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Sample records for pigmented nodular adrenocortical

  1. Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie T Manipadam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD is a rare cause of ACTH-independent Cushing′s syndrome and has characteristic gross and microscopic pathologic findings. We report a case of PPNAD in a 15-year-old boy, which was not associated with Carney′s complex. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the treatment of choice.

  2. Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease presenting with a unilateral adrenocortical nodule treated with bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltsas Gregory

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease is a rare cause of adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing's syndrome. We report an uncommon primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease case presenting with a unilateral adrenocortical nodule and provide a brief overview of the existing literature. Case presentation A 27-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our Department with adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing's syndrome. Its cause was initially considered a left adrenocortical adenoma based on computer tomography imaging. The patient underwent left laparoscopic adrenalectomy and histological examination revealed pigmented micronodular adrenal hyperplasia. Evaluation for the presence of Carney complex was negative. Six months later recurrence of hypercortisolism was documented and a right laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed further establishing the diagnosis of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease. After a nine-year follow-up there is no evidence of residual disease. Conclusions Even though primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease is a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing's syndrome, especially because adrenal imaging can be misleading mimicking other adrenocortical diseases. Bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy is the preferred treatment in these subjects.

  3. Association of the M1V PRKAR1A mutation with primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease in two large families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, Alberto M.; Hes, Frederik J.; Horvath, Anelia; Woortman, Sanne; Greene, Elizabeth; Bimpaki, Eirini; Alatsatianos, Anton; Boikos, Sosipatros; Smit, Johannes W.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Nesterova, Maria; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2010-01-01

    Carney complex (CNC) is a familial multiple neoplasia syndrome frequently associated with primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), a bilateral form of micronodular adrenal hyperplasia that leads to Cushing's syndrome (CS). Germline PRKAR1A mutations cause CNC and only rarely

  4. Familial isolated primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease associated with a novel low penetrance PRKAR1A gene splice site mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storr, Helen L; Metherell, Louise A; Dias, Renuka

    2010-01-01

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is associated with inactivating germline protein kinase A regulatory subunit type 1-alpha (PRKAR1A) mutations and loss of heterozygosity at the 17q22-24 locus in approximately 50% patients. PRKAR1A mutations are observed in both isolated PP...... PPNAD (iPPNAD) and Carney complex (CNC). Most mutations result in a functionally null-allele and exhibit high penetrance. We genotyped members of an extended family for a novel PRKAR1A mutation and undertook detailed phenotyping for CNC in the affected individuals....

  5. Cushing's Syndrome caused by pigmented adrenocortical micro nodular dysplasia - A familial case

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    Gomez-Segovia, I; Gallowitsch, H J; Kresnik, E; Kumnig, G; Mikosch, P; Lind, P [Dept.of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, LKH Klagenfurt (Austria)

    2002-09-01

    Introduction: We present a Case of Cushing's syndrome (CS) in a 16 year old male adolescent. Adrenocortical micro nodular dysplasia is a rare cause of CS. It mostly develops in the first two decades of life. In pathogenesis a stimulatory effect of circulating Immunoglobulins on adrenal steroidogenesis has been postulated. Familial cases have been reported in relation to Carney's Syndrome. We report the clinical case at first diagnosis and preoperative follow up of 1 year prior to treatment. The leading symptoms were severe bilateral (fibrotic) gynaecomastia, weight gain and growth retardation, without hypertension,but osteoporosis, secondary hypogonadism and glucose intolerance. Laboratory findings and the results of functional tests were diagnostic for CS. In addition LDH (I-131 Isotopes), CK, Lipoproteins, GPT, Androstendion, Prolactin were elevated. MRI abdomen revealed a slight enlargement of the adrenals, and suspected a bilateral micro nodular dysplasia. Iodo-cholesterol-scan under dexamethason suppression showed a diffuse bilateral Iodo-cholesterol uptake confirming the autonomous production of cortisol bilateral in the adrenals.Whole body bone scan showed a diffuse reduced diphosphonate uptake in the skeleton and the growth plates. The bone mineral density was significantly reduced.Radiologically osteoporosis was overt. The rapid increase of free urinary cortisol excretion/24h within one year of observation led to a total bilateral adrenalectomy. Postoperative 5 year follow up examinations. Documentation of the outcome and recovery of clinical signs,symptoms and laboratory findings, discussion about the most appropriate long-term substitution therapy. Familial anamnesis:affected family member was the father (micro nodular bilateral adrenocortical dysplasia), the aunt (pararenal incidentaloma, histologically lipoma) and a cousin (micro nodular adrenocortical dysplasia). Sequential analysis of the menin gene from the patient was negative.The detection of

  6. Cushing's Syndrome caused by pigmented adrenocortical micro nodular dysplasia - A familial case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Segovia, I.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Kresnik, E.; Kumnig, G.; Mikosch, P.; Lind, P.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: We present a Case of Cushing's syndrome (CS) in a 16 year old male adolescent. Adrenocortical micro nodular dysplasia is a rare cause of CS. It mostly develops in the first two decades of life. In pathogenesis a stimulatory effect of circulating Immunoglobulins on adrenal steroidogenesis has been postulated. Familial cases have been reported in relation to Carney's Syndrome. We report the clinical case at first diagnosis and preoperative follow up of 1 year prior to treatment. The leading symptoms were severe bilateral (fibrotic) gynaecomastia, weight gain and growth retardation, without hypertension,but osteoporosis, secondary hypogonadism and glucose intolerance. Laboratory findings and the results of functional tests were diagnostic for CS. In addition LDH (I-131 Isotopes), CK, Lipoproteins, GPT, Androstendion, Prolactin were elevated. MRI abdomen revealed a slight enlargement of the adrenals, and suspected a bilateral micro nodular dysplasia. Iodo-cholesterol-scan under dexamethason suppression showed a diffuse bilateral Iodo-cholesterol uptake confirming the autonomous production of cortisol bilateral in the adrenals.Whole body bone scan showed a diffuse reduced diphosphonate uptake in the skeleton and the growth plates. The bone mineral density was significantly reduced.Radiologically osteoporosis was overt. The rapid increase of free urinary cortisol excretion/24h within one year of observation led to a total bilateral adrenalectomy. Postoperative 5 year follow up examinations. Documentation of the outcome and recovery of clinical signs,symptoms and laboratory findings, discussion about the most appropriate long-term substitution therapy. Familial anamnesis:affected family member was the father (micro nodular bilateral adrenocortical dysplasia), the aunt (pararenal incidentaloma, histologically lipoma) and a cousin (micro nodular adrenocortical dysplasia). Sequential analysis of the menin gene from the patient was negative.The detection of

  7. Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease associated with Carney complex: case report and literature review

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    Fabrícia Torres Gonçalves

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Carney complex (CNC, a familial multiple neoplasm syndrome with dominant autosomal transmission, is characterized by tumors of the heart, skin, endocrine and peripheral nervous system, and also cutaneous lentiginosis. This is a rare syndrome and its main endocrine manifestation, primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease (PPNAD, is an uncommon cause of adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing's syndrome. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 20-year-old patient with a history of weight gain, hirsutism, acne, secondary amenorrhea and facial lentiginosis. Following the diagnosing of CNC and PPNAD, the patient underwent laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy, and she evolved with decreasing hypercortisolism. Screening was also performed for other tumors related to this syndrome. The diagnostic criteria, screening and follow-up for patients and affected family members are discussed.

  8. A Novel PRKAR1A Mutation Identified in a Patient with Isolated Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease

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    Sira Korpaisarn

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD is a rare cause of Cushing syndrome, especially the isolated form without Carney complex, associated with germline mutations in PRKAR1A, the protein kinase A regulatory subunit type 1 alpha gene. We report a 31-year-old female who presented with secondary amenorrhea, cushingoid appearance, and hypertension without Carney complex. Biochemical laboratory examinations confirmed the ACTH-independent adrenal Cushing syndrome with negative Liddle test. A small right adrenal adenoma of 0.8 cm was shown on computed tomography while magnetic resonance imaging revealed nodularity of both adrenal glands. The histological report confirmed PPNAD using laparoscopic right adrenalectomy, and subsequent left adrenalectomy was performed 6 months later. She had inherited heterozygosity of a novel germline mutation of the PRKAR1A gene (g.114213T>G or c.709-5T>G. This splice site mutation results in exon 8 skipping. Her father carrying the same mutation had no clinical features of either PPNAD or Carney complex. This novel PRKAR1A gene mutation, c.709-5T>G, is reported here for the first time manifesting as an incomplete clinical expression of the isolated form of PPNAD and being inherited with low penetrance unlike other inherited mutations of the Carney complex which have a penetrance of almost 100%.

  9. Efficacy of dexamethasone suppression test during the diagnosis of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease in Chinese adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing syndrome.

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    Chen, Shi; Li, Ran; Lu, Lin; Duan, Lian; Zhang, Xuebin; Tong, Anli; Pan, Hui; Zhu, Huijuan; Lu, Zhaolin

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the cut-off value of the ratio of 24 h urinary free cortisol (24 h UFC) levels post-dexamethasone to prior-dexamethasone in dexamethasone suppression test (DST) during the diagnosis of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease in Chinese adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing syndrome. Retrospective study. The patients diagnosed with primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD, n = 25), bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH, n = 27), and adrenocortical adenoma (ADA, n = 84) were admitted to the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2001 to 2016. Serum cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and 24 h UFC were measured before and after low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST) and high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST). After LDDST and HDDST, 24 h UFC elevated in patients with PPNAD (paired t-test, P = 0.007 and P = 0.001), while it remained unchanged in the BMAH group (paired t-test, P = 0.471 and P = 0.414) and decreased in the ADA group (paired t-test, P = 0.002 and P = 0.004). The 24 h UFC level after LDDST was higher in PPNAD and BMAH as compared to ADA (P < 0.017), while no significant difference was observed between PPNAD and BMAH. After HDDST, 24 h UFC was higher in patients with PPNAD as compared to that of ADA and BMAH (P < 0.017). The cut-off value of 24 h UFC (Post-L-Dex)/(Pre-L-Dex) was 1.16 with 64.0% sensitivity and 77.9% specificity, and the cut-off value of 24 h UFC (Post-H-Dex)/(Pre-H-Dex) was 1.08 with 84.0% sensitivity and 75.6% specificity. The ratio of post-dexamethasone to prior-dexamethasone had a unique advantage in distinguishing PPNAD from BMAH and ADA.

  10. Immunoglobulins of patients with Cushing's syndrome due to pigmented adrenocortical micronodular dysplasia stimulate in vitro steroidogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulffraat, N. M.; Drexhage, H. A.; Wiersinga, W. M.; van der Gaag, R. D.; Jeucken, P.; Mol, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The putative stimulation of adrenal steroid production by immunoglobulins (Igs) of five patients with pigmented adrenocortical micronodular dysplasia and clinical Cushing's syndrome was investigated. Ascorbate depletion, a process linked to steroid production, was measured by a cyto-chemical

  11. Pigmented Nodular Basal Cell Carcinomas in Differential Diagnosis with Nodular Melanomas: Confocal Microscopy as a Reliable Tool for In Vivo Histologic Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casari, A.; Pellacani, G.; Seidenari, S.; Pepe, P.; Longo, C.; Cesinaro, A. M.; Beretti, F.

    2011-01-01

    Nodular basal cell carcinoma, especially when pigmented, can be in differential diagnosis with nodular melanomas, clinically and dermoscopically. Reflectance confocal microscopy is a relatively new imaging technique that permits to evaluate in vivo skin tumors with a nearly histological resolution. Here, we present four cases of challenging nodular lesions where confocal microscopy was able to clarify the diagnosis.

  12. Cushing syndrome in a young woman due to primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease.

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    Hackman, Kathryn L; Davis, Anna L; Curnow, Paul A; Serpell, Jonathan W; McLean, Catriona A; Topliss, Duncan J

    2010-01-01

    To report a case of Cushing syndrome due to apparently sporadic primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease in a young woman. We describe the clinical, biochemical, radiologic, and histologic findings of Cushing syndrome due to the rare condition of primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease. A 30-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of worsening itch without rash over her shoulders and arms and weight gain, particularly around the abdomen and face. Careful questioning did not elicit any history of exogenous glucocorticoid use (systemic or topical), including hydrocortisone. On examination, the patient had a slightly rounded and plethoric face, a small buffalo hump, central adiposity, and thin skin with a few small striae on her inner thighs. No features of the Carney complex were observed. Investigations showed hypercortisolism with suppressed corticotropin and normal adrenal imaging despite documentation of enlarged adrenal glands at removal. High-dose dexamethasone administration was followed by a decrease in urinary free cortisol excretion rather than a paradoxical rise as previously reported in primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease. No mutations were detected in the PRKAR1A gene. Primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease should be suspected in patients with corticotropin-independent Cushing syndrome who have normal adrenal imaging. The role of genetic testing in apparently sporadic cases is not established, but cumulative experience may be helpful in defining the frequency of PRKAR1A mutations.

  13. Clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and molecular studies in paediatric Cushing's syndrome due to primary nodular adrenocortical hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storr, Helen L; Mitchell, J H; Swords, F M

    2004-01-01

    0.2-0.8 years) from diagnosis. Hypercortisolaemia was treated preoperatively by metyrapone alone 0.50-0.75 g/day (n = 4), metyrapone 0.75-1.50 g/day + o'p'DDD/mitotane 1-2 g/day (n = 1), or ketoconazole (n = 1). Adrenal histology showed nodular cortical hyperplasia with shrinkage of intervening...

  14. PRKACA: the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and adrenocortical tumors

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    Annabel Sophie Berthon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic-AMP (cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA is the main effector of cAMP signaling in all tissues. Inactivating mutations of the PRKAR1A gene, coding for the type 1A regulatory subunit of PKA, are responsible for Carney complex and primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD. PRKAR1A inactivation and PKA dysregulation have been implicated in various types of adrenocortical pathologies associated with ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome (AICS from PPNAD to adrenocortical adenomas and cancer, and other forms of bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasias (BAH. More recently, mutations of PRKACA, the gene coding for the catalytic subunit C alpha (Cα, were also identified in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors. PRKACA copy number gain was found in the germline of several patients with cortisol-producing BAH, whereas the somatic Leu206Arg (c.617A>C recurrent PRKACA mutation was found in as many as half of all adrenocortical adenomas associated with AICS. In vitro analysis demonstrated that this mutation led to constitutive Cα activity, unregulated by its main partners, the PKA regulatory subunits. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the involvement of PRKACA in adrenocortical tumorigenesis, and our understanding of PKA’s role in adrenocortical lesions. We also discuss potential therapeutic advances that can be made through targeting of PRKACA and the PKA pathway.

  15. Adrenocortical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payabyab, Eden C.; Balasubramaniam, Sanjeeve; Edgerly, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    The development of new therapies has lagged behind for rare cancers without defined therapeutic targets. Adrenocortical cancer is no exception. Mitotane, an older agent considered "adrenolytic," is used both to control symptoms in advanced disease and as adjuvant therapy after surgical resection....... Molecular characterization of adrenocortical cancer has deepened our understanding of this genetically complex disease while identifying subgroups whose importance remains to be determined. Unfortunately, such studies have yet to demonstrate a therapeutic target for drug development, and to date......, no targeted therapy has achieved meaningful outcomes. Consequently, first-line therapy for metastatic disease remains a combination regimen of etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatinum established in a randomized clinical trial. In addition to evaluating recent studies in adrenocortical cancer, we raise one...

  16. Does somatostatin have a role in the regulation of cortisol secretion in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD)? A clinical and in vitro investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Bram (Zakariae); P. Xekouki (Paraskevi); E. Louiset (Estelle); M. Keil (Mark); D. Avgeropoulos (Dimitrios); C. Giatzakis (Christoforos); M. Nesterova (Maria); N. Sinaii (Ninet); L.J. Hofland (Leo); R. Cherqaoui (Rabia); H. Lefebvre (Hervé); C.A. Stratakis (Constantine)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractContext: Somatostatin (SST) receptors (SSTRs) are expressed in a number of tissues, including the adrenal cortex, but their role in cortisol secretion has not been well characterized. Objectives: The objective of the study was to investigate the expression of SSTRs in the adrenal cortex

  17. Unilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia: Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.F. Kotb

    2016-07-26

    Jul 26, 2016 ... Abstract. Introduction: Nodular adrenal hyperplasia is one of rare causes of adrenocortical hyperplasia. The disease usually presents bilaterally. Few publications discussed the possibility of unilateral disease, in association with hyperaldosteronism or Cushing syndrome. Case series: We are reporting 3 ...

  18. Nodular Morphea

    OpenAIRE

    Kauer, Friederike; Simon, Jan C.; Sticherling, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Scleroderma may present as being strictly limited to the skin, as in morphea, or within a multiorgan disease, as in systemic sclerosis. Accordingly, cutaneous manifestations vary clinically. In nodular or keloidal scleroderma, patients develop lesions that are clinically indistinguishable from a keloid; however, the histopathological findings are more variable. We describe a 16-year-old girl with morpheic lesions for 3–4 years and additional development of keloidal nodules within these lesion...

  19. Unilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia: Case series | Kot | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Nodular adrenal hyperplasia is one of rare causes of adrenocortical hyperplasia. The disease usually presents bilaterally. Few publications discussed the possibility of unilateral disease, in association with hyperaldosteronism or Cushing syndrome. Case series: We are reporting 3 cases of radiologically ...

  20. Transcription factor GATA-4 is a marker of anaplasia in adrenocortical neoplasms of the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

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    Peterson, R A; Kiupel, M; Bielinska, M; Kiiveri, S; Heikinheimo, M; Capen, C C; Wilson, D B

    2004-07-01

    Adrenocortical neoplasms are a common cause of morbidity in neutered ferrets. Recently we showed that gonadectomized DBA/2J mice develop adrenocortical tumors that express transcription factor GATA-4. Therefore, we screened archival specimens of adrenocortical neoplasms from neutered ferrets to determine whether GATA-4 could be used as a tumor marker in this species. Nuclear immunoreactivity for GATA-4 was evident in 19/22 (86%) of ferret adrenocortical carcinomas and was prominent in areas exhibiting myxoid differentiation. Normal adrenocortical cells lacked GATA-4 expression. Two other markers of adrenocortical tumors in gonadectomized mice, inhibin-alpha and luteinizing hormone receptor, were coexpressed with GATA-4 in some of the ferret tumors. No GATA-4 expression was observed in three cases of nodular hyperplasia, but patches of anaplastic cells expressing GATA-4 were evident in 7/14 (50%) of tumors classified as adenomas. We conclude that GATA-4 can function as a marker of anaplasia in ferret adrenocortical tumors.

  1. Germline PRKACA amplification leads to Cushing syndrome caused by 3 adrenocortical pathologic phenotypes.

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    Carney, J Aidan; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the pathology of 5 patients with germline PRKACA copy number gain and Cushing syndrome: 4 males and 1 female, aged 2 to 43 years, including a mother and son. Imaging showed normal or slightly enlarged adrenal glands in 4 patients and a unilateral mass in the fifth. Biochemically, the patients had corticotropin-independent hypercortisolism. Four underwent bilateral adrenalectomy; unilateral adrenalectomy was performed in the patient with the adrenal mass. Pathologically, 3 patients, including the 1 with the tumor (adenoma), had primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease with extranodular cortical atrophy and mild intracapsular and extracapsular extension of cortical cells. The other 2 patients had cortical hyperplasia and prominent capsular and extracapsular micronodular cortical hyperplasia. Immunoperoxidase staining revealed differences for synaptophysin, inhibin-A, and Ki-67 (nuclei) in the atrophic cortices (patients 1, 2, and 3) and hyperplastic cortices (patients 4 and 5) and for Ki-67 (nuclei) and vimentin in the extracortical nodules in the 2 groups of patients. β-Catenin stained the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nuclei of the adenoma. The patients were well at follow-up (1-23 years); 24-hour urinary cortisol excretion was elevated in the patient who had unilateral adrenalectomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adrenocortical Carcinoma—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrenocortical carcinoma is also called cancer of the adrenal cortex. A tumor of the adrenal cortex may be functioning or nonfunctioning. Most adrenocortical tumors are functioning. Find evidence-based information on adrenocortical carcinoma including treatment and research.

  3. A Case of Cushing's Syndrome with Multiple Adrenocortical Adenomas Composed of Compact Cells and Clear Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Masahiro; Yoshimoto, Takanobu; Ota, Mitsutane; Numasawa, Mitsuyuki; Sasahara, Yuriko; Takeuchi, Takato; Nakano, Yujiro; Oohara, Norihiko; Murakami, Masanori; Bouchi, Ryotaro; Minami, Isao; Tsuchiya, Kyoichiro; Hashimoto, Koshi; Izumiyama, Hajime; Kawamura, Naoko; Kihara, Kazunori; Negi, Mariko; Akashi, Takumi; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Sasano, Hironobu; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-06-01

    A 58-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for Cushingoid features and diagnosed as adrenal Cushing's syndrome due to a right adrenocortical mass (60 × 55 mm). The mass was composed of three different tumors; the first one was homogeneously lipid-poor neoplasm measuring 20 × 13 mm located at the most dorsal region, the second one was heterogeneous and lipid-rich tumor containing multiple foci of calcification measuring 50 × 32 mm located at the central region, and the last one was heterogeneous harboring dilated and tortuous vessels and lipid-poor one measuring 35 × 18 mm at the most ventral region of the adrenal gland. A right adrenalectomy was subsequently performed by open surgery. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses revealed that all three tumors were adrenocortical adenomas; the first one represents a pigmented adrenocortical adenoma, the second one adrenocortical adenoma associated with degeneration, and the third one adrenocortical adenoma harboring extensive degeneration. Immunohistochemical analysis of the steroidogenic enzymes also revealed that all of the tumors had the capacity of synthesizing cortisol. This is a very rare case of Cushing's syndrome caused by multiple adrenocortical adenomas including a pigmented adenoma. Immunohistochemical analysis of steroidogenic enzymes contributed to understanding of steroidogenesis in each of these three different adrenocortical adenomas in this case.

  4. Nodular Neuronal Heterotopia

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1999-01-01

    Brain tissue from 4 children with intractable epilepsy and subcortical or periventricular nodular heterotopia of different etiologies (megalencephaly, cortical dysplasia, polymicrogyria) was examined at the University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, UK.

  5. Bilateral Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1998-01-01

    Two unrelated boys, ages 8 and 5 years, with a syndrome of bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia (BPNH), regional cortical dysplasia, mild mental retardation, and frontonasal malformation (FNM) are reported from the Instituto di Neuropsychiatria Infantile, University of Pisa, Italy, and the Institute of Human Genetics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN.

  6. Adrenocortical tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Ribeiro

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACT are rare. In the USA, only about 25 new cases occur each year. In Southern Brazil, however, approximately 10 times that many cases are diagnosed each year. Most cases occur in the contiguous states of São Paulo and Paraná. The cause of this higher rate has not been identified. Familial genetic predisposition to cancer (p53 mutations and selected genetic syndromes (Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome have been associated with childhood ACT in general but not with the Brazilian counterpart. Most of the affected children are young girls with classic endocrine syndromes (virilizing and/or Cushing. Levels of urinary 17-ketosteroids and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, which are abnormal in approximately 90% of the cases, provide the pivotal clue to a diagnosis of ACT. Typical imaging findings of pediatric ACT consist of a large, well-defined suprarenal tumor containing calcifications with a thin capsule and central necrosis or hemorrhage. The pathologic classification of pediatric ACT is troublesome. Even an experienced pathologist can find it difficult to differentiate carcinoma from adenoma. Surgery is the single most important procedure in the successful treatment of ACT. The role of chemotherapy in the management of childhood ACT has not been established although occasional tumors are responsive to mitotane or cisplatin-containing regimens. Because of the heterogeneity and rarity of the disease, prognostic factors have been difficult to establish in pediatric ACT. Patients with incomplete tumor resection or with metastatic disease at diagnosis have a dismal prognosis. In patients with localized and completely resected tumors, the size of the tumor has predictive value. Patients with large tumors have a much higher relapse rate than those with small tumors.

  7. Scleroderma with Nodular Scleroderma

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    Chutika Srisuttiyakorn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nodular scleroderma is a rare variant of scleroderma which can occur in connection with systemic sclerosis or morphea. A biopsy from the lesion can demonstrate the scleroderma pattern, i.e., keloid pattern or mixed type. Treatment is challenging, and several treatments modalities have been reported with unsatisfactory results. Main Observations: We present a case of systemic sclerosis in a 50-year-old female who developed nodular scleroderma in the absence of deterioration of the scleroderma condition. Although no additional treatment was given, the lesions remained stable without progression. Conclusions: Although this condition is rare, it has been reported sporadically, and clinicians should be able to recognize this variant in cases of scleroderma presenting with firm nodules or plaques.

  8. Nodular scleritis following alendronate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F

    2008-01-01

    To report a case of nodular scleritis following alendronate sodium. A 54 year-old male was treated with alendronate sodium 70 mg orally once per week. Eight weeks later, he experienced pain and redness of the right eye. Biomicroscopy was performed. Patient was found to have inferonasal nodular scleritis. Laboratory work-up was unrevealing. Patient was given 4 mg of subtenon's triamcinolone acetate in the area of the nodular scleritis and had complete resolution. Two weeks following rechallenge with alendronate sodium resulted in recurrence of his scleritis. Alendronate led to nodular scleritis and rechallenge caused recurrence of scleritis.

  9. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solinas, Paola [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Fujioka, Hisashi [Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Tandler, Bernard [Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Hoppel, Charles L., E-mail: charles.hoppel@case.edu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  10. Malignant Nodular Hidradenoma of Face

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    Bansal N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of malignant nodular hidradenoma in an old woman, who presented with a nodular swelling in the right side of nose near the medial canthus of the right eye. Wide excision of the nodular mass with a clear margin of healthy surrounding tissue was performed along with primary closure. Post operatively, adjuvant radiation therapy was given on a telecobalt machine due to the presence of high risk features. In general, malignant forms of hidradenomas are not usual and treatment strategies should be individualized.

  11. Feminizing Adrenocortical Carcinoma Without Gynecomastia

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    Farida Chentli1*,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignant feminizing adrenocortical tumors are exceedingly rare. Their main presentation is gynecomastia. In these estrogen secreting tumors (with or without other adrenocortical hormones lack of gynecomastia is exceptional as in our case. A 44-year-old man presented with abdominal pain. Radiological assessment revealed a tumor measuring 120 × 95 mm in the retroperitoneal area with numerous metastases. Pathological examination pleaded for an adrenal origin with a Weiss’s score of 5. Six months later, the tumor relapsed, and he had a second surgery and was sent for hormone assessment. Clinical examination showed a skinny man with severe fatigue. He had no Cushingoid features. Gynecomastia and galactorrhea were absent. Penile length, testicular volume, and body hair growth were normal. Several cutaneous nodules were present. Biological assessment showed high morning plasma cortisol, which failed to be suppressed by treatment with 2 mg dexamethasone. Plasma estradiol and 17OH progesterone levels were high, but his testosterone levels were low. Radiological exploration showed numerous metastases: pleural, pulmonary, retroperitoneal, and abdominal. He was treated with classical chemotherapy, but he died four months after diagnosis.

  12. Adrenocortical zonation, renewal, and remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjut ePihlajoki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal cortex is divided into concentric zones. In humans the major cortical zones are the zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis. The adrenal cortex is a dynamic organ in which senescent cells are replaced by newly differentiated ones. This constant renewal facilitates organ remodeling in response to physiological demand for steroids. Cortical zones can reversibly expand, contract, or alter their biochemical profiles to accommodate needs. Pools of stem/progenitor cells in the adrenal capsule, subcapsular region, and juxtamedullary region can differentiate to repopulate or expand zones. Some of these pools appear to be activated only during specific developmental windows or in response to extreme physiological demand. Senescent cells can also be replenished through direct lineage conversion; for example, cells in the zona glomerulosa can transform into cells of the zona fasciculata. Adrenocortical cell differentiation, renewal, and function are regulated by a variety of endocrine/paracrine factors including adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin II, insulin-related growth hormones, luteinizing hormone, activin, and inhibin. Additionally, zonation and regeneration of the adrenal cortex are controlled by developmental signaling pathways, such as the sonic hedgehog, delta-like homologue 1, fibroblast growth factor, and WNT/β-catenin pathways. The mechanisms involved in adrenocortical remodeling are complex and redundant so as to fulfill the offsetting goals of organ homeostasis and stress adaptation.

  13. Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia and Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinical, MRI, and EEG findings in 54 patients (35 female, 19 male; aged 1 to 64 years with periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH were analyzed in relation to epileptic outcome and genesis of epileptic discharges, in a study at the Neurological Institute and Epilepsy Surgery Center, Niguarda General Hospital, Milan, Italy.

  14. Nodular hidradenoma of the caruncle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christakopoulos, Christos; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Heegaard, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    . Immunohistochemical staining of the tumor cells demonstrated positive staining with antibodies against CK-CAM 5.2, BER-EP4, p63, and smooth muscle actin-positive cells in some areas. The tumor was diagnosed as a nodular hidradenoma of the caruncle, which has never been reported before and should be included...

  15. Malignant nodular hidradenoma of scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Maiti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant nodular hidradenoma (MNH is a rare tumor of sweat gland known by many names in the literature. Scalp is a known and yet uncommon site of occurrence. We describe two patients with scalp MNH with brain parenchymal invasion. Both tumors recurred in spite of total excision and radiotherapy.

  16. Nodular Corrosion Characteristics of Zirconium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Gil; Jeong, Y. H.; Park, S. Y.; Lee, D. J

    2003-01-15

    This study was reported the effect of the nodular corrosion on the nuclear reactor environmental along with metallurgical influence, also suggested experimental scheme related to evaluate nodular corrosion characteristics of Zr-1 Nb alloy. Remedial strategies against the nodular corrosion should firstly develop plan to assess the effect of the water quality condition (Oxygen, Hydrogen) as well as the boiling on the nodular corrosion, secondarily establish plan to control heat treatment process to keep a good resistance on nodular corrosion in Zr-1Nb alloy as former western reactor did.

  17. Childhood Adrenocortical Tumours: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques-Pereira Rosana

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood adrenocortical tumour (ACT is not a common disease, but in southern Brazil the prevalence is 15 times higher than in other parts of the world. One hundred and thirty-seven patients have been identified and followed by our group over the past four decades. Affected children are predominantly girls, with a female-to-male ratio of 3.5:1 in patients below 4 years of age. Virilization alone (51.6% or mixed with Cushing's syndrome (42.0% was the predominant clinical picture observed in these patients. Tumours are unilateral, affecting both glands equally. TP53 R337H germline mutations underlie most childhood ACTs in southern Brazil. Epidemiological data from our casuistic studies revealed that this mutation has ~10% penetrance for ACT. Surgery is the definitive treatment, and a complete resection should always be attempted. Although adjuvant chemotherapy has shown some encouraging results, its influence on overall outcome is small. The survival rate is directly correlated to tumour size; patients with small, completely excised tumours have survival rates close to 90%, whereas in those patients with inoperable tumours and/or metastatic disease it is less than 10%. In the group of patients with large, excisable tumours, half of them have an intermediate outcome. Recent molecular biology techniques and genomic approaches may help us to better understand the pathogenesis of ACT, the risk of developing a tumour when TP53 R337H is present, and to predict its outcome. An ongoing pilot study consisting of close monitoring of healthy carriers of the TP53 R337H mutation - siblings and first-degree relatives of known affected cases - aims at the early detection of ACTs and an improvement of the cure rate.

  18. Giant Solitary Nodular Trichoepithelioma: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunder Goyal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A giant solitary nodular trichoepithelioma (GST is a rare trichogenic tumor, which may present as a pigmented lesion. A 45-year-old female was diagnosed as having a giant solitary nodular trichoepithelioma on her right forearm. About 11 cases have been reported in literature. Our case is the 2nd largest of all reported cases and, so far, GST of the forearm has not been reported in literature. The recognition of GST is important because of its close resemblance to basal cell carcinoma and other skin adnexal tumors, both clinically and histopathologically. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(1.000: 58-60

  19. Adrenocortical function in hospitalised patients with active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-05-17

    May 17, 2006 ... Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Sah aran Africa, ... To assess whether adrenocortical function was compromised in patients with active tuberculosis. (TB) during the first 5 days of ..... Hernandez-Pando R, de la Luz Streber M, Orozco H, et al. Emergent immunoregulatory.

  20. Focal nodular hyperplasia: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Antoniou, A.; Hatziioannou, A.; Smyrniotis, V.; Trakadas, S.; Lahanis, S.; Vlahos, L. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Athens (Greece)

    2001-02-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia is an uncommon benign hepatic tumor that continues to pose diagnostic dilemmas. Imaging techniques are of great value in diagnosis of this tumor. In this article we present the US, CT, MR imaging, scintigraphy, and angiography findings. The demonstration of a central vascular scar is very helpful. Although the radiologic features may be diagnostic, many atypical cases must be differentiated from other benign or malignant hepatic tumors. In these cases excisional biopsy and histopathologic examination are necessary to determine a definite diagnosis. (orig.)

  1. Focal nodular hyperplasia: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Antoniou, A.; Hatziioannou, A.; Smyrniotis, V.; Trakadas, S.; Lahanis, S.; Vlahos, L.

    2001-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia is an uncommon benign hepatic tumor that continues to pose diagnostic dilemmas. Imaging techniques are of great value in diagnosis of this tumor. In this article we present the US, CT, MR imaging, scintigraphy, and angiography findings. The demonstration of a central vascular scar is very helpful. Although the radiologic features may be diagnostic, many atypical cases must be differentiated from other benign or malignant hepatic tumors. In these cases excisional biopsy and histopathologic examination are necessary to determine a definite diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Intra-articular Nodular Fasciitis: An Unexpected Diagnosis for a Joint Lesion: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MF Michelle Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pathological lesions in and around a joint can arise from underlying dermis, subcutis, deep muscle, bone or synovium. Clinical presentation can include joint pain, joint swelling, palpable masses and mechanical restriction. Whilst giant cell tumour of tendon sheath, pigmented villonodular synovitis, synovial chondromatosis, lipoma arborescens, juxta articular myxomas and inflammatory arthritis are the better-known conditions of the joint. Intra-articular nodular fasciitis, on the other hand, is less well recognized both clinically and radiologically. It is rarely seen in routine practice and is only described in case reports in the literature. Due to the non-specific clinical and radiological findings as well as the unfamiliarity with the entity, the diagnosis of intra-articular nodular fasciitis is usually clinched only after histological examination. We present a case of intra-articular nodular fasciitis arising in the knee joint which was not suspected clinically or radiologically.

  3. Adjuvant and Definitive Radiotherapy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabolch, Aaron; Feng, Mary; Griffith, Kent; Hammer, Gary; Doherty, Gerard; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of both adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy on local control of adrenocortical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed from 58 patients with 64 instances of treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma at the University of Michigan's Multidisciplinary Adrenal Cancer Clinic. Thirty-seven of these instances were for primary disease, whereas the remaining 27 were for recurrent disease. Thirty-eight of the treatment regimens involved surgery alone, 10 surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 definitive radiotherapy for unresectable disease. The effects of patient, tumor, and treatment factors were modeled simultaneously using multiple variable Cox proportional hazards regression for associations with local recurrence, distant recurrence, and overall survival. Results: Local failure occurred in 16 of the 38 instances that involved surgery alone, in 2 of the 10 that consisted of surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and in 1 instance of definitive radiotherapy. Lack of radiotherapy use was associated with 4.7 times the risk of local failure compared with treatment regimens that involved radiotherapy (95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.0; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Radiotherapy seems to significantly lower the risk of local recurrence/progression in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy should be strongly considered after surgical resection.

  4. Perianal nodular hidradenocarcinoma. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Montenegro, Ernesto; Sierra Luzuriaga, Gastón; Leone Stay, Gaetano; Salazar Menéndez, Vilma; Quiñonez Auria, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Eccrine glands (sweat glands) appear in all sites of the skin and are more abundant in hands and feet. Nodular hidradenocarcinoma (NH) is a rare malignant and aggressive tumor of the eccrine glands. The objective of this study is to report a case of perianal hidradenocarcinoma. We present the case of a 75-year-old female with diabetes, hypertension, and hypothyroidism. Physical examination revealed a small perianal tumor that was palpated near the anal canal. Biopsy was done. Pathology report revealed perianal hidradenoma. Rectosigmoidoscopy was normal. Computed tomography showed 1-cm adenopathies in inguinal and right iliac regions. Extensive resection of the tumor was done. Definitive pathology report was malignant eccrine acrospiroma. The patient underwent adjuvant chemotherapy in the Oncology Service and died 1 month later. In patients with a first symptom of metastases in the inguinal region, suspicion must be directed to the anal canal.

  5. Diagnosis of bilateral adrenocortical hemorrhage by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Haskin, M.E.; Rose, L.I.; Bemis, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    Adrenocortical hemorrhage has been diagnosed on the basis of the clinical presentation and response to steroids or autopsy findings. Prompt recognition of the disease has been difficult because of its similarity to other disorders. We report the diagnosis of a bilateral adrenocortical hemorrhage by computed tomography (CT), followed by biochemical confirmation of the diagnosis

  6. [Primary pigmented breast adenocarcinoma in a male patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauendorffer, J-N; Pages, C; Abd Alsamad, I; Bagot, M; Fraitag, S

    2013-01-01

    Pigmented mammary tumours are rare. Herein, we report the third case of primary pigmented breast adenocarcinoma in a male patient with clinical mimicking of nodular melanoma of the nipple. A male patient presented with a pigmented nodule of the right nipple. Histological examination of the lesion showed dermal and subcutaneous adenocarcinomatous proliferation. The perilesional stroma contained melanin both inside and outside macrophages, leading us to conclude on primary pigmented breast adenocarcinoma clinically mimicking nodular melanoma of the nipple. Local production of melanin by neoplastic cells in the mammary carcinoma was postulated as the cause of hyperpigmentation of the tumour. Other possible causes are transfer of melanin from overlying melanocytes of the pigmented areolar epidermis to the underlying neoplastic cells, or melanin synthesis by intratumoral melanocytes migrating from the epidermis (which strikes us as the most convincing interpretation for the reported case). Breast adenocarcinoma is a rare tumour in men and may present clinically as a pigmented lesion of the nipple, resulting in the problem of differential diagnosis with primary or metastasised nodular melanoma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Epilepsy Outcome in Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical, electroencephalographic, and neuroimaging features and course of seizures in 16 patients with periventricular (subependymal nodular heterotopia (PNH were investigated at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  8. Visualization of adrenocortical carcinoma with 131I-Adosterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruoka, Shin; Nakamura, Mamoru

    1987-01-01

    There are very few literatures on successful visualization of adrenocortical carcinoma by means of 131 I-iodocholesterol scintigraphy, although many reports have referred to utility of 131 I-iodocholesterol scintigraphy for adrenal disorders. Since 1976, we have experienced 4 cases of adrenocortical carcinoma which were delineated by 131 I-6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol ( 131 I-Adosterol). Three of 4 cases were adrenocortical carcinoma with Cushing's syndrome, and one was adrenocortical carcinoma with adrenogenital syndrome. In 3 cases of cortisol secreting adrenocortical carcinoma, uptake in the tumor and lack of uptake in the contralateral adrenal gland were seen. Faint to moderate uptakes were observed in the 2 cases, but another one showed as high uptake as seen in adenoma. Patient with androgen secreting adrenocortical carcinoma had increased uptake in the tumor and showed faint uptake in the contralateral adrenal gland. Intensity of 131 I-Adosterol uptake in adrenocortical carcinoma seems to depend on the extent of tumor necrosis, cell differentiation and function. (author)

  9. Visualization of adrenocortical carcinoma with /sup 131/I-Adosterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruoka, Shin; Nakamura, Mamoru

    1987-01-01

    There are very few literatures on successful visualization of adrenocortical carcinoma by means of /sup 131/I-iodocholesterol scintigraphy, although many reports have referred to utility of /sup 131/I-iodocholesterol scintigraphy for adrenal disorders. Since 1976, we have experienced 4 cases of adrenocortical carcinoma which were delineated by /sup 131/I-6US -iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (/sup 131/I-Adosterol). Three of 4 cases were adrenocortical carcinoma with Cushing's syndrome, and one was adrenocortical carcinoma with adrenogenital syndrome. In 3 cases of cortisol secreting adrenocortical carcinoma, uptake in the tumor and lack of uptake in the contralateral adrenal gland were seen. Faint to moderate uptakes were observed in the 2 cases, but another one showed as high uptake as seen in adenoma. Patient with androgen secreting adrenocortical carcinoma had increased uptake in the tumor and showed faint uptake in the contralateral adrenal gland. Intensity of /sup 131/I-Adosterol uptake in adrenocortical carcinoma seems to depend on the extent of tumor necrosis, cell differentiation and function.

  10. Sonographic Features of Nodular Hashimoto Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Daniel Corey; Giampoli, Ellen; Montoya, Simone; Patel, Swapnil; Dogra, Vikram

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the sonographic features of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) in patients with diffuse background thyroiditis and normal background thyroid parenchyma. Eighty-six patients who had fine-needle aspiration biopsy of 100 thyroid nodules confirmed to be HT and a thyroid ultrasound within 1 year of the biopsy were included in the study. Retrospective analysis of several sonographic features of each nodule was then performed. The mean age of patients with nodular HT was 53 years, 84% of which were female. Nodular HT occurred in a background of diffuse thyroiditis in 85% and in a homogeneous normal background in 15%. Ninety-three percent of nodules were completely solid and 7% of nodules were cystic and solid. Although the sonographic appearance of nodular HT was variable, the most common appearance was a solid (93/100) and hypoechoic nodule (44/100) with a thin hypoechoic halo (42/100) without calcifications (96/100). On color Doppler, 17% of nodules showed peripheral hypervascularity, 14% of nodules were diffusely hypervascular, 34% were iso vascular, 32% were hypovascular, and 3% were avascular. The sonographic appearance of nodular HT was not significantly different in patients with diffuse background thyroiditis compared with those without background thyroiditis. The sonographic appearance of nodular HT is variable, but the most common appearance is a solid sharply circumscribed hypoechoic nodule with thin hypoechoic halo without calcification. There was no significant difference in the appearance of nodular HT in patients with diffuse background thyroiditis compared with patients with normal background thyroid parenchyma.

  11. Adrenocortical Secreting Mass in a Patient with Gardner's Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Mejdoub Rekik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gardner's syndrome (GS is a dysplasia characterized by neoformations of the intestine, soft tissue, and osseous tissue. Endocrine neoplasms have occasionally been reported in association with GS. Adrenal masses in GS are rare, and few have displayed clinical manifestations. In the current paper, The authors report a 37-year-old male patient with GS including familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP and mandible osteoma who presented with an incidental adrenal mass. Computerized tomography adrenal scan identified bilateral masses. Functional analyses showed a hormonal secretion pattern consistent with pre-Cushing's syndrome. Other extraintestinal manifestations were hypertrophy of the pigmented layer of the retina and histiocytofibroma in the right leg. This paper describes a rare association of adrenocortical secreting mass in an old male patient with Gardner syndrome.

  12. Feminizing adrenocortical carcinoma with distant metastases: can surgery be considered?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Fancellu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Functioning adrenocortical carcinomas are rare diseases with dismal prognosis. A 41-year-old man presenting with gynecomastia had a giant feminizing adrenocortical carcinoma at stage IV. Although surgical resection was controversial, we removed the primary tumor to reduce the mass effects. He lived for 12 months with an acceptable quality of life. Gynecomastia may be the first sign of feminizing adrenal malignancies. Surgery may ameliorate the quality of life in selected patients with metastatic disease.

  13. Fatigue behaviour of synthetic nodular cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vaško

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the influence of charge composition on microstructure, fatigue properties and failure micromechanisms of nodular cast irons. The additive of metallurgical silicon carbide (SiC in analysed specimens increases the content of ferrite in the matrix, decreases the size of graphite and increases the average count of graphitic nodules per unit of area. Consequently, the mechanical and fatigue properties of nodular cast iron are improved. The best fatigue properties (fatigue strength were reached in the melt which was created by 60 % of steel scrap and 40 % of pig iron in the basic charge with SiC additive.

  14. Nodular Scleroderma - Successful Treatment With Extracorporeal Photochemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollina U

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodular seleroderma is rare variant of circumscribed scleroderma (morphea. Treatment is often unsatisfactory. This report is on the use of extracorporeal photochemotherapy. A 12 year old girl and a 49 year old woman have been treated once a month on two consecutive days. A complete remission was achieved in one patient after 10 months and an almost complete remission in the young girl after 6 months. The treatment was well-tolerated and no severe side â€" effects occurred. In contrast to previous attempts in treating nodular scleroderma with different modalities, ECP seems to be an effective therapy.

  15. Papulo-Nodular Reactions in Black Tattoos as Markers of Sarcoidosis: Study of 92 Tattoo Reactions from a Hospital Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Mitra; Hutton Carlsen, Katrina; Serup, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is, from historical data, suggested to be more prevalent among patients with tattoo reactions. We aimed to evaluate this association in a systematic study. This is a consecutive study of patients with tattoo complications, diagnosed in the "Tattoo Clinic" at Bispebjerg University Hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark, from 2008 to 2015, based on clinical assessment and histology. From the overall group of 494 tattoo complications in 406 patients, 92 reactions in 72 patients showed a papulo-nodular pattern studied for local and systemic sarcoidosis, since sarcoidosis is expected to be nodular. Of the 92 reactions with a papulo-nodular pattern, 27 (29%) reactions in 19 patients were diagnosed as cutaneous or systemic sarcoidosis, supported by histology; 65 (71%) were diagnosed as non-sarcoidosis due to histology and no clinical sarcoid manifestations. "Rush phenomenon" with concomitant reaction in many other black tattoos, triggered by a recent tattoo with a papulo-nodular reaction, was observed in 70% in the sarcoidosis group and 28% in the non-sarcoidosis group, indicating a predisposing factor which may be autoimmune and linked with sarcoidosis. Agglomerates of black pigment forming foreign bodies may in the predisposed individual trigger widespread reaction in the skin and internal organs. Black tattoos with papulo-nodular reactions should be seen as markers of sarcoidosis. Papulo-nodular reactions may, as triggers, induce widespread reactions in other black tattoos - a "rush phenomenon" - depending on individual predisposition. Sarcoidosis is estimated to be 500-fold increased in papulo-nodular reactions compared to the prevalence in the general population, and the association with black tattoos is strong. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Nodular cast iron and casting monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper quality monitoring of nodular cast iron and casting made of it is presented. A control system of initial liquid cast iron to spheroidization, after spheroidization and inoculation with using of TDA method was shown. An application of an ultrasonic method to assessment of the graphite form and the metal matrix microstructure of castings was investigated.

  17. Current status of studies on nodular corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Takayoshi; Kawasaki, Satoru; Echigoya, Hironori; Kinoshita, Yutaka; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Konishi, Takao; Yamanaka, Tuneyasu.

    1993-01-01

    The studies on nodular corrosion formed on the outer surface of BWR fuel cladding tubes were reviewed. Main factors affecting the corrosion behavior were material and environmental conditions and combined effect. The effects of such material conditions as fabrication process, alloy elements, texture and surface treatment and environmental factors as neutron irradiation, thermo-hydrodynamic, water chemistry, purity of the coolant and contact with foreign metals on the corrosion phenomena were surveyed. Out-of-reactor corrosion test methods and models for the corrosion mechanism were also reviewed. Suppression of the accumulated annealing temperature during tube reduction process improved the nodular corrosion resistance of Zircaloys. Improved resistance for the nodular corrosion was reported for the unirradiated Zircaloys with some additives. Detailed irradiation test under the BWR conditions is needed to confirm the trend. Concerning the environmental factors, boiling on the cladding surface due to heat flux reduces the nodular corrosion susceptibility, while oxidizing radical generated from dissolved oxygen accelerates the corrosion. Concerning corrosion mechanisms, importance of such phenomena as the depleted zone of alloying elements in zirconium matrix, reduction of H + to H 2 in oxide layer, electrochemical property of precipitates, crystallographic anisotropy of oxidation rates were revealed. (author) 59 refs

  18. Nodular fasciitis: MRI appearance and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, L.Y.J.; Shu, S.J.; Chan, M.K.; Chan, C.H.S.; Chan, A.C.L.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the MRI features of nodular fasciitis and to review the clinical, MRI and histologic aspects of the tumor. Design and patients: Three patients with biopsy-proven nodular fasciitis were selected for a retrospective study. A literature review was also carried out. Results and conclusions: All the lesions appeared slightly hyperintense to skeletal muscle on T1-weighted images, and hyperintense on T2-weighted images with fat saturation [either frequency saturation or Short TI Inversion Recovery (STIR) sequences]. Two enhanced homogeneously after intravenous gadolinium, whereas the third showed heterogeneous enhancement with a nonenhancing area. Despite the difference in enhancing patterns, the histologic appearances of these lesions were similar. Our study shows that the MRI appearance of nodular fasciitis may not be related to the location of lesion. It is thought that the age of nodular fasciitis may reflect its gross morphology, and it is possible that the MRI and histologic appearances could correlate with the age of the lesion, but it would require a larger series to evaluate this concept. (orig.)

  19. Superficially located enlarged lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Takuma; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Hoshino, Hitomi; Iwaya, Yugo; Tanaka, Eiji; Kobayashi, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Nodular gastritis is a form of chronic Helicobacter pylori gastritis affecting the gastric antrum and characterised endoscopically by the presence of small nodular lesions resembling gooseflesh. It is generally accepted that hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles histologically characterises nodular gastritis; however, quantitative analysis in support of this hypothesis has not been reported. Our goal was to determine whether nodular gastritis is characterised by lymphoid follicle hyperplasia.The number, size, and location of lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were determined and those properties compared to samples of atrophic gastritis. The percentages of high endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels were also evaluated.The number of lymphoid follicles was comparable between nodular and atrophic gastritis; however, follicle size in nodular gastritis was significantly greater than that seen in atrophic gastritis. Moreover, lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were positioned more superficially than were those in atrophic gastritis. The percentage of MECA-79 HEV-like vessels was greater in areas with gooseflesh-like lesions in nodular versus atrophic gastritis.Superficially located hyperplastic lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis, and these follicles correspond to gooseflesh-like nodular lesions observed endoscopically. These observations suggest that MECA-79 HEV-like vessels could play at least a partial role in the pathogenesis of nodular gastritis.

  20. Radiology of nodular lesions of the lung parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschan, I.; Pugatch, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have arbitrarily classified these nodular lesions as (1) single, (2) coarsely nodular throughout one or both lungs, and (3) finely granular and irregularly or homogeneously distributed throughout both lungs. They have further classified pulmonary and nodular lesions as being most likely single as against those that may be either single or multiple throughout the lung fields

  1. Is endoscopic nodular gastritis associated with premalignant lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknam, R; Manafi, A; Maghbool, M; Kouhpayeh, A; Mahmoudi, L

    2015-06-01

    Nodularity on the gastric mucosa is occasionally seen in general practice. There is no consensus about the association of nodular gastritis and histological premalignant lesions. This study is designed to investigate the prevalence of histological premalignant lesions in dyspeptic patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis. Consecutive patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis were compared with an age- and sex-matched control group. Endoscopic nodular gastritis was defined as a miliary nodular appearance of the gastric mucosa on endoscopy. Biopsy samples of stomach tissue were examined for the presence of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. The presence of Helicobacter pylori infection was determined by histology. From 5366 evaluated patients, a total of 273 patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis and 1103 participants as control group were enrolled. H. pylori infection was detected in 87.5% of the patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis, whereas 73.8% of the control group were positive for H. pylori (p gastritis were significantly higher than in the control group. Prevalence of atrophic gastritis and complete intestinal metaplasia were also more frequent in patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis than in the control group. Dysplasia, incomplete intestinal metaplasia and H. pylori infection are significantly more frequent in patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis. Although further studies are needed before a clear conclusion can be reached, we suggest that endoscopic nodular gastritis might serve as a premalignant lesion and could be biopsied in all patients for the possibility of histological premalignancy, in addition to H. pylori infection.

  2. Study on the reuse of nodular casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermont, V.M; Gomez, C.A; Lamas, J.F; Castillo, R.N

    2004-01-01

    Nodular cast pieces that have worn out are an attractive alternative to be reused as a cheap raw material for directly making other pieces. This materials recycling process often requires new and successive thermal treatments in order to be machined, to obtain the proper mechanical and microstructural properties. This work includes the results of the microstructural analysis by optic and Scanning Electron Microscopy and of the mechanical tests for traction and hardness of the test pieces submitted to different successive thermal treatments. The results show that by means of successive thermal treatments, followed by austemperizing, the appropriate mechanical and microstructural properties can be recovered permitting the nodular castings that were studied to be reliably reused (CW)

  3. Nodular granulomatous phlebitis: a phlebitic tuberculid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Angela; Siller, Gregory; Williamson, Richard; Faulkner, Catherine

    2008-11-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented with recurrent non-ulcerating skin nodules overlying the great saphenous vein on the anteromedial lower legs. Histology showed a granulomatous phlebitis, and polymerase chain reaction performed on lesional skin detected DNA specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The lesions resolved with anti-tuberculous therapy. This case may be a further example of nodular granulomatous phlebitis, a phlebitic tuberculid.

  4. Nodular calcified neurocysticercosis with signs of reactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coeli, Gustavo Nunes Medina; Tiengo, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Silva, Guilherme Carlos da; Silva, Leandro Urquiza Marques Alves da, E-mail: gustavonmc@yahoo.com.br [Department of Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis, Hospital Escola de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Silva, Afonso Carlos da [Medical Practice, Hospital Escola de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Fernandes, Jose Otavio Meyer [Clinica Sul Mineira Tomosul and Clinica Magsul, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Neurocysticercosis is a disease characterized by the involvement of the central nervous system by the intermediate larval stage of the parasite Taenia solium. The larva degeneration process and the inflammatory reaction of the body cause clinical symptoms. The authors report a case of clinical and radiological reactivation of nodular calcified neurocysticercosis in a patient who was asymptomatic for more than 20 years. Antiparasitic treatment showed a good response (author)

  5. Crystallization of nodular cast iron with carbides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a crystallization process of nodular cast iron with carbides having a different chemical composition have been presented. It have been found, that an increase of molybdenum above 0,30% causes the ledeburutic carbides crystallization after (γ+ graphite eutectic phase crystallization. When Mo content is lower, these carbides crystallize as a pre-eutectic phase. In this article causes of this effect have been given.

  6. Nodular Fasciitis of External Auditory Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun Ahn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nodular fasciitis is a pseudosarcomatous reactive process composed of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, and it is most common in the upper extremities. Nodular fasciitis of the external auditory canal is rare. To the best of our knowledge, less than 20 cases have been reported to date. We present a case of nodular fasciitis arising in the cartilaginous part of the external auditory canal. A 19-year-old man complained of an auricular mass with pruritus. Computed tomography showed a 1.7 cm sized soft tissue mass in the right external auditory canal, and total excision was performed. Histologic examination revealed spindle or stellate cells proliferation in a fascicular and storiform pattern. Lymphoid cells and erythrocytes were intermixed with tumor cells. The stroma was myxoid to hyalinized with a few microcysts. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for smooth muscle actin, but not for desmin, caldesmon, CD34, S-100, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, and cytokeratin. The patient has been doing well during the 1 year follow-up period.

  7. STRUCTURE OF THE NODULAR GOITER IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Rogova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For today the question of early diagnosis of nosological variants, the method of treatment and prevention of nodular goiter in children is still not fully resolved. There is a few available literature data about study of this problem in children. Objective: to study morphofunctional structure of thyroid nodules in children.The article provides information consisting of the results of a retrospective analysis of case histories of 73 patients, operated with nodular goiter in Z.A. Bashlyaeva Children’sCityClinicalHospital(Moscow from 2003 to May 2015. The examination included an evaluation of the functional status of the pituitary-thyroid system: there were investigated serum thyroxine, triiodothyronine and thyroid stimulating hor-mone, also was performed thyroid scintigraphy 99mТc. In the postoperative period, there was carried out a final verification of the diagnosis according to the results of the histological conclusion. The histologi-cal type of nodal disease was defined by the WHO classification of 2004. It was established that in the structure of a single-node goiter in children prevail nodular colloid goiter with equal frequency in boys and girls, with the same frequency occurs thyroid adenoma, but more often in girls than in boys. The multinodular goiter equally often detected in girls and boys both nodular goiter colloidal with varying degree of proliferation and colloid in combination with follicular thyroid adenoma. "Hot" nodes in the multinodular goiter are more common than in the single-node goiter and more fre-quently in girls than in boys. The half of children with nodular pathology have "hot" nodes and one out of every three – decompensated form of functional autonomy. Decompensated form of functional autonomy of the thyroid gland in children with "hot" nodes detects regardless of the number of nodes. Papillary thyroid cancer occurs not only in patients with a single-node, but with a multinodular goiter. The results allow to

  8. Adrenocortical scintigraphy with {sup 131}I-6-beta-iodomethyl-norcholesterol (NP 59) in bilateral adrenocortical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Hernandez, G.; Pallares, F.J.C.; Avila y Avalos, C.R. de [Hospital Clinic Universitari de Valencia (Spain). Servei de Medicina Nuclear; Bartual, A.R.; Rodrigo, S.T.; Ampudia-Blasco, F.J. [Hospital Clinic Universitari de Valencia (Spain). Servei d`Endocrinologia

    1998-06-01

    A case of a 49-year-old man suffering from bilateral adrenocortical carcinoma with local and secondary rapid progression is reported. The results of adrenocortical scintigraphy (NP 59) and histological findings allowed the diagnosis. This case report and a literature review showed the importance of using adrenocortical scintigraphy as a complementary imaging procedure of CT or MR images. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird ueber einen 49jaehrigen Mann berichtet, der an einem beidseitigen Nebennierenrinden-Karzinom mit schneller lokaler und sekundaerer Progression leidet. Die Ergebnisse der Nebennierenrinden-Szintigraphie (NP 59) und Histologie ermoeglichten die Diagnose: Dieser Fallbericht und ein Literaturueberblick zeigen die Bedeutung der Nebennierenrinden-Szintigraphie als ein zusaetzliches bildgebendes Verfahren neben CT und NMR. (orig.)

  9. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  10. Non-invasive measurement of adrenocortical activity in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring physiological stress reactions through the quantification of plasma cortisol often involves physical restraint, which acts as a stressor itself. Here, we present the validation of a non-invasive method for assessing adrenocortical activity as an indicator of stress in the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis). By conducting ...

  11. Pathogenesis of canine cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In dogs, hypercortisolism is one of the most frequently observed endocrine disorders, with an estimated incidence of about 1-2 cases per 1000 dogs per year. Approximately 15% of these cases is due to a cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumor (AT). Cortisol-secreting ATs are characterized by

  12. Mouse Models Recapitulating Human Adrenocortical Tumors: What is lacking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Leccia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal cortex tumors are divided into benign forms such as primary hyperplasias and adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs, and malignant forms or adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs. Primary hyperplasias are rare causes of ACTH-independent hypercortisolism. ACAs are the most common type of adrenal gland tumors and they are rarely functional, i.e producing steroids. When functional, adenomas result in endocrine disorders such as Cushing’s syndrome (hypercortisolism or Conn’s syndrome (hyperaldosteronism. In contrast, ACCs are extremely rare but highly aggressive tumors that may also lead to hypersecreting syndromes. Genetic analyses of patients with sporadic or familial forms of adrenocortical tumors led to the identification of potentially causative genes, most of them being involved in PKA, Wnt/β-catenin and P53 signaling pathways. Development of mouse models is a crucial step to firmly establish the functional significance of candidate genes, to dissect mechanisms leading to tumors and endocrine disorders and in fine to provide in vivo tools for therapeutic screens. In this article we will provide an overview on the existing mouse models (xenografted and genetically engineered of adrenocortical tumors by focusing on the role of PKA and Wnt/β-catenin pathways in this context. We will discuss the advantages and limitations of models that have been developed heretofore and we will point out necessary improvements in the development of next generation mouse models of adrenal diseases.

  13. [Nodular gastritis and gastric cancer in young adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Tomoari; Shiotani, Akiko; Haruma, Ken

    2012-10-01

    Nodular gastritis is a popular endoscopic gastritis in H. pylori-positive children and young adults. The endoscopic findings of nodular gastritis were mainly characterized by a unique, small granulated pattern in the antrum of the stomach. The cases of gastric cancer with nodular gastritis showed the same characteristics: all were diagnosed histologically as the diffuse-type and were located in the corpus with H. pylori infection. We recommended that endoscopists should carefully examine not only the antrum but also the corpus in patients with nodular gastritis, and H. pylori should be eradicated as soon as possible to prevent gastric cancer.

  14. Surgical resection of synchronously metastatic adrenocortical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy, Benzon M; Strajina, Veljko; Cayo, Ashley K; Richards, Melanie L; Farley, David R; Grant, Clive S; Harmsen, William S; Evans, Doug B; Grubbs, Elizabeth G; Bible, Keith C; Young, William F; Perrier, Nancy D; Que, Florencia G; Nagorney, David M; Lee, Jeffrey E; Thompson, Geoffrey B

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is rapidly fatal, with few options for treatment. Patients with metachronous recurrence may benefit from surgical resection. The survival benefit in patients with hematogenous metastasis at initial presentation is unknown. A review of all patients undergoing surgery (European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors) stage IV ACC between January 2000 and December 2012 from two referral centers was performed. Kaplan-Meier estimates were analyzed for disease-free and overall survival (OS). We identified 27 patients undergoing surgery for stage IV ACC. Metastases were present in the lung (19), liver (11), and brain (1). A complete resection (R0) was achieved in 11 patients. The median OS was improved in patients undergoing R0 versus R2 resection (860 vs. 390 days; p = 0.02). The 1- and 2-year OS was also improved in patients undergoing R0 versus R2 resection (69.9 %, 46.9 % vs. 53.0 %, 22.1 %; p = 0.02). Patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy (eight patients) had a trend towards improved survival at 1, 2, and 5 years versus no neoadjuvant therapy (18 patients) [83.3 %, 62.5 %, 41.7 % vs. 56.8 %, 26.6 %, 8.9 %; p = 0.1]. Adjuvant therapy was associated with improved recurrence-free survival at 6 months and 1 year (67 %, 33 % vs. 40 %, 20 %; p = 0.04) but not improved OS (p = 0.63). Sex (p = 0.13), age (p = 0.95), and location of metastasis (lung, p = 0.51; liver, p = 0.67) did not correlate with OS after operative intervention. Symptoms of hormonal excess improved in 86 % of patients. Operative intervention, especially when an R0 resection can be achieved, following systemic therapy may improve outcomes, including OS, in select patients with stage IV ACC. Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be of use in defining which patients may benefit from surgical intervention. Adjuvant therapy was associated with decreased recurrence but did not improve OS.

