Nagasaka, Yasuo; Hori, Koji; Osada, Yoshihisa
Animal studies reveal that many species perceive partially occluded objects in the same way as do humans. Pigeons have been a notable exception. We re-investigated this anomaly of pigeon perception using a different approach from previous studies. With our method, we show that pigeons perceive occluded objects in the same manner as do other species. In addition, we report that pigeons can recognize perceptually transparent surfaces when the effect is induced by the same perceptual mechanisms as occlusion. These results give behavioral evidence that the perception of both occlusion and transparency is a common visual function shared by pigeons and humans, despite the structural differences between their visual systems.
Marlier, D; Vindevogel, H
This review provides a current update on the major viral diseases of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica), based on scientific reports and clinical experience. Paramyxovirus 1, adenovirus, rotavirus, herpesvirus 1, poxvirus and circovirus infections are described according to common clinical signs and target tissues. Since pigeons are sometimes treated as if they were poultry, the review also summarises the common viral infections of poultry for which pigeons are considered resistant. It is hoped that the review will provide a useful reference for veterinarians and others and offer advice on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the major infectious diseases of pigeons.
C. Kretzschmar; T. Kalenscher; O. Güntürkün; C. Kaernbach
It is unknown whether birds are able to retain the memory of purely sensory auditory information such as white noise over an extended period of time. In a Pavlovian heart rate conditioning paradigm, four pigeons were trained to associate a mild electric shock with periodic random waveforms, and no s
Haag-Wackernagel, D; Spiewak, R.W.
The report concerns a married couple who were repeatedly invaded by pigeon fleas (Ceratophyllus columbae) over a period of 2 months. The source of the fleas was a pair of breeding feral pigeons (Columba livia). The birds' nest was located in the attic immediately above the couple's apartment, and th
To begin, a short overview of the organization and the realization of the racing pigeon sport. Some physiological facts, relevant to racing pigeons, will be touched on. Lastly, a focus on the flights, their completion and the problems involved with the, in some cases, high number of lost pigeons. The German Club of Pigeon Breeders, has made improvements but, it is certainly not enough. The topic of "City Pigeons" will be briefed. The final part deals with pertinent animal rights issues, causes of mishaps, and some rectifying possibilities, which are available to the government veterinarian. Special emphasis will be placed on the international uniformity of this issue. The lecture should prove that there is a need for every government veterinarian to become actively involved, because the described problematic has a major effect on a very large number of animals.
Schmidt, Volker; Schlömer, Julian; Lüken, Caroline; Johne, Reimar; Biere, Barbara; Müller, Hermann; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth
Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) infection and young pigeon disease syndrome (YPDS), associated with high morbidity and mortality, have been recognized in young racing pigeons from large portions of Central Europe. There exist a number of data indicating that YPDS is a consequence of PiCV infection and subsequent immunosuppression. In order to prove PiCV to be one of the crucial factors of YPDS, an experimental infection with PiCV was performed under controlled conditions. Twenty-four domestic pigeons (Columba livia forma domestica) were divided into two groups with 12 pigeons each; an infection group and a control group. All birds were between their fourth to eighth week of life. Pigeons in the infection group were infected both intramuscularly and orally with PiCV purified from naturally infected birds, while pigeons in the control group received a placebo. To test a possible influence of the PiCV infection on the immune system, the animals in both groups were vaccinated simultaneously, on the same day, against PMV-1 (Lasovac plus, IDT, Dessau-Tornau, Germany). Weekly virologic testing showed a viraemic period, and excretion of the infection virus, in pigeons in the infection group. Replication of PiCV could be proved on the basis of histologic findings of multiglobular inclusion bodies, mainly observed in macrophages of the bursa of Fabricius. A PiCV, genetically distinct from the experimental virus, was detected in the control group by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, but any histologic findings comparable to the infection group were absent. None of the pigeons revealed clinical signs of illness, or hints that immunosuppression had occurred, regardless of their group. The absence of stressful conditions, considered as a trigger for the development of YPDS, may be responsible for the failure of disease reproduction in our infection model.
Zentall, Thomas R
When humans buy a lottery ticket or gamble at a casino they are engaging in an activity that on average leads to a loss of money. Although animals are purported to engage in optimal foraging behavior, similar sub-optimal behavior can be found in pigeons. They show a preference for an alternative that is associated with a low probability of reinforcement (e.g., one that is followed by a red hue on 20% of the trials and then reinforcement or by a green hue on 80% of the trials and then the absence of reinforcement) over an alternative that is associated with a higher probability of reinforcement (e.g., blue or yellow each of which is followed by reinforcement 50% of the time). This effect appears to result from the strong conditioned reinforcement associated with the stimulus that is always followed by reinforcement. Surprisingly, although it is experienced four times as much, the stimulus that is never followed by reinforcement does not appear to result in significant conditioned inhibition (perhaps due to the absence of observing behavior). Similarly, human gamblers tend to overvalue wins and undervalue losses. Thus, this animal model may provide a useful analog to human gambling behavior, one that is free from the influence of human culture, language, social reinforcement, and other experiential biases that may influence human gambling behavior.
Full Text Available We analysed pigeon flock flights using GPS trajectory data to reveal the most important kinematic aspects of flocking behaviour. We quantitatively investigated the internal motion of the flock based on pairwise statistics and found the following general relationships in all datasets: i the temporal order of decisions characterised by the delay between directional changes is strictly related to the spatial order characterised by the longitudinal relative position within the flock; ii during circling motion, pigeons use a mixture of two idealised and fundamentally different turning strategies, namely, parallel-path and equal-radius type turning. While pigeons tend to maintain their relative position within the flock on average, as in the parallel-path approximation, those who turn later also get behind as in the equal-radius case. Equal-radius type turning also tends to be expressed more during smaller radius turns.
Cook, Robert G.; Qadri, Muhammad A. J.; Kieres, Art; Commons-Miller, Nicholas
Light is the origin of vision. The pattern of shading reflected from object surfaces is one of several optical features that provide fundamental information about shape and surface orientation. To understand how surface and object shading is processed by birds, six pigeons were tested with differentially illuminated convex and concave curved…
Wallraff, Hans G
The conclusion that pigeons and other birds can find their way home from unfamiliar areas by means of olfactory signals is well based on a variety of experiments and supporting investigations of the chemical atmosphere. Here I argue that alternative concepts proposing other sources of geopositional information are disproved by experimental findings or, at least, are not experimentally supported and hardly realistic.
Zhongqiu Li; Franck Courchamp; Daniel T. Blumstein
Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our resu...
Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Calvert, Amanda L.
Pigeons' discounting of probabilistic and delayed food reinforcers was studied using adjusting-amount procedures. In the probability discounting conditions, pigeons chose between an adjusting number of food pellets contingent on a single key peck and a larger, fixed number of pellets contingent on completion of a variable-ratio schedule. In the…
Yield potential of twelve vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajun) cultivars was evaluated at two locations in eastern Kenya during 2012 and 2013 cropping years. Pigeon pea pod numbers, seeds per pod, seed mass, grain yield and shelling percentage were quantified in three replicated plots, arranged in a...
Moore, P A; Munnell, J F; Martin, C L; Prasse, K W; Carmichael, K P
Two 12-week-old Tippler pigeons were evaluated for ocular abnormalities associated with congenital blindness. The pigeons were emaciated and blind. Biomicroscopy and direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy findings of the Tippler pigeons were normal with the exception of partially dilated pupils at rest. Scotopic (blue stimuli) and photopic monocular electroretinograms were extinguished in the blind Tippler pigeons. Histological and electron microscopy studies revealed reduced numbers of rods and cones, and an absence of the double cone complex. The photoreceptor cells' outer segments were absent, and the inner segments were short and broad. The number of cell nuclei in the outer and inner nuclear layers was decreased, and the internal and external plexiform layers were reduced in width. Photoreceptor cell endfeet with developing synaptic ribbons were present in the external plexiform layer. Inflammatory cell and subretinal debris was not seen. The electroretinographic, histopathological, and ultrastructural findings of the blind Tippler pigeons support the diagnosis of a photoreceptor cell dysplasia.
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Pigeon Point, California. The raster data file is included in...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Pigeon Point, California. The raster data file is included in...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Pigeon Point, California. The raster data file is included in...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is included in...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is...
Nonimmune homing pigeons Columba livia were infected with the Jones' Barn strain of Trichomonas gallinae and subsequently transfused with plasma from acute or chronically infected pigeons harboring one of 3 different strains of T. gallinae. The transfusions were either a single 2 mi dose given one day after inoculation or three 1 ml doses given 0, 5, and 10 days after inoculation. Plasma from pigeons harboring any of the 3 strains was capable of passively immunizing nonimmune birds. All birds which were immunized with plasma from infected pigeons survived until killed at the end of the test period and no visceral lesions were found on necropsy but trichomonads were present in the oropharynx. All controls (untreated or transfused with normal plasma) died of visceral trichomoniasis. Immune plasma produced some lysis of trichomonads in vitro, and inhibition of motility and vacuolization occurred in some of the non-lysed organisms. The overall lytic activity in vitro affected less than 10% of the suspended trichomonads.
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is included in...
Full Text Available Millions of feral pigeons (Columba livia live in close association with the human population in our cities. They pose serious health risks to humans and lead to high economic loss due to damage caused to buildings. Consequently, house owners and city authorities are not willing to allow pigeons on their buildings. While various avian repellents are regularly introduced onto the market, scientific proof of efficacy is lacking. This study aimed at testing the effectiveness of two avian gel repellents and additionally examined their application from animal welfare standpoint. The gels used an alleged tactile or visual aversion of the birds, reinforced by additional sensory cues. We mounted experimental shelves with the installed repellents in a pigeon loft and observed the behavior of free-living feral pigeons towards the systems. Both gels showed a restricted, transient repellent effect, but failed to prove the claimed complete effectiveness. Additionally, the gels’ adhesive effect remains doubtful in view of animal welfare because gluing of plumage presents a risk to feral pigeons and also to other non-target birds. This study infers that both gels lack the promised complete efficacy, conflict with animal welfare concerns and are therefore not suitable for feral pigeon management in urban areas.
Stagner, Jessica P; Zentall, Thomas R
Contrary to the law of effect and optimal foraging theory, pigeons show suboptimal choice behavior by choosing an alternative that provides 20% reinforcement over another that provides 50% reinforcement. They choose the 20% reinforcement alternative--in which 20% of the time, that choice results in a stimulus that always predicts reinforcement, and 80% of the time, it results in another stimulus that predicts its absence--rather than the 50% reinforcement alternative, which results in one of two stimuli, each of which predicts reinforcement 50% of the time. This choice behavior may be related to suboptimal human monetary gambling behavior, because in both cases, the organism overemphasizes the infrequent occurrence of the winning event and underemphasizes the more frequent occurrence of the losing event.
Liu, Ci; Zhao, Yanbing; Chen, Lijie; Zhang, Ziwei; Li, Ming; Li, Shu
The level of autophagy is considered as an indicator for monitoring the toxic impact of pesticide exposure. Avermectin (AVM), a widely used insecticide, has immunotoxic effects on the pigeon spleen. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of autophagy and the expression levels of microtubule-associated protein1 light chain 3 (LC3), beclin-1, dynein, autophagy associated gene (Atg) 4B, Atg5, target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) and target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2) in AVM-treated pigeon spleens. Eighty two-month-old pigeons were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, a low-dose group, a medium-dose group and a high-dose group, which were fed a basal diet spiked with 0, 20, 40 and 60 mg AVM/kg diet, respectively. Microscopic cellular morphology revealed a significant increase in autophagic structures in the AVM-treated groups. The expression of LC3, beclin-1, dynein, Atg4B and Atg5 increased, while mRNA levels of TORC1 and TORC2 were decreased in the AVM-treated groups relative to the control groups at 30, 60 and 90 days in the pigeon spleen. These results indicated that AVM exposure could up-regulate the level of autophagy in a dose-time-dependent manner in the pigeon spleen.
Krapez, Uros; Slavec, Brigita; Steyer, Adela Fratnik; Pintaric, Stefan; Dobeic, Martin; Rojs, Olga Zorman; Dovc, Alenka
Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) was detected by real-time PCR in cloacal swabs, pharyngeal swabs, and serum samples taken from 74 feral pigeons (Columba livia var. domestica) that were caught at various locations in the city of Ljubljana, Slovenia. PiCV infections were detected in the majority of the tested birds. The highest (74.3%) detection rate was observed in the cloacal swabs and the lowest (31.1%) in serum samples. PiCV DNA was more readily detected in the cloacal swabs, pharyngeal swabs, and serum samples of birds younger than 1 yr. Molecular analysis of partial open reading frame V1 sequences showed that PiCV strains detected in feral pigeons share high nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities with PiCV strains detected in ornamental, racing, meat, and feral pigeons.
Gibson, Brett M; Leber, Andrew B; Mehlman, Max L
In a seminal paper in the cognitive sciences, Chun and Jiang (1998) described the contextual cueing paradigm in which they used artificial stimuli and showed that people became faster to locate a target when the background predicted the location of a target compared to when it did not. Here we examined contextual cueing in pigeons for the first time using artificial stimuli and procedures similar to those of Chun and Jiang. In the first test, we had pigeons search for a target among a display of seven distractors; during one condition, the position of the distractors predicted the location of the target, and in the second condition, there was no relationship between the two. In a second test, we presented the pigeons with the predictive displays from Test 1 and a second set of displays that also predicted the location of a target to see if learning about one set of predictive backgrounds disrupted learning about a second set. The pigeons were quick to acquire context-based knowledge and retain that information when faced with additional contexts. The results suggest that contextual cueing can occur for a variety of stimuli in nonhuman animals and that it may be a common mechanism for processing visual information across a wide variety of species.
Duchatel, Jean Pierre; Jauniaux, Thierry; Smyth, Joan; Habsch, Isabelle; de Bournonville, Marc; Losson, Bertrand; Todd, Danny
Infection with pigeon circovirus (PiCV) has been associated with young pigeon disease syndrome (YPDS), which is considered to be a multifactorial disease. The factors that determine whether birds succumb to clinical disease are not known. To evaluate the potential effect of vaccination with a commercial paratyphus vaccine on the progression of PiCV infection in young pigeons, forty 6-week-old pigeons naturally infected with PiCV were randomly assigned to two equal groups. The pigeons of one group were vaccinated at 6 and 9 weeks of age, and pigeons of the second group were unvaccinated controls. Cloacal swab and blood samples collected from all the birds were tested for PiCV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Three weeks after the second vaccination, all pigeons were euthanatized, and tissues were collected for PiCV PCR analysis and histopathologic evaluation. No significant difference in the number of PCR-positive cloacal swab and blood samples was found between the vaccinated and control pigeons. Positive PCR results in tissue samples also were not significantly different between the groups, with 18 positive samples in vaccinated birds (90%) and 16 in control birds (80%). Characteristic botryoid inclusions were detected in more vaccinated than control pigeons, but this difference was not significant. In this study, vaccination with a commercial paratyphus vaccine was not a risk factor for development of young pigeon disease syndrome.
Locurto, C. M.; Travers, Tania; Terrace, H. S.; Gibbon, John
The acquisition and maintenance of autoshaped key pecking in pigeons was studied as a function of intertrial interval. At each of six intervals, which ranged from 12 seconds to 384 seconds, four pigeons were physically restrained during training while four other pigeons were not restrained. Restrained subjects acquired key pecking faster and with less intragroup variability at each interval. The effects of restraint were specific to acquisition and were not evident in maintained responding after five postacquisition sessions. PMID:16812175
Mora, Cordula V.; Davison, Michael; Martin Wild, J.; Walker, Michael M.
Two conflicting hypotheses compete to explain how a homing pigeon can return to its loft over great distances. One proposes the use of atmospheric odours and the other the Earth's magnetic field in the `map' step of the `map and compass' hypothesis of pigeon homing. Although magnetic effects on pigeon orientation provide indirect evidence for a magnetic `map', numerous conditioning experiments have failed to demonstrate reproducible responses to magnetic fields by pigeons. This has led to suggestions that homing pigeons and other birds have no useful sensitivity to the Earth's magnetic field. Here we demonstrate that homing pigeons (Columba livia) can discriminate between the presence and absence of a magnetic anomaly in a conditioned choice experiment. This discrimination is impaired by attachment of a magnet to the cere, local anaesthesia of the upper beak area, and bilateral section of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve, but not of the olfactory nerve. These results suggest that magnetoreception (probably magnetite-based) occurs in the upper beak area of the pigeon. Traditional methods of rendering pigeons anosmic might therefore cause simultaneous impairment of magnetoreception so that future orientation experiments will require independent evaluation of the pigeon's magnetic and olfactory systems.
Flack, Andrea; Nagy, Máté; Vicsek, Tamás; Biro, Dora
Collective animal movements produce spectacular natural phenomena that arise from simple local interactions among group members. Flocks of homing pigeons, Columba livia, provide a useful model for the study of collective motion and decision making. During homing flights, flock members are forced to resolve potentially divergent navigational preferences in order to stay together and benefit from flying in a group. Recent work has demonstrated that some individuals consistently contribute more to the movement decisions of the flock than others do, thereby generating stable hierarchical leader/follower networks. Yet, what attributes of a flying pigeon reliably predict leadership remains an open question. We examined the flexibility of an individual's hierarchical leadership rank (i.e. its ordinal position when flock members are ranked according to the average time differences with which they lead or follow others) as a function of changes in its navigational knowledge. We manipulated already established hierarch...
Nagy, Máté; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Pettit, Benjamin; Roberts-Mariani, Isabella; Vicsek, Tamás; Biro, Dora
Hierarchical organization is widespread in the societies of humans and other animals, both in social structure and in decision-making contexts. In the case of collective motion, the majority of case studies report that dominant individuals lead group movements, in agreement with the common conflation of the terms "dominance" and "leadership." From a theoretical perspective, if social relationships influence interactions during collective motion, then social structure could also affect leadership in large, swarm-like groups, such as fish shoals and bird flocks. Here we use computer-vision-based methods and miniature GPS tracking to study, respectively, social dominance and in-flight leader-follower relations in pigeons. In both types of behavior we find hierarchically structured networks of directed interactions. However, instead of being conflated, dominance and leadership hierarchies are completely independent of each other. Although dominance is an important aspect of variation among pigeons, correlated with aggression and access to food, our results imply that the stable leadership hierarchies in the air must be based on a different set of individual competences. In addition to confirming the existence of independent and context-specific hierarchies in pigeons, we succeed in setting out a robust, scalable method for the automated analysis of dominance relationships, and thus of social structure, applicable to many species. Our results, as well as our methods, will help to incorporate the broader context of animal social organization into the study of collective behavior.
Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A
Metacognitive control may occur if an organism seeks additional information when the available information for solving a problem is inadequate. Such information-seeking behavior has been documented in primates, but evidence of analogous behavior is less convincing in non-primates. In our study, we adopted a novel methodological approach. We presented pigeons with visual discriminations of varying levels of difficulty, and on special testing trials, we gave the birds the opportunity of making the discrimination easier. We initially trained pigeons on a discrimination between same and different visual arrays, each containing 12 items (low difficulty), 4 items (intermediate difficulty), or 2 items (high difficulty). We later provided an "Information" button that the pigeons could peck to increase the number of items in the arrays, thereby making the discrimination easier, plus a "Go" button which, when pecked, simply allowed the pigeons to proceed to their final discriminative response. Critically, our pigeons' choice of the "Information" button increased as the difficulty of the task increased. As well, some of our pigeons showed evidence of prompt and appropriate transfer of using the "Information" button to help them perform brand-new brightness and size discrimination tasks. Speculation as to the contents of pigeons' private mental states may be unwarranted, but our pigeons did objectively exhibit the kind of complex, flexible, and adaptive information-seeking behavior that is deemed to be involved in metacognitive control.
Full Text Available Information collection in the disaster area is an important application of pigeon networks—a special type of delay tolerant networks (DTNs that borrows the ancient idea of using pigeons as the telecommunication method. The aim of this paper is to explore highly efficient scheduling strategies of pigeons for such applications. The upper bound of traffic that can be supported under the deadline constraints for the basic on-demand strategy is given through the analysis. Based on the analysis, a waiting-based packing strategy is introduced. Although the latter strategy could not change the maximum traffic rate that a pigeon can support, it improves the efficiency of a pigeon largely. The analytical results are verified by the simulations.
Soto, Fabian A; Wasserman, Edward A
Behavioral studies of object recognition in pigeons have been conducted for 50 years, yielding a large body of data. Recent work has been directed toward synthesizing this evidence and understanding the visual, associative, and cognitive mechanisms that are involved. The outcome is that pigeons are likely to be the non-primate species for which the computational mechanisms of object recognition are best understood. Here, we review this research and suggest that a core set of mechanisms for object recognition might be present in all vertebrates, including pigeons and people, making pigeons an excellent candidate model to study the neural mechanisms of object recognition. Behavioral and computational evidence suggests that error-driven learning participates in object category learning by pigeons and people, and recent neuroscientific research suggests that the basal ganglia, which are homologous in these species, may implement error-driven learning of stimulus-response associations. Furthermore, learning of abstract category representations can be observed in pigeons and other vertebrates. Finally, there is evidence that feedforward visual processing, a central mechanism in models of object recognition in the primate ventral stream, plays a role in object recognition by pigeons. We also highlight differences between pigeons and people in object recognition abilities, and propose candidate adaptive specializations which may explain them, such as holistic face processing and rule-based category learning in primates. From a modern comparative perspective, such specializations are to be expected regardless of the model species under study. The fact that we have a good idea of which aspects of object recognition differ in people and pigeons should be seen as an advantage over other animal models. From this perspective, we suggest that there is much to learn about human object recognition from studying the "simple" brains of pigeons.
Full Text Available domestic pigeon Columba livia Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Columba_livia_L.png Columba_livia_NL.png Columba..._livia_S.png Columba_livia_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Columba...+livia&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Columba+livia&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Col...umba+livia&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Columba+livia&t=NS ...
Transferrin, a nonheme iron-binding protein, is polymorphic in most vertebrate species that have been examined. In pigeons, it is controlled by an autosomal gene, with two known codominant alleles, Tf/sup A/ and Tf/sup B/. The two alleles are found in nearly equal frequencies and the three genotypes are at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all populations studied. This report shows that ovotransferrins from heterozygous females inhibit microbial growth, by use of yeast as an assay organism, better than ovetransferrins from either of the homozygous types, or those from a mixture of homozygous types. Heterozygous females hatch a larger percentage of their eggs than homozygous females. This difference is probably accounted for by the transferrin effect. The failure of the mixture of the homozygous types to act like the heterozygous type calls into question the currently accepted structure of transferrin as a monomeric protein. The greater fecundity of heterozygous females can account for the maintenance of transferrin polymorphism in pigeons.
Tung Gia Phan
Full Text Available Birds are frequent sources of emerging human infectious diseases. Viral particles were enriched from the feces of 51 wild urban pigeons (Columba livia from Hong Kong and Hungary, their nucleic acids randomly amplified and then sequenced. We identified sequences from known and novel species from the viral families Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, Picornaviridae, Reoviridae, Adenovirus, Astroviridae, and Caliciviridae (listed in decreasing number of reads, as well as plant and insect viruses likely originating from consumed food. The near full genome of a new species of a proposed parvovirus genus provisionally called Aviparvovirus contained an unusually long middle ORF showing weak similarity to an ORF of unknown function from a fowl adenovirus. Picornaviruses found in both Asia and Europe that are distantly related to the turkey megrivirus and contained a highly divergent 2A1 region were named mesiviruses. All eleven segments of a novel rotavirus subgroup related to a chicken rotavirus in group G were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. This study provides an initial assessment of the enteric virome in the droppings of pigeons, a feral urban species with frequent human contact.
Nagy, Máté; Akos, Zsuzsa; Biro, Dora; Vicsek, Tamás
Animals that travel together in groups display a variety of fascinating motion patterns thought to be the result of delicate local interactions among group members. Although the most informative way of investigating and interpreting collective movement phenomena would be afforded by the collection of high-resolution spatiotemporal data from moving individuals, such data are scarce and are virtually non-existent for long-distance group motion within a natural setting because of the associated technological difficulties. Here we present results of experiments in which track logs of homing pigeons flying in flocks of up to 10 individuals have been obtained by high-resolution lightweight GPS devices and analysed using a variety of correlation functions inspired by approaches common in statistical physics. We find a well-defined hierarchy among flock members from data concerning leading roles in pairwise interactions, defined on the basis of characteristic delay times between birds' directional choices. The average spatial position of a pigeon within the flock strongly correlates with its place in the hierarchy, and birds respond more quickly to conspecifics perceived primarily through the left eye-both results revealing differential roles for birds that assume different positions with respect to flock-mates. From an evolutionary perspective, our results suggest that hierarchical organization of group flight may be more efficient than an egalitarian one, at least for those flock sizes that permit regular pairwise interactions among group members, during which leader-follower relationships are consistently manifested.
Gozalo, Alfonso S; Schwiebert, Rebecca S; Lawson, Gregory W
A group of 12 domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) was treated for capillariasis by use of fenbendazole at 30 mg/kg orally once daily for 5 d. After treatment, 8 of the 12 pigeons exhibited signs of anorexia, lethargy, and dehydration; these birds died within 2 d after the onset of clinical signs. A total of 6 birds were necropsied, and all had unremarkable gross findings. Microscopic examination of tissues revealed acute hemorrhagic enteritis, diffuse lymphoplasmacytic enteritis, small intestinal crypt necrosis, periportal lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis, bile duct hyperplasia, and renal tubular necrosis. Erythrocytes in blood samples collected from surviving birds demonstrated polychromasia compatible with a regenerative anemia. The clinical and histopathologic findings in these pigeons were consistent with recent reports of fenbendazole toxicity in domestic pigeons and other columbiform birds.
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Pigeon Point map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the isopachs for the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The vector data file is included in...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the transgressive contours for the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The vector file is included in...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the sediment-thickness map of the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The raster data file is included in...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Pigeon Point map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Pigeon Point map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...
White, J.A.; Braun, C.E.
Captive band-tailed pigeons (Columbafasciata) were studied to document progression of molts and plumages from juvenal to adult age. Immature pigeons began the post-juvenal molt at 35 days which continued up to 340 days. The only 3 plumage characters useful for identification and estimation of age were presence of juvenal lesser, middle, and greater secondary coverts, juvenal secondaries, and juvenal primaries. While juvenal primaries were still present, hatching dates could be estimated up to 252 days (N = 84). Secondary feather presence and molt stage could be used to identify juvenile pigeons for more than 340 days (N = 24). Using coloration of the crown and breast feathers, 96 percent of the immature pigeons examined (106 of 110) at 80 days of age were classified accurately as to sex.
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is included in...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the isopachs for the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The vector data file is included in...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the transgressive contours for the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The vector file is included in...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the sediment-thickness map of the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The raster data file is included in...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is included in...
Humans have the unique ability to create art, but non-human animals may be able to discriminate "good" art from "bad" art. In this study, I investigated whether pigeons could be trained to discriminate between paintings that had been judged by humans as either "bad" or "good". To do this, adult human observers first classified several children's paintings as either "good" (beautiful) or "bad" (ugly). Using operant conditioning procedures, pigeons were then reinforced for pecking at "good" paintings. After the pigeons learned the discrimination task, they were presented with novel pictures of both "good" and "bad" children's paintings to test whether they had successfully learned to discriminate between these two stimulus categories. The results showed that pigeons could discriminate novel "good" and "bad" paintings. Then, to determine which cues the subjects used for the discrimination, I conducted tests of the stimuli when the paintings were of reduced size or grayscale. In addition, I tested their ability to discriminate when the painting stimuli were mosaic and partial occluded. The pigeons maintained discrimination performance when the paintings were reduced in size. However, discrimination performance decreased when stimuli were presented as grayscale images or when a mosaic effect was applied to the original stimuli in order to disrupt spatial frequency. Thus, the pigeons used both color and pattern cues for their discrimination. The partial occlusion did not disrupt the discriminative behavior suggesting that the pigeons did not attend to particular parts, namely upper, lower, left or right half, of the paintings. These results suggest that the pigeons are capable of learning the concept of a stimulus class that humans name "good" pictures. The second experiment showed that pigeons learned to discriminate watercolor paintings from pastel paintings. The subjects showed generalization to novel paintings. Then, as the first experiment, size reduction test
Sakagami, Takayuki; Lattal, Kennon A.
We describe an early operant conditioning chamber fabricated by Harvard University instrument maker Ralph Gerbrands and shipped to Japan in 1952 in response to a request of Professor B. F. Skinner by Japanese psychologists. It is a rare example, perhaps the earliest still physically existing, of such a chamber for use with pigeons. Although the overall structure and many of the components are similar to contemporary pigeon chambers, several differences are noted and contrasted to evolutionary...
Watanabe, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Junko; Wakita, Masumi
Pigeons successfully learned to discriminate color slides of paintings by Monet and Picasso. Following this training, they discriminated novel paintings by Monet and Picasso that had never been presented during the discrimination training. Furthermore, they showed generalization from Monet's to Cezanne's and Renoir's paintings or from Picasso's to Braque's and Matisse's paintings. These results suggest that pigeons' behavior can be controlled by complex visual stimuli in ways that suggest cat...
Nam, Dong-Ha; Lee, Doo-Pyo
This study examined possible routes for lead (Pb) accumulation in resident pigeons collected from rural, urban, and four industrial sites in Korea. The accumulation pattern of Pb was comparable to the study sites. The highest Pb concentration was found in the bone, followed by kidney, liver, and lung of pigeons. Highest Pb residues in bones were found in urban (Seoul), and two industrial complex areas (Busan and Ulsan), which were about 15 times higher than rural area (Duckjuk island), and followed by Ansan and Yochon industrial areas. Regional Pb variations in liver, kidney, and lung tissues were also similar pattern with the bone Pb difference. These findings indicate that Pb accumulation in tissues of pigeons may be affected by the Pb exposure in their respective habitats. Crop contents and gizzard materials were investigated as representing the ingested items. No difference of Pb concentration was observed in major foods (maize and/or wheat) of crop contents in the study sites except Busan, whereas variations of Pb levels in gizzard materials were indicative of a similar pattern with tissue Pb differences. The Pb concentration in tissues of pigeons did not correspond well to the atmospheric Pb levels. With regard to possible Pb sources, ingested items especially materials present in the gizzard are important sources for Pb contamination to pigeons because Pb-containing sources may be expected to present in roadside particles, dusts, paint chips and building flakes. However, air Pb value being low may not affect significant as the regional variations in tissues of pigeons.
Qadri, Muhammad A J; Reid, Sean; Cook, Robert G
We tested two pigeons in a continuously streaming digital environment. Using animation software that constantly presented a dynamic, three-dimensional (3D) environment, the animals were tested with a conditional object identification task. The correct object at a given time depended on the virtual context currently streaming in front of the pigeon. Pigeons were required to accurately peck correct target objects in the environment for food reward, while suppressing any pecks to intermixed distractor objects which delayed the next object's presentation. Experiment 1 established that the pigeons' discrimination of two objects could be controlled by the surface material of the digital terrain. Experiment 2 established that the pigeons' discrimination of four objects could be conjunctively controlled by both the surface material and topography of the streaming environment. These experiments indicate that pigeons can simultaneously process and use at least two context cues from a streaming environment to control their identification behavior of passing objects. These results add to the promise of testing interactive digital environments with animals to advance our understanding of cognition and behavior.
Newman, Sarah M; Paletz, Elliott M; Obermeyer, William H; Benca, Ruth M
Forced sleep deprivation results in substantial behavioral and physiologic effects in mammals. The disk-over-water (DOW) method produces a syndrome characterized by increased energy expenditure and a robust preferentially rapid-eye-movement sleep rebound upon recovery or eventual death after several weeks of sleep deprivation. The DOW has been used successfully only in rats. This paper presents a method to enforce long-term controlled sleep deprivation across species and to compare its effects in rats and pigeons. A conveyor was substituted for the DOW disk. Behavior rather than electroencephalography was used to trigger arousal stimuli, as in gentle-handling deprivation. Rats and pigeons were deprived using this apparatus, and the results were compared with each other and with published reports. The physiologic consequences and recovery sleep in rats were like those published for DOW rats. Magnitude of sleep loss and recovery patterns in pigeons were similar to those seen in rats, but expected symptoms of the sleep deprivation syndrome were absent in pigeons. The use of a motion trigger allowed us to measure and, thus, to assess the quality and impact of the procedure. Prolonged and controlled sleep deprivation can be enforced using automated motion detection and a conveyor-over-water system. Pigeons and rats, deprived of sleep to the same extent, showed similar patterns of recovery sleep, but pigeons did not exhibit the hyperphagia, weight loss, and debilitation seen in rats.
Wright, Anthony A; Elmore, L Caitlin
Three pigeons were trained to remember arrays of 2-6 colored squares and detect which of two squares had changed color to test their visual short-term memory. Procedures (e.g., stimuli, displays, viewing times, delays) were similar to those used to test monkeys and humans. Following extensive training, pigeons performed slightly better than similarly trained monkeys, but both animal species were considerably less accurate than humans with the same array sizes (2, 4 and 6 items). Pigeons and monkeys showed calculated memory capacities of one item or less, whereas humans showed a memory capacity of 2.5 items. Despite the differences in calculated memory capacities, the pigeons' memory results, like those from monkeys and humans, were all well characterized by an inverse power-law function fit to d' values for the five display sizes. This characterization provides a simple, straightforward summary of the fundamental processing of visual short-term memory (how visual short-term memory declines with memory load) that emphasizes species similarities based upon similar functional relationships. By closely matching pigeon testing parameters to those of monkeys and humans, these similar functional relationships suggest similar underlying processes of visual short-term memory in pigeons, monkeys and humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nagy, Mate; Biro, Dora; Vicsek, Tamas; 10.1038/nature08891
Animals that travel together in groups display a variety of fascinating motion patterns thought to be the result of delicate local interactions among group members. Although the most informative way of investigating and interpreting collective movement phenomena would be afforded by the collection of high-resolution spatiotemporal data from moving individuals, such data are scarce and are virtually non-existent for long-distance group motion within a natural setting because of the associated technological difficulties. Here we present results of experiments in which track logs of homing pigeons flying in flocks of up to 10 individuals have been obtained by high-resolution lightweight GPS devices and analyzed using a variety of correlation functions inspired by approaches common in statistical physics. We find a well-defined hierarchy among flock members from data concerning leading roles in pairwise interactions, defined on the basis of characteristic delay times between birds' directional choices. The averag...
Watts, Isobel; Nagy, Máté; Burt de Perera, Theresa; Biro, Dora
In animal groups where certain individuals have disproportionate influence over collective decisions, the whole group's performance may suffer if these individuals possess inaccurate information. Whether in such situations leaders can be replaced in their roles by better-informed group mates represents an important question in understanding the adaptive consequences of collective decision-making. Here, we use a clock-shifting procedure to predictably manipulate the directional error in navigational information possessed by established leaders within hierarchically structured flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia). We demonstrate that in the majority of cases when leaders hold inaccurate information they lose their influence over the flock. In these cases, inaccurate information is filtered out through the rearrangement of hierarchical positions, preventing errors by former leaders from propagating down the hierarchy. Our study demonstrates that flexible decision-making structures can be valuable in situations where 'bad' information is introduced by otherwise influential individuals.
Stenzel, Tomasz; Pestka, Daria; Choszcz, Dariusz
Chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Chlamydia psittaci that occurs in a wide range of bird species. High infection rates with C. psittaci are found in pigeons, which can act as vectors transmitting this bacterium to poultry and humans. Chlamydia shedding by pigeons is intermittent and can be activated by stressors or immunosuppression. The most common immunosuppressive factor for pigeons is a pigeon circovirus (PiCV) infection. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of C. psittaci in Polish populations of domestic and feral pigeons (Columba livia) in the context of its correlation with PiCV infections. The second objective was to determine the genetic characteristics of Polish C. psittaci isolates. The study was conducted on 377 pigeon samples (276 domestic and 101 feral pigeons) collected from pigeons from different regions of Poland. The average prevalence of C. psittaci in the Polish pigeon population was determined at 6.8%, and it was higher in domestic than in feral pigeons. This is the first ever study to suggest a potential correlation between C. psittaci and PiCV infections, which could be attributed to the fact that there are 2 to 3 times more pigeons infected with C. psittaci and coinfected with PiCV than pigeons infected with C. psittaci alone. This trend was observed mainly in the population of sick pigeons. As many as 88.2% of isolates were recognized as belonging to genotype B, and the remaining isolates were identified as belonging to genotype E. The isolates analyzed in this study demonstrated low levels of genetic variation (96-100% homology among the isolates and in relation to reference strains). Chlamydia psittaci could be expected to spread across pigeon populations due to the high probability of mutual infections between birds and the increasing number of PiCV infections.
Full Text Available The following parasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons kept in Sebele: a haemoprotozoan, Haemoproteus columbae (80 %; endoparasite metazoan nematodes, Ascaridia columbae(30 % and Dispharynx spiralis(10 %; a cestode, Raillietina sp. (80 % and coccidian oocysts (40 %; 2 ectoparasites, namely the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis (50 % and the louse, Columbicola columbae (30 %. The pigeons also had high antibody titres, (1:256 to the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (100 %. The latter infection in these domestic pigeons has public health implications.
Two complete genome sequences of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are described here. Virulent isolates pigeon/Pakistan/Lahore/21A/2015 and pigeon/Pakistan/Lahore/25A/2015 were obtained from racing pigeons sampled in the Pakistani province of Punjab during 2015. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion prot...
Rüdiger Hauck and Hafez M. Hafez*
Full Text Available Histomonas meleagridis is a trichomonad parasite, which is capable to cause severe inflammations of ceca and livers in gallinaceous birds. It rarely can be satisfactorily explained, how the parasite was introduced into the flock. The role of wild birds as possible reservoir or as vectors has not been explored sufficiently. In the present study two experiments were done to determine if pigeons are susceptible to intracloacal infections with H. meleagridis and have the potential to act as vectors. In a first experiment nine racing pigeons (Columba livia forma domestica were infected intracloacally with 400,000 living histomonads. Three further pigeons were kept as contact birds. Histomonal DNA was detected in cloacal swabs until one week after infection, but reisolation was not possible. In a second experiment 24 racing pigeons were either infected intracloacally with 250,000 viable histomonads or with the same culture, which had been inactivated. Histomonal DNA was detected in cloacal swabs of both groups until five days after infection, but reisolation was not possible. In both experiments neither clinical signs nor gross lesions were observed in any bird and in the ceca no histomonal DNA was detected. It was concluded that pigeons do not act as vectors for H. meleagridis after intracloacal infection.
Nankoo, Jean-François; Madan, Christopher R; Spetch, Marcia L; Wylie, Douglas R
In the primate visual system, local motion signals are pooled to create a global motion percept. Like primates, many birds are highly dependent on vision for their survival, yet relatively little is known about motion perception in birds. We used random-dot stimuli to investigate pigeons' ability to detect complex motion (radial, rotation, and spiral) compared to humans. Our human participants had a significantly lower threshold for rotational and radial motion when compared to spiral motion. The data from the pigeons, however, showed that the pigeons were most sensitive to rotational motion and least sensitive to radial motion, while sensitivity for spiral motion was intermediate. We followed up the pigeon results with an investigation of the effect of display aperture shape for rotational motion and velocity gradient for radial motion. We found no effect of shape of the aperture on thresholds, but did observe that radial motion containing accelerating dots improved thresholds. However, this improvement did not reach the thresholds levels observed for rotational motion. In sum, our experiments demonstrate that the pooling mechanism in the pigeon motion system is most efficient for rotation.
Chen, Duxin; Vicsek, Tamás; Liu, Xiaolu; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Hai-Tao
To explore the fascinating inter-individual interaction mechanism governing the abundant biological grouping behaviors, more and more efforts have been devoted to collective motion investigation in recent years. Therein, bird flocking is one of the most intensively studied behaviors. A previous study (Nagy M. et al., Nature, 464 (2010) 890.) claims the existence of a well-defined hierarchical structure in pigeon flocks, which implies that a multi-layer leadership network leads to the occurrence of highly coordinated pigeon flock movements. However, in this study, by using high-resolution GPS data of homing flight of pigeon flocks, we reveal an explicit switching hierarchical mechanism underlying the group motions of pigeons. That is, a pigeon flock has a long-term leader for smooth moving trajectories, whereas the leading tenure passes to a temporary one upon sudden turns or zigzags. Therefore, the present observation helps explore more deeply into the principle of a huge volume of bird flocking dynamics. Meanwhile, from the engineering point of view, it may shed some light onto industrial multi-robot coordination and unmanned air vehicle formation control.
Full Text Available The project, Lomba Merpati, is a series of photographs and video works documenting pigeon racing in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Associated as a lower socio-economic class sport and tied up with expressions of Javanese masculinity, pigeon racing occupies a central position within much of the daily social activity of Javanese villages. The project explores the significance of pigeon training grounds as communal gathering points for young men in Yogyakarta. Comprising short video and photographic portraits, the series focuses on the performative gestures enacted by pigeon fanciers as they train their pigeons for short distance sprinting.
Cook, Robert G; Wright, Anthony A; Drachman, Eric E
Identifying critical features that control categorization of complex polymorphous pictures by animals remains a challenging and important problem. Toward this goal, experiments were conducted to isolate the properties controlling the categorization of two pictorial categories by pigeons. Pigeons were trained in a go/no-go task to categorize black and white line drawings of birds and mammals. They were then tested with a variety of familiar and novel exemplars of these categories to examine the features controlling this categorization. These tests suggested the pigeons were segregating and using the principal axis of orientation of the animal figures as the primary means of discriminating each category, although other categorical and item-specific cues were likely involved. This perceptual/cognitive reduction of the categorical stimulus space to a few visual features or dimensions is likely a characteristic of this species' processing of complex pictorial discrimination problems and is a critical property for theoretical accounts of this behavior.
Walter T. Herbranson
Full Text Available A new method was developed to concurrently investigate procedural memory and working memory in pigeons. Pigeons performed a sequence of keypecks across 3 response keys in a serial response task, with periodic choice probes for the location of a recently produced response. Procedural memory was operationally defined as decreasing response times to predictable cues in the sequence. Working memory was reflected by accurate responses to the choice probes. Changing the sequence of required keypecks to a random sequence interfered with procedural memory in the form of slowed response times, but did not prevent pigeons from effectively using working memory to remember specific cue locations. Conversely, changing exposure duration of to a cue location influenced working memory but had no effect on procedural memory. Double dissociations such as this have supported the multiple systems approach to the study of memory in cognitive psychology and neuroscience, and they encourage a similar approach in comparative psychology.
Legge, Eric L G; Madan, Christopher R; Spetch, Marcia L; Ludvig, Elliot A
Encoding multiple cues can improve the accuracy and reliability of navigation and goal localization. Problems may arise, however, if one cue is displaced and provides information which conflicts with other cues. Here we investigated how pigeons cope with cue conflict by training them to locate a goal relative to two landmarks and then varying the amount of conflict between the landmarks. When the amount of conflict was small, pigeons tended to integrate both cues in their search patterns. When the amount of conflict was large, however, pigeons used information from both cues independently. This context-dependent strategy for resolving spatial cue conflict agrees with Bayes optimal calculations for using information from multiple sources.
Heiderich, Elisabeth; Schildger, Bernd; Lierz, Michael
To evaluate whether single-entry endoscopic vasectomy of male feral pigeons (Columba livia) significantly reduced fertility and would potentially be valuable for control of feral pigeon populations, 252 male feral pigeons were caught in the city of Berne and endoscopically vasectomized. In this procedure, approximately 1 cm of the deferent duct was removed bilaterally. Rapid, uneventful recoveries occurred in 94% (237/252) of the pigeons, whereas 6% (15/252) died because of complications associated with the procedure, consisting of perforation of the ureter (9/15), major hemorrhage (5/15), and respiratory arrest (1/15). Mean anesthesia time was 23±6 minutes. The vasectomized males were habituated to 2 pigeon houses together with fertile females. Another pigeon house with fertile pairs acted as control. All eggs laid were candled weekly to assess fertility. In the 2 pigeon houses with vasectomized males, the mean fertilization rate was 0.9% (5/563), while in the control pigeon house, the rate was 100% (39/39). The results indicate that endoscopic vasectomy of male feral pigeons may be a promising tool for field control of feral pigeon populations, especially in combination with other methods such as pigeon houses.
Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7 is activated by single-stranded RNA and synthetic imidazoquinoline components, and induces interferon production. In this study, we cloned the TLR7 gene from King pigeon (Columba livia. The TLR7 open reading frame is 3144 bp and encodes a 1047-amino acid protein, consisting of a canonical TLR composition with 15 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs. Amino acid-inserting modifications were found at position 15 of LRR2, LRR11, LRR13, and LRR14 and position 10 of LRR10. The tissue distribution of pigeon TLR7 suggests that immune-associated tissues, especially the spleen and liver, have high TLR7 expression. HEK293T cells transfected with pigeon TLR7 plasmid responded to the agonist R848, indicating a functional TLR7 homolog. Following R848 stimulation of pigeon peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the levels of IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8, CCL5, and IL-10 mRNA, assessed using quantitative real-time PCR, were significantly up-regulated. After Newcastle disease virus vaccine strain LaSota inoculation and agonist R848 injection, the level of TLR7 mRNA in the spleen of pigeons increased significantly in the R848-injected group, but decreased in the LaSota-inoculated group at three day post-infection (d.p.i.. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were significantly upregulated in both LaSota-inoculated and R848-injected groups. Triggering pigeon TLR7 leads to robust up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, suggesting an important role in the innate immune response.
Sakagami, Takayuki; Lattal, Kennon A
We describe an early operant conditioning chamber fabricated by Harvard University instrument maker Ralph Gerbrands and shipped to Japan in 1952 in response to a request of Professor B. F. Skinner by Japanese psychologists. It is a rare example, perhaps the earliest still physically existing, of such a chamber for use with pigeons. Although the overall structure and many of the components are similar to contemporary pigeon chambers, several differences are noted and contrasted to evolutionary changes in this most important laboratory tool in the experimental analysis of behavior. The chamber also is testimony to the early internationalization of behavior analysis.
B NASR ISFAHANI
Full Text Available Introduction: Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast like and a principle cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts, especially those with AIDS. At the persent, due to progressive increase in predisposing factors to cryptococcosis and proper therapy, identification of this fungus has become more important than before. The most important sources of infection are contaminated pigeon droppings and soil. Since there are many so called .Pigeon Tower" in Isfahan and it"s suburbs, we decided to isolate and identify C.neoformans from pigeon droppings collected in these towers. It is notable that these pigeon droppings are traditionally used as natural fertilizer. Methods: After preparing suspensions of droppings, we spread them onto the surface of Niger seed agar and L-DOPA containing media. The identification of isolates was established by ureas test, India ink preparation, subculturing on CMA + Tween 80 medium, growth 37°c and assimilation of carbohydrates and nitrate. GCP (Glycine- Cyclohexaamide - Phenol red medium was used for distinguishing C.neoformans Var. neoformans from C. neoformans Var. gattii. The pathogenicity of the isolates was determined in mice by intracerebral inoculation. Results: c. neoformans was isolated from 11 of 136 samples (8.1 percent. All of them were identified as c. neoformans Var. neoformans. However, five of them (45.5 percent caused disease in mice. There was no statistically significant relation between the pH of the pigeon dropping and the precence of C.neoformans. Discussion: According to the results, it seems that the actual prevalance of cryptococcosis should be more than the reported cases. Regarding the relative frequency of the yeast in "Pigeon Towers" in Esfahan, as it was shown in this study, clinicians should pay more attention to this organism and its disease, especially in patients with predisposing factors.
Daum, Iris; Finsterbusch, Tim; Härtle, Stefan; Göbel, Thomas W; Mankertz, Annette; Korbel, Rüdiger; Grund, Christian
Infections with pigeon circovirus (PiCV) (also termed columbid circovirus) occur in meat and racing pigeons (Columba livia) of all ages and have been reported worldwide. A PiCV infection is associated with immunosuppression and the development of young pigeon disease syndrome. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of virus-specific serum antibody was developed for research purposes. In the absence of a method to propagate PiCV in cell culture, the assay was based on a recombinant truncated capsid protein (rCapPiCV) produced by overexpression in Escherichia coli. A 6xHis-Tag was fused to the N-terminus of the protein to facilitate purification by metal affinity chromatography and detection by anti-His antibody. PiCV-negative and PiCV-positive control sera were generated by inoculation of pigeons with tissue homogenate containing PiCV, followed by five weekly blood sample collections. Western blotting of the immune serum revealed a specific protein band of approximately 32 kDa, which was absent in the pre-immune sera. Using rCapPiCV as antigen in an indirect ELISA, PiCV-specific antibody was detected in sera of the experimentally PiCV-infected pigeons collected at 1 to 5 weeks post infection. By testing 118 field sera collected in the years 1989, 1991, 1994 and 2008 in the rCapPiCV ELISA, virus-specific antibody was detected in 89 (75%) of the sera. The results obtained demonstrate that the rCapPiCV-based indirect ELISA is able to detect PiCV-specific antibodies in pigeon sera and may be a useful tool for PiCV serodiagnosis.
dedicated naval war pigeon service supported by the national fiscus,25 a formal .... society”, as well as in the formation and resilience of identity.61. Towards .... the besieged residents.”91 .... 7 Winter, C. “Tourism, social memory and the Great War”. ... a short time: New perspectives on the Anglo-Boer War, Pretoria: Nexus.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to know productivity and repeatability of local pigeon. Data werecollected from 124 birds that reared under intensive management. The results showed that artificial pairwas 100% and polygamy was 16% (n=62 pair of pigeon. The ration of local pigeon consisting of 50%corn+50% of commercial feed for starter broiler chicken can be applied in field. The average of eggproduction was 1.8 eggs/pair/period, egg weight was 17.7 g, fertility was 96.6%, hatching rate was 77%,embryo mortality rate was 23%, interval period from laying to hatching and suckling was 51 days, 31.4days with hatching, and 17.6 days without hatching and suckling. The day old pigeon weight ranged10.9-16.2 g. Repeatability value of productive traits was high, in which egg weight was 0.64 and day oldpigeon weight was 0.737. Repeatability of reproductive traits was low, that was fertility and hatchabilitywas 0.12 and 0.048, respectively. The squab weight increased from week 0 to 4, then decreased in theweek 5. The growth rate was highest at the week 1, then decreased from the week 2 to 5 with thenegative growth rate occur at the 5th week. The squab growth rate followed a quadratic pattern. It wasconcluded that slaughter squab selection could be done at 4th week old.
Velasco, Saulo M.; Huziwara, Edson M.; Machado, Armando; Tomanari, Gerson Y.
The present experiment investigated whether pigeons can show associative symmetry on a two-alternative matching-to-sample procedure. The procedure consisted of a within-subject sequence of training and testing with reinforcement, and it provided (a) exemplars of symmetrical responding, and (b) all prerequisite discriminations among test samples…
Kuroda, Toshikazu; Lattal, Kennon A.; García-Penagos, Andrés
Using a conditional discrimination procedure, pigeons were exposed to a nonverbal analogue of qualifying autoclitics such as "definitely" and "maybe." It has been suggested that these autoclitics are similar to tacts except that they are under the control of private discriminative stimuli. Instead of the conventional assumption…
Reinking, A.; Steyn-Parvé, Elizabeth P.
[14C6]Glucose was given orally to pigeons. After 3 h, the state—other than glycogen or fatty acids—in which radioactive carbon was present in the tissues was investigated. Nearly all the radioactive material could be extracted with 5% trichloroacetic acid. Most of the label thus extracted was
Hofman, R.; Segenhout, J. M.; Wit, H. P.
Three-dimensional reconstructions of the inner ear of the pigeon (Columba livia domestica), from two-dimensional images, obtained with (conventional) light microscopy or orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning (OPFOS), are presented. The results are compared with available information on th
Bodily, Kent D; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A
Abstract concepts--rules that transcend training stimuli--have been argued to be unique to some species. Pigeons, a focus of much concept-learning research, were tested for learning a matching-to-sample abstract concept. Five pigeons were trained with three cartoon stimuli. Pigeons pecked a sample 10 times and then chose which of two simultaneously presented comparison stimuli matched the sample. After acquisition, abstract-concept learning was tested by presenting novel cartoons on 12 out of 96 trials for 4 consecutive sessions. A cycle of doubling the training set followed by retraining and novel-testing was repeated eight times, increasing the set size from 3 to 768 items. Transfer performance improved from chance (i.e., no abstract-concept learning) to a level equivalent to baseline performance (>80%) and was similar to an equivalent function for same/different abstract-concept learning. Analyses assessed the possibility that item-specific choice strategies accounted for acquisition and transfer performance. These analyses converged to rule out item-specific strategies at all but the smallest set-sizes (3-24 items). Ruling out these possibilities adds to the evidence that pigeons learned the relational abstract concept of matching-to-sample.
Blaser, Nicole; Guskov, Sergei I; Meskenaite, Virginia; Kanevskyi, Valerii A; Lipp, Hans-Peter
The mechanisms of pigeon homing are still not understood, in particular how they determine their position at unfamiliar locations. The "gravity vector" theory holds that pigeons memorize the gravity vector at their home loft and deduct home direction and distance from the angular difference between memorized and actual gravity vector. However, the gravity vector is tilted by different densities in the earth crust leading to gravity anomalies. We predicted that pigeons reared on different gravity anomalies would show different initial orientation and also show changes in their flight path when crossing a gravity anomaly. We reared one group of pigeons in a strong gravity anomaly with a north-to-south gravity gradient, and the other group of pigeons in a normal area but on a spot with a strong local anomaly with a west-to-east gravity gradient. After training over shorter distances, pigeons were released from a gravitationally and geomagnetically normal site 50 km north in the same direction for both home lofts. As expected by the theory, the two groups of pigeons showed divergent initial orientation. In addition, some of the GPS-tracked pigeons also showed changes in their flight paths when crossing gravity anomalies. We conclude that even small local gravity anomalies at the birth place of pigeons may have the potential to bias the map sense of pigeons, while reactivity to gravity gradients during flight was variable and appeared to depend on individual navigational strategies and frequency of position updates.
Full Text Available The mechanisms of pigeon homing are still not understood, in particular how they determine their position at unfamiliar locations. The "gravity vector" theory holds that pigeons memorize the gravity vector at their home loft and deduct home direction and distance from the angular difference between memorized and actual gravity vector. However, the gravity vector is tilted by different densities in the earth crust leading to gravity anomalies. We predicted that pigeons reared on different gravity anomalies would show different initial orientation and also show changes in their flight path when crossing a gravity anomaly. We reared one group of pigeons in a strong gravity anomaly with a north-to-south gravity gradient, and the other group of pigeons in a normal area but on a spot with a strong local anomaly with a west-to-east gravity gradient. After training over shorter distances, pigeons were released from a gravitationally and geomagnetically normal site 50 km north in the same direction for both home lofts. As expected by the theory, the two groups of pigeons showed divergent initial orientation. In addition, some of the GPS-tracked pigeons also showed changes in their flight paths when crossing gravity anomalies. We conclude that even small local gravity anomalies at the birth place of pigeons may have the potential to bias the map sense of pigeons, while reactivity to gravity gradients during flight was variable and appeared to depend on individual navigational strategies and frequency of position updates.
Dortmans, J.C.F.M.; Koch, G.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Peeters, B.P.H.
The pathogenesis of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) isolate AV324/96 and of its recombinant derivative, rgAV324, was studied in pigeons. For comparison, the virulent chicken virus FL-Herts, which is a recombinant derivative of strain Herts/33, was also included. After inoculation by the combine
Baele, M; Devriese, L A; Haesebrouck, F
To examine the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB: enterococci, streptococci and lactobacilli) in the pigeon crop. The crops of 10 pigeons were sampled and inoculated on agar plates for isolation of streptococci, enterococci and lactobacilli. The isolates were identified using tDNA-PCR. Lactobacillus agilis, a species described in 1981 from municipal sewage, was the dominant component in eight of these pigeon crop sacs. A Lactobacillus species related to L. fermentum and L. mucosae but probably not belonging to one of these species was isolated from five birds. Three pigeons carried Enterococcus cecorum. Minor species found were E. columbae, E. faecalis, E. hirae, L. johnsonii, L. salivarius, and Streptococcus gallolyticus. A description is given of the phenotypic characteristics of the L. agilis pigeon strains. L. agilis is found to be the main component of the LAB flora in the pigeon crop.
Aldavert-Vera, Laura; Costa-Miserachs, David; Divac, Ivan; Delius, Juan
The posterodorsolateral neostriatum (PDLNS) in pigeons may be an equivalent of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in mammals. Here we report that lesions of this brain region in pigeons have a detrimental effect on various learned visual discriminations. Pigeons with lesions of the overlying area corticoidea dorsolateralis (CDL) served as controls. Both the postoperative re-learning to criterion of a preoperatively learned simultaneous double visual mirror pattern discrimination and the learning of ...
Rahman, Niaz Md. Farhat; Imam, M. F.
The study tried to find out the appropriate models using latest model selection criteria that could describe the best growth pattern of pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production. The study also tried to measure the instability, growth rates of pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production and to determine the efficient time series models, to forecast the future pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production in Bangladesh. Forecasting attempts have been made to achieve the...
Hygromycin-B was administered in varied quantities to pigeons harboring nonvirulent Trichomonas gallinae and to pigeons free of T. gallinae. Both groups responded identically with large yellow caseous lesions in the upper digestive tract which superficially resembled canker (trichomoniasis). No mycotic association with the lesions could be established in either .group from sections stained with periodic acid-Schiff. The lesions observed in Hygromycin-B-treated pigeons were concluded to be the direct result of the drug on the mucosa of the pigeon's upper digestive tract.
Full Text Available Soil decompaction is generally achieved through mechanical cultivation practices; however biological processes can significantly add to this process through root growth, development, and later senescence. This study was carried out in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil and had the purpose of selecting, among forty one pure pigeon pea lines, the most efficient genotypes that promote soil decompaction by roots penetrating compacted soil layers. Utilizing artificially compacted 30 mm high soil blocks, in a series of experiments, these lines were compared to the cultivar Fava Larga taken as a standard. Three lines were preliminarily selected out of the initial group, and afterwards, in more detailed screenings by monitoring soil resistance to penetration and also evaluating the behavior of Tanzania grass plants seeded after pigeon pea, two of them, g5-94 and g8-95, were selected as possessing the most fit root system to penetrate compacted soil layers.
