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Sample records for pigment epithelium-derived factor

  1. [Effect of cryotherapy over the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and pigment epithelium-derived factor].

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    Toscano-Garibay, Julia Dolores; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Espitia-Pinzón, Clara; Gil-Carrasco, Félix; Flores-Estrada, José Javier

    2014-01-01

    Cryotherapy is a no invasive technique that uses intense cold to freeze and destroy cancer tissues. There are no descriptions of its effects over the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and pigment epithelium-derived factor. Experimental study in cryogenic spot were applied in the right sclera of twelve pigs for ten minutes. Other 3 pigs were used as normal controls. Animals were sacrificed at 7, 14 and 21 and the tissues of choriodes and retina were dissected in areas of approximately 1 cm2 surrounding cryogenic spots. Expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and pigment epithelium-derived factor were determined analyzed using polymerase chain reaction coupled to reverse-transcription. Vascular endothelial growth factor was significantly downregulated (24%, p< 0.05) seven days post-treatment meanwhile pigment epithelium-derived factor levels increased 44.8% (p< 0.05) as compared to normal controls (untreated). Both vascular endothelial growth factor and pigment epithelium-derived factor levels remain the same until day 14 but returned to basal expression at day 21. This work expose the relation of cryotherapy with the expression of two factors related to angiogenesis. RESULTS showed significant changes on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and pigment epithelium-derived factor illustrating that both proteins are regulated in response to cryogenic treatment in relatively short periods (21 days).

  2. Activation of Complement by Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, Leonie M.; Talens, Simone; Kwasniewicz, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    neoepitope in C4d, several molecules that were specifically bound to C4d were identified from pooled synovial fluid (SF) from four rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. One of these molecules, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), is a broadly expressed multifunctional member of the serine proteinase...... inhibitor family. Using ELISA, we confirmed the presence of various amounts of complexes between PEDF and C4d in the SF from 30 RA patients, whereas none were detected in SF from control subjects. Correlation analyses suggested that, in arthritis patients, C4d-PEDF complexes found in sera arise from...

  3. Role of Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor in Stem/Progenitor Cell-Associated Neovascularization

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    Jung-Tung Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF was first identified in retinal pigment epithelium cells. It is an endogenously produced protein that is widely expressed throughout the human body such as in the eyes, liver, heart, and adipose tissue; it exhibits multiple and varied biological activities. PEDF is a multifunctional protein with antiangiogenic, antitumorigenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, neurotrophic, and neuroprotective properties. More recently, PEDF has been shown to be the most potent inhibitor of stem/progenitor cell-associated neovascularization. Neovascularization is a complex process regulated by a large, interacting network of molecules from stem/progenitor cells. PEDF is also involved in the pathogenesis of angiogenic eye disease, tumor growth, and cardiovascular disease. Novel antiangiogenic agents with tolerable side effects are desired for the treatment of patients with various diseases. Here, we review the value of PEDF as an important endogenous antiangiogenic molecule; we focus on the recently identified role of PEDF as a possible new target molecule to influence stem/progenitor cell-related neovascularization.

  4. Pigment epithelium-derived factor mediates impaired lung vascular development in neonatal hyperoxia.

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    Chetty, Anne; Bennett, Michelle; Dang, Linh; Nakamura, Daisy; Cao, Gong-Jie; Mujahid, Sana; Volpe, MaryAnn; Herman, Ira; Becerra, S Patricia; Nielsen, Heber C

    2015-03-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a chronic lung disease of preterm infants characterized by arrested microvascularization and alveolarization. Studies show the importance of proangiogenic factors for alveolarization, but the importance of antiangiogenic factors is unknown. We proposed that hyperoxia increases the potent angiostatin, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), in neonatal lungs, inhibiting alveolarization and microvascularization. Wild-type (WT) and PEDF(-/-) mice were exposed to room air (RA) or 0.9 fraction of inspired oxygen from Postnatal Day 5 to 13. PEDF protein was increased in hyperoxic lungs compared with RA-exposed lungs (P epithelium. Hyperoxia reduced alveolarization in WT mice (P lung microvascularization by vascular endothelial growth factor and PEDF was studied in vitro using MFLM-91U cells, a fetal mouse lung endothelial cell line. Vascular endothelial growth factor stimulation of proliferation, migration, and capillary tube formation was inhibited by PEDF. MFLM-91U cells exposed to conditioned medium (CM) from E17 fetal mouse lung type II (T2) cells cultured in 0.9 fraction of inspired oxygen formed fewer capillary tubes than CM from T2 cells cultured in RA (hyperoxia CM, 51 ± 10% of RA CM, P < 0.05), an effect abolished by PEDF antibody. We conclude that PEDF mediates reduced vasculogenesis and alveolarization in neonatal hyperoxia. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia likely results from an altered balance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors.

  5. Effects of pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) on malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs).

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    Demestre, Maria; Terzi, Menderes Yusuf; Mautner, Victor; Vajkoczy, Peter; Kurtz, Andreas; Piña, Ana Luisa

    2013-12-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an inherited genetic disease affecting 1 in 3,500 individuals. A prominent feature of NF1 is the formation of benign tumours of the peripheral nerve sheath (neurofibromas). However, these can become malignant and form highly metastatic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST), which are usually fatal despite aggressive surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Recent studies have shown that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) can induce differentiation and inhibit angiogenesis in several kinds of tumours. The present study was designed to determine the in vitro and in vivo effects of PEDF on MPNST angiogenesis and tumour growth. PEDF inhibited proliferation and augmented apoptosis in S462 MPNST cells after 48 h of treatment in culture. In xenografts of S462 MPNST cells in athymic nude mice, PEDF suppressed MPNST tumour burden, due mainly to inhibition of angiogenesis. These results demonstrate for the first time inhibitory effects of PEDF on the growth of human MPNST via induction of anti-angiogenesis and apoptosis. Our results suggest that PEDF could be a novel approach for future therapeutic purposes against MPNST.

  6. Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Alleviates Tamoxifen-Induced Endometrial Hyperplasia.

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    Goldberg, Keren; Bar-Joseph, Hadas; Grossman, Hadas; Hasky, Noa; Uri-Belapolsky, Shiri; Stemmer, Salomon M; Chuderland, Dana; Shalgi, Ruth; Ben-Aharon, Irit

    2015-12-01

    Tamoxifen is a cornerstone component of adjuvant endocrine therapy for patients with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer. Its significant adverse effects include uterine hyperplasia, polyps, and increased risk of endometrial cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Excessive angiogenesis, a hallmark of tumorigenesis, is a result of disrupted balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. VEGF is a pro-angiogenic factor shown to be elevated by tamoxifen in the uterus. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a potent anti-angiogenic factor that suppresses strong pro-angiogenic factors, such as VEGF. Our aim was to investigate whether angiogenic balance plays a role in tamoxifen-induced uterine pathologies, elucidate the molecular impairment in that network, and explore potential intervention to offset the proposed imbalance elicited by tamoxifen. Using in vivo mouse models, we demonstrated that tamoxifen induced a dose-dependent shift in endogenous uterine angiogenic balance favoring VEGF over PEDF. Treatment with recombinant PEDF (rPEDF) abrogated tamoxifen-induced uterine hyperplasia and VEGF elevation, resulting in reduction of blood vessels density. Exploring the molecular mechanism revealed that tamoxifen promoted survival and malignant transformation pathways, whereas rPEDF treatment prevents these changes. Activation of survival pathways was decreased, demonstrated by reduction in AKT phosphorylation concomitant with elevation in JNK phosphorylation. Estrogen receptor-α and c-Myc oncoprotein levels were reduced. Our findings provide novel insight into the molecular mechanisms tamoxifen induces in the uterus, which may become the precursor events of subsequent endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. We demonstrate that rPEDF may serve as a useful intervention to alleviate the risk of tamoxifen-induced endometrial pathologies.

  7. Influence of pigment epithelium-derived factor on outcome after striatal cerebral ischemia in the mouse.

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    Marietta Zille

    Full Text Available We here suggest that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF does not have an effect on lesion size, behavioral outcome, cell proliferation, or cell death after striatal ischemia in the mouse. PEDF is a neurotrophic factor with neuroprotective, antiangiogenic, and antipermeability effects. It influences self-renewal of neural stem cells and proliferation of microglia. We investigated whether intraventricular infusion of PEDF reduces infarct size and cell death, ameliorates behavioral outcome, and influences cell proliferation in the one-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia. C57Bl6/N mice were implanted with PEDF or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (control osmotic pumps and subjected to 60-minute MCAO 48 hours after pump implantation. They received daily BrdU injections for 7 days after MCAO in order to investigate cell proliferation. Infarct volumes were determined 24 hours after reperfusion using magnetic resonance imaging. We removed the pumps on day 5 and performed behavioral testing between day 7 and 21. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to determine the effect of PEDF on cell proliferation and cell death. Our model produced an ischemic injury confined solely to striatal damage. We detected no reduction in infarct sizes and cell death in PEDF- vs. CSF-infused MCAO mice. Behavioral outcome and cell proliferation did not differ between the groups. However, we cannot exclude that PEDF might work under different conditions in stroke. Further studies will elucidate the effect of PEDF treatment on cell proliferation and behavioral outcome in moderate to severe ischemic injury in the brain.

  8. Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor Peptide Protects Murine Hepatocytes from Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Injury.

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    Shou-Chuan Shih

    Full Text Available Fibrogenesis is induced by repeated injury to the liver and reactive regeneration and leads eventually to liver cirrhosis. Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF has been shown to prevent liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. A 44 amino acid domain of PEDF (44-mer was found to have a protective effect against various insults to several cell types. In this study, we investigated the capability of synthetic 44-mer to protect against liver injury in mice and in primary cultured hepatocytes. Acute liver injury, induced by CCl4, was evident from histological changes, such as cell necrosis, inflammation and apoptosis, and a concomitant reduction of glutathione (GSH and GSH redox enzyme activities in the liver. Intraperitoneal injection of the 44-mer into CCl4-treated mice abolished the induction of AST and ALT and markedly reduced histological signs of liver injury. The 44-mer treatment can reduce hepatic oxidative stress as evident from lower levels of lipid hydroperoxide, and higher levels of GSH. CCl4 caused a reduction of Bcl-xL, PEDF and PPARγ, which was markedly restored by the 44-mer treatment. Consequently, the 44-mer suppressed liver fibrosis induced by repeated CCl4 injury. Furthermore, our observations in primary culture of rat hepatocytes showed that PEDF and the 44-mer protected primary rat hepatocytes against apoptosis induced by serum deprivation and TGF-β1. PEDF/44-mer induced cell protective STAT3 phosphorylation. Pharmacological STAT3 inhibition prevented the antiapoptotic action of PEDF/44-mer. Among several PEDF receptor candidates that may be responsible for hepatocyte protection, we demonstrated that PNPLA2 was essential for PEDF/44-mer-mediated STAT3 phosphorylation and antiapoptotic activity by using siRNA to selectively knockdown PNPLA2. In conclusion, the PEDF 44-mer protects hepatocytes from single and repeated CCl4 injury. This protective effect may stem from strengthening the counter oxidative stress

  9. Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor in Cataractous Aqueous Humor and Lens Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Liu; Yizhi Liu; Mingxing Wu

    2006-01-01

    Purpose:To study the characteristics of PEDF in cataractous aqueous humor and its expression in human lens epithelium.Methods:The PEDF concentration in the aqueous humor was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in senile (130cases) and congenital (18cases) cataract patients who underwent cataract phacoemulsification extraction surgery. Anterior lens capsular specimens were obtained from these patients to count lens epithelial cells(LEC) density. The Lens Opacities Classification System Ⅲ was used to classify the senile cataracts as cortical, nuclear, posterior subcapsular and mixed types of opacity, and quantitative analysis of the nuclear opacities was performed by Pentacam Scheimpflug imaging system. Anterior lens capsular specimens from another senile(10cases) and congenital (10cases) cataract were collected for immunofluorescence with polyclonal antibodies specific to human pigment epithelium-derived factor(PEDF).Results:The mean aqueous level of PEDF was(178. 9±87. 5)ng/ml, and there was negative linear correlation of PEDF level and age (r=0. 811, P < 0. 001) . In senile cases, the aqueous PEDF concentration decreased with increasing nuclear opacities(r=0. 447, P < 0.01 ), and the mean PEDF level in nuclear cataract was significantly lower than that in posterior subcapsular opacity (P < 0.01 ) . PEDF immunostaining was detected in LEC of all capsular specimens.Conclusion :The PEDF level in human aqueous humor is related to age, types of cataracts and lens opacity. PEDF also express in human LEC. The study results suggest PEDF may regulate and/or protect LEC by paracrine and autocrine, and lack of PEDF may play a role in cataractogenesis.

  10. Pigment epithelium-derived factor as a multifunctional regulator of wound healing

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    Wietecha, Mateusz S.; Król, Mateusz J.; Michalczyk, Elizabeth R.; Chen, Lin; Gettins, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    During dermal wound repair, hypoxia-driven proliferation results in dense but highly permeable, disorganized microvascular networks, similar to those in solid tumors. Concurrently, activated dermal fibroblasts generate an angiopermissive, provisional extracellular matrix (ECM). Unlike cancers, wounds naturally resolve via blood vessel regression and ECM maturation, which are essential for reestablishing tissue homeostasis. Mechanisms guiding wound resolution are poorly understood; one candidate regulator is pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a secreted glycoprotein. PEDF is a potent antiangiogenic in models of pathological angiogenesis and a promising cancer and cardiovascular disease therapeutic, but little is known about its physiological function. To examine the roles of PEDF in physiological wound repair, we used a reproducible model of excisional skin wound healing in BALB/c mice. We show that PEDF is abundant in unwounded and healing skin, is produced primarily by dermal fibroblasts, binds to resident microvascular endothelial cells, and accumulates in dermal ECM and epidermis. PEDF transcript and protein levels were low during the inflammatory and proliferative phases of healing but increased in quantity and colocalization with microvasculature during wound resolution. Local antibody inhibition of endogenous PEDF delayed vessel regression and collagen maturation during the remodeling phase. Treatment of wounds with intradermal injections of exogenous, recombinant PEDF inhibited nascent angiogenesis by repressing endothelial proliferation, promoted vascular integrity and function, and increased collagen maturity. These results demonstrate that PEDF contributes to the resolution of healing wounds by causing regression of immature blood vessels and stimulating maturation of the vascular microenvironment, thus promoting a return to tissue homeostasis after injury. PMID:26163443

  11. Pigment epithelium-derived factor as a multifunctional regulator of wound healing.

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    Wietecha, Mateusz S; Król, Mateusz J; Michalczyk, Elizabeth R; Chen, Lin; Gettins, Peter G; DiPietro, Luisa A

    2015-09-01

    During dermal wound repair, hypoxia-driven proliferation results in dense but highly permeable, disorganized microvascular networks, similar to those in solid tumors. Concurrently, activated dermal fibroblasts generate an angiopermissive, provisional extracellular matrix (ECM). Unlike cancers, wounds naturally resolve via blood vessel regression and ECM maturation, which are essential for reestablishing tissue homeostasis. Mechanisms guiding wound resolution are poorly understood; one candidate regulator is pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a secreted glycoprotein. PEDF is a potent antiangiogenic in models of pathological angiogenesis and a promising cancer and cardiovascular disease therapeutic, but little is known about its physiological function. To examine the roles of PEDF in physiological wound repair, we used a reproducible model of excisional skin wound healing in BALB/c mice. We show that PEDF is abundant in unwounded and healing skin, is produced primarily by dermal fibroblasts, binds to resident microvascular endothelial cells, and accumulates in dermal ECM and epidermis. PEDF transcript and protein levels were low during the inflammatory and proliferative phases of healing but increased in quantity and colocalization with microvasculature during wound resolution. Local antibody inhibition of endogenous PEDF delayed vessel regression and collagen maturation during the remodeling phase. Treatment of wounds with intradermal injections of exogenous, recombinant PEDF inhibited nascent angiogenesis by repressing endothelial proliferation, promoted vascular integrity and function, and increased collagen maturity. These results demonstrate that PEDF contributes to the resolution of healing wounds by causing regression of immature blood vessels and stimulating maturation of the vascular microenvironment, thus promoting a return to tissue homeostasis after injury. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Molecular phylogeny of the antiangiogenic and neurotrophic serpin, pigment epithelium derived factor in vertebrates

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    Xu, Xuming; Zhang, Samuel Shao-Min; Barnstable, Colin J; Tombran-Tink, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    Background Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF), a member of the serpin family, regulates cell proliferation, promotes survival of neurons, and blocks growth of new blood vessels in mammals. Defining the molecular phylogeny of PEDF by bioinformatic analysis is one approach to understanding the link between its gene structure and its function in these biological processes. Results From a comprehensive search of available DNA databases we identified a single PEDF gene in all vertebrate species examined. These included four mammalian and six non-mammalian vertebrate species in which PEDF had not previously been described. A five gene cluster around PEDF was found in an approximate 100 kb region in mammals, birds, and amphibians. In ray-finned fish these genes are scattered over three chromosomes although only one PEDF gene was consistently found. The PEDF gene is absent in invertebrates including Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster), Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), and sea squirt (C. intestinalis). The PEDF gene is transcribed in all vertebrate phyla, suggesting it is biologically active throughout vertebrate evolution. The multiple actions of PEDF are likely conserved in evolution since it has the same gene structure across phyla, although the size of the gene ranges from 48.3 kb in X. tropicalis to 2.9 kb in fugu, with human PEDF at a size of 15.6 kb. A strong similarity in the proximal 200 bp of the PEDF promoter in mammals suggests the existence of a possible regulatory region across phyla. Using a non-synonymous/synonymous substitution rate ratio we show that mammalian and fish PEDFs have similar ratios of vertebrates and our studies suggest that the regulation and biological actions of this gene are preserved across vertebrates. This comprehensive analysis of the PEDF gene across phyla provides new information that will aid further characterization of common functional motifs of this serpin in biological processes. PMID:17020603

  13. Molecular phylogeny of the antiangiogenic and neurotrophic serpin, pigment epithelium derived factor in vertebrates

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    Barnstable Colin J

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF, a member of the serpin family, regulates cell proliferation, promotes survival of neurons, and blocks growth of new blood vessels in mammals. Defining the molecular phylogeny of PEDF by bioinformatic analysis is one approach to understanding the link between its gene structure and its function in these biological processes. Results From a comprehensive search of available DNA databases we identified a single PEDF gene in all vertebrate species examined. These included four mammalian and six non-mammalian vertebrate species in which PEDF had not previously been described. A five gene cluster around PEDF was found in an approximate 100 kb region in mammals, birds, and amphibians. In ray-finned fish these genes are scattered over three chromosomes although only one PEDF gene was consistently found. The PEDF gene is absent in invertebrates including Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans, and sea squirt (C. intestinalis. The PEDF gene is transcribed in all vertebrate phyla, suggesting it is biologically active throughout vertebrate evolution. The multiple actions of PEDF are likely conserved in evolution since it has the same gene structure across phyla, although the size of the gene ranges from 48.3 kb in X. tropicalis to 2.9 kb in fugu, with human PEDF at a size of 15.6 kb. A strong similarity in the proximal 200 bp of the PEDF promoter in mammals suggests the existence of a possible regulatory region across phyla. Using a non-synonymous/synonymous substitution rate ratio we show that mammalian and fish PEDFs have similar ratios of Conclusion The PEDF gene first appears in vertebrates and our studies suggest that the regulation and biological actions of this gene are preserved across vertebrates. This comprehensive analysis of the PEDF gene across phyla provides new information that will aid further characterization of common functional motifs of

  14. Regulatory and Functional Connection of Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor and Anti-Metastatic Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor in Melanoma

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    Asunción Fernández-Barral

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF, a member of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily, has potent anti-metastatic effects in cutaneous melanoma through its direct actions on endothelial and melanoma cells. Here we show that PEDF expression positively correlates with microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF in melanoma cell lines and human samples. High PEDF and MITF expression is characteristic of low aggressive melanomas classified according to molecular and pathological criteria, whereas both factors are decreased in senescent melanocytes and naevi. Importantly, MITF silencing down-regulates PEDF expression in melanoma cell lines and primary melanocytes, suggesting that the correlation in the expression reflects a causal relationship. In agreement, analysis of Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to high throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq data sets revealed three MITF binding regions within the first intron of SERPINF1, and reporter assays demonstrated that the binding of MITF to these regions is sufficient to drive transcription. Finally, we demonstrate that exogenous PEDF expression efficiently halts in vitro migration and invasion, as well as in vivo dissemination of melanoma cells induced by MITF silencing. In summary, these results identify PEDF as a novel transcriptional target of MITF and support a relevant functional role for the MITF-PEDF axis in the biology of melanoma.

  15. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF): a novel trophoblast-derived factor limiting feto-placental angiogenesis in late pregnancy.

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    Loegl, Jelena; Nussbaumer, Erika; Hiden, Ursula; Majali-Martinez, Alejandro; Ghaffari-Tabrizi-Wizy, Nassim; Cvitic, Silvija; Lang, Ingrid; Desoye, Gernot; Huppertz, Berthold

    2016-07-01

    The rapidly expanding feto-placental vasculature needs tight control by paracrine and endocrine mechanisms. Here, we focused on paracrine influence by trophoblast, the placental epithelium. We aimed to identify differences in regulation of feto-placental angiogenesis in early versus late pregnancy. To this end, the effect of conditioned media (CM) from early and late pregnancy human trophoblast was tested on network formation, migration and proliferation of human feto-placental endothelial cells. Only CM of late pregnancy trophoblast reduced network formation and migration. Screening of trophoblast transcriptome for anti-angiogenic candidates identified pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) with higher expression and protein secretion in late pregnancy trophoblast. Addition of a PEDF-neutralizing antibody restored the anti-angiogenic effect of CM from late pregnancy trophoblast. Notably, human recombinant PEDF reduced network formation only in combination with VEGF. Also in the CAM assay, the combination of PEDF with VEGF reduced branching of vessels below control levels. Analysis of phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and FAK, two key players in VEGF-induced proliferation and migration, revealed that PEDF altered VEGF signaling, while PEDF alone did not affect phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and FAK. These data suggest that the trophoblast-derived anti-angiogenic molecule PEDF is involved in restricting growth and expansion of the feto-placental endothelium predominantly in late pregnancy and targets to modulate the intracellular effect of VEGF.

  16. Alzheimer's disease: Elevated pigment epithelium-derived factor in the cerebrospinal fluid is mostly of systemic origin.

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    Lang, Veronika; Zille, Marietta; Infante-Duarte, Carmen; Jarius, Sven; Jahn, Holger; Paul, Friedemann; Ruprecht, Klemens; Pina, Ana Luisa

    2017-04-15

    Pigment-epithelium derived factor (PEDF) is a neurotrophic factor with neuroprotective, anti-tumorigenic, and anti-angiogenic effects. Elevated levels of PEDF have previously been proposed as a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker for Alzheimer's disease. However, the origin of PEDF in CSF, i.e. whether it is derived from the brain or from the systemic circulation, and the specificity of this finding hitherto remained unclear. Here, we analyzed levels of PEDF in paired CSF and serum samples by ELISA in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=12), frontotemporal dementia (FTD, n=6), vascular dementia (n=4), bacterial meningitis (n=8), multiple sclerosis (n=32), pseudotumor cerebri (n=36), and diverse non-inflammatory neurological diseases (n=19). We established CSF/serum quotient diagrams to determine the fraction of intrathecally synthesized PEDF in CSF. We found that PEDF is significantly increased in CSF of patients with AD, FTD, and bacterial meningitis. Remarkably, PEDF concentrations were also significantly elevated in serum of patients with AD. CSF/serum quotient diagrams demonstrated that elevated PEDF concentrations in CSF of patients with AD are mostly due to elevated PEDF concentrations in serum. These findings underscore the importance of relating concentrations of proteins in CSF to their respective concentrations in serum to avoid erroneous interpretations of increased protein concentrations in lumbar CSF.

  17. Pigment epithelium-derived factor enhances tumor response to radiation through vasculature normalization in allografted lung cancer in mice.

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    Xu, Z; Dong, Y; Peng, F; Yu, Z; Zuo, Y; Dai, Z; Chen, Y; Wang, J; Hu, X; Zhou, Q; Ma, H; Bao, Y; Gao, G; Chen, M

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the potential therapeutic effects of the combination of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) and radiation on lung cancer. The Lewis lung cancer (LLC) allografts in nude mice were treated with radiation, PEDF and PEDF combined with radiation. The morphologic changes of tumor vasculature and the hypoxic fraction of tumor tissues were evaluated. Significant inhibition of tumor growth was observed when radiation was applied between the 3rd and 7th day (the vasculature normalization window) after the initiation of PEDF treatment. During the vasculature normalization window, the tumor blood vessels in PEDF-treated mice were less tortuous and more uniform than those in the LLC allograft tumor treated with phosphate-buffered saline. Meanwhile, the thickness of the basement membrane was remarkably reduced and pericyte coverage was significantly increased with the PEDF treatment. We also found that tumor hypoxic fraction decreased during the 3rd to the 7th day after PEDF treatment, suggesting improved intratumoral oxygenation. Taken together, our results show that PEDF improved the effects of radiation therapy on LLC allografts by inducing a vascular normalization window from the 3rd to the 7th day after PEDF treatment. Our findings provide a basis for treating lung cancer with the combination of PEDF and radiation.

  18. Pigment epithelium-derived factor: clinical significance in estrogen-dependent tissues and its potential in cancer therapy

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    Franco-Chuaire, María Liliana; Ramírez-Clavijo, Sandra; Chuaire-Noack, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a glycoprotein that belongs to the family of non-inhibitory serpins. The broad spectrum of PEDF biological activity is evident when considering its effects in promoting cell survival and proliferation, as well as its antiangiogenic, antitumor, and anti-metastatic properties. Although the structural domains of the PEDF gene that mediate such diverse effects and their mechanisms of action have not been completely elucidated, there is a large body of evidence describing their diverse range of activities; this evidence combined with the regulation of PEDF expression by sex steroids and their receptors have led to the idea that PEDF is not only a diagnostic and prognostic marker for certain diseases such as cancer, but is also a potential therapeutic target. In this manner, this paper aims to generally review the regulation of PEDF expression and PEDF interactions, as well as the findings that relate PEDF to the role of estrogens and estrogen receptors. In addition, this manuscript will review major advances toward potential therapeutic applications of PEDF. PMID:26523216

  19. Recombinant human pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF): characterization of PEDF overexpressed and secreted by eukaryotic cells.

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    Stratikos, E.; Alberdi, E.; Gettins, P. G.; Becerra, S. P.

    1996-01-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a serpin found in the interphotoreceptor matrix of the eye, which, although not a proteinase inhibitor, possesses a number of important biological properties, including promotion of neurite outgrowth and differential expression in quiescent versus senescent states of certain cell types. The low amounts present in the eye, together with the impracticality of using the eye as a source for isolation of the human protein, make it important to establish a system for overexpression of the recombinant protein for biochemical and biological studies. We describe here the expression and secretion of full-length glycosylated human recombinant PEDF at high levels (> 20 micrograms/ mL) into the growth medium of baby hamster kidney cells and characterization of the purified rPEDF by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopies and neurite outgrowth assay. By these assays, the recombinant protein behaves as expected for a correctly folded full-length human PEDF. The availability of milligram amounts of PEDF has permitted quantitation of its heparin binding properties and of the effect of reactive center cleavage on the stability of PEDF towards thermal and guanidine hydrochloride denaturation. PMID:8976566

  20. Glycosaminoglycans in human retinoblastoma cells: Heparan sulfate, a modulator of the pigment epithelium-derived factor-receptor interactions

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    Alberdi, Elena M; Weldon, John E; Becerra, S Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Background Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has binding affinity for cell-surface receptors in retinoblastoma cells and for glycosaminoglycans. We investigated the effects of glycosaminoglycans on PEDF-receptor interactions. Results 125I-PEDF formed complexes with protease-resistant components of medium conditioned by human retinoblastoma Y-79 cells. Using specific glycosaminoglycan degrading enzymes in spectrophotometric assays and PEDF-affinity chromatography, we detected heparin and heparan sulfate-like glycosaminoglycans in the Y-79 conditioned media, which had binding affinity for PEDF. The Y-79 conditioned media significantly enhanced the binding of 125I-PEDF to Y-79 cell-surface receptors. However, enzymatic and chemical depletion of sulfated glycosaminoglycans from the Y-79 cell cultures by heparitinase and chlorate treatments decreased the degree of 125I-PEDF binding to cell-surface receptors. Conclusions These data indicate that retinoblastoma cells secrete heparin/heparan sulfate with binding affinity for PEDF, which may be important in efficient cell-surface receptor binding. PMID:12625842

  1. Pigment epithelium-derived factor: clinical significance in estrogen-dependent tissues and its potential in cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Liliana Franco-Chuaire

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF is a glycoprotein that belongs to the family of non-inhibitory serpins. The broad spectrum of PEDF biological activity is evident when considering its effects in promoting cell survival and proliferation, as well as its antiangiogenic, antitumor, and anti-metastatic properties. Although the structural domains of the PEDF gene that mediate such diverse effects and their mechanisms of action have not been completely elucidated, there is a large body of evidence describing their diverse range of activities; this evidence combined with the regulation of PEDF expression by sex steroids and their receptors have led to the idea that PEDF is not only a diagnostic and prognostic marker for certain diseases such as cancer, but is also a potential therapeutic target. In this manner, this paper aims to generally review the regulation of PEDF expression and PEDF interactions, as well as the findings that relate PEDF to the role of estrogens and estrogen receptors. In addition, this manuscript will review major advances toward potential therapeutic applications of PEDF.

  2. Pigment epithelium derived factor suppresses expression of Sost/Sclerostin by osteocytes: implication for its role in bone matrix mineralization.

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    Li, Feng; Song, Na; Tombran-Tink, Joyce; Niyibizi, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    Mutations in Serpinf1 gene which encodes pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) lead to osteogenesis imperfecta type VI whose hallmark is defective mineralization. Mechanisms by which PEDF regulates matrix mineralization remain unknown. We examined effect of exogenous PEDF on expression of osteoblastic and osteocytic related genes and proteins in mineralizing osteoblast culture. Mineralizing human osteoblasts supplemented with exogenous PEDF for 14 days deposited 47% more mineral than cells cultured without PEDF. Analysis of selected gene expression by cells in mineralizing cultures supplemented with exogenous PEDF showed reduction in expression of Sclerostin (Sost) by 70%, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) by 75% and dentin matrix protein (DMP-1) by 20% at day 14 of culture. Phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome (PHEX) expression was not affected. Western blotting and immunoprecipitation showed that sclerostin and MEPE synthesis by osteocytes were reduced by 50% and 60% respectively in mineralizing osteoblasts containing exogenous PEDF. Primary osteocytes exposed to PEDF also reduced synthesis of Sost/sclerostin by 50% within 24 h. For osteoblastic genes, Bone sialoprotein (BSP) was expressed at 75% higher by day 7 in cultures containing exogenous PEDF while Col1A1 expression remained high at all-time points. Total beta-catenin was increased in mineralizing osteoblastic cells suggesting increased Wnt activity. Taken together, the data indicate that PEDF suppressed expression of factors that inhibit mineralization while enhancing those that promote mineralization. The findings also suggest that PEDF may regulate Sost expression by osteocytes leading to enhanced osteoblastic differentiation and increased matrix mineralization.

  3. Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Inhibits Retinal Microvascular Dysfunction Induced By 12/15-Lipoxygenase-Derived Eicosanoids

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    Ibrahim, Ahmed S.; Tawfik, Amany M.; Hussein, Khaled A; Elshafey, Sally; Markand, Shanu; Rizk, Nasser; Duh, Elia J.; Smith, Sylvia B.; Al-Shabrawey, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that 12/15-lipoxygenase (LOX) derived metabolites, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), contribute to diabetic retinopathy (DR) via NADPH oxidase (NOX) and disruption of the balance in retinal levels of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor (PEDF). Here, we test whether PEDF ameliorates retinal vascular injury induced by HETEs and the underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, we pursue the causal relationship between LOX-NOX system and regulation of PEDF expression during DR. For these purposes, we used an experimental eye model in which normal mice were injected intravitreally with 12/15HETE with/without PEDF. Thereafter, Fluorescein Angiography (FA) was used to evaluate the vascular leakage, followed by Optical coherence tomography (OCT) to assess the presence of angiogenesis. FA and OCT reported an increased vascular leakage and pre-retinal neovascularization, respectively, in response to 12-HETE that were not observed in PEDF-treated group. Moreover, PEDF significantly attenuated the increased levels of vascular cell and intercellular adhesion molecules, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, elicited by 12-HETE injection. Accordingly, the direct relationship between HETE and PEDF has been explored through in-vitro studies using Müller cells (rMCs) and human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs). The results showed that HETEs triggered the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, as well as activation of NFκB in rMCs and significantly increased permeability and reduced zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) immunoreactivity in HRECs. All these effects were prevented in PEDF-treated cells. Furthermore, interest in PEDF regulation during DR has been expanded to include NOX system. Retinal PEDF was significantly restored in diabetic mice treated with NOX inhibitor, apocynin, or lacking NOX2 up to 80% of the control level. Collectively, our findings suggest that interfering with LOX-NOX signaling opens up a new direction for treating DR

  4. Elevated plasma levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor correlated with inflammation and lung function in COPD patients

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    Li X

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoou Li,1–3 Tao Wang,1,2 Ting Yang,1,2 Yongchun Shen,1,2 Jing An,1,2 Lian Liu,1,2 Jiajia Dong,1,2 Lingli Guo,1,2 Diandian Li,1,2 Xue Zhang,1,2 Lei Chen,1,2 Dan Xu,1,2 Fuqiang Wen1,2 1Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Rationale: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF is a 50 kD small secreting glycoprotein that participates in multiple physiological and pathological processes. Recent studies have reported that PEDF plays an important role in inflammatory responses in several diseases. However, the role of PEDF in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD remains unclear.Objective: The aim of the present study is to explore the potential relationship between PEDF and COPD.Methods: We used differential proteomics – stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture – to investigate protein expression profile changes in cigarette smoke extract-treated pulmonary cells and found that the neurotrophic and antiangiogenic protein PEDF was abnormally expressed. Furthermore, Western blotting was used to detect the expression of PEDF in the lung tissue of rats that were exposed to cigarette smoke. Eighty subjects between the ages of 40–90 years, including 20 healthy nonsmokers, ten smoking volunteers, and 50 COPD patients, were recruited from September 2012 until August 2013 in Sichuan Province, People’s Republic of China. We measured the plasma PEDF concentration and classic proinflammatory cytokines by multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, we performed a spirometry examination to

  5. Dual regulation of adipose triglyceride lipase by pigment epithelium-derived factor: a novel mechanistic insight into progressive obesity.

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    Dai, Zhiyu; Qi, Weiwei; Li, Cen; Lu, Juling; Mao, Yuling; Yao, Yachao; Li, Lei; Zhang, Ting; Hong, Honghai; Li, Shuai; Zhou, Ti; Yang, Zhonghan; Yang, Xia; Gao, Guoquan; Cai, Weibin

    2013-09-05

    Both elevated plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and accumulating triglyceride in adipose tissue are observed in the process of obesity and insulin resistance. This contradictory phenomenon and its underlying mechanisms have not been thoroughly elucidated. Recent studies have demonstrated that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) contributes to elevated plasma FFA and insulin resistance in obese mice via the activation of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). However, we found that PEDF downregulated adipose ATGL protein expression despite of enhancing lipolysis. Plasma PEDF and FFA were increased in associated with a progressive high-fat-diet, and those outcomes were also accompanied by fat accumulation and a reduction in adipose ATGL. Exogenous PEDF injection downregulated adipose ATGL protein expression and elevated plasma FFA, while endogenous PEDF neutralization significantly rescued the adipose ATGL reduction and also reduced plasma FFA in obese mice. PEDF reduced ATGL protein expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Small interfering RNA-mediated PEDF knockdown and antibody-mediated PEDF blockage increased endogenous ATGL expression, and PEDF overexpression downregulated ATGL. PEDF resulted in a decreased half-life of ATGL and regulated ATGL degradation via ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation pathway. PEDF stimulated lipolysis via ATGL using ATGL inhibitor bromoenol lactone, and PEDF also downregulated G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) expression, which is an endogenous inhibitor of ATGL activation. Overall, PEDF attenuated ATGL protein accumulation via proteasome-mediated degradation in adipocytes, and PEDF also promoted lipolysis by activating ATGL. Elevated PEDF may contribute to progressive obesity and insulin resistance via its dual regulation of ATGL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrasound-mediated microbubble delivery of pigment epithelium-derived factor gene into retina inhibits choroidal neovascularization

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    ZHOU Xi-yuan; LIAO Qing; PU Yi-min; TANG Yong-qiang; GONG Xiao; LI Jia; XU Yan; WANG Zhi-gang

    2009-01-01

    Background Many studies have suggested that the imbalance of angiogenic factor and anti-angiogenic factor expression contributes significantly to the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), and ultrasound microbubble combination system can increase the gene transfection efficiency successfully. This study was designed to investigate whether ultrasound-mediated microbubble destruction could effectively deliver therapeutic plasmid into the retina of rat, and whether gene transfer of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) could inhibit CNV.Methods Human retinal pigment epithelial cells were isolated and treated either with ultrasound or plasmid alone, or with a combination of plasmid, ultrasound and microbubbles to approach feasibility of microbubble-enhanced ultrasound enhance PEDFgene expression; For in vivo animal studies, CNV was induced by argon lasgon laser in rats. These rats were randomly assigned to five groups and were treated by infusing microbubbles attached with the naked plasmid DNA of PEDF into the vitreous of rats followed by immediate ultrasound exposure (intravitreal injection); infusing liposomes with the naked plasmid DNA of PEDF into the vitreous (lipofectamine + PEDF); infusing microbubbles attached with PEDF into the orbit of rats with ultrasound irradiation immediately (retrobular injection); infusing microbubbles attached with PEDF into the femoral vein of rats with exposed to ultrasound immediately (vein injection). The CNV rats without any treatment served as control. Rats were sacrificed and eyes were enucleated at 7, 14, and 28 days after treatment. Gene and protein expression of PEDF was detected by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. The effect of PEDF gene transfer on CNV was examined by fluorescein fundus angiography.Results In vitro cell experiments showed that microbubbles with ultrasound irradiation could significantly enhance PEDF delivery as compared with

  7. Role of pigment epithelium-derived factor on proliferation and migration of choroidal capillary endothelium induced by vascular endothelial growth factor in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng-hua; SUN Xiao-dong; ZHANG Xi; XU Xun; ZHU Qi; HUANG Jian-nan; FAN Ying; GU Qing; LIU Hai-yang

    2007-01-01

    Background Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is expressed in several normal organs and identified as an inhibitor of neovascularization. In the present study, we investigated the effect of PEDF in an in vitro model of ocular choroidal neovascularization.Methods Microdissection was used to isolate the human choroidal endothelial cells (CECs), followed by the use of superparamagnetic beads (Dynabeads) coated with the CD31 antibody, which selectively binds to the endothelial cell surface. The mitogenic and motogenic effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on cultured choroidal capillary endothelial cells were examined in the presence or absence of PEDF (1, 10, 100, and 1000 ng/ml) using cell counts and migration assays.Results Cells bound to the beads were isolated using a magnetic particle concentrator and they were successfully cultured and characterized to be endothelial cells that possessed greater than 95% immunoreactivity to von Willebrand factor. PEDF suppressed the proliferation and migration of VEGF-induced choroidal capillary endothelial cells. However,the concentration of PEDF which we used has little effect on normal CECs.Conclusions PEDF played an important role on the growth and migration of VEGF-stimulated choroidal endothelial cell.These findings suggest that PEDF may be an effective approach to the treatment of choroidal neovascular disorders.

  8. Down-regulation of pigment epithelium-derived factor in uveitic lesion associates with focal vascular endothelial growth factor expression and breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeg, Cornelia A; Altmann, Frank; Hauck, Stefanie M; Schoeffmann, Stephanie; Amann, Barbara; Stangassinger, Manfred; Ueffing, Marius

    2007-05-01

    Spontaneous equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is an incurable autoimmune disease affecting the eye. Identifying biological markers or pathways associated with this disease may allow the understanding of its pathogenesis at a molecular level. The vitreous is the body fluid closest to the disease-affected tissue and possibly also an effector of pathological processes relevant for ERU. Surgical removal of vitreous leads to cessation of relapses in spontaneous uveitis of both man and horse, therefore vitreous composites are likely to contribute to disease progression. Uveitic vitreous is likely to contain potential biomarkers in relatively undiluted quantities. With the goal to identify these markers, we systematically compared vitreous from healthy and disease-affected eyes by proteomic profiling. Nine differentially expressed proteins were identified, that are functionally related to immune response, inflammation, and maintenance of the blood-retinal barrier. One of these, pigment epithelium-derived factor, a protein involved in maintaining a proper blood-retina barrier as well as protecting from neoangiogenesis was additionally found to be down-regulated within uveitic retinal lesions whereas, conversely, vascular endothelial growth factor was found to be up-regulated at these sites. Together, these changes point to as of yet undiscovered biological pathways involved in the pathogenesis of this autoimmune disease.

  9. Adenoviral E4 Gene Stimulates Secretion of Pigmental Epithelium Derived Factor (PEDF) that Maintains Long-term Survival of Human Glomerulus-derived Endothelial Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerebtsova, Marina; Kumari, Namita; Obuhkov, Yuri; Nekhai, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    Renal glomerular endothelial cells are specialized cells with an important role in physiological filtration and glomerular disease. However, maintenance of human primary endothelial cells requires stimulation with serum and growth factors that often results in modification of the cells properties. Previously, expression of early adenovirus region E4 was shown to help maintaining long-term survival of human endothelial cells in serum free media without addition of growth factors. In the current study, we showed that media conditioned with human epithelial cells stably transfected with Ad E4 region also supported survival of human glomerulus-derived endothelial cells in serum-free media. Mass-spectrometry analysis of the conditioned media identified pigmental epithelium derived factor (PEDF) as a major component of the conditioned media. PEDF expression in 293-E4 cells was validated by RT-PCR, Western blot and ELISA analysis. PEDF expression was detected in mouse glomeruli. Supplementation with recombinant PEDF supported survival of primary endothelial cells and the cells transformed with SV40 large T antigen in serum-free media, and extended the life-span of both cell cultures. PEDF did not inhibit FGF-2 stimulated growth and tubulogenesis of endothelial cells. Thus we demonstrated that adenoviral E4 region stimulated expression and secretion of PEDF by human renal epithelial cells that acted as a survival factor for glomerulus-derived endothelial cells. PMID:22915824

  10. Role of pigment epithelium-derived factor in the involution of hemangioma: Autocrine growth inhibition of hemangioma-derived endothelial cells

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    Kim, Kyung-Jin [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Science, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jang-Hyuk; Heo, Jong-Ik [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Hui [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Hye Sook [Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Tae Hyun, E-mail: psthchoi@snu.ac.kr [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Seoul National University Children’s Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pediatric Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Seoul National University Children’s Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chung-Hyun, E-mail: iamhyun@snu.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Science, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Ischemic/Hypoxic Disease Institute, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-14

    Highlights: • PEDF was expressed and induced during the involuting phase of IH. • PEDF inhibited the cell growth of the involuting HemECs in an autocrine manner. • PEDF suppression restored the impaired cell growth of the involuting HemECs. - Abstract: Hemangioma is a benign tumor derived from abnormal blood vessel growth. Unlike other vascular tumor counterparts, a hemangioma is known to proliferate during its early stage but it is followed by a stage of involution where regression of the tumor occurs. The critical onset leading to the involution of hemangioma is currently not well understood. This study focused on the molecular identities of the involution of hemangioma. We demonstrated that a soluble factor released from the involuting phase of hemangioma-derived endothelial cells (HemECs) and identified pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) as an anti-angiogenic factor that was associated with the growth inhibition of the involuting HemECs. The growth inhibition of the involuting HemECs was reversed by suppression of PEDF in the involuting HemECs. Furthermore, we found that PEDF was more up-regulated in the involuting phase of hemangioma tissues than in the proliferating or the involuted. Taken together, we propose that PEDF accelerates the involution of hemangioma by growth inhibition of HemECs in an autocrine manner. The regulatory mechanism of PEDF expression could be a potential therapeutic target to treat hemangiomas.

  11. Pigment epithelium derived factor inhibits the growth of human endometrial implants in nude mice and of ovarian endometriotic stromal cells in vitro.

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    Yanmei Sun

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for the formation and development of endometriosis. Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF is a natural inhibitor of angiogenesis. We previously demonstrated a reduction of PEDF in the peritoneal fluid, serum and endometriotic lesions from women with endometriosis compared with women without endometriosis. Here, we aim to investigate the inhibitory effect of PEDF on human endometriotic cells in vivo and in vitro. We found that PEDF markedly inhibited the growth of human endometrial implants in nude mice and of ovarian endometriotic stromal cells in vitro by up-regulating PEDF expression and down-regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression. Moreover, apoptotic index was significantly increased in endometriotic lesions in vivo and endometriotic stromal cells in vitro when treated with PEDF. In mice treated with PEDF, decreased microvessel density labeled by Von Willebrand factor but not by α-Smooth Muscle Actin was observed in endometriotic lesions. And it showed no increase in PEDF expression of the ovary and uterus tissues. These findings suggest that PEDF gene therapy may be a new treatment for endometriosis.

  12. Positive association of circulating levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Sho-Ichi; Matsui, Takanori; Adachi, Hisashi; Takeuchi, Masayoshi

    2010-02-01

    We have recently found that serum levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a glycoprotein with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, are elevated in proportion to the accumulation of the number of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Since formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) progress under the metabolic syndrome and that PEDF could inhibit the AGE-elicited tissue damage, it is conceivable that PEDF levels may be increased as a counter-system against AGEs in patients with the metabolic syndrome. However, correlation between circulating levels of AGEs and PEDF in humans remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum AGE and PEDF levels in a general population and examined the effects of AGEs on PEDF gene expression in vitro. One hundred ninety-six Japanese subjects in a general population underwent a complete history and physical examination, determination of blood chemistries, including serum levels of AGEs and PEDF. In multiple regression analyses, creatinine, body mass index, triglycerides, AGEs and insulin were independently correlated with serum PEDF levels. AGEs dose-dependently increased PEDF gene expression in cultured adipocytes and liver cells. Our present study demonstrated first that circulating AGEs were one of the independent correlates of serum levels of PEDF. Adipose tissue and liver may be target organs for the AGE-induced PEDF overexpression in humans. Serum PEDF levels may be elevated in response to circulating AGEs as a counter-system against the AGE-elicited tissue damage.

  13. Neurotrophic Effect of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells on Erectile Function Recovery by Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Secretion in a Rat Model of Cavernous Nerve Injury

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    Xin Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paracrine effect is the major mechanism of stem cell therapy. However, the details of the effect’s mechanism remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate whether adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs can ameliorate cavernous nerve injury-induced erectile dysfunction (CNIED rats and to determine its mechanism. Twenty-eight days after intracavernous injection of 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine- (EdU- labeled ADSCs, the erectile function of all the rats was evaluated by intracavernosal pressure (ICP. The ADSCs steadily secreted detectable pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF in vitro. The expression of PEDF increased in the penis of the bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI group for 14 days and then gradually decreased. On day 28 after the intracavernous injection, the ADSCs group exhibited a significantly increased ICP compared with the phosphate buffered saline- (PBS- treated group. Moreover, the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS and S100 expression in penile dorsal nerves and the smooth muscle content to collagen ratio in penile tissues significantly increased. Furthermore, elevated PEDF, p-Akt, and p-eNOS were identified in the ADSCs group. This study demonstrated that intracavernous injection of ADSCs improved erectile function, repaired the nerve, and corrected penile fibrosis. One potential mechanism is the PEDF secretion of ADSCs and subsequent PI3K/Akt pathway activation.

  14. Chronic intermittent hypoxia increases encoding pigment epithelium-derived factor gene expression, although not that of the protein itself, in the temporal cortex of rats,

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    Guilherme Silva Julian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is mainly characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH during sleep, being associated with several complications. Exposure to IH is the most widely used animal model of sleep apnea, short-term IH exposure resulting in cognitive and neuronal impairment. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF is a hypoxia-sensitive factor acting as a neurotrophic, neuroprotective, and antiangiogenic agent. Our study analyzed performance on learning and cognitive tasks, as well as PEDF gene expression and PEDF protein expression in specific brain structures, in rats exposed to long-term IH. Methods: Male Wistar rats were exposed to IH (oxygen concentrations of 21-5% for 6 weeks-the chronic IH (CIH group-or normoxia for 6 weeks-the control group. After CIH exposure, a group of rats were allowed to recover under normoxic conditions for 2 weeks (the CIH+N group. All rats underwent the Morris water maze test for learning and memory, PEDF gene expression and PEDF protein expression in the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and temporal cortex being subsequently assessed. Results: The CIH and CIH+N groups showed increased PEDF gene expression in the temporal cortex, PEDF protein expression remaining unaltered. PEDF gene expression and PEDF protein expression remained unaltered in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Long-term exposure to IH did not affect cognitive function. Conclusions: Long-term exposure to IH selectively increases PEDF gene expression at the transcriptional level, although only in the temporal cortex. This increase is probably a protective mechanism against IH-induced injury.

  15. Augmented expression and secretion of adipose-derived pigment epithelium-derived factor does not alter local angiogenesis or contribute to the development of systemic metabolic derangements.

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    Lakeland, Thomas V; Borg, Melissa L; Matzaris, Maria; Abdelkader, Amany; Evans, Roger G; Watt, Matthew J

    2014-06-15

    Impaired coupling of adipose tissue expansion and vascularization is proposed to lead to adipocyte hypoxia and inflammation, which in turn contributes to systemic metabolic derangements. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a powerful antiangiogenic factor that is secreted by adipocytes, elevated in obesity, and implicated in the development of insulin resistance. We explored the angiogenic and metabolic role of adipose-derived PEDF through in vivo studies of mice with overexpression of PEDF in adipocytes (PEDF-aP2). PEDF expression in white adipocytes and PEDF secretion from adipose tissue was increased in transgenic mice, but circulating levels of PEDF were not increased. Overexpression of PEDF did not alter vascularization, the partial pressure of O2, cellular hypoxia, or gene expression of inflammatory markers in adipose tissue. Energy expenditure and metabolic substrate utilization, body mass, and adiposity were not altered in PEDF-aP2 mice. Whole body glycemic control was normal as assessed by glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and adipocyte-specific glucose uptake was unaffected by PEDF overexpression. Adipocyte lipolysis was increased in PEDF-aP2 mice and associated with increased adipose triglyceride lipase and decreased perilipin 1 expression. Experiments conducted in mice rendered obese by high-fat feeding showed no differences between PEDF-aP2 and wild-type mice for body mass, adiposity, whole body energy expenditure, glucose tolerance, or adipose tissue oxygenation. Together, these data indicate that adipocyte-generated PEDF enhances lipolysis but question the role of PEDF as a major antiangiogenic or proinflammatory mediator in adipose tissue in vivo. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Pigment epithelium-derived factor and diabetic nephropathy%色素上皮衍生因子与糖尿病肾病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珍瑾; 李竞

    2008-01-01

    色素上皮衍生因子(PEDF)是一种高效、天然的血管增生抑制剂,具有神经营养保护、调节血管通透性和高效抑制血管生成等作用.近年来有研究表明,PEDF的减少与糖尿病肾病(DN)有密切关系,PEDF可抑制转化生长因子-β1(TGF-β1)和结缔组织生长因子(CTGF)的表达,抑制细胞外基质(ECM)的聚积,提示其具有抗纤维化活性,同时可通过调节肾脏脉管系统发展和维持肾自身稳态来发挥对DN的保护作用.PEDF可抑制DN的发生、发展,可能成为DN治疗的一种新方向.%Pigment epithelium-derived factor(PEDF)is an efficient natural angiogenic inhibitor that can protect neuronal nutrition,regulate vascular permeability and antiangiogenie activity.Recent studies show that the decrease of PEDF levels may be closely involved in diabetic nephmpathy(DN).PEDF inhibits the expression of TGF-β1 and CTGF,and suppresses the production of ECM protein in diabetic kidney,suggesting it has antifibrogenic activity.Meanwhile,PEDF phys a role in regulating the development of renal vasculature and maintenance of renal homeostasis,and may be responsible for its salutary effect in DN.PEDF can inhibit the occurrence and development of DN,and may become a new target for the treatment of DN.

  17. Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Reduces Apoptosis and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in a Murine Model of Focal Retinal Degeneration

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    Yujuan Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AMD (age-related macular degeneration is a neurodegenerative disease causing irreversible central blindness in the elderly. Apoptosis and inflammation play important roles in AMD pathogenesis. PEDF (pigment epithelium-derived factor is a potent neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory glycoprotein that protects the retinal neurons and photoreceptors against cell death caused by pathological insults. We studied the effects of PEDF on focal retinal lesions in DKO rd8 (Ccl2 −/− /Cx3cr1 −/− on C57BL/6N [Crb1rd8 ] mice, a model for progressive, focal rd (retinal degeneration. First, we found a significant decrease in PEDF transcript expression in DKO rd8 mouse retina and RPE (retinal pigment epithelium than WT (wild-type, C57BL/6N. Next, cultured DKO rd8 RPE cells secreted lower levels of PEDF protein in the media than WT. Then the right eyes of DKO rd8 mice were injected intravitreously with recombinant human PEDF protein (1 μg, followed by a subconjunctival injection of PEDF (3 μg 4 weeks later. The untreated left eyes served as controls. The effect of PEDF was assessed by fundoscopy, ocular histopathology and A2E {[2,6-dimethyl-8-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl-1E,3E,5E,7E-octatetra-enyl]-1-(2-hydroxyethyl-4-[4-methyl-6(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl 1E,3E,5E,7E-hexatrienyl]-pyridinium} levels, as well as apoptotic and inflammatory molecules. The PEDF-treated eyes showed slower progression or attenuation of the focal retinal lesions, fewer and/or smaller photoreceptor and RPE degeneration, and significantly lower A2E, relative to the untreated eyes. In addition, lower expression of apoptotic and inflammatory molecules were detected in the PEDF-treated than untreated eyes. Our results establish that PEDF potently stabilizes photoreceptor degeneration via suppression of both apoptotic and inflammatory pathways. The multiple beneficial effects of PEDF represent a novel approach for potential AMD treatment.

  18. 色素上皮细胞源性因子的抗肿瘤活性%Anti-tumor effects of pigment epithelium-derived factor

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    任远; 张锡林

    2011-01-01

    色素上皮细胞源性因子(PEDF)是一种最早从人类胚胎视网膜色素上皮中发现的相对分子质量约为50 KDa的分泌糖蛋白.PEDF广泛存在于人体内多个器官和组织中,且其表达量与人体内多项病理生理过程密切相关.最近研究表明,PEDF在肿瘤的生长、侵袭和转移过程中发挥着重要作用.肿瘤组织中的微血管密度与肿瘤的生长速度呈正相关,作为目前已知的最强的内源性血管生成抑制因子,PEDF能够通过抑制肿瘤血管生成而抑制肿瘤的生长.此外,PEDF亦能通过激活多种复杂信号转导通路诱导肿瘤细胞的凋亡.%PEDF is a 50-kDa secreted glycoprotein first discovered as a factor secreted by the retina pigmented epithelium of the human foetal eye. PEDF is widely spread in human tissues and organs, and its expression is related to the function of human body. Recent studies have shown that PEDF plays an important role in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. As we know, microvessel density is correlated with the rapid growth of tumor cells. As the most potent endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor, PEDF can suppress tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis. In addition, PEDF can also induce apoptosis through activating complex signal transduction pathways.

  19. 色素上皮衍生因子在肿瘤中的研究进展%The progression in the study of pigmented epithelium-derived factor in tumors

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    苏宏伟; 杨澄; 任慧文; 李宏伟

    2014-01-01

    色素上皮衍生因子(PEDF)作为丝氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂超家族成员,通过抑制内皮细胞的增殖和迁移、诱导相关的凋亡信号通路和增加肿瘤细胞分化程度,从而发挥抑制肿瘤发生、发展及其转移的生物学功能.研究表明,PEDF在骨骼的正常生理和病理过程发挥重要调节作用.PEDF为基础的免疫治疗方法可以成功的用于治疗骨肉瘤(OS),并极大抑制了OS的进展和控制肺部转移.%Pigmented epithelium-derived factor(PEDF),a member of the serine protease inhibitor family,could inhibit the occurrence,development and metastasis of tumors through controlling proliferation of endothelial cells,inducing apoptosis,and promoting the differentiation of tumor cells.Studies have showed that PEDF plays regulatory effects in physiological and pathological processes of the bone.PEDF-based immunotherapy could efficiently restrain the development of osteosarcoma (OS) and its lung metastusis.

  20. Inhibition of Corneal Neovascularization with the Combination of Bevacizumab and Plasmid Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor-Synthetic Amphiphile INTeraction-18 (p-PEDF-SAINT-18 Vector in a Rat Corneal Experimental Angiogenesis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hsein Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Bevacizumab, a 149-kDa protein, is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody to VEGF. PEDF, a 50-kDa glycoprotein, has demonstrated anti-vasopermeability properties. In this study, we demonstrated that the combination of bevacizumab and plasmid pigment epithelium-derived factor-synthetic amphiphile INTeraction-18 (p-PEDF-SAINT-18 has a favorable antiangiogenic effect on corneal NV. Four groups (Group A: 0 μg + 0 μg, B: 0.1 μg + 0.1 μg, C: 1 μg + 1 μg, and D: 10 μg + 10 μg of bevacizumab + p-PEDF-SAINT-18 were prepared and implanted into the rat subconjunctival substantia propria 1.5 mm from the limbus on the temporal side. Then, 1 μg of p-bFGF-SAINT-18 was prepared and implanted into the rat corneal stroma 1.5 mm from the limbus on the same side. The inhibition of NV was observed and quantified from days 1 to 60. Biomicroscopic examination, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the 18-kDa bFGF, 50-kDa PEDF and VEGF protein expression. No inhibition activity for normal limbal vessels was noted. Subconjunctival injection with the combination of bevacizumab and p-PEDF-SAINT-18 successfully inhibited corneal NV. The bFGF and PEDF genes were successfully expressed as shown by western blot analysis, and a mild immune response to HLA-DR was shown by immunohistochemistry. We concluded that the combination of bevacizumab and p-PEDF-SAINT-18 may have more potent and prolonged antiangiogenic effects, making it possible to reduce the frequency of subconjunctival.Bevacizumab, a 149-kDa protein, is a recombinant humanized monoclonalantibody to VEGF. PEDF, a 50-kDa glycoprotein, has demonstrated anti-vasopermeabilityproperties. In this study, we demonstrated that the combination of bevacizumaband plasmid pigment epithelium-derived factor-synthetic amphiphile INTeraction-18(p-PEDF-SAINT-18 has a favorable antiangiogenic effect on corneal NV. Four groups(Group A: 0 μg + 0 μg, B: 0.1 μg + 0.1 μg, C: 1 μg + 1 μg, and

  1. The inhibitory effect of pigment epithelium-derived factor on migration of gliomas%色素上皮细胞衍生因子与胶质瘤侵袭的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伎; 关明; 吕元

    2008-01-01

    目的 评价色素上皮细胞衍生因子(PEDF)对胶质瘤侵袭的抑制作用.方法 将PEDF(100 ng/ml)加入胶质瘤细胞U87中(U87PEDF),以未加PEDF蛋白的胶质瘤细胞作对照组(U87con),同时在U87PEDF中加入0.25μg/ml的促血管生成因子(VEGF,U87PEDF+VEGF).细胞迁徙实验检测PEDF抑制胶质瘤细胞侵袭性;实时荧光定量逆转录(RT)-PCR检测层粘连蛋白Laminin-8表达.结果 迁徙实验结果表明,对照组胶质瘤细胞穿透数明显多于PEDF处理组细胞,加入VEGF后,胶质瘤细胞迁徙率的抑制率仍减少38%;实时荧光定量RT-PCR结果显示,U87对照组 Laminin-8α4、β1、γlmRAN表达分别为(1.043±0.090)、(0.823±0.012)、(0.762±0.005)拷贝/μl,明显高于U87PEDF组[(0.633±0.004)、(0.442±0.005)、(0.424±0.002)拷贝/μl,P<0.05].结论 在VEGF存在的条件下,PEDF能有效抑制胶质瘤细胞的迁徙,表明其可能由下调Laminin-8基因的表达所致.%Objective To assess the impact of pigment epithelium-derived factor(PEDF) on the migration of the glioma cells.Methods PEDF(100 ng/ml)was added to U87 cells(U87PFDF),and VEGF of 0.25μg/ml was added to U87PEDF+VEGF while U87 cells as control(U87con).The cell migratory assav was used tbr evaluating its inhibitory migration rate of PEDF.Real time RT-PCR was used for evaluating the expression of Laminin-8 gene.Results The number of migratory cells was higher than those with added PEDF,and the inhibitory rate of migratory was 38% even in the presence of VEGF.Real time RT-PCR revealed that the mRNA expression levels of α4,β1,γl were(1.043±0.090),(0.823±0.012).(0.762±0.05) copy/μl,which were higher than those treated by PEDF(0.633±0.004),(0.442±0.005).(0.424±0.002)copy/μl,respectively (P<0.05).Conclusion PEDF could decrease the migmtory capacity of the glioma cells even in the presence of VEGF because of the regulation of Laminin-8 in part.

  2. 色素上皮衍生因子抑制人肝癌裸鼠移植瘤生长%Pigment epithelium-derived factor gene therapy inhibits the growth of transplanted human hepatocellular carcinoma in nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高云; 张伟; 赵亮; 王学浩

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察人色素上皮衍生因子(PEDF)对血管生成的抑制作用,探讨PEDF在肝癌基因治疗中的应用前景. 方法构建色素上皮衍生因子慢病毒表达质粒pLenti-PEDF,经293T细胞包装,收集病毒上清液,感染肝癌细胞株HepG2.收集各组细胞的条件培养基,通过Westernblot分析各组细胞PEDF的表达情况,并通过人脐静脉血管内皮细胞增殖及迁移试验研究其体外生物学活性.人肝癌细胞HepG2移植到裸鼠皮下,研究Lenti-PEDF病毒对肝癌移植瘤生长的抑制作用,逆转录聚合酶链反应检测肿瘤组织中PEDF mRNA表达.多组间均数比较采用单因素方差分析,组间两两比较采用LSD法.结果 限制性内切酶酶切分析和测序结果均表明成功构建了PEDF慢病毒表达载体,以293T细胞包装的重组慢病毒能够高效感染肝癌细胞,肝痛细胞感染重组慢病毒后可高效表达PEDF并分泌到培养上清液中.体外研究结果表明,重组PEDF可明显抑制人脐静脉血管内皮细胞的增殖及迁移,抑制率分别达29%和48%,与空白对照组相比,差异有统计学意义(P值均<0.01).Lenti-PEDF病毒能明显抑制人肝癌裸鼠皮下移植瘤的生长(P<0.01).瘤内注射Lenti-PEDF病毒21 d后,逆转录聚合酶链反应在肿瘤组织检测到PEDF mRNA的过表达.结论 本研究初步提示PEDF能有效遏制肿瘤的血管生成和肿瘤生长,为肝癌的基因治疗提供了一条新的思路.%Objectives To evaluate the antiangiogenic property of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in heptocarcinoma cell lines and explore its possible application in the gene therapy of human hepa-tocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods The gene encoding human PEDF was subcloned into lentiviral vector to generate the recombinant plasmid pLenti-PEDF. The plasmid pLenti-PEDF and two other packag-ing plasmids were cotransfected to 293T cells by calcium phosphate. Then HepG2 was infected with recom-binant lentivirus and the expression

  3. 芪参益气滴丸对糖尿病大鼠视网膜血管内皮生长因子和色素上皮衍生因子表达的影响%Influence of Qishenyiqi Gutta Pills on expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and pigment epithelium derived factor in retina of diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑维; 金明; 邓辉; 潘琳; 刘海丹

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察芪参益气滴丸对糖尿病大鼠视网膜血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)和色素上皮衍生因子(PEDF)及其mRNA表达的影响.方法:70只SD大鼠以链脲佐菌素(65mg/kg)诱导糖尿病大鼠模型,成模后随机分成模型组、对照组和芪参益气滴丸组.设正常组12只.10个月后用免疫组织化学方法检测各组视网膜VEGF和PEDF表达水平,逆转录-聚合酶链式反应检测VEGFmRNA和PEDFmRNA表达水平.结果:糖尿病大鼠视网膜VEGF及其mRNA表达较正常组显著增强(P<0.01),PEDF及其mRNA表达较正常组显著降低(P<0.01).对照组和芪参益气滴丸组视网膜VEGF及其mRNA表达较模型组降低,PEDF及其mRNA表达较模型组显著增加(P<0.01).结论:芪参益气滴丸可通过降低视网膜VEGF及其mRNA的表达、增加PEDF及其mRNA表达延缓糖尿病视网膜病变进展.%Objective:To discuss the influence of QiShenYiQi Gutta Pills (QGP)on expression of vascular en-dothelial growth factor (VEGF) .pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF)and mRNA expression of VEGF and PEDF in rats with diabetic retinopathy.MethodS;The diabetic rat model was established by one-time injection of streptozotozin(STZ,65mg/kg).All SD rats(n=82)were randomly divided into the normal group,model group, control group and QGP group.After 10 months,the expression of VEGF and PEDF was detected by immuno-histochemistry method ,VEGFmRNA and PEDFmRNA were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).Results:The expression of VEGF and VEGFmRNA in model group was higher than that in the normal group (P<0.01).The expression of PEDF and PEDFmRNA in model group was lower than the normal group (P<0.01).The expression of VEGF and VEGFmRNA in QGP group was lower than that in the model group (P<0.01).The expression of PEDF and PEDFmRNA in QGP group was higher than the model group (P<0.01).Conclusion;QGP can delay the development of diabetic retinopathy in rats through decreasing the expression

  4. Structural Properties of HIV Integrase. Lens Epithelium-derived Growth Factor Oligomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, K.; Diamond, T; Hwang, Y; Bushman, F; Van Duyne, G

    2010-01-01

    Integrase (IN) is the catalytic component of the preintegration complex, a large nucleoprotein assembly critical for the integration of the retroviral genome into a host chromosome. Although partial crystal structures of human immunodeficiency virus IN alone and its complex with the integrase binding domain of the host factor PSIP1/lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF)/p75 are available, many questions remain regarding the properties and structures of LEDGF-bound IN oligomers. Using analytical ultracentrifugation, multiangle light scattering, and small angle x-ray scattering, we have established the oligomeric state, stoichiometry, and molecular shapes of IN {center_dot} LEDGF complexes in solution. Analyses of intact IN tetramers bound to two different LEDGF truncations allow for placement of the integrase binding domain by difference analysis. Modeling of the small angle x-ray scattering envelopes using existing structural data suggests domain arrangements in the IN oligomers that support and extend existing biochemical data for IN {center_dot} LEDGF complexes and lend new insights into the quaternary structure of LEDGF-bound IN tetramers. These IN oligomers may be involved in stages of the viral life cycle other than integration, including assembly, budding, and early replication.

