow structure after dryness. The preparation, characterization and properties of the latex were studied in detail by chemistry analysis and apparatus analysis such as TEM,FTIR,DLS.

  8. SYNTHESIS OF PLASTIC PIGMENT WITH MULTIHOLLOW STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiqiangJin; QinghuaXu; ZonglinLiu

    2004-01-01

    The polymer particle possessing hollow structure are playing an increasingly important role in industry. The latex particle with hollow structure as plastic pigment has a low density, strong spreading capacity and good glossiness. So it has been utilized for the manufacture of LWC in paper-making. In this paper, we prepared a kind of novel plastic pigment by the soapless seeded emulsion polymerization, this product with polyacrylate as core and with polystyrene as shell (PA/PS) had hollow structure after dryness. The preparation, characterization and properties of the latex were studied in detail by chemistry analysis and apparatus analysis such as TEM,FTIR,DLS.

  9. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  10. Photoacclimation in microphytobenthos and the role of xanthophyll pigments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Brotas, Vanda; Consalvey, Mireille; Forster, Rodney M.; Gillespie, David; Jesus, Bruno; Roggeveld, Jan; Gieskes, Winfried W. C.

    2008-01-01

    Estuarine microphytobenthos are frequently exposed to excessively high irradiances. Photoinhibition in microalgae is prevented by various photophysiological responses. We describe here the role of the xanthophyll pigments in photoacclimation. The pigment composition of the microphytobenthos was stud

  11. Photoacclimation in microphytobenthos and the role of xanthophyll pigments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Brotas, Vanda; Consalvey, Mireille; Forster, Rodney M.; Gillespie, David; Jesus, Bruno; Roggeveld, Jan; Gieskes, Winfried W. C.

    2008-01-01

    Estuarine microphytobenthos are frequently exposed to excessively high irradiances. Photoinhibition in microalgae is prevented by various photophysiological responses. We describe here the role of the xanthophyll pigments in photoacclimation. The pigment composition of the microphytobenthos was

  12. Photoacclimation in microphytobenthos and the role of xanthophyll pigments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Brotas, Vanda; Consalvey, Mireille; Forster, Rodney M.; Gillespie, David; Jesus, Bruno; Roggeveld, Jan; Gieskes, Winfried W. C.

    2008-01-01

    Estuarine microphytobenthos are frequently exposed to excessively high irradiances. Photoinhibition in microalgae is prevented by various photophysiological responses. We describe here the role of the xanthophyll pigments in photoacclimation. The pigment composition of the microphytobenthos was stud

  13. Neoplasia versus hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen; Larsen, J.N.B.; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography......ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography...

  14. Nonlinear optical absorption of photosynthetic pigment molecules in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zi-Piao

    2012-04-01

    A mathematical formulation of the relationship between optical absorption coefficient of photosynthetic pigment molecules and light intensity was developed. It showed that physical parameters of photosynthetic pigment molecule (i.e., light absorption cross-section of photosynthetic pigment molecule, its average lifetime in the excited state, total photosynthetic pigment molecules, the statistical weight, or degeneracy of energy level of photosynthetic pigment molecules in the ground state and in the excited state) influenced on both the light absorption coefficient and effective light absorption cross-section of photosynthetic pigment molecules. Moreover, it also showed that both the light absorption coefficient and effective light absorption cross-section of photosynthetic pigment molecules were not constant, they decreased nonlinearly with light intensity increasing. The occupation numbers of photosynthetic pigment molecules in the excited states increased nonlinearly with light intensity increasing.

  15. Pigment Ink Formulation for Inkjet Printing of Different Textile Materials

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Marie; Y.H. El-Hamaky; D. Maamoun; D.F. Ibrahim; Abbas, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Cotton, polyester, and cotton polyester blended woven fabrics were printed using an ink jet print using by means of a prepared pigment ink. Literature indicated that the development of insoluble pigment-based inks presents enormous challenges to the ink formulator. Meanwhile, pigments face several application problems in terms of their dispersion stability within the ink formulation, and consequently blocking the nozzles within the inkjet print head. Upon this, Two pigment colors : M.D. Blue ...

  16. Pigments produced by the bacteria belonging to the genus Arthrobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Sutthiwong, N.; Caro, Y.; Fouillaud, M.; Laurent, P.; Valla, A.; Dufossé, L.

    2013-01-01

    Poster communication, 7th International Congress of Pigments in Food – New technologies towards health, through colors, Novara, Italy, June 18-21, 2013.; International audience; Since several decades, pigments have been used as a taxonomic tool for the identification and classification of bacteria. Nowadays, pigment producing microorganisms have been also widely interested in scientific disciplines because of their biotechnological potential. With the growing interest in microbial pigments be...

  17. Production of Monascus-like pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing one or more Monascus-like pigment composition from Penicillium species comprising: a) providing a cultivation medium comprising a high concentration of C-and N-sources and a high C/N molar ratio, b) adjusting pH to about 5 to 8, c) inoculati...

  18. BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Picosecond spectroscopy of pyrrol pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippitsch, M. E.; Leitner, A.; Riegler, M.; Aussenegg, F. R.

    1982-05-01

    Picosecond fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy methods were used to study pyrromethenone, pyrromethene, and biliverdin. These methods made it possible to determine some details of the kinetics of various relaxation mechanisms. The results obtained provided a better understanding of the biological action of pyrrol pigments.

  19. Diet, disease and pigment variation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, R; Khan, B S Razib

    2010-10-01

    There are several hypotheses which explain the de-pigmentation of humans. The most prominent environmental explanation is that reduced endogenous vitamin D production due to diminished radiation at higher latitudes had a deleterious impact on fitness. This drove de-pigmentation as an adaptive response. A model of natural selection explains the high correlations found between low vitamin D levels and ill health, as vitamin D's role in immune response has clear evolutionary implications. But recent genomic techniques have highlighted the likelihood that extreme de-pigmentation in Eurasia is a feature of the last 10,000years, not the Upper Pleistocene, when modern humans first settled northern Eurasia. Additionally the data imply two independent selection events in eastern and western Eurasia. Therefore new parameters must be added to the model of natural selection so as to explain the relatively recent and parallel adaptive responses. I propose a model of gene-culture co-evolution whereby the spread of agriculture both reduced dietary vitamin D sources and led to more powerful selection on immune response because of the rise of infectious diseases with greater population densities. This model explains the persistence of relatively dark-skinned peoples at relatively high latitudes and the existence of relatively light-skinned populations at low latitudes. It also reinforces the importance of vitamin D as a micronutrient because of the evidence of extremely powerful fitness implications in the recent human past of pigmentation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. "Dry-column" chromatography of plant pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woeller, F. H.; Lehwalt, M. F.; Oyama, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    Separation of plant pigments which can be accomplished on thin-layer silica plates with mixture of petroleum ether, halocarbon, acetone, and polar solvent can be readily translated into dry-column technique that yields reproducible chromatograms after elution in fashion of liquid chromatography with fluorimeter as detector. Best solvent system was found to be mixture of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, acetone, and ethyl acetate.

  1. Water permeability of pigmented waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Erich, S.J.F.; Reuvers, N.J.W.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Coatings are used in a variety of applications. Last decades more and more coating systems are transforming from solvent to waterborne coating systems. In this study the influence of pigments on the water permeability of a waterborne coating system is studied, with special interest in the possible i

  2. Dermoscopy Clues in Pigmented Bowen's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gutiérrez-Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented tumors have similar clinical features that overlap and hamper diagnosis. Dermoscopy increases the diagnostic accuracy of doubtful melanocytic lesions and has been used as a noninvasive tool in the detection of pigmented lesions (PLs like melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and pigmented Bowen's disease (pBD. Our objective was to show the dermoscopic features of 2 cases of pBD and compare with the findings reported in the literature. Two dermoscopic images of biopsy proven pBD were retrospectively analyzed for dermoscopic patterns. Both cases showed brown regular globules, structureless brown and blue pigmentation, glomerular vessels, hypopigmented regression-like areas, and keratosis. These findings were similar to the cases reported previously. The dermoscopic diagnosis of pBD is based on the absence of criteria for a melanocytic lesion in the presence of glomerular vessels, regular brown globules and keratosis. Although pBD is rare, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of PLs, especially melanoma.

  3. 21 CFR 73.350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.350 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments. (a... color additive mixtures for coloring food. (b) Specifications. Mica-based pearlescent pigments...

  4. Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus resembling a pigmented neurofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus and pigmented neurofibroma (PNF are close mimics and pose a clinicopathological challenge. We present a case of pigmented hypertrichotic plaque over lumbosacral region and discuss the differential diagnosis and its clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemistry features which may aid in differentiation. We highlight the difficulties faced in differentiating neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus from pigmented neurofibroma.

  5. Tattoo pigments in skin: determination and quantitative extraction of red tattoo pigments

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The number of tattooed individuals increased significantly, especially among youth. In the United States, up to 24% of the population has tattoos, whereas in European countries like Germany about 9% and the United Kingdom about 12% are tattooed. Today frequently azo pigments are used for tattooing. These azo pigments are manufactured primarily for other purposes like printing, painting cars and coloring various consumer products. To estimate the risk of any health problems of tattooing, t...

  6. Challenges of identifying eczema in darkly pigmented skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Joan

    2015-07-01

    There is a paucity of information about the difference in the presentation of eczema in darkly pigmented skin compared to children with fair or white skin. This article describes the possible challenges of diagnosing eczema in children with darkly pigmented skin. The physiological difference in darkly pigmented skin compared with fair or white skin is explored, and how eczema may be manifested and identified in darkly pigmented skin. The author uses the term darkly pigmented skin to describe children of black Caribbean, African or Asian descent.

  7. Nevus of ota with buccal mucosal pigmentation: a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Shishir Ram; Subhas, Babu G; Rao, Kumuda Arvind; Castellino, Renita

    2011-01-01

    Nevus of Ota is a condition wherein the typical pattern of the bluish black pigmentation is noticed along with the cutaneous distribution of the trigeminal nerve. This condition is most prevalent in Japanese population but comparatively rare among Indians. We report a case of 23-year-old female presented with unilateral pigmented areas over the skin of forehead, malar area, ear and periorbital area. Blackish-blue pigmented areas were also noticed on the sclera. Brownish-black diffuse pigmented areas were also noticed on the buccal mucosa of the same side. The presence of pigmentation on the skin over pinna and oral pigmentation made our case a rare incidence. Oral pigmentations associated with nevus of Ota especially on the buccal mucosa have rarely been reported in the past.

  8. Nevus of Ota with buccal mucosal pigmentation: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir Ram Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nevus of Ota is a condition wherein the typical pattern of the bluish black pigmentation is noticed along with the cutaneous distribution of the trigeminal nerve. This condition is most prevalent in Japanese population but comparatively rare among Indians. We report a case of 23-year-old female presented with unilateral pigmented areas over the skin of forehead, malar area, ear and periorbital area. Blackish-blue pigmented areas were also noticed on the sclera. Brownish-black diffuse pigmented areas were also noticed on the buccal mucosa of the same side. The presence of pigmentation on the skin over pinna and oral pigmentation made our case a rare incidence. Oral pigmentations associated with nevus of Ota especially on the buccal mucosa have rarely been reported in the past.

  9. Comparative study on the incidence and outcomes of pigmented versus non pigmented keratomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the incidence, outcomes and establish factors determining visual prognosis of keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi in comparison with nonpigmented fungi. Materials and Methods: All culture-proven cases of fungal keratitis from January 2006 to August 2008 were drawn from a computerized database and cases with adequate documentation were analyzed for predisposing factors, clinical characteristics, microbiology and treatment methods. Outcomes of keratitis due to pigmented and nonpigmented fungi were compared using t-test and χ2 test. Results: Of 373 cases of keratomycosis during the study period, pigmented fungi were etiological agents in 117 eyes (31.3% and nonpigmented fungi in 256 eyes (68.7%. Eyes with nonpigmented keratitis had significantly larger ulcers (14.96 mm 2 and poorer vision (1.42 logMAR at presentation compared to those with keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi (P=0.01. The characteristic macroscopic pigmentation was seen in only 14.5% in the pigmented keratitis group. Both groups responded favorably to medical therapy (78.1% vs. 69.1% with scar formation (P=0.32 and showed a significant improvement in mean visual acuity compared with that at presentation (P<0.01. Visual improvement in terms of line gainers and losers in the subgroup of eyes that experienced healing was also similar. Location of the ulcer was the only factor that had significant predictive value for visual outcome (P=0.021. Conclusion: Incidence of keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi may be increasing as compared to previous data. These eyes have similar response to medical therapy and similar visual outcome compared to nonpigmented keratitis. Central ulcers have a poor visual outcome.

  10. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Sylvain; Rougemont, Anne-Laure; Peter, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare disease that can affect any joint, bursa or tendon sheath.The hip is less frequently affected than the knee, and hence is less discussed in scientific journals.PVNS of the hip mainly occurs in young adults, requiring early diagnosis and adequate treatment to obtain good results.There is no consensus on the management of PVNS of the hip in current literature.We will discuss the options for surgical intervention in hip PVNS using a literature review of clinical, biological, etiological, histological and radiographic aspects of the disease. Cite this article: Steinmetz S, Rougemont A-L, Peter R. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the hip. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:260-266. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000021.

  11. [Pigmented ciliary body tumours: benign or malignant?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Vicente, E; Saornil-Álvarez, M A; López-Lara, F; García-Álvarez, C; de Frutos-Baraja, J M; Díez-Andino, P

    2013-12-01

    We report the cases of 2 women with a pigmented tumour in the ciliary body, one a melanocytoma and the other a melanoma, with different clinical manifestations. The first one presented with decreased visual acuity associated with recent growth of the tumour, as well as sectorial opacities of the lens and subluxation. The second one is asymptomatic and has been kept under observation for more than 30 years. Although the definitive diagnosis of a pigmented tumour of the ciliary body is only achieved by the histopathology study, the group of clinical features is a determining factor when a conservative treatment is indicated. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment of gingival pigmentation : A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Deepak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection and courtesy, and reveals self confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position and the color of the teeth but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival health and appearance are essential components of an attractive smile. Gingival pigmentation results from melanin granules, which are produced by melanoblasts. The degree of pigmentation depends on melanoblastic activity. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of ′black gums′ are common particularly in patients having a very high smile line (gummy smile. For depigmentation of gingiva different treatment modalities have been reported like- Bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery and laser. In the present case series bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap (epithelial excision cryotherapy and electrosurgery have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction. The problems encountered with some of these techniques have also been discussed.

  13. Treatment of gingival pigmentation: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Prasad; Sunil, S; Mishra, R; Sheshadri

    2005-01-01

    A smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection and courtesy, and reveals self confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position and the color of the teeth but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival health and appearance are essential components of an attractive smile. Gingival pigmentation results from melanin granules, which are produced by melanoblasts. The degree of pigmentation depends on melanoblastic activity. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of 'black gums' are common particularly in patients having a very high smile line (gummy smile). For depigmentation of gingiva different treatment modalities have been reported like- Bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery and laser. In the present case series bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap (epithelial excision) cryotherapy and electrosurgery have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction. The problems encountered with some of these techniques have also been discussed.

  14. The photochromic effect of bismuth vanadate pigments. Part I: Synthesis, characterization and lightfastness of pigment coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tücks, A.; Beck, H. P.

    2005-04-01

    We report on investigations of the photochromic effect of BiVO 4 pigments. Emphasis is placed on an approach widely used in industrial color testing. By means of colorimetry Δ E ab*-values, which measure the perceived color difference, can be calculated from reflectance spectra of non-illuminated and illuminated pigment coatings. Pigments were prepared by either wet-chemical precipitation or solid-state reactions. Depending on the choice of starting compounds, lightfastness was found to vary significantly. Small amounts of impurity phases do not seem to affect photochromism. In contrast, impurities like Fe and Pb cause intense photochromism. The role of Fe is suggested by trace analyses, which (in case of pigments synthesized by precipitation reactions) reveal a correlation between concentration and Δ E ab*. Indications are found that other effects like pigment-lacquer interactions might also be of importance. Difference reflectance spectra turn out to vary in shape depending on the type and concentration of impurities or dopants. For BiVO 4 at least three different mechanisms of photochromism can be assumed.

  15. Hairless pigmented guinea pigs: a new model for the study of mammalian pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognia, J L; Murray, M S; Pawelek, J M

    1990-09-01

    A stock of hairless pigmented guinea pigs was developed to facilitate studies of mammalian pigmentation. This stock combines the convenience of a hairless animal with a pigmentary system that is similar to human skin. In both human and guinea pig skin, active melanocytes are located in the basal layer of the interfollicular epidermis. Hairless albino guinea pigs on an outbred Hartley background (CrI:IAF/HA(hr/hr)BR; designated hr/hr) were mated with red-haired guinea pigs (designated Hr/Hr). Red-haired heterozygotes from the F1 generation (Hr/hr) were then mated with each other or with hairless albino guinea pigs. The F2 generation included hairless pigmented guinea pigs that retained their interfollicular epidermal melanocytes and whose skin was red-brown in color. Following UV irradiation, there was an increase in cutaneous pigmentation as well as an increase in the number of active epidermal melanocytes. An additional strain of black hairless guinea pigs was developed using black Hr/Hr animals and a similar breeding scheme. These two strains should serve as useful models for studies of the mammalian pigment system.

  16. Photodecomposition of Pigment Yellow 74, a pigment used in tattoo inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanyan; Spann, Andrew P; Couch, Letha H; Gopee, Neera V; Evans, Frederick E; Churchwell, Mona I; Williams, Lee D; Doerge, Daniel R; Howard, Paul C

    2004-01-01

    Tattooing has become a popular recreational practice among younger adults over the past decade. Although some of the pigments used in tattooing have been described, very little is known concerning the toxicology, phototoxicology or photochemistry of these pigments. Seven yellow tattoo inks were obtained from commercial sources and their pigments extracted, identified and quantitatively analyzed. The monoazo compound Pigment Yellow 74 (PY74; CI 11741) was found to be the major pigment in several of the tattoo inks. Solutions of commercial PY74 in tetrahydrofuran (THF) were deoxygenated using argon gas, and the photochemical reaction products were determined after exposure to simulated solar light generated by a filtered 6.5 kW xenon arc lamp. Spectrophotometric and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses indicated that PY74 photodecomposed to multiple products that were isolated using a combination of silica chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC. Three of the major photodecomposition products were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry as N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxobutanamide (o-acetoacetanisidide), 2-(hydroxyimine)-N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxobutanamide and N,N''-bis(2-methoxyphenyl)urea. These results demonstrate that PY74 is not photostable in THF and that photochemical lysis occurs at several sites in PY74 including the hydrazone and amide groups. The data also suggest that the use of PY74 in tattoo inks could potentially result in the formation of photolysis products, resulting in toxicity at the tattoo site after irradiation with sunlight or more intense light sources.

  17. GREEN FLUORESCENT PIGMENT ACCUMULATED BY A MUTANT OF CELLVIBRIO GILVUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOVE, S H; HULCHER, F H

    1964-01-01

    Love, Samuel H. (Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, N.C.), and Frank H. Hulcher. Green fluorescent pigment accumulated by a mutant of Cellvibrio gilvus. J. Bacteriol. 87:39-45. 1964.-A mutant of Cellvibrio gilvus, designated strain 139A, liberated a green, fluorescent pigment into the surrounding culture medium. A study of the factors which affected the accumulation of this pigment led to the development of a chemically defined medium which supported maximal pigment accumulation in aerated, liquid cultures. d-Glucose, glycine or l-serine, l-phenylalanine, l-proline, and l-lysine comprised the organic components of this medium. The visible absorption spectrum of the pigment showed a maximal band at 400 mmu (pH 7.0). A difference spectrum between reduced and oxidized pigment showed loss of the band at 400 mmu upon oxidation. However, a methanol-extractable, flavinelike compound occurred in the wild strain but not in the mutant. Ferric ions added to the defined medium stimulated growth, with a concomitant reduction of pigment accumulation. Pigment was formed at a maximal rate during the stationary growth phase, and the highest yield was obtained by 18 hr. Organic solvents did not extract the pigment from water solutions. One and sometimes two, compounds absorbing at 400 mmu could be eluted by ion-exchange chromatography on Cellex-P (H(+)), which was used to separate the pigment from other components in the culture supernatants so that the radioactivity of the pigment could be measured. The mutant synthesized C(14)-labeled pigment from d-glucose-U-C(14) and from each of four amino acids (glycine-1-C(14), l-phenylalanine-U-C(14), l-proline-U-C(14), and l-lysine-U-C(14). Delta-Amino-levulenic acid-4-C(14) did not contribute C(14) to the pigment.

  18. Pigments and ultrastructures of pigment cells in xanthic sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, P D; Angus, R A; Morrison, R L; Frost-Mason, S K; Sheetz, J H

    1991-12-01

    Electron micrographs of skin from xanthic (gold) sailfin mollies revealed numerous xanthophores, as well as scattered melanophores. The melanophores were seen to contain premelanosomes in various stages of development. This is consistent with the fact that xanthic mollies have been shown to be tyrosinase positive. Melanosomes in xanthic mollies appear to develop by one of two pathways: 1) from an endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicle which develops an internal lamellar framework, and 2) by fusion of multiple Golgi-derived vesicles which lack an internal lamellar framework. Analysis of the pigments in the skin of the xanthic mollies identified four colorless pteridine pigments (xanthopterin, isoxanthopterin, neopterin, and pterin) and a carotenoid with an absorbance spectrum similar to beta-carotene. It appears that, unlike some other poeciliid fishes, sailfin mollies do not use pteridine pigments for orange coloration. Rather, they appear to rely primarily on carotenoids.

  19. Origins of adult pigmentation: diversity in pigment stem cell lineages and implications for pattern evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parichy, David M; Spiewak, Jessica E

    2015-01-01

    Teleosts comprise about half of all vertebrate species and exhibit an extraordinary diversity of adult pigment patterns that function in shoaling, camouflage, and mate choice and have played important roles in speciation. Here, we review studies that have identified several distinct neural crest lineages, with distinct genetic requirements, that give rise to adult pigment cells in fishes. These lineages include post-embryonic, peripheral nerve-associated stem cells that generate black melanophores and iridescent iridophores, cells derived directly from embryonic neural crest cells that generate yellow-orange xanthophores, and bipotent stem cells that generate both melanophores and xanthophores. This complexity in adult chromatophore lineages has implications for our understanding of adult traits, melanoma, and the evolutionary diversification of pigment cell lineages and patterns.

  20. DNA damage in isolated rat hepatocytes exposed to C.I. pigment orange 5 and C.I. pigment yellow 12 by the alkaline comet assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Wallin, Håkan; Grunnet, N

    1998-01-01

    The induction of DNA damage by commonly used printing ink pigments, C.I. pigment orange 5 (C.I. 12075) and C.I. pigment yellow 12 (C.I. 21090), was investigated in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes with the comet assay. C.I. pigment yellow 12 is a 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine-based diarylide pigment, an......]quinoxaline. Our data indicate that both C.I. pigment orange 5 and C.I. pigment yellow 12 are genotoxic in hepatocytes with metabolizing capacities. However, further investigation of the metabolism and disposition are required for the evaluation of the safety of these pigments....

  1. Characterization of Sorolla's gouache pigments by means of spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Clodoaldo; Juanes, David; Ferrazza, Livio; Carballo, Jorgelina

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the Joaquín Sorolla's gouache sketches for the oil on canvas series "Vision of Spain" commissioned by A. M. Huntington to decorate the library of the Hispanic Society of America in New York. The analyses were focused on the identification of the elemental composition of the gouache pigments by means of portable EDXRF spectrometry in a non-destructive mode. Additionally, SEM-EDX and FTIR analyses of a selected set of micro-samples were carried out to identify completely the pigments, the paint technique and the binding media. The obtained results have confirmed the identification of lead and zinc white, vermillion, earth pigments, ochre, zinc yellow, chrome yellow, ultramarine, Prussian blue, chromium based and copper-arsenic based green pigments, bone black and carbon based black pigments, and the use of gum arabic as binding media in the gouache pigments.

  2. Graph-based pigment network detection in skin images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, M.; Razmara, M.; Ester, M.; Lee, T. K.; Atkins, M. S.

    2010-03-01

    Detecting pigmented network is a crucial step for melanoma diagnosis. In this paper, we present a novel graphbased pigment network detection method that can find and visualize round structures belonging to the pigment network. After finding sharp changes of the luminance image by an edge detection function, the resulting binary image is converted to a graph, and then all cyclic sub-graphs are detected. Theses cycles represent meshes that belong to the pigment network. Then, we create a new graph of the cyclic structures based on their distance. According to the density ratio of the new graph of the pigment network, the image is classified as "Absent" or "Present". Being Present means that a pigment network is detected in the skin lesion. Using this approach, we achieved an accuracy of 92.6% on five hundred unseen images.

  3. Analytical Raman spectroscopic discrimination between yellow pigments of the Renaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.

    2011-10-01

    The Renaissance represented a major advance in painting techniques, subject matter, artistic style and the use of pigments and pigment mixtures. However, most pigments in general use were still mineral-based as most organic dyes were believed to be fugitive; the historical study of artists' palettes and recipes has assumed importance for the attribution of art works to the Renaissance period. Although the application of diagnostic elemental and molecular spectroscopic techniques play vital and complementary roles in the analysis of art works, elemental techniques alone cannot definitively provide the data needed for pigment identification. The advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the definitive diagnostic characterisation of yellow pigments that were in use during the Renaissance is demonstrated here in consideration of heavy metal oxides and sulphides; these data will be compared with those obtained from analyses of synthetic yellow pigments that were available during the eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries which could have been used in unrecorded restorations of Renaissance paintings.

  4. Seasonal and interannual variations in pigments in the Adriatic Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mira Morović

    2002-09-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of pigments was studied from the CZCS satellite data and from in situ chlorophyll and transparency for the period 1979-1985. The three Adriatic sites, Northern, Middle, and Southern Adriatic are differently in oceanographic parameters. The differences between seasonal in situ chlorophyll and remotely sensed pigment concentrations (from CZCS satellite data) from the Adriatic are large in winter. Through the correlation analysis, pigments were compared to meteo-oceanographic and hydrological parameters from different Adriatic sites. The PCA (principal component analysis) was applied to the pigment data series and significant components were compared. Different correlations are obtained for warm and cold periods of the year pointing to seasonal differences in the underlying mechanism of pigment variability. The first PC is in more parameters seem to in field, than in the cold period. The pigments in the Adriatic are in good correlation to a number of hydrologic and meteo-oceanographic factors.

  5. Pigment and terracotta analyses of Hellenistic figurines in Crete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, P.; Kallithrakas-Kontos, N

    2003-11-14

    The results of the analyses performed on blue, black, brown, orange, white and purple pigments decorating Hellenistic figurines, excavated in a rock-cut tomb in the archaeological zone of Chania, Crete, Greece, are presented. Different spectroscopic techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence identified the compounds present in the chromatic layers. X-ray diffraction analysis gave complementary information and further support to the spectral assignments. Optical microscopy revealed the nature and sequence of the pigmented layer on the terracotta. Several precious pigments, such as Egyptian blue for the bluish areas, Tyrian purple for the purple ones, and the rare huntite for the white-pigmented areas were identified among the studied pigmented areas. The pigment analysis provides information on the technical aspects related to terracotta manufacture and preservation, and promotes historical indications on cultural and commercial changes among the Mediterranean civilisations.

  6. [Accumulation of tattoo pigment in sentinel lymph nodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürle, S; Schulte, K W; Homey, B

    2009-10-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented with a superficial spreading melanoma on her right thigh (tumor thickness 1.0 mm, Clark-Level III). She also had decorative tattoos on her right ankle, right groin and coccyx. The staging results gave no indication for metastases. Intra-operatively, we observed a black pigmented lymph node highly suspicious for metastatic disease, but histological examination excluded metastatic spread and detected the accumulation of black pigment within the lymph node. Clinical differentiation between tattoo pigments and metastatic disease within lymph nodes is not possible. Histological confirmation of an enlarged pigmented lymph node is therefore essential before radical surgery is performed. Hence, accumulation of tattoo pigment within enlarged and pigmented lymph nodes needs to be included into the differential diagnosis and the documentation of decorative tattoos is important during skin cancer screening as well as during the follow-up of melanoma patients.

  7. Cultivation conditions for pigment production by Chromobacterium violaceum

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Vasconcellos Antônio; Rozangela Curi Pedrosa; Luismar Marques Porto; Margot Érika Caris; Ana Kelly Pitlovanciv

    2006-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a beta proteobacterium, gram-negative, facultative anaerobe, found in soil, riverbanks and waters of tropical and subtropical regions all around the world. The species produces, through secondary metabolism, several indole pigments derived from tryptophan. Violacein and desoxyviolacein are the most abundant pigments produced by C. violaceum. Previous studies have reported that culture extracts from C. violaceum, containing the pigments, possess important biologica...

  8. Pump-probe imaging of historical pigments used in paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samineni, Prathyush; deCruz, Adele; Villafaña, Tana E; Warren, Warren S; Fischer, Martin C

    2012-04-15

    A recently developed nonlinear optical pump-probe microscopy technique uses modulation transfer to sensitively extract excited-state dynamics of endogenous biological pigments, such as eumelanin and pheomelanin. In this work, we use this method to image and characterize several inorganic and organic pigments used in historical art. We show substantial differences in the near-IR pump-probe signatures from nominally similar pigments and suggest extensions to art restoration.

  9. Pigmented villonodular synovitis: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Mark D; Rhee, John H; Lewis, Rachel B; Fanburg-Smith, Julie C; Flemming, Donald J; Walker, Eric A

    2008-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) represents an uncommon benign neoplastic process that may involve the synovium of the joint diffusely or focally (PVNS) or that may occur extraarticularly in a bursa (pigmented villonodular bursitis [PVNB]) or tendon sheath (pigmented villonodular tenosynovitis [PVNTS]). Pathologic specimens of the hypertrophic synovium may appear villous, nodular, or villonodular, and hemosiderin deposition, often prominent, is seen in most cases. The knee, followed by the hip, is the most common location for PVNS or PVNB, whereas PVNTS occurs most often in the hand and foot. PVNTS is also referred to as giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS). PVNTS is the most common form of this disease by a ratio of approximately 3:1. Radiographs reveal nonspecific features of a joint effusion in PVNS, a focal soft-tissue mass in PVNB or PVNTS, or a normal appearance. Extrinsic erosion of bone (on both sides of the joint) may also be seen and is most frequent with intraarticular involvement of the hip (>90% of cases). Cross-sectional imaging reveals diffuse involvement of the synovium (PVNS), an intimate relationship to the tendon (PVTNS), or a typical bursal location (PVNB), findings that suggest the diagnosis. However, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of prominent low signal intensity (seen with T2-weighting) and "blooming" artifact from the hemosiderin (seen with gradient-echo sequences) are nearly pathognomonic of this diagnosis. In addition, MR imaging is optimal for evaluating lesion extent. This information is crucial to guide treatment and to achieve complete surgical resection. Recurrence is more common with diffuse intraarticular disease and is difficult to distinguish, both pathologically and radiologically, from the rare complication of malignant PVNS. Recognizing the appearances of the various types of PVNS, which reflect their pathologic characteristics, improves radiologic assessment and is important for optimal patient

  10. Abnormal pigmentation within cutaneous scars: A complication of wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Chadwick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally pigmented scars are an undesirable consequence of cutaneous wound healing and are a complication every single individual worldwide is at risk of. They present a challenge for clinicians, as there are currently no definitive treatment options available, and render scars much more noticeable making them highly distressing for patients. Despite extensive research into both wound healing and the pigment cell, there remains a scarcity of knowledge surrounding the repigmentation of cutaneous scars. Pigment production is complex and under the control of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors and patterns of scar repigmentation are unpredictable. This article gives an overview of human skin pigmentation, repigmentation following wounding and current treatment options.

  11. Oral melanoacanthoma: A rare case of diffuse oral pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Ashok Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical presentation of diffuse pigmentation can be alarming to the patient as well as the clinician. A histopathologic examination of a pigmented lesion is necessary in most of the cases in the oral cavity. Oral melanoacanthoma is a very rare diffuse pigmentation with no specific treatment required. It shows increased number of dendritic melanocytes in an acanthotic epithelium. We present a rare case of diffuse pigmentation in the oral cavity whose diagnosis was done on the basis of clinical presentation and histopathology. Also immunohistochemistry was done.

  12. Corneal tolerance to micronised mineral pigments for keratopigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amesty, Maria A; Alio, Jorge L; Rodriguez, Alejandra E

    2014-12-01

    To study the tolerance and biocompatibility of micronised mineral pigments for corneal cosmetic pigmentation in an experimental animal model. Corneal intralamellar keratopigmentation was performed in 28 New Zealand white rabbits using micronised mineral pigments. Prophylactic actions using intraoperative antibiotic prophylaxis and gamma radiation of the pigment mixtures were performed to avoid infection. Animals were examined regularly by slit lamp to detect any sign of inflammation, pigment diffusion, colour changes or neovascularisation. Histopathological examination was performed to determine the level of pigment diffusion, the level of inflammation and the presence of neovascularisation. No pigment diffusion or changes in colour, inflammation or neovascularisation were detected in the eyes treated. Histopathological examination corroborated clinical results regarding inflammation. Pigmented corneas showed a good cosmetic appearance without signs of ocular toxicity. Micronised mineral pigments could be a valid alternative treatment for cosmetic keratopigmentation. The intralamellar keratopigmentation technique presented good cosmetic appearance without adverse effects in the eyes treated. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. LOCALIZED PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: CASE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Godoy, Fabiola Andrea de; Faustino, Carlos Alberto Cury; Meneses, Cláudio Santos; Nishi, Sergio Tadao; Góes, César Eduardo Giancoli; Canto, Abaeté Leite do

    2015-01-01

    This case concerned a female patient with a complaint of pain in the anterior region of her left knee during and after sports activities, followed by joint blockage three months ago. From imaging examinations, simple radiography of the knee was normal and magnetic resonance showed a solid expansive mass, possibly corresponding to soft-tissue chondroma or focal nodular synovitis. Arthroscopic resection of the lesion was performed, and the diagnosis of diffuse giant cell tumor resembling localized pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) was made from the result of the anatomopathological examination. The patient presented good clinical evolution, with disappearance of symptoms and return to physical activities. PMID:27027040

  14. Development of waste-based ceramic pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa, G.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the preparation of ceramic pigments using industrial wastes as primary sources. In this context, the use of Al-rich sludge generated in the wastewater treatment unit of an anodising or surface coating industrial plant, and a galvanizing sludge from the Cr/Ni plating process, will be detailed. The ceramic pigments reported here were prepared using typical solid state reactions involving the metal rich sludge. The main focus will be on the synthesis of chrome-tin orchid cassiterite (Sn,CrO2, chrome-tin red malayaite Ca(Cr,SnSiO5, victoria green garnet Ca3Cr2Si3O12, and chrome alumina pink/green corundum (Cr,Al2O3 pigments. The pigments were fully characterised and then were tested in a standard ceramic glaze after. Typical working conditions and colour development will be reported.

    Se presenta la preparación de pigmentos cerámicos empleando residuos industriales como fuente de materias primas. Se detallan el uso de barros ricos en aluminio obtenidos en los tratamientos de depuración de aguas de plantas industriales de anodizado y barros de galvanizados de chapados de Cr/Ni. Los pigmentos cerámicos se prepararon empleando reacción en estados sólido a partir del barro rico en metal. Los principales pigmentos estudiados son orquídea casiterita de cromo-estaño (Sn,CrO2, malayita rojo de cromo-estaño Ca(Sn,CrSiO3, granate verde victoria Ca3Cr2Si3O12, y corindón rosa/verde de cromo alúmina (Cr,Al2O3. Los pigmentos fueron caracterizados y ensayados después de ser vidriados en cerámicas estándares. Se presentan las condiciones de trabajo y el desarrollo de color.

  15. Pigmented villonodular synovitis: dedicated PET imaging findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amber, Ian Blake; Clark, Brian J; Greene, Gary Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is an uncommon entity, which has the potential to cause severe pain. The gold standard for evaluation is MRI, and previous PET findings associated with PVNS have only been documented in the setting of concurrent malignancy. In the setting of recurrent disease, PET is being used to evaluate prebiological and postbiological treatment responses. Recurrent PVNS demonstrates greater hypermetabolic activity than previously documented, supporting the case as a potential mimic of malignant/metastatic disease. Post-treatment evaluations demonstrate decreased metabolic activity, which suggests response to treatment. This behaviour further supports the contention that there is a neoplastic origin to PVNS. PMID:23598941

  16. Simple Diagnostic Tests for Subungual Pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shardul Poudyal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Subungual pigmentation can have benign and malignant etiologies. A common and important differential diagnosis is between subungual hematoma and subungual acrolentiginous melanoma. We have introduced Dr. Eckert Haneke's technique and our Hydrogen Peroxide modification for distinguishing these entities clinically. Dr. Haneke's technique uses the hemocult reaction to detect hematoma from the specimen, while our modification uses Hydrogen Peroxide to clear the hematoma and make the decision clinically. Both are minimally invasive techniques which can be performed without pain. Often these procedures spare the patient an unnecessary tissue biopsy with its morbidity and discomfort. Importantly, they reassure the patient that he or she has a benign disorder.

  17. LOCALIZED PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Godoy, Fabiola Andrea de; Faustino, Carlos Alberto Cury; Meneses, Cláudio Santos; Nishi, Sergio Tadao; Góes, César Eduardo Giancoli; Canto, Abaeté Leite do

    2011-01-01

    This case concerned a female patient with a complaint of pain in the anterior region of her left knee during and after sports activities, followed by joint blockage three months ago. From imaging examinations, simple radiography of the knee was normal and magnetic resonance showed a solid expansive mass, possibly corresponding to soft-tissue chondroma or focal nodular synovitis. Arthroscopic resection of the lesion was performed, and the diagnosis of diffuse giant cell tumor resembling localized pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) was made from the result of the anatomopathological examination. The patient presented good clinical evolution, with disappearance of symptoms and return to physical activities.

  18. Predicting hair cortisol levels with hair pigmentation genes: A possible hair pigmentation bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, A. (Alexander); G. Noppe (Gerard); F. Liu; M.H. Kayser (Manfred); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCortisol concentrations in hair are used to create hormone profiles spanning months. This method allows assessment of chronic cortisol exposure, but might be biased by hair pigmentation: dark hair was previously related to higher concentrations. It is unclear whether this association

  19. Zinc deficiency leads to lipofuscin accumulation in the retinal pigment epithelium of pigmented rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Julien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is associated with lipofuscin accumulation whereas the content of melanosomes decreases. Melanosomes are the main storage of zinc in the pigmented tissues. Since the elderly population, as the most affected group for AMD, is prone to zinc deficit, we investigated the chemical and ultrastructural effects of zinc deficiency in pigmented rat eyes after a six-month zinc penury diet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult Long Evans (LE rats were investigated. The control animals were fed with a normal alimentation whereas the zinc-deficiency rats (ZD-LE were fed with a zinc deficient diet for six months. Quantitative Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX microanalysis yielded the zinc mole fractions of melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. The lateral resolution of the analysis was 100 nm. The zinc mole fractions of melanosomes were significantly smaller in the RPE of ZD-LE rats as compared to the LE control rats. Light, fluorescence and electron microscopy, as well as immunohistochemistry were performed. The numbers of lipofuscin granules in the RPE and of infiltrated cells (Ø>3 µm found in the choroid were quantified. The number of lipofuscin granules significantly increased in ZD-LE as compared to control rats. Infiltrated cells bigger than 3 µm were only detected in the choroid of ZD-LE animals. Moreover, the thickness of the Bruch's membrane of ZD-LE rats varied between 0.4-3 µm and thin, rangy ED1 positive macrophages were found attached at these sites of Bruch's membrane or even inside it. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In pigmented rats, zinc deficiency yielded an accumulation of lipofuscin in the RPE and of large pigmented macrophages in the choroids as well as the appearance of thin, rangy macrophages at Bruch's membrane. Moreover, we showed that a zinc diet reduced the zinc mole fraction of melanosomes in the RPE and modulated the thickness of the Bruch's membrane.

  20. Photoinduced changes in photosystem II pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Atanaska S.; Busheva, Mira C.; Stoitchkova, Katerina V.; Tzonova, Iren K.

    2010-11-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus in higher plants performs two seemingly opposing tasks: efficient harvest of sunlight, but also rapid and harmless dissipation of excess light energy as heat to avoid deleterious photodamage. In order to study this process in pigment-protein supercomplexes of photosystem II (PSII), 77 K fluorescence and room temperature resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy were applied to investigate the changes in structure and spectral properties of the pigments in spinach PSII membranes. The high-light treatment results in a strong quenching of the fluorescence (being largest when the excitation is absorbed by carotenoids) and a red-shift of the main maximum. Decomposition of the fluorescence spectra into four bands revealed intensive quenching of F685 and F695 bands, possible bleaching of chlorophyll a, enhanced extent of light harvesting complexes (LHCII) aggregation and increased energy transfer to aggregated LHCII. The analysis of RR spectra revealed the predominant contribution of ß-carotene (ß-Car) upon 457.8 and 488 nm excitations and lutein (Lut) at 514.5 nm. During prolonged exposure to strong light no significant bleaching of ß-Car and weak photobleaching of Lut is observed. The results will contribute to the efforts to produce more efficient and robust solar cells when exposed to fluctuations in light intensity.

  1. Construction of artificial pigment-protein antennae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibbald, JeNell [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-01-10

    Photosynthesis is a complex process which results in the conversion of solar radiation into chemical energy. This chemical energy is then used as the free energy source for all living organisms. In its basic form, photosynthesis can be described as the light-activated synthesis of carbohydrates from the simple molecules of water and carbon dioxide: 6H2O + 6 CO2 light C6H12O6 + 6 O2 This basic mechanism actually requires numerous reaction steps. The two primary steps being: the capture of light by pigment molecules in light-harvesting antenna complexes and the transfer of this captured energy to the so-called photochemical reaction center. While the preferred pathway for energy absorbed by the chromophores in the antenna complexes is transfer to the reaction center, energy can be lost to competing processes such as internal conversion or radiative decay. Therefore, the energy transfer must be rapid, typically on the order of picoseconds, to successfully compete. The focus of the present work is on the construction of light-harvesting antenna complexes incorporating modular pigment-proteins.

  2. A colorimetric sensor array of porous pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung H; Kemling, Jonathan W; Feng, Liang; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2009-12-01

    The development of a low-cost, simple colorimetric sensor array capable of the detection and identification of toxic gases is reported. This technology uses a disposable printed array of porous pigments in which metalloporphyrins and chemically-responsive dyes are immobilized in a porous matrix of organically modified siloxanes (ormosils) and printed on a porous membrane. The printing of the ormosil into the membrane is highly uniform and does not lessen the porosity of the membrane, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. When exposed to an analyte, these pigments undergo reactions that result in well-defined color changes due to strong chemical interactions: ligation to metal ions, Lewis or Brønsted acid-base interactions, hydrogen bonding, etc. Striking visual identification of 3 toxic gases has been shown at the IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration, at the PEL (permissible exposure level), and at a level well below the PEL. Identification and quantification of analytes were achieved using the color change profiles, which were readily distinguishable in a hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) dendrogram, with no misclassifications in 50 trials.

  3. Fruit flesh betacyanin pigments in hylocereus cacti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Mizrahi, Yosef

    2002-10-09

    Determination of profiles and total contents of betacyanins in cactus fruits of Hylocereus species using chromatographic and spectrophotometric method is described. The investigated species were H. polyrhizus, H. purpusii, H. costaricensis, H. sp. 487 (all red-flesh species and hybrids made among them), and the white- or red-flesh species H. undatus. Hybrids included hybrid 1 (H. undatus white-flesh clone and H. sp. 487), hybrid 35 (H. sp. 487 and H. polyrhizus), and the reciprocal hybrid hybrid 95 (H. polyrhizus and H. sp. 487). Fruits of H. polyrhizus exhibited the highest relative concentration (expressed as percentage of the total HPLC peak area) of hylocerenin, a recently discovered pigment, and a high relative concentration of phyllocactin. Hylocerenin and isohylocerenin, present in fruits at relative concentrations of 11.7 and 5.8%, respectively, are probably responsible for the fluorescent color of the fruit pulp. H. costaricensis fruits have a much higher content of phyllocactin (63.9%), which is almost 4 times higher than the betanin content. These differences in pigment concentrations might explain the differences in red hues of the flesh of these fruits.

  4. Bile pigments in pulmonary and vascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W. Ryter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The bile pigments, biliverdin and bilirubin, are endogenously-derived substances generated during enzymatic heme degradation. These compounds have been shown to act as chemical antioxidants in vitro. Bilirubin formed in tissues circulates in the serum, prior to undergoing hepatic conjugation and biliary excretion. The excess production of bilirubin has been associated with neurotoxicity, in particular to the newborn. Nevertheless, clinical evidence suggests that mild states of hyperbilirubinemia may be beneficial in protecting against cardiovascular disease in adults. Pharmacological application of either bilirubin and/or its biological precursor biliverdin, can provide therapeutic benefit in several animal models of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. Furthermore, biliverdin and bilirubin can confer protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury and graft rejection secondary to organ transplantation in animal models. Several possible mechanisms for these effects have been proposed, including direct antioxidant and scavenging effects, and modulation of signaling pathways regulating inflammation, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and immune responses. The practicality and therapeutic-effectiveness of bile pigment application to humans remains unclear.