Carmen Lucia Navarro V
Full Text Available Due to the current situation of inadequate nutrition in the population of many countries, including Colombia. Search sources rich in proteins and low-cost alternatives. The pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan is an important legume that contain a mo derate amount of protein, calories, vitamins and minerals, its use in foods is limited by the presence of anti-nutritional factors, which can be reduced or eliminated through the use of treatments. The proteins have functional properties that can be take advantage in meat, dairy and bakery products. The purpose of this review is to present an overview of the skills nutritional and functional properties of pigeon pea application opportunities in various applications in the food industry.
Full Text Available The pigeon squabs, aged 5-26 day-old, showed clinical signs of dullness, anorexia, indigestion, reten-tion of feed in crop, progressive emaciation then died. The morbidity rate and mortality rate were 7.14% (50/700. The adult pigeons did not show any signs of disease. From pathological finding, pharyngitis, esophagitis were found with diphtheritic membrane covering necrotic ulcers on the mucosa of pharynx, esophagus and crop. From histopathological findings, esophagitis with epithelial hyperplasia and sloughed, lamina propria mucosa edema with lymphoid cells infiltration were found in duodenum and jejunum. The intranuclear inclusion body, Cowdry type A, was found in epithelial mucosa of esophagus, enterocyte of jejunum and lymphoid cells in spleen. FA test to duck virus enteritis and inoculation to ducklings showed negative results. Electron microscopic study revealed electron dense core sized 146-167 nm., which was identified as herpesvirus.
Xu, Xiao-Ke; Small, Michael
Collective motion of bird flocks can be explained via the hypothesis of many wrongs, and/or, a structured leadership mechanism. In pigeons, previous studies have shown that there is a well-defined hierarchical structure and certain specific individuals occupy more dominant positions --- suggesting that leadership by the few individuals drives the behavior of the collective. Conversely, by analyzing the same data-sets, we uncover a more egalitarian mechanism. We show that both reciprocal relationships and a stratified hierarchical leadership are important and necessary in the collective movements of pigeon flocks. Rather than birds adopting either exclusive averaging or leadership strategies, our experimental results show that it is an integrated combination of both compromise and leadership which drives the group's movement decisions.
Grosch, James; Neuringer, Allen
Walter Mischel studied self-control in preschool children in the following manner: if the child waited for an interval to end, he or she received the more preferred of two reinforcers; if the child responded to terminate the interval by ringing a bell, the less preferred reinforcer was given. We used an analogous procedure to study self-control in pigeons: if the bird waited for a trial to end, it received the more preferred reinforcer; if the bird terminated the trial by pecking a key, the less preferred reinforcer was given. We explored the effects on self-control of a number of variables analogous to those studied by Mischel and co-workers, e.g., presence versus absence of reinforcers, of alternative responses, and of stimuli during the wait interval; prior experience of the subjects; and test paradigm. The results obtained with pigeons paralleled the results obtained by Mischel with human children. PMID:16812197
Andrade, Leonardo F; Hackenberg, Timothy D
Pigeons made repeated choices between earning and exchanging reinforcer-specific tokens (green tokens exchangeable for food, red tokens exchangeable for water) and reinforcer-general tokens (white tokens exchangeable for food or water) in a closed token economy. Food and green food tokens could be earned on one panel; water and red water tokens could be earned on a second panel; white generalized tokens could be earned on either panel. Responses on one key produced tokens according to a fixed-ratio schedule, whereas responses on a second key produced exchange periods, during which all previously earned tokens could be exchanged for the appropriate commodity. Most conditions were conducted in a closed economy, and pigeons distributed their token allocation in ways that permitted food and water consumption. When the price of all tokens was equal and low, most pigeons preferred the generalized tokens. When token-production prices were manipulated, pigeons reduced production of the tokens that increased in price while increasing production of the generalized tokens that remained at a fixed price. The latter is consistent with a substitution effect: Generalized tokens increased and were exchanged for the more expensive reinforcer. When food and water were made freely available outside the session, token production and exchange was sharply reduced but was not eliminated, even in conditions when it no longer produced tokens. The results join with other recent data in showing sustained generalized functions of token reinforcers, and demonstrate the utility of token-economic methods for assessing demand for and substitution among multiple commodities in a laboratory context.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vertebrate brains are composed of two hemispheres that receive input, compute, and interact to form a unified response. How the partially different processes of both hemispheres are integrated to create a single output is largely unknown. In some cases one hemisphere takes charge of the response selection--a process known as metacontrol. Thus far, this phenomenon has only been shown in a handful of studies with primates, mostly conducted in humans. Metacontrol, however, is even more relevant for animals like birds with laterally placed eyes and complete chiasmatic decussation since visual input to the hemispheres is largely different. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Homing pigeons (Columba livia were trained with a color discrimination task. Each hemisphere was trained with a different color pair and therefore had a different experience. Subsequently, the pigeons were binocularly examined with two additional stimuli that combined the positive color of one hemisphere with a negative color that had been shown to the other, omitting the availability of a coherent solution and confronting the pigeons with a conflicting situation. Some of the pigeons responded to both stimuli, indicating that none of the hemispheres dominated the overall preference. Some birds, however, responded primarily to one of the conflicting stimuli, showing that they based their choice on the left- or right-monocularly learned color pair, indicating hemispheric metacontrol. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We could demonstrate for the first time that metacontrol is a widespread phenomenon that also exists in birds, and thus in principle requires no corpus callosum. Our results are closely similar to those in humans: monocular performance was higher than binocular one and animals displayed different modes of hemispheric dominance. Thus, metacontrol is a dynamic and widely distributed process that possibly constitutes a requirement for all animals with a bipartite brain to
Himmel, L; O'Connor, M; Premanandan, C
An adult male domestic pigeon (Columba livia) was presented for necropsy following natural death after a period of chronic weight loss and severe intestinal ascariasis. Histopathologic examination of the liver found moderate to marked, multifocal necrotizing hepatitis with large, basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Transmission electron microscopy of affected hepatocytes demonstrated numerous intra- and perinuclear icosahedral virions arranged in a lattice structure, consistent with adenoviral infection.
Andronis, Paul Thomas; Layng, T.V. Joe; Goldiamond, Israel
This study addressed the question: Can novel social behavior arise even though the organism has had no explicit training in that particular social pattern? Seven pigeons were trained individually to peck keys for brief access to food. Four of these birds were also trained to peck two “switching keys” which, at first, raised or lowered the requirements on their own food keys. Later, these switching keys no longer affected an animal's own requirements, but raised or lowered the requirements imp...
Beisner, Kimberly R.; Paretti, Nicholas; Tillman, Fred; Naftz, David L.; Bills, Donald; Walton-Day, Katie; Gallegos, Tanya J.
The processes that affect water chemistry as the water flows from recharge areas through breccia-pipe uranium deposits in the Grand Canyon region of the southwestern United States are not well understood. Pigeon Spring had elevated uranium in 1982 (44 μg/L), compared to other perched springs (2.7–18 μg/L), prior to mining operations at the nearby Pigeon Mine. Perched groundwater springs in an area around the Pigeon Mine were sampled between 2009 and 2015 and compared with material from the Pigeon Mine to better understand the geochemistry and hydrology of the area. Two general groups of perched groundwater springs were identified from this study; one group is characterized by calcium sulfate type water, low uranium activity ratio 234U/238U (UAR) values, and a mixture of water with some component of modern water, and the other group by calcium-magnesium sulfate type water, higher UAR values, and radiocarbon ages indicating recharge on the order of several thousand years ago. Multivariate statistical principal components analysis of Pigeon Mine and spring samples indicate Cu, Pb, As, Mn, and Cd concentrations distinguished mining-related leachates from perched groundwater springs. The groundwater potentiometric surface indicates that perched groundwater at Pigeon Mine would likely flow toward the northwest away from Pigeon Spring. The geochemical analysis of the water, sediment and rock samples collected from the Snake Gulch area indicate that the elevated uranium at Pigeon Spring is likely related to a natural source of uranium upgradient from the spring and not likely related to the Pigeon Mine.
Beisner, Kimberly R.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Tillman, Fred D.; Naftz, David L.; Bills, Donald J.; Walton-Day, Katie; Gallegos, Tanya J.
The processes that affect water chemistry as the water flows from recharge areas through breccia-pipe uranium deposits in the Grand Canyon region of the southwestern United States are not well understood. Pigeon Spring had elevated uranium in 1982 (44 μg/L), compared to other perched springs (2.7-18 μg/L), prior to mining operations at the nearby Pigeon Mine. Perched groundwater springs in an area around the Pigeon Mine were sampled between 2009 and 2015 and compared with material from the Pigeon Mine to better understand the geochemistry and hydrology of the area. Two general groups of perched groundwater springs were identified from this study; one group is characterized by calcium sulfate type water, low uranium activity ratio 234U/238U (UAR) values, and a mixture of water with some component of modern water, and the other group by calcium-magnesium sulfate type water, higher UAR values, and radiocarbon ages indicating recharge on the order of several thousand years ago. Multivariate statistical principal components analysis of Pigeon Mine and spring samples indicate Cu, Pb, As, Mn, and Cd concentrations distinguished mining-related leachates from perched groundwater springs. The groundwater potentiometric surface indicates that perched groundwater at Pigeon Mine would likely flow toward the northwest away from Pigeon Spring. The geochemical analysis of the water, sediment and rock samples collected from the Snake Gulch area indicate that the elevated uranium at Pigeon Spring is likely related to a natural source of uranium upgradient from the spring and not likely related to the Pigeon Mine.
Beisner, Kimberly R.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Tillman, Fred D.; Naftz, David L.; Bills, Donald J.; Walton-Day, Katie; Gallegos, Tanya J.
The processes that affect water chemistry as the water flows from recharge areas through breccia-pipe uranium deposits in the Grand Canyon region of the southwestern United States are not well understood. Pigeon Spring had elevated uranium in 1982 (44 μg/L), compared to other perched springs (2.7-18 μg/L), prior to mining operations at the nearby Pigeon Mine. Perched groundwater springs in an area around the Pigeon Mine were sampled between 2009 and 2015 and compared with material from the Pigeon Mine to better understand the geochemistry and hydrology of the area. Two general groups of perched groundwater springs were identified from this study; one group is characterized by calcium sulfate type water, low uranium activity ratio 234U/238U (UAR) values, and a mixture of water with some component of modern water, and the other group by calcium-magnesium sulfate type water, higher UAR values, and radiocarbon ages indicating recharge on the order of several thousand years ago. Multivariate statistical principal components analysis of Pigeon Mine and spring samples indicate Cu, Pb, As, Mn, and Cd concentrations distinguished mining-related leachates from perched groundwater springs. The groundwater potentiometric surface indicates that perched groundwater at Pigeon Mine would likely flow toward the northwest away from Pigeon Spring. The geochemical analysis of the water, sediment and rock samples collected from the Snake Gulch area indicate that the elevated uranium at Pigeon Spring is likely related to a natural source of uranium upgradient from the spring and not likely related to the Pigeon Mine.
Schiffner, Ingo; Baumeister, Johann; Wiltschko, Roswitha
In a novel approach based on the principles of dynamic systems theory, we analyzed the tracks of pigeons recorded with the help of miniaturized GPS recorders. Using the method of time lag embedding, we calculated the largest Lyapunov exponent to determine the system's predictability and the correlation dimension to estimate the number of factors involved. A low Lyapunov exponent around 0.02, which proved to be rather constant over all calculations, indicates that the navigational process is almost deterministic. In the distribution of the correlation dimension estimates we found three distinctive peaks, at 3.3, 3.7 and 4.2, indicating that avian navigation is a complex multi-dimensional process, involving at least four or five independent factors. Additional factors, as indicated by an increase in the correlation dimension, seem to be included as the pigeons approach their home loft. This increase in correlation dimension and its fractal nature suggest that the various navigational factors can be included as required and weighted independently. Neither the correlation dimension nor the Lyapunov exponent is affected by increasing familiarity of the pigeons with the terrain. This suggests that the navigational strategy is stable with the same process controlling the flight across familiar as well as unfamiliar terrain.
Cook, Robert G; Qadri, Muhammad A J; Oliveira, Ryan
Auditory scene analysis is the process by which sounds are separated and identified from each other and from the background to make functional auditory objects. One challenge in making these psychological units is that complex sounds often continuously differ in composition over their duration. Here we examined the acoustic basis of complex sound processing in four pigeons by evaluating their performance in an ongoing same/different (S/D) task. This provided an opportunity to investigate avian auditory processing in a non-vocal learning, non-songbird. These pigeons were already successfully discriminating 18.5 s sequences of all different 1.5 s sounds (ABCD…) from sequences of one sound repeating (AAAA…, BBBB…, etc.) in a go/no-go procedure. The stimuli for these same/different sequences consisted of 504 tonal sounds (36 chromatic notes×14 different instruments), 36 pure tones, and 72 complex sounds. Not all of these sounds were equally effective in supporting S/D discrimination. As identified by a stepwise regression modeling of ten acoustic properties, tonal and complex sounds with intermediate levels of acoustic content tended to support better discrimination. The results suggest that pigeons have the auditory and cognitive capabilities to recognize and group continuously changing sound elements into larger functional units that can serve to differentiate long sequences of same and different sounds.
Santos, Carlos D; Cramer, Julia F; Pârâu, Liviu G; Miranda, Ana C; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K N
Personality traits have recently been shown to impact fitness in different animal species, potentially making them similarly relevant drivers as morphological and life history traits along the evolutionary pathways of organisms. Predation is a major force of natural selection through its deterministic effects on individual survival, but how predation pressure has helped to shape personality trait selection, especially in free-ranging animals, remains poorly understood. We used high-precision GPS tracking to follow whole flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia) with known personalities and morphology during homing flights where they were severely predated by raptors. This allowed us to determine how the personality and morphology traits of pigeons may affect their risk of being predated by raptors. Our survival model showed that individual pigeons, which were more tolerant to human approach, slower to escape from a confined environment, more resistant to human handling, with larger tarsi, and with lighter plumage, were more likely to be predated by raptors. We provide rare empirical evidence that the personality of prey influences their risk of being predated under free-ranging circumstances.
Chen, Zhiyong; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Chen, Xi; Chen, Duxin; Zhou, Tao
The most attractive trait of collective animal behavior is the emergence of highly ordered structures (Cavagna A., Giardina I. and Ginelli F., Phys. Rev. Lett., 110 (2013) 168107). It has been conjectured that the interaction mechanism in pigeon flock dynamics follows a hierarchical leader-follower influential network (Nagy M., Ákos Z., Biro D. and Vicsek T., Nature, 464 (2010) 890). In this paper, a new observation is reported that shows that pigeon flocks actually adopt a much simpler two-level interactive network composed of one leader and some followers. By statistically analyzing the same experimental dataset, we show that for a certain period of time a sole leader determines the motion of the flock while the remaining birds are all followers directly copying the leader's direction with specific time delays. This simple two-level despotic organization is expected to save both motional energy and communication cost, while retaining agility and robustness of the whole group. From an evolutionary perspective, our results suggest that a two-level organization of group flight may be more efficient than a multilevel topology for small pigeon flocks.
Zentall, Thomas R; Laude, Jennifer R; Case, Jacob P; Daniels, Carter W
When humans are asked to judge the value of a set of objects of excellent quality, they often give this set higher value than those same objects with the addition of some of lesser quality. This is an example of the affect heuristic, often referred to as the less-is-more effect. Monkeys and dogs, too, have shown this suboptimal effect. But in the present experiments, normally hungry pigeons chose optimally: a preferred food plus a less-preferred food over a more-preferred food alone. In Experiment 2, however, pigeons on a less-restricted diet showed the suboptimal less-is-more effect. Choice on control trials indicated that the effect did not result from the novelty of two food items versus one. The effect in the less-food-restricted pigeons appears to result from the devaluation of the combination of the food items by the presence of the less-preferred food item. The reversal of the effect under greater food restriction may occur because, as motivation increases, the value of the less-preferred food increases faster than the value of the more-preferred food, thus decreasing the difference in value between the two foods.
Shapiro, Michael D.; Kronenberg, Zev; Li, Cai;
The geographic origins of breeds and the genetic basis of variation within the widely distributed and phenotypically diverse domestic rock pigeon (Columba livia) remain largely unknown. We generated a rock pigeon reference genome and additional genome sequences representing domestic and feral pop...
The subject of investigation was the influence of ocular fixation on acquisition of habituation in experimental rotatory test in pigeons. The habituation training was performed in the three difference conditions: with full ocular fixation, fixation partly reduced and fixation excluded. Author confirmed that habituation with fixation excluded gave the best results of habituation of postural reflexes and head nystagmus in pigeons in rotatory training.
Brahma, S.K.; Rabaey, M.; Doorenmaalen, W.J. van
Ontogeny and localization of the lens γ-crystallin antigen were investigated in the embryonic and post-embryonic pigeon lenses by the indirect immunofluorescence with antiserum from rabbit immunized with isolated pigeon lens γ-crystallin. The results show that γ-crystallin appears for the first time
From June to October of 2012, samples were collected from wild Rock Pigeons (Columba livia) in urban neighborhoods of Atlanta, Georgia to ascertain the prevalence of pigeon paramyxovirus serotype-1 (PPMV-1). PPMV-1 strains are a subset of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1) commonly isolated fro...
Brahma, S.K.; Rabaey, M.; Doorenmaalen, W.J. van
Ontogeny and localization of the lens γ-crystallin antigen were investigated in the embryonic and post-embryonic pigeon lenses by the indirect immunofluorescence with antiserum from rabbit immunized with isolated pigeon lens γ-crystallin. The results show that γ-crystallin appears for the first time
M. N. Opara
Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the haematological and biochemical indices and the naturally occurring haemo and gastrointestinal microbes of 150 matured street pigeons in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. The PCV, WBC, MCV, MCH and total bilirubin values of the female pigeons were significantly (p0.05 between the two group. Out of 150 street pigeons examined for prevalence of parasites, 70 (46.70% of them were infected with gastro-intestinal parasites of which 30 (42.93% were males and 40 (57.1% were females. Four gastro-intestinal parasites were identified with Trichomonas sp. giving the highest prevalence rate (42%, followed by Eimeria sp. (28%, and whereas Coccidia sp. and Ascaridia sp. returned the least with each having the prevalence rate of (14%. Results of haemo -parasitological examination of thin blood smears revealed haematozoa of two genera: Haemoproteus sp. which was more common gave a prevalence rate of 40 (66% for the male and 70 (87% for the female pigeons. Plasmodium sp. with prevalence of 20 (33% and 10 (12% in male and female pigeons respectively. Fecal cultures recorded high growth of bacterial organisms, of which Proteus sp. returned 50 (83% and Enterococcus sp. returned 10 (16%. In totality, 40% of the pigeons had bacterial infections. In conclusion, the prevalence of gastrointestinal and haemoparasites in street pigeons in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. However, these parasites did not cause any visible deleterious effects in the blood parameters of the pigeons examined.
Ramonaitė, Sigita; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Zakarienė, Gintarė; Aksomaitienė, Jurgita; Malakauskas, Mindaugas
The occurrence, seasonal variation and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in pigeons and crows over a 1-year period were evaluated. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 166 (34.6 %) out of 480 wild bird faecal samples. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in faecal samples was higher among crows (39.2 %) than pigeons (30.0 %), (P Campylobacter jejuni was the most common species detected among wild bird faecal samples (98.2 %). Meanwhile, Campylobacter coli prevalence in wild bird faecal samples was low-6 %. The Simpson's diversity index of C. jejuni flaA RFLP types was lower in pigeons (D = 0.88) compared with C. jejuni isolates detected in crows (D = 0.97). Obtained results revealed that C. jejuni are widely prevalent among crows and pigeons, indicating these wild birds as potential infection sources to humans. Further studies are required to determine crows and pigeons role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter.
Jandačka, Petr; Alexa, Petr; Pištora, Jaromír; Trojková, Jana
We reanalysed the role of superparamagnetic magnetite clusters observed in a pigeon's upper beak to decide if this matter can be a component of some sort of pigeon magnetometer for Earth orientation. We investigated the mutual interaction of the magnetite clusters induced by the geomagnetic field. The force sensitivity of the hypothetical magnetometer in a pigeon's upper beak was estimated considering the previously presented threshold magnetic sensitivity of pigeons, measured in electrophysiological and behavioural investigations. The typical intercluster magnetic force seems to be 10(-19)N well above the threshold magnetic sensitivity. To strengthen our results, we measured the magnetic susceptibility of superparamagnetic magnetite using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Finally we performed theoretical kinematic analysis of the motion of magnetite clusters in cell plasma. The results indicate that magnetite clusters, constituted by superparamagnetic nanoparticles and observed in a pigeon's upper beak, may not be a component of a measuring system providing the magnetic map.
Zhang, Rui-Hua; He, Wen-Xiao
The ice pigeon is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of ice pigeon for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,236 bp with the base composition of 30.2% for A, 24.0% for T, 31.9% for C, and 13.9% for G and an A-T (54.2 %)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of ice pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.
Zhang, Rui-Hua; Xu, Ming-Ju; Wang, Cun-Lian; Xu, Tong; Wei, Dong; Liu, Bao-Jian; Wang, Guo-Hua
The fancy pigeons are domesticated varieties of the rock pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of fancy pigeon for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,233 bp with the base composition of 30.1% for A, 24.0% for T, 31.9% for C, and 14.0% for G and an A-T (54.2 %)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of fancy pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.
Li, Juan; Lin, Xuhui; Zhang, Longxian; Qi, Nanshan; Liao, Shenquan; Lv, Minna; Wu, Caiyan; Sun, Mingfei
To investigate the prevalence and assess the zoonotic transmission burden of Cryptosporidium species in domestic pigeons in Guangdong Province, Southern China, 244 fecal samples were collected from four pigeon breeding farms between June 2012 and March 2013. Cryptosporidium oocysts were purified by Sheather's sugar flotation technique and characterized by DNA sequencing of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Cryptosporidium species were determined by comparison of sequences with corresponding Cryptosporidium sequences in GenBank and phylogenetic analysis using neighbor-joining (NJ) in MEGA5.2. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in domestic pigeons in Guangdong Province was 0.82% (2/244). Two Cryptosporidium species, namely Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium meleagridis, were identified in Huizhou and Chaozhou farm, respectively. These findings confirmed the existence of C. meleagridis infection in domestic pigeons in China for the first time and provided base-line information for further studies to evaluate the public health risk from pigeon to human.
Zhang, Rui-Hua; He, Wen-Xiao; Xu, Tong
The king pigeon is a breed of pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding primarily as a utility breed. In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of king pigeon for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,221 bp with the base composition of 30.14% for A, 24.05% for T, 31.82% for C, and 13.99% for G and an A-T (54.22 %)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and one non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of king pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.
Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; Verbrugghe, Elin; De Saeger, Sarah; Audenaert, Kris; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Croubels, Siska; Martel, An
Seed-based pigeon diets could be expected to result in exposure of pigeons to mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). Ingestion of low to moderate contamination levels of DON may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host-pathogen interactions and thus different outcome of infections. Here we demonstrate that DON was one of the most frequently detected mycotoxins in seed-based racing pigeons feed, contaminating 5 out of 10 samples (range 177–1,466 μg/kg). Subsequently, a toxicokinetic analysis revealed a low absolute oral bioavailability (F) of DON in pigeons (30.4%), which is comparable to other avian species. Furthermore, semi-quantitative analysis using high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed that DON-3α-sulphate is the major metabolite of DON in pigeons after intravenous as well as oral administration. Following ingestion of DON contaminated feed, the intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to significant DON concentrations which eventually may affect intestinal translocation and colonization of bacteria. Feeding pigeons a DON contaminated diet resulted in an increased percentage of pigeons shedding Salmonella compared to birds fed control diet, 87 ± 17% versus 74 ± 13%, respectively. However, no impact of DON was observed on the Salmonella induced disease signs, organ lesions, faecal and organ Salmonella counts. The presented risk assessment indicates that pigeons are frequently exposed to mycotoxins such as DON, which can affect the outcome of a Salmonella infection. The increasing number of pigeons shedding Salmonella suggests that DON can promote the spread of the bacterium within pigeon populations. PMID:27997572
Holland, Richard; Filannino, Caterina; Gagliardo, Anna
The cues by which homing pigeons are able to return to a home loft after displacement to unfamiliar release sites remain debated. A number of experiments in which migratory birds have been treated with a magnetic pulse have produced a disruption in their orientation, which argues that a ferrimagnetic sense is used for navigation in birds. One previous experiment has also indicated an effect of magnetic pulses on homing pigeon navigation, although with inconsistent results. Previous studies have shown that some magnetic-related information is transmitted by the trigeminal nerve to the brain in some bird species, including the homing pigeon. The function of this information is still unclear. It has been suggested that this information is important for navigation. Previous studies with trigeminal nerve lesioned homing pigeons have clearly shown that the lack of trigeminally mediated information, even if magnetic, is not crucial for homing performance. However, this result does not completely exclude the possibility that other ferrimagnetic receptors in the homing pigeon play a role in navigation. Additionally, recent studies on homing pigeons suggested the existence of a ferrimagnetic sense in a novel location presumably located in the inner ear (lagena). In the present study, we tested whether any ferrimagnetic magnetoreceptors, irrespective of their location in the bird's head, are involved in pigeons' homing. To do this, we treated homing pigeons with a strong magnetic pulse before release, tracked birds with GPS loggers and analyzed whether this treatment affected homing performance. In the single previous magnetic pulse experiment on homing pigeons, only initial orientation at a release site was considered and the results were inconsistent. We observed no effect of the magnetic pulse at any of the sites used on initial orientation, homing performance, tortuosity or track efficiency, which does not support a role for the ferrimagnetic sense in homing pigeon
Biancifiori, F; Rondini, C; Grelloni, V; Frescura, T
Two groups of 13 new-laying hens each were infected by crop-route with 5000 and 50,000 infective oocysts of T. gondii. Four groups of 5 pigeons each were inoculated by crop-route with 50, 500, 1000 and 5000 infective oocysts. To each group of infected birds suitable controls were added. Hens from the experiment with 5000 infective oocysts were apparently resistant to the infection and they had no clinical signs in the succeeding 40 days p.i. Hens from the experiment with 50,000 infective oocysts showed an egg-drop and mortality in embryonated eggs, especially during the first 2 weeks p.i. Isolation of the parasite was unsuccessfully attempted from 720 embryonated eggs, produced by infected groups, and tested on various days p.i. and at different stages of infection. The parasite was isolated from the brain, heart, liver, spleen and lung of infected birds 7 and 15 days p.i.; 40 days p.i. it was evident only in brain and heart. IgG onset and mean course were monitored by ELISA and high titers were reached by both groups. Pigeons from groups 500, 1000 and 5000 developed rapidly progressive clinical signs as diarrhea, trembling, incoordination, torticollis and death. They had enlargement of liver and spleen and focal necrosis, nodular features in the crop. Pigeons from expt 50 had no clinical signs in spite of the presence of the parasite in their organs for over 45 days p.i. Parasite was isolated from brain, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, crop and muscles from all infected groups. Histopathological and ultrastructural features revealed the presence of multiplying tachizoites even within cells of the crop. Seroconversion, as monitored by ELISA, was recorded in all infected groups although high ELISA-titres were never reached. One of the negative controls from expt 5000 developed specific antibodies but the parasite was not isolated from its organs.
Guilford, Tim; Biro, Dora
Homing pigeons (Columba livia) have been the central model of avian navigation research for many decades, but only more recently has research extended into understanding their mechanisms of orientation in the familiar area. The discovery (facilitated by GPS tracking) that pigeons gradually acquire with experience individually idiosyncratic routes home to which they remain faithful on repeated releases, even if displaced off-route, has helped uncover the fundamental role of familiar visual landmarks in the avian familiar area map. We evaluate the robustness and generality of the route-following phenomenon by examining extant studies in depth, including the single published counter-example, providing a detailed comparison of route efficiencies, flight corridor widths and fidelity. We combine this analysis with a review of inferences that can be drawn from other experimental approaches to understanding the nature of familiar area orientation in pigeons, including experiments on landmark recognition, and response to clock-shift, to build the first detailed picture of how bird orientation develops with experience of the familiar area. We articulate alternative hypotheses for how guidance might be controlled during route following, concluding that although much remains unknown, the details of route following strongly support a pilotage interpretation. Predictable patterns of efficiency increase, but limited to the local route, typical corridor widths of 100-200 m, high-fidelity pinch-points on route, attraction to landscape edges, and a robustness to clock-shift procedures, all demonstrate that birds can associatively acquire a map of their familiar area guided (at least partially) by direct visual control from memorised local landscape features.
Bittencourt, Myla de Aguiar; Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Marino-Neto, José
Changes in body temperature are significant physiological consequences of stressful stimuli in mammals and birds. Pigeons (Columba livia) prosper in (potentially) stressful urban environments and are common subjects in neurobehavioral studies; however, the thermal responses to stress stimuli by pigeons are poorly known. Here, we describe acute changes in the telemetrically recorded celomatic (core) temperature (Tc) in pigeons given a variety of potentially stressful stimuli, including transfer to a novel cage (ExC) leading to visual isolation from conspecifics, the presence of the experimenter (ExpR), gentle handling (H), sham intracelomatic injections (SI), and the induction of the tonic immobility (TI) response. Transfer to the ExC cage provoked short-lived hyperthermia (10-20 min) followed by a long-lasting and substantial decrease in Tc, which returned to baseline levels 2 h after the start of the test. After a 2-hour stay in the ExC, the other potentially stressful stimuli evoked only weak, marginally significant hyperthermic (ExpR, IT) or hypothermic (SI) responses. Stimuli delivered 26 h after transfer to the ExC induced definite and intense increases in Tc (ExpR, H) or hypothermic responses (SI). These Tc changes appear to be unrelated to modifications in general activity (as measured via telemetrically recorded actimetric data). Repeated testing failed to affect the hypothermic responses to the transference to the ExC, even after nine trials and at 1- or 8-day intervals, suggesting that the social (visual) isolation from conspecifics may be a strong and poorly controllable stimulus in this species. The present data indicated that stress-induced changes in Tc may be a consistent and reliable physiological parameter of stress but that they may also show stressor type-, direction- and species-specific attributes.
Michaeli, G; Pinshow, B
We assessed respiratory and cutaneous water loss in trained tippler pigeons (Columba livia) both at rest and in free flight. In resting pigeons, exhaled air temperature T(ex) increased with ambient air temperature T(a) (T(ex)=16.3+0.705T(a)) between 15 degrees C and 30 degrees C, while tidal volume V(T) (V(T)=4.7+/-1.0 ml, mean +/- S.D. at standard temperature and pressure dry) and breathing frequency f(R) (f(R)=0.46+/-0.06 breaths s(-1)) were independent of T(a). Respiratory water loss, RWL, was constant over the range of T(a) (RWL=1.2+/-0.4 mg g(-1) h(-1)) used. In flying pigeons, T(ex) increased with T(a) (T(ex)=25.8+0.34T(a)), while f(R) was independent of T(a) (f(R)=5.6+/-1.4 breaths s(-1)) between 8.8 degrees C and 27 degrees C. Breathing frequency varied intermittently between 2 and 8 breaths s(-1) during flight and was not always synchronized with wing-beat frequency. RWL was independent of air temperature (RWL=9.2+/-2.9 mg g(-1) h(-1)), but decreased with increasing inspired air water vapor density (rho(in)) (RWL=12.5-0.362rho(in)), whereas cutaneous water loss, CWL, increased with air temperature (CWL=10.122+0.898T(a)), but was independent of rho(in). RWL was 25.7-32.2 %, while CWL was 67.8-74.3 % of the total evaporative water loss. The data indicate that pigeons have more efficient countercurrent heat exchange in their anterior respiratory passages when at rest than in flight, allowing them to recover more water at rest at lower air temperatures. When evaporative water loss increases in flight, especially at high T(a), the major component is cutaneous rather than respiratory, possibly brought about by reducing the skin water vapor diffusion resistance. Because of the tight restrictions imposed by gas exchange in flight, the amount of water potentially lost through respiration is limited.
Full Text Available As a popular sports event, clay pigeon uses real guns and bullets as its tools. To improve the training effect, reduce its cost and danger, the development of a real-time interactive and perceptive virtual training system by using simulation technology becomes urgent. This system uses Visual C++、Vega、Creator as its development platform to conduct modeling and simulation of clay pigeon’s and grapeshot ‘s flying path and the collision effect of the two objects.
Hahfidh I. Al-Sadi* and Ashraf K. Abdullah
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate for the first time the prevalence and pathology of spontaneous atherosclerosis in free – living pigeons in Mosul, Iraq. A hundred apparently healthy, 1-1.5 year old both sex pigeons of local breed free – living used. Effects of factors such as weight, sex, age and health status on prevalence of the condition were also studied. Prevalence of naturally occurring atherosclerosis was 10%. Grossly, the heart was hypertrophied and of firm consistency, aorta and coronary arteries were prominent and cordlike with thickened walls. Microscopically, lipid – laden "foam cells" were seen throughout the thickened tunica media and intima. Damage of the elastic lamellae and hypertrophy of the smooth muscle cells were also noted. Spontaneous atherosclerosis occurred more frequently in old pigeons. No effect was found for sex, weight, and health status of the pigeons on prevalence and pathology of spontaneous atherosclerosis. It was concluded that spontaneous atherosclerosis is fairly common in local pigeons and it occurred more commonly in old pigeons. Sex, weight, and health status of the pigeons did not constitute risk factors for the occurrence of spontaneous atherosclerosis.
Du, Ling; Yang, Dongsheng; Zhai, Tao; Gong, Pengtao; Zhang, Xichen; Li, Jianhua
Neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan infecting many domestic and wild animals. The domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) and the sparrow (Passer domesticus) are known as natural intermediate hosts of N. caninum, whereas the role of other birds such as pigeons is still unclear. In the present study, pigeon brain tissues collected in Jilin of China were screened by N. caninum specific-nested PCR to determine whether pigeons functioned as the natural intermediate hosts of N. caninum. The prevalences of N. caninum DNA and Toxoplasma gondii DNA among the brain samples were 30% (63/210) and 13.33% (28/210), respectively. One brain sample was co-infected with N. caninum and T. gondii in naturally infected pigeon. Of the 63 positive samples 42 could be assigned to the NC-PR genotype, 10 to the NC-1 genotypes and 5, 3 and 3 respectively to the each of the three new genotypes identified, indicating genetic polymorphism of N. caninum in pigeons in Jilin of China. The present study expanded the list of intermediate hosts of N. caninum to include pigeons which suggests that pigeons are involved in the transmission of the N. caninum.
Senar, Juan C; Montalvo, Tomás; Pascual, Jordi; Peracho, Victor
As feeding by humans is one of the main food resources to pigeons (Columba livia), there is general agreement that public education that aims to reduce the food base may be the most feasible way to reduce pigeon abundance. However, except for the classic example of Basel, the method has rarely been tested or implemented. We provide results from a 1 year study in the city of Barcelona where we tested the effect of public education on pigeon population abundance and composition. The quantity of food provided by people to pigeons was significantly reduced during the study. Feral pigeon density was reduced by 40% in the two experimental districts, but no variation was detected in the control district. Detailed analyses in one of the districts showed that the reduction was mainly related to the reduction in food availability but not to culling. Pigeons captured at the end of the experiment were larger than at the start of the study, but body condition was reduced. Results show the effectiveness of public information to manage feral pigeon populations in a large city, and that control operations can exert important selection pressure on the population, leading to changes in population composition. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Perea, Ramón; Gutiérrez-Galán, Alejandro
Animals may disperse cultivated trees outside the agricultural land, favoring the naturalization or, even, the invasiveness of domestic plants. However, the ecological and conservation implications of new or unexplored mutualisms between cultivated trees and wild animals are still far from clear. Here, we examine the possible role of an expanding and, locally, overabundant pigeon species (Columba palumbus) as an effective disperser of domestic olive trees (Olea europaea), a widespread cultivated tree, considered a naturalized and invasive species in many areas of the world. By analyzing crop and gizzard content we found that olive fruits were an important food item for pigeons in late winter and spring. A proportion of 40.3% pigeons consumed olive seeds, with an average consumption of 7.8 seeds per pigeon and day. Additionally, most seed sizes (up to 0.7 g) passed undamaged through the gut and were dispersed from cultivated olive orchards to areas covered by protected Mediterranean vegetation, recording minimal dispersal distances of 1.8-7.4 km. Greenhouse experiments showed that seeds dispersed by pigeons significantly favored the germination and establishment in comparison to non-ingested seeds. The ability of pigeons to effectively disperse domestic olive seeds may facilitate the introduction of cultivated olive trees into natural systems, including highly-protected wild olive woodlands. We recommend harvesting ornamental olive trees to reduce both pigeon overpopulation and the spread of artificially selected trees into the natural environment.
Liu, Mengda; Qu, Yajin; Wang, Fangkun; Liu, Sidang; Sun, Honglei
A Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from an outbreak in racing pigeons in China was characterized in this study. Complete gene of the NDV isolate was sequenced and phylogenetic analysis. Pathogenicity experiment was carried out in pigeons, chickens, and ducks. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain clustered with the Class II viruses, has highly phylogenetically similar to NDV strains isolated from pigeons in China, but was distant from the viruses prevalence in chickens and vaccine strains used in China. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein confirmed that the isolate contained the virulent motif (112)RRQKRF(117) at the cleavage site, but it caused no appearance disease in chickens and ducks. However, the isolate had virulence in pigeons, resulting in severe nervous signs and highly mortality. Pigeons were considered as a potential source of NDV infection and disease for commercial poultry flocks. Therefore, new vaccines to prevent the NDV infection in the pigeon flocks should be developed as soon as possible, and strict biosecurity measures should be taken to reduce the risk of pigeon Newcastle disease outbreaks.
Legge, Eric L G; Spetch, Marcia L; Batty, Emily R
Redundant encoding of local and global spatial cues is a common occurrence in many species. However, preferential use of the each type of cue seems to vary across species and tasks. In the current study, pigeons (Columba livia) were trained in three experiments on a touch screen task which included redundant local positional cues and global spatial cues. Specifically, pigeons were required to choose the middle out of three choice squares, such that the position within the array provided local information and the location on the screen provided global information. In Experiment 1, pigeons were trained and tested on vertically aligned arrays. In Experiment 2, pigeons were trained and tested on horizontally aligned arrays, and in Experiment 3, pigeons were trained and tested with vertical, horizontal and diagonally aligned arrays. The results indicate that preference for cue type depends upon the type of spatial information being encoded. Specifically, on vertical and diagonally aligned arrays, pigeons preferred global cues, whereas on horizontally aligned arrays, pigeons preferred local cues.
M. H. SALEEM, M. S. KHAN, A. S. CHAUDRY AND H. A. SAMAD
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of trichomoniasis and its effect on some blood parameters in pigeons. A total of 100 samples from the pigeons (50 wild and 50 domestic were collected during the months of March and April 2005. Higher prevalence (P<0.05 was recorded in wild pigeons (60% than in domestic pigeon (26%. The overall prevalence recorded was 43%, being non significantly higher in April (56% than in March (30%. In infected pigeons, there was significant (P<0.05 decrease in hemoglobin concentration number of monocytes packed cell volume, body weight, than healthy birds. Likewise, the values of total leukocyte count, lymphocytes and eosinophils were higher significantly (P<0.05 in infected pigeons than the healthy ones. While, no significant difference was observed for heterophils count when infected and healthy birds were compared. It was concluded that trichomonad infection is quite common in wild, as well as in domestic, pigeons under the prevailing cage system.
Gleeson, M; Barnas, G M; Rautenberg, W
We measured respiratory, cardiovascular and blood gas responses to shivering during normoxia and hypoxia in five bilaterally, cervically vagotomized pigeons and compared these data with those previously reported in pigeons with intact vagi (Gleeson et al. 1986). Such neural section in birds denervates, among other receptors, the carotid bodies and intrapulmonary chemoreceptors. Normoxic breathing frequency (fR) and ventilation (VE) were decreased after vagotomy. Intact pigeons showed increases in oxygen consumption (VO2), tidal volume (VT), fR and VE during shivering. Vagotomized pigeons showed similar though slightly smaller increases in fR, VO2 and VE during shivering, but VT did not change. Normoxic heart rate was greater after vagotomy and was increased during shivering as in intact pigeons. Mean arterial blood pressure (MBPa) and stroke volume were not affected by vagotomy or shivering. At the onset of shivering both intact and vagotomized pigeons exhibited immediate increases in ventilation and heart rate. Exposure of vagotomized pigeons to hypoxic gas (fractional inspired oxygen concentration, FIO2 = 0.12) during cooling completely abolished shivering electromyogram (EMG) activity. In contrast, shivering in intact pigeons was not completely inhibited until the FIO2 fell below 0.10. We conclude that bilateral, cervical vagotomy in the pigeon causes hypoventilation and tachycardia during normoxia, but that these denervated birds are still able to rapidly effect cardiorespiratory adjustments to shivering. It is suggested that these responses are mediated mainly via afferent feedback from the shivering muscles. Hypoxia inhibits shivering in both intact and vagotomized birds and the mechanism is probably related to the reduced O2 delivery to the central structures that integrate thermoregulatory demand and coordinate appropriate responses.
Obukhova, N Iu
The variation of blue rock pigeon plumage color has been studied in 192 settlements of Europe. As in earlier studies, six color phenotypes have been distinguished, the main of which are blue, intermediate and melanistic. The phenotype frequency distribution patterns in urban and rural landscapes have been determined. Pigeon populations with increased density are the most melanistic. Rural populations are less melanistic than urban ones. The frequency of birds with aberrant plumage colors varies randomly and is increased in some localities. The phenotypic structure of synanthropic populations of the blue rock pigeon in Europe displays a latitudinal gradient.
Katyal, S.K.; Iyer, P.V.R.
Pigeon pea stalk is a widely available biomass species in India. In this article the potential use of pigeon pea stalk as a fuel source through thermochemical conversion methods such as combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis has been investigated through experimentation using a thermogravimetric analyzer and pilot-plant-scale equipment. It has been proposed that pigeon pea stalks can be effectively utilized in two ways. The first is to pyrolyze the material to produce value-added products such as char, tar, and fuel gas. The second alternative is to partially pyrolyze the material to remove tar-forming volatiles, followed by gasification of reactive char to generate producer gas.
Full Text Available Recent evidence of the occurrence of atypical Chlamydiaceae strains in pigeons, different from the established Chlamydiaceae, requires the development of a specific and rapid detection tool to investigate their prevalence and significance. Here is described a new real-time PCR assay that allows specific detection of atypical Chlamydiaceae from pigeons. The assay has been used to assess the dissemination of these strains in field samples collected from Parisian pigeon populations in 2009. The results suggest a limited dissemination compared to the usually higher prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci that is the main species associated with avian chlamydiosis.
Liu, Gang; Zhong, Da-Lian; Liu, Xue-Lan; Yu, Wei-Yi
In order to compare the structure and function of pigeon invariant chain (pIi) gene with other avian's, pIi gene was cloned using a method of RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends). Firstly, according to high conservative nucleotide sequence of homologous fragment in avian invariant chain (Ii) gene, a pair of degenerated primer was designed, and a special DNA fragment was gained from pigeon spleen cell RNA by PCR. Then based on the sequence of gained DNA fragment, some new primers were designed, and the 3'terminal and the 5'terminal of pIi gene were cloned by RACE respectively. Finally a complete cDNA of pIi was to extend with newly designed primer by PCR. The product was identified by electrophresis and sequence analysis. The results of sequencing indicate that pIi gene is 1,050 bp in length (GenBank No. AY904337), which includes an open reading frame of 633 bp encoding a precursor protein with 211 amino acid residues. In comparison with the nucleotide sequences of other species' Ii genes, pIi is similar to chicken's, showing an overall identity of 82.8 with chicken and over 52.0 with human and other mammalian animals. In addition, some amino acid residues in Ii molecule manifest extremely conservative among animals, which suggests that they could have an important biological function.
Gipson, Cassandra D; Alessandri, Jérôme J D; Miller, Holly C; Zentall, Thomas R
When pigeons are given a choice between an initial-link alternative that results in either a terminal-link stimulus correlated with 100% reinforcement or a stimulus correlated with 0% reinforcement (overall 50% reinforcement) and another initial-link alternative that always results in a terminal-link stimulus correlated with 100% reinforcement, some pigeons show a preference for the initial-link alternative correlated with 50% reinforcement. Using this procedure, in Experiment 1, we found a relatively modest preference for 100% over 50% reinforcement. In Experiment 2, we decreased the reinforcement density for the second initial-link alternative to 75% and found a significant preference for the 50% reinforcement initial-link alternative. It may be that this "maladaptive" behavior results from a positive contrast between the expectation of reinforcement correlated with the 50% reinforcement initial-link alternative and the terminal-link stimulus correlated with 100% reinforcement. But apparently, the complementary negative contrast does not develop between the expectation of reinforcement correlated with the 50% reinforcement initial-link alternative and the terminal-link stimulus correlated with 0% reinforcement that often follow. Such paradoxical choice may account for certain human appetitive risk-taking behavior (e.g., gambling) as well.
Stacho, Martin; Ströckens, Felix; Xiao, Qian; Güntürkün, Onur
Birds show remarkable visual abilities that surpass most of our visual psychophysiological abilities. In this study, we investigated visual associative areas of the tectofugal visual system in pigeons. Similar to the condition in mammals, ascending visual pathways in birds are subdivided into parallel form/color vs. motion streams at the thalamic and primary telencephalic level. However, we know practically nothing about the functional organization of those telencephalic areas that receive input from the primary visual telencephalic fields. The current study therefore had two objectives: first, to reveal whether these visual associative areas of the tectofugal system are activated during visual discrimination tasks; second, to test whether separated form/color vs. motion pathways can be discerned among these association fields. To this end, we trained pigeons to discriminate either form/color or motion stimuli and used the immediate early gene protein ZENK to capture the activity of the visual associative areas during the task. We could indeed identify several visual associative telencephalic structures by activity pattern changes during discriminations. However, none of these areas displayed a difference between form/color vs. motion sessions. The presence of such a distinction in thalamo-telencephalic, but not in further downstream visual association areas opens the possibility that these separate streams converge very early in birds, which possibly minimizes long-range connections due to the evolutionary pressure toward miniaturized brains.
Full Text Available Abstract Genetic parameters of body weight at weaning and of prolificacy were estimated in three commercial lines of pigeons selected by BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction on both traits. The model of analysis took into account the direct genetic effects for both traits and the effect of parental permanent environment for body weight. Depending on the line considered, body weight varied from 556.7 g to 647.6 g and prolificacy ranged from 12.5 to 16.8 pigeons weaned per couple of parents per year. Heritability of body weight was high, varying between 0.46 and 0.60, and permanent environment was responsible for 6% to 9% of the total variability. On the contrary, prolificacy was poorly heritable (0.04 to 0.12. They were highly and negatively correlated (-0.77 to -0.82. Body weight showed significant genetic trends in lines B and C. No significant genetic difference could be observed between males and females for both traits.
Full Text Available Two groups of domestic pigeons (Columba livia were experimentally infected orally with doses of 9.5 x10(7 and 9.5 x10(9 CFU/mL (group A and B, respectively of a Salmonella Enteritidis (SE strain isolated from chickens. None of the used doses caused mortality of the inoculated birds; however, the pathogen was successfully recovered from the liver and spleen of group B birds on day 7 post-inoculation (dpi. Pathogen shedding, as evaluated through cloacal swabs, occurred in both groups until the 14th day of observation (p <0.05. Among all fecal samples collected from group B (n=4, three different birds shed the pathogen in their feces, out of which two were positive on 3 dpi and one on 7 dpi. The same number of fecal samples was evaluated in group A and only one bird shed the pathogen, on 7 and 14 dpi. The concentration of the microorganism in the feces was lower in group A than any sample from Group B. Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from chickens, when inoculated in pigeons, may be recovered from feces, cloacal swabs and organs, and these birds may contaminate poultry causing economic losses as well as posing a risk to the public health.
Carlos D Santos
Full Text Available Organized flight of homing pigeons (Columba livia was previously shown to rely on simple leadership rules between flock mates, yet the stability of this social structuring over time and across different contexts remains unclear. We quantified the repeatability of leadership-based flock structures within a flight and across multiple flights conducted with the same animals. We compared two contexts of flock composition: flocks of birds of the same age and flight experience; and, flocks of birds of different ages and flight experience. All flocks displayed consistent leadership-based structures over time, showing that individuals have stable roles in the navigational decisions of the flock. However, flocks of balanced age and flight experience exhibited reduced leadership stability, indicating that these factors promote flock structuring. Our study empirically demonstrates that leadership and followership are consistent behaviours in homing pigeon flocks, but such consistency is affected by the heterogeneity of individual flight experiences and/or age. Similar evidence from other species suggests leadership as an important mechanism for coordinated motion in small groups of animals with strong social bonds.
Pettit, Benjamin; Ákos, Zsuzsa; Vicsek, Tamás; Biro, Dora
A key question in collective behavior is how individual differences structure animal groups, affect the flow of information, and give some group members greater weight in decisions. Depending on what factors contribute to leadership, despotic decisions could either improve decision accuracy or interfere with swarm intelligence. The mechanisms behind leadership are therefore important for understanding its functional significance. In this study, we compared pigeons' relative influence over flock direction to their solo flight characteristics. A pigeon's degree of leadership was predicted by its ground speeds from earlier solo flights, but not by the straightness of its previous solo route. By testing the birds individually after a series of flock flights, we found that leaders had learned straighter homing routes than followers, as we would expect if followers attended less to the landscape and more to conspecifics. We repeated the experiment from three homing sites using multiple independent flocks and found individual consistency in leadership and speed. Our results suggest that the leadership hierarchies observed in previous studies could arise from differences in the birds' typical speeds. Rather than reflecting social preferences that optimize group decisions, leadership may be an inevitable consequence of heterogeneous flight characteristics within self-organized flocks. We also found that leaders learn faster and become better navigators, even if leadership is not initially due to navigational ability. The roles that individuals fall into during collective motion might therefore have far-reaching effects on how they learn about the environment and use social information.
Meagan J Gillespie
Full Text Available Pigeon 'milk' and mammalian milk have functional similarities in terms of nutritional benefit and delivery of immunoglobulins to the young. Mammalian milk has been clearly shown to aid in the development of the immune system and microbiota of the young, but similar effects have not yet been attributed to pigeon 'milk'. Therefore, using a chicken model, we investigated the effect of pigeon 'milk' on immune gene expression in the Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT and on the composition of the caecal microbiota. Chickens fed pigeon 'milk' had a faster rate of growth and a better feed conversion ratio than control chickens. There was significantly enhanced expression of immune-related gene pathways and interferon-stimulated genes in the GALT of pigeon 'milk'-fed chickens. These pathways include the innate immune response, regulation of cytokine production and regulation of B cell activation and proliferation. The caecal microbiota of pigeon 'milk'-fed chickens was significantly more diverse than control chickens, and appears to be affected by prebiotics in pigeon 'milk', as well as being directly seeded by bacteria present in pigeon 'milk'. Our results demonstrate that pigeon 'milk' has further modes of action which make it functionally similar to mammalian milk. We hypothesise that pigeon 'lactation' and mammalian lactation evolved independently but resulted in similarly functional products.
Cristina R. Perez
Full Text Available Estimation of the surface area of the avian body is valuable for thermoregulation and metabolism studies as well as for assessing exposure to oil and other surface-active organic pollutants from a spill. The use of frozen carcasses for surface area estimations prevents the ability to modify the posture of the bird. The surface area of six live homing pigeons in the fully extended flight position was estimated using a noninvasive method. An equation was derived to estimate the total surface area of a pigeon based on its body weight. A pigeon's surface area in the fully extended flight position is approximately 4 times larger than the surface area of a pigeon in the perching position. The surface area of a bird is dependent on its physical position, and, therefore, the fully extended flight position exhibits the maximum area of a bird and should be considered the true surface area of a bird.
Bingman, V P; Mench, J A
The avian hippocampal formation has been proposed to play a critical role in the neural regulation of a navigational system used by homing pigeons to locate their loft once in the familiar area near home. In support of this hypothesis, the homing performance of pigeons with target lesions of either the hippocampus or parahippocampus was found to be impaired compared to controls following releases of about 10 km. Further, radio tracking revealed that the in-flight behavior of the hippocampal lesioned homing pigeons was characterized by numerous direction changes and generally poor orientation with respect to the home loft. The results identify a local navigational impairment on the part of the hippocampal lesioned pigeons in the vicinity of the loft where landmark cues are thought to be important. Additionally, target lesions of the hippocampus or parahippocampus were found to be similarly effective in causing homing deficits.
Qiu, Huaxin; Duan, Haibin
Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flocking control is a serious and challenging problem due to local interactions and changing environments. In this paper, a pigeon flocking model and a pigeon coordinated obstacle-avoiding model are proposed based on a behavior that pigeon flocks will switch between hierarchical and egalitarian interaction mode at different flight phases. Owning to the similarity between bird flocks and UAV swarms in essence, a distributed flocking control algorithm based on the proposed pigeon flocking and coordinated obstacle-avoiding models is designed to coordinate a heterogeneous UAV swarm to fly though obstacle environments with few informed individuals. The comparative simulation results are elaborated to show the feasibility, validity and superiority of our proposed algorithm. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the breeding and feeding ecology of the pigeon guillemot at Naked Island, Alaska, as well as surveys of the Naked Island complex. Methods...
Hellebuyck, Tom; Garmyn, An; De Cooman, Lien; Boyen, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An
A juvenile racing pigeon ( Columba livia ) was presented with drooping of the wing and inability to fly. On physical examination, the right shoulder joint was swollen. The pigeon was euthanatized and submitted for necropsy. An excessive amount of fibrin was present in the canalis triosseus with severe arthritis of the affected shoulder joint. A pure growth of Mycoplasma-like colonies was obtained on microbiological culture of the shoulder joint. A 16S ribosomal RNA gene-specific polymerase chain reaction assay was performed on the isolate and revealed 100% similarity with Mycoplasma columbinum . Although infectious arthritis in homing pigeons is primarily associated with paratyphoid and Streptococcus gallolyticus infection, clinical practitioners should consider the potential role of Mycoplasma columbinum in arthritis in pigeons.
He, Wen-Xiao; Jia, Jin-Feng
The Jacobin is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding that originated in Asia. In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Jacobin pigeon for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,245 bp with the base composition of 30.18% for A, 23.98% for T, 31.88% for C, and 13.96% for G and an A-T (54.17 %)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region. The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Jacobin pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.
S. Shaheen, A. D. Anjum and F. Rizvi
Full Text Available A survey was conducted to study clinical signs, gross and histopathological lesions in pigeons with naturally occurring Newcastle disease. For this purpose, 30 pigeon lofts were visited. Among these, 14 lofts showed clinical signs of Newcastle disease, including mainly greenish white mucoid diarrhoea and nervous signs with high morbidity and mortality. Postmortem examination of affected birds showed lesions mainly in brain, liver, kidneys and spleen. Amongst various organs, kidneys were more frequently involved. Histopathological changes were also observed in lungs, liver, kidneys, brain and spleen. The results showed that the Newcastle disease virus was widespread in pigeons locally and caused heavy mortality. No preventive measures or vaccination is being adopted by pigeon fanciers to control the disease.
Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Pritsos, Chris A
Estimation of the surface area of the avian body is valuable for thermoregulation and metabolism studies as well as for assessing exposure to oil and other surface-active organic pollutants from a spill. The use of frozen carcasses for surface area estimations prevents the ability to modify the posture of the bird. The surface area of six live homing pigeons in the fully extended flight position was estimated using a noninvasive method. An equation was derived to estimate the total surface area of a pigeon based on its body weight. A pigeon's surface area in the fully extended flight position is approximately 4 times larger than the surface area of a pigeon in the perching position. The surface area of a bird is dependent on its physical position, and, therefore, the fully extended flight position exhibits the maximum area of a bird and should be considered the true surface area of a bird.
Li, Chun-Hong; Shi, Wei; Shi, Wan-Yu
The Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. In this work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,239 bp and its overall base composition was estimated to be 30.2% for A, 24.0% for T, 31.9% for C and 13.9% for G, indicating an A-T (54.2%)-rich feature in the mitogenome. It contained the typical structure of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.
Ledwoń, Aleksandra; Dolka, Beata; Piasecki, Tomasz; Dolka, Izabella; Szeleszczuk, Piotr
Over 4 years, only two known cases of fluke invasions were diagnosed in racing pigeons ( Columba livia ) originating from different regions of Poland. In both cases, the invasion was characterized by a very high mortality (approximately 70%), and the source of the infestation was snails of the Lymnaeidae family eaten by pigeons. Fluke invasions in pigeons are extremely rare and to date have not been described in Poland. Therefore, the occurrence of the symptoms of hemorrhagic diarrhea and sudden deaths of either adult pigeons or nestlings were suspected to be associated with poisoning. Autopsy revealed an invasion of flukes causing hemorrhagic enteritis. Renal failure and spleen atrophy were also found in the birds. Using molecular biology techniques, infestation with the fluke Echinostoma revolutum was determined in the second case.
Biswal, Debraj; Nandi, Anadi Prasad; Chatterjee, Soumendranath
The present paper is an attempt to study the interaction between the helminth parasite and bacteria residing in the gut of domestic pigeon, Columba livia domestica. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the gut bacterial isolate were done and the isolate was identified as Staphylococcus sp. DB1 (JX442510). The interaction of Staphylococcus sp. with Cotugnia cuneata, an intestinal helminth parasite of domestic pigeon was studied on the basis of the difference between 'mean worm burden' of antibiotic treated infected pigeons and infected pigeons without any antibiotic treatment. The ANOVA and Tukey tests of the data obtained showed that antibiotic treatment reduced the mean worm burden significantly. The biochemical properties of Staphylococcus sp. DB1 (JX442510) also showed a mutualistic relationship with the physiology of C. cuneata.