  15. Laparoscopic Partial Hepatectomy of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Sakata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Focal nodular hyperplasia is a benign liver lesion incidentally discovered with increasing frequency because of the proliferation of imaging studies. Radiographic characterization can diagnose this pathologic lesion and nonoperative therapy is the standard of care. However, surgical resection may be required for diagnostic reasons or symptomatic patients. Depending on the anatomic location of the lesion, biopsy and/or resection can be performed laparoscopically. We herein report the case of a 26-year-old Japanese woman with a hepatic tumor who required a medical examination. Her medical history was negative for alcohol abuse, oral contraceptive administration and trauma. Clinical examination showed no significant symptoms. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass located in the left lateral segment of the liver with a diameter of about 40 mm. It was difficult to diagnose the tumor definitively from these imaging studies, so we performed laparoscopic partial hepatectomy with successive firing of endoscopic staplers. The histopathological diagnosis was focal nodular hyperplasia. Surgical procedures and postoperative course were uneventful and the patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 5.

  16. Nodular Epiescleritis Granulomatous Canine. Case Report

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    Camilo Guarín Patarroyo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Granulomatous epiescleritis nodular disease in canines is a very unusual presentation that affects or external fibrous tunic of the eyeball and conjunctiva, which was an increase similar to a unilateral or bilateral tumor. Suspected immune-mediated disease due to lack of identification of an etiologic agent and the response to treatment with immunosuppressive drugs (Couto, 1992. The ideal therapy is the application of steroids via intralesional, topical or systemic, or other immunosuppressants such as cyclosporine and azathioprine; it is still advisable to apply antibiotic is the ideal combination of tetracycline and neomycin (Gilger & Whitley, 1999. The diagnostic method of episcleritis is made by histopathology, which is evident in changes similar to chronic granulomatous inflammation. Are claiming a racial bias in Alsatian, Shepherd Collie Shetland Shepherd, Coker Spaniel, Rottweiler and Labrador Retriever (Gough & Thomas, 2004. The following case is a report of a nodular epiescleritis affecting the cornea, sclera, and the corneoscleral limbus, which describes the diagnosis, signology and treatment.

  17. Pseudotemporal Epilepsy with Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Ünal

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH that is one of the subgroups of neuronal migration disorders is associated with intractable epilepsy. However the etiopathogenesis of seizures in PNH patients are still unclear. Heterotopias are not involved in the epileptic network, alone. A complex relation between nodules, hippocampus and neocortex has been reported as the cause. Case: A 20 year-old male patient with intractable seizures is presented with ictal and interictal EEG findings compatible with right temporal lobe seizure. Although his first MRI was reported as hyperintensity in right hippocampus, repeated MRI examination according to epilepsy protocol revealed bilateral PNH, with no signal change in hippocampus. Conclusion: The aim of this case report is to discuss the importance of PNH in the differential diagnosis of intractable seizures, and to mention that neurologists and radiologists can easily miss these lesions, if the walls of ventricles are not checked carefully

  18. Microsegregation in Nodular Cast Iron with Carbides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper results of microsegregation in the newly developed nodular cast iron with carbides are presented. To investigate the pearlitic and bainitic cast iron with carbides obtained by Inmold method were chosen. The distribution of linear elements on the eutectic cell radius was examined. To investigate the microsegregation pearlitic and bainitic cast iron with carbides obtained by Inmold method were chosen.The linear distribution of elements on the eutectic cell radius was examined. Testing of the chemical composition of cast iron metal matrix components, including carbides were carried out. The change of graphitizing and anti-graphitizing element concentrations within eutectic cell was determined. It was found, that in cast iron containing Mo carbides crystallizing after austenite + graphite eutectic are Si enriched.

  19. Microsegregation in Nodular Cast Iron with Carbides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrowski S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper results of microsegregation in the newly developed nodular cast iron with carbides are presented. To investigate the pearlitic and bainitic cast iron with carbides obtained by Inmold method were chosen. The distribution of linear elements on the eutectic cell radius was examined. To investigate the microsegregation pearlitic and bainitic cast iron with carbides obtained by Inmold method were chosen. The linear distribution of elements on the eutectic cell radius was examined. Testing of the chemical composition of cast iron metal matrix components, including carbides were carried out. The change of graphitizing and anti-graphitizing element concentrations within eutectic cell was determined. It was found, that in cast iron containing Mo carbides crystallizing after austenite + graphite eutectic are Si enriched.

  20. Periorbital nodular fasciitis arising during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon N Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodular fasciitis (NF is a benign proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts that rarely occurs in the periorbital region. We report what we believe to be the first case of periorbital NF associated with pregnancy. A case of intravascular fasciitis, a NF variant, has been reported during pregnancy, but it was not located in the periorbital region. A weak presence of estrogen receptors has been reported in NF. This may make it more susceptible to the hormone-related changes during pregnancy and contribute to the development of the lesion by stimulating fibroblasts and smooth muscle cell types. Although rare, NF should be considered in the differential diagnosis of periorbital soft-tissue masses arising during pregnancy.

  1. Adrenocortical carcinoma, an unusual cause of secondary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron Esquivel, Daniel; Batiz, Fernando; Farias Vega, Alfonso; Carrillo Gonzalez, Perla A

    2016-12-07

    We present the case of a female patient aged 39 years who was admitted to our hospital due to hypertension, severe hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis; physical examination was remarkable for plethoric moon face, centripetal obesity and bilateral lower extremity oedema. She was admitted for intravenous potassium replacement and further assessment of hypertension and associated clinical findings. Laboratory testing showed increased levels of aldosterone, renin, cortisol, testosterone and androstenedione. An abdominal CT revealed a large mass in the right adrenal gland with hepatic involvement. The patient was started on antihypertensive medications and underwent laparoscopic surgery for mass and liver biopsy. The pathological diagnosis was adrenocortical carcinoma with liver metastasis. Hyperaldosteronism is a cause of secondary hypertension and its diagnosis is usually benign. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare condition and aldosterone secreting tumours are even rarer; associated hypertension usually improves after tumour resection, but with the presence of metastasis, blood pressure control is difficult. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm presenting with Cushing's syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabayegit Ozlem

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oncocytic neoplasms occur in several organs and are most commonly found in the thyroid, kidneys and salivary glands. Oncocytic neoplasms of the adrenal cortex are extremely rare and are usually non-functioning. Case presentation We report the case of an adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm with uncertain malignant potential in a 31-year-old man with Cushing's syndrome. The patient had been operated on following diagnosis of a 7 cm adrenal mass. Following surgery, the Cushing's syndrome resolved. The patient is still alive with no metastases one year after the surgery. Conclusion Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms must be considered in the differential diagnosis of both functioning and non-functioning adrenal masses.

  3. Marital Conflict Predicts Mother-to-Infant Adrenocortical Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibel, Leah C; Mercado, Evelyn

    2017-12-21

    Employing an experimental design, mother-to-infant transmission of stress was examined. Mothers (N = 117) were randomized to either have a positive or conflictual discussion with their marital partners, after which infants (age = 6 months) participated in a fear and frustration task. Saliva samples were collected to assess maternal cortisol responses to the discussion and infant cortisol responses to the challenge task. Results indicate maternal cortisol reactivity and recovery to the conflict (but not positive) discussion predicted infant cortisol reactivity to the infant challenge. Mothers' positive affect during the discussion buffered, and intrusion during the free-play potentiated, mother-to-infant adrenocortical transmission. These findings advance our understanding of the social and contextual regulation of adrenocortical activity in early childhood. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Virilizing Adrenocortical Carcinoma Advancing to Central Precocious Puberty after Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Sun; Yang, Eu Jeen; Cho, Dong Hyu; Hwang, Pyung Han; Lee, Dae-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) in pediatric and adolescent patients is rare, and it is associated with various clinical symptoms. We introduce the case of an 8-year-old boy with ACC who presented with peripheral precocious puberty at his first visit. He displayed penis enlargement with pubic hair and facial acne. His serum adrenal androgen levels were elevated, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a right suprarenal mass. After complete surgical resection, the histological diagnosis was...

  5. Clinical results of the use of mitotane for adrenocortical carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasperlik-Zaluska A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitotane (o,p'-DDD acts mainly as an inhibitor of intramitochondrial pregnenolone and cortisol synthesis. Its adrenolytic effect depends on metabolic activation due to conversion to o,p'-DDA and o,p'-DDE. The drug has been used for 40 years in the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma, mainly its regional and metastatic stage, as an adjuvant to surgical resection of the tumor. In the medical literature there are controversial opinions about its efficacy for the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma. In our experience, mitotane administered immediately after surgery appeared to be much more efficient than when administered later. We have administered this drug in all cases of microscopically confirmed adrenocortical carcinoma, irrespectively of stage at the time of surgery, for fear of a false too optimistic classification. In our series of 82 patients with adrenocortical carcinoma, 59 patients have been treated with mitotane, 32 of them immediately after surgery, and 27 with a delay of 2 to 24 months. Today there are 18 survivors in the group of patients treated with mitotane soon after the operation and only 6 survivors in the group receiving mitotane with a delay. All patients were simultaneously given replacement therapy. Undesired effects of mitotane administration included increased aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity, decreased white cell, platelet or red cell number, and myasthenia. Furthermore, we used mitotane with good results in Cushing's syndrome of non-malignant origin as pre-treatment before surgery or in long-term treatment for patients with poor tolerance of other adrenal inhibitors.

  6. Plurihormonal Cosecretion by a Case of Adrenocortical Oncocytic Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corrales

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms (oncocytomas are extremely rare; only approximately 159 cases have been described so far. The majority are nonfunctional and benign. We describe an unusual case of a functional oncocytoma secreting an excess of glucocorticoids (cortisol and androgens (androstenedione and DHEAS, a pattern of plurihormonal cosecretion previously not reported in men, presenting with endocrine manifestations of Cushing’s syndrome. The neoplasm was considered to be of uncertain malignant potential (borderline according to the Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia criteria.

  7. Nodular Lymphangitis (Sporotrichoid Lymphocutaneous Infections. Clues to Differential Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Tirado-Sánchez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nodular lymphangitis, also known as sporotrichoid lymphocutaneous infections, is characterized by suppurative inflammatory nodules along the lymphatic vessels. This manifestation is classic of sporotrichosis, however, other infections such as nocardiosis, atypical mycobacteriosis, leishmaniasis, among others, can also express this clinical pattern. Sporotrichosis, which often occurs in gardeners, remains the most recognized cause of nodular lymphangitis. The histopathological studies, as well as the culture are diagnostic standards of lesions that do not respond to empirical treatment. In this article, we will review the main causes of nodular lymphangitis or lymphocutaneous sporotrichoid infections.

  8. Nodular type of muscular sarcoidosis : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Soo Hyun; Kim, Hong Soo; Park, Sook Hee; Kim, Sung Me

    1999-01-01

    Muscular involvement of sarcoidosis is rare and occurs in two forms:nodular and myopathic. In the nodular variety, lesions are long and extend along muscle fibers. Axial MR imaging reveals a star-shaped central structure of decreased signal intensity. Sagittal and coronal MR images show three stripes:an inner stripe of decreased signal intensity and outer stripes of increased signal intensity. Longitudinal sonography shows an echogenic inner stripe and hypoechoic outer stripes. We report a case of nodular- type muscular sarcoidosis in a 53-year-old man, describing the findings of MRI and ultrasonography

  9. Medulloblastoma with Excessive Nodularity: Radiographic Features and Pathologic Correlate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Yeh-Nayre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity is a rare subtype of the most common malignant childhood brain tumor and has been associated with more favorable prognosis. The authors report the case of a 10-month-old girl with a posterior fossa tumor of excessive nodularity with decreased diffusivity on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences and robust grape-like postgadolinium contrast enhancing features. The unique neuroradiographic features were confirmed by histopathology and a diagnosis of medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity was made. This case highlights the importance of recognizing this unique medulloblastoma subtype preoperatively, as the more favorable outcome may preclude less aggressive medical management.

  10. Pediatric adrenocortical neoplasms: can imaging reliably discriminate adenomas from carcinomas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynt, Kelsey A.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Smith, Ethan A.; Strouse, Peter J.; Davenport, Matthew S.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Else, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature describing and comparing the imaging features of adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in children and adolescents. To document the CT and MRI features of adrenocortical neoplasms in a pediatric population and to determine whether imaging findings (other than metastatic disease) can distinguish adenomas from carcinomas. We searched institutional medical records to identify pediatric patients with adrenocortical neoplasms. Pre-treatment CT and MRI examinations were reviewed by two radiologists in consensus, and pertinent imaging findings were documented. We also recorded relevant histopathological, demographic, clinical follow-up and survival data. We used the Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare parametric and nonparametric continuous data, and the Fisher exact test to compare proportions. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to evaluate the diagnostic performances of tumor diameter and volume for discriminating carcinoma from adenoma. A P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the adrenocortical lesions, 9 were adenomas, 15 were carcinomas, and 1 was of uncertain malignant potential. There were no differences in mean age, gender or sidedness between adenomas and carcinomas. Carcinomas were significantly larger than adenomas based on mean estimated volume (581 ml, range 16-2,101 vs. 54 ml, range 3-197 ml; P-value = 0.003; ROC area under the curve = 0.92) and mean maximum transverse plane diameter (9.9 cm, range 3.0-14.9 vs. 4.4 cm, range 1.9-8.2 cm; P-value = 0.0001; ROC area under the curve = 0.92). Carcinomas also were more heterogeneous than adenomas on post-contrast imaging (13/14 vs. 2/9; odds ratio [OR] = 45.5; P-value = 0.001). Six of 13 carcinomas and 1 of 8 adenomas contained calcification at CT (OR = 6.0; P-value = 0.17). Seven of 15 children with carcinomas exhibited metastatic disease at diagnosis, and three had inferior vena cava invasion. Median

  11. Pediatric adrenocortical neoplasms: can imaging reliably discriminate adenomas from carcinomas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynt, Kelsey A.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Smith, Ethan A.; Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C. S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Davenport, Matthew S.; Caoili, Elaine M. [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Abdominal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Else, Tobias [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-08-15

    There is a paucity of literature describing and comparing the imaging features of adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in children and adolescents. To document the CT and MRI features of adrenocortical neoplasms in a pediatric population and to determine whether imaging findings (other than metastatic disease) can distinguish adenomas from carcinomas. We searched institutional medical records to identify pediatric patients with adrenocortical neoplasms. Pre-treatment CT and MRI examinations were reviewed by two radiologists in consensus, and pertinent imaging findings were documented. We also recorded relevant histopathological, demographic, clinical follow-up and survival data. We used the Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare parametric and nonparametric continuous data, and the Fisher exact test to compare proportions. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to evaluate the diagnostic performances of tumor diameter and volume for discriminating carcinoma from adenoma. A P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the adrenocortical lesions, 9 were adenomas, 15 were carcinomas, and 1 was of uncertain malignant potential. There were no differences in mean age, gender or sidedness between adenomas and carcinomas. Carcinomas were significantly larger than adenomas based on mean estimated volume (581 ml, range 16-2,101 vs. 54 ml, range 3-197 ml; P-value = 0.003; ROC area under the curve = 0.92) and mean maximum transverse plane diameter (9.9 cm, range 3.0-14.9 vs. 4.4 cm, range 1.9-8.2 cm; P-value = 0.0001; ROC area under the curve = 0.92). Carcinomas also were more heterogeneous than adenomas on post-contrast imaging (13/14 vs. 2/9; odds ratio [OR] = 45.5; P-value = 0.001). Six of 13 carcinomas and 1 of 8 adenomas contained calcification at CT (OR = 6.0; P-value = 0.17). Seven of 15 children with carcinomas exhibited metastatic disease at diagnosis, and three had inferior vena cava invasion. Median

  12. A Rare Case of Medulloblastoma with Excessive Nodularity: Imagistic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tascu A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant tumor of childhood. Neuroimaging can play a role in the diagnosis of medulloblastoma, however atypical features do exist [2]. We report the case of a 1 year and 10- month-old infant diagnosed with a medulloblastoma with what we term “excessive” nodularity based on neuroimaging features and confirmed by neuropathology. CT-scan (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination of the brain revealed a very large posterior fossa tumor attached to tentorium. On T2-weighted and post-gadolinium sequences, the tumor shows an extensive nodular grape-like appearance. Initial the patient was underwent a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. The second operative procedure was tumour resection. Histology examen revealed a diagnosis of medulloblastoma desmoplastic with extensive nodularity. The neuroradiographic features of this medulloblastoma with what we describe as “excessive” nodularity are important to recognize as these children may be cured with chemotherapy alone.

  13. Ultrasonic inspection of nodular cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersh, S.; Zhang, Yingda

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of experimental results collected from several nodular cast iron (NCI) specimens, Amdata, Inc., has developed a tentative procedure for performing ultrasonic testing (UT) preservice inspection of NCI casks and qualifying personnel and equipment. The authors anticipate that this procedure will be a component in a comprehensive program to certify that casks are free from critical flaws prior to their introduction into service, with testing being performed on a production line basis by UT inspection personnel. The tentative procedure was applied to inspection of NCI block SGR-483-001 manufactured by Siempelkamp Giesserei GmbH and Co. of West Germany. This block is 59 by 39.5 by 13.8 inches and weighs 5.2 tons. Several indications were detected with the I/98, in accordance with the tentative procedure, and they were analyzed using two-dimensional synthetic aperture technique (Line-SAFT). When compared with conventional sizing methods that may confound the effects of beam spread with flaw size, Line-SAFT significantly improved sizing accuracy. SAFT is an electronic simulation of a lens and has the property of reducing the effect of beam spread on the resultant indication sizes. Although a higher-precision 3-D SAFT option was also available, it would necessitate data transfer to a separate VAX computer and lengthy calculations. As an alternative, Line-SAFT, a faster but less precise 2-D simplification, was implemented on the I/98 data acquisition system

  14. Postoperative recurrent nontoxic nodular (multinodular goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolstokorov A.S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of modern methods of examination (ultrasound investigation with Doppler mapping, aspiration (needle biopsy, radiodiagnostics cannot resolve the problem of verification of nodular mass in case of multinodular goiter before operation. Operative intervention is the method of choice in this case, which gives rise to the problem of surgery extent. The present study is useful in improvement of remote results of surgical treatment of multinodular goiter through statistical estimation of recurrent goiter development. The study was retrospective and included 102 consecutively admitted and operated patients with recurrent goiter and 102 patients of control group with first diagnosed and operated goiter. Patients of both groups were in euthyroid state. Patients were admitted to the Clinic of Surgery and Oncology of Raising Skills Faculty of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky from 2000 till 2004. Statistical analyses included calculation of average mean, standard deviation and mean error. Student's ratio was used as the test of validity of average mean. Chi-square test was used for assessment of qualitative characteristics.

  15. Nodular smooth muscle metaplasia in multiple peritoneal endometriosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Ha, Sang Yun; Song, Sang Yong

    2015-01-01

    We report here an unusual presentation of peritoneal endometriosis with smooth muscle metaplasia as multiple protruding masses on the lateral pelvic wall. Smooth muscle metaplasia is a common finding in rectovaginal endometriosis, whereas in peritoneal endometriosis, smooth muscle metaplasia is uncommon and its nodular presentation on the pelvic wall is even rarer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of nodular smooth muscle metaplasia occurring in peritoneal endometriosis. A...

  16. Effects of centrifugation on gonadal and adrenocortical steroids in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakihana, R.; Butte, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Many endocrine systems are sensitive to external changes in the environment. Both the pituitary adrenal and pituitary gonadal systems are affected by stress including centrifugation stress. The effect of centrifugation on the pituitary gonadal and pituitary adrenocortical systems was examined by measuring the gonadal and adrenal steroids in the plasma and brain following different duration and intensity of centrifugation stress in rats. Two studies were completed and the results are presented. The second study was carried out to describe the developmental changes of brain, plasma and testicular testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in Sprague Dawley rats so that the effect of centrifugation stress on the pituitary gonadal syatem could be better evaluated in future studies.

  17. Carcinoma thyroid in multi and uni nodular goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Mehmood, Z.; Rasul, S.; Inamullah, S.; Sagheer, H.; Bokhari, I.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency and profile of carcinoma in multi-nodular goiter and solitary thyroid nodule. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Surgical Unit-I, Ward-3 of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from January 1999 to January 2009. Methodology: Cases with solitary thyroid nodules and multi-nodular goiter were included. Patients under 12 years of age, cystic benign lesion in solitary thyroid nodules or those multi-nodular goiters which were not causing pressure symptoms, cosmetic problems or sign of malignancy were excluded. In solitary thyroid nodule, hemithyroidectomy was done and if histopathology examination revealed carcinoma thyroid then completion thyroidectomy was done. In multi-nodular goiter sub-total thyroidectomy done. Results were described as frequency percentages and mean. Results: Out of 397 patients of multi-nodular goiter only one patient was found to be papillary carcinoma (0.25%). In 220 patients of solitary thyroid nodules, 93 patients were diagnosed as carcinoma of thyroid (42.27%). Others diagnosed in solitary thyroid nodule were thyroid adenoma, colloid goiter, thyroiditis and multi-nodular goiter. The frequency of papillary carcinoma in 65.95% occurring females of 12-30 years of age and being multifocal in 6.45%, follicular carcinoma in 23.40%, medullary carcinoma in 7.44%, anaplastic carcinoma in 2.12% and lymphoma in 1.01%. Female were predominantly involved and papillary carcinoma was common in 12-30 years of age (71.63%) and follicular was common in 30-40 years of age (68.18%). 6.45% of papillary carcinoma was found to be multifocal in nature. Conclusion: Frequency of carcinoma of thyroid is very high in solitary thyroid nodule (42.27%), but markedly low in multi nodular goiter. Papillary carcinoma is the most common variety, most of in younger female. (author)

  18. Global gene expression response to telomerase in bovine adrenocortical cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrault, Steven D.; Hornsby, Peter J.; Betts, Dean H.

    2005-01-01

    The infinite proliferative capability of most immortalized cells is dependent upon the presence of the enzyme telomerase and its ability to maintain telomere length and structure. However, telomerase may be involved in a greater system than telomere length regulation, as recent evidence has shown it capable of increasing wound healing in vivo, and improving cellular proliferation rate and survival from apoptosis in vitro. Here, we describe the global gene expression response to ectopic telomerase expression in an in vitro bovine adrenocortical cell model. Telomerase-immortalized cells showed an increased ability for proliferation and survival in minimal essential medium above cells transgenic for GFP. cDNA microarray analyses revealed an altered cell state indicative of increased adrenocortical cell proliferation regulated by the IGF2 pathway and alterations in members of the TGF-B family. As well, we identified alterations in genes associated with development and wound healing that support a model that high telomerase expression induces a highly adaptable, progenitor-like state

  19. Nodular Fasciitis of the Auricle: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Majidi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nodular fasciitis is described as a benign reactive proliferation of myofibroblasts. Due to its rapid-growing nature, a precise clinical diagnosis is difficult and the condition is frequently misdiagnosed as malignant lesions.   Case Report: In this study, we present the case of a young woman with an auricular nodular fasciitis as an example of one of the rarest sites of this tumor. The patient underwent an excision of the lesion under general anesthesia. The literature choices for treatment include complete excision, partial excision, or intralesional injection of steroids. Due to its associated local discomfort, and in order to exclude other differential diagnosis, we recommend a complete surgical excision.   Conclusion:  Auricular nodular fasciitis is a rare lesion. Due to its associated local discomfort, and in order to exclude other differential diagnosis, we recommend a complete surgical excision.

  20. The micro-mechanisms of failure of nodular cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Vaško

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with a comparison of the micro-mechanisms of failure of nodular cast irons at static, impact and fatigue stress. Several specimens of ferrite-pearlitic nodular cast irons with different content of ferrite in a matrix were used for metallographic analysis, mechanical tests and micro-fractographic analysis. Mechanical properties were found by static tensile test, impact bending test and fatigue tests. The micro-fractographic analysis was made with use of scanning electron microscope VEGA II LMU on fracture surfaces of the specimens fractured by these mechanical and fatigue tests. Fracture surfaces of analysed specimens are characteristic of mixed mode of fracture. Micro-mechanism of failure of nodular cast irons is dependent on the method of stress.

  1. Nodular Fasciitis of the Breast Mimicking Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yamamoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodular fasciitis is a benign proliferative lesion that is usually found in the soft tissue of the upper extremity and trunk in young to middle-aged persons. It has rarely been described in the breast. A 35-year-old woman had noticed a mass in her left breast. It was elastic-hard, 13 mm in size, and located mainly in the upper inner quadrant of the left breast. Mammography did not detect the mass. Ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic lesion with an irregular margin. Neither fine-needle aspiration cytology nor core needle biopsy established a definitive diagnosis. Excisional biopsy was therefore performed. Histologically, the excised tumor tissue results were consistent with a diagnosis of nodular fasciitis of the breast. We report a case of nodular fasciitis of the breast, a rare histological type of breast tumor.

  2. A Case with Bilateral Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia Diagnosed as Depression

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    Melek Kandemir

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Periventricular nodular heterotopia is a form of neuronal migration abnormality. Periventricular nodular heterotopia can easily be recognized by cranial magnetic resonance imaging. The most common clinical appearance is epileptic seizures. In some cases, symptoms are accompanied with psychiatric complaints. In this article, we report a 33-year-old female with complaints of left-sided paresthesia induced by emotional stress. She had been followed at an outpatient psychiatry clinic for about 10 years with the diagnosis of somatization disorder. Her electroencephalography recordings -awake as well as during sleep- were found to be normal. The cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia. Her seizures were controlled with carbamazepine treatment. Partial epileptic seizures might also be observed, even though the cerebral heterotopic lesions are bilateral. When a history is obtained from a patient with somatoform complaints, it should be kept in mind that these symptoms might be seizures, and the patient should be questioned accordingly

  3. A Case with Bilateral Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia Diagnosed as Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Kandemir

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Periventricular nodular heterotopia is a form of neuronal migration abnormality. Periventricular nodular heterotopia can easily be recognized by cranial magnetic resonance imaging. The most common clinical appearance is epileptic seizures. In some cases, symptoms are accompanied with psychiatric complaints. In this article, we report a 33-year-old female with complaints of left-sided paresthesia induced by emotional stress. She had been followed at an outpatient psychiatry clinic for about 10 years with the diagnosis of somatization disorder. Her electroencephalography recordings -awake as well as during sleep- were found to be normal. The cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia. Her seizures were controlled with carbamazepine treatment. Partial epileptic seizures might also be observed, even though the cerebral heterotopic lesions are bilateral. When a history is obtained from a patient with somatoform complaints, it should be kept in mind that these symptoms might be seizures, and the patient should be questioned accordingly.

  4. Giant hidradenocarcinoma: a report of malignant transformation from nodular hidradenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S C; Lee, M J; Lee, M S; Kee, K H; Suh, C H

    1998-10-01

    A giant hidradenocarcinoma presented by a 75-year-old female is reported. The patient had a malignant transformation within a nodular hidradenoma involving the right postauricular area, which was treated by mass removal and a right radical neck dissection with a free-flap covering. Malignant hidradenocarcinoma is the least common adnexal tumor of uncertain origin. They are usually malignant from their inception, but some develop from a benign counterpart. To the authors' knowledge, only three cases have been reported previously. Two histologically distinct components were seen in this tumor: (i) typical nodular hidradenoma, which constituted a small part of the tumor; and (ii) carcinoma with areas of transition. The secretory cells of hidradenocarcinoma showed decapitation secretion on light and electron microscopic observations, which is evidence of apocrine differentiation. Histologically, this case was concluded as a hidradenocarcinoma arising from a long-standing nodular hidradenoma. A literature review is presented and the histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features are described.

  5. Effect of acupuncture on adrenocortical hormone production in rabbits with a central lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Y.Y.; Seto, K.; Saitoh, H.; Kawakami, M.

    A study was made of adrenocortical hormone production under electroacupuncture stimulation of the Tsu-San-Li locus in rabbits with a lesion in the fornix, stria terminalis, ventromedial nucleus or arcuate nucleus. In rabbits with a lesion in the stria terminalis or ventromedial nucleus, electroacupuncture stimulation of Tsu-San-Li resulted in no increase in phase 1 but an increase in phase 2 of adrenocortical hormone production. In rabbits with a lesion in the fornix or arcuate nucleus electroacupuncture stimulation of Tsu-San-Li was followed by increased adrenocortical hormone production in the both phases. These results show that the stria terminalis and the ventromedial nucleus play a major role in the augmentation of adrenocortical hormone production by electroacupuncture stimulation of Tsu-San-Li.

  6. Virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma advancing to central precocious puberty after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Yang, Eu Jeen; Cho, Dong Hyu; Hwang, Pyung Han; Lee, Dae-Yeol

    2015-05-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) in pediatric and adolescent patients is rare, and it is associated with various clinical symptoms. We introduce the case of an 8-year-old boy with ACC who presented with peripheral precocious puberty at his first visit. He displayed penis enlargement with pubic hair and facial acne. His serum adrenal androgen levels were elevated, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a right suprarenal mass. After complete surgical resection, the histological diagnosis was ACC. Two months after surgical removal of the mass, he subsequently developed central precocious puberty. He was treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist to delay further pubertal progression. In patients with functioning ACC and surgical removal, clinical follow-up and hormonal marker examination for the secondary effects of excessive hormone secretion may be a useful option at least every 2 or 3 months after surgery.

  7. Virilization in a Girl with Adrenocortical Adenoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahniyah Haq

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of Cushing’s syndrome and virilization in a 15 year old girl which was suspected to be due to an adrenal carcinoma. She presented with features of virilization in addition to those of hypercortisilism. Her high androgen levels especially dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS were also in favor of an adrenal carcinoma. An unenhanced computerized tomography (CT scan showed a mass (size: 5.3 cm in the right adrenal gland with a soft tissue intensity of more than 10 HU which was suggestive of adrenal carcinoma. But, histopathology of the resected mass revealed a benign adrenocortical adenoma. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2012; 6(2: 70-72

  8. MicroRNAs as potential biomarkers in adrenocortical cancer: progress and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia eCHERRADI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Over the last decade, pan-genomic analyses of genetic and epigenetic alterations and genome-wide expression profile studies allowed major advances in the understanding of the molecular genetics of adrenocortical carcinoma. Besides the well-known dysfunctional molecular pathways in adrenocortical tumors such as the IGF2 pathway, the Wnt pathway and TP53, high-throughput technologies enabled a more comprehensive genomic characterization of adrenocortical cancer. Integration of expression profile data with exome sequencing, SNP array analysis, methylation and microRNA profiling led to the identification of subgroups of malignant tumors with distinct molecular alterations and clinical outcomes. MicroRNAs post-transcriptionally silence their target gene expression either by degrading mRNA or by inhibiting translation. Although our knowledge of the contribution of deregulated microRNAs to the pathogenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma is still in its infancy, recent studies support their relevance in gene expression alterations in these tumors. Some microRNAs have been shown to carry potential diagnostic and prognostic values while others may be good candidates for therapeutic interventions. With the emergence of disease-specific blood-borne microRNAs signatures, analyses of small cohorts of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma suggest that circulating microRNAs represent promising non-invasive biomarkers of malignancy or recurrence. However, some technical challenges still remain, and most of the microRNAs reported in the literature have not yet been validated in sufficiently powered and longitudinal studies. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge regarding the deregulation of tumor-associated and circulating microRNAs in adrenocortical carcinoma patients, while emphasizing their potential significance in adrenocortical carcinoma pathogenic

  9. A black adrenocortical adenoma causing Cushing's syndrome not imaged by radiocholesterol scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reschini, E.; Baldini, M.; Cantalamessa, L.

    1990-01-01

    In a 33-year-old female patient with left adrenal tumour and Cushing's syndrome, adrenocortical scintigraphy with radiocholesterol did not image the tumour nor the suppressed contralateral gland. Histology showed a black adrenocortical adenoma composed only of compact cells; there was no evidence of malignancy. This demonstrates that non-visualization of the adrenal glands in a patient with Cushing's syndrome is not invariably due to adrenal carcinoma. The literature on black adrenal adenomas causing Cushing's syndrome is reviewed. (orig.)

  10. Analysis of adrenocortical tumours morphology as regards their structure and potential malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajor, M.; Ciupinska-Kajor, M.; Dobrosz, Z.; Ziaja, J.; Krol, R.; Heitzman, M.; Cierpka, L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: A consequence of diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is introduction of pharmacological therapy, precise monitoring of the patients and in some cases re-operation. The aim of the study is to analyse morphology of adrenocortical tumours as regards their malignancy by use of criteria proposed by Weiss. Material and methods: 110 adrenocortical tumours in 107 patients were analysed (M 27.1%, F 72.9%; age 32 to 77 years, mean 55.2 ± 9.7). Conn syndrome was diagnosed in 16 patients (14.9%), Cushing syndrome in 12 (11.2%), and virilisation in 3 (2.8%). In 76 patients (71.0%) biochemical tests did not reveal hormonal hyperactivity of the tumour. Results: In routine histopathological examination ACC was diagnosed in 6 tumours (5.4%), adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) in 92 (83.6%) and adrenocortical hyperplasia in 12 (10.9%). Nuclear grade III or IV was observed in 8 tumours (7.3%), mitotic rate > 5/50 high power fields in 6 (5.4%), atypical mitoses in 5 (4.5%), clear cells constituting < 25% of the tumour in 10 (9.1%), diffuse architecture in 8 (7.3%), necrosis in 16 (14.5%), veins infiltration in 4 (3.6%), sinusoids infiltration in 7 (6.3%), and tumour capsule infiltration in 5 (4.5%). Among ACC tumours 4 - 9 features of malignancy were present, among ACA - 0 - 3 features. Statistical analysis revealed correlation between number of criteria proposed by Weiss and maximal tumour size (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The structure and cell arrangement in adrenocortical adenoma are heterogeneous. Application of criteria proposed by Weiss in histopathological examination of adrenocortical tumours can be useful in differentiating adrenocortical adenoma from carcinoma. (author)

  11. Canine hyperadrenocorticism due to adrenocortical neoplasia: pretreatment evaluation of 41 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reusch, C.E.; Feldman, E.C.

    1991-01-01

    This retrospective study identifies parameters that might separate dogs with hyperadrenocorticism caused by adrenocortical tumors from dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Further, an attempt was made to identify factors that could separate dogs with adrenocortical adenomas from dogs with carcinomas. The records of 41 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism caused by adrenocortical neoplasia were reviewed. The history, physical examination, urinalysis, hemogram (CBC), chemistry profile adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation and low dose dexamethasone test results were typical of the nonspecific diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism. The preceding information on the 41 dogs with adrenocortical tumors was compared with that from 44 previously diagnosed pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticoid dogs. There was no parameter which aided in separating these two groups of dogs. Thirty dogs with adrenocortical tumors were tested with a high-dose dexamethasone test and none had suppressed plasma cortisol concentrations 8 hours after IV administration of 0.1 mg/kg of dexamethasone. In 29 of the 41 adrenal tumor dogs, plasma endogenous ACTH was not detectable on at least one measurement (less than 20 pg/ml). The remaining 12 dogs from this group had nondiagnostic concentrations (20-45 pg/ml). Thirteen of 22 dogs (59%) with adrenocortical carcinomas had adrenal masses identified on abdominal radiographs and seven of 13 dogs (54%) with adrenocortical adenomas had radiographically visible adrenal masses. Thirteen of 17 adrenocortical carcinomas (76%) and five of eight adenomas (62%) were identified with ultrasonography. Radiographs of the thorax and ultrasonography of the abdomen identified most of the dogs (8 of 11) with metastatic lesions

  12. Noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in captive jaguars (Panthera onca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Valéria A; Morato, Ronaldo G; Augusto, Anderson M; de Oliveira e Sousa, Lúcio; de Avila, David M; Brown, Janine L; Reeves, Jerry J

    2012-01-01

    Jaguars are threatened with extinction throughout their range. A sustainable captive population can serve as a hedge against extinction, but only if they are healthy and reproduce. Understanding how jaguars respond to stressors may help improve the captive environment and enhance their wellbeing. Thus, our objectives were to: (1) conduct an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) challenge to validate a cortisol radioimmunoassay (RIA) for noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in jaguars; (2) investigate the relationship between fecal corticoid (FCM) and androgen metabolite (FAM) concentrations in males during the ACTH challenge; and (3) establish a range of physiological concentrations of FCMs for the proposed protocol. Seven jaguars (3 M, 4 F) received 500 IU/animal of ACTH. Pre- and post-ACTH fecal samples were assayed for corticoid (M and F) and androgen metabolites (M) by RIA. Concentrations of FCMs increased (P80.01) after ACTH injection (pre-ACTH: 0.90 ± 0.12 µg/g dry feces; post-ACTH: 2.55 ± 0.25 µg/g). Considering pre- and post-ACTH samples, FCM concentrations were higher (P80.01) in males (2.15 ± 0.20 µg/g) than in females (1.30 ± 0.20 µg/g), but the magnitude of the response to ACTH was comparable (P>0.05) between genders. After ACTH injection, FAMs increased in two (of 3) males; in one male, FCMs and FAMs were positively correlated (0.60; P80.01). Excretion of FCMs was assessed in 16 jaguars (7 M, 9 F) and found to be highly variable (range, 80.11-1.56 µg/g). In conclusion, this study presents a cortisol RIA for monitoring adrenocortical function in jaguars noninvasively. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Clinical surgical and pathological characterization of nodular thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Mendoza, Dayanis Ceila; Rodriguez Valdes, Adriana; Bejerano Garcia, Ramiro Julio

    2012-01-01

    Nodular thyroid disease is a worrisome endocrine problem due to its association with cancer. To characterize patients hospitalized with this condition according to clinical surgical and pathological aspects, as well as to determine the effectiveness of the cytology by fine-needle aspiration biopsy for diagnosis

  14. Nodular Lymphangitis in HIV-Infected Patients in Tanzania | Mapesi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early diagnosis, biopsy or culture of skin lesions and treatment are essential for improving outcomes. However, this is challenging in resource-limited settings. We present two HIV-infected patients with nodular lymphangitis treated with ketoconazole in the absence of itraconazole or amphotericin B with good initial response ...

  15. Nodular smooth muscle metaplasia in multiple peritoneal endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Ha, Sang Yun; Song, Sang Yong

    2015-01-01

    We report here an unusual presentation of peritoneal endometriosis with smooth muscle metaplasia as multiple protruding masses on the lateral pelvic wall. Smooth muscle metaplasia is a common finding in rectovaginal endometriosis, whereas in peritoneal endometriosis, smooth muscle metaplasia is uncommon and its nodular presentation on the pelvic wall is even rarer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of nodular smooth muscle metaplasia occurring in peritoneal endometriosis. As observed in this case, when performing laparoscopic surgery in order to excise malignant tumors of intra-abdominal or pelvic organs, it can be difficult for surgeons to distinguish the metastatic tumors from benign nodular pelvic wall lesions, including endometriosis, based on the gross findings only. Therefore, an intraoperative frozen section biopsy of the pelvic wall nodules should be performed to evaluate the peritoneal involvement by malignant tumors. Moreover, this report implies that peritoneal endometriosis, as well as rectovaginal endometriosis, can clinically present as nodular lesions if obvious smooth muscle metaplasia is present. The pathological investigation of smooth muscle cells in peritoneal lesions can contribute not only to the precise diagnosis but also to the structure and function of smooth muscle cells and related cells involved in the histogenesis of peritoneal endometriosis.

  16. Report of a case of Hodgkin's nodular sclerosis disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizares, Claudio; Araujo, Ivan; Flores, Marlon; Guerrero, Patricia; Sanchez, Mayra

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of Hodgkin's nodular sclerosis disease that presents moderate anemia and lymph node enlargement with a massive infiltrate to the bone marrow. It is rare for these patients to develop such an infiltrate, which give a bad prognosis. The treatment recommended in stage I is Radiotherapy and chemotherapy. (The author)

  17. Sonographic Findings of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Associated Nodular Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Bong Joo; Park, Young Ha; Jung, So Lyung; Chung, Soo Kyo

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and associated nodular lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic findings of twenty patients who had surgically confirmed Hashimoto's thyroiditis between 1 March 2005, and 26 November 2005. In these patients, we reviewed the sonographic findings of the associated focal nodular lesion. Assessed were size, homogeneity, and echogenicity of the diseased thyroid gland and shape, echogenicity, margin, rim, microcal cification of the associated nodules. Without knowledge of the pathological diagnosis of the nodular lesions, based on the sonographic criteria, the nodules were classified as either malignant or benign. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates a variety of sonographic findings for size, homogeneity, and echogenicity. Among the nineteen nodules that were sonographically diagnosed and pathologically confirmed, nine papillary cancers, seven nodular hyperplasias, two Huthle cell adenomas, and one focal hyalinized fibrosing nodule were included. All of the nine papillary cancers showed more than one malignant finding such as marked hypoechogenicity, an irregular shape, a taller than wide shape, a spiculated margin, or microcalcifications that were classified as malignant nodulea, and all of the ten benign nodules showed no malignant findings. Circumscribed isoechoic, hyperechoic, or hypoechoic nodules without calcification were classified as bending nodules. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates various findings on a sonographic examination,and associated various benign and malignant lesions. Moreover, a sonographic examination is helpful to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis as in the normal thyroid

  18. Thyroid cancers in nodular goitres in Northwestern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Cancer is an occasional incidental finding in nodular goitres, but there has been no formal study on this disease in our centre which is located in an endemic goitrous region. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and pattern of malignant growths in multinodular goitres. METHODOLOGY: ...

  19. Medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity: US, CT and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, M.; Uliasz, M.; Roszkowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    Medulloblastoma accounts for up to 25% of all paediatric CNS tumours. According to WHO classification (2007) medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity (MBEN) is a separate rare entity associated with younger age and better prognosis. A 9-month-old girl was admitted and examined because of macrocephaly and disturbed psychomotor development. Transfontanel ultrasound revealed dilated ventricular system and hyperechoic mass in the posterior cranial fossa. Computed tomography showed hyperdense mass in the cerebellum. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass with gyriform pattern and strong contrast enhancement after gadolinium administration. Differential diagnosis included dysplastic heterotopic cortex, Lhermitte-Duclos disease, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour (AT/RT), and medulloblastoma (MB). The patient was operated on. Medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity (MBEN) was finally diagnosed. The authors present and discuss three other cases of this rare entity.Transfontanel sonografic examination is capable of detection of the posterior fossa tumour as a cause of hydrocephalus and macrocephaly. The mass in a child's posterior cranial fossa that is hyperdense on unenhanced CT and gyriform, nodular, and markedly enhancing on MRI may strongly suggest medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity (MBEN). (authors)

  20. Nodular Purpura and Intracranial Bleeding due to Late Onset ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She developed nodular purpuric spots for about three days prior to the intracranial bleeding. She was unconscious and responding only to pain, and was severely pale. She was transfused with two units of whole blood and underwent a craniotomy for draining the hemorrhage. She was treated with Vitamin K supplements.

  1. Microstructural aspects of zircaloy nodular corrosion in steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    Zircaloy-2 becomes susceptible to nodular corrosion in high-temperature, high-pressure steam when the total solute concentration of the β-stabilizing alloying elements Fe, Ni and Cr in the α-zirconium matrix falls below a critical value C c that is characteristic of the test conditions. C c for typical commercial Zircaloy-2 in a 24hr/510 C/10.4MPa steam-test is the precipitate-free a-matrix concentration in equilibrium with solute-saturated β phase at about 840 C, the corresponding critical temperature T c .Thus, immunity to nodular corrosion is a metastable condition for α-Zircaloy that requires fast cooling from above T c to achieve adequate solute concentration throughout the matrix. Annealing Zircaloy at any temperature below T c for a sufficiently long time makes it susceptible to nodular corrosion. In the (α+χ) phase field, where χ collectively designates the Fe-, Cr-, and Ni-containing precipitate phases, lowering the solute concentration to less than C c by Ostwald ripening can require many hundreds of hours. Above about 825 C, the temperature of the (α+χ)/(α+β+χ) transus, solute-saturated β phase surrounds each precipitate and a strong inverse activity gradient promotes equilibration with the much lower solute concentration in the α matrix. Sensitization to nodular corrosion occurs most rapidly at about 835 C between the (α+χ)/(α+β+χ) transus and T c . Annealing Zircaloy at temperatures above T c for a sufficiently long time will raise the solute concentration above C c and, with rapid cooling, heal any degree of susceptibility. Annealing within the protective coarsening window between T c and about 850 C, the temperature of the (α+β+χ)/(α+β) transus, achieves rapid precipitate growth in a matrix immune to nodular corrosion

  2. Blood Transfusion and Survival for Resected Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A Study from the United States Adrenocortical Carcinoma Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorman, Caroline E; Postlewait, Lauren M; Ethun, Cecilia G; Tran, Thuy B; Prescott, Jason D; Pawlik, Timothy M; Wang, Tracy S; Glenn, Jason; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Shenoy, Rivfka; Phay, John E; Keplinger, Kara; Fields, Ryan C; Jin, Linda X; Weber, Sharon M; Salem, Ahmed; Sicklick, Jason K; Gad, Shady; Yopp, Adam C; Mansour, John C; Duh, Quan-Yang; Seiser, Natalie; Solorzano, Carmen C; Kiernan, Colleen M; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I; Levine, Edward A; Staley, Charles A; Poultsides, George A; Maithel, Shishir K

    2017-07-01

    Perioperative blood transfusion is associated with decreased survival in pancreatic, gastric, and liver cancer. The effect of transfusion in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) has not been studied. Patients with available transfusion data undergoing curative-intent resection of ACC from 1993 to 2014 at 13 institutions comprising the United States Adrenocortical Carcinoma Group were included. Factors associated with blood transfusion were determined. Primary and secondary end points were recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS), respectively. Out of 265 patients, 149 were included for analysis. Out of these, 57 patients (38.3%) received perioperative transfusions. Compared to nontransfused patients, transfused patients more commonly had stage 4 disease (46% vs 24%, P = 0.01), larger tumors (15.8 vs 10.2 cm, P Transfusion was associated with decreased RFS (8.9 vs 24.7 months, P = 0.006) and OS (22.8 vs 91.0 months, P transfusion, stage IV, hormonal hypersecretion, and adjuvant therapy were associated with decreased RFS. On multivariable analysis, only transfusion [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.0-2.9, P = 0.04], stage IV (HR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.7-5.9, P transfusion HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.1-3.8, P = 0.02; stage 4 HR = 6.2, 95% CI = 3.1-12.4, P 2 units of packed red blood cells in median RFS (8.9 vs 8.4 months, P = 0.95) or OS (26.5 vs 18.6 months, P = 0.63). Perioperative transfusion is associated with earlier recurrence and decreased survival after curative-intent resection of ACC. Strategies and protocols to minimize blood transfusion should be developed and followed.

  3. Chlorophyll: The wonder pigment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.R.

    Chlorophyll, the green plant pigment, a 'real life force' of living beings, besides synthesizing food, is a great source of vitamins, minerals and other phytochemicals. Adding chlorophyll rich food to our diet fortifies our body against health...

  4. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvestin...

  5. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-09-16

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries.

  6. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kuczynska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries.

  7. Characterization of differential gene expression in adrenocortical tumors harboring beta-catenin (CTNNB1) mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Julien; Lampron, Antoine; Mazzuco, Tania L; Chapman, Audrey; Bourdeau, Isabelle

    2011-07-01

    Mutations of β-catenin gene (CTNNB1) are frequent in adrenocortical adenomas (AA) and adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC). However, the target genes of β-catenin have not yet been identified in adrenocortical tumors. Our objective was to identify genes deregulated in adrenocortical tumors harboring CTNNB1 genetic alterations and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. Microarray analysis identified a dataset of genes that were differently expressed between AA with CTNNB1 mutations and wild-type (WT) tumors. Within this dataset, the expression profiles of five genes were validated by real time-PCR (RT-PCR) in a cohort of 34 adrenocortical tissues (six AA and one ACC with CTNNB1 mutations, 13 AA and four ACC with WT CTNNB1, and 10 normal adrenal glands) and two human ACC cell lines. We then studied the effects of suppressing β-catenin transcriptional activity with the T-cell factor/β-catenin inhibitors PKF115-584 and PNU74654 on gene expression in H295R and SW13 cells. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the overexpression of ISM1, RALBP1, and PDE2A and the down-regulation of PHYHIP in five of six AA harboring CTNNB1 mutations compared with WT AA (n = 13) and normal adrenal glands (n = 10). RALBP1 and PDE2A overexpression was also confirmed at the protein level by Western blotting analysis in mutated tumors. ENC1 was specifically overexpressed in three of three AA harboring CTNNB1 point mutations. mRNA expression and protein levels of RALBP1, PDE2A, and ENC1 were decreased in a dose-dependent manner in H295R cells after treatment with PKF115-584 or PNU74654. This study identified candidate genes deregulated in CTNNB1-mutated adrenocortical tumors that may lead to a better understanding of the role of the Wnt-β-catenin pathway in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.

  8. Nodular goiter after occupational accidental exposure to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarev, M.A. [Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Human Biochemistry, Uninversity of Buenos Aires, School of Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schnitman, M. [Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, French Hospital C.Milstein, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-07-01

    In the present paper we present the consequences of an accidental occupational radiation exposure at a local hospital in Buenos Aires. Control at a local radiology service showed the lack of correct shielding in the X-ray equipment. The physicians and technicians (14 persons) exposed to radiation during 12 months were examined. The survey shows that: a) In 11 out of 14 radiation-exposed patients nodular goiter developed and an additional patient had diffuse goiter which means a goiter incidence of 85.7%; b) In 5 of the nodular goiter patients an increase in the size or the appearance of new nodules was observed along the follow-up period. No cancer was detected by FNA; c) Hypothyroidism was observed in 3/14 patients, and an additional patient had an abnormal TRH-TSH test, suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism; and d) Increased circulating antithyroid antibodies were found in one of the hypothyroid patients

  9. Bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia – neonatal cranial ultrasound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Horn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A female neonate was delivered at 30 weeks’ gestation to a mother with suspected bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH on computed tomography brain scan. Antenatal ultrasound (US performed at 28 weeks’ gestation showed mild lateral cerebral ventricle dilatation, but no other fetal anomalies. Clinical examination revealed mild dysmorphic features: facial and skull asymmetry, square-shaped ears, and long tapering fingers. Chromosomal analysis showed a 46XX karyotype.

  10. Localized nodular synovitis of the infrapatellar fat pad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hoon Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of localized nodular synovitis of the infrapatellar fat pad impinging on the patellofemoral joint causing limitation of extension. Arthroscopy involved use of a superolateral portal because location of lesion hindered access via a conventional anterior portal. The infrapatellar mass impinged in the patellofemoral joint upon knee extension and retracted upon flexion. Superior-superior triangulation allowed for complete excision of the mass.

  11. {sup 131}I treatment of nodular non-toxic goitre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygaard, B.; Faber, J.; Hegdeues, L.; Hansen, J.M. [Herlev Hospital (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The traditional treatment of a growing nodular non-toxic goitre has for many years been surgical resection or levothyroxine suppressive treatment. During recent years, several studies have reported promising results of {sup 131}I treatment in terms of thyroid size reduction. This review outlines the different treatment modalities on non-toxic nodular goitre with special emphasis on {sup 131}I treatment. By the term nodular goitre the authors include glands with solitary or multiple thyroid nodules with uptake on a scintiscan. At what point of the natural history of non-toxic multinodular goitre {sup 131}I therapy should be used is not clear. In principle, the best result is obtained in smaller goitres and it is possible that the best effect of {sup 131}I is seen if treatment is given to patients with diffuse goitre before these become nodular. However, then there is a potential risk to swing in the direction to where {sup 131}I is used in an indiscriminate way, since the prevalence of non-toxic multinodular goitre is much higher than that of hyperthyroidism. Although we have data on the long-term hazards of {sup 131}I treatment in hyperthyroidism in terms of risk of cancer, we have only follow-up periods of 5 to 10 years for non-toxic goitres in small groups of patients and no data regarding the long-term risk of high-dose {sup 131}I treatment (>600 MBq) for this condition. Ideally, long term randomized studies comparing the effect, side effect and cost-benefit of surgery as opposed to {sup 131}I treatment should be performed. Awaiting this, it is at present mandatory that each individual patient be given a choice of treatment after proper information. 44 refs.

  12. Nodular hidradenoma and hidradenocarcinoma. A 10-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, E; Cestoni-Parducci, R

    1985-01-01

    We studied eighty-nine nodular hidradenomas (NHs) and six clear cell hidradenocarcinomas (CCHs) reported in a 10-year period. NHs were more commonly seen in women (ratio of 1.7 to 1); the average age was 37.2 years, and they were located mainly on the head. One CCH had widely disseminated metastasis that led to death. Other CCHs underwent spontaneous regression.

  13. Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia, Surgical Goal in Drug-Resistant Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Velandia-Hurtado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neuronal heterotopia is a migration disorder in which these cells do not complete their movement toward the cerebral cortex. Periventricular nodular heterotopia is the most frequently reported form, characterized by neuronal conglomerates adjacent to the lateral ventricles walls. About 90 % of patients with this condition suffer epilepsy at some point in their lives and the major proportion of them will be resistant to pharmacologic treatment. This makes an appropriate diagnostic approach necessary in order to determine which patients would benefit from surgical resection of the lesion, which in most cases offers a high rate of crisis control. Development: This article presents a review of the most important topics approached from the practice of periventricular nodular heterotopia pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis and therapy. It is aimed at exploring the role of this condition as a cause of intractable epilepsy. Conclusion: Pharmacologic treatment for resistant epilepsy will have a severe impact on patient’s quality of life. Periventricular nodular heterotopia is frequently associated to this condition, which must be successfully approached by the medical team attempting to an opportune diagnosis and defining which patients would benefit from surgical management. This positively impacts the quality of life of these patients and their caregivers.

  14. Nodular Hepatic Tuberculosis Masquerading as a Seminoma Liver Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbi, Houssem; Chaabouni, Amine; Kallel, Rim; Toumi, Nozha; Fendri, Sami; Krichene, Jihene; Boujelbene, Salah; Mzali, Rafik

    2018-04-01

    Isolated macro-nodular liver tuberculosis is a very rare condition. It may mimic primitive or secondary tumors of the liver. This could delay or mislead the therapeutic management. An immunocompetent 48-year-old man with a history of non-metastatic seminoma was treated with right orchidectomy followed by 20 Gy radiotherapy. The discovery, 8 months later, of a 2 cm nodule of the hepatic dome evoked a liver metastasis. Percutaneous biopsy was not feasible. Wedge resection was performed whereas medical treatment would have sufficed, as pathologic examination of the resected specimen showed a macro-nodular hepatic tuberculosis. The patient received anti-tuberculosis drugs for 9 months. The diagnosis of isolated macro-nodular liver tuberculosis is frequently misleading, particularly in immunocompetent and paucisymptomatic patients. Thus percutaneous biopsy is mandatory for diagnosis and also prior to any major surgeries. © 2018 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  15. Primary aldosteronism and hypercortisolism due to bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Kenji; Yamane, Kiminori; Sakashita, Yu; Kamei, Nozomu; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Toyota, Naoyuki; Shigeta, Masanobu; Sasano, Hironobu; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2008-10-01

    A 50-year-old male patient with a 15-year history of hypertension was referred to our hospital for evaluation of bilateral adrenal tumors. No Cushingoid features were observed. Computed tomographic scan showed 10-mm masses in each adrenal gland. Preoperative endocrinological examinations revealed autonomous cortisol and aldosterone secretion in this patient. The results of a subsequent adrenal venous catheterization study were consistent with the presence of a left cortisol-producing tumor and a right aldosterone-producing tumor. A left partial adrenalectomy was performed initially, but cortisol and aldosterone over-secretion persisted. Accordingly, the patient underwent a right adrenalectomy. Pathological examination of the resected specimens, including immunohistochemical analysis, demonstrated that both adenomas possibly produced cortisol and aldosterone. This is an extremely rare case of bilateral adrenal tumors, in which the left adrenocortical tumor produced and secreted cortisol or both cortisol and aldosterone and the right one produced and secreted both aldosterone and cortisol, as confirmed by clinical findings and pathological studies using immunohistochemical analysis.

  16. Surgical management and clinical prognosis of adrenocortical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dexin; Li, Hanzhong; Yan, Weigang; Ji, Zhigang; Mao, Quanzong

    2012-01-01

    To study the relationship between surgical management and prognosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) in order to guide the surgical management of ACC. Clinical data of 45 cases of ACC treated in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The 45 cases included 3 cases in stage I, 12 cases in stage II, 7 cases in stage III, and 23 cases in stage IV. 17 cases underwent complete excision, 14 cases underwent palliative excision, 8 cases had non-operative treatment and 6 cases gave up treatment. All patients were followed up from 2 to 141 months. The average survival time of 31 patients with surgery was 32.46 months, and the average survival time of 14 patients without surgery was 4.75 months. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups (p 0.05). Surgery is considered to be the only method to cure ACC. For ACC in stage I and II, tumor resection is the most effective treatment, and second surgical operation is recommended for local recurrence. For ACC in stage III, extensive surgical operation is recommended, and for ACC in stage IV, surgical operation has no effect on the prognosis. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Percutaneous laser ablation of unresectable primary and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacella, Claudio M. [Regina Apostolorum Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Via San Francesco 50, Albano Laziale, Rome 00041 (Italy)], E-mail: claudiomaurizio.pacella@fastwebnet.it; Stasi, Roberto; Bizzarri, Giancarlo; Pacella, Sara; Graziano, Filomena Maria; Guglielmi, Rinaldo; Papini, Enrico [Regina Apostolorum Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Via San Francesco 50, Albano Laziale, Rome 00041 (Italy)

    2008-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical benefits of percutaneous laser ablation (PLA) in patients with unresectable primary and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Patients and methods: Four patients with hepatic metastases from ACC and a Cushing's syndrome underwent ultrasound-guided PLA. In one case the procedure was performed also on the primary tumor. Results: After three sessions of PLA, the primary tumor of 15 cm was ablated by 75%. After 1-4 (median 1) sessions of PLA, five liver metastases ranging from 2 to 5 cm were completely ablated, while the sixth tumor of 12 cm was ablated by 75%. There were no major complications. Treatment resulted in an improvement of performance status and a reduction of the daily dosage of mitotane in all patients. The three patients with liver metastases presented a marked decrease of 24-h urine cortisol levels, an improved control of hypertension and a mean weight loss of 2.8 kg. After a median follow-up after PLA of 27.0 months (range, 9-48 months), two patients have died of tumor progression, while two other patients remain alive and free of disease. Conclusions: Percutaneous laser ablation is a feasible, safe and well tolerated procedure for the palliative treatment of unresectable primary and metastatic ACC. Further study is required to evaluate the impact of PLA on survival.

  18. Percutaneous laser ablation of unresectable primary and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacella, Claudio M.; Stasi, Roberto; Bizzarri, Giancarlo; Pacella, Sara; Graziano, Filomena Maria; Guglielmi, Rinaldo; Papini, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical benefits of percutaneous laser ablation (PLA) in patients with unresectable primary and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Patients and methods: Four patients with hepatic metastases from ACC and a Cushing's syndrome underwent ultrasound-guided PLA. In one case the procedure was performed also on the primary tumor. Results: After three sessions of PLA, the primary tumor of 15 cm was ablated by 75%. After 1-4 (median 1) sessions of PLA, five liver metastases ranging from 2 to 5 cm were completely ablated, while the sixth tumor of 12 cm was ablated by 75%. There were no major complications. Treatment resulted in an improvement of performance status and a reduction of the daily dosage of mitotane in all patients. The three patients with liver metastases presented a marked decrease of 24-h urine cortisol levels, an improved control of hypertension and a mean weight loss of 2.8 kg. After a median follow-up after PLA of 27.0 months (range, 9-48 months), two patients have died of tumor progression, while two other patients remain alive and free of disease. Conclusions: Percutaneous laser ablation is a feasible, safe and well tolerated procedure for the palliative treatment of unresectable primary and metastatic ACC. Further study is required to evaluate the impact of PLA on survival

  19. Cushing Syndrome in a 6-Month-Old Infant due to Adrenocortical Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmar KeithE

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cushing syndrome is rare in infancy and usually due to an adrenocortical tumor (ACT. We report an infant with Cushing syndrome due to adrenocortical carcinoma. The patient presented at six months of age with a three-month history of growth failure, rapid weight gain, acne, and irritability. Physical examination showed obesity, hypertension, and Cushingoid features. Biochemical evaluation showed very high serum cortisol, mildly elevated testosterone, and suppressed ACTH. Abdominal MRI revealed a heterogeneous right adrenal mass extending into the inferior vena cava. Evaluation for metastases was negative. The tumor was removed surgically en bloc. Pathologic examination demonstrated low mitotic rate, but capsular and vascular invasion. She received no adjuvant therapy. Her linear growth has improved and Cushingoid features resolved. Hormonal markers and quarterly PET scans have been negative for recurrence 24 months postoperatively. In conclusion, adrenocortical neoplasms in children are rare, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Cushing syndrome.

  20. True bursal pigmented villonodular synovitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry; Kenan, Samuel; Steiner, German C.; Abdul-Quader, Mohammed

    2002-01-01

    We describe two cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis affecting true bursae. This study was also designed to discuss the term ''pigmented villonodular bursitis'', not confined to true synovial bursae, sometimes creating misunderstanding. (orig.)

  1. True bursal pigmented villonodular synovitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry [Department of Radiology, New York Methodist Hospital, Affiliated with New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Kenan, Samuel [Department of Orthopedics, New York University Medical Center, NY (United States); Steiner, German C. [Department of Pathology, Hospital for Joint Diseases/Orthopedic Institute, New York, NY (United States); Abdul-Quader, Mohammed [Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2002-06-01

    We describe two cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis affecting true bursae. This study was also designed to discuss the term ''pigmented villonodular bursitis'', not confined to true synovial bursae, sometimes creating misunderstanding. (orig.)