  5. Bile pigments in pulmonary and vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W

    2012-01-01

    The bile pigments, biliverdin, and bilirubin, are endogenously derived substances generated during enzymatic heme degradation. These compounds have been shown to act as chemical antioxidants in vitro. Bilirubin formed in tissues circulates in the serum, prior to undergoing hepatic conjugation and biliary excretion. The excess production of bilirubin has been associated with neurotoxicity, in particular to the newborn. Nevertheless, clinical evidence suggests that mild states of hyperbilirubinemia may be beneficial in protecting against cardiovascular disease in adults. Pharmacological application of either bilirubin and/or its biological precursor biliverdin, can provide therapeutic benefit in several animal models of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. Furthermore, biliverdin and bilirubin can confer protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury and graft rejection secondary to organ transplantation in animal models. Several possible mechanisms for these effects have been proposed, including direct antioxidant and scavenging effects, and modulation of signaling pathways regulating inflammation, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and immune responses. The practicality and therapeutic-effectiveness of bile pigment application to humans remains unclear.

  6. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments of prochloron (prochlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paerl, H. W.; Lewin, R. A.; Cheng, L.

    1983-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a gradient-elution technique was utilized to separate and quantify chlorophylls a and b as well as major carotenoid pigments present in freeze-dried preprations of prochloron-didemnid associations and in Prochloron cells separated from host colonies. Results confirm earlier spectrophotometric evidence for both chlorophylls a and b in this prokaryote. Chlorophyll a:b ratios range from 4.14 to 19.71; generally good agreement was found between ratios determined in isolated cell preprations and in symbiotic colonies (in hospite). These values are 1.5 to 5-fold higher than ratios determined in a variety of eukaryotic green plants. The carotenoids in Prochloron are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those found in various freshwater and marine blue-green algae (cyanopbytes) from high-light environments. However, Prochloron differs from cyanophytes by the absence of myxoxanthophyll and related glycosidic carotenoids. It pigment characteristics are considered sufficiently different from those of cyanophytes to justify its assignment to a separate algal division.

  7. Epigenetic’s role in fish pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cal Delgado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The agouti coat colour gene encodes a paracrine signalling molecule whose differential expression produces the characteristic dorsal-ventral pigment pattern observed in most mammals. We have recently demonstrated that this well-characterised mechanism from mammals also applies to fish with their much more complex pigment patterns. However, the developmental mechanism through which agouti acts to establish these colour differences remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to explore the molecular mechanisms that regulate agouti gene expression by in-vivo functional characterization of the agouti promoter and identification of possible putative regulatory elements that govern basal promoter activity. Specifically, the investigation was focused on the occurrence and role of CpG dinucleotides methylation in the agouti putative promoter sequence and on a possible epigenetic level of regulation of agouti expression. We report here expression analyses of eGFP expression from transgenic zebrafish containing an 8kb-agouti-Tol2-eGFP construct. eGFP expression was specifically found in the brain area and neural tube of Tol2 transposon vector transgenic embryos. Computer-based analysis revealed a putative CpG island immediately proximal to the translation start site. Global inhibition of methylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine promoted agouti production in association with decreasing CpG methylation. Taken together, these data identify a contributory role for DNA methylation in regulating agouti expression in zebrafish embryogenesis.

  8. Drying of Pigment-Cellulose Nanofibril Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Timofeev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new substrate containing cellulose nanofibrils and inorganic pigment particles has been developed for printed electronics applications. The studied composite structure contains 80% fillers and is mechanically stable and flexible. Before drying, the solids content can be as low as 20% due to the high water binding capacity of the cellulose nanofibrils. We have studied several drying methods and their effects on the substrate properties. The aim is to achieve a tight, smooth surface keeping the drying efficiency simultaneously at a high level. The methods studied include: (1 drying on a hot metal surface; (2 air impingement drying; and (3 hot pressing. Somewhat surprisingly, drying rates measured for the pigment-cellulose nanofibril substrates were quite similar to those for the reference board sheets. Very high dewatering rates were observed for the hot pressing at high moisture contents. The drying method had significant effects on the final substrate properties, especially on short-range surface smoothness. The best smoothness was obtained with a combination of impingement and contact drying. The mechanical properties of the sheets were also affected by the drying method and associated temperature.

  9. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae: biological constraints and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulders, Kim J M; Lamers, Packo P; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing interest in naturally produced colorants, and microalgae represent a bio-technologically interesting source due to their wide range of colored pigments, including chlorophylls (green), carotenoids (red, orange and yellow), and phycobiliproteins (red and blue). However, the concentration of these pigments, under optimal growth conditions, is often too low to make microalgal-based pigment production economically feasible. In some Chlorophyta (green algae), specific process conditions such as oversaturating light intensities or a high salt concentration induce the overproduction of secondary carotenoids (β-carotene in Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodoresco and astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis (Flotow)). Overproduction of all other pigments (including lutein, fucoxanthin, and phycocyanin) requires modification in gene expression or enzyme activity, most likely combined with the creation of storage space outside of the photosystems. The success of such modification strategies depends on an adequate understanding of the metabolic pathways and the functional roles of all the pigments involved. In this review, the distribution of commercially interesting pigments across the most common microalgal groups, the roles of these pigments in vivo and their biosynthesis routes are reviewed, and constraints and opportunities for overproduction of both primary and secondary pigments are presented.

  10. Growth of cultured porcine retinal pigment epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, A.K.; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nicolini, Jair;

    2003-01-01

    To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation.......To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation....

  11. Pigmentation in Anuran Testes: Anatomical Pattern and Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian [UNESP; Zieri, Rodrigo [UNESP; de Souza Santos, Lia Raquel; Moresco, Rafaela Maria; Oliveira, Classius de [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    In amphibians, pigmented cells are present in several organs, composing an extracutaneous pigmentary system. Seventeen species from two families were studied to develop a protocol for pigmentary classification. The amount and distribution of these cells are variable, allowing the establishment of anatomical patterns for visceral pigmentation in anuran testes. Anat Rec, 292:178-182, 2009. (C) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Dihydrolindbladiones, three new naphthoquinone pigments from a myxomycete Lindbladia tubulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misono, Yuka; Ishikawa, Yae; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Hayashi, Masahiko; Komiyama, Kanki; Ishibashi, Masami

    2003-07-01

    Three new naphthoquinone pigments, 6,7-dimethoxydihydrolindbladione (1), dihydrolindbladione (2), and 6-methoxydihydrolindbladione (3), have been isolated from a myxomycete Lindbladia tubulina, and their structures were elucidated by spectral data. Compound 3 appreciably exhibited a reversal effect of multidrug resistance. Lindbladione (4), the major pigment of this myxomycete, was also isolated from Cribraria intricata.

  13. 21 CFR 73.1350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.1350 Section 73.1350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments....

  14. 21 CFR 73.3128 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.3128 Section 73.3128 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... pigments. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive is formed by depositing titanium or...

  15. Betacyanins pigments as photosensitizing agents for holographic recording medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Hernández-Hernández, E.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Santacruz-Vazquez, V.

    2014-02-01

    One of the natural most employed within the food industry are pigments of betalains by their solubility in water to give desired colorations in processed foods such as beverages, dairy, meat. However, this research shows that this type of pigments can be used as photosensitizing agents in the field of holographic recording materials.

  16. Eggshell pigmentation in the blue tit : Male quality matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badas, E. P.; Martinez, J.; Rivero-de Aguilar, J.; Stevens, M.; van der Velde, M.; Komdeur, J.; Merino, S.

    Many passerines lay protoporphyrin-pigmented eggs, and the degree of spotting seems to be related to female condition and environmental characteristics. However, most studies have ignored the relationship between the male's quality and eggshell pigmentation. Because ornaments can act as honest

  17. Structures and colour properties of new red wine pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Anders Eckart; Pardon, K.; Hayasaka, Y.

    2003-01-01

    the colour properties of the pigments were characterized; it could be demonstrated that the pyranoanthocyanins retained their red colour at pH 3.6 in model wine and were resistant to bisulfite-mediated bleaching. Finally, HPLC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of both anthocyanin-derived pigments in red...... wine....

  18. An Improved Method for Extraction and Separation of Photosynthetic Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Nobuyasu; Kanaizuka, Yasuhiro; Sudarmi, Rini; Yokohama, Yasutsugu

    2003-01-01

    The method for extracting and separating hydrophobic photosynthetic pigments proposed by Katayama "et al." ("Japanese Journal of Phycology," 42, 71-77, 1994) has been improved to introduce it to student laboratories at the senior high school level. Silica gel powder was used for removing water from fresh materials prior to extracting pigments by a…

  19. Fungal polyketide azaphilone pigments as future natural food colorants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Thrane, Ulf; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    pigments from such potentially safe hosts is advantageous over traditional processes that involve Monascus spp., which risks co-production of the mycotoxin citrinin. Thus, there is tremendous potential for the development of robust fungal production systems for polyketide pigments, both to tailor...

  20. Chemical purity and toxicology of pigments used in tattoo inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Henrik; Lewe, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The safety of tattoo inks has obviously increased in Europe since the existence of European Union Resolution ResAP(2008)1, which resulted in the improved quality control of pigment raw materials due to the definition of impurity limits that manufacturers can refer to. High-performance pigments are mostly used in tattoo inks, and these pigments are supposed to be chemically inert and offer high light fastness and low migration in solvents. However, these pigments were not developed or produced for applications involving long-term stay in the dermis or contact with bodily fluids. Therefore, these pigments often do not comply with the purity limits of the resolution; however, it is required that every distributed tattoo ink does not contain aromatic amines and not exceed the limits of heavy metals or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Current toxicity studies of pigments underline that no ecotoxicological threat to human health or to the environment should be expected. However, the pigment as well as its impurities and coating materials must be considered. In order to evaluate the safety of pigments according to their impurities, two different validated sample preparation methods are necessary: (1) simulation of their long-term stay in the bodily fluid of the dermis and (2) simulation of cleavage due to laser removal or ultraviolet exposure. The development of standardized, validated and well-adapted methods for this application has to be part of prospective efforts. Concerning legislation, it might be appropriate that the first regulative approaches be based on those of cosmetics.

  1. Changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of pink chicken eggshells with different pigment intensity during incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of chicken eggshells with different intensities of pink pigment during the incubation period. We also investigated the effects of the region (small pole, equator and large pole and pink pigment intensity of the chicken eggshell on the percent transmission of light passing through the chicken eggshells. Method. Eggs of comparable weight from a meat-type breeder (Meihuang were used, and divided based on three levels of pink pigment (light, medium and dark in the eggshells. During the incubation (0–21 d, the values of the eggshell pigment (ΔE, L∗, a∗, b∗ were measured. The percent transmission of light for different regions and intensities of eggshell pigmentation was measured by using the visible wavelength range of 380–780 nm. Result. Three measured indicators of eggshell color, ΔE, L∗ and a∗, did not change significantly during incubation. Compared with other regions and pigment intensities, eggshell at the small pole and with light pigmentation intensity showed the highest percent transmission of light. The transmission value varied significantly (P < 0.001 with incubation time. The element analysis of eggshells with different levels of pink pigment showed that the potassium content of the eggshells for all pigment levels decreased significantly during incubation. Conclusion. In summary, pigment intensity and the region of the eggshell influenced the percent transmission of light of eggshell. Differences in the spectral characteristics of different eggshells may influence the effects of photostimulation during the incubation of eggs. All of these results will be applicable for perfecting the design of light intensity for lighted incubation to improve productivity.

  2. Skin Pigmentation Kinetics after Exposure to Ultraviolet A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbak, M.H.; Philipsen, P.A.; Wiegell, S.R.;

    2009-01-01

    Multiple exposures to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are the norm in nature and phototherapy. However, studies of the kinetics of pigmentation following UVA exposure have included only fair-skinned persons. The aim of this study was to investigate steady-state pigmentation and fading in 12...... Scandinavians and 12 Indians/Pakistanis after 6 and 12 exposures on the back using broadband UVA and UVA1 with equal sub-minimal melanogenic doses (individually predetermined). Pigmentation was measured by skin reflectance at 555 and 660 urn. The UV dose to minimal pigmentation was higher in dark......-skinned persons after a single broadband UVA exposure, but independent of pigmentation/skin type after single and multiple UVA1 exposures. To elicit minimal melanogenic doses after 6 and 12 exposures, every dose is lowered by a factor of 2 and 3, respectively, but the cumulative dose increases three- and four...

  3. Single Molecule Spectroscopy on Photosynthetic Pigment-Protein Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Jelezko, F; Schuler, S; Thews, E; Tietz, C; Wechsler, A; Wrachtrup, J

    2001-01-01

    Single molecule spectroscopy was applied to unravel the energy transfer pathway in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes. Detailed analysis of excitation and fluorescence emission spectra has been made for peripheral plant antenna LHC II and Photosystem I from cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. Optical transitions of individual pigments were resolved under nonselective excitation of antenna chlorophylls. High-resolution fluorescence spectroscopy of individual plant antenna LHC II indicates that at low temperatures, the excitation energy is localized on the red-most Chl a pool absorbing at 680 nm. More than one pigment molecule is responsible for the fluorescence emission of the LHC II trimer. The spectral lines of single Chl a molecules absorbing at 675 nm are broadened because of the Foerster energy transfer towards the red-most pigments. Low-temperature spectroscopy on single PS I trimers indicates that two subgroups of pigments, which are present in the red antenna pool, differ by the strength of t...

  4. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na+ with Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  5. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ruchi, E-mail: shawruchi1@gmail.com; Tiwari, Sangeeta, E-mail: stiwari2@amity.edu [Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh-201301 (India)

    2016-04-13

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na{sup +} with Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  6. Classification of marine diatoms using pigment ratio suites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Peng; YU Zhigang; DENG Chunmei; LIU Shuxia; ZHEN Yu

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms are widely distributed in many temperate areas and some species frequently form extensive blooms in spring.Hence,monitoring the variations of specific genera or species of diatoms is necessary for studying phytoplankton population dynamics in marine ecosystems.To test whether pigment ratios can be used to identify diatoms at a below-class taxonomic level,we analyzed 14 species/strains of diatoms isolated from Chinese seas using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).We normalized all pigment concentrations to total chlorophyll a to calculate the ratios of pigment to chlorophyll a,and calculated the ratios between accessory pigments (or pigment sums).Cluster analysis indicated that these diatoms could be classified into four clusters in terms of three accessory pigment ratios:chlorophyll c2:chlorophyll c1,fucoxanthin:total chlorophyll c and diadinoxanthin:diatoxanthin.The classification results matched well with those of biological taxonomy.To test the stability of the classification,pigment data from one species,cultured under different light intensities,and five new species/strains were calculated and used for discriminant analysis.The results show that the classification of diatom species using pigment ratio suites was stable for the variations of pigment ratios of species cultured in different light intensities.The introduction of new species,however,may confuse the classification within the current scheme.Classification of marine diatoms using pigment ratio suites is potentially valuable for the fine chemotaxonomy of phytoplankton at taxonomic levels below class and would advance studies on phytoplankton population dynamics and marine ecology.

  7. Ionochromic behavior of Grecko visual pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescitelli, F

    1977-01-14

    Digitonin extracts of the retina of Gekko gekko prepared to minimize the presence of chloride ions show the photopigment to be at about 490 nanometers rather than at 521 nanometers, the position found for the same pigment in situ. The addition of chloride to the extract causes a bathochromic shift in spectral absorbance, the magnitude of the shift being related to the concentration of chloride, within limits. The effect is a specific one, and of all the anions tested only bromide causes a similar bathochromic shift. The nature of the cation is not involved since the same action is produced by the chlorides of sodium, lithium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, calcium, magnesium, beryllium, lanthanum, and choline.

  8. Knee tuberculosis masquerading as pigmented villonodular synovitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Meena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB, once a disease confined to undeveloped or developing nations is currently in resurgence, which is attributable to pandemic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and immigration from endemic areas. Tuberculous arthritis is difficult to diagnose early because of its atypical insidious clinical manifestations and nonspecific imaging findings. TB is also known as the ′great mimicker′. Specifically, monoarticular tuberculosis of the knee may mimic pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS. The present report describes a young patient with tuberculous arthritis of knee joint. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate management was delayed due to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings, such as, hemosiderin deposits and a nodular mass around the knee joint, suggestive of a diffuse type of PVNS. Our findings suggest that the first step in the diagnosis of tuberculous knee arthritis is to have a high index of suspicion.

  9. Radiative Cooling With Pigmented Polyethylene Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Eriksson, Tord S.

    1989-03-01

    Polyethylene foils containing a nonabsorbing pigment can be suitable for radiative cooling because of their high reflectance of solar radiation combined with a high transmittance in the atmospheric window region in the thermal infrared. We have studied the optical properties in the wavelength range 0.3-50 μm of extruded polyethylene foils containing various amounts of 0.23 μm diameter Ti02 particles. It appears that the foils can prevent heating of an underlying material, even when directly illuminated by the sun. The total transmittance and reflectance of the Ti02-polyethylene foils were compared with multiple scattering calculations. Lorenz-Mie theory was used to model the scattering and absorption of a single TiO2 sphere. The single scattering parameters were then introduced into the four flux theory, by which the transmittance and reflectance were calculated. We find a satisfactory agreement between theory and experiments in most cases.

  10. Photosynthesis-dependent anthocyanin pigmentation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prasanta Kumar; Geul, Bang; Choi, Sang-Bong; Yoo, Sang-Dong; Park, Youn-Il

    2011-01-01

    Light is the ultimate energy source for photo-autotrophs on earth. For green plants, however, it can also be toxic under certain stressful environmental conditions and at critical developmental stages. Anthocyanins, a class of flavonoids, act as an effective screening mechanism that allows plant survival and proliferation under occasional periods of harmful irradiation through modulation of light absorption. Apart from light-sensing through photoreceptors such as phytochrome and cryptochrome, plants use the photosynthetic electron transfer (PET) chain to integrate light information. The redox status of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool of the PET chain regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, together with the plant hormone ethylene and plant hormone-like sugars. A complex signaling apparatus in acyanic cells appears to transduce information to cyanic cells to regulate anthocyanin production through an intercellular signaling pathway that remains largely uncharacterized. This review will highlight recent advances in this field and their implications for the regulation of anthocyanin pigmentation.

  11. High biological variability of plastids, photosynthetic pigments and pigment forms of leaf primordia in buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solymosi, Katalin; Morandi, Dominique; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla; Schoefs, Benoît

    2012-05-01

    To study the formation of the photosynthetic apparatus in nature, the carotenoid and chlorophyllous pigment compositions of differently developed leaf primordia in closed and opening buds of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) as well as in closed buds of tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima P. Mill.) were analyzed with HPLC. The native organization of the chlorophyllous pigments was studied using 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy, and plastid ultrastructure was investigated with electron microscopy. Complete etiolation, i.e., accumulation of protochlorophyllide, and absence of chlorophylls occurred in the innermost leaf primordia of common ash buds. The other leaf primordia were partially etiolated in the buds and contained protochlorophyllide (0.5-1 μg g(-1) fresh mass), chlorophyllides (0.2-27 μg g(-1) fresh mass) and chlorophylls (0.9-643 μg g(-1) fresh mass). Etio-chloroplasts with prolamellar bodies and either regular or only low grana were found in leaves having high or low amounts of chlorophyll a and b, respectively. After bud break, etioplast-chloroplast conversion proceeded and the pigment contents increased in the leaves, similarly to the greening processes observed in illuminated etiolated seedlings under laboratory conditions. The pigment contents and the ratio of the different spectral forms had a high biological variability that could be attributed to (i) various light conditions due to light filtering in the buds resulting in differently etiolated leaf primordia, (ii) to differences in the light-exposed and inner regions of the same primordia in opening buds due to various leaf folding, and (iii) to tissue-specific slight variations of plastid ultrastructure.

  12. Clinicoepidemiological study of pigmented purpuric dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lata Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPD are a group of vascular disorders with varied manifestations which cause concern and are resistant to treatment. The literature is still lacking in clinicoepidemiological studies. Aim: To study the epidemiology, etiological, host and environmental factors, clinical manifestations, its variations, and the type prevalent in this part of the world. Materials and Methods: All cases of PPD were selected for the study from Skin and Venereal Disease, Out Patient Department between January 2008 and June 2009. Their history, examination, hematological investigations, and, in a few, histopathology findings were also recorded and data obtained were evaluated statistically. Results: There were 100 cases of PPD of total 55 323 patients (0.18%. There were 79 males and 21 females between 11 and 66 years. They were working as police men, security guards, barber, chemist, teachers, students, farmers, businessmen, and housewives. In a majority, there was a history of prolonged standing in day-to-day work. Purpuric, brownish pigmented, lichenoid or atrophic lesions were seen depending upon the type of PPD on lower parts of one or both lower limbs. Blood investigations were normal. Schamberg′s disease was seen in ninety five, Lichen aureus in three, lichenoid dermatosis and Majocchi′s disease in one case each. Discussion: Three clinical types of PPD were diagnosed which may represent different features of the same disease. Cell-mediated immunity, immune complexes, capillary fragility, gravitational forces, venous hypertension, focal infection, clothing, contact allergy to dyes, and drug intake have been incriminating factors in the past. Patient′s occupation and environmental factors may also be considered contributory in precipitating the disease. Conclusions: The study revealed the problem of PPD in this geographical area, its magnitude, clinical presentation, the type prevalent, and possible aggravating

  13. Comparative short-term inhalation toxicity of five organic diketopyrrolopyrrole pigments and two inorganic iron-oxide-based pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Thomas; Ma-Hock, Lan; Strauss, Volker; Treumann, Silke; Rey Moreno, Maria; Neubauer, Nicole; Wohlleben, Wendel; Gröters, Sibylle; Wiench, Karin; Veith, Ulrich; Teubner, Wera; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diketopyrrolopyrroles (DPP) are a relatively new class of organic high-performance pigments. The present inhalation and particle characterization studies were performed to compare the effects of five DPP-based pigments (coarse and fine Pigment Red 254, coarse and fine meta-chloro DPP isomer and one form of mixed chlorinated DPP isomers) and compare it to coarse and fine inorganic Pigment Red 101. Wistar rats were exposed head-nose to atmospheres of the respective materials for 6 h/day on 5 consecutive days. Target concentrations were 30 mg/m3 as high dose for all compounds and selected based occupational exposure limits for respirable nuisance dust. Toxicity was determined after end of exposure and after 3-week recovery using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and microscopic examinations of the entire respiratory tract. Mixed chlorinated DPP isomers and coarse meta-chloro DPP isomer caused marginal changes in BALF, consisting of slight increases of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and in case of coarse meta-chloro DPP increased MCP-1 and osteopontin levels. Mixed chlorinated DPP isomers, Pigment Red 254, and meta-chloro DPP caused pigment deposits and phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages, slight hypertrophy/hyperplasia of the bronchioles and alveolar ducts, but without evidence of inflammation. In contrast, only pigment deposition and pigment phagocytosis were observed after exposure to Pigment Red 101. All pigments were tolerated well and caused only marginal effects in BALF or no effects at all. Only minor effects were seen on the lung by microscopic examination. There was no evidence of systemic inflammation based on acute-phase protein levels in blood. PMID:27387137

  14. Effects of roxarsone on pigmentation and coccidiosis in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, L M; Reid, W M

    1975-09-01

    Roxarsone (0.005%) medicated chickens inoculated at seven weeks of age with Eimeria maxima oocysts had significantly higher pigment levels in blood plasma than did unmedicated controls. Unmedicated E. maxima infected birds had significantly lower pigment levels compared to uninoculated controls. Uninoculated roxarsone medicated controls showed no increase in pigment levels over uninoculated unmedicated birds. This experimental design demonstrates that the beneficial effect of roxarsone medication is due to anticoccidial action rather than an increase in pigmentation after feeding the yellow-colored roxarsone. Since uninoculated birds gained more rapidly if roxarsone (0.025%) was added to the diet, the drug also appears to stimulate growth as well as to protect against coccidial infection. In two floor-pen experiments roxarsone demonstrated anticoccidial activity as measured by higher pigment scores than unmedicated infected controls. The coccidial infection was induced after seeding the litter with oocysts from birds infected with E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. hagani, E. maxima, E. mivati, E. necatrix, E. praecox, and E. tenella. Pigmentation levels were significantly higher in plasma and skin of roxarsone medicated chickens in two experiments and in shanks in one experiment. Similar protection against depigmentation was demonstrated by adding roxarsone to feed medicated with nequinate. These results involving addition of roxarsone may explain some equivocal reports on pigmentation, weight gains or feed conversion. Some previous investigators appear to have used an inadequate experimental design by omitting use of unmedicated uninoculated controls or to have made no attempt to monitor for presence or absence of coccidiosis.

  15. Pigment characterization and lovastatin content of Monascus purpureus isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERNAWATI KASIM

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on characterization of pigment and lovastatin content of M. purpureus had been done. The aim of the research was to select 19 isolates of M. purpureus which produced the highest lovastatin content, and whether there was any correlation between pigment content and the lovastatin content. The isolates were grown on slant agar of bean sprout extract agar for 14 days. The spores suspension was inoculated to sterile cooked rice IR 42, then incubated for 14 days at 27-32oC. The fermented rice called “angkak”, dried in oven at 40-45oC for two weeks. The dried “angkak” was powdered to measure the content of the pigment and lovastatin. By using spectrophotometer the content of the yellow pigment and the red pigment at 390 nm and 500 nm wavelength respectively, could be detected. The content of lovastatin could be measured by using HPLC. The result showed that all the tested isolates could produce lovastatin compound, the yellow and the red pigment. The highest lovastatin content was 0.92% which produced by JmbA isolate. There was no correlation between the pigment and the lovastatin content.

  16. Optimizing Angkak Pigments and Lovastatin Production By Monascus purpureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASIM DANURI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Angkak pigments and lovastatin had been reported very useful as natural coloring agents, as an agent to increase thrombocyte level in Dengue hemorrhagic fever, and also as a compound that was able to control blood cholesterol level. Three strains of fungus Monascus purpureus AKI, AKII, and 915 were selected to produce angkak pigments and lovastatin in potato dextrose agar (PDA medium. The best fungus strain, which is AKII, was then applied in three kinds of rice media (white rice IR-42, red rice BP-1804-IF-9, and a combination of 1:1 (w/w white IR-42 and red rice BP-1804-IF-9 for solid fermentation. The best medium and fermentation times were determined for the production of angkak pigments and lovastatin separately. Results showed that strains, media, and duration of fermentations gave significant effect on the amount of pigment produced. Strain AKII produced highest concentration of angkak pigments. The combination of rice (White IR-42 and red rice BP-1804-IF-9 produced the highest pigment than the individual white and red rie it self. The optimum duration of fermentation was 16 days for strains AKI and AKII, but only 15 days for strain 915. Therefore the strain AKII with media combination of rice and a fermentation time of 16 days were used to investigate the additional effect of various minerals. Addition of the mineral individually gave significant increased on angkak pigment production by AKII, where as the addition of minerals mixture in the forth tube did not.

  17. Impact of Pigments on Self-Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Ivanauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe an impact of using iron oxide pigment on self-compacting concrete (SCC properties. We have experimented with adding portions of iron oxide pigment from 3 % to 6 % into cement paste. A few alternative pigments (chromic oxide and iron oxide hydroxide were used for performing the same experiments. The impact of these pigments on a normal cement paste is described in this paper. We demonstrate that iron oxide pigment reduces the need for water in a normal cement paste. However, adding the pigment also reduces the compressive strength of concrete up to 20 %. The concrete specimens were tested in various time spans, i.e. 1 day to 28 days, by keeping them in 20 ± 2 ºC water – normal consolidation regimen. Some of the specimens were processed in steam chamber, at 60 ºC in order to make the process of the cement hydration faster, as well as to estimate an impact of active SiO2 proportion in ash on SCC properties. We show that using iron oxide pigment for SCC mixture increases the slump-flow property of concrete mix up to 5 %. Experiments with solidified concrete have demonstrated that iron oxide diminishes water absorption up to 6 % and decreases open concrete porosity that makes concrete resistant against freezing. Article in Lithuanian

  18. Characterizing pigments with hyperspectral imaging variable false-color composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayem-Ghez, Anita; Ravaud, Elisabeth; Boust, Clotilde; Bastian, Gilles; Menu, Michel; Brodie-Linder, Nancy

    2015-11-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has been used for pigment characterization on paintings for the last 10 years. It is a noninvasive technique, which mixes the power of spectrophotometry and that of imaging technologies. We have access to a visible and near-infrared hyperspectral camera, ranging from 400 to 1000 nm in 80-160 spectral bands. In order to treat the large amount of data that this imaging technique generates, one can use statistical tools such as principal component analysis (PCA). To conduct the characterization of pigments, researchers mostly use PCA, convex geometry algorithms and the comparison of resulting clusters to database spectra with a specific tolerance (like the Spectral Angle Mapper tool on the dedicated software ENVI). Our approach originates from false-color photography and aims at providing a simple tool to identify pigments thanks to imaging spectroscopy. It can be considered as a quick first analysis to see the principal pigments of a painting, before using a more complete multivariate statistical tool. We study pigment spectra, for each kind of hue (blue, green, red and yellow) to identify the wavelength maximizing spectral differences. The case of red pigments is most interesting because our methodology can discriminate the red pigments very well—even red lakes, which are always difficult to identify. As for the yellow and blue categories, it represents a good progress of IRFC photography for pigment discrimination. We apply our methodology to study the pigments on a painting by Eustache Le Sueur, a French painter of the seventeenth century. We compare the results to other noninvasive analysis like X-ray fluorescence and optical microscopy. Finally, we draw conclusions about the advantages and limits of the variable false-color image method using hyperspectral imaging.

  19. Combustion synthesis of cobalt pigments: Blue and pink

    OpenAIRE

    Mimani, T; Ghosh, Samrat

    2000-01-01

    Idiochromatic blue cobalt aluminate (CoAl2O4) and purple pyroborate Co2B2O5 were prepared by solution combustion method using corresponding metal nitrates, boric acid and carbohydrazide mixtures. Allochromatic Co2+ doped in Al2O3/ZnAl2O4 and Mg2B2O5 pigments having the same colour intensity as idiochromatic pigments were obtained similarly. All the pigments are voluminous, homogeneously coloured with a large surface area. The products are characterized by their characteristic colours, XRD, IR...

  20. Production of a Blue Pigment (Glaukothalin) by Marine Rheinheimera spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Peter Grossart; Marc Thorwest; Inken Plitzko; Thorsten Brinkhoff; Meinhard Simon; Axel Zeeck

    2009-01-01

    Two γ-Proteobacteria strains, that is, HP1 and HP9, which both produce a diffusible deep blue pigment, were isolated from the German Wadden Sea and from the Øresund, Denmark, respectively. Both strains affiliate with the genus Rheinheimera. Small amounts of the pigment could be extracted from HP1 grown in a 50 L fermenter and were purified chromatographically. Chemical analysis of the pigment including NMR and mass spectrometry led to a molecular formula of C34H56N4O4 (m.w. 584.85) which has ...

  1. The extraction of pigments from fresh Laminaria japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liqun; LI Pengcheng; FAN Shoujin

    2008-01-01

    The pigments in Laminaria japonica was extracted with six organic solvents and analyzed in spectroscopy analysis.The extractions conditions were screened by an orthogonal test and the quantity of extracted pigments was determined spectroscopically.The results show that:(1) among the six organic solvents,acetone was the most effective one for the extraction; (2) the optimum extraction conditions were as follows:the ratio of S/M (solvent volume/ material weight) was 30ml/g; fresh seaweed was extracted 2 times in 2h; (3) the average total content of pigments was 1.85mg/g (calculated with dry L.japonica).

  2. Algal pigments in Southern Ocean abyssal foraminiferans indicate pelagobenthic coupling.

    OpenAIRE

    Cedhagen, Tomas; Cheah, Wee; Bracher, Astrid; Lejzerowicz, Franck

    2014-01-01

    The cytoplasm of four species of abyssal benthic foraminiferans from the Southern Ocean (around 51°S; 12°W and 50°S; 39°W) was analysed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and found to contain large concentrations of algal pigments and their degradation products. The composition of the algal pigments in the foraminiferan cytoplasm reflected the plankton community at the surface. Some foraminiferans contained high ratios of chlorophyll a/degraded pigments because they were feeding...

  3. Unusual nail pigmentation following cyclophosphamide-containing chemotherapy regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Santosh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide therapy may rarely cause pigmentation of the nails which is of different patterns. We report a patient who developed pigmentation of nails after six cycles of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-flourouracil chemotherapy, each repeated after 28 days for breast cancer. The patient developed nail pigmentation that started proximally and spread distally and involved all the nails of both hands and feet except the second and third toenails of right foot. Using Naranjo ADR Probability Scale, the case revealed a "probable" association with cyclophosphamide.

  4. The penetration depth and lateral distribution of pigment related to the pigment grain size and the calendering of paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow, K.; Kristiansson, P. E-mail: per.kristiansson@nuclear.lu.se; Schueler, B.; Tullander, E.; Oestling, S.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.; Shariff, A

    2002-04-01

    The interaction of ink and newspaper has been investigated and the specific question of penetration of ink into the paper has been addressed with a nuclear microprobe using particle induced X-ray emission. The penetration depth of the newsprint is a critical factor in terms of increasing the quality of newsprint and minimising the amount of ink used. The objective of the experiment was to relate the penetration depth of pigment with the calendering of the paper. The dependence of the penetration depth on the pigment grain size was also studied. To study the penetration depth of pigment in paper, cyan ink with Cu as a tracer of the coloured pigment was used. For the study of the penetration depth dependence of pigment size, specially grounded Japanese ink with well-defined pigment grain size was used. This was compared to Swedish ink with pigment grains with normal size-distribution. The results show that the calendering of the paper considerably affects the penetration depth of ink.

  5. Preparation and characterization of Cr203 system optically variable pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Haiyan; ZHANG Hua; CHEN Qirong; SUN Jiayue; XU Wencai; MA Erjun

    2007-01-01

    An optically variable pigment was produced by wet chemical method, where TiO2-coated mica with interfer-ence colors acted as the substrate materials. The structure of the pigment was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),and its optically variable effect was investigated by X-Rite MA86 Ⅱ five angles spectrophotometer. The impact of differ-ent interference substrate materials for improving the color travel effect was studied, and the influence of white and black background on the hue and the color travel effect were stud-ied. Results showed that optically variable pigments can be prepared by coating Cr2O3 on the surface of the pretreated TiO2-coated mica. The color travel effect was sensitive to the change of substrate materials, and different backgrounds can influence the hue and the color travel effect of the pigment.

  6. Epiphytic marine pigmented bacteria : A prospective source of natural antioxidants

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pawar, R.T.; Mohandass, C.; Sivaperumal, E.; Sabu, E.; Rajasabapathy, R.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Awareness on antioxidants and its significance in human healthcare has increased many folds in recent time. Increased demand requisite on welcoming newer and alternative resources for natural antioxidants. Seaweed associated pigmented bacteria...

  7. Regulation of pigment migration in the amphibian melanophore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, A.C.J.; Oordt, G.J. van

    1962-01-01

    Among vertebrates rapid color changes in the skin are restricted to fishes, amphibia and reptiles. These reactions are based on the movements of pigment granules in special cells, the chromatophores which may be classified as leucophores, xanthophores, erythrophores and melanophores.

  8. Culture medium optimization for pigment production with RSM method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize a medium for a red-pigmented marine bacterium S-9801 strain (Flavobacterium sp.). In the first optimization step the influence of yeast extract, peptone, glucose and sodium chloride on pigment production was evaluated using a fractional factorial design. Pigment production was positively influenced by glucose and sodium chloride while other components had no significant effect. In the second step the path of steepest ascent was used to approach the optimal region of the medium composition. In the third step the optimal concentration of glucose and sodium chloride was determined by a central composite design and response analysis. The optimized medium allowed pigment production (A 535~650) to be increased from 0.137 to0.559, being 320% higher than the original medium.

  9. Vitisin-type pigments: Possible novel food colors

    OpenAIRE

    Amić, Dragan; Davidović-Amić, Dušanka; Drago BEŠLO; Trinajstić, Nenad

    2000-01-01

    Spectral properties of different forms of several vitisin-type pigments, recently found in red wines and grapes, were studied. These orange-red tone compounds seem to be promising anthocyanin based food colors.

  10. Fungal polyketide azaphilone pigments as future natural food colorants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapari, Sameer A S; Thrane, Ulf; Meyer, Anne S

    2010-06-01

    The recent approval of fungal carotenoids as food colorants by the European Union has strengthened the prospects for fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide pigments. Fungal production of colorants has the main advantage of making the manufacturer independent of the seasonal supply of raw materials, thus minimizing batch-to-batch variations. Here, we review the potential of polyketide pigments produced from chemotaxonomically selected non-toxigenic fungal strains (e.g. Penicillium and Epicoccum spp.) to serve as food colorants. We argue that the production of polyketide azaphilone pigments from such potentially safe hosts is advantageous over traditional processes that involve Monascus spp., which risks co-production of the mycotoxin citrinin. Thus, there is tremendous potential for the development of robust fungal production systems for polyketide pigments, both to tailor functionality and to expand the color palette of contemporary natural food colorants.

  11. Cellulosic/wool pigment prints with remarkable antibacterial functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N A; Eid, B M; Khalil, H M

    2015-01-22

    Several bio-active agents namely choline chloride, triclosan derivative, PEG-600 and 4-hydroxybenzophenone were successfully included into solvent-free pigment formulations, in a single-stage process, followed by screen printing and microwave-fixation to obtain antibacterial functionalized cellulosic/wool pigment prints. Results obtained signify that both the improvement in functionalization and coloration properties are governed by type of antibacterial agent, kind of substrate as well as pigment colorant. The imparted antibacterial activity of the loaded bio-active agents follows the decreasing order: G+ve (Staphylococcus aureus)>G-ve (Escherichia coli), keeping other parameters constant. The imparted functional and coloration properties showed no significant decrease even after 15 washings. Mode of interactions among the nominated substrates, the pigment paste constituents and the bioactive agents were also proposed.

  12. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae: biological constraints and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.; Lamers, P.P.; Martens, D.E.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in naturally produced colorants, and microalgae represent a bio-technologically interesting source due to their wide range of colored pigments, including chlorophylls (green), carotenoids (red, orange and yellow), and phycobiliproteins (red and blue). However, the

  13. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Somogyi, A. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Peltier, N. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Alianelli, L. [INFM-OGG c/o ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Moignard, B. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Calligaro, T. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Dran, J.-C. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France)

    2004-10-08

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  14. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of oral amalgam pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Sirera, Beatriz; Risueño-Mata, Presentación; Ricart-Vayá, José M; Baquero Ruíz de la Hermosa, Carmen; Vera-Sempere, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Amalgam tattoo, the most common exogenous oral pigmentation, can sometimes be confused with melanotic lesions, being then biopsied. We present the clinicopathological characteristics of 6 biopsied cases (5 females and 1 male) of oral amalgam pigmentation. The most common location was the gingival mucosa, followed by the buccal and palatal mucosa. Morphology and distribution (stromal, perivascular, perineural, endomysial) of pigmentation was variable; there was only 1 case with fibrous capsular reaction and likewise only a single case of granulomatous foreign body reaction. Morphological variability is conditioned by the timing and amount of the pigment deposit, which is often associated with infiltration by mast cells (CD117+), as well as overexpression of metallothionein and HLA-DR at different tissue levels.

  15. Glucose metabolism in rat retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Víctor; Carbajal, Raymundo C; Salceda, Rocío

    2006-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the major transport pathway for exchange of metabolites and ions between choroidal blood supply and the neural retina. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism in RPE and its possible relationship to retinopathy, we studied the influence of different glucose concentrations on glycogen and lactate levels and CO(2) production in RPE from normal and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Incubation of normal RPE in the absence of glucose caused a decrease in lactate production and glycogen content. In normal RPE, increasing glucose concentrations from 5.6 mM to 30 mM caused a four-fold increase in glucose accumulation and CO(2) yield, as well as reduction in lactate and glycogen production. In RPE from diabetic rats glucose accumulation did not increase in the presence of high glucose substrate, but it showed a four- and a seven-fold increase in CO(2) production through the mitochondrial and pentose phosphate pathways, respectively. We found high glycogen levels in RPE which can be used as an energy reserve for RPE itself and/or neural retina. Findings further show that the RPE possesses a high oxidative capacity. The large increase in glucose shunting to the pentose phosphate pathway in diabetic retina exposed to high glucose suggests a need for reducing capacity, consistent with increased oxidative stress.

  16. Multifocal pigmented villonodular synovitis in a child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Kaiyu; Hua, Yimin; Li, Yifei; Mu, Dezhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare, benign proliferative disorder of the synovial membrane that typically presents in adults and affects a single joint. Multifocal PVNS is very rare, particularly in childhood. We reported a rare case of multifocal PVNS affecting over 20 joints in a child. Clinical procedure: A 7-year-old female patient had a 6-month history of multifocal joints swelling with mild pain. She was diagnosed as polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis at a local hospital. Naproxen, methotrexate, infliximab, and pavlin were used to treat the patient for 2 months. However, the treatment had no effect, the joints swelling remained. The patient was then transferred to our hospital. Physical examination revealed multiple joints swelling, especially in the shoulders joints. Puncture fluid from a shoulder joint was bloody. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed synovial thickening and hemosiderin deposition. Biopsy of joint synovium found villous nodules, the invasion of foam cells, and hemosiderin deposition. By collecting all of the evidence, the diagnosis of PVNS was confirmed. Conclusions: PVNS was easily misdiagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis and the formal treatment was usually delayed. This case described here is the first case of PVNS involving such a large numbers of joints that has been reported in the literature. PMID:27537585

  17. Cuticle formation and pigmentation in beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Mi Young; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kramer, Karl J; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2016-10-01

    Adult beetles (Coleoptera) are covered primarily by a hard exoskeleton or cuticle. For example, the beetle elytron is a cuticle-rich highly modified forewing structure that shields the underlying hindwing and dorsal body surface from a variety of harmful environmental factors by acting as an armor plate. The elytron comes in a variety of colors and shapes depending on the coleopteran species. As in many other insect species, the cuticular tanning pathway begins with tyrosine and is responsible for production of a variety of melanin-like and other types of pigments. Tanning metabolism involves quinones and quinone methides, which also act as protein cross-linking agents for cuticle sclerotization. Electron microscopic analyses of rigid cuticles of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, have revealed not only numerous horizontal chitin-protein laminae but also vertically oriented columnar structures called pore canal fibers. This structural architecture together with tyrosine metabolism for cuticle tanning is likely to contribute to the rigidity and coloration of the beetle exoskeleton.

  18. Pigment Melanin: Pattern for Iris Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Hosseini, Mahdi S; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2009-01-01

    Recognition of iris based on Visible Light (VL) imaging is a difficult problem because of the light reflection from the cornea. Nonetheless, pigment melanin provides a rich feature source in VL, unavailable in Near-Infrared (NIR) imaging. This is due to biological spectroscopy of eumelanin, a chemical not stimulated in NIR. In this case, a plausible solution to observe such patterns may be provided by an adaptive procedure using a variational technique on the image histogram. To describe the patterns, a shape analysis method is used to derive feature-code for each subject. An important question is how much the melanin patterns, extracted from VL, are independent of iris texture in NIR. With this question in mind, the present investigation proposes fusion of features extracted from NIR and VL to boost the recognition performance. We have collected our own database (UTIRIS) consisting of both NIR and VL images of 158 eyes of 79 individuals. This investigation demonstrates that the proposed algorithm is highly s...

  19. Culturing of retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtink, Monika; Engelmann, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a monolayer of cells adjacent to the photoreceptors of the retina. It plays a crucial role in maintaining photoreceptor health and survival. Degeneration or dysfunction of the RPE can lead to photoreceptor degeneration and as a consequence to visual impairment. The most common diseased state of the RPE becomes manifest in age-related macular degeneration, an increasing cause of blindness in the elderly. RPE cells are therefore of great interest to researchers working in the field of tissue engineering and cell transplantation. In fact, studies in animal models have proven that the transplantation of RPE cells can delay the course of photoreceptor degenerative diseases. Although first attempts to transplant RPE cells into the subretinal space in human individuals suffering from age-related macular degeneration were less successful, RPE cell transplantation is still favored as a future therapeutic option, and much work is done to develop and design cell transplants. Cell banking is a prerequisite to have well-differentiated and characterized cells at hand when needed for research purposes, but also for therapeutic approaches. In this chapter the authors will describe methods to isolate, culture and preserve adult human RPE cells for the purpose of RPE cell banking. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Fumed metallic oxides and conventional pigments for glossy inkjet paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunkook

    Product development activity in the area of inkjet printing papers has accelerated greatly to meet the rapidly growing market for inkjet papers. Advancements in inkjet printing technology have also placed new demands on the paper substrate due to faster printing rates, greater resolution through increased drop volumes, and colorants added to the ink. To meet these requirements, papermakers are turning to pigmented size press formulations or pigmented coating systems. For inkjet coating applications, both the internal porosity of the pigment particles as well as the packing porosity of the coating affect print quality and dry time. Pores between the pigment particles allow for rapid diffusion of ink fluids into the coating structure, while also providing capacity for ink fluid uptake. Past research has shown the presence of coating cracks to increase the microroughness of the papers, consequently reducing the gloss of the silica/polyvinyl alcohol based coating colors. Coating cracks were not observed, at the same level of magnification, in the scanning electron microscopy images of alumina/polyvinyl alcohol coated papers. Studies are therefore needed to understand the influence of coating cracking on the microroughening of silica/polyvinyl alcohol based coatings and consequences to coating and ink gloss. Since micro roughening is known to be linked to shrinkage of the coating layer, studies are needed to determine if composite pigments can be formulated, which would enable the coating solids of the formulations to be increased to minimize the shrinkage of coating layer during drying. Coating solids greater than 55% solids are needed to reduce the difference between application solids and the coating's immobilization solids point in order to reduce shrinkage. The aim of this research was to address the above mentioned needed studies. Studies were performed to understand the influence of particle packing on gloss and ink jet print quality. Composite pigment structures

  1. Multidimensional Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Photosynthetic Pigment-Protein Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    De Re, Eleonora

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation presents the application of ultrafast spectroscopy to the investigation of pigment-protein complexes (PPCs) involved in energy transfer and energy dissipation in photosynthetic organisms. PPCs are the building blocks of all photosynthetic organisms, and within individual pigment-protein complexes, energy transfer dynamics occur over fast timescales and broad spectral regions. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to the capability of photosynthetic organisms to absorb light energy...