Dell'Ariccia, Gaia; Costantini, David; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Lipp, Hans-Peter
.... Quite often, the last pigeons disappear straightforward from the release site. The question is whether this reflects improved orientation because of prolonged exposure to the release place or whether it reflects increased homing motivation...
Staddon and Simmelhag's proposal that behavior is produced by “principles of behavioral variation” instead of contingencies of reinforcement was tested in two experiments. In the first experiment pigeons were exposed to either a fixed-interval schedule of response-contingent reinforcement, an autoshaping schedule of stimulus-contingent reinforcement, or a fixed-time schedule of noncontingent reinforcement. Pigeons exposed to contingent reinforcement came to peck more rapidly than those expose...
Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Overton, Cory T.; Howe, Kristy H.
Context: The band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata) is a migratory species occurring in western North America with low recruitment potential and populations that have declined an average of 2.4% per year since the 1960s. Investigations into band-tailed pigeon demographic rates date back to the early 1900s, and existing annual survival rate estimates were derived in the 1970s using band return data.
Papi, F; Casini, G.
Homing behavior was tested in pigeons (Columba livia) after removing a portion of the ventrolateral telencephalon, which receives extensive projections from the olfactory bulb and is comparable with the mammalian pyriform cortex. Ablated pigeons show unaffected cardiac responses to odorous stimuli but altered homing behavior. After the operation, the birds were trained by repeated flock releases along with control birds from a site 40 km from the loft. After being released singly from this fa...
Full Text Available An evaluation method is described that will enable researchers to study fight control characteristics of robo-pigeons in fully open space. It is not limited by the experimental environment and overcomes environmental interference with flight control in small experimental spaces using a compact system. The system consists of two components: a global positioning system (GPS-based stimulator with dimensions of 38 mm × 26 mm × 8 mm and a weight of 18 g that can easily be carried by a pigeon as a backpack and a PC-based program developed in Virtual C++. The GPS-based stimulator generates variable stimulation and automatically records the GPS data and stimulus parameters. The PC-based program analyzes the recorded data and displays the flight trajectory of the tested robo-pigeon on a digital map. This method enables quick and clear evaluation of the flight control characteristics of a robo-pigeon in open space based on its visual trajectory, as well as further optimization of the microelectric stimulation parameters to improve the design of robo-pigeons. The functional effectiveness of the method was investigated and verified by performing flight control experiments using a robo-pigeon in open space.
Gessaman, James A.; Workman, Gar W.; Fuller, Mark R.
We measured carbon dioxide production and water efflux of 12 tippler pigeons (Columba spp.) during seven experimental flights using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Prior to the experiment birds were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group flew as controls (no load or harness) on all seven flights. The other group wore a harness on two flights, a dorsal load/harness package (weighing about 5% of a birda??s mass) on two flights, and they were without a load in three flights. Plight duration of pigeons with only a harness and with a dorsal load/harness package was 21 and 26% less, respectively, than the controls. Pigeons wearing a harness, or wearing a dorsal load/harness package lost water 50-90%, and 57-100% faster, respectively, than control pigeons. The mean CO, production of pigeons wearing a harness or a load/harness package was not significantly different than pigeons without a harness or load. The small sample sizes and large variability in DLW measurements precluded a good test of the energetic cost of flying with a harness and dorsal load.
Gessaman, J.A.; Workman, G.W.; Fuller, M.R.
We measured carbon dioxide production and water efflux of 12 tippler pigeons (Columba spp.) during seven experimental flights using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Prior to the experiment birds were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group flew as controls (no load or harness) on all seven flights. The other group wore a harness on two flights, a dorsal load/harness package (weighing about 5% of a bird's mass) on two flights, and they were without a load in three flights. Flight duration of pigeons with only a harness and with a dorsal load/harness package was 21 and 26% less, respectively, than the controls. Pigeons wearing a harness, or wearing a dorsal load/harness package lost water 50-90%, and 57-100% faster, respectively, than control pigeons. The mean CO2 production of pigeons wearing a harness or a load/harness package was not significantly different than pigeons without a harness or load. The small sample sizes and large variability in DLW measuremets precluded a good test of the energetic cost of flying with a harness and dorsal load.
Schiffner, Ingo; Fuhrmann, Patrick; Wiltschko, Roswitha
Pigeons were released at two sites of equal distance from the loft, one within a magnetic anomaly, the other in magnetically quiet terrain, and their tracks were recorded with the help of GPS receivers. A comparison of the beginning of the tracks revealed striking differences: within the anomaly, the initial phase lasted longer, and the distance flown was longer, with the pigeons' headings considerably farther from the home direction. During the following departure phase, the birds were well homeward oriented at the magnetically quiet site, whereas they continued to be disoriented within the anomaly. Comparing the tracks in the anomaly with the underlying magnetic contours shows considerable differences between individuals, without a common pattern emerging. The differences in magnetic intensity along the pigeons' path do not differ from a random distribution of intensity differences around the release site, indicating that the magnetic contours do not directly affect the pigeons' routes. Within the anomaly, pigeons take longer until their flights are oriented, but 5 km from the release point, the birds, still within the anomaly, are also significantly oriented in the home direction. These findings support the assumption that magnetically anomalous conditions initially interfere with the pigeons' navigational processes, with birds showing rather individual responses in their attempts to overcome these problems.
Du, Yu; Mahdi, Nuha; Paul, Breanne; Spetch, Marcia L
Although orienting ability has been examined with numerous types of cues, most research has focused only on cues from the horizontal plane. The current study investigated pigeons' use of wall height, a vertical cue, in an open-field task and compared it with their use of horizontal cues. Pigeons were trained to locate food in 2 diagonal corners of a rectangular enclosure with 2 opposite high walls as height cues. Before each trial, pigeons were rotated to disorient them. In training, pigeons could use either the horizontal cues from the rectangular enclosure or the height information from the walls to locate the food. In testing, the apparatus was modified to provide (a) horizontal cues only, (b) height cues only, and (c) both height and horizontal cues in conflict. In Experiment 1 the lower and high walls, respectively, were 40 and 80 cm, whereas in Experiment 2 they were made more perceptually salient by shortening them to 20 and 40 cm. Pigeons accurately located the goal corners with horizontal cues alone in both experiments, but they searched accurately with height cues alone only in Experiment 2. When the height cues conflicted with horizontal cues, pigeons preferred the horizontal cues over the height cues in Experiment 1 but not in Experiment 2, suggesting that perceptual salience influences the relative weighting of cues. (PsycINFO Database Record
Coppola, Vincent J; Hough, Gerald; Bingman, Verner P
The hippocampus is particularly susceptible to age-related degeneration that, like hippocampal lesions, is thought to lead to age-related decline in spatial memory and navigation. Lesions to the avian hippocampal formation (HF) also result in impaired spatial memory and navigation, but the relationship between aging and HF-dependent spatial cognition is unknown. To investigate possible age-related decline in avian spatial cognition, the current study investigated spatial working memory performance in older homing pigeons (10+ years of age). Pigeons completed a behavioral procedure nearly identical to the delayed spatial, win-shift procedure in a modified radial arm maze that has been previously used to study spatial working memory in rats and pigeons. The results revealed that the older pigeons required a greater number of choices to task completion and were less accurate with their first 4 choices as compared to younger pigeons (1-2 years of age). In addition, older pigeons were more likely to adopt a stereotyped sampling strategy, which explained in part their impaired performance. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate an age-related impairment of HF-dependent, spatial memory in birds. Implications and future directions of the findings are discussed.
Gillespie, Meagan J; Dragana Stanley; Honglei Chen; Donald, John A.; Nicholas, Kevin R.; Robert J Moore; Crowley, Tamsyn M
Pigeon 'milk' and mammalian milk have functional similarities in terms of nutritional benefit and delivery of immunoglobulins to the young. Mammalian milk has been clearly shown to aid in the development of the immune system and microbiota of the young, but similar effects have not yet been attributed to pigeon 'milk'. Therefore, using a chicken model, we investigated the effect of pigeon 'milk' on immune gene expression in the Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT) and on the composition of t...
Fitzke, F W; Hayes, B P; Hodos, W; Holden, A L; Low, J C
Scheiner's principle has been used in electroretinographic optometry to refract the photoreceptor plane in different regions of the visual field of the pigeon eye. Along the horizon and in the upper visual field the eye is emmetropic, or nearly so. Below the horizon the eye becomes progressively more myopic at more negative elevations, refractive state falling to -5D at -90 deg. Lower field myopia is not an artifact of oblique astigmatism, nor of an aberration symmetrical about the optical axis. It is suggested that lower field myopia is a biological adaptation suited to keep the photoreceptors in the upper retina conjugate with the ground. Refractive state below the horizon can be fitted with a sine function by varying a parameter H (eye-ground height). The value of H agrees well with directly measured eye-ground height.
Yin, Haiwei; Shi, Lei; Sha, Jing; Li, Yizhou; Qin, Youhua; Dong, Biqin; Meyer, Serge; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhao, Li; Zi, Jian
We conducted structural characterizations, reflection measurements, and theoretical simulations on the iridescent green and purple neck feathers of domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica). We found that both green and purple barbules are composed of an outer keratin cortex layer surrounding a medullary layer. The thickness of the keratin cortex layer shows a distinct difference between green and purple barbules. Green barbules vary colors from green to purple with the observing angle changed from normal to oblique, while purple barbules from purple to green in an opposite way. Both the experimental and theoretical results suggest that structural colors in green and purple neck feathers should originate from the interference in the top keratin cortex layer, while the structure beyond acts as a poor mirror.
A. T. Borghare
Full Text Available Present study was planned to investigate the helminthic infection in captive wild pigeons (Columba livia at Maharajbagh Zoo Nagpur. All the 30 samples examined were found positive either with single or mixed helminthic infections. The result showed that the incidence of Capillaria sp, Ascaridia sp and Hetarakis sp. were 56.66%, 76.66%, 16.66% respectively. Mixed parasitic infection was recorded in around 17 samples with either Ascaridia sp. and Capillaria sp or with Ascaridia sp. and Heterakis sp. One of 30 samples examined were found with the cysts of Balantidium coli. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 343-
Anderson, J L; Smith, S C; Taylor, R L
Multiple animal models have been employed to study human atherosclerosis, the principal cause of mortality in the United States. Each model has individual advantages related to specific pathologies. Initiation, the earliest disease phase, is best modeled by the White Carneau (WC-As) pigeon. Atherosclerosis develops spontaneously in the WC-As without either external manipulation or known risk factors. Furthermore, susceptibility is caused by a single gene defect inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. The Show Racer (SR-Ar) pigeon is resistant to atherosclerosis. Breed differences in the biochemistry and metabolism of celiac foci cells have been described. For example, WC-As have lower oxidative metabolism but higher amounts of chondroitin-6-sulfate and nonesterified fatty acids compared with SR-Ar. Gene expression in aortic smooth muscle cells was compared between breeds using representational difference analysis and microarray analysis. Energy metabolism and cellular phenotype were the chief gene expression differences. Glycolysis and synthetic cell types were related to the WC-As but oxidative metabolism and contractile cell types were related to the SR-Ar. Rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, blocked RNA binding motif (RBMS1) expression in WC-As cells. The drug may act through the c-myc oncogene as RBMS1 is a c-myc target. Proteomic tests of aortic smooth muscle cells supported greater glycosylation in the WC-As and a transforming growth factor β effect in SR-Ar. Unoxidized fatty acids build up in WC-As cells because of their metabolic deficiency, ultimately preventing the contractile phenotype in these cells. The single gene responsible for the disease is likely regulatory in nature.
Botman, Julie; Dugdale, Alex; Gabriel, Fabien; Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel
To determine baseline cardiovascular and respiratory variables in the awake pigeon, and to assess those variables during anaesthesia at the individual minimal anaesthetic concentration (MAC) of isoflurane during spontaneous breathing. Prospective, experimental trial. Seven healthy adult pigeons weighing a mean ± standard deviation (SD) of 438 ± 38 g. Heart rate (HR), heart rhythm, respiratory rate (fR), end-expired carbon dioxide tension (Pe'CO2), indirect systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and cloacal temperature (T) were measured in birds in the awake state (after acclimatization to handling). Two weeks later, the pigeons were anaesthetized with isoflurane in order to determine their MAC and evaluate the same cardiovascular and respiratory variables during a further 40 minutes of isoflurane anaesthesia. In the awake pigeon, mean ± SD HR, SAP, fR, Pe'CO2 and T were, respectively, 155 ± 28 beats minute(-1), 155 ± 21 mmHg, 34 ± 6 breaths minute(-1), 38 ± 8 mmHg (5.1 ± 1.1 kPa) and 41.8 ± 0.5 °C. Mean isoflurane MAC was 1.8 ± 0.4%. During maintenance of anaesthesia at MAC, although no significant decreases between values obtained in the awake and anaesthetized states emerged in HR or respiratory rate, significant decreases in SAP and cloacal temperature and an increase in Pe'CO2 were observed. No arrhythmia was identified in awake pigeons, whereas second- and third-degree atrioventricular blocks occurred under isoflurane. Isoflurane MAC in pigeons appeared to be higher than in other avian species. Isoflurane anaesthesia in pigeons resulted in hypercapnia, hypotension, mild hypothermia and second- and third-degree atrioventricular blocks. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.
Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.
The abundance of Band-tailed Pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis) has declined substantially from historic numbers along the Pacific Coast. Identification of patterns and causative factors of this decline are hampered because habitat use data are limited, and temporal and spatial variability patterns associated with population indices are not known. Furthermore, counts are influenced not only by pigeon abundance but also by rate of visitation to mineral sites, which may not be consistent. To address these issues, we conducted mineral site counts during 2001 and 2002 at 20 locations from 4 regions in the Pacific Northwest, including central Oregon and western Washington, USA, and British Columbia, Canada. We developed inference models that consisted of environmental factors and spatial characteristics at multiple spatial scales. Based on information theory, we compared models within a final set that included variables measured at 3 spatial scales (0.03 ha, 3.14 ha, and 7850 ha). Pigeon counts increased from central Oregon through northern Oregon and decreased into British Columbia. After accounting for this spatial pattern, we found that pigeon counts increased 12% ± 2.7 with a 10% increase in the amount of deciduous forested area within 100 m from a mineral site. Also, distance from the mineral site of interest to the nearest known mineral site was positively related to pigeon counts. These findings provide direction for future research focusing on understanding the relationships between indices of relative abundance and complete counts (censuses) of pigeon populations by identifying habitat characteristics that might influence visitation rates. Furthermore, our results suggest that spatial arrangement of mineral sites influences Band-tailed Pigeon counts and the populations which those counts represent.
Sweet, Andrew D.; Chesser, R. Terry; Johnson, Kevin P.
Host–parasite coevolutionary histories can differ among multiple groups of parasites associated with the same group of hosts. For example, parasitic wing and body lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) of New World pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae) differ in their cophylogenetic patterns, with body lice exhibiting higher phylogenetic congruence with their hosts than wing lice. In this study, we focus on the wing and body lice of Australian phabine pigeons and doves to determine whether the patterns in New World pigeons and doves are consistent with those of pigeons and doves from other regions. Using molecular sequence data for most phabine species and their lice, we estimated phylogenetic trees for all three groups (pigeons and doves, wing lice and body lice), and compared the phabine (host) tree with both parasite trees using multiple cophylogenetic methods. We found a pattern opposite to that found for New World pigeons and doves, with Australian wing lice showing congruence with their hosts, and body lice exhibiting a lack of congruence. There are no documented records of hippoboscid flies associated with Australian phabines, thus these lice may lack the opportunity to disperse among host species by attaching to hippoboscid flies (phoresis), which could explain these patterns. However, additional sampling for flies is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Large differences in body size among phabine pigeons and doves may also help to explain the congruence of the wing lice with their hosts. It may be more difficult for wing lice than body lice to switch among hosts that vary more dramatically in size. The results from this study highlight how host–parasite coevolutionary histories can vary by region, and how local factors can shape the relationship.
Schreiber, Tim; Kamphausen, Ludger; Haag-Wackernagel, Daniel
We examined 80 feral pigeons and their fecal samples from two feral pigeon lofts of the "Pigeon Action of Basel" (Switzerland) for different pathogens. The tested material harbored four pathogenic agents transmissible to humans (Chlamydia spp., Salmonella spec., Campylobacter jejuni, Cryptococcus neoformans) In addition several pathogens were found which are no zoonotic agents but potentially pathogenic for the pigeons themselves, such as Trichomonas gallinae, coccidia, helminths, ectoparasites and fungi. The number of pathogens and parasites detected in the fecal samples varied significantly between the two localities. The pigeons of the two investigated breeding flocks differed in nutritional status and the incidence of two species of feather lice, Columbicola columbae and Campanulotes bidentatus compar. The prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae between juveniles and adults was not significantly different but juveniles exhibited significantly heavier infestation if infected. Individuals with a good nutritional status tend to show heavier infestation with Trichomonas gallinae compared to birds with moderate or poor nutritional status. Birds with a poor nutritional status tend to suffer from a heavier infestation with the feather louse C. columbae, and birds with a good nutritional status show significant heavier infestation with C. bidentatus compar. It was remarkable that one of the two investigated breeding populations almost gave up its breeding activity for two years because of the loss of its familiar food source. Nevertheless, this population showed a better nutritional status than the population without restrictions in the acquisition of food. This fact could be interpreted by the existence of a biological control mechanism for suppression of the reproduction in degraded environmental conditions to ensure the survival of the adults. If this assumption is correct, the feeding of feral pigeons by animal lovers possibly causes impairment of pigeon's health in
Melleu, F F; Pinheiro, M V; Lino-de-Oliveira, C; Marino-Neto, J
Neurogenesis in the adult brain appears to be phylogenetically conserved across the animal kingdom. In pigeons and other adult non-oscine birds, immature neurons are observed in several prosencephalic areas, suggesting that neurogenesis may participate in the control of different behaviors. The mechanisms controlling neurogenesis and its relevance to defensive behaviors in non-oscine birds remain elusive. Herein, the contribution of the environment to behavior and neurogenesis of pigeons was investigated. Adult pigeons (Columba livia, n = 6/group), housed in standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) for 42 days, were exposed to an unfamiliar environment (UE) followed by presentation to a novel object (NO). Video recordings of UE+NO tests were analyzed and scored for latency, duration and frequency of angular head movements, peeping, grooming, immobility and locomotion. Twenty-four hours later, pigeons were submitted to the tonic immobility test (TI) and number of trials for TI and TI duration were scored, followed by euthanasia 2 h later. Brains were immunohistochemically processed to reveal doublecortin (DCX), a marker for newborn neurons. Compared to those housed in SE, the pigeons housed in EE responded to a NO with more immobility. In addition, the pigeons housed in EE presented longer TI, more DCX-immunoreactive (DCX-ir) cells in the hippocampus and fewer DCX-ir cells in the lateral striatum than those housed in SE. There was no correlation between the number of DCX-ir cells and the scores of immobility in behavioral tests. Together, these data suggest that enrichment favored behavioral inhibition and neurogenesis in the adult pigeons through different, parallel mechanisms.
Nicholas Kevin R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Both male and female pigeons have the ability to produce a nutrient solution in their crop for the nourishment of their young. The production of the nutrient solution has been likened to lactation in mammals, and hence the product has been called pigeon 'milk'. It has been shown that pigeon 'milk' is essential for growth and development of the pigeon squab, and without it they fail to thrive. Studies have investigated the nutritional value of pigeon 'milk' but very little else is known about what it is or how it is produced. This study aimed to gain insight into the process by studying gene expression in the 'lactating' crop. Results Macroscopic comparison of 'lactating' and non-'lactating' crop reveals that the 'lactating' crop is enlarged and thickened with two very obvious lateral lobes that contain discrete rice-shaped pellets of pigeon 'milk'. This was characterised histologically by an increase in the number and depth of rete pegs extending from the basal layer of the epithelium to the lamina propria, and extensive proliferation and folding of the germinal layer into the superficial epithelium. A global gene expression profile comparison between 'lactating' crop and non-'lactating' crop showed that 542 genes are up-regulated in the 'lactating' crop, and 639 genes are down-regulated. Pathway analysis revealed that genes up-regulated in 'lactating' crop were involved in the proliferation of melanocytes, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, the adherens junction and the wingless (wnt signalling pathway. Gene ontology analysis showed that antioxidant response and microtubule transport were enriched in 'lactating' crop. Conclusions There is a hyperplastic response in the pigeon crop epithelium during 'lactation' that leads to localised cellular stress and expression of antioxidant protein-encoding genes. The differentiated, cornified cells that form the pigeon 'milk' are of keratinocyte lineage and contain
Full Text Available Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I, a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor (PRR, can sense various RNA viruses, including the avian influenza virus (AIV and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV, and trigger the innate immune response. Previous studies have shown that mammalian RIG-I (human and mice and waterfowl RIG-I (ducks and geese are essential for type I interferon (IFN synthesis during AIV infection. Like ducks, pigeons are also susceptible to infection but are ineffective propagators and disseminators of AIVs, i.e., “dead end” hosts for AIVs and even highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI. Consequently, we sought to identify pigeon RIG-I and investigate its roles in the detection of A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 (H9N2 (ZB07, Gansu/Tianshui (IBDV TS and Beijing/CJ/1980 (IBDV CJ-801 strains in chicken DF-1 fibroblasts or human 293T cells. Pigeon mRNA encoding the putative pigeon RIG-I analogs was identified. The exogenous expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP-tagged pigeon RIG-I and caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs, strongly induced antiviral gene (IFN-β, Mx, and PKR mRNA synthesis, decreased viral gene (M gene and VP2 mRNA expression, and reduced the viral titers of ZB07 and IBDV TS/CJ-801 virus strains in chicken DF-1 cells, but not in 293T cells. We also compared the antiviral abilities of RIG-I proteins from waterfowl (duck and goose and pigeon. Our data indicated that waterfowl RIG-I are more effective in the induction of antiviral genes and the repression of ZB07 and IBDV TS/CJ-801 strain replication than pigeon RIG-I. Furthermore, chicken melanoma differentiation associated gene 5(MDA5/ mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS silencing combined with RIG-I transfection suggested that pigeon RIG-I can restore the antiviral response in MDA5-silenced DF-1 cells but not in MAVS-silenced DF-1 cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that pigeon RIG-I and CARDs have a strong antiviral
Mabuchi, Yuko; Frankel, Theresa L
Racing pigeons are exposed to and act as carriers of diseases. Dietary protein requirement for their maintenance has not been determined experimentally despite their being domesticated for over 7000 years. A maintenance nitrogen (protein) requirement (MNR) for pigeons was determined in a balance study using diets containing 6, 10 and 14% crude protein (CP). Then, the effects of feeding the diets were investigated to determine whether they were adequate to sustain innate and acquired immune functions. Nitrogen intake from the 6% CP diet was sufficient to maintain nitrogen balance and body weight in pigeons. However, the immune functions of phagocytosis, oxidative burst and lymphocyte proliferation in pigeons fed this diet were reduced compared with those fed 10 and 14% CP diets. Pigeons given the 6 and 10% CP diets had lower antibody titres following inoculation against Newcastle disease (ND) than those on the 14% CP diet. A confounding factor found on autopsy was the presence of intestinal parasites in some of the pigeons given the 6 and 10% CP diets; however, none of the pigeons used to measure MNR or acquired immunity to ND were infested with parasites. In conclusion, neither the 6 nor 10% CP diets adequately sustained acquired immune function of pigeons.
Yousef, S; Mamdouh, R
Seroprevalence of Salmonella spp. was investigated in pigeon and its surrounding environment of Sharkia province, Egypt. Samples were randomly collected from fifty freshly dead squabs, forty freshly dead adults pigeons, sixty diseased adult pigeons and 100 apparently healthy adult pigeons. Bacterial isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 17 different antimicrobial discs, by using the disc diffusion method. The bacterial isolates were tested for Class I and β-lactamase encoding genes by using PCR. In vitro sensitivity of all Salmonella isolates were completely resistant to Streptomycin, Amoxicillin, clavulanic acid, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin and Ceftazidime (100%). Class1 integron were characterized in 70% Salmonella isolates from squabs, 42.9 % in adult pigeons and 14.3% in pigeon environment which confer their resistance to streptomycin and ampicillin. Meanwhile TEM-1 β-lactamase was characterized in 20% of tested Salmonella isolates from squabs including S. Entertidis, 42.9% of tested Salmonella isolates from adult pigeons including S. Entertidis which confer their resistance to cephalosporin and not detected in all isolates from pigeons environments. In conclusion TEM-1 β-lactamase was characterized in 20% of Salmonella isolates from squabs while Class1 integron was characterized in 70% Salmonella isolates from squabs.
Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Levenson, Richard M.; Navarro, Victor; Wasserman, Edward A.
Assessment of medical image quality and how changes in image appearance impact performance are critical but assessment can be expensive and time-consuming. Could an animal (pigeon) observer with well-known visual skills and documented ability to distinguish complex visual stimuli serve as a surrogate for the human observer? Using sets of whole slide pathology (WSI) and mammographic images we trained pigeons (cohorts of 4) to detect and/or classify lesions in medical images. Standard training methods were used. A chamber equipped with a 15' display with a resistive touchscreen was used to display the images and record responses (pecks). Pigeon pellets were dispensed for correct responses. The pigeons readily learned to distinguish benign from malignant breast cancer histopathology in WSI (mean % correct responses rose 50% to 85% over 15 days) and generalized readily from 4X to 10X and 20X magnifications; to detect microcalcifications (mean % correct responses rose 50% to over 85% over 25 days); to distinguish benign from malignant breast masses (3 of 4 birds learned this task to around 80% and 60% over 10 days); and ignore compression artifacts in WSI (performance with uncompressed slides averaged 95% correct; 15:1 and 27:1 compression slides averaged 92% and 90% correct). Pigeons models may help us better understand medical image perception and may be useful in quality assessment by serving as surrogate observers for certain types of studies.
Atul R. Dange
Full Text Available Pigeon pea or tur (Cajanus cajan L. Mills. is one of the important pulse crops of India and ranks second to chickpea in area and production. Traditionally the harvesting of pigeon pea is done manually by sickle, which demands considerable amount of labour, drudgery, time and cost to harvest, which reflects on total production cost of the crop. In view of this a tractor operated front mounted pigeon pea stem cutter was developed and being front mounted implement it facilitated better visibility and control to operator. The power was transmitted from pto to gear box. Arrangement of hydraulic cylinder and hydraulic motor was provided on the equipment to facilitate the height of cut and to rotate the conveyer belt. During comparative performance evaluation of developed equipment, the average cutting efficiency and field capacity was found 96.30 % and 0.176 ha/hr respectively. There was increase in fuel consumption and plant damage with increase in speed of operation. The average operation cost of newly developed tractor operated front mounted pigeon pea stem cutter was 64.71% less as compared with manual harvesting of pigeon pea crop. The time saved was almost 1/3rd to that of manual harvesting.
Cibois, Alice; Thibault, Jean-Claude; Bonillo, Céline; Filardi, Christopher E; Pasquet, Eric
We reconstruct the phylogeny of imperial pigeons (genus Ducula) using mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data. We evaluate the most likely biogeographic scenario for the evolution of this group that colonized many islands of the Pacific Ocean. The divergence time analysis suggests that the basal divergences within Ducula occurred more recently than in the fruit doves (genus Ptilinopus), a group that is also well diversified in Oceania. The imperial pigeons colonized the Melanesian region several times independently, and the diversification within this region led to several species in sympatry, in particular in the Bismarck archipelago. Central Polynesia was also colonized several times, first by a lineage during the Miocene that led to the large D. latrans, sister to the New Caledonian endemic D. goliath, then more recently by the widespread D. pacifica, during the Pleistocene. The phylogenetic pattern obtained with the extant Ducula species showed that the Eastern Polynesian endemics do not form a monophyletic group, with the Pacific Imperial Pigeon D. pacifica sister species with good support to the Polynesian Imperial Pigeon D. aurorae. However, the impact of recent anthropic extinctions has been important for the imperial pigeons, more than for the smaller fruit doves, suggesting that several Ducula lineages might be missing today. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koompapong, Khuanchai; Mori, Hirotake; Thammasonthijarern, Nipa; Prasertbun, Rapeepun; Pintong, Ai-rada; Popruk, Supaluk; Rojekittikhun, Wichit; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Sukthana, Yaowalark; Mahittikorn, Aongart
Zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp., particularly C. meleagridis, C. canis, and C. felis, are enteric protozoa responsible for major public health concerns around the world. To determine the spread of this parasite in Thailand, we conducted molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. from animal samples around the country, by collecting and investigating the feces of seagulls (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus and Chroicocephalus ridibundus), domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica), dogs, and cats. Seagull and pigeon samples were collected at the seaside and on the riverside to evaluate their potential for waterborne transmission. Ten pigeon samples were combined into one set, and a total of seven sets were collected. Seventy seagull samples were combined into one set, and a total of 13 sets were collected. In addition, 111 dog samples were collected from cattle farms, and 95 dog and 80 cat samples were collected from a temple. We identified C. meleagridis in pigeons, Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls, C. canis in dogs, and C. felis in cats. In the temple, the prevalence was 2.1% (2/95) for dogs and 2.5% (2/80) for cats. No Cryptosporidium was found in dog samples from cattle farms. These are the first findings of C. meleagridis in domestic pigeons, and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls. Our study invites further molecular epidemiological investigations of Cryptosporidium in these animals and their environment to evaluate the public health risk in Thailand.
Full Text Available Birds can rely on a variety of cues for orientation during migration and homing. Celestial rotation provides the key information for the development of a functioning star and/or sun compass. This celestial compass seems to be the primary reference for calibrating the other orientation systems including the magnetic compass. Thus, detection of the celestial rotational axis is crucial for bird orientation. Here, we use operant conditioning to demonstrate that homing pigeons can principally learn to detect a rotational centre in a rotating dot pattern and we examine their behavioural response strategies in a series of experiments. Initially, most pigeons applied a strategy based on local stimulus information such as movement characteristics of single dots. One pigeon seemed to immediately ignore eccentric stationary dots. After special training, all pigeons could shift their attention to more global cues, which implies that pigeons can learn the concept of a rotational axis. In our experiments, the ability to precisely locate the rotational centre was strongly dependent on the rotational velocity of the dot pattern and it crashed at velocities that were still much faster than natural celestial rotation. We therefore suggest that the axis of the very slow, natural, celestial rotation could be perceived by birds through the movement itself, but that a time-delayed pattern comparison should also be considered as a very likely alternative strategy.
Gagliardo, Anna; Filannino, Caterina; Ioalè, Paolo; Pecchia, Tommaso; Wikelski, Martin; Vallortigara, Giorgio
A large body of evidence has shown that pigeons rely on an olfactory-based navigational map when homing from unfamiliar locations. Previous studies on pigeons released with one nostril occluded highlighted an asymmetry in favour of the right nostril, particularly concerning the initial orientation performance of naïve birds. Nevertheless, all pigeons experiencing only unilateral olfactory input showed impaired homing, regardless of the side of the occluded nostril. So far this phenomenon has been documented only by observing the birds' vanishing bearings. In the present work we recorded the flight tracks of pigeons with previous homing experience equipped with a GPS data logger and released from an unfamiliar location with the right or the left nostril occluded. The analysis of the tracks revealed that the flight path of the birds with the right nostril occluded was more tortuous than that of unmanipulated controls. Moreover, the pigeons smelling with the left nostril interrupted their journey significantly more frequently and displayed more exploratory activity than the control birds, e.g. during flights around a stopover site. These data suggest a more important involvement of the right olfactory system in processing the olfactory information needed for the operation of the navigational map.
Alert, Bianca; Michalik, Andreas; Helduser, Sascha; Mouritsen, Henrik; Güntürkün, Onur
Birds can rely on a variety of cues for orientation during migration and homing. Celestial rotation provides the key information for the development of a functioning star and/or sun compass. This celestial compass seems to be the primary reference for calibrating the other orientation systems including the magnetic compass. Thus, detection of the celestial rotational axis is crucial for bird orientation. Here, we use operant conditioning to demonstrate that homing pigeons can principally learn to detect a rotational centre in a rotating dot pattern and we examine their behavioural response strategies in a series of experiments. Initially, most pigeons applied a strategy based on local stimulus information such as movement characteristics of single dots. One pigeon seemed to immediately ignore eccentric stationary dots. After special training, all pigeons could shift their attention to more global cues, which implies that pigeons can learn the concept of a rotational axis. In our experiments, the ability to precisely locate the rotational centre was strongly dependent on the rotational velocity of the dot pattern and it crashed at velocities that were still much faster than natural celestial rotation. We therefore suggest that the axis of the very slow, natural, celestial rotation could be perceived by birds through the movement itself, but that a time-delayed pattern comparison should also be considered as a very likely alternative strategy.
Yamamoto, Eriko; Goto, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Shigeru
Biological motion point-light displays provide a powerful method for studying motion perception. Nonhuman animals are capable of discriminating point-light displays, but it remains unknown how they perceive biological motion in these displays. We trained two groups of pigeons to discriminate video stimuli using two different classification rules. The motion-congruent group was trained to discriminate full-detail and corresponding point-light displays of pigeons from full-detail and point-light displays of humans. The motion-incongruent group was trained to discriminate full-detail pigeons and point-light humans from the other displays. Both groups acquired the discrimination. When tested with novel displays, pigeons showed good transfer of learning. Transfer was poorest with the point-light displays in the motion-congruent group. The results indicate that the pigeons failed to make the connection between the full-detail displays and their point-light counterparts even when the common motion was available as a cue.
Dong, X Y; Zhang, M; Jia, Y X; Zou, X T
The present study examined the changes in serum biochemical values, hormone profiles and ovary prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene expression occurring in female domestic pigeons (Columba livia) under different breeding status and experience. The egg-laying pigeons had lower calcium, total protein, albumin, prolactin levels and higher oestrogen levels than those of incubating birds (p < 0.05). First-time breeders had higher (p < 0.05) progesterone levels and lower (p < 0.05) prolactin levels than that of experienced ones. The levels of oestrogen and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) increased with age (p < 0.05). The very old birds showed a pronounced increase (p < 0.05) in PRL, FSH and progesterone and a little decrease in oestrogen. Serum prolactin level was not correlated with the ovary PRLR mRNA expression pattern among all the pigeons. Results showed that serum physiological profile of female pigeons was correlated with breeding status, whereas reproductive hormone levels were correlated with advancing breeding experience. It was concluded that female pigeons had a good ability of recovering from nutrient loss after each breeding attempts, and the degradation of reproductive performance might be attributed to changes in the endocrine system.
Lefeldt, Nele; Heyers, Dominik; Schneider, Nils-Lasse; Engels, Svenja; Elbers, Dana; Mouritsen, Henrik
Magnetoreception remains one of the few unsolved mysteries in sensory biology. The upper beak, which is innervated by the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1), has been suggested to contain magnetic sensors based on ferromagnetic structures. Recently, its existence in pigeons has been seriously challenged by studies suggesting that the previously described iron-accumulations are macrophages, not magnetosensitive nerve endings. This raised the fundamental question of whether V1 is involved in magnetoreception in pigeons at all. We exposed pigeons to either a constantly changing magnetic field (CMF), to a zero magnetic field providing no magnetic information, or to CMF conditions after V1 was cut bilaterally. Using immediate early genes as a marker of neuronal responsiveness, we report that the trigeminal brainstem nuclei of pigeons, which receive V1 input, are activated under CMF conditions and that this neuronal activation disappears if the magnetic stimuli are removed or if V1 is cut. Our data suggest that the trigeminal system in pigeons is involved in processing magnetic field information and that V1 transmits this information from currently unknown, V1-associated magnetosensors to the brain.
Full Text Available Zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp., particularly C. meleagridis, C. canis, and C. felis, are enteric protozoa responsible for major public health concerns around the world. To determine the spread of this parasite in Thailand, we conducted molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. from animal samples around the country, by collecting and investigating the feces of seagulls (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus and Chroicocephalus ridibundus, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica, dogs, and cats. Seagull and pigeon samples were collected at the seaside and on the riverside to evaluate their potential for waterborne transmission. Ten pigeon samples were combined into one set, and a total of seven sets were collected. Seventy seagull samples were combined into one set, and a total of 13 sets were collected. In addition, 111 dog samples were collected from cattle farms, and 95 dog and 80 cat samples were collected from a temple. We identified C. meleagridis in pigeons, Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls, C. canis in dogs, and C. felis in cats. In the temple, the prevalence was 2.1% (2/95 for dogs and 2.5% (2/80 for cats. No Cryptosporidium was found in dog samples from cattle farms. These are the first findings of C. meleagridis in domestic pigeons, and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls. Our study invites further molecular epidemiological investigations of Cryptosporidium in these animals and their environment to evaluate the public health risk in Thailand.
Si, Xiaohong; Zakir, Mridha Md; Dickman, J. David
Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was used to retrogradely label afferents innervating the utricular macula in adult pigeons. The pigeon utriclar macula consists of a large rectangular-shaped neuroepithelium with a dorsally curved anterior edge and an extended medioposterior tail. The macula could be demarcated into several regions based on cytoarchitectural differences. The striola occupied 30% of the macula and contained a large density of type I hair cells with fewer type II hair cells. Medial and lateral extrastriola zones were located outside the striola and contained only type II hair cells. A six- to eight-cell-wide band of type II hair cells existed near the center of the striola. The reversal line marked by the morphological polarization of hair cells coursed throughout the epithelium, near the peripheral margin, and through the center of the type II band. Calyx afferents innervated type I hair cells with calyceal terminals that contained between 2 and 15 receptor cells. Calyx afferents were located only in the striola region, exclusive of the type II band, had small total fiber innervation areas and low innervation densities. Dimorph afferents innervated both type I and type II hair cells with calyceal and bouton terminals and were primarily located in the striola region. Dimorph afferents had smaller calyceal terminals with few type I hair cells, extended fiber branches with bouton terminals and larger innervation areas. Bouton afferents innervated only type II hair cells in the extrastriola and type II band regions. Bouton afferents innervating the type II band had smaller terminal fields with fewer bouton terminals and smaller innervation areas than fibers located in the extrastriolar zones. Bouton afferents had the most bouton terminals on the longest fibers, the largest innervation areas with the highest innervation densities of all afferents. Among all afferents, smaller terminal innervation fields were observed in the striola and large fields were
Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Zebisch, Ralph; Schmidt, Volker
Coccidia are common pathogenic parasites in pigeons (Columba livia). Coccidiosis is most commonly seen in young pigeons and only rarely in adult birds. Infections in domestic pigeons are typically mixed and commonly include Eimeria columbarum and Eimeria labbeana. The reported prevalence of infection is 5.1%-71.9%, and worldwide mortality in juvenile pigeons varies from 5% to 70%, with most deaths occurring in the third and fourth month of life. This article summarizes the life cycle of E. columbarum and E. labbeana, the route of transmission, and the common clinical and pathologic signs of coccidiosis. Chemotherapeutic options discussed include amprolium, sulfonamides, clazuril, and toltrazuril. Reasons to use toltrazuril include the growing resistance against other drugs, such as sulfonamides and amprolium, the extended effectiveness compared with other substances, for example, clazuril, and the ability of pigeons to develop immunity during treatment.
Güntürkün, Onur; Verhoye, Marleen; De Groof, Geert; Van der Linden, Annemie
Pigeons are classic animal models for learning, memory, and cognition. The majority of the current understanding about avian neurobiology outside of the domain of the song system has been established using pigeons. Since MRI represents an increasingly relevant tool for comparative neuroscience, a 3-dimensional MRI-based atlas of the pigeon brain becomes essential. Using multiple imaging protocols, we delineated diverse ascending sensory and descending motor systems as well as the hippocampal formation. This pigeon brain atlas can easily be used to determine the stereotactic location of identified neural structures at any angle of the head. In addition, the atlas is useful to find the optimal angle of sectioning for slice experiments, stereotactic injections and electrophysiological recordings. This pigeon brain atlas is freely available for the scientific community.
Leising, Kenneth J; Wong, Jared; Blaisdell, Aaron P
We investigated extinction and spontaneous recovery of spatial associations using a landmark-based appetitive search task in a touchscreen preparation with pigeons. Four visual landmarks (A, B, C, and D) were separately established as signals of a hidden reinforced target among an 8 × 7 array of potential target locations. The target was located above landmarks (LM) A and C and below B and D. After conditioning, A and B were extinguished. Responding to A and C was assessed on probe tests 2 days following extinction, whereas, B and D were tested 14 days after extinction. We observed spontaneous recovery from spatial extinction following a 14-day, but not a 2-day, postextinction retention interval. Furthermore, by plotting the spatial distribution of responding across the X and Y axes during testing, we found that spontaneous recovery of responding to the target in our task was due to enhanced spatial control (i.e., a change in the overall distribution of responses) following the long delay to testing. These results add spatial extinction and spontaneous recovery to the list of findings supporting the assertion that extinction involves new learning that attenuates the originally acquired response, and that original learning of the spatial relationship between paired events survives extinction. (PsycINFO Database Record
Herbranson, Walter T; Trinh, Yvan T; Xi, Patricia M; Arand, Mark P; Barker, Michael S K; Pratt, Theodore H
Change blindness is a phenomenon in which even obvious details in a visual scene change without being noticed. Although change blindness has been studied extensively in humans, we do not yet know if it is a phenomenon that also occurs in other animals. Thus, investigation of change blindness in a nonhuman species may prove to be valuable by beginning to provide some insight into its ultimate causes. Pigeons learned a change detection task in which pecks to the location of a change in a sequence of stimulus displays were reinforced. They were worse at detecting changes if the stimulus displays were separated by a brief interstimulus interval, during which the display was blank, and this primary result matches the general pattern seen in previous studies of change blindness in humans. A second experiment attempted to identify specific stimulus characteristics that most reliably produced a failure to detect changes. Change detection was more difficult when interstimulus intervals were longer and when the change was iterated fewer times.
Cavoto, Brian R; Cook, Robert G
The contributions of different monocular depth cues to performance of a scene perception task were investigated in 4 pigeons. They discriminated the sequential depth ordering of three geometric objects in computer-rendered scenes. The orderings of these objects were specified by the combined presence or absence of the pictorial cues of relative density, occlusion, and relative size. In Phase 1, the pigeons learned the task as a direct function of the number of cues present. The three monocular cues contributed equally to the discrimination. Phase 2 established that differential shading on the objects provided an additional discriminative cue. These results suggest that the pigeon visual system is sensitive to many of the same monocular depth cues that are known to be used by humans. The theoretical implications for a comparative psychology of picture processing are considered.
Lea, Stephen E G; De Filippo, Guido; Dakin, Ruth; Meier, Christina
Pigeons were trained to discriminate photographs of cat faces from dog faces. They were then presented with test stimuli involving high- and low-pass spatial frequency filtering. Discrimination was maintained with both types of filtered stimuli, though it was increasingly impaired the more information was filtered out, and high-pass filtering impaired discrimination more than low-pass filtering. The pigeons were then exposed to hybrid stimuli in which high-pass filtered dog faces were combined with low-pass filtered cat faces, and vice versa. Response to hybrid stimuli was determined more by the low spatial frequency content than by the high-frequency content, whereas humans viewing the same stimuli at corresponding viewing distance respond more strongly to the high-frequency content. These results are unexpected given that, compared with humans, pigeons' behavior tends to be controlled by the local details of visual stimuli rather than their global appearance.
Yang, Junqing; Huai, Ruituo; Wang, Hui; Lv, Changzhi; Su, Xuecheng
In this paper, we describe a new multi-mode telestimulation system for brain-microstimulation for the navigation of a robo-pigeon, a new type of bio-robot based on Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) techniques. The multi-mode telestimulation system overcomes neuron adaptation that was a key shortcoming of the previous single-mode stimulation by the use of non-steady TTL biphasic pulses accomplished by randomly alternating pulse modes. To improve efficiency, a new behavior model ("virtual fear") is proposed and applied to the robo-pigeon. Unlike the previous "virtual reward" model, the "virtual fear" behavior model does not require special training. The performance and effectiveness of the system to alleviate the adaptation of neurons was verified by a robo-pigeon navigation test, simultaneously confirming the practicality of the "virtual fear" behavioral model.
Coppola, Vincent J; Flaim, Mary E; Carney, Samantha N; Bingman, Verner P
Age-related memory decline in mammals has been well documented. By contrast, very little is known about memory decline in birds as they age. In the current study we trained younger and older homing pigeons on a reference memory task in which a goal location could be encoded by spatial and feature cues. Consistent with a previous working memory study, the results revealed impaired acquisition of combined spatial-feature reference memory in older compared to younger pigeons. Following memory acquisition, we used cue-conflict probe trials to provide an initial assessment of possible age-related differences in cue preference. Both younger and older pigeons displayed a similarly modest preference for feature over spatial cues.
Li, Chun-Hong; Liu, Fang; Wang, Li
Abstract In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of feral rock pigeon for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,239 bp with the base composition of 30.3% for A, 24.0% for T, 31.9% for C, and 13.8% for G and an A-T (54.3 %)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of feral rock pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.
Full Text Available Three out of 10 Nicobar pigeons (Caloenas nicobaria in an aviary collection in South Africa were found dead with no presenting clinical symptoms. Histological examination of formalin-fixed tissues from all these birds revealed necrotic foci in various visceral organs (liver, spleen, heart, kidney and lungs, plus diffuse pulmonary congestion and oedema with vasculitis. Numerous protozoal tachyzoites were present in all organs and there was strong positive immunohistochemical (IHC labelling of these organisms for Toxoplasma gondii. Pathology was consistent with acute systemic toxoplasmosis as a consequence of oocyst ingestion. Feral cats were known to be a problem at the facility. Clinical toxoplasmosis is rarely reported in pigeons and this is believed to be the 1st report of toxoplasmosis in Nicobar pigeons.
Pisklak, Jeffrey M; McDevitt, Margaret A; Dunn, Roger M; Spetch, Marcia L
Pigeons chose between an (optimal) alternative that sometimes provided food after a 10-s delay and other times after a 40-s delay and another (suboptimal) alternative that sometimes provided food after 10 s but other times no food after 40 s. When outcomes were not signaled during the delays, pigeons strongly preferred the optimal alternative. When outcomes were signaled, choices of the suboptimal alternative increased and most pigeons preferred the alternative that provided no food after the long delay despite the cost in terms of obtained food. The pattern of results was similar whether the short delays occurred on 25% or 50% of the trials. Shortening the 40-s delay to food sharply reduced suboptimal choices, but shortening the delay to no food had little effect. The results suggest that a signaled delay to no food does not punish responding in probabilistic choice procedures. The findings are discussed in terms of conditioned reinforcement by signals for good news.
Carvalho, Mariana Bastos
Doutoramento em Biologia - Instituto Superior de Agronomia On the island of São Tomé, four endemic species of fruit pigeons are hunted as food and/or as an economic resource. This thesis intended to collect and analyze the baseline data required for the management of pigeons, which take into account their importance as a resource but also their overall conservation value. For this, I used a combination of biological and social sampling methods. The results show that harvest of endemic pige...
Sneideris, Larissa C; Gavassi, Marina A; Campos, Marcelo L; D'Amico-Damião, Victor; Carvalho, Rogério F
In this work we investigated whether priming with auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and ethylene, alters the physiological responses of seeds of pigeon pea germinated under water and cadmium stress. Seeds treated with water or non-treated seeds were used as control. Although compared to non-treated seeds we found that the hormone treatments improve the germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress, however, these treatments did not differ from water. However, we also observed a trend of tolerance to the effects of cadmium in the presence of ethylene, suggesting that the use of this hormone may be an efficient method to overcome seed germination under metal stress.
Full Text Available Effects of stimulation of the vagus and sympathetic nerves on bile duct peristalses were studied in pigeons anesthetized with urethane. Vagus stimulation increased the frequency of peristalses. Atropine, hexamethonium and tetrodotoxin abolished this excitatory effect. After atropine, inhibition of peristalses sensitive to tetrodotoxin was produced. Stimulation of sympathetic area in the spinal cord inhibited peristalses. Propranolol converted this effect into an excitatory one, which was abolished by phentolamine. The results suggest that vagal and sympathetic innervations of the bile duct in pigeons are similar to those of the sphincter of Oddi in mammalian species.
Wada, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Watanabe, S.
It gets into difficult to explain the mechanism of caloric nystagmus only by convection theory from results of microgravity experiments. One of the other theories is an occurrence of a relative volume change due to a temperature change. Since the volume change must lead to a pressure change after caloric stimulation, we tried to measure the ampulla pressure of the horizontal semicircular canal in pigeons (Columba livia) using an improved servo micropipette system. The main result was that the ampulla pressure increased by cooling and decreased by heating. The changes of the ampulla pressure depended on the temperature change but were not influenced by the pigeon's head position.
LARISSA C. SNEIDERIS
Full Text Available In this work we investigated whether priming with auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and ethylene, alters the physiological responses of seeds of pigeon pea germinated under water and cadmium stress. Seeds treated with water or non-treated seeds were used as control. Although compared to non-treated seeds we found that the hormone treatments improve the germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress, however, these treatments did not differ from water. However, we also observed a trend of tolerance to the effects of cadmium in the presence of ethylene, suggesting that the use of this hormone may be an efficient method to overcome seed germination under metal stress.
Kim, L. Mia; King, Daniel J.; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B.; da Rosa, Amelia P. A. Travassos; Bueno, Rudy; Dennett, James A.; Afonso, Claudio L.
As part of West Nile virus surveillance programs in Rhode Island and eastern Texas between 2000 and 2007, brain tissue was collected from 5,608 dead birds representing 21 avian orders found in public places or reported by homeowners. Fifteen Newcastle disease virus isolates were recovered only from birds of the order Columbiformes and were positively identified by the USDA-validated real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay targeting the matrix gene and more specifically as pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) by hemagglutinin inhibition with monoclonal antibodies. Based upon partial genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, the newly isolated viruses represent a distinct sublineage within class II genotype VIb. All of the viruses (15/15) were classified as virulent based upon their fusion cleavage site motif (112RRKKRF117) and intracerebral pathogenicity indices of >0.7 (ranging from 0.98 to1.35); however, these viruses escaped detection by the fusion gene-based real-time PCR test for virulence. Modifications introduced to the probe site of the fusion gene-based assay allowed rapid virulence detection within this distinct sublineage. PMID:18716227
Full Text Available Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained using B. subtilis 14715 fermentation for 32 hours. In addition, the levels of antioxidants (phenolics and flavonoids and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were increased in B. subtilis 14715-fermented pigeon pea, compared with those in nonfermented pigeon pea. In an animal model, we found that both water extracts of pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight and water extracts of B. subtilis-fermented pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight significantly improved systolic blood pressure (21 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (30 mmHg in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These results suggest that Bacillus-fermented pigeon pea has benefits for cardiovascular health and can be developed as a new dietary supplement or functional food that prevents hypertension.
Lee, Bao-Hong; Lai, Yi-Syuan; Wu, She-Ching
Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained using B. subtilis 14715 fermentation for 32 hours. In addition, the levels of antioxidants (phenolics and flavonoids) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were increased in B. subtilis 14715-fermented pigeon pea, compared with those in nonfermented pigeon pea. In an animal model, we found that both water extracts of pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight) and water extracts of B. subtilis-fermented pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight) significantly improved systolic blood pressure (21 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (30 mmHg) in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These results suggest that Bacillus-fermented pigeon pea has benefits for cardiovascular health and can be developed as a new dietary supplement or functional food that prevents hypertension. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Dolz, G; Solórzano-Morales, Á; Angelova, L; Tien, C; Fonseca, L; Bonilla, M C
Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes), the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia) cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales) in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons.
Full Text Available Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae and pigeons (Columbiformes, the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons.
Hafidh I. Al- Sadi and Aws Z. Hamodi
Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of trichomoniasis and its pathology in pigeons. A total of 100 free living urban pigeons were collected during the months August and September 2007. The overall prevalence was 16%. In infected pigeons, yellowish – white masses of caseous necrotic material were seen grossly in the oral cavity, esophagus, crop, and proventiculus. Pale to yellow necrotic areas were noted in the liver. Multiple foci of caseous necrosis were seen microscopically in the oral mucosa together with heavy infiltration of inflammatory cells (mainly heterophils. Foci of necrotic inflammation were seen in the liver and there was thickening of the lining mucosa of the esophagus due to extensive infiltration of heterophils. Collections of necrotic material were seen in the mucosa and submucosa of the esophagus. Infection occurred more frequently in young than in adult pigeons. A higher prevalence of the infection was noted in male than in female pigeons. In all of the infected pigeons, trichomoniasis occured in the absence of apparent secondary disease. It was concluded that trichomonad infection is fairly common in free living urban pigeons in the city of Mosul, Iraq. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 12-14
Pietras, Cynthia J; Hackenberg, Timothy D
Two experiments were conducted to investigate punishment via response-contingent removal of conditioned token reinforcers (response cost) with pigeons. In Experiment 1, key pecking was maintained on a two-component multiple second-order schedule of token delivery, with light emitting diodes (LEDs) serving as token reinforcers. In both components, responding produced tokens according to a random-interval 20-s schedule and exchange periods according to a variable-ratio schedule. During exchange periods, each token was exchangeable for 2.5-s access to grain. In one component, responses were conjointly punished according to fixed-ratio schedules of token removal. Response rates in this punishment component decreased to low levels while response rates in the alternate (no-punishment) component were unaffected. Responding was eliminated when it produced neither tokens nor exchange periods (Extinction), but was maintained at moderate levels when it produced tokens in the signaled absence of food reinforcement, suggesting that tokens served as effective conditioned reinforcers. In Experiment 2, the effect of the response-cost punishment contingency was separated from changes in the density of food reinforcement. This was accomplished by yoking either the number of food deliveries per component (Yoked Food) or the temporal placement of all stimulus events (tokens, exchanges, food deliveries) (Yoked Complete), from the punishment to the no-punishment component. Response rates decreased in both components, but decreased more rapidly and were generally maintained at lower levels in the punishment component than in the yoked component. In showing that the response-cost contingency had a suppressive effect on responding in addition to that produced by reductions in reinforcement density, the present results suggest that response-cost punishment shares important features with other forms of punishment.
Cano-Terriza, David; Guerra, Rafael; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Cabezón, Oscar; Almería, Sonia; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio
A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of pathogenic zoonotic agents (flaviviruses, avian influenza viruses (AIVs), Salmonella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii) in feral pigeons and sympatric zoo animals from Córdoba (Southern Spain) between 2013 and 2014. Antibodies against flaviviruses were detected in 7.8% out of 142 (CI95%: 3.7-11.8) pigeons, and 8.2% of 49 (CI95%: 0.9-15.4) of zoo animals tested. Antibodies with specificity against West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) were confirmed both in pigeons and in zoo birds. Even though seropositivity to AIVs was not detected in any of the analyzed pigeons, 17.9% of 28 (CI95%: 3.7-32.0) zoo birds tested showed positive results. Salmonella spp. was not isolated in any of 152 fecal samples collected from pigeons, while 6.8% of 44 zoo animals were positive. Antibodies against T. gondii were found in 9.2% of 142 (CI95%: 4.8-13.6) feral pigeons and 26.9% of 108 (CI95%: 19.6-34.1) zoo animals. This is the first study on flaviviruses and T. gondii in feral pigeons and captive zoo species in Spain. Antibodies against WNV and USUV detected in non-migratory pigeons and captive zoo animals indicate local circulation of these emerging pathogens in the study area. T. gondii was widespread in species analyzed. This finding could be of importance for Public Health and Conservation of endangered species present in zoo parks. Pigeons and zoo animals may be included as sentinel species for monitoring zoonotic pathogens in urban areas.
Isidoro-Ayza, Marcos; Lankton, Julia S.; Knowles, Susan N.; Ip, Hon S.; White, C. LeAnn
We reviewed pathological findings and to a lesser extent epidemiological data from 70 free-ranging columbiforms naturally infected with Pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (PPMV-1) from 25 different PPMV-1 mortality events in columbiforms in the USA. In a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks, we carried out immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1 nucleoprotein to determine the tissue distribution of the virus.
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Chlamydophila psittaci is a lethal bacterium that causes endemic avian chlamydiosis, and respiratory psittacosis. Laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydophila psittaci is difficult by culture. This study was design to investigate the presence of Chlamydophila psittaci in collected pharyngeal swabs from asyptomatic pigeons by PCR.Materials and Methods: Pharyngeal samples from pigeons with no symptoms of disease (n=280 were collected during hot and cold seasons in different parts of Ahvaz. DNA was extracted from specimens and subjected to PCR targeting pmp genes and 16s-23s rRNA intergenic spacer of Cp. psittaci and chlamydiales specific primers.Results: Of 280 samples 2 (0.7% harbor were positive for chlamydiales (16s-23s intergenic spacer and Cp. psittaci specific genes (pmp gene.Conclusions: In this research the pigeons were asymptomatic carriers for Cp. psittaci in their respiratory discharges. These results suggest that Cp. psittaci infection of human can occur in very close and continuous contact with pigeons.
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the depth-to-transition map of the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The raster data file is included in...
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate the use of decorticated pigeon pea flour in the development of protein rich - bread, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea flour on the sensory evaluation and quality of bread produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea Flour (DPPF was incorporated with wheat flour (WF 72% Ext. to replace 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of the wheat flour for bread making. Proximate composition, falling number, gluten quality and quantity, tannins and phytic acid were determined for the flour blends (Composite flour. Bread proximate composition, sensory evaluation and specific volume were determined as well. Decortication of pigeon pea led to decrease in moisture, ash, tannins and phytic acid and increase in the protein and carbohydrates contents. The falling number (alpha amylase activity significantly increased over the control with the increasing level of DPPF. There were also significant reduction (p#0.05 on gluten quantity (wet and dry gluten and quality (gluten index. No significant differences were found in bread specific volume up to 10% addition of DPPF. The protein, ash, fat contents and calorific values for the bread were significantly increased (p#0.05 with incorporation of DPPF. Increasing levels of the replacement of DPPF resulted in a decrease in the organoleptic quality of the bread. The bread containing up to 15% DPPF was found to be the best in overall acceptability.