  2. 18F-Labelled metomidate analogues as adrenocortical imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandsson, Maria; Karimi, Farhad; Lindhe, Orjan; Langstroem, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Two- and one-step syntheses of 18 F-labelled analogues of metomidate, such as 2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl 1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (1), 2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl 1-[(1R)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (2), 2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl 1-[(1R)-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (3), 3-[ 18 F]fluoropropyl 1-[(1R)-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (4) and 3-[ 18 F]fluoropropyl 1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (5) are presented. Methods: Analogues 1-5 were prepared by a two-step reaction sequence that started with the synthesis of either 2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate or 3-[ 18 F]fluoropropyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate. These were used as 18 F-alkylating agents in the second step, in which they reacted with the ammonium salt of a 1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylic acid. One-step-labelling syntheses of 1, 2 and 5 were also explored. Analogues 1-4 were biologically validated by frozen-section autoradiography and organ distribution. Metabolite analysis was performed for 2 and 3. Results: The radiochemical yield of the two-step synthesis was in the range of 10-29% and that of the one-step synthesis was 25-37%. Using microwave irradiation in the one-step synthesis of 1 and 2 increased the radiochemical yield to 46±3% and 79±30%, respectively. Conclusion: Both the frozen-section autoradiography and organ distribution results indicated that analogue 2 has a potential as an adrenocortical imaging agent, having the highest degree of specific adrenal binding and best ratio of adrenal to organ uptake among the compounds studied.

  3. Hair cortisol measurement in mitotane-treated adrenocortical cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenschijn, L; Quinkler, M; van Rossum, E F C

    2014-04-01

    The only approved drug for the treatment of adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is mitotane. Mitotane is adrenolytic and therefore, hydrocortisone replacement therapy is necessary. Since mitotane increases cortisol binding globulin (CBG) and induces CYP3A4 activity, high doses of hydrocortisone are thought to be required. Evaluation of hydrocortisone therapy in mitotane-treated patients has been difficult since there is no good marker to evaluate hydrocortisone therapy. Measurement of cortisol in scalp hair is a novel method that offers the opportunity to measure long-term cortisol levels. Our aim was to evaluate whether hair cortisol measurements could be useful in evaluating recent hydrocortisone treatment in mitotane-treated ACC patients. Hair cortisol levels were measured in 15 mitotane-treated ACC patients on hydrocortisone substitution and 96 healthy individuals. Cortisol levels were measured in 3 cm hair segments, corresponding to a period of 3 months. Hair cortisol levels were higher in ACC patients compared to healthy individuals (pcortisol levels above the reference range. None of the patients had hair cortisol levels below normal. In contrast to hydrocortisone doses (β=0.03, p=0.93), hair cortisol levels were associated with BMI (β=0.53, p=0.042). There was no correlation between hair cortisol levels and hydrocortisone doses (β=0.41, p=0.13). Almost half of the ACC patients had high hair cortisol levels, suggesting long-term over-substitution of hydrocortisone in some of the patients, whereas none of the patients was under-substituted. Hair cortisol measurements might be useful in long-term monitoring hydrocortisone treatment in mitotane-treated ACC patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Raman af hvide pigmenter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeler, Nini Elisabeth Abildgaard; Nielsen, Ole Faurskov; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Et samspil mellem kunst og kemi. I et samarbejde mellem Statens Museum for Kunst og Kemisk Institut på KU er Ramanspek-troskopi brugt til at definere sammensætningen af blandinger af blyhvidt og calcit i maleriers hvide pigmenter....

  5. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    Microalgal pigments are regarded as natural alternatives for food colorants. To facilitate optimization of microalgae-based pigment production, this thesis aimed to obtain key insights in the pigment metabolism of phototrophic microalgae, with the main focus on secondary

  6. The pathophysiology of the nodular and micronodular small bowel fold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmsted, W.W.; Ros, P.R.; Moser, R.P.; Shekita, K.M.; Lichtenstein, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    The normal small bowel fold is easily seen on conventional studies of the small intestine, but visualization of the small bowel villus is at the limit of resolution of current roentgenographic technique. When the villi are enlarged, they appear radiographically as an irregularity or micronodularity of the small bowel fold. The anatomy of the fold and the pathophysiology of diseases producing fold nodularity (tumor,inflammatory disease, NLH, mastocytosis) and micronodularity (lymphangiectasia, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, Whipple disease) are presented, with an emphasis on radiologic-pathologic correlation. The radiologist should suggest certain diseases or conditions based on the roentgenographic characteristics of the closely analyzed small bowel fold

  7. Pathophysiology of the nodular and micronodular small bowel fold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmstead, W.W.; Ros, P.R.; Moser, R.P.; Shekitka, K.M.; Lichtenstein, J.E.; Buck, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The normal small bowel fold is easily seen on conventional studies of the small intestine, but visualization of the small bowel villus is just at the resolution of current roentgenographic technique. When the villi are enlarged, they can be seen radiographically as an irregularity or micronodularity of the small bowel fold. The anatomy of the fold and the pathophysiology of diseases producing fold nodularity (tumor, inflammatory disease, NLH, mastocytosis) and micronodularity (lymphangiectasia, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, Whipple disease) are presented, with an emphasis on radiologic-pathologic correlation. The radiologist should suggest certain diseases or conditions based on the roentgenographic characteristics of the closely analyzed small bowel fold

  8. The role of radioiodine therapy in benign nodular goitre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnema, Steen Joop; Fast, Søren; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    For treatment of benign nodular goitre the choice usually stands between surgery and (131)I therapy. (131)I therapy, used for 30 years for this condition, leads to a goitre volume reduction of 35-50% within 1-2 years. However, this treatment has limited efficacy if the thyroid (131)I uptake is low...... for additional therapy due to insufficient goitre reduction, but the price is a higher rate of hypothyroidism. Another approach with rhTSH-stimulation is to reduce the administered (131)I activity by a factor that equals the increase in the thyroid (131)I uptake. Using this approach, radiation exposure...

  9. Cavitation Erosion of Nodular Cast Iron − Microstructural Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orłowicz A.W.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with susceptibility of nodular cast iron with ferritic-pearlitic matrix on cavitation erosion. Cavitation tests were carried out with the use of a cavitation erosion vibratory apparatus employing a vibration exciter operated at frequency of 20 kHz. The study allowed to determine the sequence of subsequent stages in which microstructure of cast iron in superficial regions is subject to degradation. The first features to be damaged are graphite precipitates. The ferritic matrix of the alloy turned out to be definitely less resistant to cavitation erosion compared to the pearlitic matrix component.

  10. Nodular focal fatty infiltration of the liver: CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.E.; Silverman, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is a well recognized entity generally characterized by a nonspherical, low-density area without significant mass effect. CT usually distinguishes this from focal liver processes such as abscess or metastasis by its sharply marginated, geographic pattern and lack of mass effect on hepatic and portal veins. Recently, the authors formed a CT scan of the liver in one patient in whom fatty infiltration appeared nodular or rounded. The clinical presentation and radiographic and pathologic features form the basis of this report

  11. Movement disorder and epilepsy in subependymal nodular heterotopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Lohmror

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subependymal nodular heterotopia is a cortical development malformation that is commonly associated with refractory epilepsy. Patients with heterotopia show a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, from being asymptomatic to presenting with intractable seizures and intellectual impairment. We report a case of drug-resistant epilepsy with normal intelligence, having bilateral subependymal heterotopic nodules in the brain, presenting to us with a movement disorder in the form of myoclonus of bilateral lower limbs which is an unusual manifestation of gray matter heterotopias. Although rare, gray matter heterotopias may present as movement disorder and should be considered in differential diagnosis while workup of movement disorders.

  12. Familial bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia mimics tuberous sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, P E; Clarke, M A; Super, M

    1996-01-01

    A mother and daughter with an initial diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis are described. The daughter presented with partial seizures at the age of 8 months. Computed tomography showed uncalcified periventricular nodules which on magnetic resonance imaging were ovoid, almost contiguous, of grey matter density, and did not enhance with gadolinium. Brain imaging of her asymptomatic mother was similar. Absence of severe mental retardation, extracranial hamartomas, and depigmented patches distinguishes familial bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia (FNH) from tuberous sclerosis. FNH is probably inherited as an X linked dominant with lethality in males. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8787433

  13. Carbides in Nodular Cast Iron with Cr and Mo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In these paper results of elements microsegregation in carbidic nodular cast iron have been presented. A cooling rate in the centre of the cross-section and on the surface of casting and change of moulding sand temperature during casting crystallization and its self-cooling have been investigated. TDA curves have been registered. The linear distribution of elements concentration in an eutectic grain, primary and secondary carbides have been made. It was found, that there are two kinds of carbides: Cr and Mo enriched. A probable composition of primary and secondary carbides have been presented.

  14. A Case Report: Krukenberg Tumour with Nodular Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özden Demir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Krukenberg tumor is a rare variety of metastatic cancer to the ovary. The stomach is the most common site for the primary tumor, followed by the breast, gall bladder, colon and pancreas. It is not always possible to distinguish ovarian metastasis from primary ovarian masses in patients in whom the malignancy center is unidentified. This case report firstly aims to present a patient who presented with common nodular skin lesions, migrating arthritis and severe clinical characteristics, and diagnosed with Krukenberg tumor with further examinations.

  15. DNA methylation is an independent prognostic marker of survival in adrenocortical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jouinot, Anne; Assie, Guillaume; Libe, Rossella; Fassnacht, Martin; Papathomas, Thomas; Barreau, Olivia; De La Villeon, Bruno; Faillot, Simon; Hamzaoui, Nadim; Neou, Mario; Perlemoine, Karine; Rene-Corail, Fernande; Rodriguez, Stephanie; Sibony, Mathilde; Tissier, Frederique; Dousset, Bertrand; Sbiera, Silviu; Ronchi, Cristina; Kroiss, Matthias; Korpershoek, Esther; De Krijger, Ronald; Waldmann, Jens; Bartsch, Detlef K.; Quinkler, Marcus; Haissaguerre, Magalie; Tabarin, Antoine; Chabre, Olivier; Sturm, Nathalie; Luconi, Michaela; Mantero, Franco; Mannelli, Massimo; Cohen, Regis; Kerlan, Veronique; Touraine, Philippe; Barrande, Gaelle; Groussin, Lionel; Bertagna, Xavier; Baudin, Eric; Amar, Laurence; Beuschlein, Felix; Clauser, Eric; Coste, Joel; Bertherat, Jerome

    2017-01-01

    Context: Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is an aggressive tumor with a heterogeneous outcome. Prognostic stratification is difficult even based on tumor stage and Ki67. Recently integrated genomics studies have demonstrated that CpG islands hypermethylation is correlated with poor survival. Objective:

  16. Adrenocortical neoplasia: Evolving concepts in tumorigenesis with an emphasis on adrenal cortical carcinoma variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.R. de Krijger (Ronald); T.G. Papathomas (Thomas)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAdrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, heterogeneous malignancy with a poor prognosis. According to WHO classification 2004, ACC variants include oncocytic ACCs, myxoid ACCs and ACCs with sarcomatous areas. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of these rare subtypes of

  17. Emotional and Adrenocortical Regulation in Early Adolescence: Prediction by Attachment Security and Disorganization in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Gottfried; Zimmermann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine differences in emotion expression and emotion regulation in emotion-eliciting situations in early adolescence from a bio-psycho-social perspective, specifically investigating the influence of early mother-infant attachment and attachment disorganization on behavioural and adrenocortical responses. The…

  18. Maternal-child adrenocortical attunement in early childhood: continuity and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibel, Leah C; Granger, Douglas A; Blair, Clancy; Finegood, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated continuity and change in maternal-child hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis attunement in early childhood. Participants were drawn from a prospective study of 1,292 mother-child dyads, which were racially diverse, predominantly low-income, and non-urban. Child focused stress tasks designed to elicit anger, fear, and frustration were administered during early infancy, later infancy, and toddlerhood. Mothers' and children's saliva samples (later assayed for cortisol) were collected before and after the tasks. The strength of mother-child adrenocortical attunement was conserved across infancy and toddlerhood. The magnitude of maternal-child adrenocortical attunement decreased in response to the child-focused stress tasks. Maternal sensitivity and the child's task-related emotional reactivity moderated adrenocortical attunement across the task, with greater maternal sensitivity during a free-play, and lower levels of child emotional reactivity during the stress tasks, stabilizing attunement from pre- to post-task levels. The findings advance our understanding of individual differences in the social regulation of adrenocortical activity in early childhood. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Relations between Bullying Exposures in Middle Childhood, Anxiety, and Adrenocortical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, JoLynn V.; Hazler, Richard J.; Oh, Insoo; Hibel, Leah C.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated how exposure to bullying at school in middle childhood is associated with student anxiety levels and adrenocortical activity at a time preceding lunch when anxiety about potential bullying would potentially be higher. Ninety-one sixth-grade students (55 female and 36 male) reported being exposed one or more…

  20. Treatment with docetaxel and cisplatin in advanced adrenocortical carcinoma, a phase II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urup, Thomas; Pawlak, W Z; Petersen, P M

    2013-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare disease with a poor response to chemotherapy. Cisplatin is the most widely investigated drug in the treatment of ACC and in vitro studies have indicated activity of taxanes. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of cisplatin...... combined with docetaxel as first-line treatment of advanced ACC....

  1. A Late Onset of Adrenocortical Cancer Assosiated with Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Kuznetsov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS is a genetic overgrowth disorder involving a predisposition to tumor development. The common features of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome include omphalocele, macroglos- sia and macrosomia. The increased risk for neoplasia is concentrated in the first eight years of life. However, this case presents a late onset of adrenocortical cancer assosiated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

  2. Thyroid nodular disease: their usefulness of diagnostic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Ayala, Irene Maria; Sanchez Luthard, Maria de los Angeles; Martins Schmitz; Gomez, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The thyroid nodular disease is defined by the presence of nodules of thyroid of solid, liquid or mixed consistency, they are or non concrete. Solitary nodule thyroid, diffuse and multinodular goiter forms can be presented in. The thyroid nodule is a frequent clinical problem, the clinical prevalence in adult population is of 4%. Objective: to make a bibliographical revision to near the utility of the different methods available for the thyroid nodular pathology diagnosis and determining which of them turns out more specific to differentiate benignancy from malignancy in the found nodules. Materials and Methods: the bibliographical search was made in the data base Medline (Pubmed), in scientific magazines of the region and text books. Criteria of inclusion: bibliographical references pertaining to medical magazines and free full text with an antiquity nongreater to 8 years were included. Conclusion: the presence of thyroid nodules constitutes a reason for frequent consultation, the main diagnostic method at the moment is the fine needle aspiration cytology, due to its simple accomplishment, low cost, not requiring the hospitalization of the patient, and being fundamental in the decision making of the doctor. This diagnostic method is, in addition, the one that with greater certainty allows to differentiate benign from malignant nodules. (authors) [es

  3. Role of ultrasound in the assessment of nodular thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, S.; Bolland, M. J.; Croxson, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The role for ultrasound (US) in the assessment of nodular thyroid disease has increased in recent years. This expanded role has been highlighted in recent consensus guidelines on the management of nodular thyroid disease. In this review, we address the potential roles for US in assessing thyroid nodules and review these recent guidelines. In particular, we review the evidence that US characteristics of thyroid nodules can predict the risk of malignancy. A predominantly solid nodule, hypoechogenicity, microcalcification, macrocalcification, ill-defined margins, intranodular vascularity, and taller-than-wide shape have all been associated with increased risk of malignancy, but no single US characteristic is sufficiently sensitive or specific to exclude or diagnose malignancy by itself. However, the use of combinations of US characteristics to stratify nodules into high and low risk for malignancy appears a promising strategy. Unselected nodules without any suspicious US features have a low risk of malignancy (<2%), whereas malignancy rates are much higher in nodules with at least two suspicious features. Recent guidelines endorse this approach of using combinations of US features to guide nodule selection for fine needle aspiration.

  4. Mitotane treatment in patients with adrenocortical cancer causes central hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Marco; Scollo, Claudia; Pellegriti, Gabriella; Cotta, Oana Ruxandra; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Frasca, Francesco; Cannavò, Salvatore; Gullo, Damiano

    2016-04-01

    Mitotane, a steroidogenesis inhibitor with adrenolytic properties used to treat adrenocortical cancer (ACC), can affect thyroid function. A reduction of FT4 levels with normal FT3 and TSH has been described in these patients. Using an in vitro murine model, the secretory capacity of thyrotrophic cells has been shown to be inhibited by mitotane. To investigate the pathogenesis of thyroid abnormalities in mitotane-treated patients with ACC. In five female patients with ACC (median age 47; range 31-65) treated with mitotane (dosage 1·5 g/day; 1·0-3·0), we analysed the pattern of TSH and thyroid function index (FT4, FT3 and FT3/FT4 ratio) compared to an age- and gender-matched control group. The in vivo secretory activity of the thyrotrophic cells was evaluated using a standard TRH test (200 μg), and the response was compared to both a group of age-matched female controls (n = 10) and central hypothyroid patients (n = 10). Basal TSH (median 1·54 mU/l; range 1·20-2·17) was normal and scattered around our median reference value, FT3 levels (median 3·80 pmol/l; 3·30-4·29) were normal but below the median reference value of 4·37 pmol/l and FT4 levels were below the normal range in all patients (median 8·40 pmol/l; 7·6-9·9). FT3/FT4 ratio was in the upper range in 4 patients and higher than normal in one patient. A blunted TSH response to TRH was observed in mitotane-treated patients. ΔTSH (absolute TSH response, peak TSH minus basal TSH) was 3·65 (range 3·53-5·26), 12·37 (range 7·55-19·97) and 1·32 mU/l (range 0·52-4·66) in mitotane-treated patients, controls and central hypothyroid patients, respectively. PRL secretion was normal. Mitotane-treated patients with ACC showed low FT4, normal FT3 and TSH and impaired TSH response to TRH, characteristic of central hypothyroidism. Furthermore, the elevated FT3/FT4 ratio of these subjects reflects an enhanced T4 to T3 conversion rate, a compensatory mechanism characteristic of thyroid function changes

  5. Pigmentos maculares Macular pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Canovas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A luteína e a zeaxantina são pigmentos amarelos que se localizam na mácula. Devido à sua localização, diminuem e filtram a quantidade de luz principalmente azul que chega aos fotorreceptores, atuam como antioxidantes e podem melhorar a qualidade visual. Esta é uma revisão do seu mecanismo de incorporação, ação, possíveis aplicações e conhecimento científico a respeito.Lutein and Zeaxanthin are yellow pigments located at the macula. Because of your location macular pigments decrease and filter the amount of blue light that reach photoreceptors, protect the outer retina from oxidative stress and may improve the vision quality. This is a review regarding incorporation mechanism, function and knowledge update.

  6. Benign Pigmented Dermal Basal Cell Tumor in a Namibian Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja K. Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3.5-year-old wild born cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, living in a large enclosure on a private Namibian farm, developed a large exophytic nodular neoplasm in its skin at the height of the left shoulder blade. We describe the clinical appearance, the surgical removal, and histological examination of the tumor, which was diagnosed as a moderately pigmented benign basal cell tumor. A three-year follow-up showed no evidence of recurrence after the surgery. Although neoplasia is reported in nondomestic felids, only very few concern cheetahs. So far, no case of basal cell tumor was described in this species.

  7. Nodular fasciitis: A pseudomalignant clonal neoplasm characterized by USP gene rearrangements and spontaneous regression

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennebry, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Nodular fasciitis (NF) is a rapidly growing, self-limited, myofibroblastic neoplasm that typically arises in subcutaneous tissues of young adults and regresses spontaneously. Nodular fasciitis mimics sarcoma on clinical, radiological, and histological grounds and is usually, diagnosed following excision.\\r\

  8. Nodular Hyperplasia Arising from the Lateral Aberrant Thyroid Tissue: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Min Hye; Park, Jeong Seon; Lee, Young Jun

    2012-01-01

    The presence of aberrant thyroid tissue in the lateral neck is very rare. In addition, nodular hyperplasia in ectopic thyroid has rarely been reported. Due to the unusual location, the presence of lateral aberrant thyroid tissue could be misdiagnosed as a lymphadenopathy, neurogenic tumor, etc. We report on a case of nodular hyperplasia arising from the right lateral aberrant thyroid tissue.

  9. Grave's Eye disease developing following radioiodine treatment for toxic nodular goitre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahrani, A A; Rangan, S; Moulik, P

    2007-07-01

    The development of Grave's ophthalmopathy (GO) following radioiodine (RI) treatment for Grave's thyrotoxicosis, though controversial, is well described. The development of ophthalmopathy following RI treatment for toxic nodular goitre is much less recognised. We report a 49 year-old female patient who developed thyrotoxicosis and GO after receiving RI treatment for toxic nodular goitre and we also review the relevant literature.

  10. [A patient with muscular torticollis caused by nodular fasciitis in the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmi, Shoji; Murakami, Tatufumi; Shirabe, Teruo; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2002-09-01

    Nodular fasciitis is a benign pseudosarcomatous proliferative lesion which is frequently misdiagnosed as malignant tumor clinically and microscopically. It usually occurs as a rapidly enlarging subcutaneous mass on the upper extremities, especially on the forearm. Here we report a patient showing muscular torticollis caused by nodular fasciitis in the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). A 17-year-old woman was hospitalized because of rapidly progressive torticollis. The right SCM was markedly enlarged and firm on palpation. Muscle biopsy taken from the right SCM revealed massive proliferation of spindle shaped fibroblasts infiltrating into the endomysium. These findings coincided with the intramuscular nodular fasciitis. However, different from typical nodular fasciitis, no apparent nodule formation was found in this patient. Instead, diffuse proliferative lesion extended widely into the neck soft tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report of muscular torticollis caused by nodular fasciitis involving the SCM.

  11. Like father, like son: periventricular nodular heterotopia and nonverbal learning disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Marcia V; Pongonis, Stephen J; Golomb, Meredith R; Edwards-Brown, Mary; Christensen, Celanie K; Sokol, Deborah K

    2008-08-01

    Periventricular nodular heterotopia is a common malformation of cortical development in which the migration of developing neurons destined for the cerebral cortex is abbreviated. Bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia is most commonly an X-linked disorder that involves mutations in the filamin A (FLNA) gene, but an autosomal recessive form and sporadic forms have been identified. To our knowledge, autosomal dominant transmission of isolated periventricular nodular heterotopia has not been reported. Periventricular nodular heterotopia has a heterogeneous phenotype, associated commonly with seizure disorder, and more recently with reading deficits and visual-spatial deficits in some patients. We present a father and son with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia and similar visual-spatial learning deficits, consistent with nonverbal learning disability.

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of nodular gastritis for H. pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Flores JL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Juan L Romero-Flores,1 Justo A Fernandez-Rivero,1 Erika Marroquín-Fabian,1 Félix I Téllez-Ávila,2 Beatriz A Sánchez-Jiménez,1 Eva Juárez-Hernández,3 Misael Uribe,1 Norberto C Chávez-Tapia1,3 1Obesity and Digestive Diseases Unit, Medica Sur Clinic & Foundation, 2Department of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, 3Translational Research Unit, Medica Sur Clinic & Foundation, Mexico City, Mexico Background: The term nodular is not included in the Sydney classification and there is no widely accepted histopathological definition. It has been proposed that the presence of antral nodularity could predict Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of nodular gastritis (NG for H. pylori infection after a rigorous standardization process, and to describe the associated histopathological characteristics. Materials and methods: Endoscopic images of patients submitted to endoscopy with biopsy sampling were included. Endoscopic images were distributed among six endoscopists. The analysis was performed sequentially in three rounds: the first round assessed the interobserver variability, the second evaluated the intraobserver variability, and the third calculated the interobserver variability after training. A correlation analysis between endoscopic and histopathological findings was performed. Results: A total of 917 studies were included. In the first analysis of interobserver variability, a poor kappa value (0.078 was obtained. The second evaluation yielded good intraobserver variability, with kappa values of 0.62–0.86. The evaluation of interobserver variability after training revealed an improvement in the kappa value of 0.42. A correlation was found between endoscopic images and histopathological reports. Conclusion: There was a strong correlation between NG and H. pylori, but only after rigorous evaluation. The use of

  13. Advanced diagnostic approaches and current medical management of insulinomas and adrenocortical disease in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sue

    2010-09-01

    Endocrine neoplasia is the most common tumor type in domestic ferrets, especially in middle-aged to older ferrets. Islet cell tumors and adrenocortical tumors constitute the major types of endocrine neoplasms. Insulinoma is a tumor that produces and releases excessive amounts of insulin. Evaluation of fasted blood glucose levels provides a quick diagnostic assessment for the detection of insulinomas. Use of glucocorticoids, diazoxide, and diet modification are some of the medical treatment options for insulinomas. Adrenocortical neoplasia in ferrets usually overproduces one or more sex hormones. Sex hormones which can result in progressive alopecia, vulvar swelling in females, and prostagomegaly in males. Abdominal ultrasonography and sex hormone assays can be used to diagnose adrenocortical neoplasms. Drugs such as leuprolide acetate, deslorelin acetate, and the hormone melatonin can be used to treat adrenocortical neoplasms in ferrets when surgery is not an option. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A case of low renin hyperaldosteronism considered to be aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma by CT image of adrenal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kozo; Tsuchihashi, Yoshihiro; Ito, Kazuro; Ozono, Noboru

    1983-01-01

    A case was reported in which hypertension, hypopotassemia, low plasma renin activity and hyperaldosteronemia were observed. Imaging suggested adrenocortical adenoma, leading to the diagnosis of low renin hyperaldosteronism. (Chiba, N.)

  15. Malignant Transformation of Nodular Hidradenoma in the Lower Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan Ngo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nodular hidradenoma (NH is a benign adnexal tumor that arises from either eccrine or apocrine sweat glands. NH can originate from any cutaneous site, but the most common sites are the head and anterior surface of the trunk, with very rare cases in the extremities. Long-standing NH has been reported to undergo malignant transformation to malignant NH (MNH; however, its occurrence in the lower leg is extremely rare with only one other case reported to date. In this report, we present a rare case of MNH occurring in the lower leg which was resected with the intent to make a diagnosis. At the final follow-up after 11 months, no local recurrence or metastasis has been observed.

  16. Esclerite nodular e poliangiite granulomatosa (Wegener mimetizando tuberculose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cybelle Moreno Luize Franco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poliangiite granulomatosa é uma doença sistêmica que afeta qualquer órgão, com predileção pelo trato respiratório superior, pulmões e rins. Este artigo tem como objetivo relatar um caso atípico de uma paciente com esclerite nodular como manifestação inicial da poliangiite granulomatosa (Wegener, mimetizando um quadro de tuberculose. A paciente apresentou hiperemia ocular e baixa acuidade visual progressiva por 1,5 anos, seguido por dor ocular por dois meses. A paciente possuía nódulos subpleurais com densidade de partes moles, linfonodomegalia em janela aorto-pulmonar e espessamento pleural bilateral discreto, negativo para bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes (BAAR. O diagnóstico histológico revelou uma vasculite granulomatosa sugestiva de vasculite não infecciosa (poliangiite granulomatosa. Foi iniciada pulsoterapia com ciclofosfamida.

  17. Zircaloy nodular corrosion analysis by an image processing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Junko; Sato, Kanemitsu; Kuwae, Ryosho; Higashinakagawa, Emiko

    1987-01-01

    An image processor has been fabricated to examine out-of-pile nodular corrosion for Zircaloy-2 tubings. The covering fraction, which is the percentage of the nodule occupying area on the Zircaloy surface, was measured with the processor. The covering fraction showed a strong correlation with the weight gain at any corrosion time of this experiment. The correlation observed can be explained by a model for the lenticular shape of the nodules. The image processor also gives unfolded pictures of the whole Zircaloy surface. By analyzing the picture, the location of the nodules generated was found to be determined in an early stage of corrosion. New nodules were not produced later, and the nodules only grew larger with time. (orig.)

  18. Nodular hidradenocarcinoma over the parotid gland: a pathologic presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verret, D J; Kabbani, Wareef; DeFatta, Robert J

    2007-02-01

    Nodular hidradenocarcinoma (NHAC), an eccrine carcinoma, has been reported in the dermatology and pathology literature, but few references have been made in the otolaryngology literature even though the head and neck is a common site of occurrence. A case report of a 37-year-old Hispanic man with a right-sided neck mass diagnosed preoperatively as a parotid mass by imaging and fine-needle aspiration is presented. After presentation at our multidisciplinary tumor board, excision of the mass was undertaken. Final pathology revealed a NHAC, which is presented in our report. NHAC is an aggressive malignant tumor that is often misdiagnosed preoperatively and that must be treated with aggressive multimodality therapy for increased survival.

  19. HRCT-pathologic correlation of nodular bronchioloalveolar carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Katsumi; Suzuki, Kenzo; Koike, Morio; Yokoyama, Yoshiaki; Asai, Sae; Ushimi, Naofumi; Kamata, Noriko

    1996-01-01

    Lung cancers, shown as nodules on conventional chest radiographs, are detected easily. However, nodular bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), usually located at the periphery of the lung, are faint and poorly defined on conventional chest radiographs, it is thus difficult to detect and make the diagnosis. On the other hand, these lesions are clearly depicted on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), therefore HRCT is effective in assessing these faint pulmonary nodules. We retrospectively investigated preoperative HRCT of thirteen patients (8 men and 5 women, 53-80 years old) with pathologically proven nodular BACs of 2.2 (±0.43) cm in mean diameter by two radiologists. All the lesions were located periphery of the lung. In 11 cases (85%), HRCT showed a zone of ground-glass attenuation surrounding the nodule, which correlated pathologically with papillary tumor growth without disrupting the overall lung architecture along the framework of normal alveoli containing air-spaces, alveolar spaces filled with fluid, blood, and infiltration of macrophages. In 10 cases (77%), bubblelike radiolucencies of focal areas of air attenuation peripherally or centrally were observed and correlated pathologically with intratumoral patent air-containing bronchi and cystic glandular spaces within papillary tumor growth. Notches were demonstrated in 12 cases (92%), air bronchogram in 11 cases (85%), convergence of vessels in 10 cases (77%), pleural tags in 9 cases (69%), and spiculations in 6 cases (46%). Calcification was not seen in any cases. A zone of ground-glass attenuation and bubblelike radiolucencies were observed frequently among the CT findings of BAC, and are considered to be characteristic enough to suggest BAC. (author)

  20. Epileptogenic networks in nodular heterotopia: A stereoelectroencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Francesca; Roehri, Nicolas; Catenoix, Hélène; Medina, Samuel; McGonigal, Aileen; Giusiano, Bernard; Carron, Romain; Scavarda, Didier; Ostrowsky, Karine; Lepine, Anne; Boulogne, Sébastien; Scholly, Julia; Hirsch, Edouard; Rheims, Sylvain; Bénar, Christian-George; Bartolomei, Fabrice

    2017-12-01

    Defining the roles of heterotopic and normotopic cortex in the epileptogenic networks in patients with nodular heterotopia is challenging. To elucidate this issue, we compared heterotopic and normotopic cortex using quantitative signal analysis on stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) recordings. Clinically relevant biomarkers of epileptogenicity during ictal (epileptogenicity index; EI) and interictal recordings (high-frequency oscillation and spike) were evaluated in 19 patients undergoing SEEG. These biomarkers were then compared between heterotopic cortex and neocortical regions. Seizures were classified as normotopic, heterotopic, or normoheterotopic according to respective values of quantitative analysis (EI ≥0.3). A total of 1,246 contacts were analyzed: 259 in heterotopic tissue (heterotopic cortex), 873 in neocortex in the same lobe of the lesion (local neocortex), and 114 in neocortex distant from the lesion (distant neocortex). No significant difference in EI values, high-frequency oscillations, and spike rate was found comparing local neocortex and heterotopic cortex at a patient level, but local neocortex appears more epileptogenic (p < 0.001) than heterotopic cortex analyzing EI values at a seizure level. According to EI values, seizures were mostly normotopic (48.5%) or normoheterotopic (45.5%); only 6% were purely heterotopic. A good long-term treatment response was obtained in only two patients after thermocoagulation and surgical disconnection. This is the first quantitative SEEG study providing insight into the mechanisms generating seizures in nodular heterotopia. We demonstrate that both the heterotopic lesion and particularly the normotopic cortex are involved in the epileptogenic network. This could open new perspectives on multitarget treatments, other than resective surgery, aimed at modifying the epileptic network. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  1. [Nocardia brasiliensis leg ulcer and nodular lymphangitis in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, M; Friedel, J; Siré, C; Semon, J

    2005-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a very rarely reported cause of chronic phagedenic ulcerations. We report the case of an elderly woman who developed such an infection after falling on her right leg on the road in the Bresse country (an essentially agricultural and bovine-cattle breading region) and developed a chronic phagedenic ulcer secondarily complicated by nodular lymphangitis of the thigh. A 75 year-old woman fell on her right leg on the side of the main road outside her hamlet in the Bresse country and secondarily developed a chronique phagedenic ulceration. We first considered her as suffering from pyoderma gangrenosum. A complete scanning only revealed an autoimmune thyroiditis and a rapidly healing gastric ulceration, and none of the treatments, either local or systemic, helped the skin condition to heal. After 3 weeks of application of a local corticoid ointment, the patient developed fever, general malaise, an exacerbation of her wound and an infiltration of the skin round her knee, together with nodular lymphangitic dissemination. A supplementary bacterial swab disclosed massive proliferation of a slow-growing Gram-positive bacillus, which proved to be Nocardia brasiliensis, together with a methicillino-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. The treatment with sulfamethoxazole-trimetoprim gave a rash after 12 hours and was changed to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, which rapidly proved to be permanently effective. The revelation of this particular slow-growing bacteria is difficult and requires bacterial swabs. Nocardia brasiliensis is relatively rare in primary skin ulcerations and we discuss the reasons why an elderly women should find this bacteria on the road outside her hamlet in the French countryside. This particular infectious condition requires general scanning, to make sure that the primary skin condition does not extend to other organs. We review the therapeutical options for patients who exhibit allergic reactions to the classically effective

  2. Suppressive therapy for radiation-associated nodular thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Kazuo; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Tsukada, Yoshiaki; Razack, M.S.; Sciasicia, Michael.

    1981-01-01

    A thyroid screening program for individuals who had irradiation to the head and neck areas was started at Roswell Park Memorial Institute in February 1977 and by June 1979, 1,071 patients were seen in the clinic. Three hundred and ninety-six patients were found to have palpable abnormalities of the thyroid, and following pretreatment evaluation, suppressive therapy with triiodothyronine (T3) (50 μg/day) or DT (desiccated thyroid) (120 mg/day) was administered in a double-blind fashion. Two hundred fifty patients with nodular disease completed 6 mo of treatment and are analyzed in this paper. Pretreatment thyroid function tests showed that two patients had hypothyroidism with a high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and a low thyroxine level. A high incidence of thyroid autoantibodies was also noted and surgical findings confirmed a high incidence of chronic thyroiditis. Complete disappearance of the nodules was seen in 29% of the patients, and in addition, 38% of the patients were seen to have significant shrinkage of the nodules, indicating that radiation-associated thyroid nodules were as sensitive to the thyroactive agents as nonirradiated nodular thyroid disease. There was little difference in the response rate between T3 and DT. Both agents suppressed circulating TSH levels to an unmeasurable level in 76% of the patients. There was no correlation between scan findings and response rates. Thyroid carcinoma was found in 19% of the patients who underwent surgery; although all were well-differentiated carcinomas, two-thirds of the patients already had evidence of dissemination and/or invasion suggesting the aggressive nature of postirradiation thyroid carcinoma. (author)

  3. Raman Spectroscopy of Microbial Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapid nondestructive technique providing spectroscopic and structural information on both organic and inorganic molecular compounds. Extensive applications for the method in the characterization of pigments have been found. Due to the high sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy for the detection of chlorophylls, carotenoids, scytonemin, and a range of other pigments found in the microbial world, it is an excellent technique to monitor the presence of such pigments, both in pure cultures and in environmental samples. Miniaturized portable handheld instruments are available; these instruments can be used to detect pigments in microbiological samples of different types and origins under field conditions. PMID:24682303

  4. Sensitizing pigment in the fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, K.; Kirschfeld, K.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitizing pigment hypothesis for the high UV sensitivity in fly photoreceptors (R1-6) is further substantiated by measurements of the polarisation sensitivity in the UV. The quantum yield of the energy transfer from sensitizing pigment to rhodopsin was estimated by electrophysiological measurements of the UV sensitivity and the rhabdomeric absorptance (at 490 nm) in individual receptor cells. The transfer efficiency is >=0.75 in receptors with an absorptance in the rhabdomeres of 0.55-0.95. This result suggests that the sensitizing pigment is bound in some way to the rhodopsin. A ratio of two molecules of sensitizing pigment per one rhodopsin is proposed. (orig.)

  5. Adrenocortical carcinoma with extension to the inferior vena cava and right atrium: 20-month-old girl with TP53 mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry L. Levin, MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-month-old female presented with respiratory distress and a right adrenal mass extending into the inferior vena cava and right atrium. The mass was initially thought to be neuroblastoma. Pathology later revealed adrenocortical carcinoma. Inferior vena cava extension is far more common in adrenocortical carcinoma than neuroblastoma, and its presence should prompt clinical and laboratory evaluation for an adrenocortical tumor. The genetic findings in TP53 associated with this disease are discussed.

  6. What are the clinical implications of nodular gastritis? Clues from histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokmensuer, Cenk; Onal, Ibrahim Koral; Yeniova, Ozgur; Ersoy, Osman; Aydinli, Musa; Yonem, Ozlem; Harmanci, Ozgur; Onal, Eda Demir; Altinok, Gulcin; Batman, Figen; Bayraktar, Yusuf

    2009-10-01

    There is no widely accepted histopathological definition for nodular gastritis. In this study we aim to uncover the pathologic entity responsible for the nodular appearance and to find clues about the clinical implications of nodular gastritis. Antral biopsy specimens of 160 patients with nodular gastritis and 133 patients without nodular gastritis were examined by an experienced pathologist for dysplasia, foveolar hyperplasia, inflammatory activity, intraepithelial lymphocytosis, intestinal metaplasia, and lymphoid follicle/aggregate formation, and comparative analysis was performed between the two groups of patients. The presence of intraepithelial lymphocytosis was more frequent in patients with nodular gastritis (P < 0.05). There was no difference between the two groups regarding the other pathological features such as presence of dysplasia, inflammatory activity, intestinal metaplasia, lymphoid hyperplasia, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Increase of intraepithelial lymphocytes may contribute to formation of macroscopical nodules in this peculiar type of gastritis. Nodular gastritis would not indicate a new therapeutic approach in addition to the current measures for Helicobacter pylori infection.

  7. [Histopathological Study of the Relationship between Lymphoid Follicles and Different Endoscopic Types of Nodular Gastritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Takuo; Ishitake, Hisahito; Shimamoto, Fumio; Tamura, Tadamasa; Matsumura, Kazunori; Sumii, Masaharu; Nakai, Shirou

    2014-11-01

    Nodular gastritis is characterized histologically by hyperplasia and enlargement of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria. With the objective of elucidating the relationship between different endoscopic types of nodular gastritis and lymphoid follicles, distributions of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria were investigated in young gastric cancer patients with nodular gastritis. For the study, whole-mucosal step sectioning of each resected stomach was performed, the densities of lymphoid follicles of all specimens were measured microscopically, and the horizontal and depth distributions were calculated. For assessment in the horizontal direction, density distribution diagrams of lymphoid follicles were created. For assessment in the depth direction, the different endoscopic types of nodular gastritis were compared in the five different analysis sites. In the assessment of the horizontal distribution, no characteristic distribution tendencies were observed in either the granular type group or the scattered type group; however, it was found that areas with relatively high densities of lymphoid follicles generally coincided with the areas where nodular gastritis was observed endoscopically. These results suggested that hyperplasia and aggregation of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria are involved at the sites where nodular gastritis is observed endoscopically. In the assessment of the depth distribution, lymphoid follicles tended to be more unevenly distributed in the upper lamina propria in the granular type group than in the scattered type at the three different analysis sites where nodular gastritis was observed endoscopically. These results suggested the possibility of a granular type characteristic.

  8. Nodular gastritis: an endoscopic indicator of Helicobacter pylori infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazigh Mrad, Sonia; Abidi, Kamel; Brini, Ines; Boukthir, Samir; Sammoud, Azza

    2012-11-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is a common and universally distributed bacterial infection. It is predominantly acquired in childhood. To assess the relationship between endoscopic nodular gastritis and Hp infection. A retrospective study was conducted in children who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for chronic abdominal pain. All children who had five gastric biopsies for histologic analysis, urease test and Hp culture were included in the study. The Sensitivity and sensibility of nodular gastritis were determined and different parameters were studied according the presence or not of nodular gastritis(age, gender, Hp status, gastritis score and lymphoid follicles). 49 children, mean age 6.9 ± 3 years (range 1-12 years) were eligible for the analysis. Hp Infection was diagnosed in 35 out of the 49 children (71.5 %). Nodular gastritis was recorded in 16 out of 49 children and in 14 infected children and 2 out of 14 non infected children (p=0.07), 40% sensitivity, 85.7% specificity, 87.5% positive predictive value, and 36,4% negative predictive value. The parameters associated significantly to the presence of nodular gastritis were older age: (p=0.04), Hp infection: (p=0.01), chronic gastritis: (p=0.05), active gastritis: (p=0.02), follicular gastritis: (p=0.005), higher gastritis score: (p=0.005). Completely normal gastric mucosal histology was never found in infected children with antral nodularity. Among all infected children, the gastritis score was significantly higher when there was a nodular gastritis and follicular gastritis was significantly associated to nodular gastritis. The endoscopic pattern of antral nodularity identifies children with Hp infection, and active chronic follicular gastritis.

  9. Imaging Findings of Pelvic Tumor Thrombosis Extending from Sacral Bone Metastasis of Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichiro Ishida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the imaging findings of a patient with adrenocortical carcinoma who showed pelvic tumor thrombosis extending from sacral bone metastasis. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography demonstrated extensive intraluminal filling defects in the pelvic veins. A lytic lesion in the sacrum was also noted and continuity between the sacral lesion and the filling defect in the branch of pelvic veins was indicated. The filling defects showed increased uptake on positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and single-photon emission computed tomography with 131I-iodomethylnorcholesterol, and fusion images with computed tomography aided the localization of the increased uptake areas. Multimodality imaging may be beneficial for the characterization and localization of lesions in patients suspected of having metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma.

  10. Pigment production from a mangrove Penicillium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... Key words: Penicillium, 2-(4-acetyl phenyl) acetic acid, bio elements, salts, soluble pigment. .... Table 1. Characteristics of the pigment fractions after solvent extraction. ..... naphthoquinone pigment by Fusarium verticillioides.

  11. Adrenocortical function and reserve in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlaczyk, B.; Malecka, E.H.; Krause, W.

    1993-01-01

    Serum cortisol and 17 OHS, 17 KS and DHA levels in 24-hour urine were determined in 30 children (22 girls and boys) 0.5 to 4 years after completion of therapy (radio- and chemotherapy) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Serum cortisol after Syncthen (adrenocortical reserve) was determined in 15 girls and 4 boys. The results show that therapy for ALL depresses glucocorticosteroid synthesis; however, it does not disturb the adrenal reserve or androgenesis. (author)

  12. Increased adrenocortical response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in sport horses with equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, M D; Gerber, V; Bruckmaier, R M; van der Kolk, J H; Burger, D; Ramseyer, A

    2017-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that adrenocortical function would be altered in horses with equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS). Twenty-six sport horses competing at national or international levels in eventing (n=15) or endurance (n=11) were subjected to a gastroscopic examination and an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before (baseline) and after (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150min) IV ACTH injection (1μg/kg bodyweight). Within EGUS, two distinct diseases, equine squamous gastric disease (ESGD) and equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD), can be distinguished. ESGD was diagnosed in 8/11 (73%; 95% confidence intervals [95%CI], 43-92%) endurance horses and 5/15 (33%; 95% CI, 14-58%) eventing horses. EGGD was observed in 9/11 (82%; 95% CI, 53-96%) endurance horses and 9/15 (60%; 95% CI, 35-81%) eventing horses. The presence or severity of ESGD was unrelated to the presence or severity of EGGD. ACTH stimulation induced a larger increase in cortisol concentration in horses with moderate EGGD than in horses with mild EGGD. Cortisol concentration during the entire sampling period (total increase in cortisol concentration during the entire sampling period [dAUC], 31.1±6.4ng/mL) and the highest measured concentration at a single time point (maximal increase in cortisol concentration [dMAX], 10.3±2.3ng/mL) were increased (P=0.005 and P=0.038, respectively), indicating that horses with glandular gastric disease exhibited increased adrenocortical responses to ACTH stimulation. These results suggest that EGGD might be associated with an enhanced adrenocortical sensitivity. Further investigations are warranted to confirm the association between adrenocortical sensitivity and EGGD and to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Morphological changes in the pituitary-adrenocortical axis in natives of La Paz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosney, John; Heath, Donald; Williams, David; Rios-Dalenz, Jaime

    1991-03-01

    Increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis is part of the response to the stress of initial exposure to hypoxia, but there is evidence to suggest that it persists after homeostatic stability has been regained and acclimatization achieved. The adrenal glands of five lifelong residents of La Paz, Bolivia, who had lived at altitudes in the range 3600 3800 m, were significantly larger than those in age-matched controls from sea level (15.3g vs 10.4g; Ppituitary glands of the highlanders were not significantly different in size from those of the controls (0.67 g vs 0.51 g), but contained larger populations of corticotrophs expressed in terms of the total cell population of their anterior lobes (25.6% vs 19.4%; P<0.001). In conjunction with other studies of this endocrine axis in man and animals exposed to a hypoxic environment, these data suggest that greater amounts of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) are required to maintain normal adrenocortical function under such circumstances, probably as a result of hypoxic inhibition of adrenocortical sensitivity to stimulation. Physiological hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex may be common in people living at high altitude.

  14. High-density lipoprotein is a potential growth factor for adrenocortical cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Koji; Imachi, Hitomi; Cao, Wenming; Yu, Xiao; Li, Junhua; Yoshida, Kazuya; Ahmed, Rania A.M.; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Nishiuchi, Takamasa; Wong, Norman C.W.; Ishida, Toshihiko

    2006-01-01

    The entry of cholesterol contained within high-density lipoprotein (HDL) into adrenocortical cells is mediated by a human homologue of SR-BI, CD36, and LIMPII Analogous-1 (CLA-1) and thus augmenting their growth. To address the role of CLA-1, we created a mutant mCLA that lacked the C-terminal tail. HDL CE selective uptake by cells carrying the mCLA-1 receptor was fully active and equivalent to those transfected with full-length CLA-1 (fCLA-1). Expression of mCLA inhibited the proliferation of an adrenocortical cell line and the incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into the cells. This effect was sensitive to wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Our transcriptional studies revealed that the inhibitory action of mCLA required the transcriptional factor AP-1 and the effect of HDL on AP-1 activation was also abrogated by wortmannin. These findings raise the possibility that the inhibitors of the effects of HDL may be of therapeutic value for adrenocortical tumor

  15. Nationwide analysis of adrenocortical carcinoma reveals higher perioperative morbidity in functional tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Punam P; Rubio, Gustavo A; Farra, Josefina C; Lew, John I

    2017-08-25

    Current adrenalectomy outcomes for functional adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) remain unclear. This study examines nationwide in-hospital post-adrenalectomy outcomes for ACC. A retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (2006-2011) to identify unilateral adrenalectomy patients for functional or nonfunctional ACC was performed. Patient demographics, comorbidities and postoperative outcomes were evaluated by t-test, Chi-square and multivariate regression. Of 2199 patients who underwent adrenalectomy, 87% had nonfunctional and 13% had functional ACC (86% hypercortisolism, 16% hyperaldosteronism, 4% hyperandrogenism). Functional ACC patients had significantly more comorbidities, and experienced certain postoperative complications more frequently including wound issues, adrenocortical insufficiency and acute kidney injury with longer hospital stay compared to nonfunctional ACC (P analysis, functional ACC was an independent prognosticator for wound complications (28.1, 95%CI 4.59-176.6). Patients with functional ACC manifest significant comorbidities with certain in-hospital complications. Such high-risk patients require appropriate preoperative medical optimization prior to adrenalectomy. Patients with functional adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) have significant preoperative comorbidities and experience higher rates of certain postoperative complications including wound complications, hematoma formation, adrenal insufficiency, pulmonary embolism and acute kidney injury. Functional ACC patients also necessitate longer hospitalizations. These patients should undergo appropriate preoperative counseling in preparation for adrenalectomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Iris phenotypes and pigment dispersion caused by genes influencing pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael G; Hawes, Norman L; Trantow, Colleen M; Chang, Bo; John, Simon W M

    2008-10-01

    Spontaneous mutations altering mouse coat colors have been a classic resource for discovery of numerous molecular pathways. Although often overlooked, the mouse iris is also densely pigmented and easily observed, thus representing a similarly powerful opportunity for studying pigment cell biology. Here, we present an analysis of iris phenotypes among 16 mouse strains with mutations influencing melanosomes. Many of these strains exhibit biologically and medically relevant phenotypes, including pigment dispersion, a common feature of several human ocular diseases. Pigment dispersion was identified in several strains with mutant alleles known to influence melanosomes, including beige, light, and vitiligo. Pigment dispersion was also detected in the recently arising spontaneous coat color variant, nm2798. We have identified the nm2798 mutation as a missense mutation in the Dct gene, an identical re-occurrence of the slaty light mutation. These results suggest that dysregulated events of melanosomes can be potent contributors to the pigment dispersion phenotype. Combined, these findings illustrate the utility of studying iris phenotypes as a means of discovering new pathways, and re-linking old ones, to processes of pigmented cells in health and disease.

  17. Differential Diagnosis of Nodular Goiter by Aspiration Cytology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Suk Man; Lee, Houn Young; Han, Bong Heon; Kim, Sam Young; Ro, Heung Kyu

    1982-01-01

    113 patients with nodular goiter were studied cytologically by needle aspiration for differential diagnosis at the department of internal medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital since October 1980 till July 1981, and the final diagnosis taken from biopsies were compared with the cytologic method on the 44 cases who received operation. The results were obtained as follows: 1. Among the 113 cases of total patients, male were 15 cases (13.3%) and female were 98 cases (86.7%) and the sex ratio (M : F) was 1 : 6.5. The peak age incidence was in the third decade followed by forth and second decades. 2. The findings of cytological diagnosis in 113 cases showed benign adenoma in 69 cases (61.1%), subacute and chronic thyroiditis in 22 cases (19.5%), papillary carcinoma in 15 cases (13.3%) and follicular carcinoma in 7 cases (6.2%), respectively, and 48 cases (69.6%) of the adenomas and 2 cases (9.1%) of papillary carcinomas showed combined cystic degeneration of the nodules. 3. The diameter of the nodules by palpation revealed within 2-5 cm in 88 cases (77.9%) out of 113 cases, below 2 cm in 17 cases and over 5 cm in 8 cases and there were no significant relationship between the size of the nodule and disease entity. 4. The findings of thyroid scintigram using 131 I in 113 cases of nodular goiter showed 'cold nodule' in 111 cases (98.2%) and normal scan (radioactivity) in 2 cases (1.8%) which showed adenoma in cytology and there was no cases with h ot nodule'. 5. The thyroid functions of the 113 cases revealed as euthyroidism in 108 cases (95.6%), hypothyroidism in 2 cases (2.7%) in adenomas but there was no evidence that the nodules of the above 3 cases were the reason of hyperthyroidism. 6. In 44 operated cases, the histological diagnosis revealed 23 cases of adenoma out of 27 cases (85.2%) who were diagnosed as adenoma by cytology and 15 cases of malignancy out of 17 cases (88.2%), and the overall diagnostic accuracy of aspiration cytology was 86.4%.

  18. Natural pigments and sacred art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelekian, Lena, ,, Lady

    2010-05-01

    Since the dawn of mankind, cavemen has expressed himself through art. The earliest known cave paintings date to some 32,000 years ago and used 4 colours derived from the earth. These pigments were iron oxides and known as ochres, blacks and whites. All pigments known by the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans and Renaissance man were natural and it was not until the 18th century that synthetic pigments were made and widely used. Until that time all art, be it sacred or secular used only natural pigments, of which the preparation of many have been lost or rarely used because of their tedious preparation. As a geologist, a mineralogist and an artist specializing in iconography, I have been able to rediscover 89 natural pigments extracted from minerals. I use these pigments to paint my icons in the traditional Byzantine manner and also to restore old icons, bringing back their glamour and conserving them for years to come. The use of the natural pigments in its proper way also helps to preserve the traditional skills of the iconographer. In the ancient past, pigments were extremely precious. Many took an exceedingly long journey to reach the artists, and came from remote countries. Research into these pigments is the work of history, geography and anthropology. It is an interesting journey in itself to discover that the blue aquamarines came from Afghanistan, the reds from Spain, the greens Africa, and so on. In this contribution I will be describing the origins, preparation and use of some natural pigments, together with their history and provenance. Additionally, I will show how the natural pigments are used in the creation of an icon. Being a geologist iconographer, for me, is a sacrement that transforms that which is earthly, material and natural into a thing of beauty that is sacred. As bread and wine in the Eucharist, water during baptism and oil in Holy Union transmit sanctification to the beholder, natural pigments do the same when one considers an icon. The

  19. Creep testing of nodular iron at ambient and elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsson, Aasa; Andersson-Oestling, Henrik C.M.; Seitisleam, Facredin; Wu, Rui; Sandstroem, Rolf (Swerea KIMAB AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The creep strain at room temperature, 100 and 125 deg C has been investigated for the ferritic nodular cast iron insert intended for use as the load-bearing part of canisters for long term disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The microstructure consisted of ferrite, graphite nodules of different sizes, compacted graphite and pearlite. Creep tests have been performed for up to 41,000 h. The specimens were cut out from material taken from two genuine inserts, I30 and I55. After creep testing, the specimens from the 100 deg C tests were hardness tested and a metallographic examination was performed. Creep strains at all temperatures appear to be logarithmic, and accumulation of creep strain diminishes with time. The time dependence of the creep strain is consistent to the W-model for primary creep. During the loading plastic strains up to 1% appeared. The maximum recorded creep strain after the loading phase was 0.025%. This makes the creep strains technically insignificant. Acoustic emission recordings during the loading of the room temperature tests showed no sounds or other evidence of microcracking during the loading phase. There is no evidence that the hardness or the graphite microstructure changed during the creep tests

  20. Pathogenesis of nodular goiter and its implications for surgical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuscher, J.; Peter, H.J.; Gerber, H.; Berchtold, R.; Studer, H.

    1988-01-01

    Despite sufficient iodine supply, goiter continues to be of considerable surgical significance in formerly endemic countries. It now appears that iodine deficiency and increased thyrotropin stimulation are not the only causes of goiter. Xenotransplantation of human thyroid tissue onto nude mice allowed study of the regulation of growth and function in human goiter tissue. Grafts of human thyroid tissue growing in nude mice could be shown to react to endogenous mouse thyrotropic stimulation and suppression. 131 I autoradiographs of xenotransplanted goiter tissue showed as marked a heterogeneity as did the original goitrous tissue prior to transplantation. There was no firm correlation between the morphologic appearance of a follicle and its iodine metabolism. Scintigraphically cold and hot goiter tissue differed from each other quantitatively but not qualitatively; i.e., both hot and cold tissue were composed of metabolically active and nonactive follicles. Iodine organification was not completely suppressible by thyroxine treatment; this indicates autonomous functional activity. The distribution of proliferating tissue labeled by 3 H-thymidine did not parallel the distribution of functionally active tissue labelled by 131 I. Thyroxine treatment did not completely inhibit 3 H-thymidine incorporation, indicating autonomous growth. Thus, our pathogenetic concept of goiter formation is based on three mainstays: (1) goiter heterogeneity, (2) autonomy of growth and function, and (3) dissociation of growth and function in human goiter tissue. Thus, the surgeon dealing with goiter ought to remove all pathologically altered tissue, i.e., nodular tissue, irrespective of its appearance on scintiscans

  1. Nodular goiter after occupational accidental exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, Mario A.; Schnitman, M.A.; Buenos Aires Univ.; Hospital Frances, Buenos Aires

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: During a control of the safety measures at the Radiology Service in a local hospital in Buenos Aires, a lack of an appropriate shielding in the X-ray equipment was detected. Methods and Materials: Therefore studies were performed in the group of physicians and technicians exposed and in an age and sex matched group of non-exposed physicians and technicians. Check-ups included thyroid sonography, circulating thyroid hormones, TSH and thyroid antibodies. The exposed group included 9 females and 5 males, while the non-exposed group comprised 8 females and 5 males. Results: No thyroid abnormalities were found in the non-exposed patients. On the contrary in the exposed cohort in 11 out of 14 patients nodular goiter was diagnosed, while an additional patient presented diffuse goiter. In 5 out of the 12 patients with goiter, nodule growth or the appearance of new nodules was observed along the follow-up. Four patients presented changes in thyroid function: two had elevated basal TSH with increased titters of anti TPO antibodies in one, while another showed an abnormal TRH-TSH test. A fourth patient had low total T 4 values. Other abnormalities included: sperm abnormalities in 2 out of the 5 males, dry-eye syndrome in other two, mammary nodules in one female and a basocellular epithelioma in another one. Conclusions: accidental irradiation leads to thyroid abnormalities, such as the appearance of nodules and alterations in thyroid function. (author)

  2. MRI findings of multiple focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Yu Qingtai; Jing Yu; Wang Haiyi; Pan Jingjing; Duan Weidong; Wang Dianjun; Ye Huiyi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of MRI on multiple focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) of the liver. Methods: MR images of 9 cases with pathological-confirmed multiple FNH were retrospectively analyzed. MRI features of the lesions were correlated with pathological findings. Results: Multiple FNH was considered in all these 9 cases. Among them, the primary diagnosis was FNH in 5, hepatic adenoma in 3 and fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma in 1 case. A total of 31 lesions were detected in the 9 cases. On T 2 WI, 19 lesions presented slightly high-signal intensity, and the other 12 presented iso-signal intensity. On T 1 WI, 12 lesions presented slightly low-signal intensity, 7 presented iso-signal intensity, and the other 12 presented high-signal intensity. On opposed-phase, the signal intensity of 1 lesion dropped unevenly. After bolus injection of contrast agent Gd-DTPA, in hepatic arterial phase 18 lesions showed mild to marked heterogeneous enhancement, 11 showed marked homogeneous enhancement, 1 showed moderate ring-like enhancement, and the last one did not have obvious enhancement. In portal venous and delayed phase, all the lesions turned to iso- or slightly high-signal intensity gradually. Sixteen of 31 lesions presented central scar, which demonstrated mild star-like enhancement in delayed phase. Conclusion: Multiple FNH presented certain MRI features, which contributed to the preoperative diagnosis. (authors)

  3. MSCT diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haitao; Xu Qinsha; Chen Yutang; Song Yupiao

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the MSCT findings of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) of the liver, and to improve the diagnostic standard. Methods: The MSCT findings were analyzed retrospectively in 25 patients pathologically approved with FNH. All patients underwent 16 detector row spiral CT scanning with and without contrast enhancement. Results: 28 lesions were discovered by CT, with single lesion showed in 22 cases, 2 lesions showed in 3 cases. All lesions showed a solitary nodules or lobulated mass in the liver. On plain CT, FNH showed equal or slightly low density. In the arterial phase, 27 lesions were vigorously and homogeneously enhanced, except the central scars with CT value of 99∼149HU and the mean CT-number of 124 HU. 1 lesion ws enhanced inter-homogeneously. Tortuous and enlarged arteries were seen at the center or periphery in 8 of the 28 lesions. In the portal venous phase, 16 lesions remained slightly hyperdense, 8 lesions turned to isodense, and 1 lesion turned to slightly hypodense. The typical central scar was showed in 8 lesions and 2 lesions showed delayed enhancement. 21 cases were correctly diagnosed by MSCT, with the diagnostic accuracy of 84.0%. Conclusion: MSCT scanning can fully show the pathologic and the blood supplying characteristics of FNH. The typical FNH can be easily diagnosed by CT, while the atypical cases should be differentiated from hepatocellular carcinoma, hemangioma of liver, liver cell adenoma and fibrolamellar hepatocarcinoma. (authors)

  4. Sonographic pattern of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, A.; Gratz, K.F.; Broelsch, C.; Gebel, M.

    1984-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver (FNH) is a histologically defined benign hepatic tumour, possibly associated with the use of oral contraceptives. The present study deals with the question whether FNH can be distinguished from other lesions of the liver by ultrasonography alone or by a combination of realtime sonography and radiologic procedures. Therefore 18 cases of FNH, 16 females and 2 males, are presented. We retrospectively reviewed the diagnostic results of real-time sonography, hepatic scintigraphy, computed tomography with dynamic CT-densitometry, and angiography on these 18 patients. Ultrasonography enables the identification of the lesion in all of the 18 cases. FNH appears to show varying degrees of echogenicity (slight hypoechoic in 6 cases, isoechoic in 6 cases, and slight hyperechoic in 4 cases). In most of the patients the tumour had similar acoustic characteristics at the surrounding normal liver. By ultrasonography alone there is no possible differentation of FNH from other hepatic tumours. Both the echo pattern of FNH and the results of the ultrasonically guided cytopuncture are unspecific. (orig.)