  2. Extraction of fungal polyketide pigments using ionic liquids.

    OpenAIRE

    Lebeau, Juliana,; Venkatachalam, M; Fouillaud, M.; Dufossé, Laurent; Caro, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Poster communication, 8th International Conference of Pigments in Food, “Coloured foods for health benefits”, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, June 28 - July 01, 2016.; International audience; Filamentous fungi have been widely recognized as promising sources of various types ofbiomolecules and are therefore highly investigated. The production of fungal pigments is oneintensively studied domain in order to respond to the growing demand for natural colorants assubstitutes to synthetic dyes used in food, ...

  3. Monodisperse Hollow Tricolor Pigment Particles for Electronic Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xianwei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A general approach has been designed to blue, green, and red pigments by metal ions doping hollow TiO 2. The reaction involves initial formation of PS at TiO2 core–shell nanoparticles via a mixed-solvent method, and then mixing with metal ions solution containing PEG, followed calcining in the atmosphere. The as-prepared hollow pigments exhibit uniform size, bright color, and tunable density, which are fit for electronic paper display.

  4. Detachments of the retinal pigment epithelium at the posterior pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, K G; Levitzky, M J; Carr, R E

    1976-08-01

    Multiple vitelliform cysts of the retina, a disorder of unknown cause in which there are multiple detachments of the retinal pigment epithelium at the posterior pole, occurred in five patients. In four patients all lesions were located outside the parafoveal area while one patient showed bilateral foveal elevations associated with more eccentric detachments. Several patients showed slow resolution of some of the detachments with mild disturbances of the pigment epithelium.

  5. Antioxidant Activities of Total Pigment Extract from Blackberries

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Zhonggao; Liu, Jiechao; Wang, Sixin

    2005-01-01

    Total pigment has been extracted from blackberries and its antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation and scavenging capacities towards superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals and nitrite in different in vitro systems have been investigated. The total pigment extract from blackberries (TPEB) exhibited strong antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation in a linoleic acid model system and scavenging capacities towards superoxide anion radicals, generated by a pyrogallol autoxidati...

  6. Pigment compositions are linked to the habitat types in dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Norico; Tanaka, Ayumi; Horiguchi, Takeo

    2015-11-01

    Compared to planktonic species, there is little known about the ecology, physiology, and existence of benthic dinoflagellates living in sandy beach or seafloor environments. In a previous study, we discovered 13(2),17(3)-cyclopheophorbide a enol (cPPB-aE) from sand-dwelling benthic dinoflagellates. This enol had never been detected in phytoplankton despite the fact that it is a chlorophyll a catabolite. We speculated from this discovery that habitat selection might be linked to pigment compositions in dinoflagellates. To test the hypothesis of habitat selection linking to pigment compositions, we conducted extensive analysis of pigments with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for 40 species using 45 strains of dinoflagellates including three habitat types; sand-dwelling benthic forms, tidal pool inhabitants and planktonic species. The 40 dinoflagellates are also able to be distinguished into two types based on their chloroplast origins; red alga-derived secondary chloroplasts and diatom-derived tertiary ones. By plotting the pigments profiles onto three habitats, we noticed that twelve pigments including cPPB-aE were found to occur only in benthic sand-dwelling species of red alga-derived type. The similar tendency was also observed in dinoflagellates with diatom-derived chloroplasts, i.e. additional sixteen pigments including chl c 3 were found only in sand-dwelling forms. This is the first report of the occurrence of chl c 3 in dinoflagellates with diatom-derived chloroplasts. These results clarify that far greater diversity of pigments are produced by the dinoflagellates living in sand regardless of chloroplast types relative to those of planktonic and tidal pool forms. Dinoflagellates seem to produce a part of their pigments in response to their habitats.

  7. Laser therapy of pigmented lesions: pro and contra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Lipozenčić, Jasna; Ceović, Romana; Stulhofer Buzina, Daška; Kostović, Krešimir

    2010-01-01

    Although frequently performed, laser removal of pigmented lesions still contains certain controversial issues. Epidermal pigmented lesions include solar lentigines, ephelides, café au lait macules and seborrheic keratoses. Dermal lesions include melanocytic nevi, blue nevi, drug induced hyperpigmentation and nevus of Ota and Ito. Some lesions exhibit both an epidermal and dermal component like Becker's nevus, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations, melasma and nevus spilus. Due to the wide absorption spectrum of melanin (500-1100 nm), several laser systems are effective in removal of pigmented lesions. These lasers include the pigmented lesion pulsed dye laser (510 nm), the Q-switched ruby laser (694 nm), the Q-switched alexandrite laser (755 nm) and the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), which can be frequency-doubled to produce visible green light with a wavelength of 532 nm. The results of laser therapy are usually successful. However, there are still many controversies regarding the use of lasers in treating certain pigmented lesions. Actually, the essential question in removing pigmented lesions with lasers is whether the lesion has atypical features or has a malignant potential. Dermoscopy, used as a routine first-level diagnostic technique, is helpful in most cases. If there is any doubt whether the lesion is benign, then a biopsy for histologic evaluation is obligatory.

  8. Genetic Architecture of Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembeck, Lauren M; Huang, Wen; Magwire, Michael M; Lawrence, Faye; Lyman, Richard F; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2015-05-01

    Pigmentation varies within and between species and is often adaptive. The amount of pigmentation on the abdomen of Drosophila melanogaster is a relatively simple morphological trait, which serves as a model for mapping the genetic basis of variation in complex phenotypes. Here, we assessed natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in 175 sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, derived from the Raleigh, NC population. We quantified the proportion of melanization on the two most posterior abdominal segments, tergites 5 and 6 (T5, T6). We found significant genetic variation in the proportion of melanization and high broad-sense heritabilities for each tergite. Genome-wide association studies identified over 150 DNA variants associated with the proportion of melanization on T5 (84), T6 (34), and the difference between T5 and T6 (35). Several of the top variants associated with variation in pigmentation are in tan, ebony, and bric-a-brac1, genes known to affect D. melanogaster abdominal pigmentation. Mutational analyses and targeted RNAi-knockdown showed that 17 out of 28 (61%) novel candidate genes implicated by the genome-wide association study affected abdominal pigmentation. Several of these genes are involved in developmental and regulatory pathways, chitin production, cuticle structure, and vesicle formation and transport. These findings show that genetic variation may affect multiple steps in pathways involved in tergite development and melanization. Variation in these novel candidates may serve as targets for adaptive evolution and sexual selection in D. melanogaster.

  9. Analytical Raman spectroscopic discrimination between yellow pigments of the Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M

    2011-10-01

    The Renaissance represented a major advance in painting techniques, subject matter, artistic style and the use of pigments and pigment mixtures. However, most pigments in general use were still mineral-based as most organic dyes were believed to be fugitive; the historical study of artists' palettes and recipes has assumed importance for the attribution of art works to the Renaissance period. Although the application of diagnostic elemental and molecular spectroscopic techniques play vital and complementary roles in the analysis of art works, elemental techniques alone cannot definitively provide the data needed for pigment identification. The advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the definitive diagnostic characterisation of yellow pigments that were in use during the Renaissance is demonstrated here in consideration of heavy metal oxides and sulphides; these data will be compared with those obtained from analyses of synthetic yellow pigments that were available during the eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries which could have been used in unrecorded restorations of Renaissance paintings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pigment signatures of some diatoms isolated from China seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The photosynthetic pigments of 12 species (14 strains) of cultured diatoms from six genera under specific conditions were examined by the HPLC. The diatom genera were Skeletonema, Thalassiosira, Chaetoceros, Nitzschia, Phaeodactylum and Meuniera. All strains were isolated from China seas and most of them were from the Jiaozhou Bay, China. Fifteen pigments were identified and eight of them were various chlorophyll a derivatives. Chlorophyll a, c2 and c1 and the carotenoids fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, diatoxanthin and β,β-carotene existed in all species. The ratios of each pigment to chlorophyll a were compared with the results in literatures. The pigment ratios of this study generally fall within the ranges reported by the literatures although the maximum ratio of fucoxanthin to chlorophyll a was higher and the ratios of chlorophyll c and diatoxanthin to chlorophyll a were low. The pigment ratios are useful to understanding the pigment signatures of diatoms in the Jiaozhou Bay, China, and to setting up the chemotaxonomic method ofphytoplankton in these sea areas.

  11. Production of a Blue Pigment (Glaukothalin by Marine Rheinheimera spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Grossart

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two γ-Proteobacteria strains, that is, HP1 and HP9, which both produce a diffusible deep blue pigment, were isolated from the German Wadden Sea and from the Øresund, Denmark, respectively. Both strains affiliate with the genus Rheinheimera. Small amounts of the pigment could be extracted from HP1 grown in a 50 L fermenter and were purified chromatographically. Chemical analysis of the pigment including NMR and mass spectrometry led to a molecular formula of C34H56N4O4 (m.w. 584.85 which has not yet been reported in literature. The molecule is highly symmetrically and consists of two heterocyclic halves to which aliphatic side chains are attached. The pigment has been named glaukothalin due to its blue color and its marine origin (glaukos, gr.=blue, thalatta, gr.=sea. Production of glaukothalin on MB2216 agar plates by our Rheinheimera strains is affected in the presence of other bacterial strains either increasing or decreasing pigment production. The addition of a single amino acid, arginine (5 gl−1, greatly increases pigment production by our Rheinheimera strains. Even though the production of glaukothalin leads to inhibitory activity against three bacterial strains from marine particles, our Rheinheimera isolates are inhibited by various bacteria of different phylogenetic groups. The ecological role of glaukothalin production by Rheinheimera strains, however, remains largely unknown.

  12. The Solvent Effectiveness on Extraction Process of Seaweed Pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warkoyo Warkoyo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Eucheuma cottonii seaweed is a species of seaweed cultured in Indonesian waters, because its cultivation is relatively easy and inexpensive. It has a wide variety of colors from green to yellow green, gray, red and brown, indicating photosynthetic pigments, such as chlorophyll and carotenoids. An important factor in the effectiveness of pigment extraction is the choice of solvent. The correct type of solvent in the extraction method of specific natural materials is important so that a pigment with optimum quality that is also benefical to the society can be produced. The target of this research is to obtain a high quality solvent type of carotenoid pigment. This research was conducted using a randomized block design with three (3 replications involving two factors namely solvent type (4 levels: aceton, ethanol, petroleum benzene, hexan & petroleum benzene and seaweed color (3 levels: brown, green and red. Research results indicated that each solvent reached a peak of maximal absorbance at  410-472 nm, namely carotenoids. The usage of acetone solvent gave the best pigment quality. Brown, green and red seaweed have pigment content of 1,28 mg/100 g; 0,98 mg/100 g; 1,35 mg/100 g and rendement of 6,24%; 4,85% and 6,65% respectively.

  13. Production and chemical characterization of pigments in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Patrícia Nirlane da Costa; Grigoletto, Tahuana Luiza Bim; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Abreu, Lucas M; Guimarães, Luís Henrique Souza; Santos, Cledir; Galvão, Luciano Ribeiro; Cardoso, Patrícia Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Production of pigments by filamentous fungi is gaining interest owing to their use as food colourants, in cosmetics and textiles, and because of the important biological activities of these compounds. In this context, the objectives of this study were to select pigment-producing fungi, identify these fungi based on internal transcribed spacer sequences, evaluate the growth and pigment production of the selected strains on four different media, and characterize the major coloured metabolites in their extracts. Of the selected fungal strains, eight were identified as Aspergillus sydowii (CML2967), Aspergillus aureolatus (CML2964), Aspergillus keveii (CML2968), Penicillium flavigenum (CML2965), Penicillium chermesinum (CML2966), Epicoccum nigrum (CML2971), Lecanicillium aphanocladii (CML2970) and Fusarium sp. (CML2969). Fungal pigment production was influenced by medium composition. Complex media, such as potato dextrose and malt extract, favoured increased pigment production. The coloured compounds oosporein, orevactaene and dihydrotrichodimerol were identified in extracts of L. aphanocladii (CML2970), E. nigrum (CML2971), and P. flavigenum (CML2965), respectively. These results indicate that the selected fungal strains can serve as novel sources of pigments that have important industrial applications.

  14. The anti-mutagenic properties of bile pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmer, A C; Ried, K; Blanchfield, J T; Wagner, K-H

    2008-01-01

    Bile pigments, including bilirubin and biliverdin, are endogenous compounds belonging to the porphyrin family of molecules. In the past, bile pigments and bilirubin in particular were thought of as useless by-products of heme catabolism that can be toxic if they accumulate. However, in the past 20 years, research probing the physiological relevance of bile pigments has been mounting, with evidence to suggest bile pigments possess significant antioxidant and anti-mutagenic properties. More specifically, bile pigments are potent peroxyl radical scavengers and inhibit the mutagenic effects of a number of classes of mutagens (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic amines, oxidants). Coincidentally, persons with elevated circulating bilirubin concentrations have a reduced prevalence of cancer and cardio-vascular disease. Despite the encouraging in vitro anti-mutagenic effects of bile pigments, relatively little research has been conducted on their inhibitory capacity in bacterial and cultured cell assays of mutation, which might link the existing in vitro and in vivo observations. This is the first review to summarise the published data and it is our hope it will stimulate further research on these potentially preventative compounds.

  15. Fluorescence and reflectance properties of hemoglobin-pigmented skin disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyanova, P.; Borisova, E.; Avramov, L.

    2007-06-01

    There has been growing interest in clinical application of laser-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) and reflectance spectroscopy (RS) to differentiate disease from normal surrounding tissue, including skin pathologies. Pigmented cutaneous lesions diagnosis plays important role in clinical practice, as malignant melanoma, which is characterized with greatest mortality from all skin cancer types, must be carefully discriminated form other colorized pathologies. The goals of this work were investigation of cutaneous hemoglobin-pigmented lesions (heamangioma, angiokeratoma, and fibroma) by the methods of LIAFS and RS. Spectra from healthy skin areas near to the lesion were detected to be used posteriori in analysis. Fluorescence and reflectance of cutaneous hemoglobin-pigmented lesions are used to develop criterion for differentiation from other pigmented pathologies. Origins of the spectral features obtained are discussed and determination of lesion types is achieved using selected spectral features. The spectral results, obtained were used to develop multispectral diagnostic algorithms based on the most prominent spectral features from the fluorescence and reflectance spectra of the lesions investigated. In comparison between normal skin and different cutaneous lesion types and between lesion types themselves sensitivities and specificities higher than 90 % were achieved. These results show a perspective possibility to differentiate hemoglobin-pigmented lesions from other pigmented pathologies using non-invasive and real time discrimination procedure.

  16. Genetic Architecture of Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M Dembeck

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pigmentation varies within and between species and is often adaptive. The amount of pigmentation on the abdomen of Drosophila melanogaster is a relatively simple morphological trait, which serves as a model for mapping the genetic basis of variation in complex phenotypes. Here, we assessed natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in 175 sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, derived from the Raleigh, NC population. We quantified the proportion of melanization on the two most posterior abdominal segments, tergites 5 and 6 (T5, T6. We found significant genetic variation in the proportion of melanization and high broad-sense heritabilities for each tergite. Genome-wide association studies identified over 150 DNA variants associated with the proportion of melanization on T5 (84, T6 (34, and the difference between T5 and T6 (35. Several of the top variants associated with variation in pigmentation are in tan, ebony, and bric-a-brac1, genes known to affect D. melanogaster abdominal pigmentation. Mutational analyses and targeted RNAi-knockdown showed that 17 out of 28 (61% novel candidate genes implicated by the genome-wide association study affected abdominal pigmentation. Several of these genes are involved in developmental and regulatory pathways, chitin production, cuticle structure, and vesicle formation and transport. These findings show that genetic variation may affect multiple steps in pathways involved in tergite development and melanization. Variation in these novel candidates may serve as targets for adaptive evolution and sexual selection in D. melanogaster.

  17. Genetic Architecture of Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembeck, Lauren M.; Huang, Wen; Magwire, Michael M.; Lawrence, Faye; Lyman, Richard F.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentation varies within and between species and is often adaptive. The amount of pigmentation on the abdomen of Drosophila melanogaster is a relatively simple morphological trait, which serves as a model for mapping the genetic basis of variation in complex phenotypes. Here, we assessed natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in 175 sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, derived from the Raleigh, NC population. We quantified the proportion of melanization on the two most posterior abdominal segments, tergites 5 and 6 (T5, T6). We found significant genetic variation in the proportion of melanization and high broad-sense heritabilities for each tergite. Genome-wide association studies identified over 150 DNA variants associated with the proportion of melanization on T5 (84), T6 (34), and the difference between T5 and T6 (35). Several of the top variants associated with variation in pigmentation are in tan, ebony, and bric-a-brac1, genes known to affect D. melanogaster abdominal pigmentation. Mutational analyses and targeted RNAi-knockdown showed that 17 out of 28 (61%) novel candidate genes implicated by the genome-wide association study affected abdominal pigmentation. Several of these genes are involved in developmental and regulatory pathways, chitin production, cuticle structure, and vesicle formation and transport. These findings show that genetic variation may affect multiple steps in pathways involved in tergite development and melanization. Variation in these novel candidates may serve as targets for adaptive evolution and sexual selection in D. melanogaster. PMID:25933381

  18. Host pigments: potential facilitators of photosynthesis in coral symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Sophie G; Lovell, Carli; Fine, Maoz; Deckenback, Jeffry; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Anthony, Kenneth R N

    2008-11-01

    Reef-building corals occur as a range of colour morphs because of varying types and concentrations of pigments within the host tissues, but little is known about their physiological or ecological significance. Here, we examined whether specific host pigments act as an alternative mechanism for photoacclimation in the coral holobiont. We used the coral Montipora monasteriata (Forskål 1775) as a case study because it occurs in multiple colour morphs (tan, blue, brown, green and red) within varying light-habitat distributions. We demonstrated that two of the non-fluorescent host pigments are responsive to changes in external irradiance, with some host pigments up-regulating in response to elevated irradiance. This appeared to facilitate the retention of antennal chlorophyll by endosymbionts and hence, photosynthetic capacity. Specifically, net P(max) Chl a(-1) correlated strongly with the concentration of an orange-absorbing non-fluorescent pigment (CP-580). This had major implications for the energetics of bleached blue-pigmented (CP-580) colonies that maintained net P(max) cm(-2) by increasing P(max) Chl a(-1). The data suggested that blue morphs can bleach, decreasing their symbiont populations by an order of magnitude without compromising symbiont or coral health.

  19. Inhibitors of Intracellular Signaling Pathways that Lead to Stimulated Epidermal Pigmentation: Perspective of Anti-Pigmenting Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genji Imokawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation.

  20. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the thoracic spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roguski, Marie; Safain, Mina G; Zerris, Vasilios A; Kryzanski, James T; Thomas, Christine B; Magge, Subu N; Riesenburger, Ron I

    2014-10-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a proliferative lesion of the synovial membranes. Knees, hips, and other large weight-bearing joints are most commonly affected. PVNS rarely presents in the spine, in particular the thoracic segments. We present a patient with PVNS in the thoracic spine and describe its clinical presentation, radiographic findings, pathologic features, and treatment as well as providing the first comprehensive meta-analysis and review of the literature on this topic, to our knowledge. A total of 28 publications reporting 56 patients were found. The lumbar and cervical spine were most frequently involved (40% and 36% of patients, respectively) with infrequent involvement of the thoracic spine (24% of patients). PVNS affects a wide range of ages, but has a particular predilection for the thoracic spine in younger patients. The mean age in the thoracic group was 22.8 years and was significantly lower than the cervical and lumbar groups (42.4 and 48.6 years, respectively; p=0.0001). PVNS should be included in the differential diagnosis of osteodestructive lesions of the spine, especially because of its potential for local recurrence. The goal of treatment should be complete surgical excision. Although the pathogenesis is not clear, mechanical strain may play an important role, especially in cervical and lumbar PVNS. The association of thoracic lesions and younger age suggests that other factors, such as neoplasia, derangement of lipid metabolism, perturbations of humoral and cellular immunity, and other undefined patient factors, play a role in the development of thoracic PVNS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fe K-edge XANES of Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, M. Sanchez del [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Sodo, A. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Eeckhout, S.G. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Neisius, T. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, Grenoble B.P. 166, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, Grenoble B.P. 166, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    The utilization of techniques used in Materials Science for the characterization of artefacts of interest for cultural heritage is getting more and more attention nowadays. One of the products of the ancient Maya chemistry is the 'Maya blue' pigment, made with natural indigo and palygorskite. This pigment is different from any other pigment used in other parts of the world. It is durable and acid-resistant, and still keeps many secrets to scientists even though it has been studied for more than 50 years. Although the pigment is basically made of palygorskite Si{sub 8}(Mg{sub 2}Al{sub 2})O{sub 20}(OH){sub 2}(OH{sub 2}){sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O and an organic colourant (indigo: C{sub 16}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}), a number of other compounds have been found in previous studies on archaeological samples, like other clays and minerals, iron nanoparticles, iron oxides, impurities of transition metals (Cr, Mn, Ti, V), etc. We measured at the ESRF ID26 beamline the Fe K-edge XANES spectra of the blue pigment in ancient samples. They are compared to XANES spectra of Maya blue samples synthesized under controlled conditions, and iron oxides usually employed as pigments (hematite and goethite). Our results show that the iron found in ancient Maya blue pigment is related to the Fe exchanged in the palygorskite clay. We did not find iron in metallic form or goethite in archaeological Maya blue.

  2. Pigmented Pheochromocytoma: an Unusual Variant of a Common Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Aanchal; Kaur, Kavneet; Kumar, Tarun; Cherian, Libin Babu; Kaushal, Rohit; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Dhar, Anita; Seth, Amlesh; Jain, Deepali

    2016-03-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor arising from the adrenal medulla. A number of variants of pheochromocytoma are known; however, pigmented pheochromocytoma is extremely rare, with only few cases reported in literature. We report the cases of two patients with pigmented pheochromocytoma. Case 1 was a 28-year-old female who presented with complaints of breathlessness, palpitations, and anxiety for 5 years, which had worsened over the last 8 months. Computed tomography (CT) abdomen showed a right suprarenal mass. Case 2 was that of an 18-year-old girl who presented with similar complaints and was diagnosed with hypertension. CT abdomen showed bilateral adrenal masses. Urinary vanillyl mandelic acid was raised in both patients. Sections examined from all three tumors showed cells arranged in Zellballen pattern, separated by thin fibrovascular septae. Tumor cells showed moderate to marked nuclear pleomorphism in case 1. Mitoses were, however, not seen. There was no evidence of capsular or vascular invasion. Many of the tumor cells showed intracytoplasmic black pigment, which was positive for Fontana-Masson and was bleach-labile, confirming it as melanin. Hemosiderin deposition was also identified. Large areas of hemorrhagic necrosis were seen in case 1. Tumor cells were immunopositive for chromogranin and synaptophysin, while they were negative for HMB-45. Electron microscopy was performed. A final diagnosis of pigmented pheochromocytoma was rendered in both cases. Pigmented pheochromocytoma is a very rare tumor, which needs to be differentiated from other pigmented tumors like malignant melanoma of adrenal gland and pigmented adrenal adenoma. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry help in making this distinction.

  3. Incorporation of codeine and metabolites into hair. Role of pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gygi, S P; Joseph, R E; Cone, E J; Wilkins, D G; Rollins, D E

    1996-04-01

    Xenobiotics circulating in the blood may become incorporated into growing hair. Melanin has affinity for many pharmacologically unrelated drugs and is responsible for the pigmentation in hair. To assess the role of pigmentation in the incorporation of drugs into hair, the distribution of codeine and its metabolites was studied in Sprague-Dawley (SD; white nonpigmented hair), Dark Agouti (DA; brown pigmented hair), and hooded Long-Evans (LE; both black pigmented and white nonpigmented hair) rats. Codeine was administered at a dose of 40 mg/kg/day i.p. for 5 days. Fourteen days after beginning the dosing protocol, hair was collected and analyzed for codeine, and its metabolite, morphine, by positive-ion chemical ionization GC/ion-trap MS. The plasma pharmacokinetics for codeine and morphine were also determined after a single 40 mg/kg injection (equivalent to first dose in 5-day dosing protocol) in all three strains of rats. Hair and plasma codeine and morphine concentrations were also determined after acid hydrolysis to evaluate the presence of glucuronide metabolites. Codeine concentrations in the hair of SD, DA, and pigmented LE hair were 0.98 +/- 0.10, 5.99 +/- 1.24, and 111.93 +/- 18.69 ng/mg hair, respectively; morphine concentrations were 0.34 +/- 0.04, 0.51 +/- 0.11, and 14.46 +/- 1.81 ng/mg hair, respectively; morphine glucuronide concentrations were 0.67 +/- 0.08, 1.04 +/- 0.37, and 13.80 +/- 3.60 ng/mg hair, respectively. Studies examining the in vitro binding of [3H] codeine and [3H]morphine to hair demonstrated both specific and nonspecific binding sites for codeine and morphine. Pigmented hair from LE rats possessed the greatest number of binding sites, white hair from SD rats contained the least, and brown hair from DA rats was intermediate. A time course study of codeine and its metabolites showed pigment-mediated differences in incorporation of codeine and metabolites within a few hours of drug administration. These data indicate that pigmented hair

  4. Pigment profiles and bacterial communities from Thailand thermal mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, M C; Sririn, V; Kanoksilapatham, W; Gonzalez, J M

    2009-11-01

    Differently colored layers of freshwater hot spring mats at Boekleung (Western Thailand) were studied. Temperatures ranged from over 50 up to 57 degrees C. Two mats were characterized: a laminated mat with a green and a red layers, and a monolayer, greenish-yellow mat. Bacterial communities in green, red, and yellow layers were investigated using molecular, culturing and pigment analysis methods. Pigment profiles covered a wide spectrum from chlorophylls to carotenoids. A green mat layer showed higher relative content of chlorophyll than yellow and red layers which presented higher proportion of carotenoids. Cyanobacterial isolates grow up to 55-56 degrees C and their pigment profiles showed a relatively high content of chlorophylls suggesting the importance of other bacterial groups in the mat pigment profiles. Bacterial communities were analyzed by 16S rDNA surveys showing Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi as the mayor components of the community. Other significant members were Candidate Division OP10, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes and Actinobacteria. These results highlight a major participation of Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in thermal mat communities, and the preferential presence of Candidate Division OP10 in green mat layers. Differently colored mat layers showed characteristic bacterial communities which could be discriminated from pigment profiles and molecular surveys.

  5. Health-Promoting Compounds in Pigmented Thai and Wild Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Melini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic pigmented Thai rice and wild rice are commonly available in specialized Italian markets and food shops, and they are gaining popularity among consumers demanding healthy foods. Indeed, the typical colour of kernels, which is the unique characteristic of pigmented cereals, is due to the accumulation of pigments that are also responsible for a number of healthy effects. The aim of this study was to provide a portrait of two organic pigmented Thai rice varieties from Thailand and one wild rice variety from Canada, imported into Italy and at Italian consumers’ disposal. To this end, the proximate composition and the content of health-promoting compounds, such as carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, were determined in Thai and wild rice. Moreover, the effect of cooking on phytochemicals was assessed, in order to provide reliable data on the dietary intake of bioactive compounds by samples under investigation. Results show that studied samples have a content of phytochemicals higher than white rice and comparable to other cereals. The cooking process determined a decrease of bioactive compounds in all varieties under investigation. However, some samples were found more resistant to cooking stress, and some phytochemicals were little affected by this process. Therefore, pigmented Thai and wild rice may represent a valuable source of healthy compounds and an alternative to other wholesome foods required by consumers.

  6. Decomposition dynamic of higher plant pigments by HPLC analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yi; ZHANG Ting-zhou; ZHOU Qi-xing; MAO Da-qing; WAN Dong-mei

    2004-01-01

    The fate of the litter of dominant vegetation(willows and reeds) is one of the aspects studied in the frame of the project "Onderzoek Milieu Effecten Sigmaplan". One of the questions to be considered is how long the litter stays within the estuary. In this paper, the time the leaf litter(Salix triandra and Phragmites australis) stayed in the Schelde estuary was studied by using plant pigment as biomarkers with HPLC application. After analyzing the original data from the incubation experiment described by Dubuison and Geers(1999), the decomposition dynamics patterns of pigments were analyzed and described, and these decomposition dynamics patterns were used as calibration patterns. By using Spearman Rank Order Correlation, the calibration patterns of the pigments which were significant(p<0.05) were grouped. In this way, several groups of the calibration patterns of pigment decomposition were achieved. The presence or absence of these groups of pigments (whether they can be detected or not from HPLC) was shown to be useful in determining the time the litter has stayed in the water. Combining data of DW and POC, more precise timing can be obtained.

  7. Seeking carotenoid pigments in amber-preserved fossil feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel B.; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Dove, Carla J.; Grimaldi, David A.; James, Helen F.

    2014-06-01

    Plumage colours bestowed by carotenoid pigments can be important for visual communication and likely have a long evolutionary history within Aves. Discovering plumage carotenoids in fossil feathers could provide insight into the ecology of ancient birds and non-avian dinosaurs. With reference to a modern feather, we sought chemical evidence of carotenoids in six feathers preserved in amber (Miocene to mid-Cretaceous) and in a feather preserved as a compression fossil (Eocene). Evidence of melanin pigmentation and microstructure preservation was evaluated with scanning electron and light microscopies. We observed fine microstructural details including evidence for melanin pigmentation in the amber and compression fossils, but Raman spectral bands did not confirm the presence of carotenoids in them. Carotenoids may have been originally absent from these feathers or the pigments may have degraded during burial; the preservation of microstructure may suggest the former. Significantly, we show that carotenoid plumage pigments can be detected without sample destruction through an amber matrix using confocal Raman spectroscopy.

  8. Algal pigments in Southern Ocean abyssal foraminiferans indicate pelagobenthic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedhagen, Tomas; Cheah, Wee; Bracher, Astrid; Lejzerowicz, Franck

    2014-10-01

    The cytoplasm of four species of abyssal benthic foraminiferans from the Southern Ocean (around 51°S; 12°W and 50°S; 39°W) was analysed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and found to contain large concentrations of algal pigments and their degradation products. The composition of the algal pigments in the foraminiferan cytoplasm reflected the plankton community at the surface. Some foraminiferans contained high ratios of chlorophyll a/degraded pigments because they were feeding on fresher phytodetritus. Other foraminiferans contained only degraded pigments which shows that they utilized degraded phytodetritus. The concentration of algal pigment and corresponding degradation products in the foraminiferan cytoplasm is much higher than in the surrounding sediment. It shows that the foraminiferans collect a diluted and sparse food resource and concentrate it as they build up their cytoplasm. This ability contributes to the understanding of the great quantitative success of foraminiferans in the deep sea. Benthic foraminiferans are a food source for many abyssal metazoans. They form a link between the degraded food resources, phytodetritus, back to the active metazoan food chains.

  9. Mechanism and clinical significance of prostaglandin-induced iris pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjernschantz, Johan W; Albert, Daniel M; Hu, Dan-Ning; Drago, Filippo; Wistrand, Per J

    2002-08-01

    The new glaucoma drugs latanoprost, isopropyl unoprostone, travoprost, and bimatoprost cause increased pigmentation of the iris in some patients. The purpose of the present article is to survey the available preclinical and clinical data on prostaglandin-induced iris pigmentation and to assess the phenomenon from a clinical perspective. Most of the data have been obtained with latanoprost, and it appears that there is a predisposition to latanoprost-induced iris pigmentation in individuals with hazel or heterochromic eye color. As latanoprost and travoprost are selective agonists for the prostaglandin F(2alpha) receptor, it is likely that the phenomenon is mediated by this receptor. Several studies indicate that latanoprost stimulates melanogenesis in iridial melanocytes, and transcription of the tyrosinase gene is upregulated. The safety aspects of latanoprost-induced iris pigmentation have been addressed in histopathologic studies, and no evidence of harmful consequences of the side effect has been found. Although a final assessment of the clinical significance of prostaglandin-induced iris pigmentation currently is impossible to make, it appears that the only clear-cut disadvantage is a potential heterochromia between the eyes in unilaterally treated patients because the heterochromia is likely to be permanent, or very slowly reversible.

  10. The importance of tattoo pigment in sentinel lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, Atilla; Menekse, Ebru; Kanbour-Shakir, Amal; Tane, Kaori; Diego, Emilia; Bonaventura, Marguerite; Johnson, Ronald

    2017-07-06

    The presence of pigment in axillary lymph nodes (LN) secondary to migration of tattoo ink can imitate the appearance of a blue sentinel lymph node (SLN) on visual inspection, causing the operator to either miss the true SLN or excise more than is needed. We present patients with tattoos ipsilateral to an early stage breast cancer who underwent a SLN biopsy. Patients were retrospectively reviewed from medical records and clinicopathologic data was collected. A total of 52 LNs were retrieved from 15 patients for sentinel mapping and 29 of them had tattoo pigmentation on pathologic evaluation. Of those 29 SLNs, 2 of them (6.9%) were pigmented, but did not contain either blue dye or Tc-99m (pseudopigmented SLN). Two (3.8%) SLNs were positive for metastasis; both of these had either blue dye or Tc99m uptake, and 1 demonstrated tattoo pigment in the node. In this cohort of patients with ipsilateral tattoos, removed more LNs lead to unnecessary excision which may important for increasing the risk of arm morbidity from SLN biopsy. However, the presence of tattoo pigment did not interfere with understaging for axillary mapping and it did not effect of pathological identification of SLNs positivity.

  11. Idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation with papillomatosis: Report of nine cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine patients, seven males and two females aged 6-14 years, presented with extensive, asymptomatic, brown-black macules and mildly elevated, pigmented lesions of a few months′ duration. The sites affected were the face, trunk and proximal extremities. The skin lesions were discrete and individual lesions were less than 2 cm in size. The clinical diagnoses rendered by the referring physicians were lichen planus pigmentosus, urticaria pigmentosa, erythema dyschromicum perstans and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Histology in all nine cases showed papillomatosis of the dermis with prominent pigmentation of the basal layer (pigmented papillomatosis without any significant dermal inflammation. Two cases had spores of Pityrosporum ovale in the thickened horny layer, one of which also had, in addition, bacterial colonies in the stratum corneum. The pigmentation resolved on its own over several months. This presentation is similar to the previously described idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation with the additional histological finding of papillomatosis that is being described for the first time and may be nosologically related to acanthosis nigricans and confluent and reticulate papillomatosis.

  12. Vertical distribution of pigmented and non-pigmented nanoflagellates in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sheng-Fang; Lin, Fan-Wei; Chan, Ya-Fan; Chiang, Kuo-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Nanoflagellates can be separated into two groups according to their trophic mode, i.e. pigmented nanoflagellates (PNF) and heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF). However, a newly identified group, mixotrophic nanoflagellates (MNF), are pigmented and show the ability of prey on bacteria. To examine the vertical variations in PNF and HNF abundances, as well as their relationships and the nutritional strategies that they might use, two summer cruises were undertaken in the East China Sea in July 2011 (OR1 966) and July 2012 (OR1 1004). The results show that both HNF and PNF abundances decline with increasing water depth. Vertical variations of abundances are believed to be influenced by prey and light, for HNF and PNF respectively. Over a large part of the sampling area, the ratio of PNF to HNF abundances is about 1:1 in the disphotic and euphotic zones, but exceeds 1.5 in the nutrient-depleted environment along the margin of the continental shelf. The correlation between PNF abundance and bacteria/Synechococcus abundance is positive where PNF/HNF >1.5. However, there is no significant correlation between PNF/HNF abundance when PNF/HNF >1.5 and light/nutrients, indicating that vertical distributions are influenced mainly by prey (bacteria and Synechococcus) in the nutrient-depleted environment. This study assumes that PNF consists mostly of MNF. In the euphotic zone they receive energy from photosynthesis, which is stimulated by the available nutrients from grazing. Their abundance is thus higher than that of HNF. However, in the disphotic zone, both PNF and HNF satisfy their nutrient demands by grazing, and PNF/HNF is close to 1. In other words, mixotrophy might be the main trophic mode for PNF in the nutrient-depleted, oligotrophic environment. Meanwhile, in deeper water (300 m), the much lower prey density means that MNF cannot satisfy the basic energy demands of metabolism and photosynthesis, and thus HNF abundance exceeds that of PNF.

  13. Unusual extensive physiologic melanin pigmentation of the oral cavity: A clinical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mallikarjuna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the oral cavity. Oral pigmentations may be physiological or pathological in nature. It may represent as a localized anomaly of limited significance or the presentation of potentially life threatening multisystem disease. Oral pigmentation has a multifactorial etiology. Most of the oral pigmentations are physiologic. Evaluation of a patient with pigmented lesions should include a full medical and dental history, extraoral and intraoral examinations. In this article, we report a case of extensive physiologic pigmentation of the oral cavity in a 12 year old female patient, posing a diagnostic challenge.

  14. Characterization of lapis lazuli and corresponding purified pigments for a provenance study of ultramarine pigments used in works of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, M; Guastoni, A; Marini, F; Bianchin, S; Gambirasi, A

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we propose an analytical methodology for attributing provenance to natural lapis lazuli pigments employed in works of art, and for distinguishing whether they are of natural or synthetic origin. A multitechnique characterization of lazurite and accessory phases in lapis lazuli stones from Afghan, Siberian and Chilean quarries, on the pigments obtained by their purification, and on synthetic ultramarine pigments was performed. According to the results obtained, infrared spectroscopy is not a suitable technique for distinguishing the provenance of lapis lazuli, but a particular absorbance band makes it relatively easy to determine whether it is of natural or synthetic origin. On the other hand, EDS elemental composition and XRD patterns show the presence of specific mineral phases associated with specific lapis lazuli sources, and can be used to distinguish the provenance of the stones as well as-albeit to a lesser extent-the corresponding purified blue pigments. In contrast, FEG-SEM observations clearly show different stone textures depending on their provenance, although these distinctive features do not persist in the corresponding pigments. PCA analyses of EDS data allow Afghan lapis lazuli stone to be distinguished from Chilean and Siberian ones, and can distinguish between the pigments resulting from their purification as well as synthetic blue ones. Although this methodology was developed using a limited number of samples, it was tested on lapis lazuli pigments collected from three paintings (from the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries) in order to perform a preliminary validation of the technique, and based on the results, the provenance of the blue pigments employed in those artworks is proposed. Finally, upon analytically monitoring the process of purifying lapis lazuli to obtain the corresponding pigments, it was found that ion-exchange reactions occur between the alkali modifiers of silicate/aluminosilicate phases and free carboxylic acids

  15. Predictive value of exfoliative cytology in pigmented conjunctival lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijser, Sander; van Luijk, Chantal M; Missotten, Guy S; Veselic-Charvat, Maud; de Wolff-Rouendaal, Didi; de Keizer, Rob J W

    2006-04-01

    Pigmented lesions of the conjunctiva are often difficult to classify clinically. Exfoliative cytology may be helpful, but reliable data regarding the sensitivity and specificity of this test are currently lacking. We determined the value of exfoliative cytology with regard to pigmented conjunctival lesions. A total of 294 smears from 182 patients were screened for malignancy within 6 months of exfoliative cytology. Smears were classified according to the following categories: grade 0 = insufficient material for diagnosis; grade 1 = normal conjunctival cells; grade 2 = melanocytes with mild atypia; grade 3 = melanocytes with moderate atypia, and grade 4 = melanocytes with severe atypia. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of exfoliative cytology were 85%, 78%, 59% and 93%, respectively. Exfoliative cytology is a fast, easy and non-invasive technique that may be used in the evaluation of patients with a pigmented conjunctival lesion.

  16. Raman spectroscopy characterization of colored pigments in archaeological materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    . The number of research papers on the subject of Raman spectroscopy applied to pigments and art has been growing very fast during the last years. To get a comprehensive overview we refer to three recent theme numbers of Journal of Raman Spectroscopy1, 2, 3 and other dedicated texts such as e.g. Edwards et al...... to the artifacts or artworks. In this connection the Raman spectroscopy technique must be considered a most elegant method for pigment and materials analysis of relevant museum and archaeological materials. This is done by correlating some bands in the studied pigments with those of well characterized references....... The use of Raman spectroscopy can be taken to illustrate this: It provides e.g. information of importance to art restorers and museum conservation scientists in preserving materials and the understanding of deterioration processes. It does so by identification of key components, as shown in Fig. 1. Prior...

  17. Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis for differential diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. V. Filonenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-invasive diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions by spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis (SIA-scopy using device for dermatoscopy (SIAscope V by Astron Clinica, Ltd was approved in P.A.Herzen Moscow Cancer Research Institute. The method is based on analysis of light interaction with wavelength of 440–960 nm anf human skin, which is recorded by change of image on scan. The comparative analysis of SIA-scopy and histological data in 327 pigmented skin lesions in 147 patients showed, that SIA had high diagnostic efficiency for cutaneous melanoma: the sensitivity was 96%, specifity – 94%, diagnostic accuracy – 94%. For study of malignant potential of pigmented lesions by SIA-scopy the most informative capacity was obtained for assessment of melanin in papillary dermis, status of blood vessels and collagen fibres (SIA-scans 3, 4, 5.

  18. Non-pigmented fixed drug eruption induced by eprazinone hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Kenichi; Tsuboi, Hiromi; Maejima, Hideki; Arai, Satoru; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2005-12-01

    A 68-year-old woman developed an upper respiratory tract infection in November 2002 and was treated with eprazinone hydrochloride, serrapeptase, carbocysteine and clarithromycin. Three days after the start of treatment, the patient noted erythema on her axilla, buttock and inguinal regions. The erythema subsided in 7 days although slight pigmentation remained. However, 7 days later the pigmentation completely disappeared. Oral eprazinone hydrochloride was given as a challenge, and 1 day later the erythema re-appeared in the same areas as on initial presentation (axilla, buttock, and inguinal regions). A fixed erythema without lasting pigmentation is attributed to eprazinone hydrochloride. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed as having a nonpigmented fixed drug eruption associated with eprazinone hydrochloride.

  19. Ion beam induced luminescence analysis of painting pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaranta, A. [Universita di Trento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e, delle Tecnologie Inustriali (DIMTI), via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro - INFN, Via Universita 2, I-35020, Legnaro, Padova (Italy); E-mail: quaranta@ing.unitn.it; Salomon, J. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, CNRS UMR 171, rue des Pyramides, 75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Dran, J.C. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, CNRS UMR 171, rue des Pyramides, 75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Tonezzer, M. [Universita di Trento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e, delle Tecnologie Inustriali (DIMTI), via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro - INFN, Via Universita 2, I-35020, Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Della Mea, G. [Universita di Trento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e, delle Tecnologie Inustriali (DIMTI), via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro - INFN, Via Universita 2, I-35020, Legnaro, Padova (Italy)

    2007-01-15

    Ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL) has been exploited for the first time in the analysis of inorganic painting pigments. The elemental constituents of the different compounds have been determined by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The acquisition time of each spectrum ranges from 100 ms to a few seconds, depending on the luminescence intensity. The luminescence features are fingerprints of the different compounds, thus identifying the provenience of pigments of the same nominal composition. Organic varnish layers do not affect the IBIL features, allowing the identification of pigments, like lapis-lazuli, whose identification with PIXE is hindered by the varnish. IBIL proved to be a technique complementary to PIXE in the archeometry and cultural heritage analysis fields.

  20. The effects of polymer pigmentation on fingermark development techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Simon R; Ojeda, Jesus J; Downham, Rory; Sears, Vaughn G; Jones, Benjamin J

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of latent fingerprint development techniques is heavily influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the deposition surface. The use of powder suspensions is increasing for development of prints on a range of surfaces. We demonstrate that carbon powder suspension development on polymers is detrimentally affected by the presence of common white pigment, titanium dioxide. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrates that patches of the compound are clearly associated with increased levels of powder adhesion. Substrates with nonlocalized titanium dioxide content also exhibit increased levels of carbon powder staining on a surface-wide basis. Secondary ion mass spectrometry and complementary techniques demonstrate the importance of levels of the pigment within the top 30 nm. The association is independent of fingermark deposition and may be related to surface energy variation. The detrimental effect of the pigment is not observed with small-particle reagent (MoS2 SPR) or cyanoacrylate (superglue) fuming techniques that exploit different development mechanisms.

  1. Chemical research on red pigments after adverse reactions to tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaro, A; Toniolo, C; Giulianelli, V; Serafini, M; Persechino, S

    2016-03-01

    Currently, the incidence of tattooing is on the rise compared to the past, especially among adolescents, and it leads to the urgency of monitoring the security status of tattooing centers, as well as to inform people about the risks of tattoo practice. In our clinical experience, 20% of tattooed patients presented adverse reactions, like allergic contact dermatitis, psoriasis with Koebner's phenomena and granulomatous reactions, with the latter most prevalent and most often related to red pigment. Adverse reactions to tattoo pigments, especially the red one, are well known and described in literature. Great attention has to be focused on the pigments used, especially for the presence of new substances, often not well known. For this reason, we decided to perform a study on 12 samples of red tattoo ink, obtained by patients affected by different cutaneous reactions in the site of tattoo, to analyze their chemical composition.

