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Sample records for pigments biological

  1. Biological and remote sensing perspectives of pigmentation in coral reef organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, John D; Mumby, Peter J

    2002-01-01

    Coral reef communities face unprecedented pressures on local, regional and global scales as a consequence of climate change and anthropogenic disturbance. Optical remote sensing, from satellites or aircraft, is possibly the only means of measuring the effects of such stresses at appropriately large spatial scales (many thousands of square kilometres). To map key variables such as coral community structure, percentages of living coral or percentages of dead coral, a remote sensing instrument must be able to distinguish the reflectance spectra (i.e. "spectral signature", reflected light as a function of wavelength) of each category. For biotic classes, reflectance is a complex function of pigmentation, structure and morphology. Studies of coral "colour" fall into two disparate but potentially complementary types. Firstly, biological studies tend to investigate the structure and significance of pigmentation in reef organisms. These studies often lack details that would be useful from a remote sensing perspective such as intraspecific variation in pigment concentration or the contribution of fluorescence to reflectance. Secondly, remote sensing studies take empirical measurements of spectra and seek wavelengths that discriminate benthic categories. Benthic categories used in remote sensing sometimes consist of species groupings that are biologically or spectrally inappropriate (e.g. merging of algal phyla with distinct pigments). Here, we attempt to bridge the gap between biological and remote sensing perspectives of pigmentation in reef taxa. The aim is to assess the extent to which spectral discrimination can be given a biological foundation, to reduce the ad hoc nature of discriminatory criteria, and to understand the fundamental (biological) limitations in the spectral separability of biotic classes. Sources of pigmentation in reef biota are reviewed together with remote sensing studies where spectral discrimination has been effectively demonstrated between benthic

  2. Iris phenotypes and pigment dispersion caused by genes influencing pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael G; Hawes, Norman L; Trantow, Colleen M; Chang, Bo; John, Simon W M

    2008-10-01

    Spontaneous mutations altering mouse coat colors have been a classic resource for discovery of numerous molecular pathways. Although often overlooked, the mouse iris is also densely pigmented and easily observed, thus representing a similarly powerful opportunity for studying pigment cell biology. Here, we present an analysis of iris phenotypes among 16 mouse strains with mutations influencing melanosomes. Many of these strains exhibit biologically and medically relevant phenotypes, including pigment dispersion, a common feature of several human ocular diseases. Pigment dispersion was identified in several strains with mutant alleles known to influence melanosomes, including beige, light, and vitiligo. Pigment dispersion was also detected in the recently arising spontaneous coat color variant, nm2798. We have identified the nm2798 mutation as a missense mutation in the Dct gene, an identical re-occurrence of the slaty light mutation. These results suggest that dysregulated events of melanosomes can be potent contributors to the pigment dispersion phenotype. Combined, these findings illustrate the utility of studying iris phenotypes as a means of discovering new pathways, and re-linking old ones, to processes of pigmented cells in health and disease.

  3. Gene expression analysis of zebrafish melanocytes, iridophores, and retinal pigmented epithelium reveals indicators of biological function and developmental origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W Higdon

    Full Text Available In order to facilitate understanding of pigment cell biology, we developed a method to concomitantly purify melanocytes, iridophores, and retinal pigmented epithelium from zebrafish, and analyzed their transcriptomes. Comparing expression data from these cell types and whole embryos allowed us to reveal gene expression co-enrichment in melanocytes and retinal pigmented epithelium, as well as in melanocytes and iridophores. We found 214 genes co-enriched in melanocytes and retinal pigmented epithelium, indicating the shared functions of melanin-producing cells. We found 62 genes significantly co-enriched in melanocytes and iridophores, illustrative of their shared developmental origins from the neural crest. This is also the first analysis of the iridophore transcriptome. Gene expression analysis for iridophores revealed extensive enrichment of specific enzymes to coordinate production of their guanine-based reflective pigment. We speculate the coordinated upregulation of specific enzymes from several metabolic pathways recycles the rate-limiting substrate for purine synthesis, phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate, thus constituting a guanine cycle. The purification procedure and expression analysis described here, along with the accompanying transcriptome-wide expression data, provide the first mRNA sequencing data for multiple purified zebrafish pigment cell types, and will be a useful resource for further studies of pigment cell biology.

  4. Production and biological activities of yellow pigments from Monascus fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Monascus yellow pigments (MYPs), are azaphilone compounds and one of the three main components of total Monascus pigments (MPs). Thirty-five hydrophilic or hydrophobic MYPs have been identified, with the majority being hydrophobic. Apart from screening special Monascus strains, some advanced approaches, such as extractive and high-cell-density fermentations, have been applied for developing or producing new MYPs, especially extracellular hydrophilic MYPs. The outstanding performance of MYPs in terms of resistance to photodegradation, as well as tolerance for temperature and pH, give natural MYPs reasonable prospects, compared with the orange and red MPs, for practical use in the present and future. Meanwhile, MYPs have shown promising potential for applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries based on their described bioactivities. This review briefly summarizes the reports to date on chemical structures, biological activities, biosynthetic pathways, production technologies, and physicochemical performances of MYPs. The existing problems for MYPs are discussed and research prospects proposed.

  5. Some biological activities of pigments extracted from Micrococcus roseus (PTCC 1411) and Rhodotorula glutinis (PTCC 5257).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Hossein; Hamedi, Hassan; Yolmeh, Mahmoud

    2016-12-01

    The importance of replacing synthetic pigments with natural types is increasing day by day in the food industry due to the harmful effects of some synthetic pigments. Microorganisms are a major source of natural pigments, which nowadays have attracted the attention of researchers. In this study, carotenoid pigments were produced by Micrococcus roseus and Rhodotorula glutinis, and some of their biological properties such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated. Given the results, bacteria, especially gram-positive bacteria, had higher sensitivity to the pigments extracted from M. roseus (PEM) and R. glutinis (PER) compared to molds so that Bacillus cereus and Alternaria citri had the highest and the lowest sensitivity, respectively. PER showed a higher antioxidant activity compared with PEM in the various methods of measuring antioxidant activity. In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor-promoting activities of PER were measured significantly more than PEM (P <0.05). Both pigment extracts remarkably inhibited the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation, so that ID 50 (50% inhibitory dose) of PEM and PER were 0.22 and 0.09 mg/ear, respectively. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. The sensitivity of Turing self-organization to biological feedback delays: 2D models of fish pigmentation

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E. A.

    2013-10-01

    © The authors 2013. Turing morphogen models have been extensively explored in the context of large-scale self-organization in multicellular biological systems. However, reconciling the detailed biology of morphogen dynamics, while accounting for time delays associated with gene expression, reveals aberrant behaviours that are not consistent with early developmental self-organization, especially the requirement for exquisite temporal control. Attempts to reconcile the interpretation of Turing\\'s ideas with an increasing understanding of the mechanisms driving zebrafish pigmentation suggests that one should reconsider Turing\\'s model in terms of pigment cells rather than morphogens (Nakamasu et al., 2009, PNAS, 106, 8429-8434; Yamaguchi et al., 2007, PNAS, 104, 4790-4793). Here the dynamics of pigment cells is subject to response delays implicit in the cell cycle and apoptosis. Hence we explore simulations of fish skin patterning, focussing on the dynamical influence of gene expression delays in morphogen-based Turing models and response delays for cell-based Turing models. We find that reconciling the mechanisms driving the behaviour of Turing systems with observations of fish skin patterning remains a fundamental challenge.

  7. Quantifying the refractive index dispersion of a pigmented biological tissue using Jamin-Lebedeff interference microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Leertouwer, Hein L.; Wilts, Bodo D.

    Jamin-Lebedeff polarizing interference microscopy is a classical method for determining the refractive index and thickness of transparent tissues. Here, we extend the application of this method to pigmented, absorbing biological tissues, based on a theoretical derivation using Jones calculus. This

  8. The sensitivity of Turing self-organization to biological feedback delays: 2D models of fish pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, E A; Lee, S Seirin

    2015-03-01

    Turing morphogen models have been extensively explored in the context of large-scale self-organization in multicellular biological systems. However, reconciling the detailed biology of morphogen dynamics, while accounting for time delays associated with gene expression, reveals aberrant behaviours that are not consistent with early developmental self-organization, especially the requirement for exquisite temporal control. Attempts to reconcile the interpretation of Turing's ideas with an increasing understanding of the mechanisms driving zebrafish pigmentation suggests that one should reconsider Turing's model in terms of pigment cells rather than morphogens (Nakamasu et al., 2009, PNAS, 106: , 8429-8434; Yamaguchi et al., 2007, PNAS, 104: , 4790-4793). Here the dynamics of pigment cells is subject to response delays implicit in the cell cycle and apoptosis. Hence we explore simulations of fish skin patterning, focussing on the dynamical influence of gene expression delays in morphogen-based Turing models and response delays for cell-based Turing models. We find that reconciling the mechanisms driving the behaviour of Turing systems with observations of fish skin patterning remains a fundamental challenge. © The Authors 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on the pigments and the biological activities of methanolic extracts from leaves of centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides Munro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Seung Sik; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Cho, Jae-Young; Kim, Tae Hoon; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2013-01-01

    Extracts from centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides Munro) have been previously identified as having beneficial effects medically and cosmetically. In this study, the effects of gamma irradiation on pigment removal and biological activities of centipedegrass extracts to promote industrial application were investigated. The methanolic extracts were exposed to gamma irradiation at dose ranging from 2 to 20 kGy. The major pigments of centipedegrass extracts, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-(6″-malonyl-)glucoside, were found to be effectively removed by gamma irradiation above 10 kGy. Although the reddish-orange color of the cyanidins was markedly decreased by gamma irradiation, the biological activities were relatively unaffected. The biological activities such as 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, inhibition of tyrosinase activity, and inhibition of elastase activity in methanolic extracts were modulated from 50.5% to 70.2%, from 50.9% to 65.8% and from 65.6% to 94.0%, respectively. Surprisingly, the biological activities have the highest activities after 6–8 kGy of gamma irradiation. These results indicate that despite pigment degradation, biological activities were maintained or increased by gamma irradiation. Based on these results, gamma irradiation may be a useful tool to remove the undesirable reddish-orange color present in centipedegrass without any loss of biological activities, thereby promoting its utility in industrial applications such as manufacturing of cosmetic products. - Highlights: • The pigments of centipedegrass extracts were decreased by gamma irradiation. • The contents of maysin and its derivatives were slightly changed by gamma irradiation. • The biological activities of centipedegrass extracts were retained or increased by gamma irradiation

  10. Ecological-friendly pigments from fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Nelson; Teixeira, Maria F S; De Conti, Roseli; Esposito, Elisa

    2002-01-01

    The dyestuff industry is suffering from the increases in costs of feedstock and energy for dye synthesis, and they are under increasing pressure to minimize the damage to the environment. The industries are continuously looking for cheaper, more environmentally friendly routes to existing dyes. The aim of this minireview is to discuss the most important advances in the fungal pigment area and its interest in biotechnological applications. Characteristic pigments are produced by a wide variety of fungi and the chemical composition of natural dyes are described. These pigments exhibit several biological activities besides cytotoxicity. The synthetic pigments authorized by the EC and in USA and the natural pigments available in the world market are discussed. The obstacle to the exploitation of new natural pigments sources is the food legislation, requesting costly toxicological research, manufacturing costs, and acceptance by consumers. The dislike for novel ingredients is likely to be the biggest impediment for expansion of the pigment list in the near future. If the necessary toxicological testing and the comparison with accepted pigments are made, the fungal pigments, could be acceptable by the current consumer. The potentiality of pigment production in Brazil is possible due to tremendous Amazonian region biodiversity.

  11. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-09-16

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries.

  12. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kuczynska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries.

  13. Marennine, Promising Blue Pigments from a Widespread Haslea Diatom Species Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Gastineau

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In diatoms, the main photosynthetic pigments are chlorophylls a and c, fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin. The marine pennate diatom Haslea ostrearia has long been known for producing, in addition to these generic pigments, a water-soluble blue pigment, marennine. This pigment, responsible for the greening of oysters in western France, presents different biological activities: allelopathic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and growth-inhibiting. A method to extract and purify marennine has been developed, but its chemical structure could hitherto not be resolved. For decades, H. ostrearia was the only organism known to produce marennine, and can be found worldwide. Our knowledge about H. ostrearia-like diatom biodiversity has recently been extended with the discovery of several new species of blue diatoms, the recently described H. karadagensis, H. silbo sp. inedit. and H. provincialis sp. inedit. These blue diatoms produce different marennine-like pigments, which belong to the same chemical family and present similar biological activities. Aside from being a potential source of natural blue pigments, H. ostrearia-like diatoms thus present a commercial potential for aquaculture, cosmetics, food and health industries.

  14. Small molecule screening identifies targetable zebrafish pigmentation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colanesi, Sarah; Taylor, Kerrie L; Temperley, Nicholas D

    2012-01-01

    Small molecules complement genetic mutants and can be used to probe pigment cell biology by inhibiting specific proteins or pathways. Here, we present the results of a screen of active compounds for those that affect the processes of melanocyte and iridophore development in zebrafish and investig......Small molecules complement genetic mutants and can be used to probe pigment cell biology by inhibiting specific proteins or pathways. Here, we present the results of a screen of active compounds for those that affect the processes of melanocyte and iridophore development in zebrafish...... and investigate the effects of a few of these compounds in further detail. We identified and confirmed 57 compounds that altered pigment cell patterning, number, survival, or differentiation. Additional tissue targets and toxicity of small molecules are also discussed. Given that the majority of cell types...

  15. Candida glabrata tryptophan-based pigment production via the Ehrlich pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunke, Sascha; Seider, Katja; Almeida, Ricardo Sergio; Heyken, Antje; Fleck, Christian Benjamin; Brock, Matthias; Barz, Dagmar; Rupp, Steffen; Hube, Bernhard

    2010-04-01

    Pigments contribute to the pathogenicity of many fungi, mainly by protecting fungal cells from host defence activities. Here, we have dissected the biosynthetic pathway of a tryptophan-derived pigment of the human pathogen Candida glabrata, identified key genes involved in pigment production and have begun to elucidate the possible biological function of the pigment. Using transcriptional analyses and a transposon insertion library, we have identified genes associated with pigment production. Targeted deletion mutants revealed that the pigment is a by-product of the Ehrlich pathway of tryptophan degradation: a mutant lacking a tryptophan-upregulated aromatic aminotransferase (Aro8) displayed significantly reduced pigmentation and a recombinantly expressed version of this protein was sufficient for pigment production in vitro. Pigment production is tightly regulated as the synthesis is affected by the presence of alternative nitrogen sources, carbon sources, cyclic AMP and oxygen. Growth of C. glabrata on pigment inducing medium leads to an increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide, an effect which was not observed with a mutant defective in pigmentation. Furthermore, pigmented yeast cells had a higher survival rate when exposed to human neutrophils and caused increased damage in a monolayer model of human epithelia, indicating a possible role of pigmentation during interactions with host cells.

  16. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae: biological constraints and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.; Lamers, P.P.; Martens, D.E.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in naturally produced colorants, and microalgae represent a bio-technologically interesting source due to their wide range of colored pigments, including chlorophylls (green), carotenoids (red, orange and yellow), and phycobiliproteins (red and blue). However, the

  17. Study of Biological Pigments by Single Specimen Derivative Spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jack M.

    1970-01-01

    The single specimen derivative (SSD) method provides an absolute absorption spectrum of a substance in the absence of a suitable reference. Both a reference and a measuring monochromatic beam pass through a single sample, and the specimen itself acts as its own reference. The two monochromatic beams maintain a fixed wavelength difference upon scanning, and the difference in absorbance of the two beams is determined. Thus, the resulting spectrum represents the first derivative of the conventional type absorption spectrum. Tissues and cell fractions have been examined at room and liquid N2 temperature and chromophoric molecules such as the mitochondrial cytochromes and blood pigments have been detectable in low concentrations. In the case of isolated cellular components, the observed effects of substrates and inhibitors confirm similar studies by conventional spectrophotometry. The extension of the SSD concept to the microscopic level has permitted the study of the tissue compartmentalization and function of cytochromes and other pigments within layered tissue. PMID:4392452

  18. Bacteriorhodopsin-based photochromic pigments for optical security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampp, Norbert A.; Fischer, Thorsten; Neebe, Martin

    2002-04-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin is a two-dimensional crystalline photochromic protein which is astonishingly stable towards chemical and thermal degradation. This is one of the reasons why this is one of the very few proteins which may be used as a biological pigment in printing inks. Variants of the naturally occurring bacteriorhodopsin have been developed which show a distinguished color change even with low light intensities and without the requirement of UV-light. Several pigments with different color changes are available right now. In addition to this visual detectable feature, the photochromism, the proteins amino acid sequence can be genetically altered in order to code and identify specific production lots. For advanced applications the data storage capability of bacteriorhodopsin will be useful. Write-once-read-many (WORM) recording of digital data is accomplished by laser excitation of printed bacteriorhodopsin inks. A density of 1 MBit per square inch is currently achieved. Several application examples for this biological molecule are described where low and high level features are used in combination. Bacteriorhodopsin-based inks are a new class of optical security pigments.

  19. Production and chemical characterization of pigments in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Patrícia Nirlane da Costa; Grigoletto, Tahuana Luiza Bim; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Abreu, Lucas M; Guimarães, Luís Henrique Souza; Santos, Cledir; Galvão, Luciano Ribeiro; Cardoso, Patrícia Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Production of pigments by filamentous fungi is gaining interest owing to their use as food colourants, in cosmetics and textiles, and because of the important biological activities of these compounds. In this context, the objectives of this study were to select pigment-producing fungi, identify these fungi based on internal transcribed spacer sequences, evaluate the growth and pigment production of the selected strains on four different media, and characterize the major coloured metabolites in their extracts. Of the selected fungal strains, eight were identified as Aspergillus sydowii (CML2967), Aspergillus aureolatus (CML2964), Aspergillus keveii (CML2968), Penicillium flavigenum (CML2965), Penicillium chermesinum (CML2966), Epicoccum nigrum (CML2971), Lecanicillium aphanocladii (CML2970) and Fusarium sp. (CML2969). Fungal pigment production was influenced by medium composition. Complex media, such as potato dextrose and malt extract, favoured increased pigment production. The coloured compounds oosporein, orevactaene and dihydrotrichodimerol were identified in extracts of L. aphanocladii (CML2970), E. nigrum (CML2971), and P. flavigenum (CML2965), respectively. These results indicate that the selected fungal strains can serve as novel sources of pigments that have important industrial applications.

  20. Bioactive Pigments from Marine Bacteria: Applications and Physiological Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azamjon B. Soliev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into natural products from the marine environment, including microorganisms, has rapidly increased over the past two decades. Despite the enormous difficulty in isolating and harvesting marine bacteria, microbial metabolites are increasingly attractive to science because of their broad-ranging pharmacological activities, especially those with unique color pigments. This current review paper gives an overview of the pigmented natural compounds isolated from bacteria of marine origin, based on accumulated data in the literature. We review the biological activities of marine compounds, including recent advances in the study of pharmacological effects and other commercial applications, in addition to the biosynthesis and physiological roles of associated pigments. Chemical structures of the bioactive compounds discussed are also presented.

  1. Genetic and Virulent Difference Between Pigmented and Non-pigmented Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhang; Yujuan Suo; Daofeng Zhang; Fangning Jin; Hang Zhao; Chunlei Shi

    2018-01-01

    Staphyloxanthin (STX), a golden carotenoid pigment produced by Staphylococcus aureus, is suggested to act as an important virulence factor due to its antioxidant properties. Restraining biosynthesis of STX was considered as an indicator of virulence decline in pigmented S. aureus isolates. However, it is not clear whether natural non-pigmented S. aureus isolates have less virulence than pigmented ones. In this study, it is aimed to compare the pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus isolates to...

  2. Proof-of-concept: 3D bioprinting of pigmented human skin constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wei Long; Qi, Jovina Tan Zhi; Yeong, Wai Yee; Naing, May Win

    2018-01-23

    Three-dimensional (3D) pigmented human skin constructs have been fabricated using a 3D bioprinting approach. The 3D pigmented human skin constructs are obtained from using three different types of skin cells (keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts from three different skin donors) and they exhibit similar constitutive pigmentation (pale pigmentation) as the skin donors. A two-step drop-on-demand bioprinting strategy facilitates the deposition of cell droplets to emulate the epidermal melanin units (pre-defined patterning of keratinocytes and melanocytes at the desired positions) and manipulation of the microenvironment to fabricate 3D biomimetic hierarchical porous structures found in native skin tissue. The 3D bioprinted pigmented skin constructs are compared to the pigmented skin constructs fabricated by conventional a manual-casting approach; in-depth characterization of both the 3D pigmented skin constructs has indicated that the 3D bioprinted skin constructs have a higher degree of resemblance to native skin tissue in term of the presence of well-developed stratified epidermal layers and the presence of a continuous layer of basement membrane proteins as compared to the manually-cast samples. The 3D bioprinting approach facilitates the development of 3D in vitro pigmented human skin constructs for potential toxicology testing and fundamental cell biology research.

  3. Biological treatment of potato processing wastewater for red pigment production by immobilized cells of UV-irradiated monascus sp. in repeated batch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaf, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Potato processing wastewater (PPW) was collected and analyzed for biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen and starch content. A fungal strain isolated from PPW identified as Monascus sp. PPW was evaluated for its ability to grow and produce red pigment, biomass and reduce the starch content of the ,PPW. Active UV-irradiated isolate of the above strain was obtained by exposing the parent strain to UV-radiation and coded Monascus. sp. PPW-UV7 and used as immobilized cell system for PPW treatment process in repeated batch fermentation. The immobilized cells (in sponge cubes) were able to reduce COD by about 85.7 %, with biomass production of 9.22 gl+ l and over productivity of red pigment of 2.6 gl+ 1 after 8 days fermentation (2 batches). The immobilized cells showed stability and viability for 8 batches (32 days) during the process treatment

  4. Genetic and Virulent Difference Between Pigmented and Non-pigmented Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Suo, Yujuan; Zhang, Daofeng; Jin, Fangning; Zhao, Hang; Shi, Chunlei

    2018-01-01

    Staphyloxanthin (STX), a golden carotenoid pigment produced by Staphylococcus aureus , is suggested to act as an important virulence factor due to its antioxidant properties. Restraining biosynthesis of STX was considered as an indicator of virulence decline in pigmented S. aureus isolates. However, it is not clear whether natural non-pigmented S. aureus isolates have less virulence than pigmented ones. In this study, it is aimed to compare the pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus isolates to clarify the genetic and virulent differences between the two groups. Here, 132 S. aureus isolates were divided into two phenotype groups depending on the absorbance (OD 450 ) of the extracted carotenoids. Then, all isolates were subjected to spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and then the detection of presence of 30 virulence factors and the gene integrity of crtN and crtM . Furthermore, 24 typical S. aureus isolates and 4 S. argenteus strains were selected for the murine infection assay of in vivo virulence, in which the histological observation and enumeration of CFUs were carried out. These isolates were distributed in 26 sequence types (STs) and 49 spa types. The pigmented isolates were scattered in 25 STs, while the non-pigmented isolates were more centralized, which mainly belonged to ST20 (59%) and ST25 (13%). Among the 54 non-pigmented isolates, about 20% carried intact crtN and crtM genes. The in vivo assay suggested that comparing with pigmented S. aureus , non-pigmented S. aureus and S. argenteus strains did not show a reduced virulence in murine sepsis models. Therefore, it suggested that there were no significant genetic and virulent differences between pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus .

  5. Genetic and Virulent Difference Between Pigmented and Non-pigmented Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphyloxanthin (STX, a golden carotenoid pigment produced by Staphylococcus aureus, is suggested to act as an important virulence factor due to its antioxidant properties. Restraining biosynthesis of STX was considered as an indicator of virulence decline in pigmented S. aureus isolates. However, it is not clear whether natural non-pigmented S. aureus isolates have less virulence than pigmented ones. In this study, it is aimed to compare the pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus isolates to clarify the genetic and virulent differences between the two groups. Here, 132 S. aureus isolates were divided into two phenotype groups depending on the absorbance (OD450 of the extracted carotenoids. Then, all isolates were subjected to spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST, and then the detection of presence of 30 virulence factors and the gene integrity of crtN and crtM. Furthermore, 24 typical S. aureus isolates and 4 S. argenteus strains were selected for the murine infection assay of in vivo virulence, in which the histological observation and enumeration of CFUs were carried out. These isolates were distributed in 26 sequence types (STs and 49 spa types. The pigmented isolates were scattered in 25 STs, while the non-pigmented isolates were more centralized, which mainly belonged to ST20 (59% and ST25 (13%. Among the 54 non-pigmented isolates, about 20% carried intact crtN and crtM genes. The in vivo assay suggested that comparing with pigmented S. aureus, non-pigmented S. aureus and S. argenteus strains did not show a reduced virulence in murine sepsis models. Therefore, it suggested that there were no significant genetic and virulent differences between pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus.

  6. Annular and central heavy pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule in the pigment dispersion syndrome: pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule in the pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Burak; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Deniz, Nurettin; Catak, Onur

    2008-12-01

    To report annular and central heavy pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule in a case of pigment dispersion syndrome. Case report. A 36-year-old female with bilateral pigment dispersion syndrome presented with progressive decrease in visual acuity in the right eye over the past 1-2 years. Clinical examination revealed the typical findings of pigment dispersion syndrome including bilateral Krunkenberg spindles, iris transillumination defects, and dense trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Remarkably, annular and central dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule was noted in the right eye. Annular pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule may be a rare finding associated with pigment dispersion syndrome. Such a finding suggests that there may be aqueous flow into the retrolental space in some patients with this condition. The way of central pigmentation is the entrance of aqueous to Berger's space. In our case, it is probable that spontaneous detachment of the anterior hyaloid membrane aided this entrance.

  7. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  8. Dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule associated with the pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Danny Y; Volpicelli, Mark; Singh, Kuldev

    2003-12-01

    To report an unusual case of pigment dispersion syndrome associated with unilateral dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule. Case report. A 59-year-old male with bilateral pigment dispersion syndrome presented with progressive decrease in visual acuity in the left eye over the past 10 to 20 years. Clinical examination revealed the typical findings of pigment dispersion syndrome including the presence of bilateral Krunkenberg spindles, iris transillumination defects, and heavy trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Of note, there was remarkably dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule in the eye with decreased visual acuity. Pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule may be a rare finding associated with pigment dispersion syndrome. Such a finding suggests that there may be aqueous flow into the retrolental space in some patients with this condition. The optimal treatment of this unusual condition remains undetermined.

  9. Red fluorescent protein responsible for pigmentation in trematode-infected Porites compressa tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Caroline V; Roth, Melissa S; Gates, Ruth D

    2009-02-01

    Reports of coral disease have increased dramatically over the last decade; however, the biological mechanisms that corals utilize to limit infection and resist disease remain poorly understood. Compromised coral tissues often display non-normal pigmentation that potentially represents an inflammation-like response, although these pigments remain uncharacterized. Using spectral emission analysis and cryo-histological and electrophoretic techniques, we investigated the pink pigmentation associated with trematodiasis, infection with Podocotyloides stenometre larval trematode, in Porites compressa. Spectral emission analysis reveals that macroscopic areas of pink pigmentation fluoresce under blue light excitation (450 nm) and produce a broad emission peak at 590 nm (+/-6) with a 60-nm full width at half maximum. Electrophoretic protein separation of pigmented tissue extract confirms the red fluorescence to be a protein rather than a low-molecular-weight compound. Histological sections demonstrate green fluorescence in healthy coral tissue and red fluorescence in the trematodiasis-compromised tissue. The red fluorescent protein (FP) is limited to the epidermis, is not associated with cells or granules, and appears unstructured. These data collectively suggest that the red FP is produced and localized in tissue infected by larval trematodes and plays a role in the immune response in corals.

  10. Antioxidative metabolites synthesized by marine pigmented vibrio sp. and its protection on oxidative deterioration of membrane lipids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pawar, R.T.; Mohandass, C.; Dastager, S.G.; Kolekar, Y.M.; Malwankar, R.

    correlation with anti-LPO properties (R2=0.9698 to 0.9861). These compounds are responsible for obstruction of harmful radical associated biochemical reactions in biological systems. Pigmented metabolites also tested for attributive biological...

  11. UV-B affects the immune system and promotes nuclear abnormalities in pigmented and non-pigmented bullfrog tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Fanali, Lara Zácari; De Oliveira, Classius

    2018-03-01

    Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation is a stressor of the immune system and causes DNA damage. Leukocytes can change in response to environmental changes in anurans, making them an important biomarker of stressful situations. The initial barrier against UV in ectothermic animals is melanin-containing cells in skin and in their internal organs. Here, we tested the effects of UV exposure on immune cells and DNA integrity in pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles of Lithobates catesbeianus. We used an inflammation model with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli to test synergic effects of UV and LPS. We tested the following hypotheses: 1) DNA damage caused by UV will be more pronounced in non-pigmented than in pigmented animals; 2) LPS increases leukocytes in both pigmented and non-pigmented animals by systemic inflammation; 3) The combined LPS and UV exposure will decrease the number of leukocytes. We found that the frequency of immune cells differed between pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles. UV exposure increased mast cells and DNA damage in erythrocytes in both pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles, while leukocytes decreased after UV exposure. Non-pigmented tadpoles experienced DNA damage and a lower lymphocyte count earlier than pigmented tadpoles. UV altered immune cells likely as a consequence of local and systemic inflammation. These alterations were less severe in pigmented than in non-pigmented animals. UV and LPS increased internal melanin in pigmented tadpoles, which were correlated with DNA damage and leukocytes. Here, we described for the first time the effects of UV and LPS in immune cells of pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles. In addition, we demonstrated that internal melanin in tadpoles help in these defenses, since leukocyte responses were faster in non-pigmented animals, supporting the hypothesis that melanin is involved in the initial innate immune response. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of pigments on the slow crack growth in dental zirconia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboushelib, M.N.; de Jager, N.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Partially yttria stabilized zirconium oxide was introduced as core material for core-veneered full ceramic dental restorations, because of its biological inertness, high mechanical strength, and toughness. In order to improve the esthetical possibilities pigments in the core are

  13. Carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium requires Ca2+ and calcineurin

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Adam S; Garc?a, Dana M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Inside bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) retinal pigment epithelial cells, pigment granules move in response to extracellular signals. During the process of aggregation, pigment motility is directed toward the cell nucleus; in dispersion, pigment is directed away from the nucleus and into long apical processes. A number of different chemicals have been found to initiate dispersion, and carbachol (an acetylcholine analog) is one example. Previous research indicates that the ca...

  14. Bile pigments in pulmonary and vascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W. Ryter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The bile pigments, biliverdin and bilirubin, are endogenously-derived substances generated during enzymatic heme degradation. These compounds have been shown to act as chemical antioxidants in vitro. Bilirubin formed in tissues circulates in the serum, prior to undergoing hepatic conjugation and biliary excretion. The excess production of bilirubin has been associated with neurotoxicity, in particular to the newborn. Nevertheless, clinical evidence suggests that mild states of hyperbilirubinemia may be beneficial in protecting against cardiovascular disease in adults. Pharmacological application of either bilirubin and/or its biological precursor biliverdin, can provide therapeutic benefit in several animal models of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. Furthermore, biliverdin and bilirubin can confer protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury and graft rejection secondary to organ transplantation in animal models. Several possible mechanisms for these effects have been proposed, including direct antioxidant and scavenging effects, and modulation of signaling pathways regulating inflammation, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and immune responses. The practicality and therapeutic-effectiveness of bile pigment application to humans remains unclear.

  15. Long anterior zonules and pigment dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroi, Sayoko E; Lark, Kurt K; Sieving, Paul A; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Katz, Gregory J; Ritch, Robert

    2003-12-01

    To describe pigment dispersion associated with long anterior zonules. Multicenter observational case series. Fifteen patients, seven of whom were treated for glaucoma or ocular hypertension, were identified with long anterior zonules and pigment dispersion. Transmission electron microscopy was performed on one anterior capsule specimen. All patients had anterior zonules that inserted centrally on the lens capsule. Signs of pigment dispersion included corneal endothelial pigmentation, loss of the pupillary ruff, and variable trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Ultrasound biomicroscopy verified the lack of posterior iris insertion and concavity. There was no exfoliation material. Transmission electron microscopy showed zonular lamellae with adherent pigment granules, and no exfoliation material. Long anterior zonules inserted onto the central lens capsule may cause mechanical disruption of the pigment epithelium at the pupillary ruff and central iris leading to pigment dispersion.

  16. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alfredo; Crittenden, Elizabeth L; García, Dana M

    2004-07-13

    In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl) carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  17. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crittenden Elizabeth L

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. Results The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusions Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  18. Natural pigments and sacred art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelekian, Lena, ,, Lady

    2010-05-01

    Since the dawn of mankind, cavemen has expressed himself through art. The earliest known cave paintings date to some 32,000 years ago and used 4 colours derived from the earth. These pigments were iron oxides and known as ochres, blacks and whites. All pigments known by the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans and Renaissance man were natural and it was not until the 18th century that synthetic pigments were made and widely used. Until that time all art, be it sacred or secular used only natural pigments, of which the preparation of many have been lost or rarely used because of their tedious preparation. As a geologist, a mineralogist and an artist specializing in iconography, I have been able to rediscover 89 natural pigments extracted from minerals. I use these pigments to paint my icons in the traditional Byzantine manner and also to restore old icons, bringing back their glamour and conserving them for years to come. The use of the natural pigments in its proper way also helps to preserve the traditional skills of the iconographer. In the ancient past, pigments were extremely precious. Many took an exceedingly long journey to reach the artists, and came from remote countries. Research into these pigments is the work of history, geography and anthropology. It is an interesting journey in itself to discover that the blue aquamarines came from Afghanistan, the reds from Spain, the greens Africa, and so on. In this contribution I will be describing the origins, preparation and use of some natural pigments, together with their history and provenance. Additionally, I will show how the natural pigments are used in the creation of an icon. Being a geologist iconographer, for me, is a sacrement that transforms that which is earthly, material and natural into a thing of beauty that is sacred. As bread and wine in the Eucharist, water during baptism and oil in Holy Union transmit sanctification to the beholder, natural pigments do the same when one considers an icon. The

  19. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    Microalgal pigments are regarded as natural alternatives for food colorants. To facilitate optimization of microalgae-based pigment production, this thesis aimed to obtain key insights in the pigment metabolism of phototrophic microalgae, with the main focus on secondary

  20. Diversity and functional properties of bistable pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Hisao; Terakita, Akihisa

    2010-11-01

    Rhodopsin and related opsin-based pigments, which are photosensitive membrane proteins, have been extensively studied using a wide variety of techniques, with rhodopsin being the most understood G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Animals use various opsin-based pigments for vision and a wide variety of non-visual functions. Many functionally varied pigments are roughly divided into two kinds, based on their photoreaction: bistable and monostable pigments. Bistable pigments are thermally stable before and after photo-activation, but monostable pigments are stable only before activation. Here, we review the diversity of bistable pigments and their molecular characteristics. We also discuss the mechanisms underlying different molecular characteristics of bistable and monostable pigments. In addition, the potential of bistable pigments as a GPCR model is proposed.

  1. Corncob hydrolysate, an efficient substrate for Monascus pigment production through submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongxin; Yin, Zheng; Hu, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Monascus pigment has traditionally been produced by the fermentation of Monascus using rice powder or glucose as a culture substrate. Submerged fermentation can produce stable Monascus pigment yield and control the accumulation of the by-product, citrinin, which can then be more easily removed. To reduce the cost of Monascus submerged fermentation, the feasibility of corncob hydrolysate as an alternative substrate was investigated. Results showed that, when compared with a conventional glucose medium, the corncob hydrolysate medium produced an equivalent pigment yield without stimulating citrinin accumulation. Furthermore, the corncob hydrolysate medium and cultivation conditions were optimized to enhance pigment production and decrease citrinin synthesis. When Monascus sp. was cultured under dark conditions in the presence of caprylic acid, pigment production was increased to 25.8 ± 0.8 UA500 /mL, which was higher than that achieved in a glucose medium (24.0 ± 0.9 UA500 /mL), and those obtained in previously reported Monascus submerged fermentations using the same yield unit; on the other hand, citrinin accumulation was decreased to 26.2 ± 1.9 µg/L, which was significantly lower than that generated in the glucose control (44.3 ± 2.2 µg/L) and in those previously reported fermentations. Thus, corncob hydrolysate was proved to be an efficient alternative substrate for Monascus pigment production through submerged fermentation, which showed significant advantages over a conventional glucose substrate. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Skin pigmentation kinetics after UVB exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbak, M.H.; Philipsen, P.A.; Wiegell, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    There have been few previous studies of the kinetics of pigmentation following ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure, and these have included only fair-skinned persons. The current study investigated pigmentation increase to steady state and fading in 12 Scandinavians and 12 Indians/Pakistanis. Over...... a period of 3 weeks the subjects were UV-irradiated 6 times on the right side of the back and 12 times on the left side using a Solar Simulator and narrowband UVB with equal sub-Minimal Melanogenesis Doses (individually predetermined). Pigmentation was measured from skin remittance at 555 urn and 660 nm...... (allowing correction for erythema). The absolute pigmentation increase was independent of pre-exposure pigmentation, therefore the percentage pigmentation increase was higher in fair-skinned volunteers. The UV dose to minimal pigmentation was higher in darker-skinned persons for single and multiple UV...

  3. Temporal variation in community composition, pigmentation, and Fv/Fm of desert cyanobacterial soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, M.A.; Reed, S.C.; Belnap, J.; Phillips, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    Summers on the Colorado Plateau (USA) are typified by harsh conditions such as high temperatures, brief soil hydration periods, and high UV and visible radiation. We investigated whether community composition, physiological status, and pigmentation might vary in biological soil crusts as a result of such conditions. Representative surface cores were sampled at the ENE, WSW, and top microaspects of 20 individual soil crust pedicels at a single site in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, in spring and fall of 1999. Frequency of cyanobacterial taxa, pigment concentrations, and dark adapted quantum yield (Fv/Fm) were measured for each core. The frequency of major cyanobacterial taxa was lower in the fall compared to spring. The less-pigmented cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus showed significant mortality when not in the presence of Nostoc spp. and Scytonema myochrous (Dillw.) Agardh. (both synthesizers of UV radiation-linked pigments) but had little or no mortality when these species were abundant. We hypothesize that the sunscreen pigments produced by Nostoc and Scytonema in the surface of crusts protect other, less-pigmented taxa. When fall and spring samples were compared, overall cyanobacterial frequency was lower in fall, while sunscreen pigment concentrations, chlorophyll a concentration, and Fv/Fm were higher in fall. The ratio of cyanobacterial frequency/chlorophyll a concentrations was 2-3 times lower in fall than spring. Because chlorophyll a is commonly used as a surrogate measure of soil cyanobacterial biomass, these results indicate that seasonality needs to be taken into consideration. In the fall sample, most pigments associated with UV radiation protection or repair were at their highest concentrations on pedicel tops and WSW microaspects, and at their lowest concentrations on ENE microaspects. We suggest that differential pigment concentrations between microaspects are induced by varying UV radiation dosage at the soil surface on these different

  4. Production of Monascus-like pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    the cultivation medium with an inoculum of Penicillium to form a cultivation composition; d) cultivating the inoculated cultivation composition of (c); e) separating the one or more produced pigment compositions. The method of the invention may be used for producing Monascus-like pigment compositions for use......The present invention relates to a method for producing one or more Monascus-like pigment composition from Penicillium species comprising: a) providing a cultivation medium comprising a high concentration of C-and N-sources and a high C/N molar ratio, b) adjusting pH to about 5 to 8, c) inoculating...... as colouring agents in food items or non food items. The inventions further relates to Monascus-like pigment composition obtainable by a method of the inventions as well as use of the pigments....

  5. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    OpenAIRE

    González, Alfredo; Crittenden, Elizabeth L; García, Dana M

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and musc...

  6. Pigment production from a mangrove Penicillium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... Key words: Penicillium, 2-(4-acetyl phenyl) acetic acid, bio elements, salts, soluble pigment. .... Table 1. Characteristics of the pigment fractions after solvent extraction. ..... naphthoquinone pigment by Fusarium verticillioides.

  7. Hairless pigmented guinea pigs: a new model for the study of mammalian pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognia, J L; Murray, M S; Pawelek, J M

    1990-09-01

    A stock of hairless pigmented guinea pigs was developed to facilitate studies of mammalian pigmentation. This stock combines the convenience of a hairless animal with a pigmentary system that is similar to human skin. In both human and guinea pig skin, active melanocytes are located in the basal layer of the interfollicular epidermis. Hairless albino guinea pigs on an outbred Hartley background (CrI:IAF/HA(hr/hr)BR; designated hr/hr) were mated with red-haired guinea pigs (designated Hr/Hr). Red-haired heterozygotes from the F1 generation (Hr/hr) were then mated with each other or with hairless albino guinea pigs. The F2 generation included hairless pigmented guinea pigs that retained their interfollicular epidermal melanocytes and whose skin was red-brown in color. Following UV irradiation, there was an increase in cutaneous pigmentation as well as an increase in the number of active epidermal melanocytes. An additional strain of black hairless guinea pigs was developed using black Hr/Hr animals and a similar breeding scheme. These two strains should serve as useful models for studies of the mammalian pigment system.

  8. Sensitizing pigment in the fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, K.; Kirschfeld, K.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitizing pigment hypothesis for the high UV sensitivity in fly photoreceptors (R1-6) is further substantiated by measurements of the polarisation sensitivity in the UV. The quantum yield of the energy transfer from sensitizing pigment to rhodopsin was estimated by electrophysiological measurements of the UV sensitivity and the rhabdomeric absorptance (at 490 nm) in individual receptor cells. The transfer efficiency is >=0.75 in receptors with an absorptance in the rhabdomeres of 0.55-0.95. This result suggests that the sensitizing pigment is bound in some way to the rhodopsin. A ratio of two molecules of sensitizing pigment per one rhodopsin is proposed. (orig.)

  9. Raman Spectroscopy of Microbial Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapid nondestructive technique providing spectroscopic and structural information on both organic and inorganic molecular compounds. Extensive applications for the method in the characterization of pigments have been found. Due to the high sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy for the detection of chlorophylls, carotenoids, scytonemin, and a range of other pigments found in the microbial world, it is an excellent technique to monitor the presence of such pigments, both in pure cultures and in environmental samples. Miniaturized portable handheld instruments are available; these instruments can be used to detect pigments in microbiological samples of different types and origins under field conditions. PMID:24682303

  10. Removal of pigments from molasses wastewater by combining micro-electrolysis with biological treatment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ben; Tian, Xiaofei; Yu, Lian; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-12-01

    Pigments in molasses wastewater (MWW) effluent, such as melanoidins, were considered as kinds of the most recalcitrant and hazardous colorant contaminants to the environment. In this study, de-coloring the MWW by a synergistic combination of micro-electrolysis with bio-treatment was performed. Aiming to a high de-colorization yield, levels of nutrition source supplies, MWW dilution ratio, and micro-electrolysis reaction time were optimized accordingly. For a diluted (50 %, v/v) MWW, an maximum overall de-colorization yield (97.1 ± 0.5 %, for absorbance at 475 nm) was achieved through the bio-electrolysis treatment. In electrolysis bio-treatment, the positive effect of micro-electrolysis was also revealed by a promoted growth of fungal biomass as well as activities of ligninolytic enzymes. Activities of lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and laccase were promoted by 111.2, 103.9, and 7.7 %, respectively. This study also implied that the bio-treatment and the micro-electrolysis had different efficiencies on removal of pigments with distinct polarities.

  11. Effect of pigment concentration on fastness and color values of thermal and UV curable pigment printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Gulcin; Kalav, Berdan; Karagüzel Kayaoğlu, Burçak

    2017-10-01

    In the current study, it is aimed to determine the effect of pigment concentration on fastness and colour values of thermal and ultraviolet (UV) curable pigment printing on synthetic leather. For this purpose, thermal curable solvent-based and UV curable water-based formulations were prepared with different pigment concentrations (3, 5 and 7%) separately and applied by screen printing technique using a screen printing machine. Samples printed with solvent-based formulations were thermally cured and samples printed with water-based formulations were cured using a UV curing machine equipped with gallium and mercury (Ga/Hg) lamps at room temperature. The crock fastness values of samples printed with solvent-based formulations showed that increase in pigment concentration was not effective on both dry and wet crock fastness values. On the other hand, in samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations, dry crock fastness was improved and evaluated as very good for all pigment concentrations. However, increasing the pigment concentration affected the wet crock fastness values adversely and lower values were observed. As the energy level increased for each irradiation source, the fastness values were improved. In comparison with samples printed with solvent-based formulations, samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations yielded higher K/S values at all pigment concentrations. The results suggested that, higher K/S values can be obtained in samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations at a lower pigment concentration compared to samples printed with solvent-based formulations.

  12. Central posterior capsule pigmentation in a patient with pigment dispersion and previous ocular trauma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mezaine, Hani S

    2010-01-01

    We report a 55-year-old man with unusually dense, unilateral central posterior capsule pigmentation associated with the characteristic clinical features of pigment dispersion syndrome, including a Krukenberg's spindle and dense trabecular pigmentation in both eyes. A history of an old blunt ocular trauma probably caused separation of the anterior hyaloid from the back of the lens, thereby creating an avenue by which pigment could reach the potential space of Berger's from the posterior chamber.

  13. Isolation and characterization of pigmented algicidal bacteria from seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaima, A.; Gires, U.; Asmat, A.

    2014-09-01

    Some dinoflagellate species are toxic and widely distributed in Malaysian marines ecosystems. They can cause many problems to aquatic life due to the production of various potential and natural toxins that accumulate in filter feeding shellfish and cause food poisoning to human. In recent decades, bacteria have been widely used as a biological control against these harmful algae. In the present study, pigmented bacteria isolated from marine water of Port Dickson beach was studied for their anti-algal activity towards toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. Four isolates were studied and only one was capable of inhibiting algal growth when treated with bacterial culture. The algilytic effect on dinoflagellate was evaluated based on direct cell count under the microscope. Results showed that only isolate Sdpd-310 with orange colour has an inhibitory effect on A. minutum growth. This study demonstrated the rapid algicidal activity of a marine pigmented bacteria against the toxic dinoflagellate A. minutum.

  14. The visual pigment cyanide effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescitelli, F; Karvaly, B

    1989-12-01

    The visual pigment of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) with its in situ absorption maximum at 521 nm has its spectral position at 500 to 505 nm when chloride-deficient digitonin is used for the extraction. In this case the addition of chloride or bromide to the extract restores the maximum to 521 nm. This property, characteristic of gecko pigments in general, does not occur with any of the rhodopsins that have been tested. Simple salts of cyanide, a pseudohalogenoid with an ionic radius close to those of chloride and bromide and/or its hydrolysis product attacks both this gecko pigment and rhodopsins in the dark. This is seen as a slow thermal loss of photopigment if (sodium) cyanide is present at concentrations above 40 mM for the gecko pigment and 150 mM for the rhodopsins of the midshipman (Porichthys notatus) and of the frog (Rana pipiens). In all cases the loss of the photopigment is accompanied by the appearance of a spectral product with maximum absorption at about 340 nm. Cyanide addition has no effect on the photosensitivity of the native pigments and neither does it alter, as do chloride, bromide and other anions, the spectral absorbance curve. The spectral product at 340 nm also appears when the visual pigments are photolyzed in the presence of cyanide salts below the threshold concentrations given above. Incubation of digitonin-solubilized all-trans-retinal with (sodium) cyanide leads to a reaction product with absorption spectrum similar to that obtained with visual pigments under comparable conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. High efficiency non-viral transfection of retinal and iris pigment epithelial cells with pigment epithelium-derived factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumann, G; Stöcker, M; Maltusch, C; Salz, A K; Barth, S; Walter, P; Johnen, S

    2010-02-01

    Transplantation of pigment epithelial cells in patients with age-related macular degeneration and Parkinson's disease has the potential to improve functional rehabilitation. Genetic modification of cells before transplantation may allow the delivery of neuroprotective factors to achieve functional improvement. As transplantation of cells modified using viral vectors is complicated by the possible dissemination of viral particles and severe immune reactions, we have explored non-viral methods to insert genetic material in pigment epithelial cells. Using lipofection or nucleofection ARPE-19 cells, freshly isolated and primary retinal and iris pigment epithelial (IPE) cells were transfected with plasmids encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) and with three plasmids encoding recombinant pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) and GFP. Transfection efficiency was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and stability of protein expression by immunoblotting. Pigment epithelial cells were successfully transfected with plasmid encoding GFP. Expression of GFP in ARPE-19 was transient, but was observed for up to 1 year in IPE cells. Analysis of pigment epithelial cells transfected with PEDF plasmids revealed that PEDF fusion proteins were successfully expressed and functionally active. In conclusion, efficient transfer of genetic information in pigment epithelial cells can be achieved using non-viral transfection protocols.

  16. Central posterior capsule pigmentation in a patient with pigment dispersion and previous ocular trauma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Mezaine Hani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 55-year-old man with unusually dense, unilateral central posterior capsule pigmentation associated with the characteristic clinical features of pigment dispersion syndrome, including a Krukenberg′s spindle and dense trabecular pigmentation in both eyes. A history of an old blunt ocular trauma probably caused separation of the anterior hyaloid from the back of the lens, thereby creating an avenue by which pigment could reach the potential space of Berger′s from the posterior chamber.

  17. Nitric oxide-dependent pigment migration induced by ultraviolet radiation in retinal pigment cells of the crab Neohelice granulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Daza de Moraes Vaz Batista; Guterres, Laís Pereira; Votto, Ana Paula de Souza; Vargas, Marcelo Alves; Boyle, Robert Tew; Trindade, Gilma Santos; Nery, Luiz Eduardo Maia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the occurrence of pigment dispersion in retinal pigment cells exposed to UVA and UVB radiation, and to investigate the possible participation of a nitric oxide (NO) pathway. Retinal pigment cells from Neohelice granulata were obtained by cellular dissociation. Cells were analyzed for 30 min in the dark (control) and then exposed to 1.1 and 3.3 J cm(-2) UVA, 0.07 and 0.9 J cm(-2) UVB, 20 nmβ-PDH (pigment dispersing hormone) or 10 μm SIN-1 (NO donor). Histological analyses were performed to verify the UV effect in vivo. Cultured cells were exposed to 250 μm L-NAME (NO synthase blocker) and afterwards were treated with UVA, UVB or β-PDH. The retinal cells in culture displayed significant pigment dispersion in response to UVA, UVB and β-PDH. The same responses to UVA and UVB were observed in vivo. SIN-1 did not induce pigment dispersion in the cell cultures. L-NAME significantly decreased the pigment dispersion induced by UVA and UVB but not by β-PDH. All retinal cells showed an immunopositive reaction against neuronal nitric oxide synthases. Therefore, UVA and UVB radiation are capable of inducing pigment dispersion in retinal pigment cells of Neohelice granulata and this dispersion may be nitric oxide synthase dependent. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation. The American Society of Photobiology.

  18. State of art in research of ceramic pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulcova, P.; Trojan, M.

    2004-01-01

    The research of our laboratory is focused on investigation of special inorganic pigments, mainly on ceramic pigments. many pigments used just now are questionable from the hygienic point of view. The fact that the most of the pigments contain problematic elements opens necessity of substitution of pigments containing toxic metals (chromium). Yellow ceramic pigments commonly used such as Pb 2 Sb 2 O 7 , PbCrO 4 and CdS are now being expelled from the market because of their toxicity. For this reason the main attention has been directed to the synthesis of new inorganic compounds mainly with yellow, orange and red colour hues, which can be used as pigments for colouring of glaze, plastics or building materials. In harmony with this postulate the pigments based on CeO 2 represent new special inorganic pigments with high-temperature stability have been synthesized. The commercial significance is in thermal, chemical and light stability, combined with their low toxicity. (author)

  19. True bursal pigmented villonodular synovitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry; Kenan, Samuel; Steiner, German C.; Abdul-Quader, Mohammed

    2002-01-01

    We describe two cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis affecting true bursae. This study was also designed to discuss the term ''pigmented villonodular bursitis'', not confined to true synovial bursae, sometimes creating misunderstanding. (orig.)

  20. Synthesis of new environment-friendly yellow pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Shinya; Masui, Toshiyuki; Imanaka, Nobuhito

    2006-01-01

    New inorganic pigments based on amorphous cerium tungstate, Ce 1-x M x W 2 O 8 (M = Zr or Ti, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6), were synthesized and their color properties were characterized from the viewpoint of possible ecological inorganic pigments. The Ce 1-x M x W 2 O 8 materials absorb the visible and the ultraviolet light under 500 nm efficiently, which is originated in the O 2p -Ce 4f and the O 2p -W 5d double charge transfer transitions, and, as a result, the pigments can show a brilliant yellow color. The optical absorption edge wavelength of these pigments depends on the Zr or Ti content, and the effective yellow hue was observed at x = 0.2 for both pigments. The color properties of the present pigments suggest that they have a potential to be applied as a satisfactory pigment for paints. Furthermore, these pigments can be prepared by a simple co-precipitation method. They are inert and safe and do not produce side effects in the human body because they are composed of non-toxic and safe elements

  1. Swapping one red pigment for another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Betalains are bright red and yellow pigments, which are produced in only one order of plants, the Caryophyllales, and replace the more familiar anthocyanin pigments. The evolutionary origin of betalain production is a mystery, but a new study has identified the first regulator of betalain production and discovered a previously unknown link between the two pigment pathways.

  2. Modification of cadmium pigments for colouring of polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinskaya, T.V.; Livshits, I.M.

    1976-01-01

    Modification conditions are studied of cadmium pigments, obtained by different methods, aliphatic acids(C 5 , C 8 and C 17 ). It is found, that cadmium pigments can adsorb acids with the number of atoms of carbon not less than 8. Stearic acid adsorption on lemon cadmium pigment taken as an example has shown the efficiency of pigment modification influence on its dispersancy in non-polar medium. Modification of yellow cadmium pigments of stearic acid makes possible to obtain pigment output forms ensuring a good particle distribution during polyolefine colouring

  3. The penetration depth and lateral distribution of pigment related to the pigment grain size and the calendering of paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelow, K.; Kristiansson, P.; Schueler, B.; Tullander, E.; Oestling, S.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.; Shariff, A.

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of ink and newspaper has been investigated and the specific question of penetration of ink into the paper has been addressed with a nuclear microprobe using particle induced X-ray emission. The penetration depth of the newsprint is a critical factor in terms of increasing the quality of newsprint and minimising the amount of ink used. The objective of the experiment was to relate the penetration depth of pigment with the calendering of the paper. The dependence of the penetration depth on the pigment grain size was also studied. To study the penetration depth of pigment in paper, cyan ink with Cu as a tracer of the coloured pigment was used. For the study of the penetration depth dependence of pigment size, specially grounded Japanese ink with well-defined pigment grain size was used. This was compared to Swedish ink with pigment grains with normal size-distribution. The results show that the calendering of the paper considerably affects the penetration depth of ink

  4. Nutrient availability affects pigment production but not growth in lichens of biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, M.A.; Koch, G.W.; Belnap, J.; Johnson, N.C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research suggests that micronutrients such as Mn may limit growth of slow-growing biological soil crusts (BSCs) in some of the drylands of the world. These soil surface communities contribute strongly to arid ecosystem function and are easily degraded, creating a need for new restoration tools. The possibility that Mn fertilization could be used as a restoration tool for BSCs has not been tested previously. We used microcosms in a controlled greenhouse setting to investigate the hypothesis that Mn may limit photosynthesis and consequently growth in Collema tenax, a dominant N-fixing lichen found in BSCs worldwide. We found no evidence to support our hypothesis; furthermore, addition of other nutrients (primarily P, K, and Zn) had a suppressive effect on gross photosynthesis (P = 0.05). We also monitored the growth and physiological status of our microcosms and found that other nutrients increased the production of scytonemin, an important sunscreen pigment, but only when not added with Mn (P = 0.01). A structural equation model indicated that this effect was independent of any photosynthesis-related variable. We propose two alternative hypotheses to account for this pattern: (1) Mn suppresses processes needed to produce scytonemin; and (2) Mn is required to suppress scytonemin production at low light, when it is an unnecessary photosynthate sink. Although Mn fertilization does not appear likely to increase photosynthesis or growth of Collema, it could have a role in survivorship during environmentally stressful periods due to modification of scytonemin production. Thus, Mn enrichment should be studied further for its potential to facilitate BSC rehabilitation. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Ozone Sensitivity and Catalase Activity in Pigmented and Non-Pigmented Strains of Serratia Marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ondarza, José

    2017-01-01

    Ozone exposure rapidly leads to bacterial death, making ozone an effective disinfectant in food industry and health care arena. However, microbial defenses may moderate this effect and play a role in the effective use of oxidizing agents for disinfection. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen, expressing genes differentially during infection of a human host. A better understanding of regulatory systems that control expression of Serratia 's virulence genes and defenses is therefore valuable. Here, we investigated the role of pigmentation and catalase in Serratia marcescens on survival to ozone exposure. Pigmented and non-pigmented strains of Serratia marcescens were cultured to exponential or stationary phase and exposed to 5 ppm of gaseous ozone for 2.5 - 10 minutes. Survival was calculated via plate counts. Catalase activity was measured photometrically and tolerance to hydrogen peroxide was assayed by disk-diffusion. Exposure of S. marcescens to 5 ppm gaseous ozone kills > 90% of cells within 10 minutes in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Although pigmented Serratia (grown at 28°C) survived ozonation better than unpigmented Serratia (grown at 35°C), non-pigmented mutant strains of Serratia had similar ozone survival rates, catalase activity and H 2 O 2 tolerance as wild type strains. Rather, ozone survival and catalase activity were elevated in 6 hour cultures compared to 48 hour cultures. Our studies did not bear out a role for prodigiosin in ozone survival. Rather, induction of oxidative stress responses during exponential growth increased both catalase activity and ozone survival in both pigmented and unpigmented S. marcescens .

  6. Carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium requires Ca2+ and calcineurin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adam S; García, Dana M

    2007-12-19

    Inside bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) retinal pigment epithelial cells, pigment granules move in response to extracellular signals. During the process of aggregation, pigment motility is directed toward the cell nucleus; in dispersion, pigment is directed away from the nucleus and into long apical processes. A number of different chemicals have been found to initiate dispersion, and carbachol (an acetylcholine analog) is one example. Previous research indicates that the carbachol-receptor interaction activates a Gq-mediated pathway which is commonly linked to Ca2+ mobilization. The purpose of the present study was to test for involvement of calcium and to probe calcium-dependent mediators to reveal their role in carbachol-mediated dispersion. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion was blocked by the calcium chelator BAPTA. In contrast, the calcium channel antagonist verapamil, and incubation in Ca2+-free medium failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion. The calcineurin inhibitor cypermethrin blocked carbachol-induced dispersion; whereas, two protein kinase C inhibitors (staurosporine and bisindolylmaleimide II) failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate failed to elicit dispersion. A rise in intracellular calcium is necessary for carbachol-induced dispersion; however, the Ca2+ requirement is not dependent on extracellular sources, implying that intracellular stores are sufficient to enable pigment granule dispersion to occur. Calcineurin is a likely Ca2+-dependent mediator involved in the signal cascade. Although the pathway leads to the generation of diacylglycerol and calcium (both required for the activation of certain PKC isoforms), our evidence does not support a significant role for PKC.

  7. Production of Monascus-like pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing one or more Monascus-like pigment composition from Penicillium species comprising: a) providing a cultivation medium comprising a high concentration of C-and N-sources and a high C/N molar ratio, b) adjusting pH to about 5 to 8, c) inoculati...... as colouring agents in food items or non food items. The inventions further relates to Monascus-like pigment composition obtainable by a method of the inventions as well as use of the pigments....