  5. Canine sterile nodular panniculitis: a retrospective study of 39 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreary, Caitlin L; Outerbridge, Catherine A; Affolter, Verena K; Kass, Philip H; White, Stephen D

    2015-12-01

    Canine sterile nodular panniculitis (SNP) is an inflammatory disease of the panniculus that is typically managed with immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive treatments. It has been reported to be a cutaneous marker of an underlying systemic disease. To assess the presence or absence of concurrent systemic diseases associated with canine SNP and to document breed predispositions. Thirty nine dogs presented to a veterinary teaching hospital from 1990 to 2012 which met inclusion criteria. Inclusion in this retrospective study required a diagnosis of SNP via histopathological analysis and negative special stains for infectious organisms. Breed distributions of affected dogs were compared to all other dogs examined at this hospital during the study period. Correlations between the histological pattern of panniculitis and the histological presence of dermatitis, clinical presentation of lesions, dog breed and therapeutic outcomes were assessed. Australian shepherd dogs, Brittany spaniels, Dalmatians, Pomeranians and Chihuahuas were significantly over-represented, but correlations between inflammatory patterns of panniculitis and other histological and clinical factors were not identified. Based on the information available in medical records, 32 dogs (82.1%) had no concurrent systemic diseases identified. Four dogs had concurrent polyarthritis, which may be related to SNP through unknown mechanisms. This study identified several novel breed predilections for SNP; it failed to find any clear correlations with associated systemic diseases other than polyarthritis. The histological inflammatory pattern of SNP does not predict therapeutic outcome. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  6. Pathophysiological analyses of periventricular nodular heterotopia using gyrencephalic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Hoshiba, Yoshio; Morita, Kazuya; Uda, Natsu; Hirota, Miwako; Minamikawa, Maki; Ebisu, Haruka; Shinmyo, Yohei; Kawasaki, Hiroshi

    2017-03-15

    Although periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) is often found in the cerebral cortex of people with thanatophoric dysplasia (TD), the pathophysiology of PNH in TD is largely unknown. This is mainly because of difficulties in obtaining brain samples of TD patients and a lack of appropriate animal models for analyzing the pathophysiology of PNH in TD. Here we investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of PNH in the cerebral cortex of TD by utilizing a ferret TD model which we recently developed. To make TD ferrets, we electroporated fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) into the cerebral cortex of ferrets. Our immunohistochemical analyses showed that PNH nodules in the cerebral cortex of TD ferrets were mostly composed of cortical neurons, including upper layer neurons and GABAergic neurons. We also found disorganizations of radial glial fibers and of the ventricular lining in the TD ferret cortex, indicating that PNH may result from defects in radial migration of cortical neurons along radial glial fibers during development. Our findings provide novel mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of PNH in TD. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Malignant transformation of nodular hyperplasia in the thyroid: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, Hyun Sin; Kim, Dong Wook; Yoon, Hye Kyoung

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid carcinogenesis is traditionally thought to originate 'de novo'. However, it is debatable whether a malignant transformation can possibly arise from a benign thyroid nodule, as suggested for the malignant transformation of a thyroid adenoma. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have been performed addressing the malignant transformation of nodular hyperplasia in the thyroid gland. Here, we report a case of nodular hyperplasia with focally malignant degeneration

  8. Open questions in the management of nodular lymphocyte predominant hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyran, Marguerite; Gonzague, Laurence; Bouabdallah, Reda; Resbeut, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Localized Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma is a rare disease with an overall good prognosis but frequent late relapses. Due to it's rarity there is no standard therapeutic approach and pathological diagnosis may be hard. In this paper we discuss the technical aspects of the radiation therapy and histological issues. The new fields reductions proposed for classical Hodgkin lymphoma cannot be applied to early stages Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin lymphomas which are usually treated with radiation therapy without systemic chemotherapy.

  9. Compromiso nodular hepático secundario a mieloma múltiple Nodular hepatic lesions secondary to multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J. Vázquez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El mieloma múltiple (MM es una enfermedad maligna caracterizada por una proliferación clonal de células plasmáticas atípicas en la médula ósea, que produce una inmunoglobulina (Ig con estructura homogénea en la sangre y/o en la orina (cadenas livianas. El compromiso del parénquima hepático con masa ocupante en los pacientes con MM es excepcional. Describimos 3 casos clínicos confirmados histológicamente. La ecografía y la tomografía computarizada tienen una sensibilidad intermedia y las imágenes no son patognomónicas, por lo tanto es necesaria la confirmación a través de la biopsia. Se desconoce la implicancia pronóstica de este hallazgo.Multiple myeloma is characterized by the neoplastic proliferation of a single clone of plasma cells producing a monoclonal immunoglobulin. Myelomatous nodular lesions of the liver are infrequent. We describe 3 cases with histological confirmation and we review the bibliography.

  10. [The imaging diagnosis of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzocchi, M; Macorig, D; Cecconi, P; Gozzi, G

    1991-12-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a rare benign hepatocellular tumor occurring in noncirrhotic patients, mostly females, 20-50 years of age. It is usually asymptomatic. The authors took the lead from 5 cases of FNH studied over last year to analyze the different patterns exhibited by the condition on the various imaging techniques currently available. At scintigraphy with 99mTc DISIDA or with TcSC, FNH can be hyper, normal, or hypocaptating. On US scans, the lesion is often homogeneous and isoechoic, but it can also be hyper/hypoechoic. With Doppler US, high-flow signals can be observed. On unenhanced CT scans the lesion is solid, well-demarcated, isodense or slightly hyperdense; sometimes it shows a central hypodense area corresponding to fibrovascular scar. On postcontrast scans it appears hyper/isodense. At dynamic CT the lesion density, which is high during the arterial phase, decreases quickly in the parenchymal and the venous phases and reaches equal/inferior values to surrounding liver parenchyma. On liver angio-CT it is sometimes possible to visualize the bile ducts in the central scar. At angiography, FNH is hypervascular and homogeneous. On MR scans, in T1-weighted SE sequences, the condition is isointense or slightly hypointense, whereas on T2-weighted pulse sequences it is slightly hyperintense; the central scar is hypointense on T1, and hyperintense on T2, weighted scans. As we have no pathognomonic patterns but only orientative ones, a reliable differential diagnosis with hepatocellular adenoma (HA) and fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) must be based on biopsy or cytology or, even better, histology. The differential diagnosis is nevertheless necessary because, while FNH does not usually require a surgical approach but only a radiological follow-up, both HA (due to possible bleeding and degeneration) and FL-HCC require surgery.

  11. Duodenal nodularity in children: A clinical and pathologic study of 17 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çaltepe Dinler Gönül

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Duodenal nodularity is an uncommon endoscopic appearance of numerous visible mucosal nodules in the proximal duodenum. In this retrospective study we aimed to determine the clinical significance and histopathologic features of duodenal nodularity in children. Materials and Methods: The medical records of the patients who were defined to have duodenal nodularity by endoscopy were reviewed. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were expressed as mean ± SD and percentages (%. Results: Seventeen patients with endoscopically defined duodenal nodularity were chosen. The mean age at diagnosis was 12.1 years (range: 6-17 years, 9 males. Abdominal pain (47% was the most common clinical symptom and antral nodularity (41% was the most common endoscopic finding in children with duodenal nodularity. Histopathologic evaluation of duodenal nodules revealed chronic inflammation in all patients, increased intercryptal and intraepithelial numbers of eosinophils in 70.5%, and villous atrophy in 47% of patients. Giardia infestation was demonstrated in 6 patients by histologic examination and/or Giardia lamblia-specific antigen positivity in stools. The clinical diagnoses of the patients have shown variations, such as celiac disease, giardiasis, secretory IgA deficiency, and Helicobacter pylori gastritis, and some of them were associated with the others. Conclusions: Although the endoscopic appearance is similar, clinical spectrum and pathologic features are not so similar and there are no specific histomorphologic findings for nodularity. The most demonstrative findings we observed in children were increased lymphocyte and/or eosinophil infiltration in the duodenal mucosa. We suggested that care should be taken in the evaluation of microbiological and immunologic etiologies causing this prominent inflammatory reaction.

  12. PCP4: a regulator of aldosterone synthesis in human adrenocortical tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felizola, Saulo J. A.; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Ono, Yoshikiyo; Kitamura, Kanako; Kikuchi, Kumi; Onodera, Yoshiaki; Ise, Kazue; Takase, Kei; Sugawara, Akira; Hattangady, Namita; Rainey, William E.; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Sasano, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    Purkinje cell protein 4 (PCP4) is a calmodulin (CaM) binding protein that accelerates calcium association and dissociation with CaM. It has been previously detected in aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) but details on its expression and function in adrenocortical tissues have remained unknown. Therefore, we performed the immunohistochemical analysis of PCP4 in the following tissues: normal adrenal (NA; n=15), APA (n=15), cortisol producing adenomas (CPA; n=15) and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism cases (IHA; n=5). APA samples (n=45) were also submitted to quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) of PCP4, CYP11B1, and CYP11B2, as well as DNA sequencing for KCNJ5 mutations. Transient transfection analysis using PCP4 siRNA was also performed in H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells, following ELISA analysis, and CYP11B2 luciferase assays were also performed after PCP4 vector transfection in order to study the regulation of PCP4 protein expression. In our findings, PCP4 immunoreactivity was predominantly detected in APA and in the zona glomerulosa (ZG) of NA and IHA. In APA, the mRNA levels of PCP4 were significantly correlated with those of CYP11B2 (P<0.0001) and were significantly higher in cases with KCNJ5 mutation than wild-type (P=0.005). Following PCP4 vector transfection, CYP11B2 luciferase reporter activity was significantly higher than controls in the presence of angiotensin-II. Knockdown of PCP4 resulted in a significant decrease in CYP11B2 mRNA levels (P=0.012) and aldosterone production (P=0.011). Our results indicate that PCP4 is a regulator of aldosterone production in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic human adrenocortical cells. PMID:24403568

  13. Cell cycle dependent RRM2 may serve as proliferation marker and pharmaceutical target in adrenocortical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grolmusz, Vince Kornél; Karászi, Katalin; Micsik, Tamás; Tóth, Eszter Angéla; Mészáros, Katalin; Karvaly, Gellért; Barna, Gábor; Szabó, Péter Márton; Baghy, Kornélia; Matkó, János; Kovalszky, Ilona; Tóth, Miklós; Rácz, Károly; Igaz, Péter; Patócs, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare, but agressive malignancy with poor prognosis. Histopathological diagnosis is challenging and pharmacological options for treatment are limited. By the comparative reanalysis of the transcriptional malignancy signature with the cell cycle dependent transcriptional program of ACC, we aimed to identify novel biomarkers which may be used in the histopathological diagnosis and for the prediction of therapeutical response of ACC. Comparative reanalysis of publicly available microarray datasets included three earlier studies comparing transcriptional differences between ACC and benign adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) and one study presenting the cell cycle dependent gene expressional program of human ACC cell line NCI-H295R. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on ACC samples. In vitro effects of antineoplastic drugs including gemcitabine, mitotane and 9-cis-retinoic acid alone and in combination were tested in the NCI-H295R adrenocortical cell line. Upon the comparative reanalysis, ribonucleotide reductase subunit 2 (RRM2), responsible for the ribonucleotide dezoxyribonucleotide conversion during the S phase of the cell cycle has been validated as cell cycle dependently expressed. Moreover, its expression was associated with the malignancy signature, as well. Immunohistochemical analysis of RRM2 revealed a strong correlation with Ki67 index in ACC. Among the antiproliferative effects of the investigated compounds, gemcitabine showed a strong inhibition of proliferation and an increase of apoptotic events. Additionally, RRM2 has been upregulated upon gemcitabine treatment. Upon our results, RRM2 might be used as a proliferation marker in ACC. RRM2 upregulation upon gemcitabine treatment might contribute to an emerging chemoresistance against gemcitabine, which is in line with its limited therapeutical efficacy in ACC, and which should be overcome for successful clinical applications.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of adrenocortical adenomas in childhood: correlation with computed tomography and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, J.A.; Weber, A.; Reznek, R.H.; Cotterill, A.M.; Ross, R.J.M.; Harris, R.J.; Armstrong, P.; Savage, M.O.

    1996-01-01

    There are few descriptions of the magnetic resonance (MR) appearance of hyperfunctioning adrenocortical tumours, particularly those occurring in childhood. We studied five patients, two girls and three boys, aged 6-14.3 years, presenting with clinical syndromes of adrenocortical hyperfunction. The diagnoses were Cushing's syndrome (n = 2), virilisation (n = 2), and Conn's syndrome (n = 1). Biochemical features suggested an adrenal lesion in each case. MR and ultrasound were performed in all five cases, with CT in four. Each patient had a functional adrenal tumour secreting either cortisol, androgens or aldosterone alone, or a combination of cortisol, androgens and oestradiol. The histological diagnosis was adenoma in four cases and tumour of indeterminate nature in one case. MR clearly showed the tumours (diameter 1.0-7.5 cm), all the lesions being of high signal intensity relative to liver on T2-weighted sequences. CT revealed an adrenal mass in each of the four patients scanned, three of which enhanced after intravenous contrast medium injection. The multiplanar imaging of MR allowed better distinction from adjacent structures and also demonstrated an unenlarged contralateral adrenal gland. In the patient with a 1-cm Conn's adenoma the lesion was more easily seen on MR than CT. Ultrasound showed the four larger tumours but was unable to visualise the contralateral adrenal or the Conn's adenoma. In conclusion, the MR appearances of four adrenocortical adenomas and one indeterminate tumour in children are described. MR has been found to be at least equal to CT in the detection of these tumours, with some possible advantages. Both techniques are superior to ultrasound. (orig.). With 4 figs

  15. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: an unusual association with diabetes mellitus in a child and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trizzino Antonino

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatic hemangioma, adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia are the most frequent benign lesions of the liver, but they are all infrequent among pediatric population. The reports of focal nodular hyperplasia in children have recently increased in number, with many cases associated to drug intake, particularly to chemotherapy. We here describe, to our knowledge, the first case of focal nodular hyperplasia in association with diabetes mellitus in childhood.

  16. The visual pigment cyanide effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescitelli, F; Karvaly, B

    1989-12-01

    The visual pigment of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) with its in situ absorption maximum at 521 nm has its spectral position at 500 to 505 nm when chloride-deficient digitonin is used for the extraction. In this case the addition of chloride or bromide to the extract restores the maximum to 521 nm. This property, characteristic of gecko pigments in general, does not occur with any of the rhodopsins that have been tested. Simple salts of cyanide, a pseudohalogenoid with an ionic radius close to those of chloride and bromide and/or its hydrolysis product attacks both this gecko pigment and rhodopsins in the dark. This is seen as a slow thermal loss of photopigment if (sodium) cyanide is present at concentrations above 40 mM for the gecko pigment and 150 mM for the rhodopsins of the midshipman (Porichthys notatus) and of the frog (Rana pipiens). In all cases the loss of the photopigment is accompanied by the appearance of a spectral product with maximum absorption at about 340 nm. Cyanide addition has no effect on the photosensitivity of the native pigments and neither does it alter, as do chloride, bromide and other anions, the spectral absorbance curve. The spectral product at 340 nm also appears when the visual pigments are photolyzed in the presence of cyanide salts below the threshold concentrations given above. Incubation of digitonin-solubilized all-trans-retinal with (sodium) cyanide leads to a reaction product with absorption spectrum similar to that obtained with visual pigments under comparable conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Extension of adrenocortical carcinoma into the right atrium – echocardiographic diagnosis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozenman Yoseph

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare, highly malignant tumor. Cardiac involvement of the tumor is very rare. Echocardiography facilitates the evaluation of the cardiac involvement of the tumor. Case Presentation We describe a patient with an adrenal tumor. Transthoracic echo showed its extension into the right atrium. Accordingly, a combined abdominal and cardiac operation was performed, monitored by transesophageal echocardiography. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of echocardiography in revealing the cardiac involvement by this tumor and in planning the operative procedure.

  18. Adrenocortical Regulation, Eating in the Absence of Hunger and BMI in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, L. A.; Granger, D. A.; Susman, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relations among adrenocortical regulation, eating in the absence of hunger, and body mass index (BMI) in children ages 5 to 9 years (N = 43). Saliva was collected before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for children (TSST-C), and was later assayed for cortisol. Area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) was used as a measure of changes in cortisol release from baseline to 60 minutes post-TSST-C. Age- and sex-specific BMI scores were cal...

  19. Low Iodine in the Follicular Lumen Caused by Cytoplasm Mis-localization of Sodium Iodide Symporter may Induce Nodular Goiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huibin; Shi, Yaxiong; Liang, Bo; Cai, Huiyao; Cai, Qingyan

    2017-10-01

    Iodine is a key ingredient in the synthesis of thyroid hormones and also a major factor in the regulation of thyroid function. A local reduction of iodine content in follicular lumen leads to overexpression of local thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHr), which in turn excessively stimulates the regional thyroid tissue, and result in the formation of nodular goiter. In this study, we investigated the relationship between iodine content and sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expression by using the clinical specimens from patients with nodular goiter and explored the pathogenesis triggered by iodine deficiency in nodular goiter. In total, 28 patients were clinically histopathologically confirmed to have nodular goiter and the corresponding adjacent normal thyroid specimens were harvested simultaneously. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were performed to assay NIS expression and localization in thyrocytes of both nodular goiter and adjacent normal thyroid tissues. NIS expression mediated by iodine in follicular lumen was confirmed by follicular model in vitro. Meanwhile, radioscan with iodine-131were conducted on both nodular goiter and adjacent normal thyroid. Our data showed that NIS expression in nodular goiter was significantly higher than that in adjacent normal tissues, which was associated with low iodine in the follicular lumen. Abnormal localization of NIS and lower amount of radioactive iodine-131 were also found in nodular goiter. Our data implied that low iodine in the follicular lumen caused by cytoplasm mis-localization of NIS may induce nodular goiter.

  20. Genetic and Virulent Difference Between Pigmented and Non-pigmented Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhang; Yujuan Suo; Daofeng Zhang; Fangning Jin; Hang Zhao; Chunlei Shi

    2018-01-01

    Staphyloxanthin (STX), a golden carotenoid pigment produced by Staphylococcus aureus, is suggested to act as an important virulence factor due to its antioxidant properties. Restraining biosynthesis of STX was considered as an indicator of virulence decline in pigmented S. aureus isolates. However, it is not clear whether natural non-pigmented S. aureus isolates have less virulence than pigmented ones. In this study, it is aimed to compare the pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus isolates to...

  1. Diversity and functional properties of bistable pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Hisao; Terakita, Akihisa

    2010-11-01

    Rhodopsin and related opsin-based pigments, which are photosensitive membrane proteins, have been extensively studied using a wide variety of techniques, with rhodopsin being the most understood G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Animals use various opsin-based pigments for vision and a wide variety of non-visual functions. Many functionally varied pigments are roughly divided into two kinds, based on their photoreaction: bistable and monostable pigments. Bistable pigments are thermally stable before and after photo-activation, but monostable pigments are stable only before activation. Here, we review the diversity of bistable pigments and their molecular characteristics. We also discuss the mechanisms underlying different molecular characteristics of bistable and monostable pigments. In addition, the potential of bistable pigments as a GPCR model is proposed.

  2. Annular and central heavy pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule in the pigment dispersion syndrome: pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule in the pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Burak; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Deniz, Nurettin; Catak, Onur

    2008-12-01

    To report annular and central heavy pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule in a case of pigment dispersion syndrome. Case report. A 36-year-old female with bilateral pigment dispersion syndrome presented with progressive decrease in visual acuity in the right eye over the past 1-2 years. Clinical examination revealed the typical findings of pigment dispersion syndrome including bilateral Krunkenberg spindles, iris transillumination defects, and dense trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Remarkably, annular and central dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule was noted in the right eye. Annular pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule may be a rare finding associated with pigment dispersion syndrome. Such a finding suggests that there may be aqueous flow into the retrolental space in some patients with this condition. The way of central pigmentation is the entrance of aqueous to Berger's space. In our case, it is probable that spontaneous detachment of the anterior hyaloid membrane aided this entrance.

  3. Genetic and non-iodine-related factors in the aetiology of nodular goitre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Nils; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2014-08-01

    Genetic and a large number of environmental non-iodine-related factors play a role in the cause of nodular goitre. Most evidence for the influence of genetic and environmental factors in the cause of goitre is from cross-sectional, population-based studies. Only a few studies have included prospective data on risk factors for nodular goitre, although few prospective data are available on the effect of iodine and tobacco smoking on goitre development. Goitre is not one single phenotype. Many epidemiological studies do not distinguish diffuse from nodular goitre, as the investigated parameter is often thyroid volume or frequency with increased thyroid volume. Moreover, information on the presence and effect of gene-environment, gene-gene, and environment-environment effect modifications is limited. Thus, firm conclusions about the relative contributions and causality of the investigated risk factors should be made with caution. Smoking seems to be an established risk factor for nodular goitre, possibly with effect modification from iodine intake, as the risk associated with smoking is smaller or absent in areas with sufficient iodine intake. The use of oral contraceptives might have protective effects against goitre, and childbirth is an increased risk factor for goitre in areas with non-optimal iodine intake. Insulin resistance is a recently investigated risk factor, and the risk of goitre may be reversible with metformin treatment. Iodine remains the major environmental risk factor for nodular goitre. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nodular fasciitis: correlation of MRI findings and histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.L.; De Schepper, A.M.A.; Vanhoenacker, F.; Gielen, J.; De Raeve, H.; Aparisi, F.; Rausin, L.; Somville, J.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare the histopathology of nodular fasciitis (NF) with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in order to evaluate the basis of the MR signal characteristics. Design and patients: Ten patients with NF, nine females and 1 male, with an age ranging from 13 to 58 years (mean 26.8 years) were studied. MRI findings, available in all 10 patients, were compared with the histopathology in nine patients, and an area-to-area comparative study of the whole specimen section histopathology and MRI was performed in two patients. Results: On the basis of an excisional biopsy or resection specimen, the nine lesions were classified into myxoid (n=4), cellular (n=3) and fibrous (n=2) subtypes. Four myxoid lesions with a subcutaneous location showed a homogeneous SI comparable with muscle on T1-weighted images, high SI on T2-weighted images, and had homogeneous enhancement. One cellular lesion presented with homogeneous, slightly higher SI than muscle on T1-weighted images and inhomogeneous, high SI on T2-weighted images. Alcian blue stain of the whole specimen section revealed the lesion had two parts corresponding to different enhancement patterns on MRI. The blue-stained myxoid part showed markedly diffuse enhancement, while the non-stained cystic space had only peripheral enhancement. Two other cellular lesions had the same appearance on both T1- and T2-weighted images and showed inhomogeneous, diffuse enhancement. One fibrous subtype lesion presented with inhomogeneous, overall slightly higher SI than muscle on T1-weighted images, lower SI at the periphery and high SI in the center on STIR images and only peripheral enhancement. Microscopy and CD-31 staining of the lesion showed more extracellular matrix, with poor vascularity in the center and more collagenous matrix with higher vascularity at the periphery. Conclusion: Although similar findings were found in some lesions, the large histologic variability of NF hampers the definition of a prototype of NF

  5. 47 patients with FLNA associated periventricular nodular heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Max; Kasper, Burkhard; Bohring, Axel; Rutsch, Frank; Kluger, Gerhard; Hoffjan, Sabine; Spranger, Stephanie; Behnecke, Anne; Ferbert, Andreas; Hahn, Andreas; Oehl-Jaschkowitz, Barbara; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard; Diepold, Katharina; Schreyer, Isolde; Bernhard, Matthias K; Mueller, Franziska; Siebers-Renelt, Ulrike; Beleza-Meireles, Ana; Uyanik, Goekhan; Janssens, Sandra; Boltshauser, Eugen; Winkler, Juergen; Schuierer, Gerhard; Hehr, Ute

    2015-10-15

    Heterozygous loss of function mutations within the Filamin A gene in Xq28 are the most frequent cause of bilateral neuronal periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH). Most affected females are reported to initially present with difficult to treat seizures at variable age of onset. Psychomotor development and cognition may be normal or mildly to moderately impaired. Distinct associated extracerebral findings have been observed and may help to establish the diagnosis including patent ductus arteriosus Botalli, progressive dystrophic cardiac valve disease and aortic dissection, chronic obstructive lung disease or chronic constipation. Genotype-phenotype correlations could not yet be established. Sanger sequencing and MLPA was performed for a large cohort of 47 patients with Filamin A associated PVNH (age range 1 to 65 years). For 34 patients more detailed clinical information was available from a structured questionnaire and medical charts on family history, development, epileptologic findings, neurological examination, cognition and associated clinical findings. Available detailed cerebral MR imaging was assessed for 20 patients. Thirty-nine different FLNA mutations were observed, they are mainly truncating (37/39) and distributed throughout the entire coding region. No obvious correlation between the number and extend of PVNH and the severity of the individual clinical manifestation was observed. 10 of the mutation carriers so far are without seizures at a median age of 19.7 years. 22 of 24 patients with available educational data were able to attend regular school and obtain professional education according to age. We report the clinical and mutation spectrum as well as MR imaging for a large cohort of 47 patients with Filamin A associated PVNH including two adult males. Our data are reassuring in regard to psychomotor and cognitive development, which is within normal range for the majority of patients. However, a concerning median diagnostic latency of 17 to 20

  6. Concentric joint space narrowing of the hip associated with hemosiderotic synovitis (HS) including pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahams, T.G.; Pavlov, H.; Bansal, M.; Bullough, P.

    1988-01-01

    Concentric joint space narrowing of the hip is an expected radiographic finding in cases of inflammatory arthritis such as rheumatoid arthritis or sepsis. However, similar joint space narrowing is associated with chronic hemorrhagic conditions that produce hemosiderotic synovitis. Hemosiderotic synovitis results from chronic intraarticular bleeding such as occurs in pigmented villonodular synovitis, generalized bleeding diathesis, synovial hemangioma, and chronic trauma. Five hips in five patients with concentric joint space narrowing not associated with inflammatory arthritis or with hemophilia were reviewed clinically, radiographically, and pathologically. All patients had a hemosiderotic synovitis. The definitive diagnosis of pigmented villonodular synovitis was made pathologically in two cases that demonstrated nodular areas of giant cell proliferation, collagen production, and lipid-laden histiocytes on histologic samples. (orig.)

  7. Environmental enrichment affects adrenocortical stress responses in the endangered black-footed ferret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poessel, S.A.; Biggins, D.E.; Santymire, R.M.; Livieri, T.M.; Crooks, K.R.; Angeloni, L.

    2011-01-01

    Potential stressors of wildlife living in captivity, such as artificial living conditions and frequent human contact, may lead to a higher occurrence of disease and reduced reproductive function. One successful method used by wildlife managers to improve general well-being is the provision of environmental enrichment, which is the practice of providing animals under managed care with environmental stimuli. The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) is a highly-endangered carnivore species that was rescued from extinction by removal of the last remaining individuals from the wild to begin an ex situ breeding program. Our goal was to examine the effect of environmental enrichment on adrenocortical activity in ferrets by monitoring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM). Results demonstrated that enrichment lowered FGM in juvenile male ferrets, while increasing it in adult females; enrichment had no effect on FGM in juvenile females and adult males. These results correspond with our findings that juvenile males interacted more with the enrichment items than did adult females. However, we did not detect an impact of FGM on the incidence of disease or on the ability of ferrets to become reproductive during the following breeding season. We conclude that an environmental enrichment program could benefit captive juvenile male ferrets by reducing adrenocortical activity. ?? 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  8. Genetic and non-iodine-related factors in the aetiology of nodular goitre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nils; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2014-01-01

    Genetic and a large number of environmental non-iodine-related factors play a role in the cause of nodular goitre. Most evidence for the influence of genetic and environmental factors in the cause of goitre is from cross-sectional, population-based studies. Only a few studies have included...... prospective data on risk factors for nodular goitre, although few prospective data are available on the effect of iodine and tobacco smoking on goitre development. Goitre is not one single phenotype. Many epidemiological studies do not distinguish diffuse from nodular goitre, as the investigated parameter...... is often thyroid volume or frequency with increased thyroid volume. Moreover, information on the presence and effect of gene-environment, gene-gene, and environment-environment effect modifications is limited. Thus, firm conclusions about the relative contributions and causality of the investigated risk...

  9. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with nodular antritis and follicular gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Ratko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is known to be the must common cause of chronic gastritis having some endoscopic and pathologic characteristies as determinated by the Sydney System for Gastritis Classification. The aim of our case report was to point out the relationship between an endoscopic finding of nodular antritis and the presence of H. pylori infection and active chronic gastritis. Case report. Our patient underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for dyspeptic complaints and was diagnosed as having nodular antritis, but also underwent urease test and hystopathologic examination of antral mucosa, to determine the presence and density of H. pylori infection and the presence and severity of gastritis. After a course of anti H. pylori treatment, dyspepsia improved and new biopsy specimens obtained two months and six months afterwards revealed no pathological findings. Conclusion. The case report supported the association of H. pylori infection of lymphoid follicles with nodular gastric mucosis.

  10. Primary Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma with a Nodular Opacity: Report of a Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Hirata, Tomomi; Takeuchi, Chie; Usuda, Jitsuo; Hosone, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we describe our experience in treating a case of primary pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma detected as a nodular opacity. A 79-year-old man was referred to our hospital. Computed tomography showed a nodular opacity measuring 20 mm in diameter with regular margins in segment 5 of the right middle lobe of the lung. Although the bronchoscopic brush cytology result was class III, the patient was tentatively diagnosed with suspected mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. A thoracoscopic right middle lobectomy was performed. The pathological findings showed nodular proliferation of small to medium-sized, mature-appearing atypical lymphoid cells, lymphoepithelial lesions, and vague follicles suggesting follicular colonization in some areas. The patient was diagnosed with low-grade small B-cell lymphoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. He has remained well to date, 23 months after surgery, without evidence of recurrence.

  11. Idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis (ING) in an African American (AA) man with hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onteddu, Nirmal K; Duggirala, Jayasri; Reddy, Anand C

    2018-05-18

    Idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis (ING) in a non-diabetic patient is uncommon. Nodular glomerulosclerosis is hallmark sign of diabetic nephropathy. ING is a very rare clinicopathological disease associated with smoking, obesity and hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and metabolic syndrome. A 68-year-old non-obese African American man with hypertension, smoking and history of hepatitis C presented to the clinic with progressive worsening of lower extremity oedema and declining renal function over few months. Renal biopsy demonstrated nodular glomerulosclerosis. In this case, ING is hypothesised to be associated with hepatitis C along with smoking and hypertension (HTN). We present this case to speculate the existence of yet unknown aetiologies of ING. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. The clinical application of percutaneous auto-biopsy of small lung nodular under CT-Guided

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yuanmin; Ye Genxin; Zhang Chenghui; Wang Yu; Chen Wei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluated the clinical value of technology of petcutaneous auto-biopsy of small lung nodular under CT- Guide. Methods: 44 cases of small single lung nodular were underwent biopsy with 20G auto-biopsy needle under CT guidance. All cases underwent pathological diagnosis. Results: All 44 cases were punctured successfully. 41 cases were succeeded in first puncturation. The success ratio was 93.02%. Other 3 cases needed second puncturation. 39 of 44 cases pathological diagnosis were malignant. Only 1 case could not be diagnosed. 6 patients had lightly pneumatothorax after biopsy. 10 cases had mild pneumonorrhagia after biopsy. 2 of them had haemptysis. All cases had no complication such as infection, needle track implantation. Conclusion: The technology of CT Guidance auto-biopsy of small lung nodular is safe and effective; it has extreme diagnostic ratio and less complication. (authors)

  13. Nodular hidradenocarcinoma on the scalp of a young woman: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Masayoshi; Hiramoto, Michiaki; Fujii, Miki; Togo, Takeshi

    2004-09-01

    Nodular hidradenocarcinoma was first reported as clear-cell eccrine carcinoma by Keasby and Hadley in 1954 (Cancer 1954;7:934-52) and rare malignant tumor. Several synonyms and related terms for nodular hidradenocarcinoma have appeared in the literature. They have potential for uncontrollable local recurrence, tend to metastasize, and often cause death. Most cases have been reported in the pathology literature with limited clinical information. We report a 27-year-old woman with nodular hidradenocarcinoma on the scalp. The management of rare cases is not well defined. In our case, she was only treated with a wide local excision, and no recurrence was observed 2 years after excision. Most authors have concluded that early wide surgical excision of the tumor is the treatment of choice. The efficiency of adjuvant therapy generally has not established.

  14. Nodular Gastritis and Pathologic Findings in Children and Young Adults with Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hong; Noh, Tae-Woong; Baek, Seoung-Yon

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the pathologic characteristics of nodular gastritis in children and young adults infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Materials and Methods A total of 328 patients were enrolled in this study, and the diagnosis of H. pylori infection was done with gastroduodenal endoscopy concomitant with a CLO™ test and pathologic analysis of the biopsy specimens. Diagnoses of normal, superficial gastritis, nodular gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease were made from the gastroduodenal endoscopic findings. The density of H. pylori organisms in the gastric mucosa was rated as normal, mild, moderate, or marked. The pathologic findings of nodular gastritis were based on the histopathologic findings of inflammation, immune activity, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. Each of these findings was scored as either normal (0), mild (1), moderate (2), or marked (3) according to the updated Sydney system and using visual analog scales. The gastritis score was the sum of the four histopathologic scores. Results In this study, nodular gastritis (50.6%) was most common, and mild density (51.5%) H. pylori infection was also common upon microscopic examination. Intestinal metaplasia occurred in 9 patients (2.7%). Conclusion Logistic regression revealed a significant increase in the incidence of nodular gastritis with gastritis score (p = 0.008), but not an association with sex, age, or H. pylori density. Gastritis score was the only significant factor influencing the occurrence of nodular gastritis. Intestinal metaplasia, which was originally thought to be a pre-malignant lesion, occurred in 2.7% of the patients with H. pylori infection. PMID:17461522

  15. Hashimoto thyroiditis: Part 1, sonographic analysis of the nodular form of Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lauren; Middleton, William D; Teefey, Sharlene A; Reading, Carl C; Langer, Jill E; Desser, Terry; Szabunio, Margaret M; Hildebolt, Charles F; Mandel, Susan J; Cronan, John J

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the sonographic appearance of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis. As part of an ongoing multiinstitutional study, patients who underwent ultrasound examination and fine-needle aspiration of one or more thyroid nodules were analyzed for multiple predetermined sonographic features. Patients completed a questionnaire, including information about thyroid function and thyroid medication. Patients (n = 61) with fine-needle aspiration cytologic results consistent with nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis (n = 64) were included in the study. The mean (+/- SD) diameter of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis was 15 +/- 7.33 mm. Nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis occurred as a solitary nodule in 36% (23/64) of cases and in the setting of five or more nodules in 23% (15/64) of cases. Fifty-five percent (35/64) of the cases of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis occurred within a sonographic background of diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis, and 45% (29/64) of cases occurred within normal thyroid parenchyma. The sonographic appearance was extremely variable. It was most commonly solid (69% [42/61] of cases) and hypoechoic (47% [27/58] of cases). Twenty percent (13/64) of nodules had calcifications (seven with nonspecific bright reflectors, four with macrocalcifications, and three eggshell), and 5% (3/64) of nodules had colloid. Twenty-seven percent (17/64) of nodules had a hypoechoic halo. The margins were well defined in 60% (36/60) and ill defined in 40% (24/60) of nodules. On Doppler analysis, 35% (22/62) of nodules were hypervascular, 42% (26/62) were isovascular or hypovascular, and 23% (14/62) were avascular. The sonographic features and vascularity of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis were extremely variable.

  16. If It Goes up, Must It Come Down? Chronic Stress and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Adrenocortical Axis in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Zhou, Eric S.

    2007-01-01

    The notion that chronic stress fosters disease by activating the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis is featured prominently in many theories. The research linking chronic stress and HPA function is contradictory, however, with some studies reporting increased activation, and others reporting the opposite. This meta-analysis showed…

  17. The Importance of a Proper Selection Area to be Biopsied in Nodular Leukoplakia: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio da Silva Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodular leukoplakia is a non-homogeneous type of oral leukoplakia presenting a white surface with verrucous, nodular, ulcerated or erythematous features with a greater risk of malignant transformation when compared to the homogeneous type. Common sites of involvement include lip commissures, buccal mucosa and soft palate. It is often associated with epithelial dysplasia or carcinoma and requires detailed microscopic assessment and regular follow-up. The importance of a proper selection of the area to be biopsied and the close teamwork between a dentist and oral pathologist is the basis of providing an accurate final diagnosis.

  18. Ultrasonography, angiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance in nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patriarche, C.; Pelletier, G.; Attali, P.; Ladouch-Badre, A.; Fabre, M.; Roche, A.; Etienne, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Ultrasonographic, computed tomographic, and angiographic abnormalities of nodular regenerative hyperplasia have been described in very few cases. We report here the case of a 50-year-old man with round, well-limited hypoechogenic lesions involving the two lobes of the liver, and hypervascular, poorly delineated angiographic lesions. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance of the liver were normal. Histological examination of large liver specimens provided by intraoperative biopsy allowed the diagnosis of nodular regenerative hyperplasia. Such a pseudo-tumoral ultrasonographic and angiographic pattern must be recognized in order to avoid diagnostic and therapeutic mistakes, especially since percutaneous liver biopsy usually fails to diagnose this disease. (author)

  19. Nodular hidradenocarcinoma with prominent squamous differentiation: case report and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H J; Kim, Y C; Cinn, Y W

    2000-09-01

    We report the case of a 24-year-old woman with nodular hidradenocarcinoma on the scalp. While histopathology of the tumor showed a circumscribed, lobulated intradermal mass with prominent squamous differentiation, the immunohistochemical study with antibodies to cytokeratins, CAM 5.2 and 19, epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, S-100 protein and p53 all demonstrated positivity. These findings confirmed that the tumor was of eccrine sweat gland origin and it was thought to be a nodular hidradenocarcinoma differentiating toward the eccrine duct and/or secretory portions. She was treated with a wide local excision and no recurrence was observed 18 months after excision.

  20. Long anterior zonules and pigment dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroi, Sayoko E; Lark, Kurt K; Sieving, Paul A; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Katz, Gregory J; Ritch, Robert

    2003-12-01

    To describe pigment dispersion associated with long anterior zonules. Multicenter observational case series. Fifteen patients, seven of whom were treated for glaucoma or ocular hypertension, were identified with long anterior zonules and pigment dispersion. Transmission electron microscopy was performed on one anterior capsule specimen. All patients had anterior zonules that inserted centrally on the lens capsule. Signs of pigment dispersion included corneal endothelial pigmentation, loss of the pupillary ruff, and variable trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Ultrasound biomicroscopy verified the lack of posterior iris insertion and concavity. There was no exfoliation material. Transmission electron microscopy showed zonular lamellae with adherent pigment granules, and no exfoliation material. Long anterior zonules inserted onto the central lens capsule may cause mechanical disruption of the pigment epithelium at the pupillary ruff and central iris leading to pigment dispersion.

  1. Pigmented villonodular synovitis: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler, R.; Rivera, E.; Perez Fontan, F.J.; Yebra, T.; Fuente, C. de la

    1994-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis is an un-common lesion of the synovium that typically involves diffusely the knee. We present the MR findings of two cases involving the knee,one of them diffuse and the other one localized in the supra patellar bursa. (Author)

  2. Key factors for UV curable pigment dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magny, B.; Pezron, E.; Ciceron, P.H.; Askienazy, A.

    1999-01-01

    UV oligomers with good pigment dispersion are needed to allow good formulation flexibility and possibility to apply thinner films. Pigment dispersion mainly depends on three phenomena: the wetting of agglomerates, the breakage of agglomerates by mechanical stress and the stabilization of smaller agglomerates and primary particles against flocculation. It has been shown that oligomers with low viscosity and low surface tension induce a good pigment wetting. Examples of monomers and oligomers for good pigment dispersion are given

  3. Swapping one red pigment for another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Betalains are bright red and yellow pigments, which are produced in only one order of plants, the Caryophyllales, and replace the more familiar anthocyanin pigments. The evolutionary origin of betalain production is a mystery, but a new study has identified the first regulator of betalain production and discovered a previously unknown link between the two pigment pathways.

  4. Seperation, identification and analysis of pigment (melanin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine strains among 180 Streptomyces isolates produce a diffusible dark brown pigment on both peptone-yeast extract agar and synthetic tyrosine-agar. They also show the positive reaction to Ltyrosine or L-dopa substrates. The pigment has been referred to be as merely as dark brown watersoluble pigment, as melanoid or ...

  5. Nodular Epithelial Hyperplasia after Photorefractive Keratectomy Followed by Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking

    OpenAIRE

    Bogoni, Ayla; Salerno, Liberdade Cezaro; Ghanem, Vinícius Coral; Ghanem, Ramon Coral

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a case of nodular epithelial hyperplasia and stromal alterations in a patient with keratoconus who was submitted to topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) followed by corneal collagen cross-linking. Debridement of the epithelial nodule was performed. After a 2-year followup, a new topography-guided PRK was indicated.

  6. Metastatic ocular melanoma to the liver exhibits infiltrative and nodular growth patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossniklaus, Hans E; Zhang, Qing; You, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    We examined liver specimens from 15 patients with uveal melanoma (UM) who had died of their disseminated disease. We found 2 distinct growth patterns of UM metastasis: infiltrative (n = 12) and nodular (n = 3). In the infiltrative pattern, individual UM cells with a CD133+ cancer stem cell-like p...

  7. The effects of corrosion conditions and cold work on the nodular corrosion of zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Gil Sung

    1992-02-01

    The nodular corrosion of Zircaloy-4 was investigated on the effects of corrosion conditions and cold work. Variation of steam pressures, heat-up environments and prefilms were considered and cold work effects were also studied. The corrosion rate of Zircaloy-4 was dependent on pressure between 1 and 100 atm and it followed the cubic law as W=16.85 x P 0.31 for plate specimens and W=12.69 x P 0.27 for tube specimens, where W is weight gain (mg/dm 2 ) and P is the steam pressure (atm). The environment variation in autoclave during heat-up period did not affect the early stage of nodular corrosion. The prefilm, which was formed at 500 .deg. C under 1 atm steam for 4 hours, restrained the formation of the initial small nodules. The oxide film formed under 1 atm steam showed no difference of electrical resistivity from the oxides formed under 100 atm steam pressure. Cold work specimens showed the higher resistivity against nodular corrosion than as-received specimens. The corrosion resistance arising from cold work seems to be due to the texture changes by the cold work. The results showed that cold work can affect the later stage of uniform corrosion and the early stage of nodular corrosion, namely, the nodule initiation stage

  8. Intracranial evaluation and laser ablation for epilepsy with periventricular nodular heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen A; Kalamangalam, Giridhar P; Tandon, Nitin

    2016-10-01

    Surgical treatment of focal epilepsy in the presence of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH) poses a challenge, as the relative roles of the nodular tissue and the overlying cortex in the generation of seizures can be complex and variable. Here, we review the literature on chronic invasive EEG recordings in humans with this substrate and present two illustrative cases from our practice. We found that while inter-ictal spiking from nodules is common, clinical seizures rarely arise solely from nodular tissue. More typically, ictal onset is simultaneous with overlying neocortex or mesial temporal structures. Surgical outcome is more favorable in cases with unilateral (as opposed to bilateral) PVNH, and when a substantial or complete ablation of PVNH is performed. In rare cases, nodular ablation alone may be sufficient, as may be completed by MRI-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy. The mechanism(s) by which PNVH interacts with overlying cortex are not fully understood, but we suggest that PVNH either orchestrates or amplifies local network epileptogenicity. At present, invasive recordings with penetrating depth electrodes are required prior to surgical therapy, as illustrated in our cases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. A novel Xp22.11 deletion causing a syndrome of craniosynostosis and periventricular nodular heterotopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogelenberg, M. van; Lerone, M.; Toni, T. De; Divizia, M.T.; Brouwer, A.P. de; Veltman, J.A.; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van; Robertson, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a follow-up evaluation of a male with a phenotype including craniosynostosis, periventricular nodular heterotopia, and neurodevelopmental delay. He was initially assigned a clinical diagnosis of Fontaine-Farriaux syndrome (FFS) as an infant although now, with improved delineation of

  10. Nestin is expressed in HMB-45 negative melanoma cells in dermal parts of nodular melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Maho; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Tanabe, Kenichi; Maejima, Hideki; Takasu, Hiroshi; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2010-06-01

    Nestin, a marker of neural stem cells, is expressed in the stem cells of the mouse hair follicle. The nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells can differentiate into neurons, glia, keratocytes, smooth muscle cells and melanocytes in vitro. These pluripotent nestin-expressing stem cells are keratin 15 (K15)-negative, suggesting that they are in a relatively undifferentiated state. Recent studies suggest that the epithelial stem cells are important in tumorigenesis, and nestin expression is thought to be important in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we examined the expression of the hair follicle and neural stem cell marker nestin, as well as S-100 and HMB-45, in melanoma. Nestin immunoreactivity was observed in the HMB-45-negative melanoma cells in all five cases of amelanotic nodular melanomas. Moreover, nestin immunoreactivity was observed in the dermal parts in seven of 10 cases of melanotic nodular melanomas. Especially, nestin immunoreactivity was observed in the HMB-45-negative melanoma cells in the dermal parts of all 10 cases of HMB-45-negative amelanotic and melanotic nodular melanomas. On the other hand, nestin expression was negative in 10 of 12 cases of superficial spreading melanoma. These results suggest that nestin is an important marker of HMB-45-negative melanoma cells in the dermal parts of patients with nodular melanoma.

  11. Regenerative nodular hyperplasia, portal vein thrombosis and primary myelofibrosis: an unusual triple association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sández Montagut, Víctor Manuel; Giráldez Gallego, Álvaro; Ontanilla Clavijo, Guilermo

    2018-03-01

    We report a case of a regenerative nodular hyperplasia with a portal vein cavernomatosis with a subsequent progression to symptomatic, occlusive thrombosis of the superior mesenteric vein. A thorough investigation resulted in a final diagnosis of primary myelofibrosis associated with the V617F mutation in the JAK2 gene.

  12. Sonographic Findings of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Associated Nodular Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Bong Joo; Park, Young Ha; Jung, So Lyung; Chung, Soo Kyo [Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and associated nodular lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic findings of twenty patients who had surgically confirmed Hashimoto's thyroiditis between 1 March 2005, and 26 November 2005. In these patients, we reviewed the sonographic findings of the associated focal nodular lesion. Assessed were size, homogeneity, and echogenicity of the diseased thyroid gland and shape, echogenicity, margin, rim, microcal cification of the associated nodules. Without knowledge of the pathological diagnosis of the nodular lesions, based on the sonographic criteria, the nodules were classified as either malignant or benign. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates a variety of sonographic findings for size, homogeneity, and echogenicity. Among the nineteen nodules that were sonographically diagnosed and pathologically confirmed, nine papillary cancers, seven nodular hyperplasias, two Huthle cell adenomas, and one focal hyalinized fibrosing nodule were included. All of the nine papillary cancers showed more than one malignant finding such as marked hypoechogenicity, an irregular shape, a taller than wide shape, a spiculated margin, or microcalcifications that were classified as malignant nodulea, and all of the ten benign nodules showed no malignant findings. Circumscribed isoechoic, hyperechoic, or hypoechoic nodules without calcification were classified as bending nodules. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates various findings on a sonographic examination,and associated various benign and malignant lesions. Moreover, a sonographic examination is helpful to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis as in the normal thyroid

  13. Cervical nodular fasciitis in a 10-year-old girl: a case report of a rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, as clinical and morphologic characteristics are similar to those of malignant tumours, this entity is often misdiagnosed, with a few cases described in the literature. We present a case of nodular fasciitis involving the retropharynx and hypopharynx of a 10-year-old girl and discuss the importance of considering this rare ...

  14. Synthesis of nanoparticles of vanadium carbide in the ferrite of nodular cast iron

    CERN Document Server

    Fras, E; Guzik, E; Lopez, H

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis method of nanoparticles of vanadium carbide in nodular cast iron is presented. After introduction of this method, the nanoparticles with 10-70 nm of diameter was obtained in the ferrite. The diffraction investigations confirmed that these particles are vanadium carbides of type V/sub 3/C/sub 4/.

  15. Part 1: MRI features of focal nodular hyperplasia with an emphasis on hepatobiliary contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, Tom; Seale, Melanie; Yap, Yap

    2014-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is the second most common benign liver tumour and typically do not require any treatment. An accurate non-invasive diagnosis is therefore vital to avoid unnecessary intervention and to reassure patients. This article discusses the demographics and pathology of FNH and reviews the appearance of FNH at MRI using liver-specific contrast agents.

  16. Resveratrol inhibits steroidogenesis in human fetal adrenocortical cells at the end of first trimester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savchuk, Iuliia; Morvan, Marie-Line; Søeborg, Tue

    2017-01-01

    SCOPE: Resveratrol has a diverse array of healthful effects on metabolic parameters in different experimental paradigms but has also potential to inhibit steroidogenesis in rodent adrenals. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of resveratrol on human fetal adrenal...... steroidogenesis at gestational weeks (GW) 9-12. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adrenals from aborted fetuses (GW10-12) were used to prepare primary cultures of human fetal adrenocortical cells (HFAC). HFAC were treated in the presence or absence of ACTH (10 ng/ml) with or without resveratrol (10 μM) for 24 hours....... The production of steroids by HFAC was analyzed by gas and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem/mass spectrometry. The expression of steroidogenic enzymes at GW 9-12 was quantified by automated Western blotting. We observed that resveratrol significantly suppressed synthesis of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA...

  17. Differentiating pheochromocytoma from lipid-poor adrenocortical adenoma by CT texture analysis: feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gu-Mu-Yang; Shi, Bing; Sun, Hao; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xue, Hua-Dan

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using CT texture analysis (CTTA) to differentiate pheochromocytoma from lipid-poor adrenocortical adenoma (lp-ACA). Ninety-eight pheochromocytomas and 66 lp-ACAs were included in this retrospective study. CTTA was performed on unenhanced and enhanced images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated for texture parameters that were significantly different for the objective. Diagnostic accuracies were evaluated using the cutoff values of texture parameters with the highest AUCs. Compared to lp-ACAs, pheochromocytomas had significantly higher mean gray-level intensity (Mean), entropy, and mean of positive pixels (MPP), but lower skewness and kurtosis on unenhanced images (P feasible to use CTTA to differentiate pheochromocytoma from lp-ACA.

  18. Adrenocortical carcinoma presenting as varicocele and renal vein thrombosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horne John M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Adrenocortical carcinomas are rare aggressive tumors. Their annual incidence is approximately one to two per million among the population of the United States of America. Patients with active endocrine tumors often present with Cushing's syndrome accompanied by virilizing features. Conversely, patients with non-functioning tumors may present with symptoms related to a mass-occupying lesion, such as abdominal pain and flank pain. Although varicoceles and acute kidney injuries are common problems in medicine, they are uncommon presentations of these rare tumors and easy to miss. We report a case of a large adrenocortical carcinoma that presented as testicular pain, varicocele, and acute kidney injury secondary to renal vein thrombosis. Case presentation A 54-year-old Caucasian man with a left-sided varicocele presented to our emergency department with lower abdominal pain and a decrease in urination. Four months previously, he had noticed pain and swelling in his left groin and had been diagnosed with left-sided varicocele. For one week, he began developing left-sided abdominal pain and decreased urination frequency, so he came to our emergency department for evaluation. His physical examination revealed a hard mass occupying the entire left side of his abdomen, crossing the midline, and extending to the pelvic brim. His blood tests showed acute kidney injury and mild anemia. Computed tomography of his abdomen showed a large retroperitoneal mass on the left side, displacing the left kidney inferiorly and the spleen superiorly with thoracic epidural compression. Thrombus was also identified in his left renal vein and inferior vena cava. Computed tomography of his chest showed bilateral pulmonary nodules. A computed tomography-guided abdominal mass biopsy was performed, and the diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma was made on the basis of pathology and immunohistochemistry. His hormonal evaluations were normal. His kidney

  19. A mathematical model of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical system and its stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savic, Danka; Jelic, Smiljana

    2005-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis generates oscillations, because a regular daily rhythm of its component hormones is observed. We offer another plausible explanation of the origin of its circadian oscillations: HPA just responds to an independent external pacemaker (from the suprachiazmatic nucleus, SCN). Five versions (with and without time delay) of a qualitative non-phenomenological mathematical model of the HPA axis as a feedback mechanism are constructed wherein all the terms in the equations are introduced according to the rules of chemical kinetics, i.e. are physicochemically interpretable. The dynamics of the HPA axis model was examined using linear stability analysis. The results show stability of this system, meaning that it does not generate diurnal oscillations. Computer simulation based on this model shows oscillations that are system's response to an external pulsing activator (SCN) implying that the observed time-periodic pattern does not have to be an intrinsic property of the HPA axis

  20. Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction in Euthyroid Nodular Goiter Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornelius, Edy; Chiou, Jeng-Yuan; Yang, Yi-Sun; Lo, Shih-Chang; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Lai, Yung-Rung; Huang, Chien-Ning

    2016-08-01

    The risks of thyroid dysfunction after iodinated contrast media exposure in patients with euthyroid nodular goiter are largely unknown. This observational, retrospective cohort study included a random selection of one million people in Taiwan. All patients with iodinated contrast media exposure during this study period were selected. Patients with euthyroid nodular goiter were identified as cases, while patients without thyroid nodule were selected as controls. We followed these patients until the first event of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism after iodinated contrast media exposure. A total of 334 cases and 2672 matched controls were selected in this study. The mean age of cases and controls were 58.6 and 58.4 years old, and mean follow-up durations were 2.1 and 2 years respectively. After adjustment, patients with euthyroid nodular goiter had a higher risk of thyroid dysfunction (hazard ratio 5.43, [confidence interval (CI) 3.01-9.80]) compared with controls after iodinated contrast media exposure. In the subgroup analysis, the risks of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in cases compared with controls were 5.77 [CI 2.64-12.62] and 4.95 [CI 2.15-11.40] respectively. Half of the euthyroid nodular goiter cases developed thyroid dysfunction within one year after iodinated contrast media exposure. Interestingly, all thyroid-related comorbidities and drug prescriptions did not increase the risk of thyroid dysfunction. Presence of euthyroid nodular goiter was associated with higher risk of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism after iodinated contrast media exposure.

  1. Skin pigmentation kinetics after UVB exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbak, M.H.; Philipsen, P.A.; Wiegell, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    There have been few previous studies of the kinetics of pigmentation following ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure, and these have included only fair-skinned persons. The current study investigated pigmentation increase to steady state and fading in 12 Scandinavians and 12 Indians/Pakistanis. Over...... a period of 3 weeks the subjects were UV-irradiated 6 times on the right side of the back and 12 times on the left side using a Solar Simulator and narrowband UVB with equal sub-Minimal Melanogenesis Doses (individually predetermined). Pigmentation was measured from skin remittance at 555 urn and 660 nm...... (allowing correction for erythema). The absolute pigmentation increase was independent of pre-exposure pigmentation, therefore the percentage pigmentation increase was higher in fair-skinned volunteers. The UV dose to minimal pigmentation was higher in darker-skinned persons for single and multiple UV...

  2. Biosynthesis of Various Steroids in vitro by Isolated Adrenal Cells in Primary Aldosteronism, Cushing's Syndrome, and Adrenogenital Syndrome due to Adrenocortical Adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    MIZUNO, SHIGERU; FUNAHASHI, HIROOMI

    1981-01-01

    To a further understanding of the role of steroid hormones in adrenal disorders, we have prepared free cell system of adrenal cells, using adrenal tissues that had been removed by operation from (i) cases of Cushing's syndrome due to adrenocortical adenoma or adrenocortical hyperplasia, (ii) a case of primary aldosteronism, and (iii) a patient with virilizing adrenal tumor. Twelve important steroid hormones were measured, such as pregnenolone, cortisol and aldosterone, which were produced by ...

  3. Adrenal incidentalomas showing unilateral concordant visualization by adrenocortical scintigraphy. Comparison with adenomas in Cushing's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Atsushi; Nakajo, Masayuki; Tsuchimochi, Shinsaku; Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Umanodan, Tomokazu

    2000-01-01

    An adrenocortical adenoma causing Cushing's syndrome (Cushing's adenoma) produces a unilateral concordant visualization (UCV) imaging pattern in which the adenoma is only visualized on radioiodocholesterol adrenocortical scintigraphy. But because this imaging pattern is also noted in some patients with adrenal incidentalomas, we examined whether the UCV-incidentaloma was essentially identical with Cushing's adenoma and would develop Cushing's syndrome. The subjects were 9 patients with UCV-incidentalomas (mean size, 30 mm; range, 20-45 mm) and 6 patients with Cushing's adenomas (mean size, 28 mm; range, 25-35 mm). Endocrinological evaluations showed several abnormalities including blunted diurnal rhythm of plasma cortisol within the normal range, low plasma ACTH and/or high 24-hr urinary 17-OHCS levels in 8 of 9 patients with UCV-incidentalomas, but these abnormalities did not meet the diagnostic criteria of Cushing's syndrome. Adrenal uptake of the tracer in the patients with UCV-incidentalomas was not statistically different from that in the patients with Cushing's adenomas and had no relationship with hormonal values in either patient group. Tumor size on CT correlated with the levels of 24-hr urinary 17-OHCS (r=0.75, p=0.02) and plasma cortisol at 7:00 (r=0.82, p=0.007) in the patients with UCV-incidentalomas, but not in the patients with Cushing's adenomas. Although 3 UCV-incidentalomas increased slightly in size, none of 9 patients with UCV-incidentalomas has developed Cushing's syndrome for 4 to 52 months. These results suggest that the UCV-incidentaloma may be essentially different from the Cushing's adenoma and unlikely to develop Cushing's syndrome. (author)

  4. Characterization and growth mechanism of a peculiar nodular structure in shale: Comprehensive study over the Sitakund anticline, Bengal basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazi, M. Y.; Kabir, S. M. M.; Imam, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Nodular shales commonly occur in comparatively older and silty shales near the axial (proximity to core) region of Sitakund Anticline (Study area), Sitapahar Anticline, Patharia Structure, Sylhet Anticline and Mirinja Anticline as observed. Stratigraphically, they are pronounced in the Surma group of Neogene succession. They are less abundant in limb portion. In many outcrop, they are found in the incompetent bed with the obliterated bedding bounded by well bedded competent beds. Their occurrence are sporadic rather than continuous along and across the strike of the bed. At some places huge number cluster of small and big nodular shales occur while in the other places, they occur as isolated mass in the highly disturbed or obliterated beds. The Surma group is the prime startigraphic unit in Bangladesh with major economic and academic importance. Yet there is a lack of comprehensive characterization of mudrocks of Surma group. This has prompted the present research to be undertaken. An initial field based study has been followed by detail textural, mineralogical, petrological and geochemical by using upscale laboratory techniques that include Thin Section Microscopy, Laser Particle Size Analyses, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-ray Florescence (XRF). From laser diffraction analysis, it is evident that nodular shales are silty in nature containing approximately 60% silt (Mainly quartz). XRD pattern shows that Nodular shale contains clay minerals, predominantly illite, Kaolinite, Chlorite and expandable mixed layer clay mineral. Detail geochemical analysis of some nodular shale samples shows that there are no significant variation from other samples in major and trace element concentration. Microcrack's within the quartz grains were observed in nodular shale. Projection of 15 nodular shale long axes in outcrop shows their orientation in NNW-SSE that is parallel to the fold axis. The study suggests a new name of conventionally called

  5. Mucosal surface nodularity on upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) : prospective analysis of its primary cause and prevalence of gastric malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Youn; Kim, Sun Mi; Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Ha, Hyun Kwon [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    Mucosal surface nodularity was defined as present at UGIS when multiple nodular defects larger than 5 mm were scattered in the gastric mucosa in an area greater than 5 x 5 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the primary causes of this radiographic finding and to assess the incidence of gastric malignancy in these patients. During a one-year period were prospectively collected among patients who underwent UGIS, data for 51 [aged 30-78 (mean, 51) years] above who met the criteria of mucosal surface nodularity. Whether or not this was present was decided by two radiologists who in reaching a consensus excluded the possibility of erosive gastritis, indicated by central barium collection in the nodular defects. The primary causes of mucosal nodularity and associated gastric pathologies were determined by the histopathological results obtained from the specimens after surgery (n=18) or endoscopic biopsy (n=33). Pathological examinations revealed that the primary causes of the mucosal nodularity in these 51 patients were intestinal metaplasia in 28 (54.9%), MALT lymphoma in seven (13.7%), early gastric cancer in six (11.8%), chronic gastritis in five (9.8%), low grade dysplasia in four (7.8%), and gastritis cystica profunda in one (2%). Gastric malignancy was present either in or outside the area of mucosal nodularity in 34 (66/7%) of the 51 (27 carcinomas and 7 MALT lymphomas). No different patterns of mucosal surface nodularity were noted between the groups of each disease entity. Mucosal surface nodularity is observed at UGIS in various gastric pathologies. Because of the high incidence of gastric malignancy in these patients, close follow-up or gastrofiberscopic biopsy is mandatory.

  6. Mucosal surface nodularity on upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) : prospective analysis of its primary cause and prevalence of gastric malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Youn; Kim, Sun Mi; Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2001-01-01

    Mucosal surface nodularity was defined as present at UGIS when multiple nodular defects larger than 5 mm were scattered in the gastric mucosa in an area greater than 5 x 5 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the primary causes of this radiographic finding and to assess the incidence of gastric malignancy in these patients. During a one-year period were prospectively collected among patients who underwent UGIS, data for 51 [aged 30-78 (mean, 51) years] above who met the criteria of mucosal surface nodularity. Whether or not this was present was decided by two radiologists who in reaching a consensus excluded the possibility of erosive gastritis, indicated by central barium collection in the nodular defects. The primary causes of mucosal nodularity and associated gastric pathologies were determined by the histopathological results obtained from the specimens after surgery (n=18) or endoscopic biopsy (n=33). Pathological examinations revealed that the primary causes of the mucosal nodularity in these 51 patients were intestinal metaplasia in 28 (54.9%), MALT lymphoma in seven (13.7%), early gastric cancer in six (11.8%), chronic gastritis in five (9.8%), low grade dysplasia in four (7.8%), and gastritis cystica profunda in one (2%). Gastric malignancy was present either in or outside the area of mucosal nodularity in 34 (66/7%) of the 51 (27 carcinomas and 7 MALT lymphomas). No different patterns of mucosal surface nodularity were noted between the groups of each disease entity. Mucosal surface nodularity is observed at UGIS in various gastric pathologies. Because of the high incidence of gastric malignancy in these patients, close follow-up or gastrofiberscopic biopsy is mandatory

  7. Ecological-friendly pigments from fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Nelson; Teixeira, Maria F S; De Conti, Roseli; Esposito, Elisa

    2002-01-01

    The dyestuff industry is suffering from the increases in costs of feedstock and energy for dye synthesis, and they are under increasing pressure to minimize the damage to the environment. The industries are continuously looking for cheaper, more environmentally friendly routes to existing dyes. The aim of this minireview is to discuss the most important advances in the fungal pigment area and its interest in biotechnological applications. Characteristic pigments are produced by a wide variety of fungi and the chemical composition of natural dyes are described. These pigments exhibit several biological activities besides cytotoxicity. The synthetic pigments authorized by the EC and in USA and the natural pigments available in the world market are discussed. The obstacle to the exploitation of new natural pigments sources is the food legislation, requesting costly toxicological research, manufacturing costs, and acceptance by consumers. The dislike for novel ingredients is likely to be the biggest impediment for expansion of the pigment list in the near future. If the necessary toxicological testing and the comparison with accepted pigments are made, the fungal pigments, could be acceptable by the current consumer. The potentiality of pigment production in Brazil is possible due to tremendous Amazonian region biodiversity.