Meskenaite, Virginia; Krackow, Sven; Lipp, Hans-Peter
Many birds are supreme long-distance navigators that develop their navigational ability in the first months after fledgling but update the memorized environmental information needed for navigation also later in life. We studied the extent of juvenile and adult neurogenesis that could provide such age-related plasticity in brain regions known to mediate different mechanisms of pigeon homing: the olfactory bulb (OB), and the triangular area of the hippocampal formation (HP tr). Newly generated neurons (visualized by doublecortin, DCX) and mature neurons were counted stereologically in 35 pigeon brains ranging from 1 to 168 months of age. At the age of 1 month, both areas showed maximal proportions of DCX positive neurons, which rapidly declined during the first year of life. In the OB, the number of DCX-positive periglomerular neurons declined further over time, but the number of mature periglomerular cells appeared unchanged. In the hippocampus, the proportion of DCX-positive neurons showed a similar decline yet to a lesser extent. Remarkably, in the triangular area of the hippocampus, the oldest birds showed nearly twice the number of neurons as compared to young adult pigeons, suggesting that adult born neurons in these regions expanded the local circuitry even in aged birds. This increase might reflect navigational experience and, possibly, expanded spatial memory. On the other hand, the decrease of juvenile neurons in the aging OB without adding new circuitry might be related to the improved attachment to the loft characterizing adult and old pigeons. PMID:27445724
Preference and acceptability of twelve vegetable pigeon pea genotypes of medium maturity was evaluated in Eastern Kenya based on six seed cultivar parameters of color, appearance, taste, odor, tenderness and overall seed acceptability. The sensory characteristics were scored by consumers and farmers...
G.J. du Marchie Sarvaas; P.J.F.M. Merkus (Peter); J.C. de Jongste (Johan)
textabstractWe describe a family in which the mother died of unresolved lung disease and whose 5 children, some of whom had previous signs of asthma, were subsequently affected by extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by contact with wild city pigeon antigens. The children received
Muhammad A J Qadri
Full Text Available The cognitive and neural mechanisms for recognizing and categorizing behavior are not well understood in non-human animals. In the current experiments, pigeons and humans learned to categorize two non-repeating, complex human behaviors ("martial arts" vs. "Indian dance". Using multiple video exemplars of a digital human model, pigeons discriminated these behaviors in a go/no-go task and humans in a choice task. Experiment 1 found that pigeons already experienced with discriminating the locomotive actions of digital animals acquired the discrimination more rapidly when action information was available than when only pose information was available. Experiments 2 and 3 found this same dynamic superiority effect with naïve pigeons and human participants. Both species used the same combination of immediately available static pose information and more slowly perceived dynamic action cues to discriminate the behavioral categories. Theories based on generalized visual mechanisms, as opposed to embodied, species-specific action networks, offer a parsimonious account of how these different animals recognize behavior across and within species.
Zentall, Thomas R.; Stagner, Jessica P.
Pigeons show a preference for an alternative that provides them with discriminative stimuli (sometimes a stimulus that predicts reinforcement and at other times a stimulus that predicts the absence of reinforcement) over an alternative that provides them with nondiscriminative stimuli, even if the nondiscriminative stimulus alternative is…
Guillette, L M; Baron, D M; Sturdy, C B; Spetch, M L
Several studies report a correlation between exploratory behaviour and performance on tests of cognitive ability. Exploration may influence learning because less exploratory animals are less likely to come in contact with to-be-learned stimuli. Alternatively, the way information available in the environment is processed could influence the rate of exploration. Pigeons are one of the most-studied species used to examine the mechanisms underlying cognitive abilities, but have not been used to examine the relationship between these abilities and animal personality. Here, twelve pigeons were first tested in a novel environment to assess repeatability in exploratory behaviour. Pigeons were then trained to discriminate between two visual stimuli: lines oriented at 90° (vertical, the S+) and 135° (the S-). After training pigeons underwent generalization testing with ten additional visual line orientation stimuli. We found exploratory behaviour was related to generalization performance: fast-explorers had steeper generalization gradients compared to slow-explorers. This effect was only seen in the direction towards the S-. These results suggest that birds with different exploratory styles differ in how they use previously learned information. Further testing is needed to confirm which cue(s) (S+ or S-) control the behaviour of fast-explorers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mazur, James E.
Parallel experiments with rats and pigeons examined whether the size of a pre-trial ratio requirement would affect choices in a self-control situation. In different conditions, either 1 response or 40 responses were required before each trial. In the first half of each experiment, an adjusting-ratio schedule was used, in which subjects could…
Schiffner, Ingo; Siegmund, Bettina; Wiltschko, Roswitha
We analysed the tracks of clock-shifted pigeons from six releases to determine how they cope with the conflict between their sun compass and other navigational cues. Time-lag embedding was used to calculate the short-term correlation dimension, a parameter that reflects the complexity of the navigational system, and with it, the number of factors involved. Initially, while pigeons were still at the release site, the short-term correlation dimension was low; it increased as the birds left the site, indicating that the birds were now actively navigating. Clock-shifted pigeons showed more scatter than the control birds, and their short-term correlation dimension became significantly smaller than that of the controls, remaining lower until the experimental birds reached their loft. This difference was small, but consistent, and suggests a different rating and ranking of the navigational cues. Clock-shifted pigeons do not seem to simply ignore the information from their manipulated sun compass altogether, but appear to merely downgrade it in favour of other cues, like their magnetic compass. This is supported by the observation that the final part of the tracks still showed a small deviation in the expected direction, indicating an effect of clock-shifting until the end of the homing flight.
Mwale, C.D.; Kabambe, V.H.; Sakale, W.D.; Giller, K.E.; Kauwa, A.A.; Ligowe, I.; Kamalongo, D.
In the 2005/2006 season, the Model Validation Through Long-Term Promising Sustainable Maize/Pigeon Pea Residue Management experiment was in the 11th year at Chitedze and Chitala, and in the 8th year at Makoka and Zombwe. The experiment was a split-plot design with cropping system as the main plot an
Newcastle disease (ND) is a continual problem for the poultry industry with synanthropic birds representing one of the possible reservoirs of infection. Outbreaks of ND are regularly confirmed among pigeons in different regions of the Russian Federation. The spread of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) a...
Liu, Ci; Li, Ming; Cao, Ye; Qu, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Zi-Wei; Xu, Shi-Wen; Li, Shu
Avermectin (AVM) is a pesticide that can accumulate in the environment through spray-drift, runoff or field drainage. Residues of AVM or its metabolites in livestock feces have toxic effects on non-target aquatic and terrestrial organisms. In this study, changes in oxidative stress and immunity in pigeon spleen tissues were detected after subchronic exposure to AVM for 30, 60, and 90 days. In pigeon spleen, the activities of total anti-oxidation capability (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) decreased significantly, whereas the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PCO), and DNA-protein crosslink (DPC) coefficients increased. Additionally, obvious ultrastructure alterations were observed. These results indicated that AVM induced oxidative stress and damaged the normal structure of spleen cells. The exposure to AVM could lead to increases in the mRNA levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-4 (IL-4), as well as a decrease in the mRNA level of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), in a dose-time-dependent manner in pigeon spleen. The results imply that AVM induces immunosuppression in the spleen tissue of pigeons. The information presented in this study may be helpful for understanding the mechanism of AVM-induced immunotoxicity in birds.
Full Text Available Five fungal endophytes (K4, K5, K6, K9, K14 producing Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid were isolated from the roots of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.]. CSA is responsible for the prominent pharmacological activities in pigeon pea. The amount of CSA in culture solution varied among the five fungal endophytes. K4 produced the highest levels of CSA (1037.13 µg/L among the endophytes tested after incubation for five days. Both morphological characteristics and molecular methods were used for species identification of fungal endophytes. The five endophytic isolates were characterized by analyzing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS rRNA and β-tubulin genes. The K4, K5, K9 and K14 strains isolated from pigeon pea roots were found to be closely related to the species Fusarium oxysporum. K6 was identified as Neonectria macrodidym. The present study is the first report on the isolation and identification of fungal endophytes producing CSA in pigeon pea. The study also provides a scientific base for large scale production of CSA.
Lyons, Damian M; MacDonall, James S; Cunningham, Kelly M
Contact switches and touch screens are the state of the art for recording pigeons' pecking behavior. Recording other behavior, however, requires a different sensor for each behavior, and some behaviors cannot easily be recorded. We present a flexible and inexpensive image-based approach to detecting and counting pigeon behaviors that is based on the Kinect sensor from Microsoft. Although the system is as easy to set up and use as the standard approaches, it is more flexible because it can record behaviors in addition to key pecking. In this article, we show how both the fast, fine motion of key pecking and the gross body activity of feeding can be measured. Five pigeons were trained to peck at a lighted contact switch, a pigeon key, to obtain food reward. The timing of the pecks and the food reward signals were recorded in a log file using standard equipment. The Kinect-based system, called BehaviorWatch, also measured the pecking and feeding behavior and generated a different log file. For key pecking, BehaviorWatch had an average sensitivity of 95% and a precision of 91%, which were very similar to the pecking measurements from the standard equipment. For detecting feeding activity, BehaviorWatch had a sensitivity of 95% and a precision of 97%. These results allow us to demonstrate that an advantage of the Kinect-based approach is that it can also be reliably used to measure activity other than key pecking.
Kizerwetter-Świda, M; Chrobak-Chmiel, D; Rzewuska, M; Antosiewicz, A; Dolka, B; Ledwoń, A; Czujkowska, A; Binek, M
Coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS) are opportunistic veterinary pathogens, of which Staphylococcus aureus, S. delphini and S. intermedius can be isolated from pigeons. The biochemical identification of S. delphini and S. intermedius isolates may be incorrect, because of their phenotypic similarity. The purpose of the present study was to isolate and identify CoPS from domestic and feral pigeons and to determine their genetic relatedness by PFGE. A total number of 31 isolates of CoPS were obtained, 15 were identified as S. delphini group B, six as S. aureus, four as S. delphini group A, three as S. intermedius and three as S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans. The results indicate that S. delphini group B is the predominant CoPS species among pigeons studied. PFGE restriction patterns of S. delphini group A and S. delphini group B form separate clusters, demonstrating their genetic heterogeneity. Indistinguishable or very similar PFGE patterns observed among S. delphini group B isolates from domestic and feral pigeons confirm the possibility of CoPS transmission between these birds.
Terrace, H S; Chen, S; Newman, A B
Pigeons (Columba livia) learned 3-, 4- or 5-item lists prior to subset and wild card tests. On the latter, a novel item replaced 1 of the list items. Pigeons who learned 3-item lists responded accurately on all subset pairs (AB, BC, and AC) and on all types of 3-item wild card trials (WBC, AWC, & ABW). Pigeons who learned 4- and 5-item lists responded at chance levels of accuracy on all subsets that did not contain a start or an end item (BC, BD, & CD, respectively, on 4- and 5-item subset tests). On wild card trials, they exceeded chance levels of performance only when the wild card replaced the last item (ABCW & ABCDW trials). Monkeys (Cebus apella) trained to produce a 5-item list perform accurately on all subsets and wild cards. (M. R. D'Amato & M. Colombo, 1988, 1989). These differences provide strong evidence that pigeons and monkeys form qualitatively different representations of lists containing four or more items.
Purushottam R Lomate
Full Text Available Jasmonate inducible plant leucine aminopeptidase (LAP is proposed to serve as direct defense in the insect midgut. However, exact functions of inducible plant LAPs in the insect midgut remain to be estimated. In the present investigation, we report the direct defensive role of pigeon pea inducible LAP in the midgut of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and responses of midgut soluble aminopeptidases and serine proteinases upon LAP ingestion. Larval growth and survival was significantly reduced on the diets supplemented with pigeon pea LAP. Aminopeptidase activities in larvae remain unaltered in presence or absence of inducible LAP in the diet. On the contrary, serine proteinase activities were significantly decreased in the larvae reared on pigeon pea LAP containing diet as compared to larvae fed on diet without LAP. Our data suggest that pigeon pea inducible LAP is responsible for the degradation of midgut serine proteinases upon ingestion. Reduction in the aminopeptidase activity with LpNA in the H. armigera larvae was compensated with an induction of aminopeptidase activity with ApNA. Our findings could be helpful to further dissect the roles of plant inducible LAPs in the direct plant defense against herbivory.
Del Seppia, Cristina; Mencacci, Resi; Luschi, Paolo; Varanini, Maurizio; Ghione, Sergio
Several studies have shown that exposure to altered magnetic fields affects nociception by suppressing stress-induced hypoalgesia, and that this effect is reduced or abolished if the treatment is performed in the absence of light. This raises the question as to whether other sources of sensory stimuli may also modulate these magnetic effects. We investigated the possible role of olfaction in the magnetically induced effects on sensitivity to nociceptive stimuli and heart rate (HR) in restraint-stressed homing pigeons exposed to an Earth-strength, irregularly varying (<1 Hz) magnetic field. The magnetic treatment decreased the nociceptive threshold in normally smelling birds and an opposite effect was observed in birds made anosmic by nostril plugging. Conversely, no differential effect of olfactory deprivation was observed on HR, which was reduced by the magnetic treatment both in smelling and anosmic pigeons. The findings highlight an important role of olfactory environmental information in the mediation of magnetic effects on nociception, although the data cannot be interpreted unambiguously because of the lack of an additional control group of olfactory-deprived, non-magnetically exposed pigeons. The differential effects on a pigeon's sensitivity to nociceptive stimulus and HR additionally indicate that the magnetic stimuli affect nociception and the cardiovascular system in different ways.
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the depth-to-transition map of the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The raster data file is included in...
G.J. du Marchie Sarvaas; P.J.F.M. Merkus (Peter); J.C. de Jongste (Johan)
textabstractWe describe a family in which the mother died of unresolved lung disease and whose 5 children, some of whom had previous signs of asthma, were subsequently affected by extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by contact with wild city pigeon antigens. The children received
Vasconcelos, Marco; Urcuioli, Peter J.
Zentall and Singer (2007a) hypothesized that our failure to replicate the work-ethic effect in pigeons (Vasconcelos, Urcuioli, & Lionello-DeNolf, 2007) was due to insufficient overtraining following acquisition of the high- and low-effort discriminations. We tested this hypothesis using the original work-ethic procedure (Experiment 1) and one…
Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Jin Tong; Zu, Yuan Gang; Fu, Yu Jie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Efferth, Thomas
Five fungal endophytes (K4, K5, K6, K9, K14) producing Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid) were isolated from the roots of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. CSA is responsible for the prominent pharmacological activities in pigeon pea. The amount of CSA in culture solution varied among the five fungal endophytes. K4 produced the highest levels of CSA (1037.13 µg/L) among the endophytes tested after incubation for five days. Both morphological characteristics and molecular methods were used for species identification of fungal endophytes. The five endophytic isolates were characterized by analyzing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA and β-tubulin genes. The K4, K5, K9 and K14 strains isolated from pigeon pea roots were found to be closely related to the species Fusarium oxysporum. K6 was identified as Neonectria macrodidym. The present study is the first report on the isolation and identification of fungal endophytes producing CSA in pigeon pea. The study also provides a scientific base for large scale production of CSA.
Wortel, J.F.; Wubbels, R.J.; Nuboer, J.F.W.
The spectral sensitivities of the red field and the yellow field in the retina of the homing pigeon (Columba Livia) were determined on the basis of ERG responses. Between 450 and 550 nm the relative spectral sensitivity of the yellow field turned out to be higher than that of the red field. The resu
Zentall, Thomas R; Case, Jacob P; Luong, Jasmine
Recent research has examined a task in which choice of 1 alternative A provides reinforcement and in addition, allows access to alternative B that also provides reinforcement. However, although initial choice of B also provides reinforcement, it does not also allow access to A. Thus, optimal performance would be to always choose A. Curiously, Salwiczek et al. (2012) reported that adult wrasse (cleaner) fish mastered this task within 50 trials, whereas monkeys and apes had great difficulty with it. The authors attributed the species differences to ecological differences in the species foraging experiences. However, Pepperberg and Hartsfield (2014) found that parrots too learned this task. In Experiment 1, using the manual presentation of stimuli, we found that pigeons actually showed a reliable preference for B, the suboptimal alternative. In Experiment 2, we replicated the suboptimal preference using an automated version of the task. We hypothesized that the pigeons may have been basing their preference on the frequency of reinforcement associated with each alternative (initially, all trials ended with choice of B, whereas only half of the trials involved choice of A). In Experiment 3, we tested the hypothesis that the pigeons' preference was influenced by the frequency of reinforcements associated with A and B. Thus, when the pigeon chose A, we replaced B with C, so reinforcement occurred to B only when they chose it first. With this procedure we found that B was no longer preferred over A. Thus, the data supported our hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record
Herbranson, Walter T
Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, with one or more line features on a single key differing between consecutive displays. Change salience was manipulated by varying the number of line features that changed on the critical response key. Results indicated that change blindness is reduced if a change is made more salient, and this matches previous human results. Furthermore, accuracy patterns indicate that pigeons' effective search area expanded over the course of a trial to encompass a larger portion of the stimulus environment. Thus, the data indicate two important aspects of temporal cognition. First, the timing of a change has a profound influence on whether or not that change will be perceived. Second, pigeons appear to engage in a serial search for changes, in which additional time is required to search additional locations.
Scullion, Francis T; Scullion, Mary Geraldine
"Young bird sickness" is a term used by racing pigeon fanciers to describe a condition that has occurred regularly in recent years and affects pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in their first year of life. It is characterized by slow crop emptying, regurgitation, diarrhea, weight loss, poor performance, and occasionally death. Little scientific information is known about this syndrome to differentiate it from other diseases that occur in young pigeons. In this study, 1 bird from each of 9 lofts where "young bird sickness" was reported was euthanatized for cytologic and postmortem examination. Lesions of the lymphoreticular system, alimentary tract, and respiratory system were the most common findings. Lesions of the lymphoreticular system were present in all birds examined, and 3 birds had histopathologic findings consistent with circovirus infection. Combinations of protozoal, fungal, and mixed bacterial infections were associated with ingluvitis in 7 birds and enteritis in 6 birds. Pneumonitis was found in 5 birds that tested positive for Chlamydophila by polymerase chain reaction. Although "young bird sickness" appears to be a multifactorial condition, a pattern of lesions that involved the lymphoreticular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems was evident, whereas diseases of other organ systems were uncommon. These findings suggest that "young bird sickness" may have a common etiology, and circovirus infection is proposed as a possible initiating cause of this syndrome in young racing pigeons in Northern Ireland.
Mazur, James E.; Biondi, Dawn R.
An adjusting-delay procedure was used to study the choices of pigeons and rats when both delay and amount of reinforcement were varied. In different conditions, the choice alternatives included one versus two reinforcers, one versus three reinforcers, and three versus two reinforcers. The delay to one alternative (the standard alternative) was…
The dextrous foraging skills of primates, including humans, are underpinned by flexible vision-guided control of the arms/hands and even tools as body-part extensions. This capacity involves a visuomotor conversion process that transfers the locations of the hands/arms and a target in retinal coordinates into body coordinates to generate a reaching/grasping movement and to correct online. Similar capacities have evolved in birds, such as tool use in corvids and finches, which represents the flexible motor control of extended body parts. However, the flexibility of avian head-reaching and bill-grasping with body-part extensions remains poorly understood. This study comparatively investigated the flexibility of pecking with an artificially extended bill in crows and pigeons. Pecking performance and kinematics were examined when the bill extension was attached, and after its removal. The bill extension deteriorated pecking in pigeons in both performance and kinematics over 10 days. After the bill removal, pigeons started bill-grasping earlier, indicating motor adaptation to the bill extension. Contrastingly, pecking in crows was deteriorated transiently with the bill extension, but was recovered by adjusting pecking at closer distances, suggesting a quick adjustment to the bill extension. These results indicate flexible visuomotor control to extended body parts in crows but not in pigeons. PMID:28386435
Dell'Ariccia, Gaia; Costantini, David; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Lipp, Hans-Peter
When performing homing experiments with individual releases, pigeons have to wait in a transport box for a certain amount of time before being released and hence perceive the departure of companions. Quite often, the last pigeons disappear straightforward from the release site. The question is whether this reflects improved orientation because of prolonged exposure to the release place or whether it reflects increased homing motivation. By releasing pigeons from a familiar site, we investigated the effects of the time spent at the release site on homing performance, recording pigeons' flights with GPS loggers. Our results show that, despite individual peculiarities of flight patterns, the waiting time at release site had a positive effect on homing speed and time, and reduced the time spent circling around the release point. However, the overall path efficiency as derived from GPS tracking was not influenced. These results suggest that a longer waiting time before release improves homing performance and this is related not only to increased navigational abilities but also to increased homing motivation.
Couto, Kalliu C; Navarro, Victor M; Smith, Tatiana R; Wasserman, Edward A
How supervision is arranged can affect the way that humans learn concepts. Yet very little is known about the role that supervision plays in nonhuman concept learning. Prior research in pigeon concept learning has commonly used differential response-reinforcer procedures (involving high-level supervision) to support reliable discrimination and generalization involving from 4 to 16 concurrently presented photographic categories. In the present project, we used contextual cueing, a nondifferential reinforcement procedure (involving low-level supervision), to investigate concept learning in pigeons. We found that pigeons were faster to peck a target stimulus when 8 members from each of 4 categories of black-and-white photographs-dogs, trees, shoes, and keys-correctly cued its location than when they did not. This faster detection of the target also generalized to 4 untrained members from each of the 4 photographic categories. Our results thus pass the prime behavioral tests of conceptualization and suggest that high-level supervision is unnecessary to support concept learning in pigeons.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogens with the zoonotic potential to infect humans, such as Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Chlamydophila psittaci, can be found in feral pigeons (Columba livia. Given the high density of these birds in the public parks and gardens of most cities, they may pose a direct threat to public health. Methods A total of 118 pigeons were captured in three samplings carried out in 2006-2007 in public parks and gardens in Madrid, Spain. Standard haematological and morphological analyses were carried out on the pigeons. PCR was used to screen for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli and Chlamydophila psittaci. Positive samples were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Results The analyses demonstrated a high prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci (52.6% and Campylobacter jejuni (69.1% among the birds captured. In contrast, Campylobacter coli was rarely detected (1.1%. Conclusions Pigeons in Madrid can carry Chlamydophila psittaci and Campylobacter jejuni. They may be asymptomatic or subclinical carriers of both pathogens.
SALOMÃO LIMA GUIMARÃES
Full Text Available Pigeon pea is an important protein source grown in several tropical and sub - tropical countries, and is considered a multi - purpose plant that is resistant to the conditions of the Brazilian Cerrado. Among the possible uses for cowpea, its use as a green manure, increasing soil nitrogen content through the association with diazotrophic bacteria, generically known as rhizobia, is noteworthy. The present work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of Rhizobium strains isolated from cowpea plants in the development of pigeon peas cultured in Red Latosol. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, using a completely randomized design with seven treatments and four replications. Treatments consisted of inoculation with four Rhizobium strains (MT8, MT15, MT16, and MT23 and one commercial inoculant comprising Bradyrhizobium spp. strains BR 2801 and BR 2003. There were two controls, one absolute (without inoculation or nitrogen fertilization and the other with nitrogen fertilization. Each experimental plot consisted of an 8 - dm 3 vase containing three plants. Analyzed variables included plant height, SPAD index, number and dry weight of nodules, and shoot and root dry masses. Pigeon peas responded significantly to inoculation treatment, since all the plants inoculated with Rhizobium strains isolated from cowpea strains showed results similar to plants in the nitrogen control and commercial inoculant treatments. This demonstrates a favorable plant – bacteria interaction, which can be utilized as an alternative nitrogen source for pigeon peas.
Bapat, S; Shah, A K
A virulent strain of pigeon pea wilt pathogen was isolated from wilted pigeon pea plants and was identified as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. udum. Many bacterial cultures showing antagonism to the pathogen were isolated from various ecological niches. When tested under pot and field conditions, development of fusarial wilt symptoms was prevented in pigeon pea seeds treated with one such antagonist, Bacillus brevis. A formulation of B. brevis with vermiculite as a carrier had a shelf life of at least 6 months. Bacillus brevis produced an extracellular antagonistic substance which induced swelling of the pathogen's hyphal tips, and cells were bulbous and swollen with shrunken and granulated cytoplasm. The antagonistic substance also inhibited germination of conidia, and was fungicidal to the vegetative mycelia of the pathogen. Comparison of the properties of our antagonistic substance with that of known antibiotics produced by B. brevis suggests that our antagonistic substance is a novel compound. The observations reported here indicate that this strain of B. brevis may have potential as a biocontrol agent against fusarial wilt in pigeon pea.
Full Text Available Aim: To know the prevalence of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli among dead and/or diarrhoic pigeons in and around greater Guwahati. Materials and Methods: Samples were cultured from dead and/or diarrhoic pigeons and identification was done by standard methods. The sensitivity of the isolated E.coli strains to 15 antibiotics of human and veterinary use was also determined. Organs from those dead birds from which E.coli were recovered were processed according to the routine procedure for histopathological studies. Results: Out of 150 pigeons subjected to microbiological investigation, 91(60.67 % samples were found positive for E. coli.The most frequently occurring serotypes were O157 (9.89%, followed by O68, O121 (7.69%, O9, O75, O131 (5.49%, O2, O13, O22 (3.30%. Antibiogram investigation of the isolates revealed that 91isolates (100% exhibited resistance against Ampicillin followed by Nitro-furantoin (73.62%, Tetracycline (65.93 %, Oxytetracycline (62.63 % and Streptomycin (61.54. Gross changes of some birds showed fibrinous pericarditis and perihepatitis and coligranuloma in different organs like liver and serosal surface of intestine. Microscopically, severe congestion and haemorrhages in different organs such as liver, kidney, lung and intestine. In some cases thick layer of fibrinous exudates with large number of heterophills over the surface of liver and heart with early degenerative changes as well as focal necrosis. Conclusion: The result of this study suggests that antimicrobial-resistant pathogenic E.coli is present in pigeons in and around greater Guwahati. Surveillance programs may be introduced to monitor antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic E.coli in pigeons in and around greater guwahati. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 91-94
Full Text Available Valproate and carbamazepine (CAR have been proposed as adjunct alternatives for the control of aggression in psychiatric patients, although no definite conclusions have been reached. We examined the effects of these drugs on food competition offensive aggression and other behaviors in high- and low-aggression food-restricted pigeons. These were divided into pairs containing previously ranked high-aggression (N = 10 pairs and low-aggression females (N = 10 pairs. In Experiment 1, a pigeon in each pair of high- and low-aggression subjects was treated daily with an oral dose of sodium valproate (50 mg kg-1 mL saline-1 for 15 days. The other animal received the vehicle. On days 1, 7, and 15, food competition trials (10 min were performed 60 min after treatment. In Experiment 2, one pigeon in each pair was treated daily with an oral dose of CAR (20 mg kg-1 mL saline-1 for 15 days. Each pair was submitted to a food competition trial on days 1, 7, and 15 of treatment. Valproate (15 days of treatment selectively decreased the time spent in offensive aggression (control: 102.7 ± 9.3 vs valproate: 32.7 ± 9.2 s; P < 0.001, ANOVA-2-TAU of high-aggression pigeons. This was also the case for 7 and 15 days of CAR treatment (control: 131.5 ± 8.9 vs CAR: 60.4 ± 5.3, P < 0.01, and control: 122.7 ± 7.1 vs CAR: 39.1 ± 5.2; P < 0.001, ANOVA-2-TAU, respectively. Thus, the two anticonvulsive drugs have a similar effect on food competition aggression in pigeons.
Goerlich-Jansson, Vivian C; Müller, Martina S; Groothuis, Ton G G
Across various animal taxa not only the secondary sex ratio but also the primary sex ratio (at conception) shows significant deviations from the expected equal proportions of sons and daughters. Birds are especially intriguing to study this phenomenon as avian females are the heterogametic sex (ZW); therefore sex determination might be under direct control of the mother. Avian sex ratios vary in relation to environmental or maternal condition, which can also affect the production of maternal steroids that in turn are involved in reproduction and accumulate in the developing follicle before meiosis. As the proximate mechanisms underlying biased primary sex ratio are largely elusive, we explored how, and to what extent, maternal steroid hormones may be involved in affecting primary or secondary sex ratio in clutches of various species of pigeons. First we demonstrated a clear case of seasonal change in sex ratio in first eggs both in the Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) and in a related species, the Wood Pigeon (Columba palumbus), both producing clutches of two eggs. In the Homing Pigeon (Columba livia domestica), domesticated from the Rock Pigeon, testosterone treatment of breeding females induced a clear male bias, while corticosterone induced a female bias in first eggs and we argue that this is in line with sex allocation theory. We next analyzed treatment effects on follicle formation, yolk mass, and yolk hormones, the latter both pre- and post-ovulatory, in order to test a diversity of potential mechanisms related to both primary and secondary sex ratio manipulation. We conclude that maternal plasma hormone levels may affect several pre-ovulatory mechanisms affecting primary sex ratio, whereas egg hormones are probably involved in secondary sex ratio manipulation only.
Seddiek, Sh A; El-Shorbagy, Mohamed M; Khater, Hanem F; Ali, Ali M
Trichomonas gallinae is the causative agent of canker in pigeon. This work was carried out to investigate in the vitro and in vivo efficacy of aqueous water extract of garlic (AGE) on the growth of T. gallinae infecting pigeons compared to those of metronidazole (MTZ). MTZ and AGE were added, at different concentrations, to glucose-serum broth medium containing 1 × 10(4) trophozoites/ml. In the in vivo experiment, 48 squabs were grouped into four groups. The first group (gr. I) was not infected and not treated. Each squab of the other group was infected with 1 × 10(4) trophozoites. The second group (gr. II) was infected and not treated. On day 0, the third group (gr. III) was treated with MTZ (50 mg/kg BW) and the fourth group (gr. IV) was treated with AGE (200 mg/kg BW) for seven successive days in drinking water. In vitro study revealed that the MLC, 24, 48, and 72 h post treatment were 50, 25, and 12.5 μg/ml, respectively, for MTZ and 75, 50, and 50 mg/ml, respectively, for AGE. Garlic (200 mg/kg BW) had the highest antitrichomonal effect and shortened course of treatment of pigeons from 7 days in gr. III to 5 days. Squabs in gr. II suffered from macrocytic hypochromic anemia, whereas squabs in grs. III and IV showed normal blood pictures. Serum total protein, albumin, and globulin were increased, whereas AST, ALT, and the total cholesterol were decreased in grs. III and IV when compared to those of gr. II. Pigeons protected with AGE showed increased body weight and reduced mortality percentage than the other groups. Our results indicated that garlic may be a promising phytotherapeutic agent for protection against trichomoniasis in pigeons.
Girard, Yvette A; Rogers, Krysta H; Woods, Leslie W; Chouicha, Nadira; Miller, Woutrina A; Johnson, Christine K
The Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata monilis) is a migratory game bird of North America that is at risk for population decline. Epidemics of avian trichomonosis caused by upper digestive tract infection with Trichomonas spp. protozoa in these and other doves and pigeons of the United States are sporadic, but can involve tens of thousands of birds in a single event. Herein, we analyze the role of trichomonosis in band-tailed pigeon mortality and relate spatial, temporal and demographic patterns of parasite transmission to the genetic background of the infecting organism. Infections were most common in adult birds and prevalence was high in band-tailed pigeons sampled at mortality events (96%) and rehabilitation centers (36%) compared to those that were hunter-killed (11%) or live-caught (4%). During non-epidemic periods, animals were primarily infected with T. gallinae Fe-hydrogenase subtype A2, and were less often infected with either T. gallinae subtype A1 (the British finch epidemic strain), T. stableri n. sp. (a T. vaginalis-like species), or Tritrichomonas blagburni n. sp.-like organisms. Birds sampled during multiple epidemics in California were only infected with T. gallinae subtype A2 and T. stableri. The non-clonal etiology of avian trichomonosis outbreaks in band-tailed pigeons and the risk of spill-over to raptor and passerine species highlights the need for additional studies that clarify the host range and evolutionary relationships between strains of Trichomonas spp. in regions of trichomonosis endemicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Four Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at the Philadelphia Zoo died suddenly. Necropsy examination revealed macroscopic hepatitis. Microscopically, the predominant lesions were in liver, characterized with necrosis and mixed cell inflammatory response. Sarcocystis calchasi-like schizonts and fr...
Full Text Available Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT is a respiratory pathogen which has been isolated throughout the world from numerous bird species. The present study was designed to isolate and characterize the ORT from domestic turkeys, quails and pigeons. For this purpose, 250 samples from each bird species (turkey, quail and pigeon with or without respiratory signs were tested by taking of tracheal swabs. In addition, respiratory tissue samples (tracheal and lung, from 250 slaughtered turkeys, 50 slaughtered quails and 100dead pigeons were also subjected to culture for ORT as tracheal swabs. Respiratory tissues were also tested for bacterial DNA by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. In general, 30 isolates including 4 isolates from turkeys, 3 isolates from quails and 23 isolates from pigeons were identified as ORT by bacteriologicalmethod and then confirmed by PCR. Bacterial DNA was detected in 20%, 50% and 35% of respiratory tissues in turkeys, quails and pigeons respectively. Five ORT isolates from pigeon and all four isolates from turkey showed smaller colony size, while other isolates had larger colonies when cultured in blood agar. Fifty percent of the isolates with larger colony but none of the isolates with small colony size could agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs. All of the isolates were sensitive to danofloxacin and chloramphenicolwhile more than 90% of pigeon isolates were resistant to ampicillin. All of turkey and quail and 30% of pigeon isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Our ORT isolates showed high identity (98%- 100% insequence of 16S rRNA gene to related data in GeneBank.
Maier, Kristina; Olias, Philipp; Enderlein, Dirk; Klopfleisch, Robert; Mayr, Sylvia L; Gruber, Achim D; Lierz, Michael
Pigeon protozoal encephalitis is a biphasic, neurologic disease of domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) caused by the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis calchasi. Despite severe inflammatory lesions of the brain, associated parasitic stages have only rarely been identified and the cause of the lesions is still unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize the tissue distribution of S. calchasi within pigeons between the two clinical phases and during the occurrence of neurological signs. For this purpose, a semi-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. Forty-five domestic pigeons were infected orally (via a cannula into the crop) with 200 S. calchasi sporocysts and euthanized in groups of three pigeons at intervals of 2 to 10 days over a period of 61 days. Tissue samples including brain and skeletal muscle were examined by histology, immunohistochemistry, and PCR. Schizonts were detected in the liver of one pigeon at day 10 post infection. A mild encephalitis was detected at day 20 post infection, around 4 weeks before the onset of neurological signs. At the same time, immature sarcocysts were present in the skeletal muscle. In seven pigeons a few sarcocysts were identified in the brain, but not associated with any lesion. These results suggest that the encephalitis is induced at a very early stage of the S. calchasi lifecycle rather than in the chronic phase of pigeon protozoal encephalitis. Despite the increasing severity of lesions in the central nervous system, the amount of sarcocysts did not increase. This supports the hypothesis of a delayed-type hypersensitivity response as the cause of the encephalitis. The study also demonstrated that S. calchasi DNA is detectable in tissues negative by histological methods, indicating a higher sensitivity of the real-time PCR.
Abu, Joseph Oneh; Enyinnaya, Chinma Chiemela; James, Samaila; Okeleke, Ezinne
Quality attributes of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato and pigeon pea starch blends were studied. Starches were extracted from Irish potato and pigeon pea using a wet extraction method. Various ratios of the starches were mixed and analyzed for chemical, functional and pasting properties. The starch blends were then prepared into stiff porridges for sensory evaluation using a 20-man sensory panel. Substitution of Irish potato starch with pigeon pea starch led to increases in protein (0.15 to 1.2%), fat (0.26 to 0.56%) and ash (0.30 to 0.69%) while the amylose content of the starch blends decreased (from 23.8 to 18.4%) respectively. Functional properties such as bulk density (0.75 to 0.60 g/cm(3)), water absorption capacity (3.1 to 2.6 g water/ g sample) and dispersibility (58.6 to 42.7%) decreased significantly (P stiff porridges were not adversely affected by pigeon pea starch inclusion. Therefore it should be possible to incorporate up to 50% of low digestible pigeon pea starch into Irish potato starch from legumes such as pigeon pea as alternatives to cassava starch in the preparation of stiff porridges. Such porridges made from Irish potato and legume starches could provide additional incentive for individuals requiring decreased and or slow starch digestibility such as diabetics.
Dovč, Alenka; Jereb, Gregor; Krapež, Uroš; Gregurić-Gračner, Gordana; Pintarič, Štefan; Slavec, Brigita; Knific, Renata Lindtner; Kastelic, Marjan; Kvapil, Pavel; Mićunović, Jasna; Vadnjal, Stanka; Ocepek, Matjaž; Zadravec, Marko; Zorman-Rojs, Olga
Airborne pathogens can cause infections within parrot (Psittaciformes) and pigeon (Columbiformes) holdings and, in the case of zoonoses, can even spread to humans. Air sampling is a useful, noninvasive method which can enhance the common sampling methods for detection of microorganisms in bird flocks. In this study, fecal and air samples were taken from four parrot holdings. Additionally, cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs as well as air samples were taken from 15 racing pigeon holdings. Parrots were examined for psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV), proventricular dilatation disease virus (PDDV), adenoviruses (AdVs), avian paramyxovirus type-1 (APMV-1), avian influenza virus (AIV), Chlamydia psittaci (CP), and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). MAC and AdVs were detected in three parrot holdings, CP was detected in two parrot holdings, and PBFDV and PDDV were each detected in one parrot holding. Pigeons were examined for the pigeon circovirus (PiCV), AdVs, and CP; PiCV and AdVs were detected in all investigated pigeon holdings and CP was detected in five pigeon holdings.
Jiang, Xiyue; Sun, Jingjing; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Zhao, Xiaomin
Oropharyngeal swabs (n = 609) were collected randomly from 80,000 domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) on five pigeon farms and at one pigeon slaughterhouse in Shandong Province, China, from September 2012 to July 2013. Trichomonas spp. were detected in 206/609 (33.8%) samples. The prevalence was 14.9-31.1%, depending on different levels of sanitation and management, and was 4.8% in nestling pigeons, 13.6% in breeding pigeons and 35.2% in adolescent pigeons. Trichomonas gallinae genotypes A and B, and Trichomonas tenax-like isolates were identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and sequencing of the 5.8S rDNA-internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. RFLP analysis with the restriction enzyme BsiEI generated different RFLP band patterns between T. gallinae and T.tenax-like isolates. When BsiEI RFLP analysis was combined with HaeIII RFLP analysis, all infection types of T. gallinae and T.tenax-like isolates could be identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mora, Cordula V; Acerbi, Merissa L; Bingman, Verner P
It has been well established that homing pigeons are able to use the Earth's magnetic field to obtain directional information when returning to their loft and that their magnetic compass is based, at least in part, on the perception of magnetic inclination. Magnetic inclination has also been hypothesized in pigeons and other long-distance navigators, such as sea turtles, to play a role providing positional information as part of a map. Here we developed a behavioral paradigm which allows us to condition homing pigeons to discriminate magnetic inclination cues in a spatial-orientation arena task. Six homing pigeons were required to discriminate in a circular arena between feeders located either in a zone with a close to 0 deg inclination cue or in a zone with a rapidly changing inclination cue (-3 deg to +85 deg when approaching the feeder and +85 deg to -3 deg when moving away from the feeder) to obtain a food reward. The pigeons consistently performed this task above chance level. Control experiments, during which the coils were turned off or the current was running anti-parallel through the double-wound coil system, confirmed that no alternative cues were used by the birds in the discrimination task. The results show that homing pigeons can be conditioned to discriminate differences in magnetic field inclination, enabling investigation into the peripheral and central neural processing of geomagnetic inclination under controlled laboratory conditions.
Dai, Fan-Jhen; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Huang, Jan-Jeng; Wu, She-Ching
Obesity is associated with increased systemic and airway oxidative stress, which may result from a combination of adipokine imbalance and antioxidant defenses reduction. Obesity-mediated oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of dyslipidemia, vascular disease, and nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis. The antidyslipidemic activity of pigeon pea were evaluated by high-fat diet (HFD) hamsters model, in which the level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and total triglyceride (TG) were examined. We found that pigeon pea administration promoted cholesterol converting to bile acid in HFD-induced hamsters, thereby exerting hypolipidemic activity. In the statistical results, pigeon pea significantly increased hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), LDL receptor, and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (also known as cytochrome P450 7A1, CYP7A1) expression to attenuate dyslipidemia in HFD-fed hamsters; and markedly elevated antioxidant enzymes in the liver of HFD-induced hamsters, further alleviating lipid peroxidation. These effects may attribute to pigeon pea contained large of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; C18:2) and phytosterol (β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol). Moreover, the effects of pigeon pea on dyslipidemia were greater than β-sitosterol administration (4%), suggesting that phytosterone in pigeon pea could prevent metabolic syndrome.
Xie, P; Jiang, X-Y; Bu, Z; Fu, S-Y; Zhang, S-Y; Tang, Q-P
The effects of 5 different feeding systems on the performance, carcass traits and organ development were studied in pigeon squabs. The 5 treatments were (1) whole grains of maize, pea and wheat plus concentrate feed; (2)whole grains of maize and wheat plus concentrate feed (CWC); (3) whole grains of maize and pea plus concentrate feed; (4)whole grain of maize plus concentrate feed (CC); and (5) compound feed (CF). Feed intake of parent pigeons increased significantly from 0 to 21 d and it was higher in the CF treatment. Body weight of squabs in the CWC treatment was the highest among the 5 treatments in 4 weeks. Body weight losses of parental pigeons during the rearing period were not significantly different among the 5 treatments. Protein intake in CC and CWC treatments was lower than that of the other three treatments. The CWC treatment had the highest daily weight gain and the lowest feed conversion ratio. Treatments were statistically similar in the relative weight of carcass, breast and thigh. CF had the lower relative weight of abdominal fat. Relative weight of gizzard in the CF treatment was significantly lower than that of CWC. It was concluded that the application of free choice feeding of whole grains of maize and wheat plus concentrate feed increased the body weight of 28-d-old pigeon squabs and decreased the feed conversion rate of parent pigeons. This feeding strategy could be commercially interesting in meat-type pigeon production.
Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV of the H5N1 subtype has been reported to infect pigeons asymptomatically or induce mild symptoms. However, host immune responses of pigeons inoculated with HPAIVs have not been well documented. To assess host responses of pigeons against HPAIV infection, we compared lethality, viral distribution and mRNA expression of immune related genes of pigeons infected with two HPAIVs (A/Pigeon/Thailand/VSMU-7-NPT/2004; Pigeon04 and A/Tree sparrow/Ratchaburi/VSMU-16-RBR/2005; T.sparrow05 isolated from wild birds in Thailand. The survival experiment showed that 25% of pigeons died within 2 weeks after the inoculation of two HPAIVs or medium only, suggesting that these viruses did not cause lethal infection in pigeons. Pigeon04 replicated in the lungs more efficiently than T.sparrow05 and spread to multiple extrapulmonary organs such as the brain, spleen, liver, kidney and rectum on days 2, 5 and 9 post infection. No severe lesion was observed in the lungs infected with Pigeon04 as well as T.sparrow05 throughout the collection periods. Encephalitis was occasionally observed in Pigeon04- or T.sparrow05-infected brain, the severity, however was mostly mild. To analyze the expression of immune-related genes in the infected pigeons, we established a quantitative real-time PCR analysis for 14 genes of pigeons. On day 2 post infection, Pigeon04 induced mRNA expression of Mx1, PKR and OAS to a greater extent than T.sparrow05 in the lungs, however their expressions were not up-regulated concomitantly on day 5 post infection when the peak viral replication was observed. Expressions of TLR3, IFNα, IL6, IL8 and CCL5 in the lungs following infection with the two HPAIVs were low. In sum, Pigeon04 exhibited efficient replication in the lungs compared to T.sparrow05, but did not induce excessive host cytokine expressions. Our study has provided the first insight into host immune responses of pigeons against HPAIV infection.
Leandro Almeida Rui
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Orthopedic conditions, such as bone fractures, are very common in avian medicine. External fixators have been considered the gold standard for birds, since they allow early movement of the limbs and minimal invasive surgery. Fractures in several bones have been successfully treated in pigeons. However, to the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first report of successful surgical repair of tarsal-metatarsal fracture in rock pigeon. External fixator was made with four 24G catheters, being inserted manually proximal and distal to the fracture and connected with polymerizable acrylic. Radiographic consolidation of fracture was observed 60 days post-surgery and anti-inflammatory and antibiotic protocols were successful on avoiding pain and infection during surgery and bone healing.
Shapiro, Michael D.; Kronenberg, Zev; Li, Cai; Domyan, Eric T.; Pan, Hailin; Campbell, Michael; Tan, Hao; Huff, Chad D.; Hu, Haofu; Vickrey, Anna I.; Nielsen, Sandra C.A.; Stringham, Sydney A.; Hu, Hao; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Yandell, Mark; Zhang, Guojie; Wang, Jun
The geographic origins of breeds and genetic basis of variation within the widely distributed and phenotypically diverse domestic rock pigeon (Columba livia) remain largely unknown. We generated a rock pigeon reference genome and additional genome sequences representing domestic and feral populations. We find evidence for the origins of major breed groups in the Middle East, and contributions from a racing breed to North American feral populations. We identify EphB2 as a strong candidate for the derived head crest phenotype shared by numerous breeds, an important trait in mate selection in many avian species. We also find evidence that this trait evolved just once and spread throughout the species, and that the crest originates early in development by the localized molecular reversal of feather bud polarity. PMID:23371554
Blaser, Nicole; Guskov, Sergei I; Entin, Vladimir A; Wolfer, David P; Kanevskyi, Valeryi A; Lipp, Hans-Peter
The gravity vector theory postulates that birds determine their position to set a home course by comparing the memorized gravity vector at the home loft with the local gravity vector at the release site, and that they should adjust their flight course to the gravity anomalies encountered. As gravity anomalies are often intermingled with geomagnetic anomalies, we released experienced pigeons from the center of a strong circular gravity anomaly (25 km diameter) not associated with magnetic anomalies and from a geophysical control site, equidistant from the home loft (91 km). After crossing the border zone of the anomaly--expected to be most critical for pigeon navigation--they dispersed significantly more than control birds, except for those having met a gravity anomaly en route. These data increase the credibility of the gravity vector hypothesis. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Janssens, G P; Buyse, J; Seynaeve, M; Decuypere, E; De Wilde, R
Four groups (CS,CR,PS,PR) of nine trained male racing pigeons were deprived of feed for 1 d and then subjected to a respiration chamber test in order to study the effect of oral 1-carnitine supplementation on the energy metabolism during flight. One week before, groups CS and CR were orally supplemented with 90 mg of 1-carnitine daily, whereas PS and PR were given a placebo. Groups CS and PS underwent flight simulation by electrostimulation of the breast muscles. Flight simulation increased heat production, kept respiratory quotient from decreasing, decreased thyroxine levels, and increased weight loss. L-Carnitine decreased the rise in heat production during electrostimulation but did not influence respiratory quotient, weight loss, or thyroid hormones. L-Carnitine supplementation in pigeons improves fatty acid combustion efficiency during heavy exercise.
Janssens, G P; Mast, J; Goddeeris, B M; Cox, E; Hesta, M; De Wilde, R O
1. Thirty adult female pigeons (Columba livia domestica) were randomly divided into 3 equal groups; the 1st and 2nd groups were immunised with bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 0 and 20 d, the 2nd group also received 1 g L-carnitine per litre of drinking water from -5 to 25 d post-immunisation (dpi) and the 3rd group, a control group, received neither treatment. 2. Body weights and serum samples were taken at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 dpi. 3. Both BSA-specific IgG and IgM responses were enhanced by about 10% by L-carnitine supplementation. 4. L-carnitine supplemented pigeons showed a higher water consumption. Body weight loss during the onset of the immune response showed a slight tendency to be counteracted by L-carnitine supplementation. 5. The impact of L-carnitine on resistance and resilience to an immunological challenge is discussed.
Full Text Available Mangunwardoyo W, Suciatmih, Gandjar I. 2012. Frequency of endophytic fungi isolated from Dendrobium crumenatum (Pigeon orchid and antimicrobial activity. Biodiversitas 13: 34-39. The aims of this research was to isolate and study the frequency of endophytic fungi from roots, bulbous, stems, and leaves of Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. (pigeon orchid collected from Tanah Baru housing area, Bogor Botanical Garden, and Herbarium Bogoriense; and to assess for antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans ATCC 2091, Candida tropicalis LIPIMC 203, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Twelve species of endophytic fungi were identified from 60 samples obtained from D. crumenatum. Guignardia endophyllicola (anamorph: Phyllosticta capitalensis were the dominant endophytic fungi. Screening of the anti-microorganism activity of the endophytic fungi revealed that Fusarium nivale inhibited C albicans and C. tropicalis. All specimens did not inhibit B. subtilis, E. coli, and S. aureus.
Andrey Bogoyavlenskiy; Vladimir Berezin; Alexey Prilipov; Eugeniy Usachev; Ilya Korotetskiy; Irina Zaitceva; Aydyn Kydyrmanov; Marat Sayatov
Isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from deceased wild and domestic pigeons in Kazakhstan were obtained from the Almaty region during 2005 and were genotypically analyzed by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with primers specific to the viral fusion (F) protein gene.Part of the amplified F protein DNA product (nucleotide sequence 47-422) and the deduced amino acid sequenceswere compared phylogenetically with those from strains previously reported in other geographic regions.Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Kazakhstanian pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) isolates belong to genotype Ⅵ or 4bii.To our knowledge,this is the first reported Ⅵ isolates that possess the sequences of 112 GKRQKR116* F117 within the F0 protein.The information is fundamental to improving the efficiency of control strategies and vaccine development for NDV.
Oryan, Ahmad; Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan; Kamali, S Amir; Taebi Pour, Mohammad Jafar
Thirty-five pigeons from ten different farms in Fars area, southern Iran were submitted for post mortem inspection. Based on the clinical observations and gross pathological examinations, all the birds showed severe weight loss, diarrhea and to some extent ventricular enlargement. Furthermore, all the cases demonstrated large numbers of nematodes attached to the mucosa and submucosa of the ventriculus. Parasitological examinations revealed that the recovered parasites were Hadjelia truncata. The histopathological changes showed necrosis of the mucosal cells with moderate infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages, heterophils and eosinophils in the lamina properia and muscularis mucosa in the infected animals. Based on the parasitological and pathological findings it can be concluded that the nematode H. truncate could be assigned as a pathogenic agent in the upper tract of pigeons.
Wit, H P; Spoelstra, H A; Segenhout, J M
The horizontal semicircular canal in pigeons was thermally stimulated with a miniature Peltier-element device. Sound evoked electric responses from the vestibular organ were modulated by the caloric stimulus. Experiments were performed under minimal influence of gravity, (horizontal canals in horizontal plane), and with the pigeons head tilted forwards or backwards. On the basis of the results it was concluded that the influence of gravity can be described by Bárány's convection theory. Extra effects are, however, present and they are most probably partly of mechanical origin (fluid expansion) and partly due to a direct influence of temperature on the vestibular receptors. Further experiments are needed to investigate the origin of these extra effects in more detail.
Manuel Medina, Félix; Adolfo Ramírez, Gustavo; Hernández, Antonio
Two diseased young white-tailed laurel-pigeons (Columba junoniae), an endemic and endangered species of the Canary Islands (Spain), were found in La Palma. They were very depressed and had severe cutaneous yellowish nodular lesions in feathered and unfeathered areas on the bodies of both birds. Necropsy and histopathologic analyses were conducted. The presence of epidermal hypertrophy and hyperplasia in cutaneous lesions, as well as several acidophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions in affected epithelial cells (Bollinger bodies), confirmed avian poxvirus infection. This is the first report of avian pox in whitetailed laurel-pigeons or in any other free-ranging bird in the Canaries, and it might indicate that other threatened birds of the Canarian Archipelago may be affected by this viral disease.
Freeman, Robin; Mann, Richard; Guilford, Tim; Biro, Dora
How social-living animals make collective decisions is currently the subject of intense scientific interest, with increasing focus on the role of individual variation within the group. Previously, we demonstrated that during paired flight in homing pigeons, a fully transitive leadership hierarchy emerges as birds are forced to choose between their own and their partner's habitual routes. This stable hierarchy suggests a role for individual differences mediating leadership decisions within homing pigeon pairs. What these differences are, however, has remained elusive. Using novel quantitative techniques to analyse habitual route structure, we show here that leadership can be predicted from prior route-following fidelity. Birds that are more faithful to their own route when homing alone are more likely to emerge as leaders when homing socially. We discuss how this fidelity may relate to the leadership phenomenon, and propose that leadership may emerge from the interplay between individual route confidence and the dynamics of paired flight.
Conboy, Ian Christopher
Full Text Available This project assessed the significance of Pigeon Creek, San Salvador, Bahamas as a nursery habitat for coral reef fishes. Pigeon Creek’s perimeter is lined with mangrove and limestone bedrock. The bottom is sand or seagrass and ranges in depth from exposed at low tide to a 3-m deep, tide-scoured channel. In June 2006 and January 2007, fish were counted and their maturity was recorded while sampling 112 of 309 possible 50-m transects along the perimeter of the Pigeon Creek. Excluding silversides (Atherinidae, 52% of fish counted, six families each comprised >1% of the total abundance (Scaridae/parrotfishes, 35.3%; Lutjanidae/snappers, 23.9%; Haemulidae/grunts, 21.0%; Gerreidae/mojarras, 8.5%; Pomacentridae/damselfishes, 6.1%; Labridae/wrasses, 2.4%. There were few differences in effort-adjusted counts among habitats (mangrove, bedrock, mixed, sections (north, middle, southwest and seasons (summer 2006 and winter 2007. Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle, covering 68% of the perimeter was where 62% of the fish were counted. Snappers, grunts and parrotfishes are important food fishes and significant families in terms of reef ecology around San Salvador. Mangrove was the most important habitat for snappers and grunts; bedrock was most important for parrotfishes. The southwest section was important for snappers, grunts and parrotfishes, the north section for grunts and parrotfishes, and the middle section for snappers. Among the non-silverside fish counted, 91.2% were juveniles. These results suggest that Pigeon Creek is an important nursery for the coral reefs surrounding San Salvador and should be protected from potential disturbances.
Litzow, Michael A.; Piatt, J.F.
We use data on pigeon guillemots Cepphus columba to test the hypothesis that discretionary time in breeding seabirds is correlated with variance in prey abundance. We measured the amount of time that guillemots spent at the colony before delivering fish to chicks ("resting time") in relation to fish abundance as measured by beach seines and bottom trawls. Radio telemetry showed that resting time was inversely correlated with time spent diving for fish during foraging trips (r = -0.95). Pigeon guillemots fed their chicks either Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, a schooling midwater fish, which exhibited high interannual variance in abundance (CV = 181%), or a variety of non-schooling demersal fishes, which were less variable in abundance (average CV = 111%). Average resting times were 46% higher at colonies where schooling prey dominated the diet. Individuals at these colonies reduced resting times 32% during years of low food abundance, but did not reduce meal delivery rates. In contrast, individuals feeding on non-schooling fishes did not reduce resting times during low food years, but did reduce meal delivery rates by 27%. Interannual variance in resting times was greater for the schooling group than for the non-schooling group. We conclude from these differences that time allocation in pigeon guillemots is more flexible when variable schooling prey dominate diets. Resting times were also 27% lower for individuals feeding two-chick rather than one-chick broods. The combined effects of diet and brood size on adult time budgets may help to explain higher rates of brood reduction for pigeon guillemot chicks fed non-schooling fishes.
The subject of investigation was the analysis of the acquisition and retention of the vestibular habituation in pigeons after hemispherectomy or hemicerebellectomy. The habituation training was performed using rotatory test. The frequency of head nystagmus and postural reflexes were examined before and after acquisition of habituation and some days later, for evaluation of retention. Our results suggests that hemispherectomy does not inhibit acquisition of habituation but retention of this phenomenon is shorter at that time. The hemicerebellectomy makes impossible the vestibular habituation.
Levenson, Richard M.; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Navarro, Victor M.; Wasserman, Edward A.
Pathologists and radiologists spend years acquiring and refining their medically essential visual skills, so it is of considerable interest to understand how this process actually unfolds and what image features and properties are critical for accurate diagnostic performance. Key insights into human behavioral tasks can often be obtained by using appropriate animal models. We report here that pigeons (Columba livia)—which share many visual system properties with humans—can serve as promising surrogate observers of medical images, a capability not previously documented. The birds proved to have a remarkable ability to distinguish benign from malignant human breast histopathology after training with differential food reinforcement; even more importantly, the pigeons were able to generalize what they had learned when confronted with novel image sets. The birds’ histological accuracy, like that of humans, was modestly affected by the presence or absence of color as well as by degrees of image compression, but these impacts could be ameliorated with further training. Turning to radiology, the birds proved to be similarly capable of detecting cancer-relevant microcalcifications on mammogram images. However, when given a different (and for humans quite difficult) task—namely, classification of suspicious mammographic densities (masses)—the pigeons proved to be capable only of image memorization and were unable to successfully generalize when shown novel examples. The birds’ successes and difficulties suggest that pigeons are well-suited to help us better understand human medical image perception, and may also prove useful in performance assessment and development of medical imaging hardware, image processing, and image analysis tools. PMID:26581091
McVean, A; Stelling, J; Rowlerson, A.
Fibre typing with antisera raised against specific myosin types from muscles of known physiological properties were used to characterise the fibre types within the oculorotatory muscles of pigeons. Fibres reacting strongly to antiserum anti-ALD (specific for tonic fibre myosin) were found lying along the global margin of the muscle and also in a layer lying immediately beneath a discrete band of fibres running along the orbital margin. These fibres resembled those of the skeletal muscle ALD i...