  8. A molecular systems approach to modelling human skin pigmentation: identifying underlying pathways and critical components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Arathi; Sambarey, Awanti; Sharma, Neha; Mahadevan, Usha; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2015-04-29

    Ultraviolet radiations (UV) serve as an environmental stress for human skin, and result in melanogenesis, with the pigment melanin having protective effects against UV induced damage. This involves a dynamic and complex regulation of various biological processes that results in the expression of melanin in the outer most layers of the epidermis, where it can exert its protective effect. A comprehensive understanding of the underlying cross talk among different signalling molecules and cell types is only possible through a systems perspective. Increasing incidences of both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers necessitate the need to better comprehend UV mediated effects on skin pigmentation at a systems level, so as to ultimately evolve knowledge-based strategies for efficient protection and prevention of skin diseases. A network model for UV-mediated skin pigmentation in the epidermis was constructed and subjected to shortest path analysis. Virtual knock-outs were carried out to identify essential signalling components. We describe a network model for UV-mediated skin pigmentation in the epidermis. The model consists of 265 components (nodes) and 429 directed interactions among them, capturing the manner in which one component influences the other and channels information. Through shortest path analysis, we identify novel signalling pathways relevant to pigmentation. Virtual knock-outs or perturbations of specific nodes in the network have led to the identification of alternate modes of signalling as well as enabled determining essential nodes in the process. The model presented provides a comprehensive picture of UV mediated signalling manifesting in human skin pigmentation. A systems perspective helps provide a holistic purview of interconnections and complexity in the processes leading to pigmentation. The model described here is extensive yet amenable to expansion as new data is gathered. Through this study, we provide a list of important proteins essential

  9. True bursal pigmented villonodular synovitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry [Department of Radiology, New York Methodist Hospital, Affiliated with New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Kenan, Samuel [Department of Orthopedics, New York University Medical Center, NY (United States); Steiner, German C. [Department of Pathology, Hospital for Joint Diseases/Orthopedic Institute, New York, NY (United States); Abdul-Quader, Mohammed [Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2002-06-01

    We describe two cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis affecting true bursae. This study was also designed to discuss the term ''pigmented villonodular bursitis'', not confined to true synovial bursae, sometimes creating misunderstanding. (orig.)

  10. Crystalline Organic Pigment-Based Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haichang; Deng, Ruonan; Wang, Jing; Li, Xiang; Chen, Yu-Ming; Liu, Kewei; Taubert, Clinton J; Cheng, Stephen Z D; Zhu, Yu

    2017-07-05

    Three conjugated pigment molecules with fused hydrogen bonds, 3,7-diphenylpyrrolo[2,3-f]indole-2,6(1H,5H)-dione (BDP), (E)-6,6'-dibromo-[3,3'-biindolinylidene]-2,2'-dione (IIDG), and 3,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)-2,5-dihydropyrrolo-[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione (TDPP), were studied in this work. The insoluble pigment molecules were functionalized with tert-butoxylcarbonyl (t-Boc) groups to form soluble pigment precursors (BDP-Boc, IIDG-Boc, and TDPP-Boc) with latent hydrogen bonding. The single crystals of soluble pigment precursors were obtained. Upon simple thermal annealing, the t-Boc groups were removed and the soluble pigment precursor molecules with latent hydrogen bonding were converted into the original pigment molecules with fused hydrogen bonding. Structural analysis indicated that the highly crystalline soluble precursors were directly converted into highly crystalline insoluble pigments, which are usually only achievable by gas-phase routes like physical vapor transport. The distinct crystal structure after the thermal annealing treatment suggests that fused hydrogen bonding is pivotal for the rearrangement of molecules to form a new crystal in solid state, which leads to over 2 orders of magnitude enhancement in charge mobility in organic field-effect transistor (OFET) devices. This work demonstrated that crystalline OFET devices with insoluble pigment molecules can be fabricated by their soluble precursors. The results indicated that a variety of commercially available conjugated pigments could be potential active materials for high-performance OFETs.

  11. Familial occurrence of pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovell, A M; Damji, K F; Dohadwala, A A; Hodge, W G; Allingham, R R

    2001-02-01

    Pigment dispersion syndrome affects up to 4% of the white population. It is characterized by the presence of transillumination defects, Krukenberg's spindle and dense trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Open-angle glaucoma will develop in as many as 50% of affected patients. In this study we describe the familial occurrence of pigment dispersion syndrome in six North American pedigrees and the phenotypic characteristics with respect to pigment dispersion syndrome and glaucoma. Probands with pigment dispersion syndrome were identified in glaucoma clinics at university eye centres in Ottawa and Durham, NC. Families with two or more affected members were evaluated. All willing members in each family underwent a thorough clinical examination and were classified as affected with pigment dispersion syndrome, suspect or unaffected. The previous medical records were reviewed to obtain the past medical and ocular history, including risk factors for glaucoma. All six families are white. Three families show at least two generations of affected members. Of the 43 subjects examined 58% were women. All 14 affected members showed moderate to heavy trabecular meshwork pigmentation and either Krukenberg's spindle or transillumination defects. The affected members were also considerably more myopic (mean spherical equivalent for the right eye -4.72 dioptres) than the suspect group or the unaffected group (mean spherical equivalent -0.79 D and +1.19 D respectively) (p pigment dispersion syndrome. Our ultimate goal is to identify the gene(s) that causes this disorder in order to clarify its molecular etiology and pathophysiology. This may give rise to a molecular classification of the disease as well as provide the foundation for genetic testing and new treatment approaches.

  12. Pigmented xerodermoid - Report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Jayanta Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented xerodermoid, a rare genodermatosis, presents with clinical features and pathology similar to xeroderma pigmentosum, but at a later age. DNA repair replication is normal, but there is total depression of DNA synthesis after exposure to UV radiation. Two siblings in their teens and a man in his thirties with features of pigmented xerodermoid, e.g. photophobia, freckle-like lesions, keratoses, dryness of skin, and hypo- and hyper-pigmentation, are described. Although classically the onset of pigmented xerodermoid is said to be delayed till third to fourth decade of life, it seems the disease may appear earlier in the tropics. Early diagnosis and management could be life-saving.

  13. Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Ethyl-Linked Anthocyanin-Flavanol Pigments from Model Wine Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingxi; Zhang, Minna; Zhang, Shuting; Cui, Yan; Sun, Baoshan

    2018-05-03

    Anthocyanin-flavanol pigments, formed during red wine fermentation and storage by condensation reactions between anthocyanins and flavanols (monomers, oligomers, and polymers), are one of the major groups of polyphenols in aged red wine. However, knowledge of their biological activities is lacking. This is probably due to the structural diversity and complexity of these molecules, which makes the large-scale separation and isolation of the individual compounds very difficult, thus restricting their further study. In this study, anthocyanins (i.e., malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside) and (⁻)-epicatechin were first isolated at a preparative scale by high-speed counter-current chromatography. The condensation reaction between each of the isolated anthocyanins and (⁻)-epicatechin, mediated by acetaldehyde, was conducted in model wine solutions to obtain ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. The effects of pH, molar ratio, and temperature on the reaction rate were investigated, and the reaction conditions of pH 1.7, molar ratio 1:6:10 (anthocyanin/(⁻)-epicatechin/acetaldehyde), and reaction temperature of 35 °C were identified as optimal for conversion of anthocyanins to ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. Six ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments were isolated in larger quantities and collected under optimal reaction conditions, and their chemical structures were identified by HPLC-QTOF-MS and ECD analyses. Furthermore, DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays indicate that ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments show stronger antioxidant activities than their precursor anthocyanins.

  14. Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Ethyl-Linked Anthocyanin-Flavanol Pigments from Model Wine Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxi Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin-flavanol pigments, formed during red wine fermentation and storage by condensation reactions between anthocyanins and flavanols (monomers, oligomers, and polymers, are one of the major groups of polyphenols in aged red wine. However, knowledge of their biological activities is lacking. This is probably due to the structural diversity and complexity of these molecules, which makes the large-scale separation and isolation of the individual compounds very difficult, thus restricting their further study. In this study, anthocyanins (i.e., malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside and (–-epicatechin were first isolated at a preparative scale by high-speed counter-current chromatography. The condensation reaction between each of the isolated anthocyanins and (–-epicatechin, mediated by acetaldehyde, was conducted in model wine solutions to obtain ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. The effects of pH, molar ratio, and temperature on the reaction rate were investigated, and the reaction conditions of pH 1.7, molar ratio 1:6:10 (anthocyanin/(–-epicatechin/acetaldehyde, and reaction temperature of 35 °C were identified as optimal for conversion of anthocyanins to ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. Six ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments were isolated in larger quantities and collected under optimal reaction conditions, and their chemical structures were identified by HPLC-QTOF-MS and ECD analyses. Furthermore, DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays indicate that ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments show stronger antioxidant activities than their precursor anthocyanins.

  15. Carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium requires Ca2+ and calcineurin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Dana M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inside bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus retinal pigment epithelial cells, pigment granules move in response to extracellular signals. During the process of aggregation, pigment motility is directed toward the cell nucleus; in dispersion, pigment is directed away from the nucleus and into long apical processes. A number of different chemicals have been found to initiate dispersion, and carbachol (an acetylcholine analog is one example. Previous research indicates that the carbachol-receptor interaction activates a Gq-mediated pathway which is commonly linked to Ca2+ mobilization. The purpose of the present study was to test for involvement of calcium and to probe calcium-dependent mediators to reveal their role in carbachol-mediated dispersion. Results Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion was blocked by the calcium chelator BAPTA. In contrast, the calcium channel antagonist verapamil, and incubation in Ca2+-free medium failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion. The calcineurin inhibitor cypermethrin blocked carbachol-induced dispersion; whereas, two protein kinase C inhibitors (staurosporine and bisindolylmaleimide II failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusion A rise in intracellular calcium is necessary for carbachol-induced dispersion; however, the Ca2+ requirement is not dependent on extracellular sources, implying that intracellular stores are sufficient to enable pigment granule dispersion to occur. Calcineurin is a likely Ca2+-dependent mediator involved in the signal cascade. Although the pathway leads to the generation of diacylglycerol and calcium (both required for the activation of certain PKC isoforms, our evidence does not support a significant role for PKC.

  16. Key factors for UV curable pigment dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magny, B.; Pezron, E.; Ciceron, P.H.; Askienazy, A.

    1999-01-01

    UV oligomers with good pigment dispersion are needed to allow good formulation flexibility and possibility to apply thinner films. Pigment dispersion mainly depends on three phenomena: the wetting of agglomerates, the breakage of agglomerates by mechanical stress and the stabilization of smaller agglomerates and primary particles against flocculation. It has been shown that oligomers with low viscosity and low surface tension induce a good pigment wetting. Examples of monomers and oligomers for good pigment dispersion are given

  17. The gecko visual pigments. The behavior of opsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescitelli, F

    1979-05-01

    The 521-pigment extracted out of the retina of the Tokay gecko has the typical stereospecificity of the vertebrate visual pigments. This is true for the pigment in the chloride-depleted, "blue-shifted" state as well as for the normal pigment with added chloride. While in the chloride-deficient state, pigment regeneration occurred with both 11-cis- and 9-cis-retinals and the regenerated photopigments were also in the blue-shifted, chloride-depleted state. As with the native pigment, these regenerated pigments were bathochromically shifted to their normal positions by the addition of chloride. Chloride-deficient opsin by itself also responded to chloride for the pigment regenerated with 11-cis-retinal from such chloride-treated opsin was in the normal 521-position. Regeneration was always rapid, reaching completion in less than 5 min, and was significantly faster than for cow rhodopsin regenerating under the same conditions. This rapid rate was found with or without chloride, with both 11-cis- and 9-cis-retinals and in the presence of the sulfhydryl poison, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate (PMB). Like the native chloride-deficient pigment, the regenerated chloride-depleted photopigments responded to PMB by a blue shift beyond the position of the chloride-deficient state. The addition of chloride to these "poisoned" regenerated pigments caused a bathochromic shift of such magnitude as to indicate a repair of both the PMB and chloride-deficient blue shift. In this discussion the possible implications of these results to phylogenetic considerations are considered as well as to some molecular properties of the 521-pigment.

  18. Non-aqueous pigmented inkjet inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEROOVER, GEERT; Bernaerts, Katrien; HOOGMARTENS, IVAN

    2009-01-01

    A non-aqueous inkjet ink comprises a benzimidazolone pigment and a polymeric dispersant according to Formula (I): wherein, T represents hydrogen or a polymerization terminating group; Z represents theA non-aqueous inkjet ink comprises a benzimidazolone pigment and a polymeric dispersant according to

  19. Microscopic Analysis of Pigments Extracted from Spalting Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarath M. Vega Gutierrez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pigments that are currently available in the market usually come from synthetic sources, or, if natural, often need mordants to bind to the target substrate. Recent research on the fungal pigment extracts from Scytalidium cuboideum, Scytalidium ganodermophthorum, Chlorociboria aeruginosa, and Chlorociboria aeruginascens have been shown to successfully dye materials, like wood, bamboo, and textiles, however, there is no information about their binding mechanisms. Due to this, a microscopic study was performed to provide information to future manufacturers interested in these pigments. The results of this study show that S. ganodermophthorum and C. aeruginosa form an amorphous layer on substrates, while S. cuboideum forms crystal-like structures. The attachment and morphology indicate that there might be different chemical and physical interactions between the extracted pigments and the materials. This possibility can explain the high resistance of the pigments to UV light and color fastness that makes them competitive against synthetic pigments. These properties make these pigments a viable option for an industry that demands natural pigments with the properties of the synthetic ones.

  20. Gingival Pigmentation Affected by Smoking among Different Age Groups: A Quantitative Analysis of Gingival Pigmentation Using Clinical Oral Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tomotaka; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Takiuchi, Hiroya; Sugiyama, Seiichi; Hanioka, Takashi; Naito, Toru

    2017-08-04

    The presence of any age-related differences in gingival pigmentation associated with smoking, particularly in a young population, remains to be fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the age-related differences in smoking gingival pigmentation. Gingival pigmentation was analyzed using the gingival melanosis record (GMR) and Hedin's classification with frontal oral photographs taken at 16 dental offices in Japan. Participants were categorized into 10-year age groups, and their baseline photographs were compared. In addition, to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on gingival pigmentation, subjects were divided into a former smoker group (stopped smoking) and current smoker group. A total of 259 patients 19 to 79 years of age were analyzed. People in their 30s showed the most widespread gingival pigmentation. In addition, subjects in their 20s showed a weak effect of smoking cessation on gingival pigmentation. These findings suggested that the gingival pigmentation induced by smoking was more remarkable in young people than in middle-aged people. This information may be useful for anti-smoking education, especially among young populations with a high affinity for smoking.

  1. PRODUCTION OF MONASCUS-LIKE AZAPHILONE PIGMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of biotechnological production of polyketide based colorants from filamentous fungi, in particular a method for preparing a biomass comprising a Monascus-like pigment composition from a nontoxigenic and non-pathogenic fungal source. The present invention...... further relates to use of the Monascus-like pigment composition as a colouring agent for food items and/or non-food items, and a cosmetic composition comprising the Monascus-like pigment composition....

  2. Pigmented xerodermoid - Report of three cases

    OpenAIRE

    Das Jayanta Kumar; Gangopadhyay Asok Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Pigmented xerodermoid, a rare genodermatosis, presents with clinical features and pathology similar to xeroderma pigmentosum, but at a later age. DNA repair replication is normal, but there is total depression of DNA synthesis after exposure to UV radiation. Two siblings in their teens and a man in his thirties with features of pigmented xerodermoid, e.g. photophobia, freckle-like lesions, keratoses, dryness of skin, and hypo- and hyper-pigmentation, are described. Although classically the on...

  3. Production of Monascus-like azaphilone Pigment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of biotechnological production of polyketide based colorants from filamentous fungi, in particular a method for preparing a biomass comprising a Monascus-like pigment composition from a nontoxigenic and non-pathogenic fungal source. The present invention...... further relates to use of the Monascus-like pigment composition as a colouring agent for food items and/or non-food items, and a cosmetic composition comprising the Monascus-like pigment composition....

  4. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvestin...

  5. Mutations in CTNNA1 cause butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and perturbed retinal pigment epithelium integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saksens, N.T.; Krebs, M.P.; Schoenmaker, F.E.; Hicks, W.; Yu, M.; Shi, L.; Rowe, L.; Collin, G.B.; Charette, J.R.; Letteboer, S.J.; Neveling, K.; Moorsel, T.W. van; Abu-Ltaif, S.; Baere, E. De; Walraedt, S.; Banfi, S.; Simonelli, F.; Cremers, F.P.; Boon, C.J.; Roepman, R.; Leroy, B.P.; Peachey, N.S.; Hoyng, C.B.; Nishina, P.M.; Hollander, A.I. den

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy is an eye disease characterized by lesions in the macula that can resemble the wings of a butterfly. Here we report the identification of heterozygous missense mutations in the CTNNA1 gene (encoding alpha-catenin 1) in three families with butterfly-shaped pigment

  6. Seperation, identification and analysis of pigment (melanin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine strains among 180 Streptomyces isolates produce a diffusible dark brown pigment on both peptone-yeast extract agar and synthetic tyrosine-agar. They also show the positive reaction to Ltyrosine or L-dopa substrates. The pigment has been referred to be as merely as dark brown watersoluble pigment, as melanoid or ...

  7. Proton beam modification of lead white pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Gutiérrez, P.C.; Miserque, F.; Thomé, L.

    2013-01-01

    Pigments and paint materials are known to be sensitive to particle irradiation. Occasionally, the analysis of paintings by PIXE can induce a slight or dark stain depending on the experimental conditions (beam current, dose, particle energy). In order to understand this discoloration, we have irradiated various types of art white pigments – lead white (hydrocerussite and basic lead sulfate), gypsum, calcite, zinc oxide and titanium oxide – with an external 3 MeV proton micro-beam commonly used for PIXE experiments. We have observed various sensitivities depending on the pigment. No visible change occurs for calcite and titanium oxide, whereas lead white pigments are very sensitive. For the majority of the studied compounds, the discoloration is proportional to the beam current and charge. The damage induced by proton beam irradiation in lead white pigments was studied by micro-Raman and XPS spectroscopies. Structural modifications and dehydration were detected. Damage recovery was investigated by thermal treatment and UV-light irradiation. The discoloration disappeared after one week of UV illumination, showing that PIXE experiments could be safely undertaken for pigments and paintings

  8. DNA damage in isolated rat hepatocytes exposed to C.I. pigment orange 5 and C.I. pigment yellow 12 by the alkaline comet assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Wallin, Håkan; Grunnet, N

    1998-01-01

    The induction of DNA damage by commonly used printing ink pigments, C.I. pigment orange 5 (C.I. 12075) and C.I. pigment yellow 12 (C.I. 21090), was investigated in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes with the comet assay. C.I. pigment yellow 12 is a 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine-based diarylide pigment...

  9. Impact of Pigments on Self-Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Ivanauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe an impact of using iron oxide pigment on self-compacting concrete (SCC properties. We have experimented with adding portions of iron oxide pigment from 3 % to 6 % into cement paste. A few alternative pigments (chromic oxide and iron oxide hydroxide were used for performing the same experiments. The impact of these pigments on a normal cement paste is described in this paper. We demonstrate that iron oxide pigment reduces the need for water in a normal cement paste. However, adding the pigment also reduces the compressive strength of concrete up to 20 %. The concrete specimens were tested in various time spans, i.e. 1 day to 28 days, by keeping them in 20 ± 2 ºC water – normal consolidation regimen. Some of the specimens were processed in steam chamber, at 60 ºC in order to make the process of the cement hydration faster, as well as to estimate an impact of active SiO2 proportion in ash on SCC properties. We show that using iron oxide pigment for SCC mixture increases the slump-flow property of concrete mix up to 5 %. Experiments with solidified concrete have demonstrated that iron oxide diminishes water absorption up to 6 % and decreases open concrete porosity that makes concrete resistant against freezing. Article in Lithuanian

  10. The gecko visual pigment: the chromophore dark exchange reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescitelli, F

    1988-02-01

    This study confirms the occurrence of a dark-exchange reaction in the extracted 521-pigment of the Tokay gecko (G. gekko). The present study involved the exchange, in the dark, of the natural 11-cis-chromophore by the 9-cis-10-F-retinal analog. This analog is able to combine with the 521-opsin to regenerate a photopigment at 492 nm. In addition to this shift in absorbance from 521 to 492 nm, the analog photopigment has a photosensitivity some 2.4% that of the native 521-system in the chloride-sufficient state. These two properties of the regenerated analog pigment have simplified the demonstration of a dark exchange of chromophores. At 15 degrees C the 9-cis-10-F-analog replaces the 11-cis-chromophore by at least 30% (density-wise) in about 15 hr. This exchange occurs with the system in the chloride-deficient state. The presence of chloride during the period in the dark significantly reduces the magnitude of the exchange. Apparently, the protein has a more open structure at the chromophoric binding site, allowing this interchange of chromophores. The addition of chloride induces a conformational change at this site, 'burying' the Schiff base and reducing the exchange reaction. The biological implication of this mobile property of the gecko opsin is that it is similar to the behavior of the cone pigment iodopsin but is unlike that of rhodopsins. This supports the idea that the gecko visual cells, despite their appearance as rods, are phylogenetically related to ancestral photopic receptors.

  11. Microarray Analysis of Iris Gene Expression in Mice with Mutations Influencing Pigmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantow, Colleen M.; Cuffy, Tryphena L.; Fingert, John H.; Kuehn, Markus H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Several ocular diseases involve the iris, notably including oculocutaneous albinism, pigment dispersion syndrome, and exfoliation syndrome. To screen for candidate genes that may contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases, genome-wide iris gene expression patterns were comparatively analyzed from mouse models of these conditions. Methods. Iris samples from albino mice with a Tyr mutation, pigment dispersion–prone mice with Tyrp1 and Gpnmb mutations, and mice resembling exfoliation syndrome with a Lyst mutation were compared with samples from wild-type mice. All mice were strain (C57BL/6J), age (60 days old), and sex (female) matched. Microarrays were used to compare transcriptional profiles, and differentially expressed transcripts were described by functional annotation clustering using DAVID Bioinformatics Resources. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to validate a subset of identified changes. Results. Compared with wild-type C57BL/6J mice, each disease context exhibited a large number of statistically significant changes in gene expression, including 685 transcripts differentially expressed in albino irides, 403 in pigment dispersion–prone irides, and 460 in exfoliative-like irides. Conclusions. Functional annotation clusterings were particularly striking among the overrepresented genes, with albino and pigment dispersion–prone irides both exhibiting overall evidence of crystallin-mediated stress responses. Exfoliative-like irides from mice with a Lyst mutation showed overall evidence of involvement of genes that influence immune system processes, lytic vacuoles, and lysosomes. These findings have several biologically relevant implications, particularly with respect to secondary forms of glaucoma, and represent a useful resource as a hypothesis-generating dataset. PMID:20739468

  12. Microbial Production of Food Grade Pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dufossé

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The controversial topic of synthetic dyes in food has been discussed for many years. The scrutiny and negative assessment of synthetic food dyes by the modern consumer have raised a strong interest in natural colouring alternatives. Nature is rich in colours (minerals, plants, microalgae, etc., and pigment-producing microorganisms (fungi, yeasts, bacteria are quite common. Among the molecules produced by microorganisms are carotenoids, melanins, flavins, quinones, and more specifically monascins, violacein or indigo. The success of any pigment produced by fermentation depends upon its acceptability on the market, regulatory approval, and the size of the capital investment required to bring the product to market. A few years ago, some expressed doubts about the successful commercialization of fermentation-derived food grade pigments because of the high capital investment requirements for fermentation facilities and the extensive and lengthy toxicity studies required by regulatory agencies. Public perception of biotechnology-derived products also had to be taken into account. Nowadays some fermentative food grade pigments are on the market: Monascus pigments, astaxanthin from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, Arpink Red from Penicillium oxalicum, riboflavin from Ashbya gossypii, b-carotene from Blakeslea trispora. The successful marketing of pigments derived from algae or extracted from plants, both as a food colour and a nutritional supplement, reflects the presence and importance of niche markets in which consumers are willing to pay a premium for »all natural ingredients«.

  13. Studies on pigments of the myxomycete Physarum nudum. II. Separation and optical properties of the pigments from plasmodia cultured in darkness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Raczkowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the data on Separation and some optical properties of the pigments obtained from the plasmodium of the myxomycete Physarum nudum grown in the dark. Pigment Separation was performed by means of thin-layer chromatography with celulose MN 300 as adsorbent and with the solvent: tert.-butylalcohol, H2O, 3N NH4OH at the ratio 5:2:1 In these conditions the chromatograms revealed 12 coloured bands from which pigments were eluted and their absorption spectra as well as the spectra of fluorescence emission were determined. The isolated pigments differ from one another by their physical properties (different Rf values, localization of absorption maxima, and behaviour in acid solution. Nevertheless, certain analogies perceptible between particular pigments per-mitted to distinguish 3 families of the studied pigments demonstrating similar properties.

  14. Fish pigmentation and the melanocortin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal, Laura; Suarez-Bregua, Paula; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel; Braasch, Ingo; Rotllant, Josep

    2017-09-01

    The melanocortin system is a complex neuroendocrine signaling mechanism involved in numerous physiological processes in vertebrates, including pigmentation, steroidogenesis and metabolic control. This review focuses at one of its most fascinating function in fish, its regulatory role in the control of pigmentation, in which the melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r), its agonist α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-Msh), and the endogenous antagonist agouti signaling protein (Asip1) are the main players. Functional control of Mc1r, which is highly expressed in fish skin and whose activation stimulates melanin production and melanosome dispersion in fish melanophores, is considered a key mechanism for vertebrate pigment phenotypes. The α-Msh peptide, the most documented Mc1r agonist involved in pigmentation, is produced in the pituitary gland, activating melanin synthesis by binding to Mc1r in fish melanophores. Finally, Asip1 is the putative factor for establishing the evolutionarily conserved dorso-ventral pigment pattern found across vertebrates. However, we are just starting to understand how other melanocortin system components are acting in this complex regulatory network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Topical problems in the biosynthesis of red blood pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franck, B.

    1982-01-01

    Uroporphyrinogen III plays a key role in the biosynthesis of heme, the red pigment of blood. In vivo studies with specifically 14 C- and 3 H-labeled precursors have revealed that the formation of uroporphyrinogen III in the organism follows several primary and subsidiary pathways. Model experiments on the pattern of biosynthesis have led to simple and effective methods of synthesizing uroporphyrin analogs and have shwon that their production is strongly favored thermodynamically, The biologically important porphyrins thus available permit a mechanistic explanantion of the light-induced dermatoses in porphyria diseases and suggest promising medical applications in diagnosis and therapy. (orig.)

  16. Pigment dispersion syndrome masquerading as acute anterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis Alonso; Rodríguez-García, Alejandro; Foster, C Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Signs and symptoms of pigment dispersion may be confused with those of acute anterior uveitis. This case series is intended to aid the ophthalmologist in the clinical differentiation between these two disorders. The authors present a series of 6 patients with pigment dispersion who were initially diagnosed as having acute anterior uveitis and treated with anti-inflammatory medication, including corticosteroids. The patients were referred for a second opinion due to poor or no response to therapy and were found to have pigment dispersion instead of uveitis. Symptoms of pigment dispersion may consist of blurred vision, redness, ocular pain, and photophobia, all of which are also symptoms of acute anterior uveitis. These symptoms, plus the fact that pigment floating in the aqueous humor can be mistaken for inflammation, make diagnosis challenging. Moreover, the possible co-existence of true anterior uveitis and pigment dispersion makes the diagnosis and treatment more difficult.

  17. Light-induced vegetative anthocyanin pigmentation in Petunia

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, Nick W.; Lewis, David H.; Zhang, Huaibi; Irving, Louis J.; Jameson, Paula E.; Davies, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    The Lc petunia system, which displays enhanced, light-induced vegetative pigmentation, was used to investigate how high light affects anthocyanin biosynthesis, and to assess the effects of anthocyanin pigmentation upon photosynthesis. Lc petunia plants displayed intense purple anthocyanin pigmentation throughout the leaves and stems when grown under high-light conditions, yet remain acyanic when grown under shade conditions. The coloured phenotypes matched with an accumulation of anthocyanins...

  18. Clinical characteristics of pigment dispersion syndrome in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, G; Wang, N; Tang, X; Zhang, S; Chen, H

    2009-08-01

    To report clinical findings and characteristics of pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) in Chinese patients. PDS suspects with any one of the following signs: corneal endothelial pigmentation, iris transillumination defects (ITDs), pigment granule dusting on anterior iris surface, posterior iris bowing, trabecular meshwork (TM) pigmentation, and lenticular or zonular pigmentation were evaluated for PDS at the glaucoma specialty clinic at Beijing Tongren Eye Centre. Diagnosis of PDS required at least two of the following signs: Krukenberg spindle, moderate-to-heavy TM pigmentation (>or=Scheie II) and any degree of lenticular and/or zonular pigmentation. Eighteen patients (12 males and six females) were identified as having PDS during a 1-year period, with mean age of 35.5+/-7.0 years (range, 22-49). All but two eyes from two patients had myopia of -0.5 D or greater, with mean spherical equivalent power of -5.20+/-5.80 D (range, -24.75+/-0.5). The average IOP at initial diagnosis was 33.7+/-10.5 mm Hg (range, 16-56). Fifteen patients (83.3%) were found to have pigmentary glaucoma at their initial diagnosis. All patients showed homogenous increased TM pigmentation as well as lenticular and/or zonular pigmentation. 61.1% of patients (11 of 18) had Krukenberg spindle. None of the patients exhibited spoke-like midperipheral ITDs except for trace-isolated transillumination in both eyes of the two patients. The most common clinical findings in Chinese PDS patients include homogeneous TM pigmentation and pigment granule dusting on lens zonules and/or posterior peripheral lens surface. ITDs are uncommon in Chinese patients with PDS.

  19. Violacein: Properties and Production of a Versatile Bacterial Pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Yeol Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Violacein-producing bacteria, with their striking purple hues, have undoubtedly piqued the curiosity of scientists since their first discovery. The bisindole violacein is formed by the condensation of two tryptophan molecules through the action of five proteins. The genes required for its production, vioABCDE, and the regulatory mechanisms employed have been studied within a small number of violacein-producing strains. As a compound, violacein is known to have diverse biological activities, including being an anticancer agent and being an antibiotic against Staphylococcus aureus and other Gram-positive pathogens. Identifying the biological roles of this pigmented molecule is of particular interest, and understanding violacein’s function and mechanism of action has relevance to those unmasking any of its commercial or therapeutic benefits. Unfortunately, the production of violacein and its related derivatives is not easy and so various groups are also seeking to improve the fermentative yields of violacein through genetic engineering and synthetic biology. This review discusses the recent trends in the research and production of violacein by both natural and genetically modified bacterial strains.

  20. Pigmented skin disorders: Evaluation and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentary disorders are disturbances of human skin color. Minor changes in the cellular physiology of the skin can dramatically affect pigment production in positive or negative manner. In this these, associated diseases, therapeutical options and disease parameters for the pigmentation disorder

  1. Positive selection of a duplicated UV-sensitive visual pigment coincides with wing pigment evolution in Heliconius butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Adriana D.; Bybee, Seth M.; Bernard, Gary D.; Yuan, Furong; Sison-Mangus, Marilou P.; Reed, Robert D.; Warren, Andrew D.; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2010-01-01

    The butterfly Heliconius erato can see from the UV to the red part of the light spectrum with color vision proven from 440 to 640 nm. Its eye is known to contain three visual pigments, rhodopsins, produced by an 11-cis-3-hydroxyretinal chromophore together with long wavelength (LWRh), blue (BRh) and UV (UVRh1) opsins. We now find that H. erato has a second UV opsin mRNA (UVRh2)—a previously undescribed duplication of this gene among Lepidoptera. To investigate its evolutionary origin, we screened eye cDNAs from 14 butterfly species in the subfamily Heliconiinae and found both copies only among Heliconius. Phylogeny-based tests of selection indicate positive selection of UVRh2 following duplication, and some of the positively selected sites correspond to vertebrate visual pigment spectral tuning residues. Epi-microspectrophotometry reveals two UV-absorbing rhodopsins in the H. erato eye with λmax = 355 nm and 398 nm. Along with the additional UV opsin, Heliconius have also evolved 3-hydroxy-DL-kynurenine (3-OHK)-based yellow wing pigments not found in close relatives. Visual models of how butterflies perceive wing color variation indicate this has resulted in an expansion of the number of distinguishable yellow colors on Heliconius wings. Functional diversification of the UV-sensitive visual pigments may help explain why the yellow wing pigments of Heliconius are so colorful in the UV range compared to the yellow pigments of close relatives lacking the UV opsin duplicate. PMID:20133601

  2. Surgical Management of Iatrogenic Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierlo, Camille Van; Pinto, Luis Abegão; Stalmans, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Iatrogenic pigment dispersion syndrome generally originates from a repetitive, mechanical trauma to the pigmented posterior epithelium of the iris. This trauma can arise after intraocular surgery, most commonly due to an abnormal contact between the intraocular lens (IOL) and the iris. Whether surgical removal of this primary insult can lead to a successful intraocular pressure (IOP) control remains unclear. Case-series. Patients with IOP elevation and clinical signs of pigment dispersion were screened for a diagnosis of iatrogenic IOL-related pigment dispersion. Three patients in which the IOL or the IOL-bag complex caused a pigment dispersion through a repetitive iris chafing were selected. In two cases, replacement of a sulcus-based single-piece IOL (patient 1) or a sub-luxated in-the-bag IOL (patient 2) by an anterior-chamber (AC) iris-fixed IOL led to a sustained decrease in IOP. In the third case, extensive iris atrophy and poor anatomical AC parameters for IOL implantation precluded further surgical intervention. IOL-exchange appears to be a useful tool in the management of iatrogenic pigment dispersion glaucoma due to inappropriate IOL implantation. This cause-oriented approach seems to be effective in controlling IOP, but should be offered only if safety criteria are met. How to cite this article: Van Mierlo C, Abegao Pinto L, Stalmans I. Surgical Management of Iatrogenic Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(1):28-32.

  3. Interaction between Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf pigment and rice proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Xu, Yuan; Zhou, Sumei; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang; Fan, Meihua

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the interaction of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf (VBTL) pigment and rice proteins. In the presence of rice protein, VBTL pigment antioxidant activity and free polyphenol content decreased by 67.19% and 68.11%, respectively, and L(∗) of the protein-pigment complex decreased significantly over time. L(∗) values of albumin, globulin and glutelin during 60-min pigment exposure decreased by 55.00, 57.14, and 54.30%, respectively, indicating that these proteins had bound to the pigment. A significant difference in protein surface hydrophobicity was observed between rice proteins and pigment-protein complexes, indicating that hydrophobic interaction is a major binding mechanism between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. A significant difference in secondary structures between proteins and protein-pigment complexes was also uncovered, indicating that hydrogen bonding may be another mode of interaction between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. Our results indicate that VBTL pigment can stain rice proteins with hydrophobic and hydrogen interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Skin Pigmentation Kinetics after Exposure to Ultraviolet A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbak, M.H.; Philipsen, P.A.; Wiegell, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple exposures to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are the norm in nature and phototherapy. However, studies of the kinetics of pigmentation following UVA exposure have included only fair-skinned persons. The aim of this study was to investigate steady-state pigmentation and fading in 12 Scandinav......Multiple exposures to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are the norm in nature and phototherapy. However, studies of the kinetics of pigmentation following UVA exposure have included only fair-skinned persons. The aim of this study was to investigate steady-state pigmentation and fading in 12...... Scandinavians and 12 Indians/Pakistanis after 6 and 12 exposures on the back using broadband UVA and UVA1 with equal sub-minimal melanogenic doses (individually predetermined). Pigmentation was measured by skin reflectance at 555 and 660 urn. The UV dose to minimal pigmentation was higher in dark......-skinned persons after a single broadband UVA exposure, but independent of pigmentation/skin type after single and multiple UVA1 exposures. To elicit minimal melanogenic doses after 6 and 12 exposures, every dose is lowered by a factor of 2 and 3, respectively, but the cumulative dose increases three- and four...

  5. Pigment Production by the Edible Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gmoser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of pigments by edible filamentous fungi is gaining attention as a result of the increased interest in natural sources with added functionality in the food, feed, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and textile industries. The filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia, used for production of the Indonesian food “oncom”, is one potential source of pigments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the fungus’ pigment production. The joint effect from different factors (carbon and nitrogen source, ZnCl2, MgCl2 and MnCl2 on pigment production by N. intermedia is reported for the first time. The scale-up to 4.5 L bubble column bioreactors was also performed to investigate the effect of pH and aeration. Pigment production of the fungus was successfully manipulated by varying several factors. The results showed that the formation of pigments was strongly influenced by light, carbon, pH, the co-factor Zn2+ and first- to fourth-order interactions between factors. The highest pigmentation (1.19 ± 0.08 mg carotenoids/g dry weight biomass was achieved in a bubble column reactor. This study provides important insights into pigmentation of this biotechnologically important fungus and lays a foundation for future utilizations of N. intermedia for pigment production.

  6. Preparation, characterization and application of some anti- corrosive molybdate pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Ghaffar, M.A.; El-Sawy, S.M.; Ahmed, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    Some molybdate pigments of single and mixed metal ions, namely, zinc, calcium and zinc-calcium molybdates were prepared, characterized and evaluated according to international standard methods. The evaluated pigments were incorporated in some paint formulations. The physicomechanical, chemical and corrosion protective properties of the paint films were measured; this was done in comparison with a commercial imported molybdate pigment. It was found that, the prepared pigments under investigation are fine white crystalline powders of suitable pigment properties. They can be successfully used as environmentally acceptable anti corrosive pigments. They can replace satisfactorily the similar commercial imported pigment and possess adequate or superior properties against corrosion

  7. Carotenoids from Marine Organisms: Biological Functions and Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Galasso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As is the case for terrestrial organisms, carotenoids represent the most common group of pigments in marine environments. They are generally biosynthesized by all autotrophic marine organisms, such as bacteria and archaea, algae and fungi. Some heterotrophic organisms also contain carotenoids probably accumulated from food or partly modified through metabolic reactions. These natural pigments are divided into two chemical classes: carotenes (such as lycopene and α- and β-carotene that are composed of hydrogen and carbon; xanthophylls (such as astaxanthin, fucoxanthin and lutein, which are constituted by hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. Carotenoids, as antioxidant compounds, assume a key role in the protection of cells. In fact, quenching of singlet oxygen, light capture and photosynthesis protection are the most relevant biological functions of carotenoids. The present review aims at describing (i the biological functions of carotenoids and their benefits for human health, (ii the most common carotenoids from marine organisms and (iii carotenoids having large success in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmeceutical industries, highlighting the scientific progress in marine species cultivation for natural pigments production.

  8. Alternative Carrier Solvents for Pigments Extracted from Spalting Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Pittis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of both naturally occurring and synthetic pigmented wood has been prevalent in woodcraft for centuries. Modern manifestations generally involve either woodworkers’ aniline dyes, or pigments derived from a special class of fungi known as spalting fungi. While fungal pigments are more renewable than anilines and pose less of an environmental risk, the carrier required for these pigments—dichloromethane (DCM—is both problematic for humans and tends to only deposit the pigments on the surface of wood instead of evenly within the material. Internal coloration of wood is key to adoption of a pigmenting system by woodworkers. To address this issue, five solvents that had moderate solubility with the pigments extracted from Chlorociboria aeruginosa and Scytalidium cuboideum were identified, in the hopes that a reduction in solubility would result in a greater amount of the pigment deposited inside the wood. Of the tested solvents, acetonitrile was found to produce the highest internal color in ash, Douglas-fir, madrone, mountain hemlock, Port-Orford cedar, Pacific silver fir, red alder and sugar maple. While these carrier solvents are not ideal for extracting the pigments from the fungi, acetonitrile in particular does appear to allow for more pigment to be deposited within wood. The use of acetonitrile over DCM offers new opportunities for possible industrial spalting applications, in which larger pieces of wood could be uniformly pigmented and sold to the end user in larger quantities than are currently available with spalted wood.

  9. Light-induced vegetative anthocyanin pigmentation in Petunia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Nick W.; Lewis, David H.; Zhang, Huaibi; Irving, Louis J.; Jameson, Paula E.; Davies, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    The Lc petunia system, which displays enhanced, light-induced vegetative pigmentation, was used to investigate how high light affects anthocyanin biosynthesis, and to assess the effects of anthocyanin pigmentation upon photosynthesis. Lc petunia plants displayed intense purple anthocyanin pigmentation throughout the leaves and stems when grown under high-light conditions, yet remain acyanic when grown under shade conditions. The coloured phenotypes matched with an accumulation of anthocyanins and flavonols, as well as the activation of the early and late flavonoid biosynthetic genes required for flavonol and anthocyanin production. Pigmentation in Lc petunia only occurred under conditions which normally induce a modest amount of anthocyanin to accumulate in wild-type Mitchell petunia [Petunia axillaris×(Petunia axillaris×Petunia hybrida cv. ‘Rose of Heaven’)]. Anthocyanin pigmentation in Lc petunia leaves appears to screen underlying photosynthetic tissues, increasing light saturation and light compensation points, without reducing the maximal photosynthetic assimilation rate (Amax). In the Lc petunia system, where the bHLH factor Leaf colour is constitutively expressed, expression of the bHLH (Lc) and WD40 (An11) components of the anthocyanin regulatory system were not limited, suggesting that the high-light-induced anthocyanin pigmentation is regulated by endogenous MYB transcription factors. PMID:19380423

  10. Microwave Assisted Rapid and Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using a Pigment Produced by Streptomyces coelicolor klmp33

    OpenAIRE

    Manikprabhu, Deene; Lingappa, K.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional synthesis of silver nanoparticles using chemical methods produces toxic substances. In contrast biological synthesis is regarded as a safe and nontoxic process but the major drawback of biological synthesis is, this process is slow. In the present investigation, we developed a rapid and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles employing a pigment produced by Streptomyces coelicolor klmp33 in just 90?s. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmis...

  11. Non-conventional synthesis of ceramic pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziubak, C.; Rutkowski, R.; Gebel, R.

    2003-01-01

    A short characterization of traditional methods of homogenization of components, used to produce ceramic pigments, was presented. Efficient and economic methods are searched to prepare raw material sets for ceramic pigments as alternative methods for the traditional way of wet mixing in ball mill or of dry mixing in the mixer of 'Z' type. The results of research of the use of sol-gel method to achieve these aims are presented. At the present stage of research, carried out on the yellow praseodymium and coral-pink iron-zirconium pigments show that traditional methods are better. (author)

  12. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725 Food...

  13. Platelet-Rich Plasma Increases Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Cagri A; Ertas, Nilgun Markal

    2017-11-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous solution of plasma containing 4 to 7 times the baseline concentration of human platelets. Platelet-rich plasma has been widely popular in facial rejuvenation to attenuate wrinkles and has been practically used. The authors have been encountering various patients of increased hiperpigmentation following PRP applications that were performed to attenuate the postinflammatory hiperpigmentation especially after laser treatment. The authors have been using PRP for facial rejuvenation in selected patients and in 1 patient the authors have encountered increased pigmentation over the pigmented skin lesions that were present before the application. The authors recommend that the PRP might increase pigmentation especially in the face region and precautions might be taken before and after the application. Platelet-rich plasma should not be used for the treatment of post inflammatory hiperpigmentation.

  14. Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilchez, C.; Forján, E.; Cuaresma, M.; Bédmar, F.; Garbayo, I.; Vega, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological

  15. Hyperspectral remote sensing of plant pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, George Alan

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of pigment concentrations are diagnostic of a range of plant physiological properties and processes. This paper appraises the developing technologies and analytical methods for quantifying pigments non-destructively and repeatedly across a range of spatial scales using hyperspectral remote sensing. Progress in deriving predictive relationships between various characteristics and transforms of hyperspectral reflectance data are evaluated and the roles of leaf and canopy radiative transfer models are reviewed. Requirements are identified for more extensive intercomparisons of different approaches and for further work on the strategies for interpreting canopy scale data. The paper examines the prospects for extending research to the wider range of pigments in addition to chlorophyll, testing emerging methods of hyperspectral analysis and exploring the fusion of hyperspectral and LIDAR remote sensing. In spite of these opportunities for further development and the refinement of techniques, current evidence of an expanding range of applications in the ecophysiological, environmental, agricultural, and forestry sciences highlights the growing value of hyperspectral remote sensing of plant pigments.

  16. [Primary pigmented breast adenocarcinoma in a male patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauendorffer, J-N; Pages, C; Abd Alsamad, I; Bagot, M; Fraitag, S

    2013-01-01

    Pigmented mammary tumours are rare. Herein, we report the third case of primary pigmented breast adenocarcinoma in a male patient with clinical mimicking of nodular melanoma of the nipple. A male patient presented with a pigmented nodule of the right nipple. Histological examination of the lesion showed dermal and subcutaneous adenocarcinomatous proliferation. The perilesional stroma contained melanin both inside and outside macrophages, leading us to conclude on primary pigmented breast adenocarcinoma clinically mimicking nodular melanoma of the nipple. Local production of melanin by neoplastic cells in the mammary carcinoma was postulated as the cause of hyperpigmentation of the tumour. Other possible causes are transfer of melanin from overlying melanocytes of the pigmented areolar epidermis to the underlying neoplastic cells, or melanin synthesis by intratumoral melanocytes migrating from the epidermis (which strikes us as the most convincing interpretation for the reported case). Breast adenocarcinoma is a rare tumour in men and may present clinically as a pigmented lesion of the nipple, resulting in the problem of differential diagnosis with primary or metastasised nodular melanoma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Micro-pigmentation: implications for patients and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collingridge, Kim; Calcluth, Julie

    In the UK, reconstructive breast surgery is routinely offered to patients undergoing surgery for breast cancer. The results can be excellent, but without a nipple-areola complex the patient can feel incomplete. In response to patient need, an innovative nurse-led micro-pigmentation service has been developed in the authors' NHS trust, which provides women (and men) an opportunity to complete their reconstruction process. With the use of coloured pigments, micro-pigmentation creates a permanent image of a nipple-areola complex, which improves the aesthetic appearance of the surgically-created breast. As with the development of any new nurse-led innovation, the micro-pigmentation service has professional and client implications. Breast cancer can be devastating and may induce many psychological concerns, not least about body image and sexuality. This article addresses these issues, along with professional matters, such as autonomous practice, role expansion and the blurring of clinical boundaries. These factors are considered in relation to the nursing management of the micro-pigmentation service, where patient autonomy is encouraged to promote acceptance of self-image and closure on the breast cancer experience.

  18. Pigment Production from Immobilized Monascus sp. Utilizing Polymeric Resin Adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Patrick J.; Wang, Henry Y.

    1984-01-01

    Pigment production by the fungus Monascus sp. was studied to determine why Monascus sp. provides more pigment in solid culture than in submerged culture. Adding a sterilized nonionic polymeric adsorbent resin directly to the growing submerged culture did not enhance the pigment production, thus indicating that pigment extraction is probably not a factor. Monascus cells immobilized in hydrogel were studied and exhibited decreased pigment production as a result of immobilization. This result is...

  19. Analysis of basidiomycete pigments in situ by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, James P; Matthäus, Christian; Lenz, Claudius; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Popp, Jürgen

    2018-02-07

    Basidiomycetes, that is, mushroom-type fungi, are known to produce pigments in response to environmental impacts. As antioxidants with a high level of unsaturation, these compounds can neutralize highly oxidative species. In the event of close contact with other microbes, the enzymatically controlled pigment production is triggered and pigment secretion is generated at the interaction zone. The identification and analysis of these pigments is important to understand the defense mechanism of fungi, which is essential to counteract an uncontrolled spread of harmful species. Usually, a detailed analysis of the pigments is time consuming as it depends on laborious sample preparation and isolation procedures. Furthermore, the applied protocols often influence the chemical integrity of the compound of interest. A possibility to noninvasively investigate the pigmentation is Raman microspectroscopy. The methodology has the potential to analyze the chemical composition of the sample spatially resolved at the interaction zone. After the acquisition of a representative spectroscopic library, the pigment production by basidiomycetes was monitored for during response to different fungi and bacteria. The presented results describe a very efficient noninvasive way of pigment analysis which can be applied with minimal sample preparation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Synthesis of chromium containing pigments from chromium galvanic sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreola, F.; Barbieri, L.; Bondioli, F.; Cannio, M.; Ferrari, A.M.; Lancellotti, I.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the screening results of the scientific activity conducted on laboratory scale to valorise chromium(III) contained in the galvanic sludge as chromium precursor for ceramic pigments are reported. The valorisation of this waste as a secondary raw material (SRM) is obtained by achievement of thermal and chemical stable crystal structures able to color ceramic material. Two different pigments pink CaCr 0.04 Sn 0.97 SiO 5 and green Ca 3 Cr 2 (SiO 4 ) 3 were synthesized by solid-state reactions using dried Cr sludge as chromium oxide precursor. The obtained pigments were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. Furthermore the color developed in a suitable ceramic glaze was investigated in comparison with the color developed by the pigments prepared from pure Cr 2 O 3 . The characterization carried out corroborates the thermal and chemical stability of the synthesized pigments and, especially for the Cr-Sn pink pigment, the powders develop an intense color that is very similar to the color developed by the pigments obtained starting from pure Cr 2 O 3

  1. Chemical characterisation of zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazulla Barreda, M. F.; Rodrigo Edo, M.; Blasco Roca, E.; Orduna Cordero, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper addresses the development of a methodology that allows the complete chemical characterisation of zircon cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments including minor and major elements. To develop the methodology, five zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide pigments with different hues were selected, studying the different measurement process steps, from sample preparation to the optimisation of the measurement of the different components of the pigments by spectroscopic techniques (WD-XRF and elemental analysis by combustion and IR detection). The chemical characterisation method developed was validated with synthetic standards prepared from the mixture of certified reference materials and pure oxides because no certified referenced materials of this type of pigments were commercially available. The developed method can be used for a complete chemical characterization of zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments with a very low uncertainty for all the elements analysed. (Author)

  2. The Assessment of Natural Pigmentation in Archaeological Wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharff, Annemette Bruselius

    2018-01-01

    Naturally coloured wool contains pigment grains that mainly occur as ellipsoidal organelles (eumelanin) or spher¬ical grains (pheomelanin). Eumelanin is the most commonly occurring pigment, but naturally coloured wool fi¬bres contain both eumelanin and pheomelanin. In black and brown wool....... This can especially be the case if the pigments are degraded. When analysing the textiles from Lønne Hede (a Danish Iron Age inhumation grave), it was difficult to gain exact information about the natural pigmentation in some of the samples. To investigate this further, four samples of red-brown yarns from...... patterned fragments were selected for analyses. Earlier dyestuff analyses of the red-brown yarns gave no results, and it was therefore necessary to test the yarns for natural pigmentation. Three different methods were used for the analy¬ses. Transmitted light microscopy of whole mounts of the fibres...

  3. Skin pigmentation provides evidence of convergent melanism in extinct marine reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Johan; Sjövall, Peter; Carney, Ryan M; Uvdal, Per; Gren, Johan A; Dyke, Gareth; Schultz, Bo Pagh; Shawkey, Matthew D; Barnes, Kenneth R; Polcyn, Michael J

    2014-02-27

    Throughout the animal kingdom, adaptive colouration serves critical functions ranging from inconspicuous camouflage to ostentatious sexual display, and can provide important information about the environment and biology of a particular organism. The most ubiquitous and abundant pigment, melanin, also has a diverse range of non-visual roles, including thermoregulation in ectotherms. However, little is known about the functional evolution of this important biochrome through deep time, owing to our limited ability to unambiguously identify traces of it in the fossil record. Here we present direct chemical evidence of pigmentation in fossilized skin, from three distantly related marine reptiles: a leatherback turtle, a mosasaur and an ichthyosaur. We demonstrate that dark traces of soft tissue in these fossils are dominated by molecularly preserved eumelanin, in intimate association with fossilized melanosomes. In addition, we suggest that contrary to the countershading of many pelagic animals, at least some ichthyosaurs were uniformly dark-coloured in life. Our analyses expand current knowledge of pigmentation in fossil integument beyond that of feathers, allowing for the reconstruction of colour over much greater ranges of extinct taxa and anatomy. In turn, our results provide evidence of convergent melanism in three disparate lineages of secondarily aquatic tetrapods. Based on extant marine analogues, we propose that the benefits of thermoregulation and/or crypsis are likely to have contributed to this melanisation, with the former having implications for the ability of each group to exploit cold environments.

  4. Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus resembling a pigmented neurofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus and pigmented neurofibroma (PNF are close mimics and pose a clinicopathological challenge. We present a case of pigmented hypertrichotic plaque over lumbosacral region and discuss the differential diagnosis and its clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemistry features which may aid in differentiation. We highlight the difficulties faced in differentiating neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus from pigmented neurofibroma.

  5. Genetic interaction between Pax6 and β-catenin in the developing retinal pigment epithelium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fujimura, Naoko; Klímová, Lucie; Antošová, Barbora; Smolíková, Jana; Machoň, Ondřej; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 225, č. 2 (2015), s. 121-128 ISSN 0949-944X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/11/2198; GA ČR GAP305/10/2141; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MŠk(CZ) LK11214 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Pax6 * beta-Catenin * Retina * Pigmentation * Transdifferentiation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.508, year: 2015

  6. A molecular investigation of adsorption onto mineral pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninness, Brian J.

    Pigment suspensions are important in several processes such as ceramics, paints, inks, and coatings. In the wet state, pigments are combined with a variety of chemical species such as polymers, surfactants, and polyelectrolytes which produce a complex colloidal system. The adsorption, desorption, and redistribution of these species at the pigment-aqueous solution interface can have an impact on the behavior in both the wet state or its final dried state. The goal of this work is to establish a molecular picture of the adsorption properties of these pigmented systems. A novel in situ infrared technique has been developed which allows the detection of adsorbed surface species on pigment particles in an aqueous environment. The technique involves the use of a polymeric binder to anchor the colloidal pigment particles to the surface of an internal reflection element (IRE). The binder only weakly perturbs about 25% of the reactive surface sites (hydroxyl groups) on silica. The reaction of succinic anhydride with an aminosilanized silica surface has been quantified using this technique. The adsorption dynamics of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (C16TAB) at the TiO2-aqueous solution interface has been investigated using Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and electrokinetic analysis. At low bulk concentrations, C16TAB is shown to adsorb as isolated islands with a "defective" bilayer structure. Anionic probe molecules are shown to effectively "tune" the adsorbed surfactant microstructure. The results indicate that the structure of the adsorbed surfactant layer, and not the amount of adsorbed surfactant, dictates the subsequent adsorption behavior of the system. Atomic Layer Deposition is used to deposit a TiO2 layer onto the surfaces of silica and kaolin pigments. The process involves the cyclic reaction sequence of the vapors of TiCl4 and H2O. Three complete deposition cycles are needed before the surfaces

  7. Pigment and terracotta analyses of Hellenistic figurines in Crete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, P.; Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.

    2003-01-01

    The results of the analyses performed on blue, black, brown, orange, white and purple pigments decorating Hellenistic figurines, excavated in a rock-cut tomb in the archaeological zone of Chania, Crete, Greece, are presented. Different spectroscopic techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence identified the compounds present in the chromatic layers. X-ray diffraction analysis gave complementary information and further support to the spectral assignments. Optical microscopy revealed the nature and sequence of the pigmented layer on the terracotta. Several precious pigments, such as Egyptian blue for the bluish areas, Tyrian purple for the purple ones, and the rare huntite for the white-pigmented areas were identified among the studied pigmented areas. The pigment analysis provides information on the technical aspects related to terracotta manufacture and preservation, and promotes historical indications on cultural and commercial changes among the Mediterranean civilisations

  8. The gecko visual pigment: the anion hypsochromic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescitelli, F; Karvaly, B

    1991-01-01

    The 521-pigment in the retina of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) readily responds to particular physical and chemical changes in its environment. When solubilized in chloride deficient state the addition of Class I anions (Cl-, Br-) induces a bathochromic shift of the absorption spectrum. Class II anions (NO3-, IO3-, N3-, OCN-, SCN-, SeCN-, N(CN)2-), which exhibit ambidental properties, cause an hypsochromic shift. Class III anions (F-, I-, NO2-, CN-, AsO3-, SO2(4-), S2O2(3-) have no spectral effect on the 521-pigment. Cations appear to have no influence on the pigment absorption and Class I anions prevent or reverse the hypsochromic shift caused by Class II anions. It is suggested that the spectral displacements reflect specific changes in the opsin conformation, which alter the immediate (dipolar) environment of the retinal chromophore. The protein conformation seems to promote excited-state processes most in the native 521-pigment state and least in the presence of Class II anions. This in turn suggests that the photosensitivity of the 521-pigment is controlled by the excited rather than by the ground-state properties of the pigment.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of Micrococcus luteus Cartenoid pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Z. Majeed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cartenoids are group of pigments, with enormous types different structurally and functionally, have colors range from red to yellow found in a wide variety of plants, fungi, algae and bacteria. The animals took from food because they cannot make it, on contrary, the plants and microbes produce them due to subjection to environment. The aim of the study is to isolate and characterize the cartenoid pigment from Micrococcus luteus. The pigment extraction was done by acetone, and then was characterized with UltraViolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Then, it was tested for antibacterial activity against five different bacterial isolates and antifungal activity tests against six different fungal isolates by well diffusion method. The results found that, the extracted pigment having antibacterial activity and antifungal activity and having the ability to absorb UVA rays within the range of 300-500 nm. There was no significant difference in antimicrobial effect of pigment, even when the extraction and isolation were done by two culture mediums (Nutrient Broth and Luria Bertani Broth. There were considerable inhibition percentages of adhesion after subjection to Cartenoid pigment ranged between (5.71, 23.84 % for Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively and all the 11 isolate changed from Biofilm producer to non-producer. The isolated compound can be used against different bacterial and fungal infections. So they had a great future in medicine, cosmetics and as a sun protecting agent.

  10. Intraclutch variation in avian eggshell pigmentation: the anaemia hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coster, Greet; De Neve, Liesbeth; Lens, Luc

    2012-10-01

    Many passerine species lay eggs that are speckled with dark protoporphyrin pigmentation. Because protoporphyrin is mainly derived from the blood, we here formulate and test a new hypothesis that links an increase in anaemia along the laying sequence to within-clutch variation in egg pigmentation. More intense pigmentation is expected if pigments accumulate during enhanced red blood cell production in response to anaemia. Reduced pigmentation is expected if pigments are derived from the degradation of red blood cells that circulate in smaller numbers due to blood loss. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated anaemia in great tit (Parus major) females by infesting the nests with hen fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae) prior to egg laying. Polychromatophil (i.e., immature red blood cells) percentage, as a measure of blood cell production, was positively correlated with parasite load confirming that female great tits experienced stronger anaemia when infested with haematophagous parasites during egg laying. We found a positive relationship between spot darkness and laying order that weakened under high parasite load. This result suggests that anaemia in females due to blood-sucking parasites led to diminished protoporphyrin from disintegrated red blood cells and hence a decreased deposition of protoporphyrin. However, the overall increase in pigment darkness along the laying sequence suggests that pigments also accumulate by enhanced red blood cell production caused by anaemia due to egg production itself.