  8. Cistadenocarcinoma renal e dermatofibrose nodular em cães pastor alemão: 4 casos Renal cystadenocarcinoma and nodular dermatofibrosis in german shepherd dogs: 4 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Maria Langohr

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available São descritos quatro casos da síndrome cistadenocarcinoma renal-dermatofibrose nodular em Pastor Alemão. Todos eram cães machos, com idades entre 6 e 10 anos. Os aspectos clínicos incluíam hematúria e retenção urinária, emagrecimento progressivo, anorexia, vômito, polidipsia e dificuldade respiratória. Em um animal, foram observados múltiplos nódulos recidivantes na pele. Três cães tiveram morte espontânea e um foi submetido à eutanásia. Os principais achados de necropsia incluíram nódulos multifocais ou coalescentes na pele e múltiplos nódulos, muitas vezes císticos, em ambos os rins. Na avaliação histológica, observaram-se dermatofibrose nodular na pele e cistos, hiperplasia, displasia e neoplasia de células epiteliais dos túbulos renais. As neoplasias foram classificadas como cistadenoma em um dos casos e como cistadenocarcinoma nos outros três. Metástases foram observadas em dois casos: no fígado, no baço e no pulmão em um cão e no linfonodo renal em outro.Renal cystadenocarcinoma-nodular dermatofibrosis syndrome of German shepherd are described in four 6 to 10-year-old male dogs. Clinical findings included hematuria and urinary retention, progressive weight loss, polydipsia, anorexia, vomiting, and respiratory distress. Several recurrent skin nodules were observed in one of the dogs. Three dogs died spontaneously and one was euthanatized. Main gross findings included multifocal to coalescent skin nodules and multiple nodules, mostly cystic, in both kidneys. Microscopically there was nodular dermatofibrosis in the skin and renal cysts, dysplastic, hyperplastic and neoplastic changes of the renal tubular epithelium. The neoplasms were classified as cystadenoma in one case and cystadenocarcinoma in the other three. There were metastases in the liver, spleen and lung of one dog and in the renal lymph node in another one.

  9. Lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency disease; Hiperplasia nodular linfoide en un paciente con inmunodeficiencia combinada grave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Alegre, M. L.; Casanova, A.; Delgado, J.; Relanzon, S. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon. Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    We describe a case of lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in a woman with severe combined immunodeficiency disease. the patient complained of constipation and episodes of abdominal pain, and examination revealed the presence of a large abdominal mass. The diagnosis was suspected on the basis of the initial radiological studies, but intestinal biopsy was necessary to rule out lymphomatous involvement. We point out the radiological features of this entity which, despite the fact that it may be a chance finding of no pathological significance, requires special attention, especially in immuno deficient individuals. (Author) 10 refs.

  10. Budd-Chiari syndrome and secondary nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver. Case report with special reference to diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutze, A.; Rueckert, R.; Rudolph, B.; Paris, S.; Podrabski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Nodular regenerative hyperplasia is a benign epithelial proliferation of the liver with unknown etiology. We observed a female patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome and secondary nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver over a period of five years. Patient history, diagnostic imaging (sonography, CT, MR imaging, angiography), and clinical course are demonstrated along with results of macroscopic and microscopic studies of explanted liver prior to liver transplantation. The patient presented with various predisposing factors in combination that favour the development of nodular regenerative hyperplasia. (orig.) [de

  11. Rosiglitazone induces autophagy in H295R and cell cycle deregulation in SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerquetti, Lidia; Sampaoli, Camilla; Amendola, Donatella; Bucci, Barbara; Masuelli, Laura; Marchese, Rodolfo; Misiti, Silvia; De Venanzi, Agostino; Poggi, Maurizio; Toscano, Vincenzo; Stigliano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones, specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) ligands, used in type-2 diabetes therapy, show favourable effects in several cancer cells. In this study we demonstrate that the growth of H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells is inhibited by rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinediones member, even though the mechanisms underlying this effect appeared to be cell-specific. Treatment with GW9662, a selective PPAR-γ-inhibitor, showed that rosiglitazone acts through both PPAR-γ-dependent and -independent mechanisms in H295R, while in SW13 cells the effect seems to be independent of PPAR-γ. H295R cells treated with rosiglitazone undergo an autophagic process, leading to morphological changes detectable by electron microscopy and an increased expression of specific proteins such as AMPKα and beclin-1. The autophagy seems to be independent of PPAR-γ activation and could be related to an increase in oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen species production with the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, triggered by rosiglitazone. In SW13 cells, flow cytometry analysis showed an arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a decrease of cyclin E and cdk2 activity, following the administration of rosiglitazone. Our data show the potential role of rosiglitazone in the therapeutic approach to adrenocortical carcinoma and indicate the molecular mechanisms at the base of its antiproliferative effects, which appear to be manifold and cell-specific in adrenocortical cancer lines.

  12. Rosiglitazone induces autophagy in H295R and cell cycle deregulation in SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerquetti, Lidia; Sampaoli, Camilla [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); Amendola, Donatella; Bucci, Barbara [Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); Masuelli, Laura [Department of Experimental Medicine, ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Marchese, Rodolfo [Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); Misiti, Silvia [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); De Venanzi, Agostino; Poggi, Maurizio; Toscano, Vincenzo [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Stigliano, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.stigliano@uniroma1.it [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy)

    2011-06-10

    Thiazolidinediones, specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) ligands, used in type-2 diabetes therapy, show favourable effects in several cancer cells. In this study we demonstrate that the growth of H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells is inhibited by rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinediones member, even though the mechanisms underlying this effect appeared to be cell-specific. Treatment with GW9662, a selective PPAR-{gamma}-inhibitor, showed that rosiglitazone acts through both PPAR-{gamma}-dependent and -independent mechanisms in H295R, while in SW13 cells the effect seems to be independent of PPAR-{gamma}. H295R cells treated with rosiglitazone undergo an autophagic process, leading to morphological changes detectable by electron microscopy and an increased expression of specific proteins such as AMPK{alpha} and beclin-1. The autophagy seems to be independent of PPAR-{gamma} activation and could be related to an increase in oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen species production with the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, triggered by rosiglitazone. In SW13 cells, flow cytometry analysis showed an arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a decrease of cyclin E and cdk2 activity, following the administration of rosiglitazone. Our data show the potential role of rosiglitazone in the therapeutic approach to adrenocortical carcinoma and indicate the molecular mechanisms at the base of its antiproliferative effects, which appear to be manifold and cell-specific in adrenocortical cancer lines.

  13. Production of Monascus-like azaphilone Pigment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of biotechnological production of polyketide based colorants from filamentous fungi, in particular a method for preparing a biomass comprising a Monascus-like pigment composition from a nontoxigenic and non-pathogenic fungal source. The present invention...... further relates to use of the Monascus-like pigment composition as a colouring agent for food items and/or non-food items, and a cosmetic composition comprising the Monascus-like pigment composition....

  14. Pigmented xerodermoid - Report of three cases

    OpenAIRE

    Das Jayanta Kumar; Gangopadhyay Asok Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Pigmented xerodermoid, a rare genodermatosis, presents with clinical features and pathology similar to xeroderma pigmentosum, but at a later age. DNA repair replication is normal, but there is total depression of DNA synthesis after exposure to UV radiation. Two siblings in their teens and a man in his thirties with features of pigmented xerodermoid, e.g. photophobia, freckle-like lesions, keratoses, dryness of skin, and hypo- and hyper-pigmentation, are described. Although classically the on...

  15. PRODUCTION OF MONASCUS-LIKE AZAPHILONE PIGMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of biotechnological production of polyketide based colorants from filamentous fungi, in particular a method for preparing a biomass comprising a Monascus-like pigment composition from a nontoxigenic and non-pathogenic fungal source. The present invention...... further relates to use of the Monascus-like pigment composition as a colouring agent for food items and/or non-food items, and a cosmetic composition comprising the Monascus-like pigment composition....

  16. Dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule associated with the pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Danny Y; Volpicelli, Mark; Singh, Kuldev

    2003-12-01

    To report an unusual case of pigment dispersion syndrome associated with unilateral dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule. Case report. A 59-year-old male with bilateral pigment dispersion syndrome presented with progressive decrease in visual acuity in the left eye over the past 10 to 20 years. Clinical examination revealed the typical findings of pigment dispersion syndrome including the presence of bilateral Krunkenberg spindles, iris transillumination defects, and heavy trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Of note, there was remarkably dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule in the eye with decreased visual acuity. Pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule may be a rare finding associated with pigment dispersion syndrome. Such a finding suggests that there may be aqueous flow into the retrolental space in some patients with this condition. The optimal treatment of this unusual condition remains undetermined.

  17. Electron crystallography of organic pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyce, G.

    1997-10-01

    The principle aim of this thesis is the detailing of the development and subsequent use of electron crystallographic techniques which employ the maximum entropy approach. An account is given of the electron microscope as a crystallographic instrument, along with the necessary theory involved. Also, an overview of the development of electron crystallography, as a whole, is given. This progresses to a description of the maximum entropy methodology and how use can be made of electron diffraction data in ab initio phasing techniques. Details are also given of the utilisation of image derived phases in the determination of structural information. Extensive examples are given of the use of the maximum entropy program MICE, as applied to a variety of structural problems. A particular area of interest covered by this thesis is regarding the solid state structure of organic pigments. A detailed structure review of both β-naphthol and acetoacetanilide pigments was undertaken. Information gained from this review was used as a starting point for the attempted structural elucidation of a related pigment, Barium Lake Red C. Details are given of the synthesis, electron microscope studies and subsequent ab initio phasing procedures applied in the determination of structural information on Barium Lake Red C. The final sections of this thesis detail electron crystallographic analyses of three quite different structures. Common to all was the use of maximum entropy methods, both for ab initio phasing and use of image derived phases. Overall, it is shown that electron crystallographic structure analyses using maximum entropy methods are successful using electron diffraction data and do provide distinct structural information even when significant perturbations to the data exist. (author)

  18. Low-Dose Involved-Field Radiotherapy as Alternative Treatment of Nodular Lymphocyte Predominance Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, Rick L.M.; Girinsky, Theo; Aleman, Berthe; Henry-Amar, Michel; Boer, Jan-Paul de; Jong, Daphne de

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's lymphoma is a very rare disease, characterized by an indolent clinical course, with sometimes very late relapses occurring in a minority of all patients. Considerable discussion is ongoing on the treatment of primary and relapsed disease. Patients and Methods: A group of 9 patients were irradiated to a dose of 4 Gy on involved areas only. Results: After a median follow-up of 37 months (range, 6-66), the overall response rate was 89%. Six patients had complete remission (67%), two had partial remission (22%), and one had stable disease (11%). Of 8 patients, 5 developed local relapse 9-57 months after radiotherapy. No toxicity was noted. Conclusion: In nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's lymphoma, low-dose radiotherapy provided excellent response rates and lasting remissions without significant toxicity.

  19. Long-term results in patients with low-grade nodular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aviles, A.; Diaz-Maqueo, J.C.; Sanchez, E.; Cortes, H.D.; Ayala, J.R.; Oncology Hospital, Mexico City; National Medical Center, Mexico City

    1991-01-01

    One hundred and eighteen patients with nodular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were randomized to receive either chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (total nodal or involved field irradiation). Although the complete remission rate was similar in the three programs (about 90%) the relapse-free survival rate (RFS) among patients with complete remission was significantly higher in the groups treated with chemotherapy plus radiotherapy than among those treated with chemotherapy alone. The 7-year RFS in the groups treated with total node irradiation and involved field irradiation was 71% and 66% respectively, compared to only 33% in the group treated by chemotherapy alone (p<0.01). The results suggest that combined chemoradiotherapy may achieve complete long-term remission and potential cure in more than 60% of patients with nodular low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Toxicity was moderate in all three arms. Bulky disease and a high level of lactic dehydrogenase were associated with a poor prognosis. (orig.)

  20. Prognostic factors in nodular lymphomas: a multivariate analysis based on the Princess Margaret Hospital experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gospodarowicz, M.K.; Bush, R.S.; Brown, T.C.; Chua, T.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 1,394 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated at the Princess Margaret Hospital between January 1, 1967 and December 31, 1978. Overall actuarial survival of 525 patients with nodular lymphomas was 40% at 12 years; survival of patients with localized (Stage I and III) nodular lymphomas treated with radical radiation therapy was 58%. Significant prognostic factors defined by multivariate analysis included patient's age, stage, histology, tumor bulk, and presence of B symptoms. By combining prognostic factors, distinct prognostic groups have been identified within the overall population. Patients with Stage I and II disease, small or medium bulk, less than 70 years of age achieved 92% 12 year actuarial survival and a 73% relapse-free rate in 12 years of follow-up. These patients represent groups highly curable with irradiation

  1. Effects of alloying elements on nodular and uniform corrosion resistance of zirconium-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Katsuhiro

    1992-01-01

    The effects of alloying and impurity elements (tin, iron, chromium, nickel, niobium, tantalum, oxygen, aluminum, carbon, nitrogen, silicon, and phosphorus) on the nodular and uniform corrosion resistance of zirconium-based alloys were studied. The improving effect of iron, nickel and niobium in nodular corrosion resistance were observed. The uniform corrosion resistance was also improved by nickel, niobium and tantalum. The effects of impurity elements, nitrogen, aluminum and phosphorus were negligibly small but increasing the silicon content seemed to improve slightly the uniform corrosion resistance. Hydrogen pick-up fraction were not changed by alloying and impurity elements except nickel. Nickel addition increased remarkably hydrogen pick-up fraction. Although the composition of secondary precipitates changed with contents of alloying elements, the correlation of composition of secondary precipitates to corrosion resistance was not observed. (author)

  2. [Characteristics of thyroid carcinoma in Grave's disease Hashimoto's thyroiditis and nodular goiter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, A; Paunović, I

    2003-01-01

    The biology of thyroid cancer represents a spectrum of behavior ranging from well-differentiated lesions with an excellent prognosis to anaplastic carcinoma, which is almost fatal. For this reason, it is important that clinicians have methods at their disposal to asses the characteristics of patient's thyroid malignancy. In this work we discuss the behavior of differentiated thyroid cancer in associated diseases of thyroid as: Graves' disease, chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis--Hashimoto and nodular goiter. This is retrospectively reviewing of 50 patients treated for differentiated thyroid carcinoma at Department of surgery, Clinical Centre of Montenegro in Podgorica from 1998 until 2003. We evaluated occurrence, as well as the role of this diseases in patients with thyroid cancer. We found a more favorable course of thyroid cancer in the presence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and nodular goiter, a contrary Graves' disease. In associated diseases of thyroid, a significantly greater proportion of patients with thyroid cancer, have modular goiter.

  3. Diffuse Muscular Pain, Skin Tightening, and Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia Revealing Paraneoplastic Amyopathic Dermatomyositis due to Testicular Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Norrenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic dermatomyositis (DM associated with testicular cancer is extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with skin tightening, polymyalgia, hypereosinophilia, and nodular regenerative hyperplasia revealing seminoma and associated paraneoplastic DM.

  4. The Rare Benign Lesion That Mimics a Malignant Tumor in Breast Parenchyma: Nodular Fasciitis of the Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Erinanc

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein report the clinical and pathological findings of a rare case of nodular fasciitis in the breast parenchyma of a 48-year-old female. Because of potentially malignant findings on ultrasonography and during clinical examination, the patient underwent an excisional biopsy. Histologically, the lesion was composed of spindle to round shaped cells arranged in short bundles in a storiform pattern. Immunohistochemically, the cells were positive for vimentin and SMA and negative for desmin, S100, and CD34. Based on these morphological and immunohistochemical features, a diagnosis of nodular fasciitis was made. We emphasize that nodular fasciitis of the breast may show clinical features and imaging findings similar to those of breast cancer. The histopathologic diagnosis of nodular fasciitis can also be challenging. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the characteristics and the differential diagnosis of this rare neoplasm.

  5. Periventricular nodular heterotopia and bilateral intraventricular xanthogranulomas in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moogeh Baharnoori

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS is the most common pathogenic copy number variant in humans. Neuropsychiatric phenotypes, including schizophrenia, are prominent. Imaging studies of individuals with this syndrome show a variety of abnormalities that may indicate abnormal neuronal migration. Here we present the neuroimaging and neuropathologic features of a 22q11DS patient with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopias (PNH and intraventricular xanthogranulomas that were identified by post-mortem examination.

  6. New data on aetiology of nodular gill disease in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyková, Iva; Kostka, Martin; Wortberg, F.; Nardy, E.; Pecková, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2010), s. 157-163 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/0137; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : nodular gill disease * aetiological study * amoebae * Naegleria sp. * fish diseases * aquaculture * Oncorhynchus mykiss Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2010

  7. Animal models of disease: feline hyperthyroidism: an animal model for toxic nodular goiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark E

    2014-11-01

    Since first discovered just 35 years ago, the incidence of spontaneous feline hyperthyroidism has increased dramatically to the extent that it is now one of the most common disorders seen in middle-aged to senior domestic cats. Hyperthyroid cat goiters contain single or multiple autonomously (i.e. TSH-independent) functioning and growing thyroid nodules. Thus, hyperthyroidism in cats is clinically and histologically similar to toxic nodular goiter in humans. The disease in cats is mechanistically different from Graves' disease, because neither the hyperfunction nor growth of these nodules depends on extrathyroidal circulating stimulators. The basic lesion appears to be an excessive intrinsic growth capacity of some thyroid cells, but iodine deficiency, other nutritional goitrogens, or environmental disruptors may play a role in the disease pathogenesis. Clinical features of feline toxic nodular goiter include one or more palpable thyroid nodules, together with signs of hyperthyroidism (e.g. weight loss despite an increased appetite). Diagnosis of feline hyperthyroidism is confirmed by finding the increased serum concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine, undetectable serum TSH concentrations, or increased thyroid uptake of radioiodine. Thyroid scintigraphy demonstrates a heterogeneous pattern of increased radionuclide uptake, most commonly into both thyroid lobes. Treatment options for toxic nodular goiter in cats are similar to that used in humans and include surgical thyroidectomy, radioiodine, and antithyroid drugs. Most authorities agree that ablative therapy with radioiodine is the treatment of choice for most cats with toxic nodular goiter, because the animals are older, and the disease will never go into remission. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  8. Carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium requires Ca2+ and calcineurin

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Adam S; Garc?a, Dana M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Inside bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) retinal pigment epithelial cells, pigment granules move in response to extracellular signals. During the process of aggregation, pigment motility is directed toward the cell nucleus; in dispersion, pigment is directed away from the nucleus and into long apical processes. A number of different chemicals have been found to initiate dispersion, and carbachol (an acetylcholine analog) is one example. Previous research indicates that the ca...

  9. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    OpenAIRE

    González, Alfredo; Crittenden, Elizabeth L; García, Dana M

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and musc...

  10. Nodular Scleritis Associated with Herpes Zoster Virus: An Infectious and Immune-Mediated Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Loureiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe a case of anterior nodular scleritis, preceded by an anterior hypertensive uveitis, which was primarily caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV. Case Report. A 54-year-old woman presented with anterior uveitis of the right eye presumably caused by herpetic viral disease and was successfully treated. Two months later, she developed a nodular scleritis and started oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory without effect. A complete laboratory workup revealed positivity for HLA-B27; the infectious workup was negative. Therapy was changed to oral prednisolone and an incomplete improvement occurred. Therefore, a diagnostic anterior paracentesis was performed and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis revealed VZV. She was treated with valacyclovir and the oral prednisolone began to decrease; however, a marked worsening of the scleritis occurred with the reduction of the daily dose; subsequently, methotrexate was introduced allowing the suspension of the prednisolone and led to clinical resolution of the scleritis. Conclusion. This report of anterior nodular scleritis caused by VZV argues in favor of an underlying immune-mediated component, requiring immunosuppressive therapy for clinical resolution. The PCR analysis of the aqueous humor was revealed to be a valuable technique and should be considered in cases of scleritis with poor response to treatment.

  11. A comparison of nodular defect seed geometeries from different deposition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, C.J.; Tench, R.J.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Fornier, A.

    1995-01-01

    A focused ion-beam milling instrument commonly utilized in the semiconductor industry for failure analysis and IC repair, is capable of cross-sectioning nodular defects. Utilizing the instrument's scanning on beam, high-resolution imaging of the seeds that initiate nodular defect growth is possible. In an attempt to understand the origins of these seeds, HfO 2 /SiO 2 and Ta 2 O 5 /SiO 2 coatings were prepared by a variety of coating vendors and different deposition processes including e-beam, magnetron sputtering, and ion beam sputtering. By studying the shape, depth, and composition of the seed, inferences of its origin can be drawn. The boundaries between the nodule and thin film provide insight into the mechanical stability of the nodule. Significant differences in the seed composition, geometry of nodular growth and mechanical stability of the defects for sputtered versus e-beam coatings are reported. Differences in seed shape were also observed from different coating vendors using e-beam deposition of HfO 2 /SiO 2 coatings

  12. Rare cause of multiple nodular opacities at chest x-ray: pulmonary hydatid cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inan, K.; Hamcan, S.; Gumus, S.; Turhan, U.; Karaman, B.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Hydatid disease is incidentally common in our country. Objectives and tasks: In this study, unlike the classical radiological appearance of hydatid disease of the lung, MDCT appearance of multiple nodules were demonstrated. Materials and methods: The patient who comes our hospital's Pulmonary Clinic with shortness of breath and with membranes that come from his mouth, referred to our clinic for chest radiography and chest HRCT. Results: In the conventional chest x-ray, multiple nodular opacities in both lungs were common. HRCT was performed with 5 mm and 1 mm thick sections of our patient. In both hemithorax, multiple nodular lesions were found in various sizes and configurations, some of them opened to the bronchus which is the largest one is 2 cm in diameter. Nodule in the left hemithorax inferior lingular segment has calcified wall. Patient's Echinococcus granulosus test was evaluated positive for IgG. Conclusion: Hydatid disease is a parasitic infestation created by Echinococcus granulosus. Although seen most frequently in the liver, often seen in the lungs 10-30%.. 30 to 50% of cases are asymptomatic and incidentally diagnosed radiologically. Although we know that the classic radiologic findings of hydatid cyst, different radiographic views (eg nodular mass) should be considered in rare circumstances

  13. Chloroquine enhances the efficacy of cisplatin by suppressing autophagy in human adrenocortical carcinoma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin L

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Liang Qin,1,* Tianyuan Xu,1,* Leilei Xia,1 Xianjin Wang,1 Xiang Zhang,1 Xiaohua Zhang,1 Zhaowei Zhu,1 Shan Zhong,1 Chuandong Wang,2 Zhoujun Shen1 1Department of Urology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 2Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: It has been demonstrated that chloroquine (CQ enhances the efficacy of chemotherapy. However, little is known about whether CQ could enhance the efficacy of cisplatin (DDP in the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC. In this study, we explore the efficacy and mechanism by which CQ affects DDP sensitivity in human ACC in vitro and in vivo.Methods: The autophagic gene Beclin-1 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the protein levels were analyzed using immunoblotting assays of ACC tissues and normal adrenal cortex tissues. The ACC SW13 cells were treated with DDP and/or CQ. The cell viability assay was performed using the MTT method. Qualitative autophagy detection was performed by monodansylcadaverine staining of autophagic vacuoles. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining was used to count cell apoptosis by flow cytometry. The autophagy-related protein (Beclin-1, LC3, and p62 and apoptosis relative protein (Bax and Bcl-2 levels were evaluated with Western blot analysis. Furthermore, a murine model of nude BALB/c mice bearing SW13 cell xenografts was established to evaluate the efficacy of concomitant therapy.Results: The expression of the autophagic gene Beclin-1 was significantly downregulated in ACC tissues compared to normal adrenal cortex tissues. The Beclin-1 protein level in ACC tissues was lower than that in normal adrenal cortex tissues (P<0.05. In vitro concomitant therapy (DDP and CQ was more

  14. The influence of various cooling rates during laser alloying on nodular iron surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczkowska, Marta; Makuch, Natalia; Kulka, Michał

    2018-06-01

    The results of research referring to modification of the nodular iron surface layer by laser alloying with cobalt were presented. The aim of this study was to analyze the possibilities of cobalt implementation into the surface layer of nodular iron in various laser heat treatment conditions (by generating different cooling rates of melted surface layer). The modified surface layer of nodular iron was analyzed with OM, SEM, TEM, XRD, EDS and Vickers microhardness tester. The modified surface layer of nodular iron after laser alloying consisted of: the alloyed zone (melted with cobalt), the transition zone and the hardened zone from solid state. The alloyed zone was characterized by higher microstructure homogeneity - in contrast to the transition and the hardened zones. All the alloyed zones contained a dendritic microstructure. Dendrites consisted of martensite needles and retained austenite. Cementite was also detected. It was stated, that due to similar dimension of iron and cobalt atoms, their mutual replacement in the crystal lattice could occur. Thus, formation of phases based on α solution: Co-Fe (44-1433) could not be excluded. Although cobalt should be mostly diluted in solid solutions (because of its content in the alloyed zone), the other newly formed phases as Co (ε-hex.), FeC and cobalt carbides: Co3C, CoC0.25 could be present in the alloyed zones as a result of unique microstructure creation during laser treatment. Pearlite grains were observed in the zone, formed using lower power density of the laser beam and its longer exposition time. Simply, such conditions resulted in the cooling rate which was lower than critical cooling rate. The alloyed zones, produced at a higher cooling rate, were characterized by better microstructure homogeneity. Dendrites were finer in this case. This could result from a greater amount of crystal nuclei appearing at higher cooling rate. Simultaneously, the increased amount of γ-Fe and Fe3C precipitates was expected in

  15. Analysis of ancient pigments by Raman microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Jian; Xu Cunyi

    1999-01-01

    Raman microscopy can be applied for the spatial resolution, and non-destructive in situ analysis of inorganic pigments in pottery, manuscripts and paintings. Compared with other techniques, it is the best single technique for this purpose. An overview is presented of the applications of Raman microscopy in the analysis of ancient pigments

  16. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725 Food...

  17. Non-aqueous pigmented inkjet inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEROOVER, GEERT; Bernaerts, Katrien; HOOGMARTENS, IVAN

    2009-01-01

    A non-aqueous inkjet ink comprises a benzimidazolone pigment and a polymeric dispersant according to Formula (I): wherein, T represents hydrogen or a polymerization terminating group; Z represents theA non-aqueous inkjet ink comprises a benzimidazolone pigment and a polymeric dispersant according to

  18. Pigmented skin disorders: Evaluation and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentary disorders are disturbances of human skin color. Minor changes in the cellular physiology of the skin can dramatically affect pigment production in positive or negative manner. In this these, associated diseases, therapeutical options and disease parameters for the pigmentation disorder

  19. A mathematical model of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical system and its stability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, Danka [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Laboratory for Theoretical and Condensed Matter Physics, P.O. Box 522, Belgrade 11001 (Serbia and Montenegro)] e-mail: dankasav@eunet.yu; Jelic, Smiljana [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Laboratory for Theoretical and Condensed Matter Physics, P.O. Box 522, Belgrade 11001 (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2005-10-01

    It is commonly assumed that the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis generates oscillations, because a regular daily rhythm of its component hormones is observed. We offer another plausible explanation of the origin of its circadian oscillations: HPA just responds to an independent external pacemaker (from the suprachiazmatic nucleus, SCN). Five versions (with and without time delay) of a qualitative non-phenomenological mathematical model of the HPA axis as a feedback mechanism are constructed wherein all the terms in the equations are introduced according to the rules of chemical kinetics, i.e. are physicochemically interpretable. The dynamics of the HPA axis model was examined using linear stability analysis. The results show stability of this system, meaning that it does not generate diurnal oscillations. Computer simulation based on this model shows oscillations that are system's response to an external pulsing activator (SCN) implying that the observed time-periodic pattern does not have to be an intrinsic property of the HPA axis.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl 126 stimulates basal and inducible aldosterone biosynthesis of human adrenocortical H295R cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.-A.; Wang, P.-W.; Chang, Louis W.

    2004-01-01

    To understand the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on adrenal aldosterone biosynthesis, we have performed a systematical study to characterize the corresponding steroidogenic response of human adrenocortical cell line H295R to PCB126 exposure. We found that PCB126 at high concentrations stimulated basal and inducible aldosterone production. The aldosterone induction occurred concomitantly with activation of the CYP11B2 gene. Despite the fact that PCB126 acted in synergy with both potassium and angiotensin II (Ang II) in activation of aldosterone synthesis, PCB126 only modestly increased CYP11B2 mRNA expression in the presence of Ang II contrary to the synergistic transcriptional induction elicited by PCB126 and potassium. This implicated that PCB126 had differential interactions with the potassium and Ang II signaling systems in the regulation of aldosterone biosynthesis. In addition, high concentrations of PCB126 elevated transcriptional expression of the type I Ang II receptor (AT 1 ) and might thus sensitize the cellular Ang II responsiveness in both basal and inducible aldosterone biosynthesis. SF-1 was not involved in the PCB126-induced transcriptional regulation despite its importance in steroidogenic gene activation

  1. Cytodiagnosis of myxoid adrenocortical carcinoma and role of immunocytochemistry to differentiate it from renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Mondal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC is a rare malignancy and cytodiagnosis of this tumor is not routinely encountered by a cytopathologist. Here, we report a case of ACC initially diagnosed by computed tomography (CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC with the help of immunocytochemistry. A 48-year-old lady presented with flank pain and abdominal mass for the last 6 months. A CT scan of her abdomen revealed a large mass arising from the upper part of the left kidney. CT-guided FNAC was performed. Cytologic smears showed pleomorphic large cells arranged discretely and in small aggregates against a myxoid background. The cells had a high nucleocytoplasmic ratio, anisonucleosis and conspicuous nucleoli. Based on cytomorphology, differential diagnoses of ACC and renal cell carcinoma (RCC were made. On immunocytochemistry, the tumor cells were synaptophysin, inhibin, vimentin and Melan-A positive but cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen negative. Thus, a cytodiagnosis of myxoid ACC was made and histopathologic examination was suggested. Subsequent histologic examination and immunohistochemistry proved the case to be myxoid ACC.

  2. Human Adrenocortical Remodeling Leading to Aldosterone-Producing Cell Cluster Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshiro Nishimoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The immunohistochemical detection of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2 and steroid 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1 has enabled the identification of aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs in the subcapsular portion of the human adult adrenal cortex. We hypothesized that adrenals have layered zonation in early postnatal stages and are remodeled to possess APCCs over time. Purposes. To investigate changes in human adrenocortical zonation with age. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed adrenal tissues prepared from 33 autopsied patients aged between 0 and 50 years. They were immunostained for CYP11B2 and CYP11B1. The percentage of APCC areas over the whole adrenal area (AA/WAA, % and the number of APCCs (NOA, APCCs/mm2 were calculated by four examiners. Average values were used in statistical analyses. Results. Adrenals under 11 years old had layered zona glomerulosa (ZG and zona fasciculata (ZF without apparent APCCs. Some adrenals had an unstained (CYP11B2/CYP11B1-negative layer between ZG and ZF, resembling the rat undifferentiated cell zone. Average AA/WAA and NOA correlated with age, suggesting that APCC development is associated with aging. Possible APCC-to-APA transitional lesions were incidentally identified in two adult adrenals. Conclusions. The adrenal cortex with layered zonation remodels to possess APCCs over time. APCC generation may be associated with hypertension in adults.

  3. Adrenocortical regulation, eating in the absence of hunger and BMI in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, L A; Granger, D A; Susman, E J

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relations among adrenocortical regulation, eating in the absence of hunger, and body mass index (BMI) in children ages 5-9years (N=43). Saliva was collected before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C), and was later assayed for cortisol. Area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) was used as a measure of changes in cortisol release from baseline to 60min post-TSST-C. Age- and sex-specific BMI scores were calculated from measured height and weight, and eating in the absence of hunger was assessed using weighed food intake during a behavioral procedure. We also included a measure of parents' report of child impulsivity, as well as family demographic information. Participants were stratified by age into younger (5-7years) and older (8-9years) groups. In younger children, parents' reports of child impulsivity were significantly and positively associated with BMI; cortisol AUCi was not associated with BMI or eating in the absence of hunger. In older children, however, greater stress-related cortisol AUCi was related to higher BMI scores and greater energy intake in the absence of hunger. The results suggest that cortisol AUCi in response to psychosocial stress may be linked to problems with energy balance in children, with some variation by age. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Adrenocortical responses to offspring-directed threats in two open-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Luke K; Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Hayden, Timothy J; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael

    2009-07-01

    Dependent young are often easy targets for predators, so for many parent vertebrates, responding to offspring-directed threats is a fundamental part of reproduction. We tested the parental adrenocortical response of the endangered black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) and the common white-eyed vireo (V. griseus) to acute and chronic threats to their offspring. Like many open-nesting birds, our study species experience high offspring mortality. Parents responded behaviorally to a predator decoy or human 1-2m from their nests, but, in contrast to similar studies of cavity-nesting birds, neither these acute threats nor chronic offspring-directed threats altered plasma corticosterone concentrations of parents. Although parents in this study showed no corticosterone response to offspring-directed threats, they always increased corticosterone concentrations in response to capture. To explain these results, we propose that parents perceive their risk of nest-associated death differently depending on nest type, with cavity-nesting adults perceiving greater risk to themselves than open-nesters that can readily detect and escape from offspring-directed threats. Our results agree with previous studies suggesting that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, a major physiological mechanism for coping with threats to survival, probably plays no role in coping with threats to offspring when risks to parents and offspring are not correlated. We extend that paradigm by demonstrating that nest style may influence how adults perceive the correlation between offspring-directed and self-directed threats.

  5. Adrenocortical carcinoma: the dawn of a new era of genomic and molecular biology analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armignacco, R; Cantini, G; Canu, L; Poli, G; Ercolino, T; Mannelli, M; Luconi, M

    2018-05-01

    Over the last decade, the development of novel and high penetrance genomic approaches to analyze biological samples has provided very new insights in the comprehension of the molecular biology and genetics of tumors. The use of these techniques, consisting of exome sequencing, transcriptome, miRNome, chromosome alteration, genome, and epigenome analysis, has also been successfully applied to adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). In fact, the analysis of large cohorts of patients allowed the stratification of ACC with different patterns of molecular alterations, associated with different outcomes, thus providing a novel molecular classification of the malignancy to be associated with the classical pathological analysis. Improving our knowledge about ACC molecular features will result not only in a better diagnostic and prognostic accuracy, but also in the identification of more specific therapeutic targets for the development of more effective pharmacological anti-cancer approaches. In particular, the specific molecular alteration profiles identified in ACC may represent targetable events by the use of already developed or newly designed drugs enabling a better and more efficacious management of the ACC patient in the context of new frontiers of personalized precision medicine.

  6. Kindergarten stressors and cumulative adrenocortical activation: the "first straws" of allostatic load?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Nicole R; Obradović, Jelena; Adler, Nancy; Boyce, W Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Using an ethnically diverse longitudinal sample of 338 kindergarten children, this study examined the effects of cumulative contextual stressors on children's developing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis regulation as an early life indicator of allostatic load. Chronic HPA axis regulation was assessed using cumulative, multiday measures of cortisol in both the fall and spring seasons of the kindergarten year. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that contextual stressors related to ethnic minority status, socioeconomic status, and family adversity each uniquely predicted children's daily HPA activity and that some of those associations were curvilinear in conformation. Results showed that the quadratic, U-shaped influences of family socioeconomic status and family adversity operate in different directions to predict children's HPA axis regulation. Results further suggested that these associations differ for White and ethnic minority children. In total, this study revealed that early childhood experiences contribute to shifts in one of the principal neurobiological systems thought to generate allostatic load, confirming the importance of early prevention and intervention efforts. Moreover, findings suggested that analyses of allostatic load and developmental theories accounting for its accrual would benefit from an inclusion of curvilinear associations in tested predictive models.

  7. Rapid and Complete Remission of Metastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma Persisting 10 Years After Treatment With Mitotane Monotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorayeb, Nada El; Rondeau, Geneviève; Latour, Mathieu; Cohade, Christian; Olney, Harold; Lacroix, André; Perrotte, Paul; Sabourin, Alexis; Mazzuco, Tania L; Bourdeau, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mitotane has been used for more than 5 decades as therapy for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However its mechanism of action and the extent of tumor response remain incompletely understood. To date no cases of rapid and complete remission of metastatic ACC with mitotane monotherapy has been reported. A 52-year-old French Canadian man presented with metastatic disease 2 years following a right adrenalectomy for stage III nonsecreting ACC. He was started on mitotane which was well tolerated despite rapid escalation of the dose. The patient course was exceptional as he responded to mitotane monotherapy after only few months of treatment. Initiation of chemotherapy was not needed and he remained disease-free with good quality of life on low maintenance dose of mitotane during the following 10 years. A germline heterozygous TP53 exon 4 polymorphism c.215C>G (p. Pro72Arg) was found. Immunohistochemical stainings for IGF-2 and cytoplasmic β-catenin were positive. Advanced ACC is an aggressive disease with poor prognosis and the current therapeutic options remain limited. These findings suggest that mitotane is a good option for the treatment of metastatic ACC and might result in rapid complete remission in selected patients. PMID:27043680

  8. Agonist-induced desensitization of adenylyl cyclase in Y1 adrenocortical tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, M.F.; Tsao, J.; Pon, D.J.; Schimmer, B.P.

    1991-01-01

    Y1 adrenocortical tumor cells (Y1DS) and Y1 mutants resistant to ACTH-induced desensitization of adenylyl cyclase (Y1DR) were transfected with a gene encoding the mouse beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2-AR). Transfectants expressed beta 2-ARs that were able to stimulate adenylyl cyclase activity and steroid biosynthesis. These transfectants were used to explore the basis for the DR mutation in Y1 cells. The authors demonstrate that beta-adrenergic agonists desensitize the adenylyl cyclase system in transfected Y1DS cells whereas transfected Y1DR cells are resistant to desensitization by beta-adrenergic agonists. The fate of the beta 2-ARs during desensitization was evaluated by photoaffinity labelling with [125I]iodocyanopindolol diazerine. Desensitization of Y1DS transfectants was accompanied by a modest loss in receptor density that was insufficient to account for the complete loss of responsiveness to beta-adrenergic agonists. The extent of receptor loss induced by beta-adrenergic agonists in Y1DR transfectants exceeded that in the Y1DS transfectants indicating that the mutation which protects Y1DR cells from agonist-induced desensitization is prior to receptor down-regulation in the desensitization pathway. From these results we infer that ACTH and isoproterenol desensitize adenylyl cyclase by a common pathway and that receptor loss is not a major component of the desensitization process in these cells

  9. Adrenocortical carcinoma, an unusual extracolonic tumor associated with Lynch II syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Arana, V; Delgado, L; González, L; Bravo, A; Díaz, H; Salido, E; Riverol, D; González-Aguilera, J J; Fernández-Peralta, A M

    2011-06-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is an autosomal dominant condition that predisposes to colorectal cancer and specific other tumors. Extracolonic tumors occur mainly in the endometrium, stomach, ovary, small intestine and urinary tract. The presence of rare tumors in patients belonging to families who have Lynch syndrome is always interesting, because the question arises whether these tumors should be considered as a coincidence or are related with the syndrome. In this last case, they are also the result of the defect in the mismatch repair system, opening the possibility of extending the tumor spectrum associated with the syndrome. Here we describe a patient from a Lynch syndrome family with a germline mutation c.2063T>G (p.M688R) in the MSH2 gene, who developed an adrenal cortical carcinoma, a tumor not usually associated with LS. We analyzed the adrenocortical tumour for microsatellite instability (MSI), LOH and the presence of the germline c.2063T>G (M688R) mutation. The adrenal cortical carcinoma showed the MSH2 mutation, loss of heterozygosity of the normal allele in the MSH2 gene and loss of immunohistochemical expression for MSH2 protein, but no microsatellite instability. Additionally, the adrenal cortical carcinoma did not harbour a TP53 mutation. The molecular study indicates that this adrenal cortical cancer is probably due to the mismatch repair defect.

  10. StAR Protein Stability in Y1 and Kin-8 Mouse Adrenocortical Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Barbara J; Hudson, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-04

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) protein expression is required for cholesterol transport into mitochondria to initiate steroidogenesis in the adrenal and gonads. STAR is synthesized as a 37 kDa precursor protein which is targeted to the mitochondria and imported and processed to an intra-mitochondrial 30 kDa protein. Tropic hormone stimulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway is the major contributor to the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of STAR synthesis. Many studies have focused on the mechanisms of cAMP-PKA mediated control of STAR synthesis while there are few reports on STAR degradation pathways. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of cAMP-PKA-dependent signaling on STAR protein stability. We have used the cAMP-PKA responsive Y1 mouse adrenocortical cells and the PKA-deficient Kin-8 cells to measure STAR phosphorylation and protein half-life. Western blot analysis and standard radiolabeled pulse-chase experiments were used to determine STAR phosphorylation status and protein half-life, respectively. Our data demonstrate that PKA-dependent STAR phosphorylation does not contribute to 30 kDa STAR protein stability in the mitochondria. We further show that inhibition of the 26S proteasome does not block precursor STAR phosphorylation or steroid production in Y1 cells. These data suggest STAR can maintain function and promote steroidogenesis under conditions of proteasome inhibition.

  11. Rosiglitazone Inhibits Adrenocortical Cancer Cell Proliferation by Interfering with the IGF-IR Intracellular Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luconi Michaela

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Rosiglitazone (RGZ, a thiazolidinedione ligand of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ, has been recently described as possessing antitumoral properties. We investigated RGZ effect on cell proliferation in two cell line models (SW13 and H295R of human adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC and its interaction with the signaling pathways of the activated IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR. We demonstrate a high expression of IGF-IR in the two cell lines and in ACC. Cell proliferation is stimulated by IGF-I in a dose- and time-dependent manner and is inhibited by RGZ. The analysis of the main intracellular signaling pathways downstream of the activated IGF-IR, phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K-Akt, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 cascades reveals that RGZ rapidly interferes with the Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation/activation which mediates IGF-I stimulated proliferation. In conclusion, our results suggest that RGZ exerts an inhibitory effect on human ACC cell proliferation by interfering with the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways downstream of the activated IGF-IR.

  12. Production of Monascus-like pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    the cultivation medium with an inoculum of Penicillium to form a cultivation composition; d) cultivating the inoculated cultivation composition of (c); e) separating the one or more produced pigment compositions. The method of the invention may be used for producing Monascus-like pigment compositions for use......The present invention relates to a method for producing one or more Monascus-like pigment composition from Penicillium species comprising: a) providing a cultivation medium comprising a high concentration of C-and N-sources and a high C/N molar ratio, b) adjusting pH to about 5 to 8, c) inoculating...... as colouring agents in food items or non food items. The inventions further relates to Monascus-like pigment composition obtainable by a method of the inventions as well as use of the pigments....

  13. Structure of plant bile pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenleber, R.W.

    1983-12-01

    Selective peptide cleavage has provided a general procedure for the study of the structure, including stereochemistry, of plant bile pigments. The information derived from the synthesis and spectral analysis of a series of 2,3-dihydrodioxobilins allows the determination of the trans relative stereochemistry for ring A of the ..beta../sub 1/-phycocyanobilin from C-phycocyanin as well as for ring A of phytochrome. A complete structure proof of the five phycoerythrobilins attached to the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of B-phycoerythrin is described. One of these tetrapyrroles is doubly-peptide linked to a single peptide chain through two thioethers at the C-3' and C-18' positions. The four remaining phycoerythrobilins are singly-linked to the protein through thioethers at the C-3' position and all possess the probable stereochemistry C-2(R), C-3(R), C-3'(R), and C-16(R).

  14. Determination by R/A of plasma cortisol levels as a parameter of adrenocortical function before and after radiotherapy of gynaecological genital carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freischem, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    rn 20 female patients with carcinoma of the genitals, day profiles of cortisol were established and ACTH stimulation tests carried out directly after radiotherapy and 6 months later. Plasma concentrations of cortisol were determined in a RIA as parameters of the adrenocortical function. The assumption of a change in adrenocortical activity after radiotherapy of gynaecological genital carcinoma could not be validated. Instead, there was a typical diurnal rhythm of plasma cortisol, with a peak in the early morning hours and a decrease until midnight. The same applies to the ACTH stimulation tests: In all cases, plasma cortisol levels were elevated after intravenous application of ACTH. This means that the 1976 findings of Samundzham and Butsan could not be proved. Since adrenal functions were absolutely normal in the observed cases, the adynamic clinical picture of patients after radiotherapy, which is rather infrequent, cannot be explained as being due to an impaired adrenocortical function. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Surgical Management of Iatrogenic Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierlo, Camille Van; Pinto, Luis Abegão; Stalmans, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Iatrogenic pigment dispersion syndrome generally originates from a repetitive, mechanical trauma to the pigmented posterior epithelium of the iris. This trauma can arise after intraocular surgery, most commonly due to an abnormal contact between the intraocular lens (IOL) and the iris. Whether surgical removal of this primary insult can lead to a successful intraocular pressure (IOP) control remains unclear. Case-series. Patients with IOP elevation and clinical signs of pigment dispersion were screened for a diagnosis of iatrogenic IOL-related pigment dispersion. Three patients in which the IOL or the IOL-bag complex caused a pigment dispersion through a repetitive iris chafing were selected. In two cases, replacement of a sulcus-based single-piece IOL (patient 1) or a sub-luxated in-the-bag IOL (patient 2) by an anterior-chamber (AC) iris-fixed IOL led to a sustained decrease in IOP. In the third case, extensive iris atrophy and poor anatomical AC parameters for IOL implantation precluded further surgical intervention. IOL-exchange appears to be a useful tool in the management of iatrogenic pigment dispersion glaucoma due to inappropriate IOL implantation. This cause-oriented approach seems to be effective in controlling IOP, but should be offered only if safety criteria are met. How to cite this article: Van Mierlo C, Abegao Pinto L, Stalmans I. Surgical Management of Iatrogenic Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(1):28-32.

  16. Differential expression of microRNA-675, microRNA-139-3p and microRNA-335 in benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, J; Bertram, S; Sheu, S Y; Suttorp, A C; Seggewiß, J; Willscher, E; Walz, M K; Worm, K; Schmid, K W

    2011-01-01

    Background For the clinical management of adrenocortical neoplasms it is crucial to correctly distinguish between benign and malignant tumours. Even histomorphologically based scoring systems do not allow precise separation in single lesions, thus novel parameters are desired which offer a more accurate differentiation. The tremendous potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) as diagnostic biomarkers in surgical pathology has recently been shown in a broad variety of tumours. Methods In order to elucidate the diagnostic impact of miRNA expression in adrenocortical neoplasms, a cohort of 20 adrenocortical specimens including normal adrenal tissue (n=4), adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) (n=9), adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) (n=4) and metastases (n=3) was analysed using TaqMan low density arrays to identify specific miRNA profiles in order to distinguish between benign and malignant adrenocortical lesions. Results were validated in a validation cohort (n=16). Results Concerning the differential diagnosis of ACAs and ACCs, 159 out of 667 miRNAs were up- and 89 were down-regulated in ACAs. Using real-time PCR analysis of three of the most significantly expressed single key miRNAs allowed separation of ACAs from ACCs. ACCs exhibited significantly lower levels of miR-139-3p (up to 8.49-fold, p<0.001), miR-675 (up to 23.25-fold, p<0.001) and miR-335 (up to 5.25-fold, p<0.001). A validation cohort of 16 specimen with known Weiss score showed up-regulation of miR-335 and miR-675 in the majority of cases with probable malignant course, although overlapping values exist. Conclusion miRNA profiling of miR-675 and miR-335 helps in discriminating ACCs from ACAs. miRNA analysis may indicate malignant behaviour in cases with indeterminate malignant potential. PMID:21471143

  17. Genetic and Virulent Difference Between Pigmented and Non-pigmented Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Suo, Yujuan; Zhang, Daofeng; Jin, Fangning; Zhao, Hang; Shi, Chunlei

    2018-01-01

    Staphyloxanthin (STX), a golden carotenoid pigment produced by Staphylococcus aureus , is suggested to act as an important virulence factor due to its antioxidant properties. Restraining biosynthesis of STX was considered as an indicator of virulence decline in pigmented S. aureus isolates. However, it is not clear whether natural non-pigmented S. aureus isolates have less virulence than pigmented ones. In this study, it is aimed to compare the pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus isolates to clarify the genetic and virulent differences between the two groups. Here, 132 S. aureus isolates were divided into two phenotype groups depending on the absorbance (OD 450 ) of the extracted carotenoids. Then, all isolates were subjected to spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and then the detection of presence of 30 virulence factors and the gene integrity of crtN and crtM . Furthermore, 24 typical S. aureus isolates and 4 S. argenteus strains were selected for the murine infection assay of in vivo virulence, in which the histological observation and enumeration of CFUs were carried out. These isolates were distributed in 26 sequence types (STs) and 49 spa types. The pigmented isolates were scattered in 25 STs, while the non-pigmented isolates were more centralized, which mainly belonged to ST20 (59%) and ST25 (13%). Among the 54 non-pigmented isolates, about 20% carried intact crtN and crtM genes. The in vivo assay suggested that comparing with pigmented S. aureus , non-pigmented S. aureus and S. argenteus strains did not show a reduced virulence in murine sepsis models. Therefore, it suggested that there were no significant genetic and virulent differences between pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus .

  18. Genetic and Virulent Difference Between Pigmented and Non-pigmented Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphyloxanthin (STX, a golden carotenoid pigment produced by Staphylococcus aureus, is suggested to act as an important virulence factor due to its antioxidant properties. Restraining biosynthesis of STX was considered as an indicator of virulence decline in pigmented S. aureus isolates. However, it is not clear whether natural non-pigmented S. aureus isolates have less virulence than pigmented ones. In this study, it is aimed to compare the pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus isolates to clarify the genetic and virulent differences between the two groups. Here, 132 S. aureus isolates were divided into two phenotype groups depending on the absorbance (OD450 of the extracted carotenoids. Then, all isolates were subjected to spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST, and then the detection of presence of 30 virulence factors and the gene integrity of crtN and crtM. Furthermore, 24 typical S. aureus isolates and 4 S. argenteus strains were selected for the murine infection assay of in vivo virulence, in which the histological observation and enumeration of CFUs were carried out. These isolates were distributed in 26 sequence types (STs and 49 spa types. The pigmented isolates were scattered in 25 STs, while the non-pigmented isolates were more centralized, which mainly belonged to ST20 (59% and ST25 (13%. Among the 54 non-pigmented isolates, about 20% carried intact crtN and crtM genes. The in vivo assay suggested that comparing with pigmented S. aureus, non-pigmented S. aureus and S. argenteus strains did not show a reduced virulence in murine sepsis models. Therefore, it suggested that there were no significant genetic and virulent differences between pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus.

  19. Thyroid nodularity and chromosome aberrations among women in areas of high background radiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.Y.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Wei, L.X.; Beebe, G.W.; Zha, Y.R.; Kaplan, M.M.; Tao, Z.F.; Maxon, H.R. III; Zhang, S.Z.; Schneider, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Thyroid nodularity following continuous low-dose radiation exposure in China was determined in 1,001 women aged 50-65 years who resided in areas of high background radiation (330 mR/yr) their entire lives, and in 1,005 comparison subjects exposed to normal levels of radiation (114 mR/yr). Cumulative doses to the thyroid were estimated to be of the order of 14 cGy and 5 cGy, respectively. Personal interviews and physical examinations were conducted, and measurements were made of serum thyroid hormone levels, urinary iodine concentrations, and chromosome aberrations in circulating lymphocytes. For all nodular disease, the prevalences in the high background and control areas were 9.5% and 9.3%, respectively. For single nodules, the prevalences were 7.4% in the high background area and 6.6% in the control area (prevalence ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval = 0.82-1.55). There were no differences found in serum levels of thyroid hormones. Women in the high background region, however, had significantly lower concentrations of urinary iodine and significantly higher frequencies of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations. Increased intake of allium vegetables such as garlic and onions was associated with a decreased risk of nodular disease, which seems consistent with experimental studies suggesting that allium compounds can inhibit tumor growth and proliferation. The prevalence of mild diffuse goiter was higher in the high background radiation region, perhaps related to a low dietary intake of iodine. These data suggest that continuous exposure to low-level radiation throughout life is unlikely to appreciably increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, such exposure may cause chromosomal damage

  20. Some approaches to treatment of patients with thyroid nodular diseases in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Hoshi, Masaharu; Takeichi, Nobuo; Abisheva, Gulniaz; Taooka, Yasuyuki; Bhattarcharjee, Deborshi; Kamiya, Kenji

    2003-12-01

    It was determined by experts that in the region adjacent to the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site thyroid nodular prevalence was significantly associated with radiation dose from nuclear weapons testing. The medical rehabilitation of patients is of special practical and scientific importance in this region. Some patients have contraindications for surgery and radioiodine or refuse them for various reasons. Percutaneous intranodular injection therapy by "Paoscle" (PIITP) was used for treatment of patients with benign thyroid nodular diseases. The study group included a total of 107 patients (mainly "pretoxic" and "compensated" nodules). Seventy-four patients received PIITP on an out-patient basis. Seventy-two of them were women and 2 men, mean age, 52.9 +/- 1.3 years; range 26 to 77 years. Thyroid ultrasound examination, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, thyroid function tests and cytopathology were performed in all patients to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. The nodule volume reduction rate for patients with thyroid adenomas was 56 % on average and 60.2 % in the case of colloid nodules. The reduction rate of thyroid adenomas with necrotic and cystic degeneration was higher and reached 72 %. The suggested method is indicated for cases of benign nodular thyroid diseases (cysts, adenomas, adenomas with necrotic and cystic degeneration, colloid nodules, polynodular goiter). We did not reveal any complications or thyroid test abnormalities after the treatment. A tendency to normalization of the blood serum thyroglobulin level and antibodies to thyroglobulin was documented. Analysis of the treatment results revealed that this approach is effective, inexpensive, safe, well tolerated and can be used on an outpatient basis.

  1. Phenotypic and imaging features of FLNA-negative patients with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallil, Zianka; Pardoe, Heath; Bachman, Robert; Cunningham, Benjamin; Parulkar, Isha; Shain, Catherine; Poduri, Annapurna; Knowlton, Robert; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2015-10-01

    Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH) is a malformation of cortical development due to impaired neuronal migration resulting in the formation of nodular masses of neurons and glial cells in close proximity to the ventricular walls. We report the clinical characteristics of the largest case series of FLNA-negative patients with seizures and bilateral periventricular heterotopia. Participants were recruited through the Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project (EPGP), a multicenter collaborative effort to collect detailed phenotypic data and DNA on a large number of individuals with epilepsy, including a cohort with symptomatic epilepsy related to PVNH. Included subjects had epilepsy, and MRI confirmed bilateral PVNH. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were visually and quantitatively reviewed to investigate the topographic extent of PVNH, symmetry, and laterality. We analyzed data on 71 patients with bilateral PVNH. The incidence of febrile seizures was 16.6%. There was at least one other family member with epilepsy in 36.9% of this population. Developmental delay was present in 21.8%. Focal onset seizures were the most common type of seizure presentation (79.3%). High heterotopia burden was strongly associated with female gender and trigonal nodular localization. There was no evidence for differences in brain volume between PVNH subjects and controls. No relationship was observed between heterotopic volume and gender, developmental delay, location of PVNH, ventricular or cerebellar abnormalities, laterality of seizure onset, age at seizure onset, and duration of epilepsy. A direct correlation was observed between high heterotopia burden, female gender, and trigonal location in this large cohort of FLNA-negative bilateral PVNH patients with epilepsy. Quantitative MRI measurements indicated that this correlation is based on the diffuse nature of the heterotopic nodules rather than on the total volume of abnormal heterotopic tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All

  2. Mammotome biopsy under ultrasound control in the diagnostics and treatment of nodular breast lesions - own experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibil, Wojciech; Hodorowicz-Zaniewska, Diana; Kulig, Jan

    2012-05-01

    Mammotome biopsy is an effective, minimally invasive, novel technique used in the verification of breast lesions.The aim of the study was to assess the value of ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted core needle biopsy (mammotome biopsy) in the diagnostics and treatment of nodular breast lesions, considering own data.Material and methods. Analysis comprised 1183 mammotome biopsies under ultrasound control performed in 1177 female patients during the period between 2000 and 2010, at the Regional Clinic for Early Diagnostics and Treatment of Breast Lesions, I Chair and Department of General Surgery, Jagiellonian University, Collegium Medicum.Results. The average patient age amounted to 41.7 years. The size of the investigated lesions ranged between 4 and 65 mm (mean - 12 mm). The histopathological examination result was as follows: fibrocystic lesions (n=285), adenofibroma (n=477), adenosis sclerosans (n=188), hyperplasia without atypy (n=58), phyllode tumor (n=2), papilloma (n=14), hamartoma (n=1), atypical hyperplasia (n=25), in situ ductal carcinoma (n=4), in situ lobular carcinoma (n=5), infiltrating ductal carcinoma (n=114), infiltrating lobular carcinoma (n=4), non-diagnostic result (n=6). The histopathological diagnosis was obtained in 99.5% of cases. Patients diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia or cancer were qualified for surgery, according to accepted standards. The presence of a hematoma was the most common complication after the biopsy, observed in 16.5% of patients.Conclusions. The obtained results confirmed the high value of ultrasound-guided biopsies in the diagnostics of nodular breast lesions. The method is safe, minimally invasive, with few complications, providing a good cosmetic effect. In case of benign lesions with a diameter of less than 15 mm the mammotome biopsy enables to completely excise the lesions, being an alternative to open surgical biopsies. The mammotome biopsy should become the method of choice considering the diagnostics of nodular

  3. Fatigue strength of nodular cast iron with regard to heavy-wall applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleicher, Christoph; Wagener, Rainer; Kaufmann, Heinz [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Betriebsfestigkeit und Systemzuverlaessigkeit LBF, Darmstadt (Germany); Melz, Tobias [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Betriebsfestigkeit und Systemzuverlaessigkeit LBF, Darmstadt (Germany); TU Darmstadt (Germany). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2015-11-01

    For a proper estimation of the fatigue life of a heavy-walled cast component made of nodular cast iron, sufficient knowledge regarding the cyclic properties of the material is necessary. Based on the material parameters at hand for component design, different fatigue analysis procedures can be used. Elastic and elastic-plastic approaches can be adopted, with the latter being reserved only for local approaches. The present publication summarizes the cyclic material parameters gained during a research project by extensive material tests under stress and strain controlled cyclic loading at different load ratios for three nodular cast iron grades. In addition to an improved knowledge of the cyclic material behavior, the notch, the size effects and the mean stress sensitivity were of special concern during the investigations in order to provide an entire overview of the tested materials and thus input information for both stress and strain based design approaches. Tests were performed for specimens taken from large cast blocks of the nodular cast iron grades EN-GJS-400-18U-LT and EN-GJS-450-18, both with ferritic matrices, and EN-GJS-700-2 with a pearlitic matrix. For some of these materials, mean stress sensitivities above 0.5 were obtained during the investigations. These values are not covered by the common standards, which calculate lower values for the mean stress sensitivity. Cyclic material parameters for stress and strain controlled tests are given in this paper as well as values for the size effect, based on the concept of the highly stressed volume. The effect of different specimen sizes could be shown not only by stress but also by strain controlled tests.

  4. Assessment of survey radiography and comparison with x-ray computed tomography for detection of hyperfunctioning adrenocortical tumors in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhout, G.; Stolp, R.; Rijnberk, A.; Waes, P.F.G.M. van

    1990-01-01

    Results of abdominal survey radiography and x-ray computed tomography (CT) were compared in 13 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism histologically attributed to adrenocortical tumors. X-ray computed tomography enabled accurate localization of the tumor in all 13 dogs. Apart from 2 poorly demarcated irregular-shaped and mineralized carcinomas, there were no differences between adenoma (n = 3) and carcinoma (n = 10) on CT images. In 1 dog, invasion of the caudal vena cava by the tumor was suggested on CT images and was confirmed during surgery. Suspicion of adhesions between tumors of the right adrenal gland and the caudal vena cava on the basis of CT images was confirmed during surgery in only 2 of 6 dogs. Survey radiography allowed accurate localization of the tumor in 7 dogs (4 on the right side and 3 on the left). In 6 of these dogs, the tumor was visible as a well-demarcated soft tissue mass and, in the other dog, as a poorly demarcated mineralized mass. The smallest tumor visualized on survey radiographs had a diameter of 20 mm on CT images. Six tumors with diameter less than or equal to 20 mm were not visualized on survey radiographs. In 1 of these dogs, a mineralized nodule was found in the left adrenal region, without evidence of a mass. In a considerable number of cases, survey radiography can provide presurgical localization of adrenocortical tumors in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism; CT is redundant in these instances. In the absence of positive radiographic findings, CT is valuable for localization of adrenocortical tumors

  5. The N-terminal neurotensin fragment, NT1-11, inhibits cortisol secretion by human adrenocortical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Flavie; Contesse, Vincent; Lefebvre, Hervé; Ait-Ali, Djida; Gras, Marjorie; Cartier, Dorthe; Decker, Annick; Chartrel, Nicolas; Anouar, Youssef; Vaudry, Hubert; Delarue, Catherine

    2006-08-01

    Neurotensin (NT) modulates corticosteroid secretion from the mammalian adrenal gland. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible involvement of NT in the control of cortisol secretion in the human adrenal gland. In vitro studies were conducted on cultured human adrenocortical cells. This study was conducted in a university research laboratory. Adrenal explants from patients undergoing expanded nephrectomy for kidney cancer were studied. Cortisol secretion from cultured adrenocortical cells was measured. NT1-11, the N-terminal fragment of NT, dose-dependently inhibited basal and ACTH-stimulated cortisol production by human adrenocortical cells in primary culture. In contrast, NT had no influence on cortisol output at concentrations up to 10(-6) m. HPLC and RT-PCR analyses failed to detect any significant amounts of NT and NT mRNA, respectively, in adrenal extracts. Molecular and pharmacological studies were performed to determine the type of NT receptor involved in the corticostatic effect of NT1-11. RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression of NT receptor type (NTR) 3 mRNA but not NTR1 and NTR2 mRNAs in the human adrenal tissue. However, the pharmacological profile of the adrenal NT1-11 receptor was different from that of NTR3, indicating that this receptor type is not involved in the action of NT1-11 on corticosteroidogenesis. Our results indicate that NT1-11 may act as an endocrine factor to inhibit cortisol secretion through activation of a receptor distinct from the classical NTR1, NTR2, and NTR3.

