Himmel, L; O'Connor, M; Premanandan, C
An adult male domestic pigeon (Columba livia) was presented for necropsy following natural death after a period of chronic weight loss and severe intestinal ascariasis. Histopathologic examination of the liver found moderate to marked, multifocal necrotizing hepatitis with large, basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Transmission electron microscopy of affected hepatocytes demonstrated numerous intra- and perinuclear icosahedral virions arranged in a lattice structure, consistent with adenoviral infection. © The Author(s) 2014.
Gozalo, Alfonso S; Schwiebert, Rebecca S; Lawson, Gregory W
A group of 12 domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) was treated for capillariasis by use of fenbendazole at 30 mg/kg orally once daily for 5 d. After treatment, 8 of the 12 pigeons exhibited signs of anorexia, lethargy, and dehydration; these birds died within 2 d after the onset of clinical signs. A total of 6 birds were necropsied, and all had unremarkable gross findings. Microscopic examination of tissues revealed acute hemorrhagic enteritis, diffuse lymphoplasmacytic enteritis, small intestinal crypt necrosis, periportal lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis, bile duct hyperplasia, and renal tubular necrosis. Erythrocytes in blood samples collected from surviving birds demonstrated polychromasia compatible with a regenerative anemia. The clinical and histopathologic findings in these pigeons were consistent with recent reports of fenbendazole toxicity in domestic pigeons and other columbiform birds.
Karatepe, Mustafa; Kılıç, Selçuk; Karatepe, Bilge; Babür, Cahit
The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii specific antibodies in domestic (Columba livia domestica) and wild (Columba livia livia) pigeons between October 2003-June 2004. Blood samples were collected from 216 pigeons, consisting of 105 (55 female, 50 male) domestic pigeons and 111 (53 female, 58 male) wild pigeons. The sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the Sabin Feldman Dye Test (SFDT). One of the 105 (0.95%) domestic pigeon and one of the 111 (0.90%) wild pigeon were found to be seropositive for T. gondii antibodies at the titer of 1:16. This is the first serological study on toxoplasmosis in the domestic and wild pigeon in the Niğde region of Turkey.
Johnston, Kathleen M.; Key, Douglas W.
Paramyxovirus-1 (PMV-1) infection was diagnosed in racing pigeons in Ontario during 1985, but it was not until January 1989, that the virus was isolated from feral pigeons (Columba livia) in this province. During an 18 month period beginning January 1988, a total of 43 feral pigeons was submitted to the Wildlife Diseases Laboratory, Pathology Department, Ontario Veterinary College. A history of neurological signs accompanied most of the birds. Tissues from 29 birds were submitted for PMV-1 isolation. Allantoic inoculation of embryonated chicken eggs yielded PMV-1 in 10 of the pigeons submitted. On the basis of histological criteria, we believe that 12 other birds were also infected with PMV-1. Gross pathological changes were unremarkable. Lymphplasmacytic interstitial nephritis was observed histologically in all birds from which PMV-1 was isolated. Other lesions seen, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, were lymphoplasmacytic interstitial hepatitis and multifocal hepatic necrosis, lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pancreatitis, nonsuppurative encephalitis and myelitis. The existence of PMV-1 in feral pigeons poses a potential threat to the poultry population since there is ample opportunity for mingling with poultry under open housing management. There is also a concern that pigeons may harbor the virus, perhaps in the kidney, and become chronic carriers and potential long-term disseminators of the disease. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17424132
Oliveira, Bruno César Miranda; Ferrari, Elis Domingos; da Cruz Panegossi, Mariele Fernanda; Nakamura, Alex Akira; Corbucci, Flávio Sader; Nagata, Walter Bertequini; Dos Santos, Bianca Martins; Gomes, Jancarlo Ferreira; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Widmer, Giovanni; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva
The carrier pigeon and the domestic pigeon are different breeds of the species Columba livia. Carrier pigeons are used for recreational activities such as bird contests and exhibitions. Due to the close contact with humans, these birds may potentially represent a public health risk, since they can host and disseminate zoonotic parasites, such as those belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium (phylum Apicomplexa). The purpose of this work was the detection by microscopic and molecular techniques of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in fecal samples of carrier pigeons, and subsequently to sequence the 18S ribosomal RNA marker of positive samples to identify the species. A total of 100 fecal samples were collected individually in two pigeon breeding facilities from Formiga and Araçatuba, cities located in Minas Gerais state and São Paulo state, Brazil, respectively. The age of the birds ranged from one to 12 years; 56 were females and 44 males. Fecal smears were stained with negative malachite green, whereas the molecular characterization was based on the sequence of a ∼800bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene. Microscopic examination of fecal smears revealed 4% (4/100) oocyst positivity. On the other hand, 7% (7/100) of positivity were found using nested PCR. Three samples were 99% to 100% similar to Cryptosporidium parvum 18S rDNA type A (Genbank AH006572) and the other three samples had 99% to 100% similarity to C. parvum 18S rDNA type B (Genbank AF308600). To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. parvum oocysts in carrier pigeons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Adam, Ruth; Güntürkün, Onur
Background Vertebrate brains are composed of two hemispheres that receive input, compute, and interact to form a unified response. How the partially different processes of both hemispheres are integrated to create a single output is largely unknown. In some cases one hemisphere takes charge of the response selection – a process known as metacontrol. Thus far, this phenomenon has only been shown in a handful of studies with primates, mostly conducted in humans. Metacontrol, however, is even more relevant for animals like birds with laterally placed eyes and complete chiasmatic decussation since visual input to the hemispheres is largely different. Methodology/Principal Findings Homing pigeons (Columba livia) were trained with a color discrimination task. Each hemisphere was trained with a different color pair and therefore had a different experience. Subsequently, the pigeons were binocularly examined with two additional stimuli that combined the positive color of one hemisphere with a negative color that had been shown to the other, omitting the availability of a coherent solution and confronting the pigeons with a conflicting situation. Some of the pigeons responded to both stimuli, indicating that none of the hemispheres dominated the overall preference. Some birds, however, responded primarily to one of the conflicting stimuli, showing that they based their choice on the left- or right-monocularly learned color pair, indicating hemispheric metacontrol. Conclusions/Significance We could demonstrate for the first time that metacontrol is a widespread phenomenon that also exists in birds, and thus in principle requires no corpus callosum. Our results are closely similar to those in humans: monocular performance was higher than binocular one and animals displayed different modes of hemispheric dominance. Thus, metacontrol is a dynamic and widely distributed process that possibly constitutes a requirement for all animals with a bipartite brain to confront the
Full Text Available Vertebrate brains are composed of two hemispheres that receive input, compute, and interact to form a unified response. How the partially different processes of both hemispheres are integrated to create a single output is largely unknown. In some cases one hemisphere takes charge of the response selection--a process known as metacontrol. Thus far, this phenomenon has only been shown in a handful of studies with primates, mostly conducted in humans. Metacontrol, however, is even more relevant for animals like birds with laterally placed eyes and complete chiasmatic decussation since visual input to the hemispheres is largely different.Homing pigeons (Columba livia were trained with a color discrimination task. Each hemisphere was trained with a different color pair and therefore had a different experience. Subsequently, the pigeons were binocularly examined with two additional stimuli that combined the positive color of one hemisphere with a negative color that had been shown to the other, omitting the availability of a coherent solution and confronting the pigeons with a conflicting situation. Some of the pigeons responded to both stimuli, indicating that none of the hemispheres dominated the overall preference. Some birds, however, responded primarily to one of the conflicting stimuli, showing that they based their choice on the left- or right-monocularly learned color pair, indicating hemispheric metacontrol.We could demonstrate for the first time that metacontrol is a widespread phenomenon that also exists in birds, and thus in principle requires no corpus callosum. Our results are closely similar to those in humans: monocular performance was higher than binocular one and animals displayed different modes of hemispheric dominance. Thus, metacontrol is a dynamic and widely distributed process that possibly constitutes a requirement for all animals with a bipartite brain to confront the problem of choosing between two hemisphere
Hellebuyck, Tom; Göbel, Stephan; Pasmans, Frank; Adriaensen, Connie; Martel, An
Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from 438 live racing pigeons ( Columba livia), with and without signs of respiratory disease, that were housed in 220 lofts in 3 provinces in the western part of the Netherlands. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify Mycoplasma species and pigeon herpesvirus-1 (PHV-1) from the samples. In 8.6% of the pigeon lofts tested, signs of respiratory disease were present in pigeons at sampling, and in 30.9% of the sampled pigeon lofts, respiratory signs were observed in pigeons during the 6-month period immediately before sampling. A total of 39.8% of tested pigeons (54.5% of tested lofts) were positive for Mycoplasma species, and 30.6% of tested pigeons (48.6% of tested lofts) were positive for PHV-1. In 15.8% of the tested pigeons (26.8% of tested pigeon lofts), coinfection by Mycoplasma species and PHV-1 was identified. The number of pigeon lofts having pigeons coinfected by Mycoplasma species and PHV-1 was higher than that where only one of the infections was identified. Neither the presence of Mycoplasma species, PHV-1, nor the co-occurrence of both infections was significantly associated with signs of respiratory disease.
Bittencourt, Myla de Aguiar; Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Marino-Neto, José
Changes in body temperature are significant physiological consequences of stressful stimuli in mammals and birds. Pigeons (Columba livia) prosper in (potentially) stressful urban environments and are common subjects in neurobehavioral studies; however, the thermal responses to stress stimuli by pigeons are poorly known. Here, we describe acute changes in the telemetrically recorded celomatic (core) temperature (Tc) in pigeons given a variety of potentially stressful stimuli, including transfer to a novel cage (ExC) leading to visual isolation from conspecifics, the presence of the experimenter (ExpR), gentle handling (H), sham intracelomatic injections (SI), and the induction of the tonic immobility (TI) response. Transfer to the ExC cage provoked short-lived hyperthermia (10-20 min) followed by a long-lasting and substantial decrease in Tc, which returned to baseline levels 2 h after the start of the test. After a 2-hour stay in the ExC, the other potentially stressful stimuli evoked only weak, marginally significant hyperthermic (ExpR, IT) or hypothermic (SI) responses. Stimuli delivered 26 h after transfer to the ExC induced definite and intense increases in Tc (ExpR, H) or hypothermic responses (SI). These Tc changes appear to be unrelated to modifications in general activity (as measured via telemetrically recorded actimetric data). Repeated testing failed to affect the hypothermic responses to the transference to the ExC, even after nine trials and at 1- or 8-day intervals, suggesting that the social (visual) isolation from conspecifics may be a strong and poorly controllable stimulus in this species. The present data indicated that stress-induced changes in Tc may be a consistent and reliable physiological parameter of stress but that they may also show stressor type-, direction- and species-specific attributes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Holt, Carson; Campbell, Michael; Keays, David A; Edelman, Nathaniel; Kapusta, Aurélie; Maclary, Emily; T Domyan, Eric; Suh, Alexander; Warren, Wesley C; Yandell, Mark; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Shapiro, Michael D
The domestic rock pigeon ( Columba livia ) is among the most widely distributed and phenotypically diverse avian species. C. livia is broadly studied in ecology, genetics, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary biology, and has recently emerged as a model for understanding the molecular basis of anatomical diversity, the magnetic sense, and other key aspects of avian biology. Here we report an update to the C. livia genome reference assembly and gene annotation dataset. Greatly increased scaffold lengths in the updated reference assembly, along with an updated annotation set, provide improved tools for evolutionary and functional genetic studies of the pigeon, and for comparative avian genomics in general. Copyright © 2018 Holt et al.