  11. Multiscale Pigment Analysis of Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Erica; Manukyan, Khachatur; Wiescher, Michael; Gura, David

    2017-09-01

    Three medieval illuminated manuscripts (codd. Lat. b. 1; Lat. b. 2; Lat. e. 4), housed at the University of Notre Dame's Hesburgh Library, vary in style, pigments, scribes, and regions, despite all three being Psalters used in the Late Middle Ages. XRF and Raman spectroscopy, which provided the elemental and molecular composition of the pigments, respectively, were used to analyze the pigments' compositions in an attempt to narrow further the manuscripts' possible origins. This experimental investigation emphasizes the importance of understanding the history of the manuscript through their pigments. Codd. Lat. b. 1 and Lat. b. 2 are Latinate German Psalters from the fifteenth century likely used in Katharinenkloster in Nuremberg. While there are visible differences in style within each Psalter, the variations in some of the pigment compositions, such as the inconstant presence of zinc, suggest different admixtures. Cod. Lat. e. 4 is a Latinate English Psalter from the fourteenth century, and it was written by two scribes and illuminated by two distinct painters. It is currently being tested to determine whether there are any correlations between the scribes and painters. These physical analyses will clarify the origins and provenances of the manuscripts.

  12. Corrosion inhibition by lithium zinc phosphate pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alibakhshi, E.; Ghasemi, E.; Mahdavian, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Synthesis of lithium zinc phosphate (LZP) by chemical co-precipitation method. •Corrosion inhibition activity of pigments compare with zinc phosphate (ZP). •LZP showed superior corrosion inhibition effect in EIS measurements. •Evaluation of adhesion strength and dispersion stability. -- Abstract: Lithium zinc phosphate (LZP) has been synthesized through a co-precipitation process and characterized by XRD and IR spectroscopy. The inhibitive performances of this pigment for corrosion of mild steel have been discussed in comparison with the zinc phosphate (ZP) in the pigment extract solution by means of EIS and in the epoxy coating by means of salt spray. The EIS and salt spray results revealed the superior corrosion inhibitive effect of LZP compared to ZP. Moreover, adhesion strength and dispersion stability of the pigmented epoxy coating showed the advantage of LZP compared to ZP

  13. Differences in pigmentation between life cycle stages in Scrippsiella lachrymosa (dinophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Agneta; Smith, Barry C; Cyronak, Tyler; Cooper, Emily; DiTullio, Giacomo R

    2016-02-01

    Various life cycle stages of cyst-producing dinoflagellates often appear differently colored under the microscope; gametes appear paler while zygotes are darker in comparison to vegetative cells. To compare physiological and photochemical competency, the pigment composition of discrete life cycle stages was determined for the common resting cyst-producing dinoflagellate Scrippsiella lachrymosa. Vegetative cells had the highest cellular pigment content (25.2 ± 0.5 pg · cell(-1) ), whereas gamete pigment content was 22% lower. The pigment content of zygotes was 82% lower than vegetative cells, even though they appeared darker under the microscope. Zygotes of S. lachrymosa contained significantly higher cellular concentrations of β-carotene (0.65 ± 0.15 pg · cell(-1) ) than all other life stages. Photoprotective pigments and the de-epoxidation ratio of xanthophylls-cycle pigments in S. lachrymosa were significantly elevated in zygotes and cysts compared to other stages. This suggests a role for accessory pigments in combating intracellular oxidative stress during sexual reproduction or encystment. Resting cysts contained some pigments even though chloroplasts were not visible, suggesting that the brightly colored accumulation body contained photosynthetic pigments. The differences in pigmentation between life stages have implications for interpretation of pigment data from field samples when sampled during dinoflagellate blooms. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  14. Fe K-edge XANES of Maya blue pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Río, M. Sánchez del; Sodo, A.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Neisius, T.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhée, E.; Reyes-Valerio, C.

    2005-08-01

    The utilization of techniques used in Materials Science for the characterization of artefacts of interest for cultural heritage is getting more and more attention nowadays. One of the products of the ancient Maya chemistry is the "Maya blue" pigment, made with natural indigo and palygorskite. This pigment is different from any other pigment used in other parts of the world. It is durable and acid-resistant, and still keeps many secrets to scientists even though it has been studied for more than 50 years. Although the pigment is basically made of palygorskite Si8(Mg2Al2)O20(OH)2(OH2)4.4H2O and an organic colourant (indigo: C16H10N2O2), a number of other compounds have been found in previous studies on archaeological samples, like other clays and minerals, iron nanoparticles, iron oxides, impurities of transition metals (Cr, Mn, Ti, V), etc. We measured at the ESRF ID26 beamline the Fe K-edge XANES spectra of the blue pigment in ancient samples. They are compared to XANES spectra of Maya blue samples synthesized under controlled conditions, and iron oxides usually employed as pigments (hematite and goethite). Our results show that the iron found in ancient Maya blue pigment is related to the Fe exchanged in the palygorskite clay. We did not find iron in metallic form or goethite in archaeological Maya blue.

  15. Fe K-edge XANES of Maya blue pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, M. Sanchez del; Sodo, A.; Eeckhout, S.G.; Neisius, T.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhee, E.; Reyes-Valerio, C.

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of techniques used in Materials Science for the characterization of artefacts of interest for cultural heritage is getting more and more attention nowadays. One of the products of the ancient Maya chemistry is the 'Maya blue' pigment, made with natural indigo and palygorskite. This pigment is different from any other pigment used in other parts of the world. It is durable and acid-resistant, and still keeps many secrets to scientists even though it has been studied for more than 50 years. Although the pigment is basically made of palygorskite Si 8 (Mg 2 Al 2 )O 20 (OH) 2 (OH 2 ) 4 .4H 2 O and an organic colourant (indigo: C 16 H 10 N 2 O 2 ), a number of other compounds have been found in previous studies on archaeological samples, like other clays and minerals, iron nanoparticles, iron oxides, impurities of transition metals (Cr, Mn, Ti, V), etc. We measured at the ESRF ID26 beamline the Fe K-edge XANES spectra of the blue pigment in ancient samples. They are compared to XANES spectra of Maya blue samples synthesized under controlled conditions, and iron oxides usually employed as pigments (hematite and goethite). Our results show that the iron found in ancient Maya blue pigment is related to the Fe exchanged in the palygorskite clay. We did not find iron in metallic form or goethite in archaeological Maya blue

  16. Combined Laser Treatment in a Patient with Pigment Dispersion Secondary to a Large Iris Pigment Epithelial Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Yıldırım

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We reported a case of bilateral extensive iris pigment epithelial cysts masquerading as pigment dispersion. A-30-year-old male patient presented with a dull pain in both eyes and a decreased visual acuity OD. He underwent a complete ophthalmic examination. OD was injected and the cells were graded as +3 and pigmented a +2, in the OS. Intraocular pressures (IOP were measured as 42 (OD and 22 (OS mmHg. Gonioscopy revealed a confluent accumulation of dense pigment in both eyes. Visual fields, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (Spectral OCT/SLO OTI-OPKO Health. Inc, Miami, FL and optic nerve head tomography (HRT-II Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany results were within normal limits. On ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, bilateral extensive cysts were identified in the midzonal portion of the iris and in the ciliary body. An, antiglaucomatous treatment was started. Then, we decided to perform both Nd:YAG laser iridocystotomyc and selective laser trabeculoplasty. Fourteen months after the combined therapy, the cysts had not recurred, and still apposed and the IOPs were under control without medication.

  17. Combined laser treatment in a patient with pigment dispersion secondary to a large iris pigment epithelial cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykan, Umit; Yıldırım, Ozlem

    2012-09-01

    We reported a case of bilateral extensive iris pigment epithelial cysts masquerading as pigment dispersion. A-30-year-old male patient presented with a dull pain in both eyes and a decreased visual acuity OD. He underwent a complete ophthalmic examination. OD was injected and the cells were graded as +3 and pigmented a +2, in the OS. Intraocular pressures (IOP) were measured as 42 (OD) and 22 (OS) mmHg. Gonioscopy revealed a confluent accumulation of dense pigment in both eyes. Visual fields, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (Spectral OCT/SLO OTI-OPKO Health. Inc, Miami, FL) and optic nerve head tomography (HRT-II Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) results were within normal limits. On ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), bilateral extensive cysts were identified in the midzonal portion of the iris and in the ciliary body. An, antiglaucomatous treatment was started. Then, we decided to perform both Nd:YAG laser iridocystotomyc and selective laser trabeculoplasty. Fourteen months after the combined therapy, the cysts had not recurred, and still apposed and the IOPs were under control without medication.

  18. Single Molecule Spectroscopy on Photosynthetic Pigment-Protein Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Jelezko, F; Schuler, S; Thews, E; Tietz, C; Wechsler, A; Wrachtrup, J

    2001-01-01

    Single molecule spectroscopy was applied to unravel the energy transfer pathway in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes. Detailed analysis of excitation and fluorescence emission spectra has been made for peripheral plant antenna LHC II and Photosystem I from cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. Optical transitions of individual pigments were resolved under nonselective excitation of antenna chlorophylls. High-resolution fluorescence spectroscopy of individual plant antenna LHC II indicates that at low temperatures, the excitation energy is localized on the red-most Chl a pool absorbing at 680 nm. More than one pigment molecule is responsible for the fluorescence emission of the LHC II trimer. The spectral lines of single Chl a molecules absorbing at 675 nm are broadened because of the Foerster energy transfer towards the red-most pigments. Low-temperature spectroscopy on single PS I trimers indicates that two subgroups of pigments, which are present in the red antenna pool, differ by the strength of t...

  19. Emerging greener extraction systems for fungal pigments isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Lebeau , Juliana; Venkatachalam , Mekala; Fouillaud , Mireille; Dufossé , Laurent; Caro , Yanis

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Filamentous fungi produce a mixture of various metabolites such as pigments, fatty acids, proteins and other cellular metabolites. Thus, extraction and isolation of the pigmented molecules of interest are necessary steps before proceeding to any further utilization of these metabolites for commercial applications. Pigments can be stored within the biomass, excreted in the fermentation broth or both, suggesting that extraction methods need to be developed accordingly to...

  20. Neoplasia versus hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen; Larsen, J.N.B.; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography......ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography...

  1. Relationships between pigment composition variation and reflectance for plant species from a coastal savannah in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustin, Susan L.; Sanderson, Eric W.; Grossman, Yaffa; Hart, Quinn J.

    1993-01-01

    Advances in imaging spectroscopy have indicated that remotely sensed reflectance measurements of the plant canopy may be used to identify and qualify some classes of canopy biochemicals; however, the manner in which differences in biochemical compositions translate into differences is not well understood. Most frequently, multiple linear regression routines have been used to correlate narrow band reflectance values with measured biochemical concentrations. Although some success has been achieved with such methods for given data sets, the bands selected by multiple regression are not consistent between data sets, nor is it always clear what physical or biological basis underlies the correlation. To examine the relationship between biochemical concentration and leaf reflectance signal we chose to focus on the visible spectrum where the primary biochemical absorbances are due to photosynthetic pigments. Pigments provide a range of absorbance features, occur over a range of concentrations in natural samples, and are ecophysiologically important. Concentrations of chlorophyll, for example, have been strongly correlated to foliar nitrogen levels within a species and to photosynthetic capacity across many species. In addition pigments effectively absorb most of the photosynthetically active radiation between 400-700 nm, a spectral region for which silicon detectors have good signal/noise characteristics. Our strategy has been to sample a variety of naturally occurring species to measure leaf reflectance and pigment compositions. We hope to extend our understanding of pigment reflectance effects to interpret small overlapping absorbances of other biochemicals in the infrared region. For this reason, selected samples were also tested to determine total nitrogen, crude protein, cellulose, and lignin levels. Leaf reflectance spectra measured with AVIRIS bandwidths and wavelengths were compared between species and within species and for differences between seasons, for changes

  2. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: Presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

  3. Zinc deficiency leads to lipofuscin accumulation in the retinal pigment epithelium of pigmented rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Julien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is associated with lipofuscin accumulation whereas the content of melanosomes decreases. Melanosomes are the main storage of zinc in the pigmented tissues. Since the elderly population, as the most affected group for AMD, is prone to zinc deficit, we investigated the chemical and ultrastructural effects of zinc deficiency in pigmented rat eyes after a six-month zinc penury diet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult Long Evans (LE rats were investigated. The control animals were fed with a normal alimentation whereas the zinc-deficiency rats (ZD-LE were fed with a zinc deficient diet for six months. Quantitative Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX microanalysis yielded the zinc mole fractions of melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. The lateral resolution of the analysis was 100 nm. The zinc mole fractions of melanosomes were significantly smaller in the RPE of ZD-LE rats as compared to the LE control rats. Light, fluorescence and electron microscopy, as well as immunohistochemistry were performed. The numbers of lipofuscin granules in the RPE and of infiltrated cells (Ø>3 µm found in the choroid were quantified. The number of lipofuscin granules significantly increased in ZD-LE as compared to control rats. Infiltrated cells bigger than 3 µm were only detected in the choroid of ZD-LE animals. Moreover, the thickness of the Bruch's membrane of ZD-LE rats varied between 0.4-3 µm and thin, rangy ED1 positive macrophages were found attached at these sites of Bruch's membrane or even inside it. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In pigmented rats, zinc deficiency yielded an accumulation of lipofuscin in the RPE and of large pigmented macrophages in the choroids as well as the appearance of thin, rangy macrophages at Bruch's membrane. Moreover, we showed that a zinc diet reduced the zinc mole fraction of melanosomes in the RPE and modulated the thickness of the Bruch's membrane.

  4. Fe K-edge XANES of Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, M. Sanchez del [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Sodo, A. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Eeckhout, S.G. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Neisius, T. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, Grenoble B.P. 166, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, Grenoble B.P. 166, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    The utilization of techniques used in Materials Science for the characterization of artefacts of interest for cultural heritage is getting more and more attention nowadays. One of the products of the ancient Maya chemistry is the 'Maya blue' pigment, made with natural indigo and palygorskite. This pigment is different from any other pigment used in other parts of the world. It is durable and acid-resistant, and still keeps many secrets to scientists even though it has been studied for more than 50 years. Although the pigment is basically made of palygorskite Si{sub 8}(Mg{sub 2}Al{sub 2})O{sub 20}(OH){sub 2}(OH{sub 2}){sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O and an organic colourant (indigo: C{sub 16}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}), a number of other compounds have been found in previous studies on archaeological samples, like other clays and minerals, iron nanoparticles, iron oxides, impurities of transition metals (Cr, Mn, Ti, V), etc. We measured at the ESRF ID26 beamline the Fe K-edge XANES spectra of the blue pigment in ancient samples. They are compared to XANES spectra of Maya blue samples synthesized under controlled conditions, and iron oxides usually employed as pigments (hematite and goethite). Our results show that the iron found in ancient Maya blue pigment is related to the Fe exchanged in the palygorskite clay. We did not find iron in metallic form or goethite in archaeological Maya blue.

  5. Pigment dispersion syndrome: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheie, H G; Cameron, J D

    1981-01-01

    This study involved a group of 407 patients (799 eyes) with pigment dispersion syndrome gathered from a glaucoma population of 9200 patients. The sex distribution was equal. The majority (65%) of patients were myopic. The incidence of retinal detachment was 6.4%. No patients were black, but 5 were mulatto. Approximately one-quarter of the patients wih pigment dispersion syndrome (31% of the men, 19% of the women) had glaucoma. The average age of onset of glaucoma was 15 years less than in control patients with chronic simple glaucoma. When both eyes were affected by glaucoma, the glaucoma was consistently more severe in the eye with the more heavily pigmented angle. The degree of iris transillumination was found to be of no importance in predicting the presence of glaucoma or the severity of trabecular pigmentation. The pressure in 66% of the eyes with pigmentary glaucoma was controlled medically. A higher percentage of patients with pigmentary glaucoma required surgery than patients in the control group with chronic simple glaucoma. Men with pigmentary glaucoma required surgery at a much earlier age than women with pigmentary glaucoma. PMID:7236571

  6. Nanoscale Coloristic Pigments: Upper Limits on Releases from Pigmented Plastic during Environmental Aging, In Food Contact, and by Leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Nicole; Scifo, Lorette; Navratilova, Jana; Gondikas, Andreas; Mackevica, Aiga; Borschneck, Daniel; Chaurand, Perrine; Vidal, Vladimir; Rose, Jerome; von der Kammer, Frank; Wohlleben, Wendel

    2017-10-17

    The life cycle of nanoscale pigments in plastics may cause environmental or human exposure by various release scenarios. We investigated spontaneous and induced release with mechanical stress during/after simulated sunlight and rain degradation of polyethylene (PE) with organic and inorganic pigments. Additionally, primary leaching in food contact and secondary leaching from nanocomposite fragments with an increased surface into environmental media was examined. Standardized protocols/methods for release sampling, detection, and characterization of release rate and form were applied: Transformation of the bulk material was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray-tomography and Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR); releases were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), single-particle-ICP-MS (sp-ICP-MS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Analytical Ultracentrifugation (AUC), and UV/Vis spectroscopy. In all scenarios, the detectable particulate releases were attributed primarily to contaminations from handling and machining of the plastics, and were not identified with the pigments, although the contamination of 4 mg/kg (Fe) was dwarfed by the intentional content of 5800 mg/kg (Fe as Fe 2 O 3 pigment). We observed modulations (which were at least partially preventable by UV stabilizers) when comparing as-produced and aged nanocomposites, but no significant increase of releases. Release of pigments was negligible within the experimental error for all investigated scenarios, with upper limits of 10 mg/m 2 or 1600 particles/mL. This is the first holistic confirmation that pigment nanomaterials remain strongly contained in a plastic that has low diffusion and high persistence such as the polyolefin High Density Polyethylene (HDPE).

  7. Pigment Production on L-Tryptophan Medium by Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaskes, Stuart; Cammer, Michael; Nieves, Edward; Casadevall, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years strains previously grouped within Cryptococcus neoformans have been divided into two species C. neoformans and C. gattii, with Cryptococcus neoformans comprising serotypes A, D, and AD and C. gattii comprising serotypes B and C. Cryptococcus neoformans have also been subdivided into two varieties C. neoformans var. grubii, serotype A, and C. neoformans var. neoformans, serotype D. We analyzed the growth and pigment production characteristics of 139 strains of Cryptococcus spp. in L-tryptophan containing media. Nearly all strains of Cryptococcus, including each variety and serotype tested produced a pink water-soluble pigment (molecular weight of 535.2 Da) from L-tryptophan. Consequently, the partial separation of the species was based on whether the pink pigment was secreted into the medium (extracellular) or retained as an intracellular pigment. On L-tryptophan medium C. neoformans var. grubii and serotype AD produced a pink extracellular pigment. In contrast, for C. gattii, the pink pigment was localized intracellularly and masked by heavy production of brown pigments. Pigment production by C. neoformans var. neoformans was variable with some strains producing the pink extracellular pigment and others retained the pink pigment intracellularly. The pink intracellular pigment produced by strains of C. neoformans var. neoformans was masked by production of brown pigments. Cryptococcus laccase mutants failed to produce pigments from L-tryptophan. This is the first report that the enzyme laccase is involved in tryptophan metabolism. Prior to this report Cryptococcus laccase produced melanin or melanin like-pigments from heterocyclic compounds that contained ortho or para diphenols, diaminobenzenes and aminophenol compounds. The pigments produced from L-tryptophan were not melanin. PMID:24736553

  8. Pigment production on L-tryptophan medium by Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaskes, Stuart; Cammer, Michael; Nieves, Edward; Casadevall, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years strains previously grouped within Cryptococcus neoformans have been divided into two species C. neoformans and C. gattii, with Cryptococcus neoformans comprising serotypes A, D, and AD and C. gattii comprising serotypes B and C. Cryptococcus neoformans have also been subdivided into two varieties C. neoformans var. grubii, serotype A, and C. neoformans var. neoformans, serotype D. We analyzed the growth and pigment production characteristics of 139 strains of Cryptococcus spp. in L-tryptophan containing media. Nearly all strains of Cryptococcus, including each variety and serotype tested produced a pink water-soluble pigment (molecular weight of 535.2 Da) from L-tryptophan. Consequently, the partial separation of the species was based on whether the pink pigment was secreted into the medium (extracellular) or retained as an intracellular pigment. On L-tryptophan medium C. neoformans var. grubii and serotype AD produced a pink extracellular pigment. In contrast, for C. gattii, the pink pigment was localized intracellularly and masked by heavy production of brown pigments. Pigment production by C. neoformans var. neoformans was variable with some strains producing the pink extracellular pigment and others retained the pink pigment intracellularly. The pink intracellular pigment produced by strains of C. neoformans var. neoformans was masked by production of brown pigments. Cryptococcus laccase mutants failed to produce pigments from L-tryptophan. This is the first report that the enzyme laccase is involved in tryptophan metabolism. Prior to this report Cryptococcus laccase produced melanin or melanin like-pigments from heterocyclic compounds that contained ortho or para diphenols, diaminobenzenes and aminophenol compounds. The pigments produced from L-tryptophan were not melanin.

  9. Pigment production on L-tryptophan medium by Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Chaskes

    Full Text Available In recent years strains previously grouped within Cryptococcus neoformans have been divided into two species C. neoformans and C. gattii, with Cryptococcus neoformans comprising serotypes A, D, and AD and C. gattii comprising serotypes B and C. Cryptococcus neoformans have also been subdivided into two varieties C. neoformans var. grubii, serotype A, and C. neoformans var. neoformans, serotype D. We analyzed the growth and pigment production characteristics of 139 strains of Cryptococcus spp. in L-tryptophan containing media. Nearly all strains of Cryptococcus, including each variety and serotype tested produced a pink water-soluble pigment (molecular weight of 535.2 Da from L-tryptophan. Consequently, the partial separation of the species was based on whether the pink pigment was secreted into the medium (extracellular or retained as an intracellular pigment. On L-tryptophan medium C. neoformans var. grubii and serotype AD produced a pink extracellular pigment. In contrast, for C. gattii, the pink pigment was localized intracellularly and masked by heavy production of brown pigments. Pigment production by C. neoformans var. neoformans was variable with some strains producing the pink extracellular pigment and others retained the pink pigment intracellularly. The pink intracellular pigment produced by strains of C. neoformans var. neoformans was masked by production of brown pigments. Cryptococcus laccase mutants failed to produce pigments from L-tryptophan. This is the first report that the enzyme laccase is involved in tryptophan metabolism. Prior to this report Cryptococcus laccase produced melanin or melanin like-pigments from heterocyclic compounds that contained ortho or para diphenols, diaminobenzenes and aminophenol compounds. The pigments produced from L-tryptophan were not melanin.

  10. Pigments produced by the bacteria belonging to the genus Arthrobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Sutthiwong , Nuthathai; Caro , Yanis; Fouillaud , Mireille; Laurent , Philippe; Valla , A.; Dufossé , Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Poster communication, 7th International Congress of Pigments in Food – New technologies towards health, through colors, Novara, Italy, June 18-21, 2013.; International audience; Since several decades, pigments have been used as a taxonomic tool for the identification and classification of bacteria. Nowadays, pigment producing microorganisms have been also widely interested in scientific disciplines because of their biotechnological potential. With the growing interest in microbial pigments be...

  11. Pigment Production Analysis in Human Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkin, Amelia Soto; Paterson, Elyse K; Ruiz, Rolando; Ganesan, Anand K

    2016-05-25

    The human epidermal melanocyte is a highly specialized pigmented cell that serves to protect the epidermis from ultraviolet (UV) damage through the production of melanin, or melanogenesis. Misregulation in melanogenesis leading to either hyper- or hypo-pigmentation is found in human diseases such as malasma and vitiligo. Current therapies for these diseases are largely unsuccessful and the need for new therapies is necessary. In order to identify genes and or compounds that can alter melanogenesis, methods are required that can detect changes in pigment production as well as expression of key melanogenesis transcription factors and enzymes. Here we describe methods to detect changes in melanogenesis in a human melanoma cell line, MNT-1, by (1) analyzing pigment production by measuring the absorbance of melanin present by spectrophotometry, (2) analyzing transcript expression of potent regulators of melanogenesis by qunatitative reverse-transcription (RT)PCR and (3) analyzing protein expression of potent regulators of melanogenesis by Western blot (WB).

  12. Multi-analytical study of historical semiconductor pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporosso, V.

    2015-01-01

    This work is focused on the study of semiconductor-based pigments, which substituted traditional pigments in the second half of the 19. century. Synthetic semiconductor pigments may be chemically unstable due to the presence of many impurities unintentionally introduced during manufacturing. The aim of this work is to provide an insight on the application of X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) for the analysis of these painting materials, including both Cd- and Zn-based pigments. Three different approaches have been followed: the semi-quantitative analysis of samples with similar elemental composition, the complementary use of XRF and Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of elemental and molecular composition and the synchrotron-based XRF and XANES for the detection of impurities. The synergetic combination of different techniques provides information useful for the definition of specific markers for future analysis of paint-samples with implications for the conservation and treatment of late 19. and early 20. century paintings.

  13. Blue Pseudoazulene-Skeleton Pigments of Natural Origin

    OpenAIRE

    井上, 謙一郎; イノウエ, ケンイチロウ; KENICHIRO, INOUE

    1993-01-01

    Genipin, an iridoid constituent of Genipa americana, readily reacts with amino acids in the presence of oxygen to give a mixture of polymeric blue pigments whose structures are not determined. In the basic studies to elucidate the structure and formation mechnism of blue pigments, the reaction of genipin with methylamine in the absence of oxygen yielded 9 red compounds leading to blue pigments. In this article, the structures and spectroscopic properties of these red compounds were described....

  14. Internal pigment cells respond to external UV radiation in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Nilsson Sköld, Helen; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-05-01

    Fish and amphibians have pigment cells that generate colorful skins important for signaling, camouflage, thermoregulation and protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, many animals also have pigment cells inside their bodies, on their internal organs and membranes. In contrast to external pigmentation, internal pigmentation is remarkably little studied and its function is not well known. Here, we tested genotoxic effects of UVR and its effects on internal pigmentation in a neotropical frog, Physalaemus nattereri We found increases in body darkness and internal melanin pigmentation in testes and heart surfaces and in the mesenterium and lumbar region after just a few hours of UVR exposure. The melanin dispersion in melanomacrophages in the liver and melanocytes in testes increased after UV exposure. In addition, the amount of melanin inside melanomacrophages cells also increased. Although mast cells were quickly activated by UVR, only longer UVR exposure resulted in genotoxic effects inside frogs, by increasing the frequency of micronuclei in red blood cells. This is the first study to describe systemic responses of external UVR on internal melanin pigmentation, melanomacrophages and melanocytes in frogs and thus provides a functional explanation to the presence of internal pigmentation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma--a major review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyadurupola, Nuwan; Broadway, David C

    2008-12-01

    Pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) is an interesting condition that can lead to secondary open angle glaucoma. Pigmentary glaucoma is primarily a disease of young people, myopes and men. PDS is characterized by the presence of Krukenberg spindles, iris trans-illumination defects, trabecular meshwork pigmentation and backward bowing of the iris. Posterior bowing of the iris causes rubbing of the pigmented iris epithelium against lens structures, liberation of pigment and trabecular meshwork changes that result in reduced aqueous outflow with the risk of glaucoma. Peripheral laser iridotomy can reverse backward bowing of the iris and may prevent progression of pigmentary glaucoma.

  16. Optimization and design of pigments for heat-insulating coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Hai; Zhang, Yue

    2010-12-01

    This paper reports that heat insulating property of infrared reflective coatings is obtained through the use of pigments which diffuse near-infrared thermal radiation. Suitable structure and size distribution of pigments would attain maximum diffuse infrared radiation and reduce the pigment volume concentration required. The optimum structure and size range of pigments for reflective infrared coatings are studied by using Kubelka—Munk theory, Mie model and independent scattering approximation. Taking titania particle as the pigment embedded in an inorganic coating, the computational results show that core-shell particles present excellent scattering ability, more so than solid and hollow spherical particles. The optimum radius range of core-shell particles is around 0.3 ~ 1.6 μm. Furthermore, the influence of shell thickness on optical parameters of the coating is also obvious and the optimal thickness of shell is 100-300 nm.

  17. Studies on the bio production of monascus red pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emam, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    there is an increasing interest on natural pigments to replace some currently used synthetic dyes, since the latter have been associated with toxic effects in foods. the red pigment of the fungus Monascus is widely used in all the world as food additives or pharmaceuticals. although pigment production by Monascus spp.in chemically defined media is well documented, very few information is available about the use of agro-industrial wastes. in this regard, the present study has been devoted to investigate the effect of different parameters on red pigment production by the local isolated strain of M. purpureu, in an attempt to maximize the production, and also to develop a potential fermentation process for the production of red pigment using potato processing wastewater (PPW,waters used to wash the potato slices prior to cooking in chips and crisp manufacture) as cheap production medium

  18. Relative Pigment Composition and Remote Sensing Reflectance of Caribbean Shallow-Water Corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan L Torres-Pérez

    Full Text Available Reef corals typically contain a number of pigments, mostly due to their symbiotic relationship with photosynthetic dinoflagellates. These pigments usually vary in presence and concentration and influence the spectral characteristics of corals. We studied the variations in pigment composition among seven Caribbean shallow-water Scleractinian corals by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis to further resolve the discrimination of corals. We found a total of 27 different pigments among the coral species, including some alteration products of the main pigments. Additionally, pigments typically found in endolithic algae were also identified. A Principal Components Analysis and a Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed the separation of coral species based on pigment composition. All the corals were collected under the same physical environmental conditions. This suggests that pigment in the coral's symbionts might be more genetically-determined than influenced by prevailing physical conditions of the reef. We further investigated the use of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs as a tool for estimating the total pigment concentration of reef corals. Depending on the coral species, the Rrs and the total symbiont pigment concentration per coral tissue area correlation showed 79.5-98.5% confidence levels demonstrating its use as a non-invasive robust technique to estimate pigment concentration in studies of coral reef biodiversity and health.

  19. Relative Pigment Composition and Remote Sensing Reflectance of Caribbean Shallow-Water Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pérez, Juan L; Guild, Liane S; Armstrong, Roy A; Corredor, Jorge; Zuluaga-Montero, Anabella; Polanco, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Reef corals typically contain a number of pigments, mostly due to their symbiotic relationship with photosynthetic dinoflagellates. These pigments usually vary in presence and concentration and influence the spectral characteristics of corals. We studied the variations in pigment composition among seven Caribbean shallow-water Scleractinian corals by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis to further resolve the discrimination of corals. We found a total of 27 different pigments among the coral species, including some alteration products of the main pigments. Additionally, pigments typically found in endolithic algae were also identified. A Principal Components Analysis and a Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed the separation of coral species based on pigment composition. All the corals were collected under the same physical environmental conditions. This suggests that pigment in the coral's symbionts might be more genetically-determined than influenced by prevailing physical conditions of the reef. We further investigated the use of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) as a tool for estimating the total pigment concentration of reef corals. Depending on the coral species, the Rrs and the total symbiont pigment concentration per coral tissue area correlation showed 79.5-98.5% confidence levels demonstrating its use as a non-invasive robust technique to estimate pigment concentration in studies of coral reef biodiversity and health.

  20. Analysis of ancient pigments by Raman microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Jian; Xu Cunyi

    1999-01-01

    Raman microscopy can be applied for the spatial resolution, and non-destructive in situ analysis of inorganic pigments in pottery, manuscripts and paintings. Compared with other techniques, it is the best single technique for this purpose. An overview is presented of the applications of Raman microscopy in the analysis of ancient pigments

  1. Heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae for pigment production: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianjun; Nagarajan, Dillirani; Zhang, Quanguo; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lee, Duu-Jong

    Pigments (mainly carotenoids) are important nutraceuticals known for their potent anti-oxidant activities and have been used extensively as high end health supplements. Microalgae are the most promising sources of natural carotenoids and are devoid of the toxic effects associated with synthetic derivatives. Compared to photoautotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae in well-controlled bioreactors for pigments production has attracted much attention for commercial applications due to overcoming the difficulties associated with the supply of CO 2 and light, as well as avoiding the contamination problems and land requirements in open autotrophic culture systems. In this review, the heterotrophic metabolic potential of microalgae and their uses in pigment production are comprehensively described. Strategies to enhance pigment production under heterotrophic conditions are critically discussed and the challenges faced in heterotrophic pigment production with possible alternative solutions are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Production of Monascus pigments as extracellular crystals by cell suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fengling; Liu, Lujie; Huang, Yaolin; Zhang, Xuehong; Wang, Zhilong

    2018-01-01

    It is generally accepted that Monascus pigments are predominantly cell-bound, including both intracellular and surface-bound pigments. This long-term misconception was corrected in the present work. Production of extracellular crystal pigments by submerged culture of Monascus sp. was confirmed by microscopic observation and collection of Monascus pigments from extracellular broth by direct membrane filtration. Following up the new fact, the bioactivity of mycelia as whole-cell biocatalyst for biosynthesis and biodegradation of Monascus pigments had been detailedly examined in both an aqueous solution and a nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution. Based on those experimental results, cell suspension culture in an aqueous medium was developed as a novel strategy for accumulation of high concentration of Monascus pigments. Thus, glucose feeding during submerged culture in the aqueous medium was carried out successfully and high orange Monascus pigments concentration of near 4 g/L was achieved.

  3. A third, ultraviolet-sensitive, visual pigment in the Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, E R

    1994-06-01

    Numerous extraction and microspectrophotometric studies have shown that the nocturnal Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko), has two visual pigments: a "green" with lambda max at 521 nm and a "blue" at 467 nm. In addition, similar studies on other nocturnal gecko species have found only the same two classes of visual pigment. With the finding that some diurnal species of gecko have a third visual pigment class with lambda max peaking in the UV, doubts were raised concerning the presence of only two visual pigment classes in nocturnal forms. Therefore, a microspectrophotometric re-examination of the Tokay gecko was undertaken to look specifically for a UV visual pigment. A UV-absorbing pigment (364 nm lambda max) was found in approx. 20% of the thin outer segments of type C double rods, thought previously to contain only the 467 nm pigment. That this UV-absorbing pigment was truly a visual pigment was confirmed by its dichroism, behaviour following exposure to UV radiation and "nomogram" fit. It is suggested that this visual pigment had been seen in previous microspectrophotometric studies, but its similarity to known photoproducts peaking in the same spectral region resulted in a case of mistaken identity.

  4. Separation of Chloroplast Pigments Using Reverse Phase Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, R. Neil

    1997-01-01

    Presents a protocol that uses reverse phase chromatography for the separation of chloroplast pigments. Provides a simple and relatively safe procedure for use in teaching laboratories. Discusses pigment extraction, chromatography, results, and advantages of the process. (JRH)

  5. Vibrational spectroscopic analyses of unique yellow feather pigments (spheniscins) in penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel B; McGoverin, Cushla M; McGraw, Kevin J; James, Helen F; Madden, Odile

    2013-06-06

    Many animals extract, synthesize and refine chemicals for colour display, where a range of compounds and structures can produce a diverse colour palette. Feather colours, for example, span the visible spectrum and mostly result from pigments in five chemical classes (carotenoids, melanins, porphyrins, psittacofulvins and metal oxides). However, the pigment that generates the yellow colour of penguin feathers appears to represent a sixth, poorly characterized class of feather pigments. This pigment class, here termed 'spheniscin', is displayed by half of the living penguin genera; the larger and richer colour displays of the pigment are highly attractive. Using Raman and mid-infrared spectroscopies, we analysed yellow feathers from two penguin species (king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus; macaroni penguin, Eudyptes chrysolophus) to further characterize spheniscin pigments. The Raman spectrum of spheniscin is distinct from spectra of other feather pigments and exhibits 17 distinctive spectral bands between 300 and 1700 cm(-1). Spectral bands from the yellow pigment are assigned to aromatically bound carbon atoms, and to skeletal modes in an aromatic, heterocyclic ring. It has been suggested that the penguin pigment is a pterin compound; Raman spectra from yellow penguin feathers are broadly consistent with previously reported pterin spectra, although we have not matched it to any known compound. Raman spectroscopy can provide a rapid and non-destructive method for surveying the distribution of different classes of feather pigments in the avian family tree, and for correlating the chemistry of spheniscin with compounds analysed elsewhere. We suggest that the sixth class of feather pigments may have evolved in a stem-lineage penguin and endowed modern penguins with a costly plumage trait that appears to be chemically unique among birds.

  6. Pigment from Streptomyces bellus MSA1 isolated from marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, M.; Merlyn Keziah, S.; Hemalatha, M.; Subathra Devi, C.

    2017-11-01

    The existing study is purposeful on the intracellular pigment extraction from actinomycetes isolated from Kovalam Beach regions of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Only one actinobacterial isolate showed pigmented growth out of total 4 isolates. Ethyl acetate as the solvent was used in cell disruption technique for the extraction of intracellular pigments. UV-Visible spectrophotometry, FT-IR spectroscopy, HPLC and GC-MS were used for the partial characterization of the pigment. The extracted pigment was applied for the preparation of lip balm and assessing its textile dyeing property. In addition, the extracted pigment was analysed for antioxidant, antibacterial activity, MTT assay and haemolytic activity. On optimization, dextrose and maltose were the best carbon sources. The finest nitrogen sources were found to be casein and peptone. The optimum temperature range was 35°C -40°C and optimal pH was found to be between 6.0 and 8.0. The obtained results showed potent antioxidant activity and found to be non-toxic to human erythrocytes.

  7. Studies on pigments of the myxomycete Physarum nudum. II. Separation and optical properties of the pigments from plasmodia cultured in darkness

    OpenAIRE

    L. Raczkowski

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the data on Separation and some optical properties of the pigments obtained from the plasmodium of the myxomycete Physarum nudum grown in the dark. Pigment Separation was performed by means of thin-layer chromatography with celulose MN 300 as adsorbent and with the solvent: tert.-butylalcohol, H2O, 3N NH4OH at the ratio 5:2:1 In these conditions the chromatograms revealed 12 coloured bands from which pigments were eluted and their absorption spectra as well as the spectra o...

  8. Change of Monascus pigment metabolism and secretion in different extractive fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Tang, Rui; Tian, Xiaofei; Qin, Peng; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2017-06-01

    Monascus pigments that were generally produced intracellularly from Monascus spp. are important natural colorants in food industry. In this study, change of pigment metabolism and secretion was investigated through fed-batch extractive fermentation and continuous extractive fermentation. The biomass, secreting rate of pigment and total pigment yield closely correlated with the activated time of extractive fermentation as well as the composition of feeding nutrients. Metal ions played a key role in both the cell growth and pigment metabolism. Nitrogen source was necessary for a high productivity of biomass but not for high pigment yield. Furthermore, fermentation period for the fed-batch extractive fermentation could be reduced by 18.75% with a nitrogen source free feeding medium. Through a 30-day continuous extractive fermentation, the average daily productivity for total pigments reached 74.9 AU day -1 with an increase by 32.6 and 296.3% compared to that in a 6-day conventional batch fermentation and a 16-day fed-batch extractive fermentation, respectively. At the meantime, proportions of extracellular pigments increased gradually from 2.7 to 71.3%, and yellow pigments gradually became dominated in both intracellular and extracellular pigments in the end of continuous extractive fermentation. This findings showed that either fed-batch or continuous extractive fermentation acted as a promising method in the efficient production of Monascus pigments.

  9. Pigments and oligomers for inks - moving towards the best combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.; Smith, S.; Grierson, W.; Devine, E.

    1999-01-01

    The formulation of UV curable printing inks depends on several complex factors. If the individual components of the ink are not complementary, then performance problems can arise. One critical combination is that between the pigment and the oligomer. In a new approach to improve understanding of pigment/oligomer interactions, the resources of a pigment manufacturer and an oligomer manufacturer have been combined to investigate the problem. Initial screening of process yellow pigments and several oligomer types highlighted performance variations which were then examined in more detail

  10. Optimization and design of pigments for heat-insulating coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guang-Hai; Zhang Yue

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports that heat insulating property of infrared reflective coatings is obtained through the use of pigments which diffuse near-infrared thermal radiation. Suitable structure and size distribution of pigments would attain maximum diffuse infrared radiation and reduce the pigment volume concentration required. The optimum structure and size range of pigments for reflective infrared coatings are studied by using Kubelka—Munk theory, Mie model and independent scattering approximation. Taking titania particle as the pigment embedded in an inorganic coating, the computational results show that core-shell particles present excellent scattering ability, more so than solid and hollow spherical particles. The optimum radius range of core-shell particles is around 0.3 ∼ 1.6 μm. Furthermore, the influence of shell thickness on optical parameters of the coating is also obvious and the optimal thickness of shell is 100–300 nm. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  11. A comprehensive study of eco-friendly natural pigment and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Ramendra Singh; Singh, Charu

    2018-03-01

    Actinomycetes, a large group of filamentous bacteria account for 70-80% of secondary metabolites available commercially. The present investigation was undertaken with an aim to identify and characterize pigment from actinomycetes. Actinomycetes were isolated from rhizosphere soil samples collected from different regions of Madhya Pradesh state. Out of 85 actinomycetes, only 5 actinomycetes showed pigment production and based on diffusible pigment production ability one actinomycete ARITM02 was selected. The extraction of pigment was done by solvent extraction method using methanol and purified by TLC and column chromatography. The pigment was characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy which showed the lamda maximum of 277.44. FTIR spectroscopy suggested various functional groups like amino group, amide group, hydroxide, benzene and lactone group. The Mass spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy showed that the molecular mass of pigment is 621.7 and molecular formula is C34H43N3O8. The pigment was also tested for Antimicrobial activity against broad spectrum human pathogens, antioxidant test and toxicity test for safe use as a natural colorant in cosmetic, food, pharmaceutical and textile industries. The conclusion of study suggested that this novel pigment could be a versatile natural, safe and multipurpose.

  12. Dietary blue pigments derived from genipin, attenuate inflammation by inhibiting LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression via the NF-κB inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Xiang, Yaozu; Cui, Yuan-Lu; Lin, Ke-Ming; Zhang, Xin-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The edible blue pigments produced by gardenia fruits have been used as value-added colorants for foods in East Asia for 20 years. However, the biological activity of the blue pigments derived from genipin has not been reported. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage in vitro. The secretions of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were inhibited in concentration-dependent manner by blue pigments. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-time RT-PCR) analyses demonstrated that the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was inhibited, moreover, ELISA results showed that the productions of IL-6 and TNF-α were inhibited. Cell-based ELISA revealed the COX-2 protein expression was inhibited. The proteome profiler array showed that 12 cytokines and chemokines involved in the inflammatory process were down-regulated by blue pigments. Blue pigments inhibited the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with decreasing the DNA-binding activity of p65 and p50. Furthermore, blue pigments suppressed the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB) α, Inhibitor of NF-κB Kinase (IKK) α, IKK-β, and phosphorylation of IκB-α. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments in vivo was studied in carrageenan-induced paw edema and LPS-injecting ICR mice. Finally, blue pigments significantly inhibited paw swelling and reduced plasma TNF-α and IL-6 production in vivo. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of blue pigments might be the results from the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression through the down-regulation of NF-κB activation, which will provide strong scientific evidence for the edible blue pigments to be developed as a new health-enhancing nutritional food

  13. Dietary blue pigments derived from genipin, attenuate inflammation by inhibiting LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression via the NF-κB inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang-Song Wang

    Full Text Available The edible blue pigments produced by gardenia fruits have been used as value-added colorants for foods in East Asia for 20 years. However, the biological activity of the blue pigments derived from genipin has not been reported.The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage in vitro. The secretions of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2 were inhibited in concentration-dependent manner by blue pigments. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-time RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, interleukin (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α was inhibited, moreover, ELISA results showed that the productions of IL-6 and TNF-α were inhibited. Cell-based ELISA revealed the COX-2 protein expression was inhibited. The proteome profiler array showed that 12 cytokines and chemokines involved in the inflammatory process were down-regulated by blue pigments. Blue pigments inhibited the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with decreasing the DNA-binding activity of p65 and p50. Furthermore, blue pigments suppressed the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB α, Inhibitor of NF-κB Kinase (IKK α, IKK-β, and phosphorylation of IκB-α. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments in vivo was studied in carrageenan-induced paw edema and LPS-injecting ICR mice. Finally, blue pigments significantly inhibited paw swelling and reduced plasma TNF-α and IL-6 production in vivo.These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of blue pigments might be the results from the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression through the down-regulation of NF-κB activation, which will provide strong scientific evidence for the edible blue pigments to be developed as a new health-enhancing nutritional

  14. Unusual extensive physiologic melanin pigmentation of the oral cavity: A clinical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mallikarjuna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the oral cavity. Oral pigmentations may be physiological or pathological in nature. It may represent as a localized anomaly of limited significance or the presentation of potentially life threatening multisystem disease. Oral pigmentation has a multifactorial etiology. Most of the oral pigmentations are physiologic. Evaluation of a patient with pigmented lesions should include a full medical and dental history, extraoral and intraoral examinations. In this article, we report a case of extensive physiologic pigmentation of the oral cavity in a 12 year old female patient, posing a diagnostic challenge.

  15. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Gutierrez-Leon, A.; Castro, G.R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J. [Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, SpLine, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Solis, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sanchez-Hernandez, R. [INAH Subdireccion de Laboratorios y Apoyo Academico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Robles-Camacho, J. [INAH Centro Regional Michoacan, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Rojas-Gaytan, J. [INAH Direccion de Salvamento Arqueologico, Naucalpan de Juarez (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few {mu}g of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as anil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue. (orig.)

  16. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Del Río, M.; Gutiérrez-León, A.; Castro, G. R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Solís, C.; Sánchez-Hernández, R.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Rojas-Gaytán, J.

    2008-01-01

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few μg of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as añil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue.

  17. Gingival pigmentation beneath a metallic crown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, T.; Hirayasu, R.; Sakai, H.; Hashimoto, N.

    1988-01-01

    Light and electron microscopic studies and energy dispersive X-ray analysis disclosed that the essential cause of gingival discoloration following the placement of a metallic crown, was marked deposition of melanin pigment. Deposition of melanin pigment was observed in epithelial cells, on basement membranes, and in fibroblasts, macrophages and among intercellular ground substance of the proprial layer. Brown or dark brown colored granules were observed in the deep portion of the proprial layer. Some metallic elements as silver and sulfur were detected. It was presumed that these materials were dental metals accidentally implanted in gingival tissues during the therapeutic procedure. The deposition of melanin pigment closely corresponded with mucosal tissue where these materials were present in the deep portion of the proprial layer. These findings suggested that these materials influenced the physiological metabolism of melanin and induced its pathological deposition in the proprial tissue. (author)

  18. [Isolation and preliminary characterization of carotenoids from pink-pigmented methylotrophs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalova, A M; Shylin, S O; Rokytko, P V

    2006-01-01

    An effective method was developed for complete removal of pigments from the cells and solvent mixture for further separation of pigments using thin layer chromatography on silica gel. Carotenoid samples that have been obtained in this way are of good purity for further investigations. Carotenoid pigments of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria Methylobacterium have been characterized. These carotenoids are represented mainly by xanthophylls, particularly hydroxycarotenoids. Strains M. fujisawaense B-3365 and M. mesophilicum B-3352 also have nonpolar carotenes in a small amount. Physico-chemical properties of carotenoids have been studied.

  19. The Solvent Effectiveness on Extraction Process of Seaweed Pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warkoyo Warkoyo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Eucheuma cottonii seaweed is a species of seaweed cultured in Indonesian waters, because its cultivation is relatively easy and inexpensive. It has a wide variety of colors from green to yellow green, gray, red and brown, indicating photosynthetic pigments, such as chlorophyll and carotenoids. An important factor in the effectiveness of pigment extraction is the choice of solvent. The correct type of solvent in the extraction method of specific natural materials is important so that a pigment with optimum quality that is also benefical to the society can be produced. The target of this research is to obtain a high quality solvent type of carotenoid pigment. This research was conducted using a randomized block design with three (3 replications involving two factors namely solvent type (4 levels: aceton, ethanol, petroleum benzene, hexan & petroleum benzene and seaweed color (3 levels: brown, green and red. Research results indicated that each solvent reached a peak of maximal absorbance at  410-472 nm, namely carotenoids. The usage of acetone solvent gave the best pigment quality. Brown, green and red seaweed have pigment content of 1,28 mg/100 g; 0,98 mg/100 g; 1,35 mg/100 g and rendement of 6,24%; 4,85% and 6,65% respectively.

  20. Spatial and temporal regulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is essential for development of the retinal pigment epithelium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fujimura, Naoko; Taketo, M.M.; Mori, M.; Kořínek, Vladimír; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 334, č. 1 (2009), s. 31-45 ISSN 0012-1606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/08/1618; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA MŠk 2B06077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : eye * Wnt * retina * pigment Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.379, year: 2009

  1. Ultraviolet radiation induces dose-dependent pigment dispersion in crustacean chromatophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Glauce Ribeiro; Lopes, Thaís Martins; Neves, Carla Amorim; Nery, Luiz Eduardo Maia; Trindade, Gilma Santos

    2004-10-01

    Pigment dispersion in chromatophores as a response to UV radiation was investigated in two species of crustaceans, the crab Chasmagnathus granulata and the shrimp Palaemonetes argentinus. Eyestalkless crabs and shrimps maintained on either a black or a white background were irradiated with different UV bands. In eyestalkless crabs the significant minimal effective dose inducing pigment dispersion was 0.42 J/cm(2) for UVA and 2.15 J/cm(2) for UVB. Maximal response was achieved with 10.0 J/cm(2) UVA and 8.6 J/cm(2) UVB. UVA was more effective than UVB in inducing pigment dispersion. Soon after UV exposure, melanophores once again reached the initial stage of pigment aggregation after 45 min. Aggregated erythrophores of shrimps adapted to a white background showed significant pigment dispersion with 2.5 J/cm(2) UVA and 0.29 J/cm(2) UVC. Dispersed erythrophores of shrimps adapted to a black background did not show any significant response to UVA, UVB or UVC radiation. UVB did not induce any significant pigment dispersion in shrimps adapted to either a white or a black background. As opposed to the tanning response, which only protects against future UV exposure, the pigment dispersion response could be an important agent protecting against the harmful effects of UV radiation exposure.

  2. Melanins and melanogenesis: from pigment cells to human health and technological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ischia, Marco; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Cicoira, Fabio; Di Mauro, Eduardo; Garcia-Borron, Josè Carlos; Commo, Stephane; Galván, Ismael; Ghanem, Ghanem; Kenzo, Koike; Meredith, Paul; Pezzella, Alessandro; Santato, Clara; Sarna, Tadeusz; Simon, John D; Zecca, Luigi; Zucca, Fabio A; Napolitano, Alessandra; Ito, Shosuke

    2015-09-01

    During the past decade, melanins and melanogenesis have attracted growing interest for a broad range of biomedical and technological applications. The burst of polydopamine-based multifunctional coatings in materials science is just one example, and the list may be expanded to include melanin thin films for organic electronics and bioelectronics, drug delivery systems, functional nanoparticles and biointerfaces, sunscreens, environmental remediation devices. Despite considerable advances, applied research on melanins and melanogenesis is still far from being mature. A closer intersectoral interaction between research centers is essential to raise the interests and increase the awareness of the biomedical, biomaterials science and hi-tech sectors of the manifold opportunities offered by pigment cells and related metabolic pathways. Starting from a survey of biological roles and functions, the present review aims at providing an interdisciplinary perspective of melanin pigments and related pathway with a view to showing how it is possible to translate current knowledge about physical and chemical properties and control mechanisms into new bioinspired solutions for biomedical, dermocosmetic, and technological applications. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Beetroot-pigment-derived colorimetric sensor for detection of calcium dipicolinate in bacterial spores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Christina Pires Gonçalves

    Full Text Available In this proof-of-concept study, we describe the use of the main red beet pigment betanin for the quantification of calcium dipicolinate in bacterial spores, including Bacillus anthracis. In the presence of europium(III ions, betanin is converted to a water-soluble, non-luminescent orange 1∶1 complex with a stability constant of 1.4 × 10(5 L mol(-1. The addition of calcium dipicolinate, largely found in bacterial spores, changes the color of the aqueous solution of [Eu(Bn(+] from orange to magenta. The limit of detection (LOD of calcium dipicolinate is around 2.0 × 10(-6 mol L(-1 and the LOD determined for both spores, B. cereus and B. anthracis, is (1.1 ± 0.3× 10(6 spores mL(-1. This simple, green, fast and low cost colorimetric assay was selective for calcium dipicolinate when compared to several analogous compounds. The importance of this work relies on the potential use of betalains, raw natural pigments, as colorimetric sensors for biological applications.

  4. ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENTATION IN TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.: GENETIC BASIS AND ROLE UNDER ABIOTIC STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchenko O.Yu.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites of plants. They have a wide range of biological activity such as antioxidant, photoprotection, osmoregulation, heavy metal ions chelation, antimicrobial and antifungal activities, which help plants to survive under different stress conditions. Bread wheat (T. aestivum L. can have purple pigmentation provided by anthocyanin compounds in different organs, such as grain pericarp, coleoptile, culm, leaf blades, leaf sheaths, glumes and anthers. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying formation of these traits as well as contribution of the pigmentation to stress tolerance have not been widely studied in wheat. The aim of the current study was to investigate molecular-genetic mechanisms underlying anthocyanin pigmentation in different wheat organs and to estimate the role of the pigmentation under different abiotic stress conditions in wheat seedlings. In the current study, near-isogenic lines (NILs: cv. ‘Saratovskaya 29’ (‘S29’ and lines i:S29Pp1Pp2PF and i:S29Pp1Pp3P developed on the ‘S29’ background but having grain pericarp coloration (genes Pp and more intense coleoptile (Rc, culm (Pc, leaf blade (Plb, leaf sheath (Pls pigmentation in comparison with ‘S29’, were used. Comparative transcriptional analysis of the five structural genes Chs, Chi, F3h, Dfr, Ans, encoding enzymes participating in the anthocyanin biosynthesis, was performed in different organs of NILs. It was shown that the presence of the Rc, Pc, Plb, Pls and Pp alleles conferring strong anthocyanin pigmentation induced more intense transcription of the structural genes, suggesting the genes Rc, Pc, Plb, Pls and Pp to play a regulatory role in anthocyanin biosynthesis network. To evaluate the role of anthocyanins in stress response at the seedling stage, growth ability of the NILs and anthocyanin content in their coleoptiles were assessed after treatments with NaCl (100 and 200 mM, CdCl2 (25 and 50 μM and 15% PEG 6000

  5. Optimizing Angkak Pigments and Lovastatin Production By Monascus purpureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASIM DANURI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Angkak pigments and lovastatin had been reported very useful as natural coloring agents, as an agent to increase thrombocyte level in Dengue hemorrhagic fever, and also as a compound that was able to control blood cholesterol level. Three strains of fungus Monascus purpureus AKI, AKII, and 915 were selected to produce angkak pigments and lovastatin in potato dextrose agar (PDA medium. The best fungus strain, which is AKII, was then applied in three kinds of rice media (white rice IR-42, red rice BP-1804-IF-9, and a combination of 1:1 (w/w white IR-42 and red rice BP-1804-IF-9 for solid fermentation. The best medium and fermentation times were determined for the production of angkak pigments and lovastatin separately. Results showed that strains, media, and duration of fermentations gave significant effect on the amount of pigment produced. Strain AKII produced highest concentration of angkak pigments. The combination of rice (White IR-42 and red rice BP-1804-IF-9 produced the highest pigment than the individual white and red rie it self. The optimum duration of fermentation was 16 days for strains AKI and AKII, but only 15 days for strain 915. Therefore the strain AKII with media combination of rice and a fermentation time of 16 days were used to investigate the additional effect of various minerals. Addition of the mineral individually gave significant increased on angkak pigment production by AKII, where as the addition of minerals mixture in the forth tube did not.

  6. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  7. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, In Chul

    2011-01-01

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  8. Radiation-curable coatings containing reactive pigment dispersants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansel, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Liquid coating compositions adapted to be cured by exposure to penetrating radiation are disclosed in which a liquid vehicle of coating viscosity having an ethylenically unsaturated portion comprising one or more polyethylenically unsaturated materials adapted to cure on radiation exposure, pigment dispersed in the vehicle, and an ethylenically unsaturated radiation-curable dispersant containing a carboxyl group for wetting the pigment and assisting in the stable dipsersion of the pigment in the vehicle. This dispersant is a half amide or half ester of an ethylenically unsaturated polycarboxylic acid anhydride, such as maleic anhydride, with an organic compound having a molecular weight of from 100 to 4000 and which contains a single hydroxy group or a single amino group as the sole reactive group thereof

  9. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  10. Kinetic of orange pigment production from Monascus ruber on submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendruscolo, Francielo; Schmidell, Willibaldo; de Oliveira, Débora; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Pigments produced by species of Monascus have been used to coloring rice, meat, sauces, wines and beers in East Asian countries. Monascus can produce orange (precursor), yellow and red pigments. Orange pigments have low solubility in culture media and when react with amino groups they become red and largely soluble. The orange pigments are an alternative to industrial pigment production because the low solubility facilitates the downstream operations. The aim of this work was to study the kinetic on the production of orange pigments by Monascus ruber CCT 3802. The shaking frequency of 300 rpm was favorable to production, whereas higher shaking frequencies showed negative effect. Pigment production was partially associated with cell growth, the critical dissolved oxygen concentration was between 0.894 and 1.388 mgO 2  L -1 at 30 °C, and limiting conditions of dissolved oxygen decreased the production of orange pigments. The maintenance coefficient (mo) and the conversion factor of oxygen in biomass (Yo) were 18.603 mgO 2  g x -1  h -1 and 3.133 g x  gO 2 -1 and the consideration of these parameters in the oxygen balance to estimate the biomass concentration provided good fits to the experimental data.

  11. Pigment Cell Differentiation in Sea Urchin Blastula-Derived Primary Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageenko, Natalya V.; Kiselev, Konstantin V.; Dmitrenok, Pavel S.; Odintsova, Nelly A.

    2014-01-01

    The quinone pigments of sea urchins, specifically echinochrome and spinochromes, are known for their effective antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and antitumor activities. We developed in vitro technology for inducing pigment differentiation in cell culture. The intensification of the pigment differentiation was accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in cell proliferation. The number of pigment cells was two-fold higher in the cells cultivated in the coelomic fluids of injured sea urchins than in those intact. The possible roles of the specific components of the coelomic fluids in the pigment differentiation process and the quantitative measurement of the production of naphthoquinone pigments during cultivation were examined by MALDI and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Echinochrome A and spinochrome E were produced by the cultivated cells of the sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis in all tested media, while only spinochromes were found in the cultivated cells of another sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius. The expression of genes associated with the induction of pigment differentiation was increased in cells cultivated in the presence of shikimic acid, a precursor of naphthoquinone pigments. Our results should contribute to the development of new techniques in marine biotechnology, including the generation of cell cultures producing complex bioactive compounds with therapeutic potential. PMID:24979272

  12. Secondary pigmentary glaucoma in patients with underlying primary pigment dispersion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaraman KR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kavitha R Sivaraman, Chirag G Patel, Thasarat S Vajaranant, Ahmad A ArefDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary, University of Illinois at Chicago School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Primary pigment dispersion syndrome (PPDS is a bilateral condition that occurs in anatomically predisposed individuals. PPDS may evolve into pigmentary glaucoma, but it is difficult to predict which patients will progress. Secondary pigment dispersion is more often unilateral and acquired as a result of surgery, trauma, or intraocular tumor, but can likewise lead to pigmentary glaucoma. We report two cases of patients with bilateral PPDS who developed secondary pigment dispersion and pigmentary glaucoma in one eye. Patients with PPDS who acquire a secondary mechanism of pigment dispersion may be at an increased risk of progression to pigmentary glaucoma, presumably due to an increased burden of liberated pigment. In addition to regular surveillance for progression to glaucoma from PPDS, secondary causes of pigmentary dispersion in these eyes should be considered when patients present with grossly asymmetric findings. When secondary pigment dispersion is identified in eyes with PPDS, we recommend prompt intervention to alleviate the cause of secondary pigment dispersion and/or aggressive control of intraocular pressure to limit glaucomatous damage.Keywords: primary pigment dispersion syndrome, pigmentary glaucoma

  13. Pigmentos maculares Macular pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Canovas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A luteína e a zeaxantina são pigmentos amarelos que se localizam na mácula. Devido à sua localização, diminuem e filtram a quantidade de luz principalmente azul que chega aos fotorreceptores, atuam como antioxidantes e podem melhorar a qualidade visual. Esta é uma revisão do seu mecanismo de incorporação, ação, possíveis aplicações e conhecimento científico a respeito.Lutein and Zeaxanthin are yellow pigments located at the macula. Because of your location macular pigments decrease and filter the amount of blue light that reach photoreceptors, protect the outer retina from oxidative stress and may improve the vision quality. This is a review regarding incorporation mechanism, function and knowledge update.