  6. Violations of macro- and micronutrient support in patients with nodular thyroid pathology from regions injured after the Chornobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Kravchenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of our study was to determine the state of macro- and micronutrient support of patients with nodular thyroid pathology from the regions injured after the Chornobyl accident. Materials and methods. 65 habitants of the Chernihiv area were examined: 40 — without thyroid pathology (15 men and 25 women aged 36.62 ± 0.60 years, and 25 (5 men and 20 women — with the diagnosed nodular goiter. Results. Research of urinary iodine excretion showed that a median in the control group was 95.6 µg/l, among patients with nodular goiter — 89.3 µg/l, indicating the presence of moderate iodine deficiency. Blood thyroglobulin level in patients of control group was 9.26 ± 0.99 ng/l, among patients with nodular goiter — 23.03 ± 4.70 ng/l. Thyroid-stimulating hormone level higher than 4.0 mIU/l was in 8.9 % of patients with nodular goiter and in 5.0 % of persons from the control group. The data of ultrasonic researches demonstrated that the average thyroid volume in patients of control group was 10.1 ± 0.3 cm3, among patients with nodular goiter — 18.6 ± 1.7 cm3. In the group of patients with nodular goiter, the decreased (p < 0.0001 level of macronutrients in blood plasma was detected: calcium was 67.26 ± 3.21 µg/l and magnesium — 14.88 ± 0.35 µg/l, as well as of microelements: zinc content was 0.72 ± 0.04 µg/l (p < 0.0001 and iron — 0.54 ± 0.06 µg/l (p < 0.05, in comparison with the results in the control group. Conclusions. The relative risk (χ2 criterion for the four-course table of connectivity with Fisher’s correction of nodular goiter development at subzero content of calcium was 2.24 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.58–2.61, the risk of nodular goiter development at subzero levels of magnesium — 2.56 (95% CI 1.77–3.03.

  7. Sinovite vilonodular pigmentada localizada: relato de caso Localized pigmented villonodular synovitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Andrea de Carvalho Godoy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O caso em questão é o de uma paciente do sexo feminino que apresentava queixa de dor na região anterior do joelho esquerdo durante e após atividades esportivas, seguidas de bloqueio articular havia três meses. Exames de imagem: radiografias simples do joelho normais e ressonância magnética mostrando formação expansiva sólida podendo corresponder a condroma de partes moles ou a sinovite nodular focal. Realizada ressecção artroscópica da lesão com diagnóstico de tumor de células gigantes difuso símile/sinovite vilonodular pigmentada localizada (SVNPL após resultado do exame anatomopatológico. A paciente apresenta boa evolução clínica com desaparecimento dos sintomas e retorno às atividades físicas.This case concerned a female patient with a complaint of pain in the anterior region of her left knee during and after sports activities, followed by joint blockage three months ago. From imaging examinations, simple radiography of the knee was normal and magnetic resonance showed a solid expansive mass, possibly corresponding to soft-tissue chondroma or focal nodular synovitis. Arthroscopic resection of the lesion was performed, and the diagnosis of diffuse giant cell tumor resembling localized pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS was made from the result of the anatomopathological examination. The patient presented good clinical evolution, with disappearance of symptoms and return to physical activities.

  8. Lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Alegre, M. L.; Casanova, A.; Delgado, J.; Relanzon, S.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a case of lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in a woman with severe combined immunodeficiency disease. the patient complained of constipation and episodes of abdominal pain, and examination revealed the presence of a large abdominal mass. The diagnosis was suspected on the basis of the initial radiological studies, but intestinal biopsy was necessary to rule out lymphomatous involvement. We point out the radiological features of this entity which, despite the fact that it may be a chance finding of no pathological significance, requires special attention, especially in immuno deficient individuals. (Author) 10 refs

  9. Intracranial investigation of a patient with nodular heterotopia and hippocampal sclerosis: dealing with a dual pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, Lady Diana; Dash, Chelsea; Wu, Adam; Tellez-Zenteno, Jose Francisco

    2017-06-01

    The pre-operative assessment and surgical management of patients with dual pathology is challenging. We describe a patient with drug-resistant focal epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis and extensive periventricular nodular heterotopia in the same hemisphere. The semiology, scalp EEG, and imaging were divergent, but the presence of focal interictal and ictal epileptic discharges of the putative ictal onset zone resulted in successful localization of the epileptogenic zone. A less aggressive resection was performed based on intracranial EEG recording. The patient has been seizure-free for three years since resection. Electroclinical hypotheses and challenges in defining the epileptogenic network are discussed.

  10. Nodular Esophageal Xanthoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Dirweesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomas are localized nonneoplastic lesions within tissues that may manifest as papules, plaques, or nodules. These lesions can be found anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, commonly in the stomach and colon, and rarely in the small intestine and esophagus. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD with biopsy is the gold standard tool for diagnosis. Here, we report a rare case of a lower solitary nodular esophageal xanthoma in an elderly black female. Correspondingly, all cases of esophageal xanthomas reported in the English medical literature were reviewed and presented with the reported case.

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of periventricular nodular heterotopia in borderline ventriculomegaly using sonography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinoglu, Zeki; Yapicier, Ozlem; Ozcan, Nahit

    2016-10-01

    Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) is usually missed on prenatal sonographic examinations, even on targeted scans. Irregular ventricular walls on axial view and irregular square-shaped lateral ventricles on coronal view are suggestive of PNH in the early third trimester. To achieve an early prenatal diagnosis, it is important to keep in mind the possible coexistence of PNH with brain malformations such as ventriculomegaly, posterior fossa anomalies, or agenesis of corpus callosum. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:510-513, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Hybrid Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography Sulphur Colloid Scintigraphy in Focal Nodular Hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoil, Amit; Gayana, Shankramurthy; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2013-01-01

    It is important to differentiate focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), a benign condition of liver most commonly affecting women, from other neoplasm such as hepatic adenoma and metastasis. The functional reticuloendothelial features of FNH can be demonstrated by scintigraphy. We present a case of breast cancer in whom fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (CT) showed a homogenous hyperdense lesion in liver, which on Tc99m sulfur colloid single-photon emission computed tomography/CT was found to have increased focal tracer uptake suggestive of FNH

  13. Nodular fasciitis of the face diagnosed by US-guided core needle biopsy: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Kwon, Sun Young

    2006-01-01

    We report here on a case of nodular fasciitis (NF) that was diagnosed by ultrasonography (US)-guided core needle biopsy in a 31-year-old man, and we include the US and computed tomographic (CT) findings and the histopathologic findings at US-guided core needle biopsy (CNB). We suggest that high-resolution US is useful for the detailed evaluation of NF in the superficial regions, such as the face, and US-guided CNB is useful for the definitive histologic diagnosis of NF without causing scarring

  14. Ultrasonic features and radionuclide correlation in liver cell adenoma and focal nodular hyperlasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, M A; Petrocelli, R D; Marks, D S; Lopez, R

    1980-05-01

    Ultrasonic features of three cases of liver cell adenoma (LCA) and two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) are presented. These tumors have similar sonographic appearances presenting either as solid masses or containing sonolucent areas due to hemorrhage or necrosis. Although these ultrasonic features in patients with an area of decreased activity on 99mTc-sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) liver scans are not specific for LCA or FNH, such findings in the appropriate clinical setting are suggestive of these lesions. The combination of a solid mass on ultrasonography and a normal Tc-SC radioisotope liver study may be relatively specific for uncomplicated FNH.

  15. Ultrasonic features and radionuclide correlation in liver cell adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, M.A.; Petrocelli, R.D.; Marks, D.S.; Lopez, R.

    1980-01-01

    Ultrasonic features of three cases of liver cell adenoma (LCA) and two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) are presented. These tumors have similar sonographic appearances presenting either as solid masses or containing sonolucent areas due to hemorrhage or necrosis. Although these ultrasonic features in patients wth an area of decreased activity on /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) liver scans are not specific for LCA or FNH, such findings in the appropriate clinical setting are suggestive of these lesions. The combination of a solid mass on ultrasonography and a normal Tc-SC radioisotope liver study may be relatively specific for uncomplicated FNH

  16. [Analysis of predictors of malignancy of nodular goiters: about 500 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaity, Brahim; Darouassi, Youssef; Chihani, Mehdi; Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Ammar, Haddou

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are very common and less than 10% of them are malignant. They pose a serious diagnostic and therapeutic problem with respect to their benign or malignant nature. The study of some clinical and paraclinical factors for presumed malignancy makes it possible to codify appropriate therapeutic strategy. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of malignancy in nodular goiters and to compare our results with those reported in the literature. This retrospective study consisted of 500 cases of nodular goiter operated in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology (ear, nose and throat or ENT) and Head and Neck Surgery at Avicenne military hospital in Marrakech between 2006 and 2012. The percentage of cancers was 6,8%. The average age of our patients was 46 years, with a sex-ratio of 5 (F/H). The hard nature of the nodule was present in 94,4% of the cases of cancer by palpation; irregular boundaries were present in 64.70% of the cases of cancer. Three nodules were fixed and malignant. Cervical lymphadenopathy were observed in 8 patients, 7 of which had cancer. Ultrasound examination showed hypoechoic appearance in 61,8% of the malignant nodules, with smooth-edges in 88,24% of the cases. Intranodular vascularization was found in 35,3% of the cases of cancers, with microcalcifications in 55,9% of the cases. Perinodular hypoechoic halo was incomplete in 73,5% of the cases of cancer. Our patients were euthyroid in 84,6% of the cases. Predictors of malignancy in nodular goiters were present in our first clinical study: patients over the age of 60 years, hard consistency of nodule, fixity, irregular and poorly defined character by palpation, as well as presence of cervical adenopathy on examination; and echographic features: hypoechoic character, smooth-edges, presence of microcalcifications and visualization of intranodular vascularization with or without peri-nodular vascularization. Although some of these factors are highly predictive of malignancy, only

  17. Papulo-Nodular Reactions in Black Tattoos as Markers of Sarcoidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sepehri, Mitra; Hutton Carlsen, Katrina; Serup, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sarcoidosis is, from historical data, suggested to be more prevalent among patients with tattoo reactions. We aimed to evaluate this association in a systematic study. METHODS: This is a consecutive study of patients with tattoo complications, diagnosed in the "Tattoo Clinic......" at Bispebjerg University Hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark, from 2008 to 2015, based on clinical assessment and histology. From the overall group of 494 tattoo complications in 406 patients, 92 reactions in 72 patients showed a papulo-nodular pattern studied for local and systemic sarcoidosis, since sarcoidosis...

  18. Production of Monascus-like pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing one or more Monascus-like pigment composition from Penicillium species comprising: a) providing a cultivation medium comprising a high concentration of C-and N-sources and a high C/N molar ratio, b) adjusting pH to about 5 to 8, c) inoculati...... as colouring agents in food items or non food items. The inventions further relates to Monascus-like pigment composition obtainable by a method of the inventions as well as use of the pigments....

  19. Non-conventional synthesis of ceramic pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziubak, C.; Rutkowski, R.; Gebel, R.

    2003-01-01

    A short characterization of traditional methods of homogenization of components, used to produce ceramic pigments, was presented. Efficient and economic methods are searched to prepare raw material sets for ceramic pigments as alternative methods for the traditional way of wet mixing in ball mill or of dry mixing in the mixer of 'Z' type. The results of research of the use of sol-gel method to achieve these aims are presented. At the present stage of research, carried out on the yellow praseodymium and coral-pink iron-zirconium pigments show that traditional methods are better. (author)

  20. The Contingency of Cocaine Administration Accounts for Structural and Functional Medial Prefrontal Deficits and Increased Adrenocortical Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel M.; Cosme, Caitlin V.; Glanz, Ryan M.; Miller, Mary C.; Romig-Martin, Sara A.; LaLumiere, Ryan T.

    2015-01-01

    The prelimbic region (PL) of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in the relapse of drug-seeking behavior. Optimal mPFC functioning relies on synaptic connections involving dendritic spines in pyramidal neurons, whereas prefrontal dysfunction resulting from elevated glucocorticoids, stress, aging, and mental illness are each linked to decreased apical dendritic branching and spine density in pyramidal neurons in these cortical fields. The fact that cocaine use induces activation of the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis raises the possibility that cocaine-related impairments in mPFC functioning may be manifested by similar changes in neuronal architecture in mPFC. Nevertheless, previous studies have generally identified increases, rather than decreases, in structural plasticity in mPFC after cocaine self-administration. Here, we use 3D imaging and analysis of dendritic spine morphometry to show that chronic cocaine self-administration leads to mild decreases of apical dendritic branching, prominent dendritic spine attrition in PL pyramidal neurons, and working memory deficits. Importantly, these impairments were largely accounted for in groups of rats that self-administered cocaine compared with yoked-cocaine- and saline-matched counterparts. Follow-up experiments failed to demonstrate any effects of either experimenter-administered cocaine or food self-administration on structural alterations in PL neurons. Finally, we verified that the cocaine self-administration group was distinguished by more protracted increases in adrenocortical activity compared with yoked-cocaine- and saline-matched controls. These studies suggest a mechanism whereby increased adrenocortical activity resulting from chronic cocaine self-administration may contribute to regressive prefrontal structural and functional plasticity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Stress, aging, and mental illness are each linked to decreased prefrontal plasticity. Here, we show that chronic

  1. Synthetic high-density lipoprotein nanodisks for targeted withalongolide delivery to adrenocortical carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuai R

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rui Kuai,1,2,* Chitra Subramanian,3,* Peter T White,3,* Barbara N Timmermann,4 James J Moon,1,2,5 Mark S Cohen,3,6 Anna Schwendeman1,2 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, 2Biointerfaces Institute, University of Michigan, 3Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 4Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, 6Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC is a rare endocrine malignancy and has a 5-year survival rate of <35%. ACC cells require cholesterol for steroid hormone production, and this requirement is met via expression on the cell surface of a high level of SRB1, responsible for the uptake of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs, which carry and transport cholesterol in vivo. Here, we describe how this natural lipid carrier function of SRB1 can be utilized to improve the tumor-targeted delivery of a novel natural product derivative – withalongolide A 4,19,27-triacetate (WGA-TA – which has shown potent antitumor efficacy, but poor aqueous solubility. Our strategy was to use synthetic HDL (sHDL nanodisks, which are effective in tumor-targeted delivery due to their smallness, long circulation half-life, documented safety, and ability to bind to SRB1. In this study, we prepared sHDL nanodisks using an optimized phospholipid composition combined with ApoA1 mimetic peptide (22A, which has previously been tested in clinical trials, to load WGA-TA. Following optimization, WGA-TA nanodisks showed drug encapsulation efficiency of 78%, a narrow particle size distribution (9.81±0.41 nm, discoid shape, and sustained drug release in phosphate buffered saline. WGA-TA-sHDL nanodisks exhibited higher cytotoxicity in the ACC cell line H295R half maximal inhibitory concentration ([IC50] 0.26±0.045 µM than free WGA-TA (IC50 0.492±0

  2. Detection of adrenocortical autoantibodies in Addison's disease with a peroxidase-labelled protein A technique

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    R.C. Silva

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical autoantibodies (ACA, present in 60-80% of patients with idiopathic Addison's disease, are conventionally detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF on frozen sections of adrenal glands. The large-scale use of IIF is limited in part by the need for a fluorescence microscope and the fact that histological sections cannot be stored for long periods of time. To circumvent these restrictions we developed a novel peroxidase-labelled protein A (PLPA technique for the detection of ACA in patients with Addison's disease and compared the results with those obtained with the classical IIF assay. We studied serum samples from 90 healthy control subjects and 22 patients with Addison's disease, who had been clinically classified into two groups: idiopathic (N = 13 and granulomatous (N = 9. ACA-PLPA were detected in 10/22 (45% patients: 9/13 (69% with the idiopathic form and 1/9 (11% with the granulomatous form, whereas ACA-IIF were detected in 11/22 patients (50%: 10/13 (77% with the idiopathic form and 1/9 (11% with the granulomatous form. Twelve of the 13 idiopathic addisonians (92% were positive for either ACA-PLPA or ACA-IIF, but only 7 were positive by both methods. In contrast, none of 90 healthy subjects was found to be positive for ACA. Thus, our study shows that the PLPA-based technique is useful, has technical advantages over the IIF method (by not requiring the use of a fluorescence microscope and by permitting section storage for long periods of time. However, since it is only 60% concordant with the ACA-IIF method, it should be considered complementary instead of an alternative method to IIF for the detection of ACA in human sera.

  3. Molecular Profiling of Refractory Adrenocortical Cancers and Predictive Biomarkers to Therapy

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    Sherri Z. Millis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Current first-line chemotherapy for patients with metastatic adrenocortical cancer (ACC includes doxorubicin, etoposide, cisplatin, and mitotane with a reported response rate of only 23.2%. New therapeutic leads for patients with refractory tumors are needed; there is no standard second-line treatment. Methods Samples from 135 ACC tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization (FISH or CISH, and/or gene sequencing at a single commercial reference laboratory (Caris Life Sciences to identify markers associated with drug sensitivity and resistance. Results Overexpression of proteins related to demonstrated chemotherapy sensitivity or resistance included topoisomerase 1, progesterone receptor, and topoisomerase 2-alpha in 46%, 63%, and 42% of cases, respectively. Loss of excision repair cross-complementary group 1 (ERCC1, phosophatase and tensin homolog, O(6-methylguanine-methyltransferase, and ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1 was identified in 56%, 59%, 71%, and 58% of cases, respectively. Other aberrations included overexpression of programmed death-ligand 1 or programmed cell death protein 1 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in >40% of cases. In all, 35% of cases had a mutation in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway (either CTNNB1 or APC and 48% had a mutation in TP53. No other genomic alterations were identified. Conclusion Biomarker alterations in ACC may be used to direct therapies, including recommendations for and potential resistance of some patients to traditional chemotherapies, which may explain the low response rate in the unselected population. Limited outcomes data support the use of mitotane and platinum therapies for patients with low levels of the proteins RRM1 and ERCC1.

  4. Effects of Insufficient Sleep on Pituitary-Adrenocortical Response to CRH Stimulation in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Aurore; Morselli, Lisa L; Balbo, Marcella L; Tasali, Esra; Leproult, Rachel; L'Hermite-Balériaux, Mireille; Van Cauter, Eve; Spiegel, Karine

    2017-06-01

    Severe sleep restriction results in elevated evening cortisol levels. We examined whether this relative hypercortisolism is associated with alterations in the pituitary-adrenocortical response to evening corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation. Eleven subjects participated in 2 sessions (2 nights of 10 hours vs. 4 hours in bed) in randomized order. Sleep was polygraphically recorded. After the second night of each session, blood was sampled at 20-minute intervals from 09:00 to 24:00 for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measurements, and perceived stress was assessed hourly. Ovine CRH was injected at 18:00 (1 µg/kg body weight). Prior to CRH injection, baseline ACTH, but not cortisol, levels were elevated after sleep restriction. Relative to the well-rested condition, sleep restriction resulted in a 27% decrease in overall ACTH response to CRH (estimated by the incremental area under the curve from 18:00 to 24:00; p = .002) while the cortisol response was decreased by 21% (p = .083). Further, the magnitude of these decreases was correlated with the individual amount of sleep loss (ACTH: rSp = -0.65, p = .032; cortisol: rSp = -0.71, p = .015). The acute post-CRH increment of cortisol was reduced (p = .002) without changes in ACTH reactivity, suggesting decreased adrenal sensitivity. The rate of decline from peak post-injection levels was reduced for cortisol (p = .032), but not for ACTH. Scores of perceived stress were unaffected by CRH injection and were low and similar under both sleep conditions. Sleep restriction is associated with a reduction of the overall ACTH and cortisol responses to evening CRH stimulation, and a reduced reactivity and slower recovery of the cortisol response. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Effect of KCNJ5 Mutations on Gene Expression in Aldosterone-Producing Adenomas and Adrenocortical Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Silvia; Hattangady, Namita G.; Nishimoto, Koshiro; Mantero, Franco; Rubin, Beatrice; Cicala, Maria Verena; Pezzani, Raffaele; Auchus, Richard J.; Ghayee, Hans K.; Shibata, Hirotaka; Kurihara, Isao; Williams, Tracy A.; Giri, Judith G.; Bollag, Roni J.; Edwards, Michael A.; Isales, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Primary aldosteronism is a heterogeneous disease that includes both sporadic and familial forms. A point mutation in the KCNJ5 gene is responsible for familial hyperaldosteronism type III. Somatic mutations in KCNJ5 also occur in sporadic aldosterone producing adenomas (APA). Objective: The objective of the study was to define the effect of the KCNJ5 mutations on gene expression and aldosterone production using APA tissue and human adrenocortical cells. Methods: A microarray analysis was used to compare the transcriptome profiles of female-derived APA samples with and without KCNJ5 mutations and HAC15 adrenal cells overexpressing either mutated or wild-type KCNJ5. Real-time PCR validated a set of differentially expressed genes. Immunohistochemical staining localized the KCNJ5 expression in normal adrenals and APA. Results: We report a 38% (18 of 47) prevalence of KCNJ5 mutations in APA. KCNJ5 immunostaining was highest in the zona glomerulosa of NA and heterogeneous in APA tissue, and KCNJ5 mRNA was 4-fold higher in APA compared with normal adrenals (P APA with and without KCNJ5 mutations displayed slightly different gene expression patterns, notably the aldosterone synthase gene (CYP11B2) was more highly expressed in APA with KCNJ5 mutations. Overexpression of KCNJ5 mutations in HAC15 increased aldosterone production and altered expression of 36 genes by greater than 2.5-fold (P APA, and our data suggest that these mutations increase expression of CYP11B2 and NR4A2, thus increasing aldosterone production. PMID:22628608

  6. Vincristine, cisplatin, teniposide, and cyclophosphamide combination in the treatment of recurrent or metastatic adrenocortical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tanweera S; Sundin, Anders; Juhlin, Claes; Wilander, Erik; Oberg, Kjell; Eriksson, Barbro

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of a combination of vincristine, cisplatin, teniposide, and cyclophosphamide (OPEC) in 11 patients (median age, 45 yr) with recurrent and/or metastatic adrenocortical cancer (ACC) (seven functional and four nonfunctional) were evaluated. All patients received this regimen after the failure of streptozocin and o,p'-DDD (SO) combination therapy. The regimen comprised cyclophosphamide, 600 mg/m2, and vincristine, 1.5 mg/m2, maximum dose 2.0 mg (d 1); cisplatin, 100 mg/m2 (d 2) and teniposide, 150 mg/m2 (d 4). Cycles were repeated every 4 wk. One to eight cycles (median, six cycles) of OPEC were administered to each patient. The median duration of treatment was 6 mo. The overall 2-yr survival rate was 82% and the median survival since diagnosis was 44 mo while it was 21 mo since start of OPEC therapy. Responses were obtained in nine patients: partial response in two patients, and stable disease in seven patients. The median duration of response was 6.75 mo. A total of 60 cycles of chemotherapy were given to all patients; grade 1-2 toxicity occurred in 57 cycles, while grade 3 toxicity was observed only in two cycles, according to NCI's Common Toxicity Criteria. We conclude that the OPEC regimen may be considered in recurrent or metastatic ACC as a second-line medical treatment. However, the combination is accompanied by considerable side effects and dose modifications are necessary in order to be able to recommend the treatment. This regimen needs further evaluation compared with SO therapy preferably in a randomized multicenter trial.

  7. Novelty-induced emotional arousal modulates cannabinoid effects on recognition memory and adrenocortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolongo, Patrizia; Morena, Maria; Scaccianoce, Sergio; Trezza, Viviana; Chiarotti, Flavia; Schelling, Gustav; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Roozendaal, Benno

    2013-06-01

    Although it is well established that cannabinoid drugs can influence cognitive performance, the findings-describing both enhancing and impairing effects-have been ambiguous. Here, we investigated the effects of posttraining systemic administration of the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2 (0.1, 0.3, or 1.0 mg/kg) on short- and long-term retention of object recognition memory under two conditions that differed in their training-associated arousal level. In male Sprague-Dawley rats that were not previously habituated to the experimental context, WIN55,212-2 administered immediately after a 3-min training trial, biphasically impaired retention performance at a 1-h interval. In contrast, WIN55,212-2 enhanced 1-h retention of rats that had received extensive prior habituation to the experimental context. Interestingly, immediate posttraining administration of WIN55,212-2 to non-habituated rats, in doses that impaired 1-h retention, enhanced object recognition performance at a 24-h interval. Posttraining WIN55,212-2 administration to habituated rats did not significantly affect 24-h retention. In light of intimate interactions between cannabinoids and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, we further investigated whether cannabinoid administration might differently influence training-induced glucocorticoid activity in rats in these two habituation conditions. WIN55,212-2 administered after object recognition training elevated plasma corticosterone levels in non-habituated rats whereas it decreased corticosterone levels in habituated rats. Most importantly, following pretreatment with the corticosterone-synthesis inhibitor metyrapone, WIN55,212-2 effects on 1- and 24-h retention of non-habituated rats became similar to those seen in the low-aroused habituated animals, indicating that cannabinoid-induced regulation of adrenocortical activity contributes to the environmentally sensitive effects of systemically administered cannabinoids on short- and long

  8. Salivary cortisol as an indicator of adrenocortical function in healthy infants, using massage therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa de Cássia Fogaça

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The evaluation of adrenocortical function with the use of therapeutic massage has been little studied in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the salivary cortisol levels before and after Shantala massage therapy on healthy infants. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective case series, in a public nursery, in São Paulo. METHODS: Saliva was obtained from 11 infants at the times of 8:00-9:00 a.m. and 4:00-5:00 p.m. in a nursery and 9:00-10:00 p.m. at home. They received a 15-minute therapeutic massage on two consecutive days, and saliva was collected before and after the massage. The procedure was repeated after a one-week interval. Cortisol values (intra-assay < 5%; inter-assay < 10% at different times of the day were compared by ANOVA. RESULTS: The mean cortisol values (nmol/l ± SD on the first day were: morning (M = 14.1 ± 5.7, afternoon (A = 8.3 ± 2.7, night (N = 3.3 ± 1.1; after two consecutive days of therapeutic massage: M = 22.3 ± 13.5, A = 13.4 ± 6.0, N = 5.8 ± 3.5; after a one-week interval: M = 15.8 ± 7.7, A = 14.3 ± 7.7, N = 3.4 ± 2.0. CONCLUSION: There was a modification in the salivary cortisol values following massage, thus reflecting possible adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  9. The Many Faces of Primary Aldosteronism and Cushing Syndrome: A Reflection of Adrenocortical Tumor Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mete, Ozgur; Duan, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Adrenal cortical tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with distinct clinical, morphological, and molecular features. Recent discoveries of specific genotype-phenotype correlations in adrenal cortical adenomas have transformed our understanding of their respective endocrine syndromes. Indeed, a proportion of patients with primary aldosteronism are now known to harbor adrenal cortical adenomas with heterogeneous molecular alterations ( KCNJ5, ATP1A1, ATP2B3 , and CACNA1D ) involving the calcium/calmodulin kinase signaling pathway. Several lines of evidence suggest that KCNJ5 -mutant aldosterone-producing adenomas have distinct clinicopathological phenotype compared to those harboring ATP1A1, ATP2B3 , and CACNA1D mutations. Benign adrenal cortical tumors presenting with Cushing syndrome often have diverse mutations ( PRKACA, PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A , and PDE8B ) involving the cyclic AMP signaling pathway. In addition to cortisol-producing adenomas, bilateral micronodular adrenocortical disease and primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PBMAH) have also expanded the spectrum of benign neoplasms causing adrenal Cushing disease. The recent discovery of inactivating ARMC5 germline mutations in PBMAH has challenged the old belief that this disorder is mainly a sporadic disease. Emerging evidence suggests that PBMAH harbors multiple distinct clonal proliferations, reflecting the heterogeneous genomic landscape of this disease. Although most solitary adrenal cortical tumors are sporadic, there is an increasing recognition that inherited susceptibility syndromes may also play a role in their pathogenesis. This review highlights the molecular and morphological heterogeneity of benign adrenal cortical neoplasms, reflected in the diverse presentations of primary aldosteronism and adrenal Cushing syndrome.

  10. The Many Faces of Primary Aldosteronism and Cushing Syndrome: A Reflection of Adrenocortical Tumor Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Mete

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal cortical tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with distinct clinical, morphological, and molecular features. Recent discoveries of specific genotype–phenotype correlations in adrenal cortical adenomas have transformed our understanding of their respective endocrine syndromes. Indeed, a proportion of patients with primary aldosteronism are now known to harbor adrenal cortical adenomas with heterogeneous molecular alterations (KCNJ5, ATP1A1, ATP2B3, and CACNA1D involving the calcium/calmodulin kinase signaling pathway. Several lines of evidence suggest that KCNJ5-mutant aldosterone-producing adenomas have distinct clinicopathological phenotype compared to those harboring ATP1A1, ATP2B3, and CACNA1D mutations. Benign adrenal cortical tumors presenting with Cushing syndrome often have diverse mutations (PRKACA, PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A, and PDE8B involving the cyclic AMP signaling pathway. In addition to cortisol-producing adenomas, bilateral micronodular adrenocortical disease and primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PBMAH have also expanded the spectrum of benign neoplasms causing adrenal Cushing disease. The recent discovery of inactivating ARMC5 germline mutations in PBMAH has challenged the old belief that this disorder is mainly a sporadic disease. Emerging evidence suggests that PBMAH harbors multiple distinct clonal proliferations, reflecting the heterogeneous genomic landscape of this disease. Although most solitary adrenal cortical tumors are sporadic, there is an increasing recognition that inherited susceptibility syndromes may also play a role in their pathogenesis. This review highlights the molecular and morphological heterogeneity of benign adrenal cortical neoplasms, reflected in the diverse presentations of primary aldosteronism and adrenal Cushing syndrome.

  11. Gemcitabine-Based Chemotherapy in Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A Multicenter Study of Efficacy and Predictive Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Judith E K; Deutschbein, Timo; Altieri, Barbara; Steinhauer, Sonja; Kircher, Stefan; Sbiera, Silviu; Wild, Vanessa; Schlötelburg, Wiebke; Kroiss, Matthias; Perotti, Paola; Rosenwald, Andreas; Berruti, Alfredo; Fassnacht, Martin; Ronchi, Cristina L

    2017-11-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is rare and confers an unfavorable prognosis in advanced stages. Other than combination chemotherapy with cisplatin, etoposide, doxorubicin, and mitotane, the second- and third-line regimens are not well-established. Gemcitabine (GEM)-based chemotherapy was suggested in a phase 2 clinical trial with 28 patients. In other solid tumors, human equilibrative nucleoside transporter type 1 (hENT1) and/or ribonucleotide reductase catalytic subunit M1 (RRM1) expression have been associated with resistance to GEM. To assess the efficacy of GEM-based chemotherapy in ACC in a real-world setting and the predictive role of molecular parameters. Retrospective multicenter study. Referral centers of university hospitals. A total of 145 patients with advanced ACC were treated with GEM-based chemotherapy (132 with concomitant capecitabine). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor material was available for 70 patients for immunohistochemistry. The main outcome measures were progression-free survival (PFS) and an objective response to GEM-based chemotherapy. The secondary objective was the predictive role of hENT1 and RRM1. The median PFS for the patient population was 12 weeks (range, 1 to 94). A partial response or stable disease was achieved in 4.9% and 25.0% of cases, with a median duration of 26.8 weeks. Treatment was generally well tolerated, with adverse events of grade 3 or 4 occurring in 11.0% of cases. No substantial effect of hENT1 and/or RRM1 expression was observed in response to GEM-based chemotherapy. GEM-based chemotherapy is a well-tolerated, but modestly active, regimen against advanced ACC. No reliable molecular predictive factors could be identified. Owing to the scarce alternative therapeutic options, GEM-based chemotherapy remains an important option for salvage treatment for advanced ACC. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  12. Adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs in eight species of adult and developing teleosts: morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi Milano, E; Basari, F; Chimenti, C

    1997-12-01

    Morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry of the adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs (adrenal glands) of the following developing and adult teleosts were examined: Salmoniformes-Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), Salmo trutta fario (brown trout), Coregonus lavaretus (white fish); Cyprinodontiformes-Gambusia affinis (mosquito fish). Perciformes-Dicentrarchus labrax (sea bass), Sparus aurata (sea bream), Diplodus sargus (white bream), Oblada melanura (saddled bream). The anatomical relationships of the gland with the renal system and venous vessels were also noted. In adults of all species steroidogenic and catecholaminergic chromaffin cells were found in the head kidney, which is pronephric in origin and subsequently transformed into a hematopoietic lymphatic organ. In Perciformes, chromaffin cells are distributed around the anterior and posterior cardinal veins and ducts of Cuvier; in Salmoniformes, around the posterior cardinal veins and in the hematopoietic tissue; and in G. affinis, around the ducts of Cuvier and posterior cardinal veins, while a few are visible also around the sinus venosus. In Perciformes and Salmoniformes, numerous chromaffin cells are also present in the posterior kidney, derived from the opisthonephros, in contact with the caudal vein. Steroidogenic cells are always confined to the head kidney. During development chromaffin and steroidogenic cells appear early after hatching in the pronephric kidney, at the level of the ducts of Cuvier and of the cephalic part of the posterior cardinal veins. Later, chromaffin cells in Perciformes reach the anterior cardinal veins, and subsequently, in both Perciformes and Salmoniformes, they reach the developing posterior kidney. Their localization along the posterior kidney is still in progress about 4 months after hatching and is completed about a year after hatching. These findings support the concept that the structure of the adrenal gland in teleosts is intermediate between that of the

  13. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alfredo; Crittenden, Elizabeth L; García, Dana M

    2004-07-13

    In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl) carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  14. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

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    Crittenden Elizabeth L

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. Results The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusions Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  15. Pigmented xerodermoid - Report of three cases

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    Das Jayanta Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented xerodermoid, a rare genodermatosis, presents with clinical features and pathology similar to xeroderma pigmentosum, but at a later age. DNA repair replication is normal, but there is total depression of DNA synthesis after exposure to UV radiation. Two siblings in their teens and a man in his thirties with features of pigmented xerodermoid, e.g. photophobia, freckle-like lesions, keratoses, dryness of skin, and hypo- and hyper-pigmentation, are described. Although classically the onset of pigmented xerodermoid is said to be delayed till third to fourth decade of life, it seems the disease may appear earlier in the tropics. Early diagnosis and management could be life-saving.

  16. Pigment Production Analysis in Human Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkin, Amelia Soto; Paterson, Elyse K; Ruiz, Rolando; Ganesan, Anand K

    2016-05-25

    The human epidermal melanocyte is a highly specialized pigmented cell that serves to protect the epidermis from ultraviolet (UV) damage through the production of melanin, or melanogenesis. Misregulation in melanogenesis leading to either hyper- or hypo-pigmentation is found in human diseases such as malasma and vitiligo. Current therapies for these diseases are largely unsuccessful and the need for new therapies is necessary. In order to identify genes and or compounds that can alter melanogenesis, methods are required that can detect changes in pigment production as well as expression of key melanogenesis transcription factors and enzymes. Here we describe methods to detect changes in melanogenesis in a human melanoma cell line, MNT-1, by (1) analyzing pigment production by measuring the absorbance of melanin present by spectrophotometry, (2) analyzing transcript expression of potent regulators of melanogenesis by qunatitative reverse-transcription (RT)PCR and (3) analyzing protein expression of potent regulators of melanogenesis by Western blot (WB).

  17. Corrosion inhibition by lithium zinc phosphate pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alibakhshi, E.; Ghasemi, E.; Mahdavian, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Synthesis of lithium zinc phosphate (LZP) by chemical co-precipitation method. •Corrosion inhibition activity of pigments compare with zinc phosphate (ZP). •LZP showed superior corrosion inhibition effect in EIS measurements. •Evaluation of adhesion strength and dispersion stability. -- Abstract: Lithium zinc phosphate (LZP) has been synthesized through a co-precipitation process and characterized by XRD and IR spectroscopy. The inhibitive performances of this pigment for corrosion of mild steel have been discussed in comparison with the zinc phosphate (ZP) in the pigment extract solution by means of EIS and in the epoxy coating by means of salt spray. The EIS and salt spray results revealed the superior corrosion inhibitive effect of LZP compared to ZP. Moreover, adhesion strength and dispersion stability of the pigmented epoxy coating showed the advantage of LZP compared to ZP

  18. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    One of the most serious ecological problems is muta- ... UV irradiation mutagenesis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC-. 124 .... certain balance between the pigment content in the algal ... is bombarded with the full brunt of solar UV (ultraviolet).

  19. Confluent focal nodular hyperplasia mimicking liver cancer: Value of liver-specific contrast-enhanced MRI for diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chi Cheng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Focal nodular hyperplasia is the second most common benign hepatic tumor. Unlike adenoma as well as the malignant neoplasms, focal nodular hyperplasia can often be managed successfully without surgery. Use of liver-specific contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging allows clinicians to confirm the diagnosis noninvasively in some patients, allowing select patients to avoid surgery. We report a case of a patient who presented with the rare profile of multiple, confluent lesions that were diagnosed, using magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium-dimeglumine, as focal nodular hyperplasia. This complicated case was managed successfully and noninvasively based on algorithm found in the recent literature that allows patients to avoid unnecessary surgery.

  20. De Morsier syndrome associated with periventricular nodular heterotopia: case reporte Síndrome de De Morsier associada a heterotopia nodular periventricular: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Jaques Spinosa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Septo-optic dysplasia (De Morsier syndrome is defined as the association between optic nerve hypoplasia, midline central nervous system malformations and pituitary dysfunction. CASE REPORT: Third child born to nonconsanguineous parents, female, adequate pre-natal medical care, cesarean term delivery due to breech presentation, Apgar score 3 at the first minute and 8 at 5 minutes, symptomatic hypoglycemia at 18 hours. Neurological follow-up identified a delay in acquisition of motor and language developmental milestones. Epileptic generalized seizures began at 12 months and were controlled with phenobarbital. EEG was normal. MRI revealed agenesis of the pituitary stalk, hypoplasia of the optic chiasm and periventricular nodular heterotopia. Ophthalmologic evaluation showed bilateral optic disk hypoplasia. Endocrine function laboratory tests revealed primary hypothyroidism and hyperprolactinemia. CONCLUSION: The relevance of this case report relies on its uniqueness, since periventricular heterotopia had not been described in association with septo-optic dysplasia until 2006.INTRODUÇÃO: Displasia septo-óptica (síndrome de De Morsier é definida como a associação entre hipoplasia do nervo óptico, malformações de linha média do sistema nervoso central e disfunção pituitária. RELATO DE CASO: Terceiro filho, pais não consangüíneos, sexo feminino, pré-natal adequado, parto cesário a termo por apresentação pélvica, Apgar 3 no primeiro minuto e 8 no quinto minuto, hipoglicemia sintomática com 18 horas de vida. Durante o acompanhamento neurológico identificou-se atraso na aquisição dos marcos de desenvolvimento motor e linguagem. Crises epilépticas generalizadas iniciaram com 12 meses de vida sendo controladas com fenobarbital. EEG era normal. Ressonância magnética revelou agenesia de haste pituitária, hipoplasia de quiasma óptico e heterotopia nodular periventricular. Avaliação oftalmológica demonstrou

  1. Familial occurrence of pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovell, A M; Damji, K F; Dohadwala, A A; Hodge, W G; Allingham, R R

    2001-02-01

    Pigment dispersion syndrome affects up to 4% of the white population. It is characterized by the presence of transillumination defects, Krukenberg's spindle and dense trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Open-angle glaucoma will develop in as many as 50% of affected patients. In this study we describe the familial occurrence of pigment dispersion syndrome in six North American pedigrees and the phenotypic characteristics with respect to pigment dispersion syndrome and glaucoma. Probands with pigment dispersion syndrome were identified in glaucoma clinics at university eye centres in Ottawa and Durham, NC. Families with two or more affected members were evaluated. All willing members in each family underwent a thorough clinical examination and were classified as affected with pigment dispersion syndrome, suspect or unaffected. The previous medical records were reviewed to obtain the past medical and ocular history, including risk factors for glaucoma. All six families are white. Three families show at least two generations of affected members. Of the 43 subjects examined 58% were women. All 14 affected members showed moderate to heavy trabecular meshwork pigmentation and either Krukenberg's spindle or transillumination defects. The affected members were also considerably more myopic (mean spherical equivalent for the right eye -4.72 dioptres) than the suspect group or the unaffected group (mean spherical equivalent -0.79 D and +1.19 D respectively) (p pigment dispersion syndrome. Our ultimate goal is to identify the gene(s) that causes this disorder in order to clarify its molecular etiology and pathophysiology. This may give rise to a molecular classification of the disease as well as provide the foundation for genetic testing and new treatment approaches.

  2. Dynamic fracture toughness and evaluation of fracture in a ferritic nodular cast iron for casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasunaka, T.; Nakano, K.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of loading rate and temperature on fracture toughness of a ferritic nodular cast iron obtained from a thick-walled cylindrical casting has been investigated. Based upon this result, the cast iron is evaluated as a material for casks. (1) In the ductile fracture region, fracture toughness increases with increases in loading rate. (2) Ductile-brittle transition temperature is linearly related to the logarithm of stress intensity rate. (3) In the ductile fracture region, converted plain strain fracture toughness divided by yield stress can be adopted as a material constant which is independent of loading rate and temperature. From the result of a static fracture toughness test, the evaluation of fracture in high loading rate can be made. (4) In the ductile fracture region of the material investigated, the maximum allowable flaw depth exceeded the minimum detectable flaw size by a nondestructive inspection. Ferritic nodular cast iron can be used as a material for casks in the ductile fracture region at least. (J.P.N.)

  3. Investigations of Ferritic Nodular Cast Iron Containing About 5-6% Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soiński M.S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work presents results of investigations concerning the production of cast iron containing about 5-6% aluminium, with the ferritic matrix in the as-cast state and nodular or vermicular graphite precipitates. The examined cast iron came from six melts produced under the laboratory conditions. It contained aluminium in the amount of 5.15% to 6.02% (carbon in the amount of 2.41% to 2.87%, silicon in the amount of 4.50% to 5.30%, and manganese in the amount of 0.12% to 0.14%. After its treatment with cerium mixture and graphitization with ferrosilicon (75% Si, only nodular and vermicular graphite precipitates were achieved in the examined cast iron. Moreover, it is possible to achieve the alloy of pure ferritic matrix, even after the spheroidizing treatment, when both the aluminium and the silicon occur in cast iron in amounts of about 5.2÷5.3%.

  4. A report of unusual diffuse nodular lesions in intestines of lambs with coccidiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a.r Taghavi Razavizadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ovine and caprine coccidiosis has always been regarded as one of the important diseases with high morbidity and economic losses such as weight loss, death and costs of treatment and control. In a sheep farm, 4 sick newborn lambs (out of 10 lambs with the age of 1 to 2 months died with clinical signs of weight loss, loss of appetite, yellowish diarrhea, fever, ruffled wool, contamination of tail and perineal area to diarrheic stool and abdominal pain at the touch of abdomen. At necropsy on one lamb, multiple and diffuse nodular hyperplastic lesions yellowish-white in color were seen in the mucosal surface of jejunum. Microscopically, in addition to hyperplasia of the small intestinal villi, various developmental stages of Eimeria were observed. Based on morphological characteristics and presence of numerous polyp like formations in small intestine, the involved protozoan species was determined as Eimeria bakuensis. The relatively high case fatality rate in this flock could be related to sever nodular lesions in the small intestines, age and immune status of the affected animals.

  5. Microstructure and erosion characteristic of nodular cast iron surface modified by tungsten inert gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abboud, Jaafar Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Local surface melting. ► Significant improvement in erosion resistance. ► The ductile behaviour was found. -- Abstract: The surface of nodular cast iron has been melted and rapidly solidified by Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) process to produce a chilled structure of high hardness and better erosion resistance. Welding currents of magnitude 100, 150, and 200 A at a constant voltage of 72 have been used to melt the surface of nodular cast iron. Microstructural characterization, hardness measurements, and erosion wear tests have been performed on these modified surfaces as well as on the untreated material. Microstructural characterization has shown that surface melting resulted in complete or partial dissolution of the graphite nodules and resolidification of primary austenite dendrites, which undergo further decomposition into ferrite and cementite, and interdendritic of acicular eutectic; their microhardness measured across the melted depth ranged between 600 and 800 Hv. The scale of the dendrites and the interdendritic eutectic became coarser when a higher current is used. The results also indicated that remelting process by TIG improved erosion resistance by three to four times. Eroded surface observations of the as-received and TIG melted samples showed a ductile behavior with a maximum erosion rate at 30°. The fine microstructures obtained by the rapid cooling and the formation of a large amount of eutectic cementite instead of the graphite have contributed greatly to the plastic flow and consequently to the better erosion resistance of the TIG surface melted samples.

  6. MRI-findings of nodular lesions in an enlarged spleen, associated with visceral Leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeymaeckers, Steven, E-mail: Steven.Raeymaeckers@vub.ac.be [ZNA Middelheim, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Docx, Martine; Demeyere, Nathan [ZNA Middelheim, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: ► We confirm a previous report that infection with Leishmania can manifest multiple nodular lesions of the spleen. ► We confirm these lesions to be readily detectable with present imaging modalities. ► We affirm the fact that these lesions are hypoechoic on ultrasound, though in our case no hypoechoic halo was observed. ► We found these lesions to be hypodense on CT in the delayed phase after intravenous contrast administration. ► In addition to these previous findings we found that the spleen showed an inhomogeneous intensity on MRI; upon closer examination whilst scrolling through the T2-weighted sequences we can note multiple ill-defined and heterogeneous hypointense nodules. -- Abstract: We present a case of a 15-month-old Moroccan girl with fever of unknown origin, hepatosplenomegaly and multiple hypoechoic nodular splenic lesions that appear hypodense on CT. T2-weighted MRI sequences show a markedly inhomogeneous intensity of the parenchyma, seemingly caused by multiple ill-defined and heterogeneous hypointense nodules. Laboratory tests confirmed a recent infection with Leishmania, a parasite endemic to (sub)tropic regions. During and after therapy these lesions gradually resolved. To our knowledge this is the second published case in which different imaging modalities were able to demonstrate organ lesions associated with Leishmania. It is also the first report of MRI-findings associated with these lesions.

  7. Prevalence of malignancy in resected specimen of patients operated for benign nodular goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosa, F.A.; Junaid, M.; Khan, F.W.; Afzal, Y.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the frequency of malignancy on histopathology amongst resected specimen of thyroid gland in patients, who had no evidence of malignancy pre-operatively on clinical grounds and investigations. A total of 190 patients who were operated for benign nodular thyroid disease during the study period; 100 cases had multinodular goitre and 90 solitary nodules. Biodata, clinical features, investigations, diagnosis, details of surgery, complications and histopathology reports of all the patients were reviewed and analyzed. Amongst the 190 patients the mean age was 33.42+-12.4 years (range 17-45 years), while the male: female ratio was 1:6.6. Seven (3.6%) cases were found to be malignant on histopathology, with a frequency of 3% (3/100) amongst multinodular cases and 4.4% (4/90) amongst solitary nodules. Prevalence of malignancy in multinodular goitre does not differ significantly from solitary nodules. Hence, multinodularity should no longer be considered as an indicator of benign disease. Both varieties of nodular goitres should be considered for surgery even if there is no suspicion of malignancy. (author)

  8. Standard test method for determining nodularity and nodule count in ductile iron using image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method is used to determine the percent nodularity and the nodule count per unit area (that is, number of nodules per mm2) using a light microscopical image of graphite in nodular cast iron. Images generated by other devices, such as a scanning electron microscope, are not specifically addressed, but can be utilized if the system is calibrated in both x and y directions. 1.2 Measurement of secondary or temper carbon in other types of cast iron, for example, malleable cast iron or in graphitic tool steels, is not specifically included in this standard because of the different graphite shapes and sizes inherent to such grades 1.3 This standard deals only with the recommended test method and nothing in it should be construed as defining or establishing limits of acceptability or fitness for purpose of the material tested. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address al...

  9. Solitary nodular bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the lung: prediction of histology at high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hyun Jung; Lee, Kyung Soo; Choo, In Wook; Kim, Seung Hoon; Lee, Won Jae; Byun, Hong Sik; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Shin, Myung Hee; Kim, Sang Jin

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to descdribe the characteristic high-resolution (HR) CT findings of solitary nodular bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) of the lung which are valuable for specific diagnosis of the disease. HRCT scans of 46 patients (31 with malignant and 15 with benign lesion) with a solitary pulmonary nodule seen on chest radiograph were distributed in random order and analyzed retrospectively. Two blinded observers jointly analyzed the marginal and internal characteristics of nodules as seen on HRCT, and decisions on the findings were reached by consensus. Stepwise discriminant analysis for characteristic findings of BAC was performed. The most frequent CT findings of BAC (n=3D15) were internal bubble lucency (14/15, 93%)(p=3D0.001), area of ground-glass opacity (12/15, 80%; average 58% of tumor volume)(p=3D0.0001), pleural tag(12/15, 80%; p=3D0.097), and lobulated and spiculated margin(8/15, 53%; p=3D0.459). Findings of ground-glass opacity (p=3D0.0001) and bubble lucency (p=3D0.0187) appeared to be discriminant in the diagnosis of BAC. Peripheral pulmonary nodules containing an area of ground-glass opacity associated with internal bubble-lucency are characteristic of BAC. Specific histologic diagnosis of solitary nodular BAC can be suggested by careful analysis of HRCT findings.=20

  10. Preparation, characterization and application of some anti- corrosive molybdate pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Ghaffar, M.A.; El-Sawy, S.M.; Ahmed, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    Some molybdate pigments of single and mixed metal ions, namely, zinc, calcium and zinc-calcium molybdates were prepared, characterized and evaluated according to international standard methods. The evaluated pigments were incorporated in some paint formulations. The physicomechanical, chemical and corrosion protective properties of the paint films were measured; this was done in comparison with a commercial imported molybdate pigment. It was found that, the prepared pigments under investigation are fine white crystalline powders of suitable pigment properties. They can be successfully used as environmentally acceptable anti corrosive pigments. They can replace satisfactorily the similar commercial imported pigment and possess adequate or superior properties against corrosion

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Micrococcus luteus Cartenoid pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Z. Majeed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cartenoids are group of pigments, with enormous types different structurally and functionally, have colors range from red to yellow found in a wide variety of plants, fungi, algae and bacteria. The animals took from food because they cannot make it, on contrary, the plants and microbes produce them due to subjection to environment. The aim of the study is to isolate and characterize the cartenoid pigment from Micrococcus luteus. The pigment extraction was done by acetone, and then was characterized with UltraViolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Then, it was tested for antibacterial activity against five different bacterial isolates and antifungal activity tests against six different fungal isolates by well diffusion method. The results found that, the extracted pigment having antibacterial activity and antifungal activity and having the ability to absorb UVA rays within the range of 300-500 nm. There was no significant difference in antimicrobial effect of pigment, even when the extraction and isolation were done by two culture mediums (Nutrient Broth and Luria Bertani Broth. There were considerable inhibition percentages of adhesion after subjection to Cartenoid pigment ranged between (5.71, 23.84 % for Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively and all the 11 isolate changed from Biofilm producer to non-producer. The isolated compound can be used against different bacterial and fungal infections. So they had a great future in medicine, cosmetics and as a sun protecting agent.

  12. Proton beam modification of lead white pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Gutiérrez, P.C.; Miserque, F.; Thomé, L.

    2013-01-01

    Pigments and paint materials are known to be sensitive to particle irradiation. Occasionally, the analysis of paintings by PIXE can induce a slight or dark stain depending on the experimental conditions (beam current, dose, particle energy). In order to understand this discoloration, we have irradiated various types of art white pigments – lead white (hydrocerussite and basic lead sulfate), gypsum, calcite, zinc oxide and titanium oxide – with an external 3 MeV proton micro-beam commonly used for PIXE experiments. We have observed various sensitivities depending on the pigment. No visible change occurs for calcite and titanium oxide, whereas lead white pigments are very sensitive. For the majority of the studied compounds, the discoloration is proportional to the beam current and charge. The damage induced by proton beam irradiation in lead white pigments was studied by micro-Raman and XPS spectroscopies. Structural modifications and dehydration were detected. Damage recovery was investigated by thermal treatment and UV-light irradiation. The discoloration disappeared after one week of UV illumination, showing that PIXE experiments could be safely undertaken for pigments and paintings

  13. Microbial Production of Food Grade Pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dufossé

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The controversial topic of synthetic dyes in food has been discussed for many years. The scrutiny and negative assessment of synthetic food dyes by the modern consumer have raised a strong interest in natural colouring alternatives. Nature is rich in colours (minerals, plants, microalgae, etc., and pigment-producing microorganisms (fungi, yeasts, bacteria are quite common. Among the molecules produced by microorganisms are carotenoids, melanins, flavins, quinones, and more specifically monascins, violacein or indigo. The success of any pigment produced by fermentation depends upon its acceptability on the market, regulatory approval, and the size of the capital investment required to bring the product to market. A few years ago, some expressed doubts about the successful commercialization of fermentation-derived food grade pigments because of the high capital investment requirements for fermentation facilities and the extensive and lengthy toxicity studies required by regulatory agencies. Public perception of biotechnology-derived products also had to be taken into account. Nowadays some fermentative food grade pigments are on the market: Monascus pigments, astaxanthin from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, Arpink Red from Penicillium oxalicum, riboflavin from Ashbya gossypii, b-carotene from Blakeslea trispora. The successful marketing of pigments derived from algae or extracted from plants, both as a food colour and a nutritional supplement, reflects the presence and importance of niche markets in which consumers are willing to pay a premium for »all natural ingredients«.

  14. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: is it possible to reduce false negative rates by excluding patients with nodular melanoma?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corrigan, M A

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the outcome of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with melanoma and to delineate whether patients with nodular melanoma are more likely to develop nodal recurrence despite negative SLNB. METHODS: Consecutive patients with cutaneous melanoma undergoing SLNB were identified from a departmental database between 1997 and 2005. Factors including demographic data, site, histological subtype, depth and outcome were examined. RESULTS: Of 131 patients, 103 were node negative and eligible for study. The median age was 53 (16-82) years with 46 patients being male (45%) and 57 female (55%). Primary melanoma sites included lower limb (49; 48%), upper limb (29; 28%), head (12; 11%), trunk (7; 7%) and back (6; 6%). The median Breslow thickness was 2mm. Superficial spreading accounted for 43% of melanoma with nodular accounting for 42%. Median follow-up was 40 (3-90) months. Of 20 relapses, seven recurred in the same nodal basin, three were satellite recurrences, one recurred with both satellite and nodal lesions simultaneously, and nine experienced haematogenous spread. Of the eight patients who developed recurrence in the same nodal basin, four were of nodular histological subtype (p=NS). All of the three patients with satellite lesions had nodular melanoma histologically (p=0.02). When nodal and satellite recurrences were combined, eight of 11 were histologically nodular (p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that lymphatic recurrence occurs more often in SLNB negative patients with nodular melanoma. Further evaluation of the inclusion criteria for sentinel node biopsy is warranted.

  15. INSULIN LIKE GROWTH FACTOR 1 POSSIBLE DEPENDENCE IN PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME OF NODULAR PATHOLOGY OF THE THYROID GLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekvava, M; Dundua, T; Kobulia, M; Javashvili, L; Giorgadze, E

    2017-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome and nodular pathology of the thyroid gland is a widespread problem nowadays. Recently there has been a notable coincidence between metabolic syndrome and nodular pathology of thyroid gland. Hence, it is interesting to reveal the connection between these two diseases. It is possible that insulin-like growth factor system (IGF), namely IGF 1 is connecting link between metabolic syndrome and nodular pathology of thyroid gland, because IGF1 stimulates growth and proliferation of cells in the body. We have investigated18-82 years of age 71 patients. group 1 n27- subjects with thyroid nodular disease, and metabolic syndrome, group 2 n31- subjects with thyroid nodular disease and without metabolic syndrome. group 3 n13 - subjects with metabolic syndrome and no thyroid pathology. In all groups were assessed thyroid structural data, defined parameters of carbohydrate metabolism, thyroid function and blood concentration of IGF1. In patients with hyperinsulinemia IGF 1 was noted in normal or reduced concentration. In I group IGF1 was normal in 70,4% (n=19), decreased in 29,6% (n=8), In II group was normal in 77,4 % (n=24), decreased in 22,6% (n=7) and in III group was normal in 76,9% (n=10), decreased in 23,1% (n=3). Increase of IGF 1 in patients with thyroid nodular disease patients was not noted. Statistically significant connection between IGF1 and thyroid nodules was not revealed. For the further investigation of this connection we plan to measure IGF1 in the thyroid histological samples in the future studies.

  16. Role of changes in functional status of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in immunoenhancement after low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuzheng; Zhao Yong; Han Zhenbo

    1994-01-01

    Whole-body irradiation (WBI) of mice with 75 mGy X-rays caused increase in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) content of hypothalamus and decrease in serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CS) level, accompanied with potentiation of immune functions, expressed as increased spontaneous incorporation of 3 H-TdR into thymocytes, augmented proliferative reaction of the splenocytes to Con A and increased production of interleukin-2 by the splenocytes. After intra hypothalamic injection of 5HT there occurred a lowering of serum ACTH level and enhancement of immune reactivity of the splenic and thymic lymphocytes. It is assumed that low dose radiation could influence the central 5-hydroxytryptaminergic neurons causing increase in hypothalamic 5HT content and this, in turn, decreases pituitary secretion of ACTH with a down-regulation of the adrenocortical function. This would partially release the tonic suppression normally exerted on the immune organs by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, thus leading to potentiation of immune functions. These neuroendocrine changes should be considered as an important factor in the analysis of the mechanism of immunoenhancement after WBI with low doses

  17. The effect of a maternal history of childhood abuse on adrenocortical attunement in mothers and their toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Anna; Moehler, Eva; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2017-07-01

    We investigated circadian mother-child adrenocortical attunement in the context of a maternal history of childhood abuse (HoA). Mothers were screened after birth using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Women reporting moderate or severe abuse formed the HoA group (n = 37; HoAG) and were compared with a non-maltreated comparison group (n = 45; CG). Three years later, cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal slope (DSL) were assessed. Mother-child interaction was coded using the Emotional Availability Scales at 12 months of age. For the CAR, we found adrenocortical attunement only in the HoAG (2-way interaction: p = .004), particularly if mothers scored low on structuring (3-way interaction: p = .042) and children scored low on responsiveness (3-way interaction: p = .044). DSL-attunement was dependent on maternal sensitivity (3-way interaction: p = .012) and child involvement (3-way interaction: p = .012). In the context of a maternal HoA, it seems possible for mother-child-dyads to show less optimal interactional quality but be stronger attuned to each other biologically. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The effect of types I and III interferons on adrenocortical cells and its possible implications for autoimmune Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellesen, A; Edvardsen, K; Breivik, L; Husebye, E S; Bratland, E

    2014-06-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is caused by selective destruction of the hormone-producing cells of the adrenal cortex. As yet, little is known about the potential role played by environmental factors in this process. Type I and/or type III interferons (IFNs) are signature responses to virus infections, and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune endocrine disorders such as type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroiditis. Transient development of AAD and exacerbation of established or subclinical disease, as well as the induction of autoantibodies associated with AAD, have been reported following therapeutic administration of type I IFNs. We therefore hypothesize that exposure to such IFNs could render the adrenal cortex susceptible to autoimmune attack in genetically predisposed individuals. In this study, we investigated possible immunopathological effects of type I and type III IFNs on adrenocortical cells in relation to AAD. Both types I and III IFNs exerted significant cytotoxicity on NCI-H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells and potentiated IFN-γ- and polyinosine-polycytidylic acid [poly (I : C)]-induced chemokine secretion. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules and up-regulation of 21-hydroxylase, the primary antigenic target in AAD. We propose that these combined effects could serve to initiate or aggravate an ongoing autoimmune response against the adrenal cortex in AAD. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  19. Oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasms--a clinicopathologic study of 13 new cases emphasizing the importance of their recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel D; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Bisceglia, Michele; Havlat, Marek; McCallum, Dugald; Platten, Michael A

    2011-04-01

    Oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasms (OANs) are a rare but important subtype of adrenal tumors with unique clinical and morphological features. We present 13 previously unpublished cases, of which 3 were classified as benign, 2 as having borderline malignant potential, and 8 as malignant according to the Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia criteria. Seven tumors (54%) showed evidence of endocrine activity. All were composed of more than 90% oncocytes confirmed immunohistochemically using the antimitochondrial antibody mES-13 and ultrastructurally in 4 cases. Small oncocytes were a frequent finding that challenges the conventional notion of oncocytes as necessarily having abundant cytoplasm. Most cases were immunoreactive for vimentin, synaptophysin, inhibin-α, melan A, and calretinin, the latter being a novel finding in this group of neoplasms. Cytokeratin positivity with AE1/AE3 and CAM5.2 was variable. The literature was comprehensively reviewed to identify all cases of OANs reported to date. Hormone production is not as uncommon as previously believed, occurring in 30%. The Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia criteria were retrospectively applied to all published cases with sufficient information and were shown to effectively separate tumors according to their future risk of recurrence and survival using Kaplan-Meier survival curves (log-rank test, P interval = 27.5-88.5 months), providing the first preliminary evidence that the prognosis of malignant OANs is likely to be more favorable than conventional adrenocortical carcinomas, in which the reported median survival is between 14 and 32 months. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pigment Production from Immobilized Monascus sp. Utilizing Polymeric Resin Adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Patrick J.; Wang, Henry Y.