  5. MicroRNA expression profiles of human iPS cells, retinal pigment epithelium derived from iPS, and fetal retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Whitney A; Muñiz, Alberto; Plamper, Mark L; Kaini, Ramesh R; Wang, Heuy-Ching

    2014-06-24

    The objective of this report is to describe the protocols for comparing the microRNA (miRNA) profiles of human induced-pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) derived from human iPS cells (iPS-RPE), and fetal RPE. The protocols include collection of RNA for analysis by microarray, and the analysis of microarray data to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed among three cell types. The methods for culture of iPS cells and fetal RPE are explained. The protocol used for differentiation of RPE from human iPS is also described. The RNA extraction technique we describe was selected to allow maximal recovery of very small RNA for use in a miRNA microarray. Finally, cellular pathway and network analysis of microarray data is explained. These techniques will facilitate the comparison of the miRNA profiles of three different cell types.

  6. Effects of Cordyceps sinensis cultivated by artificial fermentation on expression of pigment epithelium-derived factor and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in diabetic rat kidney%人工发酵虫草菌丝体干粉对糖尿病大鼠肾脏组织色素上皮衍生因子和基质金属蛋白酶-2表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋庆芳; 谈力欣; 王战建

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察人工发酵虫草菌丝体干粉对糖尿病大鼠肾组织中色素上皮衍生因子(PEDF)、基质金属蛋白酶-2(MMP-2)和转化生长因子-β1(TGF-β1)表达的影响.方法 依照随机区组设计将45只体质量为180~220 g的8周龄雄性SD大鼠随机分为3组:正常对照组(A组,n=15)、糖尿病对照组(B组,n=15)、人工发酵虫草菌丝体干粉干预组(C组,n=15).B组和C组大鼠腹腔注射55 μg/g链脲佐菌素制作糖尿病动物模型.造模成功后第3天,C组给予4 μg·g-1·d-1人工发酵虫草菌丝体干粉定时灌胃,A组、B组以等体积生理盐水灌胃.实验12周末,观察比较3组肾脏指数(KI)、血肌酐(Scr)、尿素氮(BUN)、24 h尿量、24 h尿白蛋白排泄量(UAE)、总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG).免疫组化方法分析比较3组PEDF、MMP-2和TGF-β1在肾组织中的表达,实时定量-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)分析比较3组PEDF mRNA的表达情况.两组间比较采用t检验,多组间比较采用方差分析.结果 B、C组大鼠KI、BUN、SCr、UAE、TC、TG均高于A组(均P<0.01),C组均较B组降低(均P<0.01).免疫组化显示,B组和C组肾脏PEDF(1.53±0.12、2.60±0.15)、MMP-2(1.8±0.5、3.3±0.4)表达均低于A组(3.96±0.14、4.3±0.6)(均P<0.01),TGF-β1(4.60±0.15、2.60±0.09)表达均高于A组(1.57±0.09)(均P<0.01),而C组PEDF、MMP-2表达高于B组(P<0.01),TGF-β1表达低于B组(P<0.01).RT-PCR分析显示B、C组肾脏组织中PEDF mRNA表达量为0.3±0.1和0.8±0.2,显著低于A组(1.2±0.3)(均P<0.01),而C组高于B组(P<0.01).结论 肾脏组织中PEDF、MMP-2和TGF-β1表达的改变可能参与了糖尿病肾病的发生.人工发酵虫草菌丝体干粉可改善肾功能、调节血脂,还可通过调节PEDF、MMP-2及TGF-β1在肾脏的表达发挥肾脏保护作用.%Objective To investigate the effects of Cordyceps sinensis cultivated by artificial fermentation on the expression of pigment epithelium-derived factor(PEDF), matrix metalloproteinase

  7. Virtual-screening targeting Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 integrase-lens epithelium-derived growth factor/p75 interaction for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wan-Gang; Liu, Bai-Nan; Yuan, Jun-Fa

    2015-02-01

    Three integrase (IN) inhibitors have been approved by FDA for clinical treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. This stimulates more researchers to focus their studies on this target for anti-HIV drug development. Three steps regarding of IN activity have been validated for inhibitor discovery: strand transfer, 3'-terminal processing, and IN-lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF)/p75 interaction. Among them, IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction is a new target validated in recent years. Emergence of drug-resistant virus strains makes this target appealing to pharmacologists. Compared with the traditional screening methods such as AlphaScreen and cell-based screening developed for IN inhibitor discovery, virtual screening is a powerful technique in modern drug discovery. Here we summarized the recent advances of virtual-screening targeting IN-LEDFG/p75 interaction. The combined application of virtual screening and experiments in drug discovery against IN-LEDFG/p75 interaction sheds light on anti-HIV research and drug discovery.

  8. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) with HIV-1 infection outcomes in Brazilian HIV-1+ individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaes, Caroline Pereira Bittencourt; Cardoso, Cynthia Chester; Caetano, Diogo Gama; Teixeira, Sylvia Lopes Maia; Guimarães, Monick Lindenmeyer; Campos, Dayse Pereira; Veloso, Valdilea Gonçalves; Babic, Dunja Z; Stevenson, Mario; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Morgado, Mariza Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    The lens epithelium-derived growth factor p75 (LEDGF/p75), coded by the PSIP1 gene, is an important host co-factor that interacts with HIV-1 integrase to target integration of viral cDNA into active genes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of SNPs in the PSIP1 gene with disease outcome in HIV-1 infected patients. We performed a genetic association study in a cohort of 171 HIV-1 seropositive Brazilian individuals classified as rapid progressors (RP, n = 69), typical progressors (TP, n = 79) and long-term nonprogressors (LTNP, n = 23). The exonic SNP rs61744944 and 9 tag SNPs were genotyped. A group of 192 healthy subjects was analyzed to determine the frequency of SNPs and haplotypes in the general population. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses indicated that the SNPs analyzed were not in high LD (r2<0.8). Logistic regression models suggested that patients carrying the T allele rs61744944 (472L) were more likely to develop a LTNP phenotype (OR = 4.98; p = 0.05) as compared to TP group. The same trend was observed when LTNPs were compared to the RP group (OR = 3.26). Results of haplotype analyses reinforced this association, since the OR values obtained for the haplotype carrying allele T at rs61744944 also reflected an association with LTNP status (OR = 6.05; p = 0.08 and OR = 3.44; p = 0.12 for comparisons to TP and RP, respectively). The rare missense variations Ile436Ser and Thr473Ile were not identified in the patients enrolled in this study. Gene expression analyses showed lower LEDGF/p75 mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from HIV-1 infected individuals. However, these levels were not influenced by any of the SNPs investigated. In spite of the limited number of LTNPs, these data suggest that the PSIP1 gene could be associated with the outcome of HIV-1 infection. Further analyses of this gene may guide the identification of causative variants to help predict disease course.

  9. Coelomic epithelium-derived cells in visceral morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Laura; Carmona, Rita; Cañete, Ana; Cano, Elena; Muñoz-Chápuli, Ramón

    2016-03-01

    Coelomic cavities of vertebrates are lined by a mesothelium which develops from the lateral plate mesoderm. During development, the coelomic epithelium is a highly active cell layer, which locally is able to supply mesenchymal cells that contribute to the mesodermal elements of many organs and provide signals which are necessary for their development. The relevance of this process of mesenchymal cell supply to the developing organs is becoming clearer because genetic lineage tracing techniques have been developed in recent years. Body wall, heart, liver, lungs, gonads, and gastrointestinal tract are populated by cells derived from the coelomic epithelium which contribute to their connective and vascular tissues, and sometimes to specialized cell types such as the stellate cells of the liver, the Cajal interstitial cells of the gut or the Sertoli cells of the testicle. In this review we collect information about the contribution of coelomic epithelium derived cells to visceral development, their developmental fates and signaling functions. The common features displayed by all these processes suggest that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the embryonic coelomic epithelium is an underestimated but key event of vertebrate development, and probably it is shared by all the coelomate metazoans.

  10. Pigment epithelial-derived factor gene loaded novel COOH-PEG-PLGA-COOH nanoparticles promoted tumor suppression by systemic administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu T

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ting Yu,1,* Bei Xu,1,* Lili He,2 Shan Xia,3 Yan Chen,1 Jun Zeng,1 Yongmei Liu,1 Shuangzhi Li,1 Xiaoyue Tan,4 Ke Ren,1 Shaohua Yao,1 Xiangrong Song1 1State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, 2College of Chemistry and Environment Protection Engineering, Southwest University for Nationalities, 3Central Laboratory, Science Education Department, Chengdu Normal University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 4Department of Pathology/Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, Medical School of Nankai University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Anti-angiogenesis has been proposed as an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF is one of the most powerful endogenous anti-angiogenic reagents discovered to date and PEDF gene therapy has been recognized as a promising treatment option for various tumors. There is an urgent need to develop a safe and valid vector for its systemic delivery. Herein, a novel gene delivery system based on the newly synthesized copolymer COOH-PEG-PLGA-COOH (CPPC was developed in this study, which was probably capable of overcoming the disadvantages of viral vectors and cationic lipids/polymers-based nonviral carriers. PEDF gene loaded CPPC nanoparticles (D-NPs were fabricated by a modified double-emulsion water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W solvent evaporation method. D-NPs with uniform spherical shape had relatively high drug loading (~1.6%, probably because the introduced carboxyl group in poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide terminal enhanced the interaction of copolymer with the PEDF gene complexes. An excellent in vitro antitumor effect was found in both C26 and A549 cells treated by D-NPs, in which PEDF levels were dramatically elevated due to the successful transfection of PEDF gene. D-NPs also showed a strong inhibitory effect on

  11. Remote sensing of vertical phytoplankton pigment distributions in the Baltic: new mathematical expressions. Part 3: Nonphotosynthetic pigment absorption factor:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Woźniak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, part 3 of the description of vertical pigment distributions in the Baltic Sea, discusses the mathematical expression enabling the vertical distributions of the non-photosynthetic pigment absorption factor fa to be estimated. The factor fa is directly related to concentrations of the several groups of phytoplankton pigments and describes quantitatively the ratio of the light energy absorbed at given depths by photosynthetic pigments to the light energy absorbed by all the phytoplankton pigments together (photosynthetic and photoprotecting. Knowledge of this factor is highly desirable in the construction of state-of-the-art "light-photosynthesis" models for remote-sensing purposes.    The expression enables fa to be estimated with considerable precision on the basis of two surface parameters (available from satellite observations: the total chlorophyll a concentration at the surfaceCa(0 and the spectral downward irradiance Ed(λ, 0 just below the sea surface. The expression is applicable to Baltic waters from the surface down to an optical depth of τ ≈ 5.    The verification of the model description of fa was based on 400 quasi-empirical values of this factor which were calculated on the basis of empirical values of the following parameters measured at the same depths: Ed(λ, z (or also PAR(z, apl(λ, z,and the concentrations of all the groups of phytoplankton pigments Ca(z and Cj(z (where j denotes in turn chl b, chl c, PSC, phyc, PPC. The verification shows that the errors in the values of the non-photosynthetic pigment absorption factor fa estimated using the modeldeveloped in this work are small: in practice they do not exceed 4%.    Besides the mathematical description of the vertical distribution of fa, this paper also discusses the range of variation of its values measured in the Baltic and its dependence on the trophic index of a basin and depth in the sea. In addition, the similarities and differences in the

  12. Effect of various factor on the stability of the anthocyanin pigment in passion fruit skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Pruthi

    1960-04-01

    Full Text Available Since loss of anthocyanins is one of the major factors contributing to the colour deterioration in many highly coloured fruits, the effects of various factors such as temperature, oxygen, pH, ascorbic acid, tannic acid, thiourea and hydrogen peroxide on the stability of the anthocyanin pigment (Pelargonidin 3-diglucoside naturally occurring in passion fruit skin (Passiflora edulis, sims. have been studied with a view to elucidate the mechanism of degradation of the pigment during refrigerated and common storage of the fresh fruit. Storage studies demonstrated that (i ascorbic acid in the presence of oxygen accelerated the deterioration of the pigment; (ii thiourea decreased the rate of destruction of ascorbic acid, thus indirectly preventing the rate of anthocyanin losses; (iii tannins had a stabilizing effect on the pigment; (iv pH had a very significant effect on the stability of the pigment; and (v high storage temperature and H2O2 both had destructive effect on the pigment.

  13. Pigment epithelial-derived factor gene loaded novel COOH-PEG-PLGA-COOH nanoparticles promoted tumor suppression by systemic administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ting; Xu, Bei; He, Lili; Xia, Shan; Chen, Yan; Zeng, Jun; Liu, Yongmei; Li, Shuangzhi; Tan, Xiaoyue; Ren, Ke; Yao, Shaohua; Song, Xiangrong

    2016-01-01

    Anti-angiogenesis has been proposed as an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is one of the most powerful endogenous anti-angiogenic reagents discovered to date and PEDF gene therapy has been recognized as a promising treatment option for various tumors. There is an urgent need to develop a safe and valid vector for its systemic delivery. Herein, a novel gene delivery system based on the newly synthesized copolymer COOH-PEG-PLGA-COOH (CPPC) was developed in this study, which was probably capable of overcoming the disadvantages of viral vectors and cationic lipids/polymers-based nonviral carriers. PEDF gene loaded CPPC nanoparticles (D-NPs) were fabricated by a modified double-emulsion water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) solvent evaporation method. D-NPs with uniform spherical shape had relatively high drug loading (~1.6%), probably because the introduced carboxyl group in poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) terminal enhanced the interaction of copolymer with the PEDF gene complexes. An excellent in vitro antitumor effect was found in both C26 and A549 cells treated by D-NPs, in which PEDF levels were dramatically elevated due to the successful transfection of PEDF gene. D-NPs also showed a strong inhibitory effect on proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro and inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis in vivo by an alginate-encapsulated tumor cell assay. Further in vivo antitumor investigation, carried out in a C26 subcutaneous tumor model by intravenous injection, demonstrated that D-NPs could achieve a significant antitumor activity with sharply reduced microvessel density and significantly promoted tumor cell apoptosis. Additionally, the in vitro hemolysis analysis and in vivo serological and biochemical analysis revealed that D-NPs had no obvious toxicity. All the data indicated that the novel CPPC nanoparticles were ideal vectors for the systemic delivery of PEDF gene and might be widely

  14. Mediator MED23 Links Pigmentation and DNA Repair through the Transcription Factor MITF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA repair is related to many physiological and pathological processes, including pigmentation. Little is known about the role of the transcriptional cofactor Mediator complex in DNA repair and pigmentation. Here, we demonstrate that Mediator MED23 plays an important role in coupling UV-induced DNA repair to pigmentation. The loss of Med23 specifically impairs the pigmentation process in melanocyte-lineage cells and in zebrafish. Med23 deficiency leads to enhanced nucleotide excision repair (NER and less DNA damage following UV radiation because of the enhanced expression and recruitment of NER factors to chromatin for genomic stability. Integrative analyses of melanoma cells reveal that MED23 controls the expression of a melanocyte master regulator, Mitf, by modulating its distal enhancer activity, leading to opposing effects on pigmentation and DNA repair. Collectively, the Mediator MED23/MITF axis connects DNA repair to pigmentation, thus providing molecular insights into the DNA damage response and skin-related diseases.

  15. Sulfate as a pivotal factor in regulation of Serratia sp. strain S2B pigment biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegari, Banafsheh; Karbalaei-Heidari, Hamid Reza

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, we investigated the prodiginine family as secondary metabolite members. Bacterial strain S2B, with the ability to produce red pigment, was isolated from the Sarcheshmeh copper mine in Iran. 16S rDNA gene sequencing revealed that the strain was placed in the Serratia genus. Pigment production was optimized using low-cost culture medium and the effects of various physicochemical factors were studied via statistical approaches. Purification of the produced pigment by silica gel column chromatography showed a strong red pigment fraction and a weaker orange band. Mass spectrometry, FT-IR spectroscopy and (1)H NMR analysis revealed that the red pigment was prodigiosin and the orange band was a prodigiosin-like analog, with molecular weights of 323 and 317 Da, respectively. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity studies confirmed their membership in the prodiginine family. Analysis of the production pattern of the pigments in the presence of different concentrations of ammonium salts revealed the role of sulfate as an important factor in regulation of the pigment biosynthesis pathway. Overall, the data showed that regulation of the pigment biosynthesis pathway in Serratia sp. strain S2B was affected by inorganic micronutrients, particularly the sulfate ions.

  16. A Potential Profibrogenic Role of Biliary Epithelium-Derived Cardiotrophin-1 in Pediatric Cholestatic Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xiangwei; Shan, Yuhua; Li, Dawei; Xu, Dongwei; Zhang, Jiang; Yang, Taihua; Han, Longzhi; Shen, Conghuan; Xia, Yun; Chen, Qimin; Ma, Xiong; Zhang, Jianjun; Xia, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    As a cytokine of the interleukin-6 family, cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) has been shown to be an important endogenous protector in liver injury. Our study aimed to investigate the role of CT-1 in liver fibrosis in pediatric cholestatic liver disease (PCLD). CT-1 mRNA and protein expression levels were upregulated in PCLD liver biopsy tissues compared with controls. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy of liver sections showed that CT-1 was predominantly expressed by biliary epithelium cells. Serum CT-1 was elevated significantly in the children with PCLD compared with controls. Serum CT-1 levels exhibited a moderate positive correlation with the Scheuer stage of hepatic fibrosis and serum TB levels and a weak correlation with serum ALP levels. In vitro analysis indicated that LX-2 cells preconditioned with CT-1 exhibited significant increments in proliferation and accumulation of extracellular matrix components, while also positively regulating the STAT3 and p38MAPK pathways. In conclusion, biliary epithelium-derived CT-1 may exert a profibrogenic potential in PCLD.

  17. Lipid droplets, perilipins and cytokeratins--unravelled liaisons in epithelium-derived cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Heid

    Full Text Available Lipid droplets (LDs are spherical accumulations of apolar lipids and other hydrophobic substances and are generally surrounded by a thin cortical layer of specific amphiphilic proteins (APs. These APs segregate the LDs from the mostly polar components of the cytoplasm. We have studied LDs in epithelium-derived cell cultures and in particular characterized proteins from the perilipin (PLIN gene family - in mammals consisting of the proteins Perilipin, Adipophilin, TIP47, S3-12 and MLDP/OXPAT (PLIN 1-5. Using a large number of newly generated and highly specific mono- and polyclonal antibodies specific for individual APs, and using improved LD isolation methods, we have enriched and characterized APs in greater detail and purity. The majority of lipid-AP complexes could be obtained in the top layer fractions of density gradient centrifugation separations of cultured cells, but APs could also be detected in other fractions within such separations. The differently sized LD complexes were analyzed using various biochemical methods and mass spectrometry as well as immunofluorescence and electron- in particular immunoelectron-microscopy. Moreover, by immunoprecipitation, protein-protein binding assays and by immunoelectron microscopy we identified a direct linkage between LD-binding proteins and the intermediate-sized filaments (IF cytokeratins 8 and 18 (also designated as keratins K8 and K18. Specifically, in gradient fractions of higher density supposedly containing small LDs, we received as co-precipitations cytidylyl-, palmitoyl- and cholesterol transferases and other specific enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. So far, common proteomic studies have used LDs from top layer fractions only and did not report on these transferases and other enzymes. In addition to findings of short alternating hydrophobic/hydrophilic segments within the PLIN protein family, we propose and discuss a model for the interaction of LD-coating APs with IF proteins.

  18. Lipid droplets, perilipins and cytokeratins--unravelled liaisons in epithelium-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heid, Hans; Rickelt, Steffen; Zimbelmann, Ralf; Winter, Stefanie; Schumacher, Heiderose; Dörflinger, Yvette

    2013-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are spherical accumulations of apolar lipids and other hydrophobic substances and are generally surrounded by a thin cortical layer of specific amphiphilic proteins (APs). These APs segregate the LDs from the mostly polar components of the cytoplasm. We have studied LDs in epithelium-derived cell cultures and in particular characterized proteins from the perilipin (PLIN) gene family - in mammals consisting of the proteins Perilipin, Adipophilin, TIP47, S3-12 and MLDP/OXPAT (PLIN 1-5). Using a large number of newly generated and highly specific mono- and polyclonal antibodies specific for individual APs, and using improved LD isolation methods, we have enriched and characterized APs in greater detail and purity. The majority of lipid-AP complexes could be obtained in the top layer fractions of density gradient centrifugation separations of cultured cells, but APs could also be detected in other fractions within such separations. The differently sized LD complexes were analyzed using various biochemical methods and mass spectrometry as well as immunofluorescence and electron- in particular immunoelectron-microscopy. Moreover, by immunoprecipitation, protein-protein binding assays and by immunoelectron microscopy we identified a direct linkage between LD-binding proteins and the intermediate-sized filaments (IF) cytokeratins 8 and 18 (also designated as keratins K8 and K18). Specifically, in gradient fractions of higher density supposedly containing small LDs, we received as co-precipitations cytidylyl-, palmitoyl- and cholesterol transferases and other specific enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. So far, common proteomic studies have used LDs from top layer fractions only and did not report on these transferases and other enzymes. In addition to findings of short alternating hydrophobic/hydrophilic segments within the PLIN protein family, we propose and discuss a model for the interaction of LD-coating APs with IF proteins.

  19. Generation of retinal pigment epithelial cells from human embryonic stem cell-derived spherical neural masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myung Soo; Kim, Sang Jin; Ku, Seung-Yup; Park, Jung Hyun; Lee, Haksup; Yoo, Dae Hoon; Park, Un Chul; Song, Seul Ae; Choi, Young Min; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2012-09-01

    Dysfunction and loss of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are major pathologic changes observed in various retinal degenerative diseases such as aged-related macular degeneration. RPE generated from human pluripotent stem cells can be a good candidate for RPE replacement therapy. Here, we show the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) toward RPE with the generation of spherical neural masses (SNMs), which are pure masses of hESCs-derived neural precursors. During the early passaging of SNMs, cystic structures arising from opened neural tube-like structures showed pigmented epithelial morphology. These pigmented cells were differentiated into functional RPE by neuroectodermal induction and mechanical purification. Most of the differentiated cells showed typical RPE morphologies, such as a polygonal-shaped epithelial monolayer, and transmission electron microscopy revealed apical microvilli, pigment granules, and tight junctions. These cells also expressed molecular markers of RPE, including Mitf, ZO-1, RPE65, CRALBP, and bestrophin. The generated RPE also showed phagocytosis of isolated bovine photoreceptor outer segment and secreting pigment epithelium-derived factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. Functional RPE could be generated from SNM in our method. Because SNMs have several advantages, including the capability of expansion for long periods without loss of differentiation capability, easy storage and thawing, and no need for feeder cells, our method for RPE differentiation may be used as an efficient strategy for generating functional RPE cells for retinal regeneration therapy.

  20. RNA interference inhibits expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Chun-mei; SUN Bao-chen; LIU Xu-yang; WANG Jin-jin; LI Jun-fa; HAN Song; WANG Ning-li; LU Qing-jun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a major cause of vision loss, is the result of the increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. It is important to inhibit the expression of VEGF protein in RPE cells.

  1. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.; Steenstrup, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg...... the factors contributing to yellow color formation, pH and salt concentration are easy to control for the cheesemaker, while the third factor, P-concentration, is not. Naturally occurring variations in the P-concentration in milk delivered to Blue Cheese plants, could be responsible for the yellow...

  2. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.; Steenstrup, L.D.;

    2002-01-01

    Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg...... and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites......, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were...

  3. Macroevolutionary patterns of ultraviolet floral pigmentation explained by geography and associated bioclimatic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Matthew H; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2016-07-01

    Selection driven by biotic interactions can generate variation in floral traits. Abiotic selection, however, also contributes to floral diversity, especially with respect to patterns of pigmentation. Combining comparative studies of floral pigmentation and geography can reveal the bioclimatic factors that may drive macroevolutionary patterns of floral color. We create a molecular phylogeny and measure ultraviolet (UV) floral pattern for 177 species in the Potentilleae tribe (Rosaceae). Species are similar in flower shape and visible color but vary in UV floral pattern. We use comparative approaches to determine whether UV pigmentation variation is associated with geography and/or bioclimatic features (UV-B, precipitation, temperature). Floral UV pattern was present in half of the species, while others were uniformly UV-absorbing. Phylogenetic signal was detected for presence/absence of pattern, but among patterned species, quantitative variation in UV-absorbing area was evolutionarily labile. Uniformly UV-absorbing species tended to experience higher UV-B irradiance. Patterned species occurring at higher altitudes had larger UV-absorbing petal areas, corresponding with low temperature and high UV exposure. This analysis expands our understanding of the covariation of UV-B irradiance and UV floral pigmentation from within species to that among species, and supports the view that abiotic selection is associated with floral diversification among species.

  4. 色素上皮衍生因子抑制糖基化终产物介导人肾小球系膜细胞糖基化终产物受体表达的研究%Pigment epithelium-derived factor inhibits advanced glycation end products-induced expression of receptor in human glomerular mesangial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛霞; 秦淑兰; 朱艳; 沈浩; 张喜婷

    2014-01-01

    目的 观察色素上皮衍生因子(PEDF)、晚期糖基化终产物受体(RAGE)的表达及重组PEDF对RAGE表达的抑制作用,探讨PEDF与DN的关系及对DN的保护作用. 方法 采用糖化小牛血清白蛋白(AGE-BSA)体外诱导人肾小球系膜细胞(HRMCs),Western blot及RT-PCR法分别检测RAGE、PEDF蛋白和mRNA表达. 结果 (1) AGE-BSA(100~400 mg/L)呈浓度梯度减少HRMCsPEDF表达(P<0.01),升高RAGE表达(P<0.01);(2)重组PEDF蛋白(5~40 nmol/L)呈浓度依赖性抑制AGE-BSA介导RAGE蛋白在HRMCs的表达(P<0.05). 结论 AGEs通过降低PEDF表达,增加RAGE表达参与DN的发生,PEDF可能通过抑制AGE-RAGE轴对DN发挥保护作用.

  5. Influence of environmental factors on growth and pigment synthesis by purple thiobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. О. Pavlova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different environmental factors on growth and pigment biosynthesis by particular strains of purple thiobacteria was investigated. These strains belong to the genus Chromatium, Thiocystis, Thiocapsa and Lamprocystis and were isolated from Yavoriv sulphur mine. Calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron and sodium chloride should be included in the medium for optimal growth of these bacteria. Addition of these elements entails increasing the biomass production and synthesis of carotenoids and bacteriochlorophyll a. Initial concentration of inoculum and electron donor has essential influence on growth of purple thiobacteria. Early in the development of culture, sulphide was oxidized, and then the growth impairment and destruction of cells under exposure of light were observed. For the optimization of bacteria growth the electron donor (sulphide must be added many times during the cultivation process in the concentration, which is not exceed an inhibition dose. The additional bringing of the electron donor in the medium promotes the raise of cells’ biomass. The acetate introduction in the medium has positive influence on the pigments’ biosynthesis. The essential factor of growth and pigments’ biosynthesis is the light intensity. Peak gain of the culture growth was observed under 400 lx. The amplification of light exposure is accompanied by the decrease of growth and content of pigments in cells. Oxygen inhibits the synthesis of pigments in all strains

  6. Phytoplankton pigments and functional community structure in relation to environmental factors in the Pearl River Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two cruises were undertaken in the Pearl River Estuary in November 2011 and March 2012 to analyze the distribution of phytoplankton pigments and to define the relationships of pigment indices and functional community structure with environmental factors. Among 22 pigments, 17 were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. Chlorophyll a was found in all samples, with a maximum of 7.712 μg L−1 in spring. Fucoxanthin was the most abundant accessory pigment, with mean concentrations of 2.914 μg L−1 and 0.207 μg L−1 in spring and autumn, respectively. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c2, fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, and diatoxanthin were high in the northern or northwest estuary in spring and in the middle-eastern and northeast estuary in autumn. Chlorophyll b, chlorophyll c3, prasinoxanthin, and peridinin were similarly distributed during the two cruises. Chlorophyll a and fucoxanthin positively correlated with nutrients in spring, whereas 19′-hex-fucoxanthin and 19′-but-fucoxanthin negatively correlated. The biomass proportion of microphytoplankton (BPm was higher in spring, whereas that of picophytoplankton (BPp was higher in autumn. BPm in spring was high in areas with salinity 30. BPm increased but BPn reduced with the increase in nutrient contents. By comparison, BPp reduced with the increase in nutrient contents in spring, but no relationship was found between BPp and nutrient contents in autumn. The ratios of photosynthetic carotenoids to photoprotective carotenoids in the southern estuary approached unity linear relationship in spring and were under the unity line in autumn.

  7. The Yin and Yang of VEGF and PEDF: Multifaceted Neurotrophic Factors and Their Potential in the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. Sherman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF have emerged as multifaceted players in not only the pathogenesis, but potential treatment, of numerous diseases. They activate diverse intracellular signaling cascades known to have extensive crosstalk, and have been best studied for their effects in cardiology and cancer biology. Recent work with the two factors indicates that the activity of one growth factor is often directly related to the action of the other. Their respective neuroprotective effects, in particular, raise important questions regarding the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson’s disease.

  8. An R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulates carotenoid pigmentation in Mimulus lewisii flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Janelle M; Stanley, Lauren E; LaFountain, Amy M; Frank, Harry A; Liu, Chang; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-02-01

    Carotenoids are yellow, orange, and red pigments that contribute to the beautiful colors and nutritive value of many flowers and fruits. The structural genes in the highly conserved carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been well characterized in multiple plant systems, but little is known about the transcription factors that control the expression of these structural genes. By analyzing a chemically induced mutant of Mimulus lewisii through bulk segregant analysis and transgenic experiments, we have identified an R2R3-MYB, Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), as the first transcription factor that positively regulates carotenoid biosynthesis during flower development. Loss-of-function mutations in RCP1 lead to down-regulation of all carotenoid biosynthetic genes and reduced carotenoid content in M. lewisii flowers, a phenotype recapitulated by RNA interference in the wild-type background. Overexpression of this gene in the rcp1 mutant background restores carotenoid production and, unexpectedly, results in simultaneous decrease of anthocyanin production in some transgenic lines by down-regulating the expression of an activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Identification of transcriptional regulators of carotenoid biosynthesis provides the 'toolbox' genes for understanding the molecular basis of flower color diversification in nature and for potential enhancement of carotenoid production in crop plants via genetic engineering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Complement factor H, vitronectin, and opticin are tyrosine-sulfated proteins of the retinal pigment epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita Kanan

    Full Text Available Lack of tyrosine sulfation of ocular proteins results in disorganized photoreceptor structure and drastically reduced visual function, demonstrating the importance of this post-translational modification to vision. To understand the role that tyrosine sulfation plays in the function of ocular proteins, we identified some tyrosine-sulfated proteins in the retinal pigment epithelium using two independent methods, immuno-affinity column purification with an anti-sulfotyrosine specific antibody and computer-based sequence analysis of retinal pigment epithelium secretome by means of the prediction program Sulfinator. Radioactive labeling followed by thin layer electrophoresis revealed that three proteins, vitronectin, opticin, and complement factor H (CFH, were post-translationally modified by tyrosine sulfation. The identification of vitronectin and CFH as tyrosine-sulfated proteins is significant, since both are deposited in drusen in the eyes of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Furthermore, mutations in CFH have been determined to be a major risk factor in the development of AMD. Future studies that seek to understand the role of CFH in the development of AMD should take into account the role that tyrosine sulfation plays in the interaction of this protein with its partners, and examine whether modulating sulfation provides a potential therapeutic target.

  10. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 enhances vascular endothelial growth factor secretion by human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Rhonda R; Unda, Richard; Yeh, Lee-Chuan C; Vidro, Eileen K; Lee, John C; Tsin, Andrew T

    2006-08-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a cytokine known to promote angiogenesis. Results from RNase protection assays (RPAs) show that RPE from non-diabetic human donors and from adult retinal pigment epithelium-19 (ARPE-19) cells expressed significant bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) message. In addition, ARPE-19 cells cultured in high glucose (25 mM), compared to those in physiological glucose (5.5 mM) released significantly more BMP-4 into the conditioned media (CM). However, the effect of BMP-4 on the release of VEGF by ARPE-19 cells has not been studied. Accordingly, ARPE-19 cells were treated with BMP-4 to determine VEGF secretion. BMP-4 and VEGF levels in the CM and cell lysates were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cells treated with exogenous BMP-4 had higher VEGF in the CM and this treatment effect was dose- and time-dependent, while cell lysates had low levels of VEGF. Addition of cycloheximide (CHX) or actinomycin-D (ACT) significantly reduced VEGF secretion from cells treated with BMP-4, suggesting that the BMP-4-induced secretion of VEGF requires new RNA and protein synthesis. Our results suggest that BMP-4 may play a role in the regulation of ocular angiogenesis associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) by stimulating VEGF release from RPE cells.

  11. The Aspergillus fumigatus Transcription Factor Ace2 Governs Pigment Production, Conidiation and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejzykowicz, Daniele E.; Cunha, Marcel M.; Rozental, Sonia; Solis, Norma V.; Gravelat, Fabrice N.; Sheppard, Donald C.; Filler, Scott G.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Aspergillus fumigatus causes serious and frequently fatal infections in immunocompromised patients. To investigate the regulation of virulence of this fungus, we constructed and analyzed an A. fumigatus mutant that lacked the transcription factor Ace2, which influences virulence in other fungi. The Δace2 mutant had dysmorphic conidiophores, reduced conidia production, and abnormal conidial cell wall architecture. This mutant produced an orange pigment when grown on solid media, although its conidia had normal pigmentation. Conidia of the Δace2 mutant were larger and had accelerated germination. The resulting germlings were resistant to hydrogen peroxide, but not other stressors. Non-neutropenic mice that were immunosuppressed with cortisone acetate and infected with the Δace2 mutant had accelerated mortality, greater pulmonary fungal burden, and increased pulmonary inflammatory responses compared to mice infected with the wild-type or Δace2∷ace2 complemented strains. The Δace2 mutant had reduced ppoC, ecm33, and ags3 mRNA expression. It is known that A. fumigatus mutants with absent or reduced expression of these genes have increased virulence in mice, as well as other phenotypic similarities to the Δace2 mutant. Therefore, reduced expression of these genes likely contributes to the increased virulence of the Δace2 mutant. PMID:19220748

  12. Body Pigmentation as a Risk Factor for the Formation of Intracranial Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Schulter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated pigmented cells both in the murine heart, in pulmonary veins, and in brain arteries. Moreover, a role for melanocytes in the downregulation of inflammatory processes was suggested. As there is increasing evidence that inflammation is contributing significantly to the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms, melanocyte-like cells may be relevant in preventing age-related impairment of vessels. As pigmentation of the heart reflects that of coat color, aspects of body pigmentation might be associated with the incidence of intracranial aneurysms. We performed a case-control study to evaluate associations between the pigmentation of hair and eyes and the formation of aneurysms. In addition to hair and eye color, constitutive and facultative skin pigmentation were assessed in a replication study as well as individual handedness which can be seen as a neurophysiological correlate of developmental pigmentation processes. Hair pigmentation was highly associated with intracranial aneurysms in both samples, whereas eye pigmentation was not. In the replication cohort, facultative but not constitutive skin pigmentation proved significant. The strongest association was observed for individual handedness. Results indicate a significant association of intracranial aneurysms with particular aspects of body pigmentation as well as handedness, and imply clinical usefulness for screening of aneurysms and possible interventions.

  13. Tumour necrosis factor alpha blockade in treatment resistant pigmented villonodular synovitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Kroot; M.C. Kraan; T.J. Smeets; M. Maas; P.P. Tak; J.M.G.W. Wouters (Jacques)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is considered to be a neoplastic-like disorder of the synovium histologically characterised by villonodular hyperplasia, resulting in dense fibrosis and haemosiderin deposition. The pathogenesis of the disease is still

  14. Signaling of pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) in the Madeira cockroach Rhyparobia maderae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongying; Yasar, Hanzey; Funk, Nico W; Giese, Maria; Baz, El-Sayed; Stengl, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The insect neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a functional ortholog of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, the coupling factor of the mammalian circadian pacemaker. Despite of PDF's importance for synchronized circadian locomotor activity rhythms its signaling is not well understood. We studied PDF signaling in primary cell cultures of the accessory medulla, the circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach. In Ca²⁺ imaging studies four types of PDF-responses were distinguished. In regularly bursting type 1 pacemakers PDF application resulted in dose-dependent long-lasting increases in Ca²⁺ baseline concentration and frequency of oscillating Ca²⁺ transients. Adenylyl cyclase antagonists prevented PDF-responses in type 1 cells, indicating that PDF signaled via elevation of intracellular cAMP levels. In contrast, in type 2 pacemakers PDF transiently raised intracellular Ca²⁺ levels even after blocking adenylyl cyclase activity. In patch clamp experiments the previously characterized types 1-4 could not be identified. Instead, PDF-responses were categorized according to ion channels affected. Application of PDF inhibited outward potassium or inward sodium currents, sometimes in the same neuron. In a comparison of Ca²⁺ imaging and patch clamp experiments we hypothesized that in type 1 cells PDF-dependent rises in cAMP concentrations block primarily outward K⁺ currents. Possibly, this PDF-dependent depolarization underlies PDF-dependent phase advances of pacemakers. Finally, we propose that PDF-dependent concomitant modulation of K⁺ and Na⁺ channels in coupled pacemakers causes ultradian membrane potential oscillations as prerequisite to efficient synchronization via resonance.

  15. Signaling of pigment-dispersing factor (PDF in the Madeira cockroach Rhyparobia maderae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Wei

    Full Text Available The insect neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF is a functional ortholog of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, the coupling factor of the mammalian circadian pacemaker. Despite of PDF's importance for synchronized circadian locomotor activity rhythms its signaling is not well understood. We studied PDF signaling in primary cell cultures of the accessory medulla, the circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach. In Ca²⁺ imaging studies four types of PDF-responses were distinguished. In regularly bursting type 1 pacemakers PDF application resulted in dose-dependent long-lasting increases in Ca²⁺ baseline concentration and frequency of oscillating Ca²⁺ transients. Adenylyl cyclase antagonists prevented PDF-responses in type 1 cells, indicating that PDF signaled via elevation of intracellular cAMP levels. In contrast, in type 2 pacemakers PDF transiently raised intracellular Ca²⁺ levels even after blocking adenylyl cyclase activity. In patch clamp experiments the previously characterized types 1-4 could not be identified. Instead, PDF-responses were categorized according to ion channels affected. Application of PDF inhibited outward potassium or inward sodium currents, sometimes in the same neuron. In a comparison of Ca²⁺ imaging and patch clamp experiments we hypothesized that in type 1 cells PDF-dependent rises in cAMP concentrations block primarily outward K⁺ currents. Possibly, this PDF-dependent depolarization underlies PDF-dependent phase advances of pacemakers. Finally, we propose that PDF-dependent concomitant modulation of K⁺ and Na⁺ channels in coupled pacemakers causes ultradian membrane potential oscillations as prerequisite to efficient synchronization via resonance.

  16. Expression of microphthalmia transcription factor, S100 protein, and HMB-45 in malignant melanoma and pigmented nevi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jianxin; Wang, Yanlong; Li, Fuqiu; Wang, Jinfeng; Mu, Yan; Mei, Xianglin; Li, Xue; Zhu, Wenjing; Jin, Xianhua; Yu, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is a type of malignant tumor, which originates from neural crest melanocytes. MM progresses rapidly and results in a high mortality rate. The present study aims to investigate the expression of microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF), the S100 protein, and HMB-45 in MM and pigmented nevi. A total of 32 MM samples (including three skin metastasis, three lymph node metastasis and two spindle cell MM samples), two Spitz nevus samples, four pigmented nevus samples and two blue nevus samples were collected. The expression levels of S100 protein, HMB-45, and MITF were observed via immunostaining. The S100 protein exhibited high positive rates in MM and pigment disorders (96.7 and 100%, respectively), but with low specificity. The S100 protein was also expressed in fibroblasts, myoepithelial cells, histocytes and Langerhans cells in normal skin samples. HMB-45 had high specificity. Its positive expression was only confined to MM cells and junctional nevus cells. Furthermore, HMB-45 was not expressed in melanocytes in the normal tissue samples around the tumor or in the benign intradermal nevus cells. MITF exhibited high specificity and high sensitivity. It was expressed in the nuclei of melanocytes, MM cells and nevus cells. It was observed to be strongly expressed in metastatic MM and spindle cell MMs. Thus, MITF may present as a specific immunomarker for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of MM. PMID:27602212

  17. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    the present hair colour and eye colour, and the constitutive skin pigmentation was measured objectively by skin reflectance of UV unexposed buttock skin. There were no differences between basal cell carcinoma cases and controls in hair colour or eye colour or constitutive skin pigmentation, but more cases......To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...

  18. Osmotic Induction of Angiogenic Growth Factor Expression in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Andreas; Wiedemann, Peter; Kohen, Leon; Bringmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Although systemic hypertension is a risk factor of age-related macular degeneration, antihypertensive medications do not affect the risk of the disease. One condition that induces hypertension is high intake of dietary salt resulting in increased blood osmolarity. In order to prove the assumption that, in addition to hypertension, high osmolarity may aggravate neovascular retinal diseases, we determined the effect of extracellular hyperosmolarity on the expression of angiogenic cytokines in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Hyperosmolarity was induced by the addition of 100 mM NaCl or sucrose to the culture medium. Hypoxia and oxidative stress were induced by the addition of the hypoxia mimetic CoCl2 and H2O2, respectively. Alterations in gene expression were determined with real-time RT-PCR. Secretion of bFGF was evaluated by ELISA. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion. Nuclear factor of activated T cell 5 (NFAT5) expression was knocked down with siRNA. Hyperosmolarity induced transcriptional activation of bFGF, HB-EGF, and VEGF genes, while the expression of other cytokines such as EGF, PDGF-A, TGF-β1, HGF, and PEDF was not or moderately altered. Hypoxia induced increased expression of the HB-EGF, EGF, PDGF-A, TGF-β1, and VEGF genes, but not of the bFGF gene. Oxidative stress induced gene expression of HB-EGF, but not of bFGF. The hyperosmotic expression of the bFGF gene was dependent on the activation of p38α/β MAPK, JNK, PI3K, and the transcriptional activity of NFAT5. The hyperosmotic expression of the HB-EGF gene was dependent on the activation of p38α/β MAPK, ERK1/2, and JNK. The hyperosmotic expression of bFGF, HB-EGF, and VEGF genes was reduced by inhibitors of TGF-β1 superfamily activin receptor-like kinase receptors and the FGF receptor kinase, respectively. Hyperosmolarity induced secretion of bFGF that was reduced by inhibition of autocrine/paracrine TGF-β1

  19. Osmotic Induction of Angiogenic Growth Factor Expression in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Veltmann

    Full Text Available Although systemic hypertension is a risk factor of age-related macular degeneration, antihypertensive medications do not affect the risk of the disease. One condition that induces hypertension is high intake of dietary salt resulting in increased blood osmolarity. In order to prove the assumption that, in addition to hypertension, high osmolarity may aggravate neovascular retinal diseases, we determined the effect of extracellular hyperosmolarity on the expression of angiogenic cytokines in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells.Hyperosmolarity was induced by the addition of 100 mM NaCl or sucrose to the culture medium. Hypoxia and oxidative stress were induced by the addition of the hypoxia mimetic CoCl2 and H2O2, respectively. Alterations in gene expression were determined with real-time RT-PCR. Secretion of bFGF was evaluated by ELISA. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion. Nuclear factor of activated T cell 5 (NFAT5 expression was knocked down with siRNA. Hyperosmolarity induced transcriptional activation of bFGF, HB-EGF, and VEGF genes, while the expression of other cytokines such as EGF, PDGF-A, TGF-β1, HGF, and PEDF was not or moderately altered. Hypoxia induced increased expression of the HB-EGF, EGF, PDGF-A, TGF-β1, and VEGF genes, but not of the bFGF gene. Oxidative stress induced gene expression of HB-EGF, but not of bFGF. The hyperosmotic expression of the bFGF gene was dependent on the activation of p38α/β MAPK, JNK, PI3K, and the transcriptional activity of NFAT5. The hyperosmotic expression of the HB-EGF gene was dependent on the activation of p38α/β MAPK, ERK1/2, and JNK. The hyperosmotic expression of bFGF, HB-EGF, and VEGF genes was reduced by inhibitors of TGF-β1 superfamily activin receptor-like kinase receptors and the FGF receptor kinase, respectively. Hyperosmolarity induced secretion of bFGF that was reduced by inhibition of autocrine/paracrine TGF-β1 signaling and by NFAT5 si

  20. Exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes results in aggravation of airway inflammation and remodeling and in increased production of epithelium-derived innate cytokines in a mouse model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzani, Carole; Casset, Anne; Pons, Françoise

    2014-02-01

    With the development of nanotechnologies, the potential adverse effects of nanomaterials such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on the respiratory tract of asthmatics are questioned. Furthermore, investigations are necessary to understand how these effects might arise. In the present study, we hypothesized that epithelium-derived innate cytokines that are considered as important promoting factors in allergy may contribute to an aggravating effect of MWCNT on asthma. We investigated in the mouse the effect of MWCNT on systemic immune response and airway inflammation and remodeling induced by the most frequent allergen so far associated with asthma, house dust mite (HDM), and we examined the production of the innate cytokines thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-25, IL-33, and GM-CSF. Mice exposed to HDM exhibited specific IgG1 in serum and inflammatory cell infiltration, and increased Th2 cytokine production, mucus hyperproduction, and collagen deposition in the airways when compared to naïve animals. Levels of total IgG1 and HDM-specific IgG1, influx of macrophages, eosinophils and neutrophils, production of collagen, TGF-β1, and mucus, as well as levels of IL-13, eotaxin, and TARC, were dose-dependently increased in mice exposed to HDM and MWCNT compared to HDM alone. These effects were associated with an increased production of TSLP, IL-25, IL-33, and GM-CSF in the airways. Our data demonstrate that MWCNT increase in a dose-dependent manner systemic immune response, as well as airway allergic inflammation and remodeling induced by HDM in the mouse. Our data suggest also a role for airway epithelium and innate cytokines in these effects.

  1. MYB and bHLH transcription factor transgenes increase anthocyanin pigmentation in petunia and lisianthus plants, and the petunia phenotypes are strongly enhanced under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy E Schwinn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Petunia line Mitchell [MP, Petunia axillaris × (P. axillaris × P. hybrida] and Eustoma grandiflorum (lisianthus plants were produced containing a transgene for over-expression of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor (ROSEA1 that up-regulates flavonoid biosynthesis in Antirrhinum majus. The petunia lines were also crossed with previously produced MP lines containing a Zea mays flavonoid-related bHLH transcription factor transgene (LEAF COLOR, LC, which induces strong vegetative pigmentation when these 35S:LC plants are exposed to high light levels. 35S:ROS1 lisianthus transgenics had limited changes in anthocyanin pigmentation, specifically, precocious pigmentation of flower petals and increased pigmentation of sepals. RNA transcript levels for two anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, chalcone synthase and anthocyanidin synthase, were increased in the 35S:ROS1 lisianthus petals compared to those of control lines. With MP, the 35S:ROS1 calli showed novel red pigmentation in culture, but this was generally not seen in tissue culture plantlets regenerated from the calli or young plants transferred to soil in the greenhouse. Anthocyanin pigmentation was enhanced in the stems of mature 35S:ROS1 MP plants, but the MP white-flower phenotype was not complemented. Progeny from a 35S:ROS1×35S:LC cross had novel pigmentation phenotypes that were not present in either parental line or MP. In particular, there was increased pigment accumulation in the petal throat region, and the anthers changed from yellow to purple colour. An outdoor field trial was conducted with the 35S:ROS1, 35S:LC, 35S:ROS1×35S:LC and control MP lines. Field conditions rapidly induced intense foliage pigmentation in 35S:LC plants, a phenotype not observed in control MP or equivalent 35S:LC plants maintained in a greenhouse. No difference in plant stature, seed germination, or plant survival was observed between transgenic and control plants.

  2. Evolution of pigment-dispersing factor neuropeptides in Panarthropoda: Insights from Onychophora (velvet worms) and Tardigrada (water bears).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Georg; Hering, Lars; Stosch, Juliane M; Stevenson, Paul A; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2015-09-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) denotes a conserved family of homologous neuropeptides present in several invertebrate groups, including mollusks, nematodes, insects, and crustaceans (referred to here as pigment-dispersing hormone [PDH]). With regard to their encoding genes (pdf, pdh), insects possess only one, nematodes two, and decapod crustaceans up to three, but their phylogenetic relationship is unknown. To shed light on the origin and diversification of pdf/pdh homologs in Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda) and other molting animals (Ecdysozoa), we analyzed the transcriptomes of five distantly related onychophorans and a representative tardigrade and searched for putative pdf homologs in publically available genomes of other protostomes. This revealed only one pdf homolog in several mollusk and annelid species; two in Onychophora, Priapulida, and Nematoda; and three in Tardigrada. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the last common ancestor of Panarthropoda possessed two pdf homologs, one of which was lost in the arthropod or arthropod/tardigrade lineage, followed by subsequent duplications of the remaining homolog in some taxa. Immunolocalization of PDF-like peptides in six onychophoran species, by using a broadly reactive antibody that recognizes PDF/PDH peptides in numerous species, revealed an elaborate system of neurons and fibers in their central and peripheral nervous systems. Large varicose projections in the heart suggest that the PDF neuropeptides functioned as both circulating hormones and locally released transmitters in the last common ancestor of Onychophora and Arthropoda. The lack of PDF-like-immunoreactive somata associated with the onychophoran optic ganglion conforms to the hypothesis that onychophoran eyes are homologous to the arthropod median ocelli.

  3. Neonatal human retinal pigment epithelial cells secrete limited trophic factors in vitro and in vivo following striatal implantation in parkinsonian rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russ, Kaspar; Flores, Joseph; Brudek, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cell implants into the striatum have been investigated as a potential cell-based treatment for Parkinson's disease in a Phase II clinical trial that recently failed. We hypothesize that the trophic factor potential of the hRPE cells could potentially influe...

  4. In Silico Analysis of Gene Expression Network Components Underlying Pigmentation Phenotypes in the Python Identified Evolutionarily Conserved Clusters of Transcription Factor Binding Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher J. L. Irizarry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Color variation provides the opportunity to investigate the genetic basis of evolution and selection. Reptiles are less studied than mammals. Comparative genomics approaches allow for knowledge gained in one species to be leveraged for use in another species. We describe a comparative vertebrate analysis of conserved regulatory modules in pythons aimed at assessing bioinformatics evidence that transcription factors important in mammalian pigmentation phenotypes may also be important in python pigmentation phenotypes. We identified 23 python orthologs of mammalian genes associated with variation in coat color phenotypes for which we assessed the extent of pairwise protein sequence identity between pythons and mouse, dog, horse, cow, chicken, anole lizard, and garter snake. We next identified a set of melanocyte/pigment associated transcription factors (CREB, FOXD3, LEF-1, MITF, POU3F2, and USF-1 that exhibit relatively conserved sequence similarity within their DNA binding regions across species based on orthologous alignments across multiple species. Finally, we identified 27 evolutionarily conserved clusters of transcription factor binding sites within ~200-nucleotide intervals of the 1500-nucleotide upstream regions of AIM1, DCT, MC1R, MITF, MLANA, OA1, PMEL, RAB27A, and TYR from Python bivittatus. Our results provide insight into pigment phenotypes in pythons.

  5. In Silico Analysis of Gene Expression Network Components Underlying Pigmentation Phenotypes in the Python Identified Evolutionarily Conserved Clusters of Transcription Factor Binding Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Color variation provides the opportunity to investigate the genetic basis of evolution and selection. Reptiles are less studied than mammals. Comparative genomics approaches allow for knowledge gained in one species to be leveraged for use in another species. We describe a comparative vertebrate analysis of conserved regulatory modules in pythons aimed at assessing bioinformatics evidence that transcription factors important in mammalian pigmentation phenotypes may also be important in python pigmentation phenotypes. We identified 23 python orthologs of mammalian genes associated with variation in coat color phenotypes for which we assessed the extent of pairwise protein sequence identity between pythons and mouse, dog, horse, cow, chicken, anole lizard, and garter snake. We next identified a set of melanocyte/pigment associated transcription factors (CREB, FOXD3, LEF-1, MITF, POU3F2, and USF-1) that exhibit relatively conserved sequence similarity within their DNA binding regions across species based on orthologous alignments across multiple species. Finally, we identified 27 evolutionarily conserved clusters of transcription factor binding sites within ~200-nucleotide intervals of the 1500-nucleotide upstream regions of AIM1, DCT, MC1R, MITF, MLANA, OA1, PMEL, RAB27A, and TYR from Python bivittatus. Our results provide insight into pigment phenotypes in pythons. PMID:27698666

  6. Expression of colony-stimulating factor 1 is associated with occurrence of osteochondral change in pigmented villonodular synovitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takehiro; Urakawa, Hiroshi; Kozawa, Eiji; Ikuta, Kunihiro; Hamada, Shunsuke; Tsukushi, Satoshi; Shimoyama, Yoshie; Ishiguro, Naoki; Nishida, Yoshihiro

    2015-07-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a benign, translocation-derived neoplasm. Because of its high local recurrence rate after surgery and occurrence of osteochondral destruction, a novel therapeutic target is required. The present study aimed to evaluate the significance of protein expression possibly associated with the pathogenesis during the clinical course of PVNS. In 40 cases of PVNS, positivity of colony-stimulated factor 1 (CSF1), its receptor (CSF1R), and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) were immunohistochemically determined. The relationship between the positivity and clinical outcomes was investigated. High positivity of CSF1 staining intensity was associated with an increased incidence of osteochondral lesions (bone erosion and osteoarthritis) (p = 0.009), but not with the rate of local recurrence. Positivity of CSF1R and RANKL staining was not associated with any clinical variables. The number of giant cells was not correlated with positivity of any of the three proteins, or with the clinical outcome. Focusing on knee cases, CSF1 positivity was also associated with the incidence of osteochondal change (p = 0.02). CSF1R positivity was high in cases which had local recurrence, but not significantly so (p = 0.129). Determination of CSF1 and CSF1R expression may be useful as a prognosticator of the clinical course and/or outcomes of PVNS.

  7. HEMOGLOBIN PRODUCTION FACTORS IN THE HUMAN LIVER : ANEMIAS, HYPOPROTEINEMIA, CIRRHOSIS, PIGMENT ABNORMALITIES, AND PREGANCY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, G H; Robscheit-Robbins, F S

    1942-09-01

    Human liver tissue has been assayed to determine the amount of hemoglobin production factors in normal and abnormal states. Standardized dogs made anemic by blood removal have been used in this biological assay. Normal animal liver as control is rated as 100 per cent. Normal human liver tissue as compared with the normal animal control contains more of these hemoglobin production factors-a biological assay ratio of 120 to 160 per cent. Infections, acute and chronic, do not appear to modify these values, the concentration of hemoglobin-producing factors falling within the normal range. Pernicious anemia and aplastic anemia both show large liver stores of hemoglobin-producing factors-a biological assay ratio of 200 to 240 per cent. Therapy in pernicious anemia reduces these liver stores as new red cells are formed. Secondary anemia presents a low normal or subnormal liver store of hemoglobin-producing factors-an assay of 60 to 130 per cent. Hemochromatosis, erythroblastic anemia, and hemolytic icterus in spite of large iron deposits in the liver usually show a biological assay which is normal or close to normal. Polycythemia shows low reserve stores of hemoglobin-producing factors. Leukemias present a wide range of values discussed above. Hypoproteinemia almost always is associated with low reserve stores of hemoglobin-producing factors in the liver-biological assays of 60 to 80 per cent. Hypoproteinemia means a depletion of body protein reserve stores including the labile protein liver reserves-a strong indication that the prehemoglobin material (or globin) is related to these liver stores. Pregnancy, eclampsia, and lactation all may present subnormal liver stores of hemoglobin-producing factors. Exhaustion of protein stores lowers the barrier to infection and renders the liver very susceptible to many toxic substances. It should not be difficult to correct hypoproteinemia under these conditions and thus relieve the patient of a real hazard.

  8. Osmotic induction of placental growth factor in retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro: contribution of NFAT5 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollborn, Margrit; Reichmuth, Konrad; Prager, Philipp; Wiedemann, Peter; Bringmann, Andreas; Kohen, Leon

    2016-08-01

    One risk factor of neovascular age-related macular degeneration is systemic hypertension; hypertension is mainly caused by extracellular hyperosmolarity after consumption of dietary salt. In retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, high extracellular osmolarity induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A (Hollborn et al. in Mol Vis 21:360-377, 2015). The aim of the present study was to determine whether extracellular hyperosmolarity and chemical hypoxia trigger the expression of further VEGF family members including placental growth factor (PlGF) in human RPE cells. Hyperosmotic media were made up by addition of 100 mM NaCl or sucrose. Chemical hypoxia was induced by CoCl2. Gene expression was quantified by real-time RT-PCR, and secretion of PlGF-2 was investigated with ELISA. Nuclear factor of activated T cell 5 (NFAT5) was depleted using siRNA. Extracellular hyperosmolarity triggered expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-D, and PlGF genes, and secretion of PlGF-2. Hypoosmolarity decreased PlGF gene expression. Hypoxia induced expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-D, and PlGF genes. Extracellular hyperosmolarity and hypoxia produced additive PlGF gene expression. Both hyperosmolarity and hypoxia induced expression of KDR and FLT-4 receptor genes, while hyperosmolarity caused neuropilin-2 and hypoxia neuropilin-1 gene expression. The hyperosmotic, but not the hypoxic, PlGF gene expression was in part mediated by NFAT5. The expression of PlGF in RPE cells depends on the extracellular osmolarity. The data suggest that high consumption of dietary salt may exacerbate the angiogenic response of RPE cells in the hypoxic retina via transcriptional activation of various VEGF family member genes.

  9. Protective Effects of Human iPS-Derived Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells in Comparison with Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Human Neural Stem Cells on the Degenerating Retina in rd1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianan; Mandai, Michiko; Kamao, Hiroyuki; Hashiguchi, Tomoyo; Shikamura, Masayuki; Kawamata, Shin; Sugita, Sunao; Takahashi, Masayo

    2015-05-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of visual impairments characterized by progressive rod photoreceptor cell loss due to a genetic background. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) predominantly secreted by the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) has been reported to protect photoreceptors in retinal degeneration models, including rd1. In addition, clinical trials are currently underway outside Japan using human mesenchymal stromal cells and human neural stem cells to protect photoreceptors in RP and dry age-related macular degeneration, respectively. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the rescue effects of induced pluripotent stem (iPS)-RPE cells in comparison with those types of cells used in clinical trials on photoreceptor degeneration in rd1 mice. Cells were injected into the subretinal space of immune-suppressed 2-week-old rd1 mice. The results demonstrated that human iPS-RPE cells significantly attenuated photoreceptor degeneration on postoperative days (PODs) 14 and 21 and survived longer up to at least 12 weeks after operation than the other two types of graft cells with less immune responses and apoptosis. The mean PEDF concentration in the intraocular fluid in RPE-transplanted eyes was more than 1 µg/ml at PODs 14 and 21, and this may have contributed to the protective effect of RPE transplantation. Our findings suggest that iPS-RPE cells serve as a competent source to delay photoreceptor degeneration through stable survival in degenerating ocular environment and by releasing neuroprotective factors such as PEDF.

  10. Pigmentation of salmonids: Factors affecting carotenoid deposition in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    OpenAIRE

    Torrissen, Ole

    1984-01-01

    Factors affecting carotenoid deposition in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were investigated in three feeding experiments. The deposition of astaxanthin in the flesh increased significantly with increasing levels of astaxanthin in the diet decreased the ratios of astaxanthin in flesh to astaxanthin in diet. Fish size, dietary fat quality and vitamin E supplementation seemed to have no effect on the astaxanthin deposition. Depletion of the amount of astaxanthin in the flesh suggests metaboliza...

  11. Effects of Nerve Growth Factor on Proliferation and DNA Synthesis of Cultured Human Fetal Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wensheng Li; Jun Wen; Deyong Jiang; Jianguang Ding

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of nerve growth factor(NGF)on proliferation and DNAthesis of cultured human fetal retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)cells in vitro.Methods: Primary culture and subculture of human fetal retinal pigment epithelium cellswere established in vitro first. Cultured RPE cells were treated with NGF by variousconcentrations 0μg/L, 50μg/L, 100μg/L, 200μg/L and 300μg/L(final concentration)for 48 hs.After 48 hs, cells proliferation was measured with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT)assay method and the amount of DNA was determined by the absorbance at 280nm of nucleic acid & protein analysis.Results: The A values of 100 μg/L, 200 μg/L, 300 μg/L NGF was(0. 213 7 ± 0. 23 3),(0. 218 8 ±0. 018 1), (0. 232 2 ±0. 016 4) as compared with(0. 189 7 ±0. 015 2) of Avalue of 0 μg/L NGF respectively, q value was 3.63,4.40, 6. 42 and P value was0. 015, 0. 000, 0. 000(q-test). The DNA concentrations of 100 μg/L, 200 μg/L, 300μg/L and 400 μg/L NGF was (981. 220 4 ± 123.535 7), (1 375. 848 4 ±244. 471 8),(1 658.707 1 ± 176. 938 1), (2 353.086 3 ±609. 906 4) μg/ml as compared with(666. 818 8 ± 141. 330 2) μg/ml of DNA concentration of 0 μg/L NGF respectively, qvalue was 3.63,8.20,11.47,19.46, P value was 0. 024,0. 000,0. 000,0. 000 (q-test).Conclusion: The data suggested that NGF could stimulate the proliferation and DNAsynthesis of cultured of hRPE cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner.

  12. Fucoidan reduces secretion and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in the retinal pigment epithelium and reduces angiogenesis in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Dithmer

    Full Text Available Fucoidan is a polysaccharide isolated from brown algae which is of current interest for anti-tumor therapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of fucoidan on the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, looking at physiology, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF secretion, and angiogenesis, thus investigating a potential use of fucoidan for the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration. For this study, human RPE cell line ARPE-19 and primary porcine RPE cells were used, as well as RPE/choroid perfusion organ cultures. The effect of fucoidan on RPE cells was investigated with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium--assay, trypan blue exclusion assay, phagocytosis assay and a wound healing assay. VEGF expression was evaluated in immunocytochemistry and Western blot, VEGF secretion was evaluated in ELISA. The effect of fucoidan on angiogenesis was tested in a Matrigel assay using calcein-AM vital staining, evaluated by confocal laser scanning microcopy and quantitative image analysis. Fucoidan displays no toxicity and does not diminish proliferation or phagocytosis, but reduces wound healing in RPE cells. Fucoidan decreases VEGF secretion in RPE/choroid explants and RPE cells. Furthermore, it diminishes VEGF expression in RPE cells even when co-applied with bevacizumab. Furthermore, fucoidan reduces RPE-supernatant- and VEGF-induced angiogenesis of peripheral endothelial cells. In conclusion, fucoidan is a non-toxic agent that reduces VEGF expression and angiogenesis in vitro and may be of interest for further studies as a potential therapy against exudative age-related macular degeneration.

  13. Metabolic inactivation of the circadian transmitter, pigment dispersing factor (PDF), by neprilysin-like peptidases in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, R Elwyn; Johnson, Erik C; Audsley, Neil; Shirras, Alan D

    2007-12-01

    Recent studies have firmly established pigment dispersing factor (PDF), a C-terminally amidated octodecapeptide, as a key neurotransmitter regulating rhythmic circadian locomotory behaviours in adult Drosophila melanogaster. The mechanisms by which PDF functions as a circadian peptide transmitter are not fully understood, however; in particular, nothing is known about the role of extracellular peptidases in terminating PDF signalling at synapses. In this study we show that PDF is susceptible to hydrolysis by neprilysin, an endopeptidase that is enriched in synaptic membranes of mammals and insects. Neprilysin cleaves PDF at the internal Ser7-Leu8 peptide bond to generate PDF1-7 and PDF8-18. Neither of these fragments were able to increase intracellular cAMP levels in HEK293 cells cotransfected with the Drosophila PDF receptor cDNA and a firefly luciferase reporter gene, confirming that such cleavage results in PDF inactivation. The Ser7-Leu8 peptide bond was also the principal cleavage site when PDF was incubated with membranes prepared from heads of adult Drosophila. This endopeptidase activity was inhibited by the neprilysin inhibitors phosphoramidon (IC(50,) 0.15 micromol l(-1)) and thiorphan (IC(50,) 1.2 micromol l(-1)). We propose that cleavage by a member of the Drosophila neprilysin family of endopeptidases is the most likely mechanism for inactivating synaptic PDF and that neprilysin might have an important role in regulating PDF signals within circadian neural circuits.

  14. Snail involves in the transforming growth factor β1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition of retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The proliferation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells resulting from an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT plays a key role in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR, which leads to complex retinal detachment and the loss of vision. Genes of Snail family encode the zinc finger transcription factors that have been reported to be essential in EMT during embryonic development and cancer metastasis. However, the function of Snail in RPE cells undergoing EMT is largely unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transforming growth factor beta(TGF-β-1 resulted in EMT in human RPE cells (ARPE-19, which was characterized by the expected decrease in E-cadherin and Zona occludin-1(ZO-1 expression, and the increase in fibronectin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA expression, as well as the associated increase of Snail expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, TGF-β1 treatment caused a significant change in ARPE-19 cells morphology, with transition from a typical epithelial morphology to mesenchymal spindle-shaped. More interestingly, Snail silencing significantly attenuated TGF-β1-induced EMT in ARPE-19 cells by decreasing the mesenchymal markers fibronectin and a-SMA and increasing the epithelial marker E-cadherin and ZO-1. Snail knockdown could effectively suppress ARPE-19 cell migration. Finally, Snail was activated in epiretinal membranes from PVR patients. Taken together, Snail plays very important roles in TGF-β-1-induced EMT in human RPE cells and may contribute to the development of PVR. SIGNIFICANCE: Snail transcription factor plays a critical role in TGF-β1-induced EMT in human RPE cells, which provides deep insight into the pathogenesis of human PVR disease. The specific inhibition of Snail may provide a new approach to treat and prevent PVR.