  14. Secondary pigmentary glaucoma in patients with underlying primary pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, Kavitha R; Patel, Chirag G; Vajaranant, Thasarat S; Aref, Ahmad A

    2013-01-01

    Primary pigment dispersion syndrome (PPDS) is a bilateral condition that occurs in anatomically predisposed individuals. PPDS may evolve into pigmentary glaucoma, but it is difficult to predict which patients will progress. Secondary pigment dispersion is more often unilateral and acquired as a result of surgery, trauma, or intraocular tumor, but can likewise lead to pigmentary glaucoma. We report two cases of patients with bilateral PPDS who developed secondary pigment dispersion and pigmentary glaucoma in one eye. Patients with PPDS who acquire a secondary mechanism of pigment dispersion may be at an increased risk of progression to pigmentary glaucoma, presumably due to an increased burden of liberated pigment. In addition to regular surveillance for progression to glaucoma from PPDS, secondary causes of pigmentary dispersion in these eyes should be considered when patients present with grossly asymmetric findings. When secondary pigment dispersion is identified in eyes with PPDS, we recommend prompt intervention to alleviate the cause of secondary pigment dispersion and/or aggressive control of intraocular pressure to limit glaucomatous damage.

  15. Monascus: a Reality on the Production and Application of Microbial Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendruscolo, Francielo; Meinicke Bühler, Rose Marie; Cesar de Carvalho, Júlio; de Oliveira, Débora; Moritz, Denise Estevez; Schmidell, Willibaldo; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Monascus species can produce yellow, orange, and red pigments, depending on the employed cultivation conditions. They are classified as natural pigments and can be applied for coloration of meat, fishes, cheese, beer, and pates, besides their use in inks for printer and dyes for textile, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. These natural pigments also present antimicrobial activity on pathogenic microorganisms and other beneficial effects to the health as antioxidant and anticholesterol activities. Depending on the substrates, the operational conditions (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen), and fermentation mode (state solid fermentation or submerged fermentation), the production can be directed for one specific color dye. This review has a main objective to present an approach of Monascus pigments as a reality to obtaining and application of natural pigments by microorganisms, as to highlight properties that makes this pigment as promising for worldwide industrial applications.

  16. Self-Normalized Photoacoustic Technique for the Quantitative Analysis of Paper Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas-López, J. A.; Gómez y Gómez, Y. M.; Bautista-Ramírez, M. E.; Pescador-Rojas, J. A.; Martínez-Pérez, L.; Lomelí-Mejía, P. A.

    2018-03-01

    A self-normalized photoacoustic technique was applied for quantitative analysis of pigments embedded in solids. Paper samples (filter paper, Whatman No. 1), attached with the pigment: Direct Fast Turquoise Blue GL, were used for this study. This pigment is a blue dye commonly used in industry to dye paper and other fabrics. The optical absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 660 nm, was measured for this pigment at various concentrations in the paper substrate. It was shown that Beer-Lambert model for light absorption applies well for pigments in solid substrates and optical absorption coefficients as large as 220 cm^{-1} can be measured with this photoacoustic technique.

  17. The applications of VIP 397/418 bulbs in free radical white pigmented coatings: UV curing evaluation for different free radical white pigmented formulations (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Bao; McCartney, R.

    1999-01-01

    White pigmented coatings have gained commercial success using a Gallium doped microwave F600-V bulb. A novel VIP 397/418 bulb has been made recently, by Fusion UV Systems, to increase UV curing efficiency of white pigmented coatings. Previous research work has shown that the VIP 397/418 bulb can cure cationic white pigmented coatings 40-60% faster than a F600-V bulb. Further evaluations of free radical white pigmented coatings have produced significant data indicating that better physical properties (40-50%) or higher cure speeds (50%) can be obtained by using the VIP 397/418 bulb than a F600-V bulb

  18. Quantitative analysis of ancient Egyptian pigments by external PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, M.; Tsunokami, T.; Murai, R.; Maeda, K.; Harigai, I.; Nakayama, Y.; Yoshimura, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Sakurai, K.; Sasa, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Pigments painted on Egyptian excavations in the 18th Dynasty were analyzed successfully by external PIXE with the aid of the X-ray diffraction. A white pigment was composed on Mg 3 Ca(CO 3 ) 4 ; red: αFe 2 O 3 , αFeO.OH and AsS; pink: Mixtures of white and red pigments; yellow: αFeO.OH and As 2 S 3 ; and blue: CaO.CuO.4SiO 2 . (orig.)

  19. MRI diagnosis of pigmented villonodular synovitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Zhongpu; Sui Zhengyan; Xue Jianrong; Song Cuizhi; Liu Yuekui; Li Jinwang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the MRI characteristics of pigmented villonodular synovitis. Methods: MRI and clinic data of 14 patients with pigmented villonodular synovitis proved by pathology were reviewed retrospectively. Results: MRI showed diffusible lesions in all 14 cases. 12 cases were located in knee joint, 2 in hip. MRI revealed nodules and masses formed by villis hyperplasia in the joints. MRI demonstrated the nodules with slightly low signal intensity on both T 1 WI and T 2 WI in 13 cases, the destruction of the cartilage in 8 cases, the destruction of the ligament in 5 cases, and the hydropsy in joint cavity in 10 cases, the destruction of the meniscus in 2 cases. Conclusion: The typical features of pigmented villonodular synovitis on MRI revealed the nodules formed by villis hyperplasia in the joint. Hemosiderin in the nodules demonstrated slightly low signal intensity on both T 1 WI and T 2 WI, with the presence of typical features like 'foam rubber cushion' sign and 'lichen' sign. (authors)

  20. Optimization of fermentation conditions for red pigment production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An extracellular pigment-producing ascomycetous filamentous fungi belonging to the genera Penicillium was obtained from soil and its optimal culture conditions investigated. The optimal culture conditions for pigment production were as follows; soluble starch 2% (670 units), peptone (880 units), pH 9.0 (900 units); ...

  1. [Is prophylactic YAG iridotomy useful in pigment dispersion syndrome?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentreter, A; Schwenn, O; Funk, J; Dietlein, T

    2013-04-01

    Despite theoretical considerations concerning the advantage of iridotomy in eyes with pigment dispersion syndrome or early pigment glaucoma, there is a lack of clinical evidence that this procedure has a long-term effect in preventing glaucoma damage under these circumstances. However, several factors may contribute to this lack of evidence, e.g. the statistical problem of a low conversion rate from pigment dispersion syndrome to pigment glaucoma or the inclusion criteria in the studies treating patients older than 40 years or genetic dispositions in pigment glaucoma that are not yet fully clear. On the basis of current data the decision for YAG iridotomy should only be taken in patients younger than 40 years, if the midperipheral iris shows an inverse bowing and the intraocular pressure is normal or slightly increased with no progressive signs of optic nerve damage. In cases of insufficient intraocular pressure and visual defects due to glaucomatous optic nerve damage, incisional glaucoma surgery is usually necessary especially in younger patients with a long life expectancy.

  2. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na + with Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  3. An Inverse Modeling Approach to Estimating Phytoplankton Pigment Concentrations from Phytoplankton Absorption Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, John R.; Moisan, Tiffany A. H.; Linkswiler, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplankton absorption spectra and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pigment observations from the Eastern U.S. and global observations from NASA's SeaBASS archive are used in a linear inverse calculation to extract pigment-specific absorption spectra. Using these pigment-specific absorption spectra to reconstruct the phytoplankton absorption spectra results in high correlations at all visible wavelengths (r(sup 2) from 0.83 to 0.98), and linear regressions (slopes ranging from 0.8 to 1.1). Higher correlations (r(sup 2) from 0.75 to 1.00) are obtained in the visible portion of the spectra when the total phytoplankton absorption spectra are unpackaged by multiplying the entire spectra by a factor that sets the total absorption at 675 nm to that expected from absorption spectra reconstruction using measured pigment concentrations and laboratory-derived pigment-specific absorption spectra. The derived pigment-specific absorption spectra were further used with the total phytoplankton absorption spectra in a second linear inverse calculation to estimate the various phytoplankton HPLC pigments. A comparison between the estimated and measured pigment concentrations for the 18 pigment fields showed good correlations (r(sup 2) greater than 0.5) for 7 pigments and very good correlations (r(sup 2) greater than 0.7) for chlorophyll a and fucoxanthin. Higher correlations result when the analysis is carried out at more local geographic scales. The ability to estimate phytoplankton pigments using pigment-specific absorption spectra is critical for using hyperspectral inverse models to retrieve phytoplankton pigment concentrations and other Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) from passive remote sensing observations.

  4. The concave iris in pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lance; Ong, Ee Lin; Crowston, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    To visualize the changes of the iris contour in patients with pigment dispersion syndrome after blinking, accommodation, and pharmacologic miosis using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Observational case series. A total of 33 eyes of 20 patients with pigment dispersion syndrome. Each eye was imaged along the horizontal 0- to 180-degree meridian using the Visante Anterior Segment Imaging System (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA). Scans were performed at baseline and after focusing on an internal fixation target for 5 minutes, forced blinking, accommodation, and pharmacologic miosis with pilocarpine 2%. Quantitative analysis of the changes in the iris configuration. After 5 minutes of continual fixation, the iris became planar with the mean ± standard deviation curvature decreasing from 214 ± 74 μm to 67 ± 76 μm (P pigment dispersion syndrome after forced blinking, but the iris concavity recovered to 227 ± 113 μm (P = 0.34) and 238 ± 119 μm (P = 0.19) with the -3.0 and -6.0 diopter lenses, respectively. Pilocarpine-induced miosis caused the iris to assume a planar configuration in all subjects. This study shows that the iris in pigment dispersion syndrome assumes a planar configuration when fixating and that the concavity of the iris surface is not restored by blinking. Accommodation restored the iris concavity, suggesting that the posterior curvature of the iris in pigment dispersion syndrome is induced and probably maintained, at least in part, by accommodation. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Spectral sensitivity and visual pigments of the coastal crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukoliukov, S A; Zak, P P; Kalamkarov, G R; Kalishevich, O O; Ostrovskiĭ, M A

    1980-01-01

    It has been shown that the compound eye of the coastal crab has one photosensitive pigment rhodopsin and screening pigments, black and orange one. The orange pigment has lambda max = 480 nm, rhodopsin in digitonin is stable towards hydroxylamin action, has lambda max = 490-495 nm and after bleaching is transformed into free retinene and opsin. The pigments with lambda max = 430 and 475 nm of the receptor part of the eye are also solubilized. These pigments are not photosensitive but they dissociate under the effect of hydroxylamine. The curye of spectral sensitivity of the coastal crab has the basic maximum at approximately 525 nm and the additional one at 450 nm, which seems to be provided by a combination of the visual pigment--rhodopsin (lambda max 500 nm) with a carotinoid filter (lambda max 480-490). Specific features of the visual system of coastal crab are discussed.

  6. Chlorophyll: The wonder pigment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.R.

    Chlorophyll, the green plant pigment, a 'real life force' of living beings, besides synthesizing food, is a great source of vitamins, minerals and other phytochemicals. Adding chlorophyll rich food to our diet fortifies our body against health...

  7. Barumiki antocyjanowe u Iris germanica [Anthocyanin pigments in Iris germanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szczepańska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin pigments occurring in the flowers of Iris germanica were investigated in five varieties: Rota, Wedgewood, Empress of India, Deputate Nomblot and Joanna. The relation between the colour of the flower and the amount of the pigment was studied. The pigments were extracted from the dry plant material with 1% hydrochloric acid in methanol. Paper chromatography and colorimetric determinations were used for identification of the pigments and their quantitative determination. The results allow the following conclusions: 1. The varieties investigated were characterized toy the occurrence of delphinidine glycoside; 2. The colour intensity is dependent on the anthocyanin pigments; 3. The colour spectrum of Iris sp. flowersis greatly extended by yellow copigments.

  8. Unraveling the chemical identity of meat pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, R B; Shahidi, F

    1997-10-01

    This review examines the chemistry of nitrite curing of meat and meat products as it relates to the development of cured meat color and provides a detailed account of how nitrite-free processed meats could be prepared using the preformed cooked cured-meat pigment (CCMP). Thus, a chemical description of meat color, both raw and cooked, and characterization of nitrosylheme pigments follows. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), visible and infrared spectroscopic studies, evidence has been provided to support the hypothesis that the chemical structure of the preformed CCMP is identical to that of the pigment prepared in situ after thermal processing of nitrite-cured meat and is in fact a mononitrosylheme complex. An appendix, which describes the basic principles of EPR spectroscopy used in the context of this review, is attached.

  9. Corneal collagen crosslinking and pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaHood, Benjamin R; Moore, Sacha

    2017-03-01

    We describe the case of a keratoconus patient with pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) who was treated for progressive corneal ectasia with corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL). Pigment dispersion syndrome has been shown to have associated morphologic changes of the corneal endothelium. Corneal CXL has the potential to cause toxicity to the corneal endothelium, and adjacent pigment might increase the likelihood of damage. In this case, the presence of PDS had no detrimental effect on the outcome of treatment, and no complications were observed at 12 months follow-up, indicating that it may be safe to perform corneal CXL in the setting of PDS. This is an important observation as the number of indications for corneal CXL grows. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Analysis of pigments from Rhodotorula glutinis by Raman spectroscopy and thin layer chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu-feng; Tao, Zhan-hua; Wang, Xue; Li, Yong-qing; Liu, Jun-xian

    2012-03-01

    The pigments from Rhodotorula glutinis were separated by using thin layer chromatography, and the result showed that Rhodotorula glutinis cells could synthesize at least three kinds of pigments, which were beta-carotene, torulene, and torularhodin. The Raman spectra based on the three pigments were acquired, and original spectra were preprocessed by background elimination, baseline correction, and three-point-smoothing, then the averaged spectra from different pigments were investigated, and the result indicated that Raman shift which represents C-C bond was different, and the wave number of beta-carotene demonstrated the largest deviation, finally torulene and torularhodin in Rhodotorula glutinis had more content than beta-carotene. Quantitative analysis of Raman peak height ratio revealed that peak height ratio of pigments showed little difference, which could be used as parameters for further research on living cells, providing reference content of pigments. The above results suggest that Raman spectroscopy combined with thin layer chromatography can be applied to analyze pigments from Rhodotorula glutinis, provides abundant information about pigments, and serves as an effective method to study pigments.

  11. Prodigiosin pigment of Serratia marcescens is associated with increased biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddix, Pryce L; Shanks, Robert M Q

    2018-04-03

    Serratia marcescens is a gram-negative, facultatively-anaerobic bacterium and opportunistic pathogen which produces the red pigment prodigiosin. We employed both batch culture and chemostat growth methods to investigate prodigiosin function in the producing organism. Pigmentation correlated with an increased rate of ATP production during population lag phase. Results with a lacZ transcriptional fusion to the prodigiosin (pig) biosynthetic operon revealed that operon transcription is activated by low cellular levels of ATP at high cell density. Furthermore, these data enabled estimation of the ATP per cell minimum value at which the operon is induced. Pigmented cells were found to accumulate ATP more rapidly and to multiply more quickly than non-pigmented cells during the high density growth phase. Finally, results with both batch and chemostat culture revealed that pigmented cells grow to approximately twice the biomass yield as non-pigmented S. marcescens bacteria. Prodigiosin production may, therefore, provide a growth advantage at ambient temperatures.

  12. Current perspective of yellowish-orange pigments from microorganisms- a review

    OpenAIRE

    Aruldass , Claira Arul; Dufossé , Laurent; Ahmad , Wan Azlina

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Natural yellowish-orange pigments are derived from bacteria, yeasts, fungi and microalgae, including Chryseobacterium, Monascus and Chlorella. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of these pigments in various aspects towards exploiting them for numerous functions. These pigments are produced in various shades of yellow-orange and categorised as carotenoids, anthraquinones, zeaxanthin, flexirubin and other compounds. They served as alternative colourants...

  13. Production of colourful pigments consisting of amorphous arrays of silica particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Shinya; Takeoka, Yukikazu

    2014-08-04

    It is desirable to produce colourful pigments that have anti-fading properties and are environmentally friendly. In this Concept, we describe recently developed pigments that exhibit such characteristics. The pigments consist of amorphous arrays of submicron silica particles, and they exhibit saturated and angle-independent structural colours. Variously coloured pigments can be produced by changing the size of the particles, and the saturation of the colour can be controlled by incorporating small amounts of black particles. We review a simple analysis that is useful for interpreting the angular independence of the structural colours and discuss the remaining tasks that must be accomplished for the realistic application of these pigments. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Raman af hvide pigmenter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeler, Nini Elisabeth Abildgaard; Nielsen, Ole Faurskov; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Et samspil mellem kunst og kemi. I et samarbejde mellem Statens Museum for Kunst og Kemisk Institut på KU er Ramanspek-troskopi brugt til at definere sammensætningen af blandinger af blyhvidt og calcit i maleriers hvide pigmenter....

  15. Ultrastructural analysis of the pigment dispersion syndrome in DBA/2J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraermeyer, Mareike; Schnichels, Sven; Julien, Sylvie; Heiduschka, Peter; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl-Ulrich; Schraermeyer, Ulrich

    2009-11-01

    To characterise ocular pigment abnormalities associated with iris atrophy in DBA/2J mice as a model for human pigment dispersion syndrome. Immunohistochemistry, electron and light microscopy were performed to examine the eyes of DBA/2J mice ranging in age from 2.5 to 18 months old. The focus of our study was the description of the ultrastructural modifications in the irides of DBA/2J mice. The DBA/2J mice presented modifications in the melanosomes in all the pigmented parts of the eye, including the retinal pigment epithelial cells and choroidal melanocytes of the ciliary pigment epithelium. The extracellular matrix of the iris stroma disappeared with ageing. Pigmented cells detached from the iris and migrated into the trabecular meshwork exclusively on the anterior iris surface. These cells were identified as macrophages by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. There was no evidence that melanocytes or iris pigment epithelial cells migrated into the trabecular meshwork, but they became more and more depigmented. The aqueous outflow was blocked by pigment-laden cells, but not by cellular debris or melanosomes. No substantial amount of extracellular melanosomes was observed. The morphology of melanosomes is aberrant in all pigment cells in the eyes of DBA/2J mice. We conclude that the disease process begins with the transfer of both immature melanosomes from the iris pigment epithelium (IPE) and melanocytes to macrophages, which subsequently migrate into the trabecular meshwork. Accumulating macrophages cause a blockade of the chamber angle. As the disease progresses, the IPE, melanocytes and iris stroma, including blood vessels, disappear, leading to iris atrophy. It is speculated that the loss of these pigment cells is partly caused by reduction of the iris stroma.

  16. TEM studies of the crystal growth of indanthrone pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHendry, P.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the crystal growth of indanthrone during the pigmentation process. The colouring properties of a pigment are dependant on the chemical and crystallographic structure of the pigment. However, other factors are known to affect these properties including particle size, particle size distribution and level of dispersion in the chosen application medium. The parameters which affect the growth of the pigment particles were investigated with the emphasis placed on the mechanism by which growth took place. The final form of the crystals after growth was also investigated in some detail. Various electron microscopy techniques were employed in the investigations in this thesis. High and low magnification imaging and diffraction were studied on the CTEM (conventional transmission electron microscope) whilst PEELS (parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy) and DPC (differential phase contrast) studies took place on the VG HB5 STEM (scanning transmission electron microscope). In addition to these studies, x-ray diffraction and surface area analysis techniques were employed. The low magnification CTEM work gave good information on the size, shape and size distribution of the pigment particles and enabled detailed analysis of the level of growth attained under varied reaction conditions. (author)

  17. Retrospective Evaluation of Topical Bimatoprost and Iris Pigmentation Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski-Larsen, Lisa A; Ruth, Nadine H; Fabi, Sabrina G

    2017-12-01

    Topical bimatoprost is a topical prostaglandin analog originally used to treat glaucoma and more recently used to cosmetically induce hypertrichosis of the eyelashes. Iris pigmentation change has been noted in the treatment of glaucoma but has not been assessed with the cosmetic periorbital application of bimatoprost. To evaluate for iris pigmentation change with the long-term cosmetic use of topical bimatoprost. A retrospective chart review in a cosmetic dermatology practice of women (N = 50) who consistently purchased topical bimatoprost over an average of 4.59 years was compared with that of age-matched non-bimatoprost patients (N = 50). A blinded evaluator assessed each patient for iris pigmentary change. No iris pigmentation change was noted with the cutaneous application of bimatoprost. The cutaneous application of bimatoprost appears to be safe with minimal risk for iris pigmentation change.

  18. Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Nicholas G.; Kelly, Derek E.; Hansen, Matthew E. B.; Beltrame, Marcia H.; Fan, Shaohua; Bowman, Shanna L.; Jewett, Ethan; Ranciaro, Alessia; Thompson, Simon; Lo, Yancy; Pfeifer, Susanne P.; Jensen, Jeffrey D.; Campbell, Michael C.; Beggs, William; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Mpoloka, Sununguko Wata; Mokone, Gaonyadiwe George; Nyambo, Thomas; Meskel, Dawit Wolde; Belay, Gurja; Haut, Jake; Rothschild, Harriet; Zon, Leonard; Zhou, Yi; Kovacs, Michael A.; Xu, Mai; Zhang, Tongwu; Bishop, Kevin; Sinclair, Jason; Rivas, Cecilia; Elliot, Eugene; Choi, Jiyeon; Li, Shengchao A.; Hicks, Belynda; Burgess, Shawn; Abnet, Christian; Watkins-Chow, Dawn E.; Oceana, Elena; Song, Yun S.; Eskin, Eleazar; Brown, Kevin M.; Marks, Michael S.; Loftus, Stacie K.; Pavan, William J.; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen; Tishkoff, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Despite the wide range of skin pigmentation in humans, little is known about its genetic basis in global populations. Examining ethnically diverse African genomes, we identify variants in or near SLC24A5, MFSD12, DDB1, TMEM138, OCA2 and HERC2 that are significantly associated with skin pigmentation. Genetic evidence indicates that the light pigmentation variant at SLC24A5 was introduced into East Africa by gene flow from non-Africans. At all other loci, variants associated with dark pigmentation in Africans are identical by descent in southern Asian and Australo-Melanesian populations. Functional analyses indicate that MFSD12 encodes a lysosomal protein that affects melanogenesis in zebrafish and mice, and that mutations in melanocyte-specific regulatory regions near DDB1/TMEM138 correlate with expression of UV response genes under selection in Eurasians. PMID:29025994

  19. Ultraviolet radiation effects on pigmentation in the cyanobacterium ''Phormidium uncinatum''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donkor, V.A.; Haeder, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    The Baikal strain of the cyanobacterium Phormidium uncinatum was found to possess the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a, carotenoids, phycocyanin and allophycocyanin, while the Tuebingen strain of Phormidium contained, in addition to these, the biliprotein phycoerythrin. Sucrose gradient centrifugation of the pigment extracts resulted in a separation of the phycobiliproteins into several bands, which according to their absorption and fluorescence properties, were identified as monomers, trimers and hexamers. With increasing UV-B irradiation the heavier aggregates were broken down into smaller components. Photobleaching of these accessory pigments also occurred. FPLC gel filtration analyses of the pigments also showed loss of heavier aggregates of the phycobilins and bleaching of the pigments. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the sucrose gradient and FPLC fractions indicated loss of the biliproteins with increasing UV-B irradiation. The loss of the β- were more rapid than that of the α- subunits. Increasing levels of ultraviolet irradiation is therefore deleterious to these organism. (author)

  20. Properties of alginate fiber spun-dyed with fluorescent pigment dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Tawiah, Benjamin; Tian, Anli; Wang, Chunxia; Zhang, Liping; Fu, Shaohai

    2015-03-15

    Spun-dyed alginate fiber was prepared by the spun-dyeing method with the mixture of fluorescent pigment dispersion and sodium alginate fiber spinning solution, and its properties were characterized by SEM, TGA, DSC, and XRD. The results indicate that fluorescent pigment dispersion prepared with esterified poly (styrene-alt maleic acid) had excellent compatibility with sodium alginate fiber spinning solution, and small amount of fluorescent pigment could reduce the viscosity of spun-dyed spinning solutions. SEM photo of spun-dyed alginate fiber indicated that fewer pigment particles deposited on its surface. TGA, DSC, and XRD results suggested that thermal properties and crystal phase of spun-dyed alginate fibers had slight changes compared to the original alginate fibers. The fluorescence intensity of spun-dyed alginate fiber reached its maximum when the content of fluorescent pigment was 4%. The spun-dyed alginate fiber showed excellent rubbing and washing fastness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of a New Heterocyclic Azo Pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asniza, M.; Issam, A.M.; Khalil, H.P.S.A.

    2011-01-01

    A new heterocyclic coupling agent has been produced from the reaction of maleic anhydride and p-aminophenol, namely N-(4-hexahydrophenol)maleimide. The coupling agent underwent azo coupling reaction with aromatic amine, which is p-aminophenol to produce a new heterocyclic azo pigment. The pigment was then subjected to solubility, hiding power and light fastness test. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet/ Visible (UV/Vis) Spectroscopy, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR) were used to obtain the characteristics and structural features of the pigment. (author)

  2. Fumed metallic oxides and conventional pigments for glossy inkjet paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunkook

    Product development activity in the area of inkjet printing papers has accelerated greatly to meet the rapidly growing market for inkjet papers. Advancements in inkjet printing technology have also placed new demands on the paper substrate due to faster printing rates, greater resolution through increased drop volumes, and colorants added to the ink. To meet these requirements, papermakers are turning to pigmented size press formulations or pigmented coating systems. For inkjet coating applications, both the internal porosity of the pigment particles as well as the packing porosity of the coating affect print quality and dry time. Pores between the pigment particles allow for rapid diffusion of ink fluids into the coating structure, while also providing capacity for ink fluid uptake. Past research has shown the presence of coating cracks to increase the microroughness of the papers, consequently reducing the gloss of the silica/polyvinyl alcohol based coating colors. Coating cracks were not observed, at the same level of magnification, in the scanning electron microscopy images of alumina/polyvinyl alcohol coated papers. Studies are therefore needed to understand the influence of coating cracking on the microroughening of silica/polyvinyl alcohol based coatings and consequences to coating and ink gloss. Since micro roughening is known to be linked to shrinkage of the coating layer, studies are needed to determine if composite pigments can be formulated, which would enable the coating solids of the formulations to be increased to minimize the shrinkage of coating layer during drying. Coating solids greater than 55% solids are needed to reduce the difference between application solids and the coating's immobilization solids point in order to reduce shrinkage. The aim of this research was to address the above mentioned needed studies. Studies were performed to understand the influence of particle packing on gloss and ink jet print quality. Composite pigment structures

  3. Abnormal pigmentation within cutaneous scars: A complication of wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Chadwick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally pigmented scars are an undesirable consequence of cutaneous wound healing and are a complication every single individual worldwide is at risk of. They present a challenge for clinicians, as there are currently no definitive treatment options available, and render scars much more noticeable making them highly distressing for patients. Despite extensive research into both wound healing and the pigment cell, there remains a scarcity of knowledge surrounding the repigmentation of cutaneous scars. Pigment production is complex and under the control of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors and patterns of scar repigmentation are unpredictable. This article gives an overview of human skin pigmentation, repigmentation following wounding and current treatment options.

  4. Pigment dispersion syndrome associated with optic nerve melanocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asorey-García, A; Méndez-Hernández, C D; Santos-Bueso, E; García-Feijoo, J

    2015-10-01

    A 60-year old patient was referred for cataract surgery. The examination showed retrokeratic pigment in the left eye, which had an intraocular pressure of 24 mm Hg. The funduscopy showed a brown lesion on the left optic disk, with adjacent vitreous seeding of pigment. The patient was thus diagnosed with secondary pigment dispersion syndrome due to optic disk melanocytoma. Although melanocytoma is most commonly a benign, stationary tumor, it may present with major complications leading to significant visual loss. A patient with melanocytoma of the optic disk should be examined periodically. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Bio production of red pigment by local isolate of Monascus purpureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, B.M.; Khalaf, M.A.; Emam, D.A.; Hazaa, M.M.; Shash, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    There is an increased interest on natural pigments to replace some currently used synthetic dyes, since the latter have been associated with toxic effects in foods. The red pigment of the fungus Monascus is widely used in all the world as food additives or pharmaceuticals. The Monascus purpureus local strain, which was isolated from dried silage sample was employed for red pigment production in submerged fermentation (Sm F) conditions. Different fermentation parameters including: incubation period, temperature, initial ph of the medium, agitation, different carbon and nitrogen sources, bio elements and type of inoculum and its age; were carried out under Sm F conditions to enhance the red pigment production. The maximum red pigment production (1.27 gI -1 ) was achieved at incubation temperature 30 C, initial ph 5.5, agitation rate 150 rpm, 2% starch and 0.4% ammonium sulphate as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, after 4 days when the production medium inoculated with 12 h age from seed culture inoculum. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of Monascus purpureus towards red pigment production. The maximum red pigment production (I.9 gI -1 ) was obtained at 0.5 kGy dose level

  6. Dissecting historical changes of selective pressures in the evolution of human pigmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xin; Wang, Sijia; Jin, Li; He, Yungang

    2018-01-01

    Human pigmentation is a highly diverse trait among populations, and has drawn particular attention from both academic and non-academic investigators for thousands of years. To explain the diversity of human pigmentation, researchers have proposed that human pigmentation is adapted for ultraviolet radiation and driven by natural selection. Although studies have detected signals of natural selection in several human pigmentation genes, none have quantitatively investigated the historical select...

  7. Pigment dispersion syndrome associated with spontaneous subluxation of crystalline lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Veerwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS is an ocular condition characterized by a dispersion of iris pigment throughout the eye. This pigment is deposited in a characteristic manner on the corneal endothelium as Krukenberg's spindle, anterior surface of the iris, in the trabecular meshwork, on the lens and zonule and occasionally on the anterior hyaloid face. Even with deposition of pigment on zonular fibers, no zonular weakness, or zonular dehiscence has been reported in these cases. We report a unique case of PDS with bilateral spontaneous subluxation of crystalline lens. With characteristic findings of pigment distribution in both his eyes, the patient had concave iris configuration with heavily pigmented trabecular meshwork confirming the diagnosis of PDS. The patient had bilateral 180° temporal subluxation of crystalline lens in both his eyes. The usual cause of lens subluxation such as Marfan's Syndrome and Ehler's Danlos Syndrome was ruled out. The patient underwent right eye followed by left eye intracapsular cataract extraction with ab-interno technique with postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA of 6/9 in both eyes. Spontaneous subluxation of crystalline lens in isolated PDS is not known to occur and has been reported by means of this case. We recommend a thorough assessment of zonular status in all cases of PDS.

  8. Pigment dispersion syndrome associated with spontaneous subluxation of crystalline lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerwal, Vikas; Goyal, Jawahar Lal; Jain, Parul; Arora, Ritu

    2017-01-01

    Pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) is an ocular condition characterized by a dispersion of iris pigment throughout the eye. This pigment is deposited in a characteristic manner on the corneal endothelium as Krukenberg's spindle, anterior surface of the iris, in the trabecular meshwork, on the lens and zonule and occasionally on the anterior hyaloid face. Even with deposition of pigment on zonular fibers, no zonular weakness, or zonular dehiscence has been reported in these cases. We report a unique case of PDS with bilateral spontaneous subluxation of crystalline lens. With characteristic findings of pigment distribution in both his eyes, the patient had concave iris configuration with heavily pigmented trabecular meshwork confirming the diagnosis of PDS. The patient had bilateral 180° temporal subluxation of crystalline lens in both his eyes. The usual cause of lens subluxation such as Marfan's Syndrome and Ehler's Danlos Syndrome was ruled out. The patient underwent right eye followed by left eye intracapsular cataract extraction with ab-interno technique with postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 6/9 in both eyes. Spontaneous subluxation of crystalline lens in isolated PDS is not known to occur and has been reported by means of this case. We recommend a thorough assessment of zonular status in all cases of PDS.

  9. Grey hair: clinical investigation into changes in hair fibres with loss of pigmentation in a photoprotected population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, P D; Polefka, T; Grove, G; Daly, S; Jumbelic, L; Harper, D; Nori, M; Evans, T; Ramaprasad, R; Bianchini, R

    2011-04-01

    Loss of pigmentation in hair fibres is one of the most obvious phenotypic changes with ageing and has been a topic of increasing interest in the study of follicle biology. The onset of greying brings cosmetic complaints that grey fibres are wild or difficult to manage. Of course, these perceptions may be the consequence of visual obviousness rather than underlying physical or chemical differences. Although several studies have compared pigmented and unpigmented fibres, few have tried to control genetic and ethnic difference as well as extrinsic factors such as photoexposure and chemical treatment. We have recruited subjects with salt-and-pepper hair from a population of Old Order Mennonites who, for cultural reasons, are not only prohibited from chemically treating their hair but also limit their exposure to sunlight. Hair samples were examined for elemental composition, surface energy, Young's modulus, break stress, bending modulus, shear modulus and water sorption/desorption isotherm. The parameters were evaluated statistically for global differences, individual differences and typical individual differences. Consistent with previous published literature, few global differences were found between pigmented and unpigmented hair across the population. We do find that many individual subjects had differences between pigmented and unpigmented fibres. These differences tend to be more pronounced in bulk than in surface properties. The small differences in mechanical properties and moisture uptake and loss lend support to the perception by consumers that grey hair is wilder, drier and less manageable. © 2011 TRI/Princeton. Journal compilation. © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  10. The 'push-pull' dosimeter: When two pigments are better than one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosi, Stephen G; Baldock, Clive; Smee, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A new kind of gel dosimeter (the 'push-pull' dosimeter) is proposed which would contain two spectrally complementary pigments, one which darkens with increasing dose and another which bleaches. The bleaching pigment would be optimised for high sensitivity and the darkening pigment for low sensitivity. By employing dual pigments optimised independently, the usual requisite compromises between sensitivity at low dose and accuracy at high dose would be relaxed. Such a gel, after exposure would be read using two successive optical CT scans employing two different scan wavelengths. The use of dual pigments could also reduce the occurrence of regions of high optical attenuation which generate artefacts in optical CT. This paper also presents results of simulations of the behaviour of such a gel when scanned using optical cone beam CT.

  11. Novel environment friendly corrosion inhibitor pigments based on naturally occurring clay minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, S.; McMurray, H.N.; Worsley, D.A. [University of Wales, Swansea (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Powell, S.M. [University of Wales, Swansea (United Kingdom). Engineering Doktorate Centre

    2001-12-01

    Novel, ceramic, corrosion inhibitor pigments consisting of cerium (III) and calcium (II) cation exchanged bentonites have been shown to provide effective cut-edge corrosion resistance in organic coated galvanised steel. The bentonite pigments were prepared from a naturally occurring (Wyoming) bentonite with a cation-exchange-capacity of 0.7 milli-equivalents per gram. Cation exchange was carried out by repeated washing with aqueous solutions of cerium (III) chloride and calcium (II) chloride to produce bentonites containing 31500 ppm exchangeable cerium (III) and 13500 ppm exchangeable calcium (II) respectively. The resulting bentonite pigments were dispersed in a polyester-resin based primer paint system to give a pigment volume concentration of 19%. For comparison, two similar primer systems were prepared containing a commercial calcium (II) exchanged silica pigment Shieldex: 60 000 ppm calcium (II) and a strontium chromate dispersion, both with a 19% pigment volume concentration. All three primer systems were applied (5 {mu}m) to the zinc surface of galvanised 0.7 mm gauge sheet steel and overcoated with an architectural polyester topcoat (18 {mu}m). The performance of the inhibitor pigments was compared by measuring the rate of corrosion-driven organic coating delamination from the cut edge of samples during 1000 h of salt-spray testing. The calcium (II) bentonite pigment exhibited an anti-delamination performance similar to that of strontium chromate but superior to that of Shieldex. However, the cerium (III) bentonite pigment was superior in performance to both strontium chromate and Shieldex. Thus, the bentonite pigments represent promising, environmentally friendly, ion-exchange corrosion inhibitors which exhibit good anti-delamination performance by comparison with current commercial systems. (orig.)

  12. Synthesis and characterization of hematite pigment obtained from a steel waste industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prim, S.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the State of Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Folgueras, M.V., E-mail: dem2mvf@joinville.udesc.br [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the State of Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Lima, M.A. de [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the State of Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Hotza, D. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} The study of using of a industrial waste for the synthesis of hematite pigments. {yields} The nanometer dimension this waste and your behavior as chromophore. {yields} The effect of process variables on the mechanisms of encapsulation sintered pigments. - Abstract: Pigments that meet environmental and technology requirements are the focus of the research in the ceramic sector. This study focuses on the synthesis of ceramic pigment by encapsulation of hematite in crystalline and amorphous silica matrix. Iron oxide from a metal sheet rolling process was used as chromophore. A different content of hematite and silica was homogenized by conventional and high energy milling. The powders obtained after calcinations between 1050 and 1200 {sup o}C for 2 h were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. The pigments were applied to ceramic enamel and porcelain body. The effect of pigment was measured by comparing L*a*b* values of the heated samples. Results showed that the color developed is influenced by variables such as oxide content employed, conditions of milling and processing temperature. The results showed that the use of pigment developed does not interfere in microstructural characteristics of pigmented material. The best hue was obtained from samples with 15 wt% of chromophore, heated at 1200 {sup o}C in amorphous silica matrix.

  13. The red pigment prodigiosin is not an essential virulence factor in entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Li, JingHua; Chen, Jie; Liu, XiaoYuan; Xiang, TingTing; Zhang, Lin; Wan, YongJi

    2016-05-01

    Although pigments produced by pathogenic microbes are generally hypothesized as essential virulence factors, the role of red pigment prodigiosin in the pathogenesis of entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens is not clear. In this study, we analyzed the pathogenicity of different pigmented S. marcescens strains and their non-pigmented mutants in silkworms. Each pigmented strain and the corresponding non-pigmented mutants showed very similar LD50 value (statistically no difference), but caused very different symptom (color of the dead larva). Our results clearly indicated that the red pigment prodigiosin is not an essential virulence factor in entomopathogenic S. marcescens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Visual pigments in a living fossil, the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Wayne L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the greatest challenges facing the early land vertebrates was the need to effectively interpret a terrestrial environment. Interpretation was based on ocular adaptations evolved for an aquatic environment millions of years earlier. The Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri is thought to be the closest living relative to the first terrestrial vertebrate, and yet nothing is known about the visual pigments present in lungfish or the early tetrapods. Results Here we identify and characterise five visual pigments (rh1, rh2, lws, sws1 and sws2 expressed in the retina of N. forsteri. Phylogenetic analysis of the molecular evolution of lungfish and other vertebrate visual pigment genes indicates a closer relationship between lungfish and amphibian pigments than to pigments in teleost fishes. However, the relationship between lungfish, the coelacanth and tetrapods could not be absolutely determined from opsin phylogeny, supporting an unresolved trichotomy between the three groups. Conclusion The presence of four cone pigments in Australian lungfish suggests that the earliest tetrapods would have had a colorful view of their terrestrial environment.

  15. Visual pigments in a living fossil, the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailes, Helena J; Davies, Wayne L; Trezise, Ann E O; Collin, Shaun P

    2007-10-25

    One of the greatest challenges facing the early land vertebrates was the need to effectively interpret a terrestrial environment. Interpretation was based on ocular adaptations evolved for an aquatic environment millions of years earlier. The Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri is thought to be the closest living relative to the first terrestrial vertebrate, and yet nothing is known about the visual pigments present in lungfish or the early tetrapods. Here we identify and characterise five visual pigments (rh1, rh2, lws, sws1 and sws2) expressed in the retina of N. forsteri. Phylogenetic analysis of the molecular evolution of lungfish and other vertebrate visual pigment genes indicates a closer relationship between lungfish and amphibian pigments than to pigments in teleost fishes. However, the relationship between lungfish, the coelacanth and tetrapods could not be absolutely determined from opsin phylogeny, supporting an unresolved trichotomy between the three groups. The presence of four cone pigments in Australian lungfish suggests that the earliest tetrapods would have had a colorful view of their terrestrial environment.

  16. Selected gene polymorphisms effect on skin and hair pigmentation in Polish children at the prepubertal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Aneta; Rosset, Iwona; Żądzińska, Elżbieta; Siewierska-Górska, Anna; Pietrowska, Edyta; Strapagiel, Dominik

    2016-11-01

    Background : Human pigmentation, similarly as many other biological features, changes in the course of post-natal ontogenesis, while in case of hair, pigmentation changes are more distinctive than in the skin or the iris. It is therefore extremely important to identify the genes, involved in the constitution of human pigmentation features at various stages of ontogenesis. Results of this type of analyses are of high practical significance in forensic study because they enable to create mathematical tools, allowing for prediction of the pigmentation phenotype, based on DNA studies. Aim : The objective of the investigation was finding out whether the genes, associated with pigmentation of adult subjects, differentiated in any way the newly forming pigmentation phenotype in Polish prepubertal children. Material and methods : The study encompassed Polish children, aged 7 to 10 years, without any abnormalities in skin or hair pigmentation. A total of 245 children were examined. Constitutive skin pigmentation according to skin melanin index (SMI) was evaluated, using a dermaspectrometer, and classified into three groups based on the reference values of 25 and 75 percentile for Polish children. Hair colors were evaluated by means of the descriptive Fischer-Saller scale and classified by a division of color variants (as accepted in that scale) (light blonde, blonde, dark blonde, brown and dark brown). In saliva samples, collected from the children, five (5) single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified: SNPs : rs1800401 ( OCA2 -15q11.2-q12), rs35264875 ( TPCN2 -11q13.3), rs16891982 ( SLC45A2 -5p13.2), rs12913832 ( HERC2 -15q13) and rs1805007 ( MC1R -16q24.3). An association between each allele of verified genotype and skin and hair color phenotypes was assessed, using the z-statistic and associated p -value. The quality of classifiers was evaluated by 10-fold stratified cross-validation and was characterized by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve

  17. NANO-SIZED PIGMENT APPLICATIONS IN İZNİK TILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin GÜNAY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional İznik tiles are known as “unproducable” due to its high quartz content. İznik tiles contain four different layers as “body, engobe (slip, decors and glaze” and each one has some different starting materials. Recent studies have showed that the production techniques and the particle size of pigments are important parameters in development of colours. TUBITAK MRC and İznik Foundation carried out an experimental work to improve and understand the effects of nanotechnology application to İznik tiles. High quartz content was kept as it is and pigments were applied in decorationas nano-sized pigments.İznik tiles were produced and comparison was carried out between traditional and modern İznik tiles in colour and brightness. Characterization techniques were used in order to understand andcompare the results and also the effects of nano-sized pigments to İznik tiles.

  18. Resonant imaging of carotenoid pigments in the human retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellermann, Werner; Emakov, Igor V.; McClane, Robert W.

    2002-06-01

    We have generated high spatial resolution images showing the distribution of carotenoid macular pigments in the human retina using Raman spectroscopy. A low level of macular pigments is associated with an increased risk of developing age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Using excised human eyecups and resonant excitation of the pigment molecules with narrow bandwidth blue light from a mercury arc lamp, we record Raman images originating from the carbon-carbon double bond stretch vibrations of lutein and zeaxanthin, the carotenoids comprising human macular pigments. Our Raman images reveal significant differences among subjects, both in regard to absolute levels as well as spatial distribution within the macula. Since the light levels used to obtain these images are well below established safety limits, this technique holds promise for developing a rapid screening diagnostic in large populations at risk for vision loss from age-related macular degeneration.

  19. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Synthetic Organic Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Naeko; Takahashi, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Katsumi; Tanaka, Nobuko; Okubo, Ichiro; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2018-04-18

    Though synthetic organic colorants are used in various applications nowadays, there is the concern that impurities by-produced during the manufacturing and degradation products in some of these colorants are persistent organic pollutants and carcinogens. Thus, it is important to identify the synthetic organic colorants in various products, such as commercial paints, ink, cosmetics, food, textile, and plastics. Dyes, which are soluble in water and other solvents, could be analyzed by chromatographic methods. In contrast, it is difficult to analyze synthetic organic pigments by these methods because of their insolubility. This review is an overview of mass spectrometric analysis of synthetic organic pigments by various ionization methods. We highlight a recent study of textile samples by atmospheric pressure solid analysis probe MS. Furthermore, the mass spectral features of synthetic organic pigments and their separation from other components such as paint media and plasticizers are discussed.

  20. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, M.; Martinetto, P.; Somogyi, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Dooryhee, E.; Peltier, N.; Alianelli, L.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.

    2004-01-01

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used

  1. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez del Río, M.; Martinetto, P.; Somogyi, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Dooryhée, E.; Peltier, N.; Alianelli, L.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.

    2004-10-01

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  2. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Somogyi, A. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Peltier, N. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Alianelli, L. [INFM-OGG c/o ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Moignard, B. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Calligaro, T. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Dran, J.-C. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France)

    2004-10-08

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  3. Internal and external factors affecting photosynthetic pigment composition in plants: a meta-analytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Raquel; Barrutia, Oihana; Artetxe, Unai; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Hernández, Antonio; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2015-04-01

    Photosynthetic pigment composition has been a major study target in plant ecophysiology during the last three decades. Although more than 2000 papers have been published, a comprehensive evaluation of the responses of photosynthetic pigment composition to environmental conditions is not yet available. After an extensive survey, we compiled data from 525 papers including 809 species (subkingdom Viridiplantae) in which pigment composition was described. A meta-analysis was then conducted to assess the ranges of photosynthetic pigment content. Calculated frequency distributions of pigments were compared with those expected from the theoretical pigment composition. Responses to environmental factors were also analysed. The results revealed that lutein and xanthophyll cycle pigments (VAZ) were highly responsive to the environment, emphasizing the high phenotypic plasticity of VAZ, whereas neoxanthin was very stable. The present meta-analysis supports the existence of relatively narrow limits for pigment ratios and also supports the presence of a pool of free 'unbound' VAZ. Results from this study provide highly reliable ranges of photosynthetic pigment contents as a framework for future research on plant pigments. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Characteristic Elemental Composition of Oil Pigments using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Sun, Gwang Min; Lim, Jong Myung; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Young Jin; Lim, Sung Jin; Song, Yu Na; Kim, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The principal aim of this study is to identify the applicability of instrumental neutron activation analysis as a non-destructive examination tool for the quantitative composition analysis associated with authentication, restoration, and conservation of art objects in the field of cultural heritage. Generally, the chemical composition of pigments are associated with the colors such as white, yellow, orange, red, green, blue and black, and it varies with raw materials of pigments. According to the colors of a different pigments, chemical compositions are as follows; for example, white pigments were used for a mixture of Pb(CO 3 ) 2 , PbSO 4 , PbO, Pb(OH) 2 , ZnO, ZnS, TiO 2 , BaSO 4 , CaCO 3 , Al 2 O 3 , As 2 S 3 , etc.; black pigments were series of carbon black, borne ash, MnO+Mn 2 O 3 , etc.; red pigments were Fe 2 O 3 , Pb 3 O 4 , HgS, PbMo 4 , CdS+CdSe, etc.; brown and yellow pigments were PbCrO 4 , ZnCrO 4 , CdS-ZnS, K 3 [Co(NO 2 ) 6 ], Pb(SbO 3 ) 2 , C 19 H 16 O 11 Mg, SrCrO 4 , etc.; green pigments were Cr 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O(OH) 4 , Cu(C 2 H 3 O 2 )-2Cu(OH) 2 ), Cr 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 -CoO, etc.; blue pigments were Fe 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3 , CoO-Al 2 O 3 , Na 8 - 10 Al 6 Si 6 O 24 S 2-4 , etc. This first step is to obtain quantitative data on the concentrations of major, minor and trace elements in oil pigments and to explain pigment sources by statistical treatment as reported in many literatures. The determination of major, minor and micro elements in the subject materials are essential in many fields of basic science and technology as well as commercial and industrial fields. In particular, direct analysis of a sample offers a more effective investigation method in these fields. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has an inherent advantage of being a non-destructive, simultaneously multi-elemental analysis with high accuracy and sensitivity. In order to characterize the elemental contents of art objects, the quantitative analysis of oil pigment series was

  5. Destruction of liver haem by norethindrone. Conversion into green pigments

    OpenAIRE

    White, Ian N. H.

    1981-01-01

    1. Factors affecting the norethindrone-mediated conversion of hepatic haem into green pigments have been studied in the rat. Concentrations of haem and green pigments were estimated spectrophotometrically after esterification and separation by silica gel high-pressure liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.). 2. Accumulation of green pigments in the liver was dependent on the dose of steroid and the time after dosing, maximum values being reached after 4–8h. Phenobarbitone pretreatment of rats result...

  6. Characterization of pre-hispanic pigments by modern analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega A, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the study of mural painting pigments from two archaeological sites (The Great Temple in Mexico city and Cacaxtla) was performed to know their materials composition, identify their structural characteristics and properties by using modern analytical techniques. Blue, ochre, red and black pigments of Mexica culture (1325-1521 a.C. / late Post Classic period); blue, ochre, red, brown, pink, green and white of Olmeca- Xicalanca culture (700-900 a.C. / Epiclassic period) were studied. Data about materials used, technological evolution, mineralogical background, cultural interchange and origin was obtained. Environmental exposition of these paintings since their discovering has produced changes and damage on their materials. Therefore, stability of some pigments has been notorious, ''Maya Blue'' specially presents extraordinary resistance to diluted and concentrated acids and alkalis including boiling condition, acqua regia, solvents, oxidant and reducing agents, moderate heat and biocorrosi6n; for that reason its study was emphasized. ''Maya Blue'' pigment was synthesized in laboratory using the processes described by historic sources (with indigophera suffruticosa leaves and synthetic indigo) up to obtain a stable pigment including acqua regia action. Clay matrix sorbs nearly 0.4 weight percent of organic dye, which cover 79% of palygorskita surface area. (Author)

  7. The importance of tattoo pigment in sentinel lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, Atilla; Menekse, Ebru; Kanbour-Shakir, Amal; Tane, Kaori; Diego, Emilia; Bonaventura, Marguerite; Johnson, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    The presence of pigment in axillary lymph nodes (LN) secondary to migration of tattoo ink can imitate the appearance of a blue sentinel lymph node (SLN) on visual inspection, causing the operator to either miss the true SLN or excise more than is needed. We present patients with tattoos ipsilateral to an early stage breast cancer who underwent a SLN biopsy. Patients were retrospectively reviewed from medical records and clinicopathologic data was collected. A total of 52 LNs were retrieved from 15 patients for sentinel mapping and 29 of them had tattoo pigmentation on pathologic evaluation. Of those 29 SLNs, 2 of them (6.9%) were pigmented, but did not contain either blue dye or Tc-99m (pseudopigmented SLN). Two (3.8%) SLNs were positive for metastasis; both of these had either blue dye or Tc99m uptake, and 1 demonstrated tattoo pigment in the node. In this cohort of patients with ipsilateral tattoos, removed more LNs lead to unnecessary excision which may important for increasing the risk of arm morbidity from SLN biopsy. However, the presence of tattoo pigment did not interfere with understaging for axillary mapping and it did not effect of pathological identification of SLNs positivity.

  8. 40 CFR 415.340 - Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chrome pigments production subcategory. 415.340 Section 415.340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.340 Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States and...

  9. The pigmentation of powder coatings with the use of block copolymer dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorde, F.L.; Nostrum, van C.F.; Linde, van der R.

    1999-01-01

    The dispersing of pigments in powder coatings is a difficult and complicated process. The incomplete dispersion under standard extrusion conditions can be attributed to a combination of poor pigment wetting and insufficient disruption of the pigment agglomerates, as a result of the rheological

  10. Screening of Auricularia auricula strains for strong production ability of melanin pigments

    OpenAIRE

    ZOU, Yu; MA, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Melanin pigments have great application value and development potential in food industry to use as nature functional food colorants. In initial study, twenty-two Auricularia auricula strains were screened for stronger production ability of melanin pigments by solid culture. Three A. auricula strains (RF201, QD2 and QD6) with higher pigment production capacity were selected for further study through submerged culture supplementing 1 g/L l-tyrosine. The maximal pigment yields of A. aur...

  11. 75 FR 52930 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... of presscake and dry color. Pigment dispersions in any form (e.g., pigment dispersed in oleoresins... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India to determine whether Meghmani Pigments (Meghmani) is the...

  12. Pigments, parasites and personalitiy: towards a unifying role for steroid hormones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje Kittilsen

    Full Text Available A surging interest in the evolution of consistent trait correlations has inspired research on pigment patterns as a correlate of behavioural syndromes, or "animal personalities". Associations between pigmentation, physiology and health status are less investigated as potentially conserved trait clusters. In the current study, lice counts performed on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar naturally infected with ectoparasitic sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis showed that individual fish with high incidence of black melanin-based skin spots harboured fewer female sea lice carrying egg sacs, compared to less pigmented fish. There was no significant association between pigmentation and lice at other developmental stages, suggesting that host factors associated with melanin-based pigmentation may modify ectoparasite development to a larger degree than settlement. In a subsequent laboratory experiment a strong negative correlation between skin spots and post-stress cortisol levels was revealed, with less pigmented individuals showing a more pronounced cortisol response to acute stress. The observation that lice prevalence was strongly increased on a fraction of sexually mature male salmon which occurred among the farmed fish further supports a role for steroid hormones as mediators of reduced parasite resistance. The data presented here propose steroid hormones as a proximate cause for the association between melanin-based pigmentation and parasites. Possible fundamental and applied implications are discussed.

  13. Retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy in Briard dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, R M; Cabral, L; Gooch, L; Bedford, P G; Boulton, M E

    1996-01-01

    The eyes of normal Briard dogs, Briards affected with inherited retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy (RPED) and a range of normal crossbred and beagle dogs were examined and the histopathology of RPED in the Briard was compared with the histopathological features of ageing in the normal canine retina. RPED was characterised by the accumulation of auto-fluorescent lipofuscin-like inclusions in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which initially involved only non-pigmented RPE cells overlying the tapetum but subsequently spread to all pigmented RPE cells. Secondary neuro-retinal degeneration was characterised by a gradual loss of the outer nuclear layer and the subsequent atrophy and degeneration of the inner retina. The loss of primary photoreceptors in the peripheral retina was accompanied by the migration of photoreceptor nuclei and appeared to resemble severe changes due to ageing. Intra-vitreal radiolabelled leucine was used to examine the rate of turnover of the outer segments of the rods in some Briards, but no significant variations were found. The activity of acid phosphatase in RPE was assayed in vitro and showed comparable regional variations in Briard and crossbred dogs. The results suggest that RPED in the Briard is unlikely to be due either to an increased rate of turnover of rod outer segments (and thus an increased phagocytic load) or to a primary insufficiency of lysosomal enzyme.

  14. Refractory Pigmentation Associated with Laugier-Hunziker Syndrome following Er:YAG Laser Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Sertan; Saruhanoğlu, Alp; Migliari, Dante-Antonio; Maden, Ilay; Tanyeri, Hakkı

    2013-01-01

    The present report describes a case of Laugier-Hunziker syndrome (LHS), a rare benign condition. A patient with LHS develops acquired melanotic pigmentation of the lips and buccal mucosa, often with pigmentation of the nails occurring. No systemic symptoms are associated with this syndrome. Normally, no treatment is required for this condition, unless for aesthetic reason, mainly due to pigmentation on the lip mucosa. We present a case of LHS, 37-year-old female, whose pigmentations on her lip and in the oral cavity were treated with an Er:YAG laser. At the postoperative 12th month followup, the lesions recurred. The effects of any surgical attempt to treat pigmentations associated with LHS were discussed.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of black, red and yellow nanoparticles pigments from the iron sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mufti, Nandang; Atma, T.; Fuad, A.; Sutadji, E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to synthesize nanoparticles of black pigment of Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), red pigment of hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ), and yellow pigment of ghoetite (α-FeOOH) from the iron sand. The black pigment of Fe 3 O 4 and the yellow pigment α-FeOOH nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method with variation of pH. Whereas, the red pigment Fe 2 O 3 was synthesized by sintering Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles at temperature between 400 °C and 700 7°C for 1 hour. All the pigments has been characterized using X-ray diffraction and SEM. The XRD results shown that the particle size of the black pigmen Fe 3 O 4 , red pigment Fe 3 O 4 and yellow pigment α-FeOOH are around 12, 32, and 30 nm respectively. The particle size of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles increase by increasing sintering temperature from 32 nm at 400 °C to 39 nm at 700 °C. For yellow pigment of α-FeOOH, the particle size increase by increasing pH from 30,54 nm at pH 4 to 48,60 nm at pH 7. The SEM results shown that the morphologies of black, yellow and red pigments are aglomarated

  16. Production of a Blue Pigment (Glaukothalin by Marine Rheinheimera spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Grossart

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two γ-Proteobacteria strains, that is, HP1 and HP9, which both produce a diffusible deep blue pigment, were isolated from the German Wadden Sea and from the Øresund, Denmark, respectively. Both strains affiliate with the genus Rheinheimera. Small amounts of the pigment could be extracted from HP1 grown in a 50 L fermenter and were purified chromatographically. Chemical analysis of the pigment including NMR and mass spectrometry led to a molecular formula of C34H56N4O4 (m.w. 584.85 which has not yet been reported in literature. The molecule is highly symmetrically and consists of two heterocyclic halves to which aliphatic side chains are attached. The pigment has been named glaukothalin due to its blue color and its marine origin (glaukos, gr.=blue, thalatta, gr.=sea. Production of glaukothalin on MB2216 agar plates by our Rheinheimera strains is affected in the presence of other bacterial strains either increasing or decreasing pigment production. The addition of a single amino acid, arginine (5 gl−1, greatly increases pigment production by our Rheinheimera strains. Even though the production of glaukothalin leads to inhibitory activity against three bacterial strains from marine particles, our Rheinheimera isolates are inhibited by various bacteria of different phylogenetic groups. The ecological role of glaukothalin production by Rheinheimera strains, however, remains largely unknown.

  17. Clonal origins of cells in the pigmented retina of the zebrafish eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streisinger, G.; Coale, F.; Taggart, C.; Walker, C.; Grunwald, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Mosaic analysis has been used to study the clonal basis of the development of the pigmented retina of the zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio. Zebrafish embryos heterozygous for a recessive mutation at the gol-1 locus were exposed to gamma-irradiation at various developmental stages to create mosaic individuals consisting of wild-type pigmented cells and a clone of pigmentless (golden) cells in the eye. The contribution of individual embryonic cells to the pigmented retina was measured and the total number of cells in the embryo that contributed descendants to this tissue was determined. Until the 32-cell stage, almost every blastomere has some descendants that participate in the formation of the pigmented retina of the zebrafish. During subsequent cell divisions, up to the several thousand-cell stage, the number of ancestral cells is constant: approximately 40 cells are present that will give rise to progeny in the pigmented retina. Analysis of the size of clones in the pigmented retina indicates that the cells of this tissue do not arise through a rigid series of cell divisions originating in the early embryo. The findings that each cleavage stage cell contributes to the pigmented retina and yet the contribution of such cells is highly variable are consistent with the interpretation that clonal descendants of different blastomeres normally intermix extensively prior to formation of the pigmented retina

  18. Cone visual pigments are present in gecko rod cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, D; Okano, T; Fukada, Y; Shichida, Y; Yoshizawa, T; Ebrey, T G

    1992-08-01

    The Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko), a nocturnal lizard, has two kinds of visual pigments, P467 and P521. In spite of the pure-rod morphology of the photoreceptor cells, the biochemical properties of P521 and P467 resemble those of iodopsin (the chicken red-sensitive cone visual pigment) and rhodopsin, respectively. We have found that the amino acid sequence of P521 deduced from the cDNA was very similar to that of iodopsin. In addition, P467 has the highest homology with the chicken green-sensitive cone visual pigment, although it also has a relatively high homology with rhodopsins. These results give additional strength to the transmutation theory of Walls [Walls, G. L. (1934) Am. J. Ophthalmol. 17, 892-915], who proposed that the rod-shaped photoreceptor cells of lizards have been derived from ancestral cone-like photoreceptors. Apparently amino acid sequences of visual pigments are less changeable than the morphology of the photoreceptor cells in the course of evolution.