  2. Analysis of pigments from Roman wall paintings found in Vicenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocchin, G A; Agnoli, F; Mazzocchin, S; Colpo, I

    2003-11-12

    The analysis of about 60 samples of wall paintings was carried out using different chemicophysical techniques: optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an EDS microanalysis detector, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The identified pigments were cinnabar, hematite, red ochre, celadonite, cuprorivaite (Egyptian blue), yellow ochre, goethite and carbon. Only in one case some lead white was found instead. In general, the mortar preparation did not correspond to the complex structure suggested by Vitruvius (De Architectura), but it generally showed a porous layer, with crushed grains under the pigment layer. In certain cases two superposed pigment layers were found: yellow superimposed on both red and pink, black on pink, green on black.

  3. Oral postinflammatory pigmentation: an analysis of 7 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergoni, Giovanni; Ergun, Sertan; Vescovi, Paolo; Mete, Özgür; Tanyeri, Hakkı; Meleti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Oral postinflammatory pigmentation (OPP) is a discoloration of the oral mucosa caused by an excess of melanin production and deposition within the basal layer of the epithelium and connective tissue of areas affected by chronic inflammation. Therefore, it is mandatory to demonstrate the association with a previous or concomitant inflammatory process in the same area of oral mucosa. Clinically OPP appears as a localized or diffuse, black to brown pigmentation. OPP may persist for many years even though the disappearing of the pigmentation after the resolution of the inflammatory state has been reported. We reviewed retrospectively the medical records and, when performed, biopsy examinations of 7 cases of OPP. Four cases were associated with oral lichen planus, two cases with lichenoid lesions and one case with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. Despite a possible high prevalence of OPP, only a few reports concerning diagnosis, etiopathogenesis and clinical manifestation have been published so far.

  4. Visual pigments of the box jellyfish species Chiropsella bronzie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O*Connor, Megan; Garm, Anders Lydik; Marshall, Justin;

    2010-01-01

    Box jellyfish (Cubomedusae) possess a unique visual system comprising 24 eyes of four morphological types. Moreover, box jellyfish display several visually guided behaviours, including obstacle avoidance and light-shaft attractance. It is largely unknown what kind of visual information box......, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. However, the results from these studies are to some degree conflicting and inconclusive. Here, we present results from an investigation into the visual system of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie, using microspectrophotometry and immunohistochemistry. Our...... results strongly indicate that only one type of visual pigment is present in the upper and lower lens eyes with a peak absorbance of approximately 510 nm. Additionally, the visual pigment appears to undergo bleaching, similar to that of vertebrate visual pigments....

  5. Vertebrate pigmentation: from underlying genes to adaptive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Joanna K; Uy, J Albert C; Hauber, Mark E; Hoekstra, Hopi E; Safran, Rebecca J

    2010-05-01

    Animal coloration is a powerful model for studying the genetic mechanisms that determine phenotype. Genetic crosses of laboratory mice have provided extensive information about the patterns of inheritance and pleiotropic effects of loci involved in pigmentation. Recently, the study of pigmentation genes and their functions has extended into wild populations, providing additional evidence that pigment gene function is largely conserved across disparate vertebrate taxa and can influence adaptive coloration, often in predictable ways. These new and integrative studies, along with those using a genetic approach to understand color perception, raise some important questions. Most notably, how does selection shape both phenotypic and genetic variation, and how can we use this information to further understand the phenotypic diversity generated by evolutionary processes? Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Laser-generated acoustic wave studies on tattoo pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Lorna M.; Dickinson, Mark R.; King, Terence A.

    1996-01-01

    A Q-switched alexandrite laser (180 ns at 755 nm) was used to irradiate samples of agar embedded with red, black and green tattoo dyes. The acoustic waves generated in the samples were detected using a PVDF membrane hydrophone and compared to theoretical expectations. The laser pulses were found to generate acoustic waves in the black and green samples but not in the red pigment. Pressures of up to 1.4 MPa were produced with irradiances of up to 96 MWcm-2 which is comparable to the irradiances used to clear pigment embedded in skin. The pressure gradient generated across pigment particles was approximately 1.09 X 1010 Pam-1 giving a pressure difference of 1.09 +/- 0.17 MPa over a particle with mean diameter 100 micrometers . This is not sufficient to permanently damage skin which has a tensile strength of 7.4 MPa.

  7. Granulomatous reaction to red tattoo pigment treated with allopurinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Mariana Marteleto; Aguinaga, Felipe; Grynszpan, Rachel; Lima, Victor Maselli; Azulay, David Rubem; Cuzzi, Tullia; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia; Manela-Azulay, Mônica

    2015-09-01

    Granulomatous reactions to tattoo ink are most commonly associated with mercury sulfide, a component of red pigments. Treatment options show limited results. Allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, has been reported as a successful alternative treatment to granulomatous disorders, such as sarcoidosis and granulomatous reactions to fillers and tattoos. We report a case of granulomatous reaction to red tattoo pigment treated with allopurinol for 6 months. Good clinical improvement could be noticed during this time. Two months after we stopped the treatment, the lesion recurred. Allopurinol emerges as an important drug for the management of granulomatous reactions caused by tattoo pigments. Based on the significant clinical improvement noticed during its use, we recommend new studies to elucidate all the potential benefits of the use of allopurinol for the treatment of granulomatous reactions to tattoo ink.

  8. Interactions of natural resins and pigments in works of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Tommaso; Piccirillo, Anna; Nervo, Marco; Chiantore, Oscar

    2017-10-01

    The degradation process involving the formation of metal soaps in drying oils is a well-known problem due to cations from pigments reacting with free fatty acids from the oil. The aggregation of these carboxylates in semi-crystalline structures can lead to eruptions through the paint layers and 'blooming' on the surface. In this work, the metal soaps formation in presence of natural resins has been assessed and studied by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with experiments concerning the ageing of drying oil and different natural resins (shellac, dammar and colophony) in the presence of common historic pigments (smalt, ochre, umber, azurite, lead white, zinc white and titanium white). Mixtures of resins and pigments have been exposed to photo-ageing in solar box up to 1000h, thermal ageing at 50°C up to 1100h and 6month of room conditions exposure as reference. The decrease in the intensity of the carbonyl band in the spectra, as well as the contemporary increase of the metal carboxylates (in the range from 1500 to 1650cm(-1)) absorption bands, were used as the main indicators of metal soap formation. It has been observed that some pigments, particularly zinc white and smalt, present a 'catalytic' effect favouring the simultaneous formation of associated oxalates. The formation of oxalates and different degradation products from natural resins in the presence of pigments is particularly important, as it deeply affects the removability of varnishes and, more generally, the cleaning processes. Moreover, it permanently modifies the interface between painting and varnish layers as well as the aesthetic aspects of the painted surfaces. The influence of natural resins reactivity with pigments and their role in the oxalate formation is an issue still unexplored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diffuse reflection FTIR spectral database of dyes and pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Eduardo; Silva, Luciana P; Edwards, Howell G M; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando C

    2006-12-01

    24 Pigments commonly used in art have been characterized by diffuse reflection infrared spectroscopy (DR). All of the compounds have also been characterized by means of infrared absorption spectroscopy to demonstrate the reliability of the DR technique. This is the first record of the use of this technique as an analytical tool in conservation science, and the results appear to be promising for the identification of unknown pigments used on historical and artwork artifacts. Although the DR technique used here is not nondestructive, it can still be usefully applied to the analysis of artwork since it requires only a very small quantity of sample for analysis.

  10. Mineral pigments at Huaca Tacaynamo (Chan Chan, Peru)

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, William E.; Piminchumo, Víctor; Suárez, Héctor; Jackson, John C.; McGeehin, John P.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray diffraction analyses of five samples of pigments from a recently excavated mural at the archaeological site of Huaca Tacaynamo, a part of the Chan Chan archaeological complex, northern Peru, show that minerals related to metal occurrences known to have been exploited by ancient Andeans were also used as pigments. These minerals include: atacamite [Cu2Cl(OH3)] for green; azurite [Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2] for blue; calcite [CaCO3] for white; cinnabar [HgS] for red; and goethite [HFeO2] for yellow....

  11. Small molecule screening identifies targetable zebrafish pigmentation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colanesi, Sarah; Taylor, Kerrie L; Temperley, Nicholas D

    2012-01-01

    Small molecules complement genetic mutants and can be used to probe pigment cell biology by inhibiting specific proteins or pathways. Here, we present the results of a screen of active compounds for those that affect the processes of melanocyte and iridophore development in zebrafish and investig......Small molecules complement genetic mutants and can be used to probe pigment cell biology by inhibiting specific proteins or pathways. Here, we present the results of a screen of active compounds for those that affect the processes of melanocyte and iridophore development in zebrafish...

  12. The ascidian pigmented sensory organs: structures and developmental programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, R; Racioppi, C; Pezzotti, M R; Branno, M; Locascio, A; Ristoratore, F; Spagnuolo, A

    2015-01-01

    The recent advances on ascidian pigment sensory organ development and function represent a fascinating platform to get insight on the basic programs of chordate eye formation. This review aims to summarize current knowledge, at the structural and molecular levels, on the two main building blocks of ascidian light sensory organ, i.e. pigment cells and photoreceptor cells. The unique features of these structures (e.g., simplicity and well characterized cell lineage) are indeed making it possible to dissect the developmental programs at single cell resolution and will soon provide a panel of molecular tools to be exploited for a deep developmental and comparative-evolutionary analysis.

  13. 75 FR 62765 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty.... See Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed... most recently completed review. See Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results...

  14. Exploiting the Autofluorescent Properties of Photosynthetic Pigments for Analysis of Pigmentation and Morphology in Live Fremyella diplosiphon Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana R. Bordowitz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Fremyella diplosiphon is a freshwater, filamentous cyanobacterium that exhibits light-dependent regulation of photosynthetic pigment accumulation and cellular and filament morphologies in a well-known process known as complementary chromatic adaptation (CCA. One of the techniques used to investigate the molecular bases of distinct aspects of CCA is confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. CLSM capitalizes on the autofluorescent properties of cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins and chlorophyll a. We employed CLSM to perform spectral scanning analyses of F. diplosiphon strains grown under distinct light conditions. We report optimized utilization of CLSM to elucidate the molecular basis of the photoregulation of pigment accumulation and morphological responses in F. diplosiphon.

  15. Pigment developed to protect spacecraft/solar cells from Sun's harmful rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A pigment (phthalocyanine) is studied at the Marshall Materials and Processes Lab. The pigment has the ability to protect spacecraft against the harmful effects of the Sun's ultraviolet rays, and to increase the efficiency and life of solar cells.

  16. Analytical Investigation Of Pigments, Ground Layer And Media Of Cartonnage Fragments From Greek Roman Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Hala. A. M.

    Some cartonnage fragments from Hawara, Fayoum Excavation were examined to identify pigments, media and grounds. It belonged to the Greek-Roman period. They were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X ray analysis (EDS) equipped with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). These techniques were used to identify the composition and morphology of grounds, nature of pigments and media used in cartonnage fragments. The coarse ground layer was composed of calcite and traces of quartz. The fine ground layer used under the pigments directly was composed of calcite only. Carbon black was used as black pigment while lead oxide as red pigment, showing the influence of Roman and Greek pigments on Egyptian art in these later periods. Blue colorant was identified as cuprorivaite and yellow pigment was goethite. Animal glue was used in the four pigments as medium colored.

  17. Raman spectroscopy of modern art: classification and identification of Azo-pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenabeele, Peter; Moens, Luc; Edwards, Howell G.

    2000-09-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy is an important molecular spectroscopic technique for the non-destructive examination of objects of art. In this work, Raman spectra of a number of Azo-pigments are presented, which are important artists' pigments in contemporary artifacts. The Azo-pigments, being a group of cheap pigments with good painting properties, form an important subgroup of pigments that became available to the artists at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. A classification for these Azo-pigments is presented, which is based on their chemical properties, reflected in their molecular Raman spectrum. It is shown that a close spectral examination can help in assigning the unknown pigment to a class of pigments and thus assist in the identification of the painting material.

  18. Production of Extracellular Pigment by a Mutant of Monascus kaoliang sp. nov

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ching-Fwu; Iizuka, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    A hyperpigment-producing mutant, R-10847, was derived from Monascus kaoliang F-2 (ATCC 26264) through a series of mutagenesis steps. The mutant produced a large quantity of Monascus pigment when grown in mantou (steamed bread) by solid culture. The mutant produced pigments extracellularly by extruding the pigments outside the cell in a lump together with some viscous substances. The productivity of pigment was about 100-fold greater than that of the wild type. The mutant lost the capability o...

  19. Controlling composition and color characteristics of Monascus pigments by pH and nitrogen sources in submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kan; Song, Da; Chen, Gong; Pistolozzi, Marco; Wu, Zhenqiang; Quan, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Submerged fermentations of Monascus anka were performed with different nitrogen sources at different pH in 3 L bioreactors. The results revealed that the Monascus pigments dominated by different color components (yellow pigments, orange pigments or red pigments) could be selectively produced through pH control and nitrogen source selection. A large amount of intracellular pigments dominated by orange pigments and a small amount of water-soluble extracellular yellow pigments were produced at low pH (pH 2.5 and 4.0), independently of the nitrogen source employed. At higher pH (pH 6.5), the role of the nitrogen source became more significant. In particular, when ammonium sulfate was used as nitrogen source, the intracellular pigments were dominated by red pigments with a small amount of yellow pigments. Conversely, when peptone was used, intracellular pigments were dominated by yellow pigments with a few red pigments derivatives. Neither the presence of peptone nor ammonium sulfate promoted the production of intracellular orange pigments while extracellular pigments with an orangish red color were observed in both cases, with a higher yield when peptone was used. Two-stage pH control fermentation was then performed to improve desirable pigments yield and further investigate the effect of pH and nitrogen sources on pigments composition. These results provide a useful strategy to produce Monascus pigments with different composition and different color characteristics.

  20. Pigmented paravenous chorioretinal atrophy with Coat′s like response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Tandon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented paravenous chorioretinal atrophy (PPCRA is an uncommon retinal disorder of unknown etiology that is neither well understood nor classified. We report an atypical case of PPCRA, associated with Coat′s like response (CLR in a 64-year-old man of Asian origin. Both the eyes were involved, though asymmetrically.

  1. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Slavík

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics.

  2. Two newly identified genetic determinants of pigmentation in Europeans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulem, P.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Stacey, S.N.; Helgason, A.; Rafnar, T.; Jakobsdottir, M.; Steinberg, S.; Gudjonsson, S.A.; Palsson, A.; Thorleifsson, G.; Palsson, S.; Sigurgeirsson, B.; Thorisdottir, K.; Ragnarsson, R.; Benediktsdottir, K.R.; Aben, K.K.H.; Vermeulen, H.H.M.; Goldstein, A.M.; Tucker, M.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Olafsson, J.H.; Gulcher, J.; Kong, A.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Stefansson, K.

    2008-01-01

    We present results from a genome-wide association study for variants associated with human pigmentation characteristics among 5,130 Icelanders, with follow-up analyses in 2,116 Icelanders and 1,214 Dutch individuals. Two coding variants in TPCN2 are associated with hair color, and a variant at the A

  3. Genetic determinants of hair, eye and skin pigmentation in Europeans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulem, P.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Stacey, S.N.; Helgason, A.; Rafnar, T.; Magnusson, K.P.; Manolescu, A.; Karason, A.; Palsson, A.; Thorleifsson, G.; Jakobsdottir, M.; Steinberg, S.; Palsson, S.; Jonasson, F.; Sigurgeirsson, B.; Thorisdottir, K.; Ragnarsson, R.; Benediktsdottir, K.R.; Aben, K.K.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Olafsson, J.H.; Gulcher, J.R.; Kong, A.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Stefansson, K.

    2007-01-01

    Hair, skin and eye colors are highly heritable and visible traits in humans. We carried out a genome-wide association scan for variants associated with hair and eye pigmentation, skin sensitivity to sun and freckling among 2,986 Icelanders. We then tested the most closely associated SNPs from six re

  4. Genetic determinants of hair, eye and skin pigmentation in Europeans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulem, P.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Stacey, S.N.; Helgason, A.; Rafnar, T.; Magnusson, K.P.; Manolescu, A.; Karason, A.; Palsson, A.; Thorleifsson, G.; Jakobsdottir, M.; Steinberg, S.; Palsson, S.; Jonasson, F.; Sigurgeirsson, B.; Thorisdottir, K.; Ragnarsson, R.; Benediktsdottir, K.R.; Aben, K.K.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Olafsson, J.H.; Gulcher, J.R.; Kong, A.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Stefansson, K.

    2007-01-01

    Hair, skin and eye colors are highly heritable and visible traits in humans. We carried out a genome-wide association scan for variants associated with hair and eye pigmentation, skin sensitivity to sun and freckling among 2,986 Icelanders. We then tested the most closely associated SNPs from six

  5. Plant Pigment Identification: A Classroom and Outreach Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Kathleen C. A.; Odendaal, Antoinette Y.; Carlson, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a class of pigments responsible for the bright colors of many flowers, fruits, and vegetables typically resulting in shades of red, blue, and purple. Students were asked to perform an activity to enable them to identify which anthocyanin was present in one of several possible plant materials through a hands-on activity. Students…

  6. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid in Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Koo Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lily Koo Lin1, Han Lee2, Eli Chang11Department of Oculoplastics, Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Pigmented basal cell carcinoma (PBCC of the eyelid has not been well cited in the literature, and is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions. We aim to describe PBCC of the eyelid in Hispanic patients.Methods: Retrospective review of patients with eyelid skin cancer who presented to the Department of Dermatology at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California and the Doheny Eye Institute from January 2002 to November 2005.Results: Sixty-nine of the 79 patients with eyelid skin cancer had basal cell carcinoma. Eight of these patients were Hispanic. Four of the eight Hispanic patients had PBCC.Conclusions: Although eyelid PBCC is regarded as a rare condition, it may occur more commonly in the Hispanic population and should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions.Keywords: pigmented basal cell carcinoma, eyelid, skin cancer, lesions

  7. Macular pigment and fixation after macular translocation surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhard, Jens; Kanis, Martijn J.; Berendschot, Tos T. J. M.; Schoen, Christiane; Gelisken, Faik; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U.; Zrenner, Eberhart

    2010-01-01

    Background After full macular translocation (MT) surgery with 3608 retinotomy, the fovea is rarely identifiable. Our aim was to verify the position of the fovea, to determine how patients fixate after MT and to examine distribution and optical density of macular pigment ( MP). Methods 9 patients aft

  8. Idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation: report of 10 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, K A; Choi, J H; Sung, K S; Moon, K C; Koh, J K

    2001-02-01

    Idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation (IEMP) is a rare disease. IEMP is characterized by asymptomatic, pigmented macules involving the neck, trunk, and proximal extremities. This study describes 10 cases of idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation seen during a 9-year period at the Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. We present these characteristic consecutive cases to provide more insight into the clinical picture and course of IEMP. Skin lesions of 8 patients were multiple brown macules involving the trunk, face, neck, and extremities. In 2 patients, multiple dark brown macules and patches were noted. The age of onset varied from 1 to 20 years. Tentative diagnoses were usually ashy dermatosis (erythema dyschromicum perstans), fixed drug eruption, or mastocytosis. The history of any erythema and drug medication was absent. Darier's sign was absent. Skin biopsy specimens showed increased pigmentation of the basal layer in an otherwise normal epidermis. Pigmentary incontinence, melanophages, and mild perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrate in the papillary dermis were also revealed. Mast cells could not be found. The lesions gradually disappeared during a period of several months to years. The alleged rarity of IEMP may be partially caused by medical unfamiliarity with this entity, despite its clinical and histopathologic characteristic picture. Treatment of IEMP is unnecessary because spontaneous resolution of the lesions can be expected within several months to a few years.

  9. Visual Pigments and Molecular Genetics of Color Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowmaker, J. K.

    1998-04-01

    Red/green color blindness, found in ~1 in 15 men, is caused by the expression of hybrid genes coding for visual pigments. Spectral information from site-directed mutagenesis and recombinant expression has led to the possibility of correlating individual genotypes with psychophysical measurements of the severity of the deficiency.

  10. Interocular agreement in melanin and macular pigment optical density.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanis, M.J.; Berendschot, T.T.J.M.; van Norren, D.

    2007-01-01

    Macular pigment (MP) and melanin possibly protect the macular area by absorbing blue light and acting as antioxidants. Because little is known about the interocular correlation of melanin, we determined its optical density (MOD) in both eyes of healthy subjects using fundus reflectometry. The measur

  11. Dynamic Imaging of a Pigmented Free-Floating Vitreous Cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Dilraj S; Fekrat, Sharon

    2016-10-01

    The authors present an incidentally noted pigmented anterior vitreous cyst in an asymptomatic male adult. Observation was elected. Stability during the course of 2 years and mobility of the vitreous cyst using dynamic imaging are demonstrated. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:975-977.].

  12. Functional annotation of the human retinal pigment epithelium transcriptome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Booij (Judith); S. van Soest (Simone); S.M.A. Swagemakers (Sigrid); A.H.W. Essing (Anke); J.H.M. Verkerk (Annemieke); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); T.G.M.F. Gorgels (Theo); A.A.B. Bergen (Arthur)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: To determine level, variability and functional annotation of gene expression of the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the key tissue involved in retinal diseases like age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Macular RPE cells from six selected healthy

  13. Functional annotation of the human retinal pigment epithelium transcriptome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, J.C.; van Soest, S.; Swagemakers, S.M.A.; Essing, A.H.W.; Verkerk, A.J.M.H.; van der Spek, P.J.; Gorgels, T.G.M.F.; Bergen, A.A.B.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To determine level, variability and functional annotation of gene expression of the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the key tissue involved in retinal diseases like age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Macular RPE cells from six selected healthy hu

  14. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the spine: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Su Ok; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Yi, Jeong Geun [Cheongju St. Mary' s Hospital, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-10-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a synovial lesion of joints or tendon sheaths, characterized by villous and nodular overgrowth of the synovial membrane. It commonly occurs in synovial joints of the appendicular skeleton, particularly those of the knee and hip, but rarely affecting those of the spine. We report a case of PVNS of the lumbar spine mimicking epidural mass.

  15. Convergent stereoselective synthesis of the visual pigment A2E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicre, Cristina; Cid, M Magdalena

    2005-12-08

    [chemical reaction: see text]. A stereoselective total synthesis of the visual pigment A2E has been achieved with use of palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions in all key steps: a regioselective Suzuki or Negishi coupling of 2,4-dibromopyridine, a Sonogashira reaction, and a double Stille cross-coupling to complete the bispolyenyl skeleton.

  16. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae: biological constraints and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.; Lamers, P.P.; Martens, D.E.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in naturally produced colorants, and microalgae represent a bio-technologically interesting source due to their wide range of colored pigments, including chlorophylls (green), carotenoids (red, orange and yellow), and phycobiliproteins (red and blue). However, the concen

  17. Carbon monoxide and bile pigments: surprising mediators of vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, William

    2002-08-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the degradation of heme to CO, iron, and biliverdin. Biliverdin is subsequently metabolized to bilirubin by the enzyme biliverdin reductase. Although long considered irrelevant byproducts of heme catabolism, recent studies indicate that CO and the bile pigments biliverdin and bilirubin may play an important physiological role in the circulation. The release of CO by vascular cells may modulate blood flow and blood fluidity by inhibiting vasomotor tone, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and platelet aggregation. CO may also maintain the integrity of the vessel wall by directly blocking vascular cell apoptosis and by inhibiting the release of pro-apoptotic inflammatory cytokines from the vessel wall. These effects of CO are mediated via multiple pathways, including activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, potassium channels, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, or inhibition of cytochrome P450. In addition, the release of bile pigments may serve to sustain vascular homeostasis by protecting vascular cells from oxidative stress and by inhibiting the adhesion and infiltration of leukocytes into the vessel wall. Induction of HO-1 gene expression and the subsequent release of CO and bile pigments are observed in numerous vascular disorders and may provide an important adaptive mechanism to preserve homeostasis at sites of vascular injury. Thus, the HO-catalyzed formation of CO and bile pigments by vascular cells may function as a critical endogenous vasoprotective system. Moreover, pharmacological or genetic approaches targeting HO-1 to the vessel wall may represent a novel therapeutic approach in treating vascular disease.

  18. Synthesis of Copper Pigments, Malachite and Verdigris: Making Tempera Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.; Mahon, Megan L.; Halpern, Erica M.

    2011-01-01

    Malachite and verdigris, two copper-based pigments, are synthesized in this experiment intended for use in a general chemistry laboratory. The preparation of egg tempera paint from malachite is also described. All procedures can be done with a magnetic stir plate, standard glassware present in any first-year laboratory, and household chemicals.…

  19. Phytogenic pigments in animal nutrition: potentials and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faehnrich, Bettina; Lukas, Brigitte; Humer, Elke; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-03-30

    Phytogenic pigments are secondary plant compounds responsible for coloring effects in plant tissues. In particular, phenolic flavonoids and terpenoid carotenoids, but also rare compounds like curcumin and betalain, form this group of biochemical agents used in animal nutrition. From the perspective of ecological mutuality between plants and animals, these compounds are of crucial importance because they serve as visual attraction for herbivores but also signal nutritional and/or health-promoting values. This review focuses on the properties of phytogenic pigments which are likely to impact feed intake and preferences of livestock. Also natural prophylactic and/or therapeutic properties and, in particular, the potential of pigments to enhance quality and health value of animal products for human consumption are important issues. Nevertheless, reasonable limits of use due to possible adverse indications have been suggested recently. Pathways of digestion, metabolism and excretion in animals play a crucial role not only in the evaluation of effectiveness but also in the prediction of potential risks for human consumption. The popularity of natural feed additives is growing; therefore, more research work is needed to better understand metabolic pathways in the animal's body and to better estimate the potentials and risks of pigmenting plant compounds used in animal nutrition.

  20. Extraction of antioxidant pigments from dye sorghum leaf sheaths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayode, A.P.P.; Bara, C.A.; Dalode-Vieira, G.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Extraction of antioxidant biocolorant pigments from leaf sheaths of dye sorghum was optimized. Effects of temperature and ethanol concentration of the extraction solvent on the concentrations of the 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, total phenolics and total anthocyanins, and the colour parameters of the bioco

  1. Study on the Pigments of the Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Zhao-wen; SHI Song-cun

    2004-01-01

    The ecological characteristics and fiber structure of the colored cotton were introduced briefly. The color changing mechanisms of the pigments extracted from colored cottons and some plants were discussed with the results of different experiments, which could offer an academic reference for the color fixations of the colored cotton textile produces and promote the development of the natural colored cotton industry.

  2. Buffering Capacity of Pigmented and Nonpigmented Strains of Serratia marcescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Núria; Solé, Montserrat; Francia, Alicia; Lorén, José G.

    1994-01-01

    The pigmented strain Serratia marcescens ATCC 274 had a higher buffering capacity and a higher membrane H+ conductance than S. marcescens GP, a spontaneous nonpigmented mutant of ATCC 274. The data suggest that mutations which apparently affect only the synthesis of a secondary metabolite can modify buffering capacity and passive H+ conductance. PMID:16349300

  3. On the pigment system of the red alga Porphyra Lacineata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, J.B.; Marsman, J.W.

    1959-01-01

    Absorption and fluorescence around 725 mμ of suspensions of the red alga Porphyra lacineata were studied both with and without the phycobilins attached to the pigment system. The in vivo occurrence of 2 chlorophyll a types was confirmed spectroscopically. Their red absorption maxima are located at

  4. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Wackermannová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics.

  5. Genetic Basis of Melanin Pigmentation in Butterfly Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Martin, Arnaud; Perry, Michael W; van der Burg, Karin R L; Matsuoka, Yuji; Monteiro, Antónia; Reed, Robert D

    2017-04-01

    Despite the variety, prominence, and adaptive significance of butterfly wing patterns, surprisingly little is known about the genetic basis of wing color diversity. Even though there is intense interest in wing pattern evolution and development, the technical challenge of genetically manipulating butterflies has slowed efforts to functionally characterize color pattern development genes. To identify candidate wing pigmentation genes, we used RNA sequencing to characterize transcription across multiple stages of butterfly wing development, and between different color pattern elements, in the painted lady butterfly Vanessa cardui This allowed us to pinpoint genes specifically associated with red and black pigment patterns. To test the functions of a subset of genes associated with presumptive melanin pigmentation, we used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing in four different butterfly genera. pale, Ddc, and yellow knockouts displayed reduction of melanin pigmentation, consistent with previous findings in other insects. Interestingly, however, yellow-d, ebony, and black knockouts revealed that these genes have localized effects on tuning the color of red, brown, and ochre pattern elements. These results point to previously undescribed mechanisms for modulating the color of specific wing pattern elements in butterflies, and provide an expanded portrait of the insect melanin pathway. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Pigment identification in pictorial layers by HyperSpectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Giuseppe; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Prestileo, Fernanda; Serranti, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    The use of Hyper-Spectral Imaging (HSI) as a diagnostic tool in the field of cultural heritage is of great interest presenting high potentialities. This analysis, in fact, is non-destructive, non-invasive and portable. Furthermore, the possibility to couple hyperspectral data with chemometric techniques allows getting qualitative and/or quantitative information on the nature and physical-chemical characteristics of the investigated materials. A study was carried out to explore the possibilities offered by this approach to identify pigments in paintings. More in detail, six pigments have been selected and they have been then mixed with four different binders and applied to a wood support. The resulting reference samples were acquired by HSI in the SWIR wavelength range (1000-2500 nm). Data were processed adopting a chemometric approach based on the PLS Toolbox (Eigenvector Research, Inc.) running inside Matlab® (The Mathworks, Inc.). The aim of the study was to verify, according to the information acquired in the investigated wavelength region, the correlation existing between collected spectral signatures and sample characteristics related to the different selected pigments and binders. Results were very good showing as correlations exist. New scenarios can thus be envisaged for analysis, characterization, conservation and restoration of paintings, considering that the developed approach allows to obtain, just "in one shot", information, not only on the type of pigment, but also on the utilized binder and support.

  7. Structures and colour properties of new red wine pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Anders Eckart; Pardon, K.; Hayasaka, Y.;

    2003-01-01

    Two new red pigments were synthesized by nucleophilic addition of vinylphenols to malvidin 3-glucoside. The structures of the resulting pyranoanthocyanins were confirmed by electrospray-mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy (gHMQC gHMBC and CIGAR experiments). By means of UV-vis spectroscopy...

  8. Redirection of pigment biosynthesis to isocoumarins in Fusarium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Sondergaard, Teis Esben

    2012-01-01

    Colonies of Fusarium species often appear red due to production of pigments, such as aurofusarin or bikaverin. The primary compounds in these biosynthetic pathways are YWA1 and pre-bikaverin, respectively, catalyzed by two multidomain polyketide synthases (PKSs), which both have a claisen-type cy...

  9. Effects of blue light on pigment biosynthesis of Monascus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di; Xue, Chunmao; Chen, Mianhua; Wu, Shufen; Li, Zhenjing; Wang, Changlu

    2016-04-01

    The influence of different illumination levels of blue light on the growth and intracellular pigment yields of Monascus strain M9 was investigated. Compared with darkness, constant exposure to blue light of 100 lux reduced the yields of six pigments, namely, rubropunctatamine (RUM), monascorubramine (MOM), rubropunctatin (RUN), monascorubrin (MON), monascin (MS), and ankaflavin (AK). However, exposure to varying levels of blue light had different effects on pigment production. Exposure to 100 lux of blue light once for 30 min/day and to 100 lux of blue light once and twice for 15 min/day could enhance RUM, MOM, MS, and AK production and reduce RUN and MON compared with non-exposure. Exposure to 100 lux twice for 30 min/day and to 200 lux once for 45 min/day decreased the RUM, MOM, MS, and AK yields and increased the RUN and MON. Meanwhile, the expression levels of pigment biosynthetic genes were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Results indicated that gene MpPKS5, mppR1, mppA, mppB, mmpC, mppD, MpFasA, MpFasB, and mppF were positively correlated with the yields of RUN and MON, whereas mppE and mppR2 were associated with RUM, MOM, MS, and AK production.

  10. Rapid Retinal Release from a Cone Visual Pigment Following Photoactivation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min-Hsuan; Kuemmel, Colleen; Birge, Robert R.; Knox, Barry E.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the visual cycle, the retinal chromophore in both rod and cone visual pigments undergoes reversible Schiff base hydrolysis and dissociation following photobleaching. We characterized light-activated retinal release from a short-wavelength sensitive cone pigment (VCOP) in 0.1% dodecyl maltoside using fluorescence spectroscopy. The half-time (t1/2) of retinal release from VCOP was 7.1 s, 250-fold faster than rhodopsin. VCOP exhibited pH-dependent release kinetics, with the t1/2 decreasing from 23 s to 4 s with pH 4.1 to 8, respectively. However, the Arrhenius activation energy (Ea) for VCOP derived from kinetic measurements between 4° and 20°C was 17.4 kcal/mol, similar to 18.5 kcal/mol for rhodopsin. There was a small kinetic isotope (D2O) effect in VCOP, but less than that observed in rhodopsin. Mutation of the primary Schiff base counterion (VCOPD108A) produced a pigment with an unprotonated chromophore (⌊max = 360 nm) and dramatically slowed (t1/2 ~ 6.8 min) light-dependent retinal release. Using homology modeling, a VCOP mutant with two substitutions (S85D/ D108A) was designed to move the counterion one alpha helical turn into the transmembrane region from the native position. This double mutant had a UV-visible absorption spectrum consistent with a protonated Schiff base (⌊max = 420 nm). Moreover, VCOPS85D/D108A mutant had retinal release kinetics (t1/2 = 7 s) and Ea (18 kcal/mol) similar to the native pigment exhibiting no pH-dependence. By contrast, the single mutant VCOPS85D had a ~3-fold decrease in retinal release rate compared to the native pigment. Photoactivated VCOPD108A had kinetics comparable to a rhodopsin counterion mutant, RhoE113Q, both requiring hydroxylamine to fully release retinal. These results demonstrate that the primary counterion of cone visual pigments is necessary for efficient Schiff base hydrolysis. We discuss how the large differences in retinal release rates between rod and cone visual pigments arise, not from

  11. TOXIC ANTERIOR SEGMENT SYNDROME (TASS WITH SEVERE PIGMENT DISPERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Sudhakar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To clinically analyze the cases of TASS with severe pigment dispersion following uncomplicated cataract surgery in a tertiary care teaching hospital from January 2011 to January 2013. DESIGN: Retrospective case series study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of all eyes developing TASS with severe pigment dispersion following uncomplicated Cataract surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical outcomes including visual acuity, intraocular pressure and complications were recorded at 1st post-operative day, 7th post-operative day and after six weeks of follow up visits. RESULTS: TASS with severe pigment dis pension was recorded in five out of 1060 patients. All cases were females. Phacoemulsification with foldable IOL was done in 2 patients and Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS with in bag posterior chamber IOL was done in three patients. All patients had pain which was less severe when compared to the amount of inflammation. Visual acuity ranged from 6/36 to perception of light. All the five patients had rim to rim corneal edema which was seen from the first post-operative day and persisted at six weeks follow up. Pupils were dilated and fixed in all patients. Intraocular pressure was raised in four out of five patients who poorly responded to medical treatment. Dense pigment clumps were seen in the corneal endothelium and on the surgical wound site after one week in three out of five patients and increased at 6 weeks of follow up. Visual acuity did not improve in any of the patient even with treatment. The reduced visual acuity was due to worsening corneal edema and dense pigment clumping in corneal endothelium. CONCLUSION: TASS with severe pigment dispersion has more complication than routine TASS. The complication are due to dense pigment clumping in cornea and angle of anterior chamber causing corneal endothelial de-compensation and raised Intraocular pressure, which persisted even after the inflammation subsided. Although the

  12. Standard guidelines of care: Lasers for tattoos and pigmented lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurangabadkar Sanjeev

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lasers have revolutionized the treatment of pigmentary disorders and have become the mainstay of therapy for many of them. Machines: Though different laser machines are used, Quality-switched (QS lasers are considered as the gold standard for treatment of pigmented lesions. Proper knowledge of the physics of laser machine, methodology, dosage schedules, etc., is mandatory. Physician Qualification: Laser may be administered by a dermatologist, who has received adequate background training in lasers during postgraduation or later at a center that provides education and training in lasers, or in focused workshops which provide such trainings. He should have adequate knowledge of the machines, parameters, cooling systems, and aftercare. Facility: The procedure may be performed in the physician′s minor procedure room. Indications: Epidermal lesions: Cafι au lait macules (CALM, lentigines, freckles, solar lentigo, nevus spilus, pigmented seborrheic keratosis, dermatosis papulosa nigra (DPN. Dermal lesions: Nevus of Ota, Blue nevus, Hori′s nevus (acquired bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules. Tattoos: Amateur, professional, cosmetic, medicinal, and traumatic. Mixed epidermal and dermal lesions: Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH, nevus spilus, periorbital and perioral pigmentation, acquired melanocytic nevi (moles, melasma and Becker′s Nevus. Contraindications: Absolute: Active local infection, photo-aggravated skin diseases and medical conditions, tattoo granuloma, allergic reactions to tattoo pigment, unstable vitiligo and psoriasis. Relative: Keloid and keloidal tendencies, patient on isotretinoin, history of herpes simplex, patient who is not co-operative or has unrealistic expectation. Patient selection: Proper patient selection is important. Investigations to identify any underlying cause for pigmentation are important; concurrent topical and systemic drug therapy may be needed. History of scarring, response to previous

  13. 75 FR 27815 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... (Review) Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... countervailing duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India would be likely to lead to continuation or... that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on carbazole violet pigment 23 from China and...

  14. 75 FR 14468 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... COMMISSION Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India AGENCY: United States International Trade... carbazole violet pigment 23 from India and the antidumping duty orders on carbazole violet pigment 23 from China and India. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of expedited...

  15. Chemotaxonomical researches in higher plants XII. Researches concerning the pigments and glucides of Phytolacca Americana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrila NEAMTU

    1979-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of biochemical analyses of Phytolacca Americana plants grown in the Agrobotanical Garden Cluj-Napoca. Carotenoid pigments (neoxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene and beta-carotene chlorophyll pigments (a,b and glycoside pigments (betalaines, quercetin have been analysed in fruits and leaves respectively.

  16. 78 FR 35115 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Mica-Based Pearlescent Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Certification; Mica-Based Pearlescent Pigments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule... of mica-based pearlescent pigments in food (Sec. 73.350) and ingested drugs (Sec. 73.1350) (71 FR 31927, June 2, 2006). For those exposed to mica-based pearlescent pigments from their use in food...

  17. Fluconazole treatment enhances extracellular release of red pigments in the fungus Monascus purpureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koli, Sunil H; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Patil, Chandrashekar D; Patil, Satish V

    2017-03-15

    Traditional methods for the production of food grade pigments from fungus Monascus spp. are mostly relying on submerged fermentation. However, cell bound nature and intracellular accumulation of pigments in Monascus spp is the major hurdle in pigment production by submerged fermentation. The present study focused on the investigation of the effect of the antifungal agent, fluconazole on red pigment production from Monascus purpureus (NMCC-PF01). At the optimized concentration of fluconazole (30 μg/ml), pigment production was found to be enhanced by 88% after 96 h and it remained constant even after further incubation up to 168 h. An ergosterol, a sterol specific for fungi was also extracted and estimated as a function of fungal growth. The concentration of ergosterol in fluconazole-treated fermentation broth was reduced by 49% as compared to control broth. Thus it could be responsible for facilitating the release of intracellular and cell bound pigments. Nevertheless, the role of cell transporters in transporting out the red pigments cannot be ignored and deserves further attention. Qualitative analysis of red pigment by TLC, UV spectroscopy and mass spectrometric analysis (ESIMS) has confirmed the presence of well-known pigment, Rubropunctamine. In addition, this fermentation process produces citrinin-free pigments. This novel approach will be useful to facilitate increased pigment production by the release of intracellular or cell bound Monascus pigments.

  18. Salt and Pepper Pigmentation - Skin Manifestation of Systemic Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraju, D; Prakash, G; Yoganandh, T; Subramanian, S R; Ramkumar, S

    2015-09-01

    A 50 year old male presented with progressive difficulty in swallowing both liquid and solid food with no history of Raynaud's phenomenon. A general examination revealed skin changes in the form of thickening, hyperpigmentation and tightening of skin of fingers, hand, forearm and legs. The patient had painless skin induration over the legs, forearm and hand. Salt and pepper pigmentation was seen on the upper back (Figure 1a), over mastoid process (Figure 1b) and the concha of pinna (Figure 1c). Anti-Scl 70 was positive. Anti-centromere antibodies were negative. Pulmonary function testing (PFT) revealed very severe restrictive lung disease. Barium swallow study was normal. Despite being advised to undergo oesophageal manometry test in view of dysphagia, patient was not willing for the same. Diagnosis of systemic sclerosis was made. Systemic sclerosis is a disease in which extensive fibrosis, vascular alterations and autoantibodies against various cellular antigens being the principal features with a female to male ratio of 4:1. Skin pigmentation changes among other features of skin involvement include a salt-and-pepper appearance due to diffuse hyperpigmentation with sparing of the perifollicular areas. This may be due to the richer capillary network that may warm the perifollicular skin and preserve melanogenesis producing the perifollicular pigment retention in systemic sclerosis.1,2 Both cellular and humoral immune factors in combination with external factors such as trauma or inflammation may trigger the destruction of melanocytes.3 Moreover, various physical factors like temperature changes as well as genetic, hormonal factors may influence pigment formation. Such changes in pigmentation is also seen during repigmentation around hair follicles in vitiligo. Clinically, both vitiligo and depigmented lesions of systemic sclerosis present as chalk-white macules with well-defined borders. However, mucosal involvement is commonly seen in vitiligo while depigmented

  19. The possible use of EPR spectroscopy for paint pigment identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troup, G.J.; Hutton, D.R. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Bacci, M.; Lotti, F.; Casini, A.; Picollo, M. [Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche, Florence, Italy (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    Full text: Visible and near-infra-red reflectance spectroscopy are now routinely used for the identification of paint pigments in Renaissance painting, thus playing a part in authentication and restoration. Since most of the pigments are minerals, and many minerals either contain traces of paramagnetic ions, or have paramagnetic ions in their main components (e.g., chromic oxide, haematite), it seemed logical to determine whether EPR could distinguish between different pigments. 14 pigments of different colours were tested in a Varian E-12 EPR spectrometer, at a frequency of {approx} 9.1 GHz. Measurements were made at room ({approx} 20 deg C) and liquid N{sub 2} temperatures, in the standard special quartz sample tubes. The active volume is 0. 15 ml, but at most, a volume of sample (powder) one tenth of this was used. The spectra (to be shown) clearly demonstrate that EPR can distinguish between different pigments. The power was 1 milliwatt, the modulation amplitude 4 gauss, the total field sweep 10,000 gauss, centred 5000 gauss and the amplification between 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 4}, as indicated on the charts. The signal to noise ratio is excellent, and sensitivity could be increased (if necessary) by a factor of {approx} 10{sup 3}, thus allowing much smaller samples to be tested. Because the signals are so strong it should be possible to scan at least small painted canvases by the following non-destructive technique, using existing equipment. All that is required is a modified resonant cavity; it must have a high Q, and a slot where the magnetic field is maximum, and the electric field zero. The canvas can thus be placed flush with the waveguide, to interact with the microwave magnetic field emanating from the slot

  20. Studies on pigments of the myxomycete Physarum nudum. II. Separation and optical properties of the pigments from plasmodia cultured in darkness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Raczkowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the data on Separation and some optical properties of the pigments obtained from the plasmodium of the myxomycete Physarum nudum grown in the dark. Pigment Separation was performed by means of thin-layer chromatography with celulose MN 300 as adsorbent and with the solvent: tert.-butylalcohol, H2O, 3N NH4OH at the ratio 5:2:1 In these conditions the chromatograms revealed 12 coloured bands from which pigments were eluted and their absorption spectra as well as the spectra of fluorescence emission were determined. The isolated pigments differ from one another by their physical properties (different Rf values, localization of absorption maxima, and behaviour in acid solution. Nevertheless, certain analogies perceptible between particular pigments per-mitted to distinguish 3 families of the studied pigments demonstrating similar properties.