  15. In vivo persistent pigment darkening method: proposal of a new standard product for UVA protection factor determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyal, D; Pissavini, M; Boyer, F; Perier, V; Frêlon, J H

    2007-12-01

    The European Commission (EC) has recommended assessing the level of ultraviolet A (UVA) protection afforded by sunscreen products using the in vivo persistent pigment darkening (PPD) method or other methods giving equivalent results. In this context, the reproducibility of the in vivo PPD method is of importance. To check the validity of the UVA protection factor (UVAPF) tests, the Japanese Cosmetic Industry Association (JCIA) recommends using a standard product (JCIA standard) with an expected UVAPF 3.75 (SD 1.01). However, considering the increase in UVA efficacy of the new sunscreen products available in the market, with UVAPF up to 30, it seemed useful to develop a new standard product to be used when testing products with expected UVAPF > or =10. The PPD method was used in six centres to determine the UVAPF of the two products. Reproducibility of results was also studied by testing two batches of the new product at two different times. There was no statistical difference between the six centres with regard to the JCIA standard. The ring study showed that the mean value of UVAPF (4.3) was higher than that given by JCIA (3.75). These data enable the proposal of a new acceptance range for the JCIA standard product (3.4-5.2) derived from actual results from European laboratories. Whereas this range is different from that proposed by JCIA (2.74-4.76), there is an overlapping of the values. Data on the new standard product show that reproducibility is not influenced by the batches of this product. The mean UVAPF value obtained is 12.1. An acceptance range (9.6-14.6) is proposed for the new standard. Data presented here demonstrate that if an identical protocol is used, reproducible results can be expected and that the PPD method is reproducible and reliable.

  16. Expression Differences of Pigment Structural Genes and Transcription Factors Explain Flesh Coloration in Three Contrasting Kiwifruit Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of kiwifruit cultivars (Actinidia chinensis and A. deliciosa generally have green or yellow flesh when ripe. A small number of genotypes have red flesh but this coloration is usually restricted to the inner pericarp. Three kiwifruit cultivars having red (‘Hongyang’, or yellow (‘Jinnong-2’, or green (‘Hayward’ flesh were investigated for their color characteristics and pigment contents during development and ripening. The results show the yellow of the ‘Jinnong-2’ fruit is due to the combined effects of chlorophyll degradation and of beta-carotene accumulation. The red inner pericarps of ‘Hongyang’ fruit are due to anthocyanin accumulation. Expression differences of the pathway genes in the inner pericarps of the three different kiwifruits suggest that stay-green (SGR controls the degradation of chlorophylls, while lycopene beta-cyclase (LCY-β controls the biosynthesis of beta-carotene. The abundance of anthocyanin in the inner pericarps of the ‘Hongyang’ fruit is the results of high expressions of UDP flavonoid glycosyltransferases (UFGT. At the same time, expressions of anthocyanin transcription factors show that AcMYBF110 expression parallels changes in anthocyanin concentration, so seems to be a key R2R3 MYB, regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Further, transient color assays reveal that AcMYBF110 can autonomously induce anthocyanin accumulation in Nicotiana tabacum leaves by activating the transcription of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (NtDFR, anthocyanidin synthase (NtANS and NtUFGT. For basic helix-loop-helix proteins (bHLHs and WD-repeat proteins (WD40s, expression differences show these may depend on AcMYBF110 forming a MYB-bHLH-WD40 complex to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis, instead of it having a direct involvement.

  17. Availability and Utilization of Pigments from Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Hasina; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Khatoon, Helena; Shariff, Mohamed

    2016-10-02

    Microalgae are the major photosynthesizers on earth and produce important pigments that include chlorophyll a, b and c, β-carotene, astaxanthin, xanthophylls, and phycobiliproteins. Presently, synthetic colorants are used in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. However, due to problems associated with the harmful effects of synthetic colorants, exploitation of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors becomes an attractive option. There are various factors such as nutrient availability, salinity, pH, temperature, light wavelength, and light intensity that affect pigment production in microalgae. This paper reviews the availability and characteristics of microalgal pigments, factors affecting pigment production, and the application of pigments produced from microalgae. The potential of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors is enormous as an alternative to synthetic coloring agents, which has limited applications due to regulatory practice for health reasons.

  18. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  19. Retinal pigment epithelial cells upregulate expression of complement factors after co-culture with activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Helene Bæk; Kaestel, Charlotte; Folkersen, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examined the effect of T cell-derived cytokines on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells with respect to expression of complement components. We used an in vitro co-culture system in which CD3/CD28-activated human T cells were separated from the human RPE cell line (ARPE-19) by ...... of inflammatory ocular diseases such as uveitis and age-related macular degeneration. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------...

  20. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...... were of skin type II than skin type IV; skin type 11 was a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.3. For cutaneous malignant melanoma, more cases than controls were red-haired or blond and of skin type II, but there was no difference in constitutive skin pigmentation. Hair...... colour and skin type were found to be independent risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma; red hair vs. black/brown: OR >9.7, blond hair vs. brown/black: OR = 2.4, and skin type 11 vs. type IV: OR=2.0. There were no gender-related differences in risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous...

  1. Monascus pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanli; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2012-12-01

    Monascus pigments (MPs) as natural food colorants have been widely utilized in food industries in the world, especially in China and Japan. Moreover, MPs possess a range of biological activities, such as anti-mutagenic and anticancer properties, antimicrobial activities, potential anti-obesity activities, and so on. So, in the past two decades, more and more attention has been paid to MPs. Up to now, more than 50 MPs have been identified and studied. However, there have been some reviews about red fermented rice and the secondary metabolites produced by Monascus, but no monograph or review of MPs has been published. This review covers the categories and structures, biosynthetic pathway, production, properties, detection methods, functions, and molecular biology of MPs.

  2. Whole number, distribution and co-expression of brn3 transcription factors in retinal ganglion cells of adult albino and pigmented rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M Nadal-Nicolás

    Full Text Available The three members of the Pou4f family of transcription factors: Pou4f1, Pou4f2, Pou4f3 (Brn3a, Brn3b and Brn3c, respectively play, during development, essential roles in the differentiation and survival of sensory neurons. The purpose of this work is to study the expression of the three Brn3 factors in the albino and pigmented adult rat. Animals were divided into these groups: i untouched; ii fluorogold (FG tracing from both superior colliculli; iii FG-tracing from one superior colliculus; iv intraorbital optic nerve transection or crush. All retinas were dissected as flat-mounts and subjected to single, double or triple immunohistofluorescence The total number of FG-traced, Brn3a, Brn3b, Brn3c or Brn3 expressing RGCs was automatically quantified and their spatial distribution assessed using specific routines. Brn3 factors were studied in the general RGC population, and in the intrinsically photosensitive (ip-RGCs and ipsilateral RGC sub-populations. Our results show that: i 70% of RGCs co- express two or three Brn3s and the remaining 30% express only Brn3a (26% or Brn3b; ii the most abundant Brn3 member is Brn3a followed by Brn3b and finally Brn3c; iii Brn3 a-, b- or c- expressing RGCs are similarly distributed in the retina; iv The vast majority of ip-RGCs do not express Brn3; v The main difference between both rat strains was found in the population of ipsilateral-RGCs, which accounts for 4.2% and 2.5% of the total RGC population in the pigmented and albino strain, respectively. However, more ipsilateral-RGCs express Brn3 factors in the albino than in the pigmented rat; vi RGCs that express only Brn3b and RGCs that co-express the three Brn3 members have the biggest nuclei; vii After axonal injury the level of Brn3a expression in the surviving RGCs decreases compared to control retinas. Finally, this work strengthens the validity of Brn3a as a marker to identify and quantify rat RGCs.

  3. Lutein and zeaxanthin: Role as macular pigment and factors that control bioavailability from egg yolks and nanoemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Rohini

    Lutein and zeaxanthin, two oxygenated carotenoids, exclusively accumulate in the macula, protecting the underlying photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells from damaging blue radiation of sunlight. As macular pigment, lutein and zeaxanthin are also potent antioxidants protecting the vulnerable regions of retina from free radical injury. Oxidative stress and cumulative light damage play an important role in pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly population. Antioxidant and lutein supplementation has been shown to decrease the risk and prevent the progression of AMD. The egg yolk is a highly bioavailable source of lutein and zeaxanthin and thus a possible contender for AMD prevention and treatment. Consumption of 2 egg yolks/d for 5 weeks was shown herein to significantly increase serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentration and clinically improve macular pigment concentrations at 0.5° retinal eccentricity in an older adult population taking cholesterol-lowering statins. Four egg yolks/d not only raised serum lutein and zeaxanthin significantly but also macular pigment densities at 0.25°, 0.5° and 1° retinal eccentricity. A positive outcome of the 2 egg yolk consumption was the significant increase in serum HDL-C with a tendency of serum LDL-C to decrease, although not significantly. Four egg yolks/d seemed to cross the threshold for dietary cholesterol tolerance as serum LDL-C tended to increase, although not significantly, despite the significant increase in serum HDL-C. There is a strong possibility that greater build up of lutein and zeaxanthin in the macula may have been observed with 2 egg yolks/d if the intervention period was longer than 5 weeks. Addition of up to 2 eggs a day to the diet is suggested to benefit an older adult population, especially those who are already taking cholesterol-lowering statins by (a) building their macular pigment and possibly protect against AMD and (b

  4. Mechanism of retinal pigment epithelium tear formation following intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy revealed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagiel, Aaron; Freund, K Bailey; Spaide, Richard F;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To demonstrate the mechanism by which retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) tears occur in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) treated with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT......). DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. METHODS: OCT images of 8 eyes that developed RPE tears following the administration of intravitreal anti-VEGF agents for neovascular AMD were evaluated. Pretear and posttear images were compared in order to elucidate the mechanism by which RPE tears occur...... to the retracted RPE. In all eyes, the RPE ruptured along a segment of bare RPE not in contact with the CNV or Bruch membrane. CONCLUSIONS: Eyes with vascularized PEDs secondary to AMD may show specific OCT findings that increase the risk for RPE tear following intravitreal anti-VEGF injection. Rapid involution...

  5. Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (PVNS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OverviewWhat is pigmented villonodular synovitis?Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a joint problem that usually affects the ... ankle, elbow, hand or foot.When you have PVNS, the lining of a joint becomes swollen and ...

  6. Oral pigmentation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, C; Ramakrishnan, K; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations.

  7. Neovascularisation by tattoo pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razack E

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Split skin grafting for the removal of a tattoo resulted in the appearance of pigmented papules in the periphery of the grafted skin as well as distal to it on the normal skin. Histologically they showed large vascular laminae containing red blood corpuscles and pigment deposits, a hitherto not documented complication of tattoo pigment.

  8. Overview of plant pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids and betalains are four major classes of biological pigments produced in plants. Chlorophylls are the primary pigments responsible for plant green and photosynthesis. The other three are accessary pigments and secondary metabolites that yield non-green colors and...

  9. The relationship between plasma levels of pigment epithelial derived factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and prognosis%肝癌患者血浆 PEDF 和 VEGF 表达水平及其与预后关系的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱莉丽; 杨凯; 刘亚

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察肝癌患者血浆色素上皮衍生因子(PEDF)及血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)表达水平并探讨其与预后的关系。方法采用ELISA法检测肝癌患者43例(肝癌组)、肝脏良性疾病患者20例(良性肝病组)及健康对照者20例(健康对照组)血浆PEDF和VEGF水平;肝癌患者平均随访(12 W.02±0.23)个月,记录短期主要不良终点事件(SMAE)发生情况。结果血浆PEDF水平肝癌组较良性肝病组及健康对照组明显降低( P <0.01),VEGF水平明显升高( P <0.01),而良性肝病组与健康对照组比较差异无统计学意义( P >0.05)。肝癌患者随访结束后,高PEDF/VEGF比值(≥3)亚组22例发生SMAE 3例(13.64%),低PEDF/VEGF比值(<3)亚组21例发生SMAE 7例(33.33%),Kaplan-Meier生存曲线显示2组差异有统计学意义( P =0.039)。另外,与未发生SMAE的肝癌患者(33例)比较,发生SMAE者(10例)有更低的PEDF/VEGF比值(2.14±0.76 vs.3.49±1.12, P <0.01)。结论 PEDF和VEGF参与肝癌的病理生理过程,低表达的PEDF及高表达的VEGF反映肝癌发生、发展及转移情况,两者比值可能成为预测肝癌转移及预后的有效指标。%Objective To observe the expression of pigment epithelium derived factor ( PEDF) and vascular endothe-lial growth factor ( VEGF) in liver cancer patients , and to explore its relationship with the prognosis .Methods ELISA was used to detect 43 cases of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC group), 20 patients with benign liver disease (benign liver disease group ) and 20 cases of healthy controls'( healthy control group ) levels of plasma PEDF and VEGF levels , pa-tients with hepatocellular carcinoma with average follow-up (12.02 ±0.23) months, the main short recording adverse events ( SMAE) occurrence were recorded .Results The levels of plasma PEDF of liver cancer group

  10. Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) has different effects on Drosophila's circadian clocks in the accessory medulla and in the dorsal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wülbeck, Corinna; Grieshaber, Eva; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte

    2008-10-01

    The neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a key transmitter in the circadian clock of Drosophila melanogaster. Here we studied the rhythmic behavior of neural mutants with modified arborizations of the large PDF neurons. In sine oculis(1) (so(1)) mutants we found a higher density of PDF fibers in the fly's pacemaker center, the accessory medulla. These flies exhibited a significantly longer period (24.6 h) than control flies. When PDF levels were elevated to very high levels in the dorsal brain as true for so(mda) mutants and small optic lobes;so(1) double mutants (sol(1);so( 1)), a short-period component split off the long period in behavioral rhythmicity. The short period became shorter the higher the amount of PDF in this brain region and reached a value of approximately 21 h. The period alterations were clearly dependent on PDF, because so(1);Pdf 01 and so(mda);Pdf 01 double mutants showed a single free-running component with a period similar to Pdf 01 mutants (approximately 22.5 h) and significantly longer than the short period of so(mda) mutants. These observations indicate that PDF feeds back on the clock neurons and changes their period. Obviously, PDF lengthens the period of some clock neurons and shortens that of others.

  11. Oxalomalate reduces expression and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor in the retinal pigment epithelium and inhibits angiogenesis: Implications for age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hwan Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental observations indicate a critical role for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, secreted by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, in pathological angiogenesis and the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV in age-related macular degeneration (AMD. RPE-mediated VEGF expression, leading to angiogenesis, is a major signaling mechanism underlying ocular neovascular disease. Inhibiting this signaling pathway with a therapeutic molecule is a promising anti-angiogenic strategy to treat this disease with potentially fewer side effects. Oxalomalate (OMA is a competitive inhibitor of NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, which plays an important role in cellular signaling pathways regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS. Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effect of OMA on the expression of VEGF, and the associated underlying mechanism of action, using in vitro and in vivo RPE cell models of AMD. We found that OMA reduced the expression and secretion of VEGF in RPE cells, and consequently inhibited CNV formation. This function of OMA was linked to its capacity to activate the pVHL-mediated HIF-1α degradation in these cells, partly via a ROS-dependent ATM signaling axis, through inhibition of IDH enzymes. These findings reveal a novel role for OMA in inhibiting RPE-derived VEGF expression and angiogenesis, and suggest unique therapeutic strategies for treating pathological angiogenesis and AMD development.

  12. Changes in retinal pigment epithelium related to cigarette smoke: possible relevance to smoking as a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Ling Wang

    Full Text Available Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD is a major cause of central vision loss in the elderly and smoking is a primary risk factor associated with the prevalence and incidence of AMD. To better understand the cellular and molecular bases for the association between smoking and AMD, we determined the effects of Benzo(aPyrene (B(aP, a toxic element in cigarette smoke, on cultured retinal pigment epithelia (RPE and we examined the RPE/choroid from mice exposed to chronic cigarette smoke. We measured: mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA damage, phagocytic activity, lysosomal enzymes, exosome markers and selected complement pathway components. In the presence of a non-cytotoxic dose of B(aP, there was extensive mtDNA damage but no nuclear DNA damage. RPE phagocytic activity was not altered but there were increased lysosomal activity, exocytotic activity and complement pathway components. Retinas from mice exposed to cigarette smoke contained markers for mtDNA damage, exosomes and complement pathway components surrounding Bruch's membrane. Markers for these processes are found in drusen from AMD patients. Thus, smoking may cause damage to mtDNA and increased degradative processes in the RPE. These altered cell biological processes in the RPE may contribute to the formation of drusen in individuals who are cigarette smokers and underlie susceptibility to genetic mutations associated with AMD.

  13. Long Non-Coding RNA MALAT1 Mediates Transforming Growth Factor Beta1-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Yang

    Full Text Available To study the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA MALAT1 in transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells.ARPE-19 cells were cultured and exposed to TGF-β1. The EMT of APRE-19 cells is confirmed by morphological change, as well as the increased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA and fibronectin, and the down-regulation of E-cadherin and Zona occludin-1(ZO-1 at both mRNA and protein levels. The expression of lncRNA MALAT1 in RPE cells were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Knockdown of MALAT1 was achieved by transfecting a small interfering RNA (SiRNA. The effect of inhibition of MALAT1 on EMT, migration, proliferation, and TGFβ signalings were observed. MALAT1 expression was also detected in primary RPE cells incubated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR vitreous samples.The expression of MALAT1 is significantly increased in RPE cells incubated with TGFβ1. MALAT1 silencing attenuates TGFβ1-induced EMT, migration, and proliferation of RPE cells, at least partially through activating Smad2/3 signaling. MALAT1 is also significantly increased in primary RPE cells incubated with PVR vitreous samples.LncRNA MALAT1 is involved in TGFβ1-induced EMT of human RPE cells and provides new understandings for the pathogenesis of PVR.

  14. Retinal pigment epithelial cells secrete neurotrophic factors and synthesize dopamine: possible contribution to therapeutic effects of RPE cell transplantation in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Qing

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New strategies for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD are shifted from dopamine (DA replacement to regeneration or restoration of the nigro-striatal system. A cell therapy using human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells as substitution for degenerated dopaminergic (DAergic neurons has been developed and showed promising prospect in clinical treatment of PD, but the exact mechanism underlying this therapy is not fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether the beneficial effects of this therapy are related to the trophic properties of RPE cells and their ability to synthesize DA. Methods We evaluated the protective effects of conditioned medium (CM from cultured RPE cells on the DAergic cells against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA- and rotenone-induced neurotoxicity and determined the levels of glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF released by RPE cells. We also measured the DA synthesis and release. Finally we transplanted microcarriers-RPE cells into 6-OHDA lesioned rats and observed the improvement in apomorphine-induced rotations (AIR. Results We report here: (1 CM from RPE cells can secret trophic factors GDNF and BDNF, and protect DAergic neurons against the 6-OHDA- and rotenone-induced cell injury; (2 cultured RPE cells express L-dopa decarboxylase (DDC and synthesize DA; (3 RPE cells attached to microcarriers can survive in the host striatum and improve the AIR in 6-OHDA-lesioned animal model of PD; (4 GDNF and BDNF levels are found significantly higher in the RPE cell-grafted tissues. Conclusion These findings indicate the RPE cells have the ability to secret GDNF and BDNF, and synthesize DA, which probably contribute to the therapeutic effects of RPE cell transplantation in PD.

  15. Transforming growth factor-β2 increases the capacity of retinal pigment epithelial cells to induce the generation of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feng; He, Jin; Tang, Li; Kong, Yi; Shi, Yuhua; Chen, Suihua; Huang, Zhenping

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigated the underlying mechanism of the induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and the characteristics of these Tregs. Human RPE cells were cultured in the presence or absence of transforming growth factor-β 2 (TGF-β2), and reverse-transcription quantitative PCR was performed to determine the mRNA expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). Supernatants of RPE cell cultures were added to CD4+ T cells to induce Tregs. The RPE-induced Tregs were purified by two-step magnetic cell sorting. The natural Tregs were isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers. Purified CD4+ CD25- T cells (2 x 10(5)/well) were cultured alone or with Tregs (various densities, natural or RPE-induced). The proliferation of CD4+ CD25- T cells was determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation. After 24 h of stimulation with TGF-β2, the mRNA expression of IDO in RPE cells was upregulated. The highest level of IDO mRNA expression was reached after 72 h of stimulation with TGF-β2. However, the Nrf2 mRNA expression was slightly decreased after 24 h of stimulation with TGF-β2 and significantly increased after 48-72 h of TGF-β2 stimulation. Increased levels of CD25 expression were observed on CD4+ T cells exposed to supernatants of RPE cell cultures treated with TGF-β2 and recombinant interleukin-2. The RPE-induced Tregs were more effective at suppressing the proliferation of CD4+ CD25- T cells compared with native Tregs. These findings suggested that IDO may be a signaling protein in RPE cells which is implicated in the induction of Tregs. RPE-induced Tregs have the potential to be applied for immunotherapy for ocular inflammatory diseases.

  16. Change of retinal pigment epithelial atrophy after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment in exudative age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosang Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study aimed to investigate the quantitative changes of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE atrophy during a 24-month follow-up period of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF for exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study. Sixty-five eyes of 62 consecutive patients with naοve exudative AMD who had received treatment with anti-VEGF therapy and followed for more 24 months were enrolled. All patients received three initial monthly injections of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab or bevacizumab, followed by pro re nata or treat-and-extend protocol. Color fundus image, optical coherence tomography, and fundus autofluorescence were evaluated for RPE atrophy. Multiple regression analysis was performed to investigate the predictive factors found during univariate analysis to identify an association with increased RPE atrophic areas. Results: The mean number of anti-VEGF treatments was 9.18. RPE atrophic area was 1.293 ± 1.298 mm 2 at baseline and enlarged to 2.394 ± 1.940 mm 2 after 24 months, which differed significantly (P = 0.001. Multiple regression analysis revealed that larger areas of RPE atrophy at month 4 and larger numbers of anti-VEGF treatments were associated with increased RPE atrophic areas. Conclusions: RPE atrophy progresses in eyes with exudative AMD during anti-VEGF treatment. Larger areas of RPE atrophy at month 4 and larger numbers of anti-VEGF injections were associated with an increased risk of progression of RPE atrophy the following treatment. These findings may be useful to clinicians using intravitreal anti-VEGF for the treatment of exudative AMD, both for selecting an appropriate treatment plan and for predicting the progression of RPE atrophy.

  17. Complement Factor H Expressed by Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells Can Suppress Neovascularization of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: An in vitro Study.

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    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available Complement factor H (CFH is one of the most important soluble complement regulatory proteins and is closely associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD, the leading cause of irreversible central vision loss in the elderly population in developed countries. Our study searches to investigate whether CFH expression is changed in oxidative damaged retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells and the role of CFH in the in vitro neovascularization. First, it was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining that CFH was expressed by ARPE-19 cells. CFH mRNA and protein in oxidative (H2O2 damaged ARPE-19 cells were both reduced, as determined by Real-time PCR and Western blotting analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA also showed that ARPE-19 cells treated with H2O2 caused an increase in C3a content, which indicates complement activation. Then, wound assays were performed to show that CFH expression suppression promoted human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs migration. Thereafter, ARPE-19 cells were transfected with CFH-specific siRNA and CFH knockdown was confirmed with the aid of Real-time PCR, immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting. The ELISA results showed that specific CFH knockdown in ARPE-19 cells activated the complement system. Finally, in vitro matrigel tube formation assay was performed to determine whether change of CFH expression in RPE would affect tube formation by HUVECs. More tubes were formed by HUVECs co-cultured with ARPE-19 cells transfected with CFH specific-siRNA when compared with controls. Our results suggested that RPE cells might be the local CFH source, and RPE cell injuries (such as oxidative stress may cause CFH expression suppression, which in turn may lead to complement activation and promotion of tube formation by HUVECs. This finding is of importance in elucidating the role of complement in the pathogenesis of ocular neovascularization including choroidal neovascularization.

  18. Blockade of Jagged/Notch pathway abrogates transforming growth factor β2-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Xiao, W; Liu, X; Zeng, M; Luo, L; Wu, M; Ye, S; Liu, Y

    2014-05-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells plays a key role in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), which lead to the loss of vision. The Jagged/Notch pathway has been reported to be essential in EMT during embryonic development, fibrotic diseases and cancer metastasis. However, the function of Jagged/Notch signaling in EMT of RPE cells is unknown. Thus, we hypothesized that a crosstalk between Notch and transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2) signaling could induce EMT in RPE cells, which subsequently contributes to PVR and PDR. Here, we demonstrate that Jagged-1/Notch pathway is involved in the TGF-β2-mediated EMT of human RPE cells. Blockade of Notch pathway with DAPT (a specific inhibitor of Notch receptor cleavage) and knockdown of Jagged-1 expression inhibited TGF-β2-induced EMT through regulating the expression of Snail, Slug and ZEB1. Besides the canonical Smad signaling pathway, the noncanonical PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathway also contributed to TGF-β2-induced up-regulation of Jagged-1 in RPE cells. Overexpression of Jagged-1 could mimic TGF-β2 induce EMT. Our data suggest that the Jagged-1/Notch signaling pathway plays a critical role in TGF-β2-induced EMT in human RPE cells, and may contribute to the development of PVR and PDR. Inhibition of the Jagged/Notch signaling pathway, therefore, may have therapeutic value in the prevention and treatment of PVR and PDR.

  19. Neuroanatomy of pars intercerebralis neurons with special reference to their connections with neurons immunoreactive for pigment-dispersing factor in the blow fly Protophormia terraenovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuyama, Kouji; Hase, Hiroaki; Shiga, Sakiko

    2015-10-01

    Input regions of pars intercerebralis (PI) neurons are examined by confocal and electron microscopies with special reference to their connections with neurons immunoreactive for pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) in the blow fly, Protophormia terraenovae. PI neurons are a prerequisite for ovarian development under long-day conditions. Backfills from the cardiac recurrent nerve after severance of the posterior lateral tracts labeled thin fibers derived from the PI neurons in the superior medial protocerebrum. These PI fibers were mainly synapsin-negative and postsynaptic to unknown varicose profiles containing dense-core vesicles. Backfilled fibers in the periesophageal neuropils, derived from the PI neurons or neurons with somata in the subesophageal zone, were varicose and some were synapsin-positive. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of both presynaptic and postsynaptic sites in backfilled fibers in the periesophageal neuropils. Many PDF-immunoreactive varicosities were found in the superior medial and lateral protocerebrum and double-labeling showed that 60-88 % of PDF-immunoreactive varicosities were also synapsin-immunoreactive. Double-labeling with the backfills and PDF immunocytochemistry showed that the PI fibers and PDF-immunoreactive varicosities were located close to each other in the superior medial protocerebrum. Results of triple-labeling of PI neurons, PDF-immunoreactive neurons and synapsin-immunoreactive terminals demonstrated that the synapsin-positive PDF-immunoreactive varicosities contacted the PI fibers. These data suggest that PI neurons receive synaptic contacts from PDF-immunoreactive fibers, which are derived from circadian clock neurons, of small ventral lateral neurons (previously called OL2) or posterior dorsal (PD) neurons with somata in the pars lateralis.

  20. Pigments in Thermophilic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Somasundaram, T.; Rao, Sanjay SR; Maheshwari,R.

    1986-01-01

    UV and visible absorption spectra of thermophilic fungi were obtained by photoacoustic spectroscopy. Based on these data as well as on the chem. properties and IR spectra, it is suggested that the pigments may be hydroxylated polycyclic quinones.

  1. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression by T7-siRNAs in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-yu; FAN Bin; WU Ya-zhen; WANG Xin-rui; WANG Yao-hui; WU Jia-xiang

    2005-01-01

    Background Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells play an important role in the occurrence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a positive regulatory growth factor is produced by the RPE in an autocrine or paracrine manner, promoting CNV development. Duplexes of 21 nt RNAs, known as short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), efficiently inhibit gene expression by RNA interference when introduced into mammalian cells. We searched for an efficient siRNA to interfere with VEGF expression in RPE cells and shed light on the treatment of CNV.Methods Human primary RPE (hRPE) cells were cultured and identified. Three pairs of siRNAs were designed according to the sequence of VEGF 1-5 extrons and synthesized by T7 RNA polymerase transcription in vitro. To evaluate the inhibitory activity of T7-siRNAs, hRPE cells were transfected via siPORT Amine. The interfering effect of T7-siRNAs in hRPE cells was examined by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence. Results Three pairs of T7-siRNAs synthesized by in vitro transcription with T7 RNA polymerase suppressed VEGF gene expression with efficiency from 65% to 90%. T7-siRNA (B), targeted region at 207 nt to 228 nt and double stranded for 21 nt with 2 nt UU 3' overhangs, was the most effective sequence tested for inhibition of VEGF expression in hRPE cells. Compared with nontransfected cells, the mean fluorescence in hRPE cells transfected with T7-sRNAs was significantly less (P<0.01). siRNA with a single-base mismatch and ssRNA(+) did not show suppressing effect. Furthermore, it was found that siRNAs had a dose dependent inhibitory effect (5 to 10 pmol).Conclusion T7-siRNA can effectively and specifically suppress VEGF expression in hRPE cells and may be a new way to treat CNV.

  2. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Kuczynska; Malgorzata Jemiola-Rzeminska; Kazimierz Strzalka

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvestin...

  3. Identification of neuronal and angiogenic growth factors in an in vitro blood-brain barrier model system: Relevance in barrier integrity and tight junction formation and complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Christian; Hanada, Sanshiro; Fallier-Becker, Petra; Kirkpatrick, C James; Unger, Ronald E

    2017-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that the co-cultivation of endothelial cells with neural cells resulted in an improved integrity of the in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB), and that this model could be useful to evaluate the transport properties of potential central nervous system disease drugs through the microvascular brain endothelial. In this study we have used real-time PCR, fluorescent microscopy, protein arrays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to determine which neural- and endothelial cell-derived factors are produced in the co-culture and improve the integrity of the BBB. In addition, a further improvement of the BBB integrity was achieved by adjusting serum concentrations and growth factors or by the addition of brain pericytes. Under specific conditions expression of angiogenic, angiostatic and neurotrophic factors such as endostatin, pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF/serpins-F1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1), and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) closely mimicked the in vivo situation. Freeze-fracture analysis of these cultures demonstrated the quality and organization of the endothelial tight junction structures and their association to the two different lipidic leaflets of the membrane. Finally, a multi-cell culture model of the BBB with a transendothelial electrical resistance up to 371 (±15) Ω×cm(2) was developed, which may be useful for preliminary screening of drug transport across the BBB and to evaluate cellular crosstalk of cells involved in the neurovascular unit.

  4. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kuczynska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries.

  5. Environmental and biological factors controlling the spring phytoplankton bloom at the Patagonian shelf-break front - Degraded fucoxanthin pigments and the importance of microzooplankton grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreto, José I.; Montoya, Nora G.; Carignan, Mario O.; Akselman, Rut; Acha, E. Marcelo; Derisio, Carla

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biotic and abiotic factors controlling the spring phytoplankton blooms at the Patagonian shelf-break front (PSBF). Using a CHEMTAX analysis of HPLC pigment data and other methods, the biomass and spatial variability of plankton communities were studied in four sections (39-48°S) across the PSBF during October 2005. Environmental factors and the biomass and composition of plankton communities exhibited a marked spatial heterogeneity. The latitudinal and cross-shelf progression in the timing of the spring bloom initiation and the nutritive properties of the water masses (Subantarctic Shelf Waters and Malvinas Current Waters) seemed to be the key factors. Three plankton regions were distinguished: (a) Outer shelf (OS), (b) Shelf-break front (SBF) and (c) Malvinas Current (MC). At the highly stratified OS region, the post-bloom community showed low-biomasshigh-phytoplankton diversity formed mainly by small cells (haptophytes 30-62%, diatoms 17-49%, chlorophytes 0-34%, and prasinophytes 0-21% of total Chl a). High amounts of degraded fucoxanthin were found associated with the heterotrophic dinoflagellate, Protoperidinium capurroi. Grazing by this microheterotroph on the diatom population seemed to be the most important factor for the spring bloom decay at the OS. A remarkable quasi monospecific bloom (∼90%) of a nanodiatom (Thalassiosira bioculata var. raripora) associated with high Chl a (up to 20 mg m-3) occurred along (∼1000 km) the SBF and in the most northern extension of the MC. In the southern region, the bloom was developed under absent or incipient density stratification, increasing solar irradiance, high nitrate and phosphate availability, and low numbers of phytoplankton grazers. The average mixedlayer PAR irradiance (<2.0 mol quanta PAR m-2 d-1) and Si:N ratios (<0.2) were low, suggesting a diatom population limited by light and under progressive silicate limitation. The more stratified northern region of the

  6. GREEN FLUORESCENT PIGMENT ACCUMULATED BY A MUTANT OF CELLVIBRIO GILVUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOVE, S H; HULCHER, F H

    1964-01-01

    Love, Samuel H. (Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, N.C.), and Frank H. Hulcher. Green fluorescent pigment accumulated by a mutant of Cellvibrio gilvus. J. Bacteriol. 87:39-45. 1964.-A mutant of Cellvibrio gilvus, designated strain 139A, liberated a green, fluorescent pigment into the surrounding culture medium. A study of the factors which affected the accumulation of this pigment led to the development of a chemically defined medium which supported maximal pigment accumulation in aerated, liquid cultures. d-Glucose, glycine or l-serine, l-phenylalanine, l-proline, and l-lysine comprised the organic components of this medium. The visible absorption spectrum of the pigment showed a maximal band at 400 mmu (pH 7.0). A difference spectrum between reduced and oxidized pigment showed loss of the band at 400 mmu upon oxidation. However, a methanol-extractable, flavinelike compound occurred in the wild strain but not in the mutant. Ferric ions added to the defined medium stimulated growth, with a concomitant reduction of pigment accumulation. Pigment was formed at a maximal rate during the stationary growth phase, and the highest yield was obtained by 18 hr. Organic solvents did not extract the pigment from water solutions. One and sometimes two, compounds absorbing at 400 mmu could be eluted by ion-exchange chromatography on Cellex-P (H(+)), which was used to separate the pigment from other components in the culture supernatants so that the radioactivity of the pigment could be measured. The mutant synthesized C(14)-labeled pigment from d-glucose-U-C(14) and from each of four amino acids (glycine-1-C(14), l-phenylalanine-U-C(14), l-proline-U-C(14), and l-lysine-U-C(14). Delta-Amino-levulenic acid-4-C(14) did not contribute C(14) to the pigment.

  7. Seasonal and interannual variations in pigments in the Adriatic Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mira Morović

    2002-09-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of pigments was studied from the CZCS satellite data and from in situ chlorophyll and transparency for the period 1979-1985. The three Adriatic sites, Northern, Middle, and Southern Adriatic are differently in oceanographic parameters. The differences between seasonal in situ chlorophyll and remotely sensed pigment concentrations (from CZCS satellite data) from the Adriatic are large in winter. Through the correlation analysis, pigments were compared to meteo-oceanographic and hydrological parameters from different Adriatic sites. The PCA (principal component analysis) was applied to the pigment data series and significant components were compared. Different correlations are obtained for warm and cold periods of the year pointing to seasonal differences in the underlying mechanism of pigment variability. The first PC is in more parameters seem to in field, than in the cold period. The pigments in the Adriatic are in good correlation to a number of hydrologic and meteo-oceanographic factors.

  8. Abnormal pigmentation within cutaneous scars: A complication of wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Chadwick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally pigmented scars are an undesirable consequence of cutaneous wound healing and are a complication every single individual worldwide is at risk of. They present a challenge for clinicians, as there are currently no definitive treatment options available, and render scars much more noticeable making them highly distressing for patients. Despite extensive research into both wound healing and the pigment cell, there remains a scarcity of knowledge surrounding the repigmentation of cutaneous scars. Pigment production is complex and under the control of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors and patterns of scar repigmentation are unpredictable. This article gives an overview of human skin pigmentation, repigmentation following wounding and current treatment options.

  9. Laugier-hunziker pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Laugier-Hunziker pigmentation (LHP is an acquired disorder of hypermelanosis characterized by mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation. LHP may resemble various disorders characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentation. A 58-year-old lady presented with progressively increasing number of variable sized, hyperpigmented macules over the lips, fingers, toes and nails. There was no family history of similar illness. Systemic examination and all relevant investigations were within normal limits. Histopathology of a skin lesion had features consistent with LHP. The diagnosis of LHP must be made only after relevant investigations to rule out any associated systemic involvement. This case further highlights that LHP is not restricted to European countries.

  10. True bursal pigmented villonodular synovitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry [Department of Radiology, New York Methodist Hospital, Affiliated with New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Kenan, Samuel [Department of Orthopedics, New York University Medical Center, NY (United States); Steiner, German C. [Department of Pathology, Hospital for Joint Diseases/Orthopedic Institute, New York, NY (United States); Abdul-Quader, Mohammed [Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2002-06-01

    We describe two cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis affecting true bursae. This study was also designed to discuss the term ''pigmented villonodular bursitis'', not confined to true synovial bursae, sometimes creating misunderstanding. (orig.)

  11. Raman af hvide pigmenter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeler, Nini Elisabeth Abildgaard; Nielsen, Ole Faurskov; Sauer, Stephan P. A.;

    2013-01-01

    Et samspil mellem kunst og kemi. I et samarbejde mellem Statens Museum for Kunst og Kemisk Institut på KU er Ramanspek-troskopi brugt til at definere sammensætningen af blandinger af blyhvidt og calcit i maleriers hvide pigmenter....

  12. Pigmented villonodular synovitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Nakshabandi, N.A.; Ryan, A.G.; Choudur, H.; Torreggiani, W.; Nicoloau, S.; Munk, P.L. E-mail: plmunk@interchange.ubc.ca; Al-Ismail, K

    2004-05-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare benign proliferative growth of the synovium of obscure aetiology with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and imaging findings. The purpose of this review is to acquaint the reader with the spectrum of imaging features of PVNS using a variety of imaging techniques.

  13. Using of cyanobacteria pigments

    OpenAIRE

    Кардаш, О. В.; Національний авіаційний університет; Курейшевич, А. В.; Інститут гідробіології НАН України; Васильченко, О. А.; Національний авіаційний університет

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthetic apparatus of all organisms contains light absorbing pigments. Cyanobacteria pigments may be divided into three groups – chlorophylls, carotenoids and phycobiliproteins. Pigments may be used in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Cyanobacteria pigments features and usage possibilities are observed. Фотосинтезирующий аппарат всех организмов состоит из поглощающих свет пигментов. Пигменты цианобактерий можно разделить на три группы – хлорофиллы, каротиноиды и фикобилипротеины...

  14. Raman af hvide pigmenter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeler, Nini Elisabeth Abildgaard; Nielsen, Ole Faurskov; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Et samspil mellem kunst og kemi. I et samarbejde mellem Statens Museum for Kunst og Kemisk Institut på KU er Ramanspek-troskopi brugt til at definere sammensætningen af blandinger af blyhvidt og calcit i maleriers hvide pigmenter....

  15. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    Microalgal pigments are regarded as natural alternatives for food colorants. To facilitate optimization of microalgae-based pigment production, this thesis aimed to obtain key insights in the pigment metabolism of phototrophic microalgae, with the main  focus

  16. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    Microalgal pigments are regarded as natural alternatives for food colorants. To facilitate optimization of microalgae-based pigment production, this thesis aimed to obtain key insights in the pigment metabolism of phototrophic microalgae, with the main  focus

  17. Identification of the carotenoid modifying gene PALE YELLOW PETAL 1 as an essential factor in xanthophyll esterification and yellow flower pigmentation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariizumi, Tohru; Kishimoto, Sanae; Kakami, Ryo; Maoka, Takashi; Hirakawa, Hideki; Suzuki, Yutaka; Ozeki, Yuko; Shirasawa, Kenta; Bernillon, Stephane; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Moing, Annick; Asamizu, Erika; Rothan, Christophe; Ohmiya, Akemi; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    Xanthophylls, the pigments responsible for yellow to red coloration, are naturally occurring carotenoid compounds in many colored tissues of plants. These pigments are esterified within the chromoplast; however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying their accumulation in flower organs. In this study, we characterized two allelic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) mutants, pale yellow petal (pyp) 1-1 and pyp1-2, that have reduced yellow color intensity in the petals and anthers due to loss-of-function mutations. Carotenoid analyses showed that the yellow flower organs of wild-type tomato contained high levels of xanthophylls that largely consisted of neoxanthin and violaxanthin esterified with myristic and/or palmitic acids. Functional disruption of PYP1 resulted in loss of xanthophyll esters, which was associated with a reduction in the total carotenoid content and disruption of normal chromoplast development. These findings suggest that xanthophyll esterification promotes the sequestration of carotenoids in the chromoplast and that accumulation of these esters is important for normal chromoplast development. Next-generation sequencing coupled with map-based positional cloning identified the mutant alleles responsible for the pyp1 phenotype. PYP1 most likely encodes a carotenoid modifying protein that plays a vital role in the production of xanthophyll esters in tomato anthers and petals. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the production of xanthophyll esters in higher plants, thereby shedding light on a longstanding mystery.

  18. Comparative study on the incidence and outcomes of pigmented versus non pigmented keratomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the incidence, outcomes and establish factors determining visual prognosis of keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi in comparison with nonpigmented fungi. Materials and Methods: All culture-proven cases of fungal keratitis from January 2006 to August 2008 were drawn from a computerized database and cases with adequate documentation were analyzed for predisposing factors, clinical characteristics, microbiology and treatment methods. Outcomes of keratitis due to pigmented and nonpigmented fungi were compared using t-test and χ2 test. Results: Of 373 cases of keratomycosis during the study period, pigmented fungi were etiological agents in 117 eyes (31.3% and nonpigmented fungi in 256 eyes (68.7%. Eyes with nonpigmented keratitis had significantly larger ulcers (14.96 mm 2 and poorer vision (1.42 logMAR at presentation compared to those with keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi (P=0.01. The characteristic macroscopic pigmentation was seen in only 14.5% in the pigmented keratitis group. Both groups responded favorably to medical therapy (78.1% vs. 69.1% with scar formation (P=0.32 and showed a significant improvement in mean visual acuity compared with that at presentation (P<0.01. Visual improvement in terms of line gainers and losers in the subgroup of eyes that experienced healing was also similar. Location of the ulcer was the only factor that had significant predictive value for visual outcome (P=0.021. Conclusion: Incidence of keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi may be increasing as compared to previous data. These eyes have similar response to medical therapy and similar visual outcome compared to nonpigmented keratitis. Central ulcers have a poor visual outcome.

  19. Determination of pigments in vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoefs, Benoît

    2004-10-29

    Plant pigments are responsible for the shining color of plant tissues. They are also found in animal tissues and, eventually in transformed food products as additives. These pigments have an important impact on the commercial value of products, because the colors establish the first contact with the consumer. In addition plant pigments may have an influence on the health of the consumers. Pigments are labile: they can be easily altered, and even destroyed. Analytical processes have been developed to determine pigment composition. The aim of this paper is to provide a brief overview of these methods.

  20. Pigmentos maculares Macular pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Canovas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A luteína e a zeaxantina são pigmentos amarelos que se localizam na mácula. Devido à sua localização, diminuem e filtram a quantidade de luz principalmente azul que chega aos fotorreceptores, atuam como antioxidantes e podem melhorar a qualidade visual. Esta é uma revisão do seu mecanismo de incorporação, ação, possíveis aplicações e conhecimento científico a respeito.Lutein and Zeaxanthin are yellow pigments located at the macula. Because of your location macular pigments decrease and filter the amount of blue light that reach photoreceptors, protect the outer retina from oxidative stress and may improve the vision quality. This is a review regarding incorporation mechanism, function and knowledge update.

  1. Pigment dispersion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Sandhya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report of the rare occurrence of pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS with posterior subcapsular cataract in both eyes in a young male patient. The patient presented with complaints of progressive decrease in vision of one year duration. The patient also had high myopia with mild iridodonesis, phacodonesis and anterior insertion of zonules. Classical signs of PDS like Krukenberg's spindle on the posterior corneal surface were evident on slit lamp examination; transillumination defects in the iris could not be elicited by retroillumination as the iris was heavily pigmented. Gonioscopy revealed heavy and uniform pigmentation of trabecular meshwork. Evidence of a characteristic iris configuration on optical coherence tomography (OCT, namely, posterior bowing of iris in the mid periphery suggested the diagnosis of PDS. This case highlights the importance of OCT in identifying the iris configuration characteristically seen in PDS even in the absence of transillumination defects in the iris and reiterates the need to look for subtle signs like phacodonesis which are important when surgical intervention is planned.

  2. Retinal pigment epithelium protein of 65 kDA gene-linked retinal degeneration is not modulated by chicken acidic leucine-rich epidermal growth factor-like domain containing brain protein/Neuroglycan C/ chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, Sandra; Jüttner, René; Voirol, Nathalie; Chambon, Pierre; Rathjen, Fritz G; Schorderet, Daniel F; Escher, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    To analyze in vivo the function of chicken acidic leucine-rich epidermal growth factor-like domain containing brain protein/Neuroglycan C (gene symbol: Cspg5) during retinal degeneration in the Rpe65⁻/⁻ mouse model of Leber congenital amaurosis. We resorted to mice with targeted deletions in the Cspg5 and retinal pigment epithelium protein of 65 kDa (Rpe65) genes (Cspg5⁻/⁻/Rpe65⁻/⁻). Cone degeneration was assessed with cone-specific peanut agglutinin staining. Transcriptional expression of rhodopsin (Rho), S-opsin (Opn1sw), M-opsin (Opn1mw), rod transducin α subunit (Gnat1), and cone transducin α subunit (Gnat2) genes was assessed with quantitative PCR from 2 weeks to 12 months. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was analyzed at P14 with immunodetection of the retinol-binding protein membrane receptor Stra6. No differences in the progression of retinal degeneration were observed between the Rpe65⁻/⁻ and Cspg5⁻/⁻/Rpe65⁻/⁻ mice. No retinal phenotype was detected in the late postnatal and adult Cspg5⁻/⁻ mice, when compared to the wild-type mice. Despite the previously reported upregulation of Cspg5 during retinal degeneration in Rpe65⁻/⁻ mice, no protective effect or any involvement of Cspg5 in disease progression was identified.

  3. Skin Pigmentation Kinetics after Exposure to Ultraviolet A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbak, M.H.; Philipsen, P.A.; Wiegell, S.R.;

    2009-01-01

    Multiple exposures to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are the norm in nature and phototherapy. However, studies of the kinetics of pigmentation following UVA exposure have included only fair-skinned persons. The aim of this study was to investigate steady-state pigmentation and fading in 12...... Scandinavians and 12 Indians/Pakistanis after 6 and 12 exposures on the back using broadband UVA and UVA1 with equal sub-minimal melanogenic doses (individually predetermined). Pigmentation was measured by skin reflectance at 555 and 660 urn. The UV dose to minimal pigmentation was higher in dark......-skinned persons after a single broadband UVA exposure, but independent of pigmentation/skin type after single and multiple UVA1 exposures. To elicit minimal melanogenic doses after 6 and 12 exposures, every dose is lowered by a factor of 2 and 3, respectively, but the cumulative dose increases three- and four...

  4. Nonphotosynthetic Pigments as Potential Biosignatures

    CERN Document Server

    Schwieterman, Edward W; Meadows, Victoria S

    2015-01-01

    Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstr...

  5. Prognostic phenotypic and genotypic factors associated with photodynamic therapy response in patients with age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuchihashi T

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Takashi Tsuchihashi,1 Keisuke Mori,1 Kuniko Horie-Inoue,2 Yasushi Okazaki,3 Takuya Awata,4,5 Satoshi Inoue,2 Shin Yoneya1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Division of Translational Research, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, 4Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Medicine, 5Division of RI Laboratory, Biomedical Research Center, Saitama Medical University, Iruma, Saitama, Japan Background: This study aimed to demonstrate the phenotypic and genotypic factors associated with photodynamic therapy (PDT for age-related macular degeneration (AMD.Methods: The study included 149 patients with exudative AMD treated by PDT. Eight phenotypic factors and ten genotypic factors for three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs800292, rs1061170, rs1410996 in the complement factor H (CFH gene, rs 11200638-SNP in the high temperature requirement A-1 (HTRA1 gene, two SNPs (rs699947, rs2010963 in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF gene, and four SNPs (rs12948385, rs12150053, rs9913583, rs1136287 in the pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF gene were evaluated. Results: A significant association with best-corrected visual acuity change was demonstrated in the greatest linear dimension, presence or absence of pigment epithelial detachment, and HTRA1-rs11200638 genotype statistically (P=3.67×10-4, 1.95×10-2, 1.24×10-3, respectively. Best-corrected visual acuity in patients with AA genotype of HTRA1-rs11200638 significantly decreased compared with that in patients with GG genotype (P=1.33×10-3. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated HTRA1-rs11200638 genotype was most strongly associated with best-corrected visual acuity outcome from baseline at 12 months after photodynamic therapy (P=4.60×10-3; odds ratio 2.363; 95% confidence interval 1.303–4.285.Conclusion: The HTRA1

  6. Proliferative and inflammatory factors in the vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

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    V V Chernykh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose was to measure the concentrations of various cytokines and growth factors (including vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] and pigment epithelium-derived factor [PEDF] in the vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR and to investigate interaction between inflammatory and proliferative factors in the genesis of PDR. Materials and Methods : Vitreous samples from 32 eyes with PDR and 25 eyes without diabetes mellitus and signs of DR (control were collected. Vitreous concentrations of VEGF, PEDF, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin-4 (IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17A, and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA were simultaneously measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results : Vitreous levels of VEGF, PEDF, IL-17A, IL-6, IL-8, IL-4, and sIgA were significantly (Π < 0.05 higher in eyes with PDR compared to control. The concentration of VEGF was more than 17-times higher than in control, and the concentration of PEDF was not changed oppositely and was also higher (1.45-times compared to control, that may indicate disturbances of compensatory mechanisms in angiogenesis regulation in PDR. Significant (Π < 0.05 positive correlations were observed between vitreous concentrations of VEGF and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.45, VEGF and IL-8 (r = 0.48, VEGF and IL-4 (r = 0.51, PEDF and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.48, PEDF and IL-8 (r = 0.59, MCP-1 and PEDF (r = 0.72, MCP-1 and IL-8 (r0 = 0.45, IL-4 and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.65, IL-4 and IL-8 (r = 0.71, IL-8 and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.59. Conclusions: Significantly raised levels of inflammatory and proliferative factors and numerous positive correlations between them may demonstrate a significant role of activation of vascular proliferation and local inflammation in the pathogenesis of PDR.

  7. Effect of environmental factors on pigment accumulation of in vitro amaranth plantlets%环境因子对苋菜试管苗色素累积的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘生财; 杨文文; 赖钟雄

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different environmental factors, such as light quality, photoperiod, pH and temperature, were studied on the pigment accumulation of in vitro amaranth plantlets. The results showed that both the chlorophyll synthesis and carotenoid synthesis were increased at (20±1)℃, with pH 5.4, white light under 24 h -d-1. The content of anthocyanin was no significant difference at 20-32 ℃, but higher between pH 5.4 and 5.8, and higher through white light treatments, and higher and not significant difference between 12 and 18 h ·d-1. The content of amaranth red pigment was higher at (20± 1)℃.%以苋菜试管苗为材料,研究了光质、光周期、温度和pH等条件对苋菜光合色素、苋菜红色素以及花色素苷含量变化的影响.结果表明,温度(20±1)℃、pH 5.4、白光照射以及光照24 h·d-1均可促进叶绿素和类胡萝卜素的合成;在20~32℃范围内,温度对苋菜花色素苷累积影响不大;pH 5.4和5.8时,花色苷含量均较高;白光及光照18和12 h·d-1均有利于花色素苷累积;(20±1)℃时苋菜红色素含量较高.

  8. The penetration depth and lateral distribution of pigment related to the pigment grain size and the calendering of paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow, K.; Kristiansson, P. E-mail: per.kristiansson@nuclear.lu.se; Schueler, B.; Tullander, E.; Oestling, S.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.; Shariff, A

    2002-04-01

    The interaction of ink and newspaper has been investigated and the specific question of penetration of ink into the paper has been addressed with a nuclear microprobe using particle induced X-ray emission. The penetration depth of the newsprint is a critical factor in terms of increasing the quality of newsprint and minimising the amount of ink used. The objective of the experiment was to relate the penetration depth of pigment with the calendering of the paper. The dependence of the penetration depth on the pigment grain size was also studied. To study the penetration depth of pigment in paper, cyan ink with Cu as a tracer of the coloured pigment was used. For the study of the penetration depth dependence of pigment size, specially grounded Japanese ink with well-defined pigment grain size was used. This was compared to Swedish ink with pigment grains with normal size-distribution. The results show that the calendering of the paper considerably affects the penetration depth of ink.

  9. Natural pigments and sacred art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelekian, Lena, ,, Lady

    2010-05-01

    Since the dawn of mankind, cavemen has expressed himself through art. The earliest known cave paintings date to some 32,000 years ago and used 4 colours derived from the earth. These pigments were iron oxides and known as ochres, blacks and whites. All pigments known by the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans and Renaissance man were natural and it was not until the 18th century that synthetic pigments were made and widely used. Until that time all art, be it sacred or secular used only natural pigments, of which the preparation of many have been lost or rarely used because of their tedious preparation. As a geologist, a mineralogist and an artist specializing in iconography, I have been able to rediscover 89 natural pigments extracted from minerals. I use these pigments to paint my icons in the traditional Byzantine manner and also to restore old icons, bringing back their glamour and conserving them for years to come. The use of the natural pigments in its proper way also helps to preserve the traditional skills of the iconographer. In the ancient past, pigments were extremely precious. Many took an exceedingly long journey to reach the artists, and came from remote countries. Research into these pigments is the work of history, geography and anthropology. It is an interesting journey in itself to discover that the blue aquamarines came from Afghanistan, the reds from Spain, the greens Africa, and so on. In this contribution I will be describing the origins, preparation and use of some natural pigments, together with their history and provenance. Additionally, I will show how the natural pigments are used in the creation of an icon. Being a geologist iconographer, for me, is a sacrement that transforms that which is earthly, material and natural into a thing of beauty that is sacred. As bread and wine in the Eucharist, water during baptism and oil in Holy Union transmit sanctification to the beholder, natural pigments do the same when one considers an icon. The

  10. [Pigmented ciliary body tumours: benign or malignant?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Vicente, E; Saornil-Álvarez, M A; López-Lara, F; García-Álvarez, C; de Frutos-Baraja, J M; Díez-Andino, P

    2013-12-01

    We report the cases of 2 women with a pigmented tumour in the ciliary body, one a melanocytoma and the other a melanoma, with different clinical manifestations. The first one presented with decreased visual acuity associated with recent growth of the tumour, as well as sectorial opacities of the lens and subluxation. The second one is asymptomatic and has been kept under observation for more than 30 years. Although the definitive diagnosis of a pigmented tumour of the ciliary body is only achieved by the histopathology study, the group of clinical features is a determining factor when a conservative treatment is indicated. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitreous inflammatory factors and serous retinal detachment in central retinal vein occlusion: a case control series

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    Noma Hidetaka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated whether the vitreous fluid levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (sVEGFR-2, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1 were associated with the occurrence of serous retinal detachment (SRD in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. Methods We recruited 33 patients with CRVO and macular edema, as well as 18 controls with nonischemic ocular diseases. Eighteen of the 33 patients with CRVO showed SRD on optical coherence tomography of the macula (defined as subretinal accumulation of fluid with low reflectivity, while the other 15 patients only had cystoid macular edema (CME, defined as hyporeflective intraretinal cavities. Retinal ischemia was evaluated by measuring the area of capillary non-perfusion using fluorescein angiography and the public domain Scion Image program, while central macular thickness (CMT was examined by optical coherence tomography. Vitreous fluid samples were obtained during pars plana vitrectomy and levels of the target molecules were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Ischemia was significantly more common in the SRD group (17/18 patients than in the CME group (5/15 patients (P ptrendptrend = 0.019. On the other hand, the vitreous fluid level of PEDF showed a significant decrease across the three groups (56.4 ± 40.0 ng/ml, 24.3 ± 17.3 ng/ml, and 16.4 ± 12.6 ng/ml, respectively, ptrend Conclusions Higher levels of inflammatory factors (sICAM-1 and sVEGFR-2 and lower levels of anti-inflammatory PEDF were observed in macular edema patients with SRD, suggesting that inflammation plays a key role in determining the severity of CRVO.

  12. Clinicopathological Features and Prognosis of Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma for Surgery and Relationships with the BRAFV600E Mutational Status and Expression of Angiogenic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chenlei; Guo, Yong; Lv, Yichen; Nanding, Abiyasi; Shi, Tiefeng; Qin, Huadong; He, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) for surgery by comparing the difference between PTMC and larger papillary thyroid carcinoma (LPTC). Methods We analyzed the differences in the clinicopathological characteristics, prognosis, B-type RAF kinase (BRAF)V600E mutational status and expression of angiogenic factors, including pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), and hypoxia-inducible factor alpha subunit (HIF-1α), between PTMC and LPTC by retrospectively reviewing the records of 251 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma, 169 with PTMC, and 82 with LPTC (diameter >1 cm). Results There were no significant differences in the gender, age, multifocality, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, TNM stage, PEDF protein expression, rate of recurrence, or mean follow-up duration between patients with PTMC or LPTC. The prevalence of extrathyroidal invasion (EI), lymph node metastasis (LNM), and BRAF mutation in patients with PTMC was significantly lower than in patients with LPTC. In addition, in PTMC patients with EI and/or LNM and/or positive BRAF (high-risk PTMC patients), the prevalence of extrathyroidal invasion, Hashimoto's disease, lymph node metastasis, tumor TNM stage, PEDF positive protein expression, the rate of recurrent disease, and the mRNA expression of anti-angiogenic factors was almost as high as in patients with larger PTC, but with no significant difference. Conclusions Extrathyroid invasion, lymph node metastases, and BRAFV600E mutation were the high risk factors of PTMC. PTMC should be considered for the same treatment strategy as LPTC when any of these factors is found. Particularly, PTMC with BRAFV600E gene mutations needed earlier surgical treatment. In addition, the high cell subtype of PTMC with BRAFV600E gene mutation is recommended for total thyroidectomy in primary surgery to reduce the risk of recurrence. PMID:27936049

  13. The Solvent Effectiveness on Extraction Process of Seaweed Pigment

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    Warkoyo Warkoyo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Eucheuma cottonii seaweed is a species of seaweed cultured in Indonesian waters, because its cultivation is relatively easy and inexpensive. It has a wide variety of colors from green to yellow green, gray, red and brown, indicating photosynthetic pigments, such as chlorophyll and carotenoids. An important factor in the effectiveness of pigment extraction is the choice of solvent. The correct type of solvent in the extraction method of specific natural materials is important so that a pigment with optimum quality that is also benefical to the society can be produced. The target of this research is to obtain a high quality solvent type of carotenoid pigment. This research was conducted using a randomized block design with three (3 replications involving two factors namely solvent type (4 levels: aceton, ethanol, petroleum benzene, hexan & petroleum benzene and seaweed color (3 levels: brown, green and red. Research results indicated that each solvent reached a peak of maximal absorbance at  410-472 nm, namely carotenoids. The usage of acetone solvent gave the best pigment quality. Brown, green and red seaweed have pigment content of 1,28 mg/100 g; 0,98 mg/100 g; 1,35 mg/100 g and rendement of 6,24%; 4,85% and 6,65% respectively.

  14. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725 Food... regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in food-contact... not to exceed 0.45 percent by weight of the pigment. The pigmented articles may contact all...

  15. Comparison of antioxidation systems of retinal pigment epithelium of pigmented and albino animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakina, N.L.; Dontsov, A.E.; Ostrovskiy, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of the lipid peroxidation inhibition process by tissue homogenates of retinal pigment epithelium of pigmented rabbits is higher than that of albino rabbits. The superoxide dismutase and glutathione perioxidase activity is nearly the same in both tissues of the pigment epithelium, the ..cap alpha..-tocopherol content is higher in retinal pigment epithelium tissue of albino animals, and the oxidizability of the lipid fraction of pigment epithelium tissue is higher in pigmented animals than in albinos. It is concluded that the higher resistance of the pigment epithelium of pigmented animals to the effects of prooxidant systems is due to the presence of melanoprotein granules in the pigment epithelium.

  16. A pigmented calcifying odontogenic cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soames, J V

    1982-04-01

    A case of the pigmented variant of the calcifying odontogenic cyst occurring in a 15-year-old West Indian girl is reported. Melanin pigment was widely distributed and appeared in greatest amount in cells exhibiting the appearance of stellate reticulum. Ultrastructural examination demonstrated large numbers of melanosomes in these cells but relatively few in epithelial ghost cells. The latter contained thick bundles of tonofilaments. Melanocytes were identified and two forms were distinguished, depending on their content of premelanosomes and fully melanized melanosomes.

  17. Analysis of Indian pigment gallstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautray, T.R. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)]. E-mail: tapash77@hotmail.com; Vijayan, V. [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751 005, Orissa (India); Panigrahi, S. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)

    2007-02-15

    Particle induced X-ray emission and particle induced {gamma}-ray emission spectroscopic techniques have been carried out to analyse the elemental concentrations of human pigment gallstone samples from eastern region (Orissa) and southern region (Chennai) of India. It was observed that 18 minor/trace elements namely Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb were present in the pigment gallstone samples of both the regions. Our study reveals that average concentration of all elements except Ni in south Indian pigment gallstone samples is higher than that of corresponding values in east Indian pigment gallstone samples whereas elements like Al, P, S, Cl and V did not show much variation between these two regions. Fourier transform infra-red analysis was carried out to identify the functional groups and the classification of the pigment type gallstones of both the regions. The thermal behaviour of pigment gallstones was carried out by thermogravimetry-derivative thermogravimetry analysis.

  18. Pigments, patterns, and fish behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Anna C; Weadick, Cameron J; Shim, Janet; Rodd, F Helen

    2008-12-01

    Color patterns in fish are often multicomponent signals, composed of pigment-based and structural color patches that can be used to communicate within species, in both inter- and intrasexual interactions, and between species. In this review, we discuss some of the roles played by pigment-based elements of color pattern. We begin by discussing general forms of coloration, classifying them by appearance (e.g., cryptic vs. conspicuous) and apparent function (e.g., conspicuous coloration and mating displays, stripes and cooperation, and bars and aggression). We then briefly discuss the roles pigments play in the perception of these color patterns via their presence in the eye. In the last section, we look at the relative importance of carotenoid versus melanic coloration in situations where honest signals to potential rivals and potential mates might be required. In this survey, we have highlighted some recent research, especially studies that consider both the physiological and behavioral processes underlying the evolution and expression of pigment-based color patterns in fish. The nature of pigmented color patterns depends not just on the dynamics of pattern development and physiological regulation, but also on the behavioral roles played by these patterns, both now and in the past. As such, advances in particular fields of study on pigment patterns (physiology, developmental biology, behavioral ecology, evolutionary biology, etc.) will increasingly depend on insights from other fields.

  19. Inhibitors of Intracellular Signaling Pathways that Lead to Stimulated Epidermal Pigmentation: Perspective of Anti-Pigmenting Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genji Imokawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation.

  20. An Inverse Modeling Approach to Estimating Phytoplankton Pigment Concentrations from Phytoplankton Absorption Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, John R.; Moisan, Tiffany A. H.; Linkswiler, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplankton absorption spectra and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pigment observations from the Eastern U.S. and global observations from NASA's SeaBASS archive are used in a linear inverse calculation to extract pigment-specific absorption spectra. Using these pigment-specific absorption spectra to reconstruct the phytoplankton absorption spectra results in high correlations at all visible wavelengths (r(sup 2) from 0.83 to 0.98), and linear regressions (slopes ranging from 0.8 to 1.1). Higher correlations (r(sup 2) from 0.75 to 1.00) are obtained in the visible portion of the spectra when the total phytoplankton absorption spectra are unpackaged by multiplying the entire spectra by a factor that sets the total absorption at 675 nm to that expected from absorption spectra reconstruction using measured pigment concentrations and laboratory-derived pigment-specific absorption spectra. The derived pigment-specific absorption spectra were further used with the total phytoplankton absorption spectra in a second linear inverse calculation to estimate the various phytoplankton HPLC pigments. A comparison between the estimated and measured pigment concentrations for the 18 pigment fields showed good correlations (r(sup 2) greater than 0.5) for 7 pigments and very good correlations (r(sup 2) greater than 0.7) for chlorophyll a and fucoxanthin. Higher correlations result when the analysis is carried out at more local geographic scales. The ability to estimate phytoplankton pigments using pigment-specific absorption spectra is critical for using hyperspectral inverse models to retrieve phytoplankton pigment concentrations and other Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) from passive remote sensing observations.

  1. Pigment cell interactions and differential xanthophore recruitment underlying zebrafish stripe reiteration and Danio pattern evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Larissa B; Bain, Emily J; Parichy, David M

    2014-11-06

    Fishes have diverse pigment patterns, yet mechanisms of pattern evolution remain poorly understood. In zebrafish, Danio rerio, pigment-cell autonomous interactions generate dark stripes of melanophores that alternate with light interstripes of xanthophores and iridophores. Here, we identify mechanisms underlying the evolution of a uniform pattern in D. albolineatus in which all three pigment cell classes are intermingled. We show that in this species xanthophores differentiate precociously over a wider area, and that cis regulatory evolution has increased expression of xanthogenic Colony Stimulating Factor-1 (Csf1). Expressing Csf1 similarly in D. rerio has cascading effects, driving the intermingling of all three pigment cell classes and resulting in the loss of stripes, as in D. albolineatus. Our results identify novel mechanisms of pattern development and illustrate how pattern diversity can be generated when a core network of pigment-cell autonomous interactions is coupled with changes in pigment cell differentiation.