  19. Radiation degradation of molasses pigment. 2. Molecular weight fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Tanabe, Hiroko

    1996-01-01

    Water demand in Tokyo has increased rapidly. Because of the scarcity of water sources within the city, Tokyo is dependent on water from other prefectures. Recycling of municipal effluent is an effective means of coping with water shortage in Tokyo. We have studied the radiation treatment of waste water for recycling. The degradation of molasses pigments in waste water from yeast factory by radiation was investigated. The dialyzed molasses pigments and non-dialyzed samples in waste waters were compared in chromaticity, UV absorption, color different and COD. The dialysis and fractionation by permeable membrane were carried out with Seamless Cellulose tubing (Union Carbide Corporation) and spectra/Por membrane (Spectrum Medical Industries INC.) The TOC values decreased and the dark brown color faded with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components of molasses pigment were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and decomposed to carbon dioxide. The relationships between the value of chromaticity/TOC and molecular weight of molasses pigments were obtained by radiation. (author)

  20. New insights into melanosome transport in vertebrate pigment cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspengren, Sara; Hedberg, Daniel; Sköld, Helen Nilsson; Wallin, Margareta

    2009-01-01

    Pigment cells of lower vertebrates provide an excellent model to study organelle transport as they specialize in the translocation of pigment granules in response to defined chemical cues. This review will focus on the well-studied melanophore/melanocyte systems in fish, amphibians, and mammals. We will describe the roles of melanin, melanophores, and melanocytes in animals, current views on how the three motor proteins dynein, kinesin, and myosin-V are involved in melanosome transport along microtubules and actin filaments, and how signal transduction pathways regulate the activities of the motors to achieve aggregation and dispersion of melanosomes. We will also describe how melanosomes are transferred to surrounding skin cells in amphibians and mammals. Comparative studies have revealed that the ability of physiological color change is lost during evolution while the importance of morphological color change, mainly via transfer of pigment to surrounding skin cells, increases. In humans, pigment mainly has a role in protection against ultraviolet radiation, but also perhaps in the immune system.

  1. [Synthesis and characterization of chromium doped Y3Al5O12 compound pigment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Shi-Juan; Su, Xiao; Jiang, Han-Jie; Liu, Shao-Xuan; Hong, You-Li; Zhang, Kai; Huang, Wan-Xias; Xiong, Zu-Jiang; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Cui-Ge; Wei, Yong-Ju; Meng, Tao; Xu, Yi-Zhuang; Wu, Jin-Guang

    2012-09-01

    The authors synthesized a new kind of green pigment via co-precipitation method by doping Y3Al5O12 with Cr+. The size of the pigment particles is around 200 nm as observed under scanning electron microscope. XRD results demonstrate that the pigment crystalline form of the pigment is yttrium alluminium garnet. UV-Vis spectra were used to investigate the coordination states and transition behavior of the doping ions. In addition, the colour feature was measured by CIE L* a* b* chroma value. The pigment was blended with polypropylene and then polypropylene fiber was produced using the polypropelene-pigment composite via molten spinning process. The distribution of the pigment particles in the polypropylene fibers was characterized by Xray computed tomography (CT) technique on the Beijing synchrotron radiation facility. The result states that the composite oxide pigment particles are homogeneously dispersed in the polypropylene fibers. The pigments are stable, non-toxic to the environment, and may be applied in non-aqueous dyeing to reduce waste water emitted by textile dyeing and printing industry.

  2. The power of pigments, calibrating chemoclines with chlorophylls and carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junium, C. K.; Uveges, B. T.

    2017-12-01

    Phototrophic organisms produce a diversity of pigments that serve a broad range of specific biochemical functions. Pigments are either directly associated with the photosynthetic apparatus, the most notable being chlorophyll a, or are accessory pigments such as the carotenoid lutein. Their functions can also be categorized into roles that are related to light harvesting (e.g. fucoxanthin) or for photoprotection (e.g. scytonemin). The abundances of these two classes of pigments from environmental samples can provide specific information about photointensity and how it relates to environmental changes. For example, a deepening of the chemo/nutricline can result in the increased production of light gathering relative to photoprotective pigments. Here we apply a relatively simple approach that utilizes the abundance of photosynthetic relative to photoprotective pigments to help constrain changes in the water column position of the chemocline. To test the efficacy of this approach we have utilized the sedimentary record of the anoxic Lake Kivu in the East African Rift. Recent Lake Kivu sediments are punctuated by a series of sapropels that may be associated with overturn of the lake, and release of carbon dioxide and sulfide during potential limnic eruptions. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes decrease significantly at the onset of sapropel deposition and suggest that 13C-depleted dissolved inorganic carbon was upwelled into surface waters and was accompanied by high concentrations of ammonium, that allowed for 15N-depletion during incomplete nitrogen utilization. The pigment record, specifically the ratio of the photoprotective carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin to chlorophyll a increases significantly at the onset of sapropel deposition. This suggests that the chemocline shallowed, displacing phototrophic communities toward the surface of the lake where light intensities required production of photoprotective pigments. This approach can easily be applied to a wide variety of

  3. Ocular distribution of topically applied adrenaline in albino and pigmented rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urtti, A.; Periviita, L.; Salminen, L.

    1984-01-01

    Systemic absorption, ocular distribution and ocular metabolism in albino and pigmented rabbit of topically applied 1% [ 3 H]1-adrenaline eye drops was studied by liquid scintillation counting and thin layer chromatography. The effect of adrenaline on the pupillary diameter was also registered. The peak plasma level of adrenaline was reached at 150 min. The corneal adrenaline metabolism was substantial, but did not vary with the rabbit strain. At 30 min after instillation, the total adrenaline concentration of pigmented iris and ciliary body exceeded that of corresponding albino tissues. At 180 min the drug concentration of the iris and ciliary body did not differ between the rabbit strains. Th time course of adrenaline induced mydriasis was equal in both rabbit strains. Since neither total adrenaline concentration at 180 min nor the time course of adrenaline induced mydriasis differed between the rabbit strains, the higher initial adrenaline uptake by pigmented tissues is not explained by pigment binding. It is proposed that the increased initial binding of adrenaline by pigmented tissues is caused by a difference between pigmented and albino tissues in the number of adrenergic neurones; this is also supported by the literature. (author)

  4. Structures and colour properties of new red wine pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Anders Eckart; Pardon, K.; Hayasaka, Y.

    2003-01-01

    the colour properties of the pigments were characterized; it could be demonstrated that the pyranoanthocyanins retained their red colour at pH 3.6 in model wine and were resistant to bisulfite-mediated bleaching. Finally, HPLC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of both anthocyanin-derived pigments in red...... wine....

  5. Enhancing Dark Shade Pigment Dyeing of Cotton Fabric Using Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wai Kan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to investigate the effect of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment on dark shade pigment dyeing of cotton fabric. Experimental results reveal that plasma-treated cotton fabric can attain better color yield, levelness, and crocking fastness in dark shade pigment dyeing, compared with normal cotton fabric (not plasma treated. SEM analysis indicates that cracks and grooves were formed on the cotton fiber surface where the pigment and the binder can get deposited and improve the color yield, levelness, and crocking fastness. It was also noticed that pigment was aggregated when deposited on the fiber surface which could affect the final color properties.

  6. Optimal methodologies for terahertz time-domain spectroscopic analysis of traditional pigments in powder form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Taewoo; Lee, Howon; Sim, Kyung Ik; Kim, Jonghyeon; Jo, Young Chan; Kim, Jae Hoon; Baek, Na Yeon; Kang, Dai-ill; Lee, Han Hyoung

    2017-05-01

    We have established optimal methods for terahertz time-domain spectroscopic analysis of highly absorbing pigments in powder form based on our investigation of representative traditional Chinese pigments, such as azurite [blue-based color pigment], Chinese vermilion [red-based color pigment], and arsenic yellow [yellow-based color pigment]. To accurately extract the optical constants in the terahertz region of 0.1 - 3 THz, we carried out transmission measurements in such a way that intense absorption peaks did not completely suppress the transmission level. This required preparation of pellet samples with optimized thicknesses and material densities. In some cases, mixing the pigments with polyethylene powder was required to minimize absorption due to certain peak features. The resulting distortion-free terahertz spectra of the investigated set of pigment species exhibited well-defined unique spectral fingerprints. Our study will be useful to future efforts to establish non-destructive analysis methods of traditional pigments, to construct their spectral databases, and to apply these tools to restoration of cultural heritage materials.

  7. The relationship between the violet pigment PP-V production and intracellular ammonium level in Penicillium purpurogenum

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Ryo; Arai, Teppei; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Kasumi, Takafumi; Watanabe, Taisuke; Ogihara, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium purpurogenum is the fungus that produces an azaphilone pigment. However, details about the pigment biosynthesis pathway are unknown. The violet pigment PP-V is the one of the main pigments biosynthesized by this fungus. This pigment contains an amino group in a pyran ring as its core structure. We focused on this pigment and examined the relationship between intracellular ammonium concentration and pigment production using glutamine as a nitrogen source. The intracellular ammonium...

  8. An investigation of multispectral imaging for the mapping of pigments in paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonghui; Berns, Roy S.; Taplin, Lawrence A.; Coddington, James

    2008-02-01

    Compared with colorimetric imaging, multispectral imaging has the advantage of retrieving spectral reflectance factor of each pixel of a painting. Using this spectral information, pigment mapping is concerned with decomposing the spectrum into its constituent pigments and their relative contributions. The output of pigment mapping is a series of spatial concentration maps of the pigments comprising the painting. This approach was used to study Vincent van Gogh's The Starry Night. The artist's palette was approximated using ten oil pigments, selected from a large database of pigments used in oil paintings and a priori analytical research on one of his self portraits, executed during the same time period. The pigment mapping was based on single-constant Kubelka-Munk theory. It was found that the region of blue sky where the stars were located contained, predominantly, ultramarine blue while the swirling sky and region surrounding the moon contained, predominantly, cobalt blue. Emerald green, used in light bluish-green brushstrokes surrounding the moon, was not used to create the dark green in the cypresses. A measurement of lead white from Georges Seurat's La Grande Jatte was used as the white when mapping The Starry Night. The absorption and scattering properties of this white were replaced with a modern dispersion of lead white in linseed oil and used to simulate the painting's appearance before the natural darkening and yellowing of lead white oil paint. Pigment mapping based on spectral imaging was found to be a viable and practical approach for analyzing pigment composition, providing new insight into an artist's working method, the possibility for aiding in restorative inpainting, and lighting design.

  9. Melanocortin systems on pigment dispersion in fish chromatophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Mizusawa, Kanta; Saito, Yumiko; Takahashi, Akiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is responsible for pigment dispersion in the chromatophores of fish and other tetrapods such as amphibians and reptiles. Recently, we discovered that α-MSH did not always stimulate pigment dispersion because this hormonal peptide exerted no effects on the melanophores of flounders. We assumed that the reduction of α-MSH activity was related to the co-expression of different α-MSH receptor subtypes - termed melanocortin receptors (MCR) - a member of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) - based on several reports demonstrating that GPCR forms heterodimers with various properties that are distinct from those of the corresponding monomers. In this review, we summarize the relationships between the pigment-dispersing activity of α-MSH-related peptides, molecular forms of α-MSH-related peptides, and mcr subtypes expressed in fish chromatophores.

  10. Primary description of surface water phytoplankton pigment patterns in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, R.K.; Anil, A; Narale, D.D.; Chitari, R.R.; Kulkarni, V.V.

    . Comparison of pigment data with microscopic cell counts indicated a significant relationship between the diatom pigment index (Diat sub (DP)) and diatom abundance. However, the relationship between the dinoflagellate pigment index (Dino sub (DP...

  11. Characteristic Elemental Composition of Oil Pigments using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Sun, Gwang Min; Lim, Jong Myung; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sung Jin; Song, Yu Na; Kim, Ken [National Museum of Contemporary Art, Gwacheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The principal aim of this study is to identify the applicability of instrumental neutron activation analysis as a non-destructive examination tool for the quantitative composition analysis associated with authentication, restoration, and conservation of art objects in the field of cultural heritage. Generally, the chemical composition of pigments are associated with the colors such as white, yellow, orange, red, green, blue and black, and it varies with raw materials of pigments. According to the colors of a different pigments, chemical compositions are as follows; for example, white pigments were used for a mixture of Pb(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}, PbSO{sub 4}, PbO, Pb(OH){sub 2}, ZnO, ZnS, TiO{sub 2}, BaSO{sub 4}, CaCO{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, As{sub 2}S{sub 3}, etc.; black pigments were series of carbon black, borne ash, MnO+Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}, etc.; red pigments were Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pb{sub 3}O{sub 4}, HgS, PbMo{sub 4}, CdS+CdSe, etc.; brown and yellow pigments were PbCrO{sub 4}, ZnCrO{sub 4}, CdS-ZnS, K{sub 3}[Co(NO{sub 2}){sub 6}], Pb(SbO{sub 3}){sub 2}, C{sub 19}H{sub 16}O{sub 11}Mg, SrCrO{sub 4}, etc.; green pigments were Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O(OH){sub 4}, Cu(C{sub 2}H{sub 3}O{sub 2})-2Cu(OH){sub 2}), Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CoO, etc.; blue pigments were Fe{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sub 3}, CoO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 8}-{sub 10}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}S{sub 2-4}, etc. This first step is to obtain quantitative data on the concentrations of major, minor and trace elements in oil pigments and to explain pigment sources by statistical treatment as reported in many literatures. The determination of major, minor and micro elements in the subject materials are essential in many fields of basic science and technology as well as commercial and industrial fields. In particular, direct analysis of a sample offers a more effective investigation method in these fields. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has an inherent advantage of being a

  12. 75 FR 29719 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Continuation of Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ..., paste, wet cake) and finished pigment in the form of presscake and dry color. Pigment dispersions in any... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-533-839] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR 77995 (December 29, 2004). On November 2, 2009, the Department initiated and...

  13. New blue pigment produced by Pantoea agglomerans and its production characteristics at various temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Hiroshi; Akimoto, Ryo

    2011-01-01

    A bacterium capable of producing a deep blue pigment was isolated from the environment and identified as Pantoea agglomerans. The pigment production characteristics of the bacterium under various conditions were studied. The optimal agar plate ingredients for pigment production by the bacterium were first studied: the optimal ingredients were 5 g/liter glucose, 10 g/liter tryptic soy broth, and 40 g/liter glycerol at pH 6.4. Bacterial cells grew on the agar plate during the incubation, while the pigment spread into the agar plate, meaning that it is water soluble. Pigment production was affected by the initial cell density. Namely, at higher initial cell densities ranging from 10(6.3) to 10(8.2) CFU/cm(2) on the agar plate, faster pigment production was observed, but no blue pigment was produced at a very high initial density of 10(9.1) CFU/cm(2). Thus, the cell population of 10(8.2) CFU/cm(2) was used for subsequent study. Although the bacterium was capable of growing at temperatures above and below 10°C, it could produce the pigment only at temperatures of ≥10°C. Moreover, the pigment production was faster at higher temperatures in the range of 10 to 20°C. Pigment production at various temperature patterns was well described by a new logistic model. These results suggested that the bacterium could be used in the development of a microbial temperature indicator for the low-temperature-storage management of foods and clinical materials. To our knowledge, there is no other P. agglomerans strain capable of producing a blue pigment and the pigment is a new one of microbial origin.

  14. Production of water-soluble yellow pigments via high glucose stress fermentation of Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meihua; Huang, Tao; Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2017-04-01

    Monascus pigments are secondary metabolites of Monascus species and are mainly composed of yellow pigments, orange pigments and red pigments. In this study, a larger proportion of Monascus yellow pigments could be obtained through the selection of the carbon source. Hydrophilic yellow pigments can be largely produced extracellularly by Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910 under conditions of high glucose fermentation with low oxidoreduction potential (ORP). However, keeping high glucose levels later in the culture causes translation or a reduction of yellow pigment. We presume that the mechanism behind this phenomenon may be attributed to the redox level of the culture broth and the high glucose stress reaction of M. ruber CGMCC 10910 during high glucose fermentation. These yellow pigments were produced via high glucose bio-fermentation without citrinin. Therefore, these pigments can act as natural pigments for applications as food additives.

  15. A comprehensive study of eco-friendly natural pigment and its applications

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, Ramendra Singh; Singh, Charu

    2017-01-01

    Actinomycetes, a large group of filamentous bacteria account for 70–80% of secondary metabolites available commercially. The present investigation was undertaken with an aim to identify and characterize pigment from actinomycetes. Actinomycetes were isolated from rhizosphere soil samples collected from different regions of Madhya Pradesh state. Out of 85 actinomycetes, only 5 actinomycetes showed pigment production and based on diffusible pigment production ability one actinomycete ARITM02 wa...

  16. Controlling composition and color characteristics of Monascus pigments by pH and nitrogen sources in submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kan; Song, Da; Chen, Gong; Pistolozzi, Marco; Wu, Zhenqiang; Quan, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Submerged fermentations of Monascus anka were performed with different nitrogen sources at different pH in 3 L bioreactors. The results revealed that the Monascus pigments dominated by different color components (yellow pigments, orange pigments or red pigments) could be selectively produced through pH control and nitrogen source selection. A large amount of intracellular pigments dominated by orange pigments and a small amount of water-soluble extracellular yellow pigments were produced at low pH (pH 2.5 and 4.0), independently of the nitrogen source employed. At higher pH (pH 6.5), the role of the nitrogen source became more significant. In particular, when ammonium sulfate was used as nitrogen source, the intracellular pigments were dominated by red pigments with a small amount of yellow pigments. Conversely, when peptone was used, intracellular pigments were dominated by yellow pigments with a few red pigments derivatives. Neither the presence of peptone nor ammonium sulfate promoted the production of intracellular orange pigments while extracellular pigments with an orangish red color were observed in both cases, with a higher yield when peptone was used. Two-stage pH control fermentation was then performed to improve desirable pigments yield and further investigate the effect of pH and nitrogen sources on pigments composition. These results provide a useful strategy to produce Monascus pigments with different composition and different color characteristics. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Photosynthetic pigments of oceanic Chlorophyta belonging to prasinophytes clade VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Dos Santos, Adriana; Gourvil, Priscillia; Rodríguez, Francisco; Garrido, José Luis; Vaulot, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    The ecological importance and diversity of pico/nanoplanktonic algae remains poorly studied in marine waters, in part because many are tiny and without distinctive morphological features. Amongst green algae, Mamiellophyceae such as Micromonas or Bathycoccus are dominant in coastal waters while prasinophytes clade VII, yet not formerly described, appear to be major players in open oceanic waters. The pigment composition of 14 strains representative of different subclades of clade VII was analyzed using a method that improves the separation of loroxanthin and neoxanthin. All the prasinophytes clade VII analyzed here showed a pigment composition similar to that previously reported for RCC287 corresponding to pigment group prasino-2A. However, we detected in addition astaxanthin for which it is the first report in prasinophytes. Among the strains analyzed, the pigment signature is qualitatively similar within subclades A and B. By contrast, RCC3402 from subclade C (Picocystis) lacks loroxanthin, astaxanthin, and antheraxanthin but contains alloxanthin, diatoxanthin, and monadoxanthin that are usually found in diatoms or cryptophytes. For subclades A and B, loroxanthin was lowest at highest light irradiance suggesting a light-harvesting role of this pigment in clade VII as in Tetraselmis. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  18. Construction of a cDNA library from human retinal pigment epithelial cells challenged with rod outer segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaney, D M; Rakoczy, P E; Constable, I J

    1995-05-01

    To study genes expressed by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells during phagocytosis and digestion of rod outer segments (ROS), a complementary (c)DNA library was produced using an in-vitro model. The cDNA library can be used to study molecular changes which contribute to the development of diseases due to a failure in outer segment phagocytosis and digestion by RPE cells. Here we demonstrate a way to study genes and their functions using a molecular biological approach and describing the first step involved in this process, the construction of a cDNA library. Human RPE cells obtained from the eyes of a seven-year-old donor were cultured and challenged with bovine ROS. The culture was harvested and total RNA was extracted. Complementary DNA was transcribed from the messenger (m)RNA and was directionally cloned into the LambdaGEM-4 bacteriophage vector successfully. Some clones were picked and the DNA extracted, to determine the size of the inserts as a measure of the quality of the library. Molecular biology and cell culture are important tools to be used in eye research, especially in areas where tissue is limiting and animal models are not available. We now have a ROS challenged RPE cDNA library which will be used to identify genes responsible for degrading phagocytosed debris within the retinal pigment epithelium.

  19. Extraction of fungal polyketide pigments using ionic liquids.

    OpenAIRE

    Lebeau , Juliana ,; Venkatachalam , Mekala; Fouillaud , Mireille; Dufossé , Laurent; Caro , Yanis

    2016-01-01

    Poster communication, 8th International Conference of Pigments in Food, “Coloured foods for health benefits”, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, June 28 - July 01, 2016.; International audience; Filamentous fungi have been widely recognized as promising sources of various types ofbiomolecules and are therefore highly investigated. The production of fungal pigments is oneintensively studied domain in order to respond to the growing demand for natural colorants assubstitutes to synthetic dyes used in food, ...

  20. Variation of Synechococcus Pigment Genetic Diversity Along Two Turbidity Gradients in the China Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaomin; Liu, Hongbin; Choi, Donghan; Noh, Jae Hoon

    2018-01-01

    Synechococcus are important and widely distributed picocyanobacteria that encompass a high pigment diversity. In this study, we developed a primer set (peBF/peAR) for amplifying the cpeBA operon sequence from Synechococcus genomic DNA to study Synechococcus pigment diversity along two turbidity gradients in the China seas. Our data revealed that all previously reported pigment types occurred in the South (SCS) and East (ECS) China Seas. In addition, a novel pigment genetic type (type 3f), represented by the high phycourobilin Synechococcus sp. strain KORDI-100 (Exc495:545 = 2.35), was detected. This pigment genetic type differs from the 3c/3d types not only for a very high PUB/PEB ratio but also for a different intergenic spacer sequence and gene organization of the phycobilisome. Synechococcus of different pigment types exhibited clear niche differentiation. Type 2 dominated in the coastal waters, whereas type 3c/3d and 3f were predominant in oceanic waters of the SCS in summer. In the ECS, however, type 3a was the major pigment type throughout the transect. We suggest that in marine environment, various pigment types often co-occur but with one type dominant and PUB/PEB ratio is related to geographic distribution of Synechococcus pigment types. The two marginal seas of China have markedly different Synechococcus pigment compositions.

  1. Nanoscale Coloristic Pigments: Upper Limits on Releases from Pigmented Plastic during Environmental Aging, In Food Contact, and by Leaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubauer, Nicole; Scifo, Lorette; Navratilova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    The life cycle of nanoscale pigments in plastics may cause environmental or human exposure by various release scenarios. We investigated spontaneous and induced release with mechanical stress during/after simulated sunlight and rain degradation of polyethylene (PE) with organic and inorganic pigm...... investigated scenarios, with upper limits of 10 mg/m2 or 1600 particles/mL. This is the first holistic confirmation that pigment nanomaterials remain strongly contained in a plastic that has low diffusion and high persistence such as the polyolefin High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)....

  2. Estimating water stressed dwarf green bean pigment concentration through hyperspectral indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koksal, E.S.; Ustrun, H.; Ozcan, H.; Gunturk, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between leaf pigment concentration (analyzed in the laboratory) and four spectral indexes (measured in the field) was investigated. For this purpose, field experiments consisting of six different irrigation treatments were conducted with dwarf green beans during 2005 growing season. Based on spectral data, spectral indexes were plotted against pigment concentration. Results showed that under water stress, the chlorophyll and carotene contents of green bean leaves rose. According to linear regression analysis between spectral indexes and pigment contents, the Normalized Difference Pigment Chlorophyll Index (NPCI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) had the highest correlations with the chlorophyll (a, b and total), and carotene content of leaves. (author)

  3. New Yellow Synergist for Stable Pigment Dispersion of Inkjet Ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gihyun; Lee, Hayoon; Jung, Hyocheol; Kang, Seokwoo; Park, Jongwook

    2018-02-01

    Minimizing ink droplet and self-dispersed pigment mixture are becoming hot issues for high resolution of inkjet printing. New synergist including sulfonic acid group of PY-74 was suggested and synthesized. Pigment itself did not show water solubility but new synergist, SY-11 exhibited good solubility in water and organic solvents such as DMSO and DMF. When aqueous pigment ink was prepared with SY-11, storage stability of the ink has been remained for 7 days under periodically repeated heating and cooling conditions. Particle size of formulated ink was around 150 nm.

  4. The influence of temperature on the color of TiO2:Cr pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes Vieira, Fagner Ticiano; Silva Melo, Danniely; Jackson Guedes de Lima, Severino; Longo, Elson; Paskocimas, Carlos Alberto; Silva Junior, Wilson; Gouveia de Souza, Antonio; Garcia dos Santos, Ieda Maria

    2009-01-01

    TiO 2 :Cr brown pigments were prepared via a polymeric precursor derived from the Pechini method. The pigments were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-vis spectroscopy, and colorimetry. The increase of the calcination temperature from 700 to 1000 deg. C led to a decrease in the L* values, corresponding to darkening of the pigments. The pigments obtained in this work are darker than those produced by a solid-state reaction method reported before. The change in the pigment color is due to the anatase-rutile phase transition, which leads to a shift in the charge transfer bond (Ti 4+ ↔ O 2- ) due to a change in the crystal field around the chromophore ions. Moreover, the oxidation state of chromium was observed to change, and this also alters the color of the pigments

  5. Dermoscopic clues to differentiate facial lentigo maligna from pigmented actinic keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallas, A; Tschandl, P; Kyrgidis, A; Stolz, W; Rabinovitz, H; Cameron, A; Gourhant, J Y; Giacomel, J; Kittler, H; Muir, J; Argenziano, G; Hofmann-Wellenhof, R; Zalaudek, I

    2016-05-01

    Dermoscopy is limited in differentiating accurately between pigmented lentigo maligna (LM) and pigmented actinic keratosis (PAK). This might be related to the fact that most studies have focused on pigmented criteria only, without considering additional recognizable features. To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of established dermoscopic criteria for pigmented LM and PAK, but including in the evaluation features previously associated with nonpigmented facial actinic keratosis. Retrospectively enrolled cases of histopathologically diagnosed LM, PAK and solar lentigo/early seborrhoeic keratosis (SL/SK) were dermoscopically evaluated for the presence of predefined criteria. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed and receiver operating characteristic curves were used. The study sample consisted of 70 LMs, 56 PAKs and 18 SL/SKs. In a multivariate analysis, the most potent predictors of LM were grey rhomboids (sixfold increased probability of LM), nonevident follicles (fourfold) and intense pigmentation (twofold). In contrast, white circles, scales and red colour were significantly correlated with PAK, posing a 14-fold, eightfold and fourfold probability for PAK, respectively. The absence of evident follicles also represented a frequent LM criterion, characterizing 71% of LMs. White and evident follicles, scales and red colour represent significant diagnostic clues for PAK. Conversely, intense pigmentation and grey rhomboidal lines appear highly suggestive of LM. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Probabilistic classification method on multi wavelength chromatographic data for photosynthetic pigments identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilianti, K. R.; Setiawan, Y.; Indriatmoko, Adhiwibawa, M. A. S.; Limantara, L.; Brotosudarmo, T. H. P.

    2014-02-01

    Environmental and health problem caused by artificial colorant encourages the increasing usage of natural colorant nowadays. Natural colorant refers to the colorant that is derivate from living organism or minerals. Extensive research topic has been done to exploit these colorant, but recent data shows that only 0.5% of the wide range of plant pigments in the earth has been exhaustively used. Hence development of the pigment characterization technique is an important consideration. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a widely used technique to separate pigments in a mixture and identify it. In former HPLC fingerprinting, pigment characterization was based on a single chromatogram from a fixed wavelength (one dimensional) and discard the information contained at other wavelength. Therefore, two dimensional fingerprints have been proposed to use more chromatographic information. Unfortunately this method leads to the data processing problem due to the size of its data matrix. The other common problem in the chromatogram analysis is the subjectivity of the researcher in recognizing the chromatogram pattern. In this research an automated analysis method of the multi wavelength chromatographic data was proposed. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to compress the data matrix and Maximum Likelihood (ML) classification was applied to identify the chromatogram pattern of the existing pigments in a mixture. Three photosynthetic pigments were selected to show the proposed method. Those pigments are β-carotene, fucoxanthin and zeaxanthin. The result suggests that the method could well inform the existence of the pigments in a particular mixture. A simple computer application was also developed to facilitate real time analysis. Input of the application is multi wavelength chromatographic data matrix and the output is information about the existence of the three pigments.

  7. Free radical scavenging activities of pigment extract from Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The macroporous resin adsorption method was used to purify the pigment from Hibiscus syriacus L. petals. Through the comparison of the adsorption and desorption rates of six types of macroporous resins including AB-8, S-8, NKA-9, DM-130, D101 and 860021 to the pigment, 860021 resin was selected as the most ...

  8. Quantitative analysis of pigment dispersion taking into account the full agglomerate size distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Kiil, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This work concerns the development of simulation tools for mapping of pigment dispersion. Focus has been on the mechanical breakage of pigment agglomerates. The underlying physical mechanism was assumed to be surface erosion of spherical pigment agglomerates, and the full agglomerate particle size distribution was simulated. Data from previous experimental investigations with organic pigments were used for model validation.When the linear rate of agglomerate surface erosion was taken to be pr...

  9. Synthesis and characterization of hematite pigment obtained from a steel waste industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prim, S R; Folgueras, M V; de Lima, M A; Hotza, D

    2011-09-15

    Pigments that meet environmental and technology requirements are the focus of the research in the ceramic sector. This study focuses on the synthesis of ceramic pigment by encapsulation of hematite in crystalline and amorphous silica matrix. Iron oxide from a metal sheet rolling process was used as chromophore. A different content of hematite and silica was homogenized by conventional and high energy milling. The powders obtained after calcinations between 1050 and 1200 °C for 2h were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. The pigments were applied to ceramic enamel and porcelain body. The effect of pigment was measured by comparing L*a*b* values of the heated samples. Results showed that the color developed is influenced by variables such as oxide content employed, conditions of milling and processing temperature. The results showed that the use of pigment developed does not interfere in microstructural characteristics of pigmented material. The best hue was obtained from samples with 15 wt% of chromophore, heated at 1200 °C in amorphous silica matrix. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pigment organization in the photosynthetic apparatus of Roseiflexus castenholzii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Aaron M; Xin, Yueyong; Blankenship, Robert E

    2009-08-01

    The light-harvesting-reaction center (LHRC) complex from the chlorosome-lacking filamentous anoxygenic phototroph (FAP), Roseiflexus castenholzii (R. castenholzii) was purified and characterized for overall pigment organization. The LHRC is a single complex that is comprised of light harvesting (LH) and reaction center (RC) polypeptides as well as an attached c-type cytochrome. The dominant carotenoid found in the LHRC is keto-gamma-carotene, which transfers excitation to the long wavelength antenna band with 35% efficiency. Linear dichroism and fluorescence polarization measurements indicate that the long wavelength antenna pigments absorbing around 880 nm are perpendicular to the membrane plane, with the corresponding Q(y) transition dipoles in the plane of the membrane. The antenna pigments absorbing around 800 nm, as well as the bound carotenoid, are oriented at a large angle with respect to the membrane. The antenna pigments spectroscopically resemble the well-studied LH2 complex from purple bacteria, however the close association with the RC makes the light harvesting component of this complex functionally more like LH1.

  11. Genetic Basis of Melanin Pigmentation in Butterfly Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Martin, Arnaud; Perry, Michael W; van der Burg, Karin R L; Matsuoka, Yuji; Monteiro, Antónia; Reed, Robert D

    2017-04-01

    Despite the variety, prominence, and adaptive significance of butterfly wing patterns, surprisingly little is known about the genetic basis of wing color diversity. Even though there is intense interest in wing pattern evolution and development, the technical challenge of genetically manipulating butterflies has slowed efforts to functionally characterize color pattern development genes. To identify candidate wing pigmentation genes, we used RNA sequencing to characterize transcription across multiple stages of butterfly wing development, and between different color pattern elements, in the painted lady butterfly Vanessa cardui This allowed us to pinpoint genes specifically associated with red and black pigment patterns. To test the functions of a subset of genes associated with presumptive melanin pigmentation, we used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing in four different butterfly genera. pale , Ddc , and yellow knockouts displayed reduction of melanin pigmentation, consistent with previous findings in other insects. Interestingly, however, yellow-d , ebony , and black knockouts revealed that these genes have localized effects on tuning the color of red, brown, and ochre pattern elements. These results point to previously undescribed mechanisms for modulating the color of specific wing pattern elements in butterflies, and provide an expanded portrait of the insect melanin pathway. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. Development of waste-based ceramic pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa, G.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the preparation of ceramic pigments using industrial wastes as primary sources. In this context, the use of Al-rich sludge generated in the wastewater treatment unit of an anodising or surface coating industrial plant, and a galvanizing sludge from the Cr/Ni plating process, will be detailed. The ceramic pigments reported here were prepared using typical solid state reactions involving the metal rich sludge. The main focus will be on the synthesis of chrome-tin orchid cassiterite (Sn,CrO2, chrome-tin red malayaite Ca(Cr,SnSiO5, victoria green garnet Ca3Cr2Si3O12, and chrome alumina pink/green corundum (Cr,Al2O3 pigments. The pigments were fully characterised and then were tested in a standard ceramic glaze after. Typical working conditions and colour development will be reported.

    Se presenta la preparación de pigmentos cerámicos empleando residuos industriales como fuente de materias primas. Se detallan el uso de barros ricos en aluminio obtenidos en los tratamientos de depuración de aguas de plantas industriales de anodizado y barros de galvanizados de chapados de Cr/Ni. Los pigmentos cerámicos se prepararon empleando reacción en estados sólido a partir del barro rico en metal. Los principales pigmentos estudiados son orquídea casiterita de cromo-estaño (Sn,CrO2, malayita rojo de cromo-estaño Ca(Sn,CrSiO3, granate verde victoria Ca3Cr2Si3O12, y corindón rosa/verde de cromo alúmina (Cr,Al2O3. Los pigmentos fueron caracterizados y ensayados después de ser vidriados en cerámicas estándares. Se presentan las condiciones de trabajo y el desarrollo de color.

  13. Liquid chromatographic separation of terpenoid pigments in foods and food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserháti, T; Forgács, E

    2001-11-30

    The newest achievements in the use of various liquid chromatographic techniques such as adsorption and reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography and HPLC employed for the separation and quantitative determination of terpenoid-based color substances in foods and food products are reviewed. The techniques applied for the analysis of individual pigments and pigments classes are surveyed and critically evaluated. Future trends in the separation and identification of pigments in foods and food products are delineated.

  14. Melanocortin systems on pigment dispersion in fish chromatophores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki eKobayashi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH is responsible for pigment dispersion in the chromatophores of fish and other tetrapods such as amphibians and reptiles. Recently, we discovered that alpha-MSH did not always stimulate pigment dispersion because this hormonal peptide exerted no effects on the melanophores of flounders. We assumed that the reduction of alpha-MSH activity was related to the co-expression of different alpha-MSH receptor subtypes—termed melanocortin receptors (MCR—a member of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR—based on several reports demonstrating that GPCR forms heterodimers with various properties that are distinct from those of the corresponding monomers. In this review, we summarize the relationships between the pigment-dispersing activity of alpha-MSH-related peptides, molecular forms of alpha-MSH-related peptides, and Mcr subtypes expressed in fish chromatophores.

  15. The role of the lens in pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lance

    2010-12-01

    In patients with pigment dispersion syndrome, changes of the iris configuration can occur with accommodation, blinking, miotics, and following a laser iridotomy. This observational case series looks at the changes following cataract surgery in 3 eyes with signs of pigment dispersion, symptomatic cataracts, and no previous laser iridotomy that were imaged with optical coherence tomography. The iris was concave posteriorly in dark and light lighting conditions, and became flat following an uncomplicated cataract operation. This may be explained by the elimination of iridolenticular contact, which contributes to the mechanism of reverse pupil block. These iris changes suggest the lens plays an important role in the mechanism of pigment dispersion. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. A comparison of interocular differences in patients with pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Leonard W; Sothornwit, Nisa; Berkowitz, Jonathan; Mikelberg, Frederick S

    2009-01-01

    Pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) and pigmentary glaucoma (PG) are characterized by loss of iris pigment because of reverse pupillary block. The loss of iris pigment is manifested as transillumination defects. Differences in ocular anatomy have been found between subjects with PDS and controls. Our study aims to see if differences in interocular anatomic features are also related to differences in the quantity of transillumination defects between eyes. This is an observational case series of 30 eyes of 15 subjects with PDS/PG in at least 1 eye. Patients underwent refraction, exophthalmometry, corneal and anterior chamber analysis by Pentacam, biometry, A-scan, ultrasound biomicroscopy, and anterior segment digital photography. The Pentacam mean central radii of the posterior corneal surface (cornea back Rm), vertical central radius of curvature of the posterior corneal surface (cornea back Rv), and keratometric power deviation (influence of the posterior surface of the cornea on refractive power) were statistically different between eyes with greater pigment loss and eyes with lesser pigment loss. Eyes with greater pigment loss had a larger back radius of corneal curvature and a correspondingly numerically smaller keratometric power deviation. Other measurements of ocular anatomy were not statistically significant. A flatter curvature of the posterior corneal surface of the eye is associated with increased pigment loss in PDS and PG. The authors postulate that this could result in a difference in the biomechanical properties of the cornea, increased deformation with blinking, and a pumping action resulting in the reverse pupil block of PDS.

  17. 75 FR 62765 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... finished pigment in the form of presscake and dry color. Pigment dispersions in any form (e.g., pigment... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... Act), that Meghmani Pigments is the successor-in-interest to Alpanil Industries. DATES: Effective Date...

  18. Analysis of the laser-induced discoloration of lead white pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.I.; Fowles, P.S.; Tang, C.C.

    2002-01-01

    The use of laser cleaning in artwork conservation is becoming increasingly important. An investigation into the effects of laser radiation on lead white pigment, considered to be historically the most important of all white pigments used in art, has been undertaken. Samples of pigment and pigment in a water-colour binding medium have been prepared and irradiated by laser radiation at 1064 nm (pulse duration 5-10 ns) at an average fluence of 0.3 J cm -2 . Irradiation under such conditions leads to the formation of an extremely thin discoloured layer. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to characterise the altered layer. Analytical evidence for the formation of elemental lead is presented for the first time and the effect of exposure of the altered layer to air and the effect of a binding medium on the process are discussed

  19. Identification and Profiling of Active Compounds from Golden Apple Snail’s Egg Pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadatun Abdullah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata has been known as rice corps pest due to high adaptability and reproductive power. Utilization of Pomacea canaliculata’s eggs as raw materials in the food and health industry is one of the efforts to eradicate the pest snail. This study was aimed to identify the active compounds contained in the extract pigments of Pomacea canaliculata’s eggs. The methods of this study were extraction of pigments using acetone and methanol, analyzing the active compound (secondary metabolite qualitatively, TLC to determine pigment components and LC-MS/MS to identify active compounds semi quantitatively. The results showed that active compounds in the methanol extract contain 11 carotenoid pigments of xanthophyl group, two carotenoid pigments of carotene group, and 2 active compounds in nonpigmented form, whereas the acetone extract contain 11 pigmentcarotenoids of xanthophyl group and 2 compounds active in non-pigment form.

  20. The application of ion-exchanged clay as corrosion inhibiting pigments in organic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisanti, Santi

    High strength aluminum alloys are used in aerospace industry and are normally coated to prevent corrosion. The corrosion protection of the coatings is mainly provided by pigmented-primer layer. Strontium chromate pigments are widely used, but they are toxic and carcinogenic. The objective of the current study is to develop and characterize the ion exchange compounds bentonite and hydrotalcite as corrosion inhibiting pigments. These compounds were synthesized with different cations and anions, and were used either alone or in mixtures as particulate additive in organic coatings. In coating applications as well as bulk solution, the inhibitor release mechanism is based on ion exchange. To evaluate corrosion inhibition, pigments extract solutions were used in potentiodynamic polarization as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) experiments on bare aluminum alloy 2024-T3. Cathodic polarization showed that zinc- and cerium-containing filtrate solutions modestly inhibited cathodic current density. These solutions also decreased the extent of pitting damage formed on the surface, as compared to uninhibited 0.5 M NaCl solution. Pigments were also added as primer additives, and painted on AA2024-T3. The coated panels were then subjected to salt spray exposure testing. The possibility of sensing inhibitor exhaustion by means of X-ray diffraction interrogation of the pigment in a coating is demonstrated and discussed on cerium bentonite-pigmented coatings. Although cerium bentonite-pigmented coatings did not show behavior indicative of self-healing, the combination of bentonite and hydrotalcite that released Ce3+, Zn 2+, and PO43- showed potent scribe protection even after 3000 h exposure in salt spray. Promising self-healing was also demonstrated by pigments that consisted of decavanadate-hydrotalcite and zinc pyrovanadate, as indicated by a shiny scribed area after 1000h exposure in salt spray. When these pigments are used, blistering is minimized.

  1. Ag nanoparticles agargel nanocomposites for SERS detection of cultural heritage interest pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, F.; Micciche', C.; Cannas, M.; Gelardi, F. M.; Pignataro, B.; Li Vigni, M.; Agnello, S.

    2018-02-01

    Agarose gel (agargel) composites with commercial and laboratory made silver nanoparticles were prepared by a wet solution method at room temperature. The gel composites were used for pigment extraction and detection by Raman spectroscopy. Red (alizarin) and violet (crystal violet) pigments deposited on paper were extracted by the composites and were investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Evaluation was carried out of the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) effect induced by the silver nanoparticles embedded in the gel. A kinetic approach as a function of time was used to determine the efficiency of pigments extraction by composites deposition. A non-invasive extraction process of few minutes is demonstrated. This process induces active SERS for both used pigments. The reported results show the full exploitability of agargel silver nanoparticle composites for the extraction of pigments from paper based artworks.

  2. Tracking of pigment accumulation and secretion in extractive fermentation of Monascus anka GIM 3.592.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Bei, Qi; Huang, Tao; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2017-10-04

    Monascus pigments are promising sources for food and medicine due to their natural food-coloring functions and pharmaceutical values. The innovative technology of extractive fermentation is used to promote pigment productivity, but reports of pigment trans-membrane secretion mechanism are rare. In this study, tracking of pigment accumulation and secretion in extractive fermentation of Monascus anka GIM 3.592 was investigated. The increased vacuole size in mycelia correlated with fluorescence intensity (r > 0.85, p fermentation and batch fermentation, a threefold decrease in the NAD + /NADH ratio in mycelia and a more than 200-fold increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity in extracellular broth occurred, further suggesting that a reduction reaction for pigment conversion from orange pigments to yellow pigments occurred in non-aqueous phase solution. A putative model was established to track the localization of Monascus pigment accumulation and its trans-membrane secretion in extractive fermentation. This finding provides a theoretical explanation for microbial extractive fermentation of Monascus pigments, as well as other non-water-soluble products.

  3. Analytical Investigation Of Pigments, Ground Layer And Media Of Cartonnage Fragments From Greek Roman Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Hala. A. M.

    Some cartonnage fragments from Hawara, Fayoum Excavation were examined to identify pigments, media and grounds. It belonged to the Greek-Roman period. They were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X ray analysis (EDS) equipped with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). These techniques were used to identify the composition and morphology of grounds, nature of pigments and media used in cartonnage fragments. The coarse ground layer was composed of calcite and traces of quartz. The fine ground layer used under the pigments directly was composed of calcite only. Carbon black was used as black pigment while lead oxide as red pigment, showing the influence of Roman and Greek pigments on Egyptian art in these later periods. Blue colorant was identified as cuprorivaite and yellow pigment was goethite. Animal glue was used in the four pigments as medium colored.

  4. Treatment of gingival pigmentation : A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Deepak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection and courtesy, and reveals self confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position and the color of the teeth but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival health and appearance are essential components of an attractive smile. Gingival pigmentation results from melanin granules, which are produced by melanoblasts. The degree of pigmentation depends on melanoblastic activity. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of ′black gums′ are common particularly in patients having a very high smile line (gummy smile. For depigmentation of gingiva different treatment modalities have been reported like- Bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery and laser. In the present case series bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap (epithelial excision cryotherapy and electrosurgery have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction. The problems encountered with some of these techniques have also been discussed.

  5. Differences in antimicrobial susceptibility of pigmented and unpigmented colonial variants of Mycobacterium avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormer, R S; Falkinham, J O

    1989-01-01

    Unpigmented colonial variants were isolated from pigmented Mycobacterium avium isolates recovered from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the environment. The variants were interconvertible: the rate of transition from unpigmented to pigmented type was 4.0 x 10(-5) variants per cell per generation. The unpigmented variants were more tolerant to antibiotics, especially beta-lactams, and Cd2+ and Cu2+ salts than were their pigmented parents. Both pigmented and unpigmented variants of the strains produced beta-lactamase, although beta-lactamase did not appear to be a determinant of beta-lactam susceptibility. Pigmented variants grew more rapidly in a number of commonly used mycobacterial media, were more hydrophobic, and had higher carotenoid contents than their unpigmented segregants. PMID:2808669

  6. Metabolism and Pigmentation Patterns during Metamorphosis of Plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Nørregaard; Korsgaard, Bodil

    1999-01-01

    Protein metabolism, growth and pigmentation patterns were studied during the process of metamorphosis in the plaice Pleuronectes platessa. Based on the morphological and concurrent metabolic observations the process of metamorphosis could be divided into three different phases: (1) premetamorphosis....... Calcium assimilation reached a plateau depicting complete ossification of the skeleton. Lipid catabolism dominated by the end of the metamorphosis process. Pigmentation appeared to develop in two marked phases. During premetamorphosis larval melanophores and xanthophores dominated the pigmentation pattern...

  7. Posttranslational modifications of proopiomelanocortin in vertebrates and their biological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi eTakahashi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Proopiomelanocortin (POMC is the precursor of several peptide hormones generated in the pituitary gland. After biosynthesis, POMC undergoes several posttranslational modifications, including proteolytic cleavage, acetylation, amidation, phosphorylation, glycosylation, and disulfide linkage formation, which generate mature POMC-derived peptides. Therefore, POMC is a useful model for the investigation of posttranslational modifications. These processes have been extensively investigated in mammals, primarily in rodents. In addition, over the last decade, much information has been obtained about the posttranslational processing of POMC in non-mammalian animals such as fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds through sequencing and peptide identification by mass spectrometry. One POMC modification, acetylation, is known to modulate the biological activities of POMC-derived alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH having an acetyl group at N-terminal through potentiation or inhibition. This bidirectional regulation depends on its intrinsic roles in the tissue or cell; for example, alpha-MSH, as well as desacety-alpha-MSH, stimulates pigment dispersion in the xanthophores of a flounder. In contrast, alpha-MSH does not stimulate pigment dispersion in the melanophores of the same species, whereas desacetyl-alpha-MSH does. Regulation of pigment-dispersing activities may be associated with the subtle balance in the expression of receptor genes. In this review, we consider the posttranslational modifications of POMC in vertebrates from an evolutionary aspect, with a focus on the relationship between acetylation and the biological activities of alpha-MSH as an important consequence of posttranslational modification.

  8. Novel Hypomorphic Alleles of the Mouse Tyrosinase Gene Induced by CRISPR-Cas9 Nucleases Cause Non-Albino Pigmentation Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Anil K; Boitet, Evan R; Turner, Ashley N; Johnson, Larry W; Kennedy, Daniel; Downs, Ethan R; Hymel, Katherine M; Gross, Alecia K; Kesterson, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Mutations in the gene encoding tyrosinase (Tyr) cause oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1) in humans. Alleles of the Tyr gene have been useful in studying pigment biology and coat color formation. Over 100 different Tyr alleles have been reported in mice, of which ≈24% are spontaneous mutations, ≈60% are radiation-induced, and the remaining alleles were obtained by chemical mutagenesis and gene targeting. Therefore, most mutations were random and could not be predicted a priori. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, we targeted two distinct regions of exon 1 to induce pigmentation changes and used an in vivo visual phenotype along with heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA) as readouts of CRISPR-Cas9 activity. Most of the mutant alleles result in complete loss of tyrosinase activity leading to an albino phenotype. In this study, we describe two novel in-frame deletion alleles of Tyr, dhoosara (Sanskrit for gray) and chandana (Sanskrit for sandalwood). These alleles are hypomorphic and show lighter pigmentation phenotypes of the body and eyes. This study demonstrates the utility of CRISPR-Cas9 system in generating domain-specific in-frame deletions and helps gain further insights into structure-function of Tyr gene.

  9. Novel Hypomorphic Alleles of the Mouse Tyrosinase Gene Induced by CRISPR-Cas9 Nucleases Cause Non-Albino Pigmentation Phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Challa

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Mutations in the gene encoding tyrosinase (Tyr cause oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1 in humans. Alleles of the Tyr gene have been useful in studying pigment biology and coat color formation. Over 100 different Tyr alleles have been reported in mice, of which ≈24% are spontaneous mutations, ≈60% are radiation-induced, and the remaining alleles were obtained by chemical mutagenesis and gene targeting. Therefore, most mutations were random and could not be predicted a priori. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, we targeted two distinct regions of exon 1 to induce pigmentation changes and used an in vivo visual phenotype along with heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA as readouts of CRISPR-Cas9 activity. Most of the mutant alleles result in complete loss of tyrosinase activity leading to an albino phenotype. In this study, we describe two novel in-frame deletion alleles of Tyr, dhoosara (Sanskrit for gray and chandana (Sanskrit for sandalwood. These alleles are hypomorphic and show lighter pigmentation phenotypes of the body and eyes. This study demonstrates the utility of CRISPR-Cas9 system in generating domain-specific in-frame deletions and helps gain further insights into structure-function of Tyr gene.

  10. Multispectral diagnostic imaging of the iris in pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Daniel K; Lukic, Ana; Yang, Yongyi; Wilensky, Jacob T; Wernick, Miles N

    2012-08-01

    To determine if wavelength selection with near infrared iris imaging may enhance iris transillumination defects (ITDs) in pigment dispersion syndrome. An experimental apparatus was used to acquire iris images in 6 African-American (AA) and 6 White patients with pigment dispersion syndrome. Light-emitting diode probes of 6 different spectral bands (700 to 950 nm) were used to project light into patients' eyes. Iris patterns were photographed, ITD regions of interest were outlined, and region of interest contrasts were calculated for each spectral band. Contrasts varied as a function of wavelength (Ppigmented eyes may be slightly longer than for less pigmented eyes.

  11. Interactions between colloidal silver and photosynthetic pigments located in cyanobacteria fragments and in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siejak, Przemysław; Frackowiak, Danuta

    2007-09-25

    Changes in the yield of the fluorescence emitted by pigments of photosynthetic organisms could be used for the establishment of the presence of some toxic substances. The presence of colloidal metals can be indicated by enhancement of pigments' emission as a result of plasmons generation. The spectra of the pigments of cyanobacterium Synechocystis located in the bacterium fragments and in solutions with and without colloidal silver additions have been measured. The quantum yield of the pigments' fluorescence in solution has been observed to increase at some wavelength of excitation, while the fluorescence of the pigments in the bacteria fragments has been only quenched as a consequence of interactions with colloidal silver particles. Close contact between pigment molecules located in bacteria fragments and silver particles is probably not possible. We plan in future to investigate the influence of other, more typical metal pollutants of water, using similar spectral methods and several other photosynthetic bacteria pigments, in solution, in cell fragments and in the whole bacteria organisms.

  12. Evaluation of blotchy pigments in the anterior chamber angle as a sign of angle closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha L Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blotchy pigments in the anterior chamber (AC angle are considered diagnostic of primary angle closure (PAC. But there are no reports either on the prevalence of blotchy pigments in AC angles or the validity of this sign. Aims: To determine the prevalence of blotchy pigments in AC angles and to evaluate their relationship with glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON in eyes with occludable angles. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional, comparative study. Materials and Methods: Gonioscopy was performed in 1001 eyes of 526 subjects (245 eyes of 148 consecutive, occludable angle subjects and 756 eyes of 378 non-consecutive, open angle subjects, above 35 years of age. Quadrant-wise location of blotchy pigments was documented. Statistical Analysis: Odds of blotchy pigments in occludable angles against that in open angles were evaluated. Relationship of GON with blotchy pigments in occludable angle eyes was evaluated using a multivariate model. Results: Prevalence of blotchy pigments in occludable angles was 28.6% (95% CI, 22.9-34.3 and in open angles was 4.7% (95% CI, 3.2-6.3. Blotchy pigments were more frequently seen in inferior (16% and superior quadrants (15% of occludable angles, and inferior quadrant of open angles (4%. Odds of superior quadrant blotchy pigments in occludable angles were 33 times that in open angles. GON was seen in 107 occludable angle eyes. Blotchy pigments were not significantly associated with GON (odds ratio = 0.5; P = 0.1. Conclusions: Blotchy pigments were seen in 28.6% of occludable angle eyes and 4.7% of open angles eyes. Presence of blotchy pigments in the superior quadrant is more common in occludable angles. Presence of GON in occludable angle eyes was not associated with blotchy pigments.

  13. Evaluation of blotchy pigments in the anterior chamber angle as a sign of angle closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Harsha L; Mungale, Sachin C; Kumbar, Tukaram; Parikh, Rajul S; Garudadri, Chandra S

    2012-01-01

    Background: Blotchy pigments in the anterior chamber (AC) angle are considered diagnostic of primary angle closure (PAC). But there are no reports either on the prevalence of blotchy pigments in AC angles or the validity of this sign. Aims: To determine the prevalence of blotchy pigments in AC angles and to evaluate their relationship with glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) in eyes with occludable angles. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional, comparative study. Materials and Methods: Gonioscopy was performed in 1001 eyes of 526 subjects (245 eyes of 148 consecutive, occludable angle subjects and 756 eyes of 378 non-consecutive, open angle subjects), above 35 years of age. Quadrant-wise location of blotchy pigments was documented. Statistical Analysis: Odds of blotchy pigments in occludable angles against that in open angles were evaluated. Relationship of GON with blotchy pigments in occludable angle eyes was evaluated using a multivariate model. Results: Prevalence of blotchy pigments in occludable angles was 28.6% (95% CI, 22.9-34.3) and in open angles was 4.7% (95% CI, 3.2-6.3). Blotchy pigments were more frequently seen in inferior (16%) and superior quadrants (15%) of occludable angles, and inferior quadrant of open angles (4%). Odds of superior quadrant blotchy pigments in occludable angles were 33 times that in open angles. GON was seen in 107 occludable angle eyes. Blotchy pigments were not significantly associated with GON (odds ratio = 0.5; P = 0.1). Conclusions: Blotchy pigments were seen in 28.6% of occludable angle eyes and 4.7% of open angles eyes. Presence of blotchy pigments in the superior quadrant is more common in occludable angles. Presence of GON in occludable angle eyes was not associated with blotchy pigments. PMID:23202393

  14. Shedding light on serpent sight: the visual pigments of henophidian snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Wayne L; Cowing, Jill A; Bowmaker, James K; Carvalho, Livia S; Gower, David J; Hunt, David M

    2009-06-10

    The biologist Gordon Walls proposed his "transmutation" theory through the 1930s and the 1940s to explain cone-like morphology of rods (and vice versa) in the duplex retinas of modern-day reptiles, with snakes regarded as the epitome of his hypothesis. Despite Walls' interest, the visual system of reptiles, and in particular snakes, has been widely neglected in favor of studies of fishes and mammals. By analyzing the visual pigments of two henophidian snakes, Xenopeltis unicolor and Python regius, we show that both species express two cone opsins, an ultraviolet-sensitive short-wavelength-sensitive 1 (SWS1) (lambda(max) = 361 nm) pigment and a long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) (lambda(max) = 550 nm) pigment, providing the potential for dichromatic color vision. They also possess rod photoreceptors which express the usual rod opsin (Rh1) pigment with a lambda(max) at 497 nm. This is the first molecular study of the visual pigments expressed in the photoreceptors of any snake species. The presence of a duplex retina and the characterization of LWS, SWS1, and Rh1 visual pigments in henophidian snakes implies that "lower" snakes do not provide support for Walls' transmutation theory, unlike some "higher" (caenophidian) snakes and other reptiles, such as geckos. More data from other snake lineages will be required to test this hypothesis further.

  15. The production of pigments and hydrogen through a Spirogyra sp. biorefinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, R.; Ferreira, A.F.; Pinto, T.; Nobre, B.P.; Loureiro, D.; Moura, P.; Gouveia, L.; Silva, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sugar content of microalgae must increase to increase H 2 yield. • Electrocoagulation and solar dryer reduce 90% the harvesting-drying energy demand. • Paddle wheels contribute 5% to culture energy demand when using ideal 0.1 kW/m 2 . • Pigment extraction increases 2 times the biorefinery economic benefits. • Pigment energy demand account for 62% and must be reduced significantly. - Abstract: This paper discusses the overall energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions when extracting pigments and producing hydrogen from Spirogyra sp. microalga biomass. The energy evaluation from the biomass leftovers was also included in this work. The influence of the functional unit and different allocation criteria on the biorefinery assessments is also shown. The study consists of laboratory tests showing Spirogyra sp. growth, harvesting, drying, pigment extraction and fermentation by Clostridium butyricum. Electrocoagulation and solar drying were tested and compared to conventional centrifugation and electrical dewatering in terms of their energy consumption for harvesting and dewatering, respectively. To discuss the biorefinery viability, the pigments and biohydrogen (bioH 2 ) retail costs are considered against operational costs according to electricity needs. The low yield of biochemical hydrogen and the high energy requirements for the pigment extraction were identified as main topics for further research. This research hopefully contributes to highlight the importance of energy and emission balances in order to decide on feasibility of the biorefinery

  16. Monodisperse Hollow Tricolor Pigment Particles for Electronic Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xianwei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A general approach has been designed to blue, green, and red pigments by metal ions doping hollow TiO 2. The reaction involves initial formation of PS at TiO2 core–shell nanoparticles via a mixed-solvent method, and then mixing with metal ions solution containing PEG, followed calcining in the atmosphere. The as-prepared hollow pigments exhibit uniform size, bright color, and tunable density, which are fit for electronic paper display.

  17. Obtention of ceramic pigments with residue from electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, A.; Kniess, C.T.; Aguiar, B.M. de; Prates, P.B.; Milanez, K.