GHAZI, Rafia Rehana
A new species, Pulluterina karachiensis, is described from the common pigeon Columba livia Gmelin in Karachi. The new species is characterized by possessing small suckers; a longer neck; fewer testes, smaller in size, and the comparatively smaller size of ova. This is the second species of the genus from Pakistan and third in the literature.
Samani, Amir Dehghani; Kheirabadi, Khodadad Pirali; Mohebbi, Abdonnaser
It has been reported that parasites affect the health and productivity of birds, initiate excessive preening which interrupts feeding, as the birds spend much time preening rather than being involved in other essential life activities. Haemoproteus columbae occurs in pigeons widely in tropical and subtropical regions. The present investigation was concentrated on the effect of H. columbae infection on the hemogram and changes in the number of white blood cells in infected pigeons. Blood samples taked from 100 pigeons in Shahrekord. Blood smears stained and observed for H. columbae infection. Packed cell volume (PCV) and total white blood cells (WBC) count and differential WBC count determinate for every smears. This study show that PCV increased in infected pigeons by H. columbae than non infected pigeons. There were increasing in the number of total WBC in the infected pigeons by H. columbae than non infected pigeons. Also there were significant differences between the number of lymphocytes and eosinophils in the infected pigeons by H. columbae than non infected pigeons. This study and same studies show the part of the effects of blood parasites on the hemogram, but there were many questions about the effects of blood parasites such as H. columbae on the other parameters of host's blood, so we advise to focus on the other hematological parameters in the future studies.
Gibbs, Samantha E. J.; Hoffman, Douglas M.; Stark, Lillian M.; Marlenee, Nicole L.; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Beaty, Barry J.; Stallknecht, David E.
Wild caught rock pigeons (Columba livia) with antibodies to West Nile virus were monitored for 15 months to determine antibody persistence and compare results of three serologic techniques. Antibodies persisted for the entire study as detected by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and plaque reduction neutralization test. Maternal antibodies in squabs derived from seropositive birds persisted for an average of 27 days. PMID:15879030
Burt, Sara A.; Röring, Romy E.; Heijne, Marloes
Background: Feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) live and breed in many city centres and contact with their droppings can be a hazard for human health if the birds carry Chlamydia psittaci. Objective: The aim of this study was to establish whether pigeon droppings in two Dutch cities (Utrecht and
Heiderich, Elisabeth; Schildger, Bernd; Lierz, Michael
To evaluate whether single-entry endoscopic vasectomy of male feral pigeons (Columba livia) significantly reduced fertility and would potentially be valuable for control of feral pigeon populations, 252 male feral pigeons were caught in the city of Berne and endoscopically vasectomized. In this procedure, approximately 1 cm of the deferent duct was removed bilaterally. Rapid, uneventful recoveries occurred in 94% (237/252) of the pigeons, whereas 6% (15/252) died because of complications associated with the procedure, consisting of perforation of the ureter (9/15), major hemorrhage (5/15), and respiratory arrest (1/15). Mean anesthesia time was 23±6 minutes. The vasectomized males were habituated to 2 pigeon houses together with fertile females. Another pigeon house with fertile pairs acted as control. All eggs laid were candled weekly to assess fertility. In the 2 pigeon houses with vasectomized males, the mean fertilization rate was 0.9% (5/563), while in the control pigeon house, the rate was 100% (39/39). The results indicate that endoscopic vasectomy of male feral pigeons may be a promising tool for field control of feral pigeon populations, especially in combination with other methods such as pigeon houses.
Frederico Fontanelli Vaz
Full Text Available Abstract The present study analyzed gastrointestinal helminth communities in 265 wild pigeons (Columba livia living in the municipalities of São Paulo and Tatuí, state of São Paulo, Brazil, over a one-year period. The birds were caught next to grain storage warehouses and were necropsied. A total of 790 parasites comprising one nematode species and one cestode genus were recovered from 110 pigeons, thus yielding an overall prevalence of 41.5%, mean intensity of infection of 7.2 ± 1.6 (range 1-144 and discrepancy index of 0.855. Only 15 pigeons (5.7% presented mixed infection. The helminths isolated from the birds were Ascaridia columbae (Ascaridiidae and Raillietina sp. (Davaineidae. The birds’ weights differed according to sex but this did not influence the intensity of infection. The overall prevalence and intensity of infection did not differ between the sexes, but the prevalence was higher among the birds from Tatuí (47.8%. The gastrointestinal helminth community of C. livia was characterized in the two areas studied and parasite homogeneity was observed over the 12 months analyzed at both locations. These results make contributions to the current literature on health aspects of wild C. livia populations.
Vaz, Frederico Fontanelli; Silva, Lidiane Aparecida Firmino da; Ferreira, Vivian Lindmayer; Silva, Reinaldo José da; Raso, Tânia Freitas
The present study analyzed gastrointestinal helminth communities in 265 wild pigeons (Columba livia) living in the municipalities of São Paulo and Tatuí, state of São Paulo, Brazil, over a one-year period. The birds were caught next to grain storage warehouses and were necropsied. A total of 790 parasites comprising one nematode species and one cestode genus were recovered from 110 pigeons, thus yielding an overall prevalence of 41.5%, mean intensity of infection of 7.2 ± 1.6 (range 1-144) and discrepancy index of 0.855. Only 15 pigeons (5.7%) presented mixed infection. The helminths isolated from the birds were Ascaridia columbae (Ascaridiidae) and Raillietina sp. (Davaineidae). The birds' weights differed according to sex but this did not influence the intensity of infection. The overall prevalence and intensity of infection did not differ between the sexes, but the prevalence was higher among the birds from Tatuí (47.8%). The gastrointestinal helminth community of C. livia was characterized in the two areas studied and parasite homogeneity was observed over the 12 months analyzed at both locations. These results make contributions to the current literature on health aspects of wild C. livia populations.
Kelly, Debbie M; Cook, Robert G
Three experiment examined the role of contextual information during line orientation and line position discriminations by pigeons (Columba livia) and humans (Homo sapiens). Experiment 1 tested pigeons' performance with these stimuli in a target localization task using texture displays. Experiments 2 and 3 tested pigeons and humans, respectively, with small and large variations of these stimuli in a same-different task. Humans showed a configural superiority effect when tested with displays constructed from large elements but not when tested with the smaller, more densely packed texture displays. The pigeons, in contrast, exhibited a configural inferiority effect when required to discriminate line orientation, regardless of stimulus size. These contrasting results suggest a species difference in the perceptionand use of features and contextual information in the discrimination of line information.
Biswal, Debraj; Nandi, Anadi Prasad; Chatterjee, Soumendranath
The present paper is an attempt to study the interaction between the helminth parasite and bacteria residing in the gut of domestic pigeon, Columba livia domestica. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the gut bacterial isolate were done and the isolate was identified as Staphylococcus sp. DB1 (JX442510). The interaction of Staphylococcus sp. with Cotugnia cuneata, an intestinal helminth parasite of domestic pigeon was studied on the basis of the difference between 'mean worm burden' of antibiotic treated infected pigeons and infected pigeons without any antibiotic treatment. The ANOVA and Tukey tests of the data obtained showed that antibiotic treatment reduced the mean worm burden significantly. The biochemical properties of Staphylococcus sp. DB1 (JX442510) also showed a mutualistic relationship with the physiology of C. cuneata.
Ledwoń, Aleksandra; Dolka, Beata; Piasecki, Tomasz; Dolka, Izabella; Szeleszczuk, Piotr
Over 4 years, only two known cases of fluke invasions were diagnosed in racing pigeons ( Columba livia ) originating from different regions of Poland. In both cases, the invasion was characterized by a very high mortality (approximately 70%), and the source of the infestation was snails of the Lymnaeidae family eaten by pigeons. Fluke invasions in pigeons are extremely rare and to date have not been described in Poland. Therefore, the occurrence of the symptoms of hemorrhagic diarrhea and sudden deaths of either adult pigeons or nestlings were suspected to be associated with poisoning. Autopsy revealed an invasion of flukes causing hemorrhagic enteritis. Renal failure and spleen atrophy were also found in the birds. Using molecular biology techniques, infestation with the fluke Echinostoma revolutum was determined in the second case.
Hellebuyck, Tom; Garmyn, An; De Cooman, Lien; Boyen, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An
A juvenile racing pigeon ( Columba livia ) was presented with drooping of the wing and inability to fly. On physical examination, the right shoulder joint was swollen. The pigeon was euthanatized and submitted for necropsy. An excessive amount of fibrin was present in the canalis triosseus with severe arthritis of the affected shoulder joint. A pure growth of Mycoplasma-like colonies was obtained on microbiological culture of the shoulder joint. A 16S ribosomal RNA gene-specific polymerase chain reaction assay was performed on the isolate and revealed 100% similarity with Mycoplasma columbinum . Although infectious arthritis in homing pigeons is primarily associated with paratyphoid and Streptococcus gallolyticus infection, clinical practitioners should consider the potential role of Mycoplasma columbinum in arthritis in pigeons.
Full Text Available This paper aimed to define the origin and distribution of the celiac artery and its collateral branches in 15 fowls from the Columba livia species, which were obtained from the Zoonosis Control Center of Brasilia, Brazil. In order to mark the arterial system of the specimens, the left brachiocephalic trunk was canullated and a colored water-latex solution was injected there. Afterwards, fowls were fixed in a 10% v/v formaldehyde solution and dissected with appropriate equipment, presenting the results described in this paper. The celiac artery originated from the ventral face of the descendent aorta. The first collateral branch arose from the celiac artery itself, forming the esophageal artery. Then, the celiac artery has bifurcated into two branches, named left and right branches of the celiac artery. The left branch emitted the proventricular ventral artery, followed by the splenic arteries, proventricular dorsal artery, and the left hepatic artery. The left branch has bifurcated into two branches, known as ventral and left gastric arteries. The right branch emitted the right hepatic artery, followed by the ileal artery and the right gastric artery. Finally, the right branch turned into the pancreaticoduodenal artery. Our findings showed a great similarity with the avian lineages of the Gallus gallus species, except for the lack of ileocecal artery, cystic branches, and dorsal gastric artery.