    1984-01-01

    Pigment production by the fungus Monascus sp. was studied to determine why Monascus sp. provides more pigment in solid culture than in submerged culture. Adding a sterilized nonionic polymeric adsorbent resin directly to the growing submerged culture did not enhance the pigment production, thus indicating that pigment extraction is probably not a factor. Monascus cells immobilized in hydrogel were studied and exhibited decreased pigment production as a result of immobilization. This result is...

  1. Prenatal Maternal Stress Predicts Methylation of Genes Regulating the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical System in Mothers and Newborns in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertes, Darlene A.; Kamin, Hayley S.; Hughes, David A.; Rodney, Nicole C.; Bhatt, Samarth; Mulligan, Connie J.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress early in life permanently shapes activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and the brain. Prenatally, glucocorticoids pass through the placenta to the fetus with postnatal impacts on brain development, birth weight (BW), and HPA axis functioning. Little is known about the biological mechanisms by which…

  2. The Role of the Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis System in the Regulation of Secretion of Digestive Glands of Wrestlers during Sports and Postsports Ontogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, Sergei F.; Panova, Irina P.; Volunskaya, Elena V.; Chebotarev, Andrei V.

    2016-01-01

    According to many researchers its necessary to research a hormonal profile in order to determine mechanisms of regulation of functions of the digestive conveyor during sports activities. In the paper the results of the carried out research on studying of a role of pituitary-adrenocortical axis system of adaptive reactions in activities of the…

  3. Bilateral Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia and Lissencephaly in an Infant with Unbalanced t(12;17)(q24.31; p13.3) Translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Salvatore; Fichera, Marco; Galesi, Ornella; Luciano, Daniela; Pucci, Lucia; Giardini, Francesca; Berardi, Rosario; Balestri, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Periventricular nodular heterotopia and Miller-Dieker syndrome are two different disorders of brain development. Miller-Dieker syndrome exhibits classical lissencephaly and is related to defects in the lissencephaly gene ("LIS1"). Periventricular nodular heterotopia is characterized by aggregates of grey matter adjacent to the lateral ventricle…

  4. {sup 18}F-Labelled metomidate analogues as adrenocortical imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlandsson, Maria; Karimi, Farhad [Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 576, S-751 23 Uppsala (Sweden); Lindhe, Orjan [Uppsala Imanet, GE Healthcare, Box 967, S-751 09 Uppsala (Sweden); Langstroem, Bengt [Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 576, S-751 23 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: bengt.langstrom@biorg.uu.se

    2009-05-15

    Introduction: Two- and one-step syntheses of {sup 18}F-labelled analogues of metomidate, such as 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl 1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (1), 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl 1-[(1R)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (2), 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl 1-[(1R)-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (3), 3-[{sup 18}F]fluoropropyl 1-[(1R)-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (4) and 3-[{sup 18}F]fluoropropyl 1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (5) are presented. Methods: Analogues 1-5 were prepared by a two-step reaction sequence that started with the synthesis of either 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate or 3-[{sup 18}F]fluoropropyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate. These were used as {sup 18}F-alkylating agents in the second step, in which they reacted with the ammonium salt of a 1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylic acid. One-step-labelling syntheses of 1, 2 and 5 were also explored. Analogues 1-4 were biologically validated by frozen-section autoradiography and organ distribution. Metabolite analysis was performed for 2 and 3. Results: The radiochemical yield of the two-step synthesis was in the range of 10-29% and that of the one-step synthesis was 25-37%. Using microwave irradiation in the one-step synthesis of 1 and 2 increased the radiochemical yield to 46{+-}3% and 79{+-}30%, respectively. Conclusion: Both the frozen-section autoradiography and organ distribution results indicated that analogue 2 has a potential as an adrenocortical imaging agent, having the highest degree of specific adrenal binding and best ratio of adrenal to organ uptake among the compounds studied.

  5. Association of mitotane with chylomicrons and serum lipoproteins: practical implications for treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroiss, Matthias; Plonné, Dietmar; Kendl, Sabine; Schirmer, Diana; Ronchi, Cristina L; Schirbel, Andreas; Zink, Martina; Lapa, Constantin; Klinker, Hartwig; Fassnacht, Martin; Heinz, Werner; Sbiera, Silviu

    2016-03-01

    Oral mitotane (o,p'-DDD) is a cornerstone of medical treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Serum mitotane concentrations >14  mg/l are targeted for improved efficacy but not achieved in about half of patients. Here we aimed at a better understanding of intestinal absorption and lipoprotein association of mitotane and metabolites o,p'-dichlorodiphenylacetic acid (o,p'-DDA) and o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (o,p'-DDE). Lipoproteins were isolated by ultracentrifugation from the chyle of a 29-year-old patient and serum from additional 14 ACC patients treated with mitotane. HPLC was applied for quantification of mitotane and metabolites. We assessed NCI-H295 cell viability, cortisol production, and expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker genes to study the functional consequences of mitotane binding to lipoproteins. Chyle of the index patient contained 197  mg/ml mitotane, 53  mg/ml o,p'-DDA, and 51  mg/l o,p'-DDE. Of the total mitotane in serum, lipoprotein fractions contained 21.7±21.4% (VLDL), 1.9±0.8% (IDL), 8.9±5.5% (LDL1), 18.9±9.6% (LDL2), 10.1±4.0% (LDL3), and 26.3±13.0% (HDL2). Only 12.3±5.5% were in the lipoprotein-depleted fraction. Mitotane content of lipoproteins directly correlated with their triglyceride and cholesterol content. O,p'-DDE was similarly distributed, but 87.9±4.2% of o,p'-DDA found in the HDL2 and lipoprotein-depleted fractions. Binding of mitotane to human lipoproteins blunted its anti-proliferative and anti-hormonal effects on NCI-H295 cells and reduced ER stress marker gene expression. Mitotane absorption involves chylomicron binding. High concentrations of o,p'-DDA and o,p'-DDE in chyle suggest intestinal mitotane metabolism. In serum, the majority of mitotane is bound to lipoproteins. In vitro, lipoprotein binding inhibits activity of mitotane suggesting that lipoprotein-free mitotane is the therapeutically active fraction. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. Mutations in CTNNA1 cause butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and perturbed retinal pigment epithelium integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saksens, N.T.; Krebs, M.P.; Schoenmaker, F.E.; Hicks, W.; Yu, M.; Shi, L.; Rowe, L.; Collin, G.B.; Charette, J.R.; Letteboer, S.J.; Neveling, K.; Moorsel, T.W. van; Abu-Ltaif, S.; Baere, E. De; Walraedt, S.; Banfi, S.; Simonelli, F.; Cremers, F.P.; Boon, C.J.; Roepman, R.; Leroy, B.P.; Peachey, N.S.; Hoyng, C.B.; Nishina, P.M.; Hollander, A.I. den

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy is an eye disease characterized by lesions in the macula that can resemble the wings of a butterfly. Here we report the identification of heterozygous missense mutations in the CTNNA1 gene (encoding alpha-catenin 1) in three families with butterfly-shaped pigment

  7. Amiloidose pulmonar: relato de caso de achado radiológico da apresentação nodular em grande fumante Pulmonary amyloidosis: radiographic finding of nodular opacities in a heavy smoker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Montessi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A amiloidose pulmonar é uma doença rara, caracterizada pelo depósito extracelular de proteínas fibrilares no pulmão. Amiloidose é um termo genérico para grupos heterogêneos de doenças, incluindo doença de Alzheimer e diabetes mellitus tipo II. Apresenta-se no aparelho respiratório sob as formas traqueobrônquica, nodular pulmonar e septal alveolar (parenquimatosa difusa. Relata-se o caso de uma mulher, tabagista (20 anos/maço, portadora de amiloidose nodular pulmonar, diagnosticada através de exames pré-operatórios à realização de colecistectomia videolaparoscópica.Pulmonary amyloidosis is a rare disease, characterized by extracellular deposition of fibrillary protein in the lungs. Amyloidosis is a generic term for a heterogeneous group of diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the respiratory system, it appears in various forms: tracheobronchial; nodular pulmonary; and alveolar septal (diffuse parenchymal. We present the case of a woman who was a 20 pack-year smoker and had nodular pulmonary amyloidosis, as diagnosed through tests performed prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  8. Perturabation of nodular operation under salt and water deficit stress in rhizobium common bean symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harzalli Jebara, Salwa

    2006-01-01

    This work aims at the search for markers of tolerance to the osmotic stress and nodular efficiency of symbiosis Haricot Rhizobium. Thus, after having fixed the best period of hydroponic culture, we showed that a severe salt treatment generated an inhibition of the parameters of growth and nodulation. These inhibitions are accompanied by an inhibition of the enzymatic activities: ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT), but an activation of peroxidase (POX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), suggesting that these two antioxydants can be biochemical markers of the tolerance to salinity. To check the validity of these markers and to see the participation of the vegetable genotype in the response to the stress, we compared the effect of two concentrations salt 25 and 50 mM NaCe at two contrasting genotypes BAT477 tolerant and sensitive COCOT. This study illustrates the role of the vegetable genotype in the tolerance and efficiency and emphasize a significant result that SOD and POX constitute biochemical markers of tolerance to salinity. In order to ensure itself of the validity of this assumption in the event of water deficit stress, a treatment of 50 mM mannitol is applied to 16 symbioses formed by four genotypes of bean BAT477, COCOT, Flamingo and BRB17 inoculated by four strains of rhizobium CIAT899, 12 to 3, 1 to 6 and 8 to 3. This study permits us to make a screening of these symbioses according to their efficiency and their tolerance based on parameters of growth, of fixing and extent of the antioxydant enzymatic activities. It gets clear that the response of enzymatic antioxydants is in relation to the intrinsic potentialities of the partners of symbioses and appears to act as of the first stages of recognition plants bacterium. It will be retained that activities POX and SOD are markers of nodular tolerance. The CAT is the enzyme most connected to each partner of symbiosis and the APX would play a rather functional role. The heterogeneity of found answer

  9. Fish pigmentation and the melanocortin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal, Laura; Suarez-Bregua, Paula; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel; Braasch, Ingo; Rotllant, Josep

    2017-09-01

    The melanocortin system is a complex neuroendocrine signaling mechanism involved in numerous physiological processes in vertebrates, including pigmentation, steroidogenesis and metabolic control. This review focuses at one of its most fascinating function in fish, its regulatory role in the control of pigmentation, in which the melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r), its agonist α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-Msh), and the endogenous antagonist agouti signaling protein (Asip1) are the main players. Functional control of Mc1r, which is highly expressed in fish skin and whose activation stimulates melanin production and melanosome dispersion in fish melanophores, is considered a key mechanism for vertebrate pigment phenotypes. The α-Msh peptide, the most documented Mc1r agonist involved in pigmentation, is produced in the pituitary gland, activating melanin synthesis by binding to Mc1r in fish melanophores. Finally, Asip1 is the putative factor for establishing the evolutionarily conserved dorso-ventral pigment pattern found across vertebrates. However, we are just starting to understand how other melanocortin system components are acting in this complex regulatory network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Gutierrez-Leon, A.; Castro, G.R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J. [Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, SpLine, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Solis, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sanchez-Hernandez, R. [INAH Subdireccion de Laboratorios y Apoyo Academico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Robles-Camacho, J. [INAH Centro Regional Michoacan, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Rojas-Gaytan, J. [INAH Direccion de Salvamento Arqueologico, Naucalpan de Juarez (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few {mu}g of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as anil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue. (orig.)

  11. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Del Río, M.; Gutiérrez-León, A.; Castro, G. R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Solís, C.; Sánchez-Hernández, R.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Rojas-Gaytán, J.

    2008-01-01

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few μg of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as añil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue.

  12. Multiscale Pigment Analysis of Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Erica; Manukyan, Khachatur; Wiescher, Michael; Gura, David

    2017-09-01

    Three medieval illuminated manuscripts (codd. Lat. b. 1; Lat. b. 2; Lat. e. 4), housed at the University of Notre Dame's Hesburgh Library, vary in style, pigments, scribes, and regions, despite all three being Psalters used in the Late Middle Ages. XRF and Raman spectroscopy, which provided the elemental and molecular composition of the pigments, respectively, were used to analyze the pigments' compositions in an attempt to narrow further the manuscripts' possible origins. This experimental investigation emphasizes the importance of understanding the history of the manuscript through their pigments. Codd. Lat. b. 1 and Lat. b. 2 are Latinate German Psalters from the fifteenth century likely used in Katharinenkloster in Nuremberg. While there are visible differences in style within each Psalter, the variations in some of the pigment compositions, such as the inconstant presence of zinc, suggest different admixtures. Cod. Lat. e. 4 is a Latinate English Psalter from the fourteenth century, and it was written by two scribes and illuminated by two distinct painters. It is currently being tested to determine whether there are any correlations between the scribes and painters. These physical analyses will clarify the origins and provenances of the manuscripts.

  13. Clinical, pathological, and molecular data on desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma: case studies and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Aurore; Bertozzi, Anne Isabelle; Bourdeaut, Franck; Sevely, Annick; Loukh, Najat; Grison, Camille; Miquel, Catherine; Lafon, Delphine; Sevenet, Nicolas; Pietsch, Torsten; Dufour, Christelle; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to better define the clinical and biopathological features of patients with desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma (DNMB) and to further characterize this subgroup. 17 children aged 3 years, and residual tumor may also have been an explanation for recurrence.

  14. Intratumoral steatosis in focal nodular hyperplasia coinciding with diffuse hepatic steatosis : CT and MRI findings with histologic correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortele, KJ; Stubbe, J; Praet, M; Van Langenhove, P; De Bock, G; Kunnen, M

    2000-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign tumorlike condition that is thought to be a hyperplastic response to increased blood flow in an arterial malformation rather than a true neoplasm. Radiologically, FNH usually shows typical findings on unenhanced and enhanced computed tomography (CT) and

  15. Radiological Findings in a Case of Multiple Focal Nodular Hyperplasia Associated with Portal Vein Atresia and Portopulmonary Hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Joon; Jeong, Sook Hyang; Choi, Jin Woo; Park, Hee Sun; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Hae Ryoung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    We present here the radiological findings of a rare case of multiple focal nodular hyperplasia that was associated with portal vein atresia and portopulmonary hypertension in a young woman. This case illustrates and supports the pathophysiological hypotheses that were previously proposed for the coexistence of these three abnormalities

  16. Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia and Portal Hypertension in a Patient with Coeliac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Biecker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH of the liver is often associated with rheumatologic or lymphoproliferative disorders and a cause of portal hypertension in some patients. We report the case of a 71-year-old patient with celiac disease and unexplained portal hypertension. Biopsy of the liver revealed NRH as the underlying cause. The patient did not suffer from an autoimmune, rheumatologic or lymphoproliferative disease. A thrombophilic disorder that might cause NRH was ruled out. Celiac disease is often associated with mild elevation of liver enzymes and steatosis of the liver, but the association with NRH was described in only a few patients. We discuss the possible relationship of celiac disease and NRH.

  17. Escleritis nodular posterior gigante compatible con sarcoidosis ocular simulando un melanoma de la coroides

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Campagne, E.; Guex-Crosier, Y.; Schalenbourg, A.; Uffer, S.; Zografos, L.

    2007-01-01

    Caso clínico: Un paciente de 30 años fue enviado a nuestro servicio oncológico de referencia con el diagnóstico de melanoma amelanótico de la coroides del ojo izquierdo. Se hicieron los siguientes exámenes: oftalmoscopía, angiografía fluoresceínica, angiografía con verde de indocianina, ecografía, resonancia magnética y biopsia. Discusión: El diagnóstico de escleritis nodular posterior gigante basado en la ecografía se confirmó mediante una biopsia. Se realizó un examen médico completo buscán...

  18. First case report of locally advanced malignant nodular hidradenoma of the scrotum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Binay K; Qamruzzaman, Yusuf; Serban, Karina; Hire, Ervin; Ying, Shan-Ching

    2010-01-01

    Malignant nodular hidradenoma (MNH) is a malignant tumor of the eccrine glands, and most commonly involves the head, trunk, and extremities. To the best of our knowledge, MNH of the scrotum has not yet been described in the English literature. Despite the use of surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, optimal treatment of MNH is unclear. We describe the case of a 30-year-old African American man who was diagnosed with locally advanced MNH of the scrotum and treated with surgery. More than 2 years after surgery, the patient is without evidence of disease. This is the first case report of MNH of the scrotum. Surgery alone may be sufficient for the treatment of localized or locally advanced MNH. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Diagnostic imaging of focal nodular hyperplasis of the liver developing during nitrofurantoin therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttinen, H.; Ahonen, A.; Leinonen, A.; Kallioinen, M.; Heikkinen, E.S. (University of Oulu (Finland))

    1982-01-01

    An asymptomatic palpable liver tumor developed in a six-year-old girl seven months after commencement of prophylactic nitrofurantoin therapy for recurrent urinary tract infections. The tumor was examined by /sup 99/ sup (m) Tc colloid radionuclide scan, compound ultrasonography and angiography. Ultrasonography demonstrated a large, solid tumor (5x5x8 cm) in the right lobe of the liver which had an echogenic central core surrounded by an area giving low-amplitude echoes. Angiography disclosed that the tumor was well demarcated and hypervascular, containing large tortuous arteries. The uptake of radionuclide in the tumor was normal. The tumor was resected and the pathological findings were typical for focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) of the liver. The combination of the findings of these three diagnostic imaging methods is probably specific for uncomplicated (FNH), a benign and innocuous tumor of the liver.

  20. Sclerosing Angiomatoid Nodular Transformation: Laparoscopic Splenectomy as Therapeutic and Diagnostic Approach at the Same Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Cipolla

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT of the spleen is a rare benign vascular lesion with unknown etiopathogenesis and with definite features of imaging, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. It was first described by Martel et al. in 2004, and to date, only 151 cases have been reported. Case Description. We report a case of SANT of the spleen detected in a 66-year-old Caucasian, without comorbidities, presented to our department with epigastric pain. We, also, presented a review of the literature. Conclusions. SANT is a benign incidentally vascular condition in the majority of cases. The wide age and gender distribution in our review is in accordance with that in previous studies in English literature. In our opinion, splenectomy is the choice treatment because it is at the same time diagnostic and therapeutic in a definitive way.

  1. Sclerosing Angiomatoid Nodular Transformation: Laparoscopic Splenectomy as Therapeutic and Diagnostic Approach at the Same Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Calogero; Florena, Ada Maria; Ferrara, Gabriella; Di Gregorio, Riccardo; Unti, Elettra; Giannone, Antonino G; Lazzaro, Luigi A; Graceffa, Giuseppa; Pantuso, Gianni

    2018-01-01

    Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen is a rare benign vascular lesion with unknown etiopathogenesis and with definite features of imaging, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. It was first described by Martel et al. in 2004, and to date, only 151 cases have been reported. We report a case of SANT of the spleen detected in a 66-year-old Caucasian, without comorbidities, presented to our department with epigastric pain. We, also, presented a review of the literature. SANT is a benign incidentally vascular condition in the majority of cases. The wide age and gender distribution in our review is in accordance with that in previous studies in English literature. In our opinion, splenectomy is the choice treatment because it is at the same time diagnostic and therapeutic in a definitive way.

  2. Graves Disease Induced by Radioiodine Therapy for Toxic Nodular Goiter: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Yürekli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Graves’ disease (GD may be observed as an infrequent adverse effect after radioiodine therapy (RAIT for toxic thyroid adenoma (TA and toxic multi nodular goiter (MNG. We present a case of a 55-year-old male with a toxic nodule who was treated with RAI. After therapy, the patient’s serum free triiodothyronine (fT3 and free thyroxine (fT4 levels gradually increased. Antithyroid peroxidase (TPOAb, antithyroglobulin (TgAb and TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb were also positive. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed diffuse intense uptake after four months of RAIT. Radiation-induced GD should be considered in patients with aggravated hyperthyroidism 3-4 months after therapy.

  3. Nodular immunocyte-derived (AL) amyloidosis in the trachea of a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besancon, M Faulkner; Stacy, Brian A; Kyles, Andrew E; Moore, Peter F; Vernau, William; Smarick, Sean D; Rasor, Liberty A

    2004-04-15

    A 7-year-old castrated male Miniature Schnauzer was examined because of labored breathing and episodes of respiratory distress that progressed to collapse. On cervical radiographs, a focal soft tissue mass in the caudal cervical portion of the trachea was observed, and during tracheoscopy, a 1 x 1 cm, pedunculated, multinodular, pink, intraluminal mass extending from the dorsal tracheal membrane and obstructing approximately 80% of the tracheal lumen was seen. Tracheal resection and anastomosis was performed to remove the mass, and the dog recovered without complications. On histologic examination, the mass consisted of a large accumulation of homogeneous, faintly fibrillar eosinophilic material admixed with a predominantly plasma cell infiltrate; examination of sections stained with thioflavin T and Congo red stain confirmed that the eosinophilic material was amyloid. A diagnosis of nodular, immunocyte-derived (AL) amyloidosis was made. Seventeen months after surgery, the dog had a relapse of respiratory distress because of an extramedullary plasmacytoma involving the trachea.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of hepatic adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia. Report of eight cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menu, Y.; Arrive, L.; Grenier, Ph.

    1988-01-01

    Hepatic Adenoma (HA) and Focal Nodular Hyperplasia (FNH) are rare benign tumors of the liver, occurring mostly in females between 25 and 40 years old. HA is clearly related to oral contraceptive intake. Detection of such tumors may be assessed by Ultrasonography (US). Computed Tomography (CT) or Angiography. These examinations usually allow differenciation with hepatic angiomas but it is much more difficult to rule out a well-differenciated primary liver cancer. MR proved to be a valuable technique for detection of liver tumors. Initial experience suggested that T1 and T2 relaxation times had little value for tissue characterization. The aim of this study is to show the presentation of HA and FNH and to evaluate the possibility for this method to characterize these lesions [fr

  5. Early-stage focal nodular hyperplasia: US/CT/MR features correlated with histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golfieri, R.; Giampalma, E.; Berardi, R.; Caputo, M.; Lalli, A.; Grazi, G.; Mazziotti, A.; Gozzetti, G.; D'Errico, A.; Grigioni, W.; Gavelli, G.

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), in which ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MR) studies detected an atypical hemorrhagic pattern associated with an intrahepatic arterio venous malformation (AVM) around the growths, are presented. In both cases, histology demonstrated a very early regenerative stage and necrotic-hemorrhagic areas within the lesions. In these cases, the analysis of radiological findings, surgical specimens and histology seemed to confirm the pathogenetic hypothesis suggested by Wanless: in normal liver parenchyma, a ''blood steal'' phenomenon due to congenital or acquired intrahepatic AVM could cause ischemic damage, appearing as a hemorrhagic necrotic area, the extent of which depends on the degree of residual portal supply. (orig.)

  6. Reactive Retinal Astrocytic Tumor (Focal Nodular Gliosis): Report of the Clinical Spectrum of 3 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arun D; Soto, Hansell; Bellerive, Claudine; Biscotti, Charles V

    2017-09-01

    To report 3 cases providing insight into clinical progression of reactive retinal astrocytic tumor. The clinical, imaging, and when available, the cytologic features of 3 cases of reactive retinal astrocytic tumor (focal nodular gliosis) were reviewed. A 6-year-old female, a 49-year-old man, and a 39-year-old man each developed a white retinal mass associated with laser photocoagulation, lattice degeneration, and treatment of a presumed vascular tumor, respectively. All tumors were white, circumscribed retinal masses that tended to be associated with exudation and either initially or eventually minimal vascularity. Reactive retinal astrocytic tumor can be observed in response to a degenerative, inflammatory, or ischemic retinal insult. Such tumors may progress after therapeutic intervention.

  7. Elastosonography in the diagnosis of the nodular breast lesions: preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuseppetti, Gian Marco; Di Cioccio, Barbara; Baldassarre, Silvia; Martegani, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of elastography in characterising nodular breast lesions. Materials and methods. A total of 82 patients who received mammographic, ultrasonographic and elastographic evaluation in a single session at two Italian centres (Dept of Radiology, Az. Ospedali Riuniti, Ancona, and Ospedale Valduce, Corno, Italy) between January and August 2004 according to identical protocols exhibited 91 nodules that were subjected to cytological/histological examination. Lesions were classified and scored and the sensitivity of elastography calculated. Results. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 79% and 89%, respectively. However, sensitivity was 86% and 65% and specificity 100% and 62% for lesions 2 cm in diameter, respectively. Despite the small sample and the fact that it does not include the full range of cell types, tumour cell composition seemed to affect accuracy. Conclusions. Elastography is easy and rapid to perform. Larger studies are needed to establish semiological patterns; despite the small patient sample, these data provide an interesting contribution [it

  8. Cerebellopontine angle medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity in a child: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiphithak, Raywat; Yindeedej, Vich; Thamwongskul, Chatchai

    2017-05-01

    Cerebellar medulloblastomas (MBs) are one of the most common posterior fossa tumors in children but rarely occur in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). Only 39 cases of CPA MBs were reported in the literature, and most of them were classic and desmoplastic MBs. A 22-month-old girl presented with progressive cerebellar ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large tumor in the right CPA and obstructive hydrocephalus. Surgical resection was performed and achieved total tumor removal. Microscopic examination and immunohistochemical staining revealed the diagnosis of MB with extensive nodularity. The patient recovered from her symptoms during follow-up and was transferred for adjuvant chemotherapy. MB should be considered as a differential diagnosis of a lesion in the CPA. The treatment and outcome of CPA MBs are similar to cerebellar MBs.

  9. The unique entity of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: current approaches to diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Eliza A; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Cunningham, David

    2012-03-01

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare disease constituting only 3-8% of all Hodgkin lymphoma. It has a distinct histological and clinical presentation as well as significantly different natural history compared to the classical form of Hodgkin lymphoma. Presenting most often as early-stage disease, NLPHL is characterized by frequent relapses, but paradoxically an overall good prognosis. The approach to management should therefore reflect this pattern and focus on attaining prolonged remissions, with long-term follow-up paramount. Due to the rarity of the disease, few prospective data exist. Options for treatment include radiotherapy, chemotherapy or combined chemotherapy plus radiotherapy and targeted anti-CD20 antibody therapy, as well as observation in selected patients.

  10. Projected reduction in healthcare costs in Belgium after optimization of iodine intake: impact on costs related to thyroid nodular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Annemans, Lieven; Van Oyen, Herman; Tafforeau, Jean; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2010-11-01

    Several surveys in the last 50 years have repeatedly indicated that Belgium is affected by mild iodine deficiency. Within the framework of the national food and health plan in Belgium, a selective, progressive, and monitored strategy was proposed in 2009 to optimize iodine intake. The objective of the present study was to perform a health economic evaluation of the consequences of inadequate iodine intake in Belgium, focusing on undisputed and measurable health outcomes such as thyroid nodular disease and its associated morbidity (hyperthyroidism). For the estimation of direct, indirect, medical, and nonmedical costs related to thyroid nodular diseases in Belgium, data from the Federal Public Service of Public Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, the National Institute for Disease and Disability Insurance (RIZIV/INAMI), the Information Network about the prescription of reimbursable medicines (FARMANET), Intercontinental Marketing Services, and expert opinions were used. These costs translate into savings after implementation of the iodization program and are defined as costs due to thyroid nodular disease throughout the article. Costs related to the iodization program are referred to as program costs. Only figures dating from before the start of the intervention were exploited. Only adult and elderly people (≥18 years) were taken into account in this study because thyroid nodular diseases predominantly affect this age group. The yearly costs due to thyroid nodular diseases caused by mild iodine deficiency in the Belgian adult population are ∼€38 million. It is expected that the iodization program will result in additional costs of ∼€54,000 per year and decrease the prevalence of thyroid nodular diseases by 38% after a 4-5-year period. The net savings after establishment of the program are therefore estimated to be at least €14 million a year. Optimization of iodine intake in Belgium should be quite cost effective, if only considering its impact on

  11. Sporadic periventricular nodular heterotopia: Classification, phenotype and correlation with Filamin A mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyu; Yan, Bo; An, Dongmei; Xiao, Jiahe; Hu, Fayun; Zhou, Dong

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to better delineate the clinical spectrum of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) in a large patient population after long term follow up. Specifically, this study aimed to relate PNH subtypes to clinical or epileptic outcomes, epileptic discharges and underlying Filamin A (FLNA) mutations by analyzing anatomical features. The study included 100 patients with radiologically confirmed nodular heterotopia. Patients' FLNA gene sequences and medical records were analyzed. Two-sided Chi-square test and Fisher's exact t-test were used to assess associations between the distribution of PNHs and specific clinical features. Based on imaging data, patients were subdivided into three groups: (a) classical (bilateral frontal and body, n=41 patients), (b) bilateral asymmetrical or posterior (n=16) and (c) unilateral heterotopia (n=43). Most patients with classical heterotopia were females (P=0.033) and were likely to have arachnoid cysts (P=0.025) and cardiac abnormalities (P=0.041), but were mostly seizure-free. Additionally, hippocampal abnormalities (P=0.022), neurological deficits (P=0.028) and cerebellar abnormalities (P=0.005) were more common in patients with bilateral asymmetrical heterotopia. Patients with unilateral heterotopia were prone to develop refractory epilepsy (P=0.041). FLNA mutations were identified in 8 patients. Each group's distinctive genetic mutations, epileptic discharge patterns and overall clinical outcomes confirm that the proposed classification system is reliable. These findings could not only be an indicator of a more severe morphological and clinical phenotype, but could also have clinical implications with respect to the epilepsy management and optimization of therapeutic options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Late follow up results after J - 131 therapy of toxic multi-nodular goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovski, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Objective: the aim of this study was to analyze success of radioiodine therapy in patients with toxic multi-nodular goiter (TMG). Methods: The group of 43 patients (36 females / 7 males, aged 47 ± 11 yrs, range 27 - 75 yrs) with TMG were treated with radioiodine. 28 patients were treated with one dose, 12 patients with two doses and 7 patients with three and more doses according to Marinelli's formula. The administered activity of J -131 was established basing on radioiodine uptake and goiter size ( median 555 MBq, range: 370 - 1100 MBq). Patients were evaluated by clinical and thyroid examination of TSH, FT4, FT3 after 1 - 3 months. Thyroid scintigraphy was performed 3 months after radioiodine therapy. Prior to treatment with J -131 all patients were treated with antithyroid medications, who were suspended 4 - 7 days and restarted one week after J - 131 therapy. Results: in 76,8% (33/43) patients there was control of disease after the first J -131 dose and in 95,2% (40/43) patients after the second and more doses. At 20 years of follow up, there were 84,4% (36/43) patients euthyroid, 13,9% (6/43) patients hypothyroid and 4,6% (2/43) patients hyperthyroid. Reduction of gland weight were in 74,4% (32/43) patients. During 20 years of follow up no adverse side effects were observed after J - 131 therapy. Conclusion: radioiodine therapy is the right choice of treatment for toxic multi-nodular goiter and single dose of J -131 is successful in most of the cases. A single higher radioiodine dose diminishes the need for additional J -131 therapy, without increasing of developing hypothyroidism. (authors)

  13. Modification of cadmium pigments for colouring of polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinskaya, T.V.; Livshits, I.M.

    1976-01-01

    Modification conditions are studied of cadmium pigments, obtained by different methods, aliphatic acids(C 5 , C 8 and C 17 ). It is found, that cadmium pigments can adsorb acids with the number of atoms of carbon not less than 8. Stearic acid adsorption on lemon cadmium pigment taken as an example has shown the efficiency of pigment modification influence on its dispersancy in non-polar medium. Modification of yellow cadmium pigments of stearic acid makes possible to obtain pigment output forms ensuring a good particle distribution during polyolefine colouring

  14. Unraveling the chemical identity of meat pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, R B; Shahidi, F

    1997-10-01

    This review examines the chemistry of nitrite curing of meat and meat products as it relates to the development of cured meat color and provides a detailed account of how nitrite-free processed meats could be prepared using the preformed cooked cured-meat pigment (CCMP). Thus, a chemical description of meat color, both raw and cooked, and characterization of nitrosylheme pigments follows. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), visible and infrared spectroscopic studies, evidence has been provided to support the hypothesis that the chemical structure of the preformed CCMP is identical to that of the pigment prepared in situ after thermal processing of nitrite-cured meat and is in fact a mononitrosylheme complex. An appendix, which describes the basic principles of EPR spectroscopy used in the context of this review, is attached.

  15. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Synthetic Organic Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Naeko; Takahashi, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Katsumi; Tanaka, Nobuko; Okubo, Ichiro; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2018-04-18

    Though synthetic organic colorants are used in various applications nowadays, there is the concern that impurities by-produced during the manufacturing and degradation products in some of these colorants are persistent organic pollutants and carcinogens. Thus, it is important to identify the synthetic organic colorants in various products, such as commercial paints, ink, cosmetics, food, textile, and plastics. Dyes, which are soluble in water and other solvents, could be analyzed by chromatographic methods. In contrast, it is difficult to analyze synthetic organic pigments by these methods because of their insolubility. This review is an overview of mass spectrometric analysis of synthetic organic pigments by various ionization methods. We highlight a recent study of textile samples by atmospheric pressure solid analysis probe MS. Furthermore, the mass spectral features of synthetic organic pigments and their separation from other components such as paint media and plasticizers are discussed.

  16. Platelet-Rich Plasma Increases Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Cagri A; Ertas, Nilgun Markal

    2017-11-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous solution of plasma containing 4 to 7 times the baseline concentration of human platelets. Platelet-rich plasma has been widely popular in facial rejuvenation to attenuate wrinkles and has been practically used. The authors have been encountering various patients of increased hiperpigmentation following PRP applications that were performed to attenuate the postinflammatory hiperpigmentation especially after laser treatment. The authors have been using PRP for facial rejuvenation in selected patients and in 1 patient the authors have encountered increased pigmentation over the pigmented skin lesions that were present before the application. The authors recommend that the PRP might increase pigmentation especially in the face region and precautions might be taken before and after the application. Platelet-rich plasma should not be used for the treatment of post inflammatory hiperpigmentation.

  17. Corneal collagen crosslinking and pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaHood, Benjamin R; Moore, Sacha

    2017-03-01

    We describe the case of a keratoconus patient with pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) who was treated for progressive corneal ectasia with corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL). Pigment dispersion syndrome has been shown to have associated morphologic changes of the corneal endothelium. Corneal CXL has the potential to cause toxicity to the corneal endothelium, and adjacent pigment might increase the likelihood of damage. In this case, the presence of PDS had no detrimental effect on the outcome of treatment, and no complications were observed at 12 months follow-up, indicating that it may be safe to perform corneal CXL in the setting of PDS. This is an important observation as the number of indications for corneal CXL grows. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  19. Gingival pigmentation beneath a metallic crown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, T.; Hirayasu, R.; Sakai, H.; Hashimoto, N.

    1988-01-01

    Light and electron microscopic studies and energy dispersive X-ray analysis disclosed that the essential cause of gingival discoloration following the placement of a metallic crown, was marked deposition of melanin pigment. Deposition of melanin pigment was observed in epithelial cells, on basement membranes, and in fibroblasts, macrophages and among intercellular ground substance of the proprial layer. Brown or dark brown colored granules were observed in the deep portion of the proprial layer. Some metallic elements as silver and sulfur were detected. It was presumed that these materials were dental metals accidentally implanted in gingival tissues during the therapeutic procedure. The deposition of melanin pigment closely corresponded with mucosal tissue where these materials were present in the deep portion of the proprial layer. These findings suggested that these materials influenced the physiological metabolism of melanin and induced its pathological deposition in the proprial tissue. (author)

  20. [Morel-Lavallée syndrome and post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis: Two post-traumatic complications mimicking cellulitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, C; Barthélémy, I; Emering, C; D'Incan, M

    Dermal and subcutaneous inflammation following direct trauma is initially evocative of soft-tissue infection. However, two differential diagnoses must be considered: Morel-Lavallée syndrome and post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis. Case 1: a 51-year-old woman fell off her motorbike and had dermabrasions on her right and left tibial ridges that rapidly developed into dermo-hypodermitis of the entire limb. There was no improvement after 3 weeks of antibiotics. The patient was apyretic. She had a soft, non-inflammatory tumefaction on the inner aspect of her left knee. Ultrasound revealed subcutaneous collection in both legs. The surgeons confirmed a diagnosis of Morel-Lavallée syndrome and drained the two collections. Progress was good and the patient healed without major consequences. Case 2: following a fall on her stairs, a 40-year-old woman presented dermabrasions and haematomas on her left leg. Antibiotic therapy failed to prevent the progression of dermo-hypodermitis. The patient remained apyretic and there was no inflammatory syndrome. A CT scan showed thickening of a subcutaneous fat and fluid collection, resulting in diagnosis of post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis. Management was surgical and the outcome was good. These two cases show two post-traumatic cutaneous complications: Morel-Lavallée syndrome and post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis. Morel-Lavallée syndrome occurs after tangential trauma next to richly vascularized tissue. Post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis is defined as necrosis of adipocytes. In both cases, diagnosis is confirmed by imagery (Ultrasonography, tomography). Our two case reports show that inflammatory presentation of both Morel-Lavallée syndrome and post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis can lead to diagnostic and therapeutic errors while a surgical procedure is necessary since tissue necrosis can occur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. UV-B affects the immune system and promotes nuclear abnormalities in pigmented and non-pigmented bullfrog tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Fanali, Lara Zácari; De Oliveira, Classius

    2018-03-01

    Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation is a stressor of the immune system and causes DNA damage. Leukocytes can change in response to environmental changes in anurans, making them an important biomarker of stressful situations. The initial barrier against UV in ectothermic animals is melanin-containing cells in skin and in their internal organs. Here, we tested the effects of UV exposure on immune cells and DNA integrity in pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles of Lithobates catesbeianus. We used an inflammation model with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli to test synergic effects of UV and LPS. We tested the following hypotheses: 1) DNA damage caused by UV will be more pronounced in non-pigmented than in pigmented animals; 2) LPS increases leukocytes in both pigmented and non-pigmented animals by systemic inflammation; 3) The combined LPS and UV exposure will decrease the number of leukocytes. We found that the frequency of immune cells differed between pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles. UV exposure increased mast cells and DNA damage in erythrocytes in both pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles, while leukocytes decreased after UV exposure. Non-pigmented tadpoles experienced DNA damage and a lower lymphocyte count earlier than pigmented tadpoles. UV altered immune cells likely as a consequence of local and systemic inflammation. These alterations were less severe in pigmented than in non-pigmented animals. UV and LPS increased internal melanin in pigmented tadpoles, which were correlated with DNA damage and leukocytes. Here, we described for the first time the effects of UV and LPS in immune cells of pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles. In addition, we demonstrated that internal melanin in tadpoles help in these defenses, since leukocyte responses were faster in non-pigmented animals, supporting the hypothesis that melanin is involved in the initial innate immune response. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  3. Pigmentation, anesthesia, behavioral factors, and salicylate uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Issing, W; Brennan, J F; Sasaki, C T

    1988-02-01

    In four experiments, 54 pigmented rats were used to examine the time course of sodium salicylate uptake in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and perilymph. Subjects were tested under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia or while conscious. Compared with previously reported data from albino rats, pigmented subjects generally showed increased salicylate uptake. Moreover, the data suggested two different, time-dependent clearance mechanisms in conscious animals not observed in anesthetized rats. Daily injections of salicylate did not produce an accumulation of salicylate in serum. Systematically higher levels of salicylate were observed in perilymph compared with cerebrospinal fluid. Behavioral procedures, including water deprivation and conditioned suppression of ongoing drinking levels, had no effect on salicylate levels.

  4. Cyclic estrous-like behavior in a spayed cat associated with excessive sex-hormone production by an adrenocortical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meler, Erika N; Scott-Moncrieff, J Catharine; Peter, Augustine T; Bennett, Sara; Ramos-Vara, Jose; Salisbury, S Kathleen; Naughton, James F

    2011-06-01

    A 15-year-old, spayed female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for 1-year duration of cyclic intermittent estrous behavior. Diagnostic testing performed before referral, including baseline progesterone concentration, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone stimulation test and surgical exploratory laparotomy, had remained inconclusive for a remnant ovary. Evaluation of sex hormones before and after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration revealed increased basal concentrations of androstenedione, estradiol, progesterone, and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and normal ACTH-stimulated hormone concentrations. Enlargement of the right adrenal gland was identified by abdominal ultrasound. The cat underwent an adrenalectomy and histopathology of the excised adrenal gland was consistent with an adrenocortical carcinoma. Clinical signs resolved immediately following surgery, and most hormone concentrations declined to within or below the reference interval (RI) by 2 months after surgery. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adrenal incidentalomas showing unilateral concordant visualization by adrenocortical scintigraphy. Comparison with adenomas in Cushing's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tani, Atsushi; Nakajo, Masayuki; Tsuchimochi, Shinsaku; Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Umanodan, Tomokazu [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    2000-06-01

    An adrenocortical adenoma causing Cushing's syndrome (Cushing's adenoma) produces a unilateral concordant visualization (UCV) imaging pattern in which the adenoma is only visualized on radioiodocholesterol adrenocortical scintigraphy. But because this imaging pattern is also noted in some patients with adrenal incidentalomas, we examined whether the UCV-incidentaloma was essentially identical with Cushing's adenoma and would develop Cushing's syndrome. The subjects were 9 patients with UCV-incidentalomas (mean size, 30 mm; range, 20-45 mm) and 6 patients with Cushing's adenomas (mean size, 28 mm; range, 25-35 mm). Endocrinological evaluations showed several abnormalities including blunted diurnal rhythm of plasma cortisol within the normal range, low plasma ACTH and/or high 24-hr urinary 17-OHCS levels in 8 of 9 patients with UCV-incidentalomas, but these abnormalities did not meet the diagnostic criteria of Cushing's syndrome. Adrenal uptake of the tracer in the patients with UCV-incidentalomas was not statistically different from that in the patients with Cushing's adenomas and had no relationship with hormonal values in either patient group. Tumor size on CT correlated with the levels of 24-hr urinary 17-OHCS (r=0.75, p=0.02) and plasma cortisol at 7:00 (r=0.82, p=0.007) in the patients with UCV-incidentalomas, but not in the patients with Cushing's adenomas. Although 3 UCV-incidentalomas increased slightly in size, none of 9 patients with UCV-incidentalomas has developed Cushing's syndrome for 4 to 52 months. These results suggest that the UCV-incidentaloma may be essentially different from the Cushing's adenoma and unlikely to develop Cushing's syndrome. (author)

  6. Neoplasia versus hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen; Larsen, J.N.B.; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography......ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography...

  7. Separation of Chloroplast Pigments Using Reverse Phase Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, R. Neil

    1997-01-01

    Presents a protocol that uses reverse phase chromatography for the separation of chloroplast pigments. Provides a simple and relatively safe procedure for use in teaching laboratories. Discusses pigment extraction, chromatography, results, and advantages of the process. (JRH)

  8. Water permeability of pigmented waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Erich, S.J.F.; Reuvers, N.J.W.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Coatings are used in a variety of applications. Last decades more and more coating systems are transforming from solvent to waterborne coating systems. In this study the influence of pigments on the water permeability of a waterborne coating system is studied, with special interest in the possible

  9. The mechanism of gingiva metallic pigmentations formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Joska, L.; Venclíková, Z.; Poddaná, M.; Benada, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2009), s. 1-7 ISSN 1432-6981 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR9124 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : pigmentation * gingiva * electrochemistry Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.233, year: 2009

  10. Flower pigment analysis of Melastoma malabathricum | Janna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to analyse the colour pigment, anthocyanin, that can be detected in flower and their stability in extracted form. All the analysed results will be used in the next study for the production of new food colouring material. From the observation, it shows that S3 flower developmental stage contains the ...

  11. Quantitative X-ray analysis of pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, M. Marrocos de

    1987-01-01

    The 'matrix-flushing' and the 'adiabatic principle' methods have been applied for the quantitative analysis through X-ray diffraction patterns of pigments and extenders mixtures, frequently used in paint industry. The results obtained have shown the usefulness of these methods, but still ask for improving their accuracy. (Author) [pt

  12. Retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy in Briard dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, R M; Cabral, L; Gooch, L; Bedford, P G; Boulton, M E

    1996-01-01

    The eyes of normal Briard dogs, Briards affected with inherited retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy (RPED) and a range of normal crossbred and beagle dogs were examined and the histopathology of RPED in the Briard was compared with the histopathological features of ageing in the normal canine retina. RPED was characterised by the accumulation of auto-fluorescent lipofuscin-like inclusions in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which initially involved only non-pigmented RPE cells overlying the tapetum but subsequently spread to all pigmented RPE cells. Secondary neuro-retinal degeneration was characterised by a gradual loss of the outer nuclear layer and the subsequent atrophy and degeneration of the inner retina. The loss of primary photoreceptors in the peripheral retina was accompanied by the migration of photoreceptor nuclei and appeared to resemble severe changes due to ageing. Intra-vitreal radiolabelled leucine was used to examine the rate of turnover of the outer segments of the rods in some Briards, but no significant variations were found. The activity of acid phosphatase in RPE was assayed in vitro and showed comparable regional variations in Briard and crossbred dogs. The results suggest that RPED in the Briard is unlikely to be due either to an increased rate of turnover of rod outer segments (and thus an increased phagocytic load) or to a primary insufficiency of lysosomal enzyme.

  13. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... astaxanthin level. (2) Color additive mixtures for fish feed use made with paracoccus pigment may contain only... additive is used to enhance the pink to orange-red color of the flesh of salmonid fish. (2) The quantity of... section. (2) The presence of the color additive in finished fish feed prepared according to paragraph (c...

  14. NON-AQUEOUS PIGMENTED INKJET INKS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEROOVER, GEERT; Bernaerts, Katrien; HOOGMARTENS, IVAN

    2010-01-01

    A non-aqueous inkjet ink includes a benzimidazolone pigment and a polymeric dispersant according to Formula (I): wherein, T represents hydrogen or a polymerization terminating group; Z represents the residue of polyethyleneimine having a number-average molecular weight of at least 100; A represents

  15. Non-aqueous pigmented inkjet inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOOGMARTENS, IVAN; Bernaerts, Katrien; DEROOVER, GEERT

    2008-01-01

    A non-aqueous inkjet ink comprising C.I. Pigment Yellow 150 and a polymeric dispersant according to Formula (I): wherein, T represents hydrogen or a polymerization terminating group; Z represents the residue of polyethyleneimine having a number-average molecular weight of at least 100; A represents

  16. New applications for polychromatic effect pigments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maile, F. J.; Filip, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2016), s. 35-38 ISSN 1468-1412 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02652S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : pigments * texture * appearance * effect * polychromatic Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/RO/filip-0458988.pdf

  17. Pigment dispersion syndrome: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheie, H G; Cameron, J D

    1981-01-01

    This study involved a group of 407 patients (799 eyes) with pigment dispersion syndrome gathered from a glaucoma population of 9200 patients. The sex distribution was equal. The majority (65%) of patients were myopic. The incidence of retinal detachment was 6.4%. No patients were black, but 5 were mulatto. Approximately one-quarter of the patients wih pigment dispersion syndrome (31% of the men, 19% of the women) had glaucoma. The average age of onset of glaucoma was 15 years less than in control patients with chronic simple glaucoma. When both eyes were affected by glaucoma, the glaucoma was consistently more severe in the eye with the more heavily pigmented angle. The degree of iris transillumination was found to be of no importance in predicting the presence of glaucoma or the severity of trabecular pigmentation. The pressure in 66% of the eyes with pigmentary glaucoma was controlled medically. A higher percentage of patients with pigmentary glaucoma required surgery than patients in the control group with chronic simple glaucoma. Men with pigmentary glaucoma required surgery at a much earlier age than women with pigmentary glaucoma. PMID:7236571

  18. Hyperspectral remote sensing of plant pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, George Alan

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of pigment concentrations are diagnostic of a range of plant physiological properties and processes. This paper appraises the developing technologies and analytical methods for quantifying pigments non-destructively and repeatedly across a range of spatial scales using hyperspectral remote sensing. Progress in deriving predictive relationships between various characteristics and transforms of hyperspectral reflectance data are evaluated and the roles of leaf and canopy radiative transfer models are reviewed. Requirements are identified for more extensive intercomparisons of different approaches and for further work on the strategies for interpreting canopy scale data. The paper examines the prospects for extending research to the wider range of pigments in addition to chlorophyll, testing emerging methods of hyperspectral analysis and exploring the fusion of hyperspectral and LIDAR remote sensing. In spite of these opportunities for further development and the refinement of techniques, current evidence of an expanding range of applications in the ecophysiological, environmental, agricultural, and forestry sciences highlights the growing value of hyperspectral remote sensing of plant pigments.

  19. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared to the wild CC-124, these mutants are characterized by a decrease in chlorophyll a & b content and an increase in carotenoids. The lowest decrease in chlorophyll a was 3 to 4 folds, while the highest increase in carotenoids was 2 to 4 folds. The result of bio-test, using the resulting pigment mutant of C. reinhardtii ...

  20. Pigments produced by the bacteria belonging to the genus Arthrobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Sutthiwong , Nuthathai; Caro , Yanis; Fouillaud , Mireille; Laurent , Philippe; Valla , A.; Dufossé , Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Poster communication, 7th International Congress of Pigments in Food – New technologies towards health, through colors, Novara, Italy, June 18-21, 2013.; International audience; Since several decades, pigments have been used as a taxonomic tool for the identification and classification of bacteria. Nowadays, pigment producing microorganisms have been also widely interested in scientific disciplines because of their biotechnological potential. With the growing interest in microbial pigments be...

  1. Consideraciones sobre la rotura por fatiga de contacto en el hierro nodular austemplado. // Considerations on the contact fatigue failure in the austempered nodular iron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Moreno Mur

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo considera como factor importante la variación de la geometría del nódulo de grafito en el cálculo delnúmero de ciclos necesarios durante la formación de un pitting en una fundición nodular austemplada. En este caso se tomóen cuenta la aparición de una energía de deformación alrededor de este y se consideró el material con propiedadeshomogéneas. Es analizada la influencia de la variación de la carga, los valores de los diámetros de contacto, el tamaño delnódulo de grafito, de la profundidad donde aparece el nódulo en la geometría del nódulo, por ser estos factores importantesen la iniciación y propagación de grietas por fatiga de contacto. Se trabajó con las profundidades donde aparecen lasmáximas tensiones tangenciales, las cuales se obtuvieron de las expresiones de Hertz, con valores de carga dentro del límiteelástico. Luego se modela por elementos finitos el mecanismo de fractura, en el sistema ALGOR 12.06, y se realiza unaregresión múltiple en el sistema STATGRAPHICS, obteniendo modelos con buenos coeficientes de regresión y niveles deconfianza.Palabras claves: Fatiga de contacto, factura, grietas, nódulo grafito, FEM._________________________________________________________________________Abstract.The present paper deal with the failure of contact fatigue in the autempered ductil iron considering the graphite nodulesvariation as an important factor in th calculation of the number of cycles nedded for pitting, starting from theoreticalconsiderations, developing a methodology for the calculation. The influence of load variation is analyzed, the values of thecontact diameters, the size of graphite nodules, the depth where the nodule appears in the geometry of the nodule, areimportant factors in the initiation and propagation of contact fatigue cracks. It is considered the depths in wich the maximstangential tensions appear, which were obtained by Hertz expressions. An analysis by the method of

  2. Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus resembling a pigmented neurofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus and pigmented neurofibroma (PNF are close mimics and pose a clinicopathological challenge. We present a case of pigmented hypertrichotic plaque over lumbosacral region and discuss the differential diagnosis and its clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemistry features which may aid in differentiation. We highlight the difficulties faced in differentiating neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus from pigmented neurofibroma.

  3. Effect of pigment concentration on fastness and color values of thermal and UV curable pigment printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Gulcin; Kalav, Berdan; Karagüzel Kayaoğlu, Burçak

    2017-10-01

    In the current study, it is aimed to determine the effect of pigment concentration on fastness and colour values of thermal and ultraviolet (UV) curable pigment printing on synthetic leather. For this purpose, thermal curable solvent-based and UV curable water-based formulations were prepared with different pigment concentrations (3, 5 and 7%) separately and applied by screen printing technique using a screen printing machine. Samples printed with solvent-based formulations were thermally cured and samples printed with water-based formulations were cured using a UV curing machine equipped with gallium and mercury (Ga/Hg) lamps at room temperature. The crock fastness values of samples printed with solvent-based formulations showed that increase in pigment concentration was not effective on both dry and wet crock fastness values. On the other hand, in samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations, dry crock fastness was improved and evaluated as very good for all pigment concentrations. However, increasing the pigment concentration affected the wet crock fastness values adversely and lower values were observed. As the energy level increased for each irradiation source, the fastness values were improved. In comparison with samples printed with solvent-based formulations, samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations yielded higher K/S values at all pigment concentrations. The results suggested that, higher K/S values can be obtained in samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations at a lower pigment concentration compared to samples printed with solvent-based formulations.

  4. The concave iris in pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lance; Ong, Ee Lin; Crowston, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    To visualize the changes of the iris contour in patients with pigment dispersion syndrome after blinking, accommodation, and pharmacologic miosis using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Observational case series. A total of 33 eyes of 20 patients with pigment dispersion syndrome. Each eye was imaged along the horizontal 0- to 180-degree meridian using the Visante Anterior Segment Imaging System (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA). Scans were performed at baseline and after focusing on an internal fixation target for 5 minutes, forced blinking, accommodation, and pharmacologic miosis with pilocarpine 2%. Quantitative analysis of the changes in the iris configuration. After 5 minutes of continual fixation, the iris became planar with the mean ± standard deviation curvature decreasing from 214 ± 74 μm to 67 ± 76 μm (P pigment dispersion syndrome after forced blinking, but the iris concavity recovered to 227 ± 113 μm (P = 0.34) and 238 ± 119 μm (P = 0.19) with the -3.0 and -6.0 diopter lenses, respectively. Pilocarpine-induced miosis caused the iris to assume a planar configuration in all subjects. This study shows that the iris in pigment dispersion syndrome assumes a planar configuration when fixating and that the concavity of the iris surface is not restored by blinking. Accommodation restored the iris concavity, suggesting that the posterior curvature of the iris in pigment dispersion syndrome is induced and probably maintained, at least in part, by accommodation. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hiperplasia nodular focal do fígado: apresentação de um caso e revisão da literatura Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise Silva Teixeira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresentamos um caso de hiperplasia nodular focal que foi diagnosticado aos seis anos de idade e que está sendo acompanhado até o momento presente. Para o diagnóstico foram imprescindíveis as técnicas de imagem, tendo importância de realce a cintilografia hepatoesplênica e a tomografia computadorizada. Apresentamos, também, revisão da literatura sobre o assunto.In this case report we discuss a focal nodular hyperplasia diagnosed in a female, six-year old patient, as well as her follow-up from the diagnosis to the present time. Imaging techniques, particularly hepatosplenic scintigraphy and computed tomography, are essential for the diagnosis. Also, a literature review is presented.

  6. Central posterior capsule pigmentation in a patient with pigment dispersion and previous ocular trauma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mezaine, Hani S

    2010-01-01

    We report a 55-year-old man with unusually dense, unilateral central posterior capsule pigmentation associated with the characteristic clinical features of pigment dispersion syndrome, including a Krukenberg's spindle and dense trabecular pigmentation in both eyes. A history of an old blunt ocular trauma probably caused separation of the anterior hyaloid from the back of the lens, thereby creating an avenue by which pigment could reach the potential space of Berger's from the posterior chamber.

  7. Central posterior capsule pigmentation in a patient with pigment dispersion and previous ocular trauma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Mezaine Hani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 55-year-old man with unusually dense, unilateral central posterior capsule pigmentation associated with the characteristic clinical features of pigment dispersion syndrome, including a Krukenberg′s spindle and dense trabecular pigmentation in both eyes. A history of an old blunt ocular trauma probably caused separation of the anterior hyaloid from the back of the lens, thereby creating an avenue by which pigment could reach the potential space of Berger′s from the posterior chamber.

  8. Efficacy of percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy for nodular hepatic tumor : a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Hee; Bang, Sun Woo; Baek, Seung Il; Kim, Ho Kyun [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Seok [Dongguk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    Percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy (PMCT) uses a new energy source, microwave, in the treatment of solid neoplasms. We evaluated the efficacy of PMCT for nodular hepatic tumors in nine patients. Between December 1998 and June 1999, we performed PMCT in six patients with hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC), two with one and three metastatic nodules each from colon cancer, and one with adenomatous hyperplasia. Four patients were female and five were male, and their age ranged between 44 and 71 (mean, 58.8) years. Under sonographic guidance a 14-gauge guiding needle was inserted percutaneously toward the lesion, and within it a needle electrode was precisely positioned. Microwave 2450MHz in frequency and with 60 or 80-watt emission was generated for 80{approx}90 seconds. We evaluated the ultrasound findings obtained during the procedure, pre-PMCT and follow-up CT images, changes in tumor marker(AFP or CA19-9) levels and the results of liver function tests, and complications arising during the six-month period following PMCT. Immediately after microwave emission, characteristic hyperechogenicity appeared on the real-time sonogram. Two patients with HCC underwent CT before PMCT, and typical enhancement during the arterial phase and washout during the portovenous phase was observed. In one patient, two metastatic lesions from colon cancer showed delayed enhancement on pre-PMCT CT. Initial follow-up CT, performed between I and 4 weeks after the PMCT procedure, showed that eight lesions-including two HCCs which were highly enhanced on CT before PMCT-showed no contrast enhancement, and three others showed delayed enhancement. Two of the eight lesions which showed no contrast enhancement at initial follow-up CT were markedly decreased in size (from 2.9 and 4.0 cm to 1.0 and 2.0 cm, respectively) at subsequent follow-up 3 months and 6 months later, respectively. One of the three lesions showing delayed enhancement had increased in size from 4.1 to 5.5 cm at subsequent

  9. Comparisons among serum, egg albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone as biomarkers of basal and stimulated adrenocortical activity of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, N J; Renema, R; Wilkinson, C; Schaefer, A L

    2009-09-01

    1. Serial blood samples from individual birds were analysed for corticosterone concentrations under basal and stimulated conditions, and matched to eggs from the same birds for comparison to albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone. 2. Serum corticosterone exhibited increases in response to stimulation by ACTH and Handling stress. There were no significant increases in egg albumin or yolk concentrations of corticosterone following stimulation. 3. Several significant correlations were observed between the mean and area under the curve (AUC) measurements of serum corticosterone concentrations with albumin and yolk corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid from 1 to 2 d later. 4. The results demonstrated a relationship between endogenous concentrations of serum corticosterone that reflected daily adrenocortical output with albumin and yolk corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid the following day. 5. The results do not support the concept of albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone as biomarkers of acute adrenocortical responses to stimulation.

  10. Progression from an Immature Teratoma with Miliary Gliomatosis Peritonei to Growing Teratoma Syndrome with Nodular Gliomatosis Peritonei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Lin Hsieh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A 4½-year-old girl presented with an incompletely resected, huge, immature abdominal teratoma, elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and numerous miliary gliomatosis peritonei (GP. Two courses of chemotherapy resulted in normalization of her AFP level and marked tumor shrinkage. Further chemotherapy was interrupted by complications. During treatment for these complications, ascites increased and the tumor enlarged, but serum AFP remained within the normal range. Second-look surgery revealed that the tumor had changed histologically to a mature teratoma, and GP had enlarged to nodular size, causing massive ascites. The still incompletely resected, growing mature teratoma was reduced with inter-feron. Nodular GP and ascites slowly regressed with interferon use, and finally disappeared after several months. One residual mass thought to be GP was reduced by gamma-knife surgery 3 years later.

  11. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding presenting as nodular purpura in infancy: A rare and life-threatening entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Gahalaut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB disorder is an uncommon entity, which occurs due to inadequate activity of vitamin K-dependant coagulation factors. An 8-months-old exclusively breast-fed male infant presented with multiple, purpuric and nodular non-collapsible swellings on trunk of 4 days duration. Investigations revealed raised activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombintime. Fibrinogen level and platelet counts were normal. Late VKDB usually presents as intra-cranial or mucosal hemorrhages. [1] Though skin and mucosal bleeding may occur in 1/3 rd of infants with VKDB, ′nodular purpura′ is not the common presenting feature. Earlier recognition of VKDB and immediate investigation/treatment helps prevent the potentially fatal outcome of the disease. Very little is mentioned about this entity in dermatology literature.

  12. Anxiety and depression are more prevalent in patients with graves' disease than in patients with nodular goitre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bové, Kira Bang; Watt, Torquil; Vogel, Asmus

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Graves' disease has been associated with an increased psychiatric morbidity. It is unclarified whether this relates to Graves' disease or chronic disease per se. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with Graves......' disease compared to patients with another chronic thyroid disease, nodular goitre, and to investigate determinants of anxiety and depression in Graves' disease.METHODS: 157 cross-sectionally sampled patients with Graves' disease, 17 newly diagnosed, 140 treated, and 251 controls with nodular goitre......'/probable 'depression'. Determinants of anxiety and depression symptoms in Graves' disease were examined using multiple linear regression.RESULTS: In Graves' disease levels of anxiety (p = 0.008) and depression (p = 0.014) were significantly higher than in controls. The prevalence of depression was 10% in Graves...

  13. DNA damage in isolated rat hepatocytes exposed to C.I. pigment orange 5 and C.I. pigment yellow 12 by the alkaline comet assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Wallin, Håkan; Grunnet, N

    1998-01-01

    The induction of DNA damage by commonly used printing ink pigments, C.I. pigment orange 5 (C.I. 12075) and C.I. pigment yellow 12 (C.I. 21090), was investigated in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes with the comet assay. C.I. pigment yellow 12 is a 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine-based diarylide pigment...