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of industrial residues in industrial processes opens up new business opportunities and reduces the volume of extraction of raw materials, preserving natural resources, which are limited. An important residue is the mud from galvanic industry, consisting of alkali and transition metals. According to NBR 10004/2004, this residue can be classified as Class I (hazardous), depending on the concentration of metals present in the mud. This paper proposes a method for reusing the residue from electroplating in ceramic pigments. The characterization of residual plating was obtained by chemical analysis, mineralogical analysis and pH measurements. The electroplating waste was incorporated in different percentages on a standard pigment formula of industrial ceramic, consisting mainly of Zn, Fe and Cr. The obtained pigments were applied in ceramic glazes to colorimetric and visual analysis, which showed good results with the addition of up to 15% of industrial waste. (author)

  18. Laser-generated acoustic wave studies on tattoo pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Lorna M.; Dickinson, Mark R.; King, Terence A.

    1996-01-01

    A Q-switched alexandrite laser (180 ns at 755 nm) was used to irradiate samples of agar embedded with red, black and green tattoo dyes. The acoustic waves generated in the samples were detected using a PVDF membrane hydrophone and compared to theoretical expectations. The laser pulses were found to generate acoustic waves in the black and green samples but not in the red pigment. Pressures of up to 1.4 MPa were produced with irradiances of up to 96 MWcm-2 which is comparable to the irradiances used to clear pigment embedded in skin. The pressure gradient generated across pigment particles was approximately 1.09 X 1010 Pam-1 giving a pressure difference of 1.09 +/- 0.17 MPa over a particle with mean diameter 100 micrometers . This is not sufficient to permanently damage skin which has a tensile strength of 7.4 MPa.

  19. Comparison of color, chemical and mineralogical compositions of mine drainage sediments to pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, C.S. [Bucknell Univ., Lewisburg, PA (United States). Geology Dept.; Decker, S.M. [Boston College, MA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Macander, N.K. [Parsons Engineering Science, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Forty-three untreated and actively and passively (wetland) treated coal mine drainage sediments and five yellow-red pigments were characterized using X-ray fluorescence, fusion-inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and tristimulus colorimeter. Primary crystalline iron-bearing phases were goethite and lepidocrocite, and iron phases converted to hematite upon heating. Quartz was nearly ubiquitous except for synthetic pigments. Gypsum, bassinite, calcite, and ettringite were found in active treatment sediments. Iron concentrations from highest to lowest were synthetic pigment>wetland sediment>natural pigment>active treatment (untreated sediments varied more widely), and manganese was highest in actively treated sediments. Loss on ignition was highest for passively treated sediments. No clear trends were observed between quantified color parameters (L*, a*, b*, and Redness Index) and chemical compositions. Because sediments from passive treatment are similar in chemistry, mineralogy, and color to natural pigments, the mine drainage sediments may be an untrapped resource for pigment. (orig.)

  20. An ESR study of the spectra of paint pigments in 'drying' linseed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slogett, R.; Troup, G.; Hutton, D.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Since previous ESR work on the identification of RAW paint pigments, mainly mineral, looked promising, we decided to examine the spectra when the pigments were applied, in oil, to a non-reactive, microwave transparent polymer. The polymer used shows no significant ESR signals in the range 2000-4000 gauss at ∼9.1 GHz and room temperature. The oil used is Winsor and Newton Drying Linseed Oil, and contains 'manganese driers'. The spectrum of the pure liquid oil is shown, as well as that of the dried oil on the substrate. Many of the pigment spectra shown are so strong that not a trace of the oil Mn(2+) can be seen at the pigment concentrations used. The effect of the linseed oil on modern synthetic indigo, an organic pigment still available made from plants, is also shown. ESR still looks to be a useful supplementary technique for paint pigment identification

  1. Chicken feather peptone: A new alternative nitrogen source for pigment production by Monascus purpureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orak, Tugba; Caglar, Ozge; Ortucu, Serkan; Ozkan, Hakan; Taskin, Mesut

    2018-04-10

    Peptones are accepted as one of the most favourable nitrogen sources supporting pigment synthesis in Monascus purpureus. The present study was performed to test the feasibility of chicken feather peptone (CFP) as nitrogen source for pigment production from M. purpureus ATCC16365. CFP was compared with fish peptone (FP) and protease peptone (PP) in order to elucidate its effectiveness on pigment production. CFP was prepared from waste feathers using hydrolysis (KOH) and neutralization (H 2 SO 4 ) methods. The protein content of CFP was determined as 67.2 g/100 g. Optimal concentrations of CFP and glucose for pigment production were determined as 3 and 20 g/L, respectively. A medium pH of 5.5 and an incubation period of 7-days were found to be more favourable for pigment production. In CFP, PP and FP media, yellow pigment absorbances were 2.819, 2.870 and 2.831, red pigment absorbances were 2.709, 2.304 and 2.748, and orange pigment absorbances were 2.643, 2.132 and 2.743, respectively. Sugar consumption and mycelia growth showed the similar trends in CFP, FP and PP media. This study indicates that the peptone from chicken feathers may be a good nutritional substrate for pigment production from M. purpureus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Melanin-Like Pigment Synthesis by Soil Bacillus weihenstephanensis Isolates from Northeastern Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna M Drewnowska

    Full Text Available Although melanin is known for protecting living organisms from harmful physical and chemical factors, its synthesis is rarely observed among endospore-forming Bacillus cereus sensu lato. Here, for the first time, we reported that psychrotolerant Bacillus weihenstephanensis from Northeastern Poland can produce melanin-like pigment. We assessed physicochemical properties of the pigment and the mechanism of its synthesis in relation to B. weihenstephanensis genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy displayed a stable free radical signal of the pigment from environmental isolates which are consistent with the commercial melanin. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and physicochemical tests indicated the phenolic character of the pigment. Several biochemical tests showed that melanin-like pigment synthesis by B. weihenstephanensis was associated with laccase activity. The presence of the gene encoding laccase was confirmed by the next generation whole genome sequencing of one B. weihenstephanensis strain. Biochemical (API 20E and 50CHB tests and genetic (Multi-locus Sequence Typing, 16S rRNA sequencing, and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis characterization of the isolates revealed their close relation to the psychrotrophic B. weihenstephanensis DSMZ 11821 reference strain. The ability to synthesize melanin-like pigment by soil B. weihenstephanensis isolates and their psychrotrophic character seemed to be a local adaptation to a specific niche. Detailed genetic and biochemical analyses of melanin-positive environmental B. weihenstephanensis strains shed some light on the evolution and ecological adaptation of these bacteria. Moreover, our study raised new biotechnological possibilities for the use of water-soluble melanin-like pigment naturally produced by B. weihenstephanensis as an alternative to commercial non-soluble pigment.

  3. Two rapid pigmentation tests for identification of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, C S; Merz, W G

    1982-01-01

    Two tests were developed for the rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans based on pigment produced by the organism's phenoloxidase activity. Caffeic acid was incorporated into cornmeal agar, a medium used routinely for yeast identification. When tested on this medium, only C. neoformans isolates produced brown pigment. All other yeasts maintained their normal morphology and did not produce the reaction product. A non-medium-based test was developed for same-day identification of C. neoformans isolates. Paper strips saturated with a buffered L-beta-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-ferric citrate solution were inoculated with isolates and incubated at 37 degrees C. Pigment production occurred only with C. neoformans isolates, many within 60 to 90 min. All other yeasts remained negative. PMID:7040452

  4. Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis Causing Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Mimura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 27-year-old man with pigmented villonodular synovitis of the hip joint with coincident osteonecrosis of the femoral head. According to our review of the English-language literature, no detailed report of osteonecrosis of the femoral head complicated with pigmented villonodular synovitis has been published. Preoperative X-ray images showed joint narrowing and severe multiple bone erosions at the acetabulum and femoral neck. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a low-intensity band attributable to osteonecrosis of the femoral head and massive diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis lesions. Comparison of a three-dimensional computed tomographic image of this patient with an angiographic image of a normal individual demonstrated proximity of the pigmented villonodular synovitis-induced bone erosions to the medial and lateral femoral circumflex arteries and retinacular arteries, suggesting likely the compromise of the latter by the former. We propose that the massive pigmented villonodular synovitis may have contributed to the pathogenesis of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in this patient. We performed open synovectomy and total hip arthroplasty. No operative complications occurred, and no recurrence of the pigmented villonodular synovitis was detected for 3 years after the operation.

  5. Pigmented villonodular synovitis: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler, R.; Rivera, E.; Perez Fontan, F.J.; Yebra, T.; Fuente, C. de la

    1994-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis is an un-common lesion of the synovium that typically involves diffusely the knee. We present the MR findings of two cases involving the knee,one of them diffuse and the other one localized in the supra patellar bursa. (Author)

  6. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  7. Visual pigments of the box jellyfish species Chiropsella bronzie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O*Connor, Megan; Garm, Anders Lydik; Marshall, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Box jellyfish (Cubomedusae) possess a unique visual system comprising 24 eyes of four morphological types. Moreover, box jellyfish display several visually guided behaviours, including obstacle avoidance and light-shaft attractance. It is largely unknown what kind of visual information box...... results strongly indicate that only one type of visual pigment is present in the upper and lower lens eyes with a peak absorbance of approximately 510 nm. Additionally, the visual pigment appears to undergo bleaching, similar to that of vertebrate visual pigments....

  8. 75 FR 977 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... the form of presscake and dry color. Pigment dispersions in any form (e.g., pigments dispersed in... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-533-839] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... countervailing duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP-23) from India for the period January 1, 2007...

  9. The influence of paint dispersion parameters on the spectral selectivity of black-pigmented coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunde, M.K.; Orel, Z.C. [National Institute of Chemistry, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hutchins, M.G. [Oxford Brookes University, Oxford (United Kingdom). School of Engineering

    2003-10-31

    The optical properties of variously prepared black-pigmented solar absorbing paints were calculated in terms of their effective absorption and scattering abilities. The phenomenological two-parameter Kubelka-Munk effective medium theory was applied. Paints with the same composition were prepared for different degrees of pigment dispersion and characterized by the average size of pigment agglomerates present in the pigment/vehicle system. Prepared paints were applied to aluminium foil in two ways, by coil coating and by spraying. The size of coarse pigment particles and the paint application technique influence the spectral selectivity and thus determine the final performance of spectrally selective surfaces. (author)

  10. Structure of Pigment Metabolic Pathways and Their Contributions to White Tepal Color Formation of Chinese Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis cv Jinzhanyintai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yujun; Yang, Jingwen; Lu, Bingguo; Jiang, Yaping; Chen, Haiyang; Hong, Yuwei; Wu, Binghua; Miao, Ying

    2017-09-08

    Chinese narcissus ( Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis ) is one of the ten traditional flowers in China and a famous bulb flower in the world flower market. However, only white color tepals are formed in mature flowers of the cultivated varieties, which constrains their applicable occasions. Unfortunately, for lack of genome information of narcissus species, the explanation of tepal color formation of Chinese narcissus is still not clear. Concerning no genome information, the application of transcriptome profile to dissect biological phenomena in plants was reported to be effective. As known, pigments are metabolites of related metabolic pathways, which dominantly decide flower color. In this study, transcriptome profile and pigment metabolite analysis methods were used in the most widely cultivated Chinese narcissus "Jinzhanyintai" to discover the structure of pigment metabolic pathways and their contributions to white tepal color formation during flower development and pigmentation processes. By using comparative KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, three pathways related to flavonoid, carotenoid and chlorophyll pigment metabolism showed significant variations. The structure of flavonoids metabolic pathway was depicted, but, due to the lack of F3'5'H gene; the decreased expression of C4H , CHS and ANS genes; and the high expression of FLS gene, the effect of this pathway to synthesize functional anthocyanins in tepals was weak. Similarly, the expression of DXS , MCT and PSY genes in carotenoids synthesis sub-pathway was decreased, while CCD1 / CCD4 genes in carotenoids degradation sub-pathway was increased; therefore, the effect of carotenoids metabolic pathway to synthesize adequate color pigments in tepals is restricted. Interestingly, genes in chlorophyll synthesis sub-pathway displayed uniform down-regulated expression, while genes in heme formation and chlorophyll breakdown sub-pathways displayed up-regulated expression, which also indicates negative regulation

  11. Talaromyces atroroseus, a new species efficiently producing industrially relevant red pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Yilmaz, Neriman; Thrane, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    ., described in this study, produces the azaphilone biosynthetic families mitorubrins and Monascus pigments without any production of mycotoxins. Within the red pigment producing clade, T. atroroseus resolved in a distinct clade separate from all the other species in multigene phylogenies (ITS, β......Some species of Talaromyces secrete large amounts of red pigments. Literature has linked this character to species such as Talaromyces purpurogenus, T. albobiverticillius, T. marneffei, and T. minioluteus often under earlier Penicillium names. Isolates identified as T. purpurogenus have been...... reported to be interesting industrially and they can produce extracellular enzymes and red pigments, but they can also produce mycotoxins such as rubratoxin A and B and luteoskyrin. Production of mycotoxins limits the use of isolates of a particular species in biotechnology. Talaromyces atroroseus sp. nov...

  12. Simulating watercolor by modeling diffusion, pigment, and paper fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, David

    1991-08-01

    This paper explores a parallel approach to the problem of predicting the actions of pigment and water when applied to paper fibers. This work was done on the Connection Machine II, whose parallel architecture allows one to cast the problem as that of a complex cellular automata. One defines simple rules for the behavior of each cell based on the state of that cell and its immediate neighbors. By repeating the computation for each cell in the paper over many time steps, elaborate and realistic behaviors can be achieved. The simulation takes into account diffusion, surface tension, gravity, humidity, paper absorbency and the molecular weight of each pigment. At each time step a processor associated with each fiber in the paper computes water and pigment gradients, surface tension and gravitational forces, and decides if there should be any movement of material. Pigment and water can be applied and removed (blotting) with masks created from type or scanned images. Use of a parallel processor simplifies the creation and testing of software, and variables can be stored and manipulated at highprecision. The resulting simulation runs at approximately one-tenth real time.

  13. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid in Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Koo Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lily Koo Lin1, Han Lee2, Eli Chang11Department of Oculoplastics, Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Pigmented basal cell carcinoma (PBCC of the eyelid has not been well cited in the literature, and is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions. We aim to describe PBCC of the eyelid in Hispanic patients.Methods: Retrospective review of patients with eyelid skin cancer who presented to the Department of Dermatology at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California and the Doheny Eye Institute from January 2002 to November 2005.Results: Sixty-nine of the 79 patients with eyelid skin cancer had basal cell carcinoma. Eight of these patients were Hispanic. Four of the eight Hispanic patients had PBCC.Conclusions: Although eyelid PBCC is regarded as a rare condition, it may occur more commonly in the Hispanic population and should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions.Keywords: pigmented basal cell carcinoma, eyelid, skin cancer, lesions

  14. Removal of dogs' gingival pigmentation with CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Jose A. P.; Chavantes, Maria C.; Gioso, Marco A.; Pesce, Hildeberto F.; Jatene, Adib D.

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the ability of CO2 laser to remove physiologic pigmentation of gingiva. Dogs were chosen for this study because of their intense black pigmentation on the gingiva, similar to what can be found in human negroes and other dark- skinned races. Three specimens were irradiated at the left side of the buccal aspect of the gingiva, while for comparison the right side was used as a control. CO2 laser in a continuous mode applying 3 watt power was used (Xanar-20, USA). The portion to be irradiated was continuously irrigated with saline solution, to prevent tissue damage from the excessive heat generated. The handpiece device irradiated the target easily and fast, with no bleeding. All the pigmentation could be removed from the portion exposed to the laser beam. A 45th day follow up showed very little repigmentation just in one of the specimens. It could be concluded that CO2 laser irradiation can be an alternative to remove pigmentation of the gingiva for cosmetic purposes. The risk of repigmentation exists, so the patients should be aware of this inconvenience, sometimes demanding further irradiation.

  15. Biological effects of cigarette smoke in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice L Yu

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to determine whether treatment with cigarette smoke extract (CSE induces cell loss, cellular senescence, and extracellular matrix (ECM synthesis in primary human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells. Primary cultured human RPE cells were exposed to 2, 4, 8, and 12% of CSE concentration for 24 hours. Cell loss was detected by cell viability assay. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by loss of cis-parinaric acid (PNA fluorescence. Senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-Gal activity was detected by histochemical staining. Expression of apolipoprotein J (Apo J, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, fibronectin, and laminin were examined by real-time PCR, western blot, or ELISA experiments. The results showed that exposure of cells to 12% of CSE concentration induced cell death, while treatment of cells with 2, 4, and 8% CSE increased lipid peroxidation. Exposure to 8% of CSE markedly increased the number of SA-ß-Gal positive cells to up to 82%, and the mRNA expression of Apo J, CTGF, and fibronectin by approximately 3-4 fold. Treatment with 8% of CSE also increased the protein expression of Apo J and CTGF and the secretion of fibronectin and laminin. Thus, treatment with CSE can induce cell loss, senescent changes, and ECM synthesis in primary human RPE cells. It may be speculated that cigarette smoke could be involved in cellular events in RPE cells as seen in age-related macular degeneration.

  16. NON-AQUEOUS PIGMENTED INKJET INKS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEROOVER, GEERT; Bernaerts, Katrien; HOOGMARTENS, IVAN

    2010-01-01

    A non-aqueous inkjet ink includes a benzimidazolone pigment and a polymeric dispersant according to Formula (I): wherein, T represents hydrogen or a polymerization terminating group; Z represents the residue of polyethyleneimine having a number-average molecular weight of at least 100; A represents

  17. Twenty natural organic pigments for application in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, D.; Sánchez Juárez, A.; Espinosa Tapia, S.; Guaman, A.; Obregón Calderón, D.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we present the results of a study of twenty natural pigments obtained from plants and insects from southern Ecuador. Many of them will be considered as a potential natural sensitizer for the construction of DSSCs. The results indicate that these pigments have a good performance in the absorbance and wavelength spectra. Were selected four best pigments for the construction of DSSCs, Rumex tolimensis Wedd, Raphanus sativus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Prunus serótina, however the conversion efficiency is lower than 1%.

  18. Corrosion Protection of Carbon Steel Using Poly aniline Composite with Inorganic Pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dulaimi, A.A.; Shahrir Hashim; Khan, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    Two inorganic pigments (TiO 2 and SiO 2 ) were used to prepare composites with poly aniline (PANI) by situ polymerization method. PANI and PANI composites with SiO 2 and TiO 2 were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The morphology of the synthesized pigments (PANI , PANI-SiO 2 and PANI-TiO 2 ) was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Samples were then used as pigments through blending them with acrylic paint and applied on the surface of carbon steel panels. Corrosion was evaluated for coating of carbon steel panels through full immersion test up to standard ASTMG 31. Mass loss was calculated after they have been exposed in acidic media. A digital camera was also used for monitoring corrosion visually on the surface of carbon steel specimens. The results revealed that acrylic paint pigmented by PANI-SiO 2 composite was more efficient in corrosion protection for carbon steel compared with the other synthesized pigments. (author)

  19. The Final Development Related Microbial Pigments and the Application in Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    YANGILAR, Filiz; YILDIZ, Pınar OGUZHAN

    2016-01-01

    The successful marketing of natural pigments derived from microorganisms and microalgae or extracted from flowering plants, both as food colorants and nutritional supplements, reflects the presence, and importance of markets in which consumers are willing to pay a premium for “natural healthy ingredients”. As known, pigments prefer in natural products have antioxidant, antimicrobial and antimutagenic activities. The most commonly used food grade pigments are chemical compounds containing nitr...

  20. What is the risk of developing pigmentary glaucoma from pigment dispersion syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Yasmin; Ten Hulzen, Richard D; Cameron, J Douglas; Hodge, David O; Johnson, Douglas H

    2003-06-01

    To determine the probability of converting from pigment dispersion syndrome to pigmentary glaucoma. Retrospective community-based study of all newly diagnosed cases of pigment dispersion syndrome or pigmentary glaucoma. Subjects were patients newly diagnosed with pigment dispersion syndrome or pigmentary glaucoma from 1976 to 1999 in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Criteria for pigment dispersion syndrome were two of three signs: midperipheral, radial iris transillumination defects; Krukenberg spindle; heavy trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Criteria for pigmentary glaucoma were pigment dispersion syndrome and two of three findings: intraocular pressure (IOP) greater than 21 mm, optic nerve damage, or visual field loss. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to determine the probability of conversion to pigmentary glaucoma. A total of 113 patients were newly diagnosed with pigment dispersion syndrome over the 24-year period. Of these, 9 persons developed pigmentary glaucoma or elevated IOP requiring therapy. The probability of converting to pigmentary glaucoma was 10% at 5 years and 15% at 15 years. An additional 23 patients were found to have pigmentary glaucoma at their initial examination. The mean age at diagnosis of pigmentary glaucoma was 42 +/- 12 years; 78% of patients were male, whereas 58% of patients with pigmentary dispersion syndrome glaucoma were male. The most significant risk factor for conversion to pigmentary glaucoma was an IOP greater than 21 mm Hg at initial examination, whereas age, refractive error, and family history of glaucoma were not correlated with conversion. The risk of developing pigmentary glaucoma from pigment dispersion syndrome was 10% at 5 years and 15% at 15 years. Young, myopic men were most likely to have pigmentary glaucoma. An IOP greater than 21 mm Hg at initial examination was associated with an increased risk of conversion.

  1. Black-pigmented gram-negative anaerobes in endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasalo, M

    1993-03-01

    Necrotic dental root canal infections are polymicrobial infections dominated by anaerobic bacteria. The number of different species in one canal is usually low, approx. 4-7 species. The species isolated most frequently belong to the genera Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Eubacterium and Streptococcus. The frequency of isolation of black-pigmented Gram-negative anaerobes in endodontic infections varies from 25% to > 50%. Pr. intermedia is the most commonly found pigmented species, followed by Pr. denticola and two Porphyromonas species, P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis. Several studies have shown that P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis are closely related to the presence of acute symptoms in endodontic infections, whereas other black-pigmented Gram-negative anaerobes are not. However, several other species may also be involved in acute infections. Moreover, Porphyromonas species have occasionally been isolated from cases with no symptoms. Although Porphyromonas spp. are clearly related to symptoms at the beginning of therapy, they are not important for the prognosis of the treatment.

  2. Temporal evolution of intraocular pressure elevation after pupillary dilation in pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewelewicz, Daniel A; Radcliffe, Nathan M; Liebmann, Jeffrey; Ritch, Robert

    2009-03-01

    To report 4 patients with pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) who had delayed intraocular pressure (IOP) spikes after pharmacologic pupillary dilation. Four patients with a diagnosis of PDS with documented IOP spike after pharmacologic pupillary dilation were included. Study patients were examined before and after pupillary dilation. The amount of pigment present in the anterior chamber and the IOP were measured at hourly intervals. Although maximal pigment liberation occurred immediately after maximal dilation, the IOP continued to elevate for at least 1.5 hours. The increase in IOP after pupillary dilation may not occur simultaneously with maximal pigment liberation but may follow it after the pigment has settled out of the anterior chamber. This has implications for monitoring patients with PDS after dilation to detect and treat rises in IOP.

  3. Automated segmentation of pigmented skin lesions in multispectral imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrara, Mauro; Tomatis, Stefano; Bono, Aldo; Bartoli, Cesare; Moglia, Daniele; Lualdi, Manuela; Colombo, Ambrogio; Santinami, Mario; Marchesini, Renato

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an algorithm for the automatic segmentation of multispectral images of pigmented skin lesions. The study involved 1700 patients with 1856 cutaneous pigmented lesions, which were analysed in vivo by a novel spectrophotometric system, before excision. The system is able to acquire a set of 15 different multispectral images at equally spaced wavelengths between 483 and 951 nm. An original segmentation algorithm was developed and applied to the whole set of lesions and was able to automatically contour them all. The obtained lesion boundaries were shown to two expert clinicians, who, independently, rejected 54 of them. The 97.1% contour accuracy indicates that the developed algorithm could be a helpful and effective instrument for the automatic segmentation of skin pigmented lesions. (note)

  4. Mathematical modeling of pigment dispersion taking into account the full agglomerate particle size distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a mathematical model that can quantify the dispersion of pigments, with a focus on the mechanical breakage of pigment agglomerates. The underlying physical mechanism was assumed to be surface erosion of spherical pigment agglomerates. The full agglomerate pa.......g., in the development of novel dispersion principles and for analysis of dispersion failures. The general applicability of the model, beyond the three pigments considered, needs to be confirmed....

  5. The effect of thermal treatment on antioxidant capacity and pigment contents in separated betalain fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk-Bator, Katarzyna; Pawlak, Sylwia

    2016-01-01

    Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables significantly reduces the risk of cardio-vascular disease. This beneficial effect on the human organism is ascribed to the antioxidant compounds these foods contain. Unfortunately, many products, particularly vegetables, need to be subjected to thermal processing before consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of such thermal treatment on the antioxidant capacity and pigment contents in separated fractions of violet pigments (betacyanins) and yellow pigments (betaxanthins and betacyanins). Fractions of violet and yellow pigments were obtained by separation of betalain pigments from fresh roots of 3 red beet cultivars using column chromatography and solid phase extraction (SPE). The betalain pigment content was determined in all samples before and after thermal treatment (90°C/30 min) by spectrophotometry, according to Nilsson's method [1970] and antioxidant capacity was assessed based on ABTS. Betalain pigments in the separated fractions were identified using HPLC-MS. After thermal treatment of betacyanin fractions a slight, but statistically significant degradation of pigments was observed, while the antioxidant capacity of these fractions did not change markedly. Losses of betacyanin content amounted to 13-15% depending on the cultivar, while losses of antioxidant capacity were approx. 7%. HPLC/MS analyses showed that before heating, betanin was the dominant pigment in the betacyanin fraction, while after heating it was additionally 15-decarboxy-betanin. Isolated fractions of yellow pigments in red beets are three times less heat-resistant than betacyanin fractions. At losses of yellow pigment contents in the course of thermal treatment reaching 47%, antioxidant capacity did not change markedly (a decrease by approx. 5%). In the yellow pigment fractions neobetanin was the dominant peak in the HPLC chromatogram, while vulgaxanthin was found in a much smaller area, whereas after heating

  6. Distinct salt-dependent effects impair Fremyella diplosiphon pigmentation and cellular shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shailendra P; Montgomery, Beronda L

    2013-07-01

    Salt impairs cellular morphology and photosynthetic pigment accumulation in the cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon. Recent findings indicated that the impact of salt on cellular morphology was attributable to salt-associated effects on osmotic regulation, as the impact on morphology was reversible when cells were treated with an osmoticum in the presence of salt. The impact of salt on photosynthetic pigment accumulation was associated with ionic effects of salt on the cells, as pigment levels remained low when salt-treated cells were incubated together with an osmoticum or an antioxidant, the latter to mitigate the impact of a salt-associated accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Here, we provide evidence that the transcripts for genes encoding the phycobiliproteins are not reduced in the presence of salt. These results suggest that the negative impact of salt-mediated changes on pigment accumulation occurs post-transcriptionally. A greater understanding of the mechanisms which impact growth of strains such as F. diplosiphon, which harbor pigments that allow low-light and shade-tolerated growth, may facilitate the development or adaptation of such strains as useful for remediation of salt-impacted soils or biofuel production.

  7. Talaromyces atroroseus, a new species efficiently producing industrially relevant red pigments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens C Frisvad

    Full Text Available Some species of Talaromyces secrete large amounts of red pigments. Literature has linked this character to species such as Talaromyces purpurogenus, T. albobiverticillius, T. marneffei, and T. minioluteus often under earlier Penicillium names. Isolates identified as T. purpurogenus have been reported to be interesting industrially and they can produce extracellular enzymes and red pigments, but they can also produce mycotoxins such as rubratoxin A and B and luteoskyrin. Production of mycotoxins limits the use of isolates of a particular species in biotechnology. Talaromyces atroroseus sp. nov., described in this study, produces the azaphilone biosynthetic families mitorubrins and Monascus pigments without any production of mycotoxins. Within the red pigment producing clade, T. atroroseus resolved in a distinct clade separate from all the other species in multigene phylogenies (ITS, β-tubulin and RPB1, which confirm its unique nature. Talaromyces atroroseus resembles T. purpurogenus and T. albobiverticillius in producing red diffusible pigments, but differs from the latter two species by the production of glauconic acid, purpuride and ZG-1494α and by the dull to dark green, thick walled ellipsoidal conidia produced. The type strain of Talaromyces atroroseus is CBS 133442.

  8. Advanced pigment dispersion glaucoma secondary to phakic intraocular collamer lens implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Ye

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of pigment dispersion glaucoma secondary to uncomplicated phakic intraocular collamer lens (ICL (Visian ICL™, Staar Inc., Monrovia, CA implant that resulted in advanced visual field loss. Observations: A 50-year-old man presented for routine follow-up status post bilateral phakic intraocular collamer lens (ICL placement 8 years earlier. He was incidentally found to have a decline in visual acuity from an anterior subcapsular cataract and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in the left eye. There were signs of pigment dispersion and no evidence of angle closure. Diffuse optic nerve thinning was consistent with advanced glaucomatous visual field defects. Pigment dispersion was also present in the patient's right eye, but without elevated IOP or visual field defects. The patient was treated with topical glaucoma medications and the phakic ICL in the left eye was removed concurrently with cataract surgery to prevent further visual field loss. Conclusions and importance: Pigment dispersion glaucoma is a serious adverse outcome after phakic ICL implantation and regular post-operative monitoring may prevent advanced visual field loss. Keywords: Phakic intraocular lens, Intraocular collamer lens, Pigment dispersion, Glaucoma

  9. Raman mapping study of the pigments in the dancheong of Korean traditional buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jeong-Eun; Han, Kiok; Nam, Jiyeon; Kim, Seung; Kang, Dai-Ill; Park, Min-Jung; Lee, Han-Hyoung; Yang, In-Sang

    2017-04-01

    Korea experienced a tragic loss of most of the Sungnyemun building in an arson attack in 2008. Few scientific records of the pigments originally used in the Korean national treasure exist, thus, the restoration of Sungnyemun was a serious failure. Because the Raman spectroscopic method has the advantage of analyzing the pigment phases in a simple, nondestructive, and noncontact way, it is becoming more important in scientific research on the colors present in cultural assets. In this study, Raman mapping measurements of the pigments in several "dancheong" - color decorations of the surfaces of the wood structure of Korean buildings - samples from Bongjeongsa Geukrakjeon and Sunglimsa Bogwangjeon are presented. The distribution of the pigments, which is difficult to observe with the naked eye, can be found in detail through a high-resolution Raman mapping image. A change of Raman spectrum due to the powderization of some pigments in the colored layer is also observed. The powderization of the pigments is considered to be due to weathering. Our Raman study will be helpful for the preservation and restoration of cultural heritage in general.

  10. Mediator MED23 Links Pigmentation and DNA Repair through the Transcription Factor MITF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Min; Chen, Kun; Yao, Xiao; Xu, Yichi; Yao, Jiaying; Yan, Jun; Shao, Zhen; Wang, Gang

    2017-08-22

    DNA repair is related to many physiological and pathological processes, including pigmentation. Little is known about the role of the transcriptional cofactor Mediator complex in DNA repair and pigmentation. Here, we demonstrate that Mediator MED23 plays an important role in coupling UV-induced DNA repair to pigmentation. The loss of Med23 specifically impairs the pigmentation process in melanocyte-lineage cells and in zebrafish. Med23 deficiency leads to enhanced nucleotide excision repair (NER) and less DNA damage following UV radiation because of the enhanced expression and recruitment of NER factors to chromatin for genomic stability. Integrative analyses of melanoma cells reveal that MED23 controls the expression of a melanocyte master regulator, Mitf, by modulating its distal enhancer activity, leading to opposing effects on pigmentation and DNA repair. Collectively, the Mediator MED23/MITF axis connects DNA repair to pigmentation, thus providing molecular insights into the DNA damage response and skin-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-aqueous pigmented inkjet inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOOGMARTENS, IVAN; Bernaerts, Katrien; DEROOVER, GEERT

    2008-01-01

    A non-aqueous inkjet ink comprising C.I. Pigment Yellow 150 and a polymeric dispersant according to Formula (I): wherein, T represents hydrogen or a polymerization terminating group; Z represents the residue of polyethyleneimine having a number-average molecular weight of at least 100; A represents

  12. 76 FR 55003 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Intent To Rescind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... finished pigment in the form of presscake and dry color. Pigment dispersions in any form (e.g., pigments... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-892] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP 23) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). This...

  13. 77 FR 1463 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... finished pigment in the form of presscake and dry color. Pigment dispersions in any form (e.g., pigments... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-892] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP-23) from the People's...

  14. Identification and hazard prediction of tattoo pigments by means of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiver, Ines; Hutzler, Christoph; Andree, Sarah; Laux, Peter; Luch, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The implementation of regulation for tattoo ink ingredients across Europe has generated the need for analytical methods suitable to identify prohibited compounds. Common challenges of this subject are the poor solubility and the lack of volatility for most pigments and polymers applied in tattoo inks. Here, we present pyrolysis coupled to online gas chromatography and electron impact ionization mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS) as quick and reliable tool for pigment identification using both purified pigments and tattoo ink formulations. Some 36 organic pigments frequently used in tattoo inks were subjected to py-GC/MS with the aim to establish a pyrogram library. To cross-validate pigment identification, 28 commercially available tattoo inks as well as 18 self-made pigment mixtures were analyzed. Pyrograms of inks and mixtures were evaluated by two different means to work out the most reliable and fastest strategy for an otherwise rather time-consuming data review. Using this approach, the declaration of tattoo pigments currently used on the market could be verified. The pyrolysis library presented here is also assumed suitable to predict decomposition patterns of pigments when affected by other degradation scenarios, such as sunlight exposure or laser irradiation. Thus, the consumers' risk associated with the exposure to toxicologically relevant substances that originate from pigment decomposition in the dermal layers of the skin can be assessed. Differentiation between more or less harmful pigments for this field of application now will become feasible.

  15. The relationship between the violet pigment PP-V production and intracellular ammonium level in Penicillium purpurogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Ryo; Arai, Teppei; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Kasumi, Takafumi; Watanabe, Taisuke; Ogihara, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Penicillium purpurogenum is the fungus that produces an azaphilone pigment. However, details about the pigment biosynthesis pathway are unknown. The violet pigment PP-V is the one of the main pigments biosynthesized by this fungus. This pigment contains an amino group in a pyran ring as its core structure. We focused on this pigment and examined the relationship between intracellular ammonium concentration and pigment production using glutamine as a nitrogen source. The intracellular ammonium level decreased about 1.5-fold in conditions favoring PP-V production. Moreover, P. purpurogenum was transferred to medium in which it commonly produces the related pigment PP-O after cultivating it in the presence or absence of glutamine to investigate whether this fungus biosynthesizes PP-V using surplus ammonium in cells. Only mycelia cultured in medium containing 10 mM glutamine produced the violet pigment, and simultaneously intracellular ammonium levels decreased under this condition. From comparisons of the amount of PP-V that was secreted with quantity of surplus intracellular ammonium, it is suggested that P. purpurogenum maintains ammonium homeostasis by excreting waste ammonium as PP-V.

  16. Pigmentation, anesthesia, behavioral factors, and salicylate uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Issing, W; Brennan, J F; Sasaki, C T

    1988-02-01

    In four experiments, 54 pigmented rats were used to examine the time course of sodium salicylate uptake in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and perilymph. Subjects were tested under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia or while conscious. Compared with previously reported data from albino rats, pigmented subjects generally showed increased salicylate uptake. Moreover, the data suggested two different, time-dependent clearance mechanisms in conscious animals not observed in anesthetized rats. Daily injections of salicylate did not produce an accumulation of salicylate in serum. Systematically higher levels of salicylate were observed in perilymph compared with cerebrospinal fluid. Behavioral procedures, including water deprivation and conditioned suppression of ongoing drinking levels, had no effect on salicylate levels.

  17. Duration of reappearance of gingival melanin pigmentation after surgical removal - A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Harjit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In dentistry, esthetics has a special place. Although gingival melanin pigmentation does not present a medical problem, clinicians are often faced with a challenge of achieving gingival esthetics. Materials and Methods: A method of de-epithelialization of the pigmented gingiva using Kirkland′s gingivectomy knife is described. Twenty patients who were conscious about their gingival melanin pigmentation were selected. The gingiva of the whole of the arch was abraded until the entire visible pigmentation was removed. Clinical observations for intensity of pigmentation were recorded at baseline and then after surgery at monthly intervals over a period of 9 months according to Dummett-Gupta Oral Pigmentation Index scoring criteria proposed by Dummett C. O. in 1964. Results: The mean gingival melanin pigmentation score came down to 0.407 after 9 months as compared to preoperative score, which was 2.24. No repigmentation occurred in fair-complexioned persons. In persons with wheatish complexion, repigmentation was seen in 85.71% of the cases, but scores came down to 0.38 postoperatively as compared to 2.27 preoperatively. In dark complexioned persons, repigmentation occurred in all cases, but the mean scores were 0.93 as compared to 2.40 preoperatively. The difference between preoperative and postoperative mean scores for each segment was put to statistical analysis by applying paired t test and was found to be significant. Conclusion: As this method has shown statistically significant results, it can be used in patients who are conscious of pigmented gingiva and want an esthetically satisfactory color.

  18. Coastal zone color scanner pigment concentrations in the southern ocean and relationships to geophysical surface features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, J. C.; Mcclain, C. R.; Sullivan, C. W.; Ryan, J. P.; Leonard, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Climatological data on the distribution of surface pigment fields in the entire southern ocean over a seasonal cycle are examined. The occurrence of intense phytoplankton blooms during austral summer months and during other seasons in different regions is identified and analyzed. The highest pigment concentrations are observed at high latitudes and over regions with water depths usually less than 600 m. Basin-scale pigment distribution shows a slightly asymmetric pattern of enhanced pigment concentrations about Antarctica, with enhanced concentrations extending to lower latitudes in the Atlantic and Indian sectors than in the Pacific sector. A general increase in pigment concentrations is evident from the low latitudes toward the Antarctic circumpolar region. Spatial relationships between pigment and archived geophysical data reveal significant correlation between pigment distributions and both bathymetry and wind stress, while general hemispheric scale patterns of pigment distributions are most coherent with the geostrophic flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

  19. 40 CFR 415.640 - Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. 415.640 Section 415.640 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.640 Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  20. Vibrio sp. DSM 14379 pigment production--a competitive advantage in the environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starič, Nejc; Danevčič, Tjaša; Stopar, David

    2010-10-01

    The ability to produce several antibacterial agents greatly increases the chance of producer's survival. In this study, red-pigmented Vibrio sp. DSM 14379 and Bacillus sp., both isolated from the same sampling volume from estuarine waters of the Northern Adriatic Sea, were grown in a co-culture. The antibacterial activity of the red pigment extract was tested on Bacillus sp. in microtiter plates. The MIC(50) for Bacillus sp. was estimated to be around 10⁻⁵ mg/L. The extract prepared form the nonpigmented mutant of Vibrio sp. had no antibacterial effect. The pigment production of Vibrio sp. was studied under different physicochemical conditions. There was no pigment production at high or low temperatures, high or low salt concentrations in peptone yeast extract (PYE) medium, low glucose concentration in mineral growth medium or high glucose concentration in PYE medium. This indicates that the red pigment production is a luxurious good that Vibrio sp. makes only under favorable conditions. The Malthusian fitness of Bacillus sp. in a co-culture with Vibrio sp. under optimal environmental conditions dropped from 4.0 to -7.6, which corresponds to three orders of magnitude decrease in the number of CFU relative to the monoculture. The nonpigmented mutant of Vibrio sp. in a co-culture with Bacillus sp. had a significant antibacterial activity. This result shows that studying antibacterial properties in isolation (i.e. pigment extract only) may not reveal full antibacterial potential of the bacterial strain. The red pigment is a redundant antibacterial agent of Vibrio sp.

  1. Early photolysis intermediates of gecko and bovine artificial visual pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J W; Liang, J; Ebrey, T G; Sheves, M; Livnah, N; Kuwata, O; Jäger, S; Kliger, D S

    1997-11-25

    Nanosecond laser photolysis measurements were conducted on digitonin extracts of artificial pigments prepared from the cone-type visual pigment, P521, of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) retina. Artificial pigments were prepared by regeneration of bleached gecko photoreceptor membranes with 9-cis-retinal, 9-cis-14-methylretinal, or 9-cis-alpha-retinal. Absorbance difference spectra were recorded at a sequence of time delays from 30 ns to 60 microseconds following excitation with a pulse of 477-nm actinic light. Global analysis showed the kinetic data for all three artificial gecko pigments to be best fit by two-exponential processes. These two-exponential decays correspond to similar decays observed after photolysis of P521 itself, with the first process being the decay of the equilibrated P521 BathoP521 BSI mixture to P521 Lumi and the second process being the decay of P521 Lumi to P521 Meta I. In spite of its large blue shift relative to P521, iso-P521 displays a normal chloride depletion induced blue shift. Iso-P521's early intermediates up to Lumi were also blue-shifted, with the P521 BathoP521 BSI equilibrated mixture being 15 nm blue-shifted and P521 Lumi being 8 nm blue-shifted relative to the intermediates formed after P521 photolysis. The blue shift associated with the iso-pigment is reduced or disappears entirely by P521 Meta I. Similar blue shifts were observed for the early intermediates observed after photolysis of bovine isorhodopsin, with the Lumi intermediate blue-shifted 5 nm compared to the Lumi intermediate formed after photolysis of bovine rhodopsin. These shifts indicate that a difference exists between the binding sites of 9- and 11-cis pigments which persists for microseconds at 20 degrees C.

  2. Metarhodopsin control by arrestin, light-filtering screening pigments, and visual pigment turnover in invertebrate microvillar photoreceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Hardie, Roger C.

    The visual pigments of most invertebrate photoreceptors have two thermostable photo-interconvertible states, the ground state rhodopsin and photo-activated metarhodopsin, which triggers the phototransduction cascade until it binds arrestin. The ratio of the two states in photoequilibrium is

  3. Radiation degradation of molasses pigment. The fading color and product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Tanabe, Hiroko; Sawai, Takeshi

    1993-01-01

    Water demand in Tokyo has increased rapidly. Because of the scarcity of water supply sources within the city, Tokyo is dependent on the water from other prefectures. Recycling of municipal effluent is an effective means of coping with water shortage in Tokyo. We have studied the radiation treatment of waste water for recycling. In this paper, the radiation decomposition methods for fading color of molasses pigment in the effluent from the sewage treatment plant and in the food industry wastwater were reported. The refractory organic substances (molasses pigment) in samples were degraded by gamma irradiation. The COD values decreased and the dark brown color faded with increasing dosage. The high molecular weight components of molasses pigment were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. The organic acids, such as formic acid, acetic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid and succinic acid were measured as intermediates of radiolytic decomposition. When we added hydrogen peroxide in samples to the gamma irradiation process, the dark brown color of molasses pigment faded with greater efficiency. (author)

  4. Gamma radiation effect on Populus nigra assimilatory pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creanga, I. A.; Tudorie, Marcela; Mocanasu, C.; Creanga, Dorina

    2002-01-01

    The influence of low intensity gamma radiation on the photosynthesis in young poplar saplings was studied. Black poplar (Populus nigra) was chosen due to its ecological importance, as fast growing tree species with many hybrids, in the frame of a polluted environment. Assimilatory pigments in the leaves of irradiated saplings were assayed using standard spectrophotometric method in acetone extract. Series of five saplings formed the experimental samples. Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b levels appeared as diminished in exposed samples in comparison to the controls. Linear regression was established in every case, the line slope showing the higher effect in chlorophyll b. Carotene pigments presented a slight increasing tendency in the exposed samples. Assimilatory pigment sum was shown to be affected by the same decreasing tendency. Student t-test was applied (two tailed, pair type) to reveal statistical significance of observed modifications. Though not very deep, the modifications induced by exposure to gamma radiation of low intensity (comparable to the local atmospheric variations, caused by both natural and artificial sources) represent putative inhibitory factors in young plant photosynthesis. The main mechanism of radiation action seems to be water radiolysis, triggering peroxide cascade, generally producing toxic products for the cell metabolism. Nevertheless, living cell ability to repair some damages caused by external stress could be revealed in the present case by the enhancing tendency of the carotenes which sustain photosynthesis as secondary pigments. (authors)

  5. The Effects of Curcuma Longa on the Functionality of Pigmentation for Thin Film Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsi, N.; Rus, A. Z. M.; Tan, N. A. M. S.

    2017-08-01

    This project presents the effects of turmeric (Curcuma Longa) on the functionality of pigmentation was carried out to improve the sustainability, environment impact and reduction of potential cost saving without sacrificing the performance of thin film coating. The Curcuma Longa pigment was extracted by grating the turmeric into small particles at different percentages which is 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of Curcuma Longa pigment with 3, 6 and 9 layers of coating. The different percentages of Curcuma Longa pigment was formulated and synthesized with polyols by crosslinking agent of glycerol and calcium carbonate into temperature at 140 °C for 2 hours. The results of water droplet test (ASTM D5964) showed the water contact angle was achieved the optimum superhydrophobic characteristic up to 60% of Curcuma Longa at 153°. The formulation of 60% Curcuma Longa was revealed the optimum adhesion resistance test with no flaking and detachment when the coating applied at 9 layers in the classification grading of adhesion test at 5B. It is indicated that the adhesion resistance of thin film coating on metal substrate was obviously increased as the layer of coating as well as the Curcuma Longa pigment percentage up to 60% at 9 layers. This project also highlighted the potential of Curcuma Longa pigment to produce quality in the natural pigmentation as a replacement synthetic pigment which is long-term health hazards.

  6. Intraocular pressure spike after YAG iridotomy in patients with pigment dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Catherine M

    2004-04-01

    The role of laser peripheral iridotomy to break a suspected reverse pupil block in the long-term control of pigment dispersion is promising, but the usefulness of this procedure has not been completely established. The author examined whether patients with pigment dispersion are at higher risk for an intraocular pressure (IOP) spike after laser peripheral iridotomy due to possible compromise of trabecular meshwork function, compared with patients undergoing prophylactic peripheral iridotomy for an occludable angle. Data were collected prospectively on the first eye of 87 patients with occludable angles and 13 patients with pigment dispersion treated with peripheral laser iridotomy between November 1995 and October 1996 at the glaucoma service of a university-affiliated hospital in Toronto. All patients received one drop of 0.5% apraclonidine before the procedure. IOP was measured before and 1 and 24 hours after the procedure. There was no difference between the two groups in the distribution of right vs. left eyes, sex, race, the mean total energy required to produce a patent iridotomy, the mean number of medications used or the mean IOP before the procedure. The patients with pigment dispersion were significantly younger than those with occludable angles (mean age [and standard deviation (SD)] 40.5 [9.45] years vs. 66.4 [10.78] years) (p pigment dispersion group had an IOP spike greater than 2 mm Hg after the procedure (p = 0.001). Among these patients, the mean IOP (36.4 [SD 10.83] mm Hg vs. 30.3 [SD 7.04] mm Hg, p = 0.05) and the mean rise in IOP (14.0 [SD 10.63] mm Hg vs. 8.7 [SD 4.73] mm Hg, p = 0.04) were significantly higher in those with pigment dispersion than in those with occludable angles. Among the patients who used antiglaucoma medications before the procedure or had a prelaser IOP level greater than 22 mm Hg, those with pigment dispersion were more likely than those with occludable angles to have an IOP spike at 1 hour (p pigment dispersion

  7. Methods for culturing retinal pigment epithelial cells: a review of current protocols and future recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron H Fronk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The retinal pigment epithelium is an important part of the vertebrate eye, particularly in studying the causes and possible treatment of age-related macular degeneration. The retinal pigment epithelium is difficult to access in vivo due to its location at the back of the eye, making experimentation with age-related macular degeneration treatments problematic. An alternative to in vivo experimentation is cultivating the retinal pigment epithelium in vitro, a practice that has been going on since the 1970s, providing a wide range of retinal pigment epithelial culture protocols, each producing cells and tissue of varying degrees of similarity to natural retinal pigment epithelium. The purpose of this review is to provide researchers with a ready list of retinal pigment epithelial protocols, their effects on cultured tissue, and their specific possible applications. Protocols using human and animal retinal pigment epithelium cells, derived from tissue or cell lines, are discussed, and recommendations for future researchers included.

  8. Dissimilar pigment regulation in Serpula lacrymans and Paxillus involutus during inter-kingdom interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, James P; Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ramses; Kovács, Ákos T; Shelest, Ekaterina; Hoffmeister, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Production of basidiomycete atromentin-derived pigments like variegatic acid (pulvinic acid-type) and involutin (diarylcyclopentenone) from the brown-rotter Serpula lacrymans and the ectomycorrhiza-forming Paxillus involutus, respectively, is induced by complex nutrition, and in the case of S. lacrymans, bacteria. Pigmentation in S. lacrymans was stimulated by 13 different bacteria and cell-wall-damaging enzymes (lytic enzymes and proteases), but not by lysozyme or mechanical damage. The use of protease inhibitors with Bacillus subtilis or heat-killed bacteria during co-culturing with S. lacrymans significantly reduced pigmentation indicating that enzymatic hyphal damage and/or released peptides, rather than mechanical injury, was the major cause of systemic pigment induction. Conversely, no significant pigmentation by bacteria was observed from P. involutus. We found additional putative transcriptional composite elements of atromentin synthetase genes in P. involutus and other ectomycorrhiza-forming species that were absent from S. lacrymans and other brown-rotters. Variegatic and its precursor xerocomic acid, but not involutin, in return inhibited swarming and colony biofilm spreading of Bacillus subtilis, but did not kill B. subtilis. We suggest that dissimilar pigment regulation by fungal lifestyle was a consequence of pigment bioactivity and additional promoter motifs. The focus on basidiomycete natural product gene induction and regulation will assist in future studies to determine global regulators, signalling pathways and associated transcription factors of basidiomycetes.

  9. Artificial neural network model for photosynthetic pigments identification using multi wavelength chromatographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilianti, K. R.; Hariyanto, S.; Natali, F. D. D.; Indriatmoko, Adhiwibawa, M. A. S.; Limantara, L.; Brotosudarmo, T. H. P.

    2016-04-01

    The development of rapid and automatic pigment characterization method become an important issue due to the fact that there are only less than 1% of plant pigments in the earth have been explored. In this research, a mathematical model based on artificial intelligence approach was developed to simplify and accelerate pigment characterization process from HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) procedure. HPLC is a widely used technique to separate and identify pigments in a mixture. Input of the model is chromatographic data from HPLC device and output of the model is a list of pigments which is the spectrum pattern is discovered in it. This model provides two dimensional (retention time and wavelength) fingerprints for pigment characterization which is proven to be more accurate than one dimensional fingerprint (fixed wavelength). Moreover, by mimicking interconnection of the neuron in the nervous systems of the human brain, the model have learning ability that could be replacing expert judgement on evaluating spectrum pattern. In the preprocessing step, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the huge dimension of the chromatographic data. The aim of this step is to simplify the model and accelerate the identification process. Six photosynthetic pigments i.e. zeaxantin, pheophytin a, α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein could be well identified by the model with accuracy up to 85.33% and processing time less than 1 second.

  10. Identification of organic pigments in tattoo inks and permanent make-up using laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Markus; Hauri, Urs; Kroll, Lydia; Hohl, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, about 12% of the European and 20% of the US population are tattooed. Rising concerns regarding consumer safety, led to legal restrictions on tattoo and permanent make-up (PMU) inks. Restrictions also include bans on certain colourants. Both ink types use organic pigments for colour-giving, plus inorganic pigments for white and black and colour tones. Pigments are only sparingly soluble in common solvents and occur as suspended particles in the ink matrix. Their detection and identification therefore pose a major challenge for laboratories involved in monitoring the legal compliance of tattoo inks and PMU. We overcame this challenge by developing a direct laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry method, which included an easy sample clean up. The method proved to be capable of detecting and identifying organic pigments in almost all of the tested ink samples. Method validation and routine deployment during market surveys showed the method to be fit for purpose. Pigment screening of 396 tattoo inks and 55 PMU taken from the Swiss market between 2009 and 2017 lead to the following conclusions: Pigment variety is much greater in tattoo inks (18) than in PMU (10); four prohibited pigments (Pigment Green 7, Pigment Red 122, Pigment Violet 19 and 23) were found in both ink types; for PMU, these four pigments made up 12% of the pigment findings, compared to 32% for tattoo inks. Therefore, legal compliance of PMU was at a higher level. A comparison of pigments found with those declared on tattoo ink labels clearly showed that banned pigments are rarely declared, but rather masked by listing non present legal pigments and label forging; therefore, highlighting the urgency of widespread market controls.

  11. New insights into the complex photoluminescence behaviour of titanium white pigments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, B.A.; Artesani, A.; van den Berg, Klaas Jan; Dik, J.; Mosca, S.; Rossenaar, B.; Hoekstra, J.; Davies, A.; Nevin, A.; Valentini, G.; Comelli, D.

    2018-01-01

    This work reports the analysis of the time-resolved photoluminescence behaviour on the nanosecond and microsecond time scale of fourteen historical and contemporary titanium white pigments. The pigments were produced with different production methods and post-production treatments, giving rise to

  12. 75 FR 33243 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... powder, paste, wet cake) and finished pigment in the form of presscake and dry color. Pigment dispersions... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-533-839] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... countervailing duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India for the period January 1, 2007, through...

  13. Electron crystallography of organic pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyce, G.

    1997-10-01

    The principle aim of this thesis is the detailing of the development and subsequent use of electron crystallographic techniques which employ the maximum entropy approach. An account is given of the electron microscope as a crystallographic instrument, along with the necessary theory involved. Also, an overview of the development of electron crystallography, as a whole, is given. This progresses to a description of the maximum entropy methodology and how use can be made of electron diffraction data in ab initio phasing techniques. Details are also given of the utilisation of image derived phases in the determination of structural information. Extensive examples are given of the use of the maximum entropy program MICE, as applied to a variety of structural problems. A particular area of interest covered by this thesis is regarding the solid state structure of organic pigments. A detailed structure review of both β-naphthol and acetoacetanilide pigments was undertaken. Information gained from this review was used as a starting point for the attempted structural elucidation of a related pigment, Barium Lake Red C. Details are given of the synthesis, electron microscope studies and subsequent ab initio phasing procedures applied in the determination of structural information on Barium Lake Red C. The final sections of this thesis detail electron crystallographic analyses of three quite different structures. Common to all was the use of maximum entropy methods, both for ab initio phasing and use of image derived phases. Overall, it is shown that electron crystallographic structure analyses using maximum entropy methods are successful using electron diffraction data and do provide distinct structural information even when significant perturbations to the data exist. (author)

  14. A case of multiple squamous cell carcinomas arising from red tattoo pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Maxim, BS, MS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ornamental tattooing involves the administration of exogenous pigments into the skin to create a permanent design. Our case focuses on a 62-year-old woman who presented with an inflamed enlarging nodule on her right proximal calf, which arose within the red pigment of an ornamental tattoo. The nodule was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and subsequently excised. Over the course of the following year, the patient was diagnosed with a total of five additional SCCs that also arose within the red pigment of the tattoo. The increased popularity of tattooing and the lack of industry safety standards for tattoo ink production, especially metal-laden red pigments, may lead to more cases of skin cancer arising within tattoos among patients of all ages.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Syringa oblata Lindl. Inflorescence Identifies Genes Associated with Pigment Biosynthesis and Scent Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zheng

    Full Text Available Syringa oblata Lindl. is a woody ornamental plant with high economic value and characteristics that include early flowering, multiple flower colors, and strong fragrance. Despite a long history of cultivation, the genetics and molecular biology of S. oblata are poorly understood. Transcriptome and expression profiling data are needed to identify genes and to better understand the biological mechanisms of floral pigments and scents in this species. Nine cDNA libraries were obtained from three replicates of three developmental stages: inflorescence with enlarged flower buds not protruded, inflorescence with corolla lobes not displayed, and inflorescence with flowers fully opened and emitting strong fragrance. Using the Illumina RNA-Seq technique, 319,425,972 clean reads were obtained and were assembled into 104,691 final unigenes (average length of 853 bp, 41.75% of which were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Among the annotated unigenes, 36,967 were assigned to gene ontology categories and 19,956 were assigned to eukaryoticorthologous groups. Using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database, 12,388 unigenes were sorted into 286 pathways. Based on these transcriptomic data, we obtained a large number of candidate genes that were differentially expressed at different flower stages and that were related to floral pigment biosynthesis and fragrance metabolism. This comprehensive transcriptomic analysis provides fundamental information on the genes and pathways involved in flower secondary metabolism and development in S. oblata, providing a useful database for further research on S. oblata and other plants of genus Syringa.

  16. The Comparison Between Nmf and Ica in Pigment Mixture Identification of Ancient Chinese Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Lyu, S.; Hou, M.; Yin, Q.

    2018-04-01

    Since the colour in painting cultural relics observed by our naked eyes or hyperspectral cameras is usually a mixture of several kinds of pigments, the mixed pigments analysis will be an important subject in the field of ancient painting conservation and restoration. This paper aims to find a more effective method to confirm the types of every pure pigment from mixture on the surface of paintings. Firstly, we adopted two kinds of blind source separation algorithms, which are independent component analysis and non-negative matrix factorization, to extract the pure pigment component from mixed spectrum respectively. Moreover, we matched the separated pure spectrum with the pigments spectra library built by our team to determine the pigment type. Furthermore, three kinds of data including simulation data, mixed pigments spectral data measured in laboratory, and the spectral data of an ancient painting were chosen to evaluate the performance of the different algorithms. And the accuracy was compared between the two algorithms. Finally, the experimental results show that non-negative matrix factorization method is more suitable for endmember extraction in the field of ancient painting conservation and restoration.

  17. THE COMPARISON BETWEEN NMF AND ICA IN PIGMENT MIXTURE IDENTIFICATION OF ANCIENT CHINESE PAINTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the colour in painting cultural relics observed by our naked eyes or hyperspectral cameras is usually a mixture of several kinds of pigments, the mixed pigments analysis will be an important subject in the field of ancient painting conservation and restoration. This paper aims to find a more effective method to confirm the types of every pure pigment from mixture on the surface of paintings. Firstly, we adopted two kinds of blind source separation algorithms, which are independent component analysis and non-negative matrix factorization, to extract the pure pigment component from mixed spectrum respectively. Moreover, we matched the separated pure spectrum with the pigments spectra library built by our team to determine the pigment type. Furthermore, three kinds of data including simulation data, mixed pigments spectral data measured in laboratory, and the spectral data of an ancient painting were chosen to evaluate the performance of the different algorithms. And the accuracy was compared between the two algorithms. Finally, the experimental results show that non-negative matrix factorization method is more suitable for endmember extraction in the field of ancient painting conservation and restoration.

  18. Single crystal X-ray structure of the artists’ pigment zinc yellow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær; Christiansen, Marie Bitsch; Vinum, Morten Gotthold

    2017-01-01

    electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), showed that the synthesised products and the industrial pigment were identical. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography......The artists’ pigment zinc yellow is in general described as a complex potassium zinc chromate with the empirical formula 4ZnCrO4·K2O·3H2O. Even though the pigment has been in use since the second half of the 19th century also in large-scale industrial applications, the exact structure had hitherto...... been unknown. In this work, zinc yellow was synthesised by precipitation from an aqueous solution of zinc nitrate and potassium chromate under both neutral and basic conditions, and the products were compared with the pigment used in industrial paints. Analyses by Raman microscopy (MRS), scanning...