Richard M Levenson
Full Text Available Pathologists and radiologists spend years acquiring and refining their medically essential visual skills, so it is of considerable interest to understand how this process actually unfolds and what image features and properties are critical for accurate diagnostic performance. Key insights into human behavioral tasks can often be obtained by using appropriate animal models. We report here that pigeons (Columba livia-which share many visual system properties with humans-can serve as promising surrogate observers of medical images, a capability not previously documented. The birds proved to have a remarkable ability to distinguish benign from malignant human breast histopathology after training with differential food reinforcement; even more importantly, the pigeons were able to generalize what they had learned when confronted with novel image sets. The birds' histological accuracy, like that of humans, was modestly affected by the presence or absence of color as well as by degrees of image compression, but these impacts could be ameliorated with further training. Turning to radiology, the birds proved to be similarly capable of detecting cancer-relevant microcalcifications on mammogram images. However, when given a different (and for humans quite difficult task-namely, classification of suspicious mammographic densities (masses-the pigeons proved to be capable only of image memorization and were unable to successfully generalize when shown novel examples. The birds' successes and difficulties suggest that pigeons are well-suited to help us better understand human medical image perception, and may also prove useful in performance assessment and development of medical imaging hardware, image processing, and image analysis tools.
Levenson, Richard M; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Navarro, Victor M; Wasserman, Edward A
Pathologists and radiologists spend years acquiring and refining their medically essential visual skills, so it is of considerable interest to understand how this process actually unfolds and what image features and properties are critical for accurate diagnostic performance. Key insights into human behavioral tasks can often be obtained by using appropriate animal models. We report here that pigeons (Columba livia)-which share many visual system properties with humans-can serve as promising surrogate observers of medical images, a capability not previously documented. The birds proved to have a remarkable ability to distinguish benign from malignant human breast histopathology after training with differential food reinforcement; even more importantly, the pigeons were able to generalize what they had learned when confronted with novel image sets. The birds' histological accuracy, like that of humans, was modestly affected by the presence or absence of color as well as by degrees of image compression, but these impacts could be ameliorated with further training. Turning to radiology, the birds proved to be similarly capable of detecting cancer-relevant microcalcifications on mammogram images. However, when given a different (and for humans quite difficult) task-namely, classification of suspicious mammographic densities (masses)-the pigeons proved to be capable only of image memorization and were unable to successfully generalize when shown novel examples. The birds' successes and difficulties suggest that pigeons are well-suited to help us better understand human medical image perception, and may also prove useful in performance assessment and development of medical imaging hardware, image processing, and image analysis tools.
Full Text Available Animals, including Humans, are prone to develop persistent maladaptive and suboptimal behaviours. Some of these behaviours have been suggested to arise from interactions between brain systems of Pavlovian conditioning, the acquisition of responses to initially neutral stimuli previously paired with rewards, and instrumental conditioning, the acquisition of active behaviours leading to rewards. However the mechanics of these systems and their interactions are still unclear. While extensively studied independently, few models have been developed to account for these interactions. On some experiment, pigeons have been observed to display a maladaptive behaviour that some suggest to involve conflicts between Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. In a procedure referred as negative automaintenance, a key light is paired with the subsequent delivery of food, however any peck towards the key light results in the omission of the reward. Studies showed that in such procedure some pigeons persisted in pecking to a substantial level despite its negative consequence, while others learned to refrain from pecking and maximized their cumulative rewards. Furthermore, the pigeons that were unable to refrain from pecking could nevertheless shift their pecks towards a harmless alternative key light. We confronted a computational model that combines dual-learning systems and factored representations, recently developed to account for sign-tracking and goal-tracking behaviours in rats, to these negative automaintenance experimental data. We show that it can explain the variability of the observed behaviours and the capacity of alternative key lights to distract pigeons from their detrimental behaviours. These results confirm the proposed model as an interesting tool to reproduce experiments that could involve interactions between Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. The model allows us to draw predictions that may be experimentally verified, which could help
Zentall, Thomas R; Stagner, Jessica P.
Pigeons show a preference for an alternative that provides them with discriminative stimuli (sometimes a stimulus that predicts reinforcement and at other times a stimulus that predicts the absence of reinforcement) over an alternative that provides them with non discriminative stimuli, even if the non discriminative stimulus alternative is associated with 2.5 times as much reinforcement (Stagner & Zentall, 1910). In Experiment 1 we found that the delay to reinforcement associated with the no...
Full Text Available Conventionally, agent-based modelling approaches start from a conceptual model capturing the theoretical understanding of the systems of interest. Simulation outcomes are then used “at the end” to validate the conceptual understanding. In today’s data rich era, there are suggestions that models should be data-driven. Data-driven workflows are common in mathematical models. However, their application to agent-based models is still in its infancy. Integration of real-time sensor data into modelling workflows opens up the possibility of comparing simulations against real data during the model run. Calibration and validation procedures thus become automated processes that are iteratively executed during the simulation. We hypothesize that incorporation of real-time sensor data into agent-based models improves the predictive ability of such models. In particular, that such integration results in increasingly well calibrated model parameters and rule sets. In this contribution, we explore this question by implementing a flocking model that evolves in real-time. Specifically, we use genetic algorithms approach to simulate representative parameters to describe flight routes of homing pigeons. The navigation parameters of pigeons are simulated and dynamically evaluated against emulated GPS sensor data streams and optimised based on the fitness of candidate parameters. As a result, the model was able to accurately simulate the relative-turn angles and step-distance of homing pigeons. Further, the optimised parameters could replicate loops, which are common patterns in flight tracks of homing pigeons. Finally, the use of genetic algorithms in this study allowed for a simultaneous data-driven optimization and sensitivity analysis.
Wasserman, Edward A; Brooks, Daniel I; McMurray, Bob
Might there be parallels between category learning in animals and word learning in children? To examine this possibility, we devised a new associative learning technique for teaching pigeons to sort 128 photographs of objects into 16 human language categories. We found that pigeons learned all 16 categories in parallel, they perceived the perceptual coherence of the different object categories, and they generalized their categorization behavior to novel photographs from the training categories. More detailed analyses of the factors that predict trial-by-trial learning implicated a number of factors that may shape learning. First, we found considerable trial-by-trial dependency of pigeons' categorization responses, consistent with several recent studies that invoke this dependency to claim that humans acquire words via symbolic or inferential mechanisms; this finding suggests that such dependencies may also arise in associative systems. Second, our trial-by-trial analyses divulged seemingly irrelevant aspects of the categorization task, like the spatial location of the report responses, which influenced learning. Third, those trial-by-trial analyses also supported the possibility that learning may be determined both by strengthening correct stimulus-response associations and by weakening incorrect stimulus-response associations. The parallel between all these findings and important aspects of human word learning suggests that associative learning mechanisms may play a much stronger part in complex human behavior than is commonly believed.
Swisher, Melissa; Urcuioli, Peter J.
Pigeons typically do not show evidence for symmetry in two-alternative matching-to-sample but do demonstrate this emergent relation in successive (go/no-go) matching-to-sample. Because the sample and comparison stimuli are presented in the same spatial location (viz., on one key) during successive matching training and testing, this may be one reason why pigeons pass tests for symmetry in this paradigm. To evaluate this, one group of pigeons received successive matching training with hue-sample stimuli on the center key and form-comparison stimuli on the left key of a three-key chamber. A control group was trained with all stimuli appearing on the same (left) key. Training also involved concurrent hue- and form-identity successive matching with the same spatial location arrangement as each group’s respective hue–form task. Later, nonreinforced form–hue (symmetry) probes structured in the same way as the baseline trials were given. Of the six birds in each group, five trained with different locations and two trained with constant location responded more to the reverse of baseline positive hue–form combinations than to negative ones in testing. Results confirm the prediction from Urcuioli’s (2008) theory that symmetry should emerge even with varying spatial locations, as long as functional stimuli are held constant. PMID:23703090
Shi Ying Yang; Rachit A. Saxena; Pawan L. Kulwal; Gavin J. Ash; Anuja Dubey; John D. I. Harper; Hari D. Upadhyaya; Ragini Gothalwal; Andrzej Kilian; Rajeev K. Varshney
With an objective to develop a genetic map in pigeon pea (Cajanus spp.), a total of 554 diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers showed polymorphism in a pigeon pea F2 mapping population of 72 progenies derived from an interspecific cross of ICP 28 (Cajanus cajan) and ICPW 94 (Cajanus scarabaeoides). Approximately 13% of markers did not conform to expected segregation ratio. The total number of DArT marker loci segregating in Mendelian manner was 405 with 73.1% ($P \\gt 0.001$) of DArT markers having unique segregation patterns. Two groups of genetic maps were generated using DArT markers. While the maternal genetic linkage map had 122 unique DArT maternal marker loci, the paternal genetic linkage map has a total of 172 unique DArT paternal marker loci. The length of these two maps covered 270.0 cM and 451.6 cM, respectively. These are the first genetic linkage maps developed for pigeon pea, and this is the first report of genetic mapping in any grain legume using diversity arrays technology.
Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto
This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.
Dudzic, A; Urban-Chmiel, R; Stępień-Pyśniak, D; Dec, M; Puchalski, A; Wernicki, A
1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in domestic and free-living pigeons and to evaluate the antibiotic resistance profiles. 2. The material consisted of cloacal swabs obtained from 108 homing pigeons and fresh faeces from 72 wild birds from Lublin and its vicinity. The identification of strains isolated on differential/selective media for Campylobacter spp. was carried out by MALDI-TOF and PCR. The susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in Mueller-Hinton broth. 3. A total of 35 strains of Campylobacter spp. were isolated; 27 were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 8 as Campylobacter coli. Over half of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin and streptomycin, 40% of strains were resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin and 37% isolates were resistant to amoxicillin. Resistance to two or more antibiotics was observed in all strains tested. 4. The results indicate that both domestic and free-living pigeons are reservoirs for bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, which are characterised by varied and growing resistance to commonly used antibiotics.
Krangvichain, Prathomporn; Niyomtham, Waree; Prapasarakul, Nuvee
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast that causes meningoencephalitis and deep skin dermatitis in humans and animals. A hygienic strategy using disinfectants on environmental samples can reduce the risk to the public. The objectives were to survey the distribution of C. neoformans in pigeon fecal droppings collected in 11 districts in Bangkok during 2011-2012 and to evaluate the efficacy of three commercial disinfectant products (based on potassium monopersulfate, sodium hypochlorite and quaternary ammonium compounds, respectively). These were evaluated against pure C. neoformans and yeasts resuspended in sterile pigeon feces using the dilution-neutralization method [Europäische NORM (EN) 1656]. In total, 18 of 164 (11%) samples were positive for C. neoformans. These came from only three of the 11 districts, with a prevalence of between 13-56%. Using multiplex PCR, serotype A was the sole group found. For all disinfectants, C. neoformans mixed in feces was tolerated at a higher dose and time exposure than pure isolates. The most effective disinfectant in this study was a 0.12% quaternary ammonium compound that could rapidly eradicate the yeasts mixed in feces. This finding highlights the occurrence and distribution of C. neoformans in the capital city of Thailand and the need to prolong the duration of exposure to disinfectants with pigeon feces.
Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco
Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.
Dieck Kattas, Graciano; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Small, Michael
Several models of flocking have been promoted based on simulations with qualitatively naturalistic behavior. In this paper we provide the first direct application of computational modeling methods to infer flocking behavior from experimental field data. We show that this approach is able to infer general rules for interaction, or lack of interaction, among members of a flock or, more generally, any community. Using experimental field measurements of homing pigeons in flight we demonstrate the existence of a basic distance dependent attraction/repulsion relationship and show that this rule is sufficient to explain collective behavior observed in nature. Positional data of individuals over time are used as input data to a computational algorithm capable of building complex nonlinear functions that can represent the system behavior. Topological nearest neighbor interactions are considered to characterize the components within this model. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated with simulated noisy data generated from the classical (two dimensional) Vicsek model. When applied to experimental data from homing pigeon flights we show that the more complex three dimensional models are capable of simulating trajectories, as well as exhibiting realistic collective dynamics. The simulations of the reconstructed models are used to extract properties of the collective behavior in pigeons, and how it is affected by changing the initial conditions of the system. Our results demonstrate that this approach may be applied to construct models capable of simulating trajectories and collective dynamics using experimental field measurements of herd movement. From these models, the behavior of the individual agents (animals) may be inferred.
Full Text Available Following spatial disorientation, animals can reorient themselves by relying on geometric cues (metric and sense specified both by the macroscopic surface layout of an enclosed space and prominent visual landmarks in arrays. Whether spatial reorientation in arrays of landmarks is based on explicit representation of the geometric cues is a matter of debate. Here we trained homing pigeons (Columba livia to locate a food-reward in a rectangular array of four identical or differently coloured pipes provided with four openings, only one of which allowed the birds to have access to the reward. Pigeons were trained either with a stable or a variable position of the opening on pipes, so that they could view the array either from the same or a variable perspective. Explicit mapping of configural geometry would predict successful reorientation irrespective of access condition. In contrast, we found that a stable view of the array facilitated spatial learning in homing pigeons, likely through the formation of snapshot-like memories.
McGraw, Kevin J.
Recent studies of colorful plumage signals in birds have been aided by the finding that birds can see ultraviolet (UV) light and thus may communicate using colors invisible to humans. Some of the pioneering and more pivotal work on avian color vision was performed with domestic pigeons (Columba livia), yet surprisingly there have been few detailed reports of the UV-reflecting properties of pigeon feathers. Here, I use UV-VIS fiber-optic spectrometry to document the full-spectrum reflectance characteristics of iridescent purple and green neck plumage in pigeons. Neck feathers that appear purple to the human eye exhibit four reflectance peaks-two in the UV and one in the blue and red regions-and thus exhibit a UV-purple hue. Neck feathers that appear green to the human eye are characterized by five spectral peaks: two in the UV (UVA and UVB), a predominant green peak, and secondary violet and red peaks, conferring a UV-purple-green color. Such elaborate UV coloration suggests that birds may use an even more complex and `hidden' UV signaling system than previously thought.
Walter Troy Herbranson
Full Text Available Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, with one or more line features on a single key differing between consecutive displays. Change salience was manipulated by varying the number of line features that changed on the critical response key. Results indicated that change blindness is reduced if a change is made more salient, and this matches previous human results. Furthermore, accuracy patterns indicate that pigeons’ effective search area expanded over the course of a trial to encompass a larger portion of the stimulus environment. Thus, the data indicate two important aspects of temporal cognition. First, the timing of a change has a profound influence on whether or not that change will be perceived. Second, pigeons appear to engage in a serial search for changes, in which additional time is required to search additional locations.
Gargiulo, Antonio; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Schettini, Rita; Mallardo, Karina; Calabria, Mariarosaria; Menna, Lucia Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Pagnini, Ugo; Caputo, Vincenzo; Fioretti, Alessandro; Dipineto, Ludovico
This study was aimed at evaluating the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella spp., and related virulence factors (the cdt, stx, and eae genes) in urban pigeons of the coastal area of the Campania region (southern Italy). To achieve this goal, cloacal swab samples from a total of 1800 urban pigeons were collected and subjected to culture methods, PCR, and serotyping. The results of the present study showed a prevalence of 48.3% (870/1800), 7.8% (141/1800), and 0.9% (16/1800), for C. jejuni, E. coli O157, and S. Typhimurium, respectively. All C. jejuni isolates (870/870) carried cdt genes, whereas all E. coli O157 isolates carried stx genes, and 14.9% (21/141) carried the eae gene. These findings clearly show that urban pigeons in the coastal area of the Campania region may constitute an environmental reservoir of these pathogens, thus representing a source of infection for other birds, livestock, and humans.
Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto
This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil. PMID:26887250
Full Text Available Pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1, a variant of Newcastle disease virus that primarily affects doves and pigeons has been isolated in South Africa since the mid-1980s. Phylogenetic evidence indicates that pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 viruses were introduced in to South Africa on multiple occasions, based on the presence of two separate lineages, 4bi and 4bii, that have been circulating in Europe and the Far East since the early 1990s. During 2006, a PPMV-1 virus was isolated from an African ground hornbil(l Bucorvus leadbeateri which becamea cutely infected with PPMV-1 and died, probably after scavenging off infected dove carcasses in the region, since a closely-related PPMV-1 strain was also isolated from doves collected nearby. The hornbill isolate had lCPl and MDT values characteristic of PPMV-1s trains. The threat of PPMV-1 to poultry production and biodiversity in southern Africa highlights the importance of monitoring the spread of this strain.
Wang, Ying; Ding, Jia-Tong; Yang, Hai-Ming; Yan, Zheng-Jie; Cao, Wei; Li, Yang-Bai
Monochromatic light is widely applied to promote poultry reproductive performance, yet little is currently known regarding the mechanism by which light wavelengths affect pigeon reproduction. Recently, high-throughput sequencing technologies have been used to provide genomic information for solving this problem. In this study, we employed Illumina Hiseq 2000 to identify differentially expressed genes in ovary tissue from pigeons under blue and white light conditions and de novo transcriptome assembly to construct a comprehensive sequence database containing information on the mechanisms of follicle development. A total of 157,774 unigenes (mean length: 790 bp) were obtained by the Trinity program, and 35.83% of these unigenes were matched to genes in a non-redundant protein database. Gene description, gene ontology, and the clustering of orthologous group terms were performed to annotate the transcriptome assembly. Differentially expressed genes between blue and white light conditions included those related to oocyte maturation, hormone biosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Furthermore, 17,574 SSRs and 533,887 potential SNPs were identified in this transcriptome assembly. This work is the first transcriptome analysis of the Columba ovary using Illumina technology, and the resulting transcriptome and differentially expressed gene data can facilitate further investigations into the molecular mechanism of the effect of blue light on follicle development and reproduction in pigeons and other bird species.
Full Text Available Monochromatic light is widely applied to promote poultry reproductive performance, yet little is currently known regarding the mechanism by which light wavelengths affect pigeon reproduction. Recently, high-throughput sequencing technologies have been used to provide genomic information for solving this problem. In this study, we employed Illumina Hiseq 2000 to identify differentially expressed genes in ovary tissue from pigeons under blue and white light conditions and de novo transcriptome assembly to construct a comprehensive sequence database containing information on the mechanisms of follicle development. A total of 157,774 unigenes (mean length: 790 bp were obtained by the Trinity program, and 35.83% of these unigenes were matched to genes in a non-redundant protein database. Gene description, gene ontology, and the clustering of orthologous group terms were performed to annotate the transcriptome assembly. Differentially expressed genes between blue and white light conditions included those related to oocyte maturation, hormone biosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Furthermore, 17,574 SSRs and 533,887 potential SNPs were identified in this transcriptome assembly. This work is the first transcriptome analysis of the Columba ovary using Illumina technology, and the resulting transcriptome and differentially expressed gene data can facilitate further investigations into the molecular mechanism of the effect of blue light on follicle development and reproduction in pigeons and other bird species.
Full Text Available We determined the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone on aggression, emotion, feeder control, and eating behavior in high and low aggression female pigeons maintained at 80% of their normal weight and exposed to food competition interactions. Pigeons were divided into pairs by previously ranked high aggression (total time spent in offensive aggression exceeding 60 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs and low aggression females (time spent in offensive aggression less than 10 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs. A pigeon in each pair received an sc dose of naloxone (1 mg kg-1 ml saline-1 and the other animal received the vehicle. Trials (10 min were performed 30 min after the naloxone/vehicle administration. The naloxone group of high aggression pigeons showed lower scores of total time spent in offensive aggression (control: 98.6 ± 12.0; naloxone: 46.8 ± 6.6 s; P < 0.05 and higher scores of time spent in emotional responses (control: 3.5 ± 0.6; naloxone: 10.8 ± 2.4 s; P < 0.05 than controls. The other behaviors scored, feeder control and eating behavior, were not affected in this group. The naloxone group of low aggression pigeons, however, showed higher scores of offensive aggression than their controls (5.3 ± 1.3; naloxone: 28.7 ± 8.0 s; P < 0.05. The present results suggest that opiate receptor mechanisms are implicated in offensive aggression responses in high and low aggression pigeons. However, as reported for brain 5-hydroxytryptamine manipulation and GABA-A-benzodiazepine receptor manipulation, the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist on food competition aggression in pigeons was related to their pretreatment level of aggression.
Isidoro Ayza, Marcos; Afonso, C.L.; Stanton, J.B.; Knowles, Susan N.; Ip, Hon S.; White, C. LeAnn; Fenton, Heather; Ruder, M.G.; Dolinski, A. C.; Lankton, Julia S.
Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality events in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) (ECDOs) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) (ROPIs). The investigators reviewed pathological findings of 70 naturally infected, free-ranging columbiforms from 25 different mortality events in the United States. Immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1 nucleoprotein was used to determine the tissue distribution of the virus in a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks. ECDOs (61 birds) and ROPIs (9 birds) were the only species in which PPMV-1-associated disease was confirmed by viral isolation and presence of histologic lesions. Acute to subacute tubulointerstitial nephritis and necrotizing pancreatitis were the most frequent histologic lesions, with immunolabeling of viral antigen in renal tubular epithelial cells and pancreatic acinar epithelium. Lymphoid depletion of bursa of Fabricius and spleen was common, but the presence of viral antigen in these organs was inconsistent among infected birds. Hepatocellular necrosis was occasionally present with immunolabeling of hypertrophic Kupffer cells, and immunopositive eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in hepatocytes of 1 ECDO. Immunopositive lymphocytic choroiditis was present in 1 ECDO, while lymphocytic meningoencephalitis was frequent in ROPIs in absence of immunolabeling. This study demonstrates widespread presence of PPMV-1 antigen in association with histologic lesions, confirming the lethal potential of this virus in these particular bird species.
Marcia Atauri Cardelli de Lucena
Full Text Available The use of legumes in animal production systems can be a sustainable alternative as a protein source in rotational grazing system and/or as a protein bank. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. figure as an example of success of this use on animal nutrition. The development of this species can be limited by the high acidity and low soil phosphorus content. There is a lack of scientific information on the effects of liming and phosphorus fertilization on some nutritional variables of two pigeon pea new hybrids. This study was conducted in pots containing 5 kg of soil in a greenhouse at the Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, São Paulo State. There were studied two pigeon pea hybrids, H1 and H2, and the treatments involved agronomic practices: 1 No liming and without phosphorus (control, 2 Liming (L, 3 Phosphorus fertilization (P and 4 Liming plus phosphorus. Liming was proposed to increase soil base saturation to 50%, it was used dolomite lime PRNT = 90%, in an amount corresponding to 4.5 t/ha. Phosphorus fertilization (as superphosphate rate was 60 kg/ha of PO25. The experimental units were allocated according to a complete randomised block design, with five replications. We analyzed the levels of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, in pigeon pea shoot at 45 days of age. Statistical analyzes were performed using the software SISVAR, averages were compared using test for multiple comparisons Student Newman-Keuls - SNK test (P < 0.05. The H1 hybrid had the highest content of CP, by applying P, lime plus P and the control treatment compared to H2 hybrid. The association lime plus P resulted in higher content of CP mainly due to the increased availability of P for plants. Smaller values were observed for NDF in H2 with P application. Lower values of ADF were observed in H1 in both control treatment and P application. The ADF values were lower for the hybrid H2 only for the treatment lime plus P. The two
Hagstrum, J. T.; McIsaac, H. P.; Drob, D. P.
The remarkable navigational ability of homing pigeons (Columba livia) is influenced by a number of factors, an unknown one of which causes the "Wintereffekt"1 or annual variation in homing performance. Minima in homeward orientation and return speeds have been observed in winter, with maxima in summer, during repetitive pigeon releases from single sites near experimental lofts in Wilhelmshaven, Göttingen, and Munich, Germany, and near Pisa, Italy1-4. Overall the annual variation is more pronounced in northern Germany than Italy4, and both mature and juvenile cohorts respond to this seasonal factor. Older, more experienced pigeons are better at compensating for its effects than naïve ones, but are still affected after numerous releases. The narrow low-frequency band of atmospheric background noise (microbaroms; 0.1-0.3 Hz) also varies with an annual cycle that generally has higher amplitudes in winter than in summer depending on location5. In addition, homing pigeons, and possibly other birds, apparently use infrasonic signals of similar frequency as navigational cues6, and a seasonal variation in background noise levels could cause corresponding changes in signal-to-noise ratios and thus in homing performance. The annual variation in homing performance, however, was not observed during long-term pigeon releases at two sites in eastern North America. The annual and geographic variability in homing performance in the northern hemisphere can be explained to a first order by seasonal changes in infrasonic noise sources related to ocean storm activity, and to the direction and intensity of stratospheric winds. In addition, increased dispersion in departure bearings of individual birds for some North American releases were likely caused by additional infrasonic noise associated with severe weather events during tornado and Atlantic hurricane seasons. 1Kramer, G. & von Saint Paul, U., J. Ornithol. 97, 353-370 (1956); 2Wallraff, H. G., Z. Tierpsychol. 17, 82-113 (1960
Sunday Akau Hena
Full Text Available To study the comparative morphology and morphometry of the gastrointestinal tract of the Japanese quail and pigeon, a total number of twenty birds twenty birds (comprising of ten pigeons and ten Japanese quails of both sexes were used obtained and used by the researhers. The birds were weighed, dissected and the different parts of the gastrointestinal tract located and eviscerated from which the comparative morphologic and morphometric studies were carried out. The numerical data generated were subjected to statistical analyses using the Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and GraphPad Instat statistical package, with values of P0.05, their corresponding lengths were 9.77±0.35cm and 12.46±0.99cm respectively, while the mean body weights of the quail and pigeon used in the study were 159.5±8.18g and 265±4.86g for the quail and pigeon, respectively (P>0.05. The mean weights of the proventriculus in the quail and pigeon were 0.69±0.07g and 0.54±0.09g respectively (P>0.05 and their mean lengths were 1.75±0.13cm and 1.44±0.28cm respectively; this was not considered significant relative terms. The weights and lengths of gizzard in the quail and pigeon showed different values with the ultimate conclusion that the gizzard’s weight and length were higher in the pigeon than in the quail (P0.05. The ceca in the pigeon was rudimentary in contrast to the robust type found in the quail, the weights of both the right and left ceca in the quail and pigeon were considered very significant (P The vertebrate gastrointestinal tract is a dynamic and energetically expensive organ system whose various anatomical and physiological parameters were regularly being used in clinical evaluations and for assessing dynamics of growth and associated physiological functions for normal and anomalous developments in birds, the knowledge of which will not only add to literatures in these bird types but which will also aid in understanding their biology and mode of domestication
Klimowicz, M D; Nizanski, W; Batkowski, F; Savic, M A
The aim of these experiments was to compare conventional, microscopic methods of evaluating pigeon sperm motility and concentration to those measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA system). Semen was collected twice a week from two groups of pigeons, each of 40 males (group I: meat-type breed; group II: fancy pigeon) using the lumbo-sacral and cloacal region massage method. Ejaculates collected in each group were diluted 1:100 in BPSE solution and divided into two equal samples. One sample was examined subjectively by microscope and the second one was analysed using CASA system. The sperm concentration was measured by CASA using the anti-collision (AC) system and fluorescent staining (IDENT). There were not any significant differences between the methods of evaluation of sperm concentration. High positive correlations in both groups were observed between the sperm concentration estimated by Thom counting chamber and AC (r=0.87 and r=0.91, respectively), and between the sperm concentration evaluated by Thom counting chamber and IDENT (r=0.85 and r=0.90, respectively). The mean values for CASA measurement of proportion of motile spermatozoa (MOT) and progressive movement (PMOT) were significantly lower than the values estimated subjectively in both groups of pigeons (pCASA system is very rapid, objective and sensitive method in detecting subtle motility characteristics as well as sperm concentration and is recommended for future research into pigeon semen.
Sunday Akau Hena
Full Text Available The work was aimed at comparative assessment of the weights of the heart, liver and lungs in both pigeon and quail and comparism made. In the course of this study twenty birds were used comprsing of ten quails and ten pigeons. The mean weights of the heart in the quail and pigeon were 2.38±0.25g and 2.95±0.22g respectively, this was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Statistical significant differences (P<0.05 was observed for in the liver of the quail and pigeon with a mean weights of 4.53±0.29g and 5.96±0.44g respectively. The lungs from quail and pigeon had their mean weights as 1.83±0.30g and 3.80±0.52g respectively, this was considered significant (P<0.05. The knowledge of the weights of these organs may be useful in giving insight into their anatomical and physiological adaptation which consequently could be useful in breeding programmes or as models for feed formulation and nutrient trials. The baseline data will be valuable for further pharmacological and nutritional investigations involving these organs in the two bird types.
Gagliardo, Anna; Pollonara, Enrica; Wikelski, Martin
The role of environmental olfactory information in pigeon navigation has been extensively studied by analysing vanishing bearing distributions and homing performances of homing pigeons subjected to manipulation of their olfactory perception and/or the olfactory information they were exposed to during transportation and at the release site. However, their behaviour during the homing flight remains undocumented. In this experiment we report the analysis of tracks of birds made anosmic at the release site by washing their olfactory mucosa with zinc sulfate. We thus can assess the role of local odours at the release site as well as the role of environmental odours perceived on the way, far from the release site. We observed that pigeons transported and kept at the release site in purified air and made anosmic at the release site were unable to orient towards home and were impaired at homing. By contrast, pigeons allowed to smell environmental odours during transportation and at the release site, although made anosmic prior to release, displayed unimpaired homeward orientation, but nevertheless showed impaired homing performance. These results are consistent with the view that local odours at the release site are critical for determining the direction of displacement (olfactory map) and suggest that pigeons consult the olfactory map also during their homing flight in order to be able to find their way home.
Full Text Available Background: Pigeons (Columba livia have been kept as pet and reared for food in several countries including Iran. Ectoparasites are regarded as the basic causes of retardation in growth, lowered vitality and poor conditions of the birds. Pseudolynchia canariensis a hippoboscidae fly is one of the important ectoparasites of pigeons and is responsible for the transmission of pathogens to birds and humans same as pathogenic protozoan Haemoproteus columbae.Methods: A herd of domestic pigeons contained 50 pigeons in Shahrekord, southwest Iran was evaluated clinically infested by ectoparasites. Ectoparasites were removed. The samples were collected and then referred to the Laboratory of Parasitology of Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.Results: Usin diagnostic key for diptera fly, these flies were find P. canariensis. This is a rare report of infestation of pigeons herd by P. canariensis in Iran. The infestation rate was 40% that rate of infestation in pipers was more than females and in females was more than males.Conclusion: The rate of infested pipers was more than adults that maybe the less potential of pipers in removing of ectoparasites is reason of this higher rate.
Laude, Jennifer R; Pattison, Kristina F; Rayburn-Reeves, Rebecca M; Michler, Daniel M; Zentall, Thomas R
Pigeons given a simultaneous spatial discrimination reversal, in which a single reversal occurs at the midpoint of each session, consistently show anticipation prior to the reversal as well as perseveration after the reversal, suggesting that they use a less effective cue (time or trial number into the session) than what would be optimal to maximize reinforcement (local feedback from the most recent trials). In contrast, rats (Rattus norvegicus) and humans show near-optimal reversal learning on this task. To determine whether this is a general characteristic of mammals, in the present research, pigeons (Columba livia) and dogs (Canis familiaris) were tested with a simultaneous spatial discrimination mid-session reversal. Overall, dogs performed the task more poorly than pigeons. Interestingly, both pigeons and dogs employed what resembled a timing strategy. However, dogs showed greater perseverative errors, suggesting that they may have relatively poorer working memory and inhibitory control with this task. The greater efficiency shown by pigeons with this task suggests they are better able to time and use the feedback from their preceding choice as the basis of their future choice, highlighting what may be a qualitative difference between the species.
Baron, Danielle M; Ramirez, Alejandro J; Bulitko, Vadim; Madan, Christopher R; Greiner, Ariel; Hurd, Peter L; Spetch, Marcia L
Visiting multiple locations and returning to the start via the shortest route, referred to as the traveling salesman (or salesperson) problem (TSP), is a valuable skill for both humans and non-humans. In the current study, pigeons were trained with increasing set sizes of up to six goals, with each set size presented in three distinct configurations, until consistency in route selection emerged. After training at each set size, the pigeons were tested with two novel configurations. All pigeons acquired routes that were significantly more efficient (i.e., shorter in length) than expected by chance selection of the goals. On average, the pigeons also selected routes that were more efficient than expected based on a local nearest-neighbor strategy and were as efficient as the average route generated by a crossing-avoidance strategy. Analysis of the routes taken indicated that they conformed to both a nearest-neighbor and a crossing-avoidance strategy significantly more often than expected by chance. Both the time taken to visit all goals and the actual distance traveled decreased from the first to the last trials of training in each set size. On the first trial with novel configurations, average efficiency was higher than chance, but was not higher than expected from a nearest-neighbor or crossing-avoidance strategy. These results indicate that pigeons can learn to select efficient routes on a TSP problem.
Ladawan Sariya; Phirom Prompiram; Siriporn Tangsudjai; Kanaporn Poltep; Tatiyanuch Chamsai; Chalisa Mongkolphan; Kamolphan Rattanavibul; Verachai Sakdajivachareon
Objective:To detect and characterizeChlamydophila psittaci(C. psittaci) in asymptomatic feral pigeons in centralThailand.Methods:A total814 swabs from the trachea and cloacae of407 non-clinical feral pigeons in centralThailand were collected and tested for the presence ofC. psittaci.Results:A10.8% of feral pigeons in the sample group were positive as determined by nestedPCR primer specific toC. psittaci.The outer membrane proteinA(ompA) gene of positive samples exhibited amino acid identity ofC. psittaci ranging from71 to100% and were grouped in genotypeB.Exceptionally,BF1676-56 isolate was closely related toChlamydia avium with 99% identification of the16S ribosomal(r)RNA gene.Conclusions:This is the first report onC. psittaci isolated from asymptomatic feral pigeons inThailand, which provides knowledge for the disease status in pigeon populations inThailand.
Dell'ariccia, Gaia; Dell'omo, Giacomo; Lipp, Hans-Peter
Flight experience is one of the factors that influences initial orientation of displaced homing pigeons (Columba livia). Prior studies showed a systematic dependence of initial orientation on previously flown direction. Using GPS data loggers, this study sought to examine the effect of previous directional training of 40 homing pigeons when they were released over the sea, in the absence of proximal landmarks, in a direction almost perpendicular to that of previous training flights. Our results demonstrated that previous directional training evoked a systematic and predicted deviation from the beeline over the sea that appeared as a compromise between the direction of training and the direction to the loft. Pigeons were able to efficiently correct their flight direction only once over land, where they flew significantly slower and less directly than over the sea.
Sunday Akau Hena
Full Text Available This study was concerned with the comparative evaluation of the morphologic and morphometric parameters of the lower respiratory tract of Japanese quail and that of pigeon. In the course of this work twenty birds (ten pigeons and ten Japanese quails of both sexes were purchased from a poultry market in Sokoto metroplis, Sokoto, Nigeria and used. It was observed in this study that the lower respiratory tract extended from the caudal part of the oral cavity (around the larynx down to the neck and to the thoracic region. The lower respiratory tract structures were the trachea (including the syrinx, the bronchus and the lungs. In the study, all the birds used were adults with mean body weight of 159.51±8.19g and 265.78±4.88g for the Japanese quail and pigeon respectively, this was considered extremely significant (P
Coppola, Vincent J; Kanyok, Nate; Schreiber, Austin J; Flaim, Mary E; Bingman, Verner P
The mammalian hippocampus is particularly susceptible to age-related structural changes, which have been used to explain, in part, age-related memory decline. These changes are generally characterized by atrophy (e.g., a decrease in volume and number of synaptic contacts). Recent studies have reported age-related spatial memory deficits in older pigeons similar to those seen in older mammals. However, to date, little is known about any co-occurring changes in the aging avian hippocampal formation (HF). In the current study, it was found that the HF of older pigeons was actually larger and contained more neurons than the HF of younger pigeons, a finding that suggests that the pattern of structural changes during aging in the avian HF is different from that seen in the mammalian hippocampus. A working hypothesis for relating the observed structural changes with spatial-cognitive decline is offered.
Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Pigeons are potential resources of spreading many zoonotic pathogens such as Salmonella and avian influenza.Therefore the presence of these species of birds which was exposed with human population would result in spreading of Salmonellosis and avian influenza within people. One of the prominent characteristics of religious places is the presence of pigeons, so pilgrims and service providers are highly exposed to these birds and their feces. Pigeons as reservoir of these agents would transmit these diseases to pilgrims and public as a whole. Materials and methods: In this survey which was conducted in 2009,cloaca swabs and blood samples of 220 pigeons were taken in the holy shrine of Fatima Masooma.Serum samples were examined with haemagglutination inhibition test by using H7, H5 and H9N2 antigens and cloaca swabs were cultivated to detect salmonella spp. Results: It was founded that none of the serum samples had antibodies titers against H5 and H7 antigens.However in 2 cases (1/8%,1 and 3 titers of antibodies were detected against H9N2. Moreover, none of feces’ samples were positive in salmonella culture. Conclusion: Because these pigeons haven’t had any history of influenza vaccination, the low titers of antibodies against this virus could represent infection by wild virus. Although the results of cultivating feces were negative,however because of the presence of Iranian and foreign pilgrims in the holy shrine and the important role of pigeons in maintenance and transmission of these pathogens, health and hygiene controls must be considered for the population of these birds as a reservoir of potential infection.
Ferman, L. M.
Full Text Available A population of feral pigeons, Columba livia var. was conducted in the city of Jena, Germany, from July to December 2007. Daily censuses were conducted by walking ten transects in a selected area of the city, five transects in built up areas and five in the suburbs. Pigeon population density was higher in urban areas than in suburbs but differences were not significant. Main behavioural activities recorded were resting, preening, flying, eating, sunning and roosting. Regular locations of activities were rooftops and roof edges in urban areas, and rooftops, eaves on balconies in suburban areas. The plumage phenotype most frequently recorded in both areas was Blue bar.
Dare, Kunle; Akin-Ajani, Dorothy O; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Itiola, Oludele A; Odusote, Omotunde M
A study has been made of the effects of pigeon pea starch obtained from the plant Cajanus cajan (L) Millisp. (family Fabaceae) and plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of Musa paradisiaca L. (family Musaceae) on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets in comparison with official corn starch BP. Analysis of compressional properties was done by using density measurements, and the Heckel and Kawakita equations, whereas the mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated by using tensile strength (T--a measure of bond strength) and brittle fracture index (BFI--a measure of lamination tendency). The ranking for the mean yield pressure, P(y), for the formulations containing the different starches was generally corn plantain starch while the ranking for P(k), an inverse measure of the amount of plasticity, was pigeon pea plantain starch, which indicated that formulations containing corn starch generally exhibited the fastest onset of plastic deformation, whereas those formulations containing pigeon pea starch exhibited the highest amount of plastic deformation during tableting. The tensile strength of the tablets increased with increase in concentration of the starches while the Brittle Fracture Index decreased. The ranking for T was pigeon pea > plantain > corn starch while the ranking for BFI was corn > plantain > pigeon pea starch. The bonding capacity of the formulations was in general agreement with the tensile strength results. The disintegration time (DT) of the formulation increased with concentration of plantain and corn starches but decreased with concentration of pigeon pea starch. The general ranking of DT values was plantain starch. Notably, formulations containing pigeon pea starch exhibited the highest bond strength and lowest brittleness, suggesting the usefulness of pigeon pea starch in producing strong tablets with minimal lamination tendency. Plantain starch, on the other hand, would be more
Kouddane, N; Mouhir, L; Fekhaoui, M; Elabidi, A; Benaakame, R
The concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn were investigated in the blood of pigeons (Columba livia) in order to assess the degree of pollution by heavy metal. For this, wild city pigeons were caught at four different locations in Mohammedia classified according to their industrial activity and road traffic density. Significant difference in heavy metal concentrations were observed between sites studied, the highest lead and cadmium levels were found in industrial area and center town, while the highest zinc level was found in the less contaminated area. These results indicate that the industrial activities and the road traffic are the most important source of pollution.
Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the clinical effects of ketamine, diazepam and a ketamine and diazepam combination in the general anaesthesia of pigeons. Thirty-two pigeons of both sexes with body weights ranging from 280 g to 300 g were allocated randomly to four groups comprising eight birds each. Group D received a 0.5 mL mixture of diazepam (0.2 mg/kg and normal saline, group K a 0.5 mL mixture of ketamine 5% (30 mg/kg and normal saline, group D, group KD a 0.5 mL mixture of ketamine 5% (10 mg/kg, diazepam (0.2 mg/kg and normal saline, whilst group C (control received 0.5 mL of normal saline only. Each mixture was administered intramuscularly.Under standard operating room conditions, general anaesthesia was not observed in group C (normal saline alone. In group D, sedation and muscle relaxation without complete loss of consciousness was observed. Induction time of anaesthesia in group KD was significantly quicker than group K (p 0.05. The birds in group KD were calm and sedated, with good muscle relaxation, whilst in group K the birds were excited and showed a drop in body temperature.According to the results of this study, the combination of low dose ketamine hydrochloride (HCL and diazepam overcame the adverse effects of ketamine alone. This combination produced a more rapid induction of anaesthesia, as well as an increase in anaesthesia duration, with good muscle relaxation and a smooth and slow recovery. Use of a combination of ketamine HCL given at 10 mg/kg and diazepam given at 0.2 mg/kg for anaesthesia in pigeons is therefore recommended.
Berg, Angela M; Biewener, Andrew A
Takeoff and landing are critical phases in a flight. To better understand the functional importance of the kinematic adjustments birds use to execute these flight modes, we studied the wing and body movements of pigeons (Columba livia) during short-distance free-flights between two perches. The greatest accelerations were observed during the second wingbeat of takeoff. The wings were responsible for the majority of acceleration during takeoff and landing, with the legs contributing only one-quarter of the acceleration. Parameters relating to aerodynamic power output such as downstroke amplitude, wingbeat frequency and downstroke velocity were all greatest during takeoff flight and decreased with each successive takeoff wingbeat. This pattern indicates that downstroke velocity must be greater for accelerating flight to increase the amount of air accelerated by the wings. Pigeons used multiple mechanisms to adjust thrust and drag to accelerate during takeoff and decelerate during landing. Body angle, tail angle and wing plane angles all shifted from more horizontal orientations during takeoff to near-vertical orientations during landing, thereby reducing drag during takeoff and increasing drag during landing. The stroke plane was tilted steeply downward throughout takeoff (increasing from -60+/-5 deg. to -47+/-1 deg.), supporting our hypothesis that a downward-tilted stroke plane pushes more air rearward to accelerate the bird forward. Similarly, the stroke plane tilted upward during landing (increasing from -1+/-2 deg. to 17+/-7 deg.), implying that an upward-tilted stroke plane pushes more air forward to slow the bird down. Rotations of the stroke plane, wing planes and tail were all strongly correlated with rotation of the body angle, suggesting that pigeons are able to redirect aerodynamic force and shift between flight modes through modulation of body angle alone.
Giladi, I; Goldstein, D L; Pinshow, B; Gerstberger, R
We examined urinary water loss and plasma levels of arginine vasotocin (AVT) in free-flying, tippler pigeons trained to fly continuously for up to 5 h. First, we used [3H]polyethyleneglycol ([3H]PEG) as a glomerular filtration marker by implanting an osmotic minipump into each bird. In two flights (10 birds in winter at an ambient temperature of 13-15 degrees C and seven in summer at 23 degrees C), we measured pre-flight (hydrated, resting control birds) and post-flight [3H]PEG activity and osmolality in blood and ureteral urine. For comparison, we measured these variables in 10 birds in winter before and after controlled dehydration (24 h at 25 or 30 degrees C). Second, we measured plasma levels of AVT in 6-8 birds before and immediately after each of three different summer flights. Urine osmolality increased significantly by up to three times the control level in both post-flight and dehydrated pigeons; urine:plasma osmolality ratios did not exceed 2. Compared with controls, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was significantly lower after flight in summer, but did not change in either post-flight or dehydrated winter pigeons. In winter, mean post-flight urine flow rate (UFR) decreased significantly to less than half the control level, while in summer, post-flight UFR did not differ from control levels. In general, mean filtered water reabsorption (FrH2O) increased from 95 % in controls to 98 % in post-flight and dehydrated birds. Plasma levels of AVT increased after flight to between three and eight times the preflight levels. The data from this first study of kidney function during flight are consistent with previous studies of dehydration in birds and exercise in mammals in which both increased FrH2O and decreased GFR contribute to renal conservation of water.
Full Text Available We investigated the effects of hippocampal lesions with ibotenic acid (IBO on the memory of the sound-context-shock association during reexposure to the conditioning context. Twenty-nine adult pigeons were assigned to a non-lesioned control group (CG, N = 7, a sham-lesioned group (SG, N = 7, a hippocampus-lesioned experimental group (EG, N = 7, and to an unpaired nonlesioned group (tone-alone exposure (NG, N = 8. All pigeons were submitted to a 20-min session in the conditioning chamber with three associations of sound (1000 Hz, 85 dB, 1 s and shock (10 mA, 1 s. Experimental and sham lesions were performed 24 h later (EG and SG when EG birds received three bilateral injections (anteroposterior (A, 4.5, 5.25 and 7.0 of IBO (1 µl and 1 µg/µl and SG received one bilateral injection (A, 5.25 of PBS. The animals were reexposed to the training context 5 days after the lesion. Behavior was videotaped for 20 min and analyzed at 30-s intervals. A significantly higher percent rating of immobility was observed for CG (median, 95.1; range, 79.2 to 100.0 and SG (median, 90.0; range, 69.6 to 95.0 compared to EG (median, 11.62; range, 3.83 to 50.1 and NG (median, 7.33; range, 6.2 to 28.1 (P<0.001 in the training context. These results suggest impairment of contextual fear in birds who received lesions one day after conditioning and a role for the hippocampus in the modulation of emotional aversive memories in pigeons.
Niese, Robert L; Tobalske, Bret W
For centuries, naturalists have suggested that the tonal elements of pigeon wing sounds may be sonations (non-vocal acoustic signals) of alarm. However, spurious tonal sounds may be produced passively as a result of aeroelastic flutter in the flight feathers of almost all birds. Using mechanistic criteria emerging from recent work on sonations, we sought to: (1) identify characteristics of rock pigeon flight feathers that might be adapted for sound production rather than flight, and (2) provide evidence that this morphology is necessary for in vivo sound production and is sufficient to replicate in vivo sounds. Pigeons produce tonal sounds (700±50 Hz) during the latter two-thirds of each downstroke during take-off. These tones are produced when a small region of long, curved barbs on the inner vane of the outermost primary feather (P10) aeroelastically flutters. Tones were silenced in live birds when we experimentally increased the stiffness of this region to prevent flutter. Isolated P10 feathers were sufficient to reproduce in vivo sounds when spun at the peak angular velocity of downstroke (53.9-60.3 rad s(-1)), but did not produce tones at average downstroke velocity (31.8 rad s(-1)), whereas P9 and P1 feathers never produced tones. P10 feathers had significantly lower coefficients of resultant aerodynamic force (CR) when spun at peak angular velocity than at average angular velocity, revealing that production of tonal sounds incurs an aerodynamic cost. P9 and P1 feathers did not show this difference in CR These mechanistic results suggest that the tonal sounds produced by P10 feathers are not incidental and may function in communication.
Graciano Dieck Kattas
Full Text Available Several models of flocking have been promoted based on simulations with qualitatively naturalistic behavior. In this paper we provide the first direct application of computational modeling methods to infer flocking behavior from experimental field data. We show that this approach is able to infer general rules for interaction, or lack of interaction, among members of a flock or, more generally, any community. Using experimental field measurements of homing pigeons in flight we demonstrate the existence of a basic distance dependent attraction/repulsion relationship and show that this rule is sufficient to explain collective behavior observed in nature. Positional data of individuals over time are used as input data to a computational algorithm capable of building complex nonlinear functions that can represent the system behavior. Topological nearest neighbor interactions are considered to characterize the components within this model. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated with simulated noisy data generated from the classical (two dimensional Vicsek model. When applied to experimental data from homing pigeon flights we show that the more complex three dimensional models are capable of simulating trajectories, as well as exhibiting realistic collective dynamics. The simulations of the reconstructed models are used to extract properties of the collective behavior in pigeons, and how it is affected by changing the initial conditions of the system. Our results demonstrate that this approach may be applied to construct models capable of simulating trajectories and collective dynamics using experimental field measurements of herd movement. From these models, the behavior of the individual agents (animals may be inferred.
Johnston, Melissa; Anderson, Catrona; Colombo, Michael
Four birds were trained on a delayed matching-to-sample task with common outcomes where correct responses during both red and green trials yielded reward. We recorded neuronal activity from the avian nidopallium caudolaterale, the avian equivalent of the mammalian prefrontal cortex, and the avian nidopallium frontolaterale, a higher-order visual processing region. In both regions we found sustained activity during the delay period of both red and green trials. These findings provide the first evidence that delay activity in the pigeon's nidopallium caudolaterale and nidopallium frontolaterale represent a neural correlate for the to-be-remembered sample stimulus. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available A paramyxovirus with a thermostability of 60 min (typical of velogenic viruses and a mean death time of > 90 h (typical of lentogenic viruses was isolated from layers near Mooi River, South Africa. Our results, based on comparative nucleotide sequence data indicated that the virus is pigeon paramyxovirus 1 (PPMV-1, a variant of Newcastle disease virus. The F0 cleavage site contains a 112RRKKRF117 motif, and the virus had 98 % sequence identity with PPMV-1 strains from the Far East. PPMV-1 was last reported in South Africa during the 1980s, with this being the first report of PPMV-1 isolated from chickens in South Africa.
Herbranson, Walter T; Davis, Eva T
Change blindness is a phenomenon in which even obvious changes in a visual scene may go unnoticed. Recent research has indicated that this phenomenon may not be exclusive to humans. Two experiments investigated change blindness in pigeons, using a variant of the widely-used flicker task to investigate the influence of display timing on change blindness. Results indicate that the duration of time during which a stimulus display is visible influences change detection accuracy, with the effect due to additional search time. The results are discussed in relation to the value of comparative cognition and cross-species investigations of behavior.
Hagstrum, J. T.; Baker, L. M.; Spritzer, J. M.; McKenna, M. H.
Pigeons (Columba livia) released at distant sites commonly depart in directions significantly off the actual homeward bearing. Such site-dependent deviations, or biases, for birds from a given loft are generally stable over time, but can also change from hour to hour, day to day, and year to year. At some release sites, birds consistently vanish in random directions and have longer flight times and lower return rates. Release sites characterized by frequent disorientation are not uncommon for pigeon lofts in both Europe and the USA. One such site is the Jersey Hill fire tower in upstate New York located ~120 km W of the Cornell loft in Ithaca. Cornell birds released at Jersey Hill between 1968 and 1987 almost always vanished randomly, although birds from other lofts had little difficulty orienting there. The results for one day, however, stand out: on August 13, 1969, Cornell birds released at Jersey Hill vanished consistently to the NE (r = 0.921; n=7) and returned home after normal flight times. Cornell pigeons released the next day again showed 'normal' behavior for the site and departed randomly. If, in fact, the birds are using acoustic cues to navigate, the long-term acoustic 'dead' zone we propose for Jersey Hill, due to prevailing atmospheric conditions, indicates that the cues are coming from a single, relatively restricted area, most likely surrounding the home loft. We have modeled the transmission of infrasonic waves, presumably coupled to the atmosphere from ocean-generated microseisms (0.14 Hz), between the Cornell loft and a number of release sites using HARPA (Hamiltonian Acoustic Ray-tracing Program for the Atmosphere) and rawinsonde data collected near Albany and Buffalo, NY. The HARPA modeling shows that acoustic signals from the Cornell loft reached Jersey Hill only on a few release days with unusual atmospheric conditions, including August 13, and were launched at angles less than ~2° above horizontal, most likely from steep-sided terrain in
Ecco, R; Luppi, M M; Malta, M C C; Araújo, M R; Guedes, R M C; Shivaprasad, H L
This report describes an outbreak of acute pulmonary sarcocystosis in different species of captive psittacines and in a Luzon bleeding-heart pigeon (Gallicolumba luzonica) in a zoological collection in Brazil. A majority of the birds were found dead and had exhibited no previous clinical signs. Grossly, pulmonary congestion and edema were the most-common findings. Enlarged and congested livers and spleens were also frequently observed. Microscopically, there was edema, fibrin exudation, congestion, and perivascular and interstitial lymphoplasmacytic infiltration associated with numerous sinuous schizonts of Sarcocystis sp. in the lungs. Mild to moderate myocarditis, hepatitis, splenitis, and interstitial nephritis were also observed in the birds. Immunohistochemistry confirmed Sarcocystis sp. in the capillaries of lungs, hearts, livers, and spleens of most of the birds, but also in the pancreas, kidney, intestine, proventriculus, and brain of a few birds. The probable source of Sarcocystis sp. in these birds was the wild opossum (Didelphis albiventris), a common inhabitant of a local forest that surrounds the Belo Horizonte Zoo (Fundação Zoo-Botânica). This is the first documentation of Sarcocystis infection in psittacines and a pigeon from Brazil.
Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Pritsos, Chris A
Access to water along a bird's migratory flyway is essential during the vital process of migration. Because of the scarcity of water in some environments, there is potential for migratory birds to encounter and drink from contaminated bodies of water. Ingestion of contaminated water may cause injury and compromise flying ability, leading to a disruption of migration. To determine injury to birds from potential exposure, it is essential to not only know the concentration of a given contaminant in the water but also the quantity and rate of water consumption by the birds. Homing pigeons (Columba livia) were used in a series of experiments to determine differences in drinking behavior after various flights and after periods of resting. Results from this study demonstrate that homing pigeons' water consumption is dramatically different when assessed according to activity, flight distance, and time elapsed after flight. This suggests that the drinking rates of birds during migration are extremely important and much greater than estimated using traditional exposure assessment procedures. Thus, exposure to contaminants via drinking water may be greatly underestimated and the rate of water consumption should be considered when estimating potential exposure risk to avian species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
MANEESHA; KAILASH C. UPADHYAYA
Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), an important legume crop is predominantly cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Africa. It is normally considered to have a low degree of genetic diversity, an impediment in undertaking crop improvement programmes.We have analysed genetic polymorphism of domesticated pigeon pea germplasm (47 accessions) across the world using earlier characterized panzee retrotransposon-based molecularmarkers. Itwas conjectured that since retrotransposons are interspersed throughout the genome, retroelements-based markers would be able to uncover polymorphism possibly inherent in the diversity of retroelement sequences. Two PCR-based techniques, sequence-specific amplified polymorphism (SSAP) and retrotransposon microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) were utilized for the analyses.We show that a considerable degree of polymorphism could be detected using these techniques. Three primer combinations in SSAP generated 297 amplified products across 47 accessionswith an average of 99 amplicons per assay. Degree of polymorphism varied from 84–95%. In the REMAP assays, the number of amplicons was much less but up to 73% polymorphism could be detected. On the basis of similarity coefficients, dendrograms were constructed. The results demonstrate that the retrotransposon-based markers could serve as a better alternative for the assessment of genetic diversity in crops with apparent low genetic base.
Tan, Lavinia; Hackenberg, Timothy D
Pigeons' demand and preference for specific and generalized tokens was examined in a token economy. Pigeons could produce and exchange different colored tokens for food, for water, or for food or water. Token production was measured across three phases, which examined: (1) across-session price increases (typical demand curve method); (2) within-session price increases (progressive-ratio, PR, schedule); and (3) concurrent pairwise choices between the token types. Exponential demand curves were fitted to the response data and accounted for over 90% total variance. Demand curve parameter values, Pmax , Omax and α showed that demand was ordered in the following way: food tokens, generalized tokens, water tokens, both in Phase 1 and in Phase 3. This suggests that the preferences were predictable on the basis of elasticity and response output from the demand analysis. Pmax and Omax values failed to consistently predict breakpoints and peak response rates in the PR schedules in Phase 2, however, suggesting limits on a unitary conception of reinforcer efficacy. The patterns of generalized token production and exchange in Phase 3 suggest that the generalized tokens served as substitutes for the specific food and water tokens. Taken together, the present findings demonstrate the utility of behavioral economic concepts in the analysis of generalized reinforcement.
Gull, Jessica M; Saveraid, Travis C; Szabo, David; Hatt, Jean-Michel
Bone plates are rarely used in avian fracture management for several reasons, and until recently, there was no plating system considered appropriate for use in birds with a body mass less than 500 g. To evaluate 3 different miniplate systems in avian fracture repair, 3 groups (A, B, and C) of 6 pigeons (Columba livia) each were used. The left ulna and radius of the pigeons were transected, and the ulna was stabilized. In group A, a 1.3-mm adaption plate was used. In group B, a limited contact system was created with washers that were placed between a 1.3-mm adaption plate and the bone. The intention was to reduce the compression of the periosteum and vascular damage to the bone. In group C, a 1.0-mm maxillofacial miniplate was used. Healing was evaluated with radiographs after 14 and 28 days. A flight test was conducted on day 28; the birds were then euthanatized, and the wing was dissected. Birds in group A with the adaptation plate achieved the best flight results (100%). In group B birds, no effect of the limited contact concept was visible at necropsy, and a high percentage of the screws had loosened, leading to failure (33%). The maxillofacial miniplates of group C birds were too weak and bent (100%). These results indicate that the adaption plate 1.3 met the desired requirements. To improve the system, further trials, with smaller drill bits and with screws having a smaller thread pitch, are recommended.
Full Text Available The Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWN is a central preganglionic parasympathetic cell group that gives rise to cholinergic input to the ciliary ganglion, thereby regulating several neurovegetative ocular functions. Recently, the supposed presence of the neuropeptide urocortin (UCN has been reported in EWN neurons in rodent brain. The purpose of the present study was to examine the distribution of UCN in avian brain and to investigate by immunohistochemical analysis the possible use of this substance as an EWN marker in a non-mammalian class of vertebrates. Brain tissue of pigeons was incubated with a specific antibody against UCN and the results showed labeling of many small neurons, forming a double wing in the dorsal mesodiencephalic transition area. Their size and shape, however, differed from those of EWN neurons, and they were preferentially located rostral to the EWN. Double-label experiments employing an antibody against the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT showed that UCN is not localized to the cholinergic cells of the EWN and confirmed the rostral distributionof UCN never overlapping the ChAT+ EWN cells. Taken together, these results suggest that, at least in pigeons, the UCN+ population does not belong to the traditionally defined EWN.