Goerlich-Jansson, Vivian C; Müller, Martina S; Groothuis, Ton G G
Across various animal taxa not only the secondary sex ratio but also the primary sex ratio (at conception) shows significant deviations from the expected equal proportions of sons and daughters. Birds are especially intriguing to study this phenomenon as avian females are the heterogametic sex (ZW); therefore sex determination might be under direct control of the mother. Avian sex ratios vary in relation to environmental or maternal condition, which can also affect the production of maternal steroids that in turn are involved in reproduction and accumulate in the developing follicle before meiosis. As the proximate mechanisms underlying biased primary sex ratio are largely elusive, we explored how, and to what extent, maternal steroid hormones may be involved in affecting primary or secondary sex ratio in clutches of various species of pigeons. First we demonstrated a clear case of seasonal change in sex ratio in first eggs both in the Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) and in a related species, the Wood Pigeon (Columba palumbus), both producing clutches of two eggs. In the Homing Pigeon (Columba livia domestica), domesticated from the Rock Pigeon, testosterone treatment of breeding females induced a clear male bias, while corticosterone induced a female bias in first eggs and we argue that this is in line with sex allocation theory. We next analyzed treatment effects on follicle formation, yolk mass, and yolk hormones, the latter both pre- and post-ovulatory, in order to test a diversity of potential mechanisms related to both primary and secondary sex ratio manipulation. We conclude that maternal plasma hormone levels may affect several pre-ovulatory mechanisms affecting primary sex ratio, whereas egg hormones are probably involved in secondary sex ratio manipulation only.
Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Mani, Paolo
To determine the presence of zoonotic tick-borne bacteria in feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) from urban areas. Spleen samples from 84 feral pigeons, found dead with traumatic injuries in urban areas, were examined by PCR to detect DNA of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia spp., and Chlamydophila spp. Twenty (23.8%) pigeons were infected by tick-borne agents, in particular 2 (2.38%) animals resulted positive for Bartonella spp., 5 (5.95%) for C. burnetii, 5 (5.95%) for Rickettsia spp., 13 (15.47%) for B. burgdorferi sensu lato. All birds scored negative for A. phagocytophilum. Moreover, 17 (20.23%) pigeons were positive for Chlamydophila spp. and among them 10 (11.9%) for Chlamydophila psittaci. Mixed infections by two or three agents were detected in 8 (9.52%) animals. Feral pigeons living in urban and periurban areas are a hazard for the human health as source of several pathogens. The obtained results confirm pigeons as reservoirs of chlamydial agents and suggest that they may be involved in the epidemiology of zoonotic tick-borne infections too. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Correia, M.J.; Eden, A.R.; Westlund, K.N.; Coulter, J.D.
A mixture of tritiated proline and fucose was injected into the labyrinthine endolymphatic space of 5 white king pigeons (Columba livia). Using standard autoradiographic techniques, the authors observed transsynaptic labeling in ascending auditory pathways to the level of the mesencephalon. Auditory system structures, ipsilateral to the injection site, which labeled heavily were the cochlear nerve, the magnocellular and angular nuclei, and the superior olive. Those ipsilateral structures which were slightly labeled were the lateral lemniscus and the dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus. Contralateral structures which labeled were the superior olive, lateral lemniscus, and dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus. The results of this study suggest that ascending auditory pathways (to the level of mesencephalon) in the pigeon are more similar to those described for mammals in general than previously thought. (Auth.)
Correia, M.J.; Eden, A.R.; Westlund, K.N.; Coulter, J.D. (Texas Univ., Galveston (USA). Medical Branch)
A mixture of tritiated proline and fucose was injected into the labyrinthine endolymphatic space of 5 white king pigeons (Columba livia). Using standard autoradiographic techniques, the authors observed transsynaptic labeling in ascending auditory pathways to the level of the mesencephalon. Auditory system structures, ipsilateral to the injection site, which labeled heavily were the cochlear nerve, the magnocellular and angular nuclei, and the superior olive. Those ipsilateral structures which were slightly labeled were the lateral lemniscus and the dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus. Contralateral structures which labeled were the superior olive, lateral lemniscus, and dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus. The results of this study suggest that ascending auditory pathways (to the level of mesencephalon) in the pigeon are more similar to those described for mammals in general than previously thought.
Hiba Riyadth Jameel Al-abodi
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii were detected and diagnosed in 80 Columba livia birds at the province of Al-Qadisiyah during the period started from January 2016 until June 2016 using latex test and rapid cassette test ,Moreover molecular diagnosis with Polymerase Chain Rraction technique for identification of B1 gene had been also used Results showed that antibodies were detected in 11 samples out of 80 (13.75%. of Columba livia pigeons in Al-Qadisiyah province, Since significant highest (P≤0.05 titration were indicated at 1/80 (36.37%,whereas the lowest titer indicated at 1/40 (9.09 and According to type of antibodies in Columba livia toxoplasmosis suspected samples using rapid test cassette, results were indicated that Six samples out of 80 (7.5% were found positive. However IgG, IgM and IgG plus IgM were found in (33.34%,(16.66 and (50 respectively with no significance difference, furthermore results of PCR technique for detection of B1 gene revealed that 5% of samples from the Columba livia were only found positive ,Moreover the B1 gene were had a molecular weight of the private 399bp.It had been concluded that Columba livia birds were found infected with T.gondii with possible transmission to human being .
Walter T. Herbranson
Full Text Available Pigeons are capable of learning to categorize stimuli based on visual features, and often reach levels of accuracy comparable with humans. Nevertheless, recent research has suggested that the cognitive processes behind categorization in pigeons and humans may not always be the same. Pigeons learned a categorization task in which they categorized either Shepard circles varying in size and orientation of a radial line (stimuli that are frequently used in research on human categorization, or moving dots varying in speed and direction of travel (stimuli that have been successfully used to study pigeon categorization. Even though categories were balanced so that the angles of orientation of Shepard circles matched the directions of travel for moving dots, birds failed to learn categories based on the former but not the latter. Results suggest that information about angle as a direction of travel may be more important for pigeons than information about angle of orientation.
Elmore, L Caitlin; Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A
Two monkeys (Macaca mulatta) learned a color change-detection task where two colored circles (selected from a 4-color set) were presented on a 4 × 4 invisible matrix. Following a delay, the correct response was to touch the changed colored circle. The monkeys' learning, color transfer, and delay transfer were compared to a similar experiment with pigeons. Monkeys, like pigeons (Columba livia), showed full transfer to four novel colors, and to delays as long as 6.4 s, suggesting they remembered the colors as opposed to perceptual based attentional capture process that may work at very short delays. The monkeys and pigeons were further tested to compare transfer with other dimensions. Monkeys transferred to shape and location changes, unlike the pigeons, but neither species transferred to size changes. Thus, monkeys were less restricted in their domain to detect change than pigeons, but both species learned the basic task and appear suitable for comparative studies of visual short-term memory. 2012 APA, all rights reserved
Matsubara, Ryuma; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Murakoshi, Fumi; Nomura, Osamu; Suzuki, Toru; Tada, Chika; Nakai, Yutaka
The domestic pigeon, Columba livia domestica, is reared for meat production, as a pet, or for racing. Few reports have characterized the parasitic protists from the genus Isospora isolated from Columbiformes. We detected Isospora-like oocysts from C. livia reared for racing. The oocyst contained two sporocysts, and each sporocyst included four sporozoites. The sporulated oocysts (n=4) were spherical; their mean diameters were 25.6 (24.0-27.2)×24.7 (23.4-26.0) μm. Micropyles, polar granules, and oocyst residuum were absent. The mean length and width of the sporocysts (n=8) were 19.5 (18.5-20.5) and 11.2 (10.2-12.1) μm, respectively. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were observed. Single-oocyst PCR revealed two different 18S rRNA gene sequences and one 28S rRNA gene sequence in a single oocyst of Isospora sp. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rRNA gene, the two sequences made a group which fell within a cluster of known avian Isospora species. A tree based on the 28S rRNA gene sequence indicated that sequences from the pigeon Isospora sp. fell within a cluster of avian Isospora species. Both trees failed to clarify the phylogenetic relationships among the avian Isospora species due to limited resolution. Because the morphological description of Isospora sp. is based on only four oocysts, Isospora sp. is not proposed as a novel species here. This is the first description of Isospora sp. isolated from the domestic pigeon C. livia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Walter T. Herbranson
Full Text Available A new method was developed to concurrently investigate procedural memory and working memory in pigeons. Pigeons performed a sequence of keypecks across 3 response keys in a serial response task, with periodic choice probes for the location of a recently produced response. Procedural memory was operationally defined as decreasing response times to predictable cues in the sequence. Working memory was reflected by accurate responses to the choice probes. Changing the sequence of required keypecks to a random sequence interfered with procedural memory in the form of slowed response times, but did not prevent pigeons from effectively using working memory to remember specific cue locations. Conversely, changing exposure duration of to a cue location influenced working memory but had no effect on procedural memory. Double dissociations such as this have supported the multiple systems approach to the study of memory in cognitive psychology and neuroscience, and they encourage a similar approach in comparative psychology.
Sathya Moorthy, Pon.; Neelagandan, K.; Balasubramanian, M.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.
Crystallization of pigeon haemoglobin at low pH (5.5) and high ionic concentration (1 M) using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method is reported. Haemoglobin is a physiologically significant metalloprotein that is involved in the exchange of gases for sustaining life. The respiratory system of birds is unique and complex compared with that of mammals. Many investigations of avian haemoglobins have revealed the presence of inositol pentaphosphate (IP5), a principal allosteric effector that is involved in regulation of their function. Structural investigations of avian haemoglobins are presently not adequate to explain their function. Efforts have been made in this direction in order to understand the oxygen-binding affinity involved in adapting to hypoxia in avian haemoglobins. Fresh whole blood was collected from pigeon (Columba livia) and purified using a DEAE cellulose anion-exchange chromatographic column. Crystallization of pigeon haemoglobin was accomplished using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as a precipitant in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer pH 5.5 with 1 M NaCl. Data collection was carried out using a MAR345 image-plate detector system. The crystals diffracted to 2 Å resolution. Pigeon haemoglobin crystallizes in a triclinic space group, with two whole biological molecules in the asymmetric unit and with unit-cell parameters a = 55.005, b = 65.528, c = 104.370 Å, α = 78.742, β = 89.819, γ = 65.320°
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogens with the zoonotic potential to infect humans, such as Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Chlamydophila psittaci, can be found in feral pigeons (Columba livia. Given the high density of these birds in the public parks and gardens of most cities, they may pose a direct threat to public health. Methods A total of 118 pigeons were captured in three samplings carried out in 2006-2007 in public parks and gardens in Madrid, Spain. Standard haematological and morphological analyses were carried out on the pigeons. PCR was used to screen for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli and Chlamydophila psittaci. Positive samples were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Results The analyses demonstrated a high prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci (52.6% and Campylobacter jejuni (69.1% among the birds captured. In contrast, Campylobacter coli was rarely detected (1.1%. Conclusions Pigeons in Madrid can carry Chlamydophila psittaci and Campylobacter jejuni. They may be asymptomatic or subclinical carriers of both pathogens.