  2. Resveratrol inhibits transforming growth factor-β2-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human retinal pigment epithelial cells by suppressing the Smad pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Long; Chen, Yi-Hao; Tai, Ming-Cheng; Liang, Chang-Min; Lu, Da-Wen; Chen, Jiann-Torng

    2017-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is the main cause of failure following retinal detachment surgery. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the development of PVR, and EMT inhibition decreases collagen gel contraction and fibrotic membrane formation, resulting in prevention of PVR. Resveratrol is naturally found in red wine and has inhibitory effects on EMT. Resveratrol is widely used in cardioprotection, neuroprotection, chemotherapy, and antiaging therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on TGF-β2-induced EMT in ARPE-19 cells in vitro. We found that resveratrol suppressed the decrease of zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) and caused an increase of alpha-smooth muscle actin expression in TGF-β2-treated ARPE-19 cells, assessed using Western blots; moreover, it also suppressed the decrease in ZO-1 and the increase of vimentin expression, observed using immunocytochemistry. Resveratrol attenuated TGF-β2-induced wound closure and cell migration in ARPE-19 cells in a scratch wound test and modified Boyden chamber assay, respectively. We also found that resveratrol reduced collagen gel contraction – assessed by collagen matrix contraction assay – and suppressed the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 in TGF-β2-treated ARPE-19 cells. These results suggest that resveratrol mediates anti-EMT effects, which could be used in the prevention of PVR.

  3. Resveratrol inhibits transforming growth factor-β2-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human retinal pigment epithelial cells by suppressing the Smad pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Long; Chen, Yi-Hao; Tai, Ming-Cheng; Liang, Chang-Min; Lu, Da-Wen; Chen, Jiann-Torng

    2017-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is the main cause of failure following retinal detachment surgery. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the development of PVR, and EMT inhibition decreases collagen gel contraction and fibrotic membrane formation, resulting in prevention of PVR. Resveratrol is naturally found in red wine and has inhibitory effects on EMT. Resveratrol is widely used in cardioprotection, neuroprotection, chemotherapy, and antiaging therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on TGF-β2-induced EMT in ARPE-19 cells in vitro. We found that resveratrol suppressed the decrease of zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) and caused an increase of alpha-smooth muscle actin expression in TGF-β2-treated ARPE-19 cells, assessed using Western blots; moreover, it also suppressed the decrease in ZO-1 and the increase of vimentin expression, observed using immunocytochemistry. Resveratrol attenuated TGF-β2-induced wound closure and cell migration in ARPE-19 cells in a scratch wound test and modified Boyden chamber assay, respectively. We also found that resveratrol reduced collagen gel contraction - assessed by collagen matrix contraction assay - and suppressed the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 in TGF-β2-treated ARPE-19 cells. These results suggest that resveratrol mediates anti-EMT effects, which could be used in the prevention of PVR.

  4. The novel triterpenoid RTA 408 protects human retinal pigment epithelial cells against H2O2-induced cell injury via NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress-induced retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cell damage is an important factor in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Previous studies have shown that RTA 408, a synthetic triterpenoid compound, potently activates Nrf2. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of RTA 408 in cultured RPE cells during oxidative stress and to determine the effects of RTA 408 on Nrf2 and its downstream target genes. Primary human RPE cells were pretreated with RTA 408 and then incubated in 200 μM H2O2 for 6 h. Cell viability was measured with the WST-8 assay. Apoptosis was quantitatively measured by annexin V/propidium iodide (PI double staining and Hoechst 33342 fluorescent staining. Reduced (GSH and oxidized glutathione (GSSG were measured using colorimetric assays. Nrf2 activation and its downstream effects on phase II enzymes were examined by Western blot. Treatment of RPE cells with nanomolar ranges (10 and 100 nM of RTA 408 markedly attenuated H2O2-induced viability loss and apoptosis. RTA 408 pretreatment significantly protected cells from oxidative stress-induced GSH loss, GSSG formation and decreased ROS production. RTA 408 activated Nrf2 and increased the expression of its downstream genes, such as HO-1, NQO1, SOD2, catalase, Grx1, and Trx1. Consequently, the enzyme activities of NQO1, Grx1, and Trx1 were fully protected by RTA 408 pretreatment under oxidative stress. Moreover, knockdown of Nrf2 by siRNA significantly reduced the cytoprotective effects of RTA 408. In conclusion, our data suggest that RTA 408 protect primary human RPE cells from oxidative stress-induced damage by activating Nrf2 and its downstream genes.

  5. Bis-Retinoid A2E Induces an Increase of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor via Inhibition of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases 1/2 Pathway in Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells and Facilitates Phagocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Delphine; Bapst-Wicht, Linda; Pyakurel, Aswin; Emery, Martine; Nanchen, Natacha; Bochet, Christian G.; Roduit, Raphael

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in developed countries. Hallmarks of the disease are well known; indeed, this pathology is characterized by lipofuscin accumulation, is principally composed of lipid-containing residues of lysosomal digestion. The N-retinyl-N-retinylidene ethanolamine (A2E) retinoid which is thought to be a cytotoxic component for RPE is the best-characterized component of lipofuscin so far. Even if no direct correlation between A2E spatial distribution and lipofuscin fluorescence has been established in aged human RPE, modified forms or metabolites of A2E could be involved in ARMD pathology. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways have been involved in many pathologies, but not in ARMD. Therefore, we wanted to analyze the effects of A2E on MAPKs in polarized ARPE19 and isolated mouse RPE cells. We showed that long-term exposure of polarized ARPE19 cells to low A2E dose induces a strong decrease of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases' (ERK1/2) activity. In addition, we showed that A2E, via ERK1/2 decrease, induces a significant decrease of the retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein 65 kDa (RPE65) expression in ARPE19 cells and isolated mouse RPE. In the meantime, we showed that the decrease of ERK1/2 activity mediates an increase of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) mRNA expression and secretion that induces an increase in phagocytosis via a paracrine effect. We suggest that the accumulation of deposits coming from outer segments (OS) could be explained by both an increase of bFGF-induced phagocytosis and by the decrease of clearance by A2E. The bFGF angiogenic protein may therefore be an attractive target to treat ARMD. PMID:28298893

  6. Effect of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment on the retinal gene expression in acute experimental central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler, Franziska; Köferl, Patricia; Hollborn, Margrit; Wiedemann, Peter; Bringmann, Andreas; Kohen, Leon; Rehak, Matus

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibodies on the gene expression in the neural retina in a rat model of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). The CRVO was induced by laser photocoagulation of all retinal veins. The animals were divided into 3 groups (in each, n = 16): group CRVO only without any further treatment, group CRVO with bevacizumab, and group CRVO with anti-VEGF antibodies. The intravitreal injection of bevacizumab or anti-VEGF antibodies was performed 15 min after CRVO induction. The left eyes in all animals served as untreated controls. The expression of factors which influence the development of vascular edema (VEGF-A, pigment epithelium-derived factor, PEDF), of channels implicated in retinal osmohomeostasis (Kir4.1, AQP4, AQP1) and of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 was determined by using real-time RT-PCR after 1 and 3 days of CRVO. CRVO induced a rapid transient upregulation of Vegfa after 1 day, and a delayed upregulation of Pedf after 3 days of CRVO. The expression levels of Kir4.1, Aqp4 and Aqp1 were strongly decreased, and the levels of Il1β and Il6 were strikingly increased after CRVO. Intravitreal bevacizumab and anti-VEGF antibodies fully prevented the upregulation of Vegfa after 1 day, and the upregulation of Pedf after 3 days of CRVO, and decreased the upregulation of Il1β after 1 day of CRVO. Anti-VEGF treatment had no effect on the expression levels of Kir4.1, Aqp4, Aqp1, and Il6. It is suggested that the inhibitory effect on the upregulation of Vegfa and Il1β contributes to the edema-resolving effect of anti-VEGF treatment. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Accuracy of pulse oximetry in pigmented patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reflectance was measured at nine wavelengths. Results. The degree of pigmentation as measured by ... adversely affected by skin pigmentation, and it remains a ... the inner surface of the upper arm and the volar aspect of ..... Ph.D. mesis.

  8. Evaluation of shape and size effects on optical properties of ZnO pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiomarsipour, Narges, E-mail: na.kiomarsipour@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Shahin Shahr P.O. Box 83145/115, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shoja Razavi, Reza [Department of Materials Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Shahin Shahr P.O. Box 83145/115, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghani, Kamal [Department of Chemistry, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Shahin Shahr P.O. Box 83145/115, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kioumarsipour, Marjan [Department of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    The pigment with optimized morphology would attain maximum diffuse solar reflectance at a lower film thickness and reduce the pigment volume concentration required. This factor would contribute to a reduction in overall weight and possibly extend the durability of the system to longer time scales, specially in space assets. In the present work, five different morphologies of ZnO pigment were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The ZnO pigments were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and N{sub 2} adsorption (BET). The optical property of the ZnO pigments was investigated by UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the optical properties of ZnO powders were strongly affected by the particle size and morphology. The nanorods and microrods ZnO structures showed the minimum spectral reflectance in visible and near infrared regions, whereas the novel nanoparticle-decorated ZnO pigment revealed the maximum spectral reflectance in the same regions. The reflectance spectra of scale-like and submicrorods ZnO were in the middle of the others. The higher surface roughness led to higher light scattering in nanoparticle-decorated ZnO pigment and multiple-scattering in them. These results proved that a significant improvement in the scattering efficiency of ZnO pigment can be realized by utilizing an optimized nanoparticle-decorated pigment.

  9. Clofazimine-induced Hair Pigmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Mariam; Samson, Joan Felicita; Simi, Puthenveedu Salahudeen

    2012-01-01

    A 45-year-old man was treated with WHO multibacillary multidrug therapy for borderline leprosy and high dose daily Clofazimine for lepra reaction. Along with the expected side effect of skin pigmentation, the patient also noticed darkening of previously grey hair. This colour persisted eight months after completing multibacillary multidrug therapy. PMID:23180930

  10. Clofazimine-induced Hair Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Mariam; Samson, Joan Felicita; Simi, Puthenveedu Salahudeen

    2012-07-01

    A 45-year-old man was treated with WHO multibacillary multidrug therapy for borderline leprosy and high dose daily Clofazimine for lepra reaction. Along with the expected side effect of skin pigmentation, the patient also noticed darkening of previously grey hair. This colour persisted eight months after completing multibacillary multidrug therapy.

  11. Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie T Manipadam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD is a rare cause of ACTH-independent Cushing′s syndrome and has characteristic gross and microscopic pathologic findings. We report a case of PPNAD in a 15-year-old boy, which was not associated with Carney′s complex. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the treatment of choice.

  12. 104例青年人黄斑色素密度的调查分析%Analysis of correlative factors of macular pigment optical density in 104 young people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宁; 肖林; 禇利群; 王冰松; 姚晶磊; 苏哲

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究中国青年人黄斑色素密度(MPOD),以及MPOD与屈光度、性别、吸烟、饮酒、年龄相关性黄斑变性家族史等相关因素的分析.方法 2007级和2008级就读于北京大学医学部预防医学系学生56人以及社会青年志愿者48人,共计104人,208只眼纳入研究,所有受试者完整回答调查问卷,包括是否有吸烟史、饮酒史、黄斑变性家族史等问题,并进行统一流程的屈光度的检查,所有受试者采用异色闪烁光度测量法进行黄斑色素密度的测量.结果 全部受试者共208只眼的MPOD均值为0.625±0.191,对所有男性与女性、主导眼与非主导眼、有吸烟史与无吸烟史和有饮酒史与无饮酒史的MPOD值进行比较,差异无统计学意义;对有黄斑变性家族史与无家族史的研究者MPOD值进行比较,差异有统计学意义;MPOD值与屈光度无相关性(r=-0.107,P=0.124).结论 有黄斑变性家族史的青年人MPOD值下降.%Objective To survey macular pigment optical density of young people in China, as well as the relationship between MPOD and correlative factors, such as refractive diopter, gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, and family history of age-related macular degeneration. Methods 48 community youth volunteers and 56 students of 2007 or 2008 ,studied at department of preventive medicine,college of health science,Peking University,were enrolled in the study. All participants completed a simple questionnaire, including smoking history, drinking history, family history of macular degeneration, and a unified examination of refraction process. All the subjects used heterochromatic flicker photometry method for measuring macular pigment optical density. Results The mean of MPOD value of 208 eyes was (0. 625 I 0. 191). There was no significant difference between male researchers and female researchers,non-dominant eye and dominant eye, subjects without smoking and with smoking, subjects without drinking and with drinking

  13. Pigmentation associated histopathological variations in sympathetic ophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marak, G E; Ikui, H

    1980-01-01

    The severity of inflammation in sympathetic ophthalmia is related to the degree of pigmentation, and the granulomatous response seems to be related to pigmentation. Eosinophilia is also associated with pigmentation, but this association appears to be fortuitous and is a result of the association of eosinophilia with severity of the inflammation. PMID:7387955

  14. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive... mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications. Paracoccus pigment shall conform to the...

  15. A case of pigmented Bowen's disease*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivan, Márcia Maria; Hirata, Sérgio Henrique; do Nascimento, Liliane Santos; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva

    2017-01-01

    Pigmented Bowen's disease is a rare subtype of Bowen's disease. Clinically it presents as a slow-growing, well-defined, hyperpigmented plaque, and should be included as a differential diagnosis of other pigmented lesions. The authors describe a challenging case of pigmented Bowen's disease with non-diagnostic dermscopy findings. PMID:28225972

  16. Hybrid pigment organelles in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliwa, M; Euteneuer, U

    1979-02-28

    Observations of a number of vertebrate chromatophores have revealed the presence of more than one type of pigment organelles, suggesting that the different types are all derived from an equipotential organelle able to differentiate into any of the major pigment-containing organelles (Bagnara, 1972). Observations are presented concerning the occurrence of hybrid pigment inclusions, i.e., all kinds of intergrades between melanosomes, pterinosomes, and reflecting platelets in pigment cells of the daddy-long-legs. It therefore seems possible that pigment organelles in some invertebrates may also be derived from a common pluripotential primordial organelle.

  17. Dialysate vascular endothelial growth factor is an independent determinant of serum albumin levels and predicts future withdrawal from peritoneal dialysis in uremic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazama, Takuma; Fukami, Kei; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Kusumoto, Takuo; Sakai, Kazuko; Adachi, Takeki; Sonoda, Kazuhiro; Kasuga, Syumon; Ueda, Seiji; Okuda, Seiya

    2014-10-01

    Peritoneal protein loss due to high peritoneal permeability may contribute to hypoalbuminemia and early withdrawal from peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We have found that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has anti-vasopermeability properties both in cell culture and animal models by counteracting the biological actions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, it remains unknown which clinical variables, including dialysate VEGF and PEDF, are associated with decreased serum albumin levels and could predict early withdrawal from the PD in ESRD patients. We address these issues. Twenty-seven ESRD patients undergoing PD were enrolled. Clinical variables were measured at 6 months after commencing PD. We examined the independent correlates of serum albumin in PD patients and then prospectively investigated the predictors of withdrawal from the PD therapy over 4 years. Dialysate VEGF was associated with peritoneal solute transport rate (P = 0.002), serum albumin (inversely, P 27 pg/mL), low serum albumin (≤ 3.31 g/dL) and low hemoglobin (≤ 11.2 g/dL) were correlated with withdrawal from the PD therapy during the 4 years. The odds ratio of dialysate VEGF for early withdrawal from the PD was 6.310 (P = 0.035). The present study demonstrated that increased dialysate VEGF was associated with decreased serum albumin and early withdrawal from the PD therapy. Inhibition of peritoneal VEGF production may be a therapeutic target in PD patients. © 2013 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2013 International Society for Apheresis.

  18. Clinicoepidemiological study of pigmented purpuric dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lata Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPD are a group of vascular disorders with varied manifestations which cause concern and are resistant to treatment. The literature is still lacking in clinicoepidemiological studies. Aim: To study the epidemiology, etiological, host and environmental factors, clinical manifestations, its variations, and the type prevalent in this part of the world. Materials and Methods: All cases of PPD were selected for the study from Skin and Venereal Disease, Out Patient Department between January 2008 and June 2009. Their history, examination, hematological investigations, and, in a few, histopathology findings were also recorded and data obtained were evaluated statistically. Results: There were 100 cases of PPD of total 55 323 patients (0.18%. There were 79 males and 21 females between 11 and 66 years. They were working as police men, security guards, barber, chemist, teachers, students, farmers, businessmen, and housewives. In a majority, there was a history of prolonged standing in day-to-day work. Purpuric, brownish pigmented, lichenoid or atrophic lesions were seen depending upon the type of PPD on lower parts of one or both lower limbs. Blood investigations were normal. Schamberg′s disease was seen in ninety five, Lichen aureus in three, lichenoid dermatosis and Majocchi′s disease in one case each. Discussion: Three clinical types of PPD were diagnosed which may represent different features of the same disease. Cell-mediated immunity, immune complexes, capillary fragility, gravitational forces, venous hypertension, focal infection, clothing, contact allergy to dyes, and drug intake have been incriminating factors in the past. Patient′s occupation and environmental factors may also be considered contributory in precipitating the disease. Conclusions: The study revealed the problem of PPD in this geographical area, its magnitude, clinical presentation, the type prevalent, and possible aggravating

  19. Skin pigmentation kinetics after UVB exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbak, M.H.; Philipsen, P.A.; Wiegell, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    There have been few previous studies of the kinetics of pigmentation following ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure, and these have included only fair-skinned persons. The current study investigated pigmentation increase to steady state and fading in 12 Scandinavians and 12 Indians/Pakistanis. Over...... a period of 3 weeks the subjects were UV-irradiated 6 times on the right side of the back and 12 times on the left side using a Solar Simulator and narrowband UVB with equal sub-Minimal Melanogenesis Doses (individually predetermined). Pigmentation was measured from skin remittance at 555 urn and 660 nm...... (allowing correction for erythema). The absolute pigmentation increase was independent of pre-exposure pigmentation, therefore the percentage pigmentation increase was higher in fair-skinned volunteers. The UV dose to minimal pigmentation was higher in darker-skinned persons for single and multiple UV...

  20. Salt and Pepper Pigmentation - Skin Manifestation of Systemic Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraju, D; Prakash, G; Yoganandh, T; Subramanian, S R; Ramkumar, S

    2015-09-01

    A 50 year old male presented with progressive difficulty in swallowing both liquid and solid food with no history of Raynaud's phenomenon. A general examination revealed skin changes in the form of thickening, hyperpigmentation and tightening of skin of fingers, hand, forearm and legs. The patient had painless skin induration over the legs, forearm and hand. Salt and pepper pigmentation was seen on the upper back (Figure 1a), over mastoid process (Figure 1b) and the concha of pinna (Figure 1c). Anti-Scl 70 was positive. Anti-centromere antibodies were negative. Pulmonary function testing (PFT) revealed very severe restrictive lung disease. Barium swallow study was normal. Despite being advised to undergo oesophageal manometry test in view of dysphagia, patient was not willing for the same. Diagnosis of systemic sclerosis was made. Systemic sclerosis is a disease in which extensive fibrosis, vascular alterations and autoantibodies against various cellular antigens being the principal features with a female to male ratio of 4:1. Skin pigmentation changes among other features of skin involvement include a salt-and-pepper appearance due to diffuse hyperpigmentation with sparing of the perifollicular areas. This may be due to the richer capillary network that may warm the perifollicular skin and preserve melanogenesis producing the perifollicular pigment retention in systemic sclerosis.1,2 Both cellular and humoral immune factors in combination with external factors such as trauma or inflammation may trigger the destruction of melanocytes.3 Moreover, various physical factors like temperature changes as well as genetic, hormonal factors may influence pigment formation. Such changes in pigmentation is also seen during repigmentation around hair follicles in vitiligo. Clinically, both vitiligo and depigmented lesions of systemic sclerosis present as chalk-white macules with well-defined borders. However, mucosal involvement is commonly seen in vitiligo while depigmented

  1. Linoleic acid-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase II via p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB pathway in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, I-Mo; Yang, Chang-Hao; Yang, Chung-May; Chen, Muh-Shy

    2007-11-01

    High linoleic acid (LA) intake is known to correlate with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of LA on expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase II (COX-2) and their associated signaling pathways in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. ARPE-19 cells were treated with different concentrations of LA. Expressions of iNOS and COX-2 were examined using semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. Concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the culture medium were determined by enzyme-link immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Activation of p42/44, p38, JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factors (NF)-kappaB were evaluated by Western blot analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). We found that LA induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 in RPE cells at the mRNA and protein levels in a time-and dose-dependent manner. Upregulation of iNOS and COX-2 resulted in increased production of NO and PGE(2). Moreover, LA caused degradation of IkappaB and increased NF-kappaB DNA binding activity. Effects of LA-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression were inhibited by a NF-kappaB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). LA activated p42/44, but not p38 or JNK MAPK. Inhibition of p42/44 activity by PD98059 significantly reduced LA-induced activation of NF-kappaB. Linoleic acid-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 as well as PGE(2) and NO release in RPE cells were sequentially mediated through activation of p42/p44, MAPK, then NF-kappaB. These results may provide new insights into both mechanisms of LA action on RPE cells and pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration.

  2. Holographic films from carotenoid pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Lecona-Sánchez, J. F.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    Carotenoids pigments presents in pineapple can be more than just natural dyes, which is one of the applications that now at day gives the chemical industry. In this research shown that can be used in implementing of holographic recording Films. Therefore we describe the technique how to obtain this kind of pigments trough spay drying of natural pineapple juice, which are then dissolved with water in a proportion of 0.1g to 1mL. The obtained sample is poured into glass substrates using the gravity method, after a drying of 24 hours in laboratory normal conditions the films are ready. The films are characterized by recording transmission holographic gratings (LSR 445 NL 445 nm) and measuring the diffraction efficiency holographic parameter. This recording material has good diffraction efficiency and environmental stability.

  3. Pigmented villonodular synovitis: MRI characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, T.H. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)]|[Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Sartoris, D.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)]|[Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Schweitzer, M.E. [Dept. of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Resnick, D.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)]|[Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 26 patients with histopathologically proven pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), involving joints but excluding tendon sheaths, were reviewed retrospectively. The purpose of this study is to define the spectrum and frequency of MRI characteristics for PVNS using conventional spin echo (in two cases before and after intravenous administration of gadopentate dimeglumine) and also gradient echo techniques. A cystic variety is presented, the MRI appearances of which have not been found in a review of the literature. (orig.)

  4. Nanoscience of an ancient pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Barrett, Christopher A; Sharafi, Asma; Salguero, Tina T

    2013-02-06

    We describe monolayer nanosheets of calcium copper tetrasilicate, CaCuSi(4)O(10), which have strong near-IR luminescence and are amenable to solution processing methods. The facile exfoliation of bulk CaCuSi(4)O(10) into nanosheets is especially surprising in view of the long history of this material as the colored component of Egyptian blue, a well-known pigment from ancient times.

  5. Characterization and Photoprotector Activity of Endophytic Fungal Pigments from Coatal Plant Sarang Semut (Hydnophytum formicarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mada Triandala Sabero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Isolate endophytic fungal RS3 from smooth ant plants (Hydnophytum formicarum produced black pigment. The aims of this research were to obtain the pigment, to characterize and to determine the photoprotector activity. This research was consisted into several steps, there were determined the best precipitating agent, characterization using instrument and solubility analysis, and analysis of Sun Protection Factor (SPF. Results showed the pigment was precipitated using acid solvent with pH ≤ 2,5. Functional groups of pigment pellet were hydroxy, aromatic ring, phenol and amine. According to characteristic, black pigment produced by fungal RS3 proposed as melanin. The photoprotector analysis showed SPF the value was 11.33.

  6. Characterization and Photoprotector Activity of Endophytic Fungal Pigments from Coastal Plant Sarang Semut (Hydnophytum formicarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mada Triandala Sibero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungus RS3 isolated from coastal plant sarang semut (Hydnophytum formicarum produced extracellular black pigment. The aims of this research were to obtain the pigment, to characterize and to determine the photoprotector activity. This research was conducted into several steps, that were determination of the best precipitating agent, characterization using instrument and solubility analysis, and analysis of Sun Protection Factor (SPF. Results showed the pigment was precipitated using acid solvent with pH ≤ 2.5. Functional groups of pigment were hydroxyl, aromatic ring, phenol and amine. According to its characteristics, black pigment produced by RS3 isolate was proposed as melanin. The photoprotector analysis showed the SPF value was 11.33.

  7. 着色与色素研究%Study on Coloring and Pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴韬

    2012-01-01

    着色即色素在动物皮肤、脂肪组织或蛋黄内的沉积。本文系统阐述了色素的来源、特性、配合使用;着色的基础、过程和脂肪与抗氧化剂对着色的促进作用;影响着色效果的因素。%pigmentation means the deposition of pigment in animal skin, adipose tissue or yolk. In this article, the resource, we systematically elaborated the character and formula of pigment, the basis of color, process and promotion of antioxidant on pigmentation, as well as the factors affecting pigmentation.

  8. Kinetic of orange pigment production from Monascus ruber on submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendruscolo, Francielo; Schmidell, Willibaldo; de Oliveira, Débora; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Pigments produced by species of Monascus have been used to coloring rice, meat, sauces, wines and beers in East Asian countries. Monascus can produce orange (precursor), yellow and red pigments. Orange pigments have low solubility in culture media and when react with amino groups they become red and largely soluble. The orange pigments are an alternative to industrial pigment production because the low solubility facilitates the downstream operations. The aim of this work was to study the kinetic on the production of orange pigments by Monascus ruber CCT 3802. The shaking frequency of 300 rpm was favorable to production, whereas higher shaking frequencies showed negative effect. Pigment production was partially associated with cell growth, the critical dissolved oxygen concentration was between 0.894 and 1.388 mgO2 L(-1) at 30 °C, and limiting conditions of dissolved oxygen decreased the production of orange pigments. The maintenance coefficient (mo) and the conversion factor of oxygen in biomass (Yo) were 18.603 mgO2 g x(-1)  h(-1) and 3.133 gx gO 2(-1) and the consideration of these parameters in the oxygen balance to estimate the biomass concentration provided good fits to the experimental data.

  9. Biological Characteristics and Fermentation Factors of Pigment Producing Monascus HB-5 Strain%一株产黄色素红曲霉Monascus HB-5的生物学特性及发酵条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐秋琳; 赵海; 王忠彦; 戚天胜; 刘艳; 黄宇峰; 薛慧玲

    2008-01-01

    研究了一株产黄色素的红由霉菌株Monascus HB-5的生物学特性,并对其接种量、pH、碳源、氮源等主要发酵因素进行优化.结果表明该菌产出高浓度单一黄色素,色调为棕黄色,仅在370nm具有吸收峰.产黄色素最适发酵条件为接种量10%,pH4.6-5.7,温度30~32℃,适合的碳源为玉米粉,氮源为硝酸铵,摇瓶黄色素色价达200 u/ml.并对色素的稳定性及安全性进行了初步研究,橘霉素含量低于0.1mg/1.%A new mutant of Monascus mold capable of producing yellow pigment was studied in this paper.The biological characteristics and key parameters of the pigment in the submerged culture were examined,including inoculum size,pH,carbon resources and nitrogen resources.The results showed that a hish concentration of yellow pigment with single absorpfion peak at 370hm could be produced by this strain under the conditions of the optimal inoeulum size of 10%(v/v),pH 4.6~5.7,com as carbon resource and NH4NO3 as nitrogen resource.The color value of the yellow pigment produced by Monascus waft 200u/ml and it could be obtained from a flask under these conditions.The content of citrinin in the product detected by us was less than 0.1mg/1.

  10. DRUGS CAUSING OROFACIAL PIGMENTATION: AN OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Shamimul Hasan; Nabeel Ishrat Khan; Osama Adeel Khan Sherwani; Shane Rafi; Ayesha Siddiqui

    2013-01-01

    The term “Oro-facial pigmentation” refers to a wide range of lesions or conditions featuring a change of color of Oro-facial tissues. Pigmentation of the Oro-facial tissues is seen in certain races or ethnic groups such as Indians, Africans and Europeans. Broadly classifying, Oro-facial pigmentation is divided into endogenous pigmentation and exogenous pigmentation. Endogenous pigmentation is due to pigments produced within the body. Exogenous pigmentation occurs when foreign bodies get impre...

  11. Picobiophotonics for the investigation of pigment-pigment and pigment-protein interactions in photosynthetic complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Franz-Josef

    2011-01-01

    Anregungsenergietransfer-(EET)-prozesse wurden in verschiedenen photosynthetischen Pigment-Protein-Komplexen mit zeit- und wellenlängenkorrelierter Einzelphotonenspektroskopie (TWCSPC) analysiert. Ein neuer mobiler 16-Kanal Photomultiplier mit flexibler Faseroptik, austauschbaren Lichtquellen und einem Kryostaten (10 K – 350 K) wurde für die Spektroskopie von Proben in Küvetten, auf Oberflächen oder von ganzen Blättern in vivo aufgebaut. Das System stellt einen mobilen Messplatz auf Grundlage...

  12. Natural food pigments application in food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Janiszewska-Turak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural pigments, food compounds, are responsible for the colour of the products. These additives can impart, to deepen or renew the colour of the product, if it has been lost while processing. They also improve the taste of the product and facilitate its identification. It is hard to imagine today’s food industry without the use of pigments. Presently, more and more conscious con­sumers are demanding products to be coloured with natural pigments or any pigment added to the final product. Artificial pigments are considered to be harmful and undesirable so food manufacturers focus on the use of natural colour substances. 16 natural pigments are presently permitted to be used. These compounds are: betalains – betanin, quinones – cochineal, flavonoids – anthocyan­ins, isoprenoids – carotene, annatto (bixin, norbixin, paprika extract, lutein, canthaxanthin, porphyrins – chlorophylls and chlorophyllins and copper complexes of these compounds, and others: caramels, curcumin, or plant coal.

  13. Argon Laser Photoablation for Postburn Conjunctival Pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Joon Ahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an ocular burn injury from boiling water which resulted in conjunctival pigmentation, 1 week following injury. For cosmetic purposes, 2 sessions of argon laser photoablation were performed. One month after laser treatment, conjunctival pigmentation had been successfully removed and the patient was very satisfied with the results. Argon laser photoablation may be an effective way to remove postburn conjunctival pigmentation.

  14. PRODUCTION OF MONASCUS-LIKE AZAPHILONE PIGMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of biotechnological production of polyketide based colorants from filamentous fungi, in particular a method for preparing a biomass comprising a Monascus-like pigment composition from a nontoxigenic and non-pathogenic fungal source. The present invention...... further relates to use of the Monascus-like pigment composition as a colouring agent for food items and/or non-food items, and a cosmetic composition comprising the Monascus-like pigment composition....

  15. Non-photosynthetic pigments as potential biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieterman, E. W.; Cockell, C. S.; Meadows, V. S.

    2014-03-01

    Photosynthetic organisms on Earth produce potentially detectable surface reflectance biosignatures due in part to the spectral location and strength of pigment absorption. However, life on Earth uses pigments for a multitude of purposes other than photosynthesis, including coping with extreme environments. Macroscopic environments exist on Earth where the surface reflectance is significantly altered by a nonphotosynthetic pigment, such as the case of hypersaline lakes and ponds (Oren et al. 1992). Here we explore the nature and potential detectability of non-photosynthetic pigments in disk-averaged planetary observations using a combination of laboratory measurements and archival reflectance spectra, along with simulated broadband photometry and spectra. The in vivo visible reflectance spectra of a cross section of pigmented microorganisms are presented to illustrate the spectral diversity of biologically produced pigments. Synthetic broadband colors are generated to show a significant spread in color space. A 1D radiative transfer model (Meadows & Crisp 1996; Crisp 1997) is used to approximate the spectra of scenarios where pigmented organisms are widespread on planets with Earth-like atmospheres. Broadband colors are revisited to show that colors due to surface reflectivity are not robust to the addition of scattering and absorption effects from the atmosphere. We consider a èbest case' plausible scenario for the detection of nonphotosynthetic pigments by using the Virtual Planetary Laboratory's 3D spectral Earth model (Robinson et al. 2011) to explore the detectability of the surface biosignature produced by pigmented halophiles that are widespread on an Earth-analog planet.

  16. Effect of submerged and solid-state fermentation on pigment and citrinin production by Monascus purpureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Li, Zhiqiang; Dai, Bing; Zhang, Wenxue; Yuan, Yongjun

    2013-09-01

    Monascus pigments, which are produced by various species of Monascus, often have been used as a natural colourant and as traditional natural food additives, especially in Southern China, Japan and Southeastern Asia. The limitation of wide using Monascus pigment is attributed to one of its secondary metabolites named citrinin. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pigment and citrinin production via submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SF) from rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Monascus purpureus AS3.531. The optimal fermentation temperature and pH were significantly different for pigment production through different fermentation mode (35 °C, pH 5.0 for SF and 32 °C, pH 5.5 for SmF, respectively). Adding 2% (w/v) of glycerol in the medium could enhance the pigment production. On the optimized condition, although the concentration of citrinin produced by SmF (19.02 ug/g) increased more than 100 times than that by SF (0.018 ug/g), the pigment yield by SmF (7.93 U/g/g) could be comparable to that by SF (6.63 U/g/g). Those indicate us that fermentation mode seems to be the primary factor which influence the citrinin yield and secondary factor for pigment production.

  17. Ultraviolet pigments in birds evolved from violet pigments by a single amino acid change

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Shozo; Radlwimmer, F. Bernhard; Blow, Nathan S.

    2000-01-01

    UV vision has profound effects on the evolution of organisms by affecting such behaviors as mating preference and foraging strategies. Despite its importance, the molecular basis of UV vision is not known. Here, we have transformed the zebra finch UV pigment into a violet pigment by incorporating one amino acid change, C84S. By incorporating the reverse mutations, we have also constructed UV pigments from the orthologous violet pigments of the pigeon and chicken. These results and comparative...

  18. A review of natural pigment research%天然色素的研究进展概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周幸知; 曹婷婷; 吴嘉玺; 高艳

    2015-01-01

    目的 介绍天然色素的种类,影响稳定性的因素,提高稳定性的方法和天然色素的应用现状,为以后科研人员开发天然色素的研究方向提供依据.方法 查阅有关天然色素的文献,对天然色素的种类,影响稳定性的因素和它的应用现状等方面进行归纳分析.结果 天然色素可分为脂肪族色素和芳香族色素,温度,PH,光照等均会影响其稳定性,可通过添加食品添加剂,形成包合物,色素微胶囊化等方法提高其稳定性,主要应用于食品和纺织行业等.结论 目前天然色素的研究大部分仅限于单一色素的研究,缺乏归类统一的色素研究,重新寻找天然色素新的研究方向具有重要的意义.%Objective To provide the reference about research direction of natural pigments to the researcher by introducing the kinds of natural pigments,colour principle,factors that affect the stability,the method of improving the pigments stability and the present situation of the natural pigment application.Method look up the literature of natural pigment,making an analysis about the kinds of natural pigments,colour principle,factors that affect the stability,the method of improving the pigments stability and the present situation of the natural pigment application.Results Natural pigment can be divided into aliphatic pigments and aromatic pigments,and temperature,PH,light,etc all can affect its stability,but its stability can be mproved by adding food additives,forming inclusion compound,making pigment microcapsules.Natural pigments are mainly used in the food and textile industry etc.Conclusion At present,most current researches of natural pigment are limited to a single pigment research,lack of classified united pigment research.Looking for a new research direction of natural pigments is of great importance.

  19. Spectral tuning of deep red cone pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amora, Tabitha L; Ramos, Lavoisier S; Galan, Jhenny F; Birge, Robert R

    2008-04-22

    Visual pigments are G-protein-coupled receptors that provide a critical interface between organisms and their external environment. Natural selection has generated vertebrate pigments that absorb light from the far-UV (360 nm) to the deep red (630 nm) while using a single chromophore, in either the A1 (11- cis-retinal) or A2 (11- cis-3,4-dehydroretinal) form. The fact that a single chromophore can be manipulated to have an absorption maximum across such an extended spectral region is remarkable. The mechanisms of wavelength regulation remain to be fully revealed, and one of the least well-understood mechanisms is that associated with the deep red pigments. We investigate theoretically the hypothesis that deep red cone pigments select a 6- s- trans conformation of the retinal chromophore ring geometry. This conformation is in contrast to the 6- s- cis ring geometry observed in rhodopsin and, through model chromophore studies, the vast majority of visual pigments. Nomographic spectral analysis of 294 A1 and A2 cone pigment literature absorption maxima indicates that the selection of a 6- s- trans geometry red shifts M/LWS A1 pigments by approximately 1500 cm (-1) ( approximately 50 nm) and A2 pigments by approximately 2700 cm (-1) ( approximately 100 nm). The homology models of seven cone pigments indicate that the deep red cone pigments select 6- s- trans chromophore conformations primarily via electrostatic steering. Our results reveal that the generation of a 6- s- trans conformation not only achieves a significant red shift but also provides enhanced stability of the chromophore within the deep red cone pigment binding sites.

  20. Ultraviolet pigments in birds evolved from violet pigments by a single amino acid change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Shozo; Radlwimmer, F. Bernhard; Blow, Nathan S.

    2000-01-01

    UV vision has profound effects on the evolution of organisms by affecting such behaviors as mating preference and foraging strategies. Despite its importance, the molecular basis of UV vision is not known. Here, we have transformed the zebra finch UV pigment into a violet pigment by incorporating one amino acid change, C84S. By incorporating the reverse mutations, we have also constructed UV pigments from the orthologous violet pigments of the pigeon and chicken. These results and comparative amino acid sequence analyses of the pigments in vertebrates demonstrate that many avian species have achieved their UV vision by S84C. PMID:10861005

  1. The possible use of EPR spectroscopy for paint pigment identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troup, G.J.; Hutton, D.R. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Bacci, M.; Lotti, F.; Casini, A.; Picollo, M. [Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche, Florence, Italy (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    Full text: Visible and near-infra-red reflectance spectroscopy are now routinely used for the identification of paint pigments in Renaissance painting, thus playing a part in authentication and restoration. Since most of the pigments are minerals, and many minerals either contain traces of paramagnetic ions, or have paramagnetic ions in their main components (e.g., chromic oxide, haematite), it seemed logical to determine whether EPR could distinguish between different pigments. 14 pigments of different colours were tested in a Varian E-12 EPR spectrometer, at a frequency of {approx} 9.1 GHz. Measurements were made at room ({approx} 20 deg C) and liquid N{sub 2} temperatures, in the standard special quartz sample tubes. The active volume is 0. 15 ml, but at most, a volume of sample (powder) one tenth of this was used. The spectra (to be shown) clearly demonstrate that EPR can distinguish between different pigments. The power was 1 milliwatt, the modulation amplitude 4 gauss, the total field sweep 10,000 gauss, centred 5000 gauss and the amplification between 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 4}, as indicated on the charts. The signal to noise ratio is excellent, and sensitivity could be increased (if necessary) by a factor of {approx} 10{sup 3}, thus allowing much smaller samples to be tested. Because the signals are so strong it should be possible to scan at least small painted canvases by the following non-destructive technique, using existing equipment. All that is required is a modified resonant cavity; it must have a high Q, and a slot where the magnetic field is maximum, and the electric field zero. The canvas can thus be placed flush with the waveguide, to interact with the microwave magnetic field emanating from the slot

  2. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of Chlorophyll Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and discussion of typical results are provided for an experiment on the thin layer chromatography of chlorophyll pigments. The experiment works well in high school, since the chemicals used are the same as those used in paper chromatography of plant pigments. (JN)

  3. Nanoscale porosity in pigments for chemical sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Kemling, Jonathan W.; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2011-01-01

    Porous pigments in which chemically responsive dyes have been immobilized in a matrix of organically modified siloxanes (ormosils) have been prepared and characterized by AFM, TEM, EDS, and optical analysis. In typical chemical sensing applications, an array of 36 different porous ormosil pigments are deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film.

  4. Nanoscale porosity in pigments for chemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemling, Jonathan W; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2011-05-01

    Porous pigments in which chemically responsive dyes have been immobilized in a matrix of organically modified siloxanes (ormosils) have been prepared and characterized by AFM, TEM, EDS, and optical analysis. In typical chemical sensing applications, an array of 36 different porous ormosil pigments are deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film.

  5. Dermatoscopic findings of pigmented purpuric dermatosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Dilek Biyik; Emiroglu, Nazan; Su, Ozlem; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Bahali, Anil Gulsel; Yildiz, Pelin; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Onsun, Nahide

    2016-01-01

    Background Pigmented purpuric dermatosis is a chronic skin disorder of unknown aetiology characterised by symmetrical petechial and pigmented macules, often confined to the lower limbs. The aetiology of pigmented purpuric dermatosis is unknown. Dermatoscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that allows the visualisation of morphological features invisible to the naked eye; it combines a method that renders the corneal layer of the skin translucent with an optical system that magnifies the image projected onto the retina. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the dermatoscopic findings of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. Methods This study enrolled patients diagnosed histopathologically with pigmented purpuric dermatosis who had dermatoscopic records. We reviewed the dermatoscopic images of PPD patients who attended the outpatient clinic in the Istanbul Dermatovenereology Department at the Bezmialem Vakıf University Medical Faculty. Results Dermatoscopy showed: coppery-red pigmentation (97%, n = 31) in the background, a brown network (34%, n = 11), linear vessels (22%, n = 7), round to oval red dots, globules, and patches (69%, n = 22; 75%, n = 24; 34%, n = 11; respectively), brown globules (26%, n = 8) and dots (53%, n = 17), linear brown lines (22%, n = 7), and follicular openings (13%, n = 4). Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the dermatoscopy of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. In our opinion, dermatoscopy can be useful in the diagnosis of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. PMID:27828629

  6. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of Chlorophyll Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and discussion of typical results are provided for an experiment on the thin layer chromatography of chlorophyll pigments. The experiment works well in high school, since the chemicals used are the same as those used in paper chromatography of plant pigments. (JN)

  7. Pigmented skin disorders: Evaluation and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentary disorders are disturbances of human skin color. Minor changes in the cellular physiology of the skin can dramatically affect pigment production in positive or negative manner. In this these, associated diseases, therapeutical options and disease parameters for the pigmentation disorder

  8. Genetic Analysis of Pigmentation in Cordyceps militaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Choi, Sung-Keun; Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Woong

    2005-01-01

    Pigmentation of ascospore-derived isolates from seven different natural specimens of Cordyceps militaris EFCC C-5888, EFCC C-7159, EFCC C-7833, EFCC C-7991, EFCC C-8021, EFCC C-8023 and EFCC C-8179 was observed on the plates of Sabouraud Dextrose agar plus Yeast Extract at 25℃ under continuous illumination (500 lux). Pigmentation of the wild-type isolates of C. militaris was diverse ranging from yellowish white to orange, while white color was believed as a mutant. Inheritance of pigmentation was found to be controlled by both parental isolates when F1 progeny were analyzed. Pigmentation and mating type were shown to be either independent or distantly linked each other due to the high percentage of non-parental phenotypes among F1 progeny. Crosses between white mutant isolates of C. militaris yielded progeny with wild type pigmentations, indicating that the albino mutations in the parents were unlinked to each other. PMID:24049487

  9. Bilateral pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Samir H.; Porrino, Jack A.; Green, John R.; Chew, Felix S.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a disorder resulting in a villous, nodular, or villonodular proliferation of the synovium, with pigmentation related to the presence of hemosiderin. These lesions are almost exclusively benign with rare reports of malignancy. Pigmented villonodular synovitis can occur in a variety of joints and at any age but most often occurs within the knee in the young adult. Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a rare disease entity, and bilateral synchronous or metachronous involvement of a joint is even more uncommon, with few reports previously described in the literature. We present a case of pigmented villonodular synovitis involving both the right and left knee in the same patient, with radiographic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, photograph and video intraoperative imaging, and pathologic correlation. PMID:26649121

  10. Bilateral pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir H. Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a disorder resulting in a villous, nodular, or villonodular proliferation of the synovium, with pigmentation related to the presence of hemosiderin. These lesions are almost exclusively benign with rare reports of malignancy. Pigmented villonodular synovitis can occur in a variety of joints and at any age but most often occurs within the knee in the young adult. Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a rare disease entity, and bilateral synchronous or metachronous involvement of a joint is even more uncommon, with few reports previously described in the literature. We present a case of pigmented villonodular synovitis involving both the right and left knee in the same patient, with radiographic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, photograph and video intraoperative imaging, and pathologic correlation.

  11. Pigments, parasites and personalitiy: towards a unifying role for steroid hormones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje Kittilsen

    Full Text Available A surging interest in the evolution of consistent trait correlations has inspired research on pigment patterns as a correlate of behavioural syndromes, or "animal personalities". Associations between pigmentation, physiology and health status are less investigated as potentially conserved trait clusters. In the current study, lice counts performed on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar naturally infected with ectoparasitic sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis showed that individual fish with high incidence of black melanin-based skin spots harboured fewer female sea lice carrying egg sacs, compared to less pigmented fish. There was no significant association between pigmentation and lice at other developmental stages, suggesting that host factors associated with melanin-based pigmentation may modify ectoparasite development to a larger degree than settlement. In a subsequent laboratory experiment a strong negative correlation between skin spots and post-stress cortisol levels was revealed, with less pigmented individuals showing a more pronounced cortisol response to acute stress. The observation that lice prevalence was strongly increased on a fraction of sexually mature male salmon which occurred among the farmed fish further supports a role for steroid hormones as mediators of reduced parasite resistance. The data presented here propose steroid hormones as a proximate cause for the association between melanin-based pigmentation and parasites. Possible fundamental and applied implications are discussed.

  12. Fungal and Bacterial Pigments: Secondary Metabolites with Wide Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Prabhu Narsing Rao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for natural colors is increasing day by day due to harmful effects of some synthetic dyes. Bacterial and fungal pigments provide a readily available alternative source of naturally derived pigments. In contrast to other natural pigments, they have enormous advantages including rapid growth, easy processing, and independence of weather conditions. Apart from colorant, bacterial and fungal pigments possess many biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity. This review outlines different types of pigments. It lists some bacterial and fungal pigments and current bacterial and fungal pigment status and challenges. It also focuses on possible fungal and bacterial pigment applications.

  13. Anthocyanins. Plant pigments and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Mateus, Nuno; De Freitas, Victor

    2014-07-23

    Anthocyanins are plant pigments widespread in nature. They play relevant roles in plant propagation and ecophysiology and plant defense mechanisms and are responsible for the color of fruits and vegetables. A large number of novel anthocyanin structures have been identified, including new families such as pyranoanthocyanins or anthocyanin oligomers; their biosynthesis pathways have been elucidated, and new plants with "a la carte" colors have been created by genetic engineering. Furthermore, evidence about their benefits in human health has accumulated, and processes of anthocyanin absorption and biotransformation in the human organism have started to be ascertained. These advances in anthocyanin research were revised in the Seventh International Workshop on Anthocyanins that took place in Porto (Portugal) on September 9-11, 2013. Some selected papers are collected in this special issue, where aspects such as anthocyanin accumulation in plants, relationship with color expression, stability in plants and food, and bioavailability or biological activity are revised.

  14. An investigation of multispectral imaging for the mapping of pigments in paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonghui; Berns, Roy S.; Taplin, Lawrence A.; Coddington, James

    2008-02-01

    Compared with colorimetric imaging, multispectral imaging has the advantage of retrieving spectral reflectance factor of each pixel of a painting. Using this spectral information, pigment mapping is concerned with decomposing the spectrum into its constituent pigments and their relative contributions. The output of pigment mapping is a series of spatial concentration maps of the pigments comprising the painting. This approach was used to study Vincent van Gogh's The Starry Night. The artist's palette was approximated using ten oil pigments, selected from a large database of pigments used in oil paintings and a priori analytical research on one of his self portraits, executed during the same time period. The pigment mapping was based on single-constant Kubelka-Munk theory. It was found that the region of blue sky where the stars were located contained, predominantly, ultramarine blue while the swirling sky and region surrounding the moon contained, predominantly, cobalt blue. Emerald green, used in light bluish-green brushstrokes surrounding the moon, was not used to create the dark green in the cypresses. A measurement of lead white from Georges Seurat's La Grande Jatte was used as the white when mapping The Starry Night. The absorption and scattering properties of this white were replaced with a modern dispersion of lead white in linseed oil and used to simulate the painting's appearance before the natural darkening and yellowing of lead white oil paint. Pigment mapping based on spectral imaging was found to be a viable and practical approach for analyzing pigment composition, providing new insight into an artist's working method, the possibility for aiding in restorative inpainting, and lighting design.

  15. Photocurrent generation by dye-sensitized solar cells using natural pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armendáriz-Mireles, Eddie Nahúm; Rocha-Rangel, Enrique; Caballero-Rico, Frida; Ramírez-de-León, José Alberto; Vázquez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The development of photovoltaic panels has improved the conversion of solar radiation into electrical energy. This paper deals with the electrical and thermal characteristics (voltage, current, and temperature) of photovoltaic solar cells sensitized with natural pigments (dye-sensitized solar cell, DSSC) based on a titanium dioxide semiconductor. Several natural pigments (blackberry, beets, eggplant skin, spinach, flame tree flower, papaya leaf, and grass extracts) were evaluated to determine their sensitizing effect on titanium dioxide. The results showed the great potential of natural pigments for use in solar cells. The best results were obtained with the blackberry pigment, reaching a value of 7.1 mA current, open-circuit voltage (Voc ) of 0.72 V in 2 cm(2) , and fill factor (ff) of 0.51 in the DSSC. This performance is well above than that currently offers by actual cells.

  16. Multiple-reflection model of human skin and estimation of pigment concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Rie; Tominaga, Shoji; Tanno, Osamu

    2012-07-01

    We describe a new method for estimating the concentrations of pigments in the human skin using surface spectral reflectance. We derive an equation that expresses the surface spectral reflectance of the human skin. First, we propose an optical model of the human skin that accounts for the stratum corneum. We also consider the difference between the scattering coefficient of the epidermis and that of the dermis. We then derive an equation by applying the Kubelka-Munk theory to an optical model of the human skin. Unlike a model developed in a recent study, the present equation considers pigments as well as multiple reflections and the thicknesses of the skin layers as factors that affect the color of the human skin. In two experiments, we estimate the pigment concentrations using the measured surface spectral reflectances. Finally, we confirm the feasibility of the concentrations estimated by the proposed method by evaluating the estimated pigment concentrations in the skin.

  17. Production of Monascus-like pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing one or more Monascus-like pigment composition from Penicillium species comprising: a) providing a cultivation medium comprising a high concentration of C-and N-sources and a high C/N molar ratio, b) adjusting pH to about 5 to 8, c) inoculating...... as colouring agents in food items or non food items. The inventions further relates to Monascus-like pigment composition obtainable by a method of the inventions as well as use of the pigments....

  18. Genetic Analysis of Pigmentation in Cordyceps militaris

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Choi, Sung-Keun; Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Woong; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2005-01-01

    Pigmentation of ascospore-derived isolates from seven different natural specimens of Cordyceps militaris EFCC C-5888, EFCC C-7159, EFCC C-7833, EFCC C-7991, EFCC C-8021, EFCC C-8023 and EFCC C-8179 was observed on the plates of Sabouraud Dextrose agar plus Yeast Extract at 25℃ under continuous illumination (500 lux). Pigmentation of the wild-type isolates of C. militaris was diverse ranging from yellowish white to orange, while white color was believed as a mutant. Inheritance of pigmentation...

  19. Old inks: pigments extracted from plants

    OpenAIRE

    Despy, Jessica; Wymeersch, Noémie; Bouchat, Isabelle; Destrée, Caroline; Burette, Anne; Richel, Aurore; OLIVE, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    National audience; Thousands of years ago, natural pigments were discovered and they have been used ever since. Indeed, prehistoric people already used them to paint the walls of the caves in which they were living. A significant example of this is the Cosquer cave (-19,000 to -27,000 years) located near Marseilles. Pigments and dyes can be classified into two broad categories and five families: natural pigments and dyes and those called artificial. The first one of these five families includ...

  20. Review of Prodigiosin, Pigmentation in Serratia marcescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Khanafari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Prodigiosins, a family of natural red pigments characterized by a common pyrrolylpyrromethane skeleton, are produced by various bacteria that first characterized from Serratia marcescens. This pigment is a promising drug owing to its reported characteristics of having antifungal, immunosuppressive and anti-proliferative activity. From an industrial point of view to obtain optimal conditions to enhance the growth of Serratia marcescens and the pigment production is necessity. In present study, the production condition, physicochemical and functional characteristics, structure, genetic and gene expression, apoptosis and toxigenic effects of prodigiosin will be discussed in-order to contribute to the world of Serratia marcescens with respect to its prodigiosin production property.

  1. Genetic Analysis of Pigmentation in Cordyceps militaris

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Choi, Sung-Keun; Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Woong; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2005-01-01

    Pigmentation of ascospore-derived isolates from seven different natural specimens of Cordyceps militaris EFCC C-5888, EFCC C-7159, EFCC C-7833, EFCC C-7991, EFCC C-8021, EFCC C-8023 and EFCC C-8179 was observed on the plates of Sabouraud Dextrose agar plus Yeast Extract at 25℃ under continuous illumination (500 lux). Pigmentation of the wild-type isolates of C. militaris was diverse ranging from yellowish white to orange, while white color was believed as a mutant. Inheritance of pigmentation...

  2. A tattoo pigmented node and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, A; Kanbour-Shakir, A; Bas, O; Bonaventura, M

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, the axillary SLNB has replaced routine ALND for clinical staging in early breast cancer. Studies describe a potential pitfall in the identification of a true sentinel node during surgery due to lymph node pigmentation secondary to migration of tattoo dye. These pigmented “pseudo-sentinel” nodes, if located superficially in the axilla, may mimic the blue sentinel node on visual inspection, therefore missing the true sentinel node and potentially understaging the patient. Here, we present a case report of a breast cancer patient with a tattoo and discuss the importance of tattoo pigment in the LN (Fig. 1, Ref. 8).

  3. Crystal engineering on industrial diaryl pigments using lattice energy minimizations and X-ray powder diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Martin U; Dinnebier, Robert E; Kalkhof, Holger

    2007-08-23

    Diaryl azo pigments play an important role as yellow pigments for printing inks, with an annual pigment production of more than 50,000 t. The crystal structures of Pigment Yellow 12 (PY12), Pigment Yellow 13 (PY13), Pigment Yellow 14 (PY14), and Pigment Yellow 83 (PY83) were determined from X-ray powder data using lattice energy minimizations and subsequent Rietveld refinements. Details of the lattice energy minimization procedure and of the development of a torsion potential for the biphenyl fragment are given. The Rietveld refinements were carried out using rigid bodies, or constraints. It was also possible to refine all atomic positions individually without any constraint or restraint, even for PY12 having 44 independent non-hydrogen atoms per asymmetric unit. For PY14 (23 independent non-hydrogen atoms), additionally all atomic isotropic temperature factors could be refined individually. PY12 crystallized in a herringbone arrangement with twisted biaryl fragments. PY13 and PY14 formed a layer structure of planar molecules. PY83 showed a herringbone structure with planar molecules. According to quantum mechanical calculations, the twisting of the biaryl fragment results in a lower color strength of the pigments, whereas changes in the substitution pattern have almost no influence on the color strength of a single molecule. Hence, the experimentally observed lower color strength of PY12 in comparison with that of PY13 and PY83 can be explained as a pure packing effect. Further lattice energy calculations explained that the four investigated pigments crystallize in three different structures because these structures are the energetically most favorable ones for each compound. For example, for PY13, PY14, or PY83, a PY12-analogous crystal structure would lead to considerably poorer lattice energies and lower densities. In contrast, lattice energy calculations revealed that PY12 could adopt a PY13-type structure with only slightly poorer energy. This structure was

  4. Crystal Engineering on Industrial Diaryl Pigments Using Lattice Energy Minimizations and X-ray Powder Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt,M.; Dinnebier, R.; Kalkhof, H.

    2007-01-01

    Diaryl azo pigments play an important role as yellow pigments for printing inks, with an annual pigment production of more than 50,000 t. The crystal structures of Pigment Yellow 12 (PY12), Pigment Yellow 13 (PY13), Pigment Yellow 14 (PY14), and Pigment Yellow 83 (PY83) were determined from X-ray powder data using lattice energy minimizations and subsequent Rietveld refinements. Details of the lattice energy minimization procedure and of the development of a torsion potential for the biphenyl fragment are given. The Rietveld refinements were carried out using rigid bodies, or constraints. It was also possible to refine all atomic positions individually without any constraint or restraint, even for PY12 having 44 independent non-hydrogen atoms per asymmetric unit. For PY14 (23 independent non-hydrogen atoms), additionally all atomic isotropic temperature factors could be refined individually. PY12 crystallized in a herringbone arrangement with twisted biaryl fragments. PY13 and PY14 formed a layer structure of planar molecules. PY83 showed a herringbone structure with planar molecules. According to quantum mechanical calculations, the twisting of the biaryl fragment results in a lower color strength of the pigments, whereas changes in the substitution pattern have almost no influence on the color strength of a single molecule. Hence, the experimentally observed lower color strength of PY12 in comparison with that of PY13 and PY83 can be explained as a pure packing effect. Further lattice energy calculations explained that the four investigated pigments crystallize in three different structures because these structures are the energetically most favorable ones for each compound. For example, for PY13, PY14, or PY83, a PY12-analogous crystal structure would lead to considerably poorer lattice energies and lower densities. In contrast, lattice energy calculations revealed that PY12 could adopt a PY13-type structure with only slightly poorer energy. This structure was

  5. The Development of Natural Pigments in Esaan Folk Wisdom for Usage of Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchat Sukna

    2009-01-01

    added value in any aspect. (3 Development of pigments from natural material for painting work, started from the selection of quality pigment powder with appropriate attribute, developing the material to produce the equipment for producing as well as modern chemical substance to be mixed with, the same as that used to be used in industrial for producing the enamel substance in present time. Conclusion/Recommendations: For the factors of success in developing pigment from natural material for painting work usage. They were based on development of material and local technique to process depending on modern technology and improvement for better products in future.

  6. Anti-inflammatory properties of yellow and orange pigments from Monascus purpureus NTU 568.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Chuan; Liang, Yu-Han; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Kuo, Yao-Haur; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2013-03-20

    The Monascus species has been used in foods for thousands of years in China. In this study, 10 azaphilone pigments, including four yellow and six orange pigments, were isolated from the fermented rice and dioscorea of Monascus purpureus NTU 568. By employing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, we determined the inhibitory activities of these pigments on nitric oxide (NO) production. As a result, four orange pigments, monaphilols A-D, showed the highest activities (IC50 = 1.0-3.8 μM), compared with the other two orange pigments, monascorubrin (IC50 > 40 μM) and rubropunctatin (IC50 = 21.2 μM), and the four yellow pigments ankaflavin (IC50 = 21.8 μM), monascin (IC50 = 29.1 μM), monaphilone A (IC50 = 19.3 μM), and monaphilone B (IC50 = 22.6 μM). Using Western blot and ELISA kits, we found that treatments with 30 μM of the yellow pigments and 5 μM of the orange pigments could down-regulate the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and suppress the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). We also used two animal experiments to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of these pigments. In a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema model, eight of these pigments (0.5 mg/ear) could prevent ear edema against TPA administrations on the ears of BALB/c mice. In an LPS-injection mice model, several of these pigments (10 mg/kg) could inhibit the NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels in the plasma of BALB/c mice. As concluded from the in vitro and in vivo studies, six azaphilonoid pigments, namely, ankaflavin, monaphilone A, and monaphilols A-D, showed high potential to be developed into chemopreventive foods or drugs against inflammation-associated diseases.

  7. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alfredo; Crittenden, Elizabeth L; García, Dana M

    2004-01-01

    Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. Results The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl) carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusions Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion. PMID:15251036

  8. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crittenden Elizabeth L

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. Results The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusions Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  9. Aging of the hair follicle pigmentation system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2009-01-01

    .... The hair follicle pigmentary unit is perhaps one of our most visible, accessible and potent aging sensors, with marked dilution of pigment intensity occurring long before even subtle changes are seen in the epidermis...

  10. Pigments of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stintzing, Florian; Schliemann, Willibald

    2007-01-01

    The complex pigment pattern of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) cap skins has been studied by LC-DAD and mass spectrometry. Among the betaxanthins the corresponding derivatives of serine, threonine, ethanolamine, alanine, Dopa, phenylalanine and tryptophan are reported for the first time to contribute to the pigment pattern of fly agarics. Betalamic acid, the chromophoric precursor of betaxanthins and betacyanins, muscaflavin and seco-dopas were also detected. Furthermore, the red-purple muscapurpurin and the red muscarubrin were tentatively assigned while further six betacyanin-like components could not be structurally allocated. Stability studies indicated a high susceptibility of pigment extracts to degradation which led to rapid colour loss thus rendering a complete characterization of betacyanin-like compounds impossible at present. Taking into account these difficulties the presented results may be a starting point for a comprehensive characterization of the pigment composition of fly agarics.

  11. Silica Pigments for Glossy Ink Jet Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Qi; Michael R. Sestrick; Yoshi Sugimoto; William A. Welsh

    2004-01-01

    Silica is a versatile pigment for ink jet media. Micronized silica gel is the worldwide standard for high performance matte ink jet media. For glossy ink jet media, several different forms of silica are widely used. Submicron silica gel dispersions, with either anionic or cationic surfaces, can be employed in either absorptive basecoat layers or in the glossy ink receptive top layer. Colloidal silica, with a variety of particle sizes and surface modifications, is utilized extensively in glossy top layers. It will show how various silica pigments can be utilized in glossy ink receptive coatings, both in cast based glossy media and RC based glossy media. Several novel silica pigments will be examined by relating the physical properties of the pigments and the formula variables to the print quality of the ink jet media.

  12. Pseudoephedrine may cause "pigmenting" fixed drug eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Esen; Elinç-Aslan, Meryem Sevinç

    2011-05-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a distinctive drug eruption characterized by recurrent well-defined lesions in the same location each time the responsible drug is taken. Two different clinical forms have been described: the common classic pigmenting form and the rare nonpigmenting form. Nonpigmenting FDE is mainly characterized by symmetrical large erythematous plaques and the dermal histopathologic reaction pattern. Pseudoephedrine is known as the major inducer of nonpigmenting FDE. Pigmenting FDE from pseudoephedrine has not been reported previously. Here, the first case of pseudoephedrine-induced pigmenting FDE is reported, showing the characteristic features of classic pigmenting FDE such as asymmetry, normal-sized lesions, and the epidermodermal histopathologic reaction pattern. Moreover, a positive occlusive patch-test reaction to pseudoephedrine could be demonstrated on postlesional FDE skin for the first time.

  13. Pigment production from a mangrove Penicillium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research ... in foodstuff, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical manufac- turing processes (Francis ... marine Penicillium produced pigments (PP-V and PP-R) and these are similar in ...

  14. [Recurrent pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuss, M; Hermanns, B; Wirtz, D C

    2001-01-01

    The pigmented vilionodular synovitis (PVNS) is a tumour like disease of unknown origin that often shows recurrence. The pathogenesis is still unknown and therefore the question of the right therapy is not resolved. With a case report of a patient with recurrence after two arthroscopic synovectomies, PVNS is discussed against the background of the clinical, histological, and radiological features. We performed an open synovectomy and cystic lesions in both condyles of the femur and proximal tibia were filled with homologous and autologous cancellous bone. Three months later the patient had no pain and the bone density in the former cystic lesions was appropriate. The pathogenesis is still unknown. Diagnosis often is obtained much too late due to missing specific symptoms. PVNS occurs in local forms as well as in a diffuse growth pattern. Recurrence rates of up to 78% are very high. Besides arthroscopic and open synovectomy, the treatment with radiosynoviorthesis must be considered. Depending on the growth pattern, the tumour masses, and the affected joint, the therapy has to be chosen very carefully and sometimes different forms have to be combined if a recurrence--free result is to be achieved.

  15. Cuticle formation and pigmentation in beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Mi Young; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kramer, Karl J; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2016-10-01

    Adult beetles (Coleoptera) are covered primarily by a hard exoskeleton or cuticle. For example, the beetle elytron is a cuticle-rich highly modified forewing structure that shields the underlying hindwing and dorsal body surface from a variety of harmful environmental factors by acting as an armor plate. The elytron comes in a variety of colors and shapes depending on the coleopteran species. As in many other insect species, the cuticular tanning pathway begins with tyrosine and is responsible for production of a variety of melanin-like and other types of pigments. Tanning metabolism involves quinones and quinone methides, which also act as protein cross-linking agents for cuticle sclerotization. Electron microscopic analyses of rigid cuticles of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, have revealed not only numerous horizontal chitin-protein laminae but also vertically oriented columnar structures called pore canal fibers. This structural architecture together with tyrosine metabolism for cuticle tanning is likely to contribute to the rigidity and coloration of the beetle exoskeleton.

  16. [Bacterial pigment prodigiosin and its genotoxic effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur'ianov, I D; Karamova, N S; Iusupova, D V; Gnezdilov, O I; Koshkarova, L A

    2013-01-01

    The prodigiosin preparation was isolated and purified from Serratia marcescens ATCC 9986, using chromatographic methods. The analysis of the preparation by TLC, NMR-spectrometry and mass-spectrometry allowed to confirm the red pigment fraction as the prodigiosin and detect its purity. Originally, the specific features of the toxic and genotoxic effects of prodigiosin and the possibility of induction of mutations by pigment in the cells of Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 (Ames test) and chromosome damage of mammalian erythroblasts have been determined.

  17. The clinical spectrum of pigmented lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, J V; Bolognia, J L

    2000-07-01

    This article presents the clinical features of a spectrum of pigmented lesions. It begins with benign lesions that may be confused with melanocytic nevi, such as lentigines, seborrheic keratoses, and dermatofibromas. The next section focuses on the various types of melanocytic nevi, including congenital, blue, and Spitz nevi. A description of atypical nevi is provided, followed by an outline of the clinical characteristics of each subtype of cutaneous melanoma. The clinical characteristics of various pigmented lesions are illustrated.

  18. Development and application of sedimentary pigments for assessing effects of climatic and environmental changes on subarctic lakes in northern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuss, Nina Steenberg; Leavitt, Peter R.; Hall, Roland I.;

    2010-01-01

    vegetation zones (alpine, birch, conifer/birch) were incompletely distinguished by the ordinations. In the RDAs, the primary pigment variability occurred along a production gradient that was correlated negatively to water-column DOC content and d13C signature of sediments. This pattern suggested......A surface-sediment survey of pigments in 100 lakes in the Scandes Mountains, northern Sweden, was combined with a reconstruction of Holocene sedimentary pigments from Lake Seukokjaure to assess the major factors regulating phototrophic communities, and how these controls may have changed during...... to the modern tree line. The spatial survey of sedimentary pigments was analyzed using principle components analysis (PCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA). PCA explained 73-83% of variance in pigment abundance and composition, whereas RDA explained 22-32% of variation in fossil assemblages. Dissolved organic...