  19. Granulomatous reaction to red tattoo pigment treated with allopurinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Mariana Marteleto; Aguinaga, Felipe; Grynszpan, Rachel; Lima, Victor Maselli; Azulay, David Rubem; Cuzzi, Tullia; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia; Manela-Azulay, Mônica

    2015-09-01

    Granulomatous reactions to tattoo ink are most commonly associated with mercury sulfide, a component of red pigments. Treatment options show limited results. Allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, has been reported as a successful alternative treatment to granulomatous disorders, such as sarcoidosis and granulomatous reactions to fillers and tattoos. We report a case of granulomatous reaction to red tattoo pigment treated with allopurinol for 6 months. Good clinical improvement could be noticed during this time. Two months after we stopped the treatment, the lesion recurred. Allopurinol emerges as an important drug for the management of granulomatous reactions caused by tattoo pigments. Based on the significant clinical improvement noticed during its use, we recommend new studies to elucidate all the potential benefits of the use of allopurinol for the treatment of granulomatous reactions to tattoo ink. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Distributions of elements in the human retinal pigment epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulshafer, R.J.; Allen, C.B.; Rubin, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Distributions of elements above the atomic number of sodium were mapped in the retinal pigment epithelia of eight human eyes. X-ray energy spectra and maps were collected from cryofixed, freeze-dried, and epoxy-embedded tissues using energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis. All eyes had high concentrations of phosphorus in the nuclei of retinal pigment epithelial cells. Melanosomes were rich in sulfur, zinc, calcium, and iron. Lipofuscin and cytoplasm contained only phosphorus and sulfur in detectable amounts. Drusen, when present, contained phosphorus and calcium. Six eyes had a prominent aluminum peak recorded from melanosomes, nuclei, and Bruch's membrane. In one pair of 90-year-old eyes, small, electron-dense deposits surrounded many melanosomes and contained mercury and selenium. Retinal pigment epithelial melanosomes may bind and accumulate metals and other potentially toxic ions over time, preventing them from reaching the neural retina

  1. Rapid Retinal Release from a Cone Visual Pigment Following Photoactivation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min-Hsuan; Kuemmel, Colleen; Birge, Robert R.; Knox, Barry E.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the visual cycle, the retinal chromophore in both rod and cone visual pigments undergoes reversible Schiff base hydrolysis and dissociation following photobleaching. We characterized light-activated retinal release from a short-wavelength sensitive cone pigment (VCOP) in 0.1% dodecyl maltoside using fluorescence spectroscopy. The half-time (t1/2) of retinal release from VCOP was 7.1 s, 250-fold faster than rhodopsin. VCOP exhibited pH-dependent release kinetics, with the t1/2 decreasing from 23 s to 4 s with pH 4.1 to 8, respectively. However, the Arrhenius activation energy (Ea) for VCOP derived from kinetic measurements between 4° and 20°C was 17.4 kcal/mol, similar to 18.5 kcal/mol for rhodopsin. There was a small kinetic isotope (D2O) effect in VCOP, but less than that observed in rhodopsin. Mutation of the primary Schiff base counterion (VCOPD108A) produced a pigment with an unprotonated chromophore (⌊max = 360 nm) and dramatically slowed (t1/2 ~ 6.8 min) light-dependent retinal release. Using homology modeling, a VCOP mutant with two substitutions (S85D/ D108A) was designed to move the counterion one alpha helical turn into the transmembrane region from the native position. This double mutant had a UV-visible absorption spectrum consistent with a protonated Schiff base (⌊max = 420 nm). Moreover, VCOPS85D/D108A mutant had retinal release kinetics (t1/2 = 7 s) and Ea (18 kcal/mol) similar to the native pigment exhibiting no pH-dependence. By contrast, the single mutant VCOPS85D had a ~3-fold decrease in retinal release rate compared to the native pigment. Photoactivated VCOPD108A had kinetics comparable to a rhodopsin counterion mutant, RhoE113Q, both requiring hydroxylamine to fully release retinal. These results demonstrate that the primary counterion of cone visual pigments is necessary for efficient Schiff base hydrolysis. We discuss how the large differences in retinal release rates between rod and cone visual pigments arise, not from

  2. PP-O and PP-V, Monascus pigment homologues, production, and phylogenetic analysis in Penicillium purpurogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Teppei; Kojima, Ryo; Motegi, Yoshiki; Kato, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ogihara, Jun

    2015-12-01

    The production of pigments as secondary metabolites by microbes is known to vary by species and by physiological conditions within a single strain. The fungus strain Penicillium purpurogenum IAM15392 has been found to produce violet pigment (PP-V) and orange pigment (PP-O),Monascus azaphilone pigment homologues, when grown under specific culture conditions. In this study, we analysed PP-V and PP-O production capability in seven strains of P. purpurogenum in addition to strain IAM15392 under specific culture conditions. The pigment production pattern of five strains cultivated in PP-V production medium was similar to that of strain IAM15392, and all violet pigments produced by these five strains were confirmed to be PP-V. Strains that did not produce pigment were also identified. In addition, two strains cultivated in PP-O production medium produced a violet pigment identified as PP-V. The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences from the eight P. purpurogenum strains were sequenced and used to construct a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree. PP-O and PP-V production of P. purpurogenum was shown to be related to phylogenetic placement based on rDNA ITS sequence. Based on these results, two hypotheses for the alteration of pigment production of P. purpurogenum in evolution were proposed. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pigments influence the tolerance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to photodynamically induced oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlandi, Viviana T; Bolognese, Fabrizio; Chiodaroli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    by exogenous photosensitizers and visible light. To evaluate whether P. aeruginosa pigments can contribute to its relative tolerance to PDT, we analysed the response to this treatment of isogenic transposon mutants of P. aeruginosa PAO1 with altered pigmentation. In general, in the presence of pigments...

  4. 75 FR 38076 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the form of presscake and dry color. Pigment dispersions in any form (e.g., pigment dispersed in... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP 23) from India. The review covers exports of this merchandise to the United...

  5. Gamma-irradiation effect on a commercial composite anticorrosive pigment and acidity-to-alkalinity conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weiqiang; Niu, Kaihui; Wu, Longchao

    2016-05-01

    A commercial composite anticorrosive pigment based on aluminum dihydrogen tripolyphosphate was studied after exposure to gamma irradiation (Co60, 0, 20, 50, 100 and 150 kGy) using FTIR, XRD, TGA and acid-base titration technologies. Although the FTIR spectra showed that the effect of the irradiation on functional groups in the pigments was not obvious, the decrease in the crystal lattice parameters of the irradiated pigments was observed in the XRD spectra compared to the non-irradiated sample. But the extent of the lattice parameter decrease monotonically with the increase of absorbed dose from 20 to 150 kGy, which was attributed to the decomposition of water and the simultaneous occurrence of lattice damage when the pigments were exposed to gamma rays. Of particular significance was the displayed basicity of the aqueous solutions of the irradiated pigments compared to the acidity of the solution of the non-irradiated pigment, which was attributed to the decomposition of P-OH groups (combined water).

  6. Raman analysis of cobalt blue pigment in blue and white porcelain: A reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaochenyang; Ma, Yanying; Chen, Yue; Li, Yuanqiu; Ma, Qinglin; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Wang, Changsui; Yang, Yimin

    2018-02-01

    Cobalt blue is a famous pigment in human history. In the past decade it is widely reported that the cobalt aluminate has been detected in ancient ceramics as blue colorant in glaze, yet the acquired Raman spectra are incredibly different from that of synthesised references, necessitating a reassessment of such contradictory scenario with more accurate analytic strategies. In this study, micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in association with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) were performed on under-glaze cobalt pigments from one submerged blue and white porcelain shard dated from Wanli reign (1573-1620 CE) of Ming dynasty (1365-1644 CE) excavated at Nan'ao I shipwreck off the southern coast of China. The micro-structural inspection reveals that the pigment particles have characteristics of small account, tiny size, heterogeneously distribution, and more importantly, been completely enwrapped by well-developed anorthite crystals in the glaze, indicating that the signals recorded in previous publications are probably not from cobalt pigments themselves but from outside thickset anorthite shell. The further spectromicroscopic analyses confirm this presumption when the accurate spectra of cobalt aluminate pigment and surrounding anorthite were obtained separately with precise optical positioning. Accordingly, we reassess and clarify the previous Raman studies dedicated to cobalt blue pigment in ancient ceramics, e.g. cobalt blue in celadon glaze, and in turn demonstrate the superiority and necessity of coupling spectroscopic analysis with corresponding structure observation, especially in the characterization of pigments from complicated physico-chemical environment like antiquities. Thus, this study promotes a better understanding of Raman spectroscopy study of cobalt blue pigments in art and archaeology field.

  7. Column chromatography as a useful step in purification of diatom pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarek, Wiktor; Listwan, Stanisław; Pagacz, Joanna; Leśniak, Piotr; Latowski, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin are carotenoids found in brown algae and most other heterokonts. These pigments are involved in photosynthetic and photoprotective reactions, and they have many potential health benefits. They can be extracted from diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum by sonication, extraction with chloroform : methanol and preparative thin layer chromatography. We assessed the utility of an additional column chromatography step in purification of these pigments. This novel addition to the isolation protocol increased the purity of fucoxanthin and allowed for concentration of diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin before HPLC separation. The enhanced protocol is useful for obtaining high purity pigments for biochemical studies.

  8. Modular spectral imaging system for discrimination of pigments in cells and microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polerecky, Lubos; Bissett, Andrew; Al-Najjar, Mohammad; Faerber, Paul; Osmers, Harald; Suci, Peter A; Stoodley, Paul; de Beer, Dirk

    2009-02-01

    Here we describe a spectral imaging system for minimally invasive identification, localization, and relative quantification of pigments in cells and microbial communities. The modularity of the system allows pigment detection on spatial scales ranging from the single-cell level to regions whose areas are several tens of square centimeters. For pigment identification in vivo absorption and/or autofluorescence spectra are used as the analytical signals. Along with the hardware, which is easy to transport and simple to assemble and allows rapid measurement, we describe newly developed software that allows highly sensitive and pigment-specific analyses of the hyperspectral data. We also propose and describe a number of applications of the system for microbial ecology, including identification of pigments in living cells and high-spatial-resolution imaging of pigments and the associated phototrophic groups in complex microbial communities, such as photosynthetic endolithic biofilms, microbial mats, and intertidal sediments. This system provides new possibilities for studying the role of spatial organization of microorganisms in the ecological functioning of complex benthic microbial communities or for noninvasively monitoring changes in the spatial organization and/or composition of a microbial community in response to changing environmental factors.

  9. Production of citrinin-free Monascus pigments by submerged culture at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Biyu; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Zhilong; Park, Sunghoon

    2014-02-05

    Microbial fermentation of citrinin-free Monascus pigments is of great interest to meet the demand of food safety. In the present work, the effect of various nitrogen sources, such as monosodium glutamate (MSG), cornmeal, (NH4)₂SO₄, and NaNO₃, on Monascus fermentation was examined under different initial pH conditions. The composition of Monascus pigments and the final pH of fermentation broth after Monascus fermentation were determined. It was found that nitrogen source was directly related to the final pH and the final pH regulated the composition of Monascus pigments and the biosynthesis of citrinin. Thus, an ideal nitrogen source can be selected to control the final pH and then the citrinin biosynthesis. Citrinin-free orange pigments were produced at extremely low initial pH in the medium with (NH4)₂SO₄ or MSG as nitrogen source. No citrinin biosynthesis at extremely low pH was further confirmed by extractive fermentation of intracellular pigments in the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 micelle aqueous solution. This is the first report about the production of citrinin-free Monascus pigments at extremely low pH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The analysis of pigments on rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, B.; O'Connor, S.; Pittelkow, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A limestone slab of roof fall coated with a red pigment was recovered from a Rockshelter in the Napier Ranges of the Kimberley region, Western Australia. Next to the roof fall fragment in the same stratigraphic layer was a piece of ochre. Three questions were presented: (1) is the red substance an ochre? (2) is the piece of ochre identical to the red substance on the roof fall? and (3) are the layers of pigment on the top and bottom of the limestone slab the same? In addition, as an extension from these questions, a general method was developed for the in situ analysis of ochre pigments on substrates to determine likely compositions and ochre sources. The analysis of the red pigment presented an analytical problem because the substance was intimately associated with the rock slab and therefore the analysis had to be done in situ. Not only was the red layer thin, but on a micro level it was uneven. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) penetrated the red layer, simultaneously analysing this layer and the rock substrate to different degrees depending upon the thickness of the red layer. Determining if the substance was actually ochre involved a comparison of elemental analyses between the background (slab) and background with red coating. Coatings of other ochres with known elemental concentrations on the same limestone background gave a comparison of the effect of simultaneously analysing a thin layer and background with different compositions. Three graphical methods useful for insitu analysis are demeonstrated. The find dates (around 40,000 BP) add to a growing body of data in support of the widespread use of ochre accompanying the earliest documented use of widely separated and environmentally diverse regions of Australia by Aboriginal people

  11. The analysis of pigments on rock surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fankhauser, B.; O`Connor, S. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Division of Archaeology and Natural History; Pittelkow, Y. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Coombs Computing Unit

    1997-12-31

    A limestone slab of roof fall coated with a red pigment was recovered from a Rockshelter in the Napier Ranges of the Kimberley region, Western Australia. Next to the roof fall fragment in the same stratigraphic layer was a piece of ochre. Three questions were presented: (1) is the red substance an ochre? (2) is the piece of ochre identical to the red substance on the roof fall? and (3) are the layers of pigment on the top and bottom of the limestone slab the same? In addition, as an extension from these questions, a general method was developed for the in situ analysis of ochre pigments on substrates to determine likely compositions and ochre sources. The analysis of the red pigment presented an analytical problem because the substance was intimately associated with the rock slab and therefore the analysis had to be done in situ. Not only was the red layer thin, but on a micro level it was uneven. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) penetrated the red layer, simultaneously analysing this layer and the rock substrate to different degrees depending upon the thickness of the red layer. Determining if the substance was actually ochre involved a comparison of elemental analyses between the background (slab) and background with red coating. Coatings of other ochres with known elemental concentrations on the same limestone background gave a comparison of the effect of simultaneously analysing a thin layer and background with different compositions. Three graphical methods useful for insitu analysis are demeonstrated. The find dates (around 40,000 BP) add to a growing body of data in support of the widespread use of ochre accompanying the earliest documented use of widely separated and environmentally diverse regions of Australia by Aboriginal people.

  12. The genetic control of aposematic black pigmentation in hemimetabolous insects: insights from Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Lemonds, Thomas R; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2014-09-01

    Variations in body pigmentation, encompassing both the range of specific colors as well as the spatial arrangement of those colors, are among the most noticeable and lineage-specific insect features. However, the genetic mechanisms responsible for generating this diversity are still limited to several model species that are primarily holometabolous insects. To address this lack of knowledge, we utilize Oncopeltus fasciatus, an aposematic hemimetabolous insect, as a new model to study insect pigmentation. First, to determine the genetic regulation of black pigment production in Oncopeltus, we perform an RNAi analysis on three core genes involved in the melanin pathway, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopa decarboxylase (DDC), and laccase 2 (lac2). The black pigmentation is affected in all instances, showing that the black pigments in this species are derived from the melanin pathway. The results of the DDC RNAi are particularly informative because they reveal that it is Dopamine melanin, not DOPA melanin, which is the predominant component of black pigments in Oncopeltus. Second, we test whether pigmentation follows a two-step model where the spatial pre-mapping of enzymatic activity is followed by vein-dependent transportation of melanin substances. We confirm the existence of the first step by observing that premature wings develop black pigmentation when exposed to melanin precursors. In addition, we provide evidence for the second step by showing that wing melanin patterning is disrupted when vein transportation is halted. These findings bring novel insights from a hemimetabolous species and establish a framework for subsequent studies on the mechanisms of pigment production and patterning responsible for variations in insect coloration. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Synthesis of coloured ceramic pigments by using chromite and manganese ores mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Aly,M. H; Ismael,I. S; Bondioli,F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is not only the synthesis of black ceramic pigment with spinel structure using local and inexpensive minerals (chromite and manganese ores) but also throw some light on the relations between the structure and the colour of obtained pigment. Ultimate utilization spinel solid solution in ceramic materials is mostly due to their structure characteristics, their thermal and chemical stability. In this study colour pigments were ned by calcinations at 1250 ºC starting from a m...

  14. β-arrestin functionally regulates the non-bleaching pigment parapinopsin in lamprey pineal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Kawano-Yamashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The light response of vertebrate visual cells is achieved by light-sensing proteins such as opsin-based pigments as well as signal transduction proteins, including visual arrestin. Previous studies have indicated that the pineal pigment parapinopsin has evolutionally and physiologically important characteristics. Parapinopsin is phylogenetically related to vertebrate visual pigments. However, unlike the photoproduct of the visual pigment rhodopsin, which is unstable, dissociating from its chromophore and bleaching, the parapinopsin photoproduct is stable and does not release its chromophore. Here, we investigated arrestin, which regulates parapinopsin signaling, in the lamprey pineal organ, where parapinopsin and rhodopsin are localized to distinct photoreceptor cells. We found that beta-arrestin, which binds to stimulated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs other than opsin-based pigments, was localized to parapinopsin-containing cells. This result stands in contrast to the localization of visual arrestin in rhodopsin-containing cells. Beta-arrestin bound to cultured cell membranes containing parapinopsin light-dependently and translocated to the outer segments of pineal parapinopsin-containing cells, suggesting that beta-arrestin binds to parapinopsin to arrest parapinopsin signaling. Interestingly, beta-arrestin colocalized with parapinopsin in the granules of the parapinopsin-expressing cell bodies under light illumination. Because beta-arrestin, which is a mediator of clathrin-mediated GPCR internalization, also served as a mediator of parapinopsin internalization in cultured cells, these results suggest that the granules were generated light-dependently by beta-arrestin-mediated internalization of parapinopsins from the outer segments. Therefore, our findings imply that beta-arrestin-mediated internalization is responsible for eliminating the stable photoproduct and restoring cell conditions to the original dark state. Taken together with a

  15. Lasers in tattoo and pigmentation control: role of the PicoSure® laser system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbeck R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Richard Torbeck,1 Richard Bankowski,2 Sarah Henize,3 Nazanin Saedi,11Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Cynosure, Inc, Westford, MA, 3Huron Consulting Group, Chicago, IL, USABackground and objectives: The use of picosecond lasers to remove tattoos has greatly improved due to the long-standing outcomes of nanosecond lasers, both clinically and histologically. The first aesthetic picosecond laser available for this use was the PicoSure® laser system (755/532 nm. Now that a vast amount of research on its use has been conducted, we performed a comprehensive review of the literature to validate the continued application of the PicoSure® laser system for tattoo removal.Study design and methods: A PubMed search was conducted using the term "picosecond" combined with "laser", "dermatology", and "laser tattoo removal".Results: A total of 13 articles were identified, and ten of these met the inclusion criteria for this review. The majority of studies showed that picosecond lasers are an effective and safe treatment mode for the removal of tattoo pigments. Several studies also indicated potential novel applications of picosecond lasers in the removal of various tattoo pigments (eg, black, red, and yellow. Adverse effects were generally mild, such as transient hypopigmentation or blister formation, and were rarely more serious, such as scarring and/or textural change.Conclusion: Advancements in laser technologies and their application in cutaneous medicine have revolutionized the field of laser surgery. Computational modeling provides evidence that the optimal pulse durations for tattoo ink removal are in the picosecond domain. It is recommended that the PicoSure® laser system continue to be used for safe and effective tattoo removal, including for red and yellow pigments.Keywords: tattoo, removal, laser, picosecond 

  16. Dissolution rate measurements of sea water soluble pigments for antifouling paints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yebra, Diego Meseguer; Kiil, Søren; Erik Weinell, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The dissolution of soluble pigments from both tin-based and tin-free chemically active antifouling (AF) paints is a key process influencing their polishing and biocide leaching rates. In this context, a low time- and resources-consuming method capable of screening the pigment behaviour in the sea...

  17. Seasonal dependence of pigments number in Alhagi pseudalgahi leaves forming in conditions of high radiarion phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orujova, J.R.; Dzhafarov, E.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The activity circle of man includes also change of the radio ecological situation of environment, global increase of natural radiation phone, appearance of the local territories polluted with radio nuclides in result of technological processes, chemical pollution of air, water, land etc. As it's known, reaction of different plants to the impact of both natural, and anthropogenic stress factors isn't identical. This time change of the biometrical measures of plants' different organs, growth of their reproduction features, acceleration of biologically active matters synthesis etc. facts we elucidated in many works. The research works show that under external influence biological parameters don't change identically. Taking into account different character of the dependence of biochemical processes in plants on the external effects, and scarceness of research works on territories polluted by radio active industrial waste products, we can say that, respective experiments are needed. In the present work territory of iodine plant in Rome polluted with radio nuclides has been regarded as the experimental one. Within the plant area there was registered radiation phone totaling 800-1000 mkR/h. Ra 226, Th 232, U 238 and K 40 were detected as radio nucleids polluting the area. The work has spectrometrically identified number of the photosynthetic pigments of Alhagi Pseudalhagi plant formed both in conditions of high radiation phone, and in the control area in wild conditions. In result of measures there were calculated individual number of chlorophyllum a and b pigments playing photoreceptor role in photosynthesis process and having big importance for superior plants, ratio of chlorophyllum a to chlorophyllum b and the total. Besides, there has been designated number of carotinoids executing defensive function in chloroplasts. Results received show that in comparison with control in autumn season total number of green pigments is approximately two times lower than

  18. Inhibitory effect of corn silk on skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang Yoon; Lee, Yeonmi; Kim, Sung Soo; Ju, Hyun Min; Baek, Ji Hwoon; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Dong-Hyuk

    2014-03-03

    In this study, the inhibitory effect of corn silk on melanin production was evaluated. This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effect of corn silk on melanin production in Melan-A cells by measuring melanin production and protein expression. The corn silk extract applied on Melan-A cells at a concentration of 100 ppm decreased melanin production by 37.2% without cytotoxicity. This was a better result than arbutin, a positive whitening agent, which exhibited a 26.8% melanin production inhibitory effect at the same concentration. The corn silk extract did not suppress tyrosinase activity but greatly reduced the expression of tyrosinase in Melan-A cells. In addition, corn silk extract was applied to the human face with hyperpigmentation, and skin color was measured to examine the degree of skin pigment reduction. The application of corn silk extract on faces with hyperpigmentation significantly reduced skin pigmentation without abnormal reactions. Based on the results above, corn silk has good prospects for use as a material for suppressing skin pigmentation.

  19. Inhibitory Effect of Corn Silk on Skin Pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yoon Choi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the inhibitory effect of corn silk on melanin production was evaluated. This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effect of corn silk on melanin production in Melan-A cells by measuring melanin production and protein expression. The corn silk extract applied on Melan-A cells at a concentration of 100 ppm decreased melanin production by 37.2% without cytotoxicity. This was a better result than arbutin, a positive whitening agent, which exhibited a 26.8% melanin production inhibitory effect at the same concentration. The corn silk extract did not suppress tyrosinase activity but greatly reduced the expression of tyrosinase in Melan-A cells. In addition, corn silk extract was applied to the human face with hyperpigmentation, and skin color was measured to examine the degree of skin pigment reduction. The application of corn silk extract on faces with hyperpigmentation significantly reduced skin pigmentation without abnormal reactions. Based on the results above, corn silk has good prospects for use as a material for suppressing skin pigmentation.

  20. Antiadipogenic Activity of γ-Oryzanol and Its Stability in Pigmented Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatel, Igor Otavio; Lee, Yoon-Mi; Yoon, Haelim; Yoon, Young; Han, Sang-Ik; Correa, Camila Renata; Fecchio, Denise; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2016-07-01

    γ-Oryzanol, a prevalent compound in pigmented rice varieties, has been reported to ameliorate obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Antiadipogenic activities of γ-oryzanol were determined in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and mouse-derived 3T3-L1 cells. γ-Oryzanol significantly decreased lipid accumulation and reduced glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in both adipocytes. In addition, γ-oryzanol in four pigmented rice varieties (black with giant embryo, brown, sugary brown, and red) was stable when stored at 4°C and also at room temperature for 22 weeks, whereas other bioactives such as lutein and β-carotene were stable only at -80°C. Furthermore, the yield of γ-oryzanol from these rice varieties was significantly increased through steaming and roasting processes. Therefore, γ-oryzanol exerts antiadipogenic activity by suppressing adipocyte differentiations and is stable in pigmented rice for an extended period of time during storage and after cooking. Thus, the intake of pigmented rice may be a useful strategy for preventing obesity.

  1. Separation of pigment formulations by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with automated multiple development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefel, Constanze; Dietzel, Sylvia; Endress, Marc; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2016-09-02

    Food packaging is designed to provide sufficient protection for the respective filling, legally binding information for the consumers like nutritional facts or filling information, and an attractive appearance to promote the sale. For quality and safety of the package, a regular quality control of the used printing materials is necessary to get consistently good print results, to avoid migration of undesired ink components into the food and to identify potentially faulty ink batches. Analytical approaches, however, have hardly been considered for quality assurance so far due to the lack of robust, suitable methods for the analysis of rarely soluble pigment formulations. Thus, a simple and generic high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for the separation of different colored pigment formulations was developed on HPTLC plates silica gel 60 by automated multiple development. The gradient system provided a sharp resolution for differently soluble pigment constituents like additives and coating materials. The results of multi-detection allowed a first assignment of the differently detectable bands to particular chemical substance classes (e.g., lipophilic components), enabled the comparison of different commercially available pigment batches and revealed substantial variations in the composition of the batches. Hyphenation of HPTLC with high resolution mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy allowed the characterization of single unknown pigment constituents, which may partly be responsible for known quality problems during printing. The newly developed, precise and selective HPTLC method can be used as part of routine quality control for both, incoming pigment batches and monitoring of internal pigment production processes, to secure a consistent pigment composition resulting in consistent ink quality, a faultless print image and safe products. Hyphenation of HPTLC with the A. fischeri bioassay gave first information on the bioactivity or rather

  2. Animal pigment bilirubin discovered in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirone, Cary; Quirke, J Martin E; Priestap, Horacio A; Lee, David W

    2009-03-04

    The bile pigment bilirubin-IXalpha is the degradative product of heme, distributed among mammals and some other vertebrates. It can be recognized as the pigment responsible for the yellow color of jaundice and healing bruises. In this paper we present the first example of the isolation of bilirubin in plants. The compound was isolated from the brilliant orange-colored arils of Strelitzia nicolai, the white bird of paradise tree, and characterized by HPLC-ESMS, UV-visible, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as comparison with an authentic standard. This discovery indicates that plant cyclic tetrapyrroles may undergo degradation by a previously unknown pathway. Preliminary analyses of related plants, including S. reginae, the bird of paradise, also revealed bilirubin in the arils and flowers, indicating that the occurrence of bilirubin is not limited to a single species or tissue type.

  3. The role of natural and UV-induced skin pigmentation on low-fluence IPL-induced side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Lin, Jennifer Y; Nash, Jf

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The risk of adverse skin effects following light-based hair removal is greater in pigmented skin based on the theory of selective photothermolysis. Thus sunlight-induced pigment i.e., facultative pigmentation, increases the risk of adverse skin effects, perhaps dispropo...... pigmentation regardless of the origin, i.e., constitutive versus UV induced....

  4. Protocol optimization for enhanced production of pigments in Spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Neeraj; Pabbi, Sunil; Walia, Suresh; Dhar, Dolly Wattal

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina has attracted special attention due to its importance as human foodstuff and natural colours with specific functional properties. These functional properties have been attributed to phycobilins, carotenoids, phenolics and unsaturated fatty acids. Present study was conducted under controlled phytotron conditions to identify the efficient strains of Spirulina in terms of pigment synthesis and to optimize their enhanced production. Methodology for enhanced production was standardized by varying specific environmental parameters (light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide concentration, pH and NaCl level). Different strains of Spirulina depicted variability and environmental parameters showed distinct influence on pigments. Growth and pigment production was recorded to be most efficient under optimized conditions of light intensity (70 μmol m -2  s -1 ), temperature (30 °C), CO 2 concentration (550 ppm and 750 ppm), pH (10.5) and NaCl level (2 g L -1 ).

  5. Fungal polyketide azaphilone pigments as future natural food colorants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Thrane, Ulf; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    The recent approval of fungal carotenoids as food colorants by the European Union has strengthened the prospects for fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide pigments. Fungal production of colorants has the main advantage of making the manufacturer independent of the seasonal supply...... functionality and to expand the color palette of contemporary natural food colorants.......The recent approval of fungal carotenoids as food colorants by the European Union has strengthened the prospects for fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide pigments. Fungal production of colorants has the main advantage of making the manufacturer independent of the seasonal supply...... of raw materials, thus minimizing batch-to-batch variations. Here, we review the potential of polyketide pigments produced from chemotaxonomically selected non-toxigenic fungal strains (e.g. Penicillium and Epicoccum spp.) to serve as food colorants. We argue that the production of polyketide azaphilone...

  6. Pteridine, not carotenoid, pigments underlie the female-specific orange ornament of striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S L; Foerster, K; Hudon, J

    2012-02-01

    Indicator models of sexual selection suggest that signal honesty is maintained via costs of ornament expression. Carotenoid-based visual signals are a well-studied example, as carotenoids may be environmentally limited and impact signaler health. However, not all bright yellow, orange and red ornaments found in vertebrates are carotenoid-based; pteridine pigments may also produce these colors. We examine the contribution of carotenoid and pteridine pigments to the orange reproductive color of female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus). This color ornament reliably indicates female mate quality, yet costs maintaining signal honesty are currently unknown. Dietary carotenoid manipulations did not affect orange color, and orange skin differed from surrounding white skin in drosopterin, not carotenoid, content. Further, orange color positively correlated with drosopterin, not carotenoid, concentration. Drosopterin-based female ornaments avoid the direct trade-offs of using carotenoids for ornament production vs egg production, thus may relax counter-selection against color ornament exaggeration in females. Direct experimentation is needed to determine the actual costs of pteridine-based ornaments. Like carotenoids, pteridines influence important biological processes, including immune and antioxidant function; predation and social costs may also be relevant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mimicry's palette: widespread use of conserved pigments in the aposematic signals of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, David W; Seymoure, Brett M; Pfennig, David W

    2014-03-01

    Mimicry, where one species resembles another species because of the selective benefits of sharing a common signal, is especially common in snakes. Snakes might be particularly prone to evolving mimicry if all species share some of the same proximate mechanisms that can be used to produce aposematic/mimetic signals. We evaluated this possibility by examining color pigments in 11 species of snakes from four different families, three species of which participate in a coral snake mimicry complex involving convergence in coloration. We found that all 11 species used combinations of two pteridine pigments and melanin in their coloration, regardless of whether or not they were mimics. Furthermore, the presence or absence of red pteridines was strongly correlated with the relative excitation of medium- and long-wavelength photoreceptors in birds, thereby linking shared pigmentation to perception of those pigments by likely agents of selection. Thus, precise color mimicry might be relatively easy to evolve among snakes owing to symplesiomorphies in pigmentation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Spectroscopy study of ceramic pigments based on Ce(IV)-Pr(IV) oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtado, L.; Toma, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis and spectroscopic properties of a series of cerium(IV)-praseodimium(IV) oxide pigments are reported. The pigments exhibit brick-red colours and are suitable for ceramic applications because of their high temperature stability. Electronic absorption spectra of the pigments suspended in a gel matrix of polyvinyl alcohol-sodium tetradecaborate mixture, consists of broad band with gaussian components at 372 and 472nm. These bands are described to charge -transfer transitions from the occupied oxygen p-orbitals to the empty f levels of the lanthanides. (author)

  9. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Slavík

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics.

  10. Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie T Manipadam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD is a rare cause of ACTH-independent Cushing′s syndrome and has characteristic gross and microscopic pathologic findings. We report a case of PPNAD in a 15-year-old boy, which was not associated with Carney′s complex. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the treatment of choice.

  11. A prospective observational study of pigmented naevi changes in psoriasis patients on biologic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seohee Deanne; D'Souza, Mario I; Menzies, Scott W; Weninger, Wolfgang

    2018-05-23

    Patients on biologic therapy are thought to be at increased risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancers and melanomas. It is unknown whether biologic therapy alters the natural history of melanocytic naevi. Therefore, a prospective observational study was conducted to determine whether psoriasis patients on biologic therapy develop changes in naevi. Clinical and dermoscopic assessment of all melanocytic naevi was performed in 45 psoriasis patients on biologic therapy versus a control cohort of 43 subjects, using sequential digital dermoscopic imaging and total body photography. The mean follow-up period was 1.5 years. The study and control patients had comparable age, gender, previous and family history of non-melanoma skin cancers and melanomas, as well as previous sun exposure and total number of naevi. The number of naevi with major dermoscopic changes was 3% in the study and 1.9% in the control group, with an adjusted incidence rate ratio of 1.45 (95% confidence interval 0.90-2.33; P = 0.125). The rate of minor changes was 15.9% in the study group versus 19.4% in the control (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.57-1.08; P = 0.14). There were six new dysplastic naevi in 4/45 biologic patients and four in 4/43 controls; however, the difference was not significant (relative risk 0.96, 95% confidence interval -0.12 to 0.12; P = 0.95). There were no melanomas in either group. Over a mean follow-up period of 1.5 years there was no evidence of significantly different changes in naevi or development of new dysplastic naevi in psoriasis patients on biologic treatment compared to controls. © 2018 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  12. Pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma: a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuderi, Gianluca; Contestabile, Maria Teresa; Scuderi, Luca; Librando, Aloisa; Fenicia, Vito; Rahimi, Siavash

    2018-05-02

    Potential factors influencing stereopsis were investigated in patients with both refractive accommodative esotropia (RAE) and amblyopia. Pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) is a condition where anomalous iridozonular contact leads to pigment dispersion throughout the anterior segment and the released pigment is abnormally deposited on various ocular structures. The clinical presentation of PDS is defined by the presence of pigmented cells on the corneal endothelium, an increase of pigmentation of the trabecular meshwork, and mid-periphery transillumination defects of the iris. This syndrome, more common in myopes, is usually bilateral and can be associated with ocular hypertension or glaucoma. Secondary open-angle pigmentary glaucoma (PG) can develop due to reduction of the outflow of aqueous humour and consequent increase in intraocular pressure leading to glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Diagnosis of PG is commonly between 40 and 50 years of age, occurring more frequently in men. The advent of ultrasound biomicroscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography has contributed to enhancing our knowledge on the condition. Typical alterations of the anterior segment are the posterior insertion of the iris and iris concavity. Treatment of PG should be initiated early to hinder disease progression, glaucomatous damage, and vision loss. Management is based on medical therapy, laser iridotomy, selective laser trabeculoplasty, and filtration procedures. The differential diagnosis of PDS with other disorders can be challenging and awareness of the condition together with meticulous ophthalmologic examination allows early diagnosis followed by appropriate management strategies. The present review is a comprehensive report on the clinical characteristics, pathogenesis, current management, and status quo of PDS and PG.

  13. Autologous transplantation of genetically modified iris pigment epithelial cells: A promising concept for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration and other disorders of the eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkova, Irina; Kreppel, Florian; Welsandt, Gerhard; Luther, Thomas; Kozlowski, Jolanta; Janicki, Hanna; Kochanek, Stefan; Schraermeyer, Ulrich

    2002-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause for visual impairment and blindness in the elder population. Laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy and excision of neovascular membranes have met with limited success. Submacular transplantation of autologous iris pigment epithelial (IPE) cells has been proposed to replace the damaged retinal pigment epithelium following surgical removal of the membranes. We tested our hypothesis that the subretinal transplantation of genetically modified autologous IPE cells expressing biological therapeutics might be a promising strategy for the treatment of ARMD and other retinal disorders. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has strong antiangiogenic and neuroprotective activities in the eye. Subretinal transplantation of PEDF expressing IPE cells inhibited pathological choroidal neovascularization in rat models of laser-induced rupture of Bruch's membrane and of oxygen induced ischemic retinopathy. PEDF expressing IPE transplants also increased the survival and preserved rhodopsin expression of photoreceptor cells in the RCS rat, a model of retinal degeneration. These findings suggest a promising concept for the treatment of ARMD and other retinal disorders.

  14. Effect of ohmic heating processing conditions on color stability of fungal pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Machado, Diederich; Morales-Oyervides, Lourdes; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Aguilar, Cristóbal; Méndez-Zavala, Alejandro; Raso, Javier; Montañez, Julio

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of ohmic heating processing conditions on the color stability of a red pigment extract produced by Penicillium purpurogenum GH2 suspended in a buffer solution (pH 6) and in a beverage model system (pH 4). Color stability of pigmented extract was evaluated in the range of 60-90 ℃. The degradation pattern of pigments was well described by the first-order (fractional conversion) and Bigelow model. Degradation rate constants ranged between 0.009 and 0.088 min -1 in systems evaluated. Significant differences in the rate constant values of the ohmic heating-treated samples in comparison with conventional thermal treatment suggested a possible effect of the oscillating electric field generated during ohmic heating. The thermodynamic analysis also indicated differences in the color degradation mechanism during ohmic heating specifically when the pigment was suspended in the beverage model system. In general, red pigments produced by P. purpurogenum GH2 presented good thermal stability under the range of the evaluated experimental conditions, showing potential future applications in pasteurized food matrices using ohmic heating treatment.

  15. Smart options for simultaneous functionalization and pigment coloration of cellulosic/wool blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N A; Khalil, H M; El-Zairy, E M R; Abdalla, W A

    2013-07-01

    The present innovative research work deals with the individual use of chitosan (2.5 g/kg), Aloe vera (10 g/kg), triclosan (10 g/kg), TiO2-nanoparticles (TiO2-NP's, 10 g/kg), silicon micro-emulsion (20 g/kg) or a water/oil-repellent agent (40 g/kg) for modifying the pigment print paste to produce functionalized cotton/wool and viscose/wool pigment prints in one step process. The imparted functional properties such as antibacterial, antibacterial/UV-protection, soft-handle or water/oil-repellency together with the change in the printing properties were evaluated. Some of the obtained pigment prints were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive X-rays (EDX) to confirm deposition of certain functional additives on printed fabrics. The wide-range of imparted functional properties together with the depth of the obtained pigment prints were maintained over 80% even after 15 consecutive laundering cycles. The extent of retention in functional and pigment printing properties is influenced by the type of functional additive as well as the kind of substrate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diversity of pigmented Gram-positive bacteria associated with marine macroalgae from Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Sergio; Alvarado, Pamela; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jian; Garrido, Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the diversity and roles of Gram-positive and pigmented bacteria in Antarctic environments, especially those associated with marine macroorganisms. This work is the first study about the diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable pigmented Gram-positive bacteria associated with marine Antarctic macroalgae. A total of 31 pigmented Gram-positive strains were isolated from the surface of six species of macroalgae collected in the King George Island, South Shetland Islands. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities ≥99%, 18 phylotypes were defined, which were clustered into 11 genera of Actinobacteria (Agrococcus, Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Citricoccus, Kocuria, Labedella, Microbacterium, Micrococcus, Rhodococcus, Salinibacterium and Sanguibacter) and one genus of the Firmicutes (Staphylococcus). It was found that five isolates displayed antimicrobial activity against a set of macroalgae-associated bacteria. The active isolates were phylogenetically related to Agrococcus baldri, Brachybacterium rhamnosum, Citricoccus zhacaiensis and Kocuria palustris. The results indicate that a diverse community of pigmented Gram-positive bacteria is associated with Antartic macroalgae and suggest its potential as a promising source of antimicrobial and pigmented natural compounds. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Ultraviolet radiation and its biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rames, J.; Bencko, V.

    1993-01-01

    In connexion with contamination of the atmosphere with freons, the interest is increasing in geophysical and health aspects of 'ozone holes' - the seasonal incidence of increased intensity of UV radiation. Its biological effects depend on the intensity of the radiation, the exposure time and the wavelength. There is a wide range of various sorts of damage, local as well as general. In addition to skin pigmentation and symptoms produced by an elevated histamine blood level, also changes are found which may have more serious and permanent consequences: changes in the number and structure of Langerhans islets, changes of the peripheral capillary walls, dimerization of pyrimidine and thymine in DNA. These changes demonstrably contribute to the development of skin malignancies. After exposure of the eye, changes in pigmentation are found, and depending on the dose, possibly also development of conjunctivitis or retinal damage. Recently the interaction of UV radiation with arsenic was investigated. On the other side, therapeutic effects of UV radiation combined with chemotherapy are used in dermatology, eg., for inhibition of contact sensitization. (author) 42 refs

  18. Anticholinesterase activity of the fluorescent zoanthid pigment, parazoanthoxanthin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepcić, K; Turk, T; Macek, P

    1998-06-01

    A synthetic linear tetrazacyclopent(f)azulene compound, parazoanthoxanthin A (m.w. 214.2), strongly fluorescent pigment occurring in zoanthids, was characterized and assayed for anticholinesterase activity. The pigment, emitting fluorescence at lambda(em) 420 nm, was found to be a pure competitive inhibitor of cholinesterases. At pH 8.0, a Ki value of 19 and 26 microM was determined with insect recombinant, and electric eel acetylcholinesterase. Horse serum butyrylcholinesterase was less sensitive with a Ki of 70 microM.

  19. Changing oxidoreduction potential to improve water-soluble yellow pigment production with Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Tan, Hailing; Lu, Fangju; Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2017-11-21

    Monascus pigments are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries due to their safety to human health. Our previous study found that glucose concentration induced extracellular oxidoreduction potential (ORP) changes could influence extracellular water-soluble yellow pigment production by Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910 in submerged fermentation. In this study, H 2 O 2 and dithiothreitol (DTT) were used to change the oxidoreduction potential for investigating the effects of oxidative or reductive substances on Monascus yellow pigment production by Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910. The extracellular ORP could be controlled by H 2 O 2 and DTT. Both cell growth and extracellular water-soluble yellow pigment production were enhanced under H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative (HIO) conditions and were inhibited under dithiothreitol-induced reductive conditions. By optimizing the amount of H 2 O 2 added and the timing of the addition, the yield of extracellular water-soluble yellow pigments significantly increased and reached a maximum of 209 AU, when 10 mM H 2 O 2 was added on the 3rd day of fermentation with M. ruber CGMCC 10910. Under HIO conditions, the ratio of NADH/NAD+ was much lower than that in the control group, and the expression levels of relative pigment biosynthesis genes were up-regulated; moreover, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was increased while 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity was inhibited. Oxidative conditions induced by H 2 O 2 increased water-soluble yellow pigment accumulation via up-regulation of the expression levels of relative genes and by increasing the precursors of pigment biosynthesis through redirection of metabolic flux. In contrast, reductive conditions induced by dithiothreitol inhibited yellow pigment accumulation. This experiment provides a potential strategy for improving the production of Monascus yellow pigments.

  20. Liquid crystalline phases in suspensions of pigments in non-polar solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Susanne; Richardson, Robert M.; Eremin, Alexey

    We will discuss colloid suspensions of pigments and compare their electro-optic properties with those of traditional dyed low molecular weight liquid crystal systems. There are several potential advantages of colloidal suspensions over low molecular weight liquid crystal systems: a very high contrast because of the high orientational order parameter of suspensions of rod shaped nano-particles, the excellent light fastness of pigments as compared to dyes and high colour saturations resulting from the high loading of the colour stuff. Although a weak `single-particle' electro-optic response can be observed in dilute suspensions, the response is very much enhanced when the concentration of the particles is sufficient to lead to a nematic phase. Excellent stability of suspensions is beneficial for experimental observation and reproducibility, but it is a fundamental necessity for display applications. We therefore discuss a method to achieve long term stability of dispersed pigments and the reasons for its success. Small angle X-ray scattering was used to determine the orientational order parameter of the suspensions as a function of concentration and the dynamic response to an applied electric field. Optical properties were investigated for a wide range of pigment concentrations. Electro-optical phenomena, such as field-induced birefringence and switching, were characterised. In addition, mixtures of pigment suspensions with small amounts of ferrofluids show promise as future magneto-optical materials.

  1. Corrosion resistance of flaky aluminum pigment coated with cerium oxides/hydroxides in chloride and acidic electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niroumandrad, S.; Rostami, M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Flaky aluminum pigments were modified with cerium nitrate salt. • pH value of 3.0 was chosen as the optimized pH for the cerium solution. • Corrosion resistance of the pigment significantly increased after modification. • Alkaline pre-treatment prior to modification affected the cerium layer performance. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to enhance the corrosion resistance of lamellar aluminum pigment through surface treatment by cerium oxides/hydroxides. The surface composition of the pigments was studied by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corrosion resistance of the pigment was evaluated by conventional hydrogen evolution measurements in acidic solution and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed that the Ce-rich coating composed of Ce 2 O 3 and CeO 2 was precipitated on the pigment surface after immersion in the cerium solution. The corrosion resistance of pigment was significantly enhanced after modification with cerium layer.

  2. Corrosion resistance of flaky aluminum pigment coated with cerium oxides/hydroxides in chloride and acidic electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niroumandrad, S. [Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rostami, M. [Department of Nanomaterials and Nanocoatings, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezanzadeh, B., E-mail: ramezanzadeh-bh@icrc.ac.ir [Department of Surface Coatings and Corrosion, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Flaky aluminum pigments were modified with cerium nitrate salt. • pH value of 3.0 was chosen as the optimized pH for the cerium solution. • Corrosion resistance of the pigment significantly increased after modification. • Alkaline pre-treatment prior to modification affected the cerium layer performance. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to enhance the corrosion resistance of lamellar aluminum pigment through surface treatment by cerium oxides/hydroxides. The surface composition of the pigments was studied by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corrosion resistance of the pigment was evaluated by conventional hydrogen evolution measurements in acidic solution and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed that the Ce-rich coating composed of Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CeO{sub 2} was precipitated on the pigment surface after immersion in the cerium solution. The corrosion resistance of pigment was significantly enhanced after modification with cerium layer.

  3. Complexation of cesium 137 by the cap pigments of the bay boletus (Xerocomus badius)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumann, C.; Clooth, G.; Steffan, B.; Steglich, W.

    1989-01-01

    Why is 137 Cs strongly enriched in bay boletus but hardly at all in cepe? This question, which arose after the reactor accident at Chernobyl, can now be answered. It was already known that bay boletus contains the unusual pigments badione A and norbadione A in the brown pileus and that these pigments are absent in cepe. The cap pigments are present in the mushroom as potassium complexes. However, the pigments can also bind cesium. Norbadione forms a 1:1 complex with CsCl. This complex can be dissociated by exposure to a strongly acidic cation exchanger. (orig.)

  4. Developmental origin of the posterior pigmented epithelium of iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Xiong, Kai; Lu, Lei; Gu, Dandan; Wang, Songtao; Chen, Jing; Xiao, Honglei; Zhou, Guomin

    2015-03-01

    Iris epithelium is a double-layered pigmented cuboidal epithelium. According to the current model, the neural retina and the posterior iris pigment epithelium (IPE) are derived from the inner wall of the optic cup, while the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the anterior IPE are derived from the outer wall of the optic cup during development. Our current study shows evidence, contradicting this model of fetal iris development. We demonstrate that human fetal iris expression patterns of Otx2 and Mitf transcription factors are similar, while the expressions of Otx2 and Sox2 are complementary. Furthermore, IPE and RPE exhibit identical morphologic development during the early embryonic period. Our results suggest that the outer layer of the optic cup forms two layers of the iris epithelium, and the posterior IPE is the inward-curling anterior rim of the outer layer of the optic cup. These findings provide a reasonable explanation of how IPE cells can be used as an appropriate substitute for RPE cells.

  5. Polymeric peptide pigments with sequence-encoded properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampel, Ayala; McPhee, Scott A.; Park, Hang-Ah; Scott, Gary G.; Humagain, Sunita; Hekstra, Doeke R.; Yoo, Barney; Frederix, Pim W. J. M.; Li, Tai-De; Abzalimov, Rinat R.; Greenbaum, Steven G.; Tuttle, Tell; Hu, Chunhua; Bettinger, Christopher J.; Ulijn, Rein V.

    2017-06-08

    Melanins are a family of heterogeneous polymeric pigments that provide ultraviolet (UV) light protection, structural support, coloration, and free radical scavenging. Formed by oxidative oligomerization of catecholic small molecules, the physical properties of melanins are influenced by covalent and noncovalent disorder. We report the use of tyrosine-containing tripeptides as tunable precursors for polymeric pigments. In these structures, phenols are presented in a (supra-)molecular context dictated by the positions of the amino acids in the peptide sequence. Oxidative polymerization can be tuned in a sequence-dependent manner, resulting in peptide sequence–encoded properties such as UV absorbance, morphology, coloration, and electrochemical properties over a considerable range. Short peptides have low barriers to application and can be easily scaled, suggesting near-term applications in cosmetics and biomedicine.

  6. A quick assessment of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 pigments : From lab to conservation studio!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Driel, B.A.; Kooyman, P.J.; van den Berg, K.J.; Schmidt-Ott, A.; Dik, J.

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide is the most abundantly used white pigment of the 20th century. The pigment is still in use, both in the production of contemporary art and for the conservation of older artwork as a retouching pigment. Unfortunately, next to its positive characteristics, the pigment has one major

  7. Canine goniodysgenesis-related glaucoma: a morphologic review of 100 cases looking at inflammation and pigment dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Christopher M; Morris, Rebecca; Dubielzig, Richard R

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the role of pigment dispersion and inflammation in the pathogenesis of goniodysgenesis-related glaucoma (GDRG). Cases of GDRG were selected when the duration of the disease was specified and there was not any confounding pathology. Cases were grouped into 7-day (chronic) durations, based on the time required to effect end-stage retinal damage. Acute cases were further divided into pigment dispersion: segmental loss of posterior iris pigment epithelium, clumping of posterior iris pigment epithelium, pigmented cells in the trabecular meshwork or anterior chamber and preferential settling of pigmented cells in the ventral aspect of the iridocorneal angle. Slides were also evaluated for the presence of neutrophils and/or lymphoplasmacytic cells in the trabecular meshwork (TM). Differences between groups were analyzed statistically. Of 100 cases evaluated, 34 were 7-days (chronic) in duration. Of all globes examined, 96% had at least one sign of pigment dispersion, with no significant difference between groups. Two or more signs of pigment dispersion were present in 76% of all globes. The 4-7-day group was significantly more likely than the 7-day groups. Neutrophils were present in the TM of 86% of 7-day cases to have neutrophils in the TM, with 65% and 17% [corrected] positive cases, respectively. Lymphoplasmacytic inflammation was present in 53% of all cases, with no significant difference between groups. Cases in the 7-day cases to have both types of inflammation. Our results indicate that both acute inflammation and pigment dispersion may be key factors in the pathogenesis of GDRG. Pigment dispersion is prevalent at all time points and increases during the first 7 days. The finding of iris pigment epithelial loss supports the theory that pupillary block associated with iris-lens touching may be important in the pathogenesis of GDRG.

  8. Antioxidative role of ocular melanin pigment in the model of lens induced uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, A; Bilgihan, M K; Akata, R F; Aricioğlu, A; Hasanreisoğlu, B

    1995-12-01

    Ocular melanin pigment has antioxidant effect against excess of dispersed light. To investigate whether it has a similar effect in ocular inflammations, we used albino and pigmented guinea pigs and measured retinal glutathione peroxidase activities and lipid peroxide levels (expressed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) in a model of lens induced uveitis. Although the increase in the levels of the retinal lipid peroxides were higher in the albino group (204%, p < 0.05), the decrease in the activities of glutathione peroxidase were higher in pigmented guinea pigs (26%, p < 0.005). The results of the study suggest that pigmentless animals are more sensitive to the ocular inflammations, and ocular melanin pigment may act as an endojen antioxidant in lens induced uveitis.

  9. Retinal pigment epithelium culture;a potential source of retinal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Hassan; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Khalooghi, Keynoush; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Rezaie-Kanavi, Mojgan; Samiei, Shahram; Davari, Malihe; Ghaderi, Shima; Sanie-Jahromi, Fatemeh

    2009-07-01

    To establish human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell culture as a source for cell replacement therapy in ocular diseases. Human cadaver globes were used to isolate RPE cells. Each globe was cut into several pieces of a few millimeters in size. After removing the sclera and choroid, remaining tissues were washed in phosphate buffer saline and RPE cells were isolated using dispase enzyme solution and cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium: Nutrient Mixture F-12 supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. Primary cultures of RPE cells were established and spheroid colonies related to progenitor/stem cells developed in a number of cultures. The colonies included purely pigmented or mixed pigmented and non-pigmented cells. After multiple cellular passages, several types of photoreceptors and neural-like cells were detected morphologically. Cellular plasticity in RPE cell cultures revealed promising results in terms of generation of stem/progenitor cells from human RPE cells. Whether the spheroids and neural-like retinal cells were directly derived from retinal stem cells or offspring of trans-differentiating or de-differentiating RPE cells remains to be answered.

  10. Pigmentation, Melanocyte Colonization, and p53 Status in Basal Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, L. M.; Houben, R.; Brocker, E. B.

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common neoplasm in the Caucasian population. Only a fraction of BCC exhibits pigmentation. Lack of melanocyte colonization has been suggested to be due to p53-inactivating mutations in the BCC cells interfering with the p53-proopiomelanocortin pathway and the production of alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the tumor. To evaluate this, we determined tumor pigmentation as well as expression of melan-A and of p53 in 49 BCC tissues by means of immunohistochemistry. As expected, we observed a positive relation between tumor pigmentation and melan-A positive intra-tumoral melanocytes. Melanocyte colonization and, to a lesser extent, p53 overexpression showed intraindividual heterogeneity in larger tumors. p53 overexpression, which is indicative of p53 mutations, was not correlated to melanocyte colonization of BCC. Sequencing of exon 5-8 of the p53 gene in selected BCC cases revealed that colonization by melanocytes and BCC pigmentation is neither ablated by p53 mutations nor generally present in BCCs with wild-type p53.

  11. Advanced pigment dispersion glaucoma secondary to phakic intraocular collamer lens implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Clara; Patel, Cajal K; Momont, Anna C; Liu, Yao

    2018-06-01

    We report a case of pigment dispersion glaucoma secondary to uncomplicated phakic intraocular collamer lens (ICL) (Visian ICL™, Staar Inc., Monrovia, CA) implant that resulted in advanced visual field loss. A 50-year-old man presented for routine follow-up status post bilateral phakic intraocular collamer lens (ICL) placement 8 years earlier. He was incidentally found to have a decline in visual acuity from an anterior subcapsular cataract and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in the left eye. There were signs of pigment dispersion and no evidence of angle closure. Diffuse optic nerve thinning was consistent with advanced glaucomatous visual field defects. Pigment dispersion was also present in the patient's right eye, but without elevated IOP or visual field defects. The patient was treated with topical glaucoma medications and the phakic ICL in the left eye was removed concurrently with cataract surgery to prevent further visual field loss. Pigment dispersion glaucoma is a serious adverse outcome after phakic ICL implantation and regular post-operative monitoring may prevent advanced visual field loss.

  12. THE CONCENTRATION OF PHOTOSINTHESIS PIGMENTS IN THE ANTHROPOGENIC PLANT COMMUNITIES IN TOBOLSK TOWN

    OpenAIRE

    Еlena Ivanovna Popova

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis means a lot in the life of a plant body. For the normal photosynthesis process it is necessary to have certain external and internal conditions. The topic of the research is the study of photosynthesis pigments in anthropogenic plant communities. The aim of our work was to study the pigment composition plants of anthropogenic phytocenoses. Methods: we have used the spectrophotometric method to define the concentration of pigments. Results: the research has shown that the concen...

  13. Iron isotope analysis of red and black pigments on pottery in Nasca, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Eerkens, JW; Barfod, GH; Vaughn, KJ; Williams, PR; Lesher, CE

    2014-01-01

    The Nasca culture of the south coast of Peru developed during the first millennium ad and is known internationally for its elaborately decorated polychrome pots. Despite decades of iconographic analysis, little is known about the more technological aspects of Nasca pigment production and application. We present results from a pilot study on iron isotopes as a potential line of inquiry into the differences between red and black pigments in Nasca pigments. As well, we conduct a small firing exp...

  14. Nanoscale Coloristic Pigments: Upper Limits on Releases from Pigmented Plastic during Environmental Aging, In Food Contact, and by Leaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubauer, Nicole; Scifo, Lorette; Navratilova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    The life cycle of nanoscale pigments in plastics may cause environmental or human exposure by various release scenarios. We investigated spontaneous and induced release with mechanical stress during/after simulated sunlight and rain degradation of polyethylene (PE) with organic and inorganic...... pigments. Additionally, primary leaching in food contact and secondary leaching from nanocomposite fragments with an increased surface into environmental media was examined. Standardized protocols/methods for release sampling, detection, and characterization of release rate and form were applied......: Transformation of the bulk material was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray-tomography and Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR); releases were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), single-particle-ICP-MS (sp-ICP-MS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM...

  15. Tembaga (Cu Menurunkan Kandungan Pigmen dan Pertumbuhan Mikroalga Merah, Porphyridium cruentum (Effect of Copper on Pigments Content and Growth of Red Microalgae, Porphyridium cruentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hafiz Pranajaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Logam berat tembaga (Cu merupakan salah satu pencemar yang paling mengkhawatirkan di wilayah pesisir dan lautan. Berbagai metode telah banyak dikembangkan untuk mengatasi dan mengurangi pencemaran logam berat, baik secara fisika, kimia dan biologi. Masalah teknis dan biaya yang mahal menyebabkan manusia menggunakan cara biologis (bioremediasi. Salah satu diantaranya menggunakan mikroalga Porphyridium cruentum. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh tingkat konsentrasi logam berat Cu terhadap kandungan klorofil, pigmen fikobiliprotein dan pertumbuhan mikroalga P. cruentum. Bibit mikroalga diperoleh dari Balai Besar Pengembangan Budidaya Air Payau Situbondo. Rancangan penelitian menggunakan metode eksperimental laboratorium. Konsentrasi logam berat Cu yang digunakan adalah 0 ppm sebagai kontrol, 1, 2, 3  dan 4 ppm. Logam berat Cu dianalisa menggunakan AAS dan pigmen (klorofil dan fikobiliprotein menggunakan spektrofotometri UV-Vis.Hasil yang didapat menunjukkan bahwa logam berat Cu dengan konsentrasi yang berbeda memberikan pengaruh yang sangat nyata (P<0,01 terhadap kandungan pigmen (klorofil dan fikobiliprotein, BCF dan pengaruh nyata (P<0,05 terhadap laju pertumbuhan P. cruentum. Semakin tinggi logam berat Cu membuat laju pertumbuhan, kandungan pigmen (klorofil dan fikobiliprotein, dan BCF pada P. cruentum semakin menurun. Prosentase penyerapan logam berat Cu tertinggi sebesar  13,1 % (1 ppm, 8,2 % (2 ppm, 6,9 % (3 ppm, dan 2,6% (4 ppm. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa P. cruentum berpotensi sebagai bioremediator. Kata kunci: Porphyridium cruentum; pigmen; klorofil; fikobiliprotein; pertumbuhan; tembaga   Copper (Cu is one of heavy metals and the most pollutant at seawater ecosystem. Various methods have been developed to reduce heavy metal pollution with in physics, chemistry and biology method. Technical problems and high costs cause human use biological method (bioremediation. One of them used microalgae Porphyridium

  16. Biophotovoltaics: Natural pigments in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, Hubert; Bader, Michael; Mair, Peter; Glatzel, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Natural pigments are photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). • Efficiency is still lower compared to synthetic pigments. • The use of natural pigments such as carotenoids and polyphenols is cheap. • General advantages of DSSCs are flexibility, color and transparency. • Usage under diffuse light and therefore, indoor applications are possible. - Abstract: Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) which are also called Graetzel cells are a novel type of solar cells. Their advantages are mainly low cost production, low energy payback time, flexibility, performance also at diffuse light and multicolor options. DSSCs become more and more interesting since a huge variety of dyes including also natural dyes can be used as light harvesting elements which provide the charge carriers. A wide band gap semiconductor like TiO 2 is used for charge separation and transport. Such a DSSC contains similarities to the photosynthetic apparatus. Therefore, we summarize current available knowledge on natural dyes that have been used in DSSCs which should provide reasonable light harvesting efficiency, sustainability, low cost and easy waste management. Promising natural compounds are carotenoids, polyphenols and chlorophylls

  17. Update on pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Kingsley; Vinod, Kateki; Gedde, Steven J

    2017-03-01

    The present article reviews the clinical features and pathogenesis of pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma and provides an update regarding their diagnosis and management. Newer imaging modalities including ultrasound biomicroscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography facilitate visualization of the iris concavity characteristic of eyes with pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Patients with pigmentary glaucoma may be distinguished from those with other glaucoma types by the presence of typical symptoms, personality type, and patterns of diurnal intraocular pressure fluctuation. Although laser iridotomy has been shown to alter iris anatomy in pigmentary glaucoma, it is not proven to slow visual field progression. Multiple trials have validated the safety and efficacy of filtering surgery in treating pigmentary glaucoma, with fewer studies published on the role of micro-invasive glaucoma surgery. Literature from the review period has further defined the unique clinical characteristics of pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Laser surgery has a limited role in the management of these entities, whereas trabeculectomy remains an acceptable first-line surgical treatment. Further studies are needed to define the potential application of the newer micro-invasive glaucoma procedures in pigmentary glaucoma.