Background Pathogens with the zoonotic potential to infect humans, such as Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Chlamydophila psittaci, can be found in feral pigeons (Columba livia). Given the high density of these birds in the public parks and gardens of most cities, they may pose a direct threat to public health. Methods A total of 118 pigeons were captured in three samplings carried out in 2006-2007 in public parks and gardens in Madrid, Spain. Standard haematological and morphological analyses were carried out on the pigeons. PCR was used to screen for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli and Chlamydophila psittaci. Positive samples were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Results The analyses demonstrated a high prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci (52.6%) and Campylobacter jejuni (69.1%) among the birds captured. In contrast, Campylobacter coli was rarely detected (1.1%). Conclusions Pigeons in Madrid can carry Chlamydophila psittaci and Campylobacter jejuni. They may be asymptomatic or subclinical carriers of both pathogens. PMID:20569487
Sladakovic, Izidora; Ellis, Angela E; Divers, Stephen J
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of gastroscopy and biopsy of the proventriculus and ventriculus in pigeons (Columba livia). ANIMALS 15 adult pigeons. PROCEDURES Each pigeon was anesthetized, and the upper gastrointestinal tract (from the cervical portion of the esophagus to the ventriculus) was endoscopically evaluated by use of a rigid endoscope inserted orally. Saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was orally infused to achieve lumen dilation and visibility. Two mucosal biopsy specimens were collected from each of the proventriculus and ventriculus, histologically evaluated, and graded for crush artifacts and depth. Pigeons were monitored for adverse effects for 3 to 6 days after the procedure, after which they were euthanized for necropsy. RESULTS Gastroscopy via the oral approach provided excellent visibility of the lumen and mucosal surfaces of the proventriculus and cranial portion of the ventriculus and was safe provided that appropriate precautions were taken. Two intraoperative deaths occurred at the beginning of the study; following procedure refinement, no additional deaths occurred. No major adverse effects of the procedure were detected in the remaining 13 pigeons during the postoperative monitoring period or at necropsy. Diagnostic quality of proventriculus specimens was adequate for 10 of 13 pigeons. Eight of 13 ventriculus specimens were of inadequate quality, and only 3 were of adequate quality. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Gastroscopy was useful for evaluating the lumen and mucosal surface of the proventriculus and ventriculus in pigeons, and biopsy of those organs was safely performed with the appropriate technique. Further evaluation of these techniques is needed in birds with clinical disease and birds of other species.
Melleu, F F; Pinheiro, M V; Lino-de-Oliveira, C; Marino-Neto, J
Neurogenesis in the adult brain appears to be phylogenetically conserved across the animal kingdom. In pigeons and other adult non-oscine birds, immature neurons are observed in several prosencephalic areas, suggesting that neurogenesis may participate in the control of different behaviors. The mechanisms controlling neurogenesis and its relevance to defensive behaviors in non-oscine birds remain elusive. Herein, the contribution of the environment to behavior and neurogenesis of pigeons was investigated. Adult pigeons (Columba livia, n = 6/group), housed in standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) for 42 days, were exposed to an unfamiliar environment (UE) followed by presentation to a novel object (NO). Video recordings of UE+NO tests were analyzed and scored for latency, duration and frequency of angular head movements, peeping, grooming, immobility and locomotion. Twenty-four hours later, pigeons were submitted to the tonic immobility test (TI) and number of trials for TI and TI duration were scored, followed by euthanasia 2 h later. Brains were immunohistochemically processed to reveal doublecortin (DCX), a marker for newborn neurons. Compared to those housed in SE, the pigeons housed in EE responded to a NO with more immobility. In addition, the pigeons housed in EE presented longer TI, more DCX-immunoreactive (DCX-ir) cells in the hippocampus and fewer DCX-ir cells in the lateral striatum than those housed in SE. There was no correlation between the number of DCX-ir cells and the scores of immobility in behavioral tests. Together, these data suggest that enrichment favored behavioral inhibition and neurogenesis in the adult pigeons through different, parallel mechanisms.
Williams, Susan M; Williams, Robert J; Gogal, Robert M
A 3-yr-old adult female roller pigeon ( Columba livia ) used as part of a breeding pair for an ongoing research study presented with acute left limb lameness. Palpation of the left leg and region revealed a large lump near the coxofemoral joint. The bird was able to ambulate in the cage, but would not brood her hatchling. The bird was humanely euthanized and necropsy was performed. Grossly, multiple large white to pale tan nodules were noted in the pancreas, lung, rib cage, intestines, and unilaterally in the left kidney. Microscopic examination of the various organs revealed neoplastic proliferation of round cells consistent with lymphoblasts. Immunohistochemistry was performed with the use of antibodies to CD3, CD79a, CD20, and CD21 to phenotype the cells. The results indicated that the neoplastic infiltrating cells were predominantly of T-cell origin.
Ramos, Bruna Alves; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Martins, Lívia Carício; Chagas, Liliane Leal das; Silva, Franko de Arruda E; Ferreira, Milene Silveira; Freitas, Maria Nazaré Oliveira; Alcantara, Bianca Nascimento de; Silva, Sandro Patroca da; Miranda, Stefânia Araújo; Sepulvreda, Barbara Alves; Corrêa, Layna Thayssa Guimarães; Negrão, Andréa Maria Góes; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa; Casseb, Alexandre do Rosário
In this study, we evaluated the role of free-living domestic pigeons (Columba livia) as a reservoir of arboviruses in the city of Belém, state of Pará, Brazil. We investigated the presence of antibodies against the most prevalent arboviruses. This study was aimed at evaluating some clinical and physical parameters of domestic pigeons, including the presence of antibodies to Amazon-endemic arboviruses. Eighty-five healthy pigeons were captured in Mangal das Garças Park, in Belém, and were bled. Upon capture, the birds were subjected to a clinical examination in search of alterations that could indicate the presence of arboviruses. Blood samples were converted to serum and tested using the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) technique with a panel of 19 antigens of arboviruses circulating in the Amazon. The confirmation assay for the positive reactions to the viral species tested by HI was a neutralisation test in new-born Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) [mouse neutralisation test (MNT)]. A total of 10 (11.8%) serum samples tested positive for antiflavivirus antibodies by HI. All the samples positive for the HI test were subjected to MNT for detection of viruses and yielded negative results (logarithmic neutralisation index < 1.7). The results represent the first serological detection of antiarbovirus antibodies in domestic pigeons as potential hosts of arboviruses in Brazil. The detection of haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against genus Flavivirus indicated that there was recent contact between the analysed domestic pigeons and these arboviruses. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of free-living pigeons in the maintenance cycle and spread of arboviruses in the Amazon.
Albana Plakiqi Milaimi
Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the effects of environmental pollution with heavy metals from ferro-nickel smelter on Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase (ALAD activity, and to analyze the blood lead level of feral pigeon (Columba livia in ferro-nickel smelter courtyard in Drenas City, Republic of Kosovo. For this purpose, twenty specimens of feral pigeon (20 birds, males and females, were collected in Drenas city which were living in ferro-nickel smelter courtyard, and 20 specimens in Lubizhdë village as control group (non-contaminated area. ALAD activity in Drenas group was significantly inhibited (P<0.001, compared with ALAD activity of controls. The blood lead level was significantly increased (P=0.015 compared to control group. Correlation between ALAD and blood lead level in Drenas group was negative (r=-0.117; P>0.050 and positive in Lubizhdë group (r=0.452; P> 0.050, but not in significant difference between the input groups. Feral pigeons can play an important role as bioindicators, which can used to monitor the environmental pollution with heavy metals that may originate from Nickel metallurgy.
Sathya Moorthy, Pon.; Neelagandan, K.; Balasubramanian, M.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.
Haemoglobin is a physiologically significant metalloprotein that is involved in the exchange of gases for sustaining life. The respiratory system of birds is unique and complex compared with that of mammals. Many investigations of avian haemoglobins have revealed the presence of inositol pentaphosphate (IP5), a principal allosteric effector that is involved in regulation of their function. Structural investigations of avian haemoglobins are presently not adequate to explain their function. Efforts have been made in this direction in order to understand the oxygen-binding affinity involved in adapting to hypoxia in avian haemoglobins. Fresh whole blood was collected from pigeon (Columba livia) and purified using a DEAE cellulose anion-exchange chromatographic column. Crystallization of pigeon haemoglobin was accomplished using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as a precipitant in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer pH 5.5 with 1 M NaCl. Data collection was carried out using a MAR345 image-plate detector system. The crystals diffracted to 2 Å resolution. Pigeon haemoglobin crystallizes in a triclinic space group, with two whole biological molecules in the asymmetric unit and with unit-cell parameters a = 55.005, b = 65.528, c = 104.370 Å, α = 78.742, β = 89.819, γ = 65.320°. PMID:19194000
Scarf, Damian; Corballis, Michael C; Güntürkün, Onur; Colombo, Michael
Many children pass through a mirror stage in reading, where they write individual letters or digits in mirror and find it difficult to correctly utilize letters that are mirror images of one another (e.g., b and d). This phenomenon is thought to reflect the fact that the brain does not naturally discriminate left from right. Indeed, it has been argued that reading acquisition involves the inhibition of this default process. In the current study, we tested the ability of literate pigeons, which had learned to discriminate between 30 and 62 words from 7832 nonwords, to discriminate between words and their mirror counterparts. Subjects were sensitive to the left-right orientation of the individual letters, but not the order of letters within a word. This finding may reflect the fact that, in the absence of human-unique top-down processes, the inhibition of mirror generalization may be limited.
Xie, P; Wan, X P; Bu, Z; Zou, X T
Ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are multifunctional peptides. In the current study, complete sequences of ghrelin (800 bp) and CCK (739 bp) were firstly cloned in Columba livia by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The open reading frames of ghrelin (351bp) and CCK (393bp) encoded 116 amino acids and 130 amino acids, respectively. Sequence comparison indicated that pigeon ghrelin and CCK shared high identity with those reported in other avian species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis found that ghrelin and CCK mRNAs expressed in three intestinal segments of pigeon during development. Both ghrelin and CCK showed generally higher expressions at days posthatch than embryonic periods regardless of intestinal segments. In duodenum and ileum, the expressions of ghrelin and CCK mRNA reached the peak values at 8 d posthatch. Jejunum CCK mRNA level increased linearly after hatching, and reached the highest point at posthatch 28 d. Based on documented effects of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) on pigeon ghrelin and CCK expression were also investigated in vitro. Higher concentrations (50 μM or 250 μM) of linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid or arachidonic acid can significantly increase ghrelin mRNA level in pigeon jejunum. However, for oleic acid, the induction of ghrelin gene expressions needed a lower concentration (5 μM). 5 μM of linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid or arachidonic acid and 250 μM palmitic acid repressed CCK expression significantly. A higher concentration (250 μM) of oleic acid or α-linolenic acid can up-regulate CCK mRNA level significantly. Our results indicated that ghrelin and CCK may act key functions in pigeon intestine development and their expressions could be regulated by LCFAs. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Kouddane, N; Mouhir, L; Fekhaoui, M; Elabidi, A; Benaakame, R
The concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn were investigated in the blood of pigeons (Columba livia) in order to assess the degree of pollution by heavy metal. For this, wild city pigeons were caught at four different locations in Mohammedia classified according to their industrial activity and road traffic density. Significant difference in heavy metal concentrations were observed between sites studied, the highest lead and cadmium levels were found in industrial area and center town, while the highest zinc level was found in the less contaminated area. These results indicate that the industrial activities and the road traffic are the most important source of pollution.