Thomas Alexander Daniel
Full Text Available The current study examined whether pigeons could learn to use abstract concepts as the basis for conditionally switching behavior as a function of time. Using a mid-session reversal task, experienced pigeons were trained to switch from matching-to-sample (MTS to non-matching-to-sample (NMTS conditional discriminations within a session. One group had prior training with MTS, while the other had prior training with NMTS. Over training, stimulus set size was progressively doubled from 3 to 6 to 12 stimuli to promote abstract concept development. Prior experience had an effect on the initial learning at each of the set sizes but by the end of training there were no group differences, as both groups showed similar within-session linear matching functions. After acquiring the 12-item set, abstract-concept learning was tested by placing novel stimuli at the beginning and end of a test session. Prior matching and non-matching experience affected transfer behavior. The matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both the matching and non-matching portion of the sessions using a matching rule. The non-matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both portions of the session using a non-matching rule. The representations used as the basis for mid-session reversal of the conditional discrimination behaviors and subsequent transfer behavior appears to have different temporal sources. The implications for the flexibility and organization of complex behaviors are considered.
Cowan, Melinda Lee; Martin, Graeme Bruce; Monks, Deborah Jane; Johnston, Stephen Douglas; Doneley, Robert James Tyson; Blackberry, Margaret Anne
Veterinary practitioners frequently encounter disorders of the reproductive system in avian patients. Management of these disorders relies on manipulating reproduction by modifying the environment, diet, and social interactions, and by the use of pharmacologic agents and surgery, with varying levels of success and side effects. An alternative is to use the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist deslorelin to suppress the pituitary-gonadal axis. To determine the efficacy of deslorelin in domestic pigeons (Columba livia), male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) birds each were implanted intramuscularly with a single long-acting implant containing 4.7 mg deslorelin. Untreated males (n = 11) and females (n = 10) were used as controls. The baseline serum concentration of luteinizing hormone (LH) was assayed at 7, 28, 56, and 84 days after treatment, and egg production was recorded weekly. In females, deslorelin administration significantly reduced serum LH concentrations compared to pretreatment levels at 7, 28, 56, and 84 days (P < .05). In males, deslorelin significantly reduced LH concentrations at 7, 28, and 56 days (P < .05). Female birds treated with deslorelin laid significantly fewer eggs over the course of the study (mean = 1.46, SEM = 0.84) compared with controls (mean = 5.54, SEM = 0.88). Deslorelin treatment had no discernible effect on body weight. Deslorelin is effective for controlling egg laying in female pigeons for at least 49 days, but further research is required to determine the effects on male fertility and the duration of action in both sexes.
Full Text Available We used delay-interval interference to investigate the nature of the differential outcomes effect (DOE in pigeons. Birds were trained on a delayed matching-to-sample (DMS task under either common outcome or differential outcome conditions, and then presented with visual interference during the delay period. Consistent with previous literature, the common outcomes birds were slower to learn the DMS task than the differential outcomes birds. The common outcome birds were also more impaired by the visual interference than the differential outcomes birds. Our findings are consistent with the view that the birds trained with common outcomes were likely remembering the sample stimulus during the delay period, and hence were disrupted by the visual interference, whereas the birds trained with differential outcomes were likely relying on the different emotional reactions elicited by the different outcomes to guide their choice behaviour, and hence were less affected by the visual interference. Our findings suggest that the DOE is not truly evidence of anticipatory mediation of short-term retention in pigeons, but rather emotionally driven decision making, which is not truly anticipatory in nature.
H. S. Al-Bakry
Full Text Available The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul city during 2005-2007. In addition, the work aimed to investigate the effects of possible relationships between age, sex, season of the year, weight and health status on the incidence of the disease. Three species of pigeons were included viz, stock dove (Columba oenas, rock mountain dove (C. livia, and collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto.Examination of 250, 200 and 40 doves of the three fore–mentioned groups of birds indicated prevalence rates of 22%, 17.5% and 10%, for the three species, respectively. High infection rates were reported in squabs of all birds of the three groups. Regarding the effect of sex on the infection rate, the results revealed high percentage of infection were seen in male stock doves and female rock doves in comparison with their counterparts, however similar rates were observed in both sexes of collared doves. Also, it was found that there was an impact of season of the year on the prevalence rates of the parasite, so the infection was increased in spring and winter more than other seasons, for all birds studied. Depending upon our findings, factors such as body weight and health status have no effects on incidence of the disease.
Watts, Isobel; Pettit, Benjamin; Nagy, Máté; de Perera, Theresa Burt; Biro, Dora
In societies that make collective decisions through leadership, a fundamental question concerns the individual attributes that allow certain group members to assume leadership roles over others. Homing pigeons form transitive leadership hierarchies during flock flights, where flock members are ranked according to the average time differences with which they lead or follow others' movement. Here, we test systematically whether leadership ranks in navigational hierarchies are correlated with prior experience of a homing task. We constructed experimental flocks of pigeons with mixed navigational experience: half of the birds within each flock had been familiarized with a specific release site through multiple previous releases, while the other half had never been released from the same site. We measured the birds' hierarchical leadership ranks, then switched the same birds' roles at a second site to test whether the relative hierarchical positions of the birds in the two subsets would reverse in response to the reversal in levels of experience. We found that while across all releases the top hierarchical positions were occupied by experienced birds significantly more often than by inexperienced ones, the remaining experienced birds were not consistently clustered in the top half—in other words, the network did not become stratified. We discuss our results in light of the adaptive value of structuring leadership hierarchies according to ‘merit’ (here, navigational experience). PMID:26909176
Atoji, Yasuro; Wild, J Martin
Although olfaction in birds is known to be involved in a variety of behaviors, there is comparatively little detailed information on the olfactory brain. In the pigeon brain, the olfactory bulb (OB) is known to project to the prepiriform cortex (CPP), piriform cortex (CPi), and dorsolateral corticoid area (CDL), which together are called the olfactory pallium, but centrifugal pathways to the OB have not been fully explored. Fiber connections of CPi and CDL have been reported, but those of other olfactory pallial nuclei remain unknown. The present study examines the fiber connections of OB and CPP in pigeons to provide a more detailed picture of their connections using tract-tracing methods. When anterograde and retrograde tracers were injected in OB, projections to a more extensive olfactory pallium were revealed, including the anterior olfactory nucleus, CPP, densocellular part of the hyperpallium, tenia tecta, hippocampal continuation, CPi, and CDL. OB projected commissural fibers to the contralateral OB but did not receive afferents from the contralateral olfactory pallium. When tracers were injected in CPP, reciprocal ipsilateral connections with OB and nuclei of the olfactory pallium were observed, and CPP projected to the caudolateral nidopallium and the limbic system, including the hippocampal formation, septum, lateral hypothalamic nucleus, and lateral mammillary nucleus. These results show that the connections of OB have a wider distribution throughout the olfactory pallium than previously thought and that CPP provides a centrifugal projection to the OB and acts as a relay station to the limbic system.
Thalau, Peter; Holtkamp-Rötzler, Elke; Fleissner, Gerta; Wiltschko, Wolfgang
An experimental group of homing pigeons ( Columba livia f. domestica) learned to associate food with a magnetic anomaly produced by bar magnets that were fixed to the bowl in which they received their daily food ration in their home loft; the control group lacked this experience. Both groups were trained to search for two hidden food depots in a rectangular sand-filled arena without obvious visual cues; for the experimental birds, these depots were also marked with three 1.15 × 106 μT bar magnets. During the tests, there were two food depots, one marked with the magnets, the other unmarked; their position within the arena was changed from test to test. The experimental birds searched within 10 cm of the magnetically marked depot in 49% of the test sessions, whereas the control birds searched there in only 11% of the sessions. Both groups searched near the control depot in 11 and 13% of the sessions, respectively. The significant preference of the magnetically marked food depot by the experimental birds shows that homing pigeons cannot only detect a magnetic anomaly but can also use it as a cue for locating hidden food in an open arena.
Biro, Dora; Meade, Jessica; Guilford, Tim
We utilised precision Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking to examine the homing paths of pigeons (Columba livia) released 20 times consecutively 25 km from the loft. By the end of the training phase, birds had developed highly stereotyped yet individually distinct routes home, with detailed recapitulation evident at each stage of the journey. Following training, birds also participated in a series of releases from novel sites at perpendicular distances of up to 3 km from their established routes. Results showed that subjects were attracted back to their established routes and recapitulated them from the point of contact. Naïve conspecifics (yoked controls) released from the same off-route sites confirmed that the experienced birds' route choices were not influenced by constraints exerted by terrain features, but that increased experience with the general area conferred a homing advantage in the form of more efficient flight tracks, even from these novel sites. Patterns in the paths taken by experienced birds to rejoin their established routes are discussed with reference to navigational mechanisms employed by homing pigeons in their familiar area.
Kouwenhoven, Marijn; Colombo, Michael
We used delay-interval interference to investigate the nature of the differential outcomes effect (DOE) in pigeons. Birds were trained on a delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task under either common outcome or differential outcome conditions, and then presented with visual interference during the delay period. Consistent with previous literature, the common outcomes birds were slower to learn the DMS task than the differential outcomes birds. The common outcome birds were also more impaired by the visual interference than the differential outcomes birds. Our findings are consistent with the view that the birds trained with common outcomes were likely remembering the sample stimulus during the delay period, and hence were disrupted by the visual interference, whereas the birds trained with differential outcomes were likely relying on the different emotional reactions elicited by the different outcomes to guide their choice behaviour, and hence were less affected by the visual interference. Our findings suggest that the DOE is not truly evidence of anticipatory mediation of short-term retention in pigeons, but rather emotionally driven decision making, which is not truly anticipatory in nature.
Bouchard, Julie; Goodyer, William; Lefebvre, Louis
When animals show both frequent innovation and fast social learning, new behaviours can spread more rapidly through populations and potentially increase rates of natural selection and speciation, as proposed by A.C. Wilson in his behavioural drive hypothesis. Comparative work on primates suggests that more innovative species also show more social learning. In this study, we look at intra-specific variation in innovation and social learning in captive wild-caught pigeons. Performances on an innovative problem-solving task and a social learning task are positively correlated in 42 individuals. The correlation remains significant when the effects of neophobia on the two abilities are removed. Neither sex nor dominance rank are associated with performance on the two tasks. Free-flying flocks of urban pigeons are able to solve the innovative food-finding problem used on captive birds, demonstrating it is within the range of their natural capacities. Taken together with the comparative literature, the positive correlation between innovation and social learning suggests that the two abilities are not traded-off.
Nardi, Daniele; Mauch, Roseanne J; Klimas, Diana B; Bingman, Verner P
Terrain slope provides a directional frame of reference for reorientation and navigation, similar to cardinal directions. Previous studies have shown that, in a goal location task, slope is a very salient cue and that pigeons tend to rely on it even if it is not the most informative cue. Such a strong dependence on one type of information, when there are more effective predictors of reward, is a key premise for a modular view of information processing. Here we tested the provocative hypothesis of a "slope module" for reorientation in slanted environments. Pigeons had to solve a goal location task using slope or another, theoretically salient cue: a beacon feature. Overall, searching behavior was controlled almost equally by the two cues. The fact that, for the first time, slope failed to capture most of the associative strength allows us to reject a strong modularity view and suggests instead that there is competition between cues based on salience. As an interesting additional finding, the reliance on slope and the feature was affected by training location (uphill vs. downhill), suggesting the possibility of a modulatory role of effort on the cue-weighting mechanism of reorientation. 2012 APA, all rights reserved
Daniel, Thomas A; Cook, Robert G; Katz, Jeffrey S
The current study examined whether pigeons could learn to use abstract concepts as the basis for conditionally switching behavior as a function of time. Using a mid-session reversal task, experienced pigeons were trained to switch from matching-to-sample (MTS) to non-matching-to-sample (NMTS) conditional discriminations within a session. One group had prior training with MTS, while the other had prior training with NMTS. Over training, stimulus set size was progressively doubled from 3 to 6 to 12 stimuli to promote abstract concept development. Prior experience had an effect on the initial learning at each of the set sizes but by the end of training there were no group differences, as both groups showed similar within-session linear matching functions. After acquiring the 12-item set, abstract-concept learning was tested by placing novel stimuli at the beginning and end of a test session. Prior matching and non-matching experience affected transfer behavior. The matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both the matching and non-matching portion of the sessions using a matching rule. The non-matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both portions of the session using a non-matching rule. The representations used as the basis for mid-session reversal of the conditional discrimination behaviors and subsequent transfer behavior appears to have different temporal sources. The implications for the flexibility and organization of complex behaviors are considered.
Igaki, T; Sakagami, T
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the relation between resistance to change and preference. Four pigeons responded in concurrent chained schedules in which variable-interval (VI) 60-s schedules were arranged in the initial link. In Experiment 1, VI and fixed-interval (FI) schedules of equal mean reinforcement rates were arranged in the terminal link. Response rates were higher in the initial link leading to VI terminal link. Under the prefeeding test, the initial-link response rates leading to VI terminal link were more resistant to change than were those leading to FI terminal link, but under the extinction test there were no consistent differences between the two initial-link response rates. In Experiment 2, FI value of the terminal link was manipulated so that pigeons maintained approximately equal responding in the initial link. The two initial-link response rates showed equal resistance to change under the prefeeding and extinction tests. Thus, the data suggest that although the use of extinction as a manipulation to study resistance to change is questioned, resistance to change and preference are different measures of a single object.
Spetch, M L
Overshadowing in landmark learning was studied in pigeons and undergraduates using a touch-screen spatial search task. Ss searched for an unmarked goal presented in varied locations on a computer screen. Graphic stimuli served as landmarks. The effect of the presence of other landmarks on the control acquired by a given landmark was assessed using a design in which each S was trained with 2 sets of landmarks. Both pigeons (Experiment 1) and humans (Experiments 2-4) showed evidence of learning more about a landmark that was the closest landmark of its set to the goal than about a landmark that was of equal distance to the goal but was not the closest landmark of its set. That is, control by a landmark was overshadowed when it occurred together with a landmark that was closer to the goal. Landmark effectiveness appears to depend not only on the absolute properties of a landmark but on relative factors. The relevance of basic principles of associative learning to spatial landmark learning is discussed.
Laura C. Okpala
Full Text Available Cookies were produced from blends of germinated pigeon pea, fermented sorghum and cocoyam flours. The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of varying the proportions of these components on the sensory and protein quality of the cookies. The sensory attributes studied were colour, taste, texture, crispiness and general acceptability while the protein quality indices were Biological Value (BV and Net Protein Utilization (NPU. Mixture response surface methodology was used to model the sensory and protein quality with single, binary and ternary combinations of germinated pigeon pea, fermented sorghum and cocoyam flours. The sum of the component proportions was always equal to 100%. Results showed that BV and NPU of most of the cookies were above minimum recommended levels. With the exception of cookies containing high levels of pigeon pea flour, cookies had acceptable sensory scores. Increase in pigeon pea flour resulted in increase in the BV and NPU. Regression equations suggested that the ternary blends produced the highest increase in all the sensory attributes (with the exception of colour.
Nooruzzaman, M; Mazumder, A C; Khatun, S; Chowdhury, E H; Das, P M; Islam, M R
Two Bangladeshi isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), one from a chicken and one from a pigeon, were characterized in this study. Pathogenicity of the isolates was evaluated on the basis of intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI). Both the isolates were found to be of velogenic pathotype having ICPI of 1.83 and 1.51 for the chicken and pigeon isolate, respectively. Genotype of the isolates was determined by phylogenetic analysis based on partial F gene sequences. A 766-bp genome fragment spanning partial M and F gene was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. The first 354 bp of the coding region of F gene and corresponding deduced amino acid sequences (residues 1-118) of these two NDV isolates were aligned with that of other NDV strains retrieved from GenBank. A phylogenetic tree constructed from the alignment showed that the chicken isolate (BD-C162) belonged to the newly described genotype XIII and the pigeon isolate (BD-P01) to genotype VI. Both the chicken and pigeon isolates possessed a virulent-like fusion protein cleavage site (112) RRQKRF(117) . © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Mora, Cordula V; Walker, Michael M
How homing pigeons (Columba livia) return to their loft from distant, unfamiliar sites has long been a mystery. At many release sites, untreated birds consistently vanish from view in a direction different from the home direction, a phenomenon called the release-site bias. These deviations in flight direction have been implicated in the position determination (or map) step of navigation because they may reflect local distortions in information about location that the birds obtain from the geophysical environment at the release site. Here, we performed a post hoc analysis of the relationship between vanishing bearings and local variations in magnetic intensity using previously published datasets for pigeons homing to lofts in Germany. Vanishing bearings of both experienced and naïve birds were strongly associated with magnetic intensity variations at release sites, with 90 per cent of bearings lying within +/-29 degrees of the magnetic intensity slope or contour direction. Our results (i) demonstrate that pigeons respond in an orderly manner to the local structure of the magnetic field at release sites, (ii) provide a mechanism for the occurrence of release-site biases and (iii) suggest that pigeons may derive spatial information from the magnetic field at the release site that could be used to estimate their current position relative to their loft.
Stagner, Jessica P.; Laude, Jennifer R.; Zentall, Thomas R.
When pigeons are given a choice between two alternatives, one leading to a stimulus 20% of the time that always signals reinforcement (S+) or another stimulus 80% of the time that signals no reinforcement (S-), and the other alternative leading to one of two stimuli each signaling reinforcement 50% of the time, they show a strong preference for…
Botman, J; Gabriel, F; Dugdale, A H A; Vandeweerd, J-M
The objective of the study was to determine the minimal anaesthetic concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane (SEVO) in pigeons and investigate the effects of 1 MAC SEVO anaesthesia on cardiovascular and respiratory variables compared with the awake state. This is a prospective, experimental study. Animals were seven healthy adult pigeons. After acclimatisation to handling, heart rate (HR), heart rhythm, respiratory rate (fR), end-expired carbon dioxide tension (PE'CO2), inspired CO2 tension, indirect systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) and cloacal temperature were measured to determine baseline, 'awake' values. Pigeons were then anaesthetised with SEVO and MAC was determined by the 'bracketing' method. The same variables were monitored during a 40 minute period at 1.0 MAC SEVO for each bird. Mean MAC was 3.0±0.6 per cent for SEVO. During maintenance of anaesthesia at 1.0 MAC, SAP decreased significantly (Pawake PE'CO2 values were unexpectedly low. Sinus arrhythmias were detected in two birds under SEVO anaesthesia. The times to tracheal intubation and to recovery were 2.5±0.7 and 6.4±1.7 minutes, respectively. Recovery was rapid and uneventful in all birds. In conclusion, SEVO is suitable for anaesthesia in pigeons. British Veterinary Association.
Cai, Fayme; Calisi, Rebecca M
Human-induced rapid environmental change has created a global pandemic of neurobehavioral disorders in which industrial compounds like lead are the root cause. We assessed the feral pigeon (Columba livia) as a lead bioindicator in New York City. We collected blood lead level records from 825 visibly ill or abnormally behaving pigeons from various NYC neighborhoods between 2010 and 2015. We found that blood lead levels were significantly higher during the summer, an effect reported in children. Pigeon blood lead levels were not significantly different between years or among neighborhoods. However, blood lead levels per neighborhood in Manhattan were positively correlated with mean rates of lead in children identified by the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene as having elevated blood lead levels (>10 μg/dl). We provide support for the use of the feral pigeon as a bioindicator of environmental lead contamination for the first time in the U.S. and for the first time anywhere in association with rates of elevated blood lead levels in children. This information has the potential to enable measures to assess, strategize, and potentially circumvent the negative impacts of lead and other environmental contaminants on human and wildlife communities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
de Oliveira Torres Carrasco, Adriano; Seki, Meire Christina; de Freitas Raso, Tânia; Paulillo, Antônio Carlos; Pinto, Aramis Augusto
The aim of this study was to evaluate the humoral antibody response, the genome viral excretion and the contact transmission of pathogenic chicken origin Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from experimentally infected pigeons (Columba livia) to in-contact pigeon. The antibody response to infection was assessed by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and the genome viral excretion was detected by RT-PCR. Viral strain induced high antibody levels, both in inoculated and in sentinel birds. The pathogenic viral strain for chickens was unable to produce clinical signs of the disease in experimentally infected pigeons, although it induced the humoral antibody response and produced NDV genome shedding. NDV genome was detected intermittently throughout the experimental period, from 5 days post-infection (dpi) to 24 dpi. Therefore, viral genome shedding occurred for 20 days. The viral genome was detected in all birds, between 11 and 13 dpi. Furthermore, the high infectivity of the virus was confirmed, as all non-inoculated sentinel pigeons showed antibody levels as high as those of inoculated birds.
Portero-Otín, Manel; Requena, Jesús R; Bellmunt, Maria Josep; Ayala, Victoria; Pamplona, Reinald
What are the mechanisms determining the rate of animal aging? Of the two major classes of endothermic animals, bird species are strikingly long-lived compared to similar size mammalian counterparts. Since oxidative stress is causally related to the basic aging process, markers of different kinds of oxidative damage to proteins (glutamic semialdehyde, aminoadipic semialdehyde, N(epsilon)-(carboxyethyl)lysine; N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, N(epsilon)-(malondialdehyde)lysine and dinitrophenylhydrazyne-reactive protein carbonyls, peptidase activities of the proteasome, and amino acid and membrane fatty acyl composition were identified and measured in skeletal muscle from the short-lived rat (maximum life span, 4 years) and compared with the long-lived pigeon (maximum life span, 35 years). Skeletal muscle from pigeon showed significantly higher levels of glutamic semialdehyde, protein carbonyls (by western blot), N(epsilon)-(carboxyethyl)lysine and N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine. No differences were observed for aminoadipic semialdehyde, whereas the lipoxidation marker N(epsilon)-(malondialdehyde)lysine displayed a significant low steady-state level, probably related with their significantly lower membrane unsaturation. The amino acid compositional analysis revealed that arginine, serine, threonine and methionine showed significantly lower levels in pigeon. Finally, pigeon samples showed also significantly lower levels of the peptidase activities of the proteasome. These results reinforces the role of structural components such as membrane unsaturation and protein composition in determining the longer maximum life span showed by birds compared with mammals of similar body size.
Pettit, Benjamin; Flack, Andrea; Freeman, Robin; Guilford, Tim; Biro, Dora
For animals that travel in groups, the directional choices of conspecifics are potentially a rich source of information for spatial learning. In this study, we investigate how the opportunity to follow a locally experienced demonstrator affects route learning by pigeons over repeated homing flights. This test of social influences on navigation takes advantage of the individually distinctive routes that pigeons establish when trained alone. We found that pigeons learn routes just as effectively while flying with a partner as control pigeons do while flying alone. However, rather than learning the exact route of the demonstrator, the paired routes shifted over repeated flights, which suggests that the birds with less local experience also took an active role in the navigational task. The efficiency of the original routes was a key factor in how far they shifted, with less efficient routes undergoing the greatest changes. In this context, inefficient routes are unlikely to be maintained through repeated rounds of social transmission, and instead more efficient routes are achieved because of the interaction between social learning and information pooling.
McMillan, Neil; Kirk, Chelsea R; Roberts, William A
Pigeons (Columba livia) produce many anticipatory and perseverative errors on discrimination tasks with a reversal of reward contingencies partway through the session. Prior comparative research has suggested that rats (Rattus norvegicus) do not show the same number of errors and produce results that more closely resemble those of humans. We examined pigeons' performance on a visual-spatial discrimination with the reversal point randomized within the session and found that they showed remarkably few errors. When these subjects were split into groups with the contingencies for reward unconfounded, the birds in the spatial-contingency group maintained their performance, and those in the visual-contingency group made many more anticipatory and perseverative errors. We also examined the performance of naïve pigeons on a spatial midsession reversal task and found a pattern of results similar to those shown by pigeons that had previously been trained on a visual-spatial reversal procedure. Finally, we studied rats on a T-maze using a spatial-discrimination midsession reversal task and found that the rats showed a large number of anticipatory and perseverative errors. Near-perfect performance on the midsession reversal task appears to be subject to the ability of the animal to orient spatially during the intertrial interval, rather than being due to broad species differences.
Urcuioli, Peter J; Swisher, Melissa J
Stimulus class formation is inferred when conditional discrimination training yields new (emergent) conditional relations between the training stimuli. The present experiments demonstrated two such relations in pigeons after successive matching-to-sample training. Experiment 1 showed that transitivity (AC matching) emerged after training on AB and BC arbitrary matching plus BB identity matching: pigeons responded relatively more to the comparisons on AC test trials in which both the A samples and C comparisons were elements of reinforced arbitrary baseline relations involving the same nominal B stimulus. Experiment 2 showed the opposite effect ("anti-transitivity") after training on the same arbitrary relations but with BB oddity instead: pigeons responded relatively more to the comparisons on AC test trials in which the A sample was an element of a reinforced baseline relation and the C comparison was an element of a non-reinforced baseline relation, or vice versa. Experiment 2 also showed that AB and BC training alone generally does not yield an emergent effect. These findings extend the range of emergent phenomena observed in non-human animals and are consistent with predictions from Urcuioli's (2008) theory of pigeons' stimulus class formation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
UZMA F. DURRANI, M. ARIF KHAN1 AND S. SALEEM AHMAD
Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare the synergistic efficacy of detomidine, ketamine and their cocktail in pigeons (Columba livia. For this study, 15 adult and healthy pigeons were divided into three equal groups A, B and C. Birds of groups A and B were intramuscularly administered detomidine and ketamine @ 1.4 and 60 mg/kg b. wt., respectively. Pigeons of group C received detomidine + Ketamine cocktail @ 0.7 and 30 mg/kg b. wt. Induction of sedation and anaesthesia was smooth in all groups. Mean duration of induction was 11.1 + 2.03, 11.0 + 1.49 and 1.6 + 0.48 minutes in groups A, B, C, respectively. In groups A and B, smooth but light sedation and anaesthesia were observed accompanied by superficial analgesia, while in group C, birds showed deep anaesthesia alongwith deep analgesia. Birds in groups A and C elicited hypothermia, respiratory depression and bradycardia till complete recovery, while group B showed hyperthermia and tachycardia with rapid respiration. In group A, sedation persisted for 54.2 + 21.82 minutes and mean recovery period was 49.9 + 5.91 minutes, while groups B and C had anaesthesia for 47.7 + 8.06 and 103.5 + 27.52 minutes, and recovery periods were 52.6 + 9.64 and 61.3 + 17.26 minutes, respectively. Recovery was rough in group B and smooth in groups A and C. It was concluded that in pigeons, detomidine (alone is safe for handling and for least painful procedures, while detomidine-ketamine cocktail is safe as intramuscular anaesthetic for major surgical procedures. However, ketamine is not a good anaesthetic to be used alone in pigeons.
Cordula V Mora
Full Text Available It has long been thought that birds may use the Earth's magnetic field not only as a compass for direction finding, but that it could also provide spatial information for position determination analogous to a map during navigation. Since magnetic field intensity varies systematically with latitude and theoretically could also provide longitudinal information during position determination, birds using a magnetic map should be able to discriminate magnetic field intensity cues in the laboratory. Here we demonstrate a novel behavioural paradigm requiring homing pigeons to identify the direction of a magnetic field intensity gradient in a "virtual magnetic map" during a spatial conditioning task. Not only were the pigeons able to detect the direction of the intensity gradient, but they were even able to discriminate upward versus downward movement on the gradient by differentiating between increasing and decreasing intensity values. Furthermore, the pigeons typically spent more than half of the 15 second sampling period in front of the feeder associated with the rewarded gradient direction indicating that they required only several seconds to make the correct choice. Our results therefore demonstrate for the first time that pigeons not only can detect the presence and absence of magnetic anomalies, as previous studies had shown, but are even able to detect and respond to changes in magnetic field intensity alone, including the directionality of such changes, in the context of spatial orientation within an experimental arena. This opens up the possibility for systematic and detailed studies of how pigeons could use magnetic intensity cues during position determination as well as how intensity is perceived and where it is processed in the brain.
Full Text Available Recently, several studies have demonstrated that pigeon is an important reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of this pathogen in urban pigeons in the city of Napoli. The sampling was carried out during the period November 2005/July 2006. The city was subdivided in 56 quadrants by Geographical Information System. Each quadrant was analysed three times. From each quadrant, 3 pigeons were analysed by cloacal swabs. A total of 504 cloacal swabs was obtained. We isolated four E. coli O157:H7 strains. By multiplex PCR, all strains carried eae and stx2 genes, whereas only one strain carried the stx1 gene. 2/4 isolated strains carried hly gene which is considered a hallmark of human pathogenic strains. Our results indicate that pigeon faces are a source of E. coli O157:H7 for birds, mammals and humans.
Átilla Holanda de Albuquerque
Full Text Available Several cases of animal and human salmonellosis caused by the Salmonella serotype Typhimurium have been reported. In animals, subclinical infection favors pathogen dissemination through feces. In this context, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia with an asymptomatic condition may play an important role in the transmission of salmonellosis, through the elimination of contaminated feces in commercial aviaries or in poultry feed facilities, causing economic losses to the poultry industry and presenting a risk to public health. This study aimed to evaluate the mortality, clinical signs and the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in the feces and organs of chicks previously inoculated with bacteria isolated from a pigeon. One-day-old chicks were distributed in two experimental groups (G1 and G2 of 32 birds each, and a control group of six birds. Two inocula of 0.4 and 0.7 mL with 105 and 106 colony forming units were used in G1 and G2 birds, respectively. At 1, 4, 7 and 14 days post-inoculation (dpi fecal samples were pooled from each cage and individual cloacal swabs were collected. At 14 dpi, all chicks were euthanized and samples were collected from the liver, spleen, lung, cecum and intestine for microbiological analysis. Mortality was only observed among G2 birds (6.25%. Most birds presented clinical signs of diarrhea at 4 dpi and no symptom as observed at 14 dpi. The results from cloacal swabs demonstrated bacterial elimination in 68.8% and 53.1% of G2 and G1 birds, respectively at 1 dpi. Additionally, fecal samples had elevated bacterial shedding in all four periods of observation , with a higher excretion at 4 dpi (62.5% for both groups. Among G2 birds, 74.2% were positive for the pathogen in the intestine; G1 birds presented the lowest rate of lung infection (29%, and both groups had more than 50% positivity for liver and caeca. The results revealed that infected chicks with a Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from pigeons may host the
Pandey, Jitendra Kumar; Dubey, Gunjan; Gopal, R
Pigeon pea is one of the most important legume crops in India and dimethoate is a widely used insecticide in various crop plants. We studied the effect of dimethoate on growth and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea plants over a short and long term exposure. Plant growth parameters, photosynthetic pigment content and chlorophyll fluorescence response of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) plants treated with various concentrations of the insecticide dimethoate (10, 20, 40 and 80 ppm) have been compared for 30 days at regular intervals of 10 days each. Laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence spectra and fluorescence-induction kinetics (FIK) curve of dimethoate treated pigeon pea plants were recorded after 10, 20 and 30 days of treatment. Fluorescence intensity ratio at the two fluorescence maxima (F685/F730) was calculated by evaluating curve-fitted parameters. The variable chlorophyll fluorescence decrease ratio (Rfd) was determined from the FIK curves. Our study revealed that after 10 days of treatment, 10 ppm of dimethoate showed stimulatory response whereas 20, 40 and 80 ppm of dimethoate showed inhibitory response for growth and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea plants, but after 20 and 30 days of treatment all the tested concentrations of dimethoate became inhibitory. This study clearly shows that dimethoate is highly toxic to the pigeon pea plant, even at very low concentration (10 ppm), if used for a prolonged duration. Our study may thus be helpful in determining the optimal dose of dimethoate in agricultural practices.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Owls are known for their silent flight. Even though there is some information available on the mechanisms that lead to a reduction of noise emission, neither the morphological basis, nor the biological mechanisms of the owl's silent flight are known. Therefore, we have initiated a systematic analysis of wing morphology in both a specialist, the barn owl, and a generalist, the pigeon. This report presents a comparison between the feathers of the barn owl and the pigeon and emphasise the specific characteristics of the owl's feathers on macroscopic and microscopic level. An understanding of the features and mechanisms underlying this silent flight might eventually be employed for aerodynamic purposes and lead to a new wing design in modern aircrafts. Results A variety of different feathers (six remiges and six coverts, taken from several specimen in either species, were investigated. Quantitative analysis of digital images and scanning electron microscopy were used for a morphometric characterisation. Although both species have comparable body weights, barn owl feathers were in general larger than pigeon feathers. For both species, the depth and the area of the outer vanes of the remiges were typically smaller than those of the inner vanes. This difference was more pronounced in the barn owl than in the pigeon. Owl feathers also had lesser radiates, longer pennula, and were more translucent than pigeon feathers. The two species achieved smooth edges and regular surfaces of the vanes by different construction principles: while the angles of attachment to the rachis and the length of the barbs was nearly constant for the barn owl, these parameters varied in the pigeon. We also present a quantitative description of several characteristic features of barn owl feathers, e.g., the serrations at the leading edge of the wing, the fringes at the edges of each feather, and the velvet-like dorsal surface. Conclusion The quantitative
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Optimization of symbiosis between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and legumes has been extensively studied, seeking agricultural sustainability. To evaluate the symbiotic efficiency of nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains belonging to the Bradyrhizobium genus with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. cv. Fava-Larga, experiments were conducted in Leonard jars (axenic conditions, pots with soil, and in the field. Ten strains were tested in Leonard jars, and three strains, in addition to BR 29, were selected according to their ability to promote the growth of pigeon pea, for further tests in pots with different soil types (Inceptsol and Oxisol and in the field (Oxisol. Treatments were compared with strains BR 2003 and BR 2801 (approved as inoculants for pigeon pea, with a non-inoculated control with mineral N fertilization, and with another non-inoculated control (absolute control with low mineral N concentration (Leonard jars or without mineral N fertilization (soil. The efficiency of Bradyrhizobium strains in axenic conditions varies among strains, being higher when pigeon pea cv. Fava-Larga establishes symbiosis with the strains UFLA 03-320, UFLA 03-321, UFLA 04-212, BR 2801, and BR 2003. The soil type influences the symbiotic efficiency of Bradyrhizobium-pigeon pea in soil in the greenhouse, mainly in Inceptsol, in which strains UFLA 04-212, BR 2801, and BR 2003 increased N accumulation in the plant. The strain UFLA 03-320 increased shoot dry matter and N accumulation in the shoot equivalent to the mineral N treatment under field conditions. UFLA 03-320, BR 29, UFLA 03-321, and UFLA 04-212 promoted yields similar to those of the reference strain (BR 2801, and of the mineral N treatment with 70 kg ha-1 urea-N. These results confirm that pigeon pea establishes efficient symbiosis, which provides the N required for its growth. All strains, except for BR 2003, show potential for recommendation as inoculants for grain production. The strain UFLA 03
Full Text Available Nuclear DNA content for the adult plants grown in a greenhouse and in vitro young plantlets of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. was analyzed using flow cytometry. The resulting 2C DNA values ranged from 2.30±0.14 pgto 2.43±0.06 pg. However, nuclear DNA ploidy levels of long-term in vitro plantlets were found to be triploid and tetraploid.These ploidy levels were confirmed by chromosome counting. Tetraploid individuals (2n = 4x = 76 had approximately two times DNA content than diploid (2n = 2x = 38 individuals. This variation may be due to prolonged cultivation and thepresence of exogenous plant growth regulators.
Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A
We studied the dimensional nature of same-different discrimination behavior in pigeons. Birds first learned to discriminate between simultaneously presented displays of 16 identical items (Same arrays) and 16 nonidentical items (Different arrays), conditional on the color of the background. After discrimination mastery, we tested the birds with Mixture arrays comprising both identical and nonidentical items. Accuracy increased and reaction time decreased as the disparity in entropy (a measure of variability) between the arrays increased. As well, within each entropy disparity level, lower entropy values were more discriminable than higher entropy values. These results accord with a logarithmic relation between entropy and discriminative behavior and, thus, with the idea that the discrimination of Same from Different arrays follows Weber's Law.
Wada, Yoshiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Satoru
Still now several hypotheses about the mechanisms of the caloric nystagmus have been in conclusive. In this study we confirmed the convection effect and the volume change effect of the endolymph in horizontal semicircular canal following the caloric stimulation using pigeons ( Columba livia). Although the direction of the caloric nystagmus depended on the head position and the stimulus site of calorization, the caloric nystagmus disappeared after plugging of horizontal semicircular canal. On the other hand, the ampulla pressure increased by cold calorization and decreased by hot calorization and these pressure changes had no relation to the head position. These results show that the main role of the mechanisms of the caloric nystagmus under 1G is the convection effect but the volume change effect may act on the caloric nystagmus not only under 1G but also under microgravity.
The analogy between artificial selection of domestic varieties and natural selection in nature was a vital element of Darwin's argument in his Origin of Species. Ever since, the image of breeders creating new varieties by artificial selection has served as a convincing illustration of how the theory works. In this paper I argue that we need to reconsider our understanding of Darwin's analogy. Contrary to what is often assumed, nineteenth-century animal breeding practices constituted a highly controversial field that was fraught with difficulties. It was only with considerable effort that Darwin forged his analogy, and he only succeeded by downplaying the importance of two other breeding techniques - crossing of varieties and inbreeding - that many breeders deemed essential to obtain new varieties. Part of the explanation for Darwin's gloss on breeding practices, I shall argue, was that the methods of his main informants, the breeders of fancy pigeons, were not representative of what went on in the breeding world at large. Darwin seems to have been eager to take the pigeon fanciers at their word, however, as it was only their methods that provided him with the perfect analogy with natural selection. Thus while his studies of domestic varieties were important for the development of the concept of natural selection, the reverse was also true: Darwin's comprehension of breeding practices was moulded by his understanding of the working of natural selection in nature. Historical studies of domestic breeding practices in the eighteenth and nineteenth century confirm that, besides selection, the techniques of inbreeding and crossing were much more important than Darwin's interpretation allowed for. And they still are today. This calls for a reconsideration of the pedagogic use of Darwin's analogy too.
Snoeck, Chantal J; Adeyanju, Adeniyi T; Owoade, Ademola A; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Alkali, Bello R; Ottosson, Ulf; Muller, Claude P
In West and Central Africa, virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains of the recently identified genotypes XIV, XVII, and XVIII are enzootic in poultry, representing a considerable threat to the sector. The increasing number of reports of virulent strains in wild birds at least in other parts of the world raised the question of a potential role of wild birds in the spread of virulent NDV in sub-Saharan Africa as well. We investigated 1,723 asymptomatic birds sampled at live-bird markets and sites important for wild-bird conservation in Nigeria and 19 sick or dead wild birds in Côte d'Ivoire for NDV class I and II. Typical avirulent wild-type genotype I strains were found in wild waterfowl in wetlands in northeastern Nigeria. They were unrelated to vaccine strains, and the involvement of inter- or intracontinental migratory birds in their circulation in the region is suggested. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that genotype VI strains found in pigeons, including some putative new subgenotype VIh and VIi strains, were introduced on multiple separate occasions in Nigeria. A single virulent genotype XVIII strain was found in a dead wild bird in Côte d'Ivoire, probably as a result of spillover from sick poultry. In conclusion, screening of wild birds and pigeons for NDV revealed the presence a variety of virulent and avirulent strains in West Africa but did not provide strong evidence that wild birds play an important role in the spread of virulent strains in the region.
Raiff, Bethany R; Bullock, Christopher E; Hackenberg, Timothy D
Four pigeons responded on a two-component multiple token-reinforcement schedule, in which tokens were produced according to a random-interval 30-sec schedule and exchanged according to a variable-ratio 4 schedule in both components. To assess the effects of contingent token loss, tokens were removed after every second response (i.e., fixed-ratio 2 loss) in one of the components. Response rates were selectively lower in the loss components relative to baseline (no-loss) conditions, as well as to the within-condition no-loss components. Response rates were decreased to a greater degree in the presence of tokens than in their absence. To control for the effects of changes in the density of token and food reinforcement, two parts consisted of additional conditions where food density and token loss were yoked to those in a previous loss condition. In the yoked-food condition, tokens were produced as usual in both components, but the overall density of food reinforcement in one of the components was yoked to that obtained during a previous token-loss condition. In the yoked token-loss condition, tokens were removed during one component of the multiple schedule at a rate that approximately matched the obtained rate of loss from a previous token-loss condition. Response rates in these yoked components were less affected than those in comparable loss components, despite similar densities of token, exchange, and food reinforcement. On the whole, the results support the conclusion that contingent token loss serves as an effective punisher with pigeons.
Ullah, Ihsan; Subhan, Fazal; Rudd, John A; Rauf, Khalid; Alam, Javaid; Shahid, Muhammad; Sewell, Robert D E
Nausea and vomiting are the most distressing and common side effects of cancer chemotherapy which often result in patient noncompliance. In the present study, standardized methanolic and n-butanolic fractions of Bacopa monnieri were evaluated against cisplatin-induced emesis in the pigeon in relation to their activity on central and intestinal neurotransmitters levels. Cisplatin (7.0 mg/kg, i. v.) induced reproducible emesis without lethality in healthy pigeons. The methanolic (10-40 mg/kg) and the bacoside-rich n-butanolic fractions of B. monnieri (5-20 mg/kg), as well as the antioxidant N-(2-mercaptopropionyl) glycine (10 mg/kg), attenuated cisplatin-induced emesis by 66.3% (p bacoside-rich n-butanolic fractions might be a valuable adjunct in the treatment of emetogenic chemotherapy, and this warrants further study in other models of emesis.
Barboza, Yasmina; Márquez, Enrique; Parra, Katynna; Piñero, M Patricia; Medina, Luis M
The purpose of this study was to investigate the survival of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 in creams, prepared with pigeon peas and oat. Products were analysed to determine their content of protein, fibre, fat, carbohydrates and degree of likeness. Viable numbers of L. reuteri and pH were determined after 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 4°C. Results showed significant differences (P 0.05) were found on sensory quality between control and creams with L. reuteri. After 28 days, the cell viability was above 7 log cfu/g in all creams. L. reuteri ATCC 55730 had the highest viability in cream with 40% pigeon pea and 20% oat (8.16 log cfu/g). In conclusion, due to its acceptability and highly nutritious value, the product could be used so as to support the growth of L. reuteri.
Tangwattanachuleeporn, Marut; Somparn, Poorichaya; Poolpol, Kulwara; Gross, Uwe; Weig, Michael; Bader, Oliver
The prevalence of cerebral meningitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans in HIV-infected patients in Eastern Thailand is high. However, little is known about the occurrence of this pathogenic yeast in the environment of this region. The aim of our study was to characterize the prevalence of C. neoformans, its serotypes and antifungal drug susceptibilities in environmental isolates from Chon Buri, Eastern Thailand. C. neoformans was isolated from 10% of fifty pigeon excreta examined from this province. All C. neoformans isolates were of serotype A and although the isolates displayed slightly decreased susceptibility towards fluconazole, all tested sensitive to amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole. This study is the first report of the occurrence of C. neoformans in pigeon excreta in eastern Thailand.
肖泉; 付煜西; 胡婧; 高洪峰; 王书荣
The present study describes the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its antagonists, bicuculline and 2-hydroxysaclofen, on visual responses of neurons in the pigeon nucleus lentiformis mesencephali (nLM). The results indicate that GABA significantly reduces both spontaneous activity and visual responsiveness, and GABAA antagonist bicuculline but not GABAB antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen enhances visual responses of nLM cells examined. Furthermore, inhibition produced by motion in the null-direction of pretectal neurons is diminished by bicuculline but not by 2-hydroxysaclofen. It is therefore concluded that the null-direction inhibition of directional cells in the pigeon nLM is predominantly mediated by GABA and GABAA receptors. This inhibition may at least in part underlie directional asymmetry of optokinetic responses.
Full Text Available Genetic analysis and association studies were conducted in 128 germplasm lines of pigeon pea received from NBPGR for yield and yield attributing characters. Higher amount of variation was observed for seed yield per plant followed by number of pods per plant and plant height. High heritability with high genetic advance as percentage of mean were obtained for seed yield and number of pods per plant indicated the presence of additive gene action influencing the inheritance of these characters. Significant positive correlations were observed for 100 seed weight, number of primary branches per plant, number of pods per plant and plant height on seed yield per plant were high and positive. Selection for higher seed weight, days to maturity, primary branches, pods per plant and plant height would be the best criteria for increasing the seed yield per plant in pigeon pea.
The present study describes the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and itsantagonists, bicuculline and 2-hydroxysaclofen, on visual responses of neurons in the pigeon nucleuslentiformis mesencephali (nLM). The results indicate that GABA significantly reduces bothspontaneous activity and visual responsiveness, and GABAA antagonist bicuculline but not GABABantagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen enhances visual responses of nLM cells examined. Furthermore,inhibition produced by motion in the null-direction of pretectal neurons is diminished by bicucullinebut not by 2-hydroxysaclofen. It is therefore concluded that the null-direction inhibition of directionalcells in the pigeon nLM is predominantly mediated by GABA and GABAA receptors. This inhibitionmay at least in part underlie directional asymmetry of optokinetic responses.
Anselme, Patrick; Edeş, Neslihan; Tabrik, Sepideh; Güntürkün, Onur
When rodents are given a free choice between a variable option and a constant option, they may prefer variability. This preference is even sometimes increased following repeated administration of a dopamine agonist. The present study was the first to examine preference for variability under the systemic administration of a dopamine agonist, apomorphine (Apo), in birds. Experiment 1 tested the drug-free preference and the propensity to choose of pigeons for a constant over a variable delay. It appeared that they preferred and decided more quickly to peck at the optimal delay option. Experiment 2 assessed the effects of a repeated injection of Apo on delay preference, in comparison with previous control tests within the same individuals. Apo treatment might have decreased the number of pecks at the constant option across the different experimental phases, but failed to induce a preference for the variable option. In Experiment 3, two groups of pigeons (Apo-sensitized and saline) were used in order to avoid inhomogeneity in treatments. They had to choose between a 50% probability option and a 5-s delay option. Conditioned pecking and the propensity to choose were higher in the Apo-sensitized pigeons, but, in each group, the pigeons showed indifference between the two options. This experiment also showed that long-term behavioral sensitization to Apo can occur independently of a conditioning process. These results suggest that Apo sensitization can enhance the attractiveness of conditioned cues, while having no effect on the development of a preference for variable-delay and probabilistic schedules of reinforcement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Results: he average infection rate was about %52 (46 samples from 88 samples. Conclusion:T It shows that a relatively high percentage of pigeons were infected with C. psittaci and may be able to play an important role as a source of infection for human or other mammals. More studies should be done to find more information like predominant genotypes of C. psittaci in Iran.
Olga F. Lazareva
Full Text Available Previous reports suggest that pigeons are highly sensitive to speed of motion (Cook, Beale, Koban, 2011; Herbranson, Fremouw, & Shimp, 2002. In contrast, we found that pigeons required more extensive training to learn speed discrimination than size discrimination (Lazareva, Young, & Wasserman, 2014. However, our results were based on a comparison of two experiments conducted in different laboratories, complicating the interpretation of the data. Here, we trained pigeons to perform size discrimination or speed discrimination in a two-alternative simultaneous discrimination task using a within-subject design. All birds acquired size discrimination much faster than speed discrimination, confirming our prior report. We further explored pigeons’ sensitivity to differences in speed and size by training them to discriminate two end-point stimuli in a two-alternative forced-choice task and then presenting a wide range of testing stimuli located between the training end-point stimuli. The results again indicated weaker control by the differences in speed in comparison to size; comparable results were obtained for human participants.
Ott, Benjamin; Müsse, Annika; Wagner, Hermann
Bird feathers are remarkable structures light but yet durable providing insulation and the ability of flight. Owls are highly specialized birds of prey, widely known for their ability to y silently which is enabled by (micro-) structural specializations of the feathers. The barn owl replaces feathers less frequently in comparison to other same sized birds like pigeons, indicating a much better resistance against material fatigue of these delicate microstructures. We used axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) of water drop contact angles as a non-destructive method of characterizing wearing processes in feathers. We hypothesized that feathers become more wettable when worn. We also investigated the impact of ethanol treatment in order to remove fatty residues of the uropygial gland secretions, barn owls and pigeons use for preening, on ageing processes. Ethanol treatment resulted in a slight, but significant increase of water repellency in barn owl but not in pigeon flight feathers. Our preliminary data also suggest that the uropygial gland secretions decelerate the wearing process of the feather keratin. We observed this effect in both species, however, it was more distinct for barn owl uropygial gland secretions. The results of this study, obtained by contact angle measurements used as a non-destructive evaluation method of material fatigue, yield insights into the material fatigue of feathers and the decelerating effect of uropygial gland secretions on wear on the other hand.
Full Text Available An experiment was carried out in which 10 pigeons were trained in a task of conditional discrimination of their ownbehavior. The birds learned that when the sample had consisted on responding to the left (right with two white keys,they should choose the red (green comparison to be reinforced. Once the animals had learned this task, they werepassed to a test phase. In short, 5 pigeons were trained in a positive transfer, where the sample was now the red (greenkey they had to choose the left (right comparison to obtain the reinforcer. On the contrary, the other 5 pigeons receiveda training of negative transfer, where the task consisted in that with a red (green sample they should choose the right(left comparison to be reinforced. The obtained data indicate that the performance of those subjects of the group inwhich there was coherence among the phases went superior to that of those subjects of the group where there was notthis coherence. The results are interpreted in connection with the importance that the discrimination of the ownbehavior has in the derivation of bidirectional relationships.
Cong, W; Huang, S Y; Zhang, X Y; Zhou, D H; Xu, M J; Zhao, Q; Song, H Q; Zhu, X Q; Qian, A D
Chlamydia psittaci, the agent of psittacosis in humans, infects a wide range of avian species. To assess the risk of psittacosis posed by domestic birds in the urban environment, the prevalence of C. psittaci antibodies in 413 chickens (Gallus domesticus; 305 caged and 108 free-range), 334 ducks (Anas spp.; 111 caged and 223 free-range) and 312 pigeons (Columba livia) in Lanzhou, north-western China, was detected using the indirect haemagglutination assay. The specific antibodies were found in sera of 55 (13.32 %) chickens, 130 (38.92 %) ducks and 97 (31.09 %) pigeons. Statistical analysis showed that the seroprevalence of C. psittaci infection in chickens was significantly lower than that in ducks and pigeons (Pcaged and free-range chickens was 7.54 % and 29.63 %, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (Pcaged and free-range ducks was 26.13 % and 45.29 %, respectively (Pbirds is associated with a risk of zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci. Public education should be implemented to reduce the risk of avian to human transmission of such a pathogenic agent.
Wei, Zuo-Fu; Jin, Shuang; Luo, Meng; Pan, You-Zhi; Li, Ting-Ting; Qi, Xiao-Lin; Efferth, Thomas; Fu, Yu-Jie; Zu, Yuan-Gang
Pigeon pea is an important and multiuse grain legume crop, and its leaves are a very valuable natural resource. To obtain a high-quality biological resource, it is necessary to choose the excellent cultivar and determine the appropriate harvest time. In this study, the variation in contents of main active components and antioxidant activity in leaves of six pigeon pea cultivars during growth were investigated. The level of each individual active component significantly varied during growth, but with a different pattern, and this variation was different among cultivars. Flavonoid glycosides orientin, vitexin, and apigenin-6,8-di-C-α-L-arabinopyranoside showed two peak values at mid-late and final stages of growth in most cases. Pinostrobin chalcone, longistyline C, and cajaninstilbene acid showed remarkablely higher values at the mid-late stage of growth than at other stages. Pinostrobin had an extremely different variation pattern compared to other active components. Its content was the highest at the earlier stage of growth. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that vitexin and apigenin-6,8-di-C-α-L-arabinopyranoside were mainly responsible for distinguishing cultivars analyzed. In a comprehensive consideration, the leaves should preferentially be harvested at the 135th day after sowing when the level of active components and antioxidant activity reached higher values. Cultivars ICP 13092, ICPL 87091, and ICPL 96053 were considered to be excellent cultivars with high antioxidant activity. Our findings can provide valuable information for producing a high-quality pigeon pea resource.
Adriano B. Carregaro
Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the effects of intraosseous infusion of lactated Ringer's and 0.9% sodium chloride solutions on the electrolytes and acid-base balance in pigeons submitted to humerus osteosynthesis. Eighteen pigeons were undergoing to isoflurane anesthesia by an avalvular circuit system. They were randomly assigned into two groups (n=9 receiving lactated Ringer's solution (LR or 0.9% sodium chloride (SC, in a continuous infusion rate of 20mL/kg/h, by using an intraosseous catheter into the tibiotarsus during 60-minute anesthetic procedure. Heart rate (HR, and respiratory rate (RR were measured every 10 min. Venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30 and 60 minutes to analyze blood pH, PvCO2, HCO3 -, Na+ and K+. Blood gases and electrolytes showed respiratory acidosis in both groups during induction, under physical restraint. This acidosis was evidenced by a decrease of pH since 0 min, associated with a compensatory response, observed by increasing of HCO3 - concentration, at 30 and 60 min. It was not observed any changes on Na+ and K+ serum concentrations. According to the results, there is no reason for choosing one of the two solutions, and it could be concluded that both fluid therapy solutions do not promote any impact on acid-base balance and electrolyte concentrations in pigeons submitted to humerus osteosynthesis.
Hagstrum, Jonathan T; Manley, Geoffrey A
Experienced homing pigeons with extirpated cochleae and lagenae were released from six sites in upstate New York and western Pennsylvania on 17 days between 1973 and 1975 by William T. Keeton and his co-workers at Cornell University. The previously unpublished data indicate that departure directions of the operated birds were significantly different from those of sham-operated control birds (314 total), indicating that aural cues play an important part in the pigeon's navigational system. Moreover, propagation modeling of infrasonic waves using meteorological data for the release days supports the possibility that control birds used infrasonic signals to determine their homeward direction. Local acoustic 'shadow' zones, therefore, could have caused initial disorientation of control birds at release sites where they were normally well oriented. Experimental birds plausibly employed an alternate 'route-reversal' strategy to return home perhaps using their ocular-based magnetic compass. We suggest, based on Keeton's results from another site of long-term disorientation, that experienced pigeons depend predominantly on infrasonic cues for initial orientation, and that surgical removal of their aural sense compelled them to switch to a secondary navigational strategy.
Phalen, David N; Alvarado, Carolina; Grillo, Victoria; Mason, Phillipa; Dobson, Elizabeth; Holz, Peter
Columbid herpesvirus-1 (CoHV-1) is widespread in feral pigeons ( Columba livia ) in North America and Europe. We used a PCR assay to detect CoHV-1 DNA in oral and cloacal tissues and oral swabs from naturally infected pigeons. Fifty-three feral pigeons from five flocks in Australia (n=3 from south-central Victoria and n=2 from Sydney) were examined for CoHV-1 DNA. We detected CoHV-1 DNA in oral mucosa and cloacal mucosa, with higher concentrations in the oral mucosa. The sensitivity of testing oral swabs was the same as testing the tissue, indicating that testing of oral swabs from live birds is an effective means of screening flocks for CoHV-1 infection. Infection was found in all five of the flocks examined and the prevalence of infection ranged from 70% to100%. Most positive birds could be detected with a single-amplification PCR, but a nested amplification was required to detect others. Oral swabs from Australian native doves and pigeons (n=18) and the introduced Collared Dove (n=2) were also tested by the nested PCR and all were negative for CoHV-1 DNA. We describe a fatal infection of CoHV-1 in a wild Powerful Owl (Ninox strenua) that was observed feeding on feral pigeons. This is the first known case of CoHV-1 causing death in a wild bird of prey in Australia. Our data suggest that CoHV-1 is widespread in feral pigeon flocks in Australia but we did not find it in native doves and pigeons. Spillover into native avian predator species may be occurring.
Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Tremblay, Donald; Harel, Josée; Côté, Nathalie; Arsenault, Julie
Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) can harbor a range of zoonotic pathogens. A transversal study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of feral pigeons infected by various pathogens in public areas in Montreal, Quebec. Cloacal swabs from captured birds were cultured for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Coxiella burnetii. An oropharyngeal swab was also submitted to real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) for the detection of Newcastle disease virus. Among the 187 pigeons tested from 10 public areas, 9.1% (95% CI: 3.0 to 15.2) were positive for Campylobacter spp. with all strains identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The Campylobacter status of birds was not associated with individual characteristics of birds, with the exception of body score. None of the pigeons tested positive for the other pathogens. Direct or indirect contacts with feral pigeons may constitute a potential risk for Campylobacter infection in humans.
Stagner, Jessica P; Laude, Jennifer R; Zentall, Thomas R
When pigeons are given a choice between two alternatives, one leading to a stimulus 20% of the time that always signals reinforcement (S+) or another stimulus 80% of the time that signals the absence of reinforcement (S-) and the other alternative leading to one of two stimuli each signaling reinforcement 50% of the time, the 20% reinforcement alternative is preferred although it provides only 40% as much reinforcement. In Phase 1 of the present experiment, we tested the hypothesis that pigeons compare the S+ associated with each alternative and ignore the S- by giving them a choice between two pairs of discriminative stimuli (20% S+, 80% S- and 50% S+, 50% S-). Reinforcement theory suggests that the alternative associated with more reinforcement should be preferred but the pigeons showed indifference. In Phase 2, the pigeons were divided into two groups. For one group, the discriminative function was removed from the 50% reinforcement alternative and a strong preference for the 20% reinforcement alternative was found. For the other group, the discriminative function was removed from both alternatives and a strong preference was found for the 50% reinforcement alternative. Thus, the indifference found in Phase 1 was not due to the absence of discriminability of the differential reinforcement associated with the two alternatives (20% vs. 50% reinforcement); rather, the indifference can be attributed to the pigeons' insensitivity to the differential frequency of the two S+ and two S- stimuli. The relevance to human gambling behavior is discussed.
Elezaj I. R.