  1. The blue anthocyanin pigments from the blue flowers of Heliophila coronopifolia L. (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Norio; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Toki, Kenjiro; Shinoda, Koichi; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

    2011-12-01

    Six acylated delphinidin glycosides (pigments 1-6) and one acylated kaempferol glycoside (pigment 9) were isolated from the blue flowers of cape stock (Heliophila coronopifolia) in Brassicaceae along with two known acylated cyanidin glycosides (pigments 7 and 8). Pigments 1-8, based on 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides of delphinidin and cyanidin, were acylated with hydroxycinnamic acids at 3-glycosyl residues of anthocyanidins. Using spectroscopic and chemical methods, the structures of pigments 1, 2, 5, and 6 were determined to be: delphinidin 3-O-[2-O-(β-xylopyranosyl)-6-O-(acyl)-β-glucopyranoside]-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside], in which acyl moieties were, respectively, cis-p-coumaric acid for pigment 1, trans-caffeic acid for pigment 2, trans-p-coumaric acid for pigment 5 (a main pigment) and trans-ferulic acid for pigment 6, respectively. Moreover, the structure of pigments 3 and 4 were elucidated, respectively, as a demalonyl pigment 5 and a demalonyl pigment 6. Two known anthocyanins (pigments 7 and 8) were identified to be cyanidin 3-(6-p-coumaroyl-sambubioside)-5-(6-malonyl-glucoside) for pigment 7 and cyanidin 3-(6-feruloyl-sambubioside)-5-(6-malonyl-glucoside) for pigment 8 as minor anthocyanin pigments. A flavonol pigment (pigment 9) was isolated from its flowers and determined to be kaempferol 3-O-[6-O-(trans-feruloyl)-β-glucopyranoside]-7-O-cellobioside-4'-O-glucopyranoside as the main flavonol pigment. On the visible absorption spectral curve of the fresh blue petals of this plant and its petal pressed juice in the pH 5.0 buffer solution, three characteristic absorption maxima were observed at 546, 583 and 635 nm. However, the absorption curve of pigment 5 (a main anthocyanin in its flower) exhibited only one maximum at 569 nm in the pH 5.0 buffer solution, and violet color. The color of pigment 5 was observed to be very unstable in the pH 5.0 solution and soon decayed. In the pH 5.0 solution, the violet color of pigment 5 was restored as pure

  2. Metarhodopsin control by arrestin, light-filtering screening pigments, and visual pigment turnover in invertebrate microvillar photoreceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Hardie, Roger C.

    The visual pigments of most invertebrate photoreceptors have two thermostable photo-interconvertible states, the ground state rhodopsin and photo-activated metarhodopsin, which triggers the phototransduction cascade until it binds arrestin. The ratio of the two states in photoequilibrium is

  3. From GWAS to Function: Transcriptional regulation of pigmentation genes in humans Transcriptional regulation of pigmentation genes in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Visser (Mijke)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractHuman pigmentation is one of the most explicit visual traits, which therefore has been subject of many research studies. With the emergence of large-scale genetic association studies like GWASs, numerous SNPs have been associated with a phenotype of interest, such as human eye, hair

  4. Metarhodopsin control by arrestin, light-filtering screening pigments, and visual pigment turnover in invertebrate microvillar photoreceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Hardie, Roger C.

    2011-01-01

    The visual pigments of most invertebrate photoreceptors have two thermostable photo-interconvertible states, the ground state rhodopsin and photo-activated metarhodopsin, which triggers the phototransduction cascade until it binds arrestin. The ratio of the two states in photoequilibrium is determin

  5. Remote sensing of vertical phytoplankton pigment distributions in the Baltic: new mathematical expressions. Part 3: Nonphotosynthetic pigment absorption factor:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Woźniak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, part 3 of the description of vertical pigment distributions in the Baltic Sea, discusses the mathematical expression enabling the vertical distributions of the non-photosynthetic pigment absorption factor fa to be estimated. The factor fa is directly related to concentrations of the several groups of phytoplankton pigments and describes quantitatively the ratio of the light energy absorbed at given depths by photosynthetic pigments to the light energy absorbed by all the phytoplankton pigments together (photosynthetic and photoprotecting. Knowledge of this factor is highly desirable in the construction of state-of-the-art "light-photosynthesis" models for remote-sensing purposes.    The expression enables fa to be estimated with considerable precision on the basis of two surface parameters (available from satellite observations: the total chlorophyll a concentration at the surfaceCa(0 and the spectral downward irradiance Ed(λ, 0 just below the sea surface. The expression is applicable to Baltic waters from the surface down to an optical depth of τ ≈ 5.    The verification of the model description of fa was based on 400 quasi-empirical values of this factor which were calculated on the basis of empirical values of the following parameters measured at the same depths: Ed(λ, z (or also PAR(z, apl(λ, z,and the concentrations of all the groups of phytoplankton pigments Ca(z and Cj(z (where j denotes in turn chl b, chl c, PSC, phyc, PPC. The verification shows that the errors in the values of the non-photosynthetic pigment absorption factor fa estimated using the modeldeveloped in this work are small: in practice they do not exceed 4%.    Besides the mathematical description of the vertical distribution of fa, this paper also discusses the range of variation of its values measured in the Baltic and its dependence on the trophic index of a basin and depth in the sea. In addition, the similarities and differences in the

  6. The influence of paint dispersion parameters on the spectral selectivity of black-pigmented coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunde, M.K.; Orel, Z.C. [National Institute of Chemistry, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hutchins, M.G. [Oxford Brookes University, Oxford (United Kingdom). School of Engineering

    2003-10-31

    The optical properties of variously prepared black-pigmented solar absorbing paints were calculated in terms of their effective absorption and scattering abilities. The phenomenological two-parameter Kubelka-Munk effective medium theory was applied. Paints with the same composition were prepared for different degrees of pigment dispersion and characterized by the average size of pigment agglomerates present in the pigment/vehicle system. Prepared paints were applied to aluminium foil in two ways, by coil coating and by spraying. The size of coarse pigment particles and the paint application technique influence the spectral selectivity and thus determine the final performance of spectrally selective surfaces. (author)

  7. Effect of Nano Al Pigment on the Anticorrosive Performance of Waterborne Epoxy Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results regarding the effect of nano aluminum powder pigment concentration on the protective properties of waterborne epoxy films in 3.5 wt pct NaCl solution. The anticorrosive performance of the coatings with 0.5, 1, and 3 wt pct pigments and none pigment were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy techniques.The results show that adding appropriate amount of nano-aluminium powder pigment can enhance the barrier properties of the epoxy coating, which is attributed to the surface effect of nanoparticles and the compatibility of the pigment with the waterborne epoxy coatings.

  8. Relative Pigment Composition and Remote Sensing Reflectance of Caribbean Shallow-Water Corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan L Torres-Pérez

    Full Text Available Reef corals typically contain a number of pigments, mostly due to their symbiotic relationship with photosynthetic dinoflagellates. These pigments usually vary in presence and concentration and influence the spectral characteristics of corals. We studied the variations in pigment composition among seven Caribbean shallow-water Scleractinian corals by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis to further resolve the discrimination of corals. We found a total of 27 different pigments among the coral species, including some alteration products of the main pigments. Additionally, pigments typically found in endolithic algae were also identified. A Principal Components Analysis and a Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed the separation of coral species based on pigment composition. All the corals were collected under the same physical environmental conditions. This suggests that pigment in the coral's symbionts might be more genetically-determined than influenced by prevailing physical conditions of the reef. We further investigated the use of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs as a tool for estimating the total pigment concentration of reef corals. Depending on the coral species, the Rrs and the total symbiont pigment concentration per coral tissue area correlation showed 79.5-98.5% confidence levels demonstrating its use as a non-invasive robust technique to estimate pigment concentration in studies of coral reef biodiversity and health.

  9. Relative Pigment Composition and Remote Sensing Reflectance of Caribbean Shallow-Water Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pérez, Juan L.; Guild, Liane S.; Armstrong, Roy A.; Corredor, Jorge; Zuluaga-Montero, Anabella; Polanco, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Reef corals typically contain a number of pigments, mostly due to their symbiotic relationship with photosynthetic dinoflagellates. These pigments usually vary in presence and concentration and influence the spectral characteristics of corals. We studied the variations in pigment composition among seven Caribbean shallow-water Scleractinian corals by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis to further resolve the discrimination of corals. We found a total of 27 different pigments among the coral species, including some alteration products of the main pigments. Additionally, pigments typically found in endolithic algae were also identified. A Principal Components Analysis and a Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed the separation of coral species based on pigment composition. All the corals were collected under the same physical environmental conditions. This suggests that pigment in the coral’s symbionts might be more genetically-determined than influenced by prevailing physical conditions of the reef. We further investigated the use of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) as a tool for estimating the total pigment concentration of reef corals. Depending on the coral species, the Rrs and the total symbiont pigment concentration per coral tissue area correlation showed 79.5–98.5% confidence levels demonstrating its use as a non-invasive robust technique to estimate pigment concentration in studies of coral reef biodiversity and health. PMID:26619210

  10. Relative Pigment Composition and Remote Sensing Reflectance of Caribbean Shallow-Water Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pérez, Juan L; Guild, Liane S; Armstrong, Roy A; Corredor, Jorge; Zuluaga-Montero, Anabella; Polanco, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Reef corals typically contain a number of pigments, mostly due to their symbiotic relationship with photosynthetic dinoflagellates. These pigments usually vary in presence and concentration and influence the spectral characteristics of corals. We studied the variations in pigment composition among seven Caribbean shallow-water Scleractinian corals by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis to further resolve the discrimination of corals. We found a total of 27 different pigments among the coral species, including some alteration products of the main pigments. Additionally, pigments typically found in endolithic algae were also identified. A Principal Components Analysis and a Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed the separation of coral species based on pigment composition. All the corals were collected under the same physical environmental conditions. This suggests that pigment in the coral's symbionts might be more genetically-determined than influenced by prevailing physical conditions of the reef. We further investigated the use of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) as a tool for estimating the total pigment concentration of reef corals. Depending on the coral species, the Rrs and the total symbiont pigment concentration per coral tissue area correlation showed 79.5-98.5% confidence levels demonstrating its use as a non-invasive robust technique to estimate pigment concentration in studies of coral reef biodiversity and health.

  11. Ink Jet Printing:Performance Improvements through Nano-pigment Dispersions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.-T. Macholdt; H. Menzel; K.-H. Schweikart

    2004-01-01

    The great success of color ink jet printing in the office segment is based on aqueous inks containing water-soluble dyes as colorants. Recently for quality and cost reasons pigments are also being considered. To make pigment handling as easy as dye handling, a very small pigment particle size is necessary. 100 nanometergrade pigments turned out to be the optimum. By pigment modifications (particle size, surface polarity, etc. )the desired ink quality (jettability, constant viscosity, brilliant image) can be obtained. Besides office applications, excellent pigment dispersions are also needed for wide format indoor and outdoor printing. For this application different pigment grades are necessary, since very high light and weather fastness are required, too. As an outlook it will also be discussed, to which extent ink jet printing is also attractive for R, G, B (red, green,blue display) LCD color filters.

  12. Late-onset necrotizing scleritis due to pigmented mycetoma (dematiaceous fungi) in 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Jagadesh C; Rapuano, Christopher J; Eagle, Ralph C; Shields, Carol L; Shields, Jerry A

    2013-04-01

    To describe the atypical presentation of fungal infection and necrotizing scleritis, the potential role of histopathology in the diagnosis, and surgical excision in the management. Retrospective interventional case series. Two patients presented with a pigmented conjunctival mass, one resembling necrotizing scleritis with uveal prolapse and the other resembling a pigmented ocular surface tumor, both after excision of nasal pterygium, 12 and 50 years previously, respectively. The pigmented lesion was 2 × 1.5 mm in each case, both situated on the bulbar surface 2 mm from the nasal limbus. After surgical excision, each lesion histopathologically displayed fungal filaments (pigmented dematiaceous fungi). Pigmented mycetoma (dematiaceous fungi) can simulate uveal tissue prolapse, pigmented foreign body, or pigmented epibulbar tumors, particularly melanoma. Surgical excision of the entire lesion is effective for management.

  13. Methods for culturing retinal pigment epithelial cells: a review of current protocols and future recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron H Fronk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The retinal pigment epithelium is an important part of the vertebrate eye, particularly in studying the causes and possible treatment of age-related macular degeneration. The retinal pigment epithelium is difficult to access in vivo due to its location at the back of the eye, making experimentation with age-related macular degeneration treatments problematic. An alternative to in vivo experimentation is cultivating the retinal pigment epithelium in vitro, a practice that has been going on since the 1970s, providing a wide range of retinal pigment epithelial culture protocols, each producing cells and tissue of varying degrees of similarity to natural retinal pigment epithelium. The purpose of this review is to provide researchers with a ready list of retinal pigment epithelial protocols, their effects on cultured tissue, and their specific possible applications. Protocols using human and animal retinal pigment epithelium cells, derived from tissue or cell lines, are discussed, and recommendations for future researchers included.

  14. Extraction and Purification of Pigment from Purple Sweet Potato Wine Vinasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongsheng Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purple sweet potato pigment is a natural food pigment with bright color and multiplies biological functions such as antioxidant activity etc. There is a large amount of unused pigment in the vinasse of purple sweet potato wine. Therefore, in this study, the extraction processes of purple sweet potato pigment from purple sweet potato wine vinasse, as well as its purification conditions were investigated. As the results, 0.9% citric acid-95% ethanol (2/3, v/v was a suitable extraction solvent to obtain the higher yield of purple sweet potato pigment from vinasse. AB-8 column chromatography showed that the loading ratio of 1/10 (w/v of resin and pigment with the solvent of 40% ethanol at the flow rate of 2 mL/min were the optimal conditions for the purification of purple sweet potato pigment.

  15. Near-infrared luminescence of cadmium pigments: in situ identification and mapping in paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoury, Mathieu; Delaney, John K; Rie, E René de la; Palmer, Michael; Morales, Kathryn; Krueger, Jay

    2011-08-01

    A comprehensive study of the luminescence properties of cadmium pigments was undertaken to determine whether these properties could be used for in situ identification and mapping of the pigments in paintings. Cadmium pigments are semiconductors that show band edge luminescence in the visible range and deep trap luminescence in the red/infrared range. Emission maxima, quantum yields, and excitation spectra from the band edge and deep trap emissions were studied for sixty commercial cadmium pigments that span the color range from yellow to red (reflectance transition 470 to 660 nm). For paints containing cadmium pigments, luminescence from deep traps was more readily observable than that from the band edge, although the yield varied widely from zero to around 4.5%. Optimal excitation for emission is found to be in the visible for both pigments in powder form and mixed with a medium. The maxima of the deep trap emission shift with the band gap energy, providing a potentially useful way to assign pigment type even when used in pigment mixtures. The usefulness of the results of the study on mockups was demonstrated by the mapping of cadmium pigments of different hues with the aid of calibrated luminescence imaging spectroscopy in a painting by Edward Steichen, entitled Study for 'Le Tournesol' (1920). Analysis of the luminescence image cube reveals at least six unique spectral components, associated with emission from white pigments, paint binder, and cadmium red and yellow pigments. The results were compared with those from X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and fiber-optic reflection spectroscopy (FORS) and the results obtained on paint samples containing cadmium pigments. These results show that, when present, the emission from traps can be used as an analytical tool to identify cadmium pigments, to distinguish among cadmium sulfide, cadmium zinc sulfide, and cadmium sulfoselenide, and to map cadmium pigments, even in mixtures.

  16. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Pigments: A Critical Assessment of a High-Throughput Method for Analysis of Algal Pigment Mixtures by Spectral Deconvolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Erik Thrane

    Full Text Available The Gauss-peak spectra (GPS method represents individual pigment spectra as weighted sums of Gaussian functions, and uses these to model absorbance spectra of phytoplankton pigment mixtures. We here present several improvements for this type of methodology, including adaptation to plate reader technology and efficient model fitting by open source software. We use a one-step modeling of both pigment absorption and background attenuation with non-negative least squares, following a one-time instrument-specific calibration. The fitted background is shown to be higher than a solvent blank, with features reflecting contributions from both scatter and non-pigment absorption. We assessed pigment aliasing due to absorption spectra similarity by Monte Carlo simulation, and used this information to select a robust set of identifiable pigments that are also expected to be common in natural samples. To test the method's performance, we analyzed absorbance spectra of pigment extracts from sediment cores, 75 natural lake samples, and four phytoplankton cultures, and compared the estimated pigment concentrations with concentrations obtained using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The deviance between observed and fitted spectra was generally very low, indicating that measured spectra could successfully be reconstructed as weighted sums of pigment and background components. Concentrations of total chlorophylls and total carotenoids could accurately be estimated for both sediment and lake samples, but individual pigment concentrations (especially carotenoids proved difficult to resolve due to similarity between their absorbance spectra. In general, our modified-GPS method provides an improvement of the GPS method that is a fast, inexpensive, and high-throughput alternative for screening of pigment composition in samples of phytoplankton material.

  17. Isolation and characterization of pigmented algicidal bacteria from seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaima, A.; Gires, U.; Asmat, A.

    2014-09-01

    Some dinoflagellate species are toxic and widely distributed in Malaysian marines ecosystems. They can cause many problems to aquatic life due to the production of various potential and natural toxins that accumulate in filter feeding shellfish and cause food poisoning to human. In recent decades, bacteria have been widely used as a biological control against these harmful algae. In the present study, pigmented bacteria isolated from marine water of Port Dickson beach was studied for their anti-algal activity towards toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. Four isolates were studied and only one was capable of inhibiting algal growth when treated with bacterial culture. The algilytic effect on dinoflagellate was evaluated based on direct cell count under the microscope. Results showed that only isolate Sdpd-310 with orange colour has an inhibitory effect on A. minutum growth. This study demonstrated the rapid algicidal activity of a marine pigmented bacteria against the toxic dinoflagellate A. minutum.

  18. Anthocyanins: naturally occuring fruit pigments with functional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TURTURICĂ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin is a water-soluble pigment existing in plants, and has various health benefits to humans. As far as that goes, the number and location of the hydroxyl groups of the parent nucleus have significant effects on the anthocyanin activities. This review summarizes anthocyanin content in fruits, the importance of anthocyanin in relation to human health, some aspects of anthocyanin biochemistry and their bioavailability, the distribution in some fruits, the biosynthetic pathway, different extraction, separation and purification methods, and also identification methods. Beneficial effects of anthocyanin pigments are reported in the scientific literature and these compounds are nowadays recognized as potentially therapeutic. The lack of antioxidant defense mechanisms in humans is associated with the cardiovascular and coronary artery diseases, cancer and diabetes, besides others.

  19. Polymeric peptide pigments with sequence-encoded properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampel, Ayala; McPhee, Scott A.; Park, Hang-Ah; Scott, Gary G.; Humagain, Sunita; Hekstra, Doeke R.; Yoo, Barney; Frederix, Pim W. J. M.; Li, Tai-De; Abzalimov, Rinat R.; Greenbaum, Steven G.; Tuttle, Tell; Hu, Chunhua; Bettinger, Christopher J.; Ulijn, Rein V.

    2017-06-08

    Melanins are a family of heterogeneous polymeric pigments that provide ultraviolet (UV) light protection, structural support, coloration, and free radical scavenging. Formed by oxidative oligomerization of catecholic small molecules, the physical properties of melanins are influenced by covalent and noncovalent disorder. We report the use of tyrosine-containing tripeptides as tunable precursors for polymeric pigments. In these structures, phenols are presented in a (supra-)molecular context dictated by the positions of the amino acids in the peptide sequence. Oxidative polymerization can be tuned in a sequence-dependent manner, resulting in peptide sequence–encoded properties such as UV absorbance, morphology, coloration, and electrochemical properties over a considerable range. Short peptides have low barriers to application and can be easily scaled, suggesting near-term applications in cosmetics and biomedicine.

  20. PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS IN A RETICULATED GIRAFFE (GIRAFFA CAMELOPARDALIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihms, Elizabeth A; Rivas, Anne; Bronson, Ellen; Mangus, Lisa M

    2017-06-01

    : A 17-yr-old, female, captive-born reticulated giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis ) presented with acute-onset lameness of the right metacarpophalangeal (fetlock) joint. Despite multiple courses of treatment, the lameness and swelling progressively worsened over a 3.5-yr period, and the giraffe was euthanized. At necropsy, gross and microscopic changes in the right, front fetlock and associated flexor tendon sheath included villous synovial hyperplasia and the formation of discrete pigmented nodules within synovial membranes. Histologically, the nodules were composed of abundant, fibrous connective tissue with heavy macrophage infiltration, hemosiderin deposition, and distinctive, multinucleated cells that resembled osteoclasts. These findings were consistent with pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), a rare condition affecting both humans and animals. Although the pathophysiology of PVNS is poorly understood, lesions exhibit features of both neoplastic and reactive inflammatory processes. This case report represents, to the authors' knowledge, the first description of PVNS in a nondomestic ungulate.

  1. Colloidal assembly in Leidenfrost drops for noniridescent structural color pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Che Ho; Kang, Hyelim; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2014-07-22

    Noniridescent structural color pigments have great potential as alternatives to conventional chemical color pigments in many coloration applications due to their nonbleaching and color-tunable properties. In this work, we report a novel method to create photonic microgranules composed of glassy packing of silica particles and small fraction of carbon black nanoparticles, which show pronounced structural colors with low angle-dependency. To prepare isotropic random packing in each microgranule, a Leidenfrost drop, which is a drop levitated by its own vapor on a hot surface, is employed as a template for fast consolidation of silica particles. The drop randomly migrates over the hot surface and rapidly shrinks, while maintaining its spherical shape, thereby consolidating silica particles to granular structures. Carbon black nanoparticles incorporated in the microgranules suppress incoherent multiple scattering, thereby providing improved color contrast. Therefore, photonic microgranules in a full visible range can be prepared by adjusting the size of silica particles with insignificant whitening.

  2. A Rare Cause of Mucocutaneous Pigmentation: Laugier Hunziker Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Meriç

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Laugier Hunziker syndrome (LHS is a rare, acquired pigmentation disorder characterized by macular melonotic pigmentation of the oral mucous membranes and lips frequently associated with longitudinal melanonychia. LHS is known to be an entirely benign condition with no underlying systemic abnormalities or malignant predisposition. However, it is very important to make a differential diagnosis with other mucocutaneous pigmentary disorders which require detailed examination, treatment and follow up. LHS is seen very rarely and to our knowledge, approximately 100 cases have been described in the literature, to date. There are only seven cases reported from the our country, based on the literature search in PubMed and Turkish Dermatological journals, avaliable on the web. Herein we report a 54-year-old woman diagnosed as having LHS, with hyperpigmented macular lesions of the tongue, lip, buccal mucosa, gingiva and palms and soles.

  3. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric identification of dyes and pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltzberg, L J; Hagar, Amanda; Kridaratikorn, Supicha; Mattson, Anne; Newman, Richard

    2007-11-01

    We have used MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to characterize a selection of dyes from the Schweppe dye collection and pigments from the Tate Gallery collection. MALDI-TOF mass spectra of such samples are easily obtained and, through observation of both positive and negative ion spectra, provide a convenient, versatile method for dye characterization and identification. Such pairs of positive and negative ion spectra immediately distinguish between acidic and basic dyes and provide the characteristic mass of either the molecular ion or a simply related fragment ion. This approach is especially useful in situations where very small amounts of analyte are available, as in museum research and forensic analysis. In the case of textile dyes, we have carried out identification on material from single fibers and, with insoluble pigments, have begun to identify components of historically important pastel sticks from submicrogram samples.

  4. Pigmented purpuric dermatosis or mycosis fungoides: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeba Riyaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPD, a group of vascular disorders with variable clinical picture is reported in all races and age groups with a male predilection. There are reports of mycosis fungoides manifesting as pigmented purpura as well as progression of PPD to cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The diagnostic dilemma is compounded by PPD manifesting histological similarity to mycosis fungoides. Currently, it is believed that PPD with monoclonal T-cell population is more likely to progress to malignancy. We report a 31-year-old male patient who presented with the lichenoid clinical variant of PPD lesions that mimicked mycosis fungoides on histopathology. Gene rearrangement studies identified a polyclonal T-cell population. The patient responded to photochemotherapy, which is beneficial in both PPD and mycosis fungoides. Our case signifies the limitations of current diagnostic modalities in accurately distinguishing PPD from cutaneous lymphoma. Data on disease progression in similar cases may enable us to formulate better diagnostic definitions.

  5. Production and biological activities of yellow pigments from Monascus fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Monascus yellow pigments (MYPs), are azaphilone compounds and one of the three main components of total Monascus pigments (MPs). Thirty-five hydrophilic or hydrophobic MYPs have been identified, with the majority being hydrophobic. Apart from screening special Monascus strains, some advanced approaches, such as extractive and high-cell-density fermentations, have been applied for developing or producing new MYPs, especially extracellular hydrophilic MYPs. The outstanding performance of MYPs in terms of resistance to photodegradation, as well as tolerance for temperature and pH, give natural MYPs reasonable prospects, compared with the orange and red MPs, for practical use in the present and future. Meanwhile, MYPs have shown promising potential for applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries based on their described bioactivities. This review briefly summarizes the reports to date on chemical structures, biological activities, biosynthetic pathways, production technologies, and physicochemical performances of MYPs. The existing problems for MYPs are discussed and research prospects proposed.

  6. Computational drug designing of fungal pigments as potential aromatase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Fatima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing aromatase inhibitors produced unwelcome effects impose the discovery of novel drugs with privileged selectivity, a reduced amount of toxicity and humanizing potency. In this study, we illuminate the binding mode of polyketide azaphilanoid pigments monascin, ankaflavin, monascorubrin and monascorubramine isolated from Monascus fungus to the aromatase by molecular docking. The 3-dimensional structure of aromatase enzyme (PDB: 4KQ8 was obtained from the Protein Data Bank. PatchDock docking software was used to analyze structural complexes of the aromatase with monascus pigments. Comparatively, the AutoGrid model presented the most briskly constructive binding mode of monascin to aromatase. Docked energies in kcal/mol are: monascin;-13.2; monascorubramine:-12.8, monascorubrin:-12.3; ankaflavin: -10.5. These outcomes exposed these ligands could be potential drugs to treat hormone dependent breast cancer.

  7. A quick assessment of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 pigments: From lab to conservation studio!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Driel, B.A.; Kooyman, P.J.; van den Berg, K.J.; Schmidt-Ott, A.; Dik, J.

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide is the most abundantly used white pigment of the 20th century. The pigment is still in use, both in the production of contemporary art and for the conservation of older artwork as a retouching pigment. Unfortunately, next to its positive characteristics, the pigment has one major po

  8. A rare pigmented keratitis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mauricio; Vélez; Kepa; Balparda; Ana; María; Díaz

    2015-01-01

    <正>Dear Sir,I am Mauricio Vélez,from the Department of Ophthalmology,Cornea Service Director,Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana in Medellín,Colombia.Below,I would like to share an interesting case I managed recently,which I’ve entitled"A rare pigmented keratitis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus".Fungi are a relatively uncommon cause of microbial keratitis

  9. Characterization of Chromobacterium violaceum pigment through a hyperspectral imaging system

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo, Maria J; Staforelli, Juan P; Meza, Pablo; Bordeu, Ignacio; Torres, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive spatio-spectral and temporal analysis for Chromobacterium violaceum colonies is reported. A hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system is used to recover the spectral signatures of pigment production in a non-homogeneous media with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity in vivo, without destructing the sample. This non-contact sensing technique opens avenues to study the temporal growing of a specific section in the bacterial colony. Further, from a 580 [nm] and ...

  10. Paraneoplastic disorders of hair, nails, oral mucosa and pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kavak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this section, paraneoplastic entites of hair, nail, oral mucosa and pigmentation changes have been discussed. Some skin findings are “strong” indicator of a malignancy whereas others are not. Readers will encounter some “coincidental” or “common” entities as well as more “severe” changes for a paraneoplastic sign. In addition, it is crucial that some paraneoplastic lesions may predict for a recurrence of malignancy.

  11. Radiotherapy for Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin Nayan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of a 13 year old boy who has been operated for Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (PVNS and treated with adjuvant post-operative radiotherapy for incomplete surgical resection. This report mainly highlights the role of radiotherapy in managing this rare benign condition with emphasis on improving local control rates with functional joint preservation and avoiding repeated surgeries. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(2.000: 222-223

  12. Characterization of ancient Chinese pottery decorated with a black pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, M.; Akiyoshi, K.; Nakamura, M.

    1999-04-01

    The Yangshao type pottery, made about 6000 yrs ago, was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and confirmed to be composed of quartz, feldspar, muscovite and calcite. A black pigment on it was assumed to be (Mn, Fe) 3O 4 from Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and XRD experiments. Firing temperature of the pottery was assumed to be less than 600°C from a heating experiment of the fragment of the pottery.

  13. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, E.; Candreva, R.; Santucci, E.

    2011-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is characterized by hyperplasia of the synovial tissue in joints, of tendon sheaths, and of the mucous membranes, or fibrous tissue adjacent to the tendons. Its etiology is unknown. We report a case of diffuse intra-articular PVNS of the right knee in a 38-year-old man. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the disease are described. PMID:23396820

  14. Cribrarione C, a naphthoquinone pigment from the myxomycete Cribraria meylanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Akinori; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Ahmed, Firoj; Ishibashi, Masami

    2009-08-01

    Chemical investigation of field-collected fruit bodies of the myxomycete Cribraria meylanii resulted in the isolation of a naphthoquinone pigment, cribrarione C, and its structure was elucidated by spectral data as 2,5,6,7-tetrahydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (1). This compound (1) had been synthesized previously, while it was isolated here for the first time as a natural product, and its NMR and MS data are described in this study.

  15. Simple Raman Instrument for in Vivo Detection of Macular Pigments

    OpenAIRE

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; Gellermann, Werner

    2005-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy holds promise as a novel noninvasive technology for the quantification of the macular pigments (MP) lutein and zeaxanthin. These compounds, which are members of the carotenoid family, are thought to prevent or delay the onset of age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly. It is highly likely that they achieve this protection through their function as optical filters and/or antioxidants. Using resonant excitation in the visib...

  16. The pgm locus and pigmentation phenotype in Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Cristina Leal-Balbino

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The pigmentation (pgm locus is a large unstable area of the Yersinia pestis chromosome composed of a segment of iron acquisition (HPI linked to a pigmentation segment. In this work we examined the mobility of HPI and the pigmentation segment in three Y. pestis isolates using successive subcultures on Congo red agar (CRA plates. Strain P. CE 882 was shown to be highly stable while strains P. Exu 340 and P. Peru 375 dissociated into several phenotypes, PCR analysis showing evidence of changes in the pgm locus of the derived cultures. Strains P. Exu 340 and P. Peru 375 produced previously unreported cultures positive for the pesticin/yersiniabactin outer membrane receptor (psn+ but negative for the iron-regulated protein (irp2-, suggesting the occurrence of rearrangements in this chromosomal region and either a sequential loss or the loss of separated segments. These results provide evidence that besides deletion en bloc, specific rearrangements are also involved in the deletion events for that locus.

  17. Developmental origin of the posterior pigmented epithelium of iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Xiong, Kai; Lu, Lei; Gu, Dandan; Wang, Songtao; Chen, Jing; Xiao, Honglei; Zhou, Guomin

    2015-03-01

    Iris epithelium is a double-layered pigmented cuboidal epithelium. According to the current model, the neural retina and the posterior iris pigment epithelium (IPE) are derived from the inner wall of the optic cup, while the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the anterior IPE are derived from the outer wall of the optic cup during development. Our current study shows evidence, contradicting this model of fetal iris development. We demonstrate that human fetal iris expression patterns of Otx2 and Mitf transcription factors are similar, while the expressions of Otx2 and Sox2 are complementary. Furthermore, IPE and RPE exhibit identical morphologic development during the early embryonic period. Our results suggest that the outer layer of the optic cup forms two layers of the iris epithelium, and the posterior IPE is the inward-curling anterior rim of the outer layer of the optic cup. These findings provide a reasonable explanation of how IPE cells can be used as an appropriate substitute for RPE cells.

  18. PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS IN HEVEA CLONES UNDER POWDERY MILDEW ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisely Cristina Gonzalez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810561The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. Of Juss. Muell. Arg.] can be affected by the occurrence of the fungus Oidium heveae, which causes one of the most important diseases of rubber trees, powdery mildew. This work studied meet changes in photosynthetic pigments, an indicator of oxidative stress, in seedlings of three Hevea brasiliensis clones, RRIM 600, GT1 and PR255, under infection in Oidium heveae. The experiment was conducted in an open environment under natural photoperiod conditions and at the beginning of the trial, the rubber plants would be inoculated were sprayed with an aqueous suspension containing O. heveae at a concentration of 16 x 104 conidia mL-1. On the day of inoculation and after 48, 96, 144 and 192 h leaf samples were collected for the determination of photosynthetic pigments. Degradation in photosynthetic pigments in the period of infection was observed in rubber tree clones studied; thus, there is oxidative stress in clones of rubber trees. No promising genetic material for genetic improvement work stress tolerance by Oidium heveae was identified.

  19. Efficient transgenesis mediated by pigmentation rescue in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Itrat; Carbonneau, Seth; Moore, Bethany M; Nguyen, Gina; Anderson, Nicole M; Saini, Amandeep S; Kanki, John P; Jette, Cicely A; Feng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish represents a revolutionary tool in large-scale genetic and small-molecule screens for gene and drug discovery. Transgenic zebrafish are often utilized in these screens. Many transgenic fish lines are maintained in the heterozygous state due to the lethality associated with homozygosity; thus, their progeny must be sorted to ensure a population expressing the transgene of interest for use in screens. Sorting transgenic embryos under a fluorescence microscope is very labor-intensive and demands fine-tuned motor skills. Here we report an efficient transgenic method of utilizing pigmentation rescue of nacre mutant fish for accurate naked-eye identification of both mosaic founders and stable transgenic zebrafish. This was accomplished by co-injecting two constructs with the I-SceI meganuclease enzyme into pigmentless nacre embryos: I-SceI-mitfa:mitfa-I-SceI to rescue the pigmentation and I-SceI-zpromoter:gene-of-interest-I-SceI to express the gene of interest under a zebrafish promoter (zpromoter). Pigmentation rescue reliably predicted transgene integration. Compared with other transgenic techniques, our approach significantly increases the overall percentage of founders and facilitates accurate naked-eye identification of stable transgenic fish, greatly reducing laborious fluorescence microscope sorting and PCR genotyping. Thus, this approach is ideal for generating transgenic fish for large-scale screens.

  20. Textile dyes and pigments as a source of dioxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostjan, K.; Marechal, A.M. le [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Maribor (Slovenia); Voncina, E. [Environmental Protection Institute, Maribor (Slovenia); Brodnjak-Voncina, D. [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Maribor (Slovenia)

    2004-09-15

    Synthesis of colorants represents a relatively large group of chemicals with complex synthesis processes. Over 7 x 10 ton of dyestuff is produced annually worldwide with more than 100,000 types of dyes and pigments. During synthesis of some colorants polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) can be formed. Dioxins are related to halogens, especially chlorine and bromine homologues are most toxic and persistent. About 40% of worldwide used colorants contain organically bounded chlorine. Further formations of PCDD/Fs can occur via dyeing and textile finishing processes with conditions favoured for the generation of PCDD/Fs (high temperatures, alkaline conditions, UV radiations or other radical starters). Relative small number of data is available for PCDD/Fs presence and contents in textile dyes and pigments. Known sources of PCDD/Fs are dioxazine dyes and pigments, produced from chloranil1. Chloranil is produced from chlorinated phenols and during the synthesis PCDD/Fs as by products are formed. In a sample of Ni-phthalocyanine dye higher congeners of PCDD/Fs were found in {mu}g/kg concentration level. In our work six samples of disperse dyes were analysed for PCDD/Fs content. In two disperse black dyes, a mixture of anthraquinone and azo-disperse dye, considerable level ({mu}g/kg) of PCDD/Fs was determined. The OCDD was the dominant compound. Distribution of dioxins and their fate during textile processes were further investigated.

  1. Hemosiderotic clear-cell acanthoma: A pigmented mimicker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bugatti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report on a case of a 65-year-old man with pigmented clear-cell acanthoma located on the right thigh. Dermoscopy disclosed a peculiar picture consisting of diffuse black pigmentation with a superficial greyish veil in the central portion, dotted-to-globular dark red-black structures mainly located at the periphery with a homogenous regular reticular arrangement; peripheral translucid desquamation. Dermoscopic features are correlated with the histology, where hemosiderin deposits present in a sheet-like arrangement in the perivascular papillary dermis and in a band-like disposition in the reticular dermis at the base of the lesion can account for the pigmented picture. The lesion arose on a trauma-prone skin site; thus the authors believe that traumatic irritation may be responsible for the clinical and dermoscopic pictures, giving rise to a reaction similar in a way to the Auspitz′s sign provocated by trauma for psoriasis. Red blood cells extravasation from extremely superficialized capillaries may have led to hemosiderin deposition in the papillary and the reticular dermis.

  2. Unusual cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis after arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Mei; Xia, Chun-Yan; Fu, Pei-Liang; Liu, Hui-Min; Yu, Hong-Yu; He, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (PVNS) is a relatively rare, benign proliferation lesion of the synovium of large joints. The etiology is varied and unclear. We had report a 79-year-old woman had PVNS after 14 years right hip arthroplasty with metal prosthesis. Here we report another 4 patients had PVNS after arthroplasty. The second one had PVNS in the 2(th) year after hip arthroplasty with bone cement prosthesis. The specimen was brown and like usual PVNS in tissue. The third case had PVNS in the 8(th) after arthroplasty with human bone prosthesis because of the recurrence of PVNS. The proliferated synovium became black from brown. There was brown and many groups black pigment in the tissue. The fourth one had PVNS in the 4(th) year after knee arthroplasty with polyethylene prosthesis. The specimen was yellow. There was no pigment in the tissue but multinucleated giant cells with unstained foreign body. The fifth patient had PVNS in the 10(th) month after the left hip arthroplasty with metal prosthesis. The macroscopy was yellow. There were hemosiderin particles in the tissue but black metal particles. This indicates that arthroplasty with prosthesis could cause some new disease or PVNS had new etiology with different pathological show.

  3. New biosynthetic pathway for pink pigments from uncultured oceanic viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Benjamin; Béjà, Oded; Frankenberg-Dinkel, Nicole

    2016-12-01

    The pink open-chain tetrapyrrole pigment phycoerythrobilin (PEB) is employed by marine cyanobacteria, red algae and cryptophytes as a light-harvesting chromophore in phycobiliproteins. Genes encoding biosynthesis proteins for PEB have also been discovered in cyanophages, viruses that infect cyanobacteria, and mimic host pigment biosynthesis with the exception of PebS which combines the enzymatic activities of two host enzymes. In this study, we have identified novel members of the PEB biosynthetic enzyme families, heme oxygenases and ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductases. Encoding genes were found in metagenomic datasets and could be traced back to bacteriophage but not cyanophage origin. While the heme oxygenase exhibited standard activity, a new bilin reductase with highest homology to the teal pigment producing enzyme PcyA revealed PEB biosynthetic activity. Although PcyX possesses PebS-like activity both enzymes share only 9% sequence identity and likely catalyze the reaction via two independent mechanisms. Our data point towards the presence of phycobilin biosynthetic genes in phages that probably infect alphaproteobacteria and, therefore, further support a role of phycobilins outside oxygenic phototrophs.

  4. Pigment signatures of phytoplankton communities in the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupel, P.; Matsuoka, A.; Ruiz-Pino, D.; Gosselin, M.; Marie, D.; Tremblay, J.-É.; Babin, M.

    2015-02-01

    Phytoplankton are expected to respond to recent environmental changes of the Arctic Ocean. In terms of bottom-up control, modifying the phytoplankton distribution will ultimately affect the entire food web and carbon export. However, detecting and quantifying changes in phytoplankton communities in the Arctic Ocean remains difficult because of the lack of data and the inconsistent identification methods used. Based on pigment and microscopy data sampled in the Beaufort Sea during summer 2009, we optimized the chemotaxonomic tool CHEMTAX (CHEMical TAXonomy) for the assessment of phytoplankton community composition in an Arctic setting. The geographical distribution of the main phytoplankton groups was determined with clustering methods. Four phytoplankton assemblages were determined and related to bathymetry, nutrients and light availability. Surface waters across the whole survey region were dominated by prasinophytes and chlorophytes, whereas the subsurface chlorophyll maximum was dominated by the centric diatoms Chaetoceros socialis on the shelf and by two populations of nanoflagellates in the deep basin. Microscopic counts showed a high contribution of the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Gymnodinium and Gyrodinium spp. to total carbon biomass, suggesting high grazing activity at this time of the year. However, CHEMTAX was unable to detect these dinoflagellates because they lack peridinin. In heterotrophic dinoflagellates, the inclusion of the pigments of their prey potentially leads to incorrect group assignments and some misinterpretation of CHEMTAX. Thanks to the high reproducibility of pigment analysis, our results can serve as a baseline to assess change and spatial or temporal variability in several phytoplankton populations that are not affected by these misinterpretations.

  5. Organic Semiconductors based on Dyes and Color Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gsänger, Marcel; Bialas, David; Huang, Lizhen; Stolte, Matthias; Würthner, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Organic dyes and pigments constitute a large class of industrial products. The utilization of these compounds in the field of organic electronics is reviewed with particular emphasis on organic field-effect transistors. It is shown that for most major classes of industrial dyes and pigments, i.e., phthalocyanines, perylene and naphthalene diimides, diketopyrrolopyrroles, indigos and isoindigos, squaraines, and merocyanines, charge-carrier mobilities exceeding 1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) have been achieved. The most widely investigated molecules due to their n-channel operation are perylene and naphthalene diimides, for which even values close to 10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) have been demonstrated. The fact that all of these π-conjugated colorants contain polar substituents leading to strongly quadrupolar or even dipolar molecules suggests that indeed a much larger structural space shows promise for the design of organic semiconductor molecules than was considered in this field traditionally. In particular, because many of these dye and pigment chromophores demonstrate excellent thermal and (photo-)chemical stability in their original applications in dyeing and printing, and are accessible by straightforward synthetic protocols, they bear a particularly high potential for commercial applications in the area of organic electronics.

  6. Boron-containing organic pigments from a Jurassic red alga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkenstein, Klaus; Gross, Jürgen H.; Falk, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Organic biomolecules that have retained their basic chemical structures over geological periods (molecular fossils) occur in a wide range of geological samples and provide valuable paleobiological, paleoenvironmental, and geochemical information not attainable from other sources. In rare cases, such compounds are even preserved with their specific functional groups and still occur within the organisms that produced them, providing direct information on the biochemical inventory of extinct organisms and their possible evolutionary relationships. Here we report the discovery of an exceptional group of boron-containing compounds, the borolithochromes, causing the distinct pink coloration of well-preserved specimens of the Jurassic red alga Solenopora jurassica. The borolithochromes are characterized as complicated spiroborates (boric acid esters) with two phenolic moieties as boron ligands, representing a unique class of fossil organic pigments. The chiroptical properties of the pigments unequivocally demonstrate a biogenic origin, at least of their ligands. However, although the borolithochromes originated from a fossil red alga, no analogy with hitherto known present-day red algal pigments was found. The occurrence of the borolithochromes or their possible diagenetic products in the fossil record may provide additional information on the classification and phylogeny of fossil calcareous algae. PMID:20974956

  7. Production of water-soluble yellow pigments via high glucose stress fermentation of Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meihua; Huang, Tao; Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2017-01-13

    Monascus pigments are secondary metabolites of Monascus species and are mainly composed of yellow pigments, orange pigments and red pigments. In this study, a larger proportion of Monascus yellow pigments could be obtained through the selection of the carbon source. Hydrophilic yellow pigments can be largely produced extracellularly by Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910 under conditions of high glucose fermentation with low oxidoreduction potential (ORP). However, keeping high glucose levels later in the culture causes translation or a reduction of yellow pigment. We presume that the mechanism behind this phenomenon may be attributed to the redox level of the culture broth and the high glucose stress reaction of M. ruber CGMCC 10910 during high glucose fermentation. These yellow pigments were produced via high glucose bio-fermentation without citrinin. Therefore, these pigments can act as natural pigments for applications as food additives.

  8. Identification of colorants in pigmented pen inks by laser desorption mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papson, Kaitlin; Stachura, Sylwia; Boralsky, Luke; Allison, John

    2008-01-01

    Pigments are rapidly replacing dyes as colorants in pen and printer inks, due to their superior colors and stability. Unfortunately, tools commonly used in questioned document examination for analyzing pen inks, such as TLC, cannot be used for the analysis of insoluble pigments on paper. Laser desorption mass spectrometry is demonstrated here as a tool for analyzing pigment-based pen inks. A pulsed nitrogen laser can be focused onto a pen stroke from a pigmented ink pen on paper, and positive and negative ions representative of the pigment can be generated for subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. Targeted pens for this work were a set of Uni-ball 207 pigmented ink pens containing blue, light blue, orange, green, violet, red, pink, and black inks. Copper phthalocyanine was identified as the pigment used to make both blue inks. A mixture of halogenated copper phthalocyanines were identified in the green ink. Unexpectedly, the pink ink was found to contain a red pigment, Pigment Red 12, treated with a mixture of water-soluble dyes. Each sample yielded ions representative of the pigments present.

  9. Body Pigmentation as a Risk Factor for the Formation of Intracranial Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Schulter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated pigmented cells both in the murine heart, in pulmonary veins, and in brain arteries. Moreover, a role for melanocytes in the downregulation of inflammatory processes was suggested. As there is increasing evidence that inflammation is contributing significantly to the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms, melanocyte-like cells may be relevant in preventing age-related impairment of vessels. As pigmentation of the heart reflects that of coat color, aspects of body pigmentation might be associated with the incidence of intracranial aneurysms. We performed a case-control study to evaluate associations between the pigmentation of hair and eyes and the formation of aneurysms. In addition to hair and eye color, constitutive and facultative skin pigmentation were assessed in a replication study as well as individual handedness which can be seen as a neurophysiological correlate of developmental pigmentation processes. Hair pigmentation was highly associated with intracranial aneurysms in both samples, whereas eye pigmentation was not. In the replication cohort, facultative but not constitutive skin pigmentation proved significant. The strongest association was observed for individual handedness. Results indicate a significant association of intracranial aneurysms with particular aspects of body pigmentation as well as handedness, and imply clinical usefulness for screening of aneurysms and possible interventions.