Ferman, L. M.
Full Text Available A population of feral pigeons, Columba livia var. was conducted in the city of Jena, Germany, from July to December 2007. Daily censuses were conducted by walking ten transects in a selected area of the city, five transects in built up areas and five in the suburbs. Pigeon population density was higher in urban areas than in suburbs but differences were not significant. Main behavioural activities recorded were resting, preening, flying, eating, sunning and roosting. Regular locations of activities were rooftops and roof edges in urban areas, and rooftops, eaves on balconies in suburban areas. The plumage phenotype most frequently recorded in both areas was Blue bar.
Thalau, Peter; Holtkamp-Rötzler, Elke; Fleissner, Gerta; Wiltschko, Wolfgang
An experimental group of homing pigeons ( Columba livia f. domestica) learned to associate food with a magnetic anomaly produced by bar magnets that were fixed to the bowl in which they received their daily food ration in their home loft; the control group lacked this experience. Both groups were trained to search for two hidden food depots in a rectangular sand-filled arena without obvious visual cues; for the experimental birds, these depots were also marked with three 1.15 × 106 μT bar magnets. During the tests, there were two food depots, one marked with the magnets, the other unmarked; their position within the arena was changed from test to test. The experimental birds searched within 10 cm of the magnetically marked depot in 49% of the test sessions, whereas the control birds searched there in only 11% of the sessions. Both groups searched near the control depot in 11 and 13% of the sessions, respectively. The significant preference of the magnetically marked food depot by the experimental birds shows that homing pigeons cannot only detect a magnetic anomaly but can also use it as a cue for locating hidden food in an open arena.
Cowan, Melinda Lee; Martin, Graeme Bruce; Monks, Deborah Jane; Johnston, Stephen Douglas; Doneley, Robert James Tyson; Blackberry, Margaret Anne
Veterinary practitioners frequently encounter disorders of the reproductive system in avian patients. Management of these disorders relies on manipulating reproduction by modifying the environment, diet, and social interactions, and by the use of pharmacologic agents and surgery, with varying levels of success and side effects. An alternative is to use the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist deslorelin to suppress the pituitary-gonadal axis. To determine the efficacy of deslorelin in domestic pigeons (Columba livia), male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) birds each were implanted intramuscularly with a single long-acting implant containing 4.7 mg deslorelin. Untreated males (n = 11) and females (n = 10) were used as controls. The baseline serum concentration of luteinizing hormone (LH) was assayed at 7, 28, 56, and 84 days after treatment, and egg production was recorded weekly. In females, deslorelin administration significantly reduced serum LH concentrations compared to pretreatment levels at 7, 28, 56, and 84 days (P < .05). In males, deslorelin significantly reduced LH concentrations at 7, 28, and 56 days (P < .05). Female birds treated with deslorelin laid significantly fewer eggs over the course of the study (mean = 1.46, SEM = 0.84) compared with controls (mean = 5.54, SEM = 0.88). Deslorelin treatment had no discernible effect on body weight. Deslorelin is effective for controlling egg laying in female pigeons for at least 49 days, but further research is required to determine the effects on male fertility and the duration of action in both sexes.
Levenson, Richard M; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Navarro, Victor M; Wasserman, Edward A
Pathologists and radiologists spend years acquiring and refining their medically essential visual skills, so it is of considerable interest to understand how this process actually unfolds and what image features and properties are critical for accurate diagnostic performance. Key insights into human behavioral tasks can often be obtained by using appropriate animal models. We report here that pigeons (Columba livia)-which share many visual system properties with humans-can serve as promising surrogate observers of medical images, a capability not previously documented. The birds proved to have a remarkable ability to distinguish benign from malignant human breast histopathology after training with differential food reinforcement; even more importantly, the pigeons were able to generalize what they had learned when confronted with novel image sets. The birds' histological accuracy, like that of humans, was modestly affected by the presence or absence of color as well as by degrees of image compression, but these impacts could be ameliorated with further training. Turning to radiology, the birds proved to be similarly capable of detecting cancer-relevant microcalcifications on mammogram images. However, when given a different (and for humans quite difficult) task-namely, classification of suspicious mammographic densities (masses)-the pigeons proved to be capable only of image memorization and were unable to successfully generalize when shown novel examples. The birds' successes and difficulties suggest that pigeons are well-suited to help us better understand human medical image perception, and may also prove useful in performance assessment and development of medical imaging hardware, image processing, and image analysis tools.
Palacios, A G; Goldsmith, T H
1. Membrane photocurrents were recorded from outer segments of isolated retinal rods of pigeons (Columba livia), the first such measurements on the photoreceptors of a bird. The amplitude of the response to 20 ms flashes of narrow wavelength bands of light increases linearly with intensity at low photon fluxes and saturates at higher intensities. The maximum (saturating) photocurrent observed in forty-nine rod cells was 50 pA. Larger responses with less variability in the intensity for half-maximal responses were observed when the physiological saline contained 20 mM bicarbonate (in addition to Hepes buffer). 2. The dependence of peak amplitude on intensity is well fitted by an exponential function; it is usually less well fitted by the Michaelis-Menten (Naka-Rushton) equation. 3. In the presence of bicarbonate, the average sensitivity of pigeon rods to dim flashes was 0.56 pA photon-1 microns -2. The effective collecting area per photon was 1.8 microns 2. About 83 +/- 26 (mean +/- S.D.) photoisomerizations were required for a half-saturating response. 4. The response kinetics of rods to dim flashes can be reasonably well described by a series of four to five either Poisson or independent filters. The time to peak, measured from the mid-point of a 20 ms flash, was 319 +/- 83 ms (mean +/- S.D.). The integration time of the response was 851 +/- 86 ms (mean +/- S.D.) with bicarbonate present and 572 +/- 126 ms in the absence of bicarbonate. The responses of pigeon rods appear to be slower than those of mammals at the same temperature. The fraction of current suppressed by a single photoisomerization is smaller in pigeon than in mammalian rods by a factor of at least two. 5. The spectral sensitivity function was measured between 680 and 330 nm. The maximum at about 505 nm (range 497-508 nm) corresponds to the alpha-band of a vertebrate rhodopsin and agrees with previous behavioural measurements of scotopic sensitivity of pigeons as well as the absorption spectrum of
Mazengenya, Pedzisai; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Nkomozepi, Pilani; Manger, Paul R; Ihunwo, Amadi O
Generation of neurons in the brains of adult birds has been studied extensively in the telencephalon of song birds and few studies are reported on the distribution of PCNA and DCX in the telencephalon of adult non-song learning birds. We report here on adult neurogenesis throughout the brains of two breeds of adult domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica), the racing homer and utility carneau using endogenous immunohistochemical markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) for proliferating cells and doublecortin (DCX) for immature and migrating neurons. The distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was very similar in both pigeon breeds with only a few minor differences. In both pigeons, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, walls of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and cerebellum. Generally, the olfactory bulbs and telencephalon had more PCNA and DCX cells than other regions. Two proliferative hotspots were evident in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricles. PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells migrated radially from the walls of the lateral ventricle into the parenchyma. In most telencephalic regions, the density of PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells increased from rostral to caudal, except in the mesopallium where the density decreased from rostral to middle levels and then increased caudally. DCX immunoreactivity was more intense in fibres than in cell bodies and DCX-immunoreactive cells included small granular cells, fusiform bipolar cells, large round and or polygonal multipolar cells. The similarity in the distribution of proliferating cells and new neurons in the telencephalon of the two breeds of pigeons may suggest that adult neurogenesis is a conserved trait as an ecological adaptation irrespective of body size.
Full Text Available Generation of neurons in the brains of adult birds has been studied extensively in the telencephalon of song birds and few studies are reported on the distribution of PCNA and DCX in the telencephalon of adult non-song learning birds. We report here on adult neurogenesis throughout the brains of two breeds of adult domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica, the racing homer and utility carneau using endogenous immunohistochemical markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA for proliferating cells and doublecortin (DCX for immature and migrating neurons. The distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was very similar in both pigeon breeds with only a few minor differences. In both pigeons, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, walls of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and cerebellum. Generally, the olfactory bulbs and telencephalon had more PCNA and DCX cells than other regions. Two proliferative hotspots were evident in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricles. PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells migrated radially from the walls of the lateral ventricle into the parenchyma. In most telencephalic regions, the density of PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells increased from rostral to caudal, except in the mesopallium where the density decreased from rostral to middle levels and then increased caudally. DCX immunoreactivity was more intense in fibres than in cell bodies and DCX-immunoreactive cells included small granular cells, fusiform bipolar cells, large round and or polygonal multipolar cells. The similarity in the distribution of proliferating cells and new neurons in the telencephalon of the two breeds of pigeons may suggest that adult neurogenesis is a conserved trait as an ecological adaptation irrespective of body size.
Stobbe, Nina; Westphal-Fitch, Gesche; Aust, Ulrike; Fitch, W. Tecumseh
Artificial grammar learning (AGL) provides a useful tool for exploring rule learning strategies linked to general purpose pattern perception. To be able to directly compare performance of humans with other species with different memory capacities, we developed an AGL task in the visual domain. Presenting entire visual patterns simultaneously instead of sequentially minimizes the amount of required working memory. This approach allowed us to evaluate performance levels of two bird species, kea (Nestor notabilis) and pigeons (Columba livia), in direct comparison to human participants. After being trained to discriminate between two types of visual patterns generated by rules at different levels of computational complexity and presented on a computer screen, birds and humans received further training with a series of novel stimuli that followed the same rules, but differed in various visual features from the training stimuli. Most avian and all human subjects continued to perform well above chance during this initial generalization phase, suggesting that they were able to generalize learned rules to novel stimuli. However, detailed testing with stimuli that violated the intended rules regarding the exact number of stimulus elements indicates that neither bird species was able to successfully acquire the intended pattern rule. Our data suggest that, in contrast to humans, these birds were unable to master a simple rule above the finite-state level, even with simultaneous item presentation and despite intensive training. PMID:22688635
M. G. Saeed
Full Text Available One hundred diseased cases of pigeons (Columba livia in Mosul city were examined, 67 birds (67% showed pathologicallesions in digestive system. Most of the gross and histopathological lesions occurred in intestine (29.3% followed byoropharynx, liver, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, and pancreas the values (20.8%, 16.6%, 12.5%, 10.4%, 6.2%, 4.2%respectively. Gross lesions of intestine showed severe tape worms infestation with petechial hemorrhage in some cases,histopathologically there were catarrhal enteritis, necrotic and hemorrhagic enteritis were less, and desquamation of mucosawith bacterial colonies. Gross lesions of oropharynx, esophagus and crop in most cases were yellow caseated masses ornecrotic material. In some cases white diphtheritic membrane with thickening of mucosa in esophagus, crop and proventriculuswere founded, petichial hemorrhage on the mucosa of proventriculus were less some cases. Histopathological lesions oforopharynx and esophagus were thickening of mucosa and presence of necrotic caseated foci on the submucosa. In crop therewere epithelial hyperplasia and in some cases infiltration of inflammatory cells with cocobacilli bacteria and desquamation ofepithelial cells were founded. In proventriculus desquamation and necrosis of epithelial cells of mucus glands with infiltrationof inflammatory cells. Gross lesions in liver and pancreas were limited represented by enlargement and congestion, histopathologically coagulative necrosis of hepatic cells with cocobacilli bacteria, pancreas showed two types of inflammationone was non-suppurative and another was suppurative.