  18. Mechanisms of spectral tuning in the RH2 pigments of Tokay gecko and American chameleon

    OpenAIRE

    Takenaka, Naomi; Yokoyama, Shozo

    2007-01-01

    At present, molecular bases of spectral tuning in rhodopsin-like (RH2) pigments are not well understood. Here, we have constructed the RH2 pigments of nocturnal Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) and diurnal American chameleon (Anolis carolinensis) as well as chimeras between them. The RH2 pigments of the gecko and chameleon reconstituted with 11-cis-retinal had the wavelengths of maximal absorption (λmax’s) of 467 and 496 nm, respectively. Chimeric pigment analyses indicated that 76–86%, 14–24%, and ...

  19. A genome-wide, fine-scale map of natural pigmentation variation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héloïse Bastide

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Various approaches can be applied to uncover the genetic basis of natural phenotypic variation, each with their specific strengths and limitations. Here, we use a replicated genome-wide association approach (Pool-GWAS to fine-scale map genomic regions contributing to natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster, a trait that is highly variable in natural populations and highly heritable in the laboratory. We examined abdominal pigmentation phenotypes in approximately 8000 female European D. melanogaster, isolating 1000 individuals with extreme phenotypes. We then used whole-genome Illumina sequencing to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs segregating in our sample, and tested these for associations with pigmentation by contrasting allele frequencies between replicate pools of light and dark individuals. We identify two small regions near the pigmentation genes tan and bric-à-brac 1, both corresponding to known cis-regulatory regions, which contain SNPs showing significant associations with pigmentation variation. While the Pool-GWAS approach suffers some limitations, its cost advantage facilitates replication and it can be applied to any non-model system with an available reference genome.

  20. A genome-wide, fine-scale map of natural pigmentation variation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastide, Héloïse; Betancourt, Andrea; Nolte, Viola; Tobler, Raymond; Stöbe, Petra; Futschik, Andreas; Schlötterer, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Various approaches can be applied to uncover the genetic basis of natural phenotypic variation, each with their specific strengths and limitations. Here, we use a replicated genome-wide association approach (Pool-GWAS) to fine-scale map genomic regions contributing to natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster, a trait that is highly variable in natural populations and highly heritable in the laboratory. We examined abdominal pigmentation phenotypes in approximately 8000 female European D. melanogaster, isolating 1000 individuals with extreme phenotypes. We then used whole-genome Illumina sequencing to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) segregating in our sample, and tested these for associations with pigmentation by contrasting allele frequencies between replicate pools of light and dark individuals. We identify two small regions near the pigmentation genes tan and bric-à-brac 1, both corresponding to known cis-regulatory regions, which contain SNPs showing significant associations with pigmentation variation. While the Pool-GWAS approach suffers some limitations, its cost advantage facilitates replication and it can be applied to any non-model system with an available reference genome.

  1. Water‐soluble red pigments from Isaria farinosa and structural characterization of the main colored component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Lee, Yong Hoon; Nanthakumar, Kuppanan

    2010-01-01

    darkness, sucrose and glucose as carbon source, yeast extract, meat peptone and monosodium glutamate at a fixed concentration of 3% as nitrogen source. The addition of 10 mM CaCl2 to the culture medium increased the biomass and pigment production. Structural elucidation of the pigment using gas...... commercial importance in the production of Isaria farinosa pigment for industrial application after considerable toxicological examination. (© 2010 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)......The present study describes the red pigment synthesized by the filamentous fungi Isaria farinosa under submerged culture conditions. The pigment production was optimal under the following conditions: pH 5, agitation speed 150 rpm, temperature 27 °C, incubation time 192 h, light source total...

  2. Melanin targeting for intracellular drug delivery: Quantification of bound and free drug in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpelä, Anna-Kaisa; Hagström, Marja; Kidron, Heidi; Urtti, Arto

    2018-05-31

    Melanin binding affects drug distribution and retention in pigmented ocular tissues, thereby affecting drug response, duration of activity and toxicity. Therefore, it is a promising possibility for drug targeting and controlled release in the pigmented cells and tissues. Intracellular unbound drug concentrations determine pharmacological and toxicological actions, but analyses of unbound vs. total drug concentrations in pigmented cells are lacking. We studied intracellular binding and cellular drug uptake in pigmented retinal pigment epithelial cells and in non-pigmented ARPE-19 cells with five model drugs (chloroquine, propranolol, timolol, diclofenac, methotrexate). The unbound drug fractions in pigmented cells were 0.00016-0.73 and in non-pigmented cells 0.017-1.0. Cellular uptake (i.e. distribution ratio Kp), ranged from 1.3 to 6300 in pigmented cells and from 1.0 to 25 in non-pigmented cells. Values for intracellular bioavailability, F ic , were similar in both cells types (although larger variation in pigmented cells). In vitro melanin binding parameters were used to predict intracellular unbound drug fraction and cell uptake. Comparison of predictions with experimental data indicates that other factors (e.g. ion-trapping, lipophilicity-related binding to other cell components) also play a role. Melanin binding is a major factor that leads to cellular uptake and unbound drug fractions of a range of 3-4 orders of magnitude indicating that large reservoirs of melanin bound drug can be generated in the cells. Understanding melanin binding has important implications on retinal drug targeting, efficacy and toxicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Crystal Engineering on Industrial Diaryl Pigments Using Lattice Energy Minimizations and X-ray Powder Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Dinnebier, R.; Kalkhof, H.

    2007-01-01

    Diaryl azo pigments play an important role as yellow pigments for printing inks, with an annual pigment production of more than 50,000 t. The crystal structures of Pigment Yellow 12 (PY12), Pigment Yellow 13 (PY13), Pigment Yellow 14 (PY14), and Pigment Yellow 83 (PY83) were determined from X-ray powder data using lattice energy minimizations and subsequent Rietveld refinements. Details of the lattice energy minimization procedure and of the development of a torsion potential for the biphenyl fragment are given. The Rietveld refinements were carried out using rigid bodies, or constraints. It was also possible to refine all atomic positions individually without any constraint or restraint, even for PY12 having 44 independent non-hydrogen atoms per asymmetric unit. For PY14 (23 independent non-hydrogen atoms), additionally all atomic isotropic temperature factors could be refined individually. PY12 crystallized in a herringbone arrangement with twisted biaryl fragments. PY13 and PY14 formed a layer structure of planar molecules. PY83 showed a herringbone structure with planar molecules. According to quantum mechanical calculations, the twisting of the biaryl fragment results in a lower color strength of the pigments, whereas changes in the substitution pattern have almost no influence on the color strength of a single molecule. Hence, the experimentally observed lower color strength of PY12 in comparison with that of PY13 and PY83 can be explained as a pure packing effect. Further lattice energy calculations explained that the four investigated pigments crystallize in three different structures because these structures are the energetically most favorable ones for each compound. For example, for PY13, PY14, or PY83, a PY12-analogous crystal structure would lead to considerably poorer lattice energies and lower densities. In contrast, lattice energy calculations revealed that PY12 could adopt a PY13-type structure with only slightly poorer energy. This structure was

  4. Retrieval of foliar information about plant pigment systems from high resolution spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ustin, S.L.; Gitelson, A.A.; Jacquemoud, S.; Schaepman, M.E.; Asner, G.P.; Gamon, J.A.; Zarco-Tejada, P.

    2009-01-01

    Life on Earth depends on photosynthesis. Photosynthetic systems evolved early in Earth history and have been stable for 2.5 billion years, providing prima facie evidence for the significance of pigments in plant functions. Photosynthetic pigments fill multiple roles from increasing the range of

  5. Methods and principles of pigment dispersing to maximize ink opacity and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Four classes of oligomers were evaluated for their pigment dispersing capabilities. These include and aliphatic urethanes, epoxy acrylates, polyesters and a novel class of acrylated resins. This will show that surface tension and chemical structure are major factors influencing pigment and final ink performance properties

  6. Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis for differential diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. V. Filonenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-invasive diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions by spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis (SIA-scopy using device for dermatoscopy (SIAscope V by Astron Clinica, Ltd was approved in P.A.Herzen Moscow Cancer Research Institute. The method is based on analysis of light interaction with wavelength of 440–960 nm anf human skin, which is recorded by change of image on scan. The comparative analysis of SIA-scopy and histological data in 327 pigmented skin lesions in 147 patients showed, that SIA had high diagnostic efficiency for cutaneous melanoma: the sensitivity was 96%, specifity – 94%, diagnostic accuracy – 94%. For study of malignant potential of pigmented lesions by SIA-scopy the most informative capacity was obtained for assessment of melanin in papillary dermis, status of blood vessels and collagen fibres (SIA-scans 3, 4, 5.

  7. Influence of intra-pigment vibrations on dynamics of photosynthetic exciton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoshihiro; Doolittle, Brian

    2014-11-14

    We have numerically investigated the effect of an underdamped intra-pigment vibrational mode on an exciton's quantum coherence and energy transfer efficiency. Our model describes a bacteriochlorophyll a pigment-protein dimer under the conditions at which photosynthetic energy transfer occurs. The dimer is modeled using a theoretical treatment of a vibronic exciton, and its dynamics are numerically analyzed using a non-Markovian and non-perturbative method. We examined the system's response to various values of the Huang-Rhys factor, site energy difference, reorganization energy, and reorganization energy difference. We found that the inclusion of the intra-pigment vibronic mode allows for long-lived oscillatory quantum coherences to occur. This excitonic coherence is robust against static site-energy disorder. The vibrational mode also promotes exciton transfer along the site-energy landscape thus improving the overall energy transfer efficiency.

  8. Influence of intra-pigment vibrations on dynamics of photosynthetic exciton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshihiro; Doolittle, Brian

    2014-01-01

    We have numerically investigated the effect of an underdamped intra-pigment vibrational mode on an exciton's quantum coherence and energy transfer efficiency. Our model describes a bacteriochlorophyll a pigment-protein dimer under the conditions at which photosynthetic energy transfer occurs. The dimer is modeled using a theoretical treatment of a vibronic exciton, and its dynamics are numerically analyzed using a non-Markovian and non-perturbative method. We examined the system's response to various values of the Huang-Rhys factor, site energy difference, reorganization energy, and reorganization energy difference. We found that the inclusion of the intra-pigment vibronic mode allows for long-lived oscillatory quantum coherences to occur. This excitonic coherence is robust against static site-energy disorder. The vibrational mode also promotes exciton transfer along the site-energy landscape thus improving the overall energy transfer efficiency

  9. Influence of intra-pigment vibrations on dynamics of photosynthetic exciton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yoshihiro, E-mail: sato.yoshihiro77@nihon-u.ac.jp, E-mail: ysato.colby@gmail.com; Doolittle, Brian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colby College, Waterville, Maine 04901 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    We have numerically investigated the effect of an underdamped intra-pigment vibrational mode on an exciton's quantum coherence and energy transfer efficiency. Our model describes a bacteriochlorophyll a pigment-protein dimer under the conditions at which photosynthetic energy transfer occurs. The dimer is modeled using a theoretical treatment of a vibronic exciton, and its dynamics are numerically analyzed using a non-Markovian and non-perturbative method. We examined the system's response to various values of the Huang-Rhys factor, site energy difference, reorganization energy, and reorganization energy difference. We found that the inclusion of the intra-pigment vibronic mode allows for long-lived oscillatory quantum coherences to occur. This excitonic coherence is robust against static site-energy disorder. The vibrational mode also promotes exciton transfer along the site-energy landscape thus improving the overall energy transfer efficiency.

  10. Zidovudine-induced nail pigmentation in a 12-year-old boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawre, Sanjeevani M.; Pore, Shraddha M.; Nandeshwar, Manish B.; Masood, Nausheen M.

    2012-01-01

    Zidovudine is an important component of first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens used to manage pediatric HIV. Nail pigmentation with zidovudine is a well-documented occurrence in adults, especially dark-skinned individuals. But it has so far not been reported in children. Here, we report a pediatric case of zidovudine-induced nail pigmentation. A 12-year-old boy receiving ART with zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine presented to dermatology OPD with complaint of diffuse bluish-brown discoloration of all fingernails. The pigmentation was noticed by the patient after 3 months of initiating zidovudine-based regimen. It first appeared in thumb nails, gradually involved all fingernails, and increased in intensity over time. Though harmless and reversible, psychological aspects of this noticeable side effect may hamper adherence to therapy and may lead to unnecessary investigations and treatment for misdiagnosis such as cyanosis or melanoma. PMID:23248416

  11. Smart textile framework: Photochromic and fluorescent cellulosic fabric printed by strontium aluminate pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Tawfik A; Rehan, Mohamed; Hamouda, Tamer

    2018-09-01

    Smart clothing can be defined as textiles that respond to a certain stimulus accompanied by a change in their properties. A specific class herein is the photochromic and fluorescent textiles that change color with light. A photochromic and fluorescent cotton fabric based on pigment printing is obtained. Such fabric is prepared by aqueous-based pigment-binder printing formulation containing inorganic pigment phosphor characterized by good photo- and thermal stability. It exhibits optimal excitation wavelength (365 nm) results in color and fluorescence change of the fabric surface. To prepare the transparent pigment-binder composite film, the phosphor pigment must be well-dispersed via physical immobilization without their aggregation. The pigment-binder paste is applied successfully onto cotton fabric using screen printing technique followed by thermal fixation. After screen-printing, a homogenous photochromic film is assembled on a cotton substrate surface, which represents substantial greenish-yellow color development as indicated by CIE Lab color space measurements under ultraviolet light, even at a pigment concentration of 0.08 wt% of the printing paste. The photochromic cotton fabric exhibit three excitation peaks at 272, 325 and 365 nm and three emission peaks at 418, 495 and 520 nm. The fluorescent optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, elemental mapping, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, fluorescence emission and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopic data of the printed cotton fabric are described. The printed fabric showed a reversible and rapid photochromic response during ultra-violet excitation without fatigue. The fastness properties including washing, crocking, perspiration, sublimation/heat, and light are described. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sulfate as a pivotal factor in regulation of Serratia sp. strain S2B pigment biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegari, Banafsheh; Karbalaei-Heidari, Hamid Reza

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, we investigated the prodiginine family as secondary metabolite members. Bacterial strain S2B, with the ability to produce red pigment, was isolated from the Sarcheshmeh copper mine in Iran. 16S rDNA gene sequencing revealed that the strain was placed in the Serratia genus. Pigment production was optimized using low-cost culture medium and the effects of various physicochemical factors were studied via statistical approaches. Purification of the produced pigment by silica gel column chromatography showed a strong red pigment fraction and a weaker orange band. Mass spectrometry, FT-IR spectroscopy and (1)H NMR analysis revealed that the red pigment was prodigiosin and the orange band was a prodigiosin-like analog, with molecular weights of 323 and 317 Da, respectively. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity studies confirmed their membership in the prodiginine family. Analysis of the production pattern of the pigments in the presence of different concentrations of ammonium salts revealed the role of sulfate as an important factor in regulation of the pigment biosynthesis pathway. Overall, the data showed that regulation of the pigment biosynthesis pathway in Serratia sp. strain S2B was affected by inorganic micronutrients, particularly the sulfate ions. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering for marine carotenoids: new opportunities and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won

    2014-09-17

    Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations.

  14. Improvement of Dispersion and Color Effect of Organic Pigments in Polymeric Films via Microencapsulation by the Miniemulsion Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongming Qi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three primary pigment/poly(n-butyl acrylate-co-styrene (P(BA+St nanocomposites were prepared via encapsulation of the corresponding organic pigments via the miniemulsion technique. The resulting latexes of the P(BA+St/pigment nanocomposites were filmed in a PTFE mould or printed onto cotton fabric. The morphology of the P(BA+St/pigment nanocomposites and the dispersion of pigment particles in the latex film and on the printed fabric surface, as well as the adhesion between pigment and adhesive film, were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, 3D digital microscope system (3D-POM, and printing results tests. Attributing to the preprotection of adhesive polymer shell, the self-adhesive P(BA+St/pigment nanocomposites were homogeneously and firmly dispersed both in the thin latex film and in the adhesive layer on the fiber surface. As a result, the color strength, color fastness, and handle of the fabrics printed by the P(BA+St/pigment nanocomposites latex were significantly improved, compared to the fabrics printed by the conventional pigment blended latex.

  15. Water permeability of pigmented waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Erich, S.J.F.; Reuvers, N.J.W.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Coatings are used in a variety of applications. Last decades more and more coating systems are transforming from solvent to waterborne coating systems. In this study the influence of pigments on the water permeability of a waterborne coating system is studied, with special interest in the possible

  16. Corrosion resistance of flaky aluminum pigment coated with cerium oxides/hydroxides in chloride and acidic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niroumandrad, S.; Rostami, M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance the corrosion resistance of lamellar aluminum pigment through surface treatment by cerium oxides/hydroxides. The surface composition of the pigments was studied by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corrosion resistance of the pigment was evaluated by conventional hydrogen evolution measurements in acidic solution and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed that the Ce-rich coating composed of Ce2O3 and CeO2 was precipitated on the pigment surface after immersion in the cerium solution. The corrosion resistance of pigment was significantly enhanced after modification with cerium layer.

  17. Kingfisher feathers - colouration by pigments, spongy nanostructures and thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Tinbergen, Jan; Leertouwer, Hein L.; Wilts, Bodo D.

    2011-01-01

    The colours of the common kingfisher, Alcedo atthis, reside in the barbs of the three main types of feather: the orange breast feathers, the cyan back feathers and the blue tail feathers. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the orange barbs contain small pigment granules. The cyan and blue barbs contain spongy nanostructures with slightly different dimensions, causing different reflectance spectra. Imaging scatterometry showed that the pigmented barbs create a diffuse orange scattering a...

  18. Pigmentation and temporal effects on trace elements in hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aufreiter, S.; Hancock, R.G.V.

    1990-01-01

    Variations in trace element concentration in the head and facial hair of five individuals with ever-increasing amounts of white hair were examined. Hair was collected from the scalp, cheeks, and chin from one donor on a regular basis since 1984. Samples were separated into white and pigmented fractions, and analyzed at SLOWPOKE-Toronto by INAA for the short-lived, isotope-producing elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, I, Mg, Mn, Na, S, and Zn. Temporal concentration variations of these elements over time, and variations of the elemental concentrations in pigmented and white hair were established

  19. Comparison of chemical changes during photooxidation of polypropylene film and filament containing phthalocyanine pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Z.; Haghighat Kish, M.; Kotak, R.; Katbab, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Photooxidation as an important process, which significantly affects the service life of the polypropylene products, has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental study. Pigments used often change the light stabilities of polypropylene. Out-door applications of pigmented polypropylene are now increasingly developed in products such as artificial grass. The aim of this work is to examine the effect of photo-oxidation on the structure of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) in film and filament forms, where phthalocyanine pigment is used. For production of films and filaments, iPP granules with MFI 25 g/10 min were used, with and without phthalocyanine pigment. Samples were exposed to xenon lamp for various time lengths. The extent of the changes in chemical and structural parameters was examined by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and wide angle x-ray diffraction. The results show that carbonyl and hydroperoxide indices increase during the exposure to the radiation. The changes in melting points of the samples were not significant after irradiation process. The effects of phthalocyanine pigment in the photooxidation of film and filament were different. Crystalline fractions of the non-pigmented filament samples decreased during the irradiation time while increased in film samples. Build up of hydroperoxide and carbonyl group in filament was higher than in film samples; that could be due to the differences in structural parameters. Crystallinity variations during photooxidation are related to the nucleation effect of the pigment, chemical crystallization and phase transformation

  20. Comparison of Chemical Changes During Photooxidation of Polypropylene Film and Filament Containing Phthalocyanine Pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ahmadi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Photooxidation as an important process, which significantly affects the service life of the polypropylene products, has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental study. Pigments used often change the light stabilities of polypropylene. Out-door applications of pigmented polypr-opylene are now increasingly developed in products such as artificial grass. The aim of this work is to examine the effect of photo-oxidation on the structure of isotactic polypropylene (iPP in film and filament forms, where phthalocyanine pigment is used. For production of films and filaments, iPP granules with MFI 25 g/10min were used, with and without phthalocyanine pigment. Samples were exposed to xenon lamp for various time lengths. The extent of the changes in chemical and structural parameters was examined by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and wide angle x-ray diffraction. The results show that carbonyl and hydroperoxide indices increase during the exposure to the radiation. The changes in melting points of the samples were not significant after irradiation process. The effects of phthalocyanine pigment in the photooxidation of filmand filament were different. Crystalline fractions of the non-pigmented filament samples decreased during the irradiation time while increased in film samples. Build up of hydroperoxide and carbonyl group in filament was higher than in film samples; that could be due to the differences in structural parameters. Crystallinity variations during photooxidation are related to the nucleation effect of the pigment, chemical crystallization and phase transformation.

  1. Effect of submerged and solid-state fermentation on pigment and citrinin production by Monascus purpureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Li, Zhiqiang; Dai, Bing; Zhang, Wenxue; Yuan, Yongjun

    2013-09-01

    Monascus pigments, which are produced by various species of Monascus, often have been used as a natural colourant and as traditional natural food additives, especially in Southern China, Japan and Southeastern Asia. The limitation of wide using Monascus pigment is attributed to one of its secondary metabolites named citrinin. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pigment and citrinin production via submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SF) from rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Monascus purpureus AS3.531. The optimal fermentation temperature and pH were significantly different for pigment production through different fermentation mode (35 °C, pH 5.0 for SF and 32 °C, pH 5.5 for SmF, respectively). Adding 2% (w/v) of glycerol in the medium could enhance the pigment production. On the optimized condition, although the concentration of citrinin produced by SmF (19.02 ug/g) increased more than 100 times than that by SF (0.018 ug/g), the pigment yield by SmF (7.93 U/g/g) could be comparable to that by SF (6.63 U/g/g). Those indicate us that fermentation mode seems to be the primary factor which influence the citrinin yield and secondary factor for pigment production.

  2. Dissimilar pigment regulation in Serpula lacrymans and Paxillus involutus during inter-kingdom interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauber, James P.; Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ramses; Kovács, Ákos T.

    2018-01-01

    Production of basidiomycete atromentin-derived pigments like variegatic acid (pulvinic acid-type) and involutin (diarylcyclopentenone) from the brown-rotter Serpula lacrymans and the ectomycorrhiza-forming Paxillus involutus, respectively, is induced by complex nutrition, and in the case of S...... of Bacillus subtilis, but did not kill B. subtilis. We suggest that dissimilar pigment regulation by fungal lifestyle was a consequence of pigment bioactivity and additional promoter motifs. The focus on basidiomycete natural product gene induction and regulation will assist in future studies to determine....... lacrymans, bacteria. Pigmentation in S. lacrymans was stimulated by 13 different bacteria and cell-wall-damaging enzymes (lytic enzymes and proteases), but not by lysozyme or mechanical damage. The use of protease inhibitors with Bacillus subtilis or heat-killed bacteria during co-culturing with S...

  3. Isolation and Partial Characterization of the Pink and Blue Pigments of Pocilloporid and Acroporid Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, S G; Takabayashi, M; Hoegh-Guldberg, O

    1995-12-01

    The compounds responsible for the pink and blue colors of two families of hermatypic corals (Pocilloporidae, Acroporidae) from the southern Great Barrier Reef were isolated and biochemically characterized. Isolation of the pink pigment from Pocillopora damicornis (named pocilloporin, {lambda}max = 560 nm, 390 nm) revealed that it was a hydrophilic protein dimer with a native molecular weight of approximately 54 kD and subunits of 28 kD. The subunits are not linked by disulfide bonds. Attempts to dissociate the chromophore from the protein proved unsuccessful. Denaturing the protein with heat (60{deg}C) or 5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) removed the 560-nm absorbance peak without introducing a detectable bathochromic shift. In acetone, ethanol, ether, and chloroform, the pigment precipitates out of solution, leaving a colorless supernatant. These properties suggest that the protein and chromophore are covalently linked. Ion analysis revealed that the pigment does not have metal ions chelated to it. Coral pigments were also isolated from pink morphs of other pocilloporids, Seriatopora hystrix ({lambda}max = 560 nm) and Stylophora pistillata ({lambda}max = 560 nm); and from bluish regions of the acroporids, Acropora formosa (blue; {lambda}max = 590 nm) and Acropora digitifera (purple; {lambda}max = 580 nm). With the exception of A. formosa, all the corals examined had pigments with the same native (54 kD) and subunit (28 kD) molecular weights as those of P. damicornis. A. formosa pigment has a native molecular weight of about 82.6 kD and three subunits of 28 kD. The pigments isolated from each of these coral species have properties similar to those described for P. damicornis. Isolation and biochemical purification of the pigment enabled the exploration of the function of the pink pigment. Three possibilities were eliminated. The compound does not act as (i) a photoprotectant for shielding the photosynthetic pigments of symbiotic zooxanthellae against excessive

  4. Importance of Selecting Appropriate Wavelength, While Quantifying Growth and Production of Quorum Sensing Regulated Pigments in Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Chinmayi; Kothari, Vijay; Patel, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Pigment production is regulated by quorum-sensing (QS) in certain bacteria which are being widely used as model organisms in different QS labs. This paper emphasizes importance of selecting an appropriate wavelength for quantification of bacterial growth and pigmentation. While screening different natural/synthetic preparations for their possible QSmodulating potential, it becomes very much necessary to establish that the observed effect is truly QS-associated, and not falsely inflated owing to inaccurate quantification of bacterial cell density/ pigment intensity. Pigments were extracted in suitable organic solvents, whereas quantification of bacterial growth and extracted pigments was done photometrically. Findings reported in this paper, suggest that while quantifying cell density in a pigmented bacterial suspension, such a wavelength (e.g. 764 nm) should be selected at which pigment interference is either absent or minimum. Additionally, importance of appropriate dilution of the bacterial cell suspensions, prior to photometric measurement has been highlighted. This work indicates that while working with pigmented bacteria, it is important to pay attention to the absorption spectrum of the pigment(s) involved, and also to dilute the dense bacterial suspensions appropriately prior to measuring optical density, so as to avoid any major deviation of OD from the proportionality to the cell density. Besides presenting the experimental data in this paper, patents regarding measurement of cell growth, as well as those indicating the potential of commercialization of various aspects of QS research have been mentioned.

  5. An evaluation of water deficit tolerance screening in pigmented indica rice genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chutipaijit, S.; Sompornpailin, K.

    2011-01-01

    Eight pigmented genotypes of indica subspecies were geminated and then treated by mannitol-induced water deficit stress. A change of growth characteristics, photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, DNA content, proline content and anthocyanin accumulation in stressed seedling (100 mM mannitol) and control plant (0 mM mannitol) were calculated. Growth performances, photosynthetic pigment concentrations , and DNA contents in all rice genotypes were dropped whereas proline, anthocyanin contents and the lipid peroxidation levels were enriched. The stabilization in total photosynthetic pigment concentrations of stressed-seedlings were positively correlated to the proline or anthocyanin accumulation. In contrast, MDA content, the increases in the percentages of drought-stressed seedlings were negatively correlated to the proline or anthocyanin accumulation. The changes in biochemical, physiological and growth parameters were subjected to Wards cluster analysis for water deficit tolerance. These cultivars could be classified into two groups, water deficit sensitive, SY, KD, KLD and TD49 and water deficit tolerance, KS, KK1, KK2 and BSR. (author)

  6. 75 FR 13257 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of the Expedited Five-year (Sunset) Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ...) and finished pigment in the form of presscake and dry color. Pigment dispersions in any form (e.g... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-533-839] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... countervailing duty (CVD) order on Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 (CVP-23) [[Page 13258

  7. Chemometric classification of pigmented rice varieties based on antioxidative properties in relation to color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaiwan Pramai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The pigmented Thai rice varieties including red and black color and non-pigmented rice (white collected from different growth sites in the north of Thailand and were determined for color and antioxidant properties. Anthocyanins were the major compound in group of black rice (21.15-441.96 mg/100 g rice. Total phenolic, flavonoid, and -tocopherol contents were highest in the black rice followed by red rice and antioxidant capacities were predominant in pigmented varieties. Black rice grown in mountainous area presented the highest antioxidant activity compared to the other growing locations. The color parameters, especially L* value presented the negative correlations with antioxidant parameters, while the antioxidant contents, excepted -oryzanol content had significant correlation with antioxidant capacities. Pigmented rice varieties could be clearly classified into 4 groups using PCA and HCA, which provided a good indicator to classify pigmented rice varieties based on color and antioxidative properties.

  8. Cone pigment polymorphism in New World monkeys: are all pigments created equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Mickey P; Jacobs, Gerald H

    2004-01-01

    Most platyrrhine monkeys have a triallelic M/L opsin gene polymorphism that underlies significant individual variations in color vision. A survey of the frequencies of these polymorphic genes suggests that the three alleles occur with equal frequency among squirrel monkeys (subfamily Cebinae), but are not equally frequent in a number of species from the subfamily Callitrichinae. This departure from equal frequency in the Callitrichids should slightly increase the ratio of dichromats to trichromats in the population and significantly alter the relative representation of the three possible dichromatic and trichromatic phenotypes. A particular feature of the inequality is that it leads to a relative increase in the number of trichromats whose M/L pigments have the largest possible spectral separation. To assess whether these trichromatic phenotypes are equally well equipped to make relevant visual discriminations, psychophysical experiments were run on human observers. A technique involving the functional substitution of photopigments was used to simulate the discrimination between fruits among a background of leaves. The goal of the simulation was to reproduce in the cones of human observers excitations equivalent to those produced in monkey cones as the animals view fruit. Three different viewing conditions were examined involving variations in the relative luminances of fruit and leaves and the spectrum of the illuminant. In all cases, performance was best for simulated trichromacies including M/L pigments with the largest spectral separation. Thus, the inequality of opsin gene frequency in Callitrichid monkeys may reflect adaptive pressures.

  9. Standard guidelines of care: Lasers for tattoos and pigmented lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurangabadkar Sanjeev

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lasers have revolutionized the treatment of pigmentary disorders and have become the mainstay of therapy for many of them. Machines: Though different laser machines are used, Quality-switched (QS lasers are considered as the gold standard for treatment of pigmented lesions. Proper knowledge of the physics of laser machine, methodology, dosage schedules, etc., is mandatory. Physician Qualification: Laser may be administered by a dermatologist, who has received adequate background training in lasers during postgraduation or later at a center that provides education and training in lasers, or in focused workshops which provide such trainings. He should have adequate knowledge of the machines, parameters, cooling systems, and aftercare. Facility: The procedure may be performed in the physician′s minor procedure room. Indications: Epidermal lesions: Cafι au lait macules (CALM, lentigines, freckles, solar lentigo, nevus spilus, pigmented seborrheic keratosis, dermatosis papulosa nigra (DPN. Dermal lesions: Nevus of Ota, Blue nevus, Hori′s nevus (acquired bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules. Tattoos: Amateur, professional, cosmetic, medicinal, and traumatic. Mixed epidermal and dermal lesions: Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH, nevus spilus, periorbital and perioral pigmentation, acquired melanocytic nevi (moles, melasma and Becker′s Nevus. Contraindications: Absolute: Active local infection, photo-aggravated skin diseases and medical conditions, tattoo granuloma, allergic reactions to tattoo pigment, unstable vitiligo and psoriasis. Relative: Keloid and keloidal tendencies, patient on isotretinoin, history of herpes simplex, patient who is not co-operative or has unrealistic expectation. Patient selection: Proper patient selection is important. Investigations to identify any underlying cause for pigmentation are important; concurrent topical and systemic drug therapy may be needed. History of scarring, response to previous

  10. Quantitative X-ray analysis of pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, M. Marrocos de

    1987-01-01

    The 'matrix-flushing' and the 'adiabatic principle' methods have been applied for the quantitative analysis through X-ray diffraction patterns of pigments and extenders mixtures, frequently used in paint industry. The results obtained have shown the usefulness of these methods, but still ask for improving their accuracy. (Author) [pt

  11. A quest for the best retinal pigment epithelium (stem) cell replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennis, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis the focus of study lies on the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a monolayer of pigmented cells that lie underneath the photoreceptors (PR). The PR are specialized type of neurons that are capable of converting the incoming light into electric and neurochemical signals to the brain.

  12. Electrochemical assessing corrosion inhibiting effects of zinc aluminum polyphosphate (ZAPP) as a modified zinc phosphate pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderi, R.; Attar, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Undesirable anti-corrosion performance of zinc phosphate pigment, the classical chromate replacement, has led researchers to take modification into account. Polyphosphate-based anti-corrosion pigments as a result of modification of zinc orthophosphate have been found to function much more efficiently. This study aimed to evaluate performance of steel samples immersed in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution-containing zinc aluminum polyphosphate (ZAPP) pigment extract compared to those involving conventional zinc phosphate (ZP) pigment extract and also no pigment (blank) using electrochemical tests such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and linear polarization (LP) as well as surface analysis. Impedance spectra and polarization curves revealed two different trends, showing the superiority of ZAPP pigment. Based on the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), presence of a precipitated layer on the surface was confirmed when steel sample was immersed into the solution-containing ZAPP

  13. Solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of pigments of red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiktusnádi Kiss, G A; Forgács, E; Cserháti, T; Candeias, M; Vilas-Boas, L; Bronze, R; Spranger, I

    2000-08-11

    The adsorption and desorption capacities of 11 different solid-phase extraction sorbents were tested for the preconcenration of pigments of various Hungarian red wines. The concentrates were evaluated by multiwavelengh spectrophotometry combined with a spectral mapping technique (SPM) and by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The highest (10-fold) concentration of pigments was achieved on octadecylsilica sorbent. It can be used five times without losing adsorption and desorption characteristics. SPM indicated that multiwavelength spectrophotometry can be employed for the differentiation of red wines. Comparison of the chromatograms of pigments with and without preconcentration showed that preconcentration makes possible the separation and detection of pigments present in low concentration in red wines.

  14. A new quantitative evaluation method for age-related changes of individual pigmented spots in facial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, K; Masuda, Y; Yamashita, T; Sato, K; Katagiri, C; Hirao, T; Mizokami, Y; Yaguchi, H

    2016-08-01

    Facial skin pigmentation is one of the most prominent visible features of skin aging and often affects perception of health and beauty. To date, facial pigmentation has been evaluated using various image analysis methods developed for the cosmetic and esthetic fields. However, existing methods cannot provide precise information on pigmented spots, such as variations in size, color shade, and distribution pattern. The purpose of this study is the development of image evaluation methods to analyze individual pigmented spots and acquire detailed information on their age-related changes. To characterize the individual pigmented spots within a cheek image, we established a simple object-counting algorithm. First, we captured cheek images using an original imaging system equipped with an illumination unit and a high-resolution digital camera. The acquired images were converted into melanin concentration images using compensation formulae. Next, the melanin images were converted into binary images. The binary images were then subjected to noise reduction. Finally, we calculated parameters such as the melanin concentration, quantity, and size of individual pigmented spots using a connected-components labeling algorithm, which assigns a unique label to each separate group of connected pixels. The cheek image analysis was evaluated on 643 female Japanese subjects. We confirmed that the proposed method was sufficiently sensitive to measure the melanin concentration, and the numbers and sizes of individual pigmented spots through manual evaluation of the cheek images. The image analysis results for the 643 Japanese women indicated clear relationships between age and the changes in the pigmented spots. We developed a new quantitative evaluation method for individual pigmented spots in facial skin. This method facilitates the analysis of the characteristics of various pigmented facial spots and is directly applicable to the fields of dermatology, pharmacology, and esthetic

  15. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    One of the most serious ecological problems is muta- ... UV irradiation mutagenesis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC-. 124 .... certain balance between the pigment content in the algal ... is bombarded with the full brunt of solar UV (ultraviolet).

  16. Distribution of Pink-Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophs on Leaves of Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    MIZUNO, Masayuki; YURIMOTO, Hiroya; YOSHIDA, Naoko; IGUCHI, Hiroyuki; SAKAI, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFMs) on the leaves of various vegetables was studied. All kinds of vegetable leaves tested gave pink-pigmented colonies on agar plates containing methanol as sole carbon source. The numbers of PPFMs on the leaves, colony-forming units (CFU)/g of fresh leaves, differed among the plants, although they were planted and grown at the same farm. Commercial green perilla, Perilla frutescens viridis (Makino) Makino, gave the highest coun...

  17. Improved analysis of Monascus pigments based on their pH-sensitive UV-Vis absorption and reactivity properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kan; Chen, Gong; Pistolozzi, Marco; Xia, Fenggeng; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-09-01

    Monascus pigments, a mixture of azaphilones mainly composed of red, orange and yellow pigments, are usually prepared in aqueous ethanol and analysed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The pH of aqueous ethanol used during sample preparation and analysis has never been considered a key parameter to control; however, this study shows that the UV-Vis spectra and colour characteristics of the six major pigments are strongly influenced by the pH of the solvent employed. In addition, the increase of solvent pH results in a remarkable increase of the amination reaction of orange pigments with amino compounds, and at higher pH (≥ 6.0) a significant amount of orange pigment derivatives rapidly form. The consequent impact of these pH-sensitive properties on pigment analysis is further discussed. Based on the presented results, we propose that the sample preparation and analysis of Monascus pigments should be uniformly performed at low pH (≤ 2.5) to avoid variations of UV-Vis spectra and the creation of artefacts due to the occurrence of amination reactions, and ensure an accurate analysis that truly reflects pigment characteristics in the samples.

  18. Chemical research on red pigments after adverse reactions to tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaro, A; Toniolo, C; Giulianelli, V; Serafini, M; Persechino, S

    2016-03-01

    Currently, the incidence of tattooing is on the rise compared to the past, especially among adolescents, and it leads to the urgency of monitoring the security status of tattooing centers, as well as to inform people about the risks of tattoo practice. In our clinical experience, 20% of tattooed patients presented adverse reactions, like allergic contact dermatitis, psoriasis with Koebner's phenomena and granulomatous reactions, with the latter most prevalent and most often related to red pigment. Adverse reactions to tattoo pigments, especially the red one, are well known and described in literature. Great attention has to be focused on the pigments used, especially for the presence of new substances, often not well known. For this reason, we decided to perform a study on 12 samples of red tattoo ink, obtained by patients affected by different cutaneous reactions in the site of tattoo, to analyze their chemical composition.

  19. Changes in the state of carotenoid pigments during greening of etiolated barley seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilova, S.

    1974-01-01

    Changes in the metabolism of carotenoid pigments during greening of etiolated barley seedlings have been studied. The experiments were carried out with six-day-old etiolated plants, having a well-developed first leaf, grown on 1/2 Knop nutrient solution. The plants were illuminated with light, 10 000 lux intensity. Samples for analysis were taken at nil, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 hours. The extraction of the pigments was effected with the aid of the fractionation method according to Chernomorski and Sapozhnikov. The specific radioactivity of the individual carotenoid pigments was measured. To this end the plants were placed on a solution of sodium acetate ( 14 C) for 18 hours before illumination. The radiochemical purification of the pigments was carried out on an aluminium oxide column, after their chromatographic separation on paper. The results obtained from the experiments show that the illumination of the plants leads to a 2.4-fold increase in the total amount of carotenoids. The amount of the carotene increases approximately about 8 times over a 24-hour period and that of the xanthophylles - almost two times. A rhythm is observed in the formation of lutein and violaxanthin, which is discussed in connection with the participation of these pigments in the formation and the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus. The data on the changes in the state of the individual pigments indicate differences in accordance with their nature. The distinct manifestation of the heterogeneity of the carotene is observed in the case where the photosynthesis apparatus is fully formed. Obviously, the manifestation of the heterogeneity of that pigment is related to the formation of chloroplast and changes in the environment. Data on changes in the specific radioactivity of the easily-extractable fractions of the lutein and the violaxanthin show that the newly-synthesized molecules are more easily extractable. (author)

  20. 75 FR 10759 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... dispersions in any form (e.g., pigment dispersed in oleoresins, flammable solvents, water) are not included... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... changed-circumstances review of the antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India with...

  1. Enhanced production of pigments by addition of surfactants in submerged fermentation of Monascus purpureus H1102.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonghui; Zhang, Bobo; Lu, Liping; Huang, Yan; Xu, Ganrong

    2013-10-01

    The production of pigments by Monascus spp. has attracted increasing attention. Modification of the cell membrane structure by addition of surfactants has proved to be effective for the secretion of intracellular metabolites. Hence in this study the effects and underlying mechanism of surfactants on the production of pigments in submerged fermentation of Monascus purpureus H1102 were systematically investigated. Various surfactants exerted significant but different impacts on the biomass and production of pigments. The maximum production of pigment (304.3 U mL(-1) ) and highest extracellular/intracellular pigment ratio (1.46) were achieved when 15 g L(-1) Triton X-100 was added at 24 h of fermentation, corresponding to significant increases of 88.4 and 240% respectively compared with the control. Meanwhile, the concentration of citrinin (0.94 mg L(-1) ) was 20.6% lower than that of the control. A further study on the fatty acid composition of M. purpureus H1102 showed that the unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and the index of unsaturated fatty acid increased significantly with the addition of Triton X-100. The addition of surfactant Triton X-100 could greatly enhance the production of pigment. It was suggested that Triton X-100 facilitated the secretion of intracellular pigment and therefore enhanced pigment production accordingly. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Transport of protons and lactate in cultured human fetal retinal pigment epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Cour, Morten la; Ming Lui, Ge

    2000-01-01

    Electron microscopy, intracellular pH, monocarboxylate transport, pigment epithelium of eye, proton-lactate cotransport, retinal metabolism, sodium/proton exchange......Electron microscopy, intracellular pH, monocarboxylate transport, pigment epithelium of eye, proton-lactate cotransport, retinal metabolism, sodium/proton exchange...

  3. Treatment of knee diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis under the arthroscopy with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Wei; Huang Xunwu; Guan Changyong; Yu Fangyuan; Zhang Bo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate arthroscopy plus radiotherapy in the treatment of diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee. Methods: A total of 10 cases of diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee were treated under the arthroscopy combined with postoperative radiotherapy. These patients were followed up for 12-36 months, and were evaluated as to the effect of treatment. Results: According to the Lysholm criteria, the score was (53.5 ± 11.6) and(85.7 ± 10.7) respectively before surgery and at the last followup. Conclusion: Arthroscopical synovectomy with a combined application of postoperative radiotherapy is an effective treatment for diffuse pigmented vilionoclular synovitis of the knee. (authors)

  4. Chrysalis and negative pigment network in Spitz nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella-Estrada, Rafael; Requena, Celia; Traves, Victor; Nagore, Eduardo; Guillen, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    Chrysalis, also named shiny white streaks, are white, linear structures only visible with polarized dermoscopy. They have been reported in several tumors included melanomas and Spitz nevi, and their histological substrate is believed to be dermal fibrosis. We have performed a correlation study between the dermoscopic and the histopathological features of 9 Spitz nevi. Chrysalis were present in 4 Spitz nevi (44%) and in all of them there was a high degree of fibroplasia. In one case, chrysalis, evident at the center of the lesion, progressively merged with negative pigment network at the periphery. We suggest that chrysalis and negative pigment network are manifestations of the same histopathological finding: increased collagen occurring at different levels of the dermis.

  5. Screening of photosynthetic pigments for herbicidal activity with a new computational molecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaraj, R Navanietha; Chandran, Saravanan; Pal, Parimal; Berchmans, Sheela

    2013-12-01

    There is an immense interest among the researchers to identify new herbicides which are effective against the herbs without affecting the environment. In this work, photosynthetic pigments are used as the ligands to predict their herbicidal activity. The enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase is a good target for the herbicides. Homology modeling of the target enzyme is done using Modeler 9.11 and the model is validated. Docking studies were performed with AutoDock Vina algorithm to predict the binding of the natural pigments such as β-carotene, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin to the target. β-carotene, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin have higher binding energies indicating the herbicidal activity of the pigments. This work reports a procedure to screen herbicides with computational molecular approach. These pigments will serve as potential bioherbicides in the future.

  6. Molecular evolution of the cone visual pigments in the pure rod-retina of the nocturnal gecko, Gekko gekko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, S; Blow, N S

    2001-10-03

    We have isolated a full-length cDNA encoding a putative ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive visual pigment of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko). This clone has 57 and 59% sequence similarities to the gecko RH2 and MWS pigment genes, respectively, but it shows 87% similarity to the UV pigment gene of the American chameleon (Anolis carolinensis). The evolutionary rates of amino acid replacement are significantly higher in the three gecko pigments than in the corresponding chameleon pigments. The accelerated evolutionary rates reflect not only the transition from cones to rods in the retina but also the blue-shift in the absorption spectra of the gecko pigments.

  7. Isolation and molecular identification of a UV-resistant strain of Dietzia maris and antioxidant activity of pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Zamanian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The ability of radioresistant bacteria to survive high levels of UV radiation has been linked to their strong DNA repair systems and ability to produce primary and secondary metabolic products. The biosynthesis of pigments provides an opportunity for bacteria to live in radiation-rich environment. Recent radiation-responsive pigments are used commercially as food colorants, anticancer drugs, as well as antibiotics and for cosmetic purposes. Materials and methods: Soil sample of Omidiyeh city was collected during the spring of 2014 and UV-resistant strain was isolated after primary and secondary screening. Then it was identified by molecular methods (16S rRNA gene sequencing. Antioxidant activity of pigment was evaluated by 2,2 -diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH and the reducing power of pigments were analyzed by ferric chloride. Results: In this present study, new UV-resistant strain NM2 was isolated and by comparison of these 16S rRNA gene sequences to public database using the BLAST, the genus and species of the isolate was identified as Dietzia maris with 99% similarity. Extraction of pigment from isolated strain was carried out by methanol and acetone as solvents. The spectrum is characterized by maximum peak at 473 nm for pigment of NM2 strain. Antioxidant activity and the reducing ability of pigments increased by increasing their concentrations. NM2 strain pigment showed EC50 concentration of 3.30 mg/ml for DPPH free radical scavenging activity, and EC50 concentration of 28.46 µg/ml for reducing power. Discussion and conclusion: Isolation of natural resources of pigment is very important with high anti-oxidant activity. In the current study, pigment of UV-resistant bacteria demonstrated a strong antioxidant activity in vitro and pigment of these bacteria could play an important role in UV tolerance. Pigment of UV-resistant bacteria may be an appropriate source for antioxidative-related functional foods and the pharmaceutical

  8. New applications for polychromatic effect pigments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maile, F. J.; Filip, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2016), s. 35-38 ISSN 1468-1412 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02652S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : pigments * texture * appearance * effect * polychromatic Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/RO/filip-0458988.pdf

  9. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering for Marine Carotenoids: New Opportunities and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonglong Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations.

  10. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering for Marine Carotenoids: New Opportunities and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations. PMID:25233369

  11. Non-destructive provenance differentiation of prehistoric pigments by external PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Salomon, H.; Lahlil, S.; Lebon, M.; Odin, G.P.; Coquinot, Y.; Pichon, L.

    2012-01-01

    The elemental analysis of minerals/rocks has been often used for the determination of their geological origin. When these natural rocks were exploited by prehistoric civilizations as objects, weapons, or pigments, the composition of the minerals can provide information on the mobility, the exchanges and the interaction between groups of population. In this paper, we will present results obtained from archaeological samples of prehistoric pigments, mainly iron and manganese oxides. PIXE analysis has been applied to samples of the prehistoric cave “La grotte du Renne” in Arcy-sur-Cure, France (Chatelperronian, 38,000–34,000 BP). Because most of the archaeological objects are decorated or display some use marks, it is not possible to take samples. Consequently, we have used a non-destructive technique thanks to the external beam of AGLAE (C2RMF, Paris). In order to improve the limits of detection (LOD less than 10 ppm from Cu to Sb), a metal absorber has been placed on the X-ray detector to preferentially filter the Fe–K or Mn–K lines. Based on the quantitative analysis of major and trace elements, we have obtained groups of compositions corresponding to different geological sources. We demonstrate in this study that it is possible to extend PIXE analysis to the characterization of prehistoric pigments such as iron and manganese oxides for differentiating potential sources of pigments in archaeological contexts.

  12. Comparative assessment of gingival thickness in pigmented and nonpigmented gingiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Bharamappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is a known fact that clinical appearance of gingiva directly correlates with the inflammatory status of the periodontium. It has been observed that the gingival thickness (GT appears to differ in pigmented and nonpigmented gingiva. Thickness of gingiva seems to be of significance and an issue of concern in aesthetic and functional outcome of the periodontal, restorative and orthodontic therapy. So far in the periodontal literature, the gingival width has been discussed to a great extent. GT also plays an equally important role, but it has been given limited importance when compared to gingival width. Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this study was to comparatively assess the GT in pigmented and nonpigmented gingiva by transgingival probing. Materials and Methods: The study included 240 sites in 10 patients each of pigmented and nonpigmented gingiva. The GT was assessed mid-buccally in the attached gingiva, half way between mucogingival junction and free gingival groove and at the base of the interdental papilla. The gingival bleeding index and plaque index were also recorded. The data were statistically analysed using paired t-test and Z-test. Results and Conclusion: Gingival bleeding index and plaque index were similar between both the groups. Both midbuccal and interdental areas were thicker in pigmented gingiva when compared to nonpigmented gingiva.

  13. Organic Semiconductors based on Dyes and Color Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gsänger, Marcel; Bialas, David; Huang, Lizhen; Stolte, Matthias; Würthner, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Organic dyes and pigments constitute a large class of industrial products. The utilization of these compounds in the field of organic electronics is reviewed with particular emphasis on organic field-effect transistors. It is shown that for most major classes of industrial dyes and pigments, i.e., phthalocyanines, perylene and naphthalene diimides, diketopyrrolopyrroles, indigos and isoindigos, squaraines, and merocyanines, charge-carrier mobilities exceeding 1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) have been achieved. The most widely investigated molecules due to their n-channel operation are perylene and naphthalene diimides, for which even values close to 10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) have been demonstrated. The fact that all of these π-conjugated colorants contain polar substituents leading to strongly quadrupolar or even dipolar molecules suggests that indeed a much larger structural space shows promise for the design of organic semiconductor molecules than was considered in this field traditionally. In particular, because many of these dye and pigment chromophores demonstrate excellent thermal and (photo-)chemical stability in their original applications in dyeing and printing, and are accessible by straightforward synthetic protocols, they bear a particularly high potential for commercial applications in the area of organic electronics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Effect of spot size and fluence on Q-switched alexandrite laser treatment for pigmentation in Asians: a randomized, double-blinded, split-face comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Chen; Chen, Chih-Kang

    2012-10-01

    Q-switched laser treatment for pigment disorders commonly leads to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) in Asians. To evaluate the effect of spot size and fluence on Q-switched alexandrite laser (QSAL) treatment for pigmentation in Asians. Ten patients with freckles, 18 with lentigines, and 8 with acquired bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules (ABNOM) received 1 session of QSAL treatment for a 3-mm spot on one cheek and a 4-mm spot on the other cheek. The lowest fluences to achieve a visible biologic effect were chosen. The patients with freckles experienced the highest improvement rate (83-84%), followed by those with lentigines (52%) and ABNOM (35%). Similar efficacy was observed for both cheeks (p > 0.05). PIH developed in 10% (1/10), 44% (8/18), and 75% (6/8) of the patients with freckles, lentigines, and ABNOM, respectively. The severity of PIH was lower in the 4-mm spot with a lower fluence than in the 3-mm spot with a higher fluence in patients with lentigines (p = 0.03), but not in those with freckles or ABNOM. Using a larger spot to achieve the same biologic effect at a lower fluence is associated with equal efficacy and less-severe PIH in patients with lentigines.

  15. Physiological and biochemical studies on the yellowing of spruce trees in higher altitudes. Pt. 1. Protection of pigments in the light-harvesting Chl-a/b-protein against photooxidation - the role of apoprotein and pigment organisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siefermanns-Harms, D.; Horsch, F.; Filby, W.G.; Fund, N.; Gross, S.; Hanisch, B.; Kilz, E.; Seidel, A.

    1988-04-01

    The light-harvesting Chl-a/b-protein complex (LHC) from Spinacea oleracia, Lactuca sativa and Picea abies is stable under strong white light (> 350 nm, 1000 w/m/sub 2/). Therefore, LHC preparations were used to examine requirements for the protection of LHC-bound pigments from photooxidation. - The presence of carotenoids in the LHC and their arrangement in close proximity with the chlorophylls are not sufficient for pigment protection under light. - An intact LHC apoprotein is required to protect the pigments from photooxidation. Evidently, the intact LHC apoprotein represents a barrier for O/sub 2/ limiting O/sub 2/ access to the microenvironment of the pigments. - The composition of the pigment fraction destroyed under light depends on the state of the LHC. If only the integrity of the apoprotein is impaired, both, chlorophylls and carotenoids are subjected to photooxidation.

  16. Tattoo Pigments Are Observed in the Kupffer Cells of the Liver Indicating Blood-Borne Distribution of Tattoo Ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Mitra; Sejersen, Tobias; Qvortrup, Klaus; Lerche, Catharina M; Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Tattoo pigments are deposited in the skin and known to distribute to regional lymph nodes. Tattoo pigments are small particles and may be hypothesized to reach the blood stream and become distributed to peripheral organs. This has not been studied in the past. The aim of the study was to trace tattoo pigments in internal organs in mice extensively tattooed with 2 different tattoo ink products. Three groups of mice were studied, i.e., 10 tattooed black, 10 tattooed red, and 5 untreated controls. They were tattooed on the entire back with commercial tattoo inks, black and red. Mice were sacrificed after 1 year. Samples were isolated from tattooed skin, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, kidney, and lung. Samples were examined for deposits of tattoo pigments by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM identified intracellular tattoo pigments in the skin and in lymph nodes. TEM in both groups of tattooed mice showed tattoo pigment deposits in the Kupffer cells in the liver, which is a new observation. TEM detected no pigment in other internal organs. Light microscopy showed dense pigment in the skin and in lymph nodes but not in internal organs. The study demonstrated black and red tattoo pigment deposits in the liver; thus, tattoo pigment distributed from the tattooed skin via the blood stream to this important organ of detoxification. The finding adds a new dimension to tattoo pigment distribution in the body, i.e., as observed via the blood in addition to the lymphatic pathway. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Eggshell Biliverdin and Protoporphyrin Pigments in a Songbird: Are They Derived from Erythrocytes, Blood Plasma, or the Shell Gland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, Rita; Boross, Nóra; Hámori, Susanne; Neuberger, Eszter; Nyiri, Zoltán

    Biliverdin and protoporphyrin pigments are deposited into the eggshell when the developing egg is in the shell gland. However, the site of synthesis of eggshell pigments is still uncertain, although it may influence the possible costs and potential functions of eggshell coloration in avian species. Eggshell pigments may be derived from red blood cells or be produced in other organs and then transferred to the shell gland, or they may be synthesized de novo in the shell gland. We studied in the canary (Serinus canaria) whether eggshell blue-green and brown pigmentations are associated with experimentally elevated anemia, female hematocrit level, immature erythrocyte percentage, and feces and plasma pigment levels during egg laying to find out the possible origin of eggshell pigments. We found no significant effects of hematocrit level or experimentally elevated anemia on intensity of eggshell blue-green and brown pigmentations; therefore, we consider it less likely that eggshell pigments are derived from erythrocytes. In addition, we found no significant associations between female feces biliverdin concentration during egg laying and intensity of eggshell blue-green pigmentation, suggesting that eggshell biliverdin may not originate from the spleen or liver. We found a negative association between plasma and feces protoporphyrin concentrations during egg laying and eggshell brown chroma. This result suggests that an increased production of protoporphyrin in the liver, which could have elevated plasma and feces protoporphyrin concentrations, could inhibit eggshell protoporphyrin pigmentation, probably through affecting enzymatic activities. We suggest that both pigments are produced de novo in the shell gland in the canary, but circulating pigment levels may influence shell gland pigment synthesis, thus connecting the physiological status of the female to eggshell coloration.

  18. Ultraviolet Radiation Induces Dose-Dependent Pigment Dispersion in Crustacean Chromatophores

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, Glauce Ribeiro; Lopes, Thaís Martins; Neves, Carla Amorim; Nery, Luiz Eduardo Maia; Trindade, Gilma Santos

    2004-01-01

    Pigment dispersion in chromatophores as a response to UV radiation was investigated in two species of crustaceans, the crab Chasmagnathus granulata and the shrimp Palaemonetes argentinus. Eyestalkless crabs and shrimps maintained on either a black or a white background were irradiated with different UV bands. In eyestalkless crabs the significant minimal effective dose inducing pigment dispersion was 0.42 J/cm2 for UVA and 2.15 J/cm2 for UVB. Maximal response was achieved with 10.0 J/cm...

  19. Congenital Simple Hamartoma of Retinal Pigment Epithelium: Clinical and Imaging Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Yasin Teke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital simple hamartoma of retinal pigment epithelium (CSHRPE is a rare, asymptomatic, and incidentally detected benign lesion. However, it is very important to do the differential diagnosis from other pigmented retinal lesions. Its clinical presentation and imaging findings are very helpful in doing this differentiation. This paper presents clinical and imaging findings of a 56-year-old woman with incidentally detected CSHRPE. The lesion was small, heavily pigmented, well circumscribed, and slightly elevated. Optical coherence tomography (OCT scanning was diagnostic and showed an elevated retina at the site of the lesion, increased optical reflectivity on its inner surface, optical shadowing of deeper structures, and clearly cut tumor margins. Ocular ultrasonography, fluorescein angiography, and fundus autofluorescence imaging which is firstly described in this report did not show any characteristic finding.

  20. Hyperspectral analysis of cultural heritage artifacts: pigment material diversity in the Gough Map of Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Di; Messinger, David W.; Howell, David

    2017-08-01

    The Gough Map, one of the earliest surviving maps of Britain, was created and extensively revised over the 15th century. In 2015, the map was imaged using a hyperspectral imaging system while in the collection at the Bodleian Library, Oxford University. The goal of the collection of the hyperspectral image (HSI) of the Gough Map was to address questions such as enhancement of faded text for reading and analysis of the pigments used during its creation and revision. In particular, pigment analysis of the Gough Map will help historians understand the material diversity of its composition and potentially the timeline of, and methods used in, the creation and revision of the map. Multiple analysis methods are presented to analyze a particular pigment in the Gough Map with an emphasis on understanding the within-material diversity, i.e., the number and spatial layout of distinct red pigments. One approach for understanding the number of distinct materials in a scene (i.e., endmember selection and dimensionality estimation) is the Gram matrix approach. Here, this method is used to study the within-material differences of pigments in the map with common visual color. The application is a pigment analysis tool that extracts visually common pixels (here, the red pigments) from the Gough Map and estimates the material diversity of the pixels. Results show that the Gough Map is composed of at least five kinds of dominant red pigments with a particular spatial pattern. This research provides a useful tool for historical geographers and cartographic historians to analyze the material diversity of HSI of cultural heritage artifacts.