  19. Developmental origin of the posterior pigmented epithelium of iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Xiong, Kai; Lu, Lei; Gu, Dandan; Wang, Songtao; Chen, Jing; Xiao, Honglei; Zhou, Guomin

    2015-03-01

    Iris epithelium is a double-layered pigmented cuboidal epithelium. According to the current model, the neural retina and the posterior iris pigment epithelium (IPE) are derived from the inner wall of the optic cup, while the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the anterior IPE are derived from the outer wall of the optic cup during development. Our current study shows evidence, contradicting this model of fetal iris development. We demonstrate that human fetal iris expression patterns of Otx2 and Mitf transcription factors are similar, while the expressions of Otx2 and Sox2 are complementary. Furthermore, IPE and RPE exhibit identical morphologic development during the early embryonic period. Our results suggest that the outer layer of the optic cup forms two layers of the iris epithelium, and the posterior IPE is the inward-curling anterior rim of the outer layer of the optic cup. These findings provide a reasonable explanation of how IPE cells can be used as an appropriate substitute for RPE cells.

  20. Dermoscopic Features of Facial Pigmented Skin Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharova, Yana; Attia, Enas A. S.; Souid, Khawla; Vasilenko, Inna V.

    2013-01-01

    Four types of facial pigmented skin lesions (FPSLs) constitute diagnostic challenge to dermatologists; early seborrheic keratosis (SK), pigmented actinic keratosis (AK), lentigo maligna (LM), and solar lentigo (SL). A retrospective analysis of dermoscopic images of histopathologically diagnosed clinically-challenging 64 flat FPSLs was conducted to establish the dermoscopic findings corresponding to each of SK, pigmented AK, LM, and SL. Four main dermoscopic features were evaluated: sharp demarcation, pigment pattern, follicular/epidermal pattern, and vascular pattern. In SK, the most specific dermoscopic features are follicular/epidermal pattern (cerebriform pattern; 100% of lesions, milia-like cysts; 50%, and comedo-like openings; 37.50%), and sharp demarcation (54.17%). AK and LM showed a composite characteristic pattern named “strawberry pattern” in 41.18% and 25% of lesions respectively, characterized by a background erythema and red pseudo-network, associated with prominent follicular openings surrounded by a white halo. However, in LM “strawberry pattern” is widely covered by psewdonetwork (87.5%), homogenous structureless pigmentation (75%) and other vascular patterns. In SL, structureless homogenous pigmentation was recognized in all lesions (100%). From the above mentioned data, we developed an algorithm to guide in dermoscopic features of FPSLs. PMID:23431466

  1. Microbial Production of Food Grade Pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dufossé

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The controversial topic of synthetic dyes in food has been discussed for many years. The scrutiny and negative assessment of synthetic food dyes by the modern consumer have raised a strong interest in natural colouring alternatives. Nature is rich in colours (minerals, plants, microalgae, etc., and pigment-producing microorganisms (fungi, yeasts, bacteria are quite common. Among the molecules produced by microorganisms are carotenoids, melanins, flavins, quinones, and more specifically monascins, violacein or indigo. The success of any pigment produced by fermentation depends upon its acceptability on the market, regulatory approval, and the size of the capital investment required to bring the product to market. A few years ago, some expressed doubts about the successful commercialization of fermentation-derived food grade pigments because of the high capital investment requirements for fermentation facilities and the extensive and lengthy toxicity studies required by regulatory agencies. Public perception of biotechnology-derived products also had to be taken into account. Nowadays some fermentative food grade pigments are on the market: Monascus pigments, astaxanthin from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, Arpink Red from Penicillium oxalicum, riboflavin from Ashbya gossypii, b-carotene from Blakeslea trispora. The successful marketing of pigments derived from algae or extracted from plants, both as a food colour and a nutritional supplement, reflects the presence and importance of niche markets in which consumers are willing to pay a premium for »all natural ingredients«.

  2. Proton beam modification of lead white pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, L., E-mail: lucile.beck@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France (C2RMF), Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Gutiérrez, P.C. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France (C2RMF), Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Miserque, F. [CEA, DEN, DPC/SCCME/LECA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thomé, L. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse (CSNSM), CNRS/IN2P3 et Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 108, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2013-07-15

    Pigments and paint materials are known to be sensitive to particle irradiation. Occasionally, the analysis of paintings by PIXE can induce a slight or dark stain depending on the experimental conditions (beam current, dose, particle energy). In order to understand this discoloration, we have irradiated various types of art white pigments – lead white (hydrocerussite and basic lead sulfate), gypsum, calcite, zinc oxide and titanium oxide – with an external 3 MeV proton micro-beam commonly used for PIXE experiments. We have observed various sensitivities depending on the pigment. No visible change occurs for calcite and titanium oxide, whereas lead white pigments are very sensitive. For the majority of the studied compounds, the discoloration is proportional to the beam current and charge. The damage induced by proton beam irradiation in lead white pigments was studied by micro-Raman and XPS spectroscopies. Structural modifications and dehydration were detected. Damage recovery was investigated by thermal treatment and UV-light irradiation. The discoloration disappeared after one week of UV illumination, showing that PIXE experiments could be safely undertaken for pigments and paintings.

  3. Diversities in virulence, antifungal activity, pigmentation and DNA fingerprint among strains of Burkholderia glumae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Hari S; Shrestha, Bishnu K; Han, Jae Woo; Groth, Donald E; Barphagha, Inderjit K; Rush, Milton C; Melanson, Rebecca A; Kim, Beom Seok; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia glumae is the primary causal agent of bacterial panicle blight of rice. In this study, 11 naturally avirulent and nine virulent strains of B. glumae native to the southern United States were characterized in terms of virulence in rice and onion, toxofalvin production, antifungal activity, pigmentation and genomic structure. Virulence of B. glumae strains on rice panicles was highly correlated to virulence on onion bulb scales, suggesting that onion bulb can be a convenient alternative host system to efficiently determine the virulence of B. glumae strains. Production of toxoflavin, the phytotoxin that functions as a major virulence factor, was closely associated with the virulence phenotypes of B. glumae strains in rice. Some strains of B. glumae showed various levels of antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of sheath blight, and pigmentation phenotypes on casamino acid-peptone-glucose (CPG) agar plates regardless of their virulence traits. Purple and yellow-green pigments were partially purified from a pigmenting strain of B. glumae, 411gr-6, and the purple pigment fraction showed a strong antifungal activity against Collectotrichum orbiculare. Genetic variations were detected among the B. glumae strains from DNA fingerprinting analyses by repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) for BOX-A1R-based repetitive extragenic palindromic (BOX) or enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequences of bacteria; and close genetic relatedness among virulent but pigment-deficient strains were revealed by clustering analyses of DNA fingerprints from BOX-and ERIC-PCR.

  4. Diversities in virulence, antifungal activity, pigmentation and DNA fingerprint among strains of Burkholderia glumae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari S Karki

    Full Text Available Burkholderia glumae is the primary causal agent of bacterial panicle blight of rice. In this study, 11 naturally avirulent and nine virulent strains of B. glumae native to the southern United States were characterized in terms of virulence in rice and onion, toxofalvin production, antifungal activity, pigmentation and genomic structure. Virulence of B. glumae strains on rice panicles was highly correlated to virulence on onion bulb scales, suggesting that onion bulb can be a convenient alternative host system to efficiently determine the virulence of B. glumae strains. Production of toxoflavin, the phytotoxin that functions as a major virulence factor, was closely associated with the virulence phenotypes of B. glumae strains in rice. Some strains of B. glumae showed various levels of antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of sheath blight, and pigmentation phenotypes on casamino acid-peptone-glucose (CPG agar plates regardless of their virulence traits. Purple and yellow-green pigments were partially purified from a pigmenting strain of B. glumae, 411gr-6, and the purple pigment fraction showed a strong antifungal activity against Collectotrichum orbiculare. Genetic variations were detected among the B. glumae strains from DNA fingerprinting analyses by repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR for BOX-A1R-based repetitive extragenic palindromic (BOX or enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC sequences of bacteria; and close genetic relatedness among virulent but pigment-deficient strains were revealed by clustering analyses of DNA fingerprints from BOX-and ERIC-PCR.

  5. Diversities in Virulence, Antifungal Activity, Pigmentation and DNA Fingerprint among Strains of Burkholderia glumae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Hari S.; Shrestha, Bishnu K.; Han, Jae Woo; Groth, Donald E.; Barphagha, Inderjit K.; Rush, Milton C.; Melanson, Rebecca A.; Kim, Beom Seok; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia glumae is the primary causal agent of bacterial panicle blight of rice. In this study, 11 naturally avirulent and nine virulent strains of B. glumae native to the southern United States were characterized in terms of virulence in rice and onion, toxofalvin production, antifungal activity, pigmentation and genomic structure. Virulence of B. glumae strains on rice panicles was highly correlated to virulence on onion bulb scales, suggesting that onion bulb can be a convenient alternative host system to efficiently determine the virulence of B. glumae strains. Production of toxoflavin, the phytotoxin that functions as a major virulence factor, was closely associated with the virulence phenotypes of B. glumae strains in rice. Some strains of B. glumae showed various levels of antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of sheath blight, and pigmentation phenotypes on casamino acid-peptone-glucose (CPG) agar plates regardless of their virulence traits. Purple and yellow-green pigments were partially purified from a pigmenting strain of B. glumae, 411gr-6, and the purple pigment fraction showed a strong antifungal activity against Collectotrichum orbiculare. Genetic variations were detected among the B. glumae strains from DNA fingerprinting analyses by repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) for BOX-A1R-based repetitive extragenic palindromic (BOX) or enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequences of bacteria; and close genetic relatedness among virulent but pigment-deficient strains were revealed by clustering analyses of DNA fingerprints from BOX-and ERIC-PCR. PMID:23028972

  6. Natural Pigment Production by Monascus purpureus: Improving the yield in a bioreactor based on statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieh Seyedin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDue to the especial properties such as high growth rates, easy extraction as well as high yields, using microorganisms in comparison to other sources is more chosen for pigment production. Pigments are used in food industries as natural colorants and preservatives, they also have pharmaceutical applications. In this study, fungus Monascus purpureus PTCC 5303 have been used to produce red, orange and yellow pigments. At first significant variables were screened based on plackett-Burman design and then the optimized value of two effectivefactors such as yeast extract and K2HPO4 concentrations wasoptimized byresponse surface method. Optimal levels of factors were found to be 2/75 g/L yeast extract and1/5 g/LK2HPO4 respectively. Antimicrobial activity of pigments was evaluated on Gram-positive foodborne bacteria under optimal conditionswhich resultsshowed inhibitory effects. Moreover Pigments production at optimal conditions in a bioreactor was evaluatedand the rate of production of red, orange and yellow pigments, 2.05, 1.55 and 0.78 (ODU/ml were observed respectively.  

  7. Melanin-Like Pigment Synthesis by Soil Bacillus weihenstephanensis Isolates from Northeastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowska, Justyna M; Zambrzycka, Monika; Kalska-Szostko, Beata; Fiedoruk, Krzysztof; Swiecicka, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Although melanin is known for protecting living organisms from harmful physical and chemical factors, its synthesis is rarely observed among endospore-forming Bacillus cereus sensu lato. Here, for the first time, we reported that psychrotolerant Bacillus weihenstephanensis from Northeastern Poland can produce melanin-like pigment. We assessed physicochemical properties of the pigment and the mechanism of its synthesis in relation to B. weihenstephanensis genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy displayed a stable free radical signal of the pigment from environmental isolates which are consistent with the commercial melanin. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and physicochemical tests indicated the phenolic character of the pigment. Several biochemical tests showed that melanin-like pigment synthesis by B. weihenstephanensis was associated with laccase activity. The presence of the gene encoding laccase was confirmed by the next generation whole genome sequencing of one B. weihenstephanensis strain. Biochemical (API 20E and 50CHB tests) and genetic (Multi-locus Sequence Typing, 16S rRNA sequencing, and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis) characterization of the isolates revealed their close relation to the psychrotrophic B. weihenstephanensis DSMZ 11821 reference strain. The ability to synthesize melanin-like pigment by soil B. weihenstephanensis isolates and their psychrotrophic character seemed to be a local adaptation to a specific niche. Detailed genetic and biochemical analyses of melanin-positive environmental B. weihenstephanensis strains shed some light on the evolution and ecological adaptation of these bacteria. Moreover, our study raised new biotechnological possibilities for the use of water-soluble melanin-like pigment naturally produced by B. weihenstephanensis as an alternative to commercial non-soluble pigment.

  8. Melanin-Like Pigment Synthesis by Soil Bacillus weihenstephanensis Isolates from Northeastern Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna M Drewnowska

    Full Text Available Although melanin is known for protecting living organisms from harmful physical and chemical factors, its synthesis is rarely observed among endospore-forming Bacillus cereus sensu lato. Here, for the first time, we reported that psychrotolerant Bacillus weihenstephanensis from Northeastern Poland can produce melanin-like pigment. We assessed physicochemical properties of the pigment and the mechanism of its synthesis in relation to B. weihenstephanensis genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy displayed a stable free radical signal of the pigment from environmental isolates which are consistent with the commercial melanin. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and physicochemical tests indicated the phenolic character of the pigment. Several biochemical tests showed that melanin-like pigment synthesis by B. weihenstephanensis was associated with laccase activity. The presence of the gene encoding laccase was confirmed by the next generation whole genome sequencing of one B. weihenstephanensis strain. Biochemical (API 20E and 50CHB tests and genetic (Multi-locus Sequence Typing, 16S rRNA sequencing, and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis characterization of the isolates revealed their close relation to the psychrotrophic B. weihenstephanensis DSMZ 11821 reference strain. The ability to synthesize melanin-like pigment by soil B. weihenstephanensis isolates and their psychrotrophic character seemed to be a local adaptation to a specific niche. Detailed genetic and biochemical analyses of melanin-positive environmental B. weihenstephanensis strains shed some light on the evolution and ecological adaptation of these bacteria. Moreover, our study raised new biotechnological possibilities for the use of water-soluble melanin-like pigment naturally produced by B. weihenstephanensis as an alternative to commercial non-soluble pigment.

  9. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the thoracic spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roguski, Marie; Safain, Mina G; Zerris, Vasilios A; Kryzanski, James T; Thomas, Christine B; Magge, Subu N; Riesenburger, Ron I

    2014-10-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a proliferative lesion of the synovial membranes. Knees, hips, and other large weight-bearing joints are most commonly affected. PVNS rarely presents in the spine, in particular the thoracic segments. We present a patient with PVNS in the thoracic spine and describe its clinical presentation, radiographic findings, pathologic features, and treatment as well as providing the first comprehensive meta-analysis and review of the literature on this topic, to our knowledge. A total of 28 publications reporting 56 patients were found. The lumbar and cervical spine were most frequently involved (40% and 36% of patients, respectively) with infrequent involvement of the thoracic spine (24% of patients). PVNS affects a wide range of ages, but has a particular predilection for the thoracic spine in younger patients. The mean age in the thoracic group was 22.8 years and was significantly lower than the cervical and lumbar groups (42.4 and 48.6 years, respectively; p=0.0001). PVNS should be included in the differential diagnosis of osteodestructive lesions of the spine, especially because of its potential for local recurrence. The goal of treatment should be complete surgical excision. Although the pathogenesis is not clear, mechanical strain may play an important role, especially in cervical and lumbar PVNS. The association of thoracic lesions and younger age suggests that other factors, such as neoplasia, derangement of lipid metabolism, perturbations of humoral and cellular immunity, and other undefined patient factors, play a role in the development of thoracic PVNS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The etiology and molecular genetics of human pigmentation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Laura L; Pavan, William J

    2013-01-01

    Pigmentation, defined as the placement of pigment in skin, hair, and eyes for coloration, is distinctive because the location, amount, and type of pigmentation provides a visual manifestation of genetic heterogeneity in pathways regulating the pigment-producing cells, melanocytes. The scope of this genetic heterogeneity in humans ranges from normal to pathological pigmentation phenotypes. Clinically, normal human pigmentation encompasses a variety of skin and hair color as well as punctate pigmentation such as melanocytic nevi (moles) or ephelides (freckles), while abnormal human pigmentation exhibits markedly reduced or increased pigment levels, known as hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation, respectively. Elucidation of the molecular genetics underlying pigmentation has revealed genes important for melanocyte development and function. Furthermore, many pigmentation disorders show additional defects in cells other than melanocytes, and identification of the genetic insults in these disorders has revealed pleiotropic genes, where a single gene is required for various functions in different cell types. Thus, unravelling the genetics of easily visualized pigmentation disorders has identified molecular similarities between melanocytes and less visible cell types/tissues, arising from a common developmental origin and/or shared genetic regulatory pathways. Herein we discuss notable human pigmentation disorders and their associated genetic alterations, focusing on the fact that the developmental genetics of pigmentation abnormalities are instructive for understanding normal pathways governing development and function of melanocytes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Characters of homogentisate oxygenase gene mutation and high clonality of the natural pigment-producing Vibrio cholerae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diao Baowei

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some microorganisms can produce pigments such as melanin, which has been associated with virulence in the host and with a survival advantage in the environment. In Vibrio cholerae, studies have shown that pigment-producing mutants are more virulent than the parental strain in terms of increased UV resistance, production of major virulence factors, and colonization. To date, almost all of the pigmented V. cholerae strains investigated have been induced by chemicals, culture stress, or transposon mutagenesis. However, during our cholera surveillance, some nontoxigenic serogroup O139 strains and one toxigenic O1 strain, which can produce pigment steadily under the commonly used experimental growth conditions, were obtained in different years and from different areas. The genes VC1344 to VC1347, which correspond to the El Tor strain N16961 genome and which comprise an operon in the tyrosine catabolic pathway, have been confirmed to be associated with a pigmented phenotype. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of pigment production in these strains. Results Sequencing of the VC1344, VC1345, VC1346, and VC1347 genes in these pigmented strains suggested that a deletion mutation in the homogentisate oxygenase gene (VC1345 may be associated with the pigmented phenotype, and gene complementation confirmed the role of this gene in pigment production. An identical 15-bp deletion was found in the VC1345 gene of all six O139 pigment-producing strains examined, and a 10-bp deletion was found in the VC1345 gene of the O1 strain. Strict sequence conservation in the VC1344 gene but higher variance in the other three genes of this operon were observed, indicating the different stress response functions of these genes in environmental adaption and selection. On the basis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing, the pigment-producing O139 strains showed high clonality, even though they were isolated in different years and from

  12. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Gutierrez-Leon, A.; Castro, G.R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J. [Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, SpLine, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Solis, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sanchez-Hernandez, R. [INAH Subdireccion de Laboratorios y Apoyo Academico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Robles-Camacho, J. [INAH Centro Regional Michoacan, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Rojas-Gaytan, J. [INAH Direccion de Salvamento Arqueologico, Naucalpan de Juarez (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few {mu}g of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as anil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue. (orig.)

  13. Pigments in avocado tissue and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Ofelia B O; Wong, Marie; McGhie, Tony K; Vather, Rosheila; Wang, Yan; Requejo-Jackman, Cecilia; Ramankutty, Padmaja; Woolf, Allan B

    2006-12-27

    Pigments are important contributors to the appearance and healthful properties of both avocado fruits and the oils extracted from these fruits. This study determined carotenoid and chlorophyll pigment concentrations in the skin and three sections of the flesh (outer dark green, middle pale green, and inner yellow flesh-nearest the seed) and anthocyanin concentrations in the skin of Hass avocado during ripening at 20 degrees C. Pigments were extracted from frozen tissue with acetone and measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Pigments were also measured in the oil extracted from freeze-dried tissue sections by an accelerated solvent extraction system using hexane. Carotenoids and chlorophylls identified in the skin, flesh, and oil were lutein, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, chlorophylls a and b, and pheophytins a and b with the highest concentrations of all pigments in the skin. Chlorophyllides a and b were identified in the skin and flesh tissues only. As the fruit ripened and softened, the skin changed from green to purple/black, corresponding to changes in skin hue angle, and a concomitant increase in cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and the loss of chlorophyllide a. In flesh tissue, chroma and lightness values decreased with ripening, with no changes in hue angle. The levels of carotenoids and chlorophylls did not change significantly during ripening. As fruit ripened, the total chlorophyll level in the oil from the flesh sections remained constant but declined in the oil extracted from the skin.

  14. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zargar, Shabnam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn and discuss the importance of an accurate diagnosis for prevention of amblyopia.Methods: We describe a case of an abnormal red reflex seen on a newborn exam.Results: A full-term female born via normal spontaneous vaginal delivery without any complications was seen in the newborn nursery. She was noted to have an abnormal eye exam. Pupils were large with circular dark excrescences of the iris pigment epithelium. She was referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist where she was noted to fixate and follow faces. No afferent pupillary defect was seen. OD red reflex was normal whereas OS red reflex was blocked mostly by dark excrescences. A 2– dark brown lesion was seen in the OD iris and a 3–5 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OS iris, consistent with a pupillary iris pigment epithelial cyst. Central visual axis was clear OU. Glaucoma was not present and patching was not performed. Observations and clinical photographs were recommended with follow-up in three months.Conclusion: Iris pigment epithelial cysts are uncommonly seen in children. The primary care provider first seeing a newborn must be aware of lesions obscuring a red reflex with appropriate follow-up. Follow-up in three months with IOP measurements is recommended. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in children may be a cause of amblyopia, thus prompt evaluation is important for prognostic purposes and the prevention of amblyopia.

  15. Environmental and genetic effects on pigment-based vs. structural component of yellow feather colouration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Matrková

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carotenoid plumage is of widespread use in bird communication. Carotenoid-based feather colouration has recently been shown to be dependent on both pigment concentration and feather structure. If these two components are determined differently, one plumage patch may potentially convey different aspects of individual quality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the effects of genetic and environmental factors on carotenoid-based yellow breast colouration of Great Tit (Parus major nestlings. By partial cross-fostering, we separated the genetic and pre-natal vs. post-natal parental effects on both the structural and the pigment-based component of carotenoid-based plumage colouration. We also simultaneously manipulated the post-hatching environment by brood size manipulation. The structural component of nestling colouration reflected features of female colouration. On the other hand, the pigment-based component was more affected by rearing conditions presumably representing food quality. While the structural component was related to both origin- and environment-related factors, the pigment-based component seemed to be environment-dependent only. These results support the notion that pigment-based and structural components of feather colouration are determined differently. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chromatic and achromatic components of carotenoid-based feather colouration reflected different aspects of individual quality and history, and thus may potentially form a multicomponent signal.

  16. Patophysiological mechanism of pigmented purpuric dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujanac Andreja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Patophysiological modeling of pigmented purpuric dermatoses based on venous hypertension. Capillaritis are considered to be patophysiological equivalent, or etiological basis of pigmented purpuric dermatoses. The exact mechanism has not been established and suggests the following: increased venous pressure, odontogenic processes, hypersensitivity to carbamezepine, meprobamate, furosemide, vitamin B1, contact dermatitis (khaki-colour dermatitis, capillary fragility and perforating vein incompetence. In this paper we presented a mechanism based on increased venous pressure. Methods: Graphic presentation of Crank, Krogh and Bessel equation. Results: In Schamberg's disease relative and absolute hemoglobin concentrations are changed much more slowly than in Majocchi disease. Curves based on Bessel function provides better explanation for hemoglobin changes according to clinical presentation. Conclusion: This review study could be starting point for further investigation of pigmented purpuric dermatoses.

  17. Detection of Pigment Networks in Dermoscopy Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayef, Khalid; Li, Yongmin; Liu, Xiaohui

    2017-02-01

    One of the most important structures in dermoscopy images is the pigment network, which is also one of the most challenging and fundamental task for dermatologists in early detection of melanoma. This paper presents an automatic system to detect pigment network from dermoscopy images. The design of the proposed algorithm consists of four stages. First, a pre-processing algorithm is carried out in order to remove the noise and improve the quality of the image. Second, a bank of directional filters and morphological connected component analysis are applied to detect the pigment networks. Third, features are extracted from the detected image, which can be used in the subsequent stage. Fourth, the classification process is performed by applying feed-forward neural network, in order to classify the region as either normal or abnormal skin. The method was tested on a dataset of 200 dermoscopy images from Hospital Pedro Hispano (Matosinhos), and better results were produced compared to previous studies.

  18. Pigment Identification of Paintings Based on Kubelka-Munk Theory and Spectral Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghareh Abed, Farhad

    The preservation of cultural heritage and treatment thereof are delicate responsibilities that demand the best possible technologies and extreme care to avoid any irreversible loss. It necessitates a deep understanding of constituent materials, along with the analytical methods and cutting-edge technologies. Considering this direction, the goal of this dissertation is to promote the conservation procedures by providing an applicable workflow for spectral-based pigment identification. The proposed pipeline is a novel and practical aid for museum conservators for many aspects, such as inpainting, treatment and archiving of artwork. Spectral-based pigment identification algorithms rely on accurate spectral data, a subtractive mixing model and an effective unmixing algorithm. In this dissertation, the spectral data were obtained using a spectral image acquisition system as a feasible and non-destructive technique. A liquid-crystal tunable filter (LCTF) and a CCD camera were used for spectral measurement of the painting. The spectral accuracy and precision of the LCTF-based spectral acquisition system were assessed and enhanced. Of the common factors affecting the acquisition performance, capturing geometry, LCTF angular dependencies and spectral characterization algorithm were new contributions to the traditional workflow. The complexity of subtractive mixtures limits the effective application of linear unmixing algorithms for pigment identification. Accordingly, a new linear modification of single-constant Kubelka-Munk theory was derived to enable the use of available linear spectral unmixing algorithms for paint mixtures. A selection of geometric and iterative-based unmixing algorithms was applied to the LCTF spectral images in the subtractive mixing space using the defined subtractive linear model. Final sets of primary pigments were improved employing a pre-existing database of common pigments as a tool for practical inpainting procedures. The pigment maps, showing

  19. Green pigments of the Pompeian artists' palette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliatis, Irene; Bersani, Danilo; Campani, Elisa; Casoli, Antonella; Lottici, Pier Paolo; Mantovan, Silvia; Marino, Iari-Gabriel; Ospitali, Francesca

    2009-08-01

    Green colored samples on wall paintings and green powder from a pigment pot found in Pompeii area are investigated by micro-Raman, FT-IR and, for one sample, SEM-EDX. To obtain the green color, green earths and malachite were used, together with mixture of Egyptian blue and yellow ochre. The mineralogical identification of the green earths has been attempted through the comparison of the vibrational features, discriminating between celadonite and glauconite spectra. Traces of a modern synthetic pigment containing copper phthalocyanine were found in a fresco fragment.

  20. SYNTHESIS OF PLASTIC PIGMENT WITH MULTIHOLLOW STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqiang Jin; Qinghua Xu; Zonglin Liu

    2004-01-01

    The polymer particle possessing hollow structure are playing an increasingly important role in industry.The latex particle with hollow structure as plastic pigment has a low density, strong spreading capacity and good glossiness. So it has been utilized for the manufacture of LWC in paper-making. In this paper,we prepared a kind of novel plastic pigment by the soapless seeded emulsion polymerization, this product with polyacrylate as core and with polystyrene as shell (PA/PS) had hollow structure after dryness. The preparation, characterization and properties of the latex were studied in detail by chemistry analysis and apparatus analysis such as TEM,FTIR,DLS.

  1. SYNTHESIS OF PLASTIC PIGMENT WITH MULTIHOLLOW STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiqiangJin; QinghuaXu; ZonglinLiu

    2004-01-01

    The polymer particle possessing hollow structure are playing an increasingly important role in industry. The latex particle with hollow structure as plastic pigment has a low density, strong spreading capacity and good glossiness. So it has been utilized for the manufacture of LWC in paper-making. In this paper, we prepared a kind of novel plastic pigment by the soapless seeded emulsion polymerization, this product with polyacrylate as core and with polystyrene as shell (PA/PS) had hollow structure after dryness. The preparation, characterization and properties of the latex were studied in detail by chemistry analysis and apparatus analysis such as TEM,FTIR,DLS.

  2. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  3. Influence of Light Intensity on Growth and Pigment Production by Monascus ruber in Submerged Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Rose Marie Meinicke; Müller, Bruna Luíse; Moritz, Denise Esteves; Vendruscolo, Francielo; de Oliveira, Debora; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-07-01

    To reduce environmental problems caused by glycerine accumulation and to make the production of biodiesel more profitable, crude glycerin without treatment was used as substrate for obtaining higher value-added bioproducts. Monascus ruber is a filamentous fungus that produces pigments, particularly red ones, which are used for coloring foods (rice wine and meat products). The interest in developing pigments from natural sources is increasing due to the restriction of using synthetic dyes. The effects of temperature, pH, microorganism morphology, aeration, nitrogen source, and substrates have been studied in the cultivation of M. ruber. In this work, it was observed that light intensity is also an important factor that should be considered for understanding the metabolism of the fungus. In M. ruber cultivation, inhibition of growth and pigment production was observed in Petri dishes and blaffed flasks exposed to direct illumination. Growth and pigment production were higher in Petri dishes and flasks exposed to red light and in the absence of light. Radial growth rate of M. ruber in plates in darkness was 1.50 mm day(-1) and in plates exposed to direct illumination was 0.59 mm day(-1). Maximum production of red pigments (8.32 UA) and biomass (8.82 g L(-1)) were obtained in baffled flasks covered with red film and 7.17 UA of red pigments, and 7.40 g L(-1) of biomass was obtained in flasks incubated in darkness. Under conditions of 1248 lux of luminance, the maximum pigment production was 4.48 UA, with production of 6.94 g L(-1) of biomass, indicating that the fungus has photoreceptors which influence the physiological responses.

  4. Photoacclimation in microphytobenthos and the role of xanthophyll pigments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Brotas, Vanda; Consalvey, Mireille; Forster, Rodney M.; Gillespie, David; Jesus, Bruno; Roggeveld, Jan; Gieskes, Winfried W. C.

    2008-01-01

    Estuarine microphytobenthos are frequently exposed to excessively high irradiances. Photoinhibition in microalgae is prevented by various photophysiological responses. We describe here the role of the xanthophyll pigments in photoacclimation. The pigment composition of the microphytobenthos was stud

  5. Photoacclimation in microphytobenthos and the role of xanthophyll pigments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Brotas, Vanda; Consalvey, Mireille; Forster, Rodney M.; Gillespie, David; Jesus, Bruno; Roggeveld, Jan; Gieskes, Winfried W. C.

    2008-01-01

    Estuarine microphytobenthos are frequently exposed to excessively high irradiances. Photoinhibition in microalgae is prevented by various photophysiological responses. We describe here the role of the xanthophyll pigments in photoacclimation. The pigment composition of the microphytobenthos was

  6. Photoacclimation in microphytobenthos and the role of xanthophyll pigments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Brotas, Vanda; Consalvey, Mireille; Forster, Rodney M.; Gillespie, David; Jesus, Bruno; Roggeveld, Jan; Gieskes, Winfried W. C.

    2008-01-01

    Estuarine microphytobenthos are frequently exposed to excessively high irradiances. Photoinhibition in microalgae is prevented by various photophysiological responses. We describe here the role of the xanthophyll pigments in photoacclimation. The pigment composition of the microphytobenthos was stud

  7. Neoplasia versus hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen; Larsen, J.N.B.; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography......ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography...

  8. Nonlinear optical absorption of photosynthetic pigment molecules in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zi-Piao

    2012-04-01

    A mathematical formulation of the relationship between optical absorption coefficient of photosynthetic pigment molecules and light intensity was developed. It showed that physical parameters of photosynthetic pigment molecule (i.e., light absorption cross-section of photosynthetic pigment molecule, its average lifetime in the excited state, total photosynthetic pigment molecules, the statistical weight, or degeneracy of energy level of photosynthetic pigment molecules in the ground state and in the excited state) influenced on both the light absorption coefficient and effective light absorption cross-section of photosynthetic pigment molecules. Moreover, it also showed that both the light absorption coefficient and effective light absorption cross-section of photosynthetic pigment molecules were not constant, they decreased nonlinearly with light intensity increasing. The occupation numbers of photosynthetic pigment molecules in the excited states increased nonlinearly with light intensity increasing.

  9. Yap and Taz regulate retinal pigment epithelial cell fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesfeld, Joel B.; Gestri, Gaia; Clark, Brian S.; Flinn, Michael A.; Poole, Richard J.; Bader, Jason R.; Besharse, Joseph C.; Wilson, Stephen W.; Link, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    The optic vesicle comprises a pool of bi-potential progenitor cells from which the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and neural retina fates segregate during ocular morphogenesis. Several transcription factors and signaling pathways have been shown to be important for RPE maintenance and differentiation, but an understanding of the initial fate specification and determination of this ocular cell type is lacking. We show that Yap/Taz-Tead activity is necessary and sufficient for optic vesicle progenitors to adopt RPE identity in zebrafish. A Tead-responsive transgene is expressed within the domain of the optic cup from which RPE arises, and Yap immunoreactivity localizes to the nuclei of prospective RPE cells. yap (yap1) mutants lack a subset of RPE cells and/or exhibit coloboma. Loss of RPE in yap mutants is exacerbated in combination with taz (wwtr1) mutant alleles such that, when Yap and Taz are both absent, optic vesicle progenitor cells completely lose their ability to form RPE. The mechanism of Yap-dependent RPE cell type determination is reliant on both nuclear localization of Yap and interaction with a Tead co-factor. In contrast to loss of Yap and Taz, overexpression of either protein within optic vesicle progenitors leads to ectopic pigmentation in a dosage-dependent manner. Overall, this study identifies Yap and Taz as key early regulators of RPE genesis and provides a mechanistic framework for understanding the congenital ocular defects of Sveinsson's chorioretinal atrophy and congenital retinal coloboma. PMID:26209646

  10. Pigment Ink Formulation for Inkjet Printing of Different Textile Materials

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Marie; Y.H. El-Hamaky; D. Maamoun; D.F. Ibrahim; Abbas, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Cotton, polyester, and cotton polyester blended woven fabrics were printed using an ink jet print using by means of a prepared pigment ink. Literature indicated that the development of insoluble pigment-based inks presents enormous challenges to the ink formulator. Meanwhile, pigments face several application problems in terms of their dispersion stability within the ink formulation, and consequently blocking the nozzles within the inkjet print head. Upon this, Two pigment colors : M.D. Blue ...

  11. Pigments produced by the bacteria belonging to the genus Arthrobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Sutthiwong, N.; Caro, Y.; Fouillaud, M.; Laurent, P.; Valla, A.; Dufossé, L.

    2013-01-01

    Poster communication, 7th International Congress of Pigments in Food – New technologies towards health, through colors, Novara, Italy, June 18-21, 2013.; International audience; Since several decades, pigments have been used as a taxonomic tool for the identification and classification of bacteria. Nowadays, pigment producing microorganisms have been also widely interested in scientific disciplines because of their biotechnological potential. With the growing interest in microbial pigments be...

  12. SCF/c-kit signaling is required in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced migration and differentiation of hair follicle melanocytes for epidermal pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Weiming; Yang, Ke; Lei, Mingxing; Yan, Hongtao; Tang, Hui; Bai, Xiufeng; Yang, Guihong; Lian, Xiaohua; Wu, Jinjin

    2015-05-01

    Hair follicle melanocyte stem cells (McSCs) are responsible for hair pigmentation and also function as a major melanocyte reservoir for epidermal pigmentation. However, the molecular mechanism promoting McSCs for epidermal pigmentation remains elusive. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) mimics key signaling involved in melanocyte growth, migration and differentiation. We therefore investigated the molecular basis for the contribution of hair follicle McSCs to epidermal pigmentation using the TPA induction model. We found that repetitive TPA treatment of female C57BL/6 mouse dorsal skin induced epidermal pigmentation by increasing the number of epidermal melanocytes. Particularly, TPA treatment induced McSCs to initiate proliferation, exit the stem cell niche and differentiate. We also demonstrated that TPA promotes melanoblast migration and differentiation in vitro. At the molecular level, TPA treatment induced robust expression of stem cell factor (SCF) in keratinocytes and c-kit in melanoblasts and melanocytes. Administration of ACK2, a neutralizing antibody against the Kit receptor, suppressed mouse epidermal pigmentation, decreased the number of epidermal melanocytes, and inhibited melanoblast migration. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TPA promotes the expansion, migration and differentiation of hair follicle McSCs for mouse epidermal pigmentation. SCF/c-kit signaling was required for TPA-induced migration and differentiation of hair follicle melanocytes. Our findings may provide an excellent model to investigate the signaling mechanisms regulating epidermal pigmentation from mouse hair follicle McSCs, and a potential therapeutic option for skin pigmentation disorders.

  13. Production of Monascus-like pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing one or more Monascus-like pigment composition from Penicillium species comprising: a) providing a cultivation medium comprising a high concentration of C-and N-sources and a high C/N molar ratio, b) adjusting pH to about 5 to 8, c) inoculati...

  14. BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Picosecond spectroscopy of pyrrol pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippitsch, M. E.; Leitner, A.; Riegler, M.; Aussenegg, F. R.

    1982-05-01

    Picosecond fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy methods were used to study pyrromethenone, pyrromethene, and biliverdin. These methods made it possible to determine some details of the kinetics of various relaxation mechanisms. The results obtained provided a better understanding of the biological action of pyrrol pigments.

  15. Diet, disease and pigment variation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, R; Khan, B S Razib

    2010-10-01

    There are several hypotheses which explain the de-pigmentation of humans. The most prominent environmental explanation is that reduced endogenous vitamin D production due to diminished radiation at higher latitudes had a deleterious impact on fitness. This drove de-pigmentation as an adaptive response. A model of natural selection explains the high correlations found between low vitamin D levels and ill health, as vitamin D's role in immune response has clear evolutionary implications. But recent genomic techniques have highlighted the likelihood that extreme de-pigmentation in Eurasia is a feature of the last 10,000years, not the Upper Pleistocene, when modern humans first settled northern Eurasia. Additionally the data imply two independent selection events in eastern and western Eurasia. Therefore new parameters must be added to the model of natural selection so as to explain the relatively recent and parallel adaptive responses. I propose a model of gene-culture co-evolution whereby the spread of agriculture both reduced dietary vitamin D sources and led to more powerful selection on immune response because of the rise of infectious diseases with greater population densities. This model explains the persistence of relatively dark-skinned peoples at relatively high latitudes and the existence of relatively light-skinned populations at low latitudes. It also reinforces the importance of vitamin D as a micronutrient because of the evidence of extremely powerful fitness implications in the recent human past of pigmentation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. "Dry-column" chromatography of plant pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woeller, F. H.; Lehwalt, M. F.; Oyama, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    Separation of plant pigments which can be accomplished on thin-layer silica plates with mixture of petroleum ether, halocarbon, acetone, and polar solvent can be readily translated into dry-column technique that yields reproducible chromatograms after elution in fashion of liquid chromatography with fluorimeter as detector. Best solvent system was found to be mixture of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, acetone, and ethyl acetate.

  17. Water permeability of pigmented waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Erich, S.J.F.; Reuvers, N.J.W.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Coatings are used in a variety of applications. Last decades more and more coating systems are transforming from solvent to waterborne coating systems. In this study the influence of pigments on the water permeability of a waterborne coating system is studied, with special interest in the possible i

  18. Dermoscopy Clues in Pigmented Bowen's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gutiérrez-Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented tumors have similar clinical features that overlap and hamper diagnosis. Dermoscopy increases the diagnostic accuracy of doubtful melanocytic lesions and has been used as a noninvasive tool in the detection of pigmented lesions (PLs like melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and pigmented Bowen's disease (pBD. Our objective was to show the dermoscopic features of 2 cases of pBD and compare with the findings reported in the literature. Two dermoscopic images of biopsy proven pBD were retrospectively analyzed for dermoscopic patterns. Both cases showed brown regular globules, structureless brown and blue pigmentation, glomerular vessels, hypopigmented regression-like areas, and keratosis. These findings were similar to the cases reported previously. The dermoscopic diagnosis of pBD is based on the absence of criteria for a melanocytic lesion in the presence of glomerular vessels, regular brown globules and keratosis. Although pBD is rare, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of PLs, especially melanoma.

  19. "Salting-out" concentration of phytoplankton pigment extracts previous to their analysis by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Garrido

    2014-04-01

    The recoveries of different pigments varied depending on their chemical nature and the degree of enrichment of the extract. Carotenoids and non-polar chlorophylls were recovered above 85 % with 5M saline solutions, while the recovery of acidic clorophylls (c3 and c2 decreased with enrichment factors.

  20. 21 CFR 73.350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.350 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments. (a... color additive mixtures for coloring food. (b) Specifications. Mica-based pearlescent pigments...

  1. Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus resembling a pigmented neurofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus and pigmented neurofibroma (PNF are close mimics and pose a clinicopathological challenge. We present a case of pigmented hypertrichotic plaque over lumbosacral region and discuss the differential diagnosis and its clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemistry features which may aid in differentiation. We highlight the difficulties faced in differentiating neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus from pigmented neurofibroma.

  2. Lipofuscin and A2E accumulate with age in the retinal pigment epithelium of Nrl-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Nicholas P; Tang, Peter H; Higbee, Daniel; Ablonczy, Zsolt; Crouch, Rosalie K; Koutalos, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    Lipofuscin is a fluorescent material with significant phototoxic potential that accumulates with age in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of the eye. It is thought to be a factor in retinal degeneration diseases. The most extensively characterized lipofuscin component, N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E), has been proposed to be a byproduct of reactions involving the visual pigment chromophore. To examine the impact of the visual pigment and photoreceptor cell type on lipofuscin accumulation, we analyzed the RPE from Nrl(-/-) mice of various ages for lipofuscin fluorescence and A2E levels. The photoreceptor cells of the Nrl(-/-) retina contain only cone-like pigments, and produce cone-like responses to photostimulation. The cone-like nature of these cells was confirmed by the presence of RPE65. Lipofuscin was measured with fluorescence imaging, whereas A2E was quantified by UV/VIS absorbance spectroscopy coupled to HPLC. The identity of A2E was corroborated with tandem mass spectrometry. Lipofuscin and A2E accumulated with age, albeit to lower levels compared with wild type mice. The emission spectra of RPE lipofuscin granules from Nrl(-/-) mice were similar to those from wild type mice, with λ(max) ca 610 nm. These results demonstrate that cone visual pigments can contribute to the production of lipofuscin and A2E. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  3. A Genomic Approach to Study Anthocyanin Synthesis and Flower Pigmentation in Passionflowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Cristina Baldon Aizza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the plant pigments ranging from red to purple colors belong to the anthocyanin group of flavonoids. The flowers of plants belonging to the genus Passiflora (passionflowers show a wide range of floral adaptations to diverse pollinating agents, including variation in the pigmentation of floral parts ranging from white to red and purple colors. Exploring a database of expressed sequence tags obtained from flower buds of two divergent Passiflora species, we obtained assembled sequences potentially corresponding to 15 different genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway in these species. The obtained sequences code for putative enzymes are involved in the production of flavonoid precursors, as well as those involved in the formation of particular (“decorated” anthocyanin molecules. We also obtained sequences encoding regulatory factors that control the expression of structural genes and regulate the spatial and temporal accumulation of pigments. The identification of some of the putative Passiflora anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes provides novel resources for research on secondary metabolism in passionflowers, especially on the elucidation of the processes involved in floral pigmentation, which will allow future studies on the role of pigmentation in pollinator preferences in a molecular level.

  4. Tattoo pigments in skin: determination and quantitative extraction of red tattoo pigments

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The number of tattooed individuals increased significantly, especially among youth. In the United States, up to 24% of the population has tattoos, whereas in European countries like Germany about 9% and the United Kingdom about 12% are tattooed. Today frequently azo pigments are used for tattooing. These azo pigments are manufactured primarily for other purposes like printing, painting cars and coloring various consumer products. To estimate the risk of any health problems of tattooing, t...

  5. Survey of skin pigmentation of yellow-skinned broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Bianchi, M; Meluzzi, A

    2010-07-01

    The appearance of whole carcass and skin-on cut-up products is an important attribute that deeply affects the consumer's choice. Skin pigmentation is affected mainly by genetics, concentration and dietary source of pigments, health status of the birds, and scalding-plucking conditions during slaughtering, although other factors might play an important role. Retailers request batches of broiler chicken carcasses characterized by uniform skin pigmentation to be sold as whole carcass or parts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of skin color of yellow-skinned broilers reared under intensive conditions. For the study, a total of 2,300 medium size broiler chickens (2,300 to 2,500 g of live weight) from 23 flocks (100 birds/flock; n = 12 flocks of males and n = 11 flocks of females; n = 12 flocks of Ross 508 and n = 11 flocks of Ross 308) were randomly selected in a single slaughterhouse. The color measurements were carried out on both breast and thigh pterylae as well as on shank skin adopting the L* a* b* system and using a Minolta colorimeter CR 300. The overall range in measured yellowness (b*) was fairly large for all skin color measurement positions. For breast, a mean value of 22.77 (SD = 5.12) was observed, with values ranging from 7.45 to 39.12. Average values of thigh and shank were 20.23 (SD = 5.02; range 1.99 to 37.82) and 53.99 (SD = 8.13; range 24.22 to 78.65), respectively. A higher skin yellowness was observed in females in all body parts as well as in Ross 308. Yellowness values of breast and thigh were significantly correlated (r = 0.85; P < 0.01), suggesting that the color evaluation may be carried out only on one measurement position of the skin.

  6. Influence of intra-pigment vibrations on dynamics of photosynthetic exciton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yoshihiro, E-mail: sato.yoshihiro77@nihon-u.ac.jp, E-mail: ysato.colby@gmail.com; Doolittle, Brian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colby College, Waterville, Maine 04901 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    We have numerically investigated the effect of an underdamped intra-pigment vibrational mode on an exciton's quantum coherence and energy transfer efficiency. Our model describes a bacteriochlorophyll a pigment-protein dimer under the conditions at which photosynthetic energy transfer occurs. The dimer is modeled using a theoretical treatment of a vibronic exciton, and its dynamics are numerically analyzed using a non-Markovian and non-perturbative method. We examined the system's response to various values of the Huang-Rhys factor, site energy difference, reorganization energy, and reorganization energy difference. We found that the inclusion of the intra-pigment vibronic mode allows for long-lived oscillatory quantum coherences to occur. This excitonic coherence is robust against static site-energy disorder. The vibrational mode also promotes exciton transfer along the site-energy landscape thus improving the overall energy transfer efficiency.

  7. Aluminum pigment encapsulated by in situ copolymerization of styrene and maleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Ye, Hongqi; Tang, Xinde

    2007-11-01

    To improve its anticorrosion property, aluminum pigment was encapsulated by in situ copolymerization of styrene (St) and maleic acid (MA). It was found that the conversion of monomers (C), the percentage of grafting (PG) and the grafting efficiency (GE) could attain 92%, 12%, 25%, respectively, when m(BPO)/ m(St + MA) = 10% and m(St + MA)/ m(Al) = 10%. The optimum condition for protection factor was studied according to an orthogonal testing. When m(St + MA)/ m(Al) was 20%, the encapsulated aluminum pigment simultaneously showed good anticorrosion property and luster. FTIR, SEM and particle size analysis indicated that aluminum pigment had been successfully encapsulated with styrene-maleic acid copolymer by in situ copolymerization, which remarkably improved its anticorrosion property and the chelate complex formed between SMA and Al(III) was possibly the actual corrosion inhibitor.

  8. Multilayered pigment epithelial detachment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimy, Ehsan; Freund, K Bailey; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in eyes with chronic fibrovascular pigment epithelial detachment (PED) receiving intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy. METHODS: Retrospective observational case series of patients...... over a mean of 36.9 months (median, 37.5; range, 6-84). A fusiform, or spindle-shaped, complex of highly organized layered hyperreflective bands was noted within each PED. Nineteen eyes demonstrated heterogenous, dilated, irregular neovascular tissue adherent to the undersurface of the retinal pigment......, hyperreflective bands, termed a "multilayered PED," which is often seen in conjunction with neovascular tissue adherent to the undersurface of the retinal pigment epithelium monolayer. On the basis of previous histopathologic correlations, these bands may represent a fibrous tissue complex with contractile...

  9. Automated Imaging System for Pigmented Skin Lesion Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Ahmed Sheha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Through the study of pigmented skin lesions risk factors, the appearance of malignant melanoma turns the anomalous occurrence of these lesions to annoying sign. The difficulty of differentiation between malignant melanoma and melanocytic naive is the error-bone problem that usually faces the physicians in diagnosis. To think through the hard mission of pigmented skin lesions diagnosis different clinical diagnosis algorithms were proposed such as pattern analysis, ABCD rule of dermoscopy, Menzies method, and 7-points checklist. Computerized monitoring of these algorithms improves the diagnosis of melanoma compared to simple naked-eye of physician during examination. Toward the serious step of melanoma early detection, aiming to reduce melanoma mortality rate, several computerized studies and procedures were proposed. Through this research different approaches with a huge number of features were discussed to point out the best approach or methodology could be followed to accurately diagnose the pigmented skin lesion. This paper proposes automated system for diagnosis of melanoma to provide quantitative and objective evaluation of skin lesion as opposed to visual assessment, which is subjective in nature. Two different data sets were utilized to reduce the effect of qualitative interpretation problem upon accurate diagnosis. Set of clinical images that are acquired from a standard camera while the other set is acquired from a special dermoscopic camera and so named dermoscopic images. System contribution appears in new, complete and different approaches presented for the aim of pigmented skin lesion diagnosis. These approaches result from using large conclusive set of features fed to different classifiers. The three main types of different features extracted from the region of interest are geometric, chromatic, and texture features. Three statistical methods were proposed to select the most significant features that will cause a valuable effect in

  10. Challenges of identifying eczema in darkly pigmented skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Joan

    2015-07-01

    There is a paucity of information about the difference in the presentation of eczema in darkly pigmented skin compared to children with fair or white skin. This article describes the possible challenges of diagnosing eczema in children with darkly pigmented skin. The physiological difference in darkly pigmented skin compared with fair or white skin is explored, and how eczema may be manifested and identified in darkly pigmented skin. The author uses the term darkly pigmented skin to describe children of black Caribbean, African or Asian descent.

  11. Relationship between bilirubin free radical and formation of pigment gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Tao Liu; Jian Hu

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize the main progresses made inour group in the field of the mechanism of pigment gallstoneformation. It was found that after treetment with freeradicals, bilirubin (BR) was changed into free radical itself,and a semiquinone free radical and a superoxide free radicalbound with metal were recognized, which was detected byESR (electron spin resonance). By the meana of NMR(nuclear magnetic resonance) and IR (Infra-red spectra), itwas postulated that bilirubin polymerized through thereaction between the vinyl group and the hydroxyl groupunder the attack of free radicals. It was also found thatbilirubin free radical were liable to calcify in a kinetic study.Because of its chemical properties, bilirubin free radical wasshown to be cytotoxic to hepetocyte, which wasdemonstrated based on the following facts: induction ofphospholipid peroxidation (LPO), leakage of lactatedehydrogenase (LDH) and decrease of glutathione. As tothe mechanism of bilirubin-induced cytotoxicity, it waspostulated that the main target of bilirubin free radical wasthe cell membrane, including phospholipid and membranebound proteins, especially spectrin, a content ofcytoskeleton. Based on the results mentioned above, it wasdeduced that bilirubin free radical is the key factor thatinitiates and promotes the formation of pigment gallstone,which is consistent with other researches in recent years.

  12. Nevus of ota with buccal mucosal pigmentation: a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Shishir Ram; Subhas, Babu G; Rao, Kumuda Arvind; Castellino, Renita

    2011-01-01

    Nevus of Ota is a condition wherein the typical pattern of the bluish black pigmentation is noticed along with the cutaneous distribution of the trigeminal nerve. This condition is most prevalent in Japanese population but comparatively rare among Indians. We report a case of 23-year-old female presented with unilateral pigmented areas over the skin of forehead, malar area, ear and periorbital area. Blackish-blue pigmented areas were also noticed on the sclera. Brownish-black diffuse pigmented areas were also noticed on the buccal mucosa of the same side. The presence of pigmentation on the skin over pinna and oral pigmentation made our case a rare incidence. Oral pigmentations associated with nevus of Ota especially on the buccal mucosa have rarely been reported in the past.

  13. Nevus of Ota with buccal mucosal pigmentation: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir Ram Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nevus of Ota is a condition wherein the typical pattern of the bluish black pigmentation is noticed along with the cutaneous distribution of the trigeminal nerve. This condition is most prevalent in Japanese population but comparatively rare among Indians. We report a case of 23-year-old female presented with unilateral pigmented areas over the skin of forehead, malar area, ear and periorbital area. Blackish-blue pigmented areas were also noticed on the sclera. Brownish-black diffuse pigmented areas were also noticed on the buccal mucosa of the same side. The presence of pigmentation on the skin over pinna and oral pigmentation made our case a rare incidence. Oral pigmentations associated with nevus of Ota especially on the buccal mucosa have rarely been reported in the past.

  14. 色素上皮衍生因子治疗年龄相关性黄斑变性的研究进展%Progress on study of treatment of age-related macular degeneration by pigment epithelial-derived factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯慧媛; 王雨生

    2010-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of blindness in elderly population.Exploration of effective treatment of AMD has important significance.Pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) is the most powerful endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis.Increasing evidences,including results of phase I clinical trial,indicated that PEDF could significantly inhibit the development of choroidal neovascularization,which is the characteristic of wet AMD.Therefore,PEDF is one of the most potential therapeutic agents for AMD treatment.%年龄相关性黄斑变性(AMD)是世界范围内老年人致盲的主要疾病之一,探索治疗AMD的有效方法具有防盲治盲的重要意义.色素上皮衍生因子(PEDF)是最强效的内源性新生血管抑制剂,大量基础研究及I期临床试验的结果表明,PEDF可有效治疗以脉络膜新生血管形成为主要特征的湿性AMD,因此,PEDF已成为目前最具潜能的治疗AMD的首选药物之一.

  15. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Sylvain; Rougemont, Anne-Laure; Peter, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare disease that can affect any joint, bursa or tendon sheath.The hip is less frequently affected than the knee, and hence is less discussed in scientific journals.PVNS of the hip mainly occurs in young adults, requiring early diagnosis and adequate treatment to obtain good results.There is no consensus on the management of PVNS of the hip in current literature.We will discuss the options for surgical intervention in hip PVNS using a literature review of clinical, biological, etiological, histological and radiographic aspects of the disease. Cite this article: Steinmetz S, Rougemont A-L, Peter R. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the hip. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:260-266. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000021.

  16. Independent component analysis-based algorithm for automatic identification of Raman spectra applied to artistic pigments and pigment mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vidal, Juan José; Pérez-Pueyo, Rosanna; Soneira, María José; Ruiz-Moreno, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    A new method has been developed to automatically identify Raman spectra, whether they correspond to single- or multicomponent spectra. The method requires no user input or judgment. There are thus no parameters to be tweaked. Furthermore, it provides a reliability factor on the resulting identification, with the aim of becoming a useful support tool for the analyst in the decision-making process. The method relies on the multivariate techniques of principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA), and on some metrics. It has been developed for the application of automated spectral analysis, where the analyzed spectrum is provided by a spectrometer that has no previous knowledge of the analyzed sample, meaning that the number of components in the sample is unknown. We describe the details of this method and demonstrate its efficiency by identifying both simulated spectra and real spectra. The method has been applied to artistic pigment identification. The reliable and consistent results that were obtained make the methodology a helpful tool suitable for the identification of pigments in artwork or in paint in general.

  17. Treatment of gingival pigmentation : A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Deepak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection and courtesy, and reveals self confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position and the color of the teeth but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival health and appearance are essential components of an attractive smile. Gingival pigmentation results from melanin granules, which are produced by melanoblasts. The degree of pigmentation depends on melanoblastic activity. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of ′black gums′ are common particularly in patients having a very high smile line (gummy smile. For depigmentation of gingiva different treatment modalities have been reported like- Bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery and laser. In the present case series bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap (epithelial excision cryotherapy and electrosurgery have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction. The problems encountered with some of these techniques have also been discussed.

  18. Treatment of gingival pigmentation: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Prasad; Sunil, S; Mishra, R; Sheshadri

    2005-01-01

    A smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection and courtesy, and reveals self confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position and the color of the teeth but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival health and appearance are essential components of an attractive smile. Gingival pigmentation results from melanin granules, which are produced by melanoblasts. The degree of pigmentation depends on melanoblastic activity. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of 'black gums' are common particularly in patients having a very high smile line (gummy smile). For depigmentation of gingiva different treatment modalities have been reported like- Bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery and laser. In the present case series bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap (epithelial excision) cryotherapy and electrosurgery have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction. The problems encountered with some of these techniques have also been discussed.

  19. Possible relationship between intestinal barrier function and formation of pigment gallstones in hamsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Fan; Shuo-Dong Wu; Lei Sun; Bei-Bei Fu; Yang Su

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The presence of bacteria in bile is an important factor in the formation of pigment gallstones. The bile of healthy people is sterile and bacteria in the biliary system come from endogenous infection from the gut. Yet, the route of bacterial translocation into the bile duct is still unclear. Theoretically, two routes exist:one is through the intestinal barrier and the other is by direct relfux from the sphincter of Oddi. This study was undertaken to explore the relationship between the effectiveness of intestinal barrier and the formation of pigment gallstones in hamsters. METHODS: Thirty-two hamsters were divided into an experimental and a control group, with 16 hamsters in each group. A low protein and high cellulose diet was given for 6 weeks to induce the formation of pigment gallstones in the experimental group (PS) and a normal diet was given to the control group (CON). Morphological changes, changes in the levels of serum endotoxin and diamine oxidase, and changes in the numbers of B lymphocytes, plasma cells and secretory immunoglobin A (sIgA) in the intestinal mucosa were assessed after 6 weeks. RESULTS:Four hamsters died during lithogenesis and body weight decreased in the PS group. Pigment gallstones were found in 11 hamsters at the end of the experiment, giving a lithogenesis rate of 91.67%. The serum endotoxin level before and after gallstone formation in the PS group was 0.2960±0.1734 U/ml and 8.2964±4.6268 U/ml, respectively (P CONCLUSIONS:A low protein and high cellulose diet can markedly reduce intestinal barrier function and facilitate the formation of pigment gallstones. The decrease of intestinal barrier function may take part in the formation of pigment gallstones.

  20. Drosophila DOCK Family Protein Zizimin Involves in Pigment Cell Differentiation in Pupal Retinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Fumito; Morishita, Kazushige; Dang, Ngoc Anh Suong; Miyata, Seiji; Yoshida, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2017-08-26

    The dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family proteins are known as one of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), that contribute to cellular signaling processes by activating small G proteins. Although mammalian Zizimin is known to be a GEF for Cdc42 of Rho family small GTPase, its role in vivo is not well understood. Here we studied in vivo function of Drosophila Zizimin (Ziz). Knockdown of Ziz in eye imaginal discs induced the rough eye phenotype accompanied with fusion of ommatidia, loss of bristles and loss of pigments. Immunostaining analyses revealed that Ziz mainly localizes in the secondary pigment cells (SPCs) and tertiary pigment cells (TPCs) in pupal retinae. Ziz-knockdown induced SPC- and TPC-like cells with aberrant morphology in the pupal retina. Delta (Dl), a downstream target of EGFR signaling is known to regulate pigment cell differentiation. Loss-of-function mutation of Dl suppressed the rough eye phenotype and the defect in differentiation of SPCs and TPCs in Ziz-knockdown flies. Moreover, Ziz-knockdown increased Dl expression level especially in SPCs and TPCs. In addition, mutations of rhomboid-1 and roughoid that are activators of EGFR signaling pathway also suppressed both the rough eye phenotype and the defect in differentiation of SPCs and TPCs in Ziz-knockdown flies. Activation of EGFR signaling in Ziz-knockdown flies were further confirmed by immunostaining with anti-diphospho ERK IgG. These results indicate that Ziz negatively regulates the Dl expression in SPCs and TPCs to control differentiation of pigment cells and this regulation is mediated by EGFR signaling pathway.Key words: Zizimin, DOCK, EGFR signaling pathway, pigment cell, Drosophila.

  1. The photochromic effect of bismuth vanadate pigments. Part I: Synthesis, characterization and lightfastness of pigment coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tücks, A.; Beck, H. P.

    2005-04-01

    We report on investigations of the photochromic effect of BiVO 4 pigments. Emphasis is placed on an approach widely used in industrial color testing. By means of colorimetry Δ E ab*-values, which measure the perceived color difference, can be calculated from reflectance spectra of non-illuminated and illuminated pigment coatings. Pigments were prepared by either wet-chemical precipitation or solid-state reactions. Depending on the choice of starting compounds, lightfastness was found to vary significantly. Small amounts of impurity phases do not seem to affect photochromism. In contrast, impurities like Fe and Pb cause intense photochromism. The role of Fe is suggested by trace analyses, which (in case of pigments synthesized by precipitation reactions) reveal a correlation between concentration and Δ E ab*. Indications are found that other effects like pigment-lacquer interactions might also be of importance. Difference reflectance spectra turn out to vary in shape depending on the type and concentration of impurities or dopants. For BiVO 4 at least three different mechanisms of photochromism can be assumed.

  2. Hairless pigmented guinea pigs: a new model for the study of mammalian pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognia, J L; Murray, M S; Pawelek, J M

    1990-09-01

    A stock of hairless pigmented guinea pigs was developed to facilitate studies of mammalian pigmentation. This stock combines the convenience of a hairless animal with a pigmentary system that is similar to human skin. In both human and guinea pig skin, active melanocytes are located in the basal layer of the interfollicular epidermis. Hairless albino guinea pigs on an outbred Hartley background (CrI:IAF/HA(hr/hr)BR; designated hr/hr) were mated with red-haired guinea pigs (designated Hr/Hr). Red-haired heterozygotes from the F1 generation (Hr/hr) were then mated with each other or with hairless albino guinea pigs. The F2 generation included hairless pigmented guinea pigs that retained their interfollicular epidermal melanocytes and whose skin was red-brown in color. Following UV irradiation, there was an increase in cutaneous pigmentation as well as an increase in the number of active epidermal melanocytes. An additional strain of black hairless guinea pigs was developed using black Hr/Hr animals and a similar breeding scheme. These two strains should serve as useful models for studies of the mammalian pigment system.

  3. Photodecomposition of Pigment Yellow 74, a pigment used in tattoo inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanyan; Spann, Andrew P; Couch, Letha H; Gopee, Neera V; Evans, Frederick E; Churchwell, Mona I; Williams, Lee D; Doerge, Daniel R; Howard, Paul C

    2004-01-01

    Tattooing has become a popular recreational practice among younger adults over the past decade. Although some of the pigments used in tattooing have been described, very little is known concerning the toxicology, phototoxicology or photochemistry of these pigments. Seven yellow tattoo inks were obtained from commercial sources and their pigments extracted, identified and quantitatively analyzed. The monoazo compound Pigment Yellow 74 (PY74; CI 11741) was found to be the major pigment in several of the tattoo inks. Solutions of commercial PY74 in tetrahydrofuran (THF) were deoxygenated using argon gas, and the photochemical reaction products were determined after exposure to simulated solar light generated by a filtered 6.5 kW xenon arc lamp. Spectrophotometric and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses indicated that PY74 photodecomposed to multiple products that were isolated using a combination of silica chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC. Three of the major photodecomposition products were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry as N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxobutanamide (o-acetoacetanisidide), 2-(hydroxyimine)-N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxobutanamide and N,N''-bis(2-methoxyphenyl)urea. These results demonstrate that PY74 is not photostable in THF and that photochemical lysis occurs at several sites in PY74 including the hydrazone and amide groups. The data also suggest that the use of PY74 in tattoo inks could potentially result in the formation of photolysis products, resulting in toxicity at the tattoo site after irradiation with sunlight or more intense light sources.

  4. Observations on Some of the Mycelial Growth and Pigmentation Characteristics of Cordyceps militaris Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Lee, Won-Ho; Han, Sang-Kuk

    2006-01-01

    Characteristic growth patterns of Cordyceps militaris isolates on various media, under varying light conditions and at varying incubation periods were examined. Light was found to be the most critical single factor in determining the density, texture, and pigmentation of the mycelial culture of the fungus. However, under the light condition, the degree of pigmentation and mycelial density were found to be affected by the incubation period and type of medium. Irrespective of the variations in medium type or incubation period, there was no pigmentation of the mycelium under dark condition. Radial growth of the mycelium was faster under dark incubation rather than under light incubation. Abundant mycelial density and darkest pigmentation of C. militaris isolates were produced in nutritionally rich media like SDAY, SMAY and CZYA, suggesting that these media may fulfill all the requirements for vegetative growth of the fungus. Growth characteristics of C. militaris isolates could be easily observed by the simple agar culture method, which would be useful to characterize the phenotypic characteristics of large number of pure cultures of the fungus under given conditions of growth factors such as medium, light and temperature. PMID:24039476

  5. Statistical optimization of pigment production by Monascus sanguineus under stress condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Rashmi; Tallapragada, Padmavathi

    2014-01-01

    Natural pigments are produced by the Monascus sp., which are used for coloring food substances. The intent of this study was to optimize the pigment yield and biomass produced from the unexplored Monascus sanguineus in submerged culture under stress conditions. For inducing thermal stress, the spores were incubated at various temperatures at higher ranges. For inducing osmotic stress, varied concentrations of NaCl, glycerol, and peptone were used. The medium components were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The combined effects of the four medium constituents mentioned were studied using a 2⁴ full factorial central composite design (CCD). The relationships between the predicted values and actual values, independent variable, and the response were calculated according to a second-order quadratic model. It was deduced that the variable with the leading effect was the linear effect of glycerol concentration. Furthermore, the quadratic effects of peptone and the interactive effects of temperature and glycerol were more noteworthy than other factors. The optimum values for the test variables in coded factors were found to be spores treated with 70°C for temperature, 0.25 M for glycerol, 0.51% (w/v) for peptone, and 1.25% (w/v) for NaCl, corresponding to a maximum red pigment yield of 55.67 color value units (CVU)/mL. With optimized conditions, the pigment yield was almost three times the yield observed with the control.

  6. Pigments and ultrastructures of pigment cells in xanthic sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, P D; Angus, R A; Morrison, R L; Frost-Mason, S K; Sheetz, J H

    1991-12-01

    Electron micrographs of skin from xanthic (gold) sailfin mollies revealed numerous xanthophores, as well as scattered melanophores. The melanophores were seen to contain premelanosomes in various stages of development. This is consistent with the fact that xanthic mollies have been shown to be tyrosinase positive. Melanosomes in xanthic mollies appear to develop by one of two pathways: 1) from an endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicle which develops an internal lamellar framework, and 2) by fusion of multiple Golgi-derived vesicles which lack an internal lamellar framework. Analysis of the pigments in the skin of the xanthic mollies identified four colorless pteridine pigments (xanthopterin, isoxanthopterin, neopterin, and pterin) and a carotenoid with an absorbance spectrum similar to beta-carotene. It appears that, unlike some other poeciliid fishes, sailfin mollies do not use pteridine pigments for orange coloration. Rather, they appear to rely primarily on carotenoids.