Canónico-González, Yolanda; Adame-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Mercado-Hernández, Roberto; Aréchiga-Carvajal, Elva Teresa
The presence of Cryptococcus spp. has been reported in Mexico's capital city; however, to our knowledge there are no reports of its presence in the state of Nuevo León located in northeast Mexico. This is presumed to be because the hot and dry climate in this region does not favor cryptococcal proliferation. This study confirmed the presence of C. neoformans and C. albidus in 20% (10/50) of randomly selected fecal samples of pigeons (Columba livia) in the Monterrey metropolitan area. The presence of this yeast in the state of Nuevo León is proof of its adaptation to the typically hot climate of the area and is consistent with recent reviews of cryptococcosis cases in several local hospitals. The two species were identified and characterized through microbiological tests and molecular identification by DNA extraction and PCR amplification of highly conserved 18S ribosomal DNA using ITS1 and ITS2 as target regions. The PCR products were sequenced and compared with those reported in GenBank.
Locurto, Charles; Fox, Maura; Mazzella, Andrea
There is considerable interest in the conditions under which human subjects learn patterned information without explicit instructions to learn that information. This form of learning, termed implicit or incidental learning, can be approximated in nonhumans by exposing subjects to patterned information but delivering reinforcement randomly, thereby not requiring the subjects to learn the information in order to be reinforced. Following acquisition, nonhuman subjects are queried as to what they have learned about the patterned information. In the present experiment, we extended the study of implicit learning in nonhumans by comparing two species, cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) and pigeons (Columba livia), on an implicit learning task that used an artificial grammar to generate the patterned elements for training. We equated the conditions of training and testing as much as possible between the two species. The results indicated that both species demonstrated approximately the same magnitude of implicit learning, judged both by a random test and by choice tests between pairs of training elements. This finding suggests that the ability to extract patterned information from situations in which such learning is not demanded is of longstanding origin.
Zhang, Ying; Yu, Jian-Feng; Yang, Li; Wang, Xing-Guo; Gu, Zhi-Liang
Caveolins, a class of principal proteins forming the structure of caveolae in plasmalemma, were encoded by caveolins gene family. Caveolin-1 gene is a member of caveolins gene family. In the present study, a full-length of 2605 bp caveolin-1 cDNA sequence in Columba livia domestica, which included a 537 bp complete ORF encoding a 178 amino acids long putative peptide, were obtained by using RT-PCR and RACE technique. The Columba livia domestica caveolin-1 CDS shared 80.1% - 93.4% homology with Bos taurus, Canis lupus familiaris, Gallus gallus and Rattus norvegicus. Meanwhile, the putative amino acid sequence of Columba livia domestica caveolin-1 shared 85.4% - 97.2% homology with the above species. The semi-quantity RT-PCR revealed that Caveolin-1 expressions were detectable in all the Columba livia domestica tissues and the expressional level of caveolin-1 gene was high in adipose, medium in various muscles, low in liver. These results demonstrated that Caveolin-1 gene was potentially involved in some metabolic pathways in adipose and muscle.
Taylor, Lucy A; Portugal, Steven J; Biro, Dora
Mechanisms of avian navigation have received considerable attention, but whether different navigational strategies are accompanied by different flight characteristics is unknown. Managing energy expenditure is critical for survival; therefore, understanding how flight characteristics, and hence energy allocation, potentially change with birds' familiarity with a navigational task could provide key insights into the costs of orientation. We addressed this question by examining changes in the wingbeat characteristics and airspeed of homing pigeons ( Columba livia ) as they learned a homing task. Twenty-one pigeons were released 20 times individually either 3.85 or 7.06 km from home. Birds were equipped with 5 Hz GPS trackers and 200 Hz tri-axial accelerometers. We found that, as the birds' route efficiency increased during the first six releases, their median peak-to-peak dorsal body (DB) acceleration and median DB amplitude also increased. This, in turn, led to higher airspeeds, suggesting that birds fly slower when traversing unfamiliar terrain. By contrast, after route efficiency stabilised, birds exhibited increasing wingbeat frequencies, which did not result in further increases in speed. Overall, higher wind support was also associated with lower wingbeat frequencies and increased DB amplitude. Our study suggests that the cost of early flights from an unfamiliar location may be higher than subsequent flights because of both inefficient routes (increased distance) and lower airspeeds (increased time). Furthermore, the results indicate, for the first time, that birds modulate their wingbeat characteristics as a function of navigational knowledge, and suggest that flight characteristics may be used as 'signatures' of birds' route familiarity. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Trupkiewicz, J G; Calero-Bernal, R; Verma, S K; Mowery, J; Davison, S; Habecker, P; Georoff, T A; Ialeggio, D M; Dubey, J P
Four Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at the Philadelphia Zoo died suddenly. Necropsy examination revealed macroscopic hepatitis. Microscopically, the predominant lesions were in liver, characterized with necrosis and mixed cell inflammatory response. Sarcocystis calchasi-like schizonts and free merozoites were identified in liver. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that schizonts were in hepatocytes. A few schizonts were in spleen. PCR using S. calchasi-specific primers confirmed the diagnosis. Neither lesions nor protozoa were found in brain and muscles. This is the first report of acute visceral S. calchasi-associated sarcocystosis in naturally infected avian hosts. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Haag-Wackernagel, D; Spiewak, R.W.
The report concerns a married couple who were repeatedly invaded by pigeon fleas (Ceratophyllus columbae) over a period of 2 months. The source of the fleas was a pair of breeding feral pigeons (Columba livia). The birds' nest was located in the attic immediately above the couple's apartment, and
Full Text Available Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae and pigeons (Columbiformes, the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons.
Dolz, G.; Solórzano-Morales, Á.; Angelova, L.; Tien, C.; Fonseca, L.; Bonilla, M.C.
Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes), the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia) cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales) in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons. PMID:26623327
Zollinger, Tawina J; Hoover, John P; Payton, Mark E; Schiller, Chris A
To evaluate the pathologic effects of carprofen in a pigeon model (Columba livia), 52 young adult pigeons were used in a randomized control study design. Sixteen pigeons were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups and received carprofen by intramuscular injection at dosages of either 2, 5, or 10 mg/kg once daily for 7 days. Four pigeons served as saline-injected controls. Four pigeons from each group and 1 control pigeon were randomly selected on days 2, 4, 6, and 8 to obtain blood samples and then were euthanatized and submitted for necropsy. Histologic lesions in pectoral muscle, liver, kidney, and digestive tract tissue samples were ranked in severity as 0, normal/not present; 1, minimal; 2, mild; 3, mild to moderate; 4, moderate; 5, moderate to marked; and 6, marked pathologic changes. Two-way analysis of variance (day x dose) and pairwise t tests revealed significant (P carprofen treatments. Gross lesions in carprofen-treated pigeons were pale injection sites (23/48 [47.9%]), mottled yellow livers (9/48 [18.8%]), and congestion of small intestines (7/48 [14.6%]). Liver, kidney, and muscle injection sites had significantly increased (P carprofen is associated with increased aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase enzyme concentrations, gross lesions in muscle injection sites and liver, and histologic lesions in liver and muscle.
Dolz, G; Solórzano-Morales, Á; Angelova, L; Tien, C; Fonseca, L; Bonilla, M C
Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes), the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia) cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales) in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons.
Átilla Holanda de Albuquerque
Full Text Available Several cases of animal and human salmonellosis caused by the Salmonella serotype Typhimurium have been reported. In animals, subclinical infection favors pathogen dissemination through feces. In this context, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia with an asymptomatic condition may play an important role in the transmission of salmonellosis, through the elimination of contaminated feces in commercial aviaries or in poultry feed facilities, causing economic losses to the poultry industry and presenting a risk to public health. This study aimed to evaluate the mortality, clinical signs and the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in the feces and organs of chicks previously inoculated with bacteria isolated from a pigeon. One-day-old chicks were distributed in two experimental groups (G1 and G2 of 32 birds each, and a control group of six birds. Two inocula of 0.4 and 0.7 mL with 105 and 106 colony forming units were used in G1 and G2 birds, respectively. At 1, 4, 7 and 14 days post-inoculation (dpi fecal samples were pooled from each cage and individual cloacal swabs were collected. At 14 dpi, all chicks were euthanized and samples were collected from the liver, spleen, lung, cecum and intestine for microbiological analysis. Mortality was only observed among G2 birds (6.25%. Most birds presented clinical signs of diarrhea at 4 dpi and no symptom as observed at 14 dpi. The results from cloacal swabs demonstrated bacterial elimination in 68.8% and 53.1% of G2 and G1 birds, respectively at 1 dpi. Additionally, fecal samples had elevated bacterial shedding in all four periods of observation , with a higher excretion at 4 dpi (62.5% for both groups. Among G2 birds, 74.2% were positive for the pathogen in the intestine; G1 birds presented the lowest rate of lung infection (29%, and both groups had more than 50% positivity for liver and caeca. The results revealed that infected chicks with a Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from pigeons may host the
Burt, Sara A; Röring, Romy E; Heijne, Marloes
Feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) live and breed in many city centres and contact with their droppings can be a hazard for human health if the birds carry Chlamydia psittaci. The aim of this study was to establish whether pigeon droppings in two Dutch cities (Utrecht and Haarlem) contain C. psittaci and/or C. avium, which could be a potential hazard for transmission to humans. In May 2017 seven feral pigeon 'hot spots' with between 5 and 40+ pigeons present were identified in two cities by visual observations over two days. During the following ten days fresh droppings were collected at these hot spots and the samples were pooled per three droppings to achieve 40-41 samples per city. Samples were analysed for Chlamydia DNA with a broad range 23S Chlamydiaceae Real-Time PCR and positive samples were tested with a specific C. psittaci and C. avium Real-Time PCR. Positive C. psittaci samples were genotyped. C. psittaci and C. avium were detected in both cities. For C. psittaci the prevalences in Utrecht and Haarlem were 2.4% and 7.5%, respectively; for C. avium 36.6% and 20.0%, respectively. One sample contained both species. All C. psittaci samples belonged to genotype B. C. psittaci and C. avium are present in feral pigeon droppings in Utrecht and Haarlem. Human contact with droppings from infected pigeons or inhalation of dust from dried droppings represent a potential hazard to public health.