  10. Spontaneous activation of visual pigments in relation to openness/closedness of chromophore-binding pocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wendy Wing Sze; Frederiksen, Rikard; Ren, Xiaozhi; Luo, Dong-Gen; Yamashita, Takahiro; Shichida, Yoshinori; Cornwall, M Carter; Yau, King-Wai

    2017-01-01

    Visual pigments can be spontaneously activated by internal thermal energy, generating noise that interferes with real-light detection. Recently, we developed a physicochemical theory that successfully predicts the rate of spontaneous activity of representative rod and cone pigments from their peak-absorption wavelength (λmax), with pigments having longer λmax being noisier. Interestingly, cone pigments may generally be ~25 fold noisier than rod pigments of the same λmax, possibly ascribed to an ‘open’ chromophore-binding pocket in cone pigments defined by the capability of chromophore-exchange in darkness. Here, we show in mice that the λmax-dependence of pigment noise could be extended even to a mutant pigment, E122Q-rhodopsin. Moreover, although E122Q-rhodopsin shows some cone-pigment-like characteristics, its noise remained quantitatively predictable by the ‘non-open’ nature of its chromophore-binding pocket as in wild-type rhodopsin. The openness/closedness of the chromophore-binding pocket is potentially a useful indicator of whether a pigment is intended for detecting dim or bright light. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18492.001 PMID:28186874

  11. Preliminary Identification of Red Pigment and Positive Correlation between the Contents of Red Pigment and Total Saponins of Panax notoginseng Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changling ZHAO; Zhongjian CHEN; Wenlong CHEN; Weite ZHI; Fugang WEI; Degong SONG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to identify red pigment of Panax notoginseng fruits and explore the correlation between pigment content and total saponins of the fruits. [Method] The red pigment of Panax notoginseng fruits was preliminarily identi- fied with specific color reactions and UV-vis spectra, and the contents of the pigment and total saponins were determined via spectrophotometry. [Result] The red hues of the fruits were contributed by anthocyanins and/or the anthocyanidins. The contents of anthocyanins and total saponins of the fruits both decreased along with thinning of the red hues. The content difference of the anthocyanins in fruits with different red hues reached extremely significant level, but that of total saponins just reached significant level. [Conclusion] The red pigment of P. notoginseng fruits is anthocyanins which are of extremely significant positive correlation with total saponins in contents.

  12. An Inverse Modeling Approach to Estimating Phytoplankton Pigment Concentrations from Phytoplankton Absorption Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, John R.; Moisan, Tiffany A. H.; Linkswiler, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplankton absorption spectra and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pigment observations from the Eastern U.S. and global observations from NASA's SeaBASS archive are used in a linear inverse calculation to extract pigment-specific absorption spectra. Using these pigment-specific absorption spectra to reconstruct the phytoplankton absorption spectra results in high correlations at all visible wavelengths (r(sup 2) from 0.83 to 0.98), and linear regressions (slopes ranging from 0.8 to 1.1). Higher correlations (r(sup 2) from 0.75 to 1.00) are obtained in the visible portion of the spectra when the total phytoplankton absorption spectra are unpackaged by multiplying the entire spectra by a factor that sets the total absorption at 675 nm to that expected from absorption spectra reconstruction using measured pigment concentrations and laboratory-derived pigment-specific absorption spectra. The derived pigment-specific absorption spectra were further used with the total phytoplankton absorption spectra in a second linear inverse calculation to estimate the various phytoplankton HPLC pigments. A comparison between the estimated and measured pigment concentrations for the 18 pigment fields showed good correlations (r(sup 2) greater than 0.5) for 7 pigments and very good correlations (r(sup 2) greater than 0.7) for chlorophyll a and fucoxanthin. Higher correlations result when the analysis is carried out at more local geographic scales. The ability to estimate phytoplankton pigments using pigment-specific absorption spectra is critical for using hyperspectral inverse models to retrieve phytoplankton pigment concentrations and other Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) from passive remote sensing observations.

  13. Development of Betta splendens embryos and larvae reveals variation in pigmentation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Alexis N; Lyvers, Benjamin H; Ferrill, Rachel N; Johnson, Rachel L; Dumaine, Anne Marie; Sly, Belinda J

    2016-06-01

    Vertebrate pigmentation provides an ideal system for studying the intersections between evolution, genetics, and developmental biology. Teleost fish, with their accessible developmental stages and intense and diverse colours produced by chromatophores, are an ideal group for study. We set out to test whether Betta splendens is a good model organism for studying the evolution and development of diverse pigmentation. Our results demonstrate that B. splendens can be bred to produce large numbers of offspring with easily visualized pigment cells. Depending on the colour of the parents, there was variation in larval pigmentation patterns both within and between breeding events. In juveniles the developing adult pigmentation patterns showed even greater variation. These results suggest that B. splendens has great potential as a model organism for pigmentation studies.

  14. Synthesis and properties of azonaphtharylamide pigments having arylamide groups at 2- and 7-positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Junji; Kikuchi, Takeshi; Higashida, Suguru; Harada, Takashi; Matsumura, Michio

    2015-03-01

    We studied two azonaphtharylamide pigments having arylamide groups at the 2- and 7-positions on the naphthol ring. Presence of the 7-substited amide group distinguishes the pigments from conventional azonaphtharylamide pigments derived from 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid. The 7-substituent caused a hyperchromic effect but did not produce bathochromic shift in the optical absorption spectra in solution compared with the corresponding 7-unsubstituted counterparts. Molecular geometry optimizations through semi-empirical MO calculations showed that extent of the chromophore systems in the pigments with and without the 7-substituent is nearly the same, which is consistent with absence of the bathochromic shift. The MO calculations also showed that the MOs localized in the 7-substituents are involved in the electronic transitions in the longest wavelength bands of the pigments, which is responsible for the hyperchromic effect. The 7-substituted pigments exhibited better resistivity to light and heat than the 7-unsubstituted ones.

  15. Tailored surface engineering of pigments by layer-by-layer coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dähne, Lars; Schneider, Julia; Lewe, Dirk; Petersen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    We have evaluated the feasibility of layer-by-layer encapsulation technology for the improvement of dye pigments used for tattoos or permanent make-up. The formation of core-shell structures is possible by coating pigments with thin films of several different polyelectrolytes using this technology. The physicochemical surface properties, such as charge density and chemical functionality, can be reproducibly varied in a wide range. Tailoring the surface properties independently from the pigment core allows one to control the rheological behaviour of pigment suspensions, to prevent aggregation between different pigments, to reduce the cytotoxicity, and to influence the response of phagocytes in order to have similar or the same uptake and bioclearance for all pigments. These properties determine the durability and colour tone stability of tattoos and permanent make-up.

  16. Extraction and physicochemical characteristics of a red pigment produced by marine bacterium strain S-9801

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田黎; 何培青; 刘晨临; 边际; 苗金来

    2002-01-01

    -- A red pigment that has better biological properties is produced by marine bacterium strain S- 9801. The extraction methods, physicochemical and toxicity of the pigment have been studied.Dissolubility of pigment in the five organic solvent has been tested, and ethanol is optimally chosen for extraction. Physicochemical characteristics of this pigment was stable. The absorbance of the pigment solution was no losing when put under natural light for 10 days or treated by UV for 30 minutes, color of the pigment unchanged after 100 ℃ hythere for 1 h or 80 ℃ xerother for 2 h. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the rat by celiac injection was 670.04 mg/kg and minimum lethal dose of oral was greater than 2 000 mg/kg.

  17. Identification and Profiling of Active Compounds from Golden Apple Snail’s Egg Pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadatun Abdullah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata has been known as rice corps pest due to high adaptability and reproductive power. Utilization of Pomacea canaliculata’s eggs as raw materials in the food and health industry is one of the efforts to eradicate the pest snail. This study was aimed to identify the active compounds contained in the extract pigments of Pomacea canaliculata’s eggs. The methods of this study were extraction of pigments using acetone and methanol, analyzing the active compound (secondary metabolite qualitatively, TLC to determine pigment components and LC-MS/MS to identify active compounds semi quantitatively. The results showed that active compounds in the methanol extract contain 11 carotenoid pigments of xanthophyl group, two carotenoid pigments of carotene group, and 2 active compounds in nonpigmented form, whereas the acetone extract contain 11 pigmentcarotenoids of xanthophyl group and 2 compounds active in non-pigment form.

  18. Photoelectric characteristics of natural pigments self-assembly fabricated on TiO2/FTO substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yen Hsun; Teoh, Lay Gaik; Lee, Jian-Hong; Tu, Sheng-Lung; Hon, Min Hsiung

    2009-02-01

    Natural pigment can act as an inexpensive and biologically-friendly dye, which is fabricated on a TiO2/FTO substrate. Natural pigments promote the efficiency of the photoelectric conversion in water-based DSSC with the aqueous electrolyte of the Ce+4/+3 system. The open-circuit voltage (Voc) of natural pigment in water-based DSSC is 0.640 V. The short-circuit current (Isc) of natural pigment in water-based DSSC is 0.658 mA/cm2. The efficiency of the photoelectric conversion in water-based DSSC of natural pigment is up to 0.131%. The natural pigments in DSSC are potentially applicable to turning solar energy into environmentally-friendly energy.

  19. Mitotic and pigment-translocating activities of cultured chromatophores of the guppy, Lebistes reticulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, E A; Rao, K R

    1984-01-01

    Using Ham's F-12 medium, an in vitro culture system permitting cellular survival for over 6 months has been developed for the chromatophores of the guppy. In this culture system, the various types of chromatophores (melanophores, erythrophores and xanthophores) migrated out of the explanted tail fin tissue, retained their pigmentation, and displayed both mitotic and pigment-translocating activities. The mitotic activity was evident during the first 3 or 4 weeks in culture, whereas the pigment-translocating ability persisted for 16 weeks. The cultured chromatophores of male fish displayed pigment aggregation in response to adrenergic agents (epinephrine and norepinephrine) and pigment dispersion in response to alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), cyclic AMP and dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Cyclic GMP did not elicit pigment-translocating responses in any of the chromatophores.

  20. Pigment cell interactions and differential xanthophore recruitment underlying zebrafish stripe reiteration and Danio pattern evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Larissa B; Bain, Emily J; Parichy, David M

    2014-11-06

    Fishes have diverse pigment patterns, yet mechanisms of pattern evolution remain poorly understood. In zebrafish, Danio rerio, pigment-cell autonomous interactions generate dark stripes of melanophores that alternate with light interstripes of xanthophores and iridophores. Here, we identify mechanisms underlying the evolution of a uniform pattern in D. albolineatus in which all three pigment cell classes are intermingled. We show that in this species xanthophores differentiate precociously over a wider area, and that cis regulatory evolution has increased expression of xanthogenic Colony Stimulating Factor-1 (Csf1). Expressing Csf1 similarly in D. rerio has cascading effects, driving the intermingling of all three pigment cell classes and resulting in the loss of stripes, as in D. albolineatus. Our results identify novel mechanisms of pattern development and illustrate how pattern diversity can be generated when a core network of pigment-cell autonomous interactions is coupled with changes in pigment cell differentiation.

  1. Mediator MED23 Links Pigmentation and DNA Repair through the Transcription Factor MITF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA repair is related to many physiological and pathological processes, including pigmentation. Little is known about the role of the transcriptional cofactor Mediator complex in DNA repair and pigmentation. Here, we demonstrate that Mediator MED23 plays an important role in coupling UV-induced DNA repair to pigmentation. The loss of Med23 specifically impairs the pigmentation process in melanocyte-lineage cells and in zebrafish. Med23 deficiency leads to enhanced nucleotide excision repair (NER and less DNA damage following UV radiation because of the enhanced expression and recruitment of NER factors to chromatin for genomic stability. Integrative analyses of melanoma cells reveal that MED23 controls the expression of a melanocyte master regulator, Mitf, by modulating its distal enhancer activity, leading to opposing effects on pigmentation and DNA repair. Collectively, the Mediator MED23/MITF axis connects DNA repair to pigmentation, thus providing molecular insights into the DNA damage response and skin-related diseases.

  2. A non-linear irreversible thermodynamic perspective on organic pigment proliferation and biological evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelian, Karo

    2013-01-01

    The most important thermodynamic work performed by life today is the dissipation of the solar photon flux into heat through organic pigments in water. From this thermodynamic perspective, biological evolution is thus just the dispersal of organic pigments and water throughout Earth's surface, while adjusting the gases of Earth's atmosphere to allow the most intense part of the solar spectrum to penetrate the atmosphere and reach the surface to be intercepted by these pigments. The covalent bonding of atoms in organic pigments provides excited levels compatible with the energies of these photons. Internal conversion through vibrational relaxation to the ground state of these excited molecules when in water leads to rapid dissipation of the solar photons into heat, and this is the major source of entropy production on Earth. A non-linear irreversible thermodynamic analysis shows that the proliferation of organic pigments on Earth is a direct consequence of the pigments catalytic properties in dissipating the so...

  3. Effect of various factor on the stability of the anthocyanin pigment in passion fruit skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Pruthi

    1960-04-01

    Full Text Available Since loss of anthocyanins is one of the major factors contributing to the colour deterioration in many highly coloured fruits, the effects of various factors such as temperature, oxygen, pH, ascorbic acid, tannic acid, thiourea and hydrogen peroxide on the stability of the anthocyanin pigment (Pelargonidin 3-diglucoside naturally occurring in passion fruit skin (Passiflora edulis, sims. have been studied with a view to elucidate the mechanism of degradation of the pigment during refrigerated and common storage of the fresh fruit. Storage studies demonstrated that (i ascorbic acid in the presence of oxygen accelerated the deterioration of the pigment; (ii thiourea decreased the rate of destruction of ascorbic acid, thus indirectly preventing the rate of anthocyanin losses; (iii tannins had a stabilizing effect on the pigment; (iv pH had a very significant effect on the stability of the pigment; and (v high storage temperature and H2O2 both had destructive effect on the pigment.

  4. Monascus: a Reality on the Production and Application of Microbial Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendruscolo, Francielo; Meinicke Bühler, Rose Marie; Cesar de Carvalho, Júlio; de Oliveira, Débora; Moritz, Denise Estevez; Schmidell, Willibaldo; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Monascus species can produce yellow, orange, and red pigments, depending on the employed cultivation conditions. They are classified as natural pigments and can be applied for coloration of meat, fishes, cheese, beer, and pates, besides their use in inks for printer and dyes for textile, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. These natural pigments also present antimicrobial activity on pathogenic microorganisms and other beneficial effects to the health as antioxidant and anticholesterol activities. Depending on the substrates, the operational conditions (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen), and fermentation mode (state solid fermentation or submerged fermentation), the production can be directed for one specific color dye. This review has a main objective to present an approach of Monascus pigments as a reality to obtaining and application of natural pigments by microorganisms, as to highlight properties that makes this pigment as promising for worldwide industrial applications.

  5. PRODUKSI PIGMEN ANGKAK OLEH MONACUS [Production of Angkak Pigments by (Monascus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K H Timotius

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Monascus is one of the important molds for producing food colorants. Monascus produces non polar, semi polar, as well as polar food colorants and brown, red or yellow poliketide pigments. The production is usually done under solid state system, but various submerged system have been develop. Immobilized system showed prospective results. The pigments production is influenced by the availability of carbon and nitrogen sources, humidity, temperature, pH, and aeration. Poliketide pigments are used as food colorant in animal products, beverages, yoghurt, nata de coco, and daily home cooking practices. The stability of the pigments is influenced by temperature (various heating treatments, pH (acidity, oxygen, water activity, and light. Beside pigments, Monascus also produces various non-pigment metabolites, such as citrinin (a nephrotoxic agent, lavostatin (a hypocholesteremic agent, a monascidin (an antibacterial agent.

  6. Deletion of pigR gene in Monascus ruber leads to loss of pigment production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Nana; Liu, Qingpei; Chen, Fusheng

    2013-09-01

    Pigments produced by Monascus are traditional food colorants and are widely used as dietary supplements. Since genes involving in pigment biosynthesis have not been reported, we describe the identification of a putative pigment-regulatory gene (pigR) obtained by molecular analysis of an albino strain of Monascus ruber M7. In the pigR-deleted strain (ΔpigR), neither the pigments nor pigR expression were detected by HPLC or reverse-transcription PCR, respectively, whereas the introduction of the pigR, together with a constitutive trpC promoter into ΔpigR, caused it to produce 5.4 U of red pigments/g dry mycelia, about 12-fold higher than Monascus ruber M7 (0.46 U/g dry mycelia). Thus pigR up-regulates pigment production in Monascus ruber M7.

  7. The challenges and limitations of chemical analysis of particulate pigments of very low solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    When performing a chemical analysis of colorants in tattoo products, specific degradation products as well as impurity patterns can be predicted. Mislabeling or false declarations can also be avoided using this test. It is notable that pigment identification in tattoo products may serve as a precursory technique to recognize the colorants contained in a patient's tattoo prior to laser removal therapy. In contrast to the analysis of banned pigments, positive identification of pigments will normally require few reference substances. Given the fact that tattoo pigments are nearly insoluble in water and many organic solvents, different chemical pigment analyses are outlined and evaluated. Related publications from the study of art are also mentioned. It is recommended that access to comprehensive pigment standards and spectroscopic databanks should be offered to laboratories dealing with tattoo product analysis in the future.

  8. Outbreak of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii indigo-pigmented strains

    OpenAIRE

    Vilacoba, Elisabet; Almuzara, Marisa; Gulone, Lucia; Rodriguez, Rocio; Pallone, Elida; Bakai, Romina; Centron, Daniela; Ramirez, Maria Soledad

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii pigmented strains are not common in clinical settings. In the present work we report an outbreak caused by indigo-pigmented A. baumannii strains isolated in an acute hospital in Argentina from March to September 2012. Pan-PCR assays exposed a unique pattern belonging to the recently described regional CC113B/CC79P that confirms the relevant relationships among the indigo-pigmented A. baumannii strains. All of them were extensively drug-resistant and harbored different ...

  9. New blue pigment produced by Pantoea agglomerans and its production characteristics at various temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Hiroshi; Akimoto, Ryo

    2011-01-01

    A bacterium capable of producing a deep blue pigment was isolated from the environment and identified as Pantoea agglomerans. The pigment production characteristics of the bacterium under various conditions were studied. The optimal agar plate ingredients for pigment production by the bacterium were first studied: the optimal ingredients were 5 g/liter glucose, 10 g/liter tryptic soy broth, and 40 g/liter glycerol at pH 6.4. Bacterial cells grew on the agar plate during the incubation, while the pigment spread into the agar plate, meaning that it is water soluble. Pigment production was affected by the initial cell density. Namely, at higher initial cell densities ranging from 10(6.3) to 10(8.2) CFU/cm(2) on the agar plate, faster pigment production was observed, but no blue pigment was produced at a very high initial density of 10(9.1) CFU/cm(2). Thus, the cell population of 10(8.2) CFU/cm(2) was used for subsequent study. Although the bacterium was capable of growing at temperatures above and below 10°C, it could produce the pigment only at temperatures of ≥10°C. Moreover, the pigment production was faster at higher temperatures in the range of 10 to 20°C. Pigment production at various temperature patterns was well described by a new logistic model. These results suggested that the bacterium could be used in the development of a microbial temperature indicator for the low-temperature-storage management of foods and clinical materials. To our knowledge, there is no other P. agglomerans strain capable of producing a blue pigment and the pigment is a new one of microbial origin.

  10. Facial pigmentation with demodex Mite; a mere coincidence or an association?

    OpenAIRE

    Sereflican, Betul; Tuman, Bengu; Boran, Cetin; Goksugu, Nadir; Parlak, Ali Haydar; Polat, Mualla

    2016-01-01

    Demodex mites may induce inflammatory cutaneous reactions such as papulopustular rosacea and demodex folliculitis; both may lead to post inflammatory pigmentation. A 59-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic, hyperpigmented plaque on his face. Histological and clinical findings displayed Riehl-like facial pigmentation. Multiple demodex mites at the follicular infundibulum in the biopsy material were remarkable. There are limited publications about demodex-associated pigmentation. We repo...

  11. PRODUKSI PIGMEN ANGKAK OLEH MONACUS [Production of Angkak Pigments by (Monascus)

    OpenAIRE

    K H Timotius

    2004-01-01

    Monascus is one of the important molds for producing food colorants. Monascus produces non polar, semi polar, as well as polar food colorants and brown, red or yellow poliketide pigments. The production is usually done under solid state system, but various submerged system have been develop. Immobilized system showed prospective results. The pigments production is influenced by the availability of carbon and nitrogen sources, humidity, temperature, pH, and aeration. Poliketide pigments are us...

  12. Algal Accessory Pigment Detection Using AVIRIS Image-Derived Spectral Radiance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Laurie L.; Ambrosia, Vincent G.

    1996-01-01

    Visual and derivative analyses of AVIRIS spectral data can be used to detect algal accessory pigments in aquatic communities. This capability extends the use of remote sensing for the study of aquatic ecosystems by allowing detection of taxonomically significant pigment signatures which yield information about the type of algae present. Such information allows remote sensing-based assessment of aquatic ecosystem health, as in the detection of nuisance blooms of cyanobacteria or toxic blooms of dinoflagellates. Remote sensing of aquatic systems has traditionally focused on quantification of chlorophyll a, a photoreactive (and light-harvesting) pigment which is common to all algae as well as cyanobacteria (bluegreen algae). Due to the ubiquitousness of this pigment within algae, chl a is routinely measured to estimate algal biomass both during ground-truthing and using various airborne or satellite based sensors, including AVIRIS. Within the remote sensing and aquatic sciences communities, ongoing research has been performed to detect algal accessory pigments for assessment of algal population composition. This research is based on the fact that many algal accessory pigments are taxonomically significant, and all are spectrally unique. Aquatic scientists have been refining pigment analysis techniques, primarily high performance liquid chromatography, or HPLC, to detect specific pigments as a time-saving alternative to individual algal cell identifications and counts. Remote sensing scientists are investigating the use of pigment signatures to construct pigment libraries analogous to mineral spectral libraries used in geological remote sensing applications. The accessory pigment approach has been used successfully in remote sensing using data from the Thematic Mapper, low-altitude, multiple channel scanners, field spectroradiometers and the AVIRIS hyperspectral scanner. Due to spectral and spatial resolution capabilities, AVIRIS is the sensor of choice for such

  13. Perstraction of Intracellular Pigments through Submerged Fermentation of Talaromyces spp. in a Surfactant Rich Media: A Novel Approach for Enhanced Pigment Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Morales-Oyervides

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A high percentage of the pigments produced by Talaromyces spp. remains inside the cell, which could lead to a high product concentration inhibition. To overcome this issue an extractive fermentation process, perstraction, was suggested, which involves the extraction of the intracellular products out of the cell by using a two-phase system during the fermentation. The present work studied the effect of various surfactants on secretion of intracellular pigments produced by Talaromyces spp. in submerged fermentation. Surfactants used were: non-ionic surfactants (Tween 80, Span 20 and Triton X-100 and a polyethylene glycerol polymer 8000, at different concentrations (5, 20, 35 g/L. The highest extracellular pigment yield (16 OD500nm was reached using Triton X-100 (35 g/L, which was 44% higher than the control (no surfactant added. The effect of addition time of the selected surfactant was further studied. The highest extracellular pigment concentration (22 OD500nm was achieved when the surfactant was added at 120 h of fermentation. Kinetics of extracellular and intracellular pigments were examined. Total pigment at the end of the fermentation using Triton X-100 was 27.7% higher than the control, confirming that the use of surfactants partially alleviated the product inhibition during the pigment production culture.

  14. Identifying Phytoplankton Classes In California Reservoirs Using HPLC Pigment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, S.; Peacock, M. B.; Kudela, R. M.; Negrey, K.

    2014-12-01

    Few bodies of water are routinely monitored for phytoplankton composition due to monetary and time constraints, especially the less accessible bodies of water in central and southern California. These lakes and estuaries are important for economic reasons such as tourism and fishing. This project investigated the composition of phytoplankton present using pigment analysis to identify dominant phytoplankton groups. A total of 28 different sites with a wide range of salinity (0 - 60) in central and southern California were examined. These included 13 different bodies of water in central California: 6 in the Sierras, 7 in the San Francisco Bay Estuary, and 15 from southern California. The samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the pigments present (using retention time and the spectral thumbprint). Diagnostic pigments were used to indicate the phytoplankton class composition, focusing on diatoms, dinoflagellates, cryptophytes, and cyanobacteria - all key phytoplankton groups indicative of the health of the sampled reservoir. Our results indicated that cyanobacteria dominated four of the seven bodies of central California water (Mono Lake, Bridgeport Reservoir, Steamboat Slough, and Pinto Lake); cryptophytes and nannoflagellates dominated two of the central California bodies of water (Mare Island Strait and Topaz Lake); and diatoms and dinoflagellates dominated one central California body of water, Oakland Inner Harbor, comprising more than 70% of the phytoplankton present. We expect the bodies of water from Southern California to be as disparate. Though this data is only a snapshot, it has significant implications in comparing different ecosystems across California, and it has the potential to provide valuable insight into the composition of phytoplankton communities.

  15. Survey of skin pigmentation of yellow-skinned broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Bianchi, M; Meluzzi, A

    2010-07-01

    The appearance of whole carcass and skin-on cut-up products is an important attribute that deeply affects the consumer's choice. Skin pigmentation is affected mainly by genetics, concentration and dietary source of pigments, health status of the birds, and scalding-plucking conditions during slaughtering, although other factors might play an important role. Retailers request batches of broiler chicken carcasses characterized by uniform skin pigmentation to be sold as whole carcass or parts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of skin color of yellow-skinned broilers reared under intensive conditions. For the study, a total of 2,300 medium size broiler chickens (2,300 to 2,500 g of live weight) from 23 flocks (100 birds/flock; n = 12 flocks of males and n = 11 flocks of females; n = 12 flocks of Ross 508 and n = 11 flocks of Ross 308) were randomly selected in a single slaughterhouse. The color measurements were carried out on both breast and thigh pterylae as well as on shank skin adopting the L* a* b* system and using a Minolta colorimeter CR 300. The overall range in measured yellowness (b*) was fairly large for all skin color measurement positions. For breast, a mean value of 22.77 (SD = 5.12) was observed, with values ranging from 7.45 to 39.12. Average values of thigh and shank were 20.23 (SD = 5.02; range 1.99 to 37.82) and 53.99 (SD = 8.13; range 24.22 to 78.65), respectively. A higher skin yellowness was observed in females in all body parts as well as in Ross 308. Yellowness values of breast and thigh were significantly correlated (r = 0.85; P < 0.01), suggesting that the color evaluation may be carried out only on one measurement position of the skin.

  16. Evaluation of shape and size effects on optical properties of ZnO pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiomarsipour, Narges, E-mail: na.kiomarsipour@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Shahin Shahr P.O. Box 83145/115, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shoja Razavi, Reza [Department of Materials Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Shahin Shahr P.O. Box 83145/115, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghani, Kamal [Department of Chemistry, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Shahin Shahr P.O. Box 83145/115, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kioumarsipour, Marjan [Department of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    The pigment with optimized morphology would attain maximum diffuse solar reflectance at a lower film thickness and reduce the pigment volume concentration required. This factor would contribute to a reduction in overall weight and possibly extend the durability of the system to longer time scales, specially in space assets. In the present work, five different morphologies of ZnO pigment were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The ZnO pigments were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and N{sub 2} adsorption (BET). The optical property of the ZnO pigments was investigated by UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the optical properties of ZnO powders were strongly affected by the particle size and morphology. The nanorods and microrods ZnO structures showed the minimum spectral reflectance in visible and near infrared regions, whereas the novel nanoparticle-decorated ZnO pigment revealed the maximum spectral reflectance in the same regions. The reflectance spectra of scale-like and submicrorods ZnO were in the middle of the others. The higher surface roughness led to higher light scattering in nanoparticle-decorated ZnO pigment and multiple-scattering in them. These results proved that a significant improvement in the scattering efficiency of ZnO pigment can be realized by utilizing an optimized nanoparticle-decorated pigment.

  17. Pigments from UV-resistant Antarctic bacteria as photosensitizers in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Órdenes-Aenishanslins, N; Anziani-Ostuni, G; Vargas-Reyes, M; Alarcón, J; Tello, A; Pérez-Donoso, J M

    2016-09-01

    Here we report the use of pigments produced by UV-resistant Antarctic bacteria as photosensitizers in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). Pigments were obtained from red and yellow colored psychrotolerant bacteria isolated from soils of King George Island, Antarctica. Based on metabolic characteristics and 16s DNA sequence, pigmented bacteria were identified as Hymenobacter sp. (red) and Chryseobacterium sp. (yellow). Pigments produced by these microorganisms were extracted and classified as carotenoids based on their spectroscopic and structural characteristics, determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. With the purpose of develop green solar cells based on bacterial pigments, the photostability and capacity of these molecules as light harvesters in DSSCs were determined. Absorbance decay assays determined that bacterial carotenoids present high photostability. In addition, solar cells based on these photosensitizers exhibit an open circuit voltage (VOC) of 435.0 [mV] and a short circuit current density (ISC) of 0.2 [mA·cm(-2)] for the red pigment, and a VOC of 548.8 [mV] and a ISC of 0.13 [mA·cm(-2)] for the yellow pigment. This work constitutes the first approximation of the use of pigments produced by non-photosynthetic bacteria as photosensitizers in DSSCs. Determined photochemical characteristics of bacterial pigments, summed to their easy obtention and low costs, validates its application as photosensitizers in next-generation biological solar cells.

  18. Use of phytoplankton pigments in estimating food selection of three marine copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oechsler-Christensen, B.; Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Henriksen, P.

    2012-01-01

    . Traditional grazing experiments were carried out in parallel with pigment analysis in experiments where the copepod A. tonsa was exposed to a mixture of food organisms. The results demonstrated that the two methods gave similar results with regard to food selection and that with certain precautions, pigment......Experiments were carried out to test the use of algal pigments in zooplankton grazing studies with a special emphasis on estimation of food selection. The results demonstrated that pigment composition of the phytoplankton food was reflected closely in the three copepod species Centropages typicus...... analysis can be successfully used in food selection studies...

  19. Laugier-hunziker syndrome: an uncommon cause of oral pigmentation and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montebugnoli, Lucio; Grelli, Ivana; Cervellati, Fabio; Misciali, Cosimo; Raone, Beatrice

    2010-01-01

    Laugier-Hunziker syndrome is a rare benign condition characterized by diffuse oral hyperpigmentation associated with pigmentation of the nails. The syndrome must be included in the differential diagnosis of diffuse oral pigmentation to exclude other conditions with systemic implications. We describe a 43-year-old white woman with the clinical and histological features of Laugier-Hunziker syndrome associated with toenail pigmentation. The correct clinical identification avoids the need for detailed investigations and treatment. We also review the potential causes of oral pigmentation.

  20. Laugier-Hunziker Syndrome: An Uncommon Cause of Oral Pigmentation and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Montebugnoli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laugier-Hunziker syndrome is a rare benign condition characterized by diffuse oral hyperpigmentation associated with pigmentation of the nails. The syndrome must be included in the differential diagnosis of diffuse oral pigmentation to exclude other conditions with systemic implications. We describe a 43-year-old white woman with the clinical and histological features of Laugier-Hunziker syndrome associated with toenail pigmentation. The correct clinical identification avoids the need for detailed investigations and treatment. We also review the potential causes of oral pigmentation.

  1. Accumulation of yellow Monascus pigments by extractive fermentation in nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xu; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Zhilong

    2015-02-01

    Monascus species can produce various secondary metabolites of polyketide structure. In the current study, it is found that an interesting phenomenon, i.e., submerged culture of Monascus species in an aqueous solution majorly accumulated intracellular orange Monascus pigments exhibiting one peak at 470 nm with absorbance of 32 OD while extractive fermentation in a nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution produced extracellular and intracellular yellow Monascus pigments exhibiting one peak at 410 nm with absorbance 30 OD and 12 OD, respectively. The spectrum profiles of both intracellular and extracellular Monascus pigments were affected by surfactant loading, extractive fermentation time, and surfactant adding time. Meanwhile, the instability of orange Monascus pigments in the extracellular nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution was also confirmed experimentally. The mechanism behind this phenomenon is attributed to the export of intracellular yellow Monascus pigments into its broth by extractive fermentation. The transferring of intracellular yellow Monascus pigments into its broth blocks yellow Monascus pigments from further enzymatic conversion or eliminates the feedback inhibition of yellow Monascus pigments based on the biosynthetic pathway of Monascus pigments.

  2. High charged red pigment nanoparticles for electrophoretic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xin-Yan; Bian, Shu-Guang; Chen, Jian-Feng; Le, Yuan

    2012-12-01

    Organic pigment permanent red F2R nanoparticles were prepared via surface modification to improve the surface charge and dispersion ability in organic medium. Their large surface chargeability is confirmed by ζ-potential value of -49.8 mV. The prepared particles exhibited average size of 105 nm and showed very narrow distribution with polydispersity index of 0.068. The sedimentation ratio of the prepared particles in tetrachloroethylene was less than 5% within 12 days. The electrophoretic inks consisting of the prepared red particles with white particles as contrast showed good electrophoretic display, its refresh time was 200 ms.

  3. Photochromic Properties of 3-Deoxyanthocyanidin Pigments in Nontoxic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagishita, Yuki; Mihara, Mai; Kohno, Yoshiumi; Shibata, Masashi

    2016-12-01

    The photochromic properties of some naturally occurring 3-deoxyanthocyanidin pigments were investigated in various nontoxic solvents. When luteolinidin, a representative 3-deoxyanthocyanidin, was dissolved in a mixture of weakly acidic water and an organic solvent with a relative permittivity between 20 and 34, it was possible to repeatedly induce coloration via ultraviolet irradiation and decoloration under light-shielded conditions. 1,3-Butanediol and ethanol, which are approved for use in foods, cosmetics, and household goods, were found to be appropriate organic solvents for this process. In addition, we confirmed that other 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, specifically apigeninidin and tricetinidin, which are commonly found in food grains and tea leaves, also exhibit photochromic properties.

  4. Isolation and characterization of yellow pigment producing Exiguobacterium sps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Arulselvi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Thirteen yellow pigment producing bacterial strains were isolated by air and soil sampling method and screened for carotenoid production, as many of them exhibited a deep orange pigmentation when cultured on NA-plates. We found that most of them produced trace amount of carotenoids. The isolates RS7, RSS3, RS13 and RS14 had significant amounts of the yellow pigment producing ability (Degree of pigmentation 8.31, 2.72, 6.66 and 5.5. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of the extracts from the isolates were analyzed by DPPH (1, 1-Diphenly-2-picryl-hydrazil method. Isolate RS7 showed maximum free radical scavenging activity (72%. HPLC result revealed that the isolated strains are the natural producer of Astaxanthin. Based on the Biochemical characterization and 16S rDNA gene sequencing analysis, out of the four isolates two of them (RS7 and RS13, were identified as Exiguobacterium aurantiacum and the other two isolates (RSS3 and RS14 as Exiguobacterium profundum. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  5. Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis of the Knee Joint: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, Maulik; Soni, Rishit; Shah, Malkesh; Rathi, Parth; Golwala, Paresh

    2016-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare, benign, but potentially locally aggressive and recurrent condition characterized by synovial proliferation and hemosiderin deposition inside the joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae. It usually affects the large joints such as hip, knee, and ankle. We report a case of PVNS of the knee joint in a young female which was treated by subtotal synovectomy alone without the use of adjuvants. At the 14-month follow-up, the patient was pain free and had no signs of disease recurrence. PMID:27843734

  6. Effect of hydrogen fluoride on two pigments in coleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamprecht, W.O. Jr.; Powell, R.D.

    Coleus blumei Benth. Cv. 12th Man was fumigated with hydrogen fluoride gas. The treatment caused the development of lesions which originally involved the mesophyll but spread to and eventually included the epidermis. An anthocyanin, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside acylated with p-coumaric acid, was destroyed and it was postulated that the flavanonol, dihydrokaempferol, was converted to the flavone, apigenin. The anthocyanin destruction and pigment conversion occurred following membrane injury and mixing of the cellular constituents. 17 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  7. Pigmented ameloblastic fibro-odontoma: clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Martínez, Marisol; Romero, Celeste Sánchez; Piña, Alicia Rumayor; Palma Guzmán, José Mario; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2015-02-01

    Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) is a slow-growing, expansive, benign odontogenic tumor, composed of ameloblastic epithelium embedded in an ectomesenchymal stroma resembling dental papilla, containing hard dental tissue in variable degrees of maturation, including enamel, dentin, and sometimes cementum. AFO typically affects the posterior mandible, causing bony expansion. We report a case of pigmented AFO in a 5-year-old boy, comprising clinical and histological features illustrated by immunohistochemistry using a large panel of antibodies, polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Automated Imaging System for Pigmented Skin Lesion Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Ahmed Sheha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Through the study of pigmented skin lesions risk factors, the appearance of malignant melanoma turns the anomalous occurrence of these lesions to annoying sign. The difficulty of differentiation between malignant melanoma and melanocytic naive is the error-bone problem that usually faces the physicians in diagnosis. To think through the hard mission of pigmented skin lesions diagnosis different clinical diagnosis algorithms were proposed such as pattern analysis, ABCD rule of dermoscopy, Menzies method, and 7-points checklist. Computerized monitoring of these algorithms improves the diagnosis of melanoma compared to simple naked-eye of physician during examination. Toward the serious step of melanoma early detection, aiming to reduce melanoma mortality rate, several computerized studies and procedures were proposed. Through this research different approaches with a huge number of features were discussed to point out the best approach or methodology could be followed to accurately diagnose the pigmented skin lesion. This paper proposes automated system for diagnosis of melanoma to provide quantitative and objective evaluation of skin lesion as opposed to visual assessment, which is subjective in nature. Two different data sets were utilized to reduce the effect of qualitative interpretation problem upon accurate diagnosis. Set of clinical images that are acquired from a standard camera while the other set is acquired from a special dermoscopic camera and so named dermoscopic images. System contribution appears in new, complete and different approaches presented for the aim of pigmented skin lesion diagnosis. These approaches result from using large conclusive set of features fed to different classifiers. The three main types of different features extracted from the region of interest are geometric, chromatic, and texture features. Three statistical methods were proposed to select the most significant features that will cause a valuable effect in

  9. Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cell Alignment on Nanostructured Collagen Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Ulbrich, Stefan; Friedrichs, Jens; Valtink, Monika; Murovski, Simo; Franz, Clemens M.; Müller, Daniel J.; Richard H. W. Funk; Engelmann, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated attachment and migration of human retinal pigment epithelial cells (primary, SV40-transfected and ARPE-19) on nanoscopically defined, two-dimensional matrices composed of parallel-aligned collagen type I fibrils. These matrices were used non-cross-linked (native) or after riboflavin/UV-A cross-linking to study cell attachment and migration by time-lapse video microscopy. Expression of collagen type I and IV, MMP-2 and of the collagen-binding integrin subunit α2 were examined b...

  10. Enhancing the chroma of pigmented polymers using antireflective surface structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Kristensen, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how the color of a pigmented polymer is affected by reduction of the reflectance at the air-polymer interface. Both theoretical and experimental investigations show modified diffuse-direct reflectance spectra when the reflectance of the surface is lowered. Specifically...... it is found that the color change is manifested as an increase in chroma, leading to a clearer color experience. The experimental implementation is done using random tapered surface structures replicated in polymer from silicon masters using hot embossing....

  11. Target-like pigmentation after minipunch grafting in stable vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelee Bisen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment for vitiligo has been ever evolving. Each surgical modality has its own benefits and limitations. Miniature punch grafting is the most extensively performed surgery, which gives good results in stable vitiligo. Herein we report an unusual type of repigmentation observed after minipunch grafting in a patient of stable vitiligo, which resembled target-like lesions with a "perigraft halo" surrounding individual grafts. Such pigment spread occurred despite the use of 0.5 mm larger graft from the donor site.

  12. Pigmented concealing powders for the hair loss patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossman, Jack P; Ladizinski, Barry; Lee, Kachiu C

    2013-12-01

    Patients suffering from alopecia may experience low self-esteem, low self-image, and other psychological consequences. While medical and surgical options for treating hair loss exist, these may be prohibitively expensive or have an unpredictable outcome. In lieu of or in addition to therapeutic approaches, cosmetic options have long been an approach to hair loss. However, patients and clinicians alike often regard cosmetic options to be limited to hairstyling and hairpieces, unaware that newer options, namely pigmented concealing powders, may offer a more practical and seemingly natural camouflage. This article introduces the clinician to concealing powders as a viable option for the hair loss patient.

  13. Odontogenic Cyst with Verrucous Proliferation Exhibiting Melanin Pigmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Krupa Mehta; Ahmed, Junaid; Bhat, Keshava; Kottieth Pallam, Nandita; Lewis, Amitha Juanita

    2017-01-01

    Verrucous proliferation arising from odontogenic cysts is a rare entity. We report an unusual case of an infected odontogenic cyst with verrucous proliferation and melanin pigmentation in a 13-year-old male patient who presented with an intraoral swelling in relation to impacted teeth 26 and 27. The enucleated lesion was diagnosed as an odontogenic keratocyst and the patient died within two years of presentation due to multiple recurrences. The clinical, radiological, and microscopic features of the lesion are presented with an attempt to discuss the etiopathogenesis. The case hereby reported is uncommon with only eight cases reported in the literature. PMID:28409045

  14. EPR identification of irradiated Monascus purpureus red pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duliu, Octavian G. E-mail: odlu@scut.fizica.unibuc.ro; Ferdes, Mariana; Ferdes, Ovidiu S

    2000-01-01

    Fresh red alimentary pigment extracted from Monascus purpureus fungus exhibits an intense EPR line consisting of a single, narrow line, attributed to a quinone radical. When irradiated with 7 MeV electrons or {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays, the amplitude of this line increased with the absorbed dose following a saturation exponential dependency up to 10 kGy. During annealing treatment (isothermal heating at 100 deg. C) the irradiation centers decay exponentially with a half-life time of 2.30 min.

  15. EPR identification of irradiated Monascus purpureus red pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, Octavian G.; Ferdes, Mariana; Ferdes, Ovidiu S.

    2000-01-01

    Fresh red alimentary pigment extracted from Monascus purpureus fungus exhibits an intense EPR line consisting of a single, narrow line, attributed to a quinone radical. When irradiated with 7 MeV electrons or 60Co γ-rays, the amplitude of this line increased with the absorbed dose following a saturation exponential dependency up to 10 kGy. During annealing treatment (isothermal heating at 100°C) the irradiation centers decay exponentially with a half-life time of 2.30 min.

  16. [Macroadenoma of the non-pigmented ciliary epithelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Medina, J; Ispa Callén, C; González del Valle, F; Mate Valdezate, A

    2014-06-01

    We report the clinical features and surgery of a patient with an adenoma of the non-pigmented ciliary epithelium. The adenoma measured 5 × 7 mm. The patient underwent radical ocular surgery consisting of partial iridocyclectomy associated to lamellar sclerouvectomy. Adenomas of ciliary body can mimic clinically amelanotic melanomas. We present details of the patient's medical records and review the literature. Clinically, adenoma in ciliary body can mimic amelanotic melanomas. Conservative surgery of the eye allows diagnosis and treatment, maintaining visual function. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Water soluble chlorophyll binding protein of higher plants: a most suitable model system for basic analyses of pigment-pigment and pigment-protein interactions in chlorophyll protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renger, G; Pieper, J; Theiss, C; Trostmann, I; Paulsen, H; Renger, T; Eichler, H J; Schmitt, F-J

    2011-08-15

    This short review paper describes spectroscopic studies on pigment-pigment and pigment-protein interactions of chlorophyll (Chl) a and b bound to the recombinant protein of class IIa water soluble chlorophyll protein (WSCP) from cauliflower. Two Chls form a strongly excitonically coupled open sandwich dimer within the tetrameric protein matrix. In marked contrast to the mode of excitonic coupling of Chl and bacterio-Chl molecules in light harvesting complexes and reaction centers of all photosynthetic organisms, the unique structural pigment array in the Chl dimer of WSCP gives rise to an upper excitonic state with a large oscillator strength. This property opens the way for thorough investigations on exciton relaxation processes in Chl-protein complexes. Lifetime measurements of excited singlet states show that the unusual stability towards photodamage of Chls bound to WSCP, which lack any protective carotenoid molecule, originates from a high diffusion barrier to interaction of molecular dioxygen with Chl triplets. Site selective spectroscopic methods provide a wealth of information on the interactions of the Chls with the protein matrix and on the vibronic structure of the pigments. The presented data and discussions illustrate the great potential of WSCP as a model system for systematic experimental and theoretical studies on the functionalizing of Chls by the protein matrix. It opens the way for further detailed analyses and a deeper understanding of the properties of pigment protein complexes.