Full Text Available The concentration of lead in blood and tibia (Pb, zinc (Zn and cupper (Cu in tibia, blood δ- aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D; EC: 184.108.40.206 activity, hematocrit value (Hct and micronuclei frequency (MN of peripheral erythrocytes have been determinated in three different populations of feral pigeons (Columba livia; forma urbana and forma domestica, collected in Mitrovica town (situated close to smelter “Trepça”, down closed in 2000 year and in rural area (Koshare willage . The blood lead level in feral pigeons from Mitrovica (forma urbana was 3 times higher (149.6; 50.5 μg% in comparison with that in feral pigeons from Mitrovica (forma domestica and 27.7 times higher (5.4 μg% in comparison with pigeons from rural area. The Pb concentration of tibia of feral pigeons (froma urbana and forma domestica, from Mitrovica town was significantly higher (P<0.001 in comparison with control. The concentration of Zn in tibia of feral pigeons from Mitrovica town (forma urbana, was significantly higher (P<0.006 in comparison with control. The blood ALA-D activity of feral pigeons from Mitrovica town (forma urbana and froma domestica, was significantly inhibited in comparison with control. The blood ALA-D activity of feral pigeons –forma urbana from Mitrovica town was significantly inhibited (P<0.001 in comparison with the blood ALA-D activity of feral pigeons-forma domestica from Mitrovica town. The erythrocyte MN frequency of feral pigeons from Mitrovica was significantly higher (P <0.001 in comparison with controls. The smelter “Trepça” ten year after closed down pose a threat to the local environment, biota and people’s health.
DeLong, R E; Wasserman, E A
A series of experiments employed a symbolic variant of Konorski's delayed successive matching-to-sample task in order to determine whether differential reinforcement expectancies affect discriminative responding. One of two sample stimuli (S1 or S2) was followed, after a delay (0, 5, or 10 sec), by one of two test stimuli (T1 or T2). Pigeons' key pecking during test periods could produce food only on S1-T1 and S2-T2 (positive) trials; nonreinforcement invariably occurred on S1-T2 and S2-T1 (negative) trials. Differential reinforcement was scheduled by following the two positive trial sequences with different probabilities of reinforcement (.2 and 1.0); nondifferential reinforcement was scheduled by following the two positive trial sequences with a single, intermediate probability of reinforcement. (.6). Subjects given differential reinforcement acquired the conditional discriminaton more rapidly and reached higher terminal levels of performance than nondifferential controls (Experiment 1). Moreover, the magnitude of these differences increased as the delay between sample and test stimuli was lengthened. Reversing the probabilities of reinforcement in the differential problem produced a substantial and durable disruption of conditional discrimination performance (Experiment 2). The same general pattern of results was obtained when differential sample key pecking was eliminated (Experiment 3). These results can be parsimoniously interpreted by postulating the existence of learned reinforcement expectancies, and they detract from the merits of trace theory as a complete account of animal memory.
M. G. Saeed
Full Text Available One hundred diseased cases of pigeons (Columba livia in Mosul city were examined, 67 birds (67% showed pathologicallesions in digestive system. Most of the gross and histopathological lesions occurred in intestine (29.3% followed byoropharynx, liver, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, and pancreas the values (20.8%, 16.6%, 12.5%, 10.4%, 6.2%, 4.2%respectively. Gross lesions of intestine showed severe tape worms infestation with petechial hemorrhage in some cases,histopathologically there were catarrhal enteritis, necrotic and hemorrhagic enteritis were less, and desquamation of mucosawith bacterial colonies. Gross lesions of oropharynx, esophagus and crop in most cases were yellow caseated masses ornecrotic material. In some cases white diphtheritic membrane with thickening of mucosa in esophagus, crop and proventriculuswere founded, petichial hemorrhage on the mucosa of proventriculus were less some cases. Histopathological lesions oforopharynx and esophagus were thickening of mucosa and presence of necrotic caseated foci on the submucosa. In crop therewere epithelial hyperplasia and in some cases infiltration of inflammatory cells with cocobacilli bacteria and desquamation ofepithelial cells were founded. In proventriculus desquamation and necrosis of epithelial cells of mucus glands with infiltrationof inflammatory cells. Gross lesions in liver and pancreas were limited represented by enlargement and congestion, histopathologically coagulative necrosis of hepatic cells with cocobacilli bacteria, pancreas showed two types of inflammationone was non-suppurative and another was suppurative.
Huang, Lin; Lin, Yaqiu; Jin, Suyu; Liu, Wei; Xu, Yaou; Zheng, Yucai
The objective of the present study was to confirm the widespread existence of alternative splicing of lactate dehydrogenase c (ldhc) gene in mammals. RT-PCR was employed to amplify cDNAs of ldhc from testes of mammals including pig, dog, rabbit, cat, rat, and mouse, as well as pigeon. Two to six kinds of splice variants of ldhc were observed in the seven species as a result of deletion of one or more exons or insertion of partial sequence of an intron in the mature mRNA. The deleted exons occur mostly in exons 5, 4, 6, and 3. The insertion of a partial sequence of introns, which resulted in an abnormal stop codon in the inserted intron sequence, was observed only in dog and rat. The deletion of exons also resulted in a reading frame shift and formation of a stop codon in some variants. No alternative splicing was observed for ldha and ldhb genes in testis of yak. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis revealed no obvious LDH-C4 activity derived from expressed ldhc variants. Our results demonstrated the widespread and unique existence of alternative splicing of ldhc genes in mammals.
Frank, T. C.; Dye, B. J.; Newlands, S. D.; Dickman, J. D.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop a technique to investigate the regeneration of utricular hair cells in the adult pigeon (Columba livia) following complete hair cell loss through administration of streptomycin. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental animal study. METHODS: Animals were divided into four groups. Group 1 received 10 to 15 days of systemic streptomycin injections. Animals in Groups 2 and 3 received a single direct placement of a 1-, 2-, 4-, or 8-mg streptomycin dose into the perilymphatic space. Animals in Groups 1 and 2 were analyzed within 1 week from injection to investigate hair cell destruction, whereas Group 3 was investigated at later dates to study hair cell recovery. Group 4 animals received a control injection of saline into the perilymphatic space. Damage and recovery were quantified by counting hair cells in isolated utricles using scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Although systemic injections failed to reliably achieve complete utricular hair cell destruction, a single direct placement of a 2-, 4-, or 8-mg streptomycin dose caused complete destruction within the first week. Incomplete hair cell loss was observed with the 1-mg dose. Over the long term, regeneration of the hair cells was seen with the 2-mg dose but not the 8-mg dose. Control injections of saline into the perilymphatic space caused no measurable hair cell loss. CONCLUSIONS: Direct placement of streptomycin into the perilymph is an effective, reliable method for complete destruction of utricular hair cells while preserving the regenerative potential of the neuroepithelium.
Full Text Available The sun has long been thought to guide bird navigation as the second step in a two-stage process, in which determining position using a map is followed by course setting using a compass, both over unfamiliar and familiar terrain. The animal's endogenous clock time-compensates the solar compass for the sun's apparent movement throughout the day, and this allows predictable deflections in orientation to test for the compass' influence using clock-shift manipulations. To examine the influence of the solar compass during a highly familiar navigational task, 24 clock-shifted homing pigeons were precision-tracked from a release site close to and in sight of their final goal, the colony loft. The resulting trajectories displayed significant partial deflection from the loft direction as predicted by either fast or slow clock-shift treatments. The partial deflection was also found to be stable along the entire trajectory indicating regular updating of orientation via input from the solar compass throughout the final approach flight to the loft. Our results demonstrate that time-compensated solar cues are deeply embedded in the way birds orient during homing flight, are accessed throughout the journey and on a remarkably fine-grained scale, and may be combined effectively simultaneously with direct guidance from familiar landmarks, even when birds are flying towards a directly visible goal.
Stephan, Claudia; Steurer, Michael M; Aust, Ulrike
The type of stimulus material employed in visual tasks is crucial to all comparative cognition research that involves object recognition. There is considerable controversy about the use of 2-dimensional stimuli and the impact that the lack of the 3rd dimension (i.e., depth) may have on animals' performance in tests for their visual and cognitive abilities. We report evidence of discrimination learning using a completely novel type of stimuli, namely, holograms. Like real objects, holograms provide full 3-dimensional shape information but they also offer many possibilities for systematically modifying the appearance of a stimulus. Hence, they provide a promising means for investigating visual perception and cognition of different species in a comparative way. We trained pigeons and humans to discriminate either between 2 real objects or between holograms of the same 2 objects, and we subsequently tested both species for the transfer of discrimination to the other presentation mode. The lack of any decrements in accuracy suggests that real objects and holograms were perceived as equivalent in both species and shows the general appropriateness of holograms as stimuli in visual tasks. A follow-up experiment involving the presentation of novel views of the training objects and holograms revealed some interspecies differences in rotational invariance, thereby confirming and extending the results of previous studies. Taken together, these results suggest that holograms may not only provide a promising tool for investigating yet unexplored issues, but their use may also lead to novel insights into some crucial aspects of comparative visual perception and categorization.
Escudero, E; Vicente, M S; Carceles, C M
The pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (4:1) combination were studied after intravenous and intramuscular administration of single doses (25 mg kg(-1) bodyweight) to 50 pigeons. The plasma concentrations-time data were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetics and non-compartmental methods. The disposition curves for both drugs after intravenous administration were best described by a two-compartment open model. The apparent volumes of distribution of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were 1.77 litres kg(-1) and 1.30 litres kg(-1) respectively. The body clearances of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were not significantly different. The elimination half-lives of amoxicillin after intravenous and intramuscular administration were 1.22 (0.09) hour and 1.52 (0.09) hour respectively, and those of clavulanic acid were 1.15 (0.08) hour and 1.49 (0.08) hour. After intramuscular administration both drugs had a significantly longer half-life (P or =0.5 mg litre(-1) (minimum inhibitory concentration of most susceptible pathogens).
McVean, A; Stelling, J; Rowlerson, A
Fibre typing with antisera raised against specific myosin types from muscles of known physiological properties were used to characterise the fibre types within the oculorotatory muscles of pigeons. Fibres reacting strongly to antiserum anti-ALD (specific for tonic fibre myosin) were found lying along the global margin of the muscle and also in a layer lying immediately beneath a discrete band of fibres running along the orbital margin. These fibres resembled those of the skeletal muscle ALD in their type properties. Using another antiserum, anti-I, specific for slow twitch and to a lesser extent, slow tonic myosins, it was possible to identify another slow fibre type which formed the orbital layer and also lay scattered randomly through the body of the muscle. No equivalent to this type was found in the skeletal muscles ALD or iliofibularis. The remaining fibres which did not react with either anti-ALD or anti-I formed 58% of the fibre population and reacted with an antiserum specific for fast myosin. However, their response to alkali preincubation suggests that the fast fibres of eye muscles also contain a myosin which is different from those in skeletal muscle.
Lazareva, Olga F; Wasserman, Edward A
Several reinforcement-based models have been proposed to explain transitive-like behavior in nonverbal transitive inference tasks. These models assume that the initial training required for memorizing the premises produces an ordered series of associative values (A>B>C>D>E); these values can then be used to select the "transitively correct" stimulus in a novel pair (e.g., BD). Our study experimentally tested this assumption by using resistance-to-extinction and resistance-to-reinforcement techniques to obtain empirical measures of associative strength for Stimuli B and D. We first measured the associative strengths of these stimuli after completion of initial training with overlapping pairs of colored squares (A+B-, B+C-, C+D-, and D+E-) using resistance-to-extinction and resistance-to-reinforcement procedures. Next, we used massed presentations of Pair D+E- (termed bias reversal) that ought to increase the associative value of Stimulus D, and again measured the associative strengths of the stimuli. None of our experimental measures of associative strength correlated with pigeons' behavior in the BD test or with BD performance predicted by associative models either before or after bias reversal (Wynne, 1995; Siemann and Delius, 1998). These results question validity of reinforcement-based models for explaining animals' behavior in nonverbal TI tasks.
Full Text Available The replacement and growth of 311 primary feathers of eight captive male rock pigeons, Columba livia Gmelin, 1789 were monitored daily. Feather replacement was recorded in all months, but the primaries 1 to 5 (innermost primaries were replaced mostly from September to December, whereas the primaries 6 to 10 (outermost primaries were more frequently replaced from January to August. Each primary was held in plumage from six to fifteen months, but the lifetime of the outer feathers was longer than that of the inner feathers. A new primary emerges two or three days after its predecessor has been dropped, but the primaries replacing the feathers accidentally lost during bird handling emerge only after about eight days. The average growth period of a primary ranged from 21 to 37 days, with the larger and outermost feathers exhibiting a longer growth period. A constant average growth rate of 4 to 5 mm/day was found for all primaries until the last two days of growth, when the growth rate of the feathers became progressively slower. Bilateral symmetry in the primary replacement, when the same feather is replaced simultaneously in both wings, was not significant (22.2% in the birds monitored in this study.
Jacob, Gwenaël; Prévot, Anne-Caroline; Baudry, Emmanuelle
Avoidance of mating between related individuals is usually considered adaptive because it decreases the probability of inbreeding depression in offspring. However, mating between related partners can be adaptive if outbreeding depression is stronger than inbreeding depression or if females gain inclusive fitness benefits by mating with close kin. In the present study, we used microsatellite data to infer the parentage of juveniles born in a French colony of feral pigeons, which allowed us to deduce parent pairs. Despite detectable inbreeding depression, we found that pairwise relatedness between mates was significantly higher than between nonmates, with a mean coefficient of relatedness between mates of 0.065, approximately half the theoretical value for first cousins. This higher relatedness between mates cannot be explained by spatial genetic structure in this colonial bird; it therefore probably results from an active choice. As inbreeding but not outbreeding depression is observed in the study population, this finding accords with the idea that mating with genetically similar mates can confer a benefit in terms of inclusive fitness. Our results and published evidence suggest that preference for related individuals as mates might be relatively frequent in birds.
Canónico-González, Yolanda; Adame-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Mercado-Hernández, Roberto; Aréchiga-Carvajal, Elva Teresa
The presence of Cryptococcus spp. has been reported in Mexico's capital city; however, to our knowledge there are no reports of its presence in the state of Nuevo León located in northeast Mexico. This is presumed to be because the hot and dry climate in this region does not favor cryptococcal proliferation. This study confirmed the presence of C. neoformans and C. albidus in 20% (10/50) of randomly selected fecal samples of pigeons (Columba livia) in the Monterrey metropolitan area. The presence of this yeast in the state of Nuevo León is proof of its adaptation to the typically hot climate of the area and is consistent with recent reviews of cryptococcosis cases in several local hospitals. The two species were identified and characterized through microbiological tests and molecular identification by DNA extraction and PCR amplification of highly conserved 18S ribosomal DNA using ITS1 and ITS2 as target regions. The PCR products were sequenced and compared with those reported in GenBank.
Locurto, Charles; Fox, Maura; Mazzella, Andrea
There is considerable interest in the conditions under which human subjects learn patterned information without explicit instructions to learn that information. This form of learning, termed implicit or incidental learning, can be approximated in nonhumans by exposing subjects to patterned information but delivering reinforcement randomly, thereby not requiring the subjects to learn the information in order to be reinforced. Following acquisition, nonhuman subjects are queried as to what they have learned about the patterned information. In the present experiment, we extended the study of implicit learning in nonhumans by comparing two species, cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) and pigeons (Columba livia), on an implicit learning task that used an artificial grammar to generate the patterned elements for training. We equated the conditions of training and testing as much as possible between the two species. The results indicated that both species demonstrated approximately the same magnitude of implicit learning, judged both by a random test and by choice tests between pairs of training elements. This finding suggests that the ability to extract patterned information from situations in which such learning is not demanded is of longstanding origin.
Machado, Armando; Keen, Richard
This study tested a model of how animals discriminate the relative numerosity of stimuli in successive or sequential presentation tasks. In a discrete-trials procedure, pigeons were shown one light for nf times and then another for nl times. Next they received food for choosing the light that had occurred the least-number of times during the sample. At issue were (a) how performance varies with the interval between the two stimulus sets (the interblock interval) and the interval between the end of the sample and the beginning of the choice period (the retention interval); and (b) whether a simple mathematical model of the discrimination process could account for the data. The model assumed that the influence of a stimulus on choice increases linearly when the stimulus is presented, but decays exponentially when the stimulus is absent; choice probability is given by the ratio of the influence values of the two stimuli. The model also assumed that as the retention interval elapses there is an increasing probability that the ongoing discriminative process be disrupted and then the animal responds randomly. Results showed that increasing the interblock intervals reduced the probability of choosing the last stimulus of the sample as the least-frequent one. Increasing the retention interval reduced accuracy without inducing any stimulus bias. The model accounted well for the major trends in the data.
Mathad, Pratima; Siddaling, N C
Antioxidative status study was made in cotyledons of 7days old as well as in leaf and stem tissues of 30 and 60 days old pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) namely Asha and Maruti subjected to different doses of endosulfan in the range 0.1-1.0%. The results revealed that the activities of the antioxidative enzymes and the antioxidant contents such as the super oxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), reducing power (RP), ascorbic acid (AsA) and total phenols (TP) increased with increase in the concentrations of endosulfan in different parts of the plants in both the varieties. It was interesting to note that the increase in the antioxidative enzymes and the antioxidant contents were higher in leaves than in stem and cotyledons in both the plant varieties. The Asha showed lower activity of SOD and higher activity of POD than the Maruti. The RP and AsA contents were higher whereas the TP content was lower in Asha than Maruti. The observed variations in the activities of the oxidative enzymes and the antioxidant contents of the plants treated with the varying concentration of endosulfan indicated that the antioxidative system in the plants plays a fundamental role in minimizing the deleterious effects of the oxidative stress in the two varieties of Cajanus cajan.
Urcuioli, Peter J
Symmetry is one of three derived relations (along with transitivity and reflexivity) that indicate that explicitly trained conditional relations are equivalence relations and that the elements of those trained relations are members of a stimulus class. Although BA symmetry is typically observed after AB conditional discrimination training in humans, it has been an elusive phenomenon in other animals until just recently. This paper describes past unsuccessful attempts to observe symmetry in non-human animals and the likely reasons for that lack of success. I then describe how methodological changes made in response to the earlier findings have now yielded robust evidence for symmetry in pigeons, and what these changes indicate about the functional matching stimuli. Finally, I describe a theory of stimulus-class formation (Urcuioli, 2008) which specifies how and why symmetry and other derived relations arise from different sets of trained relations. These derived relations are noteworthy because they demonstrate an impressive repertoire of non-similarity-based categorization effects in animals and the generative effects of reinforcement and stimulus control processes on behavior.
In optimal foraging theory (OFT), energy expenditure is an important variable for predicting foraging behavior. However, early studies, including operant simulations of foraging, did not measure energy expenditure. In the present study, an adjusting energy (AE) schedule was developed to control energy expenditure. Interresponse energy (IRE), a measure of the energy expenditure during a response, was calculated by dividing the square of the elapsed time between two consecutive responses by the square of the straight-line distance between the locations of the same two responses. An adjusting procedure was employed to estimate the indifference point between the requirements of the AE schedule and a fixed ratio (FR) schedule, which has been used in many operant simulations. In the adjusting procedure, pigeons adjusted the requirement of the AE schedule to that of the FR schedule. The results showed a systematic relationship between the requirements of the AE and FR schedules. Moreover, the total IRE per reinforcement systematically increased with the AE requirement. Thus, the present study demonstrates the utility of the AE schedule as a procedure for testing the validity of OFT.
Caballero, Moisés; Rivera, Isabel; Jara, Luis M; Ulloa-Stanojlovic, Francisco M; Shiva, Carlos
Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) live in close contact with humans and other animals. They can transmit potentially pathogenic and zoonotic agents. The objective of this study was to isolate and detect strains of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni of urban feral pigeons from an area of Lima, Peru. Fresh dropping samples from urban parks were collected for microbiological isolation of E. coli strains in selective agar, and Campylobacter by filtration method. Molecular identification of diarrheagenic pathotypes of E.coli and Campylobacter jejuni was performed by PCR. Twenty-two parks were sampled and 16 colonies of Campylobacter spp. were isolated. The 100% of isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Furthermore, 102 colonies of E. coli were isolated and the 5.88% resulted as Enteropathogenic (EPEC) type and 0.98% as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The urban feral pigeons of Lima in Peru can act as a reservoir or carriers of zoonotic potentially pathogenic enteric agents.
Spedicato, M; Carmine, I; Bellacicco, A L; Marruchella, G; Marini, V; Pisciella, M; Di Francesco, G; Lorusso, A; Monaco, F; Savini, G
West Nile virus (WNV) circulation dynamics in the context of the urban environment is not yet elucidated. In this perspective, three groups of eight rock pigeons (Columbia livia) were inoculated with three WNV lineage 1 strains isolated in Italy between 2009 and 2012. The pigeons did not develop any clinical signs consistent with WNV acute infection. All animals seroconverted and shed virus up to 15 days post-infection by the oral or cloacal routes. In all infected groups viraemia lasted for 4 days post-infection. No WNV-specific gross or histological lesions were found in infected birds compared to control birds and immunohistochemistry remained constantly negative from all tissues. The reservoir competence index was also assessed and it ranged between 0·11 and 0·14. This study demonstrates that pigeons are competent reservoir hosts for Italian WNV lineage 1 circulating strains thus potentially posing a risk to the public health system.
Aust, Ulrike; Braunöder, Elisabeth
The present experiment investigated pigeons' and humans' processing styles-local or global-in an exemplar-based visual categorization task in which category membership of every stimulus had to be learned individually, and in a rule-based task in which category membership was defined by a perceptual rule. Group Intact was trained with the original pictures (providing both intact local and global information), Group Scrambled was trained with scrambled versions of the same pictures (impairing global information), and Group Blurred was trained with blurred versions (impairing local information). Subsequently, all subjects were tested for transfer to the 2 untrained presentation modes. Humans outperformed pigeons regarding learning speed and accuracy as well as transfer performance and showed good learning irrespective of group assignment, whereas the pigeons of Group Blurred needed longer to learn the training tasks than the pigeons of Groups Intact and Scrambled. Also, whereas humans generalized equally well to any novel presentation mode, pigeons' transfer from and to blurred stimuli was impaired. Both species showed faster learning and, for the most part, better transfer in the rule-based than in the exemplar-based task, but there was no evidence of the used processing mode depending on the type of task (exemplar- or rule-based). Whereas pigeons relied on local information throughout, humans did not show a preference for either processing level. Additional tests with grayscale versions of the training stimuli, with versions that were both blurred and scrambled, and with novel instances of the rule-based task confirmed and further extended these findings.
Herrero, A; Barja, G
Basal (substrate alone) and maximum rates of H2O2 production, oxygen consumption and free radical leak in the respiratory chain were higher in heart mitochondria of the short-lived rat (4 years) than in the long-lived pigeon (35 years). This suggests that the low free radical production of pigeon heart mitochondria is due in part to both a low electron flow and a low percent leak of electrons out of sequence in the respiratory chain. Thenoyltrifluoroacetone did not increase H2O2 production with succinate either in rats or pigeons. Mitochondrial H2O2 production was higher with pyruvate/malate than with succinate in both animal species. Rotenone and antimycin A increased H2O2 production with pyruvate/malate to the maximum levels observed in each species. Addition of myxothiazol to antimycin A-treated mitochondria supplemented with pyruvate/malate decreased H2O2 production in both species. All the combinations of inhibitors added with pyruvate/malate resulted in higher rates of H2O2 production in rats than in pigeons. When succinate instead of pyruvate/malate was used as substrate, rotenone and thenoyltrifluoroacetone decreased mitochondrial H2O2 production in the rat and did not change it in the pigeon. The results indicate that Complexes I and III are the main H2O2 generators of heart mitochondria in rats and pigeons and that both Complexes are responsible for the low H2O2 production of the bird. p-Chloromercuribenzoate and ethoxyformic anhydride strongly inhibited the H2O2 production induced by rotenone with pyruvate/malate in both species. This suggests that the free radical generator of Complex I is located after the ferricyanide reduction site, between the ethoxyformic and the rotenone-sensitive sites.
Full Text Available Jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus, a widely spread sub-tropical insectivorous passerine is considered beneficial to agro-ecosystem, as they devour voraciously on insect matter especially Helicoverpa armigera, the gram pod borer, a notorious pest infesting and causing heavy loses to crops like pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan which is a vital crop of semi-arid tropical and subtropical farming system, providing high quality vegetable protein. Helicoverpa is known to feed on flowers, pods, and seeds and is the most important biotic constraint affecting pigeon pea yields. Jungle babblers have a peculiar foraging style which helps expose the Helicoverpa larvae as well as pupae through various phenological stages of pigeon pea. For comparative assessment of their beneficial role and as a possible bio control agent, in Baroda city (State of Gaujarat, India, was studied, two crops of pigeon pea (insecticide treated and untreated (control were selected. In both treated and control crops, the number of jungle babblers were maximum in pigeon pea fields during october and november in both small pod stage and large pod stage which had heavy infestation of Helicoverpa. Least number of birds was seen during the flowering stage in September. Later in treatment crop three applications of Dunnate and Monocrotophos insecticide spray was done after which the pest population decreased which is reflected in number of birds in the field, while the bird number in control crops grew since insecticide spray was not done and number of larvae increased with the stage of the crop. Along with the main crop pigeon pea, comparative study was also done to see the food preference by these birds in crops like sorghum, maize, cow pea and ploughed and unploughed fields. Maximum number of birds was seen in unploughed field and least in sorghum suggesting that Helicoverpa is preferred food over sorghum grains thus pigeon pea
RADFAR, Mohammad Hossein; Javad KHEDRI; Adinehbeigi, Keivan; NABAVI, Reza; Rahmani, Khatereh
This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) from December 2010 to November 2011 to determine the prevalence, intensity and species of internal and external parasites in Sistan region, east of Iran. Of the total of 59 (27 males and 32 females) free-range backyard chickens and 46 (26 males and 20 females) domestic pigeons inspected, 55 (93.22 %) and 39 (84.78 %) were infected respectively. Ten species of free-range backyard chickens ...
Bagheri T; Ejtemaei Mehr Sh; Shamshirgaran Sh
Intramascular (IM) administration of apomorphine (a mixed D1/D2 dopamine receptors agonist 0.2-1.6 mg/kg) induced pecking, a stereotype behavior in pigeons in a dose- dependent manner. In this study the effect of lithium (Li+, 240 mg/kg, IM) and AMI-193 (a new 5-HT2 antagonist, 0.003 mg/pigeon) on apomorphine-induced peking (AIP) were investigated. This study showed that Li+ and AMI-193 did not induce pecking by itself but administration of each of these agents before apomorphine increased an...
Gao, C Q; Yang, J X; Chen, M X; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q
Two experiments were conducted to fit growth curves, and determine age-related changes in carcass characteristics, organs, serum biochemical parameters, and gene expression of intestinal nutrient transporters in domestic pigeon (Columba livia). In experiment 1, body weight (BW) of 30 pigeons was respectively determined at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days old to fit growth curves and to describe the growth of pigeons. In experiment 2, eighty-four 1-day-old squabs were grouped by weight into 7 groups. On d 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35, twelve birds from each group were randomly selected for slaughter and post-slaughter analysis. The results showed that BW of pigeons increased rapidly from d 1 to d 28 (a 25.7-fold increase), and then had little change until d 35. The Logistic, Gompertz, and Von Bertalanffy functions can all be well fitted with the growth curve of domestic pigeons (R2>0.90) and the Gompertz model showed the highest R2value among the models (R2=0.9997). The equation of Gompertz model was Y=507.72×e-(3.76exp(-0.17t))(Y=BW of pigeon (g); t=time (day)). In addition, breast meat yield (%) increased with age throughout the experiment, whereas the leg meat yield (%) reached to the peak on d 14. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, and glucose concentration were increased with age, whereas serum uric acid concentration was decreased (P<0.05). Furthermore, the gene expressions of nutrient transporters (y+LAT2, LAT1, B0AT1, PepT1, and NHE2) in jejunum of pigeon were increased with age. The results of correlation analysis showed the gene expressions of B0AT1, PepT1, and NHE2 had positive correlations with BW (0.73
Full Text Available Jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus, a widely spread sub-tropical insectivorous passerine is considered beneficial to agro-ecosystem, as they devour voraciously on insect matter especially Helicoverpa armigera, the gram pod borer, a notorious pest infesting and causing heavy loses to crops like pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan which is a vital crop of semi-arid tropical and subtropical farming system, providing high quality vegetable protein. Helicoverpa is known to feed on flowers, pods, and seeds and is the most important biotic constraint affecting pigeon pea yields. Jungle babblers have a peculiar foraging style which helps expose the Helicoverpa larvae as well as pupae through various phenological stages of pigeon pea. For comparative assessment of their beneficial role and as a possible bio control agent, in Baroda city (State of Gaujarat, India, was studied, two crops of pigeon pea (insecticide treated and untreated (control were selected. In both treated and control crops, the number of jungle babblers were maximum in pigeon pea fields during october and november in both small pod stage and large pod stage which had heavy infestation of Helicoverpa. Least number of birds was seen during the flowering stage in September. Later in treatment crop three applications of Dunnate and Monocrotophos insecticide spray was done after which the pest population decreased which is reflected in number of birds in the field, while the bird number in control crops grew since insecticide spray was not done and number of larvae increased with the stage of the crop. Along with the main crop pigeon pea, comparative study was also done to see the food preference by these birds in crops like sorghum, maize, cow pea and ploughed and unploughed fields. Maximum number of birds was seen in unploughed field and least in sorghum suggesting that Helicoverpa is preferred food over sorghum grains thus pigeon pea and sorghum can be used as mixed crops to protect the crop from
Bormashenko, Edward; Bormashenko, Yelena; Stein, Tamir; Whyman, Gene; Bormashenko, Ester
Wetting of pigeon feathers has been studied. It was demonstrated that the Cassie-Baxter wetting regime is inherent for pigeon pennae. The water drop, supported by network formed by barbs and barbules, sits partially on air pockets. Small static apparent angle hysteresis justifies the Cassie-Baxter wetting hypothesis. A twofold structure of a feather favors large contact angles and provides its water repellency. Cassie-Wenzel transition has been observed under drop evaporation, when drop radius becomes small enough for capillarity-induced water penetration into the protrusions, formed by barbules.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii infection is a global concern, affecting a wide range of warm-blooded animals and humans worldwide, including poultry. Domestic and companion birds are considered to play an important role in the transmission of T. gondii to humans and other animals. However, little information on T. gondii infection in domestic birds in Lanzhou, northwest China was available. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in domestic birds in Lanzhou, northwest China. Methods In the present study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in 413 (305 caged and 108 free-range adult chickens, 334 (111 caged and 223 free-range adult ducks and 312 adult pigeons in Lanzhou, northwest China, were examined using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Results 30 (7.26% chickens, 38 (11.38% ducks and 37 (11.86% pigeons were found to be positive for T. gondii antibodies at the cut-off of 1:5. The prevalences in caged and free-range chickens were 6.23% and 10.19% respectively, however, statistical analysis showed that the difference was not significant (P > 0.05. The seroprevalences in caged and free-range ducks were 6.31% and 13.90% respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated the presence of T. gondii infection in adult chickens, ducks and pigeons sold for meat in poultry markets in Lanzhou, northwest China, which poses a potential risk for T. gondii infection in humans and other animals in this region. This is the first seroprevalence study of T. gondii infection in domestic birds in this region.
Full Text Available Aim of this study was to characterize pigeon variant of Newcastle disease virus (NDV isolated from backyard poultry using classical and molecular methods. In standard hemagglutination inhibition (HI test both polyclonal NDV antiserum and monoclonal antibodies 161/617 specific for pigeon variants of NDV showed inhibition of heamagglutination of the isolated virus. Intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI has shown that the isolate is mesogenic virus (ICPI = 0.81. One-step RT-qPCR for detection of M gene was performed indicating a presence of NDV and RT-qPCR for discrimination between lentogenic and velogenic strains based on F gene was also performed indicating a presence of virulent NDV. A portion of the F gene was amplified and sequenced for determination of virulence and phylogenetic characterization. The F protein cleavage site sequence of the isolate had multiple basic amino acids at residues 112–116 and a phenyl alanine at residue 117 (112RRQKR*F117 which is typical for velogenic strains. The nucleotide sequence of 374 bp was aligned to begin at nt 47 and finish at 420 immediately after the cleavage site and compared with other reference strains from the region and worldwide. In the phylogenetic tree, the isolate clustered into genotype VIb, typical for PPMV-1. This strain is phylogenetically very similar to other PPMV-1 isolated from pigeons in Macedonia. Poultry infected with PPMV-1 can spread the virus in the absence of clinical signs, thus PPMV-1’s are constant threat to domestic poultry. This is the first report of evidenced spillover of PPMV-1 into poultry in Macedonia.
Md. Khaled Saifullah
Full Text Available Objectives: Here we determined the prevalence of Salmonella in cloacal swabs and pharyngeal swabs of apparently healthy pigeons sold in the live bird markets and villages in and around Bangladesh Agricultural University Campus, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Materials and methods: A total of 50 samples, comprised of cloacal swabs (n=24 and pharyngeal swabs (n=26 were collected. The samples were processed, and Salmonella was isolated through a series of conventional bacteriological techniques and biochemical tests followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: The prevalence rate of Salmonella was found to be 37.5% (n=9/24 in cloacal swabs and 30.77% (n=8/26 in pharyngeal swabs with an overall prevalence rate of 34% (n=17/50. The prevalence rate of Salmonella pigeon varied slightly among locations; 34.62% (n=9/26 in live bird markets, and 33.33% (n=8/24 in villages. Molecular detection of 17 Salmonella isolates obtained from biochemical test was performed by genus specific PCR, where all of them amplified a region of 496-bp segment of the histidine transport operon gene. Antibiogram study revealed multi-drug resistant traits in most of the isolates tested. The highest resistance was found against Ampicillin (88.23% followed by Cephalexin (82.35%. The rate of sensitivity of the isolates to Ciprofloxacin was 100% followed by Azithromycin (82.35%, Gentamicin (76.47% and Nalidixic acid (76.47%. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that pigeons carry multi-drug resistant Salmonella that may transfer to the humans and animals. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 51-55
Trupkiewicz, J G; Calero-Bernal, R; Verma, S K; Mowery, J; Davison, S; Habecker, P; Georoff, T A; Ialeggio, D M; Dubey, J P
Four Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at the Philadelphia Zoo died suddenly. Necropsy examination revealed macroscopic hepatitis. Microscopically, the predominant lesions were in liver, characterized with necrosis and mixed cell inflammatory response. Sarcocystis calchasi-like schizonts and free merozoites were identified in liver. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that schizonts were in hepatocytes. A few schizonts were in spleen. PCR using S. calchasi-specific primers confirmed the diagnosis. Neither lesions nor protozoa were found in brain and muscles. This is the first report of acute visceral S. calchasi-associated sarcocystosis in naturally infected avian hosts.
Spudeit, William Anderson; Sulzbach, Natalia Saretta; Bittencourt, Myla de A; Duarte, Anita Maurício Camillo; Liang, Hua; Lino-de-Oliveira, Cilene; Marino-Neto, José
The postprandial event known as the specific dynamic action is an evolutionarily conserved physiological set of metabolic responses to feeding. Its behavioral counterpart, a sequence of drinking, maintenance (e.g., grooming) and sleep-like behaviors known as the behavioral satiety sequence (BSS), has been thoroughly described in rodents and has enabled the refined evaluation of potential appetite modifiers. However, the presence and attributes of a BSS have not been systematically studied in non-mammalian species. Here, we describe the BSS induced in pigeons (Columba livia) by 1) the presentation of a palatable seed mixture (SM) food to free-feeding animals (SM+FF condition) and 2) re-feeding after a 24-h fasting period (FD24h+SM), which was examined by continuous behavioral recording for 2h. We then compare these patterns to those observed in free-feeding (FF) animals. A set of graphic representations and indexes, drawn from these behaviors (latency, time-to-peak, inter-peak intervals and the first intersection between feeding curves and those of other BSS-typical behaviors) were used to describe the temporal structure and sequential relationships between the pigeon's BSS components. Cramér-von Mises-based statistical procedures and bootstrapping-based methods to compare pairs of complex behavioral curves were described and used for comparisons among the behavioral profiles during the free-feeding recordings and after fasting- and SM-induced BSS. FD24h+SM- and SM+FF-induced feeding were consistently followed by a similar sequence of increased bouts of drinking, followed by preening and then sleep, which were significantly different from that of FF birds. The sequential and temporal patterns of the pigeon's BSS were not affected by differences in food intake or by dissimilarity in motivational content of feeding stimuli. The present data indicated that a BSS pattern can be reliably evoked in the pigeon, in a chronological succession and sequence that strongly
付煜西; 高宏峰; 王书荣; Stephen A.George
The effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its antagonists bicuculline and 2-hydroxysaclofen on neuronal firings in the nucleus of basal optic root (nBOR) in pigeons were studied by using extracellular recording and microiontophoretic techniques. The results suggest that GABA may be an inhibitory neurotransmitter or modulator within nBOR, functioning by means of main mediation of GABAA receptors and of minor mediation of GABAB receptors. Furthermore, GABA and its GABAA receptors are involved in the modulation of directional selectivity in part of nBOR neurons.
Full Text Available The ability of mothers to transfer antibodies (Abs to their young and the temporal persistence of maternal Abs in offspring constitute important life-history traits that can impact the evolution of host-parasite interactions. Here, we examined the effects of food availability and parental immunization on the transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons (Columba livia. This species can transmit maternal Abs to offspring before hatching through the egg yolk and potentially after hatching through crop milk. However, the role of this postnatal substance in immunity remains elusive. We used a full cross-fostering design to disentangle the effects of food limitation and parental immunization both before and after hatching on the levels and persistence of maternal Abs in chicks. Parents were immunized via injection with keyhole limpet hemocyanin antigens. Using an immunoassay that specifically detected the IgY antibodies that are known to be transmitted via the yolk, we found that the levels of anti-KLH Abs in newly hatched chicks were positively correlated with the levels of anti-KLH Abs in the blood of their biological mothers. However, this correlation was not present between chicks and their foster parents, suggesting limited IgY transfer via crop milk to the chick's bloodstream. Interestingly, biological mothers subjected to food limitation during egg laying transferred significantly fewer specific maternal Abs, which suggests that the transfer of antibodies might be costly for them. In addition, the persistence of maternal Abs in a chick's bloodstream was not affected by food limitation or the foster parents' anti-KLH Ab levels; it was only affected by the initial level of maternal anti-KLH Abs that were present in newly hatched chicks. These results suggest that the maternal transfer of Abs could be costly but that their persistence in an offspring's bloodstream may not necessarily be affected by environmental conditions.
Hsu, Bin-Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Darras, Veerle M; de Vries, Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G G
Thyroid hormones (THs) - triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) - are essential for embryonic development in vertebrates. All vertebrate embryos are exposed to THs from maternal origin. As maternal TH levels are known to be essential to embryonic development, the natural variation of maternal THs probably represents a pathway of maternal effects that can modify offspring phenotype. However, potential fitness consequences of variation of maternal TH exposure within the normal physiological range and without confounding effects of the mother have never been experimentally investigated. We experimentally manipulated the levels of yolk T3 and T4 within the physiological range in a species in which the embryo develops outside the mother's body, the Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) eggs. Making use of the natural difference of yolk testosterone between the two eggs of pigeon clutches, we were also able to investigate the potential interaction between THs and testosterone. Elevated yolk TH levels enhanced embryonic development and hatching success, and reduced body mass but not tarsus length between day 14 and fledging. The yolk hormones increased plasma T4 concentrations in females but reduced it in males, in line with the effect on metabolic rate at hatching. Plasma concentrations of T3 and testosterone were not significantly affected. The effects of treatment did not differ between eggs with high or low testosterone levels. Our data indicate that natural variation in maternal yolk TH levels affects offspring phenotype and embryonic survival, potentially influencing maternal and chick fitness.
Chen, Duxin; Xu, Bowen; Zhu, Tao; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Hai-Tao
Coordination shall be deemed to the result of interindividual interaction among natural gregarious animal groups. However, revealing the underlying interaction rules and decision-making strategies governing highly coordinated motion in bird flocks is still a long-standing challenge. Based on analysis of high spatial-temporal resolution GPS data of three pigeon flocks, we extract the hidden interaction principle by using a newly emerging machine learning method, namely the sparse Bayesian learning. It is observed that the interaction probability has an inflection point at pairwise distance of 3-4 m closer than the average maximum interindividual distance, after which it decays strictly with rising pairwise metric distances. Significantly, the density of spatial neighbor distribution is strongly anisotropic, with an evident lack of interactions along individual velocity. Thus, it is found that in small-sized bird flocks, individuals reciprocally cooperate with a variational number of neighbors in metric space and tend to interact with closer time-varying neighbors, rather than interacting with a fixed number of topological ones. Finally, extensive numerical investigation is conducted to verify both the revealed interaction and decision-making principle during circular flights of pigeon flocks.
Durgin, Amy; Porter, Lindsay K; Bradley, Kelly P; Laraway, Sean; Poling, Alan
Pigeons were exposed to an automaintenance procedure in which 6-s key illuminations in one color (red or white) were immediately followed by 3-s food deliveries and key illuminations in the other color were followed by 9-s food deliveries. Both conditions engendered consistent responding. With both durations of food delivery, acute and chronic cocaine administrations (1.0-17.8 mg/kg) produced dose-dependent decreases in mean percent trials (key illuminations) with a response and mean total response per session. Tolerance developed to the disruptive effects of cocaine on both response measures. Food duration did not significantly affect either response measure or significantly interact with cocaine dose or drug regimen. The orderliness of the present findings, like those of a related study examining whether probability of food delivery modulated the effects of cocaine on automaintained responding [Porritt, M., Arnold, M., Poling, A., Cocaine and automaintained responding in pigeons: rate-reducing effects and tolerance thereto with different CS-US pairing probabilities. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2007; 87:405-411.], suggests that the automaintenance procedure is a useful assay for examining tolerance to drug effects on classically-conditioned responding. Unlike the results of that study, however, the present findings are inconsistent with a behavioral momentum analysis of drug effects on such responding.
Full Text Available The sunk cost fallacy is one of the irrational choice behaviors robustly observed in humans. This fallacy can be defined as a preference for a higher-cost alternative to a lower-cost one after previous investment in a higher-cost alternative. The present study examined this irrational choice by exposing pigeons to several types of trials with differently illuminated colors. We prepared three types of nonchoice trials for experiencing different outcomes after presenting same or different colors as alternatives and three types of choice trials for testing whether pigeons demonstrated irrational choice. In nonchoice trials, animals experienced either of the following: (1 no reinforcement after the presentation of an unrelated colored stimulus to the alternatives used in the choice situation, (2 no reinforcement after investment in the lower-cost alternative, or (3 reinforcement or no reinforcement after investment in the higher-cost alternative. In choice trials, animals were required to choose in the following three situations: (A higher-cost vs. lower-cost alternatives, (B higher-cost vs. lower-cost ones after some investment in the higher-cost alternative, and (C higher-cost vs. lower-cost alternatives after the presentation of an unrelated colored stimulus. From the definition of the sunk cost fallacy, we assumed that animals would exhibit this fallacy if they
Dutta, Swarnalee; Morang, Pranjal; Kumar S, Nishanth; Dileep Kumar, B S
A Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain, RRLJ 04, and a Bacillus cereus strain, BS 03, were tested both individually and in combination with a Rhizobium strain, RH 2, for their ability to enhance plant growth and nodulation in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) under gnotobiotic, greenhouse and field conditions. Both of the rhizobacterial strains exhibited a positive effect on growth in terms of shoot height, root length, fresh and dry weight, nodulation and yield over the non-treated control. Co-inoculation of seeds with these strains and Rhizobium RH 2 also reduced the number of wilted plants, when grown in soil infested with Fusarium udum. Gnotobiotic studies confirmed that the suppression of wilt disease was due to the presence of the respective PGPR strains. Seed bacterization with drug-marked mutants of RRLJ 04 and BS 03 confirmed their ability to colonize and multiply along the roots. The results suggest that co-inoculation of these strains with Rhizobium strain RH 2 can be further exploited for enhanced growth, nodulation and yield in addition to control of fusarial wilt in pigeon pea.
Matson, K.D.; Horrocks, N.P.C.; Tieleman, B.I.; Haase, E.
Most birds rely on flight for survival. Yet as an energetically taxing and physiologically integrative process, flight has many repercussions. Studying pigeons (Columba livia) and employing physiological and immunological indices that are relevant to ecologists working with wild birds, we determined
Makumba, W.; Akinnifesi, F.K.; Janssen, B.H.
The concept of competition or complementarity between tree and crop roots for below ground resources have been a major debate in simultaneous systems. Root studies were conducted in three cropping systems, namely: sole maize, pigeon pea/maize intercropping and Gliricidia sepium (Gliricidia)/maize in
Michael W Guernsey
Full Text Available Variation in the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r is associated with pigmentation diversity in wild and domesticated populations of vertebrates, including several species of birds. Among domestic bird species, pigmentation variation in the rock pigeon (Columbalivia is particularly diverse. To determine the potential contribution of Mc1r variants to pigment diversity in pigeons, we sequenced Mc1r in a wide range of pigeon breeds and identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms, including a variant that codes for an amino acid substitution (Val85Met. In contrast to the association between Val85Met and eumelanism in other avian species, this change was associated with pheomelanism in pigeons. In vitro cAMP accumulation and protein expression assays revealed that Val85Met leads to decreased receptor function and reduced cell surface expression of the mutant protein. The reduced in vitro function is consistent with the observed association with reduced eumelanic pigmentation. Comparative genetic and cellular studies provide important insights about the range of mechanisms underlying diversity among vertebrates, including different phenotypic associations with similar mutations in different species.
Matson, Kevin D.; Horrocks, Nicholas P. C.; Tieleman, B. Irene; Haase, Eberhard
Most birds rely on flight for survival. Yet as an energetically taxing and physiologically integrative process, flight has many repercussions. Studying pigeons (Columba livia) and employing physiological and immunological indices that are relevant to ecologists working with wild birds, we determined
Mohsenzadeh, Mahdieh Sadat; Zaeemi, Mahdieh; Razmyar, Jamshid; Azizzadeh, Mohammad
Biochemical analysis is necessary for diagnosis and monitoring of diseases in birds; however, the small volume of blood that can be safely obtained from small avian species often limits laboratory diagnostic testing. Consequently, a suitable methodology requiring only a small volume of blood must be used. This study was designed to compare blood glucose concentrations in domestic pigeons ( Columba livia domestica) as measured by a commercial, handheld, human glucometer and a standard autoanalyzer. During the first phase of the study, whole blood samples obtained from 30 domestic pigeons were used to measure the blood glucose concentration with a glucometer, the packed cell volume (PCV), and the total erythrocyte count (nRBC). Plasma separated from the each sample was then used to obtain the plasma glucose concentration with the autoanalyzer. During the second phase of the study, 30 pigeons were assigned to 2 equal groups (n = 15). Hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia was induced in each group by intravenous injection of insulin or glucose, respectively. Blood was collected and processed, and glucose concentrations, PCV, and nRBC were measured as previously described. Linear-regression models demonstrated a significant relationship between results measured by the glucometer and autoanalyzer results from normoglycemic (correlation coefficient [R] = 0.43, P = .02), hypoglycemic (R = 0.95; P < .001), and hyperglycemic (R = 0.81; P < .001) birds. The results of this study suggest that we can predict the real blood-glucose concentration of pigeons by using results obtained by a glucometer.
Minnerath, J M; Wakem, L P; Comfort, L L; Sherman, F; Jemmerson, R
Direct evidence is presented in support of the longstanding but unproven hypothesis that B lymphocytes specific for self antigens (Ags) can be used in the immune response to foreign Ags. We show that the B cells in BALB/c mic responding early to pigeon cytochrome c (CYT) produce antibodies that recognize and bind the major antigenic site on mouse CYT with greater affinity than they bind pigeon CYT i.e., they are heteroclitic for the self Ag. Furthermore, these B cells express the same combination of immunoglobulin variable region (V) genes that are known to be used in B-cell recognition of mouse CYT. Over time, the response to pigeon CYT becomes more specific for the foreign Ag through the recruitment of B cells expressing different combinations of V genes and, possibly, somatic mutation of the mouse CYT specific B cells from early in the response. Cross-recognition of pigeon CYT by mouse CYT-specific B cells results from the sharing of critical amino acid residues by the two Ags. Although B-cell recognition of the self Ag, mouse CYT, is very specific, which limits the extent to which foreign Ags can cross-activate the autoreactive B cells, it is possible that polyreactive B cells to other self Ags may be used more frequently in response to foreign Ags. PMID:8618905
Matumba, Limbikani; Singano, Lazarus; Pungulani, Lawrent; Mvula, Naomi; Matumba, Annie; Singano, Charles; Matita, Grey
Aflatoxin contamination and biodeterioration were examined in 302 samples of dry cowpeas and pigeon peas that were randomly purchased from 9 districts of the Southern Region of Malawi during July and November 2015. Further, the impact of flotation/washing on aflatoxin levels on the pulses was elucidated. Aflatoxin analyses involved immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up and HPLC quantification with fluorescence detection (FLD) while legume biodeterioration assessments were done by visual inspection. Aflatoxins were frequently detected in cowpea (24%, max., 66 μg/kg) and pigeon pea (22%, max., 80 μg/kg) samples that were collected in the month of July. Lower aflatoxin incidence of 15% in cowpeas (max., 470 μg/kg) and 14% in pigeon peas (max., 377 μg/kg) was recorded in the November collection. Overall, aflatoxin levels were significantly higher in the pulses that were collected in November. However, there were no significant differences in the total aflatoxin (aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) + AFB2 + AFG1 + AFG2) levels between the two types of pulses. Remarkably, in 76.2% of the aflatoxin positive cowpea and in 41.7% of the aflatoxin positive pigeon pea samples, aflatoxin G1 concentration exceeded aflatoxin B1. Insect damage percentage averaged at 18.1 ± 18.2% (mean ± SD) in the cowpeas and 16.1 ± 19.4% in pigeon peas. Mean discolouration percentage (number of pulses) of the cowpeas and pigeon peas was found to be at 6.7 ± 4.9 and 8.7 ± 6.2%, respectively. Washing and discarding the buoyant fraction was highly efficient in reducing aflatoxin levels; only 5.2 ± 11.1% of the initial aflatoxin level was found in the cleaned samples. In conclusion, cowpeas and pigeon peas sold on the local market in Malawi may constitute a hazard especially if floatation/washing step is skipped.
Hagstrum, J. T.
Pigeons ( Columba livia) and other birds released from distant familiar and unfamiliar sites generally head in the homeward (loft) direction, but often vanish from view or radio contact consistently off the exact homeward bearing. At some sites the deviation can be a significant and stable amount, while at other sites birds can appear to become completely lost and depart in random directions. These deviations or biases can change from hour to hour, day to day, and year to year, but have not, over the last ~50 years of intensive research, been related to any atmospheric factor. They are, however, still considered to reflect significant irregularities in the pigeons' "map" function. Celestial and geomagnetic "compasses" have been shown to orient avian flight, but how pigeons determine their location in order to select the correct homeward bearing remains controversial. At present the debate is primarily between workers advocating an olfactory "map" and those advocating variations in the direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field as map functions. Alternatively, infrasonic cues can travel 1000s of km in the atmosphere with little attenuation, and can be detected in the laboratory by pigeons at frequencies down to 0.05 Hz. Although infrasound has been considered as a navigational tool for homing and migratory birds, little supporting evidence of its use has been found. Infrasonic ray paths in the atmosphere are controlled primarily by temperature and secondarily by wind. Assuming birds use infrasonic cues, atmospheric conditions could cause the perplexing changes (both geographic and temporal) observed in the mean vanishing bearings (MVBs) of pigeons released from experimental sites. To test for correlations between MVBs and tropospheric conditions, release data collected by the late W.T. Keeton between 1968 and 1980 from around the Cornell University lofts in upstate NY are compared to rawinsonde data from stations near Buffalo and Albany. For example, birds
Rezaei, Farid; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Chalechale, Abdolali; Seidi, Shahin; Gholizadeh, Maryam
This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys from May 2012 to April 2013 to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites in Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Of the total of 600 free-range backyard chickens (185 ♂ and 415 ♀), 700 domestic pigeons (278 ♂ and 422 ♀) and 150 turkeys (53 ♂ and 97 ♀), 389 (64.83 %), 608 (86.85 %) and 54 (36 %) were infected with one or more parasites respectively. Eleven ectoparasites species including five of lice (50.16 % Menacanthus stramineus, 13.66 % Menopon gallinae, 4.83 % Cuclotogaster heterographus, 5.16 % Goniocotes gallinae, 2.33 % Goniodes gigas), three of mites (26.33 % Dermanyssus gallinae, 8.5 % Ornithonyssus bursa, 7 % Cnemidocoptes mutans), one of tick (78.66 % Argas persicus) and two of flea (12.33 % Echidnophaga gallinacea, 2 % Pulex irritans) were found in the backyard chickens. The domestic pigeons were infected with six species of parasites including: Columbicola columbae (61.7 %), M. gallinae (10.43 %), M. stramineus (9 %), D. gallinae (8.28 %), Argas reflexus (74.14 %) and Pseudolynchia canariensis (27.7 %). The ectoparasites species recorded in turkeys were M. gallinae (14 %), M. stramineus (8 %), D. gallinae (12.66 %), C. mutans (6 %), A. persicus (24.66 %) and E. gallinacean (6 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites among free-range backyard chicken, domestic pigeons and turkeys in Kermanshah province. The high prevalence rate of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons indicates that parasitic infection is a common problem in this area.
Parvandar, Kaveh; Mayahi, Mansour; Mosavari, Nader; Pajoohi, Reza Aref
Avian tuberculosis is one of the most important infections affecting most species of birds. Several mycobacterial species have been identified causing avian tuberculosis, and the organisms confirmed most frequently are Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium genavense. Any species of birds can be infected with M. avium. Generally, domesticated fowl or captive wild birds are affected more frequently than those living in the wild. M. avium can not only infect all species of birds, but can also infect some domesticated mammals to cause disease, usually with localized lesion. In immunocompetent individuals, M. avium complex isolates produce localized soft tissue infections, including chronic pulmonary infections in the elderly and cervical lymphadenitis in children, but rarely any disseminated disease. In patients infected with HIV and AIDS or in other immunocompromised individuals, M. avium complex isolates frequently cause severe systemic infections. The importance of avian tuberculosis and the risk of its zoonotic spread motivated our interest to determine the drug susceptibility testing of M. avium subsp. avium isolates from naturally infected domestic pigeons to avian tuberculosis. Based on their clinical signs, 80 pigeons suspected with avian tuberculosis were subjected to the study. Out of the 51 identified isolates, 20 M. avium subsp. avium were subjected to the test. Drug susceptibly testing was performed according to the guidelines by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and using proportional method. In the drug susceptibility testing, all isolates were resistant to streptomycin, kanamycin, ethionamide, and thiophene carboxylic acid hydrazide. Additionally, 3, 2, and 1 isolates were susceptible to isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol, respectively. To date, no study has documented the drug susceptibility testing of M. avium isolates from infected birds to avian tuberculosis. Pigeons are extensively kept in urban and rural areas for homing and racing
Dong, X Y; Jiang, Y J; Wang, M Q; Wang, Y M; Zou, X T
The effects of in ovo feeding of carbohydrates on hatchability, BW, yolk sac weights (YSW), pectoral muscle weights (PMW), liver and pectoral muscle glycogen concentration, serum glucose level, and hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity of domestic pigeons, hatched from eggs laid by a 40-wk-old breeder flock, were investigated. At 14.5 of incubation, fertile eggs were injected with 200 μL of 1.5% maltose (M) + 1.5% sucrose (S), 2.5% M + 2.5% S, 3.5% M + 3.5% S, or 4.5% M + 4.5% S in 0.75% saline, with controls not injected. Results showed that in ovo injection with 1.5% M + 1.5% S or 2.5% M + 2.5% S increased the hatchability compared with the control, whereas injection of 4.5% M + 4.5% S decreased the hatchability. The BW at hatch was quadratic, and BW was maximized by injecting 2.5% M + 2.5% S. The YSW at hatch decreased linearly by the injection with 3.5% M + 3.5% S compared with the control group. In ovo injection of 2.5% M + 2.5% S increased the PMW at hatch. There were no significant differences between any of the treatment groups for liver glycogen reserves. Serum glucose level at hatch was quadratic, and the glucose level was maximized between supplemental 2.5% M + 2.5% S and supplemental 3.5% M + 3.5% S. The pectoral muscle glycogen reserves increased quadratically as supplemental carbohydrates increased, and the response was maximized by injecting 2.5% M + 2.5% S. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that the injected carbohydrates are available for use and storage. In ovo feeding of carbohydrates, especially at the level of 2.5% M + 2.5% S, on 14.5 d of incubation can improve the hatchability, BW, and PMW by elevating the pectoral muscle glycogen reserves in domestic pigeons at hatch. Results also suggested that in ovo injection of carbohydrates could increase the yolk sac nutrient utilization and hence might enhance the pigeon enteric development.
Degernes, L.A.; Harms, C.A.; Golet, G.H.; Mulcahy, D.M.