  7. Origins of adult pigmentation: diversity in pigment stem cell lineages and implications for pattern evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parichy, David M; Spiewak, Jessica E

    2015-01-01

    Teleosts comprise about half of all vertebrate species and exhibit an extraordinary diversity of adult pigment patterns that function in shoaling, camouflage, and mate choice and have played important roles in speciation. Here, we review studies that have identified several distinct neural crest lineages, with distinct genetic requirements, that give rise to adult pigment cells in fishes. These lineages include post-embryonic, peripheral nerve-associated stem cells that generate black melanophores and iridescent iridophores, cells derived directly from embryonic neural crest cells that generate yellow-orange xanthophores, and bipotent stem cells that generate both melanophores and xanthophores. This complexity in adult chromatophore lineages has implications for our understanding of adult traits, melanoma, and the evolutionary diversification of pigment cell lineages and patterns.

  8. DNA damage in isolated rat hepatocytes exposed to C.I. pigment orange 5 and C.I. pigment yellow 12 by the alkaline comet assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Wallin, Håkan; Grunnet, N

    1998-01-01

    The induction of DNA damage by commonly used printing ink pigments, C.I. pigment orange 5 (C.I. 12075) and C.I. pigment yellow 12 (C.I. 21090), was investigated in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes with the comet assay. C.I. pigment yellow 12 is a 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine-based diarylide pigment, an......]quinoxaline. Our data indicate that both C.I. pigment orange 5 and C.I. pigment yellow 12 are genotoxic in hepatocytes with metabolizing capacities. However, further investigation of the metabolism and disposition are required for the evaluation of the safety of these pigments....

  9. Histopathologic and Immunohistochemical Correlates of Confocal Descriptors in Pigmented Facial Macules on Photodamaged Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martín, Ignacio; Moreno, Sara; Andrades-López, Evelyn; Hernández-Muñoz, Inma; Gallardo, Fernando; Barranco, Carlos; Pujol, Ramon M; Segura, Sonia

    2017-08-01

    Pigmented facial macules on photodamaged skin are a clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathologic challenge. To clinically and dermoscopically characterize, by means of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), ambiguous pigmented facial macules and establish a correlation between RCM, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings. A prospective study of ambiguous pigmented facial macules on photodamaged skin was conducted in a tertiary referral center for dermatology between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2015. Sixty-one patients with 63 ambiguous pigmented facial macules and 12 control photodamaged facial areas were included in the study. Melanocyte density in 1-mm basal layers was determined in skin biopsy specimens from all lesions stained with hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical markers (melan-A, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, and SRY-related HMG-box gene 10). Dermoscopic, RCM images, and histopathologic preparations were systematically evaluated for the presence of lentigo maligna (LM) criteria. Confocal evaluation was blinded to clinical and dermoscopic diagnosis. Sensitivity and specificity of RCM for LM diagnosis and κ value to establish correlations between dermoscopy, RCM, and histopathology were performed. Sensitivity and specificity of RCM for LM diagnosis. Of the 61 patients included in the study, 31 (51%) were women; mean (SD) age was 71.8 (13.1) years. Twenty-four of the 63 (38%) lesions were diagnosed as LM or LM melanoma (LMM) and 39 (62%) as benign pigmented lesions. Reflectance confocal microscopy enhanced the diagnosis of pigmented facial macules with 91.7% sensitivity and 86.8% specificity. Multivariate analysis showed 2 dermoscopic and 2 confocal features associated with LM or LMM: (1) asymmetric follicular pigmentation and targetlike structures, and (2) round, large pagetoid cells and follicular localization of atypical cells, respectively. Continuous proliferation of atypical melanocytes was found in 21 (88%) LM or

  10. Role of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Regulating Skin Pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideya Ando

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Pigmentation of the skin, hair and eyes is regulated by tyrosinase, the critical rate-limiting enzyme in melanin synthesis by melanocytes. Tyrosinase is degraded endogenously, at least in part, by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS. Several types of inherited hypopigmentary diseases, such as oculocutaneous albinism and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, involve the aberrant processing and/or trafficking of tyrosinase and its subsequent degradation which can occur due to the quality-control machinery. Studies on carbohydrate modifications have revealed that tyrosinase in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER is proteolyzed via ER-associated protein degradation and that tyrosinase degradation can also occur following its complete maturation in the Golgi. Among intrinsic factors that regulate the UPS, fatty acids have been shown to modulate tyrosinase degradation in contrasting manners through increased or decreased amounts of ubiquitinated tyrosinase that leads to its accelerated or decelerated degradation by proteasomes.

  11. Yap and Taz regulate retinal pigment epithelial cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesfeld, Joel B; Gestri, Gaia; Clark, Brian S; Flinn, Michael A; Poole, Richard J; Bader, Jason R; Besharse, Joseph C; Wilson, Stephen W; Link, Brian A

    2015-09-01

    The optic vesicle comprises a pool of bi-potential progenitor cells from which the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and neural retina fates segregate during ocular morphogenesis. Several transcription factors and signaling pathways have been shown to be important for RPE maintenance and differentiation, but an understanding of the initial fate specification and determination of this ocular cell type is lacking. We show that Yap/Taz-Tead activity is necessary and sufficient for optic vesicle progenitors to adopt RPE identity in zebrafish. A Tead-responsive transgene is expressed within the domain of the optic cup from which RPE arises, and Yap immunoreactivity localizes to the nuclei of prospective RPE cells. yap (yap1) mutants lack a subset of RPE cells and/or exhibit coloboma. Loss of RPE in yap mutants is exacerbated in combination with taz (wwtr1) mutant alleles such that, when Yap and Taz are both absent, optic vesicle progenitor cells completely lose their ability to form RPE. The mechanism of Yap-dependent RPE cell type determination is reliant on both nuclear localization of Yap and interaction with a Tead co-factor. In contrast to loss of Yap and Taz, overexpression of either protein within optic vesicle progenitors leads to ectopic pigmentation in a dosage-dependent manner. Overall, this study identifies Yap and Taz as key early regulators of RPE genesis and provides a mechanistic framework for understanding the congenital ocular defects of Sveinsson's chorioretinal atrophy and congenital retinal coloboma. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Characterization of Sorolla's gouache pigments by means of spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Clodoaldo; Juanes, David; Ferrazza, Livio; Carballo, Jorgelina

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the Joaquín Sorolla's gouache sketches for the oil on canvas series "Vision of Spain" commissioned by A. M. Huntington to decorate the library of the Hispanic Society of America in New York. The analyses were focused on the identification of the elemental composition of the gouache pigments by means of portable EDXRF spectrometry in a non-destructive mode. Additionally, SEM-EDX and FTIR analyses of a selected set of micro-samples were carried out to identify completely the pigments, the paint technique and the binding media. The obtained results have confirmed the identification of lead and zinc white, vermillion, earth pigments, ochre, zinc yellow, chrome yellow, ultramarine, Prussian blue, chromium based and copper-arsenic based green pigments, bone black and carbon based black pigments, and the use of gum arabic as binding media in the gouache pigments.

  13. Graph-based pigment network detection in skin images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, M.; Razmara, M.; Ester, M.; Lee, T. K.; Atkins, M. S.

    2010-03-01

    Detecting pigmented network is a crucial step for melanoma diagnosis. In this paper, we present a novel graphbased pigment network detection method that can find and visualize round structures belonging to the pigment network. After finding sharp changes of the luminance image by an edge detection function, the resulting binary image is converted to a graph, and then all cyclic sub-graphs are detected. Theses cycles represent meshes that belong to the pigment network. Then, we create a new graph of the cyclic structures based on their distance. According to the density ratio of the new graph of the pigment network, the image is classified as "Absent" or "Present". Being Present means that a pigment network is detected in the skin lesion. Using this approach, we achieved an accuracy of 92.6% on five hundred unseen images.

  14. Analytical Raman spectroscopic discrimination between yellow pigments of the Renaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.

    2011-10-01

    The Renaissance represented a major advance in painting techniques, subject matter, artistic style and the use of pigments and pigment mixtures. However, most pigments in general use were still mineral-based as most organic dyes were believed to be fugitive; the historical study of artists' palettes and recipes has assumed importance for the attribution of art works to the Renaissance period. Although the application of diagnostic elemental and molecular spectroscopic techniques play vital and complementary roles in the analysis of art works, elemental techniques alone cannot definitively provide the data needed for pigment identification. The advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the definitive diagnostic characterisation of yellow pigments that were in use during the Renaissance is demonstrated here in consideration of heavy metal oxides and sulphides; these data will be compared with those obtained from analyses of synthetic yellow pigments that were available during the eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries which could have been used in unrecorded restorations of Renaissance paintings.

  15. Pigment and terracotta analyses of Hellenistic figurines in Crete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, P.; Kallithrakas-Kontos, N

    2003-11-14

    The results of the analyses performed on blue, black, brown, orange, white and purple pigments decorating Hellenistic figurines, excavated in a rock-cut tomb in the archaeological zone of Chania, Crete, Greece, are presented. Different spectroscopic techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence identified the compounds present in the chromatic layers. X-ray diffraction analysis gave complementary information and further support to the spectral assignments. Optical microscopy revealed the nature and sequence of the pigmented layer on the terracotta. Several precious pigments, such as Egyptian blue for the bluish areas, Tyrian purple for the purple ones, and the rare huntite for the white-pigmented areas were identified among the studied pigmented areas. The pigment analysis provides information on the technical aspects related to terracotta manufacture and preservation, and promotes historical indications on cultural and commercial changes among the Mediterranean civilisations.

  16. [Accumulation of tattoo pigment in sentinel lymph nodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürle, S; Schulte, K W; Homey, B

    2009-10-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented with a superficial spreading melanoma on her right thigh (tumor thickness 1.0 mm, Clark-Level III). She also had decorative tattoos on her right ankle, right groin and coccyx. The staging results gave no indication for metastases. Intra-operatively, we observed a black pigmented lymph node highly suspicious for metastatic disease, but histological examination excluded metastatic spread and detected the accumulation of black pigment within the lymph node. Clinical differentiation between tattoo pigments and metastatic disease within lymph nodes is not possible. Histological confirmation of an enlarged pigmented lymph node is therefore essential before radical surgery is performed. Hence, accumulation of tattoo pigment within enlarged and pigmented lymph nodes needs to be included into the differential diagnosis and the documentation of decorative tattoos is important during skin cancer screening as well as during the follow-up of melanoma patients.

  17. Cultivation conditions for pigment production by Chromobacterium violaceum

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Vasconcellos Antônio; Rozangela Curi Pedrosa; Luismar Marques Porto; Margot Érika Caris; Ana Kelly Pitlovanciv

    2006-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a beta proteobacterium, gram-negative, facultative anaerobe, found in soil, riverbanks and waters of tropical and subtropical regions all around the world. The species produces, through secondary metabolism, several indole pigments derived from tryptophan. Violacein and desoxyviolacein are the most abundant pigments produced by C. violaceum. Previous studies have reported that culture extracts from C. violaceum, containing the pigments, possess important biologica...

  18. Pump-probe imaging of historical pigments used in paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samineni, Prathyush; deCruz, Adele; Villafaña, Tana E; Warren, Warren S; Fischer, Martin C

    2012-04-15

    A recently developed nonlinear optical pump-probe microscopy technique uses modulation transfer to sensitively extract excited-state dynamics of endogenous biological pigments, such as eumelanin and pheomelanin. In this work, we use this method to image and characterize several inorganic and organic pigments used in historical art. We show substantial differences in the near-IR pump-probe signatures from nominally similar pigments and suggest extensions to art restoration.

  19. Pigmented villonodular synovitis: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Mark D; Rhee, John H; Lewis, Rachel B; Fanburg-Smith, Julie C; Flemming, Donald J; Walker, Eric A

    2008-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) represents an uncommon benign neoplastic process that may involve the synovium of the joint diffusely or focally (PVNS) or that may occur extraarticularly in a bursa (pigmented villonodular bursitis [PVNB]) or tendon sheath (pigmented villonodular tenosynovitis [PVNTS]). Pathologic specimens of the hypertrophic synovium may appear villous, nodular, or villonodular, and hemosiderin deposition, often prominent, is seen in most cases. The knee, followed by the hip, is the most common location for PVNS or PVNB, whereas PVNTS occurs most often in the hand and foot. PVNTS is also referred to as giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS). PVNTS is the most common form of this disease by a ratio of approximately 3:1. Radiographs reveal nonspecific features of a joint effusion in PVNS, a focal soft-tissue mass in PVNB or PVNTS, or a normal appearance. Extrinsic erosion of bone (on both sides of the joint) may also be seen and is most frequent with intraarticular involvement of the hip (>90% of cases). Cross-sectional imaging reveals diffuse involvement of the synovium (PVNS), an intimate relationship to the tendon (PVTNS), or a typical bursal location (PVNB), findings that suggest the diagnosis. However, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of prominent low signal intensity (seen with T2-weighting) and "blooming" artifact from the hemosiderin (seen with gradient-echo sequences) are nearly pathognomonic of this diagnosis. In addition, MR imaging is optimal for evaluating lesion extent. This information is crucial to guide treatment and to achieve complete surgical resection. Recurrence is more common with diffuse intraarticular disease and is difficult to distinguish, both pathologically and radiologically, from the rare complication of malignant PVNS. Recognizing the appearances of the various types of PVNS, which reflect their pathologic characteristics, improves radiologic assessment and is important for optimal patient

  20. Oral melanoacanthoma: A rare case of diffuse oral pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Ashok Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical presentation of diffuse pigmentation can be alarming to the patient as well as the clinician. A histopathologic examination of a pigmented lesion is necessary in most of the cases in the oral cavity. Oral melanoacanthoma is a very rare diffuse pigmentation with no specific treatment required. It shows increased number of dendritic melanocytes in an acanthotic epithelium. We present a rare case of diffuse pigmentation in the oral cavity whose diagnosis was done on the basis of clinical presentation and histopathology. Also immunohistochemistry was done.

  1. Corneal tolerance to micronised mineral pigments for keratopigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amesty, Maria A; Alio, Jorge L; Rodriguez, Alejandra E

    2014-12-01

    To study the tolerance and biocompatibility of micronised mineral pigments for corneal cosmetic pigmentation in an experimental animal model. Corneal intralamellar keratopigmentation was performed in 28 New Zealand white rabbits using micronised mineral pigments. Prophylactic actions using intraoperative antibiotic prophylaxis and gamma radiation of the pigment mixtures were performed to avoid infection. Animals were examined regularly by slit lamp to detect any sign of inflammation, pigment diffusion, colour changes or neovascularisation. Histopathological examination was performed to determine the level of pigment diffusion, the level of inflammation and the presence of neovascularisation. No pigment diffusion or changes in colour, inflammation or neovascularisation were detected in the eyes treated. Histopathological examination corroborated clinical results regarding inflammation. Pigmented corneas showed a good cosmetic appearance without signs of ocular toxicity. Micronised mineral pigments could be a valid alternative treatment for cosmetic keratopigmentation. The intralamellar keratopigmentation technique presented good cosmetic appearance without adverse effects in the eyes treated. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. LOCALIZED PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: CASE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Godoy, Fabiola Andrea de; Faustino, Carlos Alberto Cury; Meneses, Cláudio Santos; Nishi, Sergio Tadao; Góes, César Eduardo Giancoli; Canto, Abaeté Leite do

    2015-01-01

    This case concerned a female patient with a complaint of pain in the anterior region of her left knee during and after sports activities, followed by joint blockage three months ago. From imaging examinations, simple radiography of the knee was normal and magnetic resonance showed a solid expansive mass, possibly corresponding to soft-tissue chondroma or focal nodular synovitis. Arthroscopic resection of the lesion was performed, and the diagnosis of diffuse giant cell tumor resembling localized pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) was made from the result of the anatomopathological examination. The patient presented good clinical evolution, with disappearance of symptoms and return to physical activities. PMID:27027040

  3. Development of waste-based ceramic pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa, G.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the preparation of ceramic pigments using industrial wastes as primary sources. In this context, the use of Al-rich sludge generated in the wastewater treatment unit of an anodising or surface coating industrial plant, and a galvanizing sludge from the Cr/Ni plating process, will be detailed. The ceramic pigments reported here were prepared using typical solid state reactions involving the metal rich sludge. The main focus will be on the synthesis of chrome-tin orchid cassiterite (Sn,CrO2, chrome-tin red malayaite Ca(Cr,SnSiO5, victoria green garnet Ca3Cr2Si3O12, and chrome alumina pink/green corundum (Cr,Al2O3 pigments. The pigments were fully characterised and then were tested in a standard ceramic glaze after. Typical working conditions and colour development will be reported.

    Se presenta la preparación de pigmentos cerámicos empleando residuos industriales como fuente de materias primas. Se detallan el uso de barros ricos en aluminio obtenidos en los tratamientos de depuración de aguas de plantas industriales de anodizado y barros de galvanizados de chapados de Cr/Ni. Los pigmentos cerámicos se prepararon empleando reacción en estados sólido a partir del barro rico en metal. Los principales pigmentos estudiados son orquídea casiterita de cromo-estaño (Sn,CrO2, malayita rojo de cromo-estaño Ca(Sn,CrSiO3, granate verde victoria Ca3Cr2Si3O12, y corindón rosa/verde de cromo alúmina (Cr,Al2O3. Los pigmentos fueron caracterizados y ensayados después de ser vidriados en cerámicas estándares. Se presentan las condiciones de trabajo y el desarrollo de color.

  4. Pigmented villonodular synovitis: dedicated PET imaging findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amber, Ian Blake; Clark, Brian J; Greene, Gary Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is an uncommon entity, which has the potential to cause severe pain. The gold standard for evaluation is MRI, and previous PET findings associated with PVNS have only been documented in the setting of concurrent malignancy. In the setting of recurrent disease, PET is being used to evaluate prebiological and postbiological treatment responses. Recurrent PVNS demonstrates greater hypermetabolic activity than previously documented, supporting the case as a potential mimic of malignant/metastatic disease. Post-treatment evaluations demonstrate decreased metabolic activity, which suggests response to treatment. This behaviour further supports the contention that there is a neoplastic origin to PVNS. PMID:23598941

  5. Simple Diagnostic Tests for Subungual Pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shardul Poudyal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Subungual pigmentation can have benign and malignant etiologies. A common and important differential diagnosis is between subungual hematoma and subungual acrolentiginous melanoma. We have introduced Dr. Eckert Haneke's technique and our Hydrogen Peroxide modification for distinguishing these entities clinically. Dr. Haneke's technique uses the hemocult reaction to detect hematoma from the specimen, while our modification uses Hydrogen Peroxide to clear the hematoma and make the decision clinically. Both are minimally invasive techniques which can be performed without pain. Often these procedures spare the patient an unnecessary tissue biopsy with its morbidity and discomfort. Importantly, they reassure the patient that he or she has a benign disorder.

  6. LOCALIZED PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Godoy, Fabiola Andrea de; Faustino, Carlos Alberto Cury; Meneses, Cláudio Santos; Nishi, Sergio Tadao; Góes, César Eduardo Giancoli; Canto, Abaeté Leite do

    2011-01-01

    This case concerned a female patient with a complaint of pain in the anterior region of her left knee during and after sports activities, followed by joint blockage three months ago. From imaging examinations, simple radiography of the knee was normal and magnetic resonance showed a solid expansive mass, possibly corresponding to soft-tissue chondroma or focal nodular synovitis. Arthroscopic resection of the lesion was performed, and the diagnosis of diffuse giant cell tumor resembling localized pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) was made from the result of the anatomopathological examination. The patient presented good clinical evolution, with disappearance of symptoms and return to physical activities.

  7. Photoacoustic discrimination of vascular and pigmented lesions using classical and Bayesian methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearingen, Jennifer A.; Holan, Scott H.; Feldman, Mary M.; Viator, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Discrimination of pigmented and vascular lesions in skin can be difficult due to factors such as size, subungual location, and the nature of lesions containing both melanin and vascularity. Misdiagnosis may lead to precancerous or cancerous lesions not receiving proper medical care. To aid in the rapid and accurate diagnosis of such pathologies, we develop a photoacoustic system to determine the nature of skin lesions in vivo. By irradiating skin with two laser wavelengths, 422 and 530 nm, we induce photoacoustic responses, and the relative response at these two wavelengths indicates whether the lesion is pigmented or vascular. This response is due to the distinct absorption spectrum of melanin and hemoglobin. In particular, pigmented lesions have ratios of photoacoustic amplitudes of approximately 1.4 to 1 at the two wavelengths, while vascular lesions have ratios of about 4.0 to 1. Furthermore, we consider two statistical methods for conducting classification of lesions: standard multivariate analysis classification techniques and a Bayesian-model-based approach. We study 15 human subjects with eight vascular and seven pigmented lesions. Using the classical method, we achieve a perfect classification rate, while the Bayesian approach has an error rate of 20%.

  8. Microchemical Study of Pigments and Binders in Polychrome Relics from Maiji Mountain Grottoes in Northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Luyao; Shen, Wei; Zhang, Bingjian; Ma, Qian

    2016-08-01

    In this study, an integrated analytical method was developed to investigate the composition of both the inorganic pigments and organic binders of polychrome relics in Maiji Mountain Grottoes in northwestern China. Cross-sections of each sample were prepared at the beginning of the study, and all experiments were carried out on these cross-sections. Polychromic structures were revealed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy-backscattered electron imaging. Inorganic materials were determined by using SEM coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer and μ-Raman spectrometer, whereas organic materials were identified by staining techniques and highly sensitive and specific immunofluorescence microscopy. Data showed that the red colors are attributed to one or two pigments of red ochre, cinnabar, and minium; the blue pigment is natural lazurite; the green pigment is ascribed to atacamite; the white color is attributed to potassium feldspar; and the black surface is formed by the discoloration of minium to plattnerite under the influence of environmental factors. Regarding organic binders used in painting and preparation layers, mammalian animal glue and chicken egg white were both found alone or in mixture. Finally, the conclusion is made that the Secco technique is employed in polychrome relics from Maiji Mountain Grottoes.

  9. Melanins: Skin Pigments and Much More—Types, Structural Models, Biological Functions, and Formation Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Solano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a general view of all types of melanin in all types of organisms. Melanin is frequently considered just an animal cutaneous pigment and is treated separately from similar fungal or bacterial pigments. Similarities concerning the phenol precursors and common patterns in the formation routes are discussed. All melanins are formed in a first enzymatically-controlled phase, generally a phenolase, and a second phase characterized by an uncontrolled polymerization of the oxidized intermediates. In that second phase, quinones derived from phenol oxidation play a crucial role. Concerning functions, all melanins show a common feature, a protective role, but they are not merely photoprotective pigments against UV sunlight. In pathogenic microorganisms, melanization becomes a virulence factor since melanin protects microbial cells from defense mechanisms in the infected host. In turn, some melanins are formed in tissues where sunlight radiation is not a potential threat. Then, their redox, metal chelating, or free radical scavenging properties are more important than light absorption capacity. These pigments sometimes behave as a double-edged sword, and inhibition of melanogenesis is desirable in different cells. Melanin biochemistry is an active field of research from dermatological, biomedical, cosmetical, and microbiological points of view, as well as fruit technology.

  10. Decrease in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase is related to skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakama, Mitsuo; Murakami, Yuhko; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakata, Satoru

    2012-03-01

    Skin pigmentation is caused by various physical and chemical factors. It might also be influenced by changes in the physiological function of skin with aging. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase is an enzyme related to the mitochondrial electron transport system and plays a key role in cellular energy production. It has been reported that the functional decrease in this system causes Parkinson's disease. Another study reports that the amount of NADH dehydrogenase in heart and skeletal muscle decreases with aging. A similar decrease in the skin would probably affect its physiological function. However, no reports have examined the age-related change in levels of NADH dehydrogenase in human skin. In this study, we investigated this change and its effect on skin pigmentation using cultured human epidermal keratinocytes. The mRNA expression of NDUFA1, NDUFB7, and NDUFS2, subunits of NADH dehydrogenase, and its activity were significantly decreased in late passage keratinocytes compared to early passage cells. Conversely, the mRNA expression of melanocyte-stimulating cytokines, interleukin-1 alpha and endothelin 1, was increased in late passage cells. On the other hand, the inhibition of NADH dehydrogenase upregulated the mRNA expression of melanocyte-stimulating cytokines. Moreover, the level of NDUFB7 mRNA was lower in pigmented than in nonpigmented regions of skin in vivo. These results suggest the decrease in NADH dehydrogenase with aging to be involved in skin pigmentation.

  11. Prototype of a pigments color chart for the digital conservation of ancient murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jinxing; Wan, Xiaoxia

    2017-03-01

    Digital imaging has become a very important technique in the conservation of cultural art relics because it can nondestructively acquire the color and spectral image of cultural art relics for different applications. Imaging accuracy is one of the key factors in digital protection of cultural art relics. In order to improve the color and spectral accuracy for digital imaging of cultural art relics, the idea of making the specific color charts for different kinds of artworks is presented. Taking ancient Chinese Dunhuang murals as the specific object of study, a prototype pigments color chart of the Dunhuang murals (DCC), containing a six-step grayscale and 30 colored pigment samples, is made to investigate its pigment types and painting techniques. Under the premise of considering the difference in the number of samples in color charts, the DCC is tested and compared with the classic and widely used standard Macbeth colorchecker (CC) in two aspects: color correction for RGB imaging and spectral reconstruction for spectral imaging. The results show that the prototype pigments color chart is more effective and exhibits superior performance to the CC in both aspects for digital conservation of the Dunhuang murals.

  12. Synthesis of melanin-like pigments by Sporothrix schenckii in vitro and during mammalian infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris-Jones, Rachael; Youngchim, Sirida; Gomez, Beatriz L; Aisen, Phil; Hay, Roderick J; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Casadevall, Arturo; Hamilton, Andrew J

    2003-07-01

    Melanin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several important human fungal pathogens. Existing data suggest that the conidia of the dimorphic fungal pathogen Sporothrix schenckii produce melanin or melanin-like compounds; in this study we aimed to confirm this suggestion and to demonstrate in vitro and in vivo production of melanin by yeast cells. S. schenckii grown on Mycosel agar produced visibly pigmented conidia, although yeast cells grown in brain heart infusion and minimal medium broth appeared to be nonpigmented macroscopically. However, treatment of both conidia and yeast cells with proteolytic enzymes, denaturant, and concentrated hot acid yielded dark particles similar in shape and size to the corresponding propagules, which were stable free radicals consistent with identification as melanins. Melanin particles extracted from S. schenckii yeast cells were used to produce a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which labeled pigmented conidia, yeast cells, and the isolated particles. Tissue from hamster testicles infected with S. schenckii contained fungal cells that were labeled by melanin-binding MAbs, and digestion of infected hamster tissue yielded dark particles that were also reactive. Additionally, sera from humans with sporotrichosis contained antibodies that bound melanin particles. These findings indicate that S. schenckii conidia and yeast cells can produce melanin or melanin-like compounds in vitro and that yeast cells can synthesize pigment in vivo. Since melanin is an important virulence factor in other pathogenic fungi, this pigment may have a similar role in the pathogenesis of sporotrichosis.

  13. Two-photon absorption and transient photothermal imaging of pigments in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tong; Fu, Dan; Matthews, Thomas E.; Hong, Lian; Simon, John D.; Warren, Warren S.

    2008-02-01

    As a main pigment in skin tissues, melanin plays an important role in photo-protecting skin from UV radiation. However, melanogenesis may be altered due to disease or environmental factors; for example, sun exposure may cause damage and mutation of melanocytes and induce melanoma. Imaging pigmentation changes may provide invaluable information to catch the malignant transformation in its early stage and in turn improve the prognosis of patients. We have demonstrated previously that transmission mode, two-photon, one- or two-color absorption microscopy could provide remarkable contrast in imaging melanin in skin. In this report we demonstrate significantly improved sensitivity, so that we are now able to image in epi-mode (or back reflection) in two-photon absorption. This improvement makes possible for us to characterize the different types of pigmentation on the skin in vivo at virtually any location. Another finding is that we can also image transient photothermal dynamics due to the light absorption of melanin. By carefully choosing excitation and probe wavelengths, we might be able to image melanin in different structures under different micro-environments in skin, which could provide useful photochemical and photophysical insights in understanding how pigments are involved in photoprotection and photodamage of cells.

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces pigment production and enhances virulence in a white phenotypic variant of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonic V

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vlado Antonic,1–3 Alexander Stojadinovic,3–5 Binxue Zhang,1–3 Mina J Izadjoo,1–3,5 Mohammad Alavi1–3 1Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Diagnostic and Translational Research Center, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 3Combat Wound Initiative Program, Bethesda, MD, USA; 4Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA; 5Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA Abstract: Staphyloxanthin is a virulence factor which protects Staphylococcus aureus in stress conditions. We isolated two pigment variants of S. aureus and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a single wound infection. S. aureus variants displayed white and yellow colony phenotypes. The sequence of the operons for staphyloxanthin synthesis indicated that coding and promoter regions were identical between the two pigment variants. Quorum sensing controls pigment synthesis in some bacteria. It is also shown that P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing molecules affect S. aureus transcription. We explored whether the co-infecting P. aeruginosa can affect pigment production in the white S. aureus variant. In co-culture experiments between the white variants and a selected number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, only P. aeruginosa induced pigment production in the white variant. Gene expression analysis of the white variant did not indicate upregulation of the crtM and other genes known to be involved in pigment production (sigB, sarA, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase gene [FPP-synthase], hfq. In contrast, transcription of the catalase gene was significantly upregulated after co-culture. P. aeruginosa-induced pigment synthesis and catalase upregulation correlated with increased resistance to polymyxin B, hydrogen peroxide, and the intracellular environment of macrophages. Our data indicate the presence of silent but functional staphyloxanthin synthesis machinery in a white phenotypic variant

  15. Predicting hair cortisol levels with hair pigmentation genes: A possible hair pigmentation bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, A. (Alexander); G. Noppe (Gerard); F. Liu; M.H. Kayser (Manfred); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCortisol concentrations in hair are used to create hormone profiles spanning months. This method allows assessment of chronic cortisol exposure, but might be biased by hair pigmentation: dark hair was previously related to higher concentrations. It is unclear whether this association

  16. Zinc deficiency leads to lipofuscin accumulation in the retinal pigment epithelium of pigmented rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Julien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is associated with lipofuscin accumulation whereas the content of melanosomes decreases. Melanosomes are the main storage of zinc in the pigmented tissues. Since the elderly population, as the most affected group for AMD, is prone to zinc deficit, we investigated the chemical and ultrastructural effects of zinc deficiency in pigmented rat eyes after a six-month zinc penury diet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult Long Evans (LE rats were investigated. The control animals were fed with a normal alimentation whereas the zinc-deficiency rats (ZD-LE were fed with a zinc deficient diet for six months. Quantitative Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX microanalysis yielded the zinc mole fractions of melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. The lateral resolution of the analysis was 100 nm. The zinc mole fractions of melanosomes were significantly smaller in the RPE of ZD-LE rats as compared to the LE control rats. Light, fluorescence and electron microscopy, as well as immunohistochemistry were performed. The numbers of lipofuscin granules in the RPE and of infiltrated cells (Ø>3 µm found in the choroid were quantified. The number of lipofuscin granules significantly increased in ZD-LE as compared to control rats. Infiltrated cells bigger than 3 µm were only detected in the choroid of ZD-LE animals. Moreover, the thickness of the Bruch's membrane of ZD-LE rats varied between 0.4-3 µm and thin, rangy ED1 positive macrophages were found attached at these sites of Bruch's membrane or even inside it. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In pigmented rats, zinc deficiency yielded an accumulation of lipofuscin in the RPE and of large pigmented macrophages in the choroids as well as the appearance of thin, rangy macrophages at Bruch's membrane. Moreover, we showed that a zinc diet reduced the zinc mole fraction of melanosomes in the RPE and modulated the thickness of the Bruch's membrane.

  17. Photoinduced changes in photosystem II pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Atanaska S.; Busheva, Mira C.; Stoitchkova, Katerina V.; Tzonova, Iren K.

    2010-11-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus in higher plants performs two seemingly opposing tasks: efficient harvest of sunlight, but also rapid and harmless dissipation of excess light energy as heat to avoid deleterious photodamage. In order to study this process in pigment-protein supercomplexes of photosystem II (PSII), 77 K fluorescence and room temperature resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy were applied to investigate the changes in structure and spectral properties of the pigments in spinach PSII membranes. The high-light treatment results in a strong quenching of the fluorescence (being largest when the excitation is absorbed by carotenoids) and a red-shift of the main maximum. Decomposition of the fluorescence spectra into four bands revealed intensive quenching of F685 and F695 bands, possible bleaching of chlorophyll a, enhanced extent of light harvesting complexes (LHCII) aggregation and increased energy transfer to aggregated LHCII. The analysis of RR spectra revealed the predominant contribution of ß-carotene (ß-Car) upon 457.8 and 488 nm excitations and lutein (Lut) at 514.5 nm. During prolonged exposure to strong light no significant bleaching of ß-Car and weak photobleaching of Lut is observed. The results will contribute to the efforts to produce more efficient and robust solar cells when exposed to fluctuations in light intensity.

  18. Construction of artificial pigment-protein antennae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibbald, JeNell [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-01-10

    Photosynthesis is a complex process which results in the conversion of solar radiation into chemical energy. This chemical energy is then used as the free energy source for all living organisms. In its basic form, photosynthesis can be described as the light-activated synthesis of carbohydrates from the simple molecules of water and carbon dioxide: 6H2O + 6 CO2 light C6H12O6 + 6 O2 This basic mechanism actually requires numerous reaction steps. The two primary steps being: the capture of light by pigment molecules in light-harvesting antenna complexes and the transfer of this captured energy to the so-called photochemical reaction center. While the preferred pathway for energy absorbed by the chromophores in the antenna complexes is transfer to the reaction center, energy can be lost to competing processes such as internal conversion or radiative decay. Therefore, the energy transfer must be rapid, typically on the order of picoseconds, to successfully compete. The focus of the present work is on the construction of light-harvesting antenna complexes incorporating modular pigment-proteins.

  19. A colorimetric sensor array of porous pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung H; Kemling, Jonathan W; Feng, Liang; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2009-12-01

    The development of a low-cost, simple colorimetric sensor array capable of the detection and identification of toxic gases is reported. This technology uses a disposable printed array of porous pigments in which metalloporphyrins and chemically-responsive dyes are immobilized in a porous matrix of organically modified siloxanes (ormosils) and printed on a porous membrane. The printing of the ormosil into the membrane is highly uniform and does not lessen the porosity of the membrane, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. When exposed to an analyte, these pigments undergo reactions that result in well-defined color changes due to strong chemical interactions: ligation to metal ions, Lewis or Brønsted acid-base interactions, hydrogen bonding, etc. Striking visual identification of 3 toxic gases has been shown at the IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration, at the PEL (permissible exposure level), and at a level well below the PEL. Identification and quantification of analytes were achieved using the color change profiles, which were readily distinguishable in a hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) dendrogram, with no misclassifications in 50 trials.

  20. Fruit flesh betacyanin pigments in hylocereus cacti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Mizrahi, Yosef

    2002-10-09

    Determination of profiles and total contents of betacyanins in cactus fruits of Hylocereus species using chromatographic and spectrophotometric method is described. The investigated species were H. polyrhizus, H. purpusii, H. costaricensis, H. sp. 487 (all red-flesh species and hybrids made among them), and the white- or red-flesh species H. undatus. Hybrids included hybrid 1 (H. undatus white-flesh clone and H. sp. 487), hybrid 35 (H. sp. 487 and H. polyrhizus), and the reciprocal hybrid hybrid 95 (H. polyrhizus and H. sp. 487). Fruits of H. polyrhizus exhibited the highest relative concentration (expressed as percentage of the total HPLC peak area) of hylocerenin, a recently discovered pigment, and a high relative concentration of phyllocactin. Hylocerenin and isohylocerenin, present in fruits at relative concentrations of 11.7 and 5.8%, respectively, are probably responsible for the fluorescent color of the fruit pulp. H. costaricensis fruits have a much higher content of phyllocactin (63.9%), which is almost 4 times higher than the betanin content. These differences in pigment concentrations might explain the differences in red hues of the flesh of these fruits.

  1. Bile pigments in pulmonary and vascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W. Ryter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The bile pigments, biliverdin and bilirubin, are endogenously-derived substances generated during enzymatic heme degradation. These compounds have been shown to act as chemical antioxidants in vitro. Bilirubin formed in tissues circulates in the serum, prior to undergoing hepatic conjugation and biliary excretion. The excess production of bilirubin has been associated with neurotoxicity, in particular to the newborn. Nevertheless, clinical evidence suggests that mild states of hyperbilirubinemia may be beneficial in protecting against cardiovascular disease in adults. Pharmacological application of either bilirubin and/or its biological precursor biliverdin, can provide therapeutic benefit in several animal models of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. Furthermore, biliverdin and bilirubin can confer protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury and graft rejection secondary to organ transplantation in animal models. Several possible mechanisms for these effects have been proposed, including direct antioxidant and scavenging effects, and modulation of signaling pathways regulating inflammation, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and immune responses. The practicality and therapeutic-effectiveness of bile pigment application to humans remains unclear.

  2. Bile pigments in pulmonary and vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W

    2012-01-01

    The bile pigments, biliverdin, and bilirubin, are endogenously derived substances generated during enzymatic heme degradation. These compounds have been shown to act as chemical antioxidants in vitro. Bilirubin formed in tissues circulates in the serum, prior to undergoing hepatic conjugation and biliary excretion. The excess production of bilirubin has been associated with neurotoxicity, in particular to the newborn. Nevertheless, clinical evidence suggests that mild states of hyperbilirubinemia may be beneficial in protecting against cardiovascular disease in adults. Pharmacological application of either bilirubin and/or its biological precursor biliverdin, can provide therapeutic benefit in several animal models of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. Furthermore, biliverdin and bilirubin can confer protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury and graft rejection secondary to organ transplantation in animal models. Several possible mechanisms for these effects have been proposed, including direct antioxidant and scavenging effects, and modulation of signaling pathways regulating inflammation, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and immune responses. The practicality and therapeutic-effectiveness of bile pigment application to humans remains unclear.

  3. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments of prochloron (prochlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paerl, H. W.; Lewin, R. A.; Cheng, L.

    1983-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a gradient-elution technique was utilized to separate and quantify chlorophylls a and b as well as major carotenoid pigments present in freeze-dried preprations of prochloron-didemnid associations and in Prochloron cells separated from host colonies. Results confirm earlier spectrophotometric evidence for both chlorophylls a and b in this prokaryote. Chlorophyll a:b ratios range from 4.14 to 19.71; generally good agreement was found between ratios determined in isolated cell preprations and in symbiotic colonies (in hospite). These values are 1.5 to 5-fold higher than ratios determined in a variety of eukaryotic green plants. The carotenoids in Prochloron are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those found in various freshwater and marine blue-green algae (cyanopbytes) from high-light environments. However, Prochloron differs from cyanophytes by the absence of myxoxanthophyll and related glycosidic carotenoids. It pigment characteristics are considered sufficiently different from those of cyanophytes to justify its assignment to a separate algal division.

  4. Epigenetic’s role in fish pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cal Delgado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The agouti coat colour gene encodes a paracrine signalling molecule whose differential expression produces the characteristic dorsal-ventral pigment pattern observed in most mammals. We have recently demonstrated that this well-characterised mechanism from mammals also applies to fish with their much more complex pigment patterns. However, the developmental mechanism through which agouti acts to establish these colour differences remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to explore the molecular mechanisms that regulate agouti gene expression by in-vivo functional characterization of the agouti promoter and identification of possible putative regulatory elements that govern basal promoter activity. Specifically, the investigation was focused on the occurrence and role of CpG dinucleotides methylation in the agouti putative promoter sequence and on a possible epigenetic level of regulation of agouti expression. We report here expression analyses of eGFP expression from transgenic zebrafish containing an 8kb-agouti-Tol2-eGFP construct. eGFP expression was specifically found in the brain area and neural tube of Tol2 transposon vector transgenic embryos. Computer-based analysis revealed a putative CpG island immediately proximal to the translation start site. Global inhibition of methylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine promoted agouti production in association with decreasing CpG methylation. Taken together, these data identify a contributory role for DNA methylation in regulating agouti expression in zebrafish embryogenesis.

  5. Drying of Pigment-Cellulose Nanofibril Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Timofeev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new substrate containing cellulose nanofibrils and inorganic pigment particles has been developed for printed electronics applications. The studied composite structure contains 80% fillers and is mechanically stable and flexible. Before drying, the solids content can be as low as 20% due to the high water binding capacity of the cellulose nanofibrils. We have studied several drying methods and their effects on the substrate properties. The aim is to achieve a tight, smooth surface keeping the drying efficiency simultaneously at a high level. The methods studied include: (1 drying on a hot metal surface; (2 air impingement drying; and (3 hot pressing. Somewhat surprisingly, drying rates measured for the pigment-cellulose nanofibril substrates were quite similar to those for the reference board sheets. Very high dewatering rates were observed for the hot pressing at high moisture contents. The drying method had significant effects on the final substrate properties, especially on short-range surface smoothness. The best smoothness was obtained with a combination of impingement and contact drying. The mechanical properties of the sheets were also affected by the drying method and associated temperature.

  6. Optical modulation of transgene expression in retinal pigment epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, D.; Lavinsky, D.; Chalberg, T.; Mandel, Y.; Huie, P.; Dalal, R.; Marmor, M.

    2013-03-01

    Over a million people in US alone are visually impaired due to the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The current treatment is monthly intravitreal injections of a protein which inhibits Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, thereby slowing progression of the disease. The immense financial and logistical burden of millions of intravitreal injections signifies an urgent need to develop more long-lasting and cost-effective treatments for this and other retinal diseases. Viral transfection of ocular cells allows creation of a "biofactory" that secretes therapeutic proteins. This technique has been proven successful in non-human primates, and is now being evaluated in clinical trials for wet AMD. However, there is a critical need to down-regulate gene expression in the case of total resolution of retinal condition, or if patient has adverse reaction to the trans-gene products. The site for genetic therapy of AMD and many other retinal diseases is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We developed and tested in pigmented rabbits, an optical method to down-regulate transgene expression in RPE following vector delivery, without retinal damage. Microsecond exposures produced by a rapidly scanning laser vaporize melanosomes and destroy a predetermined fraction of the RPE cells selectively. RPE continuity is restored within days by migration and proliferation of adjacent RPE, but since the transgene is not integrated into the nucleus it is not replicated. Thus, the decrease in transgene expression can be precisely determined by the laser pattern density and further reduced by repeated treatment without affecting retinal structure and function.

  7. Pigmented villonodular synovitis after TKA associated with tibial component loosening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Byung June; Park, Yong Bum

    2011-08-08

    There is no known causal link between total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). There also is no known relationship between PVNS and implant loosening after TKA in the literature. This article presents a case of PVNS in a patient undergoing revision TKA for tibial component loosening. A 74-year-old woman who had undergone cemented bilateral TKA 5 years earlier presented with painful swelling in her right knee. At the time of the primary TKA, no abnormal signs were found in the synovial membrane. Routine follow-up radiographs did not indicate implant loosening. At the patient's final follow-up examination before revision surgery, a radiolucent lesion was found below the tibial component. During revision surgery, there was focal proliferation of the synovial tissue with heavy pigmentation around the anteromedial part of the tibial component. The abnormal tissue was removed, and the tibial component was exchanged. The articular surface of the polyethylene was not damaged, and backside wear was not found. For the revision surgery, 5-mm thick medial metal block and extension stem were used. Histological analysis of the resected tissue revealed the typical appearance of PVNS. We present a typical case of PVNS found during revision TKA 5 years after primary TKA. It is hoped this report will encourage surgeons to consider PVNS in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with painful swelling of the knee and to consider PVNS as one of the causes of implant loosening after TKA. Further research about causal factors between PVNS and implant loosening are needed. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. The influence of dietary concentrations of arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid at various stages of larval ontogeny on eye migration, pigmentation and prostaglandin content of common sole larvae ( Solea solea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Banta, G.;

    2008-01-01

    Dietary manipulations of arachidonic acid, ARA and eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA may have an influence on pigmentation in common sole larvae (Solea solea L., Linnaeus 1758) which may be related to a "pigmentation window". This is a specific period in the larval ontogeny where nutritional factors...

  9. Identification of the Main Regulator Responsible for Synthesis of the Typical Yellow Pigment Produced by Trichoderma reesei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derntl, Christian; Rassinger, Alice; Srebotnik, Ewald; Mach, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The industrially used ascomycete Trichoderma reesei secretes a typical yellow pigment during cultivation, while other Trichoderma species do not. A comparative genomic analysis suggested that a putative secondary metabolism cluster, containing two polyketide-synthase encoding genes, is responsible for the yellow pigment synthesis. This cluster is conserved in a set of rather distantly related fungi, including Acremonium chrysogenum and Penicillium chrysogenum. In an attempt to silence the cluster in T. reesei, two genes of the cluster encoding transcription factors were individually deleted. For a complete genetic proof-of-function, the genes were reinserted into the genomes of the respective deletion strains. The deletion of the first transcription factor (termed yellow pigment regulator 1 [Ypr1]) resulted in the full abolishment of the yellow pigment formation and the expression of most genes of this cluster. A comparative high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of supernatants of the ypr1 deletion and its parent strain suggested the presence of several yellow compounds in T. reesei that are all derived from the same cluster. A subsequent gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis strongly indicated the presence of sorbicillin in the major HPLC peak. The presence of the second transcription factor, termed yellow pigment regulator 2 (Ypr2), reduces the yellow pigment formation and the expression of most cluster genes, including the gene encoding the activator Ypr1. IMPORTANCE Trichoderma reesei is used for industry-scale production of carbohydrate-active enzymes. During growth, it secretes a typical yellow pigment. This is not favorable for industrial enzyme production because it makes the downstream process more complicated and thus increases operating costs. In this study, we demonstrate which regulators influence the synthesis of the yellow pigment. Based on these data, we also provide indication as to which genes are under the control

  10. A regulatory loop involving PAX6, MITF, and WNT signaling controls retinal pigment epithelium development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Bharti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The separation of the optic neuroepithelium into future retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is a critical event in early eye development in vertebrates. Here we show in mice that the transcription factor PAX6, well-known for its retina-promoting activity, also plays a crucial role in early pigment epithelium development. This role is seen, however, only in a background genetically sensitized by mutations in the pigment cell transcription factor MITF. In fact, a reduction in Pax6 gene dose exacerbates the RPE-to-retina transdifferentiation seen in embryos homozygous for an Mitf null allele, and it induces such a transdifferentiation in embryos that are either heterozygous for the Mitf null allele or homozygous for an RPE-specific hypomorphic Mitf allele generated by targeted mutation. Conversely, an increase in Pax6 gene dose interferes with transdifferentiation even in homozygous Mitf null embryos. Gene expression analyses show that, together with MITF or its paralog TFEC, PAX6 suppresses the expression of Fgf15 and Dkk3. Explant culture experiments indicate that a combination of FGF and DKK3 promote retina formation by inhibiting canonical WNT signaling and stimulating the expression of retinogenic genes, including Six6 and Vsx2. Our results demonstrate that in conjunction with Mitf/Tfec Pax6 acts as an anti-retinogenic factor, whereas in conjunction with retinogenic genes it acts as a pro-retinogenic factor. The results suggest that careful manipulation of the Pax6 regulatory circuit may facilitate the generation of retinal and pigment epithelium cells from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells.

  11. Influence of photo- and chromatic acclimation on pigment composition in the sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Majchrowski

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find statistical relationships between the concentrations of accessory pigments in natural populations of marine phytoplankton and the absolute levels and spectral distributions of underwater irradiance. To this end, empirical data sets from some 600 stations in different parts of the seas and oceans were analysed. These data were obtained from the authors' own research and from the Internet's bio-optical data base. They included the vertical distributions of the concentrations of various pigments (identified chromatographically and the vertical and spectral distributions of the underwater irradiance measured in situ or determined indirectly from bio-optical models. The analysis covered a total of some 4000 points illustrating the dependence of pigment concentration on underwater irradiance characteristics, corresponding to different depths in the sea. The analysis showed that the factor governing the occurrence of photoprotecting carotenoids (PPC is short-wave radiation λ a concentration and the magnitude of the absorbed radiative energy per unit mass of chlorophyll a from the spectral interval λ z = 60 m (or less near the surface to account for vertical mixing. This absorbed short-wave radiation (λ *(z. Analysis of the relationships between the concentrations of particular photosynthetic pigments (PSP, i.e. chlorophyll b, chlorophyll c, photosynthetic carotenoids (PSC, and the underwater irradiance characteristics indicated that these concentrations were only slightly dependent on the absolute level of irradiance E0(λ, but that they depended strongly on the relative spectral distribution of this irradiance f(λ= E0(λ/PAR0. The relevant approximate statistical relationships between the relative concentrations of particular PSP and the function of spectral fitting Fj, averaged in the layer Δz, were derived. Certain statistical relationships between the pigment composition of the phytoplankton and the irradiance

  12. Retinoic acid from retinal pigment epithelium induces T regulatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazoe, Yuko; Sugita, Sunao; Keino, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yukiko; Imai, Ayano; Horie, Shintaro; Mochizuki, Manabu

    2012-01-01

    Primary cultured retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can convert T cells into T regulatory cells (Tregs) through inhibitory factor(s) including transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) in vitro. Retinoic acid (RA) enhances induction of CD4(+) Tregs in the presence of TGFβ. We investigated whether RA produced by RPE cells can promote generation of Tregs. We found that in vitro, RA-treated T cells expressed high levels of Foxp3 in the presence of recombinant TGFβ. In GeneChip analysis, cultured RPE cells constitutively expressed RA-associated molecules such as RA-binding proteins, enzymes, and receptors. RPE from normal mice, but not vitamin A-deficient mice, contained significant levels of TGFβ. RPE-induced Tregs from vitamin A-deficient mice failed to suppress activation of target T cells. Only a few Foxp3(+) T cells were found in intraocular cells from vitamin A-deficient experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) mice, whereas expression was higher in cells from normal EAU mice. RA receptor antagonist-pretreated or RA-binding protein-siRNA-transfected RPE cells failed to convert CD4(+) T cells into Tregs. Our data support the hypothesis that RPE cells produce RA, thereby enabling bystander T cells to be converted into Tregs through TGFβ promotion, which can then participate in the establishment of immune tolerance in the eye.

  13. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae: biological constraints and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulders, Kim J M; Lamers, Packo P; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing interest in naturally produced colorants, and microalgae represent a bio-technologically interesting source due to their wide range of colored pigments, including chlorophylls (green), carotenoids (red, orange and yellow), and phycobiliproteins (red and blue). However, the concentration of these pigments, under optimal growth conditions, is often too low to make microalgal-based pigment production economically feasible. In some Chlorophyta (green algae), specific process conditions such as oversaturating light intensities or a high salt concentration induce the overproduction of secondary carotenoids (β-carotene in Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodoresco and astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis (Flotow)). Overproduction of all other pigments (including lutein, fucoxanthin, and phycocyanin) requires modification in gene expression or enzyme activity, most likely combined with the creation of storage space outside of the photosystems. The success of such modification strategies depends on an adequate understanding of the metabolic pathways and the functional roles of all the pigments involved. In this review, the distribution of commercially interesting pigments across the most common microalgal groups, the roles of these pigments in vivo and their biosynthesis routes are reviewed, and constraints and opportunities for overproduction of both primary and secondary pigments are presented.

  14. Growth of cultured porcine retinal pigment epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, A.K.; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nicolini, Jair;

    2003-01-01

    To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation.......To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation....

  15. Pigmentation in Anuran Testes: Anatomical Pattern and Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian [UNESP; Zieri, Rodrigo [UNESP; de Souza Santos, Lia Raquel; Moresco, Rafaela Maria; Oliveira, Classius de [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    In amphibians, pigmented cells are present in several organs, composing an extracutaneous pigmentary system. Seventeen species from two families were studied to develop a protocol for pigmentary classification. The amount and distribution of these cells are variable, allowing the establishment of anatomical patterns for visceral pigmentation in anuran testes. Anat Rec, 292:178-182, 2009. (C) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Dihydrolindbladiones, three new naphthoquinone pigments from a myxomycete Lindbladia tubulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misono, Yuka; Ishikawa, Yae; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Hayashi, Masahiko; Komiyama, Kanki; Ishibashi, Masami

    2003-07-01

    Three new naphthoquinone pigments, 6,7-dimethoxydihydrolindbladione (1), dihydrolindbladione (2), and 6-methoxydihydrolindbladione (3), have been isolated from a myxomycete Lindbladia tubulina, and their structures were elucidated by spectral data. Compound 3 appreciably exhibited a reversal effect of multidrug resistance. Lindbladione (4), the major pigment of this myxomycete, was also isolated from Cribraria intricata.

  17. 21 CFR 73.1350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.1350 Section 73.1350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments....

  18. 21 CFR 73.3128 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.3128 Section 73.3128 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... pigments. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive is formed by depositing titanium or...

  19. Betacyanins pigments as photosensitizing agents for holographic recording medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Hernández-Hernández, E.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Santacruz-Vazquez, V.

    2014-02-01

    One of the natural most employed within the food industry are pigments of betalains by their solubility in water to give desired colorations in processed foods such as beverages, dairy, meat. However, this research shows that this type of pigments can be used as photosensitizing agents in the field of holographic recording materials.

  20. Eggshell pigmentation in the blue tit : Male quality matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badas, E. P.; Martinez, J.; Rivero-de Aguilar, J.; Stevens, M.; van der Velde, M.; Komdeur, J.; Merino, S.

    Many passerines lay protoporphyrin-pigmented eggs, and the degree of spotting seems to be related to female condition and environmental characteristics. However, most studies have ignored the relationship between the male's quality and eggshell pigmentation. Because ornaments can act as honest

  1. Structures and colour properties of new red wine pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Anders Eckart; Pardon, K.; Hayasaka, Y.

    2003-01-01

    the colour properties of the pigments were characterized; it could be demonstrated that the pyranoanthocyanins retained their red colour at pH 3.6 in model wine and were resistant to bisulfite-mediated bleaching. Finally, HPLC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of both anthocyanin-derived pigments in red...... wine....

  2. An Improved Method for Extraction and Separation of Photosynthetic Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Nobuyasu; Kanaizuka, Yasuhiro; Sudarmi, Rini; Yokohama, Yasutsugu

    2003-01-01

    The method for extracting and separating hydrophobic photosynthetic pigments proposed by Katayama "et al." ("Japanese Journal of Phycology," 42, 71-77, 1994) has been improved to introduce it to student laboratories at the senior high school level. Silica gel powder was used for removing water from fresh materials prior to extracting pigments by a…

  3. Fungal polyketide azaphilone pigments as future natural food colorants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Thrane, Ulf; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    pigments from such potentially safe hosts is advantageous over traditional processes that involve Monascus spp., which risks co-production of the mycotoxin citrinin. Thus, there is tremendous potential for the development of robust fungal production systems for polyketide pigments, both to tailor...

  4. Chemical purity and toxicology of pigments used in tattoo inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Henrik; Lewe, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The safety of tattoo inks has obviously increased in Europe since the existence of European Union Resolution ResAP(2008)1, which resulted in the improved quality control of pigment raw materials due to the definition of impurity limits that manufacturers can refer to. High-performance pigments are mostly used in tattoo inks, and these pigments are supposed to be chemically inert and offer high light fastness and low migration in solvents. However, these pigments were not developed or produced for applications involving long-term stay in the dermis or contact with bodily fluids. Therefore, these pigments often do not comply with the purity limits of the resolution; however, it is required that every distributed tattoo ink does not contain aromatic amines and not exceed the limits of heavy metals or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Current toxicity studies of pigments underline that no ecotoxicological threat to human health or to the environment should be expected. However, the pigment as well as its impurities and coating materials must be considered. In order to evaluate the safety of pigments according to their impurities, two different validated sample preparation methods are necessary: (1) simulation of their long-term stay in the bodily fluid of the dermis and (2) simulation of cleavage due to laser removal or ultraviolet exposure. The development of standardized, validated and well-adapted methods for this application has to be part of prospective efforts. Concerning legislation, it might be appropriate that the first regulative approaches be based on those of cosmetics.

  5. Changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of pink chicken eggshells with different pigment intensity during incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of chicken eggshells with different intensities of pink pigment during the incubation period. We also investigated the effects of the region (small pole, equator and large pole and pink pigment intensity of the chicken eggshell on the percent transmission of light passing through the chicken eggshells. Method. Eggs of comparable weight from a meat-type breeder (Meihuang were used, and divided based on three levels of pink pigment (light, medium and dark in the eggshells. During the incubation (0–21 d, the values of the eggshell pigment (ΔE, L∗, a∗, b∗ were measured. The percent transmission of light for different regions and intensities of eggshell pigmentation was measured by using the visible wavelength range of 380–780 nm. Result. Three measured indicators of eggshell color, ΔE, L∗ and a∗, did not change significantly during incubation. Compared with other regions and pigment intensities, eggshell at the small pole and with light pigmentation intensity showed the highest percent transmission of light. The transmission value varied significantly (P < 0.001 with incubation time. The element analysis of eggshells with different levels of pink pigment showed that the potassium content of the eggshells for all pigment levels decreased significantly during incubation. Conclusion. In summary, pigment intensity and the region of the eggshell influenced the percent transmission of light of eggshell. Differences in the spectral characteristics of different eggshells may influence the effects of photostimulation during the incubation of eggs. All of these results will be applicable for perfecting the design of light intensity for lighted incubation to improve productivity.

  6. Single Molecule Spectroscopy on Photosynthetic Pigment-Protein Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Jelezko, F; Schuler, S; Thews, E; Tietz, C; Wechsler, A; Wrachtrup, J

    2001-01-01

    Single molecule spectroscopy was applied to unravel the energy transfer pathway in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes. Detailed analysis of excitation and fluorescence emission spectra has been made for peripheral plant antenna LHC II and Photosystem I from cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. Optical transitions of individual pigments were resolved under nonselective excitation of antenna chlorophylls. High-resolution fluorescence spectroscopy of individual plant antenna LHC II indicates that at low temperatures, the excitation energy is localized on the red-most Chl a pool absorbing at 680 nm. More than one pigment molecule is responsible for the fluorescence emission of the LHC II trimer. The spectral lines of single Chl a molecules absorbing at 675 nm are broadened because of the Foerster energy transfer towards the red-most pigments. Low-temperature spectroscopy on single PS I trimers indicates that two subgroups of pigments, which are present in the red antenna pool, differ by the strength of t...

  7. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na+ with Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  8. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ruchi, E-mail: shawruchi1@gmail.com; Tiwari, Sangeeta, E-mail: stiwari2@amity.edu [Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh-201301 (India)

    2016-04-13

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na{sup +} with Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  9. Classification of marine diatoms using pigment ratio suites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Peng; YU Zhigang; DENG Chunmei; LIU Shuxia; ZHEN Yu

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms are widely distributed in many temperate areas and some species frequently form extensive blooms in spring.Hence,monitoring the variations of specific genera or species of diatoms is necessary for studying phytoplankton population dynamics in marine ecosystems.To test whether pigment ratios can be used to identify diatoms at a below-class taxonomic level,we analyzed 14 species/strains of diatoms isolated from Chinese seas using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).We normalized all pigment concentrations to total chlorophyll a to calculate the ratios of pigment to chlorophyll a,and calculated the ratios between accessory pigments (or pigment sums).Cluster analysis indicated that these diatoms could be classified into four clusters in terms of three accessory pigment ratios:chlorophyll c2:chlorophyll c1,fucoxanthin:total chlorophyll c and diadinoxanthin:diatoxanthin.The classification results matched well with those of biological taxonomy.To test the stability of the classification,pigment data from one species,cultured under different light intensities,and five new species/strains were calculated and used for discriminant analysis.The results show that the classification of diatom species using pigment ratio suites was stable for the variations of pigment ratios of species cultured in different light intensities.The introduction of new species,however,may confuse the classification within the current scheme.Classification of marine diatoms using pigment ratio suites is potentially valuable for the fine chemotaxonomy of phytoplankton at taxonomic levels below class and would advance studies on phytoplankton population dynamics and marine ecology.

  10. Quantitative and semiquantitative immunoassay of growth factors and cytokines in the conditioned medium of STO and CF-1 mouse feeder cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Neil C; Sparks, Wendy O; Powell, Anne M; Kahl, Stanislaw; Caperna, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Feeder cells of irradiated mouse fibroblasts are commonly used for, and are generally necessary for, the in vitro maintenance and growth of many fastidious cell types, particularly embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells. Quantitative and semiquantitative immunoassays of conditioned media were performed to identify some of the soluble cytokines, chemokines, protein hormones, and cell matrix/adhesion molecules that are elaborated from two commonly used feeder cells, STO and CF-1. Among those quantitatively assayed, the most abundant cytokine proteins expressed by the feeder cells were activin A, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), insulin-like growth factor 1, insulin-like growth factor 2, insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-6, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (a.k.a. CSF-1), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (a.k.a. serine protease inhibitor, clade F, member 1). CF-1 cells expressed ten times more activin A than STO cells and also produced larger amounts of interleukin-6 and IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4, and IGFBP-5. Conversely, STO cell produced almost ten times more HGF and five times more stem cell factor (a.k.a. c-kit ligand) than CF-1 cells. Assayed semiquantitatively, relatively large amounts of chemokines were produced by both feeder cells including fractalkine (CX3CL1), interferon-inducible protein 10 (a.k.a. CXCL10 and cytokine-responsive gene-2, CRG-2), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 (a.k.a. CCL2 and junctional epithelium chemokine (JE), MCP-5/CCL12), keratinocyte-derived chemokine (a.k.a. CXCL1 and growth-related oncogene alpha, GROα), nephroblastoma overexpressed gene (CCN3, IGFBP-9), stromal cell-derived factor 1 (CXCL12), and serpin E1 (PAI-1). In contrast to one another, STO produced more CXCL16 than CF-1 cells, and CF-1 cell produced more MCP-5 (CCL12), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α (CCL3), MIP-1β (CCL4), pentraxin-3 (TSG-14), and platelet factor-4 (CXCL4) than STO cells. Soluble adhesion molecule

  11. Ionochromic behavior of Grecko visual pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescitelli, F

    1977-01-14

    Digitonin extracts of the retina of Gekko gekko prepared to minimize the presence of chloride ions show the photopigment to be at about 490 nanometers rather than at 521 nanometers, the position found for the same pigment in situ. The addition of chloride to the extract causes a bathochromic shift in spectral absorbance, the magnitude of the shift being related to the concentration of chloride, within limits. The effect is a specific one, and of all the anions tested only bromide causes a similar bathochromic shift. The nature of the cation is not involved since the same action is produced by the chlorides of sodium, lithium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, calcium, magnesium, beryllium, lanthanum, and choline.

  12. Knee tuberculosis masquerading as pigmented villonodular synovitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Meena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB, once a disease confined to undeveloped or developing nations is currently in resurgence, which is attributable to pandemic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and immigration from endemic areas. Tuberculous arthritis is difficult to diagnose early because of its atypical insidious clinical manifestations and nonspecific imaging findings. TB is also known as the ′great mimicker′. Specifically, monoarticular tuberculosis of the knee may mimic pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS. The present report describes a young patient with tuberculous arthritis of knee joint. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate management was delayed due to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings, such as, hemosiderin deposits and a nodular mass around the knee joint, suggestive of a diffuse type of PVNS. Our findings suggest that the first step in the diagnosis of tuberculous knee arthritis is to have a high index of suspicion.

  13. Radiative Cooling With Pigmented Polyethylene Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Eriksson, Tord S.

    1989-03-01

    Polyethylene foils containing a nonabsorbing pigment can be suitable for radiative cooling because of their high reflectance of solar radiation combined with a high transmittance in the atmospheric window region in the thermal infrared. We have studied the optical properties in the wavelength range 0.3-50 μm of extruded polyethylene foils containing various amounts of 0.23 μm diameter Ti02 particles. It appears that the foils can prevent heating of an underlying material, even when directly illuminated by the sun. The total transmittance and reflectance of the Ti02-polyethylene foils were compared with multiple scattering calculations. Lorenz-Mie theory was used to model the scattering and absorption of a single TiO2 sphere. The single scattering parameters were then introduced into the four flux theory, by which the transmittance and reflectance were calculated. We find a satisfactory agreement between theory and experiments in most cases.

  14. Photosynthesis-dependent anthocyanin pigmentation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prasanta Kumar; Geul, Bang; Choi, Sang-Bong; Yoo, Sang-Dong; Park, Youn-Il

    2011-01-01

    Light is the ultimate energy source for photo-autotrophs on earth. For green plants, however, it can also be toxic under certain stressful environmental conditions and at critical developmental stages. Anthocyanins, a class of flavonoids, act as an effective screening mechanism that allows plant survival and proliferation under occasional periods of harmful irradiation through modulation of light absorption. Apart from light-sensing through photoreceptors such as phytochrome and cryptochrome, plants use the photosynthetic electron transfer (PET) chain to integrate light information. The redox status of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool of the PET chain regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, together with the plant hormone ethylene and plant hormone-like sugars. A complex signaling apparatus in acyanic cells appears to transduce information to cyanic cells to regulate anthocyanin production through an intercellular signaling pathway that remains largely uncharacterized. This review will highlight recent advances in this field and their implications for the regulation of anthocyanin pigmentation.