  18. Pigments of Staphylococcus aureus, a series of triterpenoid carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J H; Wilmoth, G J

    1981-01-01

    The pigments of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated and purified, and their chemical structures were determined. All of the 17 compounds identified were triterpenoid carotenoids possessing a C30 chain instead of the C40 carotenoid structure found in most other organisms. The main pigment, staphyloxanthin, was shown to be alpha-D-glucopyranosyl 1-O-(4,4'-diaponeurosporen-4-oate) 6-O-(12-methyltetradecanoate), in which glucose is esterified with both a triterpenoid carotenoid carboxylic acid and a C15 fatty acid. It is accompanied by isomers containing other hexoses and homologs containing C17 fatty acids. The carotenes 4,4'-diapophytoene, 4,4'-diapophytofluene, 4-4'-diapophytofluene, 4-4'-diapo-zeta-carotene, 4,4'-diapo-7,8,11,12-tetrahydrolycopene, and 4,4'-diaponeurosporene and the xanthophylls 4,4'-diaponeurosporenal, 4,4'-diaponeurosporenoic acid, and glucosyl diaponeurosporenoate were also identified, together with some of their isomers or breakdown products. The symmetrical 4,4'-diapo- structure was adopted for these triterpenoid carotenoids, but an alternative unsymmetrical 8'-apo-structure could not be excluded. PMID:7275936

  19. Revealing the Power of the Natural Red Pigment Lycopene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Fadilah Rajab

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available By-products derived from food processing are attractive source for their valuable bioactive components and color pigments. These by-products are useful for development as functional foods, nutraceuticals, food ingredients, additives, and also as cosmetic products. Lycopene is a bioactive red colored pigment naturally occurring in plants. Industrial by-products obtained from the plants are the good sources of lycopene. Interest in lycopene is increasing due to increasing evidence proving its preventive properties toward numerous diseases. In vitro, in vivo and ex vivo studies have demonstrated that lycopene-rich foods are inversely associated to diseases such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and others. This paper also reviews the properties, absorption, transportation, and distribution of lycopene and its by-products in human body. The mechanism of action and interaction of lycopene with other bioactive compounds are also discussed, because these are the crucial features for beneficial role of lycopene. However, information on the effect of food processing on lycopene stability and availability was discussed for better understanding of its characteristics.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Rutile Pigments with Cr and Nb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Večeřa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rutile pigments Ti1-3xCrxNb2xO2±δ (where x=0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30 and 0.50 prepared by solid-state reaction are investigated. Chromium is chromophore (coloring ion and niobium is counterion (charge-compensating element for electroneutrality. The effect of composition (x, calcination temperature (850, 900, 950, 1000, 1050, 1100 and 1150°C, and starting titanium compounds (anatase TiO2, hydrated anatase paste, TiOSO4·2H2O, and hydrated Na2Ti4O9 paste on their color properties into organic matrix and particle size distribution was observed. According to the highest chroma C and visual color evaluation, yellow and orange pigments were selected as in color the most interesting. They have concentration x=0.05 or 0.10 and are prepared from anatase TiO2 and TiOSO4·2H2O at temperature ≥1050°C.

  1. Raman detection of carotenoid pigments in the human retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellermann, Werner; Ermakov, Igor V.; McClane, Robert W.; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2000-04-01

    We have used resonance Raman scattering as a novel, non- invasive, in-vivo optical technique to measure the concentration of carotenoid pigment in the human retina. Using argon laser excitation we are able to measure two strong carotenoid resonance Raman signals at 1159 and 1525 wave numbers, respectively. The required laser power levels are within the limits given by safety standards for ocular exposure. Of the approximately ten carotenoid pigment found in normal human serum, the species lutein and zeaxanthin are concentrated in high amounts in the cells of the human macula, which is an approximately 5 mm diameter area of the retina in which the visual acuity is highest. These carotenoids give the macula a characteristic yellow coloration, and it is speculated that these molecules function as filter to attenuate photochemical damage and/or image degradation under bright UV/blue light exposures. In addition, they are thought to act as free-radical scavenging antioxidants. Studies have shown that there may be a link between macular degenerative diseases, the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in the US, and the presence or absence of the carotenoids. We describe an instrument capable of measuring the macular carotenoids in human subjects in a non-invasive, rapid and quantitative way.

  2. Analysis of earthy pigments in grounds of Baroque paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygar, Tomás; Hradilová, Janka; Hradil, David; Bezdicka, Petr; Bakardjieva, Snejana

    2003-04-01

    Sixteen samples of orange-red and yellow Fe-oxide earthy pigments mainly from bole grounds of Baroque paintings were studied by elemental and phase analysis and voltammetry. Fe, K, and Ti content were found to be suitable for further classification of those earthy pigments. According to the chemical and phase composition the yellow grounds were natural yellow ochres formed by intense chemical weathering in a moderate climate. Very similar phase and elemental composition of part of the orange-red boles indicated their similar geological origin or even their formation by calcination of yellow ochres. Part of the orange-red boles differed significantly from the yellow boles, especially in their increased content of Ti, indicating their relation to end products of intense weathering, e.g. laterites formed in a tropical climate. Analogous materials with a correspondingly large Ti content are not currently commercially available and their geological origin (provenance) is not clear. In several orange-red boles the intentional addition of rather coarse-grained haematite to natural ochre by the painters was assumed on the basis of Fe oxide content and crystallinity.

  3. Yap and Taz regulate retinal pigment epithelial cell fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesfeld, Joel B.; Gestri, Gaia; Clark, Brian S.; Flinn, Michael A.; Poole, Richard J.; Bader, Jason R.; Besharse, Joseph C.; Wilson, Stephen W.; Link, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    The optic vesicle comprises a pool of bi-potential progenitor cells from which the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and neural retina fates segregate during ocular morphogenesis. Several transcription factors and signaling pathways have been shown to be important for RPE maintenance and differentiation, but an understanding of the initial fate specification and determination of this ocular cell type is lacking. We show that Yap/Taz-Tead activity is necessary and sufficient for optic vesicle progenitors to adopt RPE identity in zebrafish. A Tead-responsive transgene is expressed within the domain of the optic cup from which RPE arises, and Yap immunoreactivity localizes to the nuclei of prospective RPE cells. yap (yap1) mutants lack a subset of RPE cells and/or exhibit coloboma. Loss of RPE in yap mutants is exacerbated in combination with taz (wwtr1) mutant alleles such that, when Yap and Taz are both absent, optic vesicle progenitor cells completely lose their ability to form RPE. The mechanism of Yap-dependent RPE cell type determination is reliant on both nuclear localization of Yap and interaction with a Tead co-factor. In contrast to loss of Yap and Taz, overexpression of either protein within optic vesicle progenitors leads to ectopic pigmentation in a dosage-dependent manner. Overall, this study identifies Yap and Taz as key early regulators of RPE genesis and provides a mechanistic framework for understanding the congenital ocular defects of Sveinsson's chorioretinal atrophy and congenital retinal coloboma. PMID:26209646

  4. Relationship between bilirubin free radical and formation of pigment gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Tao Liu; Jian Hu

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize the main progresses made inour group in the field of the mechanism of pigment gallstoneformation. It was found that after treetment with freeradicals, bilirubin (BR) was changed into free radical itself,and a semiquinone free radical and a superoxide free radicalbound with metal were recognized, which was detected byESR (electron spin resonance). By the meana of NMR(nuclear magnetic resonance) and IR (Infra-red spectra), itwas postulated that bilirubin polymerized through thereaction between the vinyl group and the hydroxyl groupunder the attack of free radicals. It was also found thatbilirubin free radical were liable to calcify in a kinetic study.Because of its chemical properties, bilirubin free radical wasshown to be cytotoxic to hepetocyte, which wasdemonstrated based on the following facts: induction ofphospholipid peroxidation (LPO), leakage of lactatedehydrogenase (LDH) and decrease of glutathione. As tothe mechanism of bilirubin-induced cytotoxicity, it waspostulated that the main target of bilirubin free radical wasthe cell membrane, including phospholipid and membranebound proteins, especially spectrin, a content ofcytoskeleton. Based on the results mentioned above, it wasdeduced that bilirubin free radical is the key factor thatinitiates and promotes the formation of pigment gallstone,which is consistent with other researches in recent years.

  5. [Classification signs of end-stage pigmented retinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, S I; Shchuko, A G; Malyshev, V V

    2007-01-01

    Identification of objective criteria for early-stage pigmented retinitis (PR) remains urgent today. Visual system changes reflecting retinal metabolic and structural disturbances (a change in the time and amplitude parameters of ERG, an increase in dark adaptation, changes in the color palette and the thickness of layers of photoreceptors and pigment epithelium of the retina on the OST scans) were detected in 31% of the examined relatives of patients with PR. The authors show the diagnostic value of retinal optic coherent tomography in the diagnosis of PR and the expediency of its use for objective estimation of retinal structural changes along with functional studies. The statistical studies including descriptive, regression, and discriminant analyses have provided evidence that the characteristics of the visual system in patients with end-stage PR differ from those in the controls. Studies that can determine differences in the state of the visual system of the groups under study and significantly discriminate persons with the normally functioning visual system from patients with PR have been identified.

  6. Organic/Inorganic Complex Pigments: Ancient Colors Maya Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polette-Niewold, L.A.; Manciu, F.S.; Torres, B.; Alvarado, M.; Jr.; Chianelli, R.R.

    2009-06-04

    Maya Blue is an ancient blue pigment composed of palygorskite clay and indigo. It was used by the ancient Maya and provides a dramatic background for some of the most impressive murals throughout Mesoamerica. Despite exposure to acids, alkalis, and chemical solvents, the color of the Maya Blue pigment remains unaltered. The chemical interaction between palygorskite and indigo form an organic/inorganic complex with the carbonyl oxygen of the indigo bound to a surface Al{sup 3+} in the Si-O lattice. In addition indigo will undergo an oxidation to dehydroindigo during preparation. The dehydro-indigo molecule forms a similar but stronger complex with the Al{sup 3+}. Thus, Maya Blue varies in color due to the mixed indigo/dehydroindigo complex. The above conclusions are the result of application of multiple techniques (X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis/thermal gravimetric analysis, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy) to the characterization of the organic/inorganic complex. A picture of the bonding of the organic molecule to the palygorskite surface forming a surface complex is developed and supported by the results of density functional theory calculations. We also report that other organic molecules such as thioindigo form similar organic/inorganic complexes thus, opening an entirely new class of complex materials for future applications.

  7. Genotoxic hazards of azo pigments and other colorants related to 1-phenylazo-2-hydroxynaphthalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, P; Wallin, H

    2000-01-01

    Azo pigments are used extensively as coloring agents in inks, paints and cosmetics. We have surveyed the literature for genotoxic and cancer data on nine colorants, which are structurally related to 1-phenylazo-2-hydroxynaphthalene (C.I. Solvent yellow 14). C.I. Solvent yellow 14 is metabolized by oxidative and peroxidative enzymes. Metabolically activated C.I. Solvent yellow 14 forms both RNA and DNA adducts. It induces liver nodules in rats upon oral administration. Although there is a mixture of negative and positive findings in short-term tests and in animal cancer studies, C.I. Solvent yellow 14 should be considered genotoxic. C.I. Pigment red 3 should be considered carcinogenic but is only weakly genotoxic. C.I. Solvent yellow 7, C.I. Pigment orange 5, C.I. Pigment red 4, and C.I. Pigment red 23 should be considered genotoxic. C.I. Pigment red 53:1 is not genotoxic, and observations of spleen tumors in male rats but not in female rats or mice seem to be related to toxic effects of high doses of C.I. Pigment red 53:1 in this organ. The data in the literature indicate that Pigment red 57:1 is not genotoxic or carcinogenic. We did not find sufficient data for a relevant evaluation of C.I. Pigment red 2 and C.I. Pigment red 64:1. Some of the colorants have in common the 2-amino-1-naphthol structure. This compound is not genotoxic. On the other hand, reductive cleavage of the azo bonds or hydrolysis of anilido bonds would produce aromatic amines, most of which have been under suspicion for genotoxicity or carcinogenicity. For C.I. Pigment red 53:1 and 57:1, sulphonated aromatic amines would be formed that are not genotoxic.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of black, red and yellow nanoparticles pigments from the iron sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mufti, Nandang, E-mail: nandangmufti@gmail.com; Atma, T., E-mail: nandangmufti@gmail.com; Fuad, A., E-mail: nandangmufti@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Malang, Jl Semarang-65145, Malang (Indonesia); Sutadji, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malang, Jl Semarang-65145, Malang (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    The aim of this research is to synthesize nanoparticles of black pigment of Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), red pigment of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and yellow pigment of ghoetite (α-FeOOH) from the iron sand. The black pigment of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the yellow pigment α-FeOOH nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method with variation of pH. Whereas, the red pigment Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was synthesized by sintering Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles at temperature between 400 °C and 700 7°C for 1 hour. All the pigments has been characterized using X-ray diffraction and SEM. The XRD results shown that the particle size of the black pigmen Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, red pigment Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and yellow pigment α-FeOOH are around 12, 32, and 30 nm respectively. The particle size of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles increase by increasing sintering temperature from 32 nm at 400 °C to 39 nm at 700 °C. For yellow pigment of α-FeOOH, the particle size increase by increasing pH from 30,54 nm at pH 4 to 48,60 nm at pH 7. The SEM results shown that the morphologies of black, yellow and red pigments are aglomarated.

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Red Pigment Produced by Halolactibacillus alkaliphilus MSRD1--an Isolate from Seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Murugan; Renugadevi, B; Brammavidhya, S; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Anantharaman, Perumal

    2015-05-01

    The present study was carried out with the aim to isolate an antibacterial pigment from seaweed-associated bacterium. The bacterium was identified as Halolactibacillus alkaliphilus MSRD1 by 16S rRNA sequencing. The isolated bacterium was cultured in 50% Luria-Bertani seawater broth (LB-SWB) with 1% glycerol. The pigment was extracted with 99% ethanol and analyzed by UV-Vis spectroscopy at 490 nm. The candidate bacterium was optimized with various NaCl concentrations from 5 to 20%. The results inferred that the bacterium produce maximum pigment at 5% NaCl level. The candidate bacterium H. alkaliphilus MSRD1 was found to be producing the maximum pigment during the 120-h incubation. The protein content of the pigment was found to be maximum of 72% at the end of the 120-h incubation. The extracted pigment was stable up to 80 °C, pink at acidic pH (1 to 5) and orange at basic pH (8 to 12). The isolated pigment was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography. Fractionated pigment was characterized by TLC, FT-IR, and SDS-PAGE. In the antibacterial context, the pigment was highly inhibited Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi with the zone of inhibition 16 and 14 mm, respectively. According to SDS-PAGE, the size of the pigment was approximately 80 kDa. The H. alkaliphilus MSRD1 has high capacity to produce the pigment with antibacterial properties. This could be effectively used in the future.

  10. Studies on pigments of the myxomycete Physarum nudum. I. Absorption spectra of the crude extracts of pigments from plasmodia cultured in continuous light and in darkness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rakoczy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. Method for extraction and crude separation of the plasmodial pigments of the myxomycete Physarum nudum cultured in light and in darkness were elaborated. 2.\tBy the use of various solvents in the procedure of extraction three pigment fractions were obtained from plasmodia cultured in the dark and four fractions from those grown under continuous light. 3. The absorption spectra of the particular fractions within the UV and visible range were determined.

  11. Independent component analysis-based algorithm for automatic identification of Raman spectra applied to artistic pigments and pigment mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vidal, Juan José; Pérez-Pueyo, Rosanna; Soneira, María José; Ruiz-Moreno, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    A new method has been developed to automatically identify Raman spectra, whether they correspond to single- or multicomponent spectra. The method requires no user input or judgment. There are thus no parameters to be tweaked. Furthermore, it provides a reliability factor on the resulting identification, with the aim of becoming a useful support tool for the analyst in the decision-making process. The method relies on the multivariate techniques of principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA), and on some metrics. It has been developed for the application of automated spectral analysis, where the analyzed spectrum is provided by a spectrometer that has no previous knowledge of the analyzed sample, meaning that the number of components in the sample is unknown. We describe the details of this method and demonstrate its efficiency by identifying both simulated spectra and real spectra. The method has been applied to artistic pigment identification. The reliable and consistent results that were obtained make the methodology a helpful tool suitable for the identification of pigments in artwork or in paint in general.

  12. Clearance of yellow pigments lutein and zeathanxin in channel catfish reared at different water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine clearance time of yellow pigments lutein and zeaxanthin in channel catfish at various temperatures. Fish of initial weight of 13.4 g were stocked into flow-through aquaria and fed once daily with a yellow pigment enhanced diet for 11 weeks when the yellow color be...

  13. Bioactive compounds in pigmented rice bran inhibit growth of human cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice bran contains both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants. Our previous studies have shown that pigmented rice cultivars contained several-fold higher total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant capacities than non-pigmented cultivars. We investigated three rice brans (purple, red and light-...

  14. The Effects of Curcuma Longa on the Functionality of Pigmentation for Thin Film Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsi, N.; Rus, A. Z. M.; Tan, N. A. M. S.

    2017-08-01

    This project presents the effects of turmeric (Curcuma Longa) on the functionality of pigmentation was carried out to improve the sustainability, environment impact and reduction of potential cost saving without sacrificing the performance of thin film coating. The Curcuma Longa pigment was extracted by grating the turmeric into small particles at different percentages which is 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of Curcuma Longa pigment with 3, 6 and 9 layers of coating. The different percentages of Curcuma Longa pigment was formulated and synthesized with polyols by crosslinking agent of glycerol and calcium carbonate into temperature at 140 °C for 2 hours. The results of water droplet test (ASTM D5964) showed the water contact angle was achieved the optimum superhydrophobic characteristic up to 60% of Curcuma Longa at 153°. The formulation of 60% Curcuma Longa was revealed the optimum adhesion resistance test with no flaking and detachment when the coating applied at 9 layers in the classification grading of adhesion test at 5B. It is indicated that the adhesion resistance of thin film coating on metal substrate was obviously increased as the layer of coating as well as the Curcuma Longa pigment percentage up to 60% at 9 layers. This project also highlighted the potential of Curcuma Longa pigment to produce quality in the natural pigmentation as a replacement synthetic pigment which is long-term health hazards.

  15. In vitro Anticancer Property of Yellow Pigment fromStreptomyces griseoaurantiacus JUACT 01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuruvalli Prashanthi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Despite the complications in isolation of pigments, microbial pigments are increasingly gaining the attention of researchers because of their broad range therapeutic potentials, especially against cancer. In this study the cytotoxic and anti proliferative potentials of yellow pigment from Streptomyces griseoaurantiacus JUACT 01 isolated from soil are investigated. The effect of pigment treatment on the growth and proliferation of in vitro cervical cancer cells (HeLa and liver cancer cells (Hep G2 was tested by various methods. Significant cytotoxicity was observed with IC 50 values as low as 1.5 and 1.8 µg /mL with HeLa and Hep G2 cells respectively. The pigment exhibited non toxic effects on human lymphocytes. Decrease in the number of viable cells, presence of apoptotic bodies, nuclear condensation and sheared DNA were distinctly observed in pigment treated cancer cells. The biochemical test and the infrared (IR spectra indicated the probable carotenoid presence in the TLC purified pigment fraction. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis of the TLC purified yellow pigment showed a single large peak with a retention time of 9.90 min and m/z value corresponding to the peak was found to be 413.22 showing 100% relative abundance.

  16. The MAREDAT global database of high performance liquid chromatography marine pigment measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peloquin, J.; Swan, C.; Gruber, N.; Vogt, M.; Claustre, H.; Ras, J.; Uitz, J.; Barlow, R.; Behrenfeld, M.; Bidigare, R.; Dierssen, H.; Ditullio, G.; Fernandez, E.; Gallienne, C.; Gibb, S.; Goericke, R.; Harding, L.; Head, E.; Holligan, P.; Hooker, S.; Karl, D.; Landry, M.; Letelier, R.; Llewellyn, C. A.; Lomas, M.; Lucas, M.; Mannino, A.; Marty, J.-C.; Mitchell, B. G.; Muller-Karger, F.; Nelson, N.; O'Brien, C.; Prezelin, B.; Repeta, D.; Smith, W. O., Jr.; Smythe-Wright, D.; Stumpf, R.; Subramaniam, A.; Suzuki, K.; Trees, C.; Vernet, M.; Wasmund, N.; Wright, S.

    2013-03-01

    A global pigment database consisting of 35 634 pigment suites measured by high performance liquid chromatography was assembled in support of the MARine Ecosytem DATa (MAREDAT) initiative. These data originate from 136 field surveys within the global ocean, were solicited from investigators and databases, compiled, and then quality controlled. Nearly one quarter of the data originates from the Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche (LOV), with an additional 17% and 19% stemming from the US JGOFS and LTER programs, respectively. The MAREDAT pigment database provides high quality measurements of the major taxonomic pigments including chlorophylls a and b, 19'-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin, 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin, alloxanthin, divinyl chlorophyll a, fucoxanthin, lutein, peridinin, prasinoxanthin, violaxanthin and zeaxanthin, which may be used in varying combinations to estimate phytoplankton community composition. Quality control measures consisted of flagging samples that had a total chlorophyll a concentration of zero, had fewer than four reported accessory pigments, or exceeded two standard deviations of the log-linear regression of total chlorophyll a with total accessory pigment concentrations. We anticipate the MAREDAT pigment database to be of use in the marine ecology, remote sensing and ecological modeling communities, where it will support model validation and advance our global perspective on marine biodiversity. The original dataset together with quality control flags as well as the gridded MAREDAT pigment data may be downloaded from PANGAEA: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.793246.

  17. 75 FR 38076 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... receive a request for a hearing. \\1\\ Nation Ford Chemical Company and Sun Chemical Corporation. The period... the antidumping duty order is CVP 23 identified as Color Index No. 51319 and Chemical Abstract No... dry color. Pigment dispersions in any form (e.g., pigment dispersed in oleoresins, flammable...

  18. In vitro inhibition of pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-na YUAN; Waqas MALIK; Shui-jin HUA; Noreen BIBI; Xue-de WANG

    2012-01-01

    Colored cotton has naturally pigmented fibers.The mechanism of pigmentation in cotton fiber is not well documented.This experiment was conducted to study the effects cf respiratory chain inhibitors,i.e.,rotenone and thiourea,on pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton.After 1 d post-anthesis,ovaries were harvested and developing ovules were cultured on the liquid medium containing different concentrations of rotenone and thiourea for 30 d.The results demonstrate that both respiratory inhibitors reduced fiber length and ovule development under ovule culture conditions,and the inhibition efficiency of rotenone was much higher than that of thiourea.Rotenone and thiourea also showed significant effects on fiber pigment (color) development in colored cotton.In green cotton fiber,rotenone advanced fiber pigment development by 7 d at 200 μmol/L,while thiourea inhibited fiber pigmentation at all treatment levels (400,600,800,1000,and 2000 μmol/L).Both respiratory inhibitors,however,had no significant effects on pigmentation of brown cotton fibers.The activities of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) decreased significantly with increasing levels of both respiratory inhibitors.It is suggested that both respiratory inhibitors have important roles in deciphering the mechanism of pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton.

  19. Role of intestinal barrier in pathogenesis of pigment gallstone in a guinea pig model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Su; Shuo-Dong Wu; Jun-Zhe Jin; Zhen-Hai Zhang; Ying Fan

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The function of the intestinal barrier has drawn more and more attention from researchers in recent years for its important role in many diseases such as burns, wounds, and pancreatitis. In our experimental studies on pigment gallstone, we found potential relationships between the function of the intestinal barrier and pigment gallstone formation. This study was undertaken to investigate the possible action and mechanism of the function of the intestinal barrier in the pathogenesis of pigment gallstone. METHODS:Eighty guinea pigs were divided into a normal group (CON), a pigment gallstone group (PS) and an intestinal mucosa protection group (GLN). Normal forage, pigment gallstone-forming forage and pigment gallstone-forming forage with supplemental intestinal mucosa protector (glutamine) were given to each group. In the gallstone-forming rate, morphology of intestinal mucosa, intestinal permeability, serum endotoxin and biliaryβ-glucuronidase were assessed after 8 weeks. RESULTS: The rate of gallstone-formation was 73.9% in the PS group. Damage of intestinal mucosa, endotoxemia (from 77±43×10-6 EU/L to 1367±525×10-6 EU/L, P CONCLUSIONS: The function of the intestinal barrier is correlated with pigment gallstone formation. Dysfunction of the intestinal barrier function may promote pigment gallstone formation through bacterial translocation, endotoxemia, and biliaryβ-glucuronidase.

  20. Sulfate as a pivotal factor in regulation of Serratia sp. strain S2B pigment biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegari, Banafsheh; Karbalaei-Heidari, Hamid Reza

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, we investigated the prodiginine family as secondary metabolite members. Bacterial strain S2B, with the ability to produce red pigment, was isolated from the Sarcheshmeh copper mine in Iran. 16S rDNA gene sequencing revealed that the strain was placed in the Serratia genus. Pigment production was optimized using low-cost culture medium and the effects of various physicochemical factors were studied via statistical approaches. Purification of the produced pigment by silica gel column chromatography showed a strong red pigment fraction and a weaker orange band. Mass spectrometry, FT-IR spectroscopy and (1)H NMR analysis revealed that the red pigment was prodigiosin and the orange band was a prodigiosin-like analog, with molecular weights of 323 and 317 Da, respectively. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity studies confirmed their membership in the prodiginine family. Analysis of the production pattern of the pigments in the presence of different concentrations of ammonium salts revealed the role of sulfate as an important factor in regulation of the pigment biosynthesis pathway. Overall, the data showed that regulation of the pigment biosynthesis pathway in Serratia sp. strain S2B was affected by inorganic micronutrients, particularly the sulfate ions.

  1. The pigment composition of Phaeocystis antarctica (Haptophyceae) under varius conditions of light, temperature, salinity, and iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Visser, Ronald J. W.; Stefels, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The pigment composition of Phaeocystis antarctica was monitored under various conditions of light, temperature, salinity, and iron. 19'-Hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin (Hex-fuco) always constituted the major light-harvesting pigment, with remarkably stable ratios of Hex-fuco-to-chl a under the various

  2. Optimal methodologies for terahertz time-domain spectroscopic analysis of traditional pigments in powder form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Taewoo; Lee, Howon; Sim, Kyung Ik; Kim, Jonghyeon; Jo, Young Chan; Kim, Jae Hoon; Baek, Na Yeon; Kang, Dai-ill; Lee, Han Hyoung

    2017-05-01

    We have established optimal methods for terahertz time-domain spectroscopic analysis of highly absorbing pigments in powder form based on our investigation of representative traditional Chinese pigments, such as azurite [blue-based color pigment], Chinese vermilion [red-based color pigment], and arsenic yellow [yellow-based color pigment]. To accurately extract the optical constants in the terahertz region of 0.1 - 3 THz, we carried out transmission measurements in such a way that intense absorption peaks did not completely suppress the transmission level. This required preparation of pellet samples with optimized thicknesses and material densities. In some cases, mixing the pigments with polyethylene powder was required to minimize absorption due to certain peak features. The resulting distortion-free terahertz spectra of the investigated set of pigment species exhibited well-defined unique spectral fingerprints. Our study will be useful to future efforts to establish non-destructive analysis methods of traditional pigments, to construct their spectral databases, and to apply these tools to restoration of cultural heritage materials.

  3. Identification of Organic Colorants in Art Objects by Solution Spectrophotometry: Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billmeyer, Fred W., Jr.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes solution spectrophotometry as a simple, rapid identification technique for organic paint pigments. Reports research which includes analytical schemes for the extraction and separation of organic pigments based on their solubilities, and the preparation of an extensive reference collection of spectral curves allowing their identification.…

  4. 40 CFR 268.20 - Waste specific prohibitions-Dyes and/or pigments production wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Disposal § 268.20 Waste specific prohibitions—Dyes and/or pigments production wastes. (a) Effective August... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-Dyes and/or pigments production wastes. 268.20 Section 268.20 Protection of Environment...

  5. Unraveling the Electronic Structure of Individual Photosynthetic Pigment-Protein Complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, Antoine M. van; Ketelaars, Martijn; Köhler, Jürgen; Aartsma, Thijs J.; Schmidt, Jan

    1999-01-01

    Low-temperature single-molecule spectroscopic techniques were applied to a light-harvesting pigment-protein complex (LH2) from purple photosynthetic bacteria. The properties of the electronically excited states of the two circular assemblies (B800 and B850) of bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) pigment

  6. Retrieval of foliar information about plant pigment systems from high resolution spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ustin, S.L.; Gitelson, A.A.; Jacquemoud, S.; Schaepman, M.E.; Asner, G.P.; Gamon, J.A.; Zarco-Tejada, P.

    2009-01-01

    Life on Earth depends on photosynthesis. Photosynthetic systems evolved early in Earth history and have been stable for 2.5 billion years, providing prima facie evidence for the significance of pigments in plant functions. Photosynthetic pigments fill multiple roles from increasing the range of

  7. A pigment analysis tool for hyperspectral images of cultural heritage artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Di; Messinger, David W.; Howell, David

    2017-05-01

    The Gough Map, in the collection at the Bodleian Library, Oxford University, is one of the earliest surviving maps of Britain. Previous research deemed that it was likely created over the 15th century and afterwards it was extensively revised more than once. In 2015, the Gough Map was imaged using a hyperspectral imaging system at the Bodleian Library. The collection of the hyperspectral image (HSI) data was aimed at faded text enhancement for reading and pigment analysis for the material diversity of its composition and potentially the timeline of its creation. In this research, we introduce several methods to analyze the green pigments in the Gough Map, especially the number and spatial distribution of distinct green pigments. One approach, called the Gram Matrix, has been used to estimate the material diversity in a scene (i.e., endmember selection and dimensionality estimation). Here, we use the Gram Matrix technique to study the within-material differences of pigments in the Gough map with common visual color. We develop a pigment analysis tool that extracts visually common pixels, green pigments in this case, from the Gough Map and estimates its material diversity. It reveals that the Gough Map consists of at least six kinds of dominant green pigments. Both historical geographers and cartographic historians will benefit from this work to analyze the pigment diversity using HSI of cultural heritage artifacts.

  8. Growth and pigment accumulation in nutrient-depleted Isochrysis aff. galbana T-ISO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.; Weesepoel, Y.J.A.; Lamers, P.P.; Vincken, J.P.; Martens, D.E.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of three different nutrient depletions (nitrogen, sulphur and magnesium) on the growth and pigment accumulation of the haptophyte Isochrysis aff. galbana (clone T-ISO) has been studied. Pigments were quantified based on RP-UHPLC-PDA-MSn analysis. All nutrient depletions led to reduced max

  9. Tertiary structure and spectral tuning of UV and violet pigments in vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Shozo; Starmer, William T.; Takahashi, Yusuke; Tada, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Many vertebrate species use ultraviolet (UV) vision for such behaviors as mating, foraging, and communication. UV vision is mediated by UV-sensitive visual pigments, which have the wavelengths of maximal absorption (λmax) at ~360 nm, whereas violet (or blue) vision is mediated by orthologous pigments with λmax values of 390–440 nm. It is widely believed that amino acids in transmembrane (TM) I–III are solely responsible for the spectral tuning of these SWS1 pigments. Recent molecular analyses of SWS1 pigments, however, show that amino acids in TM IV–VII are also involved in the spectral tuning of these pigments through synergistic interactions with those in TM I–III. Comparisons of the tertiary structures of UV and violet pigments reveal that the distance between the counterion E113 in TM III and amino acid sites 87–93 in TM II is narrower for UV pigments than for violet pigments, which may restrict the access of water molecules to the Schiff base pocket and deprotonate the Schiff base nitrogen. Both mutagenesis analyses of E113Q and quantum chemical calculations strongly suggest that unprotonated Schiff base-linked chromophore is responsible for detecting UV light. PMID:16343816

  10. Long-term pigment dynamics and diatom survival in dark sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veuger, B.; Van Oevelen, D.

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate survival of diatoms and long-term pigment dynamics in dark sediment, we incubated samples of homogenized, sieved, tidal-flat sediment for 1 yr in darkness. Microscopic observations revealed that some diatoms survived the full year in darkness and retained their pigments.

  11. Retrieval of foliar information about plant pigment systems from high resolution spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ustin, S.L.; Gitelson, A.A.; Jacquemoud, S.; Schaepman, M.E.; Asner, G.P.; Gamon, J.A.; Zarco-Tejada, P.

    2009-01-01

    Life on Earth depends on photosynthesis. Photosynthetic systems evolved early in Earth history and have been stable for 2.5 billion years, providing prima facie evidence for the significance of pigments in plant functions. Photosynthetic pigments fill multiple roles from increasing the range of ener

  12. Long-term pigment dynamics and diatom survival in dark sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veuger, B.; Van Oevelen, D.

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate survival of diatoms and long-term pigment dynamics in dark sediment, we incubated samples of homogenized, sieved, tidal-flat sediment for 1 yr in darkness. Microscopic observations revealed that some diatoms survived the full year in darkness and retained their pigments. Conc

  13. Unraveling the Electronic Structure of Individual Photosynthetic Pigment-Protein Complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, Antoine M. van; Ketelaars, Martijn; Köhler, Jürgen; Aartsma, Thijs J.; Schmidt, Jan

    1999-01-01

    Low-temperature single-molecule spectroscopic techniques were applied to a light-harvesting pigment-protein complex (LH2) from purple photosynthetic bacteria. The properties of the electronically excited states of the two circular assemblies (B800 and B850) of bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) pigment

  14. Photostability of Natural Orange-Red and Yellow Fungal Pigments in Liquid Food Model Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Meyer, Anne S.; Thrane, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    -red pigment extract was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS), and a light-induced formation of a structural analogue of sequoiamonascin C, a Monascus-like polyketide pigment discovered in the extract of Penicillium aculeatum IBT 14263 on yeast...

  15. Tea pigments induce cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Dong Jia; Chi Han; Jun-Shi Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the molecular mechanisms by which tea pigments exert preventive effects on liver carcinogenesis.METHODS: HepG2 cells were seeded at a density of 5×105/well in six-well culture dishes and incubated overnight. The cells then were treated with various concentrations of tea pigments over 3 d, harvested by trypsinization, and counted using a hemocytometer. Flow cytometric analysis was performed by a flow cytometer after propidium iodide labeling. Bcl-2 and p21WAF1 proteins were determined by Western blotting. In addition, DNA laddering assay was performed on treated and untreated cultured HepG2 cells.RESULTS: Tea pigments inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Flow-cytometric analysis showed that tea pigments arrested cell cycle progression at G1 phase. DNA laddering was used to investigate apoptotic cell death, and the result showed that 100 mg/L of tea pigments caused typical DNA laddering. Our study also showed that tea pigments induced upregulation of p21WAF1 protein and downregulation of Bcl-2 protein.CONCLUSION: Tea pigments induce cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Tea pigments may be used as an ideal chemopreventive agent.

  16. Corneal Tattooing (keratopigmentation) to restore cosmetic appearance in severely impaired eyes with new mineral micronized pigments

    OpenAIRE

    Alio, Jorge L; Sirerol, Belucha; Walewska - Szafran, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To investigate keratopigmentation (KTP) with new mineral micronized pigments as a surgical alternative to improve cosmetic appearance in severely-impaired eyes. Methods: 40 eyes underwent KTP alternatively to invasive cosmetic reconstructive surgery. Corneal staining with mineral micronized pigments was performed using either an intralamellar or superficial technique. Results: One year postoperatively, all but two patients (95%) were sat...

  17. Identification of Organic Colorants in Art Objects by Solution Spectrophotometry: Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billmeyer, Fred W., Jr.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes solution spectrophotometry as a simple, rapid identification technique for organic paint pigments. Reports research which includes analytical schemes for the extraction and separation of organic pigments based on their solubilities, and the preparation of an extensive reference collection of spectral curves allowing their identification.…

  18. Transport of protons and lactate in cultured human fetal retinal pigment epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Cour, Morten la; Ming Lui, Ge

    2000-01-01

    Electron microscopy, intracellular pH, monocarboxylate transport, pigment epithelium of eye, proton-lactate cotransport, retinal metabolism, sodium/proton exchange......Electron microscopy, intracellular pH, monocarboxylate transport, pigment epithelium of eye, proton-lactate cotransport, retinal metabolism, sodium/proton exchange...

  19. 75 FR 5887 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Paracoccus Pigment; Confirmation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Paracoccus Pigment; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY... rule that appeared in the Federal Register of November 16, 2009. The final rule amended the color additive regulations to provide for the safe use of paracoccus pigment as a color additive in the feed...

  20. Pigment cell differentiation in sea urchin blastula-derived primary cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageenko, Natalya V; Kiselev, Konstantin V; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Odintsova, Nelly A

    2014-06-27

    The quinone pigments of sea urchins, specifically echinochrome and spinochromes, are known for their effective antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and antitumor activities. We developed in vitro technology for inducing pigment differentiation in cell culture. The intensification of the pigment differentiation was accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in cell proliferation. The number of pigment cells was two-fold higher in the cells cultivated in the coelomic fluids of injured sea urchins than in those intact. The possible roles of the specific components of the coelomic fluids in the pigment differentiation process and the quantitative measurement of the production of naphthoquinone pigments during cultivation were examined by MALDI and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Echinochrome A and spinochrome E were produced by the cultivated cells of the sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis in all tested media, while only spinochromes were found in the cultivated cells of another sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius. The expression of genes associated with the induction of pigment differentiation was increased in cells cultivated in the presence of shikimic acid, a precursor of naphthoquinone pigments. Our results should contribute to the development of new techniques in marine biotechnology, including the generation of cell cultures producing complex bioactive compounds with therapeutic potential.

  1. Diurnal variation of phytoplankton pigments and population in the nearshore waters off Thal (Maharashtra)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JiyalalRam; Desai, B.N; Abidi, S.A

    Variations in phytoplankton species and pigments at three stations off Thal were studied for a period of 24 hrs in March and October, 1980 phytoplankton cell counts and pigment values were maximum around mid-day and mid-night which coincided...

  2. Talaromyces atroroseus, a new species efficiently producing industrially relevant red pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Yilmaz, Neriman; Thrane, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    ., described in this study, produces the azaphilone biosynthetic families mitorubrins and Monascus pigments without any production of mycotoxins. Within the red pigment producing clade, T. atroroseus resolved in a distinct clade separate from all the other species in multigene phylogenies (ITS, β...

  3. Kinetic of orange pigment production from Monascus ruber on submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendruscolo, Francielo; Schmidell, Willibaldo; de Oliveira, Débora; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Pigments produced by species of Monascus have been used to coloring rice, meat, sauces, wines and beers in East Asian countries. Monascus can produce orange (precursor), yellow and red pigments. Orange pigments have low solubility in culture media and when react with amino groups they become red and largely soluble. The orange pigments are an alternative to industrial pigment production because the low solubility facilitates the downstream operations. The aim of this work was to study the kinetic on the production of orange pigments by Monascus ruber CCT 3802. The shaking frequency of 300 rpm was favorable to production, whereas higher shaking frequencies showed negative effect. Pigment production was partially associated with cell growth, the critical dissolved oxygen concentration was between 0.894 and 1.388 mgO2 L(-1) at 30 °C, and limiting conditions of dissolved oxygen decreased the production of orange pigments. The maintenance coefficient (mo) and the conversion factor of oxygen in biomass (Yo) were 18.603 mgO2 g x(-1)  h(-1) and 3.133 gx gO 2(-1) and the consideration of these parameters in the oxygen balance to estimate the biomass concentration provided good fits to the experimental data.

  4. Perstraction of intracellular pigments by submerged cultivation of Monascus in nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Zhenqiang; Qi, Hanshi; Wang, Zhilong

    2012-04-01

    "Milking processing" describes the cultivation of microalgae in a water-organic solvent two-phase system that consists of simultaneous fermentation and secretion of intracellular product. It is usually limited by the conflict between the biocompatibility of the organic solvent to the microorganisms and the ability of the organic solvent to secret intracellular product into its extracellular broth. In the present work, submerged cultivation of Monascus in the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 micelle aqueous solution for pigment production is exploited, in which the fungus Monascus remains actively growing. Permeabilization of intracellular pigments across the cell membrane and extraction of the pigments to the nonionic surfactant micelles of its fermentation broth occur simultaneously. "Milking" the intracellular pigments in the submerged cultivation of Monascus is a perstraction process. The perstractive fermentation of intracellular pigments has the advantage of submerged cultivation by secretion of the intracellular pigments to its extracellular broth and the benefit of extractive microbial fermentation by solubilizing the pigments into nonionic surfactant micelles. It is shown as the marked increase of the extracellular pigment concentration by the submerged cultivation of Monascus in the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 micelle solution.

  5. Monascus pigment production in bioreactor using a co-product of biodiesel as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Marie Meinicke Bühler

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The study and use of natural pigments in food industries have increased in recent years due to the toxicity presented by artificial pigments. Monascus ruber is a filamentous fungus that produces red, orange, and yellow pigments under different growing conditions. The growth of health food market has increased in parallel with the growth in biofuels production, such as biodiesel, which generates a concomitant increase in the production of glycerin that can be used in bioprocesses. The objective of this study was to use glycerin and glucose as substrates in the production of natural pigments in a bioreactor. The culture of Monascus ruber was carried out in a Bioflo III reactor with 4 L of working volume and pH, temperature, aeration, and agitation control. The highest pigment production was observed after 60 hours of fungal culture with 8.28 UA510 of red pigment. The pH range remained from 5.45 to 6.23 favoring the release of red pigment in the medium. This study shows the feasibility of the production of natural pigments by Monascus ruber in a bioreactor using a co-product of biodiesel without previous treatment as a substrate.

  6. Investigation of relationship between lipid and Monascus pigment accumulation by extractive fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Zhilong

    2015-10-20

    Fermented Monascus pigments have been utilized as traditional Chinese medicine and food colorant for thousands of years. Under the limited nitrogen concentration and/or low initial pH 2.5 conditions, it was observed that production of intracellular pigments and accumulation of microbial lipids (high content reaching to approximately 50% in dry cell weight) by edible Monascus anka exhibited a positive correlated relationship. Extractive fermentation in nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution selectively exported the intracellular Monascus pigments into its extracellular broth, in which the concentration of intracellular pigments was negligible while the extracellular one was enhanced. The extractive fermentation provides a novel strategy for shifting of the metabolic channeling from intracellular lipid accumulation to Monascus pigment production. High pigment concentration, i.e., approximately 40 AU of extracellular Monascus pigments, was achieved by extractive fermentation at a relatively high nonionic surfactant concentration 10 g/l. This phenomenon might be attributed to the nonionic surfactant micelles acting as pigment reservoirs by biomimetic of intracellular lipids.

  7. Barumiki antocyjanowe u Iris germanica [Anthocyanin pigments in Iris germanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szczepańska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin pigments occurring in the flowers of Iris germanica were investigated in five varieties: Rota, Wedgewood, Empress of India, Deputate Nomblot and Joanna. The relation between the colour of the flower and the amount of the pigment was studied. The pigments were extracted from the dry plant material with 1% hydrochloric acid in methanol. Paper chromatography and colorimetric determinations were used for identification of the pigments and their quantitative determination. The results allow the following conclusions: 1. The varieties investigated were characterized toy the occurrence of delphinidine glycoside; 2. The colour intensity is dependent on the anthocyanin pigments; 3. The colour spectrum of Iris sp. flowersis greatly extended by yellow copigments.

  8. Kinetic expression for pigment production in culture of red beet hairy roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinooka, M.; Taya, M.; Tone, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Science

    1995-12-20

    A kinetic model was proposed to represent the profile of pigment production associated with the growth of red beet hairy roots. This model was constructed on the basis of a concept of cellular age distribution arising from a linear growth mode of the roots. The kinetics of root proliferation were formulated using a Monod-type rate equation of root elongation with intracellular phosphorus as a limiting substrate. A positional dependence of pigment content was observed along with the hairy roots; namely, content increased with increasing distance from the root tips and gradually approached a saturated value correlated with intracellular phosphorus content. The kinetics of pigment formation of hairy roots were presented by considering the variation in pigment content along the roots and the intracellular phosphorus effect. It was demonstrated that the model made it possible to describe the kinetic behaviors of growth and pigmentation tinting hairy root culture in a fermentor. 14 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Expression of Pigment Cell-Specific Genes in the Ontogenesis of the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Ageenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the polyketide compounds, the naphthoquinone pigment echinochrome, is synthesized in sea urchin pigment cells. We analyzed polyketide synthase (pks and sulfotransferase (sult gene expression in embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius from various stages of development and in specific tissues of the adults. We observed the highest level of expression of the pks and sult genes at the gastrula stage. In unfertilized eggs, only trace amounts of the pks and sult transcripts were detected, whereas no transcripts of these genes were observed in spermatozoids. The addition of shikimic acid, a precursor of naphthoquinone pigments, to zygotes and embryos increased the expression of the pks and sult genes. Our findings, including the development of specific conditions to promote pigment cell differentiation of embryonic sea urchin cells in culture, represent a definitive study on the molecular signaling pathways that are involved in the biosynthesis of pigments during sea urchin development.

  10. Characterization and Photoprotector Activity of Endophytic Fungal Pigments from Coatal Plant Sarang Semut (Hydnophytum formicarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mada Triandala Sabero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Isolate endophytic fungal RS3 from smooth ant plants (Hydnophytum formicarum produced black pigment. The aims of this research were to obtain the pigment, to characterize and to determine the photoprotector activity. This research was consisted into several steps, there were determined the best precipitating agent, characterization using instrument and solubility analysis, and analysis of Sun Protection Factor (SPF. Results showed the pigment was precipitated using acid solvent with pH ≤ 2,5. Functional groups of pigment pellet were hydroxy, aromatic ring, phenol and amine. According to characteristic, black pigment produced by fungal RS3 proposed as melanin. The photoprotector analysis showed SPF the value was 11.33.

  11. Detailed evaluation of a newly attained fungal pigment from Monascus purpureus in meat burgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kholie, Emad M; El Shaer, Magda K; Abdelreheem, Mohammed A T; Gharib, Mai A

    2012-11-01

    Beef burgers with red pigment extracted from Monascus purpureus, used as a natural colouring agent, were examined for chemical compositions, physical properties, microbiological aspects and organoleptic evaluation. Beef burgers with Monascus pigment showed higher nutritional values compared with control samples. Nutritional values were proportionally enhanced by increasing pigment concentration. Synthetic dye samples had the lowest values of nutrients. Cooking loss percentage and water holding capacity were lower in all treatments compared with control samples, and vice versa for plasticity. The initial total bacterial count, Staphylococcus aureus count and coliform count were determined. Extending storage period up to 90 days severely reduced all tested microorganisms. By increasing the M. pigment concentration, the colour was significantly increased. Insignificant differences in colours were noticed among various treatments. Flavour and body and texture scores were insignificantly different. Microbial inhibition percentage of beef burger samples was increased by increasing the Monascus pigment concentration up to 0.8 g/kg.