  14. Anxiety and depression are more prevalent in patients with graves' disease than in patients with nodular goitre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bové, Kira Bang; Watt, Torquil; Vogel, Asmus; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Bjoerner, Jakob Bue; Groenvold, Mogens; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2014-09-01

    Graves' disease has been associated with an increased psychiatric morbidity. It is unclarified whether this relates to Graves' disease or chronic disease per se. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with Graves' disease compared to patients with another chronic thyroid disease, nodular goitre, and to investigate determinants of anxiety and depression in Graves' disease. 157 cross-sectionally sampled patients with Graves' disease, 17 newly diagnosed, 140 treated, and 251 controls with nodular goitre completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The differences in the mean HADS scores between the groups were analysed using multiple linear regression, controlling for socio-demographic variables. HADS scores were also analysed dichotomized: a score >10 indicating probable 'anxiety'/probable 'depression'. Determinants of anxiety and depression symptoms in Graves' disease were examined using multiple linear regression. In Graves' disease levels of anxiety (p = 0.008) and depression (p = 0.014) were significantly higher than in controls. The prevalence of depression was 10% in Graves' disease versus 4% in nodular goitre (p = 0.038), anxiety was 18 versus 13% (p = 0.131). Symptoms of anxiety (p = 0.04) and depression (p = 0.01) increased with comorbidity. Anxiety symptoms increased with duration of Graves' disease (p = 0.04). Neither thyroid function nor autoantibody levels were associated with anxiety and depression symptoms. Anxiety and depression symptoms were more severe in Graves' disease than in nodular goitre. Symptoms were positively correlated to comorbidity and duration of Graves' disease but neither to thyroid function nor thyroid autoimmunity.

  15. The prevalence of thyroid cancers in surgically treated patients with nodular goiter in Şırnak city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Sert Bektaş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Iodine deficiency is still considered to be the major etiological factor for endemic goiter. The pathogenesis of the goiter in iodine deficient area caries different characteristics. The aim of this study investigate the prevalence of thyroid cancers and type of thyroid cancers in surgically treated patients with nodular goiter in Şırnak city where is iodine deficiency region.Materials and methods: Thyroid surgical materials which were sent to our department were screened retrospectively from the archives between the years 2009-2010. Thyroid resection was performed on 241 patients with nodular goiter in one year. We evaluated patients who received the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma with histhopatological examination.Results: 222 of our patients (92.1% female and 19 (7.9% were male. The youngest patient 16 and the oldest patient was 80 years old and the average age is 40.9 ± 12.8. Histopathological examination of 197 (81.7% cases of nodular goiter, 31 (12.9% cases lymphocytic thyroiditis, 13 (5.4% patients had thyroid tumors. The three tumors on the 2 cases (0.8% benign, 11 (4.6% were malignant. As a type of cancer 1 (0.4% patients, follicular carcinoma-oncocytic variant, 10 (4.2% cases were papillary carcinoma.Conclusions: Iodine deficiency area in the province of Şırnak in patients with nodular goiter who underwent surgery for thyroid cancer rate of 4.6%, and most cancers is seen as a type of thyroid papillary carcinoma.

  16. [Rapidly-growing nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elıyatkin, Nuket; Karasu, Başak; Selek, Elif; Keçecı, Yavuz; Postaci, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is a benign proliferative lesion of the mammary stroma that rarely presents as a localized mass. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is characterized by a dense, collagenous proliferation of the mammary stroma, associated with capillary-like spaces. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia can be mistaken with fibroadenoma on radiological examination or with low-grade angiosarcoma on histological examination. Its main importance is its distinction from angiosarcoma. The presented case was a 40-year-old woman who was admitted with a rapidly growing breast tumor. Physical examination revealed an elastic-firm, well-defined, mobile and painless mass in her right breast. Mammograms revealed a 6.7 x 3.7 cm, lobulated, well-circumscribed mass in her right breast but no calcification. Sonographic examination showed a well-defined and homogenous mass, not including any cyst. Based on these findings, a provisional diagnosis of fibroadenoma was made. Considering the rapid growth history of the mass, tumor excision was performed. The excised tumor was well demarcated and had a smooth external surface. Histological examination revealed the tumor to be composed of markedly increased fibrous stroma and scattered epithelial components (cystic dilatation of the ducts, blunt duct adenosis). The fibrous stroma contained numerous anastomosing slit-like spaces. Isolated spindle cells appeared intermittently at the margins of the spaces resembled endothelial cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the spindle cells were positive for CD34 and negative for Factor VIII-related antigen. The lesion was diagnosed as nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia.

  17. Three-dimensional shape of the early stages of fatigue cracks nucleated in nodular cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdu, C. [GEMPPM, UMR 5510, INSA de Lyon, 20 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)], E-mail: catherine.verdu@insa-lyon.fr; Adrien, J.; Buffiere, J.Y. [GEMPPM, UMR 5510, INSA de Lyon, 20 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2008-06-15

    High resolution synchrotron X-ray tomography has been used to obtain three-dimensional (3D) images of the early stages of fatigue crack nucleation in a nodular cast iron. Microcracks were observed to initiate at casting defects (microshrinkage) and graphite nodules. The 3D observations have shown that the microcracks form in the material ligament comprised between the specimen surface and the defect. The probability of a defect to initiate a crack was correlated with the size of the defect and its position with respect to the surface. This correlation has been explained on the basis of local stress concentrations in the vicinity of the defect. The 3D observations of samples submitted to different fatigue cycles revealed that a large part of the fatigue life consisted in the progressive fracture of the ligament. The majority of the observed cracks stopped after this fracture process and, therefore, their size did not exceed the initiating defect size even if the crack seemed larger than the defect on the optical surface observations. Only few microcracks, nucleated on the largest defects, continued to grow with short-crack behaviour.

  18. [Nodular regenerative hyperplasia associated with common variable immunodeficiency and other comorbidities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Rafael; Sánchez-Martínez, Rosario; Palazón, José M; Payá, Artemio; Ramos, José M; Pinargote, Héctor

    2016-03-18

    Currently, there are not many data on the evolution of nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) associated or not with underlying diseases and in particular that associated with common variable inmunodeficiency (CVID). Twenty cases of NRH are presented, and the differences between the cases associated with CVID and those related to other diseases are analysed. Retrospective and descriptive study over a period of 14 years. Twelve out of the 20 patients were men; the median age was 51 years. CVID was the main illness associated with NRH. In patients with CVID and NRH, gastrointestinal haemorrhage was more common, all the patients had high gamma glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase and none had altered albumin and bilirubin levels compared to the patients without CVID. On follow-up, 50% of patients with CVID (2/4) had died compared to 33.3% (5/15) without CVID. NRH in patients with CVID seems to have more biochemical data of anicteric cholestasis and portal hypertension and could be associated with lower survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Variations in the size of focal nodular hyperplasia on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Fuentes, C; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Torregrosa, A; Del Val, A; Martínez, C

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the changes in the size of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) during long-term magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up. We reviewed 44 FNHs in 30 patients studied with MRI with at least two MRI studies at least 12 months apart. We measured the largest diameter of the lesion (inmm) in contrast-enhanced axial images and calculated the percentage of variation as the difference between the maximum diameter in the follow-up and the maximum diameter in the initial study. We defined significant variation in size as variation greater than 20%. We also analyzed predisposing hormonal factors. The mean interval between the two imaging studies was 35±2 months (range: 12-94). Most lesions (80%) remained stable during follow-up. Only 9 of the 44 lesions (20%) showed a significant variation in diameter: 7 (16%) decreased in size and 2 (4%) increased, with variations that reached the double of the initial size. The change in size was not related to pregnancy, menopause, or the use of birth control pills or corticoids. Changes in the size of FNHs during follow-up are relatively common and should not lead to a change in the diagnosis. These variations in size seem to be independent of hormonal factors that are considered to predispose. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Coexisting Sclerosing Angiomatoid Nodular Transformation of the Spleen with Multiple Calcifying Fibrous Pseudotumors in a Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chieh Lee

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary tumor or tumor-like lesions of the spleen are rare. Among them, vascular lesions are the most common. Vascular tumor of the spleen is different from the usual hemangioma of soft tissue because the vascular structure of the spleen is unique. Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT is a recently described vascular lesion of the spleen. Grossly, it is a multinodular, well-circumscribed tumor containing a hypervascular core. Microscopically, it comprises three types of vessels, and each type recapitulates the immunohistochemical characteristics of the normal vascular elements of the splenic red pulp, i.e. capillaries, sinusoids, and small veins, respectively. Because of the rarity of this entity, its actual pathogenesis is still unknown. In this study, we report a case of SANT occurring in a 43-year-old woman, in whom there were also multiple calcifying fibrous pseudotumors (CFPTs in the abdominal cavity. Both SANT and CFPT are thought to be variants of inflammatory pseudotumor. Coexistence of these two rare entities in a patient has never been reported, and this fact suggests that there might be a common mechanism contributing to the formation of these two types of lesions. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(3:234-239

  1. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of focal nodular hyperplasia: a matter of size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, Caroline [Hopital Beaujon APHP, Radiology Department, Clichy (France); Egels, Sophie; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere APHP, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Wagner, Mathilde [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere APHP, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, INSERM, UMR 1149, Laboratoire IPMA, Centre de Recherche sur l' Inflammation, Faculte de Medecine X Bichat, Paris (France); Vilgrain, Valerie [Hopital Beaujon APHP, Radiology Department, Clichy (France); Universite Paris Diderot, INSERM, UMR 1149, Laboratoire IPMA, Centre de Recherche sur l' Inflammation, Faculte de Medecine X Bichat, Paris (France); Lucidarme, Olivier [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere APHP, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS UMR 7371, INSERM UMRS 1146, Laboratoire d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Paris (France); Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere - Charles Foix, Service de Radiologie Polyvalente et Oncologique, Paris (France)

    2014-10-15

    To assess the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) frequencies of centrifugal enhancement, spoke-wheel sign and central scar in focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) as a function of lesion size. Ninety-four FNHs were retrospectively reviewed to assess their largest diameter and enhancement pattern, including centrifugal enhancement from one central artery, spoke-wheel sign, diffuse or centripetal enhancement, central scar and late-phase washout. Mean FNH-lesion size was 3.7 ± 2.1 cm. Only 43.6 % of FNHs had centrifugal enhancement, with a spoke-wheel pattern (23.4 %) or without (20.2 %), while 56.4 % showed diffuse or centripetal enhancement. Centrifugal enhancement was observed in 73.9 % of FNHs ≤3.1 cm and 14.6 % of FNHs >3.1 cm (P < 10{sup -4}). Size and frequency of centrifugal enhancement were negatively correlated (r = -0.57, P < 10{sup -4}). The spoke-wheel pattern was also seen more frequently in smaller (37 %) than in larger FNHs (10.4 %) (P < 10{sup -3}). Late-phase washout was described in 5.3 % of FNHs and was not size-dependent. Lesions with a central scar were larger than those without, respectively, 5.7 ± 1.7 and 3.6 ± 2.0 cm (P = 0.012). Typical centrifugal enhancement yielding a confident FNH diagnosis is seen significantly more frequently when the lesion is ≤3.1 cm. (orig.)

  2. Ghrelin and obestatin in thyroid gland - immunohistochemical expression in nodular goiter, papillary and medullary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Edyta; Kasprzak, Aldona; Blaszczyk, Agata; Biczysko, Maciej; Surdyk-Zasada, Joanna; Seraszek-Jaros, Agnieszka; Ruchala, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies analyzing ghrelin and obestatin expression in thyroid gland tissue are not unanimous and are mostly related to ghrelin. The role of ghrelin and obestatin in the thyroid gland appears very interesting due to their probable involvement in cell proliferation. Furthermore, since the thyroid gland is associated with the maintenance of energy balance, the relationship between ghrelin, obestatin and thyroid function is worthy of consideration. The aim of the study was to assess ghrelin and obestatin immunocytochemical expression in nodular goiter (NG), papillary cancer (PTC) and medullary cancer (MTC). Analyzed samples included 9 cases of NG, 8 cases of PTC and 11 cases of MTC. The analysis of ghrelin and obestatin expression was performed by use of the immunohistochemical (IHC) EnVision system and evaluated with filter HSV software (quantitative morphometric analysis). Quantitative ghrelin expression in MTC cells was higher than in NG (p = 0.013) and correlated negatively with the size of the tumor (r= -0.829, p thyroid cell proliferation. The differences between ghrelin and obestatin immunoreactivity in benign and malignant thyroid tumors could support the theory of alternative transcription of the preproghrelin gene and independent production of ghrelin and obestatin.

  3. Identification of a duplication of Xq28 associated with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, J M; Dobyns, W B; Guerrini, R; Hirsch, B A

    1997-01-01

    Bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia (BPNH) is a malformation of neuronal migration and is characterized by nodules of heterotopic gray matter lining the lateral ventricles of the brain. The majority of BPNH patients are female and have epilepsy as a sole clinical manifestation of their disease. Familial BPNH has been mapped to Xq28 by linkage analysis. A multiple congenital anomaly-mental retardation syndrome (BPNH/MR) was recently delineated in three unrelated boys with BPNH, cerebellar hypoplasia, severe mental retardation, epilepsy, and syndactyly. High-resolution chromosome analysis revealed a subtle abnormality of Xq28 in one of the boys with BPNH/MR syndrome. FISH with cosmids and YACs from Xq28 further characterized this abnormality as a 2.25-3.25-Mb inverted duplication. No abnormality of Xq28 was detected by G-banding or FISH in the other two boys. These data support the linkage assignment of BPNH to band Xq28 and narrow the critical region to the distal 2.25-3.25 Mb of Xq28. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9311743

  4. De novo and inherited private variants in MAP1B in periventricular nodular heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzen, Erin L; O'Neill, Adam C; Zhu, Xiaolin; Allen, Andrew S; Bahlo, Melanie; Chelly, Jamel; Dobyns, William B; Freytag, Saskia; Guerrini, Renzo; Leventer, Richard J; Poduri, Annapurna; Robertson, Stephen P; Walsh, Christopher A; Zhang, Mengqi

    2018-05-08

    Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH) is a malformation of cortical development commonly associated with epilepsy. We exome sequenced 202 individuals with sporadic PVNH to identify novel genetic risk loci. We first performed a trio-based analysis and identified 219 de novo variants. Although no novel genes were implicated in this initial analysis, PVNH cases were found overall to have a significant excess of nonsynonymous de novo variants in intolerant genes (p = 3.27x10-7), suggesting a role for rare new alleles in genes yet to be associated with the condition. Using a gene-level collapsing analysis comparing cases and controls, we identified a genome-wide significant signal driven by four ultra-rare loss-of-function heterozygous variants in MAP1B, including one de novo variant. In at least one instance, the MAP1B variant was inherited from a parent with previously undiagnosed PVNH. The PVNH was frontally predominant and associated with perisylvian polymicrogyria. These results implicate MAP1B in PVNH. More broadly, our findings suggest that detrimental mutations likely arising in immediately preceding generations with incomplete penetrance may also be responsible for some apparently sporadic diseases.

  5. A de novo frameshift in HNRNPK causing a Kabuki-like syndrome with nodular heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, L; Pagnamenta, A T; Lise, S; Clasper, S; Stewart, H; Akha, E S; Quaghebeur, G; Knight, S J L; Keays, D A; Taylor, J C; Kini, U

    2016-09-01

    Kabuki syndrome is a heterogeneous condition characterized by distinctive facial features, intellectual disability, growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities and a range of organ malformations. Although at least two major causative genes have been identified, these do not explain all cases. Here we describe a patient with a complex Kabuki-like syndrome that included nodular heterotopia, in whom testing for several single-gene disorders had proved negative. Exome sequencing uncovered a de novo c.931_932insTT variant in HNRNPK (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K). Although this variant was identified in March 2012, its clinical relevance could only be confirmed following the August 2015 publication of two cases with HNRNPK mutations and an overlapping phenotype that included intellectual disability, distinctive facial dysmorphism and skeletal/connective tissue abnormalities. Whilst we had attempted (unsuccessfully) to identify additional cases through existing collaborators, the two published cases were 'matched' using GeneMatcher, a web-based tool for connecting researchers and clinicians working on identical genes. Our report therefore exemplifies the importance of such online tools in clinical genetics research and the benefits of periodically reviewing cases with variants of unproven significance. Our study also suggests that loss of function variants in HNRNPK should be considered as a molecular basis for patients with Kabuki-like syndrome. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Periventricular nodular heterotopia in patients with filamin-1 gene mutations: neuroimaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussaint, T.Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Fox, J.W.; Walsh, C.A. [Program in Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Dept. of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Institutes of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Dobyns, W.B. [Department of Human Genetics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Radtke, R. [Division of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Scheffer, I.E.; Berkovic, S.F. [Department of Neurology, University of Melbourne, Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg (Australia); Barnes, P.D. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Huttenlocher, P.R. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2000-11-01

    Background. The filamin-1 (FLN-1) gene is responsible for periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH), which is an X-linked dominant neuronal migration disorder. Objective. To review the clinical and imaging findings in a series of patients with documented filamin-1 mutations. Materials and methods. A retrospective review of the medical records and MR studies of a series of patients with PNH and confirmed FLN-1 mutations was done. There were 16 female patients (age range:.67-71 years; mean = 28.6) with filamin-1 gene mutations. Results. In six of the patients the same mutation was inherited in four generations in one pedigree. In a second pedigree, a distinct mutation was found in two patients in two generations. In a third pedigree, a third mutation was found in four patients in two generations. The remaining four patients had sporadic de novo mutations that were not present in the parents. Ten patients had seizures, and all patients had normal intelligence. In all 16 patients MR demonstrated bilateral near-continuous PNH. There were no consistent radiographic or clinical differences between patients carrying different mutations. Conclusion. Patients with confirmed FLN-1 gene mutations are usually female and have a distinctive MR pattern of PNH. Other female patients with this same MR pattern probably harbor FLN-1 mutations and risk transmission to their progeny. This information is important for genetic counseling. (orig.)

  7. Periventricular nodular heterotopia in patients with filamin-1 gene mutations: neuroimaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poussaint, T.Y.; Fox, J.W.; Walsh, C.A.; Dobyns, W.B.; Radtke, R.; Scheffer, I.E.; Berkovic, S.F.; Barnes, P.D.; Huttenlocher, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    Background. The filamin-1 (FLN-1) gene is responsible for periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH), which is an X-linked dominant neuronal migration disorder. Objective. To review the clinical and imaging findings in a series of patients with documented filamin-1 mutations. Materials and methods. A retrospective review of the medical records and MR studies of a series of patients with PNH and confirmed FLN-1 mutations was done. There were 16 female patients (age range:.67-71 years; mean = 28.6) with filamin-1 gene mutations. Results. In six of the patients the same mutation was inherited in four generations in one pedigree. In a second pedigree, a distinct mutation was found in two patients in two generations. In a third pedigree, a third mutation was found in four patients in two generations. The remaining four patients had sporadic de novo mutations that were not present in the parents. Ten patients had seizures, and all patients had normal intelligence. In all 16 patients MR demonstrated bilateral near-continuous PNH. There were no consistent radiographic or clinical differences between patients carrying different mutations. Conclusion. Patients with confirmed FLN-1 gene mutations are usually female and have a distinctive MR pattern of PNH. Other female patients with this same MR pattern probably harbor FLN-1 mutations and risk transmission to their progeny. This information is important for genetic counseling. (orig.)

  8. Limited value of delayed radiothallium image in the diagnosis of nodular goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misaki, Takashi; Yagi, Kanji; Dokoh, Shigeharu; Koh, Toshikiyo; Shimbo, Shin-ichiro

    1991-01-01

    To test whether delayed thallium image can improve the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid tumor, we have reviewed 35 patients with cold nodules of proven histopathology. Early and delayed images were taken 10-20 min and 3-4 hr postinjection, respectively. In this study, a thyroid nodule was interpreted as malignant if it had normal or increased uptake on early scan and more residual radioactivity than paranodular tissue on delayed scan. In the eighteen patients who had carcinoma, a disappointing 44% false negative rate was observed. No significant difference was seen between retention-positive and negative cases in tumor size or histological type of cancer. Nor could any demographic bias explain the low sensitivity. Of the six false negatives, macroscopic cystic degeneration was seen in two cases, but tumors in the other four were grossly solid. Considering the histological heterogeneity often seen within a thyroid tumor, the portion with increased retention of radiothallium may be too small to be detected in the false negative cases. Furthermore, 3 false positive readings were obtained in 17 patients with benign conditions. We conclude that the contribution of the delayed thallium image was quite limited in predicting or ruling out malignancy in nodular goiters. (author)

  9. Paternal inheritance of classic X-linked bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Burkhard S; Kurzbuch, Katrin; Chang, Bernard S; Pauli, Elisabeth; Hamer, Hajo M; Winkler, Jürgen; Hehr, Ute

    2013-06-01

    Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) is a developmental disorder of the central nervous system, characterized by heterotopic nodules of gray matter resulting from disturbed neuronal migration. The most common form of bilateral PNH is X-linked dominant inherited, caused by mutations in the Filamin A gene (FLNA) and associated with a wide variety of other clinical findings including congenital heart disease. The typical patient with FLNA-associated PNH is female and presents with difficult to treat seizures. In contrast, hemizygous FLNA loss of function mutations in males are reported to be perinatally lethal. In X-linked dominant traits like FLNA-associated PNH the causal mutation is commonly inherited from the mother. Here, we present an exceptional family with paternal transmission of classic bilateral FLNA-associated PNH from a mildly affected father with somatic and germline mosaicism for a c.5686G>A FLNA splice mutation to both daughters with strikingly variable clinical manifestation and PNH extent in cerebral MR imaging. Our observations emphasize the importance to consider in genetic counseling and risk assessment the rare genetic constellation of paternal transmission for families with X-linked dominant inherited FLNA-associated PNH. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Calorimetric analysis of heating and cooling process of nodular cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bińczyk F.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the results of investigations of the thermal effects which take place during heating and cooling of samples of the nodular graphite cast iron taken from the stepped test casting of the wall thicknesses amounting to 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm. For investigations, a differential scanning calorimeter, type Multi HTC S60, was used. During heating, three endothermic effects related with pearlite decomposition, phase transformation α → γ, and carbon dissolution in austenite were observed on a DSC diagram. During cooling, two exothermic effects related with phase transformation γ→ α and pearlite formation were observed to consecutively take place on a DSC diagram. The values of the enthalpy of these processes differ and depend on the initial microstructure of the examined samples. The metallic matrix in 5 mm sample after the process of heating and cooling changes totally in favour of ferrite. The same effect, though less advanced in intensity, takes place in 10 mm sample, while in 15 and 20 mm samples the matrix constitution remains unchanged. The higher is the content of ferrite in samples, the stronger is the endothermic effect of the α → γ transformation and the weaker is the endothermic effect related with carbon dissolution in austenite. The total of the endothermic effects (heating is reduced, while that of the exothermic effects (cooling increases along with the increasing thickness of walls in a stepped test casting, from which samples for the investigations were taken.

  11. OBSERVATION OF FATIGUE CRACK PATHS IN NODULAR CAST IRON AND ADI MICROSTRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Bubenko

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available When speaking about quality of construction materials, fatigue crack propagation resistance is one of the most important considered properties. That is essentially influenced by character of matrix. Here presented contribution deals with the fatigue crack propagation mode through the matrix of as-cast nodular cast iron (NCI and austempered ductile iron (ADI, whereas influence of microstructure has been considered and discussed. Experimental materials used in presented contribution were pearlitc-ferritic NCI and heat treated ADI 800. Pearlitic-ferritic NCI was used as the base for ADI production. Experiments were performed on mini round compact tension (RCT specimens using an Amsler vibrophore. Fatigue crack paths in both materials were investigated and compared. Light microscopy was used to analyze the microstructure, crack initiation and propagation within broken specimens. In both tested materials fatigue cracks always initiated at graphite-matrix interface, while graphite nodules remained generally unbroken, eventually only surface of nodules was damaged. Though, comparing two materials with different microstructures, the diversity of fatigue crack propagation modes at high deltaK and low deltaK was observed.

  12. Some peculiarities of the relationship between uranium and phosphate of nodular phosphorites of the Russian Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, A A [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Geofiziki i Geokhimii, Moscow (USSR)

    1976-02-01

    In nodular phosphorites of the Cenomanian stage of the central regions of the Russian platform the uranium content of phosphate ranges within 20 to 50x10/sup -4/%. The maximum concentrations of uranium are found in amorphous phosphates, the richest in humic colloid. Uranium found in the bone phosphate of fossil reptiles is uniformly distributed throughout the bone tissue area, its content amounting to 30 to 40x10/sup -4/%. As bone phosphate reaches its holocrystalline modification, the uranium compounds are substituted and the uranium concentration decreases to 0.2x10/sup -4/%, i.e. it becomes 200 times lower. The most intensive sorption of uranium by phosphate occurs under the reducing conditions of diagenesis which is characterized by the most comprehensive combination of uranium-sorption factors: the existence of various uranium compounds in solution, isomorphic substitutions of all kinds, adsorption of uranium compounds and organic matter on the surfaces of submicron crystalline phosphate compounds. A decrease in the intensity of sorption factors leads to a decrease in the uranium content of phosphate. Under the oxidative conditions prevailed during the formation of Khoperian silicophosphorites, uranium has been sorbed by the phosphate only in negligible amounts (0.1x10/sup -4/%) due to the lack of organic colloids and uranium compounds capable of isomorphic substitution.

  13. An Electron Microscopy Study of Graphite Growth in Nodular Cast Irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffont, L.; Jday, R.; Lacaze, J.

    2018-04-01

    Growth of graphite during solidification and high-temperature solid-state transformation has been investigated in samples cut out from a thin-wall casting which solidified partly in the stable (iron-graphite) and partly in the metastable (iron-cementite) systems. Transmission electron microscopy has been used to characterize graphite nodules in as-cast state and in samples having been fully graphitized at various temperatures in the austenite field. Nodules in the as-cast material show a twofold structure characterized by an inner zone where graphite is disoriented and an outer zone where it is well crystallized. In heat-treated samples, graphite nodules consist of well-crystallized sectors radiating from the nucleus. These observations suggest that the disoriented zone appears because of mechanical deformation when the liquid contracts during its solidification in the metastable system. During heat-treatment, the graphite in this zone recrystallizes. In turn, it can be concluded that nodular graphite growth mechanism is the same during solidification and solid-state transformation.

  14. Correlation between serum lead and thyroid diseases: papillary thyroid carcinoma, nodular goiter, and thyroid adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Xiang; Liu, Jie; Jin, Langping; Yang, Fan; Wang, Junbo; Wang, Ouchen; Gao, Ying

    2017-10-01

    Studies have showed that lead was associated with human health. However, the effects of lead on thyroid functions are inconsistent, and studies based on Chinese population are fragmentary. To evaluate the correlation between lead and thyroid functions of Chinese with different thyroid diseases, we conducted a hospital-based study. Ninety-six papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 10 nodular goiter (NG), and 7 thyroid adenoma (TA) patients were recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, China. Serum triiodothyronine (T3), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were evaluated with chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Serum lead was assessed with ICP-MASS. Partial correlation was used to explore the correlations of serum lead and thyroid diseases. Compared to PTC, the level of lead was significantly higher in TA, and lower in NG (p lead was negatively correlated with TSH (r s  =  - 0.27, p lead at quartile4 (r s  = 0.61, p lead and FT3 or FT4 in any group. The results suggested that lead might have different etiological roles in these three thyroid diseases.

  15. Cavernous angioma after chemotherapy for desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma associated with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Takayasu, Takeshi; Nosaka, Ryo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Masao; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2016-02-01

    While cavernous angioma (CVA) after cranial irradiation has been documented, its development after high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) has not. We present a patient with desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma (DNMB) associated with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED) who developed CVA 2 years after high-dose chemotherapy and PBSCT. A 1-year-old boy with ingravescent vomiting was admitted to our institute. He presented with a large head, a depressed nasal bridge, low-set ears, thick lips with peg-shaped teeth, hypohidrosis, sparse hair, thin atrophic skin, scaly dermatitis with frontal bossing, and a bulging anterior fontanel. Neuroradiological examination revealed multiple cerebellar masses with heterogeneous enhancement and speckled calcifications and severe obstructive hydrocephalus. The histological diagnosis of surgical specimens was DNMB, and he underwent postoperative multiple-drug chemotherapy with autologous PBSCT. The outcome was favorable and he did not undergo radiotherapy. After 2 years, intracranial hemorrhage was detected at his regular radiological check-up and he again underwent surgery. The histological diagnosis was CVA. To our knowledge, this is the first report of AED-associated DNMB and CVA.

  16. Nucleation and growth of intermetallic precipitates in Zircaloy-2 and zircaloy-4 and correlation to nodular corrosion behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maussner, G.; Steinberg, E.; Tenckhoff, E.

    1987-01-01

    One of the fundamental aspects in the history of the development of zirconium alloys for nuclear applications is the corrosion behavior under in-pile conditions. In boiling-water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) the zirconium alloys Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 are the most commonly used materials, permitting attainment of a very high level of integrity and reliability. Nevertheless, efforts are required to optimize these well-established alloys with regard to their resistance to nodular corrosion, where improvements will give long-term advantages in fuel integrity and fuel economy. Phenomenological studies allow correlation of the nodular corrosion behavior with the morphological appearance of precipitated intermetallic phases in the microstructures of Zry-2 and Zry-4. To understand the fundamental processes of precipitation, particle nucleation-and-growth studies were made with Zry-2 and Zry-4 in different fabrication dimensions and with variations in β-quenching rates followed by isothermal and isochronical heat treatments. The microstructural characteristics of the precipitates were investigated by optical and transmission-electron microscopy. The macroscopic behavior was studied by electrical-resistivity measurements and hardness measurements. The nodular-corrosion susceptibility was determined by weight-gain and nodule distribution measurements after a 500 0 C laboratory-autoclave test

  17. Ultrasound-based scores as predictors for nodular hyperplasia in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism: a prospective validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwiasda, Jill; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Müller, Jörg A; Serttas, Michaela; Scheumann, Georg W F; Schrem, Harald; Jäger, Mark D

    2017-03-01

    Former studies evaluated echostructural and vascular patterns in ultrasound of the parathyroid gland to identify nodular hyperplasia in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism due to chronic kidney disease. This prospective study aims to externally validate suggested ultrasound classifications. Parathyroid glands of 27 patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing parathyroidectomy were prospectively analyzed. Ultrasound including Doppler imaging was performed 1 day prior to surgery. Ultrasound data were available for 70 parathyroid glands. Echostructural and vascular scores according to previous studies were applied calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Overall correctness, sensitivity, and specificity of the investigated scores were assessed with the Youden index method. The Doppler score introduced by Vulpio and colleagues based on characteristic blood flow patterns in parathyroid glands showed an AUROC of 0.749 for the prediction of nodular hyperplasia with an overall correctness of 72.8%. Other ultrasound classifications based on blood flow patterns, as well as echostructure of the parathyroid gland displayed AUROCs of secondary hyperparathyroidism was externally validated for the first time. Other ultrasound scores fail as prognostic models in this study population. Doppler sonography of the parathyroid gland has prognostic capability to identify nodular hyperplasia as surrogate marker for patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism indicating the need for ablative or surgical treatment when failing conservative therapy.

  18. Periventricular nodular and subcortical neuronal heterotopia in adult epileptic patients Heterotopía neuronal nodular y subcortical en pacientes adultos con epilepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián E. Consalvo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental malformations are brain abnormalities that occur during embryogenesis. Neuronal migration disorders, including heterotopic lesions, constitute one type of such abnormalities. The aim of the study was to compare the epileptic clinical patterns of patients with periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH (G1 with those affected by subcortical heterotopia (SCH (G2 looking for differences between both groups which, eventually, might suggest the type of the underlying malformation. The variables studied in both groups were: type of the heterotopia depicted on MRI studies, sex, age, age at seizure onset, annual seizure frequency, localization of the ictal symptomatogenic zone, characteristics of the EEG, other associated anomalies on the magnetic resonance images (MRI besides the heterotopia, and response to treatment. The only difference found between both groups was the type of heterotopia as shown by MRI studies. The other assessed variables did not significantly (p>0.05 differ between groups. No differences in the clinical features characterizing epilepsy could be found in patients with PNH or SCH, being the images the only tool able to differentiate them.Las malformaciones de la corteza cerebral son un grupo de entidades que se producen durante las etapas del desarrollo embrionario y cuya manifestación clínica puede ser la epilepsia. Estas malformaciones pueden ser diagnosticadas in vivo a través de las imágenes por resonancia magnética (IRM. Un subtipo particular de éstas lo constituyen los trastornos en la migración neuronal, dentro de los cuales se ubican las heterotopías (HT. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar enfermos portadores de HT periventriculares (G1 con aquellos portadores de HT subcorticales (G2. Se analizaron las variables sexo, edad y edad de inicio de la epilepsia (EI en años, antecedentes familiares (AF o prenatales (AP, frecuencia anual de crisis (FAC y características semiológicas de las crisis

  19. Animal pigment bilirubin discovered in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirone, Cary; Quirke, J Martin E; Priestap, Horacio A; Lee, David W

    2009-03-04

    The bile pigment bilirubin-IXalpha is the degradative product of heme, distributed among mammals and some other vertebrates. It can be recognized as the pigment responsible for the yellow color of jaundice and healing bruises. In this paper we present the first example of the isolation of bilirubin in plants. The compound was isolated from the brilliant orange-colored arils of Strelitzia nicolai, the white bird of paradise tree, and characterized by HPLC-ESMS, UV-visible, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as comparison with an authentic standard. This discovery indicates that plant cyclic tetrapyrroles may undergo degradation by a previously unknown pathway. Preliminary analyses of related plants, including S. reginae, the bird of paradise, also revealed bilirubin in the arils and flowers, indicating that the occurrence of bilirubin is not limited to a single species or tissue type.

  20. The analysis of pigments on rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, B.; O'Connor, S.; Pittelkow, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A limestone slab of roof fall coated with a red pigment was recovered from a Rockshelter in the Napier Ranges of the Kimberley region, Western Australia. Next to the roof fall fragment in the same stratigraphic layer was a piece of ochre. Three questions were presented: (1) is the red substance an ochre? (2) is the piece of ochre identical to the red substance on the roof fall? and (3) are the layers of pigment on the top and bottom of the limestone slab the same? In addition, as an extension from these questions, a general method was developed for the in situ analysis of ochre pigments on substrates to determine likely compositions and ochre sources. The analysis of the red pigment presented an analytical problem because the substance was intimately associated with the rock slab and therefore the analysis had to be done in situ. Not only was the red layer thin, but on a micro level it was uneven. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) penetrated the red layer, simultaneously analysing this layer and the rock substrate to different degrees depending upon the thickness of the red layer. Determining if the substance was actually ochre involved a comparison of elemental analyses between the background (slab) and background with red coating. Coatings of other ochres with known elemental concentrations on the same limestone background gave a comparison of the effect of simultaneously analysing a thin layer and background with different compositions. Three graphical methods useful for insitu analysis are demeonstrated. The find dates (around 40,000 BP) add to a growing body of data in support of the widespread use of ochre accompanying the earliest documented use of widely separated and environmentally diverse regions of Australia by Aboriginal people

  1. The analysis of pigments on rock surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fankhauser, B.; O`Connor, S. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Division of Archaeology and Natural History; Pittelkow, Y. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Coombs Computing Unit

    1997-12-31

    A limestone slab of roof fall coated with a red pigment was recovered from a Rockshelter in the Napier Ranges of the Kimberley region, Western Australia. Next to the roof fall fragment in the same stratigraphic layer was a piece of ochre. Three questions were presented: (1) is the red substance an ochre? (2) is the piece of ochre identical to the red substance on the roof fall? and (3) are the layers of pigment on the top and bottom of the limestone slab the same? In addition, as an extension from these questions, a general method was developed for the in situ analysis of ochre pigments on substrates to determine likely compositions and ochre sources. The analysis of the red pigment presented an analytical problem because the substance was intimately associated with the rock slab and therefore the analysis had to be done in situ. Not only was the red layer thin, but on a micro level it was uneven. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) penetrated the red layer, simultaneously analysing this layer and the rock substrate to different degrees depending upon the thickness of the red layer. Determining if the substance was actually ochre involved a comparison of elemental analyses between the background (slab) and background with red coating. Coatings of other ochres with known elemental concentrations on the same limestone background gave a comparison of the effect of simultaneously analysing a thin layer and background with different compositions. Three graphical methods useful for insitu analysis are demeonstrated. The find dates (around 40,000 BP) add to a growing body of data in support of the widespread use of ochre accompanying the earliest documented use of widely separated and environmentally diverse regions of Australia by Aboriginal people.

  2. UVR: sun, lamps, pigmentation and vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, C M; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has important and significant consequences on human health. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the beneficial effects of UVR. This perspective gives an introduction to the solar spectrum, UV lamps, UV dosimetry, skin pigment and vitamin D....... The health benefits of UVR exposure through vitamin D production or non-vitamin D pathways will be discussed in this themed issue in the following articles....

  3. MRI diagnosis of pigmented villonodular synovitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Zhongpu; Sui Zhengyan; Xue Jianrong; Song Cuizhi; Liu Yuekui; Li Jinwang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the MRI characteristics of pigmented villonodular synovitis. Methods: MRI and clinic data of 14 patients with pigmented villonodular synovitis proved by pathology were reviewed retrospectively. Results: MRI showed diffusible lesions in all 14 cases. 12 cases were located in knee joint, 2 in hip. MRI revealed nodules and masses formed by villis hyperplasia in the joints. MRI demonstrated the nodules with slightly low signal intensity on both T 1 WI and T 2 WI in 13 cases, the destruction of the cartilage in 8 cases, the destruction of the ligament in 5 cases, and the hydropsy in joint cavity in 10 cases, the destruction of the meniscus in 2 cases. Conclusion: The typical features of pigmented villonodular synovitis on MRI revealed the nodules formed by villis hyperplasia in the joint. Hemosiderin in the nodules demonstrated slightly low signal intensity on both T 1 WI and T 2 WI, with the presence of typical features like 'foam rubber cushion' sign and 'lichen' sign. (authors)

  4. Treatment of gingival pigmentation : A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Deepak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection and courtesy, and reveals self confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position and the color of the teeth but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival health and appearance are essential components of an attractive smile. Gingival pigmentation results from melanin granules, which are produced by melanoblasts. The degree of pigmentation depends on melanoblastic activity. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of ′black gums′ are common particularly in patients having a very high smile line (gummy smile. For depigmentation of gingiva different treatment modalities have been reported like- Bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery and laser. In the present case series bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap (epithelial excision cryotherapy and electrosurgery have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction. The problems encountered with some of these techniques have also been discussed.

  5. Hairless pigmented guinea pigs: a new model for the study of mammalian pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognia, J L; Murray, M S; Pawelek, J M

    1990-09-01

    A stock of hairless pigmented guinea pigs was developed to facilitate studies of mammalian pigmentation. This stock combines the convenience of a hairless animal with a pigmentary system that is similar to human skin. In both human and guinea pig skin, active melanocytes are located in the basal layer of the interfollicular epidermis. Hairless albino guinea pigs on an outbred Hartley background (CrI:IAF/HA(hr/hr)BR; designated hr/hr) were mated with red-haired guinea pigs (designated Hr/Hr). Red-haired heterozygotes from the F1 generation (Hr/hr) were then mated with each other or with hairless albino guinea pigs. The F2 generation included hairless pigmented guinea pigs that retained their interfollicular epidermal melanocytes and whose skin was red-brown in color. Following UV irradiation, there was an increase in cutaneous pigmentation as well as an increase in the number of active epidermal melanocytes. An additional strain of black hairless guinea pigs was developed using black Hr/Hr animals and a similar breeding scheme. These two strains should serve as useful models for studies of the mammalian pigment system.

  6. Assessment of the role of transcript for GATA-4 as a marker of unfavorable outcome in human adrenocortical neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Regina M

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant neoplasia of the adrenal cortex is usually associated with very poor prognosis. When adrenocortical neoplasms are diagnosed in the early stages, distinction between carcinoma and adenoma can be very difficult to accomplish, since there is yet no reliable marker to predict tumor recurrence or dissemination. GATA transcription factors play an essential role in the developmental control of cell fate, cell proliferation and differentiation, organ morphogenesis, and tissue-specific gene expression. Normal mouse adrenal cortex expresses GATA-6 while its malignant counterpart only expresses GATA-4. The goal of the present study was to assess whether this reciprocal change in the expression of GATA factors might be relevant for predicting the prognosis of human adrenocortical neoplasms. Since human adrenal cortices express luteinizing hormone (LH/hCG receptor and the gonadotropins are known to up-regulate GATA-4 in gonadal tumor cell lines, we also studied the expression of LH/hCG receptor. Methods We conducted a study on 13 non-metastasizing (NM and 10 metastasizing/recurrent (MR tumors obtained from a group of twenty-two adult and pediatric patients. The expression of GATA-4, GATA-6, and LH/hCG receptor (LHR in normal and tumoral human adrenal cortices was analysed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR complemented by dot blot hybridization. Results Messenger RNA for GATA-6 was detected in normal adrenal tissue, as well as in the totality of NM and MR tumors. GATA-4, by its turn, was detected in normal adrenal tissue, in 11 out of 13 NM tumors, and in 9 of the 10 MR tumors, with larger amounts of mRNA found among those presenting aggressive clinical behavior. Transcripts for LH receptor were observed both in normal tissue and neoplasms. A more intense LHR transcript accumulation was observed on those tumors with better clinical outcome. Conclusion Our data suggest that the expression of GATA-6 in

  7. Role of Endocrine Gland-Derived Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (EG-VEGF) and Its Receptors in Adrenocortical Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Dorothee; Wortmann, Sebastian; Kraus, Luitgard; Ronchi, Cristina L; Sinnott, Richard O; Fassnacht, Martin; Sbiera, Silviu

    2015-12-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and metastasis. Endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) is an angiogenic factor predominantly expressed in steroidogenic organs like the adrenal gland, ovary, testes, and placenta. EG-VEGF has antiapoptotic, mitogenic, and chemoattractive properties mediated via the two G protein-coupled receptors prokineticin receptor 1 (PKR1) and prokineticin receptor 2 (PKR2). We investigated the expression of EG-VEGF and its receptors in a large number of normal adrenal glands (NAG), adrenocortical adenomas (ACA), and carcinomas (ACC) using real-time PCR (NAG, n = 12; ACA, n = 24; and ACC, n = 30) and immunohistochemistry (NAG, n = 9; ACA, n = 23; and ACC, n = 163) and evaluated its impact on patients' survival. EG-VEGF, PKR1, and PKR2 mRNA and protein are expressed in NAG and the vast majority of ACA and ACC samples. The mean EG-VEGF mRNA expression was significantly lower in ACC (606.5 ± 77.1 copies) compared to NAG (4,043 ± 1,111) and cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA) (4,433 ± 2,378) (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). However, cytoplasmic and nuclear EG-VEGF protein expression was either significantly higher or similar in ACC (H score 2.4 ± 0.05, p < 0.05 and 1.7 ± 0.08, n.s., respectively) compared to NAG (1.8 ± 0.14 and 1.7 ± 0.2). Nuclear protein expression of either EG-VEGF or PKR1 or both is predictive for a higher mortality compared to patients without nuclear expression (hazard ratio (HR) = 5.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-21.36, n = 100, p = 0.02 independent of age, sex, and tumor stage). These findings suggest that EG-VEGF and its receptor PKR1 might play a role in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors and could serve as prognostic markers for this rare malignant disease.

  8. Masked volume wise principal component analysis of small adrenocortical tumours in dynamic [11C]-metomidate positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razifar, Pasha; Hennings, Joakim; Monazzam, Azita; Hellman, Per; Långström, Bengt; Sundin, Anders

    2009-01-01

    In previous clinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies novel approaches for application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on dynamic PET images such as Masked Volume Wise PCA (MVW-PCA) have been introduced. MVW-PCA was shown to be a feasible multivariate analysis technique, which, without modeling assumptions, could extract and separate organs and tissues with different kinetic behaviors into different principal components (MVW-PCs) and improve the image quality. In this study, MVW-PCA was applied to 14 dynamic 11C-metomidate-PET (MTO-PET) examinations of 7 patients with small adrenocortical tumours. MTO-PET was performed before and 3 days after starting per oral cortisone treatment. The whole dataset, reconstructed by filtered back projection (FBP) 0–45 minutes after the tracer injection, was used to study the tracer pharmacokinetics. Early, intermediate and late pharmacokinetic phases could be isolated in this manner. The MVW-PC1 images correlated well to the conventionally summed image data (15–45 minutes) but the image noise in the former was considerably lower. PET measurements performed by defining 'hot spot' regions of interest (ROIs) comprising 4 contiguous pixels with the highest radioactivity concentration showed a trend towards higher SUVs when the ROIs were outlined in the MVW-PC1 component than in the summed images. Time activity curves derived from '50% cut-off' ROIs based on an isocontour function whereby the pixels with SUVs between 50 to 100% of the highest radioactivity concentration were delineated, showed a significant decrease of the SUVs in normal adrenal glands and in adrenocortical adenomas after cortisone treatment. In addition to the clear decrease in image noise and the improved contrast between different structures with MVW-PCA, the results indicate that the definition of ROIs may be more accurate and precise in MVW-PC1 images than in conventional summed images. This might improve the precision of PET

  9. Interaction between Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf pigment and rice proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Xu, Yuan; Zhou, Sumei; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang; Fan, Meihua

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the interaction of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf (VBTL) pigment and rice proteins. In the presence of rice protein, VBTL pigment antioxidant activity and free polyphenol content decreased by 67.19% and 68.11%, respectively, and L(∗) of the protein-pigment complex decreased significantly over time. L(∗) values of albumin, globulin and glutelin during 60-min pigment exposure decreased by 55.00, 57.14, and 54.30%, respectively, indicating that these proteins had bound to the pigment. A significant difference in protein surface hydrophobicity was observed between rice proteins and pigment-protein complexes, indicating that hydrophobic interaction is a major binding mechanism between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. A significant difference in secondary structures between proteins and protein-pigment complexes was also uncovered, indicating that hydrogen bonding may be another mode of interaction between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. Our results indicate that VBTL pigment can stain rice proteins with hydrophobic and hydrogen interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Alternative Carrier Solvents for Pigments Extracted from Spalting Fungi

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    Lauren Pittis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of both naturally occurring and synthetic pigmented wood has been prevalent in woodcraft for centuries. Modern manifestations generally involve either woodworkers’ aniline dyes, or pigments derived from a special class of fungi known as spalting fungi. While fungal pigments are more renewable than anilines and pose less of an environmental risk, the carrier required for these pigments—dichloromethane (DCM—is both problematic for humans and tends to only deposit the pigments on the surface of wood instead of evenly within the material. Internal coloration of wood is key to adoption of a pigmenting system by woodworkers. To address this issue, five solvents that had moderate solubility with the pigments extracted from Chlorociboria aeruginosa and Scytalidium cuboideum were identified, in the hopes that a reduction in solubility would result in a greater amount of the pigment deposited inside the wood. Of the tested solvents, acetonitrile was found to produce the highest internal color in ash, Douglas-fir, madrone, mountain hemlock, Port-Orford cedar, Pacific silver fir, red alder and sugar maple. While these carrier solvents are not ideal for extracting the pigments from the fungi, acetonitrile in particular does appear to allow for more pigment to be deposited within wood. The use of acetonitrile over DCM offers new opportunities for possible industrial spalting applications, in which larger pieces of wood could be uniformly pigmented and sold to the end user in larger quantities than are currently available with spalted wood.

  11. Ozone Sensitivity and Catalase Activity in Pigmented and Non-Pigmented Strains of Serratia Marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ondarza, José

    2017-01-01

    Ozone exposure rapidly leads to bacterial death, making ozone an effective disinfectant in food industry and health care arena. However, microbial defenses may moderate this effect and play a role in the effective use of oxidizing agents for disinfection. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen, expressing genes differentially during infection of a human host. A better understanding of regulatory systems that control expression of Serratia 's virulence genes and defenses is therefore valuable. Here, we investigated the role of pigmentation and catalase in Serratia marcescens on survival to ozone exposure. Pigmented and non-pigmented strains of Serratia marcescens were cultured to exponential or stationary phase and exposed to 5 ppm of gaseous ozone for 2.5 - 10 minutes. Survival was calculated via plate counts. Catalase activity was measured photometrically and tolerance to hydrogen peroxide was assayed by disk-diffusion. Exposure of S. marcescens to 5 ppm gaseous ozone kills > 90% of cells within 10 minutes in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Although pigmented Serratia (grown at 28°C) survived ozonation better than unpigmented Serratia (grown at 35°C), non-pigmented mutant strains of Serratia had similar ozone survival rates, catalase activity and H 2 O 2 tolerance as wild type strains. Rather, ozone survival and catalase activity were elevated in 6 hour cultures compared to 48 hour cultures. Our studies did not bear out a role for prodigiosin in ozone survival. Rather, induction of oxidative stress responses during exponential growth increased both catalase activity and ozone survival in both pigmented and unpigmented S. marcescens .

  12. Carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium requires Ca2+ and calcineurin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adam S; García, Dana M

    2007-12-19

    Inside bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) retinal pigment epithelial cells, pigment granules move in response to extracellular signals. During the process of aggregation, pigment motility is directed toward the cell nucleus; in dispersion, pigment is directed away from the nucleus and into long apical processes. A number of different chemicals have been found to initiate dispersion, and carbachol (an acetylcholine analog) is one example. Previous research indicates that the carbachol-receptor interaction activates a Gq-mediated pathway which is commonly linked to Ca2+ mobilization. The purpose of the present study was to test for involvement of calcium and to probe calcium-dependent mediators to reveal their role in carbachol-mediated dispersion. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion was blocked by the calcium chelator BAPTA. In contrast, the calcium channel antagonist verapamil, and incubation in Ca2+-free medium failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion. The calcineurin inhibitor cypermethrin blocked carbachol-induced dispersion; whereas, two protein kinase C inhibitors (staurosporine and bisindolylmaleimide II) failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate failed to elicit dispersion. A rise in intracellular calcium is necessary for carbachol-induced dispersion; however, the Ca2+ requirement is not dependent on extracellular sources, implying that intracellular stores are sufficient to enable pigment granule dispersion to occur. Calcineurin is a likely Ca2+-dependent mediator involved in the signal cascade. Although the pathway leads to the generation of diacylglycerol and calcium (both required for the activation of certain PKC isoforms), our evidence does not support a significant role for PKC.

  13. Carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium requires Ca2+ and calcineurin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Dana M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inside bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus retinal pigment epithelial cells, pigment granules move in response to extracellular signals. During the process of aggregation, pigment motility is directed toward the cell nucleus; in dispersion, pigment is directed away from the nucleus and into long apical processes. A number of different chemicals have been found to initiate dispersion, and carbachol (an acetylcholine analog is one example. Previous research indicates that the carbachol-receptor interaction activates a Gq-mediated pathway which is commonly linked to Ca2+ mobilization. The purpose of the present study was to test for involvement of calcium and to probe calcium-dependent mediators to reveal their role in carbachol-mediated dispersion. Results Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion was blocked by the calcium chelator BAPTA. In contrast, the calcium channel antagonist verapamil, and incubation in Ca2+-free medium failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion. The calcineurin inhibitor cypermethrin blocked carbachol-induced dispersion; whereas, two protein kinase C inhibitors (staurosporine and bisindolylmaleimide II failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusion A rise in intracellular calcium is necessary for carbachol-induced dispersion; however, the Ca2+ requirement is not dependent on extracellular sources, implying that intracellular stores are sufficient to enable pigment granule dispersion to occur. Calcineurin is a likely Ca2+-dependent mediator involved in the signal cascade. Although the pathway leads to the generation of diacylglycerol and calcium (both required for the activation of certain PKC isoforms, our evidence does not support a significant role for PKC.

  14. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic spoke-wheel sign in hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, Y.-H.; Wang, J.-H.; Lu, S.-N.; Chen, T.-Y.; Changchien, C.-S.; Chen, C.-H.; Hung, C.-H.; Lee, C.-M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: To determine the utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in assessing hepatic tumors with central feeding arteries found by color/power Doppler ultrasonograophy (CDUS/PDUS). Methods: We prospectively studied 37 hepatic tumors (34 patients), with a mean size of 2.9 cm and each having a central feeding artery, by CDUS/PDUS. The CEUS was performed with a galactose-based microbubble contrast agent. The detection of a spoke-wheel sign was interpreted as evidence of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). All patients underwent tumor biopsies or surgical resection. Results: CEUS showed a central feeding artery with a spoke-wheel sign in 36 tumors, including 34 FNHs and 2 hepatocellular carcinomas. The remaining tumor was demonstrated to be FNH despite the absence of a spoke-wheel sign as detected by CEUS. The sensitivity of the spoke-wheel sign or central scar for FNH was 97.1% (34/35), 40% (14/35), 28.6% (10/35), 50% (8/16) and 0% (0/15) for CEUS, CDUS/PDUS, dynamic computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hepatic angiography and liver scintigraphy, respectively. The two hepatocellular carcinomas showed scirrhous changes histologically. Conclusions: CEUS is more sensitive than CDUS/PDUS, dynamic CT, MRI, hepatic angiography and liver scintigraphy in the detection of the spoke-wheel sign or central scar in FNH. Scirrhous hepatocellular carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis for liver tumors with spoke-wheel sign detected by CEUS

  15. Understanding the natural history of focal nodular hyperplasia in the liver with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halankar, Jaydeep A; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Jang, Hyun-Jung; Khalili, Korosh; Masoom, Haider A

    2012-01-01

    To determine the incidence of natural growth or regression of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) in the liver. We retrospectively included 120 consecutive patients who were diagnosed to have FNH on MRI. The mean follow-up duration was 19 months (range: 6–64 months). There were 25 men and 95 women (age range: 18–80 years; mean: 45 years). There were 167 FNH lesions in the 120 patients. MRI images were retrospectively reviewed for interval growth or regression of FNH. The maximum size of the lesions was measured on axial arterial-phase images of the initial and the last MRI examinations. An interval increase or decrease in diameter of over 10% of the initial diameter was considered as positive growth or regression, respectively. The use of Oral contraceptives was also documented. Interval growth was seen in 25/167 nodules (15%) over 7-48 months (mean: 21 months), with increase in size of 0.2-1.7 cm (mean: 0.6 cm) and percentage change of 10.5-340% (mean: 64%). Interval regression was seen in 13/167 (8%) of nodules over 7-63 months (mean: 22 months), with decrease in size of 0.2-0.9 cm (mean: 0.5 cm) and percentage change of 10.4-60% (mean: 24%).Five of 17 (29%) female patients with growing FNH and 25/78 (32%) female patients with non-growing FNH had a history of intake of oral contraceptives (P=0.83). Although FNH is benign and of no clinical significance, a substantial percentage of FNH shows interval growth or regression on long-term follow-up with MRI

  16. Stereo-EEG: Diagnostic and therapeutic tool for periventricular nodular heterotopia epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Laura; Mai, Roberto F; Francione, Stefano; Pelliccia, Veronica; Gozzo, Francesca; Sartori, Ivana; Nobili, Lino; Cardinale, Francesco; Cossu, Massimo; Meletti, Stefano; Tassi, Laura

    2017-11-01

    Periventricular nodular heterotopias (PNHs) are malformations of cortical development related to neuronal migration disorders, frequently associated with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). Stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) is considered a very effective step of the presurgical evaluation, providing the recognition of the epileptogenic zone (EZ). At the same time, via the intracerebral electrodes it is possible to perform radiofrequency thermocoagulation (SEEG-guided RF-TC) with the aim of ablating and/or disrupting the EZ. The purpose of this study was to evaluate both the relationships between PNH and the EZ, and the efficacy of SEEG-guided RF-TC. Twenty patients with DRE related to PNHs were studied. Inclusion criteria were the following: (1) patients with epilepsy and PNHs (unilateral or bilateral, single or multiple nodules) diagnosed on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); (2) SEEG recordings available as part of the presurgical investigations, with at least one intracerebral electrode inside the heterotopia; (3) complete surgical workup with SEEG-guided RF-TC and/or with traditional neurosurgery, with a follow-up of at least 12 months. Complex and heterogenic epileptic networks were found in these patients. SEEG-guided RF-TC both into the nodules and/or the cortex was efficacious in the 76% of patients. Single or multiple, unilateral or bilateral PNHs are the most suitable for this procedure, whereas patients with PNHs associated with complex cortical malformations obtained excellent outcome only with traditional resective surgery. Each patient had a specific epileptogenic network, independent from the number, size, or location of nodules and from the cortical malformation associated with. SEEG-guided RF-TC appears as a new and very effective diagnostic and therapeutic approach for DRE related to PNHs. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  17. Integrity of the corpus callosum in patients with periventricular nodular heterotopia related epilepsy by FLNA mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyu; An, Dongmei; Niu, Running; Gong, Qiyong; Zhou, Dong

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the quantitative diffusion properties of the corpus callosum (CC) in a large group of patients with periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) related epilepsy and to further investigate the effect of Filamin A ( FLNA ) mutation on these properties. Patients with PNH (n = 34), subdivided into FLNA -mutated (n = 11) and FLNA -nonmutated patients (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 34), underwent 3.0 T structural MRI and diffusion imaging scan (64 direction). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were measured in the three major subdivisions of the CC (genu, body and splenium). Correlations between DTI metric changes and clinical parameters were also evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of FLNA mutation on structural integrity of the corpus callosum was examined. Patients with PNH and epilepsy had significant reductions in FA for the genu and splenium of the CC, accompanied by increases in MD for the splenium, as compared to healthy controls. There were no correlations between clinical parameters of epilepsy and MD. The FA value in the splenium negatively correlated with epilepsy duration. Interestingly, FLNA -mutated patients showed significantly decreased FA for all three major subdivisions of the CC, and increased MD for the genu and splenium, as compared to HCs and FLNA -nonmutated patients. These findings support the conclusion that patients with epilepsy secondary to PNH present widespread microstructural changes found in the corpus callosum that extend beyond the macroscopic MRI-visible lesions. This study also indicates that FLNA may affect white matter integrity in this disorder.

  18. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic spoke-wheel sign in hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Y.-H. [Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China); Wang, J.-H. [Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: wajing@adm.cgmh.org.tw; Lu, S.-N. [Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China); Chen, T.-Y. [Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Changchien, C.-S. [Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-H. [Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China); Hung, C.-H. [Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China); Lee, C.-M. [Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China)

    2006-12-15

    Background: To determine the utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in assessing hepatic tumors with central feeding arteries found by color/power Doppler ultrasonograophy (CDUS/PDUS). Methods: We prospectively studied 37 hepatic tumors (34 patients), with a mean size of 2.9 cm and each having a central feeding artery, by CDUS/PDUS. The CEUS was performed with a galactose-based microbubble contrast agent. The detection of a spoke-wheel sign was interpreted as evidence of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). All patients underwent tumor biopsies or surgical resection. Results: CEUS showed a central feeding artery with a spoke-wheel sign in 36 tumors, including 34 FNHs and 2 hepatocellular carcinomas. The remaining tumor was demonstrated to be FNH despite the absence of a spoke-wheel sign as detected by CEUS. The sensitivity of the spoke-wheel sign or central scar for FNH was 97.1% (34/35), 40% (14/35), 28.6% (10/35), 50% (8/16) and 0% (0/15) for CEUS, CDUS/PDUS, dynamic computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hepatic angiography and liver scintigraphy, respectively. The two hepatocellular carcinomas showed scirrhous changes histologically. Conclusions: CEUS is more sensitive than CDUS/PDUS, dynamic CT, MRI, hepatic angiography and liver scintigraphy in the detection of the spoke-wheel sign or central scar in FNH. Scirrhous hepatocellular carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis for liver tumors with spoke-wheel sign detected by CEUS.

  19. Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a unique disease deserving unique management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenauer, Dennis A; Engert, Andreas

    2017-12-08

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare lymphoma entity with an incidence of 0.1 to 0.2/100 000/y. Compared with the more common subtypes of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, NLPHL is characterized by distinct pathological and clinical features. Histologically, the disease-defining lymphocyte predominant cells consistently express CD20 but lack CD30. Clinically, NLPHL mostly has a rather indolent course, and patients usually are diagnosed in early stages. The prognosis of early-stage NLPHL is excellent, with progression-free survival and overall survival rates exceeding 90% after involved-field radiotherapy (IF-RT) alone (stage IA) or combined modality treatment consisting of a brief chemotherapy with 2 cycles of ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) chemotherapy followed by IF-RT (early stages other than stage IA). In contrast, patients with advanced disease at diagnosis tend to relapse either with NLPHL histology or with histological transformation into aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma despite more aggressive first-line treatment with 6 to 8 cycles of multiagent chemotherapy. However, even NLPHL patients with multiple relapses successfully respond to salvage therapy in many cases. Salvage therapies range from single-agent anti-CD20 antibody treatment to high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. Treatment at disease recurrence should be chosen on the basis of various factors, including histology at relapse, time to relapse, extent of disease at relapse, and prior treatment. Because death among NLPHL patients is more often caused by therapy-related late effects than lymphoma-related complications, optimizing the risk-benefit ratio of treatment by decreasing toxicity whenever possible is the major goal of clinical research in this disease. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  20. Adrenocortical and Adipose Responses to High-Altitude-Induced, Long-Term Hypoxia in the Ovine Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean A. Myers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By late gestation, the maturing hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis aids the fetus in responding to stress. Hypoxia represents a significant threat to the fetus accompanying situations such as preeclampsia, smoking, high altitude, and preterm labor. We developed a model of high-altitude (3,820 m, long-term hypoxia (LTH in pregnant sheep. We describe the impact of LTH on the fetal HPA axis at the level of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, anterior pituitary corticotrope, and adrenal cortex. At the PVN and anterior pituitary, the responses to LTH are consistent with hypoxia being a potent activator of the HPA axis and potentially maladaptive, while the adrenocortical response to LTH appears to be primarily adaptive. We discuss mechanisms involved in the delicate balance between these seemingly opposing responses that preserve the normal ontogenic rise in fetal plasma cortisol essential for organ maturation and in this species, birth. Further, we examine the response to, and ramifications of, an acute secondary stressor in the LTH fetus. We provide an integrative model on the potential role of adipose in modulating these responses to LTH. Integration of these adaptive responses to LTH plays a key role in promoting normal fetal growth and development under conditions of a chronic stress.