This paper reports on the anesthesia and liver biopsy techniques used in adult and nestling pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) to test for continued exposure to residual crude oil in the marine environment. Populations of pigeon guillemots have declined significantly in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, possibly because of residual effects of crude oil in the environment after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in March 1989. Measurement of hepatic cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) is currently the best way to assess crude oil exposure from food sources; however, lethal sampling to obtain adequate liver tissue was not desirable in this declining population of birds. As part of a larger study to identify factors limiting the recovery of pigeon guillemots and other seabird populations, we surgically collected liver samples from adult and nestling guillemots to provide samples for measurement of hepatic CYP1A concentrations. Results from the larger study were reported elsewhere. Liver samples were taken from 26 nestling (1998) and 24 adult (1999) guillemots from a previously oiled site (Naked Island; 12 chicks, 13 adults) and from a nonoiled site (Jackpot Island/Icy Bay; 14 chicks, 11 adults). The birds were anesthetized with isoflurane. No surgical complications occurred with any of the birds and all adult and nestling birds survived after surgery to the point of release or return to the nest. Thirteen out of 14 chicks from the Jackpot Island/Icy Bay and 8 out of 12 chicks from Naked Island fledged. Four chicks at Naked Island were depredated before fledging. All adults abandoned their nests after surgery, so the study sites were revisited the following summer (2000) in an attempt to assess overwinter survival of the adults. All but 1 adult biopsied bird at the nonoiled site (Icy Bay) was found renesting, whereas only 2 birds at the previously oiled site (Naked Island) were similarly observed. The percent of 1999 breeders at Naked Island that returned to their nest sites to breed
Coumar, M Vassanda; Parihar, R S; Dwivedi, A K; Saha, J K; Rajendiran, S; Dotaniya, M L; Kundu, S
Introduction of heavy metals in the environment by various anthropogenic activities has become a potential treat to life. Among the heavy metals, cadmium (Cd) shows relatively high soil mobility and has high phyto-mammalian toxicity. Integration of soil remediation and ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration in soils through organic amendments, may provide an attractive land management option for contaminated sites. The application of biochar in agriculture has recently received much attention globally due to its associated multiple benefits, particularly, long-term carbon storage in soil. However, the application of biochar from softwood crop residue for heavy metal immobilization, as an alternative to direct field application, has not received much attention. Hence, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of pigeon pea biochar on cadmium mobility in a soil-plant system in cadmium-spiked sandy loam soil. The biochar was prepared from pigeon pea stalk through a slow pyrolysis method at 300 °C. The experiment was designed with three levels of Cd (0, 5, and 10 mg Cd kg(-1) soil) and three levels of biochar (0, 2.5, and 5 g kg(-1) soil) using spinach as a test crop. The results indicate that with increasing levels of applied cadmium at 5 and 10 mg kg(-1) soil, the dry matter yield (DMY) of spinach leaf decreased by 9.84 and 18.29 %, respectively. However, application of biochar (at 2.5 and 5 g kg(-1) soil) significantly increased the dry matter yield of spinach leaf by 5.07 and 15.02 %, respectively, and root by 14.0 and 24.0 %, respectively, over the control. Organic carbon content in the post-harvest soil increased to 34.9 and 60.5 % due to the application of biochar 2.5 and 5 g kg(-1) soil, respectively. Further, there was a reduction in the diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable cadmium in the soil and in transfer coefficient values (soil to plant), as well as its concentrations in spinach leaf and root, indicating that
Full Text Available En el presente estudio se comparó la protección conferida entre una vacuna homóloga, elaborada con avipoxvirus de paloma, y una vacuna comercial heteróloga de avipoxvirus de pollo, al desafiar palomas con un avipoxvirus de paloma. El avipoxvirus de paloma se aisló a partir de costras de palomas enfermas de viruela y se inoculó en membranas corioalantoideas (MCA de embrión de pollo (EP. La identificación viral se hizo por histopatología, reacción en cadena de la polimerasa y análisis de restricción enzimática. Dicho virus fue adaptado al EP mediante pases en MCA y se utilizó como vacuna homóloga cuando alcanzó un título de 10(4,37 DIEP50%/mL. Se vacunaron palomas mensajeras con la vacuna homóloga (n = 20 y con una vacuna heteróloga (n = 20, alcanzando un título neutralizante del suero de 1/61,5 para el grupo de la vacuna homóloga, mismo que fue nulo para el grupo de vacuna heteróloga. Por último, los animales se desafiaron con una suspensión de avipoxvirus de paloma con la que se obtuvo una protección del 100% en el grupo de la vacuna homóloga, mientras que en los grupos de vacuna heteróloga y en el grupo control (n = 20 no hubo protección. Se concluye que una vacuna homóloga contra avipoxvirus de paloma, adaptada a EP, es capaz de generar anticuerpos neutralizantes y su protección es significativamente mayor a la conferida por la vacuna heteróloga comercial.The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of a homologous vaccine against pigeon avipoxvirus with that of a commercial heterologous vaccine against chicken avipoxvirus, by challenging pigeons with pigeon avipoxvirus. The pigeon avipoxvirus was isolated from skin lesions of infected pigeons and then inocculated on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM. The virus was identified by histopathology, polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme analysis. Subsequently, the virus was attenuated by several passages in CAM and used as a
姚惠霞; 齐萌; 史亚东; 菅复春
A pigeon group emerged to the sudden death (2.5％ of mortality) in a pigeon farm.Clinical anatomy showed large of Ascarids parasiting in the gastrointestinal.Two hundred and twenty-six fecal samples were examined using the Sheather's sucrose flotation method.Four species of worms were detected, including Ascarid (39.8％), Angiostrongylus (2.7％ ),tapeworm (2.7 ％ ), and Capillaria (2.2％ ).Among which, Ascarid mainly infected adult pigeon and the infectious intensity was high.Thus, ascariasis was confirmed in this farm.Then, targeted therapies were used to the pigeon group.After treatment, no pigeon die again, and the infection rate decreased to 19.8％, it was lower than before.Moreover, Angiostrongylus and tapeworm were not detected.The result showed that treatment effect was well, the intestinal parasites was released in this pigeon farm.%某肉鸽场成年鸽群突发死亡,死亡率为2.5%,临床剖检可见胃肠道大量蛔虫寄生,应用饱和蔗糖溶液漂浮法对该鸽场共226份粪便样品进行调查,共发现4种蠕虫:蛔虫、圆线虫、绦虫和毛细线虫,感染率分别为39.8%、2.7%、2.7%和2.2%,其中,蛔虫为主要感染虫种,且感染强度较大,确诊该场暴发了蛔虫病.随后对鸽群进行针对性治疗,用药后鸽群未再出现死亡,蛔虫感染率从39.8%下降到19.8%,感染强度明显降低,圆线虫和绦虫未能检出,表明该场鸽肠道寄生蠕虫病得到较好的防治.
Soto Piñeiro, Carlos J.
Full Text Available Resumen En el presente trabajo se valora la incidencia de hernias en casos clínicos de palomas atendías quirúrgicamente en la clínica veterinaria de la Asociación Nacional Ornitológica de Cuba en Ciudad de la Habana, el grado de dificultad de la intervención de acuerdo al origen de la hernia, resultados de dos tipos de suturas empleadas en piel y recidivas luego de intervenidas. Abstract This study analyses the incidence of hernia in clinical cases of pigeons surgically treated at the veterinary surgery of the Asociación Nacional Ornitológica de Cuba, at Havana city. This study also analyses the degree of difficulty of this type of intervention in relation to the origin of hernia together with the results of two kinds of suture applied to the skin and recurred after intervention.
Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Lino-de-Oliveira, C; Marino-Neto, J
Tonic immobility (TI) is a response to a predator attack, or other inescapable danger, characterized by immobility, analgesia and unresponsiveness to external stimuli. In mammals, the periaqueductal gray (PAG) and deep tectal regions control the expression of TI as well as other defensive behaviors. In birds, little is known about the mesencephalic circuitry involved in the control of TI. Here, adult pigeons (both sex, n = 4/group), randomly assigned to non-handled, handled or TI groups, were killed 90 min after manipulations and the brains processed for detection of c-Fos immunoreactive cells (c-Fos-ir, marker for neural activity) in the mesencephalic central gray (GCt) and the adjacent nucleus intercollicularis (ICo). The NADPH-diaphorase staining delineated the boundaries of the sub nuclei in the ICo-GCt complex. Compared to non-handled, TI (but not handling) induced c-Fos-ir in NADPH-diaphorase-rich and -poor regions. After TI, the number of c-Fos-ir increased in the caudal and intermediate areas of the ICo (but not in the GCt), throughout the rostrocaudal axis of the dorsal stratum griseum periventriculare (SGPd) of the optic tectum and in the n. mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd), which is part of the ascending auditory pathway. These data suggest that inescapable threatening stimuli such as TI may recruit neurons in discrete areas of ICo-GCt complex, deep tectal layer and in ascending auditory circuits that may control the expression of defensive behaviors in pigeons. Additionally, data indicate that the contiguous deep tectal SCPd (but not GCt) in birds may be functionally comparable to the mammalian dorsal PAG.
Doughty, Adam H; Richards, Jerry B
Experiment I investigated the effects of reinforcer magnitude on differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) schedule performance in three phases. In Phase 1, two groups of rats (n = 6 and 5) responded under a DRI. 72-s schedule with reinforcer magnitudes of either 30 or 300 microl of water. After acquisition, the water amounts were reversed for each rat. In Phase 2, the effects of the same reinforcer magnitudes on DRL 18-s schedule performance were examined across conditions. In Phase 3, each rat responded unider a DR1. 18-s schedule in which the water amotnts alternated between 30 and 300 microl daily. Throughout each phase of Experiment 1, the larger reinforcer magnitude resulted in higher response rates and lower reinforcement rates. The peak of the interresponse-time distributions was at a lower value tinder the larger reinforcer magnitude. In Experiment 2, 3 pigeons responded under a DRL 20-s schedule in which reinforcer magnitude (1-s or 6-s access to grain) varied iron session to session. Higher response rates and lower reinforcement rates occurred tinder the longer hopper duration. These results demonstrate that larger reinforcer magnitudes engender less efficient DRL schedule performance in both rats and pigeons, and when reinforcer magnitude was held constant between sessions or was varied daily. The present results are consistent with previous research demonstrating a decrease in efficiency as a function of increased reinforcer magnituide tinder procedures that require a period of time without a specified response. These findings also support the claim that DRI. schedule performance is not governed solely by a timing process.
Paterson, Scott R.; Tobisch, Othmar T.
Paterson, S.R. and Tobisch, O.T. 1993. Pre-lithification structures, deformation mechanisms, and fabric ellipsoids in slumped turbidites from the Pigeon Point Formation, California. Tectonophysics, 222: 135-149. Quantitative fabric, structural, and microstructural analyses of pre-lithification folds, foliations, and lineations formed by slumping of turbidite sequences in the Cretaceous Pigeon Point Formation, California, provide a useful comparison with strain and microstructures developed in lithified and tectonically deformed turbidites. Our results indicate the following: (1) multiple generations of folds, cleavages, and lineations can develop prior to any post-lithification tectonic deformation (2) individual grains in sandstones have variable axial ratios, but the ratios and orientations of large populations of grains define fabric ellipsoids with small axial ratios ( ave. = 1.25:1.13:1) (3) phyllosilicate grains define moderate flattening fabrics (reflecting 20-40% shortening or volume loss), with the intensity of alignment partly controlled by the percent of quartz and feldspar grains (4) the fabric ellipsoids in sand-rich layers largely reflect deposition and slumping: pre- and post-slump compactions did not occur, in sand-rich units but did align clay particles in mud-siltstone units, and (5) intra-grain microstructures in quartz and feldspar (e.g., undulose extinction, subgrains) are inherited or recycled features rather than representing effects of post-lithification strains. Our data also suggest that prelithification slumping occurred by pervasive grain rotation and grain boundary sliding in saturated sands with some local movement of material along bedding horizons. A likely model for the folding and associated fabrics is that buckling and fold-hinge flattening drove fluid expulsion, which in turn caused local grain-scale realignment, transposition of bedding, and the development of an axial planar cleavage in the hinge zones. Continued fluid flow was
Chatelain, M; Gasparini, J; Frantz, A
Understanding the effects of trace metals emitted by anthropogenic activities on wildlife is of great concern in urban ecology; yet, information on how they affect individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems remains scarce. In particular, trace metals may impact survival by altering the immune system response to parasites. Plumage melanin is assumed to influence the effects of trace metals on immunity owing to its ability to bind metal ions in feathers and its synthesis being coded by a pleiotropic gene. We thus hypothesized that trace metal exposure would interact with plumage colouration in shaping immune response. We experimentally investigated the interactive effect between exposure to an environmentally relevant range of zinc and/or lead and melanin-based plumage colouration on components of the immune system in feral pigeons (Columba livia). We found that zinc increased anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) IgY primary response maintenance, buffered the negative effect of lead on anti-KLH IgY secondary response maintenance and tended to increase T-cell mediated phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin response. Lead decreased the peak of the anti-KLH IgY secondary response. In addition, pheomelanic pigeons exhibited a higher secondary anti-KLH IgY response than did eumelanic ones. Finally, T-cell mediated PHA skin response decreased with increasing plumage eumelanin level of birds exposed to lead. Neither treatments nor plumage colouration correlated with endoparasite intensity. Overall, our study points out the effects of trace metals on some parameters of birds' immunity, independently from other confounding urbanization factors, and underlines the need to investigate their impacts on other life history traits and their consequences in the ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions.
Tunio, Ahmed; Jalila, Abu; Goh, Yong Meng; Shameha-Intan; Shanthi, Ganabadi
Fracture and bone segment loss are major clinical problems in birds. Achieving bone formation and clinical union in a fracture case is important for the survival of the bird. To evaluate the efficacy of bone grafts for defect healing in birds, 2 different bone grafts were investigated in the healing of a bone defect in 24 healthy pigeons ( Columba livia ). In each bird, a 1-cm critical size defect (CSD) was created in the left ulna, and the fracture was stabilized with external skeletal fixation (ESF). A graft of hydroxyapatite (HA) alone (n = 12 birds) or demineralized bone matrix (DBM) combined with HA (n = 12 birds) was implanted in the CSD. The CSD healing was evaluated at 3 endpoints: 3, 6, and 12 weeks after surgery. Four birds were euthanatized at each endpoint from each treatment group, and bone graft healing in the ulna CSD was evaluated by histologic examination. The CSD and graft implants were evaluated for quality of union, cortex development, and bone graft incorporation. Results showed no graft rejection in any bird, and all birds had connective tissue formation in the defect because of the bone graft application. These results suggest that bone defect healing can be achieved by a combination of osteoinductive and osteoconductive bone graft materials for clinical union and new bone regeneration in birds. The combination of DBM and HA resulted in a better quality bone graft (P < .05) than did HA alone, but there was no significant differences in cortex development or bone graft incorporation at 3, 6, or 12 weeks. From the results of this study, we conclude that HA bone grafts, alone or in combination with DBM, with external skeletal fixation is suitable and safe for bone defect and fracture treatment in pigeons.
Jayadeep, Padmanabhan A; Sashikala, Vadakkoot B; Pratape, Vishwas M
The nutritional quality of dehusked whole grains (gota) and dehusked splits (dhal) in red and white varieties of pigeon pea regarding proximate composition and certain lipid-soluble bioactive components was investigated. A decrease in fat and crude fiber was noticed when gota was converted to dhal. The lipid profile of gota and dhal from red and white husk pigeon pea types indicated that essential fatty acids were greater in gota than in their respective dhals. Gota from white husk variety contained more tocopherols than the red variety. Dhal contained less tocopherols than gota. A decrease in the content of gamma and alpha tocopherols, vitamin E activity and total antioxidant activity also indicates loss of bioactive components on splitting gota into dhal. Cooking time and dispersed solids on cooking indicated good cooking quality of gotta. The results indicated the nutritional superiority of gota over dhal and its similarity with dhal in cooking characteristics.
Fachinelli, C; Ison, M; Rodríguez Echandía, E L
The acute administration of 5-HTP was reported to block in undernourished dominant pigeons the aggressive attacks induced in a submissive partner by food competition. In the present study, undernourished pigeons with previously consolidated dominance were submitted to subchronic and chronic 5-HTP treatment. Adult males (n = 28) were kept at 80% of their body weight by a restricted diet. These were divided in pairs made of a previously ranked dominant subject (total time spent in aggression higher than 200 s/20 min) and a submissive one of similar body weight (time spent in aggression between 90 and 150 s/20 min). The same pairs were exposed to a daily 20 min interaction during each experiment in an observation chamber bearing a central feeder. The time spent in aggressive behavior, feeder control behavior and eating behavior was recorded. Intratest body weight gain was also recorded. In Experiment 1, 8 pairs of pigeons were exposed to a daily trial for 4 successive days (pretreatment-scores). The dominant subjects were then injected subcutaneously, 30 min. before trials, with 7.5 mg/kg 5-HTP from day 5 to day 8 (Treatment scores). The Recovery scores were obtained through a 4-trial post-treatment schedule. In Experiment 2 different pigeons were used. The pretreatment and recovery scores were obtained according to a 16-trial schedule (16 days). Both 4-day (subchronic) and 16-day (chronic) 5-HTP treatments attenuated aggression by the dominant subjects and reduced their intra-test body weight gain but did not decrease dominance for feeder control. The recovery scores of total aggression in subchronic experiments returned to pretreatment scores. In chronic experiments, instead, the recovery scores of aggression remained lower than pretreatment scores, whereas body-weight-gain scores came back to pretreatment values. This suggests that dominant subjects submitted to chronic 5-HTP might have learned to maintain dominance and feeder control in a virtual absence of
Radfar, Mohammad Hossein; Khedri, Javad; Adinehbeigi, Keivan; Nabavi, Reza; Rahmani, Khatereh
This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) from December 2010 to November 2011 to determine the prevalence, intensity and species of internal and external parasites in Sistan region, east of Iran. Of the total of 59 (27 males and 32 females) free-range backyard chickens and 46 (26 males and 20 females) domestic pigeons inspected, 55 (93.22 %) and 39 (84.78 %) were infected respectively. Ten species of free-range backyard chickens parasites were collected from alimentary canals, body, head and neck, comprising of 3 species of nematodes, 4 species of cestodes and 3 species of ectoparasites as follows: Ascaridia galli (16.94 %), Heterakis gallinarum (23.72 %), Subulura brumpti (67.79 %), Raillietina tetragona (35.59 %), Raillietina echinobothrida (27.11 %), Raillietina cesticillus (15.25 %), Choanotaenia infundibulum (40.67 %), Argas persicus (16.94 %), Menopen gallinae (55.93 %) and Menacanthus stramineus (33.89 %). The domestic pigeons were infected with seven species of parasites including 2 species of nematodes, 2 species of cestodes and 3 species of ectoparasites as follows: Ascaridia colombae (15.21 %), Hadjelia truncata (17.39 %), Raillietina tetragona (26.08 %), Raillietina echinobothrida (28.26 %), Argas reflexus (13.04 %), Menopen gallinae (32.60 %), Columbicola Columba (41.30 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and intensity of parasites among free-range backyard chicken and domestic pigeon species in Sistan region.
Hussein Hasan Abulreesh
Full Text Available Objective: To verify the occurrence of Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans and other fungi in samples of pigeon droppings collected from Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: One hundred and twelve withered pigeon dropping samples were collected from 12 different districts. Using the dilution plate technique, samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and esculin agar. Colonies were examined microscopically and C. neoformans identification is confirmed by India ink preparation, observation of urease activity and brown pigmentation on esculin medium. Susceptibility patterns of five yeast species and four molds against five antifungal drugs were tested using agar disk diffusion method. Results: C. neoformans was recovered from 38 samples (34%. Na'aman valley was recorded to be the highest contaminated site (66.7% with C. neoformans, while the samples collected from Al Awaly district were considered as the lowest contaminated samples (6.7%. Also, twenty species related to sixteen genera of fungi other than C. neoformans were recovered from which, three yeast genera were recorded. The antifungal susceptibility testing showed that the nine tested fungal species were sensitive to Mycosat, while Fungican exerted inhibition zones of four species only. C. neoformans was moderately sensitive towards all tested compounds but it can resist Flucoral where no inhibition zone could be detected. Conclusions: Our results are considered to be the first report on the environmental prevalence of C. neoformans in pigeon feces in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The data indicated that pigeon droppings can be considered as a potential source of this basidiomycetous yeast in addition to other fungal species in this region.
Nalbach, H O
Pigeons freely standing in the centre of a two-dimensionally textured cylinder not only rotate but also laterally translate their head in response to the pattern sinusoidally oscillating or unidirectionally rotating around their vertical axis. The translational head movement dominates the response at high oscillation frequencies, whereas in a unidirectionally rotating drum head translation declines at about the same rate as the rotational response increases. It is suggested that this is a consequence of charging the 'velocity storage' in the vestibulo-ocular system. Similar to the rotational head movement (opto-collic reflex), the translational head movement is elicited via a wide-field motion sensitive system. The underlying mechanism can be described as vector integration of movement vectors tangential to the pattern rotation. Stimulation of the frontal visual field elicits largest translational responses while rotational responses can be elicited equally well from any azimuthal position of a moving pattern. Experiments where most of the pattern is occluded by a screen and the pigeon is allowed to view the stimulus through one or two windows demonstrate a short-range inhibition and long-range excitation between movement detectors that feed into the rotational system. Furthermore, the results obtained from such types of experiments suggest that the rotational system inhibits the translational system. These mechanisms may help the pigeon to decompose image flow into its translational and rotational components. Because of their translational response to a rotational stimulus, it is concluded, however, that pigeons either generally cannot perfectly perform the task or they need further visual information, like differential image motion, that was not available to them in the paradigms.
Ex vivo biomechanical evaluation of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri and ostectomized humeri stabilized with caudally applied titanium locking plate or stainless steel nonlocking plate constructs.
Darrow, Brett G; Biskup, Jeffrey J; Weigel, Joseph P; Jones, Michael P; Xie, Xie; Liaw, Peter K; Tharpe, Josh L; Sharma, Aashish; Penumadu, Dayakar
OBJECTIVE To evaluate mechanical properties of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri versus ostectomized humeri stabilized with a locking or nonlocking plate. SAMPLE 30 humeri from pigeon cadavers. PROCEDURES Specimens were allocated into 3 groups and tested in bending and torsion. Results for intact pigeon humeri were compared with results for ostectomized humeri repaired with a titanium 1.6-mm screw locking plate or a stainless steel 1.5-mm dynamic compression plate; the ostectomized humeri mimicked a fracture in a thin cortical bone. Locking plates were secured with locking screws (2 bicortical and 4 monocortical), and nonlocking plates were secured with bicortical nonlocking screws. Constructs were cyclically tested nondestructively in 4-point bending and then tested to failure in bending. A second set of constructs were cyclically tested non-destructively and then to failure in torsion. Stiffness, strength, and strain energy of each construct were compared. RESULTS Intact specimens were stiffer and stronger than the repair groups for all testing methods, except for nonlocking constructs, which were significantly stiffer than intact specimens under cyclic bending. Intact bones had significantly higher strain energies than locking plates in both bending and torsion. Locking and nonlocking plates were of equal strength and strain energy, but not stiffness, in bending and were of equal strength, stiffness, and strain energy in torsion. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results for this study suggested that increased torsional strength may be needed before bone plate repair can be considered as the sole fixation method for avian species.
Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8082 (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Gochfeld, Michael [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Sullivan, Kelsey [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (United States); P.O. Box 801, Bethel, Maine, 04217 (United States); Irons, David [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (United States)
Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators.
de Oliveira, Elisabete Schirato; Silva, Ketherson Rodrigues; Fernando, Filipe Santos; Gonçalves, Mariana Costa Mello; Fernandes, Camila Cesário; Borzi, Mariana Monezi; dos Santos, Romeu Moreira; Tamanini, Maria de Lourdes Feres; Montassier, Maria de Fátima da Silva; Montassier, Helio José
A competitive liquid-phase-blocking concanavalin A enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LPB-ConA-ELISA) was developed in the current study. The assay used ConA as a capture reagent, and the sera of specific pathogen-free chickens immunized with nonpurified Newcastle disease virus (NDV) suspension as detector antibodies, to detect and quantify specific antiviral antibodies in serum samples from free-ranging pigeons. The comparison between the LPB-ConA-ELISA and the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for the detection of antibodies in serum samples from 107 pigeons showed significant correlation between the assays (r = 0.875), a high sensitivity (100%), specificity (95.8%), accuracy (96.3%) for the ELISA, and good agreement (κ = 0.83) between the 2 assays. The results of this study suggest that the LPB-ConA-ELISA could be a useful alternative to HI test in the serodiagnosis of NDV in pigeons, or other species of birds.
Full Text Available A total of 119 fresh faecal samples were collected from graylag geese migrating northwards in April. Also, cloacal swabs were taken from 100 carcasses of graylag geese shot during the hunting season in August. In addition, samples were taken from 200 feral pigeons and five mallards. The cultivation of bacteria detected Campylobacter jejuni jejuni in six of the pigeons, and in one of the mallards. Salmonella diarizona 14:k:z53 was detected in one graylag goose, while all pigeons and mallards were negative for salmonellae. No avian paramyxovirus was found in any of the samples tested. One mallard, from an Oslo river, was influenza A virus positive, confirmed by RT-PCR and by inoculation of embryonated eggs. The isolate termed A/Duck/Norway/1/03 was found to be of H3N8 type based on sequence analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments, and serological tests. This is the first time an avian influenza virus has been isolated in Norway. The study demonstrates that the wild bird species examined may constitute a reservoir for important bird pathogens and zoonotic agents in Norway.
CABALLERO, Moisés; RIVERA, Isabel; JARA, Luis M.; ULLOA-STANOJLOVIC, Francisco M.; SHIVA, Carlos
SUMMARY Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) live in close contact with humans and other animals. They can transmit potentially pathogenic and zoonotic agents. The objective of this study was to isolate and detect strains of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni of urban feral pigeons from an area of Lima, Peru. Fresh dropping samples from urban parks were collected for microbiological isolation of E. coli strains in selective agar, and Campylobacter by filtration method. Molecular identification of diarrheagenic pathotypes of E.coli and Campylobacter jejuni was performed by PCR. Twenty-two parks were sampled and 16 colonies of Campylobacter spp. were isolated. The 100% of isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Furthermore, 102 colonies of E. coliwere isolated and the 5.88% resulted as Enteropathogenic (EPEC) type and 0.98% as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The urban feral pigeons of Lima in Peru can act as a reservoir or carriers of zoonotic potentially pathogenic enteric agents. PMID:26603225
Chen, Ming-xia; Li, Xiang-guang; Yang, Jun-xian; Gao, Chun-qi; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xiu-qi; Yan, Hui-chao
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between gene expression of nutrient (amino acid, peptide, sodium and proton) transporters in the small intestine and embryonic growth in domestic pigeons (Columba livia). One hundred and twenty-five fertilized eggs were randomly assigned into five groups and were incubated under optimal conditions (temperature of 38.1 °C and relative humidity of 55%). Twenty embryos/birds from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on embryonic day (E) 9, 11, 13, 15 and day of hatch (DOH). The eggs, embryos (without yolk sac), and organs (head, brain, heart, liver, lungs, kidney, gizzard, small intestine, legs, and thorax) were dissected, cleaned, and weighed. Small intestine samples were collected for RNA isolation. The mRNA abundance of intestinal nutrient transporters was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We classified these ten organs into four types according to the changes in relative weight during embryonic development. In addition, the gene expression of nutrient transporters was differentially regulated by embryonic day. The mRNA abundances of b(0,+)AT, EAAT3, y(+)LAT2, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, and NHE3 increased linearly with age, whereas mRNA abundances of CAT1, CAT2, LAT1, EAAT2, SNAT1, and SNAT2 were increased to higher levels on E9 or E11 and then decreased to lower levels until DOH. The results of correlation analysis showed that the gene expressions of b(0,+)AT, EAAT3, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, NHE3, and y(+)LAT2 had positive correlations with body weight (0.71
Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the expression of the Zenk protein within the nucleus taeniae of the pigeon’s amygdala (TnA after training in a classical aversive conditioning, in order to improve our understanding of its functional role in birds. Thirty-two 18-month-old adult male pigeons (Columba livia, weighing on average 350 g, were trained under different conditions: with tone-shock associations (experimental group; EG; with shock-alone presentations (shock group; SG; with tone-alone presentations (tone group; TG; with exposure to the training chamber without stimulation (context group; CG, and with daily handling (naive group; NG. The number of immunoreactive nuclei was counted in the whole TnA region and is reported as density of Zenk-positive nuclei. This density of Zenk-positive cells in the TnA was significantly greater for the EG, SG and TG than for the CG and NG (P < 0.05. The data indicate an expression of Zenk in the TnA that was driven by experience, supporting the role of this brain area as a critical element for neural processing of aversive stimuli as well as meaningful novel stimuli.
Foster, T A; Hackenberg, T D; Vaidya, M
Pigeons' key pecks produced food under second-order schedules of token reinforcement, with light-emitting diodes serving as token reinforcers. In Experiment 1, tokens were earned according to a fixed-ratio 50 schedule and were exchanged for food according to either fixed-ratio or variable-ratio exchange schedules, with schedule type varied across conditions. In Experiment 2, schedule type was varied within sessions using a multiple schedule. In one component, tokens were earned according to a fixed-ratio 50 schedule and exchanged according to a variable-ratio schedule. In the other component, tokens were earned according to a variable-ratio 50 schedule and exchanged according to a fixed-ratio schedule. In both experiments, the number of responses per exchange was varied parametrically across conditions, ranging from 50 to 400 responses. Response rates decreased systematically with increases in the fixed-ratio exchange schedules, but were much less affected by changes in the variable-ratio exchange schedules. Response rates were consistently higher under variable-ratio exchange schedules than tinder comparable fixed-ratio exchange schedules, especially at higher exchange ratios. These response-rate differences were due both to greater pre-ratio pausing and to lower local rates tinder the fixed-ratio exchange schedules. Local response rates increased with proximity to food under the higher fixed-ratio exchange schedules, indicative of discriminative control by the tokens.
Ploog, Bertram O; Williams, Ben A
Pigeons learned a series of reversals of a simultaneous red-green discrimination with a 6-s delay of reinforcement. The signal properties during the 6-s reinforcement delay were varied across blocks of reversals, such that the delay was either unsignaled (intertrial interval conditions during the delay) or signaled by illumination of the center key. Four different signal conditions were presented: (1) signals only after S+ responses, (2) signals only after S- responses, (3) differential signals after S+ versus S- responding, and (4) the same nondifferential signals after S+ and S- responses. (A zero-delay control condition was also included.) Learning was at a high level in the S+ -only and differential-signal conditions, and learning was at a low level during the unsignaled, nondifferentially signaled, and S- signal conditions. Thus, a differential stimulus contingent on correct choices was necessary for proficient learning-to-learn, even though within-reversal learning occurred in all conditions. During the S+ and differential-signal conditions, improvement in learning continued to occur even after more than 240 reversals (more than 38,000 trials).
Shen, Sin Ying; Chang, Wei Chun; Yi, Hsiang Heng; Tsai, Shinn-Shong; Liu, Hung Jen; Liao, Pei-Chun; Chuang, Kuo Pin
Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is a severe threat to the chicken industry and causes heavy economic losses worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the immune response and protective efficacy provided by a subunit vaccine containing recombinant VP1 (rVP1) and pigeon interferon-γ (rPiIFN-γ). Results indicated that rPiIFN-γ enhanced humoral immunity elicited by rVP1 as early as 10 day after primary immunization and reach the high titer after secondary immunization. When compared to chickens immunized with rVP1, inactivated vaccine, chickens immunized with rVP1+rPiIFN-γ showed faster and higher levels (pvaccine prevent the reducing of hematocrit values in comparison with the rVP1 or inactivated groups. The relative fold inductions of mRNA expression of Th1-type (IFN-γ), but not Th2-type (IL-4) cytokines in splenocytes isolated from chickens immunized with rVP1+rPiIFN-γ were significantly higher than those of the rVP1 or inactivated vaccine groups. In conclusion, our study found that rPiIFN-γ can enhance both humoral and cellular immunity elicited by an rVP1 vaccine. The rVP1+rPiIFN-γ vaccine may provide a new strategy vaccine against CAV in chicken.
Santos, Carlos D; Przybyzin, Sebastian; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K N
Social animals routinely are challenged to make consensus decisions about movement directions and routes. However, the underlying mechanisms facilitating such decision-making processes are still poorly known. A prominent question is how group members participate in group decisions. We addressed this question by examining how flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia) decide their homing direction. We released newly formed flocks varying in size and determined the time taken to choose a homing direction (decision-making period) and the accuracy of that choice. We found that the decision-making period increases exponentially with flock size, which is consistent with a participatory decision-making process. We additionally found that there is no effect of flock size on the accuracy of the decisions made, which does not match with current theory for democratic choices of flight directions. Our combined results are better explained by a participatory choice of leaders that subsequently undertake the flock directional decisions. However, this decision-making model would only entirely fit with our results if leaders were chosen based on traits other than their navigational experience. Our study provides rare empirical evidence elucidating decision-making processes in freely moving groups of animals.
Cousins, Rachael A; Battley, Phil F; Gartrell, Brett D; Powlesland, Ralph G
The New Zealand Pigeon or kereru (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae) frequently collides with windows and vehicles. In this study of 146 kereru collected from 1996 to 2009, we used 118 radiographs and 91 necropsies to determine skeletal and soft tissue injuries. Vehicle collisions resulted in more damage to the extremities (wing and femur), whereas collisions with windows resulted in trauma to the head, fractures/dislocations of the coracoids and clavicles, and ruptured internal organs. Soft tissue injuries included damage to the flight muscles and heart ruptures caused by fractured coracoid bones, as well as extensive bruising of pectoral muscles and hemorrhaging of the lungs. Rehabilitation time was not related to number of skeletal injuries sustained, nor was the time until death for those that did not survive. In general, kereru with greater numbers of injuries were less likely to survive rehabilitation. Flight speed and force calculations suggest that a 570-g kereru would collide with 3-70 times the force of smaller birds (5-180 g); this may explain the discrepancies between the injuries characterized here and those reported for North American passerines. The differences in injuries sustained from collisions with windows and cars can be used to inform rehabilitators about the possible nature of injuries if the source of impact is known.
Urcuioli, Peter J.
Symmetry is one of three derived relations (along with transitivity and reflexivity) that indicate that explicitly trained conditional relations are equivalence relations and that the elements of those trained relations are members of a stimulus class. Although BA symmetry is typically observed after AB conditional discrimination training in humans, it has been an elusive phenomenon in other animals until just recently. This paper describes past unsuccessful attempts to observe symmetry in non-human animals and the likely reasons for that lack of success. I then describe how methodological changes made in response to the earlier findings have now yielded robust evidence for symmetry in pigeons, and what these changes indicate about the functional matching stimuli. Finally, I describe a theory of stimulus-class formation (Urcuioli, 2008) which specifies how and why symmetry and other derived relations arise from different sets of trained relations. These derived relations are noteworthy because they demonstrate an impressive repertoire of non-similarity-based categorization effects in animals and the generative effects of reinforcement and stimulus control processes on behavior. PMID:28386579
Kaveh Parvandar Asadollahi
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Avian tuberculosis is one of the most important infections affecting most species of birds.Mycobacterium avium can not only infect all species of birds, but also infect some domesticated mammals.The most crucial aspect of control and eradication scheme is identification of infection sources and transmission routs. Mo- lecular techniques such as restriction fragment length polymorphism and pulse field gel electrophoresis have been shown to be much more discriminatory and suitable for use in the epidemiological study.Materials and Methods: Eighty suspected pigeons to avian tuberculosis based on their clinical signs, were subjected to the study. Forty Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates out of a total of 51 identified isolates were subjected to the test.Results: IS901-RFLP using Pvu II was successfully conducted and produced 7 patterns. The majority of isolates (60% were RFLP type PI.1. This type was the most similar type to standard strain. However, all the patterns obtained in this study were different from the standard strain.Conclusion: The result of this study indicate that these isolates probably are limited to Khuzestan region. We recommend DNA fingerprinting differentiation of non tuberculous Mycobacteria particularly Mycobacterium avium complex isolated from infected birds and human to possibly find source of infections. Keywords: Mycobacterium avium, RFLP, polymorphism, avian tuberculosis
Karten, J H; Fite, K V; Brecha, N
In the pigeon, the nucleus of the basal optic root, a component of the accessory optic system, projects directly upon the vestibulo-cerebellum. This nucleus receives a prominent projection composed of large-diameter retinal axons, known as the basal optic root. The cells of origin of this tract were identified using horseradish peroxidase (donor:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase, EC 220.127.116.11) as a retrograde marker. Injections of horseradish peroxidase confined primarily to the basal optic root nucleus labeled displaced ganglion cells of the contralateral retina. Cell sizes were 18-30 micronm and the dendrites of these cells were confined to the first stratum of the inner plexiform layer. Approximately 3700 displaced ganglion cells were labeled after injections of horseradish peroxidase into basal optic root. In contrast, no displaced ganglion cells were labeled after injections of horseradish peroxidase into the optic tectum, which labeled only cells in the ganglion cell layer proper. These findings indicate that displaced ganglion cells constitute a unique population of retinal neurons that give rise to a bisynaptic pathway directed to the cerebellum via the nucleus of the basal optic root. These displaced ganglion cells may play a major role inoculomotor reflexes.
Qiao, Guang; Wen, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Ting
Light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins (LHCB) have been implicated in the stress response. In this study, a gene encoding LHCB in the pigeon pea was cloned and characterized. Based on the sequence of a previously obtained 327 bp Est, a full-length 793 bp cDNA was cloned using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. It was designated CcLHCB1 and encoded a 262 amino acid protein. The calculated molecular weight of the CcLHCB1 protein was 27.89 kDa, and the theoretical isoelectric point was 5.29. Homology search and sequence multi-alignment demonstrated that the CcLHCB1 protein sequence shared a high identity with LHCB from other plants. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that CcLHCB1 was a hydrophobic protein with three transmembrane domains. By fluorescent quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), CcLHCB1 mRNA transcripts were detectable in different tissues (leaf, stem, and root), with the highest level found in the leaf. The expression of CcLHCB1 mRNA in the leaves was up-regulated by drought stimulation and AM inoculation. Our results provide the basis for a better understanding of the molecular organization of LCHB and might be useful for understanding the interaction between plants and microbes in the future.
Santos, Carlos D.; Przybyzin, Sebastian; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K. N.
Social animals routinely are challenged to make consensus decisions about movement directions and routes. However, the underlying mechanisms facilitating such decision-making processes are still poorly known. A prominent question is how group members participate in group decisions. We addressed this question by examining how flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia) decide their homing direction. We released newly formed flocks varying in size and determined the time taken to choose a homing direction (decision-making period) and the accuracy of that choice. We found that the decision-making period increases exponentially with flock size, which is consistent with a participatory decision-making process. We additionally found that there is no effect of flock size on the accuracy of the decisions made, which does not match with current theory for democratic choices of flight directions. Our combined results are better explained by a participatory choice of leaders that subsequently undertake the flock directional decisions. However, this decision-making model would only entirely fit with our results if leaders were chosen based on traits other than their navigational experience. Our study provides rare empirical evidence elucidating decision-making processes in freely moving groups of animals. PMID:26863416
Carlos D Santos
Full Text Available Social animals routinely are challenged to make consensus decisions about movement directions and routes. However, the underlying mechanisms facilitating such decision-making processes are still poorly known. A prominent question is how group members participate in group decisions. We addressed this question by examining how flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia decide their homing direction. We released newly formed flocks varying in size and determined the time taken to choose a homing direction (decision-making period and the accuracy of that choice. We found that the decision-making period increases exponentially with flock size, which is consistent with a participatory decision-making process. We additionally found that there is no effect of flock size on the accuracy of the decisions made, which does not match with current theory for democratic choices of flight directions. Our combined results are better explained by a participatory choice of leaders that subsequently undertake the flock directional decisions. However, this decision-making model would only entirely fit with our results if leaders were chosen based on traits other than their navigational experience. Our study provides rare empirical evidence elucidating decision-making processes in freely moving groups of animals.
Ramya R Mishra
Full Text Available The mode of gene action governing resistance to plume moth (Exelastis atomosa Walsingham 1886 derived from pigeon-pea (Cajanus scarabaeoides (L. Thouars accession ICPW-94 has been determined and the resistance alleles have been designated as PPM1. The progenies of F2 population and F3 families derived from an interspecific cross C. cajan (L. Huth ('ICP-26' x C. scarabaeoides (accession ICPW-94 revealed monogenic gene action for resistance to plume moth, and the dominant control by single locus or cluster of tightly linked alleles. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA of 116 F2 progenies by using 143 parental polymorphic RAPD primers could identify a fragment OPA09(910 associated with plume moth resistance in coupling phase of linkage. Further single plant analysis of the 116 F2 mapping population revealed OPA09(910 was linked to PPMi locus conferring host resistance to plume moth with recombination fraction (rf value of 0.125 (12.7 cM of Kosambi function. The resistance specific fragment OPA09(910 was cloned, sequenced and converted into a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR marker, SCOPA09(942, which was also closely associated (10.3 cM with the locus PPMl with rf value 0.102. BLAST analysis with pigeon-pea genome sequence also confirmed its occurrence in CcLG02 (Scafseq.LG_V5.0fa and contig 01597 (AFSP01.fsa1. This SCAR marker showed reasonable screening efficiency in the F2, F3, and BC1F1 lines, thus it can be used as genetic handle in marker-assisted introgression of the genomic fragment conferring plume moth resistance and screening of breeding lines in pigeon-pea.
Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago, were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (% and mean intensities with their standard deviations: the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778 (6 241 .0 ± 138.9 and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10 %, 218.3 ± 117.3; the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100 %, 111.4 ± 76.8 and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94 %, 48.4 ± 26.6; and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36 %, 6.2 ± 1.6. The endoparasites we found, were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82 %, 14.8 ± 10.3 per 1000; coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50 %, 0.2 x 103 ± 1.7 x 103 per gr; a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909 López Neyra, 1947 (44 %, 12.3 ± 9.4; and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres fissispina (Diesing, 1861 Travassos, 1915 (4 %, 99.5 ± 34,1, Synhimantus (Dispharynx spiralis (Molin, 1858 (8 %, 46. 8 ± 11.6, Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790 Travassos, 1913 (40 %, 8.4 ± 8.8 and Aonchotheca sp. (18 %, 6.0 ± 3.1. Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.
Seenath, Avidesh; Wilson, Matthew; Miller, Keith
Under climate change, sea levels will continue to rise and the intensity of tropical storms and hurricanes will amplify. Consequently, the incidence rate of high magnitude storm surges may increase which will enhance the probability of coastal flood events in low lying coastal communities. The purpose of this study is to determine the current and potential future areas that may be at risk of flooding from storm surges, of different magnitudes, for the low lying Pigeon Point area of south-west Tobago. The objective of this research is to develop an understanding of the extent of flooding that these events can ensue on low lying coastal areas that are widespread through the Caribbean under current and future sea level conditions. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic flood model was created for Pigeon Point using the model code LISFLOOD-FP by incorporating topographic data of the terrain and sea bed referenced to mean sea level together with tides. This was used to assess the impact of different storm surge levels on the study area. Storm surge scenarios were computed using information acquired from the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale which provides an estimate of storm surge height based on the category of hurricane, existing projections of global sea level rise and recorded values of high tide for Pigeon Point. Results indicate that the quantity of area likely to flood, in each surge scenario, increases significantly under future projected global sea level conditions compared to current conditions. The potential implications of this on the local population, island's economy and beach geomorphology are examined. Results obtained were incorporated into a Geographic Information System (GIS) to produce current and future flood maps indicating potential inundation extent based on storm surge height to guide coastal flood management programmes in south-west Tobago. We conclude that greater focus should be placed on implementing flood mitigation measures to protect our coasts and
Foronda, P; Valladares, B; Rivera-Medina, J A; Figueruelo, E; Abreu, N; Casanova, J C
The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia) from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago), were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (%) and mean intensities with their standard deviations): the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (6, 241.0 +/- 138.9) and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10%, 218.3 +/- 117.3); the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100%, 111.4 +/- 76.8) and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94%, 48.4 +/- 26.6); and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36%, 6.2 +/- 1.6). The endoparasites we found were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82%, 14.8 +/- 10.3 per 1000); coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50%, 0.2 x 10(3) +/- 1.7 x 10(3) per gr); a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909) López Neyra, 1947 (44%, 12.3 +/- 9.4); and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres) fissispina (Diesing, 1861) Travassos, 1915 (4%, 99.5 +/- 34.1), Synhimantus (Dispharynx) spiralis (Molin, 1858) (8%, 46.8 +/- 11.6), Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790) Travassos, 1913 (40%, 8.4 +/- 8.8) and Aonchotheca sp. (18%, 6.0 +/- 3.1). Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths) of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.
Li, Ming; Wang, Xian-Song; Xu, Feng-Ping; Liu, Shuang; Xu, Shi-Wen; Li, Shu
The expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) commonly increases to provide neuroprotection when brain tissues are under stress conditions. Residues of avermectins (AVMs) have neurotoxic effects on a number of non-target organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AVM exposure on the expression levels of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 for pigeon (Columba livia) neurons both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that in general, the mRNA and protein levels of Hsps were increased in treated groups relative to control groups after AVM exposure for 30d, 60d and 90d in the cerebrum, cerebellum and optic lobe in vivo. However, AVM exposure had no significant effects on the transcription expression of Hsps for 90d in the optic lobe and decreased the translation expression of Hsps significantly for 90d in the optic lobe. In vitro, the LC50 of avermectin for King pigeon neurons is between 15μgL(-1) and 20μgL(-1). Following AVM (2.5-20μgL(-1)) exposure, the mRNA expression of the 3 Hsps was up-regulated to different degrees. Compared with the control groups, a significant decrease, a remarkable increase and a non-significant change was found in the protein expression of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 separately following AVM (2.5-20μgL(-1)) exposure. Based on these results, we conclude that AVM exposure can induce a protective stress response in pigeons by means of promoting the mRNA and protein expression of Hsps under in vivo and in vitro conditions, thus easing the neurotoxic effects of AVM to some extent.
Bennert, Beatrice M; Kircher, Patrick R; Gutbrod, Andreas; Riechert, Juliane; Hatt, Jean-Michel
Although plate fixation has advantages over other fixation methods for certain indications, it is rarely used in avian surgery, especially in birds that weigh less than 1000 g. Exceptionally small plating systems for these birds are required, which are relatively expensive and difficult to insert. To study avian fracture healing after repair using miniplates, we evaluated 2 steel miniplate systems in 27 pigeons ( Columba livia ) divided into 4 groups. In each pigeon, the left ulna and radius were transected and the ulna was repaired with a bone plate. In groups A and B, a 1.3-mm adaption plate was applied without and with a figure-of-eight bandage; in groups C and D, a 1.0-mm compression plate was applied without and with a bandage, respectively. Healing was evaluated with radiographs after 3, 14, and 28 days; flight tests were conducted after 14, 21, and 28 days; and the wing was macroscopically examined after euthanasia of birds on day 28. Fractures healed without bending or distortion of the plate in all 27 birds, and no significant differences in healing were found between treatment groups. At the end of the study, 23 pigeons (85.2%) showed good or very good flight ability. Results show the 1.3-mm adaption plate and the 1.0-mm compression plate meet the requirements for avian osteosynthesis and can be recommended for fracture repair of the ulna or other long bones in birds weighing less than 500 g. The application of a figure-of-eight bandage might be beneficial in fracture healing.
H. A. Hassan
Full Text Available This study was undertaken with the objectives of using the decorticated pigeon pea protein isolate in the development of protein rich-biscuit, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea protein isolate on the sensory evaluation and quality of biscuit produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea protein Isolate (DPPI was incorporated in wheat (Triticum aesitivum flour (WF, extraction rate 72%, for making fortified biscuit. Ratios of DPPI in wheat flour were adjusted to protein levels of 15, 20 and 25%, respectively. Rheological and functional properties as well as proximate composition, nutritive value and sensory characteristics for the biscuit produced were assessed. The gluten quantity (dry and wet and falling number of wheat flour were significantly (p#0.05 decreased with the incorporation of DPPI from 10.25 to 7.6%; from 31.2 to 22.5% and from 657 to 443 sec., for 0,15, 20 and 25% protein levels, respectively.Water Retention Capacity (WRC, Bulk Density (BD and Fat Absorption Capacity (FAC were obtained. Addition of DPPI resulted in an increase in water absorption which was found to be ranged from 66.7 to 71.0%; dough development time from 4.5 to 7.3 min and dough stability 1.7 to 5.8 min. Biscuit supplemented with DPPI showed significant increase (p≤0.05 in ash, protein with high level of incorporation and significant decrease (p≤0.05 in carbohydrates and caloric values when biscuit wheat was supplemented with high level of DPPI. Incorporation of DPPI showed no significant differences (p≤0.05 on biscuit spread ratios compared to wheat biscuit (control. Biscuit with 15% protein level was found to be superior in all its sensory characteristics compared to the other blends.
Chae, H S; Jang, G E; Kim, N H; Son, H R; Lee, J H; Kim, S H; Park, G N; Jo, H J; Kim, J T; Chang, K S
Cryptococcus neoformans (C neoformans) is a frequent cause of invasive fungal disease in immunocompromised human hosts. Ninety-eight samples of pigeon droppings were collected from the pigeon shelters in Seoul, and cultured on birdseed agar (BSA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). One hundred yeast-like colonies were selected and identified via phenotype characteristics, such as colony morphology and biochemical characteristics. This was then followed with genotyping via sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The colonies were classified into four kinds of colony color types: brown type (BrT), beige type (BeT), pink type (PT), and white type (WT). Numbers of isolated BrT, BeT, PT, and WT colonies were 22 (22%), 30 (30%), 19 (19%), and 39 (39%), respectively. All BrT colonies were identified as C neoformans. BeT were identified as 19 isolates of Cryptococcus laurentii, 10 isolates of Malassezia furfur, and 1 isolate of Cryptococcus uniguttulatus. PT was divided into two colony color types: light-PT (l-PT) and deep-PT (d-PT). Eighteen of l-PT and one of d-PT were identified as Rhodotorula glutinis and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, respectively. WT were identified as 34 isolates of Cryptococcus guilliermondii, 3 isolates of Cryptococcus zeylanoides, 1 isolate of Cryptococcus sake, and 1 isolate of Stephanoascus ciferrii. Most strains were classified identically with the use of either phenotype or genotyping techniques, but C uniguttulatus and C sake classified by phenotyping were Pseudozyma aphidis and Cryptococcus famata by genotyping. This rapid screening technique of pathogenic yeast-like fungi by only colony characteristics is also expected to be very useful for primary yeast screening. Additionally, we investigated the seasonal variations of C neoformans and other yeast-like fungi from 379 pigeon-dropping samples that were collected from February 2011 to March 2011. We isolated 685 yeast-like fungi from the samples. Almost all C neoformans and
Full Text Available A questionnaire has been developed and a survey of athletes, specializing in clay pigeon shooting on issues related to effectiveness, an optimal combination of general and special training as well as a balanced alternation of exercise and rest phases and the use of special methods of recovery and rehabilitation has been carried out. It is show n the necessity of influencing on the behavior, emotions, motivation and instilling the positive qualities of character. It has been determined a well - balanced training structure which includes the main points mentioned above as well as necessary recommend ations considering specificity of given kind of sports, to minimize the risk of health impairment.
O'Reilly, S S; Mariotti, G; Winter, A R; Newman, S A; Matys, E D; McDermott, F; Pruss, S B; Bosak, T; Summons, R E; Klepac-Ceraj, V
Ooids are sedimentary grains that are distributed widely in the geologic record. Their formation is still actively debated, which limits our understanding of the significance and meaning of these grains in Earth's history. Central questions include the role played by microbes in the formation of ooids and the sources of ubiquitous organic matter within ooid cortices. To address these issues, we investigated the microbial community composition and associated lipids in modern oolitic sands at Pigeon Cay on Cat Island, The Bahamas. Surface samples were taken along a transect from the shallow, turbulent surf zone to calmer, deeper water. Grains transitioned from shiny and abraded ooids in the surf zone, to biofilm-coated ooids at about 3 m water depth. Further offshore, grapestones (cemented aggregates of ooids) dominated. Benthic diatoms and Proteobacteria dominated biofilms. Taxa that may promote carbonate precipitation were abundant, particularly those associated with sulfur cycling. Compared to the lipids associated with surface biofilms, relict lipids bound within carbonate exhibited remarkably similar profiles in all grain types. The enhanced abundance of methyl-branched fatty acids and β-hydroxy fatty acids, 1-O-monoalkyl glycerol ethers and hopanoids bound within ooid and grapestone carbonate confirms a clear association of benthic sedimentary bacteria with these grains. Lipids bound within ooid cortices also contain molecular indicators of microbial heterotrophic degradation of organic matter, possibly in locally reducing conditions. These included the loss of labile unsaturated fatty acids, enhanced long-chain fatty acids/short-chain fatty acids, enriched stable carbon isotopes ratios of fatty acids, and very high stanol/stenol ratios. To what extent some of these molecular signals are derived from later heterotrophic endolithic activity remains to be fully resolved. We speculate that some ooid carbonate forms in microbial biofilms and that early diagenetic
Pakan, Janelle M P; Graham, David J; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Wylie, Douglas R W
The pigeon vestibulocerebellum is divided into two regions based on the responses of Purkinje cells to optic flow stimuli: the uvula-nodulus responds best to self-translation, and the flocculus responds best to self-rotation. We used retrograde tracing to determine whether the flocculus and uvula-nodulus receive differential mossy fiber input from the vestibular and cerebellar nuclei. From retrograde injections into the both the flocculus and uvula-nodulus, numerous cells were found in the superior vestibular nucleus (VeS), the cerebellovestibular process (pcv), the descending vestibular nucleus (VeD), and the medial vestibular nucleus (VeM). Less labeling was found in the prepositus hypoglossi, the cerebellar nuclei, the dorsolateral vestibular nucleus, and the lateral vestibular nucleus, pars ventralis. In the VeS, the differential input to the flocculus and uvula-nodulus was distinct: cells were localized to the medial and lateral regions, respectively. The same pattern was observed in the VeD, although there was considerable overlap. In the VeM, the majority of cells labeled from the flocculus were in rostral margins on the ipsilateral side, whereas labeling from uvula-nodulus injections was distributed bilaterally throughout the VeM. Finally, from injections in the flocculus but not the uvula-nodulus, moderate labeling was observed in a paramedian area, adjacent to the medial longitudinal fasciculus. In summary, there were clear differences with respect to the projections from the vestibular nuclei to functionally distinct parts of the vestibulocerebellum. Generally speaking, the mossy fibers to the flocculus and uvula-nodulus arise from regions of the vestibular nuclei that receive input from the semicircular canals and otolith organs, respectively.
Bolte, Petra; Bleibaum, Florian; Einwich, Angelika; Günther, Anja; Liedvogel, Miriam; Heyers, Dominik; Depping, Anne; Wöhlbrand, Lars; Rabus, Ralf; Janssen-Bienhold, Ulrike; Mouritsen, Henrik
Cryptochromes are ubiquitously expressed in various animal tissues including the retina. Some cryptochromes are involved in regulating circadian activity. Cryptochrome proteins have also been suggested to mediate the primary mechanism in light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds. Cryptochrome 1b (Cry1b) exhibits a unique carboxy terminus exclusively found in birds so far, which might be indicative for a specialised function. Cryptochrome 1a (Cry1a) is so far the only cryptochrome protein that has been localised to specific cell types within the retina of migratory birds. Here we show that Cry1b, an alternative splice variant of Cry1a, is also expressed in the retina of migratory birds, but it is primarily located in other cell types than Cry1a. This could suggest different functions for the two splice products. Using diagnostic bird-specific antibodies (that allow for a precise discrimination between both proteins), we show that Cry1b protein is found in the retinae of migratory European robins (Erithacus rubecula), migratory Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) and pigeons (Columba livia). In all three species, retinal Cry1b is localised in cell types which have been discussed as potentially well suited locations for magnetoreception: Cry1b is observed in the cytosol of ganglion cells, displaced ganglion cells, and in photoreceptor inner segments. The cytosolic rather than nucleic location of Cry1b in the retina reported here speaks against a circadian clock regulatory function of Cry1b and it allows for the possible involvement of Cry1b in a radical-pair-based magnetoreception mechanism.
Bolte, Petra; Bleibaum, Florian; Einwich, Angelika; Günther, Anja; Liedvogel, Miriam; Heyers, Dominik; Depping, Anne; Wöhlbrand, Lars; Rabus, Ralf; Janssen‐Bienhold, Ulrike; Mouritsen, Henrik
Cryptochromes are ubiquitously expressed in various animal tissues including the retina. Some cryptochromes are involved in regulating circadian activity. Cryptochrome proteins have also been suggested to mediate the primary mechanism in light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds. Cryptochrome 1b (Cry1b) exhibits a unique carboxy terminus exclusively found in birds so far, which might be indicative for a specialised function. Cryptochrome 1a (Cry1a) is so far the only cryptochrome protein that has been localised to specific cell types within the retina of migratory birds. Here we show that Cry1b, an alternative splice variant of Cry1a, is also expressed in the retina of migratory birds, but it is primarily located in other cell types than Cry1a. This could suggest different functions for the two splice products. Using diagnostic bird-specific antibodies (that allow for a precise discrimination between both proteins), we show that Cry1b protein is found in the retinae of migratory European robins (Erithacus rubecula), migratory Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) and pigeons (Columba livia). In all three species, retinal Cry1b is localised in cell types which have been discussed as potentially well suited locations for magnetoreception: Cry1b is observed in the cytosol of ganglion cells, displaced ganglion cells, and in photoreceptor inner segments. The cytosolic rather than nucleic location of Cry1b in the retina reported here speaks against a circadian clock regulatory function of Cry1b and it allows for the possible involvement of Cry1b in a radical-pair-based magnetoreception mechanism. PMID:26953791
Full Text Available Cryptochromes are ubiquitously expressed in various animal tissues including the retina. Some cryptochromes are involved in regulating circadian activity. Cryptochrome proteins have also been suggested to mediate the primary mechanism in light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds. Cryptochrome 1b (Cry1b exhibits a unique carboxy terminus exclusively found in birds so far, which might be indicative for a specialised function. Cryptochrome 1a (Cry1a is so far the only cryptochrome protein that has been localised to specific cell types within the retina of migratory birds. Here we show that Cry1b, an alternative splice variant of Cry1a, is also expressed in the retina of migratory birds, but it is primarily located in other cell types than Cry1a. This could suggest different functions for the two splice products. Using diagnostic bird-specific antibodies (that allow for a precise discrimination between both proteins, we show that Cry1b protein is found in the retinae of migratory European robins (Erithacus rubecula, migratory Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe and pigeons (Columba livia. In all three species, retinal Cry1b is localised in cell types which have been discussed as potentially well suited locations for magnetoreception: Cry1b is observed in the cytosol of ganglion cells, displaced ganglion cells, and in photoreceptor inner segments. The cytosolic rather than nucleic location of Cry1b in the retina reported here speaks against a circadian clock regulatory function of Cry1b and it allows for the possible involvement of Cry1b in a radical-pair-based magnetoreception mechanism.