  12. The 'push-pull' dosimeter: When two pigments are better than one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosi, Stephen G; Baldock, Clive; Smee, Robert, E-mail: s.bosi@physics.usyd.edu.a

    2010-11-01

    A new kind of gel dosimeter (the 'push-pull' dosimeter) is proposed which would contain two spectrally complementary pigments, one which darkens with increasing dose and another which bleaches. The bleaching pigment would be optimised for high sensitivity and the darkening pigment for low sensitivity. By employing dual pigments optimised independently, the usual requisite compromises between sensitivity at low dose and accuracy at high dose would be relaxed. Such a gel, after exposure would be read using two successive optical CT scans employing two different scan wavelengths. The use of dual pigments could also reduce the occurrence of regions of high optical attenuation which generate artefacts in optical CT. This paper also presents results of simulations of the behaviour of such a gel when scanned using optical cone beam CT.

  13. Characterization of pigment-leached antifouling coatings using BET surface area measurements and mercury porosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2007-01-01

    In this work BET surface area measurements and mercury porosimetry are used to characterize leached layers formed when seawater-soluble pigments (Cu2O and ZnO) dissolve during accelerated leaching of simple antifouling coatings. Measurements on single-pigment coatings show that an increasing...... fraction of Cu2O or ZnO pigment particles becomes unavailable for dissolution when the concentration of the pigment decreases in the coating and the interparticle distance in the binder matrix becomes larger. Experimental data for a coating initially containing a mixture of Cu2O and TiO2 pigments suggest...... that a substantial fraction of the smaller and inert TiO2 particles may be lost from the coating upon dissolution of the larger Cu2O particles. This inert particle translocation effect is important to take into account when interpreting polishing and leaching data and when developing mathematical models...

  14. Characterization and Photoprotector Activity of Endophytic Fungal Pigments from Coastal Plant Sarang Semut (Hydnophytum formicarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mada Triandala Sibero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungus RS3 isolated from coastal plant sarang semut (Hydnophytum formicarum produced extracellular black pigment. The aims of this research were to obtain the pigment, to characterize and to determine the photoprotector activity. This research was conducted into several steps, that were determination of the best precipitating agent, characterization using instrument and solubility analysis, and analysis of Sun Protection Factor (SPF. Results showed the pigment was precipitated using acid solvent with pH ≤ 2.5. Functional groups of pigment were hydroxyl, aromatic ring, phenol and amine. According to its characteristics, black pigment produced by RS3 isolate was proposed as melanin. The photoprotector analysis showed the SPF value was 11.33.

  15. Cysteine reacts to form blue-green pigments with thiosulfinates obtained from garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Keum; Kyung, Kyu Hang

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine was found to form pigments with garlic thiosulfinates in this investigation, in contrast to previous reports. Pigments were formed only when the molar concentration ratios of cysteine to total thiosulfinates were smaller than 2:1. Cysteine does not form pigments with thiosulfinates in the same manner as other pigment-forming amino compounds because it has a sulfhydryl (SH) group. A colour reaction of cysteine with thiosulfinates is proposed where colourless disulphide-type S-alk(en)yl mercaptocysteines (SAMCs) are formed first by the SH-involved reaction between cysteine and thiosulfinates, and then SAMCs react with residual thiosulfinates to form pigments. When the cysteine to total thiosulfinate molar concentration ratio was 2:1 or greater, total thiosulfinates were consumed to form SAMCs without leaving any thiosulfinates remaining available for the following colour reactions.

  16. Chemometric classification of pigmented rice varieties based on antioxidative properties in relation to color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaiwan Pramai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The pigmented Thai rice varieties including red and black color and non-pigmented rice (white collected from different growth sites in the north of Thailand and were determined for color and antioxidant properties. Anthocyanins were the major compound in group of black rice (21.15-441.96 mg/100 g rice. Total phenolic, flavonoid, and -tocopherol contents were highest in the black rice followed by red rice and antioxidant capacities were predominant in pigmented varieties. Black rice grown in mountainous area presented the highest antioxidant activity compared to the other growing locations. The color parameters, especially L* value presented the negative correlations with antioxidant parameters, while the antioxidant contents, excepted -oryzanol content had significant correlation with antioxidant capacities. Pigmented rice varieties could be clearly classified into 4 groups using PCA and HCA, which provided a good indicator to classify pigmented rice varieties based on color and antioxidative properties.

  17. Mimicry's palette: widespread use of conserved pigments in the aposematic signals of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, David W; Seymoure, Brett M; Pfennig, David W

    2014-03-01

    Mimicry, where one species resembles another species because of the selective benefits of sharing a common signal, is especially common in snakes. Snakes might be particularly prone to evolving mimicry if all species share some of the same proximate mechanisms that can be used to produce aposematic/mimetic signals. We evaluated this possibility by examining color pigments in 11 species of snakes from four different families, three species of which participate in a coral snake mimicry complex involving convergence in coloration. We found that all 11 species used combinations of two pteridine pigments and melanin in their coloration, regardless of whether or not they were mimics. Furthermore, the presence or absence of red pteridines was strongly correlated with the relative excitation of medium- and long-wavelength photoreceptors in birds, thereby linking shared pigmentation to perception of those pigments by likely agents of selection. Thus, precise color mimicry might be relatively easy to evolve among snakes owing to symplesiomorphies in pigmentation.

  18. Refractory Pigmentation Associated with Laugier-Hunziker Syndrome following Er:YAG Laser Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Sertan; Saruhanoğlu, Alp; Migliari, Dante-Antonio; Maden, Ilay; Tanyeri, Hakkı

    2013-01-01

    The present report describes a case of Laugier-Hunziker syndrome (LHS), a rare benign condition. A patient with LHS develops acquired melanotic pigmentation of the lips and buccal mucosa, often with pigmentation of the nails occurring. No systemic symptoms are associated with this syndrome. Normally, no treatment is required for this condition, unless for aesthetic reason, mainly due to pigmentation on the lip mucosa. We present a case of LHS, 37-year-old female, whose pigmentations on her lip and in the oral cavity were treated with an Er:YAG laser. At the postoperative 12th month followup, the lesions recurred. The effects of any surgical attempt to treat pigmentations associated with LHS were discussed.

  19. Heat-Resistant Ceramic Pigments on the Base of Waste Vanadium Catalyst and Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Sedelnikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic pigments on the base of technogenic silica-containing material—waste vanadium catalyst were obtained in this work. Corundum is identified along with the predominant mullite phase in the composition of pigments. The ions of nickel, chromium, and iron are embedded in the structure if the concentration of the corresponding oxide in the initial mixture does not exceed 10 wt.%. In this case, the oxide is not identified in a free form according to the results of X-ray diffraction analysis. Spinel CoAl2O4 is formed in cobalt pigments. The developed pigments keep the firing temperature up to 1200°C. The obtained pigments may be recommended for ceramic paints and colored glazes for building materials.

  20. Multiple Roles of Photosynthetic and Sunscreen Pigments in Cyanobacteria Focusing on the Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichi Matsugo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria have two types of sunscreen pigments, scytonemin and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs. These secondary metabolites are thought to play multiple roles against several environmental stresses such as UV radiation and desiccation. Not only the large molar absorption coefficients of these sunscreen pigments, but also their antioxidative properties may be necessary for the protection of biological molecules against the oxidative damages induced by UV radiation. The antioxidant activity and vitrification property of these pigments are thought to be requisite for the desiccation and rehydration processes in anhydrobiotes. In this review, the multiple roles of photosynthetic pigments and sunscreen pigments on stress resistance, especially from the viewpoint of their structures, biosynthetic pathway, and in vitro studies of their antioxidant activity, will be discussed.

  1. Yellow and red ochre pigments from southern Portugal: Elemental composition and characterization by WDXRF and XRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, M. [Conservation and Restoration Department, Science and Technology Faculty, Univ. Nova of Lisbon, Monte da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Atomic Physics Center, Lisbon University, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: milenegil@gmail.com; Carvalho, M.L. [Atomic Physics Center, Lisbon University, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal); Seruya, A. [Conservation and Restoration Department, Science and Technology Faculty, Univ. Nova of Lisbon, Monte da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Portuguese Institute of Conservation Restoration (IPCR), Rua das janelas Verdes 37, 1300-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Candeias, A.E. [Chemistry Department and Evora Chemistry Center, University of Evora, Rua Romao Ramalho, 59 Evora (Portugal); Mirao, J. [Giosciences Department and Evora Geophysics Center, University of Evora, Rua Romao Ramalho, 59 Evora (Portugal); Queralt, I. [Laboratory of X-ray Analytical Applications, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' CSIC, Sole' Sabari' s s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-09-21

    Three different yellow and red ochre pigments geological sources from Alentejo-Terras rossas, schist units and weathered iron ore deposits-were studied by elemental and phase analysis complemented with Munsell and CIELAB colour parameters. Central aims were to underline the mineralogical and chemical distinctiveness of natural pigment sources and establish a connection between local geology and use of specific colour pigments in traditional lime wash mural paintings. According to the chemical composition the Fe abundance is 6 times higher than average crust values. The Terras Rossas are characterized by higher Ca contents. In yellow and red schists, phyllosilicates are major minerals, so pigments from these units are enriched in K and Rb. Besides Fe, the pigments from weathered ores are enriched in metals like Pb, As, Cu, and Zn, which can be used as fingerprints.

  2. Pigment production by a new thermotolerant microalga Coelastrella sp. F50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Che-Wei; Chuang, Lu-Te; Yu, Po-Chien; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan

    2013-06-15

    Microalgae are good crops to produce natural pigments because of their high growth rates. Tropical zones are better locations than temperate areas for microalgal cultivation because they have longer duration of daylight and more stable temperatures throughout the year, but the high temperatures pose a challenge to microalgal cultivation. A newly isolated thermotolerant microalga produces reddish pigments under environmental stress. Morphological and molecular evidence including meridional ribs on the cell wall, pigment production, and its 18S rDNA sequence suggests that this microalga belongs to the genus Coelastrella. Salt stress and high light intensity accelerated biosynthesis of the pigments, and significant quantities of oil accumulated as the cells experienced stress due to nutrient deficiency. This microalga could withstand temperature of 50°C for more than 8h, which is a necessary trait for outdoor cultivation in tropical areas. The pigments contain astaxanthin, lutein, canthaxanthin, and β-carotene as analysed by using HPLC.

  3. 着色与色素研究%Study on Coloring and Pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴韬

    2012-01-01

    着色即色素在动物皮肤、脂肪组织或蛋黄内的沉积。本文系统阐述了色素的来源、特性、配合使用;着色的基础、过程和脂肪与抗氧化剂对着色的促进作用;影响着色效果的因素。%pigmentation means the deposition of pigment in animal skin, adipose tissue or yolk. In this article, the resource, we systematically elaborated the character and formula of pigment, the basis of color, process and promotion of antioxidant on pigmentation, as well as the factors affecting pigmentation.

  4. Sedimentary pigments and nature of organic matter within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Arabian Sea (Indian margin)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rasiq, K.T.; Kurian, S.; Karapurkar, S.G.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    Sedimentary pigments, carbon and nitrogen content and their stable isotopes were studied in three short cores collected from the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Arabian Sea (EAS). Nine pigments including chlorophyll a and their degradation...

  5. A genomic and transcriptomic approach to investigate the blue pigment phenotype in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, Nadia Andrea; Carraro, Lisa; Martino, Maria Elena; Fondi, Marco; Fasolato, Luca; Miotto, Giovanni; Magro, Massimiliano; Vianello, Fabio; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2015-11-20

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known food spoiler, able to cause serious economic losses in the food industry due to its ability to produce many extracellular, and often thermostable, compounds. The most outstanding spoilage events involving P. fluorescens were blue discoloration of several food stuffs, mainly dairy products. The bacteria involved in such high-profile cases have been identified as belonging to a clearly distinct phylogenetic cluster of the P. fluorescens group. Although the blue pigment has recently been investigated in several studies, the biosynthetic pathway leading to the pigment formation, as well as its chemical nature, remain challenging and unsolved points. In the present paper, genomic and transcriptomic data of 4 P. fluorescens strains (2 blue-pigmenting strains and 2 non-pigmenting strains) were analyzed to evaluate the presence and the expression of blue strain-specific genes. In particular, the pangenome analysis showed the presence in the blue-pigmenting strains of two copies of genes involved in the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway (including trpABCDF). The global expression profiling of blue-pigmenting strains versus non-pigmenting strains showed a general up-regulation of genes involved in iron uptake and a down-regulation of genes involved in primary metabolism. Chromogenic reaction of the blue-pigmenting bacterial cells with Kovac's reagent indicated an indole-derivative as the precursor of the blue pigment. Finally, solubility tests and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis of the isolated pigment suggested that its molecular structure is very probably a hydrophobic indigo analog.

  6. Dynamics of phytoplankton pigments in water and surface sediments of a large shallow lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilmar Tõnno

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to find out to which extent fossil phytoplankton pigments in the large shallow and turbid Lake Võrtsjärv carry information on the history of phytoplankton communities. For this purpose we examined how the changes in the pigment composition of surface sediments follow their changes in the water column. Depth-integrated lake water and surface sediment samples were collected weekly in May–October 2007. Considering cyanobacterial and diatom dominance in phytoplankton, we analysed fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin as marker pigments for diatoms, zeaxanthin as a marker pigment for total cyanobacteria and canthaxanthin as a marker pigment for colonial cyanobacteria. Chlorophyll a and its derivative pheophytin a were applied as indicators for total phytoplankton. The dynamics of phytoplankton pigments in surface sediments generally did not follow their dynamics in the water column, possibly due to intensive resuspension and a high sedimentation rate in a large and shallow lake. It was noticed that the surface sediment carries information on pigment degradation intensity and on weight and size characteristics of phytoplankton cells, which affect their sinking and floating velocities. Higher pigment contents of sediment in spring were presumably caused by lower resuspension due to high water level and slower degradation in cold water. Pheophytin a and the marker pigments of cyanobacteria were found to be persistent against degradation in upper sediment layers, which makes them useful indicators for tracking the historical changes in phytoplankton communities also in a shallow lake. Sharp decrease in chemically unstable pigment contents between the sediment surface and deeper layers indicates that only the uppermost sediment surface is resuspended in Lake Võrtsjärv. The transformation of the diatom marker carotenoid diadinoxanthin to diatoxanthin was found to occur mainly in sediments and not in the water column, and the

  7. Resonance Raman examination of the wavelength regulation mechanism in human visual pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochendoerfer, G G; Wang, Z; Oprian, D D; Mathies, R A

    1997-06-03

    Resonance Raman spectra of recombinant human green and red cone pigments have been obtained to examine the molecular mechanism of color recognition by visual pigments. Spectra were acquired using a 77 K resonance Raman microprobe or preresonance Raman spectroscopy. The vibrational bands were assigned by comparison to the spectra of bovine rhodopsin and model compounds. The C=NH stretching frequencies of rhodopsin, the green cone pigment, and the red cone pigment in H2O (D2O) are found at 1656 (1623), 1640 (1618), and 1644 cm(-1), respectively. Together with previous resonance Raman studies on iodopsin [Lin, S. W., Imamoto, Y., Fukada, Y., Shichida, Y., Yoshizawa, T., & Mathies, R. A. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 2151-2160], these values suggest that red and green pigments have very similar Schiff base environments, while the Schiff base group in rhodopsin is more strongly hydrogen-bonded to its protein environment. The absence of significant frequency and intensity differences of modes in the fingerprint and the hydrogen out-of-plane wagging regions for all these pigments does not support the hypothesis that local chromophore interactions with charged protein residues and/or chromophore planarization are crucial for the absorption differences among these pigments. However, our data are consistent with the idea that the Schiff base group in blue visual pigments is stabilized by protein and water dipoles and that the removal of this dipolar field shifts the absorption maximum from blue to green. A further red shift of the lambda(max) from the green to the red pigment is successfully modeled by the addition of hydroxyl-bearing amino acids (Ser164, Tyr261, and Thr269) close to the ionone ring that lower the transition energy by interacting with the change of dipole moment of the chromophore upon excitation. The increased hydrogen bonding of the protonated Schiff base group in rhodopsin is predicted to account for the 30 nm blue shift of its absorption maximum compared to

  8. Touch-free in situ investigation of ancient Egyptian pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, M.; Sassa, S.; Taniguchi, K.; Nomura, S.; Yoshimura, S.; Kondo, J.; Iskander, N.; Zaghloul, B.

    Some of the pigments painted on the Funerary Stele of Amenemhat (ca. 2000B.C.) exhibited at the Egyptian Museum, Cairo and on the walls of the Tomb of Userhat (ca. 1450B.C.), a rock-cut tomb in Thebes, Egypt, were investigated in situ using both a convenient home-made hand-held type of X-ray diffractometer and a commercial X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in a complementary way under touch-free conditions. CaCO3.3MgCO3 (huntite) was found in the white-painted parts of these two ancient monuments. An arsenic (As)-bearing phase was detected in the yellow-painted parts of the latter monument. The occurrence of huntite in Egypt has not been reported previously.

  9. Automated Dermoscopy Image Analysis of Pigmented Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Baldi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy, epiluminescence microscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic technique for the in vivo observation of pigmented skin lesions (PSLs, allowing a better visualization of surface and subsurface structures (from the epidermis to the papillary dermis. This diagnostic tool permits the recognition of morphologic structures not visible by the naked eye, thus opening a new dimension in the analysis of the clinical morphologic features of PSLs. In order to reduce the learning-curve of non-expert clinicians and to mitigate problems inherent in the reliability and reproducibility of the diagnostic criteria used in pattern analysis, several indicative methods based on diagnostic algorithms have been introduced in the last few years. Recently, numerous systems designed to provide computer-aided analysis of digital images obtained by dermoscopy have been reported in the literature. The goal of this article is to review these systems, focusing on the most recent approaches based on content-based image retrieval systems (CBIR.

  10. Carotenoids and their isomers: color pigments in fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hock-Eng; Prasad, K Nagendra; Kong, Kin-Weng; Jiang, Yueming; Ismail, Amin

    2011-02-18

    Fruits and vegetables are colorful pigment-containing food sources. Owing to their nutritional benefits and phytochemicals, they are considered as 'functional food ingredients'. Carotenoids are some of the most vital colored phytochemicals, occurring as all-trans and cis-isomers, and accounting for the brilliant colors of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids extensively studied in this regard include β-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin. Coloration of fruits and vegetables depends on their growth maturity, concentration of carotenoid isomers, and food processing methods. This article focuses more on several carotenoids and their isomers present in different fruits and vegetables along with their concentrations. Carotenoids and their geometric isomers also play an important role in protecting cells from oxidation and cellular damages.

  11. Radiative and nonradiative deexcitation of pigments from natural oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, J.; Dudkowiak, A.; Pieńkowska, H.; Frąckowiak, D.

    2006-11-01

    The absorption, steady state photoacoustic, fluorescence emission and excitation spectra of unbleached oils obtained by pressing the seeds of: evening primrose, borage, rape and viper`s burgloss have been taken. Results obtained for samples under air and washed by nitrogen have been compared. In order to establish the occurrence of the slow thermal processes usually related to very photochemically active triplet states, the thermal deactivation in the absorption regions of carotenoids and the pheophytins has been observed at various frequencies of acting light modulations. The interactions between oil pigments are discussed. The generation of triplet states of dyes and singlet oxygen production in oils with different content of carotenoids and pheophytins is evaluated.

  12. Role of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Regulating Skin Pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideya Ando

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Pigmentation of the skin, hair and eyes is regulated by tyrosinase, the critical rate-limiting enzyme in melanin synthesis by melanocytes. Tyrosinase is degraded endogenously, at least in part, by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS. Several types of inherited hypopigmentary diseases, such as oculocutaneous albinism and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, involve the aberrant processing and/or trafficking of tyrosinase and its subsequent degradation which can occur due to the quality-control machinery. Studies on carbohydrate modifications have revealed that tyrosinase in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER is proteolyzed via ER-associated protein degradation and that tyrosinase degradation can also occur following its complete maturation in the Golgi. Among intrinsic factors that regulate the UPS, fatty acids have been shown to modulate tyrosinase degradation in contrasting manners through increased or decreased amounts of ubiquitinated tyrosinase that leads to its accelerated or decelerated degradation by proteasomes.

  13. SURFACE-MODIFICATION OF FINE RED IRON OXIDE PIGMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuilin Zheng; Qinghui Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Surface-modification of fine red iron oxide pigment was carried out in an aqueous solution of sodium polyacrylate. The sedimentation time of modified samples in water increased from 1.05 to 264.4 hours while the particle size (d50) decreased from 1.09 to 0.85 μm, and the tinting strength increased from 100 to 115. The surface-modification as well as the dispersing and stabilizing mechanisms in aqueous solution of the samples were studied by means of IR,Thermal analysis and Zeta potential. The results showed that the modifier molecules acted on the surface of the particles by chemical and physical adsorption, and after the particles were dispersed in aqueous solution, endowing the particle surface with a relatively high negative Zeta potential, thus enhancing electrostatic and steric repulsion between particles for their effective stabilization.

  14. Adult multifocal pigmented villonodular synovitis--clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botez, Paul; Sirbu, Paul Dan; Grierosu, Carmen; Mihailescu, Dan; Savin, Liliana; Scarlat, Marius M

    2013-04-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare, benign proliferative disease of the synovial tissue that affects a single joint or a tendon sheath. Data from the literature present only a few cases of multifocal PVNS. This paper presents multifocal PVNS in the adult. This disease can affect bilateral shoulders, hips and knees. The diagnosis may be delayed by the slow evolution of the disease (up to ten years); some patients may be seen with late-stage degenerative joints, serious complications, painful and functionally uncompensated, with significant locomotion deficit. PVNS requires a radical treatment with prosthetic arthroplasty associated with synovectomy. Complex imaging (X-Rays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound) and macroscopic appearance of the lesions during surgery confirms the clinical diagnosis of multifocal PVNS with secondary bone lesions. Histology marks the final diagnosis of multifocal PVNS. The postoperative results are good, with recovery in functional parameters of the joints with endoprosthesis.

  15. Localised Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis Presenting As Anterior Knee Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JH Goh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 21 years old female who presented with a history of anterior knee pain for previous 3 months. Pain was localized to the anteromedial aspect of the left knee and aggravated by flexion. Clinical examination revealed a 2x2 cm painful lump on the anteromedial aspect of the left medial condyle with no effusion. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an anterosuperior tear of the medial collateral ligament. The patient subsequently underwent left knee arthroscopic examination. Two yellowish pedunculated masses arising from the anteromedial portion of the synovium were discovered and completely excised. Histopathological examination of the excision biopsy revealed pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS with marked central necrosis. One year post excision, she is well with no signs or symptoms of recurrence. This case highlights an uncommon cause of anterior knee pain. Localized PVNS typically presents with mechanical symptoms, however, pain could arise from pedicle torsion and necrosis.

  16. Pigmented villonodular synovitis presenting as a baker cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Rick; Kelly, John D

    2011-10-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), a rare hyperproliferation of the synovial lining, commonly mimics other conditions. As a result, the diagnosis may remain elusive, as the classic signs of tenderness and effusion are not specific. Occasionally, PVNS presents as a popliteal cyst, which may divert attention from intra-articular pathology. In this article, we describe a case of PVNS that presented with a popliteal cyst as the chief problem report. In other cases PVNS presented as a popliteal cyst, and evidence was reported of PVNS within the cyst stalk and presumable intra-articular involvement. Our case did not present this way. We recommend that the diagnosis of PVNS be considered in young adults who present with a popliteal cyst.

  17. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the distal radioulnar joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tselis, N.; Heyd, R.; Zamboglou, N. [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Offenbach Hospital (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Case report: a 32-year-old female patient underwent surgical synovectomy in the right distal radioulnar joint because of local recurrence of pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) after previous surgery. 7 weeks after her second surgery she received fractionated radiation therapy (RT) to a total dose of 36.0 Gy given in five weekly fractions of 2.0 Gy. Apart from a mild skin erythema the patient had no early morbidity related to the use of RT. After a follow-up of 36 months no local recurrence was detected. Conclusion: in accordance with literature data the hitherto course of the presented case corroborates that RT is a safe and effective treatment option for the prevention of PVNS recurrence. (orig.)

  18. Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis of the Temporomandibular Joint: A Unique Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianosi, Kiersten; Rigby, Matthew; Hart, Robert; Trites, Jonathan; Taylor, S Mark

    2016-04-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare and benign proliferative disorder of synovium with potentially locally aggressive growth and invasion of the bone. Occurring within the joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae, it is most commonly a monoarticular disease affecting large joints. In particular, most cases of PVNS occur in the knee. PVNS of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a highly rare disorder, with approximately 60 cases reported. Herein, we present a unique case of an elderly male presenting with ear pain and subsequently diagnosed with PVNS of the TMJ with a history of trauma to the area. Initial imaging of the TMJ and the surrounding region looked concerning for invasive and/or malignant disease, but an open biopsy confirmed PVNS.

  19. Arthroscopic Management of Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis of the Knee Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwidmuthe, Samir; Barick, Devashis; Rathi, Tarun

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (PVNS) of knee joint is a rare disorder of Synovium. Hip and knee joint are commonly affected joints. The knee PVNS presents as a localized or diffuse form. Diagnosis if often delayed and permanent joint damage occurs with advanced disease. Ultrasound examination shows fluid collection and synovial hypertrophy. Magnetic resonance imaging helps in clinching the diagnosis. Final confirmation of PVNS is done with histopathological examination of synovial tissue removed. Post operative radiation has shown to reduce the rate of recurrent disease. 25 years male presented to us with painless swelling of left knee joint of 3 months duration. Radiographs were normal. MRI showed synovial hypertrophy with changes suggestive of PVNS. We did arthroscopic six portal synovectomy. The patient regained his function and was asymptomatic at 2 year follow up. We want to emphasize that early diagnosis and well done arthroscopic Synovectomy gives good clinical outcome with low recurrence rate. Radiotherapy should be reserved for recurrent disease.

  20. Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis in a Patient who Underwent Hip Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Dabak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS is a rare, benign, but a locally aggressive tumor. It is characterized by the proliferation of synovial membrane, but it can also be seen in tendon sheaths and bursae. Clinical presentation of solitary lesions include compression and locking of the joint suggesting loose bodies in the joint and a subsequent findings of an effusion, whereas diffuse lesions manifest with pain and chronic swelling. In this article, we presented a curious case of PVNS in a female patient who have been followed up due to an acetabular cystic lesion. She underwent total hip arthroplasty for severe osteoarthritis of the hip joint and associated pain. The diagnosis of PVNS was established intraoperatively. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 235-7

  1. MR imaging of pigmented villonodullar synovitis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Yutaka; Tanaka, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Tadatsuka; Shino, Konsei; Tsukaguchi, Isao (Osaka Rosai Hospital, Sakai (Japan)); Nakamura, Hironobu

    Six cases of pigmented villonodullar synovitis (PVNS) of the knee are presented. MR imaging and surgical proof were available in all cases. Three of the six cases showed the diffuse form, and the other three cases the localized form. The MR appearance of PVNS varied, presumably according to the relative proportion of pathological components. It most commonly consisted of scattered low signal intensity areas representing hemosiderin deposition in hypertrophied synovium on T[sub 2][sup *]-weighted images, and dotted areas of low signal intensity, presumably resulting from fibrous components of the lesion, on T[sub 1]-weighted images. The latter finding is described for the first time in this report. Two cases were associated with osteoarthritis. In the remaining four cases, the osseous structures, cruciate ligaments, and menisci were normal. MR imaging was of great use in the detection of PVNS. For the first time, a preoperative diagnosis of PVNS of the knee joint could be made by MR imaging. (author).

  2. Diffuse Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis of the Knee: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sang Gyu [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    Diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is an uncommon aggressive synovial proliferative disorder of unknown etiology affecting the joint linings. Though a histologically benign inflammatory process, because of its aggressive growth with bone destruction or recurrence, it is frequently suggested to occur as a low malignant neoplasm. Optimal treatment is surgery, but the local recurrence rate after radical synovectomy for diffuse PVNS is relatively high due to the infiltrative growth pattern. External beam radiotherapy with moderate doses or intra-articular instillation of radioactive isotopes may improve the likelihood of local control and long-term function in patients with incompletely resected or recurrent diffuse PVNS. I report one case of diffuse PVNS of the right knee joint treated with arthroscopic synovectomy and external beam radiotherapy is presented.

  3. MR imaging of pigmented villonodular synovitis of knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Yutaka; Tanaka, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Tadatsuka; Tsukaguchi, Isao (Osaka Rosai Hospital, Sakai (Japan)); Otani, Masatoshi

    1993-07-01

    Six cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the knee are presented. MR images and surgical findings were available in all cases. Four of six cases were diffuse form, and the other two were localized form. The MR appearance of PVNS varied, depending on the relative proportion of the pathological component. It most commonly consisted of scattered areas of low signal intensity due to hemosiderin deposition in the hypertrophied synovium on T2*-weighted images, and dotted areas of low signal intensity presumably resulting from the fibrous component of the lesion on T1-weighted images. The latter finding was described for the first time in our study. One case was associated with osteochondromatosis and osteoarthritis, and another case with osteoarthritis. In the remaining four cases, the osseous structures, cruciate ligaments and menisci were normal. (author).

  4. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the temporomandibular joint: CT imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Wei-Jie; Li, Ming-Hua; Yu, Qiang; Shi, Hui-Min

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristic computed tomography (CT) findings of pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Eight subjects with PVNS were examined with both pre and post contrast CT scans. All lesions were histopathologically confirmed through surgery. CT appearances of the lesions were reviewed. Among the eight subjects, 8 (100%) demonstrated soft tissue mass and enhancement after contrast administration, 6 (75%) appeared as all or focal areas of noncontrast hyperdensity, 6 (75%) had widening of the joint spaces. Bony erosion of the mandibular condyles and articular surfaces were found in 7 (87.5%) and 6 (75%) subjects, respectively. Based on the CT findings, PVNS of the TMJ is characterized by hyperdensity soft tissue mass and further increase in density after contrast administration, bony destruction of the mandibular condyles and skull base, and intracranial extension. © 2014.

  5. Compact single-channel Raman detector for macular pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; Gellermann, Werner

    2004-07-01

    Raman detection of macular pigments (MP) holds promise as a novel noninvasive technology for the quantification of lutein and zeaxanthin carotenoids, which are thought to prevent or delay the onset of age-related macular degeneration. Using resonant excitation in the visible, we measure the Raman signals that originate from the double-bond stretch vibrations of the p-conjugated carotenoid molecule's carbon backbone. In this paper we describe the construction and performance of a new, compact, and low-cost MP Raman instrument using dielectric, angle-tuned band-pass filters for wavelength selection and single-channel photo-multiplier detection of carotenoid Raman responses. MP concentration measurements are fast and accurate, as seen in experiments with model eyes and living human eyes. The ease and rapidity of Raman MP measurements, the relative simplicity of the instrumentation, the high accuracy of the measurements, and the lack of significant systematic errors should make this technology useful for widespread clinical research.

  6. Carotenoid:β-cyclodextrin stability is independent of pigment structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, Elisabet; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio

    2017-04-15

    Carotenoids refer to a wide class of lipophilic pigments synthesized by plants, exert photoprotective and antioxidant properties that are lost upon carotenoid degradation. Their inclusion into hydrophilic host-molecules could improve their stability. Cyclodextrins, provide a hydrophobic cavity in the core of their structure while the outer configuration is suitable with aqueous environments. Carotenoids can accommodate into the hydrophobic core of cyclodextrins and therefore, they are protected from exogenous stress. Literature reported that carotenoid structure could modulate stability of the complexes, however no conclusions can be drawn as the studies performed so far were not completely analogous. We describe the synthesis of several carotenoids/β-CDs inclusion complexes and provide experimental evidences that β-CDs inclusion renders these compounds more stability towards the oxidizing agents (2,2'-azobis, 2-methylpropionamidine dihydrochloride and hydrogen peroxide). Esterified carotenoids were also used in this work to screen the influence of this particular structural configuration of xanthophylls against oxidation.

  7. Carotenoids and Their Isomers: Color Pigments in Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Jiang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are colorful pigment-containing food sources. Owing to their nutritional benefits and phytochemicals, they are considered as ‘functional food ingredients’. Carotenoids are some of the most vital colored phytochemicals, occurring as all-trans and cis-isomers, and accounting for the brilliant colors of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids extensively studied in this regard include β-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin. Coloration of fruits and vegetables depends on their growth maturity, concentration of carotenoid isomers, and food processing methods. This article focuses more on several carotenoids and their isomers present in different fruits and vegetables along with their concentrations. Carotenoids and their geometric isomers also play an important role in protecting cells from oxidation and cellular damages.

  8. Modulation of social behavior by the agouti pigmentation gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria eCarola

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Agouti is a secreted neuropeptide that acts as an endogenous antagonist of melanocortin receptors. Mice and rats lacking agouti (called non-agouti have dark fur due to a disinhibition of melanocortin signaling and pigment deposition in the hair follicle. Non-agouti animals have also been reported to exhibit altered behavior, despite no evidence for the expression of agouti outside the skin. Here we confirm that non-agouti mice show altered social behavior and uncover expression of agouti in the preputial gland, a sebaceous organ in the urinary tract that secretes molecules involved in social behavior. Non-agouti mice had enlarged preputial glands and altered levels of putative preputial pheromones and surgical removal of the gland reversed the behavioral phenotype. These findings demonstrate the existence of an autologous, out-of-skin pathway for the modulation of social behavior.

  9. Druse-Induced Morphology Evolution in Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzitello, K I; Chrenek, M A; Family, F; Grossniklaus, H E; Nickerson, J M; Jiang, Y

    2016-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a key site of pathogenesis for many retina diseases. The formation of drusen in the retina is characteristic of retinal degeneration. We investigate morphological changes in the RPE in the presence of soft drusen using an integrated experimental and modeling approach. We collect RPE flat mount images from donated human eyes and develop 1) statistical tools to quantify the images and 2) a cell-based model to simulate the morphology evolution. We compare three different mechanisms of RPE repair evolution, cell apoptosis, cell fusion, and expansion, and Simulations of our RPE morphogenesis model quantitatively reproduce deformations of human RPE morphology due to drusen, suggesting that a purse-string mechanism is sufficient to explain how RPE heals cell loss caused by drusen-damage. We found that drusen beneath tissue promote cell death in a number that far exceeds the cell numbers covering the drusen. Tissue deformations are studied using area distributions, Voronoi doma...

  10. Chronic cadmium poisoning in a pigment manufacturing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Silva, P.E.; Donnan, M.B.

    1981-02-01

    When the working environment in a small cadmium-pigment manufacturing plant was investigated, cadmium concentrations in respirable dust were found to be considerably above the hygiene standard recommended by the British Occupational Hygiene Society. Cadmium concentrations in blood and urine of exposed workers, both present and past employees, were determined. The six men who had worked in the production plant for seven years or more all showed signs of renal tubular damage. On the basis of the results of the investigations on individuals in this study, it is suggested that urinary cadmium concentrations should be kept below 15 microgram/day to avoid the possibility of renal damage, and that the insoluble respirable fraction of cadmium dust should not be regarded as merely nuisance dust.

  11. [Mechanism of pigment content on infrared emissivity of composite coatings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Gang; Xu, Guo-Yue; Xu, Fei-Feng; Ding, Ru-Ya; Tan, Shu-Juan

    2012-10-01

    Polyurethane (PU)/flaky metal composite coatings were prepared by using PU and flaky metal powders as adhesives and pigments, respectively. The infrared emissivity of coatings with different metal content was measured by infrared emissometer, and the microstructure of PU/flaky metal composite coatings was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The results of infrared emissivity measurement indicate that the emissivity changes significantly with increasing metal content and presents a "U" type. The results of microstructure observation indicate that PU/flaky metal composite coatings have one-dimensional photonic structural characteristics. According to the microstructure characteristics, the optical reflection spectra of one-dimensional photonic structure in PU/flaky metal composite coatings with different metal content were simulated, and the results show that "U" type variation of emissivity with increasing metal content is derived from the blueshift of reflection peak wavelength with increasing metal content of one-dimensional photonic structure in coatings.

  12. Effect of curcumin on aging retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu W

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wei Zhu,1,* Yan Wu,2,* Yi-Fang Meng,1 Jin-Yu Wang,1 Ming Xu,1 Jian-Jun Tao,1 Jiong Lu1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Changshu No 2 People’s Hospital, Changshu, 2Department of Ophthalmology, The First People’s Hospital of Kunshan Affiliated with Jiangsu University, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is now one of the leading causes of blindness in the elderly population. The antioxidative effects of curcumin on aging retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells are still unclear. We conducted an in vitro study to investigate the effects of curcumin on aging RPE cells. A pulsed H2O2 exposure aging model was adopted. Aging RPE cells were treated with curcumin 20 µM, 40 µM, and 80 µM. Apoptosis of RPE cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. The intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration was detected using a specific probe and apoptosis-associated proteins were detected by Western blot. Expression of oxidative biomarkers, including superoxide dismutase, maleic dialdehyde, and glutathione, was detected commercially available assay kits. Compared with normal cells, lower cell viability, higher apoptosis rates, and more severe oxidation status were identified in the aging RPE cell model. Curcumin improved cell viability and decreased apoptosis and oxidative stress. Further, curcumin had a significant influence on expression of apoptosis-associated proteins and oxidative stress biomarkers. In conclusion, treatment with curcumin was able to regulate proliferation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in aging RPE cells. Accordingly, application of curcumin may be a novel strategy to protect against age-related change in AMD. Keywords: curcumin, retinal pigment epithelium, apoptosis, age-related macular degeneration

  13. Optical modulation of transgene expression in retinal pigment epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, D.; Lavinsky, D.; Chalberg, T.; Mandel, Y.; Huie, P.; Dalal, R.; Marmor, M.

    2013-03-01

    Over a million people in US alone are visually impaired due to the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The current treatment is monthly intravitreal injections of a protein which inhibits Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, thereby slowing progression of the disease. The immense financial and logistical burden of millions of intravitreal injections signifies an urgent need to develop more long-lasting and cost-effective treatments for this and other retinal diseases. Viral transfection of ocular cells allows creation of a "biofactory" that secretes therapeutic proteins. This technique has been proven successful in non-human primates, and is now being evaluated in clinical trials for wet AMD. However, there is a critical need to down-regulate gene expression in the case of total resolution of retinal condition, or if patient has adverse reaction to the trans-gene products. The site for genetic therapy of AMD and many other retinal diseases is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We developed and tested in pigmented rabbits, an optical method to down-regulate transgene expression in RPE following vector delivery, without retinal damage. Microsecond exposures produced by a rapidly scanning laser vaporize melanosomes and destroy a predetermined fraction of the RPE cells selectively. RPE continuity is restored within days by migration and proliferation of adjacent RPE, but since the transgene is not integrated into the nucleus it is not replicated. Thus, the decrease in transgene expression can be precisely determined by the laser pattern density and further reduced by repeated treatment without affecting retinal structure and function.

  14. Pigmented villonodular synovitis after TKA associated with tibial component loosening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Byung June; Park, Yong Bum

    2011-08-08

    There is no known causal link between total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). There also is no known relationship between PVNS and implant loosening after TKA in the literature. This article presents a case of PVNS in a patient undergoing revision TKA for tibial component loosening. A 74-year-old woman who had undergone cemented bilateral TKA 5 years earlier presented with painful swelling in her right knee. At the time of the primary TKA, no abnormal signs were found in the synovial membrane. Routine follow-up radiographs did not indicate implant loosening. At the patient's final follow-up examination before revision surgery, a radiolucent lesion was found below the tibial component. During revision surgery, there was focal proliferation of the synovial tissue with heavy pigmentation around the anteromedial part of the tibial component. The abnormal tissue was removed, and the tibial component was exchanged. The articular surface of the polyethylene was not damaged, and backside wear was not found. For the revision surgery, 5-mm thick medial metal block and extension stem were used. Histological analysis of the resected tissue revealed the typical appearance of PVNS. We present a typical case of PVNS found during revision TKA 5 years after primary TKA. It is hoped this report will encourage surgeons to consider PVNS in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with painful swelling of the knee and to consider PVNS as one of the causes of implant loosening after TKA. Further research about causal factors between PVNS and implant loosening are needed. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Yap and Taz regulate retinal pigment epithelial cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesfeld, Joel B; Gestri, Gaia; Clark, Brian S; Flinn, Michael A; Poole, Richard J; Bader, Jason R; Besharse, Joseph C; Wilson, Stephen W; Link, Brian A

    2015-09-01

    The optic vesicle comprises a pool of bi-potential progenitor cells from which the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and neural retina fates segregate during ocular morphogenesis. Several transcription factors and signaling pathways have been shown to be important for RPE maintenance and differentiation, but an understanding of the initial fate specification and determination of this ocular cell type is lacking. We show that Yap/Taz-Tead activity is necessary and sufficient for optic vesicle progenitors to adopt RPE identity in zebrafish. A Tead-responsive transgene is expressed within the domain of the optic cup from which RPE arises, and Yap immunoreactivity localizes to the nuclei of prospective RPE cells. yap (yap1) mutants lack a subset of RPE cells and/or exhibit coloboma. Loss of RPE in yap mutants is exacerbated in combination with taz (wwtr1) mutant alleles such that, when Yap and Taz are both absent, optic vesicle progenitor cells completely lose their ability to form RPE. The mechanism of Yap-dependent RPE cell type determination is reliant on both nuclear localization of Yap and interaction with a Tead co-factor. In contrast to loss of Yap and Taz, overexpression of either protein within optic vesicle progenitors leads to ectopic pigmentation in a dosage-dependent manner. Overall, this study identifies Yap and Taz as key early regulators of RPE genesis and provides a mechanistic framework for understanding the congenital ocular defects of Sveinsson's chorioretinal atrophy and congenital retinal coloboma. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Cellulase production by pink pigmented facultative methylotrophic strains (PPFMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayashree, Shanmugam; Lalitha, Rajendran; Vadivukkarasi, Ponnusamy; Kato, Yuko; Seshadri, Sundaram

    2011-07-01

    Pink pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFM) isolated from water samples of Cooum and Adyar rivers in Chennai and soil samples of forests located in various districts of Tamil Nadu, India were screened for cellulase production using carboxymethylcellulose agar (CMC agar) medium. The strains showed wide variations in the production of clearing zones around the colonies on CMC agar medium flooded with Congo red. CMCase and filter paper assays were used to quantitatively measure the cellulase activity of 13 PPFM strains. Among the strains, Methylobacterium gregans, MNW 60, MHW 109, MSF 34, and MSF 40 showed cellulolytic activity ranging from 0.73 to 1.16 U mL(-1) with wide temperature (35-65°C) and pH (5 to 8) tolerance. SDS-PAGE analysis of the crude enzyme of PPFM strain MNW 60 exhibited several protein bands, and zymogram analysis revealed two dimeric cellulase bands with molecular mass of ~92 and 42 kDa. Scanning electron microscopic studies revealed significant morphological differences between the cells grown in normal and CMC amended medium. The strain MNW 60 was identified as Methylobacterium sp. based on biochemical, physiological, and morphological analyses, and the methylotrophic nature was authenticated by the presence of mxaF gene, encoding methanol dehydrogenase as a key indicator enzyme of methylotrophs, with 99% similarity to Methylobacterium lusitanum. With the 16S ribosomal RNA sequence showing 97% similarity to M. lusitanum strain MP2, this can be proposed as a novel taxon of the genus Methylobacterium. The study forms the first detailed report on the extracellular cellulase production by pink pigmented Methylobacterium sp., and it is expected that this might be the basis for further studies on cellulase production by PPFMs to explore the molecular mechanism, strain improvement, and large-scale cellulase production for its application.

  17. Study of the scattering of the light in aqueous samples collagen in the presence of nanoparticles and curcuma pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F. M. L.; Alencar, L. D. S.; Bernardi, M. I. B.; Lima, F. W. S.; Melo, C. A. S.

    2015-06-01

    In this work we investigate the scattering of light in means turbid in the presence or not of pigment and nanoparticles. For this we initially using a sample of collagen from means turbid with and without the presence of curcuma pigments and nanoparticles. Our results show that the light scattering is more intense in the samples with nanoparticles and curcuma pigment.

  18. Regulatory mutations in TBX3 disrupt asymmetric hair pigmentation that underlies Dun camouflage color in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imsland, Freyja; McGowan, Kelly; Rubin, Carl-Johan

    2016-01-01

    Dun is a wild-type coat color in horses characterized by pigment dilution with a striking pattern of dark areas termed primitive markings. Here we show that pigment dilution in Dun horses is due to radially asymmetric deposition of pigment in the growing hair caused by localized expression of the...

  19. Visual pigment spectra of the comma butterfly, Polygonia c-album, derived from in vivo epi-illumination nation microspectrophotometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhoutte, KJA; Stavenga, DG

    The visual pigments in the compound eye of the comma butterfly, Polygonia c-album, were investigate in a specially designed epi-illumination microspectrophotometer. Absorption changes due to photochemical conversions of the visual pigments, or due to light-independent visual pigment decay and

  20. Pigments influence the tolerance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to photodynamically induced oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlandi, Viviana T; Bolognese, Fabrizio; Chiodaroli, Luca;

    2015-01-01

    by exogenous photosensitizers and visible light. To evaluate whether P. aeruginosa pigments can contribute to its relative tolerance to PDT, we analysed the response to this treatment of isogenic transposon mutants of P. aeruginosa PAO1 with altered pigmentation. In general, in the presence of pigments...