Laude, Jennifer R; Pattison, Kristina F; Rayburn-Reeves, Rebecca M; Michler, Daniel M; Zentall, Thomas R
Pigeons given a simultaneous spatial discrimination reversal, in which a single reversal occurs at the midpoint of each session, consistently show anticipation prior to the reversal as well as perseveration after the reversal, suggesting that they use a less effective cue (time or trial number into the session) than what would be optimal to maximize reinforcement (local feedback from the most recent trials). In contrast, rats (Rattus norvegicus) and humans show near-optimal reversal learning on this task. To determine whether this is a general characteristic of mammals, in the present research, pigeons (Columba livia) and dogs (Canis familiaris) were tested with a simultaneous spatial discrimination mid-session reversal. Overall, dogs performed the task more poorly than pigeons. Interestingly, both pigeons and dogs employed what resembled a timing strategy. However, dogs showed greater perseverative errors, suggesting that they may have relatively poorer working memory and inhibitory control with this task. The greater efficiency shown by pigeons with this task suggests they are better able to time and use the feedback from their preceding choice as the basis of their future choice, highlighting what may be a qualitative difference between the species.
Maier, Kristina; Olias, Philipp; Enderlein, Dirk; Klopfleisch, Robert; Mayr, Sylvia L; Gruber, Achim D; Lierz, Michael
Pigeon protozoal encephalitis is a biphasic, neurologic disease of domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) caused by the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis calchasi. Despite severe inflammatory lesions of the brain, associated parasitic stages have only rarely been identified and the cause of the lesions is still unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize the tissue distribution of S. calchasi within pigeons between the two clinical phases and during the occurrence of neurological signs. For this purpose, a semi-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. Forty-five domestic pigeons were infected orally (via a cannula into the crop) with 200 S. calchasi sporocysts and euthanized in groups of three pigeons at intervals of 2 to 10 days over a period of 61 days. Tissue samples including brain and skeletal muscle were examined by histology, immunohistochemistry, and PCR. Schizonts were detected in the liver of one pigeon at day 10 post infection. A mild encephalitis was detected at day 20 post infection, around 4 weeks before the onset of neurological signs. At the same time, immature sarcocysts were present in the skeletal muscle. In seven pigeons a few sarcocysts were identified in the brain, but not associated with any lesion. These results suggest that the encephalitis is induced at a very early stage of the S. calchasi lifecycle rather than in the chronic phase of pigeon protozoal encephalitis. Despite the increasing severity of lesions in the central nervous system, the amount of sarcocysts did not increase. This supports the hypothesis of a delayed-type hypersensitivity response as the cause of the encephalitis. The study also demonstrated that S. calchasi DNA is detectable in tissues negative by histological methods, indicating a higher sensitivity of the real-time PCR.
Teske, L; Rubbenstroth, D; Meixner, M; Liere, K; Bartels, H; Rautenschlein, S
The young pigeon disease syndrome (YPDS) affects mainly young pigeons of less than one year of age and leads to crop stasis, vomitus, diarrhea, anorexia and occasionally death. This disease is internationally a major health problem because of its seasonal appearance during competitions such as homing pigeon races or exhibitions of ornamental birds. While the etiology of YPDS is still unclear, adenoviruses are frequently discussed as potential causative agents. Electron microscopy of feces from a YPDS outbreak revealed massive shedding of adenovirus-like particles. Whole genome sequencing of this sample identified a novel adenovirus tentatively named pigeon adenovirus 2 (PiAdV-2). Phylogenetic and comparative genome analysis suggest PiAdV-2 to belong to a new species within the genus Aviadenovirus, for which we propose the name Pigeon aviadenovirus B. The PiAdV-2 genome shares 54.9% nucleotide sequence identity with pigeon adenovirus 1 (PiAdV-1). In a screening of further YPDS-affected flocks two variants of PiAdV-2 (variant A and B) were detected which shared 97.6% nucleotide identity of partial polymerase sequences, but only 79.7% nucleotide identity of partial hexon sequences. The distribution of both PiAdV-2 variants was further investigated in fecal samples collected between 2008 and 2015 from healthy or YPDS-affected racing pigeons of different lofts. Independent of their health status, approximately 20% of young and 13% of adult pigeon flocks harbored PiAdV-2 variants. Birds were free of PiAdV-1 or other aviadenoviruses as determined by PCRs targeting the aviadenovirus polymerase or the PiAdV-1 fiber gene, respectively. In conclusion, there is no indication of a correlation between YPDS outbreaks and the presence of PiAdV-2 or other aviadenoviruses, arguing against an causative role in this disease complex. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yin, Z Z; Dong, X Y; Dong, D J; Ma, Y Z
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exons of the myogenic factor 5 (MYF5) and Kruppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) genes were identified and analysed by using DNA sequencing methods in 60 female domestic pigeons (Columba livia). Five SNPs (T5067A, C5084T, C5101T, T5127A and C5154G) were detected in exon 3 of MYF5 and 6 SNPs (C1398T, C1464T, G1542A, C1929T, G1965A and A2355G) were found in exon 2 of KLF15, respectively. The analysis revealed three genotypes, in which the AA genotype was dominant and the A allele showed a dominant advantage. For the MYF5 gene, the C5084T and T5127A SNP genotypes were significantly associated with carcass traits of pigeons. Within those two SNPs, the BB genotype showed relatively higher trait association values than those of AA or AB genotypes. No significant association was observed between the KLF15 SNP genotypes and carcass traits. These results indicated that the MYF5 gene is a potential major gene affecting carcass traits in domestic pigeons. The BB genotype of the C5084T and T5127A SNPs could be a potential candidate genetic marker for marker-assisted selection in pigeon.
Mao, H G; Dong, X Y; Cao, H Y; Xu, N Y; Yin, Z Z
1. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) plays an important role in the synthesis of triacylglycerol, but its effects on meat quality and carcass composition in pigeons are unclear. In this study, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exons of the DGAT2 gene were identified and analysed by using DNA sequencing methods in 200 domestic pigeons (Columba livia). The associations between DGAT2 polymorphisms and carcass and meat quality traits were also analysed. 2. Sequencing results showed that 5 nucleotide mutations were detected in exons 3, 4, 5 and 6 of the DGAT2 gene. The analysis revealed three genotypes (AA, AB and BB) in G18398T and G22484C, in which the AA genotype and A allele had the highest frequency. 3. In the SNP of G18398T located in exon 5, individuals with genotype BB had significantly higher meat quality and lower abdominal fat content than those with AA or AB genotype. In the SNP of G22484C located in exon 6, the genotype AA showed highest carcass trait values, while the genotype BB represented better meat quality, compared to AA and AB genotypes. 4. The results imply that DGAT2 gene has a close relationship with carcass and meat quality traits in pigeons, and the SNPs of G18398T and G22484C can be used as genetic markers for marker-assisted breeding in pigeon.
Heiderich, E; Failing, K; Lierz, M; Schildger, B
Problems related to feral pigeons (Columba livia) in cities mainly result from their large numbers due to uncontrolled population growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether endoscopic guided sterilization affects the reproductive behavior of feral pigeons under experimental conditions, with the intention of assessing this technique as a potential method for feral pigeon population control. Five groups of four pairs of feral pigeons each were studied from 8 weeks before, to 7 weeks after sterilization. Both the male and female of the first pair of each group were sterilized, in the second pair only the female and in the third pair only the male was sterilized. The fourth pair acted as a control. All eggs laid were candled to assess fertility. Surgical sterilization had minimal effects on behavior and therefore seems not to have impact on possible field application for population control. All pairs maintained their pair bonds and continued to defend their nesting sites against other pigeons. Only one female copulated with a foreign fertile male while her primary partner was debilitated due to surgery, but returned to him as soon as he recovered. All eggs laid more than 5 days after male sterilization were infertile, whereas all control pairs had fertile eggs. Only one fertile clutch was produced, 5 days after the male's sterilization. Therefore it is assumed that males remain fertile for a limited period of time. Endoscopic sterilization seems to be a promising method for field control of feral pigeon populations and sterilization of the male only seems sufficient.
UZMA F. DURRANI, M. ARIF KHAN1 AND S. SALEEM AHMAD
Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare the synergistic efficacy of detomidine, ketamine and their cocktail in pigeons (Columba livia. For this study, 15 adult and healthy pigeons were divided into three equal groups A, B and C. Birds of groups A and B were intramuscularly administered detomidine and ketamine @ 1.4 and 60 mg/kg b. wt., respectively. Pigeons of group C received detomidine + Ketamine cocktail @ 0.7 and 30 mg/kg b. wt. Induction of sedation and anaesthesia was smooth in all groups. Mean duration of induction was 11.1 + 2.03, 11.0 + 1.49 and 1.6 + 0.48 minutes in groups A, B, C, respectively. In groups A and B, smooth but light sedation and anaesthesia were observed accompanied by superficial analgesia, while in group C, birds showed deep anaesthesia alongwith deep analgesia. Birds in groups A and C elicited hypothermia, respiratory depression and bradycardia till complete recovery, while group B showed hyperthermia and tachycardia with rapid respiration. In group A, sedation persisted for 54.2 + 21.82 minutes and mean recovery period was 49.9 + 5.91 minutes, while groups B and C had anaesthesia for 47.7 + 8.06 and 103.5 + 27.52 minutes, and recovery periods were 52.6 + 9.64 and 61.3 + 17.26 minutes, respectively. Recovery was rough in group B and smooth in groups A and C. It was concluded that in pigeons, detomidine (alone is safe for handling and for least painful procedures, while detomidine-ketamine cocktail is safe as intramuscular anaesthetic for major surgical procedures. However, ketamine is not a good anaesthetic to be used alone in pigeons.
Haag-Wackernagel, D; Spiewak, R.W.
The report concerns a married couple who were repeatedly invaded by pigeon fleas (Ceratophyllus columbae) over a period of 2 months. The source of the fleas was a pair of breeding feral pigeons (Columba livia). The birds' nest was located in the attic immediately above the couple's apartment, and the fleas found their way along an unsealed heating pipe. The people encountered up to 40 bites per night. With invasions repeated almost every night, the man gradually developed an allergic urticari...
Makino, Hiroshi; Jitsumori, Masako
Adult humans (Homo sapiens) and pigeons (Columba livia) were trained to discriminate artificial categories that the authors created by mimicking 2 properties of natural categories. One was a family resemblance relationship: The highly variable exemplars, including those that did not have features in common, were structured by a similarity network with the features correlating to one another in each category. The other was a polymorphous rule: No single feature was essential for distinguishing the categories, and all the features overlapped between the categories. Pigeons learned the categories with ease and then showed a prototype effect in accord with the degrees of family resemblance for novel stimuli. Some evidence was also observed for interactive effects of learning of individual exemplars and feature frequencies. Humans had difficulty in learning the categories. The participants who learned the categories generally responded to novel stimuli in an all-or-none fashion on the basis of their acquired classification decision rules. The processes that underlie the classification performances of the 2 species are discussed.