  15. High biological variability of plastids, photosynthetic pigments and pigment forms of leaf primordia in buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solymosi, Katalin; Morandi, Dominique; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla; Schoefs, Benoît

    2012-05-01

    To study the formation of the photosynthetic apparatus in nature, the carotenoid and chlorophyllous pigment compositions of differently developed leaf primordia in closed and opening buds of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) as well as in closed buds of tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima P. Mill.) were analyzed with HPLC. The native organization of the chlorophyllous pigments was studied using 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy, and plastid ultrastructure was investigated with electron microscopy. Complete etiolation, i.e., accumulation of protochlorophyllide, and absence of chlorophylls occurred in the innermost leaf primordia of common ash buds. The other leaf primordia were partially etiolated in the buds and contained protochlorophyllide (0.5-1 μg g(-1) fresh mass), chlorophyllides (0.2-27 μg g(-1) fresh mass) and chlorophylls (0.9-643 μg g(-1) fresh mass). Etio-chloroplasts with prolamellar bodies and either regular or only low grana were found in leaves having high or low amounts of chlorophyll a and b, respectively. After bud break, etioplast-chloroplast conversion proceeded and the pigment contents increased in the leaves, similarly to the greening processes observed in illuminated etiolated seedlings under laboratory conditions. The pigment contents and the ratio of the different spectral forms had a high biological variability that could be attributed to (i) various light conditions due to light filtering in the buds resulting in differently etiolated leaf primordia, (ii) to differences in the light-exposed and inner regions of the same primordia in opening buds due to various leaf folding, and (iii) to tissue-specific slight variations of plastid ultrastructure.

  16. Comparative short-term inhalation toxicity of five organic diketopyrrolopyrrole pigments and two inorganic iron-oxide-based pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Thomas; Ma-Hock, Lan; Strauss, Volker; Treumann, Silke; Rey Moreno, Maria; Neubauer, Nicole; Wohlleben, Wendel; Gröters, Sibylle; Wiench, Karin; Veith, Ulrich; Teubner, Wera; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diketopyrrolopyrroles (DPP) are a relatively new class of organic high-performance pigments. The present inhalation and particle characterization studies were performed to compare the effects of five DPP-based pigments (coarse and fine Pigment Red 254, coarse and fine meta-chloro DPP isomer and one form of mixed chlorinated DPP isomers) and compare it to coarse and fine inorganic Pigment Red 101. Wistar rats were exposed head-nose to atmospheres of the respective materials for 6 h/day on 5 consecutive days. Target concentrations were 30 mg/m3 as high dose for all compounds and selected based occupational exposure limits for respirable nuisance dust. Toxicity was determined after end of exposure and after 3-week recovery using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and microscopic examinations of the entire respiratory tract. Mixed chlorinated DPP isomers and coarse meta-chloro DPP isomer caused marginal changes in BALF, consisting of slight increases of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and in case of coarse meta-chloro DPP increased MCP-1 and osteopontin levels. Mixed chlorinated DPP isomers, Pigment Red 254, and meta-chloro DPP caused pigment deposits and phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages, slight hypertrophy/hyperplasia of the bronchioles and alveolar ducts, but without evidence of inflammation. In contrast, only pigment deposition and pigment phagocytosis were observed after exposure to Pigment Red 101. All pigments were tolerated well and caused only marginal effects in BALF or no effects at all. Only minor effects were seen on the lung by microscopic examination. There was no evidence of systemic inflammation based on acute-phase protein levels in blood. PMID:27387137

  17. Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells can Differentiate to a Retinal Pigment Epithelial Phenotype when Co-Cultured with Pig Retinal Pigment Epithelium using a Transwell System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Duan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increasing interest in generating retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells from stem cells for therapy against degenerative eye diseases. Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs can be induced to express retinal neuron-specific markers when co-cultured with retinal neurons, however, whether hBMSCs can differentiate into RPE-like cells in a co-culture system has not been clarified. Methods: The induction of hBMSCs into RPE-like cells was performed by combining hBMSCs and pig RPE cells in a transwell system. The biomarkers of hBMSCs-derived RPE cells were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. The function of induced cells was assayed by ELISA for secretion of neurotrophic factors. Results: Intracellular pigment granules and many RPE markers existed in hBMSCs-derived RPE cells after co-culturing with pig RPE cells for 14 days. Typical RPE functions, such as phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments and secretion of the trophic factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and glia-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, were observed in these induced cells. Conclusion: hBMSCs can be induced toward functional RPE cells simply by transwell-based co-culture with RPE cells.

  18. Effects of roxarsone on pigmentation and coccidiosis in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, L M; Reid, W M

    1975-09-01

    Roxarsone (0.005%) medicated chickens inoculated at seven weeks of age with Eimeria maxima oocysts had significantly higher pigment levels in blood plasma than did unmedicated controls. Unmedicated E. maxima infected birds had significantly lower pigment levels compared to uninoculated controls. Uninoculated roxarsone medicated controls showed no increase in pigment levels over uninoculated unmedicated birds. This experimental design demonstrates that the beneficial effect of roxarsone medication is due to anticoccidial action rather than an increase in pigmentation after feeding the yellow-colored roxarsone. Since uninoculated birds gained more rapidly if roxarsone (0.025%) was added to the diet, the drug also appears to stimulate growth as well as to protect against coccidial infection. In two floor-pen experiments roxarsone demonstrated anticoccidial activity as measured by higher pigment scores than unmedicated infected controls. The coccidial infection was induced after seeding the litter with oocysts from birds infected with E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. hagani, E. maxima, E. mivati, E. necatrix, E. praecox, and E. tenella. Pigmentation levels were significantly higher in plasma and skin of roxarsone medicated chickens in two experiments and in shanks in one experiment. Similar protection against depigmentation was demonstrated by adding roxarsone to feed medicated with nequinate. These results involving addition of roxarsone may explain some equivocal reports on pigmentation, weight gains or feed conversion. Some previous investigators appear to have used an inadequate experimental design by omitting use of unmedicated uninoculated controls or to have made no attempt to monitor for presence or absence of coccidiosis.

  19. Pigment characterization and lovastatin content of Monascus purpureus isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERNAWATI KASIM

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on characterization of pigment and lovastatin content of M. purpureus had been done. The aim of the research was to select 19 isolates of M. purpureus which produced the highest lovastatin content, and whether there was any correlation between pigment content and the lovastatin content. The isolates were grown on slant agar of bean sprout extract agar for 14 days. The spores suspension was inoculated to sterile cooked rice IR 42, then incubated for 14 days at 27-32oC. The fermented rice called “angkak”, dried in oven at 40-45oC for two weeks. The dried “angkak” was powdered to measure the content of the pigment and lovastatin. By using spectrophotometer the content of the yellow pigment and the red pigment at 390 nm and 500 nm wavelength respectively, could be detected. The content of lovastatin could be measured by using HPLC. The result showed that all the tested isolates could produce lovastatin compound, the yellow and the red pigment. The highest lovastatin content was 0.92% which produced by JmbA isolate. There was no correlation between the pigment and the lovastatin content.

  20. Optimizing Angkak Pigments and Lovastatin Production By Monascus purpureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASIM DANURI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Angkak pigments and lovastatin had been reported very useful as natural coloring agents, as an agent to increase thrombocyte level in Dengue hemorrhagic fever, and also as a compound that was able to control blood cholesterol level. Three strains of fungus Monascus purpureus AKI, AKII, and 915 were selected to produce angkak pigments and lovastatin in potato dextrose agar (PDA medium. The best fungus strain, which is AKII, was then applied in three kinds of rice media (white rice IR-42, red rice BP-1804-IF-9, and a combination of 1:1 (w/w white IR-42 and red rice BP-1804-IF-9 for solid fermentation. The best medium and fermentation times were determined for the production of angkak pigments and lovastatin separately. Results showed that strains, media, and duration of fermentations gave significant effect on the amount of pigment produced. Strain AKII produced highest concentration of angkak pigments. The combination of rice (White IR-42 and red rice BP-1804-IF-9 produced the highest pigment than the individual white and red rie it self. The optimum duration of fermentation was 16 days for strains AKI and AKII, but only 15 days for strain 915. Therefore the strain AKII with media combination of rice and a fermentation time of 16 days were used to investigate the additional effect of various minerals. Addition of the mineral individually gave significant increased on angkak pigment production by AKII, where as the addition of minerals mixture in the forth tube did not.

  1. Impact of Pigments on Self-Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Ivanauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe an impact of using iron oxide pigment on self-compacting concrete (SCC properties. We have experimented with adding portions of iron oxide pigment from 3 % to 6 % into cement paste. A few alternative pigments (chromic oxide and iron oxide hydroxide were used for performing the same experiments. The impact of these pigments on a normal cement paste is described in this paper. We demonstrate that iron oxide pigment reduces the need for water in a normal cement paste. However, adding the pigment also reduces the compressive strength of concrete up to 20 %. The concrete specimens were tested in various time spans, i.e. 1 day to 28 days, by keeping them in 20 ± 2 ºC water – normal consolidation regimen. Some of the specimens were processed in steam chamber, at 60 ºC in order to make the process of the cement hydration faster, as well as to estimate an impact of active SiO2 proportion in ash on SCC properties. We show that using iron oxide pigment for SCC mixture increases the slump-flow property of concrete mix up to 5 %. Experiments with solidified concrete have demonstrated that iron oxide diminishes water absorption up to 6 % and decreases open concrete porosity that makes concrete resistant against freezing. Article in Lithuanian

  2. The Crystal Structure of the Malaria Pigment Hemozoin as Elucidated by X-ray Powder Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straasø, Tine

    in the eradication of malaria. This thesis is a step towards that goal. When examining red blood cells from an infected person under a microscope dark pigment is observed. This dark pigment is actually small crystals called hemozoin. Hemozoin is a by-product formed by the parasite and a necessity for parasitic....... As part of the project an all-in-vacuum powder diffractometer was developed, which provides data with a minimum background level and an improved signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, the diffractometer is designed with the particular purpose of decreasing the number of parameters to be fitted. Installation...... of the diffractometer at the 60 keV beamline at PETRA III, resulted in data from a diamond powder to unpreceded resolution providing accurate structure factors suitable for advanced electron density modelling....

  3. Characterizing pigments with hyperspectral imaging variable false-color composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayem-Ghez, Anita; Ravaud, Elisabeth; Boust, Clotilde; Bastian, Gilles; Menu, Michel; Brodie-Linder, Nancy

    2015-11-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has been used for pigment characterization on paintings for the last 10 years. It is a noninvasive technique, which mixes the power of spectrophotometry and that of imaging technologies. We have access to a visible and near-infrared hyperspectral camera, ranging from 400 to 1000 nm in 80-160 spectral bands. In order to treat the large amount of data that this imaging technique generates, one can use statistical tools such as principal component analysis (PCA). To conduct the characterization of pigments, researchers mostly use PCA, convex geometry algorithms and the comparison of resulting clusters to database spectra with a specific tolerance (like the Spectral Angle Mapper tool on the dedicated software ENVI). Our approach originates from false-color photography and aims at providing a simple tool to identify pigments thanks to imaging spectroscopy. It can be considered as a quick first analysis to see the principal pigments of a painting, before using a more complete multivariate statistical tool. We study pigment spectra, for each kind of hue (blue, green, red and yellow) to identify the wavelength maximizing spectral differences. The case of red pigments is most interesting because our methodology can discriminate the red pigments very well—even red lakes, which are always difficult to identify. As for the yellow and blue categories, it represents a good progress of IRFC photography for pigment discrimination. We apply our methodology to study the pigments on a painting by Eustache Le Sueur, a French painter of the seventeenth century. We compare the results to other noninvasive analysis like X-ray fluorescence and optical microscopy. Finally, we draw conclusions about the advantages and limits of the variable false-color image method using hyperspectral imaging.

  4. Combustion synthesis of cobalt pigments: Blue and pink

    OpenAIRE

    Mimani, T; Ghosh, Samrat

    2000-01-01

    Idiochromatic blue cobalt aluminate (CoAl2O4) and purple pyroborate Co2B2O5 were prepared by solution combustion method using corresponding metal nitrates, boric acid and carbohydrazide mixtures. Allochromatic Co2+ doped in Al2O3/ZnAl2O4 and Mg2B2O5 pigments having the same colour intensity as idiochromatic pigments were obtained similarly. All the pigments are voluminous, homogeneously coloured with a large surface area. The products are characterized by their characteristic colours, XRD, IR...

  5. Production of a Blue Pigment (Glaukothalin) by Marine Rheinheimera spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Peter Grossart; Marc Thorwest; Inken Plitzko; Thorsten Brinkhoff; Meinhard Simon; Axel Zeeck

    2009-01-01

    Two γ-Proteobacteria strains, that is, HP1 and HP9, which both produce a diffusible deep blue pigment, were isolated from the German Wadden Sea and from the Øresund, Denmark, respectively. Both strains affiliate with the genus Rheinheimera. Small amounts of the pigment could be extracted from HP1 grown in a 50 L fermenter and were purified chromatographically. Chemical analysis of the pigment including NMR and mass spectrometry led to a molecular formula of C34H56N4O4 (m.w. 584.85) which has ...

  6. The extraction of pigments from fresh Laminaria japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liqun; LI Pengcheng; FAN Shoujin

    2008-01-01

    The pigments in Laminaria japonica was extracted with six organic solvents and analyzed in spectroscopy analysis.The extractions conditions were screened by an orthogonal test and the quantity of extracted pigments was determined spectroscopically.The results show that:(1) among the six organic solvents,acetone was the most effective one for the extraction; (2) the optimum extraction conditions were as follows:the ratio of S/M (solvent volume/ material weight) was 30ml/g; fresh seaweed was extracted 2 times in 2h; (3) the average total content of pigments was 1.85mg/g (calculated with dry L.japonica).

  7. Algal pigments in Southern Ocean abyssal foraminiferans indicate pelagobenthic coupling.

    OpenAIRE

    Cedhagen, Tomas; Cheah, Wee; Bracher, Astrid; Lejzerowicz, Franck

    2014-01-01

    The cytoplasm of four species of abyssal benthic foraminiferans from the Southern Ocean (around 51°S; 12°W and 50°S; 39°W) was analysed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and found to contain large concentrations of algal pigments and their degradation products. The composition of the algal pigments in the foraminiferan cytoplasm reflected the plankton community at the surface. Some foraminiferans contained high ratios of chlorophyll a/degraded pigments because they were feeding...

  8. Unusual nail pigmentation following cyclophosphamide-containing chemotherapy regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Santosh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide therapy may rarely cause pigmentation of the nails which is of different patterns. We report a patient who developed pigmentation of nails after six cycles of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-flourouracil chemotherapy, each repeated after 28 days for breast cancer. The patient developed nail pigmentation that started proximally and spread distally and involved all the nails of both hands and feet except the second and third toenails of right foot. Using Naranjo ADR Probability Scale, the case revealed a "probable" association with cyclophosphamide.

  9. Association of CT perfusion imaging to plasma levels of pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) and vas-cular endothelial growth (VEGF) in patients with NSCLC%非小细胞肺癌CT灌注成像与血浆PEDF及VEGF水平的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏英

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨非小细胞肺癌CT灌注成像参数与患者血浆色素上皮衍生因子( pigment epithelial-derived factor, PEDF)及血管内皮生长因子( vascular endothelial growth, VEGF)水平的相关性。方法92例非小细胞肺癌患者和80例肺部良性病变患者均行CT灌注扫描,灌注软件分析获得病灶感兴趣区域( region of interest, ROI)的灌注参数血流量( blood flow, BF)、血容量( blood volume, BV)、平均通过时间( mean transit time, MTT)、达峰值时间(time to peal, TTP)及表面通透性(permeability surface, PS)5个灌注参数数值。采用酶联免疫吸附法( ELISA法)检测两组血浆PEDF与VEGF水平。 Pearson相关分析血浆PEDF及VEGF水平与CT灌注扫描各参数的关系。结果非小细胞肺癌患者CT灌注成像BF、BV、MTT、TTP、PS及血浆VEGF水平较肺部良性病变者均明显增高(P均<0.05),而PEDF水平则显著降低(P<0.01);同时CT灌注成像各参数及PEDF、VEGF水平在非小细胞肺癌不同分期亦存在明显差异性。 Pearson相关分析结果显示:血浆PEDF水平与CT灌注成像参数BF、BV及MTT呈负相关,与TTP呈正相关(P均<0.05),与PS无明显相关性;血浆VEGF水平与CT灌注成像参数BF、BV及MTT呈正相关,与TTP呈负相关( P均<0.05),仍与PS无明显相关性。结论非小细胞肺癌肺癌CT灌注成像与患者血浆PEDF、VEGF及其生物学特性密切相关,是定量检测肿瘤血流灌注方便、有效的检查手段。%Objective To observe the association of CT perfusion parameters to plasma levels of pigment ep-ithelial-derived factor ( PEDF) and vascular endothelial growth ( VEGF) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer ( NSCLC) . Methods 92 patients with NSCLC and 80 patients with benign lesion were given CT perfusion imaging to obtain blood flow ( BF) , blood volume ( BV) , mean transit time ( MTT) , time to peal ( TTP) and permeability sur-face ( PS) through CT perfusion software. The plasma

  10. Dietary blue pigments derived from genipin, attenuate inflammation by inhibiting LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression via the NF-κB inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang-Song Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The edible blue pigments produced by gardenia fruits have been used as value-added colorants for foods in East Asia for 20 years. However, the biological activity of the blue pigments derived from genipin has not been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage in vitro. The secretions of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2 were inhibited in concentration-dependent manner by blue pigments. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-time RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, interleukin (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α was inhibited, moreover, ELISA results showed that the productions of IL-6 and TNF-α were inhibited. Cell-based ELISA revealed the COX-2 protein expression was inhibited. The proteome profiler array showed that 12 cytokines and chemokines involved in the inflammatory process were down-regulated by blue pigments. Blue pigments inhibited the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with decreasing the DNA-binding activity of p65 and p50. Furthermore, blue pigments suppressed the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB α, Inhibitor of NF-κB Kinase (IKK α, IKK-β, and phosphorylation of IκB-α. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments in vivo was studied in carrageenan-induced paw edema and LPS-injecting ICR mice. Finally, blue pigments significantly inhibited paw swelling and reduced plasma TNF-α and IL-6 production in vivo. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of blue pigments might be the results from the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression through the down-regulation of NF-κB activation, which will provide strong scientific

  11. Preparation and characterization of Cr203 system optically variable pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Haiyan; ZHANG Hua; CHEN Qirong; SUN Jiayue; XU Wencai; MA Erjun

    2007-01-01

    An optically variable pigment was produced by wet chemical method, where TiO2-coated mica with interfer-ence colors acted as the substrate materials. The structure of the pigment was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),and its optically variable effect was investigated by X-Rite MA86 Ⅱ five angles spectrophotometer. The impact of differ-ent interference substrate materials for improving the color travel effect was studied, and the influence of white and black background on the hue and the color travel effect were stud-ied. Results showed that optically variable pigments can be prepared by coating Cr2O3 on the surface of the pretreated TiO2-coated mica. The color travel effect was sensitive to the change of substrate materials, and different backgrounds can influence the hue and the color travel effect of the pigment.

  12. Epiphytic marine pigmented bacteria : A prospective source of natural antioxidants

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pawar, R.T.; Mohandass, C.; Sivaperumal, E.; Sabu, E.; Rajasabapathy, R.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Awareness on antioxidants and its significance in human healthcare has increased many folds in recent time. Increased demand requisite on welcoming newer and alternative resources for natural antioxidants. Seaweed associated pigmented bacteria...

  13. Regulation of pigment migration in the amphibian melanophore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, A.C.J.; Oordt, G.J. van

    1962-01-01

    Among vertebrates rapid color changes in the skin are restricted to fishes, amphibia and reptiles. These reactions are based on the movements of pigment granules in special cells, the chromatophores which may be classified as leucophores, xanthophores, erythrophores and melanophores.

  14. Culture medium optimization for pigment production with RSM method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize a medium for a red-pigmented marine bacterium S-9801 strain (Flavobacterium sp.). In the first optimization step the influence of yeast extract, peptone, glucose and sodium chloride on pigment production was evaluated using a fractional factorial design. Pigment production was positively influenced by glucose and sodium chloride while other components had no significant effect. In the second step the path of steepest ascent was used to approach the optimal region of the medium composition. In the third step the optimal concentration of glucose and sodium chloride was determined by a central composite design and response analysis. The optimized medium allowed pigment production (A 535~650) to be increased from 0.137 to0.559, being 320% higher than the original medium.

  15. Vitisin-type pigments: Possible novel food colors

    OpenAIRE

    Amić, Dragan; Davidović-Amić, Dušanka; Drago BEŠLO; Trinajstić, Nenad

    2000-01-01

    Spectral properties of different forms of several vitisin-type pigments, recently found in red wines and grapes, were studied. These orange-red tone compounds seem to be promising anthocyanin based food colors.

  16. Fungal polyketide azaphilone pigments as future natural food colorants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapari, Sameer A S; Thrane, Ulf; Meyer, Anne S

    2010-06-01

    The recent approval of fungal carotenoids as food colorants by the European Union has strengthened the prospects for fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide pigments. Fungal production of colorants has the main advantage of making the manufacturer independent of the seasonal supply of raw materials, thus minimizing batch-to-batch variations. Here, we review the potential of polyketide pigments produced from chemotaxonomically selected non-toxigenic fungal strains (e.g. Penicillium and Epicoccum spp.) to serve as food colorants. We argue that the production of polyketide azaphilone pigments from such potentially safe hosts is advantageous over traditional processes that involve Monascus spp., which risks co-production of the mycotoxin citrinin. Thus, there is tremendous potential for the development of robust fungal production systems for polyketide pigments, both to tailor functionality and to expand the color palette of contemporary natural food colorants.

  17. Cellulosic/wool pigment prints with remarkable antibacterial functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N A; Eid, B M; Khalil, H M

    2015-01-22

    Several bio-active agents namely choline chloride, triclosan derivative, PEG-600 and 4-hydroxybenzophenone were successfully included into solvent-free pigment formulations, in a single-stage process, followed by screen printing and microwave-fixation to obtain antibacterial functionalized cellulosic/wool pigment prints. Results obtained signify that both the improvement in functionalization and coloration properties are governed by type of antibacterial agent, kind of substrate as well as pigment colorant. The imparted antibacterial activity of the loaded bio-active agents follows the decreasing order: G+ve (Staphylococcus aureus)>G-ve (Escherichia coli), keeping other parameters constant. The imparted functional and coloration properties showed no significant decrease even after 15 washings. Mode of interactions among the nominated substrates, the pigment paste constituents and the bioactive agents were also proposed.

  18. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae: biological constraints and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.; Lamers, P.P.; Martens, D.E.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in naturally produced colorants, and microalgae represent a bio-technologically interesting source due to their wide range of colored pigments, including chlorophylls (green), carotenoids (red, orange and yellow), and phycobiliproteins (red and blue). However, the

  19. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Somogyi, A. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Peltier, N. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Alianelli, L. [INFM-OGG c/o ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Moignard, B. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Calligaro, T. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Dran, J.-C. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France)

    2004-10-08

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  20. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of oral amalgam pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Sirera, Beatriz; Risueño-Mata, Presentación; Ricart-Vayá, José M; Baquero Ruíz de la Hermosa, Carmen; Vera-Sempere, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Amalgam tattoo, the most common exogenous oral pigmentation, can sometimes be confused with melanotic lesions, being then biopsied. We present the clinicopathological characteristics of 6 biopsied cases (5 females and 1 male) of oral amalgam pigmentation. The most common location was the gingival mucosa, followed by the buccal and palatal mucosa. Morphology and distribution (stromal, perivascular, perineural, endomysial) of pigmentation was variable; there was only 1 case with fibrous capsular reaction and likewise only a single case of granulomatous foreign body reaction. Morphological variability is conditioned by the timing and amount of the pigment deposit, which is often associated with infiltration by mast cells (CD117+), as well as overexpression of metallothionein and HLA-DR at different tissue levels.

  1. Changes in coloration of the flower color pigment of Prunus mume ‘Nanjing Hong’ (Nanjing red) caused by physicochemical factors%理化因子导致梅花‘南京红’花色色素的颜色变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昶灵; 郭维明; 陈俊愉

    2004-01-01

    Mei(Prunus mume Sieb.et Zucc.)flower is one of the candidates of the national flower of China.Belonging to anthocyanin ,the flower color pigment of P.mume Sieb.et Zucc.‘Nanjing Hong’(Nanjing red) can be extracted with methanol containing 1% concentrated HCI(v/v)and the pigment in the extraction solution expresses purely mauve.Experiments in vitro reveal that the pigment is stable at pH0~3.The pigment appears colorless,blackish green or yellowish green because it is sensitive to light ,heat,oxidant and chelation agent.It also expresses various ted ,pruple,blackish yellow,blackish red ofr faint bluish green because of different metal ions or different concentrations of the ions. Glucose and low concentrated sodium be neoate almost have no effects on the cloration.Sucrose can weaken the color, but citric acid can strengthe it .This paper could be a reference or a premise for the exploration on the flower color mechanism ,the identification of the molecular structures f the anthocyanins and the exploitation and utilization of the flower color pigments of red Mei flowers.%梅花是中国的候选国花之一.属于花色苷的梅花‘南京红'花色色素用含1%浓盐酸(v/v)的甲醇提取,并呈现纯净的紫红色.体外试验表明:该色素在pH0~3范围内颜色稳定,因不同光质、热、氧化剂、还原剂、螯合剂而呈现无色、墨绿色或黄绿色,因不同金属离子、离子的不同浓度而呈现程度不同的红色、紫色、黑黄色、红中带黑或微蓝绿色,葡萄糖和低浓度苯甲酸钠几乎不影响其色泽,蔗糖使颜色变淡,柠檬酸却使其颜色变深.该文可为梅花红色花色的机理探索、梅花花色苷的分子结构鉴定、梅花红色花色色素的开发利用提供参考和前提.

  2. Glucose metabolism in rat retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Víctor; Carbajal, Raymundo C; Salceda, Rocío

    2006-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the major transport pathway for exchange of metabolites and ions between choroidal blood supply and the neural retina. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism in RPE and its possible relationship to retinopathy, we studied the influence of different glucose concentrations on glycogen and lactate levels and CO(2) production in RPE from normal and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Incubation of normal RPE in the absence of glucose caused a decrease in lactate production and glycogen content. In normal RPE, increasing glucose concentrations from 5.6 mM to 30 mM caused a four-fold increase in glucose accumulation and CO(2) yield, as well as reduction in lactate and glycogen production. In RPE from diabetic rats glucose accumulation did not increase in the presence of high glucose substrate, but it showed a four- and a seven-fold increase in CO(2) production through the mitochondrial and pentose phosphate pathways, respectively. We found high glycogen levels in RPE which can be used as an energy reserve for RPE itself and/or neural retina. Findings further show that the RPE possesses a high oxidative capacity. The large increase in glucose shunting to the pentose phosphate pathway in diabetic retina exposed to high glucose suggests a need for reducing capacity, consistent with increased oxidative stress.

  3. Multifocal pigmented villonodular synovitis in a child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Kaiyu; Hua, Yimin; Li, Yifei; Mu, Dezhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare, benign proliferative disorder of the synovial membrane that typically presents in adults and affects a single joint. Multifocal PVNS is very rare, particularly in childhood. We reported a rare case of multifocal PVNS affecting over 20 joints in a child. Clinical procedure: A 7-year-old female patient had a 6-month history of multifocal joints swelling with mild pain. She was diagnosed as polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis at a local hospital. Naproxen, methotrexate, infliximab, and pavlin were used to treat the patient for 2 months. However, the treatment had no effect, the joints swelling remained. The patient was then transferred to our hospital. Physical examination revealed multiple joints swelling, especially in the shoulders joints. Puncture fluid from a shoulder joint was bloody. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed synovial thickening and hemosiderin deposition. Biopsy of joint synovium found villous nodules, the invasion of foam cells, and hemosiderin deposition. By collecting all of the evidence, the diagnosis of PVNS was confirmed. Conclusions: PVNS was easily misdiagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis and the formal treatment was usually delayed. This case described here is the first case of PVNS involving such a large numbers of joints that has been reported in the literature. PMID:27537585

  4. Pigment Melanin: Pattern for Iris Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Hosseini, Mahdi S; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2009-01-01

    Recognition of iris based on Visible Light (VL) imaging is a difficult problem because of the light reflection from the cornea. Nonetheless, pigment melanin provides a rich feature source in VL, unavailable in Near-Infrared (NIR) imaging. This is due to biological spectroscopy of eumelanin, a chemical not stimulated in NIR. In this case, a plausible solution to observe such patterns may be provided by an adaptive procedure using a variational technique on the image histogram. To describe the patterns, a shape analysis method is used to derive feature-code for each subject. An important question is how much the melanin patterns, extracted from VL, are independent of iris texture in NIR. With this question in mind, the present investigation proposes fusion of features extracted from NIR and VL to boost the recognition performance. We have collected our own database (UTIRIS) consisting of both NIR and VL images of 158 eyes of 79 individuals. This investigation demonstrates that the proposed algorithm is highly s...

  5. Culturing of retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtink, Monika; Engelmann, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a monolayer of cells adjacent to the photoreceptors of the retina. It plays a crucial role in maintaining photoreceptor health and survival. Degeneration or dysfunction of the RPE can lead to photoreceptor degeneration and as a consequence to visual impairment. The most common diseased state of the RPE becomes manifest in age-related macular degeneration, an increasing cause of blindness in the elderly. RPE cells are therefore of great interest to researchers working in the field of tissue engineering and cell transplantation. In fact, studies in animal models have proven that the transplantation of RPE cells can delay the course of photoreceptor degenerative diseases. Although first attempts to transplant RPE cells into the subretinal space in human individuals suffering from age-related macular degeneration were less successful, RPE cell transplantation is still favored as a future therapeutic option, and much work is done to develop and design cell transplants. Cell banking is a prerequisite to have well-differentiated and characterized cells at hand when needed for research purposes, but also for therapeutic approaches. In this chapter the authors will describe methods to isolate, culture and preserve adult human RPE cells for the purpose of RPE cell banking. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Fumed metallic oxides and conventional pigments for glossy inkjet paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunkook

    Product development activity in the area of inkjet printing papers has accelerated greatly to meet the rapidly growing market for inkjet papers. Advancements in inkjet printing technology have also placed new demands on the paper substrate due to faster printing rates, greater resolution through increased drop volumes, and colorants added to the ink. To meet these requirements, papermakers are turning to pigmented size press formulations or pigmented coating systems. For inkjet coating applications, both the internal porosity of the pigment particles as well as the packing porosity of the coating affect print quality and dry time. Pores between the pigment particles allow for rapid diffusion of ink fluids into the coating structure, while also providing capacity for ink fluid uptake. Past research has shown the presence of coating cracks to increase the microroughness of the papers, consequently reducing the gloss of the silica/polyvinyl alcohol based coating colors. Coating cracks were not observed, at the same level of magnification, in the scanning electron microscopy images of alumina/polyvinyl alcohol coated papers. Studies are therefore needed to understand the influence of coating cracking on the microroughening of silica/polyvinyl alcohol based coatings and consequences to coating and ink gloss. Since micro roughening is known to be linked to shrinkage of the coating layer, studies are needed to determine if composite pigments can be formulated, which would enable the coating solids of the formulations to be increased to minimize the shrinkage of coating layer during drying. Coating solids greater than 55% solids are needed to reduce the difference between application solids and the coating's immobilization solids point in order to reduce shrinkage. The aim of this research was to address the above mentioned needed studies. Studies were performed to understand the influence of particle packing on gloss and ink jet print quality. Composite pigment structures

  7. Smart Mesoporous Silica Nanocapsules as Environmentally Friendly Anticorrosive Pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a special interest to study and develop new smart anticorrosive pigments in order to increase the protection life time of organic coatings and, simultaneously, to find alternatives to conventional toxic and carcinogenic hexavalent chromium compounds. In this respect, the great development of nanotechnologies in recent years has opened up a range of possibilities in the field of anticorrosive paints through the integration of encapsulated nanoscale containers loaded with active components into coatings. By means of a suitable design of the capsule, the release of the encapsulated corrosion inhibitor can be triggered by different external or internal factors (pH change, mechanical damage, etc. thus preventing spontaneous leakage of the active component and achieving more efficient and economical use of the inhibitor, which is only released upon demand in the affected area. In the present work, the improved anticorrosive behaviour achieved by encapsulated mesoporous silica nanocontainers filled with an environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitor has been evaluated. It has been proven that a change in the pH allows the rupture of the capsules, the release of the inhibitor, and the successful protection of the carbon steel substrate.

  8. Multidimensional Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Photosynthetic Pigment-Protein Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    De Re, Eleonora

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation presents the application of ultrafast spectroscopy to the investigation of pigment-protein complexes (PPCs) involved in energy transfer and energy dissipation in photosynthetic organisms. PPCs are the building blocks of all photosynthetic organisms, and within individual pigment-protein complexes, energy transfer dynamics occur over fast timescales and broad spectral regions. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to the capability of photosynthetic organisms to absorb light energy...

  9. Extraction of fungal polyketide pigments using ionic liquids.

    OpenAIRE

    Lebeau, Juliana,; Venkatachalam, M; Fouillaud, M.; Dufossé, Laurent; Caro, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Poster communication, 8th International Conference of Pigments in Food, “Coloured foods for health benefits”, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, June 28 - July 01, 2016.; International audience; Filamentous fungi have been widely recognized as promising sources of various types ofbiomolecules and are therefore highly investigated. The production of fungal pigments is oneintensively studied domain in order to respond to the growing demand for natural colorants assubstitutes to synthetic dyes used in food, ...

  10. Monodisperse Hollow Tricolor Pigment Particles for Electronic Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xianwei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A general approach has been designed to blue, green, and red pigments by metal ions doping hollow TiO 2. The reaction involves initial formation of PS at TiO2 core–shell nanoparticles via a mixed-solvent method, and then mixing with metal ions solution containing PEG, followed calcining in the atmosphere. The as-prepared hollow pigments exhibit uniform size, bright color, and tunable density, which are fit for electronic paper display.

  11. Detachments of the retinal pigment epithelium at the posterior pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, K G; Levitzky, M J; Carr, R E

    1976-08-01

    Multiple vitelliform cysts of the retina, a disorder of unknown cause in which there are multiple detachments of the retinal pigment epithelium at the posterior pole, occurred in five patients. In four patients all lesions were located outside the parafoveal area while one patient showed bilateral foveal elevations associated with more eccentric detachments. Several patients showed slow resolution of some of the detachments with mild disturbances of the pigment epithelium.

  12. Antioxidant Activities of Total Pigment Extract from Blackberries

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Zhonggao; Liu, Jiechao; Wang, Sixin

    2005-01-01

    Total pigment has been extracted from blackberries and its antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation and scavenging capacities towards superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals and nitrite in different in vitro systems have been investigated. The total pigment extract from blackberries (TPEB) exhibited strong antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation in a linoleic acid model system and scavenging capacities towards superoxide anion radicals, generated by a pyrogallol autoxidati...

  13. Pigment compositions are linked to the habitat types in dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Norico; Tanaka, Ayumi; Horiguchi, Takeo

    2015-11-01

    Compared to planktonic species, there is little known about the ecology, physiology, and existence of benthic dinoflagellates living in sandy beach or seafloor environments. In a previous study, we discovered 13(2),17(3)-cyclopheophorbide a enol (cPPB-aE) from sand-dwelling benthic dinoflagellates. This enol had never been detected in phytoplankton despite the fact that it is a chlorophyll a catabolite. We speculated from this discovery that habitat selection might be linked to pigment compositions in dinoflagellates. To test the hypothesis of habitat selection linking to pigment compositions, we conducted extensive analysis of pigments with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for 40 species using 45 strains of dinoflagellates including three habitat types; sand-dwelling benthic forms, tidal pool inhabitants and planktonic species. The 40 dinoflagellates are also able to be distinguished into two types based on their chloroplast origins; red alga-derived secondary chloroplasts and diatom-derived tertiary ones. By plotting the pigments profiles onto three habitats, we noticed that twelve pigments including cPPB-aE were found to occur only in benthic sand-dwelling species of red alga-derived type. The similar tendency was also observed in dinoflagellates with diatom-derived chloroplasts, i.e. additional sixteen pigments including chl c 3 were found only in sand-dwelling forms. This is the first report of the occurrence of chl c 3 in dinoflagellates with diatom-derived chloroplasts. These results clarify that far greater diversity of pigments are produced by the dinoflagellates living in sand regardless of chloroplast types relative to those of planktonic and tidal pool forms. Dinoflagellates seem to produce a part of their pigments in response to their habitats.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of integument differentially expressed genes in the pigment mutant (quail) during molting of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Hongyi; Liu, Chun; Cheng, Tingcai; Li, Qiongyan; Wu, Yuqian; Zhou, Mengting; Zhang, Yinxia; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    In the silkworm Bombyx mori, pigment mutants with diverse body colors have been maintained throughout domestication for about 5000 years. The silkworm larval body color is formed through the mutual interaction of melanin, ommochromes, pteridines and uric acid. These pigments/compounds are synthesized by the cooperative action of various genes and enzymes. Previous reports showed that melanin, ommochrome and pteridine are increased in silkworm quail (q) mutants. To understand the pigment increase and alterations in pigment synthesis in q mutant, transcriptome profiles of the silkworm integument were investigated at 16 h after head capsule slippage in the fourth molt in q mutants and wild-type (Dazao). Compared to the wild-type, 1161 genes were differentially expressed in the q mutant. Of these modulated genes, 62.4% (725 genes) were upregulated and 37.6% (436 genes) were downregulated in the q mutant. The molecular function of differently expressed genes was analyzed by Blast2GO. The results showed that upregulated genes were mainly involved in protein binding, small molecule binding, transferase activity, nucleic acid binding, specific DNA-binding transcription factor activity and chromatin binding, while exclusively down-expressed genes functioned in oxidoreductase activity, cofactor binding, tetrapyrrole binding, peroxidase activity and pigment binding. We focused on genes related to melanin, pteridine and ommochrome biosynthesis; transport of uric acid; and juvenile hormone metabolism because of their importance in integument coloration during molting. This study identified differently expressed genes implicated in silkworm integument formation and pigmentation using silkworm q mutant. The results estimated the number and types of genes that drive new integument formation.

  15. Origin of the exotic blue color of copper-containing historical pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Pablo; Moreno, Miguel; Aramburu, José Antonio

    2015-01-05

    The study of chemical factors that influence pigment coloring is a field of fundamental interest that is still dominated by many uncertainties. In this Article, we investigate, by means of ab initio calculations, the origin of the unusual bright blue color displayed by historical Egyptian Blue (CaCuSi4O10) and Han Blue (BaCuSi4O10) pigments that is surprisingly not found in other compounds like BaCuSi2O6 or CaCuO2 containing the same CuO4(6-) chromophore. We show that the differences in hue between these systems are controlled by a large red-shift (up to 7100 cm(-1)) produced by an electrostatic field created by a lattice over the CuO4(6-) chromophore from the energy of the 3z(2)-r(2) → x(2)-y(2) transition, a nonlocal phenomenon widely ignored in the realm of transition metal chemistry and strongly dependent upon the crystal structure. Along this line, we demonstrate that, although SiO4(4-) units are not involved in the chromophore itself, the introduction of sand to create CaCuSi4O10 plays a key role in obtaining the characteristic hue of the Egyptian Blue pigment. The results presented here demonstrate the opportunity for tuning the properties of a given chromophore by modifying the structure of the insulating lattice where it is located.

  16. Damage induced by proton irradiation in carbonate based natural painting pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enguita, Olga E-mail: olga.enguita@uam.es; Calderon, T.; Fernandez-Jimenez, M.T.; Beneitez, P.; Millan, A.; Garcia, G

    2004-06-01

    The so called 'dark spot' phenomenon produced during proton irradiation of pigments is an important factor to determine experimental conditions of ion beam analysis of pigments in paintings, miniatures, pottery and other art objects. Recently it has been suggested that this phenomenon could be due to the formation of colour centres during irradiation, but there is scarce knowledge about the characteristics and the reversibility of the damage. In this work a representative set of natural carbonate minerals, traditionally used as pigments, were exposed to proton irradiation in an external beam set-up, in order to simulate routine external proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis conditions of an art object. During irradiation ionoluminescence (IL) combined with PIXE were employed to identify the microscopic processes involved in the proton damage. After irradiation, two well-established techniques for the study of colour centres, thermoluminescence (TL) and optical absorption were used. Particularly, TL is a very sensitive technique to detect very low concentrations of radiation induced defects.

  17. Laser therapy of pigmented lesions: pro and contra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Lipozenčić, Jasna; Ceović, Romana; Stulhofer Buzina, Daška; Kostović, Krešimir

    2010-01-01

    Although frequently performed, laser removal of pigmented lesions still contains certain controversial issues. Epidermal pigmented lesions include solar lentigines, ephelides, café au lait macules and seborrheic keratoses. Dermal lesions include melanocytic nevi, blue nevi, drug induced hyperpigmentation and nevus of Ota and Ito. Some lesions exhibit both an epidermal and dermal component like Becker's nevus, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations, melasma and nevus spilus. Due to the wide absorption spectrum of melanin (500-1100 nm), several laser systems are effective in removal of pigmented lesions. These lasers include the pigmented lesion pulsed dye laser (510 nm), the Q-switched ruby laser (694 nm), the Q-switched alexandrite laser (755 nm) and the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), which can be frequency-doubled to produce visible green light with a wavelength of 532 nm. The results of laser therapy are usually successful. However, there are still many controversies regarding the use of lasers in treating certain pigmented lesions. Actually, the essential question in removing pigmented lesions with lasers is whether the lesion has atypical features or has a malignant potential. Dermoscopy, used as a routine first-level diagnostic technique, is helpful in most cases. If there is any doubt whether the lesion is benign, then a biopsy for histologic evaluation is obligatory.

  18. Genetic Architecture of Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembeck, Lauren M; Huang, Wen; Magwire, Michael M; Lawrence, Faye; Lyman, Richard F; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2015-05-01

    Pigmentation varies within and between species and is often adaptive. The amount of pigmentation on the abdomen of Drosophila melanogaster is a relatively simple morphological trait, which serves as a model for mapping the genetic basis of variation in complex phenotypes. Here, we assessed natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in 175 sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, derived from the Raleigh, NC population. We quantified the proportion of melanization on the two most posterior abdominal segments, tergites 5 and 6 (T5, T6). We found significant genetic variation in the proportion of melanization and high broad-sense heritabilities for each tergite. Genome-wide association studies identified over 150 DNA variants associated with the proportion of melanization on T5 (84), T6 (34), and the difference between T5 and T6 (35). Several of the top variants associated with variation in pigmentation are in tan, ebony, and bric-a-brac1, genes known to affect D. melanogaster abdominal pigmentation. Mutational analyses and targeted RNAi-knockdown showed that 17 out of 28 (61%) novel candidate genes implicated by the genome-wide association study affected abdominal pigmentation. Several of these genes are involved in developmental and regulatory pathways, chitin production, cuticle structure, and vesicle formation and transport. These findings show that genetic variation may affect multiple steps in pathways involved in tergite development and melanization. Variation in these novel candidates may serve as targets for adaptive evolution and sexual selection in D. melanogaster.

  19. Analytical Raman spectroscopic discrimination between yellow pigments of the Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M

    2011-10-01

    The Renaissance represented a major advance in painting techniques, subject matter, artistic style and the use of pigments and pigment mixtures. However, most pigments in general use were still mineral-based as most organic dyes were believed to be fugitive; the historical study of artists' palettes and recipes has assumed importance for the attribution of art works to the Renaissance period. Although the application of diagnostic elemental and molecular spectroscopic techniques play vital and complementary roles in the analysis of art works, elemental techniques alone cannot definitively provide the data needed for pigment identification. The advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the definitive diagnostic characterisation of yellow pigments that were in use during the Renaissance is demonstrated here in consideration of heavy metal oxides and sulphides; these data will be compared with those obtained from analyses of synthetic yellow pigments that were available during the eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries which could have been used in unrecorded restorations of Renaissance paintings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pigment signatures of some diatoms isolated from China seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The photosynthetic pigments of 12 species (14 strains) of cultured diatoms from six genera under specific conditions were examined by the HPLC. The diatom genera were Skeletonema, Thalassiosira, Chaetoceros, Nitzschia, Phaeodactylum and Meuniera. All strains were isolated from China seas and most of them were from the Jiaozhou Bay, China. Fifteen pigments were identified and eight of them were various chlorophyll a derivatives. Chlorophyll a, c2 and c1 and the carotenoids fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, diatoxanthin and β,β-carotene existed in all species. The ratios of each pigment to chlorophyll a were compared with the results in literatures. The pigment ratios of this study generally fall within the ranges reported by the literatures although the maximum ratio of fucoxanthin to chlorophyll a was higher and the ratios of chlorophyll c and diatoxanthin to chlorophyll a were low. The pigment ratios are useful to understanding the pigment signatures of diatoms in the Jiaozhou Bay, China, and to setting up the chemotaxonomic method ofphytoplankton in these sea areas.

  1. Production of a Blue Pigment (Glaukothalin by Marine Rheinheimera spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Grossart

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two γ-Proteobacteria strains, that is, HP1 and HP9, which both produce a diffusible deep blue pigment, were isolated from the German Wadden Sea and from the Øresund, Denmark, respectively. Both strains affiliate with the genus Rheinheimera. Small amounts of the pigment could be extracted from HP1 grown in a 50 L fermenter and were purified chromatographically. Chemical analysis of the pigment including NMR and mass spectrometry led to a molecular formula of C34H56N4O4 (m.w. 584.85 which has not yet been reported in literature. The molecule is highly symmetrically and consists of two heterocyclic halves to which aliphatic side chains are attached. The pigment has been named glaukothalin due to its blue color and its marine origin (glaukos, gr.=blue, thalatta, gr.=sea. Production of glaukothalin on MB2216 agar plates by our Rheinheimera strains is affected in the presence of other bacterial strains either increasing or decreasing pigment production. The addition of a single amino acid, arginine (5 gl−1, greatly increases pigment production by our Rheinheimera strains. Even though the production of glaukothalin leads to inhibitory activity against three bacterial strains from marine particles, our Rheinheimera isolates are inhibited by various bacteria of different phylogenetic groups. The ecological role of glaukothalin production by Rheinheimera strains, however, remains largely unknown.

  2. Production and chemical characterization of pigments in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Patrícia Nirlane da Costa; Grigoletto, Tahuana Luiza Bim; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Abreu, Lucas M; Guimarães, Luís Henrique Souza; Santos, Cledir; Galvão, Luciano Ribeiro; Cardoso, Patrícia Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Production of pigments by filamentous fungi is gaining interest owing to their use as food colourants, in cosmetics and textiles, and because of the important biological activities of these compounds. In this context, the objectives of this study were to select pigment-producing fungi, identify these fungi based on internal transcribed spacer sequences, evaluate the growth and pigment production of the selected strains on four different media, and characterize the major coloured metabolites in their extracts. Of the selected fungal strains, eight were identified as Aspergillus sydowii (CML2967), Aspergillus aureolatus (CML2964), Aspergillus keveii (CML2968), Penicillium flavigenum (CML2965), Penicillium chermesinum (CML2966), Epicoccum nigrum (CML2971), Lecanicillium aphanocladii (CML2970) and Fusarium sp. (CML2969). Fungal pigment production was influenced by medium composition. Complex media, such as potato dextrose and malt extract, favoured increased pigment production. The coloured compounds oosporein, orevactaene and dihydrotrichodimerol were identified in extracts of L. aphanocladii (CML2970), E. nigrum (CML2971), and P. flavigenum (CML2965), respectively. These results indicate that the selected fungal strains can serve as novel sources of pigments that have important industrial applications.

  3. The anti-mutagenic properties of bile pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmer, A C; Ried, K; Blanchfield, J T; Wagner, K-H

    2008-01-01

    Bile pigments, including bilirubin and biliverdin, are endogenous compounds belonging to the porphyrin family of molecules. In the past, bile pigments and bilirubin in particular were thought of as useless by-products of heme catabolism that can be toxic if they accumulate. However, in the past 20 years, research probing the physiological relevance of bile pigments has been mounting, with evidence to suggest bile pigments possess significant antioxidant and anti-mutagenic properties. More specifically, bile pigments are potent peroxyl radical scavengers and inhibit the mutagenic effects of a number of classes of mutagens (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic amines, oxidants). Coincidentally, persons with elevated circulating bilirubin concentrations have a reduced prevalence of cancer and cardio-vascular disease. Despite the encouraging in vitro anti-mutagenic effects of bile pigments, relatively little research has been conducted on their inhibitory capacity in bacterial and cultured cell assays of mutation, which might link the existing in vitro and in vivo observations. This is the first review to summarise the published data and it is our hope it will stimulate further research on these potentially preventative compounds.

  4. Fluorescence and reflectance properties of hemoglobin-pigmented skin disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyanova, P.; Borisova, E.; Avramov, L.

    2007-06-01

    There has been growing interest in clinical application of laser-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) and reflectance spectroscopy (RS) to differentiate disease from normal surrounding tissue, including skin pathologies. Pigmented cutaneous lesions diagnosis plays important role in clinical practice, as malignant melanoma, which is characterized with greatest mortality from all skin cancer types, must be carefully discriminated form other colorized pathologies. The goals of this work were investigation of cutaneous hemoglobin-pigmented lesions (heamangioma, angiokeratoma, and fibroma) by the methods of LIAFS and RS. Spectra from healthy skin areas near to the lesion were detected to be used posteriori in analysis. Fluorescence and reflectance of cutaneous hemoglobin-pigmented lesions are used to develop criterion for differentiation from other pigmented pathologies. Origins of the spectral features obtained are discussed and determination of lesion types is achieved using selected spectral features. The spectral results, obtained were used to develop multispectral diagnostic algorithms based on the most prominent spectral features from the fluorescence and reflectance spectra of the lesions investigated. In comparison between normal skin and different cutaneous lesion types and between lesion types themselves sensitivities and specificities higher than 90 % were achieved. These results show a perspective possibility to differentiate hemoglobin-pigmented lesions from other pigmented pathologies using non-invasive and real time discrimination procedure.

  5. Genetic Architecture of Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M Dembeck

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pigmentation varies within and between species and is often adaptive. The amount of pigmentation on the abdomen of Drosophila melanogaster is a relatively simple morphological trait, which serves as a model for mapping the genetic basis of variation in complex phenotypes. Here, we assessed natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in 175 sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, derived from the Raleigh, NC population. We quantified the proportion of melanization on the two most posterior abdominal segments, tergites 5 and 6 (T5, T6. We found significant genetic variation in the proportion of melanization and high broad-sense heritabilities for each tergite. Genome-wide association studies identified over 150 DNA variants associated with the proportion of melanization on T5 (84, T6 (34, and the difference between T5 and T6 (35. Several of the top variants associated with variation in pigmentation are in tan, ebony, and bric-a-brac1, genes known to affect D. melanogaster abdominal pigmentation. Mutational analyses and targeted RNAi-knockdown showed that 17 out of 28 (61% novel candidate genes implicated by the genome-wide association study affected abdominal pigmentation. Several of these genes are involved in developmental and regulatory pathways, chitin production, cuticle structure, and vesicle formation and transport. These findings show that genetic variation may affect multiple steps in pathways involved in tergite development and melanization. Variation in these novel candidates may serve as targets for adaptive evolution and sexual selection in D. melanogaster.

  6. Genetic Architecture of Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembeck, Lauren M.; Huang, Wen; Magwire, Michael M.; Lawrence, Faye; Lyman, Richard F.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentation varies within and between species and is often adaptive. The amount of pigmentation on the abdomen of Drosophila melanogaster is a relatively simple morphological trait, which serves as a model for mapping the genetic basis of variation in complex phenotypes. Here, we assessed natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in 175 sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, derived from the Raleigh, NC population. We quantified the proportion of melanization on the two most posterior abdominal segments, tergites 5 and 6 (T5, T6). We found significant genetic variation in the proportion of melanization and high broad-sense heritabilities for each tergite. Genome-wide association studies identified over 150 DNA variants associated with the proportion of melanization on T5 (84), T6 (34), and the difference between T5 and T6 (35). Several of the top variants associated with variation in pigmentation are in tan, ebony, and bric-a-brac1, genes known to affect D. melanogaster abdominal pigmentation. Mutational analyses and targeted RNAi-knockdown showed that 17 out of 28 (61%) novel candidate genes implicated by the genome-wide association study affected abdominal pigmentation. Several of these genes are involved in developmental and regulatory pathways, chitin production, cuticle structure, and vesicle formation and transport. These findings show that genetic variation may affect multiple steps in pathways involved in tergite development and melanization. Variation in these novel candidates may serve as targets for adaptive evolution and sexual selection in D. melanogaster. PMID:25933381

  7. Host pigments: potential facilitators of photosynthesis in coral symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Sophie G; Lovell, Carli; Fine, Maoz; Deckenback, Jeffry; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Anthony, Kenneth R N

    2008-11-01

    Reef-building corals occur as a range of colour morphs because of varying types and concentrations of pigments within the host tissues, but little is known about their physiological or ecological significance. Here, we examined whether specific host pigments act as an alternative mechanism for photoacclimation in the coral holobiont. We used the coral Montipora monasteriata (Forskål 1775) as a case study because it occurs in multiple colour morphs (tan, blue, brown, green and red) within varying light-habitat distributions. We demonstrated that two of the non-fluorescent host pigments are responsive to changes in external irradiance, with some host pigments up-regulating in response to elevated irradiance. This appeared to facilitate the retention of antennal chlorophyll by endosymbionts and hence, photosynthetic capacity. Specifically, net P(max) Chl a(-1) correlated strongly with the concentration of an orange-absorbing non-fluorescent pigment (CP-580). This had major implications for the energetics of bleached blue-pigmented (CP-580) colonies that maintained net P(max) cm(-2) by increasing P(max) Chl a(-1). The data suggested that blue morphs can bleach, decreasing their symbiont populations by an order of magnitude without compromising symbiont or coral health.

  8. Fermentation and quality of yellow pigments from golden brown rice solid culture by a selected Monascus mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongsmith, Busaba; Thongpradis, Panida; Klinsupa, Worawan; Chantrapornchai, Withida; Haruthaithanasan, Vichai

    2013-10-01

    A single peak (λmax 370) yellow pigment-producing mutant derived from Monascus sp. TISTR 3179 was used for the pigment production in solid rice culture. Various factors affecting yellow tones were investigated. Hom-mali rice variety was the best amongst five Thai local varieties used for fungus culture. It was also better than corn, mungbean, soybean, potato, sweet potato, or cassava tubers. The moisture content and temperature were the key environmental factors affecting the color tones of creamy, tangerine, and golden brown rice solid cultures. The golden brown rice culture gave the highest yellow pigment concentration. Under an optimum room temperature of 28-32 °C, an initial moisture content of 42 %, and 7-day-old inoculum size of 2 % (v/w) the maximum yield at 2,224.63 A370U/gdw of yellow pigment was produced. A mellow yellow powder at 550 A370U/gdw could be obtained using spray-drying techniques. The powder had a moisture content of 5.15 %, a water activity value of 0.398, a hue angle of 73.70 ° (yellowish orange), high lightness (L) of 74.63, color saturation (C) of 28.97, a neutral pH of 7.42, 0.12 % acidity and solubility of 0.211 g/10 ml. It was noteworthy that the Chinese fresh noodle with spray-dried yellow powder showed no discoloration during 8-day storage.

  9. Genetic basis of continuous variation in the levels and modular inheritance of pigmentation in cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, R Craig; Powder, Kara E; Hu, Yinan; Coyle, Kaitlin P; Roberts, Reade B; Parsons, Kevin J

    2014-11-01

    Variation in pigmentation type and levels is a hallmark of myriad evolutionary radiations, and biologists have long been fascinated by the factors that promote and maintain variation in coloration across populations. Here, we provide insights into the genetic basis of complex and continuous patterns of colour variation in cichlid fishes, which offer a vast diversity of pigmentation patterns that have evolved in response to both natural and sexual selection. Specifically, we crossed two divergent cichlid species to generate an F2 mapping population that exhibited extensive variation in pigmentation levels and patterns. Our experimental design is robust in that it combines traditional quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis with population genomics, which has allowed us to move efficiently from QTL interval to candidate gene. In total, we detected 41 QTL and 13 epistatic interactions that underlie melanocyte- and xanthophore-based coloration across the fins and flanks of these fishes. We also identified 2 QTL and 1 interaction for variation in the magnitude of integration among these colour traits. This finding in particular is notable as there are marked differences both within and between species with respect to the complexity of pigmentation patterns. While certain individuals are characterized by more uniform 'integrated' colour patterns, others exhibit many more degrees of freedom with respect to the distribution of colour 'modules' across the fins and flank. Our data reveal, for the first time, a genetic basis for this difference. Finally, we implicate pax3a as a mediator of continuous variation in the levels of xanthophore-based colour along the cichlid flank.

  10. Transient ectopic overexpression of agouti-signalling protein 1 (asip1 induces pigment anomalies in flatfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Guillot

    Full Text Available While flatfish in the wild exhibit a pronounced countershading of the dorso-ventral pigment pattern, malpigmentation is commonly observed in reared animals. In fish, the dorso-ventral pigment polarity is achieved because a melanization inhibition factor (MIF inhibits melanoblast differentiation and encourages iridophore proliferation in the ventrum. A previous work of our group suggested that asip1 is the uncharacterized MIF concerned. In order to further support this hypothesis, we have characterized asip1 mRNAs in both turbot and sole and used deduced peptide alignments to analyze the evolutionary history of the agouti-family of peptides. The putative asip precursors have the characteristics of a secreted protein, displaying a putative hydrophobic signal. Processing of the potential signal peptide produces mature proteins that include an N-terminal region, a basic central domain with a high proportion of lysine residues as well as a proline-rich region that immediately precedes the C-terminal poly-cysteine domain. The expression of asip1 mRNA in the ventral area was significantly higher than in the dorsal region. Similarly, the expression of asip1 within the unpigmented patches in the dorsal skin of pseudoalbino fish was higher than in the pigmented dorsal regions but similar to those levels observed in the ventral skin. In addition, the injection/electroporation of asip1 capped mRNA in both species induced long term dorsal skin paling, suggesting the inhibition of the melanogenic pathways. The data suggest that fish asip1 is involved in the dorsal-ventral pigment patterning in adult fish, where it induces the regulatory asymmetry involved in precursor differentiation into mature chromatophore. Adult dorsal pseudoalbinism seems to be the consequence of the expression of normal developmental pathways in an inaccurate position that results in unbalanced asip1 production levels. This, in turn, generates a ventral-like differentiation environment

  11. Lactoferrin at basal side of mouse mammary epithelium derives in part from stroma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorini, Chiara; Delpal, Serge; Truchet, Sandrine; Le Provost, Fabienne; Baldi, Antonella; Ollivier-Bousquet, Michèle

    2009-11-01

    Lactoferrin is synthesized by glandular epithelial cells and neutrophils and is also present on both sides of the mammary epithelium. We have studied the origin of lactoferrin detected in the various compartments of mouse mammary tissue. As revealed by immunogold electron microscopy, lactoferrin is present in mammary epithelial cells and in the basal region of the epithelium, associated with connective tissue and stroma cells at all physiological stages studied. A perturbation of protein synthesis or transport after in vitro treatment with cycloheximide or brefeldin A does not abrogate lactoferrin labelling in the basal region of the epithelium. The expression of lactoferrin has also been observed in the fat pads of mammary glands from mice surgically depleted of epithelial cells. The sealing of one teat for 24 h is accompanied by an increase in both the number of stroma cells and the labelling of myoepithelial cells. Thus, the lactoferrin present in the interstitial space of the mouse mammary epithelium originates in part from stroma cells. Possible roles of lactoferrin at the basal side of the mammary epithelium are discussed.

  12. The synthesis and characterization of Al/Co3O4 magnetic composite pigments with low infrared emissivity and low lightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunfeng; Xie, Jianliang; Luo, Mei; Jian, Shuai; Peng, Bo; Deng, Longjiang

    2017-06-01

    The main challenge of low infrared emissivity coatings based on aluminum flake lies in finding an efficient method to synthesize the composite pigment with low infrared emissivity and low lightness simultaneously. In this work, we overcome this constraint to some extent, synthesizing a novel Al/Co3O4 magnetic composite pigments with low infrared emissivity and low lightness by thermal cracking and hot flowing method. The results show that the covering area of Co3O4 on the aluminum flake can be tuned by the amount of CoCO3 adding in precursor and the reaction temperature of hot flowing, both of which pay a key factor on the VIS and IR spectral reflectance and magnetic properties. The magnetic Al/Co3O4 composite pigments with low lightness and low infrared emissivity can be obtained at 130 °C for 24 h in hot flowing liquid. The lightness L∗ can be decreased to 69.2, however the infrared emissivity (8-14 μm) is also low to 0.45. Compared with the single Al flakes, Al/Co3O4 magnetic composite pigments present stronger magnetic properties. Therefore, the Al/Co3O4 magnetic composite pigments have offered new choice for the pigments of low infrared emissivity coatings.

  13. Separation of polar betalain pigments from cacti fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus by ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Stalica, Paweł; Jerz, Gerold; Klose, Bettina; Gebers, Nadine; Winterhalter, Peter; Spórna, Aneta; Szaleniec, Maciej; Mizrahi, Yosef

    2009-10-09

    Polar betacyanin pigments together with betaxanthins from ripe cactus fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus (Cactaceae) were fractionated by means of preparative ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography (IP-HSCCC) also using the elution-extrusion (EE) approach for a complete pigment recovery. HSCCC separations were operated in the classical 'head-to-tail' mode with an aqueous mobile phase. Different CCC solvent systems were evaluated in respect of influence and effectiveness of fractionation capabilities to separate the occurring pigment profile of H. polyrhizus. For that reason, the additions of two different volatile ion-pair forming perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCA) were investigated. For a direct comparison, five samples of Hylocereus pigment extract were run on preparative scale (900 mg) in 1-butanol-acetonitrile-aqueous TFA 0.7% (5:1:6, v/v/v) and the modified systems tert.-butyl methyl ether-1-butanol-acetonitrile-aqueous PFCA (2:2:1:5, v/v/v/v) using 0.7% and 1.0% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) or heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA) in the aqueous phase, respectively. The chemical affinity to the organic stationary CCC solvent phases and in consequence the retention of these highly polar betalain pigments was significantly increased by the use of the more lipophilic fluorinated ion-pair reagent HFBA instead of TFA. The HFBA additions separated more effectively the typical cacti pigments phyllocactin and hylocerenin from betanin as well as their iso-forms. Unfortunately, similar K(D) ratios and selectivity factors alpha around 1.0-1.1 in all tested solvent systems proved that the corresponding diastereomers, 15S-type pigments cannot be resolved from the 15R-epimers (iso-forms). Surprisingly, additions of the stronger ion-pair reagent (HFBA) resulted in a partial separation of hylocerenin from phyllocactin which were not resolved in the other solvent systems. The pigments were detected by means of HPLC-DAD and HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS using also

  14. Extraction and Stability of Pigment from Hypericum japonicum%田基黄色素的提取及其稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛; 彭金龙; 张斌; 张璐

    2012-01-01

    Objective-. To investigate extraction methods of pigment from Hypericum japonicum by different solvents, and investigate effects of different factors on stability of pigment. Method; Pigment was extracted with 6 different solvents, stability of pigment was tested with pH, temperature, light, reducing agents and oxidants. Result: Extraction effect of pigment was optimum by ultrasonic extraction 10 min with 95% ethanol at 30 ℃ , These pigment was unstable in light, strong acidity and alkaline, metal ions of Mg2+ , Al3* and other conditions. Food additives, reducing agents and oxidants had little effect on stability of pigment. Conclusion; These, pigment had good stability, but it must prevent pigment using in light and avoid acidity and alkaline condition. Pigment from H. japonicum could be used as a good resource of natural plant pigment.%目的:探讨不同溶剂提取田基黄色素的方法,并考察各种因素对色素稳定性的影响.方法:采用6种不同溶剂提取色素,测试pH、温度、光熙、还原剂及氧化剂等因素对色素稳定性的影响.结果:田基黄色素用95%乙醇30℃超声提取10 min效果最佳,该色素在光照、强酸碱性、Mg2+、Al3+等条件下不稳定,食品添加剂、还原剂、氧化剂对色素的稳定性影响不大.结论:该色素具有较好稳定性,但须防止光照,避免酸碱性条件下使用.田基黄色素可作为一种较好的天然植物色素资源.

  15. Fe K-edge XANES of Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, M. Sanchez del [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Sodo, A. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Eeckhout, S.G. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Neisius, T. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, Grenoble B.P. 166, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, Grenoble B.P. 166, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    The utilization of techniques used in Materials Science for the characterization of artefacts of interest for cultural heritage is getting more and more attention nowadays. One of the products of the ancient Maya chemistry is the 'Maya blue' pigment, made with natural indigo and palygorskite. This pigment is different from any other pigment used in other parts of the world. It is durable and acid-resistant, and still keeps many secrets to scientists even though it has been studied for more than 50 years. Although the pigment is basically made of palygorskite Si{sub 8}(Mg{sub 2}Al{sub 2})O{sub 20}(OH){sub 2}(OH{sub 2}){sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O and an organic colourant (indigo: C{sub 16}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}), a number of other compounds have been found in previous studies on archaeological samples, like other clays and minerals, iron nanoparticles, iron oxides, impurities of transition metals (Cr, Mn, Ti, V), etc. We measured at the ESRF ID26 beamline the Fe K-edge XANES spectra of the blue pigment in ancient samples. They are compared to XANES spectra of Maya blue samples synthesized under controlled conditions, and iron oxides usually employed as pigments (hematite and goethite). Our results show that the iron found in ancient Maya blue pigment is related to the Fe exchanged in the palygorskite clay. We did not find iron in metallic form or goethite in archaeological Maya blue.

  16. Pigmented Pheochromocytoma: an Unusual Variant of a Common Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Aanchal; Kaur, Kavneet; Kumar, Tarun; Cherian, Libin Babu; Kaushal, Rohit; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Dhar, Anita; Seth, Amlesh; Jain, Deepali

    2016-03-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor arising from the adrenal medulla. A number of variants of pheochromocytoma are known; however, pigmented pheochromocytoma is extremely rare, with only few cases reported in literature. We report the cases of two patients with pigmented pheochromocytoma. Case 1 was a 28-year-old female who presented with complaints of breathlessness, palpitations, and anxiety for 5 years, which had worsened over the last 8 months. Computed tomography (CT) abdomen showed a right suprarenal mass. Case 2 was that of an 18-year-old girl who presented with similar complaints and was diagnosed with hypertension. CT abdomen showed bilateral adrenal masses. Urinary vanillyl mandelic acid was raised in both patients. Sections examined from all three tumors showed cells arranged in Zellballen pattern, separated by thin fibrovascular septae. Tumor cells showed moderate to marked nuclear pleomorphism in case 1. Mitoses were, however, not seen. There was no evidence of capsular or vascular invasion. Many of the tumor cells showed intracytoplasmic black pigment, which was positive for Fontana-Masson and was bleach-labile, confirming it as melanin. Hemosiderin deposition was also identified. Large areas of hemorrhagic necrosis were seen in case 1. Tumor cells were immunopositive for chromogranin and synaptophysin, while they were negative for HMB-45. Electron microscopy was performed. A final diagnosis of pigmented pheochromocytoma was rendered in both cases. Pigmented pheochromocytoma is a very rare tumor, which needs to be differentiated from other pigmented tumors like malignant melanoma of adrenal gland and pigmented adrenal adenoma. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry help in making this distinction.

  17. Identification of small peptides inhibiting the integrase-LEDGF/p75 interaction through targeting the cellular co-factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalluzzo, Claudia; Christ, Frauke; Voet, Arnout; Sharma, Ajendra; Singh, Brajendra Kumar; Zhang, Kam Y J; Lescrinier, Eveline; De Maeyer, Marc; Debyser, Zeger; Van der Eycken, Erik

    2013-10-01

    The integration of the viral DNA into the host genome is one of the essential steps in the HIV replication cycle. This process is mediated by the viral enzyme integrase (IN) and lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75). LEDGF/p75 has been identified as a crucial cellular co-factor of integration that acts by tethering IN to the cellular chromatin. Recently, circular peptides were identified that bind to the C-terminal domain of IN and disrupt the interaction with LEDGF/p75. Starting from the circular peptides, we identified a short peptidic sequence able to inhibit the LEDGF/p75-IN interaction at low μM concentration through its binding to the IN binding site of LEDGF/p75. This discovery can lead to the synthesis of peptidomimetics with high anti-HIV activity targeting the cellular co-factor LEDGF/p75 and not the viral protein IN.

  18. Overexpression of Snail in retinal pigment epithelial triggered epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui; Li, Min; Xu, Ding; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Guodong; Wang, Fang, E-mail: milwang_122@msn.com

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • First reported overexpression of Snail in RPE cells could directly trigger EMT. • Further confirmed the regulator role of Snail in RPE cells EMT in vitro. • Snail may be a potential therapeutic target to prevent the fibrosis of PVR. - Abstract: Snail transcription factor has been implicated as an important regulator in epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) during tumourigenesis and fibrogenesis. Our previous work showed that Snail transcription factor was activated in transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) induced EMT in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and may contribute to the development of retinal fibrotic disease such as proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). However, whether Snail alone has a direct role on retinal pigment epithelial–mesenchymal transition has not been investigated. Here, we analyzed the capacity of Snail to drive EMT in human RPE cells. A vector encoding Snail gene or an empty vector were transfected into human RPE cell lines ARPE-19 respectively. Snail overexpression in ARPE-19 cells resulted in EMT, which was characterized by the expected phenotypic transition from a typical epithelial morphology to mesenchymal spindle-shaped. The expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin and Zona occludin-1 (ZO-1) were down-regulated, whereas mesenchymal markers a-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) and fibronectin were up-regulated in Snail expression vector transfected cells. In addition, ectopic expression of Snail significantly enhanced ARPE-19 cell motility and migration. The present data suggest that overexpression of Snail in ARPE-19 cells could directly trigger EMT. These results may provide novel insight into understanding the regulator role of Snail in the development of retinal pigment epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  19. Incorporation of codeine and metabolites into hair. Role of pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gygi, S P; Joseph, R E; Cone, E J; Wilkins, D G; Rollins, D E

    1996-04-01

    Xenobiotics circulating in the blood may become incorporated into growing hair. Melanin has affinity for many pharmacologically unrelated drugs and is responsible for the pigmentation in hair. To assess the role of pigmentation in the incorporation of drugs into hair, the distribution of codeine and its metabolites was studied in Sprague-Dawley (SD; white nonpigmented hair), Dark Agouti (DA; brown pigmented hair), and hooded Long-Evans (LE; both black pigmented and white nonpigmented hair) rats. Codeine was administered at a dose of 40 mg/kg/day i.p. for 5 days. Fourteen days after beginning the dosing protocol, hair was collected and analyzed for codeine, and its metabolite, morphine, by positive-ion chemical ionization GC/ion-trap MS. The plasma pharmacokinetics for codeine and morphine were also determined after a single 40 mg/kg injection (equivalent to first dose in 5-day dosing protocol) in all three strains of rats. Hair and plasma codeine and morphine concentrations were also determined after acid hydrolysis to evaluate the presence of glucuronide metabolites. Codeine concentrations in the hair of SD, DA, and pigmented LE hair were 0.98 +/- 0.10, 5.99 +/- 1.24, and 111.93 +/- 18.69 ng/mg hair, respectively; morphine concentrations were 0.34 +/- 0.04, 0.51 +/- 0.11, and 14.46 +/- 1.81 ng/mg hair, respectively; morphine glucuronide concentrations were 0.67 +/- 0.08, 1.04 +/- 0.37, and 13.80 +/- 3.60 ng/mg hair, respectively. Studies examining the in vitro binding of [3H] codeine and [3H]morphine to hair demonstrated both specific and nonspecific binding sites for codeine and morphine. Pigmented hair from LE rats possessed the greatest number of binding sites, white hair from SD rats contained the least, and brown hair from DA rats was intermediate. A time course study of codeine and its metabolites showed pigment-mediated differences in incorporation of codeine and metabolites within a few hours of drug administration. These data indicate that pigmented hair

  20. Visual evaluation of color stability after accelerated aging of pigmented and nonpigmented silicones to be used in facial prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancuso Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate by a visual method of comparison the color stability of nonpigmented and pigmented facial silicones after accelerated aging. Materials and Methods: Two kinds of silicones were used in this study; one specifically formulated for facial prostheses and the other an acetic silicone for industrial use. Twenty-four trial bodies were made for each silicone. These were divided into colorless and intrinsically pigmented groups: ceramic, make-up, and iron oxide. The groups were submitted to accelerated aging for nonmetallic materials. An initial reading and subsequent readings were made at 163, 351, 692, and 1000 hours using a visual method of comparison. The values were annotated in a spreadsheet by two observers, according to scores elaborated for this study. Results: All groups presented color stability in the visual method. According to the results obtained and analyzed in this study, we can conclude that both silicones, Silastic 732 RTV and Silastic MDX 4-4210, behaved similarly, they can therefore be indicated for use in maxillofacial prosthesis. The time factor of aging influenced negatively, independently of the pigmentation, or lack of it, and of silicones and no group had visually noticeable alterations in any of the accelerated aging time, independently of the addition or not of pigments.

  1. Pigment profiles and bacterial communities from Thailand thermal mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, M C; Sririn, V; Kanoksilapatham, W; Gonzalez, J M

    2009-11-01

    Differently colored layers of freshwater hot spring mats at Boekleung (Western Thailand) were studied. Temperatures ranged from over 50 up to 57 degrees C. Two mats were characterized: a laminated mat with a green and a red layers, and a monolayer, greenish-yellow mat. Bacterial communities in green, red, and yellow layers were investigated using molecular, culturing and pigment analysis methods. Pigment profiles covered a wide spectrum from chlorophylls to carotenoids. A green mat layer showed higher relative content of chlorophyll than yellow and red layers which presented higher proportion of carotenoids. Cyanobacterial isolates grow up to 55-56 degrees C and their pigment profiles showed a relatively high content of chlorophylls suggesting the importance of other bacterial groups in the mat pigment profiles. Bacterial communities were analyzed by 16S rDNA surveys showing Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi as the mayor components of the community. Other significant members were Candidate Division OP10, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes and Actinobacteria. These results highlight a major participation of Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in thermal mat communities, and the preferential presence of Candidate Division OP10 in green mat layers. Differently colored mat layers showed characteristic bacterial communities which could be discriminated from pigment profiles and molecular surveys.

  2. Health-Promoting Compounds in Pigmented Thai and Wild Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Melini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic pigmented Thai rice and wild rice are commonly available in specialized Italian markets and food shops, and they are gaining popularity among consumers demanding healthy foods. Indeed, the typical colour of kernels, which is the unique characteristic of pigmented cereals, is due to the accumulation of pigments that are also responsible for a number of healthy effects. The aim of this study was to provide a portrait of two organic pigmented Thai rice varieties from Thailand and one wild rice variety from Canada, imported into Italy and at Italian consumers’ disposal. To this end, the proximate composition and the content of health-promoting compounds, such as carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, were determined in Thai and wild rice. Moreover, the effect of cooking on phytochemicals was assessed, in order to provide reliable data on the dietary intake of bioactive compounds by samples under investigation. Results show that studied samples have a content of phytochemicals higher than white rice and comparable to other cereals. The cooking process determined a decrease of bioactive compounds in all varieties under investigation. However, some samples were found more resistant to cooking stress, and some phytochemicals were little affected by this process. Therefore, pigmented Thai and wild rice may represent a valuable source of healthy compounds and an alternative to other wholesome foods required by consumers.

  3. Decomposition dynamic of higher plant pigments by HPLC analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yi; ZHANG Ting-zhou; ZHOU Qi-xing; MAO Da-qing; WAN Dong-mei

    2004-01-01

    The fate of the litter of dominant vegetation(willows and reeds) is one of the aspects studied in the frame of the project "Onderzoek Milieu Effecten Sigmaplan". One of the questions to be considered is how long the litter stays within the estuary. In this paper, the time the leaf litter(Salix triandra and Phragmites australis) stayed in the Schelde estuary was studied by using plant pigment as biomarkers with HPLC application. After analyzing the original data from the incubation experiment described by Dubuison and Geers(1999), the decomposition dynamics patterns of pigments were analyzed and described, and these decomposition dynamics patterns were used as calibration patterns. By using Spearman Rank Order Correlation, the calibration patterns of the pigments which were significant(p<0.05) were grouped. In this way, several groups of the calibration patterns of pigment decomposition were achieved. The presence or absence of these groups of pigments (whether they can be detected or not from HPLC) was shown to be useful in determining the time the litter has stayed in the water. Combining data of DW and POC, more precise timing can be obtained.

  4. Seeking carotenoid pigments in amber-preserved fossil feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel B.; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Dove, Carla J.; Grimaldi, David A.; James, Helen F.

    2014-06-01

    Plumage colours bestowed by carotenoid pigments can be important for visual communication and likely have a long evolutionary history within Aves. Discovering plumage carotenoids in fossil feathers could provide insight into the ecology of ancient birds and non-avian dinosaurs. With reference to a modern feather, we sought chemical evidence of carotenoids in six feathers preserved in amber (Miocene to mid-Cretaceous) and in a feather preserved as a compression fossil (Eocene). Evidence of melanin pigmentation and microstructure preservation was evaluated with scanning electron and light microscopies. We observed fine microstructural details including evidence for melanin pigmentation in the amber and compression fossils, but Raman spectral bands did not confirm the presence of carotenoids in them. Carotenoids may have been originally absent from these feathers or the pigments may have degraded during burial; the preservation of microstructure may suggest the former. Significantly, we show that carotenoid plumage pigments can be detected without sample destruction through an amber matrix using confocal Raman spectroscopy.

  5. Algal pigments in Southern Ocean abyssal foraminiferans indicate pelagobenthic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedhagen, Tomas; Cheah, Wee; Bracher, Astrid; Lejzerowicz, Franck

    2014-10-01

    The cytoplasm of four species of abyssal benthic foraminiferans from the Southern Ocean (around 51°S; 12°W and 50°S; 39°W) was analysed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and found to contain large concentrations of algal pigments and their degradation products. The composition of the algal pigments in the foraminiferan cytoplasm reflected the plankton community at the surface. Some foraminiferans contained high ratios of chlorophyll a/degraded pigments because they were feeding on fresher phytodetritus. Other foraminiferans contained only degraded pigments which shows that they utilized degraded phytodetritus. The concentration of algal pigment and corresponding degradation products in the foraminiferan cytoplasm is much higher than in the surrounding sediment. It shows that the foraminiferans collect a diluted and sparse food resource and concentrate it as they build up their cytoplasm. This ability contributes to the understanding of the great quantitative success of foraminiferans in the deep sea. Benthic foraminiferans are a food source for many abyssal metazoans. They form a link between the degraded food resources, phytodetritus, back to the active metazoan food chains.

  6. Mechanism and clinical significance of prostaglandin-induced iris pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjernschantz, Johan W; Albert, Daniel M; Hu, Dan-Ning; Drago, Filippo; Wistrand, Per J

    2002-08-01

    The new glaucoma drugs latanoprost, isopropyl unoprostone, travoprost, and bimatoprost cause increased pigmentation of the iris in some patients. The purpose of the present article is to survey the available preclinical and clinical data on prostaglandin-induced iris pigmentation and to assess the phenomenon from a clinical perspective. Most of the data have been obtained with latanoprost, and it appears that there is a predisposition to latanoprost-induced iris pigmentation in individuals with hazel or heterochromic eye color. As latanoprost and travoprost are selective agonists for the prostaglandin F(2alpha) receptor, it is likely that the phenomenon is mediated by this receptor. Several studies indicate that latanoprost stimulates melanogenesis in iridial melanocytes, and transcription of the tyrosinase gene is upregulated. The safety aspects of latanoprost-induced iris pigmentation have been addressed in histopathologic studies, and no evidence of harmful consequences of the side effect has been found. Although a final assessment of the clinical significance of prostaglandin-induced iris pigmentation currently is impossible to make, it appears that the only clear-cut disadvantage is a potential heterochromia between the eyes in unilaterally treated patients because the heterochromia is likely to be permanent, or very slowly reversible.

  7. The importance of tattoo pigment in sentinel lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, Atilla; Menekse, Ebru; Kanbour-Shakir, Amal; Tane, Kaori; Diego, Emilia; Bonaventura, Marguerite; Johnson, Ronald

    2017-07-06

    The presence of pigment in axillary lymph nodes (LN) secondary to migration of tattoo ink can imitate the appearance of a blue sentinel lymph node (SLN) on visual inspection, causing the operator to either miss the true SLN or excise more than is needed. We present patients with tattoos ipsilateral to an early stage breast cancer who underwent a SLN biopsy. Patients were retrospectively reviewed from medical records and clinicopathologic data was collected. A total of 52 LNs were retrieved from 15 patients for sentinel mapping and 29 of them had tattoo pigmentation on pathologic evaluation. Of those 29 SLNs, 2 of them (6.9%) were pigmented, but did not contain either blue dye or Tc-99m (pseudopigmented SLN). Two (3.8%) SLNs were positive for metastasis; both of these had either blue dye or Tc99m uptake, and 1 demonstrated tattoo pigment in the node. In this cohort of patients with ipsilateral tattoos, removed more LNs lead to unnecessary excision which may important for increasing the risk of arm morbidity from SLN biopsy. However, the presence of tattoo pigment did not interfere with understaging for axillary mapping and it did not effect of pathological identification of SLNs positivity.

  8. Idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation with papillomatosis: Report of nine cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine patients, seven males and two females aged 6-14 years, presented with extensive, asymptomatic, brown-black macules and mildly elevated, pigmented lesions of a few months′ duration. The sites affected were the face, trunk and proximal extremities. The skin lesions were discrete and individual lesions were less than 2 cm in size. The clinical diagnoses rendered by the referring physicians were lichen planus pigmentosus, urticaria pigmentosa, erythema dyschromicum perstans and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Histology in all nine cases showed papillomatosis of the dermis with prominent pigmentation of the basal layer (pigmented papillomatosis without any significant dermal inflammation. Two cases had spores of Pityrosporum ovale in the thickened horny layer, one of which also had, in addition, bacterial colonies in the stratum corneum. The pigmentation resolved on its own over several months. This presentation is similar to the previously described idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation with the additional histological finding of papillomatosis that is being described for the first time and may be nosologically related to acanthosis nigricans and confluent and reticulate papillomatosis.

  9. Spectroscopic investigation of a brightly colored psittacofulvin pigment from parrot feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, František; Greco, Jordan A.; LaFountain, Amy M.; Magdaong, Nikki M.; Fuciman, Marcel; Birge, Robert R.; Polívka, Tomáš; Frank, Harry A.

    2016-03-01

    Octadecaoctaenal is a psittacofulvin pigment associated with the bright red coloration of parrots. It consists of a linear polyene chain terminated by an aldehyde group and therefore provides an opportunity to examine the fundamental factors controlling the excited state ordering and dynamics of polyenals. Steady-state and ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy were performed on octadecaoctaenal and a derivative in which the aldehyde group was converted to a methylenehydroxyl group. It was found that for octadecaoctaenal, solvent proticity was more important than polarity in determining its excited state lifetime. Theoretical computations were carried out to reveal the origin of the effect.

  10. Isolation, characterization, and production of red pigment from Cercospora piaropi a biocontrol agent for waterhyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Maricela Martínez; Bahena, Selenia Miranda; Espinoza, César; Trigos, Angel

    2010-04-01

    A red pigment produced by a Mexican isolate of Cercospora piaropi (waterhyacinth pathogen) has been isolated and identified as cercosporin. The kinetic of cercosporin production in culture media during dark/light regimes was evaluated. When C. piaropi was cultivated in continuous light and potato dextrose broth culture, a maximum of cercosporin production was observed (72.59 mg/l). Despite other reports, C piaropi Mexican isolate produce cercosporin in dark conditions (25.70 mg/l). The results suggest that production of cercosporin in C. piaropi-waterhyacinth pathogenesis is an important factor to take into account in biocontrol strategies.

  11. Vertical distribution of pigmented and non-pigmented nanoflagellates in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sheng-Fang; Lin, Fan-Wei; Chan, Ya-Fan; Chiang, Kuo-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Nanoflagellates can be separated into two groups according to their trophic mode, i.e. pigmented nanoflagellates (PNF) and heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF). However, a newly identified group, mixotrophic nanoflagellates (MNF), are pigmented and show the ability of prey on bacteria. To examine the vertical variations in PNF and HNF abundances, as well as their relationships and the nutritional strategies that they might use, two summer cruises were undertaken in the East China Sea in July 2011 (OR1 966) and July 2012 (OR1 1004). The results show that both HNF and PNF abundances decline with increasing water depth. Vertical variations of abundances are believed to be influenced by prey and light, for HNF and PNF respectively. Over a large part of the sampling area, the ratio of PNF to HNF abundances is about 1:1 in the disphotic and euphotic zones, but exceeds 1.5 in the nutrient-depleted environment along the margin of the continental shelf. The correlation between PNF abundance and bacteria/Synechococcus abundance is positive where PNF/HNF >1.5. However, there is no significant correlation between PNF/HNF abundance when PNF/HNF >1.5 and light/nutrients, indicating that vertical distributions are influenced mainly by prey (bacteria and Synechococcus) in the nutrient-depleted environment. This study assumes that PNF consists mostly of MNF. In the euphotic zone they receive energy from photosynthesis, which is stimulated by the available nutrients from grazing. Their abundance is thus higher than that of HNF. However, in the disphotic zone, both PNF and HNF satisfy their nutrient demands by grazing, and PNF/HNF is close to 1. In other words, mixotrophy might be the main trophic mode for PNF in the nutrient-depleted, oligotrophic environment. Meanwhile, in deeper water (300 m), the much lower prey density means that MNF cannot satisfy the basic energy demands of metabolism and photosynthesis, and thus HNF abundance exceeds that of PNF.

  12. Unusual extensive physiologic melanin pigmentation of the oral cavity: A clinical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mallikarjuna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the oral cavity. Oral pigmentations may be physiological or pathological in nature. It may represent as a localized anomaly of limited significance or the presentation of potentially life threatening multisystem disease. Oral pigmentation has a multifactorial etiology. Most of the oral pigmentations are physiologic. Evaluation of a patient with pigmented lesions should include a full medical and dental history, extraoral and intraoral examinations. In this article, we report a case of extensive physiologic pigmentation of the oral cavity in a 12 year old female patient, posing a diagnostic challenge.

  13. Characterization of lapis lazuli and corresponding purified pigments for a provenance study of ultramarine pigments used in works of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, M; Guastoni, A; Marini, F; Bianchin, S; Gambirasi, A

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we propose an analytical methodology for attributing provenance to natural lapis lazuli pigments employed in works of art, and for distinguishing whether they are of natural or synthetic origin. A multitechnique characterization of lazurite and accessory phases in lapis lazuli stones from Afghan, Siberian and Chilean quarries, on the pigments obtained by their purification, and on synthetic ultramarine pigments was performed. According to the results obtained, infrared spectroscopy is not a suitable technique for distinguishing the provenance of lapis lazuli, but a particular absorbance band makes it relatively easy to determine whether it is of natural or synthetic origin. On the other hand, EDS elemental composition and XRD patterns show the presence of specific mineral phases associated with specific lapis lazuli sources, and can be used to distinguish the provenance of the stones as well as-albeit to a lesser extent-the corresponding purified blue pigments. In contrast, FEG-SEM observations clearly show different stone textures depending on their provenance, although these distinctive features do not persist in the corresponding pigments. PCA analyses of EDS data allow Afghan lapis lazuli stone to be distinguished from Chilean and Siberian ones, and can distinguish between the pigments resulting from their purification as well as synthetic blue ones. Although this methodology was developed using a limited number of samples, it was tested on lapis lazuli pigments collected from three paintings (from the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries) in order to perform a preliminary validation of the technique, and based on the results, the provenance of the blue pigments employed in those artworks is proposed. Finally, upon analytically monitoring the process of purifying lapis lazuli to obtain the corresponding pigments, it was found that ion-exchange reactions occur between the alkali modifiers of silicate/aluminosilicate phases and free carboxylic acids

  14. Cytotoxic effects of curcumin in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margrit Hollborn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Curcumin from turmeric is an ingredient in curry powders. Due to its antiinflammatory, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects, curcumin is a promising drug for the treatment of cancer and retinal diseases. We investigated whether curcumin alters the viability and physiological properties of human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cellular proliferation was investigated with a bromodeoxy-uridine immunoassay, and chemotaxis was investigated with a Boyden chamber assay. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion. Apoptosis and necrosis rates were determined with a DNA fragmentation ELISA. Gene expression was determined by real-time PCR, and secretion of VEGF and bFGF was examined with ELISA. The phosphorylation level of proteins was revealed by Western blotting. The proliferation of RPE cells was slightly increased by curcumin at 10 µM and strongly reduced by curcumin above 50 µM. Curcumin at 50 µM increased slightly the chemotaxis of the cells. Curcumin reduced the expression and secretion of VEGF under control conditions and abolished the VEGF secretion induced by PDGF and chemical hypoxia. Whereas low concentrations of curcumin stimulated the expression of bFGF and HGF, high concentrations caused downregulation of both factors. Curcumin decreased dose-dependently the viability of RPE cells via induction of early necrosis (above 10 µM and delayed apoptosis (above 1 µM. The cytotoxic effect of curcumin involved activation of caspase-3 and calpain, intracellular calcium signaling, mitochondrial permeability, oxidative stress, increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and decreased phosphorylation of Akt protein. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that curcumin at concentrations described to be effective in the treatment of tumor cells and in inhibiting death of retinal neurons (∼10 µM has adverse effects on RPE cells. It is suggested that, during the intake of curcumin as

  15. Cytotoxic Effects of Curcumin in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollborn, Margrit; Chen, Rui; Wiedemann, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas; Bringmann, Andreas; Kohen, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Backround Curcumin from turmeric is an ingredient in curry powders. Due to its antiinflammatory, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects, curcumin is a promising drug for the treatment of cancer and retinal diseases. We investigated whether curcumin alters the viability and physiological properties of human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in vitro. Methodology/Principal Findings Cellular proliferation was investigated with a bromodeoxy-uridine immunoassay, and chemotaxis was investigated with a Boyden chamber assay. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion. Apoptosis and necrosis rates were determined with a DNA fragmentation ELISA. Gene expression was determined by real-time PCR, and secretion of VEGF and bFGF was examined with ELISA. The phosphorylation level of proteins was revealed by Western blotting. The proliferation of RPE cells was slightly increased by curcumin at 10 µM and strongly reduced by curcumin above 50 µM. Curcumin at 50 µM increased slightly the chemotaxis of the cells. Curcumin reduced the expression and secretion of VEGF under control conditions and abolished the VEGF secretion induced by PDGF and chemical hypoxia. Whereas low concentrations of curcumin stimulated the expression of bFGF and HGF, high concentrations caused downregulation of both factors. Curcumin decreased dose-dependently the viability of RPE cells via induction of early necrosis (above 10 µM) and delayed apoptosis (above 1 µM). The cytotoxic effect of curcumin involved activation of caspase-3 and calpain, intracellular calcium signaling, mitochondrial permeability, oxidative stress, increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and decreased phosphorylation of Akt protein. Conclusion It is concluded that curcumin at concentrations described to be effective in the treatment of tumor cells and in inhibiting death of retinal neurons (∼10 µM) has adverse effects on RPE cells. It is suggested that, during the intake of curcumin as concomitant therapy of

  16. Osteoclast formation and function in pigmented villonodular synovitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard; Kashima, Takesh G; Knowles, Helen; Gibbons, C L Max H; Whitwell, Duncan; Athanasou, Nicholas A

    2011-09-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a synovial tumour-like lesion that frequently causes osteolysis. PVNS contains numerous macrophages and osteoclast-like giant cells. In this study, we have analysed the cytochemical and functional characteristics of mononuclear and multinucleated cells in PVNS and determined the cellular and humoral mechanisms underlying giant cell formation and resorption in PVNS. Giant cells and CD14(+) and CD14(-) mononuclear cell populations were isolated from PVNS synovial tissue and cultured alone or in the presence and absence of the osteoclastogenic factors, RANKL and M-CSF. Osteoclast formation and activity was assessed by expression of TRAP and evidence of lacunar resorption. Giant cells in PVNS expressed an osteoclast-phenotype (CD51(+) , TRAP(+) , CD14(-) , HLA-DR(-) ) and were formed only in cultures of mononuclear cells that expressed the macrophage marker CD14. Osteoclast formation required RANKL and occurred in both the presence and absence of exogenous M-CSF. CD14(-) cells in PVNS expressed RANKL. Lacunar resorption by PVNS-derived giant cells was abolished by the addition of the bisphosphonate, zoledronate. Our findings indicate that osteoclasts form by a RANKL-dependent mechanism from CD14(+) mononuclear phagocytes in PVNS. Osteoclast formation occurred even in the absence of exogenous M-CSF, a finding which is in keeping with over-expression of M-CSF playing a pathogenic role in this condition. Anti-osteoclast resorptive treatment may be useful to control osteolysis in PVNS. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Osteochondral destruction in pigmented villonodular synovitis during the clinical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Yoshihiro; Tsukushi, Satoshi; Nakashima, Hiroatsu; Sugiura, Hideshi; Yamada, Yoshihisa; Urakawa, Hiroshi; Arai, Eisuke; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2012-02-01

    In pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), some cases recur and progress to osteochondral destruction. The aim of our study was to clarify the occurrence of osteochondral destruction according to the location of PVNS during the clinical course. Seventy-two patients with PVNS (43 female, 29 male) with a mean age of 40 years (range 3-87 yrs) had been referred to our institutions. Factors influencing the occurrence of osteochondral destruction were investigated. Mean followup was 60 months (range 12-190 mo). Adjacent bone change occurred in 24 (42%) of 57 patients, who were evaluated at the time of the first consultation. Eight (89%) of 9 patients with hip lesions initially had bone lesions, significantly more frequently than those with other lesions (p = 0.038). Duration of symptoms was significantly correlated with the occurrence of bone lesions in diffuse knee lesions (p = 0.005). During followup, patients with location in the knee had a significantly higher incidence of osteoarthritic change (73%) compared to those with foot and ankle involvement (p = 0.027). Re-operation was more frequently required for knee lesions due to the high recurrence rate (32%). Patients who required re-operation had significantly more marked osteoarthritic change in knees (p = 0.001) during followup than those who did not. For PVNS arising in knees, repeated recurrences followed by re-operation resulted in the progression of osteoarthritic change. PVNS arising in hips, feet, and ankles developed bone lesions initially, probably due to the limited volume of these joints. The indications for re-operation for recurrent knee lesions require careful consideration regarding progression of osteoarthritic change.

  18. A conserved two-component regulatory system, PidS/PidR, globally regulates pigmentation and virulence-related phenotypes of Burkholderia glumae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Hari Sharan; Barphagha, Inderjit Kaur; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2012-09-01

    Burkholderia glumae is a rice pathogenic bacterium that causes bacterial panicle blight. Some strains of this pathogen produce dark brown pigments when grown on casamino-acid peptone glucose (CPG) agar medium. A pigment-positive and highly virulent strain of B. glumae, 411gr-6, was randomly mutagenized with mini-Tn5gus, and the resulting mini-Tn5gus derivatives showing altered pigmentation phenotypes were screened on CPG agar plates to identify the genetic elements governing the pigmentation of B. glumae. In this study, a novel two-component regulatory system (TCRS) composed of the PidS sensor histidine kinase and the PidR response regulator was identified as an essential regulatory factor for pigmentation. Notably, the PidS/PidR TCRS was also required for the elicitation of the hypersensitive response on tobacco leaves, indicating the dependence of the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (Hrp) type III secretion system of B. glumae on this regulatory factor. In addition, B. glumae mutants defective in the PidS/PidR TCRS showed less production of the phytotoxin, toxoflavin, and less virulence on rice panicles and onion bulbs relative to the parental strain, 411gr-6. The presence of highly homologous PidS and PidR orthologues in other Burkholderia species suggests that PidS/PidR-family TCRSs may exert the same or similar functions in different Burkholderia species, including both plant and animal pathogens.

  19. Predictive value of exfoliative cytology in pigmented conjunctival lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijser, Sander; van Luijk, Chantal M; Missotten, Guy S; Veselic-Charvat, Maud; de Wolff-Rouendaal, Didi; de Keizer, Rob J W

    2006-04-01

    Pigmented lesions of the conjunctiva are often difficult to classify clinically. Exfoliative cytology may be helpful, but reliable data regarding the sensitivity and specificity of this test are currently lacking. We determined the value of exfoliative cytology with regard to pigmented conjunctival lesions. A total of 294 smears from 182 patients were screened for malignancy within 6 months of exfoliative cytology. Smears were classified according to the following categories: grade 0 = insufficient material for diagnosis; grade 1 = normal conjunctival cells; grade 2 = melanocytes with mild atypia; grade 3 = melanocytes with moderate atypia, and grade 4 = melanocytes with severe atypia. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of exfoliative cytology were 85%, 78%, 59% and 93%, respectively. Exfoliative cytology is a fast, easy and non-invasive technique that may be used in the evaluation of patients with a pigmented conjunctival lesion.

  20. Raman spectroscopy characterization of colored pigments in archaeological materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    . The number of research papers on the subject of Raman spectroscopy applied to pigments and art has been growing very fast during the last years. To get a comprehensive overview we refer to three recent theme numbers of Journal of Raman Spectroscopy1, 2, 3 and other dedicated texts such as e.g. Edwards et al...... to the artifacts or artworks. In this connection the Raman spectroscopy technique must be considered a most elegant method for pigment and materials analysis of relevant museum and archaeological materials. This is done by correlating some bands in the studied pigments with those of well characterized references....... The use of Raman spectroscopy can be taken to illustrate this: It provides e.g. information of importance to art restorers and museum conservation scientists in preserving materials and the understanding of deterioration processes. It does so by identification of key components, as shown in Fig. 1. Prior...

  1. Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis for differential diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. V. Filonenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-invasive diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions by spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis (SIA-scopy using device for dermatoscopy (SIAscope V by Astron Clinica, Ltd was approved in P.A.Herzen Moscow Cancer Research Institute. The method is based on analysis of light interaction with wavelength of 440–960 nm anf human skin, which is recorded by change of image on scan. The comparative analysis of SIA-scopy and histological data in 327 pigmented skin lesions in 147 patients showed, that SIA had high diagnostic efficiency for cutaneous melanoma: the sensitivity was 96%, specifity – 94%, diagnostic accuracy – 94%. For study of malignant potential of pigmented lesions by SIA-scopy the most informative capacity was obtained for assessment of melanin in papillary dermis, status of blood vessels and collagen fibres (SIA-scans 3, 4, 5.

  2. Non-pigmented fixed drug eruption induced by eprazinone hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Kenichi; Tsuboi, Hiromi; Maejima, Hideki; Arai, Satoru; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2005-12-01

    A 68-year-old woman developed an upper respiratory tract infection in November 2002 and was treated with eprazinone hydrochloride, serrapeptase, carbocysteine and clarithromycin. Three days after the start of treatment, the patient noted erythema on her axilla, buttock and inguinal regions. The erythema subsided in 7 days although slight pigmentation remained. However, 7 days later the pigmentation completely disappeared. Oral eprazinone hydrochloride was given as a challenge, and 1 day later the erythema re-appeared in the same areas as on initial presentation (axilla, buttock, and inguinal regions). A fixed erythema without lasting pigmentation is attributed to eprazinone hydrochloride. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed as having a nonpigmented fixed drug eruption associated with eprazinone hydrochloride.

  3. Ion beam induced luminescence analysis of painting pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaranta, A. [Universita di Trento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e, delle Tecnologie Inustriali (DIMTI), via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro - INFN, Via Universita 2, I-35020, Legnaro, Padova (Italy); E-mail: quaranta@ing.unitn.it; Salomon, J. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, CNRS UMR 171, rue des Pyramides, 75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Dran, J.C. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, CNRS UMR 171, rue des Pyramides, 75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Tonezzer, M. [Universita di Trento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e, delle Tecnologie Inustriali (DIMTI), via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro - INFN, Via Universita 2, I-35020, Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Della Mea, G. [Universita di Trento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e, delle Tecnologie Inustriali (DIMTI), via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro - INFN, Via Universita 2, I-35020, Legnaro, Padova (Italy)

    2007-01-15

    Ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL) has been exploited for the first time in the analysis of inorganic painting pigments. The elemental constituents of the different compounds have been determined by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The acquisition time of each spectrum ranges from 100 ms to a few seconds, depending on the luminescence intensity. The luminescence features are fingerprints of the different compounds, thus identifying the provenience of pigments of the same nominal composition. Organic varnish layers do not affect the IBIL features, allowing the identification of pigments, like lapis-lazuli, whose identification with PIXE is hindered by the varnish. IBIL proved to be a technique complementary to PIXE in the archeometry and cultural heritage analysis fields.

  4. The effects of polymer pigmentation on fingermark development techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Simon R; Ojeda, Jesus J; Downham, Rory; Sears, Vaughn G; Jones, Benjamin J

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of latent fingerprint development techniques is heavily influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the deposition surface. The use of powder suspensions is increasing for development of prints on a range of surfaces. We demonstrate that carbon powder suspension development on polymers is detrimentally affected by the presence of common white pigment, titanium dioxide. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrates that patches of the compound are clearly associated with increased levels of powder adhesion. Substrates with nonlocalized titanium dioxide content also exhibit increased levels of carbon powder staining on a surface-wide basis. Secondary ion mass spectrometry and complementary techniques demonstrate the importance of levels of the pigment within the top 30 nm. The association is independent of fingermark deposition and may be related to surface energy variation. The detrimental effect of the pigment is not observed with small-particle reagent (MoS2 SPR) or cyanoacrylate (superglue) fuming techniques that exploit different development mechanisms.

  5. Chemical research on red pigments after adverse reactions to tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaro, A; Toniolo, C; Giulianelli, V; Serafini, M; Persechino, S

    2016-03-01

    Currently, the incidence of tattooing is on the rise compared to the past, especially among adolescents, and it leads to the urgency of monitoring the security status of tattooing centers, as well as to inform people about the risks of tattoo practice. In our clinical experience, 20% of tattooed patients presented adverse reactions, like allergic contact dermatitis, psoriasis with Koebner's phenomena and granulomatous reactions, with the latter most prevalent and most often related to red pigment. Adverse reactions to tattoo pigments, especially the red one, are well known and described in literature. Great attention has to be focused on the pigments used, especially for the presence of new substances, often not well known. For this reason, we decided to perform a study on 12 samples of red tattoo ink, obtained by patients affected by different cutaneous reactions in the site of tattoo, to analyze their chemical composition.

  6. Analysis of pigments from Roman wall paintings found in Vicenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocchin, G A; Agnoli, F; Mazzocchin, S; Colpo, I

    2003-11-12

    The analysis of about 60 samples of wall paintings was carried out using different chemicophysical techniques: optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an EDS microanalysis detector, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The identified pigments were cinnabar, hematite, red ochre, celadonite, cuprorivaite (Egyptian blue), yellow ochre, goethite and carbon. Only in one case some lead white was found instead. In general, the mortar preparation did not correspond to the complex structure suggested by Vitruvius (De Architectura), but it generally showed a porous layer, with crushed grains under the pigment layer. In certain cases two superposed pigment layers were found: yellow superimposed on both red and pink, black on pink, green on black.

  7. Oral postinflammatory pigmentation: an analysis of 7 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergoni, Giovanni; Ergun, Sertan; Vescovi, Paolo; Mete, Özgür; Tanyeri, Hakkı; Meleti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Oral postinflammatory pigmentation (OPP) is a discoloration of the oral mucosa caused by an excess of melanin production and deposition within the basal layer of the epithelium and connective tissue of areas affected by chronic inflammation. Therefore, it is mandatory to demonstrate the association with a previous or concomitant inflammatory process in the same area of oral mucosa. Clinically OPP appears as a localized or diffuse, black to brown pigmentation. OPP may persist for many years even though the disappearing of the pigmentation after the resolution of the inflammatory state has been reported. We reviewed retrospectively the medical records and, when performed, biopsy examinations of 7 cases of OPP. Four cases were associated with oral lichen planus, two cases with lichenoid lesions and one case with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. Despite a possible high prevalence of OPP, only a few reports concerning diagnosis, etiopathogenesis and clinical manifestation have been published so far.

  8. Visual pigments of the box jellyfish species Chiropsella bronzie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O*Connor, Megan; Garm, Anders Lydik; Marshall, Justin;

    2010-01-01

    Box jellyfish (Cubomedusae) possess a unique visual system comprising 24 eyes of four morphological types. Moreover, box jellyfish display several visually guided behaviours, including obstacle avoidance and light-shaft attractance. It is largely unknown what kind of visual information box......, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. However, the results from these studies are to some degree conflicting and inconclusive. Here, we present results from an investigation into the visual system of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie, using microspectrophotometry and immunohistochemistry. Our...... results strongly indicate that only one type of visual pigment is present in the upper and lower lens eyes with a peak absorbance of approximately 510 nm. Additionally, the visual pigment appears to undergo bleaching, similar to that of vertebrate visual pigments....

  9. Vertebrate pigmentation: from underlying genes to adaptive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Joanna K; Uy, J Albert C; Hauber, Mark E; Hoekstra, Hopi E; Safran, Rebecca J

    2010-05-01

    Animal coloration is a powerful model for studying the genetic mechanisms that determine phenotype. Genetic crosses of laboratory mice have provided extensive information about the patterns of inheritance and pleiotropic effects of loci involved in pigmentation. Recently, the study of pigmentation genes and their functions has extended into wild populations, providing additional evidence that pigment gene function is largely conserved across disparate vertebrate taxa and can influence adaptive coloration, often in predictable ways. These new and integrative studies, along with those using a genetic approach to understand color perception, raise some important questions. Most notably, how does selection shape both phenotypic and genetic variation, and how can we use this information to further understand the phenotypic diversity generated by evolutionary processes? Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Laser-generated acoustic wave studies on tattoo pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Lorna M.; Dickinson, Mark R.; King, Terence A.

    1996-01-01

    A Q-switched alexandrite laser (180 ns at 755 nm) was used to irradiate samples of agar embedded with red, black and green tattoo dyes. The acoustic waves generated in the samples were detected using a PVDF membrane hydrophone and compared to theoretical expectations. The laser pulses were found to generate acoustic waves in the black and green samples but not in the red pigment. Pressures of up to 1.4 MPa were produced with irradiances of up to 96 MWcm-2 which is comparable to the irradiances used to clear pigment embedded in skin. The pressure gradient generated across pigment particles was approximately 1.09 X 1010 Pam-1 giving a pressure difference of 1.09 +/- 0.17 MPa over a particle with mean diameter 100 micrometers . This is not sufficient to permanently damage skin which has a tensile strength of 7.4 MPa.

  11. Granulomatous reaction to red tattoo pigment treated with allopurinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Mariana Marteleto; Aguinaga, Felipe; Grynszpan, Rachel; Lima, Victor Maselli; Azulay, David Rubem; Cuzzi, Tullia; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia; Manela-Azulay, Mônica

    2015-09-01

    Granulomatous reactions to tattoo ink are most commonly associated with mercury sulfide, a component of red pigments. Treatment options show limited results. Allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, has been reported as a successful alternative treatment to granulomatous disorders, such as sarcoidosis and granulomatous reactions to fillers and tattoos. We report a case of granulomatous reaction to red tattoo pigment treated with allopurinol for 6 months. Good clinical improvement could be noticed during this time. Two months after we stopped the treatment, the lesion recurred. Allopurinol emerges as an important drug for the management of granulomatous reactions caused by tattoo pigments. Based on the significant clinical improvement noticed during its use, we recommend new studies to elucidate all the potential benefits of the use of allopurinol for the treatment of granulomatous reactions to tattoo ink.

  12. Interactions of natural resins and pigments in works of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Tommaso; Piccirillo, Anna; Nervo, Marco; Chiantore, Oscar

    2017-10-01

    The degradation process involving the formation of metal soaps in drying oils is a well-known problem due to cations from pigments reacting with free fatty acids from the oil. The aggregation of these carboxylates in semi-crystalline structures can lead to eruptions through the paint layers and 'blooming' on the surface. In this work, the metal soaps formation in presence of natural resins has been assessed and studied by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with experiments concerning the ageing of drying oil and different natural resins (shellac, dammar and colophony) in the presence of common historic pigments (smalt, ochre, umber, azurite, lead white, zinc white and titanium white). Mixtures of resins and pigments have been exposed to photo-ageing in solar box up to 1000h, thermal ageing at 50°C up to 1100h and 6month of room conditions exposure as reference. The decrease in the intensity of the carbonyl band in the spectra, as well as the contemporary increase of the metal carboxylates (in the range from 1500 to 1650cm(-1)) absorption bands, were used as the main indicators of metal soap formation. It has been observed that some pigments, particularly zinc white and smalt, present a 'catalytic' effect favouring the simultaneous formation of associated oxalates. The formation of oxalates and different degradation products from natural resins in the presence of pigments is particularly important, as it deeply affects the removability of varnishes and, more generally, the cleaning processes. Moreover, it permanently modifies the interface between painting and varnish layers as well as the aesthetic aspects of the painted surfaces. The influence of natural resins reactivity with pigments and their role in the oxalate formation is an issue still unexplored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pigment Dispersion Syndrome Progression to Pigmentary Glaucoma in a Latin American Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Mendieta, Diana Patricia; Rodriguez, Diego Andres; Sepulveda, Ana Irene; Toledo, Jose Daniel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the progression of pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) into pigmentary glaucoma (PG) in a population at the Central Military Hospital in Bogotá, Colombia. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was conducted, based on a review of medical records of patients with PDS evaluated in the Glaucoma Clinic. Data were collected in a database in excel and subsequently analyzed with the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), performing Chi-square test analysis and Spearman’s rho test. Results: Forty-eight eyes of 24 patients were included. Forty-two percent were women and 58% were men. Pigmentation of the trabecular meshwork was the most frequent clinical sign (100%), followed by Krukenberg’s spindle (91.7%), the least frequent were the iris concavity and iris heterochromia (4.2%), the average of the spherical equivalent was of - 1.33 (SD 2.07). The rate of conversion of PDS to PG was 37.5%, after an average follow-up of 50.7 months. Having an intraocular pressure (IOP) greater than 21 mm Hg was statistically the only significant risk factor for conversion. Conclusion: We found several differences in frequency and clinical signs in these patients in contrast to previous data, probably due to different racial characteristics. The rate of progression is similar to previous reports despite of heterogeneity of these. Having IOP > 21 mm Hg was the only risk factor associated with progression in this sample. How to cite this article: Gomez Goyeneche HF, Hernandez-Mendieta DP, Rodriguez DA, Sepulveda AI, Toledo JD. Pigment Dispersion Syndrome Progression to Pigmentary Glaucoma in a Latin American Population. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(3):69-72. PMID:26997839

  14. Diffuse reflection FTIR spectral database of dyes and pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Eduardo; Silva, Luciana P; Edwards, Howell G M; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando C

    2006-12-01

    24 Pigments commonly used in art have been characterized by diffuse reflection infrared spectroscopy (DR). All of the compounds have also been characterized by means of infrared absorption spectroscopy to demonstrate the reliability of the DR technique. This is the first record of the use of this technique as an analytical tool in conservation science, and the results appear to be promising for the identification of unknown pigments used on historical and artwork artifacts. Although the DR technique used here is not nondestructive, it can still be usefully applied to the analysis of artwork since it requires only a very small quantity of sample for analysis.

  15. Mineral pigments at Huaca Tacaynamo (Chan Chan, Peru)

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, William E.; Piminchumo, Víctor; Suárez, Héctor; Jackson, John C.; McGeehin, John P.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray diffraction analyses of five samples of pigments from a recently excavated mural at the archaeological site of Huaca Tacaynamo, a part of the Chan Chan archaeological complex, northern Peru, show that minerals related to metal occurrences known to have been exploited by ancient Andeans were also used as pigments. These minerals include: atacamite [Cu2Cl(OH3)] for green; azurite [Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2] for blue; calcite [CaCO3] for white; cinnabar [HgS] for red; and goethite [HFeO2] for yellow....

  16. Small molecule screening identifies targetable zebrafish pigmentation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colanesi, Sarah; Taylor, Kerrie L; Temperley, Nicholas D

    2012-01-01

    Small molecules complement genetic mutants and can be used to probe pigment cell biology by inhibiting specific proteins or pathways. Here, we present the results of a screen of active compounds for those that affect the processes of melanocyte and iridophore development in zebrafish and investig......Small molecules complement genetic mutants and can be used to probe pigment cell biology by inhibiting specific proteins or pathways. Here, we present the results of a screen of active compounds for those that affect the processes of melanocyte and iridophore development in zebrafish...

  17. The ascidian pigmented sensory organs: structures and developmental programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, R; Racioppi, C; Pezzotti, M R; Branno, M; Locascio, A; Ristoratore, F; Spagnuolo, A

    2015-01-01

    The recent advances on ascidian pigment sensory organ development and function represent a fascinating platform to get insight on the basic programs of chordate eye formation. This review aims to summarize current knowledge, at the structural and molecular levels, on the two main building blocks of ascidian light sensory organ, i.e. pigment cells and photoreceptor cells. The unique features of these structures (e.g., simplicity and well characterized cell lineage) are indeed making it possible to dissect the developmental programs at single cell resolution and will soon provide a panel of molecular tools to be exploited for a deep developmental and comparative-evolutionary analysis.

  18. Dynamics of the anoxygenic phototrophic community in meromictic Fayetteville Green Lake (NY) and the associated sedimentary pigment record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K. M.; Fulton, J. M.; Hunter, S.; Macalady, J. L.; Kump, L.; Freeman, K. H.

    2012-12-01

    Photosynthetic pigments and their diagenetic products in marine sedimentary rocks hold important clues about recent and ancient variability in the Earth's surface environment. The chemical relicts of carotenoids from anoxygenic sulfur bacteria are of particular interest to geoscientists because of their potential to signal episodes of marine photic-zone euxinia such as those proposed for extended periods in the Proterozoic as well as brief intervals during the Phanerozoic. It is therefore critical to constrain the environmental and physiological factors that influence carotenoid production and preservation in modern environments. Our work in redox stratified, microbially dominated Fayetteville Green Lake (New York) has spanned the past decade and included seasonal (2005-2006) and monthly (2011) pigment monitoring in the water column, as well as a coupled pigment and nucleic acid clone library analyses from planktonic and benthic samples in 2006. Populations of photosynthetic bacteria in the water column are dynamic on monthly and annual scales. In 2011, purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) and green sulfur bacteria (GSB) were most abundant in spring and fall, respectively, responding to environmental conditions. PSB are diverse both at the chemocline and in benthic mats below oxygenated shallow waters, with different PSB species inhabiting the two environments. Okenone (from PSB) is an abundant carotenoid in both the chemocline waters and in benthic mats. GSB and their primary pigment Bchl e are also represented in and below the chemocline. However, the water column and sediments contain only trace concentrations of the GSB carotenoid isorenieratene, with concentrations relative to Bchl e being at least two orders of magnitude lower than we have observed in other meromictic lakes. Sediments deposited over the past ~550 years also reveal decadal to centennial scale variability in pigment production in the water column, possibly associated with hypothesized climatic and

  19. 75 FR 62765 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty.... See Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed... most recently completed review. See Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results...

  20. Design and production practice of pigment printing garment%涂料印花服装的设计与生产实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦俊霞

    2016-01-01

    Pigment printing is realized by fixing pigments on textiles by adhesive. Bright color and fashion clothing styles of garment can be developed by pigment printing technology. Due to relatively short printing process, pigment printing is the cheapest method in printing production. Also, pigments which show complete chromatography, high fastness and bright color are suitable for all textile fibers. The pigment printing quality depends on adhesive, pigments, curing process and many other factors. Printing production practices in casual clothes and fashion are used to verify the broad market development prospect of printing garment products.%涂料印花是借助于粘合剂将颜料固化在纺织面料上的一种印花方法,借助涂料印花技术在纺织服装上设计开发出具有颜色鲜艳、时尚气息浓厚的服装款式。由于涂料印制所需要的工艺、工序相对较少,是印花生产中最价廉的方式。涂料的色谱齐全,耐日晒色牢度较高,颜色鲜艳,适用于所有的纺织纤维。涂料印花质量好坏取决于粘合剂、涂料和固化工艺等因素,通过涂料印花在休闲服装和时装上的生产实践来验证涂料印花服装产品广阔的市场前景。

  1. 音猬因子信号通路在缺氧诱导的人视网膜色素上皮细胞中血管内皮生长因子表达中的作用%Role of Shh signal transduction pathway in vascular endothelial growth factor expression under hypoxia in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯亚南; 雷宁玉; 宋斌; 王丽君

    2016-01-01

    目的 观察探讨音猬因子(Shh)信号转导通路在缺氧诱导的人视网膜色素上皮(hRPE)细胞血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)表达中的作用.方法 hRPE-19细胞分为正常对照组(Cont组)、缺氧组.缺氧组加入100μmol/L CoCl2再分为缺氧对照组(CoCl2组)、cyclopamine处理组(CYA组)、二甲基亚砜对照组(DMSO组).CYA组于造成缺氧前1h加入20μmol/L的cyclopamine进行预处理;DMSO组加入1‰DMSO.各组细胞培养4、8、12、24 h.采用荧光定量PCR(RT-PCR)检测细胞内Shh、VEGF mRNA的表达;酶联免疫吸附测定试验(ELISA)检测细胞培养上清液中VEGF蛋白含量.结果 RT-PCT检测结果显示,缺氧刺激4、8、12、24 h,缺氧组细胞内Shh、VEGF mRNA表达逐渐增高,与Cont组细胞内Shh(F=45.260)、VEGF mRNA(F=264.938)表达比较,差异有统计学意义(P=0.001).CYA组细胞内Shh、VEGF mRNA表达与CoCl2组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);DMSO组细胞内Shh、VEGF mRNA表达与CoCl2组比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).ELISA检测结果显示,CoCl2组细胞培养上清液中VEGF蛋白含量与Cont组比较,差异有统计学意义(F=3 156.676,P=0.001).CYA组细胞培养上清液中VEGF蛋白含量较CoCl2组明显降低,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 Shh信号转导通路可能参与了缺氧引起的hRPE细胞中VEGF的表达.%Objective To investigate the role of sonic hedgehog (Shh) signal transduction pathway in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) under hypoxia in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells.Methods ARPE-19 were cultured and divided into normal ARPE-19 (Cont) and hypoxia group (100 μmol/L CoCl2 Cobalt Chloride +-ARPE-19);hypoxia group was further divided into CoCl2 group,cyclopamine group (CYA) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) group.20 μmol/L cyclopamine was added to the CYA group 1 hour before hypoxia,1‰ DMSO was added into DMSO group at the same time.The hRPE cells were cultured under hypoxia

  2. Slit2基因转染对人视网膜色素上皮细胞VEGF表达的影响及其作用机制%Effect of Slit2 gene transfection on vascular endothelial growth factor in retinal pigment epithelium cells and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅雨; 周希瑗

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究Slit2基因对人视网膜色素上皮(retinal pigment epithelium,RPE)细胞表达血管内皮生长因子(vascular endothelial growth factor,VEGF)的影响,并探讨丝裂原激活(mitogen-activated,MEK)/细胞外信号调节蛋白激酶(extracellular signal regulated protein kinase,ERK)和磷脂酰肌醇-3激酶(phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase,PI3K)/丝氨酸苏氨酸蛋白激酶(serine-threonine kinase,AKT)这2条信号通路在此过程中的作用.方法:(1)体外培养人RPE细胞株RPE-19; (2)将腺病毒介导的Slit2(adenovirus-mediated Slit2,Ad-Slit2)转染RPE细胞,培养12、24 h及48 h;(3)转染前将MEK信号通路阻断剂PD98059、PI3K 信号通路阻断剂LY294002预处理RPE细胞1 h;(4)用real-time PCR及酶联免疫吸附试验(enzyme linked immunosorbent assay,ELISA)检测VEGF的表达水平,用Western blot检测磷酸化ERK、磷酸化AKT的表达情况.结果:Slit2转染的RPE细胞后,real-time PCR结果显示不同时间之间VEGF mRNA表达有差别(F=12.789,P=0.018),组别和时间之间存在交互作用(F=13.375,P=0.017),不同组别有差别(F=16.855,P=0.015),在24 h与48 h,Ad-Slit2组高于空腺病毒组(P4 h=0.002,P48 h=0.018).ELISA结果显示不同时间之间VEGF蛋白表达有差别(F=24.886,P=0.000),组别和时间之间存在交互作用(F=23.524,P=0.000),不同组别有差别(F=28.250,P=0.006),在48 h,Ad-Slit2组高于空腺病毒组(P=0.003).Western blot结果可见p-ERK及p-AKT的蛋白表达水平增加,阻断剂PD98059及LY294002分别能降低ERK、AKT的磷酸化水平,并与Ad-Slit2组相比较,real-time PCR结果显示VEGF mRNA表达水平在不同时间有差别(F=32.202,P=0.000),组别和时间之间存在交互作用(F=8.372,P=0.006);不同组别存在差别(F=15.062,P=0.001),ELISA结果显示VEGF蛋白表达水平在不同时间之间有差别(F=90.703,P=0.000),组别和时间之间存在交互作用(F=4.968,P=0.005),不同组别存在差别(F=69.636,P=0.000).结论:PI3K/AKT以及MEK/ERK这

  3. Growth and Photosynthetic Pigments Accumulation of Jute Mallow (Corchorus olitorius Linn. in Response to Different Levels of Magnesium Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel Dare OLOWOLAJU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hereby study investigated the effect of Magnesium application at different levels on the morphological parameters and photosynthetic pigment accumulation of Corchorus olitorius. Seeds of C. olitorius were utilized in the experiment. These seeds were sown in 2 big bowls and were supplied with 200 ml of water every day until they were fully established. After three weeks of sowing, the seedlings were transplanted into plastic pots. The treatments were: distilled water (control; nutrient solution in which the concentration of Magnesium was increased by the factor of 5 (N5, nutrient solution in which the concentration of Magnesium was increased by the factor of 10 (N10 and nutrient solution lacking Magnesium source (NMg. The seedlings were then divided into 4 regimes, with each regime containing each treatment. From the results obtained, it was observed that there was a significant effect at (P≥0.05 on the Corchorus olitorius growth parameters and photosynthetic pigment accumulation among the treatments. There was an increase in the shoot height, number of leaves, number of flowers, leaf area and the photosynthetic pigment accumulation in the seedlings treated with magnesium increased by the factor of 5 (N5 than by other treatments. The control recorded the lowest values for these parameters. It can be concluded that for an optimum growth of Corchorus olitorius, it can be inferred that the plant can do well in nutrient solution having Magnesium source (at moderate level.

  4. Exploiting the Autofluorescent Properties of Photosynthetic Pigments for Analysis of Pigmentation and Morphology in Live Fremyella diplosiphon Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana R. Bordowitz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Fremyella diplosiphon is a freshwater, filamentous cyanobacterium that exhibits light-dependent regulation of photosynthetic pigment accumulation and cellular and filament morphologies in a well-known process known as complementary chromatic adaptation (CCA. One of the techniques used to investigate the molecular bases of distinct aspects of CCA is confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. CLSM capitalizes on the autofluorescent properties of cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins and chlorophyll a. We employed CLSM to perform spectral scanning analyses of F. diplosiphon strains grown under distinct light conditions. We report optimized utilization of CLSM to elucidate the molecular basis of the photoregulation of pigment accumulation and morphological responses in F. diplosiphon.

  5. Pigment developed to protect spacecraft/solar cells from Sun's harmful rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A pigment (phthalocyanine) is studied at the Marshall Materials and Processes Lab. The pigment has the ability to protect spacecraft against the harmful effects of the Sun's ultraviolet rays, and to increase the efficiency and life of solar cells.

  6. Analytical Investigation Of Pigments, Ground Layer And Media Of Cartonnage Fragments From Greek Roman Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Hala. A. M.

    Some cartonnage fragments from Hawara, Fayoum Excavation were examined to identify pigments, media and grounds. It belonged to the Greek-Roman period. They were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X ray analysis (EDS) equipped with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). These techniques were used to identify the composition and morphology of grounds, nature of pigments and media used in cartonnage fragments. The coarse ground layer was composed of calcite and traces of quartz. The fine ground layer used under the pigments directly was composed of calcite only. Carbon black was used as black pigment while lead oxide as red pigment, showing the influence of Roman and Greek pigments on Egyptian art in these later periods. Blue colorant was identified as cuprorivaite and yellow pigment was goethite. Animal glue was used in the four pigments as medium colored.

  7. Raman spectroscopy of modern art: classification and identification of Azo-pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenabeele, Peter; Moens, Luc; Edwards, Howell G.

    2000-09-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy is an important molecular spectroscopic technique for the non-destructive examination of objects of art. In this work, Raman spectra of a number of Azo-pigments are presented, which are important artists' pigments in contemporary artifacts. The Azo-pigments, being a group of cheap pigments with good painting properties, form an important subgroup of pigments that became available to the artists at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. A classification for these Azo-pigments is presented, which is based on their chemical properties, reflected in their molecular Raman spectrum. It is shown that a close spectral examination can help in assigning the unknown pigment to a class of pigments and thus assist in the identification of the painting material.

  8. Infection of Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Boiko

    Full Text Available Little is known about the susceptibility of posterior segment tissues, particularly the human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE, to Chlamydia trachomatis. The purpose of the study was to investigate the possibility of infecting the hRPE with Chlamydia trachomatis, and to examine the infectivity of different Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates for hRPE cells and the hRPE cell response to the infection.Cultured hRPE and McCoy cells were inoculated with eight Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar E clinical isolates at multiplicity of infection (MOI of 2.0 or 0.3. To detect Chlamydia trachomatis, samples were stained immunohistochemically with anti-major outer membrane protein antibodies at 24h, 48h, and 72h postinoculation (PI. The changes in the expression of signaling molecules and proteins of cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix in hRPE cells were examined immunohistochemically.All eight clinical isolates demonstrated ability to infect hRPE cells. At equal MOI of 0.3, the infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates for RPE culture was found to be at least as high as that for McCoy cell culture. At 24h PI, the percentage of inclusion-containing cells varied from 1.5 ± 0.52 to 14.6 ± 3.3% in hRPE cell culture infected at MOI of 2.0 against 0.37 ± 0.34 to 8.9 ± 0.2% in McCoy cell culture infected at MOI of 0.3. Collagen type I, collagen type IV, basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-8 expression at 48h PI were maximally increased, by 2.1-, 1.3-, 1.5-, 1.5- and 1.6-fold, respectively, in the Chlamydia trachomatis-infected compared with control hRPE cell culture specimens (P < 0.05.This study, for the first time, proved the possibility of infecting hRPE cultured cells with Chlamydia trachomatis, which leads to proproliferative and proinflammatory changes in the expression of signaling molecules and extracellular matrix components.

  9. Production of Extracellular Pigment by a Mutant of Monascus kaoliang sp. nov

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ching-Fwu; Iizuka, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    A hyperpigment-producing mutant, R-10847, was derived from Monascus kaoliang F-2 (ATCC 26264) through a series of mutagenesis steps. The mutant produced a large quantity of Monascus pigment when grown in mantou (steamed bread) by solid culture. The mutant produced pigments extracellularly by extruding the pigments outside the cell in a lump together with some viscous substances. The productivity of pigment was about 100-fold greater than that of the wild type. The mutant lost the capability o...

  10. Controlling composition and color characteristics of Monascus pigments by pH and nitrogen sources in submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kan; Song, Da; Chen, Gong; Pistolozzi, Marco; Wu, Zhenqiang; Quan, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Submerged fermentations of Monascus anka were performed with different nitrogen sources at different pH in 3 L bioreactors. The results revealed that the Monascus pigments dominated by different color components (yellow pigments, orange pigments or red pigments) could be selectively produced through pH control and nitrogen source selection. A large amount of intracellular pigments dominated by orange pigments and a small amount of water-soluble extracellular yellow pigments were produced at low pH (pH 2.5 and 4.0), independently of the nitrogen source employed. At higher pH (pH 6.5), the role of the nitrogen source became more significant. In particular, when ammonium sulfate was used as nitrogen source, the intracellular pigments were dominated by red pigments with a small amount of yellow pigments. Conversely, when peptone was used, intracellular pigments were dominated by yellow pigments with a few red pigments derivatives. Neither the presence of peptone nor ammonium sulfate promoted the production of intracellular orange pigments while extracellular pigments with an orangish red color were observed in both cases, with a higher yield when peptone was used. Two-stage pH control fermentation was then performed to improve desirable pigments yield and further investigate the effect of pH and nitrogen sources on pigments composition. These results provide a useful strategy to produce Monascus pigments with different composition and different color characteristics.

  11. Pigmented paravenous chorioretinal atrophy with Coat′s like response

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    Manish Tandon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented paravenous chorioretinal atrophy (PPCRA is an uncommon retinal disorder of unknown etiology that is neither well understood nor classified. We report an atypical case of PPCRA, associated with Coat′s like response (CLR in a 64-year-old man of Asian origin. Both the eyes were involved, though asymmetrically.

  12. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

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    Ondřej Slavík

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics.

  13. Two newly identified genetic determinants of pigmentation in Europeans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulem, P.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Stacey, S.N.; Helgason, A.; Rafnar, T.; Jakobsdottir, M.; Steinberg, S.; Gudjonsson, S.A.; Palsson, A.; Thorleifsson, G.; Palsson, S.; Sigurgeirsson, B.; Thorisdottir, K.; Ragnarsson, R.; Benediktsdottir, K.R.; Aben, K.K.H.; Vermeulen, H.H.M.; Goldstein, A.M.; Tucker, M.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Olafsson, J.H.; Gulcher, J.; Kong, A.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Stefansson, K.

    2008-01-01

    We present results from a genome-wide association study for variants associated with human pigmentation characteristics among 5,130 Icelanders, with follow-up analyses in 2,116 Icelanders and 1,214 Dutch individuals. Two coding variants in TPCN2 are associated with hair color, and a variant at the A

  14. Genetic determinants of hair, eye and skin pigmentation in Europeans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulem, P.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Stacey, S.N.; Helgason, A.; Rafnar, T.; Magnusson, K.P.; Manolescu, A.; Karason, A.; Palsson, A.; Thorleifsson, G.; Jakobsdottir, M.; Steinberg, S.; Palsson, S.; Jonasson, F.; Sigurgeirsson, B.; Thorisdottir, K.; Ragnarsson, R.; Benediktsdottir, K.R.; Aben, K.K.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Olafsson, J.H.; Gulcher, J.R.; Kong, A.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Stefansson, K.

    2007-01-01

    Hair, skin and eye colors are highly heritable and visible traits in humans. We carried out a genome-wide association scan for variants associated with hair and eye pigmentation, skin sensitivity to sun and freckling among 2,986 Icelanders. We then tested the most closely associated SNPs from six re

  15. Genetic determinants of hair, eye and skin pigmentation in Europeans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulem, P.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Stacey, S.N.; Helgason, A.; Rafnar, T.; Magnusson, K.P.; Manolescu, A.; Karason, A.; Palsson, A.; Thorleifsson, G.; Jakobsdottir, M.; Steinberg, S.; Palsson, S.; Jonasson, F.; Sigurgeirsson, B.; Thorisdottir, K.; Ragnarsson, R.; Benediktsdottir, K.R.; Aben, K.K.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Olafsson, J.H.; Gulcher, J.R.; Kong, A.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Stefansson, K.

    2007-01-01

    Hair, skin and eye colors are highly heritable and visible traits in humans. We carried out a genome-wide association scan for variants associated with hair and eye pigmentation, skin sensitivity to sun and freckling among 2,986 Icelanders. We then tested the most closely associated SNPs from six

  16. Plant Pigment Identification: A Classroom and Outreach Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Kathleen C. A.; Odendaal, Antoinette Y.; Carlson, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a class of pigments responsible for the bright colors of many flowers, fruits, and vegetables typically resulting in shades of red, blue, and purple. Students were asked to perform an activity to enable them to identify which anthocyanin was present in one of several possible plant materials through a hands-on activity. Students…

  17. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid in Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Koo Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lily Koo Lin1, Han Lee2, Eli Chang11Department of Oculoplastics, Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Pigmented basal cell carcinoma (PBCC of the eyelid has not been well cited in the literature, and is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions. We aim to describe PBCC of the eyelid in Hispanic patients.Methods: Retrospective review of patients with eyelid skin cancer who presented to the Department of Dermatology at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California and the Doheny Eye Institute from January 2002 to November 2005.Results: Sixty-nine of the 79 patients with eyelid skin cancer had basal cell carcinoma. Eight of these patients were Hispanic. Four of the eight Hispanic patients had PBCC.Conclusions: Although eyelid PBCC is regarded as a rare condition, it may occur more commonly in the Hispanic population and should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions.Keywords: pigmented basal cell carcinoma, eyelid, skin cancer, lesions

  18. Macular pigment and fixation after macular translocation surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhard, Jens; Kanis, Martijn J.; Berendschot, Tos T. J. M.; Schoen, Christiane; Gelisken, Faik; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U.; Zrenner, Eberhart

    2010-01-01

    Background After full macular translocation (MT) surgery with 3608 retinotomy, the fovea is rarely identifiable. Our aim was to verify the position of the fovea, to determine how patients fixate after MT and