Hsu, Bin-Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Darras, Veerle M; de Vries, Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G G
Thyroid hormones (THs) - triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) - are essential for embryonic development in vertebrates. All vertebrate embryos are exposed to THs from maternal origin. As maternal TH levels are known to be essential to embryonic development, the natural variation of maternal THs probably represents a pathway of maternal effects that can modify offspring phenotype. However, potential fitness consequences of variation of maternal TH exposure within the normal physiological range and without confounding effects of the mother have never been experimentally investigated. We experimentally manipulated the levels of yolk T3 and T4 within the physiological range in a species in which the embryo develops outside the mother's body, the Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) eggs. Making use of the natural difference of yolk testosterone between the two eggs of pigeon clutches, we were also able to investigate the potential interaction between THs and testosterone. Elevated yolk TH levels enhanced embryonic development and hatching success, and reduced body mass but not tarsus length between day 14 and fledging. The yolk hormones increased plasma T4 concentrations in females but reduced it in males, in line with the effect on metabolic rate at hatching. Plasma concentrations of T3 and testosterone were not significantly affected. The effects of treatment did not differ between eggs with high or low testosterone levels. Our data indicate that natural variation in maternal yolk TH levels affects offspring phenotype and embryonic survival, potentially influencing maternal and chick fitness. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wan, X P; Xie, P; Bu, Z; Zou, X T
This study aimed to evaluate the hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism-related parameters of adult male and female White King pigeons (Columba livia) during incubation and chick rearing. At day 4 (I4), 10 (I10) and 17 (I17) of incubation and day 1 (R1), 7 (R7), 15 (R15) and 25 (R25) of chick rearing, livers were sampled from six pigeons for each sex. Glycogen and fat contents, activities of glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, HK; 6-phosphofructokinase, 6-PFK), and genes expressions of key enzymes involved in glycolysis (pyruvate kinase, PK; glucokinase, GK), gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase cytosolic, PCK1; fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, FBP1; glucose-6-phosphatase, G6Pase), fatty acid synthesis (fatty acid synthase, FAS; acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ACC) and fatty acid β-oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, CPT1; acyl-CoA 1, ACO) were measured. In male and female pigeon livers, glycogen content and HK activity dramatically increased after I17 and after R1, respectively; expressions of FBP1 and G6Pase genes were maximized at R15; activity of 6-PFK and expressions of PK and CPT1 genes were highest at R7; fat content and expressions of FAS and ACC genes steeply increased from I10 to R1. In females, hepatic expressions of GK and PCK1 genes were greatest at R7 and I17, respectively; however, in males, both of them were maximized at R15. Hepatic expression of ACO gene was significantly enhanced at R1 compared to I17 and R7 in males, whereas it was notably up-regulated at I17 and R7 in females. Furthermore, expressions of PCK1, GK, FAS and ACC genes were in significant relation to fat content in the livers of female pigeons, while fat content in male pigeons was highly correlated with expression of PCK1, ACC, CPT1 and ACO genes. In conclusion, regulations of glucose and lipid metabolic processes were enhanced in parent pigeon livers from terminal phases of incubation to mid phase of chick rearing with sexual effects. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Herbranson, Walter T.; Schroeder, Julia
The “Monty Hall Dilemma” (MHD) is a well known probability puzzle in which a player tries to guess which of three doors conceals a desirable prize. After an initial choice is made, one of the remaining doors is opened, revealing no prize. The player is then given the option of staying with their initial guess or switching to the other unopened door. Most people opt to stay with their initial guess, despite the fact that switching doubles the probability of winning. A series of experiments investigated whether pigeons (Columba livia), like most humans, would fail to maximize their expected winnings in a version of the MHD. Birds completed multiple trials of a standard MHD, with the three response keys in an operant chamber serving as the three doors and access to mixed grain as the prize. Across experiments, the probability of gaining reinforcement for switching and staying was manipulated, and birds adjusted their probability of switching and staying to approximate the optimal strategy. Replication of the procedure with human participants showed that humans failed to adopt optimal strategies, even with extensive training. PMID:20175592
Herbranson, Walter T; Schroeder, Julia
The "Monty Hall Dilemma" (MHD) is a well known probability puzzle in which a player tries to guess which of three doors conceals a desirable prize. After an initial choice is made, one of the remaining doors is opened, revealing no prize. The player is then given the option of staying with their initial guess or switching to the other unopened door. Most people opt to stay with their initial guess, despite the fact that switching doubles the probability of winning. A series of experiments investigated whether pigeons (Columba livia), like most humans, would fail to maximize their expected winnings in a version of the MHD. Birds completed multiple trials of a standard MHD, with the three response keys in an operant chamber serving as the three doors and access to mixed grain as the prize. Across experiments, the probability of gaining reinforcement for switching and staying was manipulated, and birds adjusted their probability of switching and staying to approximate the optimal strategy. Replication of the procedure with human participants showed that humans failed to adopt optimal strategies, even with extensive training.
Chatelain, M; Gasparini, J; Frantz, A
Understanding the effects of trace metals emitted by anthropogenic activities on wildlife is of great concern in urban ecology; yet, information on how they affect individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems remains scarce. In particular, trace metals may impact survival by altering the immune system response to parasites. Plumage melanin is assumed to influence the effects of trace metals on immunity owing to its ability to bind metal ions in feathers and its synthesis being coded by a pleiotropic gene. We thus hypothesized that trace metal exposure would interact with plumage colouration in shaping immune response. We experimentally investigated the interactive effect between exposure to an environmentally relevant range of zinc and/or lead and melanin-based plumage colouration on components of the immune system in feral pigeons (Columba livia). We found that zinc increased anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) IgY primary response maintenance, buffered the negative effect of lead on anti-KLH IgY secondary response maintenance and tended to increase T-cell mediated phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin response. Lead decreased the peak of the anti-KLH IgY secondary response. In addition, pheomelanic pigeons exhibited a higher secondary anti-KLH IgY response than did eumelanic ones. Finally, T-cell mediated PHA skin response decreased with increasing plumage eumelanin level of birds exposed to lead. Neither treatments nor plumage colouration correlated with endoparasite intensity. Overall, our study points out the effects of trace metals on some parameters of birds' immunity, independently from other confounding urbanization factors, and underlines the need to investigate their impacts on other life history traits and their consequences in the ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions.
Tunio, Ahmed; Jalila, Abu; Goh, Yong Meng; Shameha-Intan; Shanthi, Ganabadi
Fracture and bone segment loss are major clinical problems in birds. Achieving bone formation and clinical union in a fracture case is important for the survival of the bird. To evaluate the efficacy of bone grafts for defect healing in birds, 2 different bone grafts were investigated in the healing of a bone defect in 24 healthy pigeons ( Columba livia ). In each bird, a 1-cm critical size defect (CSD) was created in the left ulna, and the fracture was stabilized with external skeletal fixation (ESF). A graft of hydroxyapatite (HA) alone (n = 12 birds) or demineralized bone matrix (DBM) combined with HA (n = 12 birds) was implanted in the CSD. The CSD healing was evaluated at 3 endpoints: 3, 6, and 12 weeks after surgery. Four birds were euthanatized at each endpoint from each treatment group, and bone graft healing in the ulna CSD was evaluated by histologic examination. The CSD and graft implants were evaluated for quality of union, cortex development, and bone graft incorporation. Results showed no graft rejection in any bird, and all birds had connective tissue formation in the defect because of the bone graft application. These results suggest that bone defect healing can be achieved by a combination of osteoinductive and osteoconductive bone graft materials for clinical union and new bone regeneration in birds. The combination of DBM and HA resulted in a better quality bone graft (P < .05) than did HA alone, but there was no significant differences in cortex development or bone graft incorporation at 3, 6, or 12 weeks. From the results of this study, we conclude that HA bone grafts, alone or in combination with DBM, with external skeletal fixation is suitable and safe for bone defect and fracture treatment in pigeons.
Isidoro-Ayza, M; Afonso, C L; Stanton, J B; Knowles, S; Ip, H S; White, C L; Fenton, H; Ruder, M G; Dolinski, A C; Lankton, J
Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality events in Eurasian collared-doves ( Streptopelia decaocto) (ECDOs) and rock pigeons ( Columba livia) (ROPIs). The investigators reviewed pathological findings of 70 naturally infected, free-ranging columbiforms from 25 different mortality events in the United States. Immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1 nucleoprotein was used to determine the tissue distribution of the virus in a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks. ECDOs (61 birds) and ROPIs (9 birds) were the only species in which PPMV-1-associated disease was confirmed by viral isolation and presence of histologic lesions. Acute to subacute tubulointerstitial nephritis and necrotizing pancreatitis were the most frequent histologic lesions, with immunolabeling of viral antigen in renal tubular epithelial cells and pancreatic acinar epithelium. Lymphoid depletion of bursa of Fabricius and spleen was common, but the presence of viral antigen in these organs was inconsistent among infected birds. Hepatocellular necrosis was occasionally present with immunolabeling of hypertrophic Kupffer cells, and immunopositive eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in hepatocytes of 1 ECDO. Immunopositive lymphocytic choroiditis was present in 1 ECDO, while lymphocytic meningoencephalitis was frequent in ROPIs in absence of immunolabeling. This study demonstrates widespread presence of PPMV-1 antigen in association with histologic lesions, confirming the lethal potential of this virus in these particular bird species.
Isidoro Ayza, Marcos; Afonso, C.L.; Stanton, J.B.; Knowles, Susan N.; Ip, Hon S.; White, C. LeAnn; Fenton, Heather; Ruder, M.G.; Dolinski, A. C.; Lankton, Julia S.
Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality events in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) (ECDOs) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) (ROPIs). The investigators reviewed pathological findings of 70 naturally infected, free-ranging columbiforms from 25 different mortality events in the United States. Immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1 nucleoprotein was used to determine the tissue distribution of the virus in a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks. ECDOs (61 birds) and ROPIs (9 birds) were the only species in which PPMV-1-associated disease was confirmed by viral isolation and presence of histologic lesions. Acute to subacute tubulointerstitial nephritis and necrotizing pancreatitis were the most frequent histologic lesions, with immunolabeling of viral antigen in renal tubular epithelial cells and pancreatic acinar epithelium. Lymphoid depletion of bursa of Fabricius and spleen was common, but the presence of viral antigen in these organs was inconsistent among infected birds. Hepatocellular necrosis was occasionally present with immunolabeling of hypertrophic Kupffer cells, and immunopositive eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in hepatocytes of 1 ECDO. Immunopositive lymphocytic choroiditis was present in 1 ECDO, while lymphocytic meningoencephalitis was frequent in ROPIs in absence of immunolabeling. This study demonstrates widespread presence of PPMV-1 antigen in association with histologic lesions, confirming the lethal potential of this virus in these particular bird species.
Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago, were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (% and mean intensities with their standard deviations: the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778 (6 241 .0 ± 138.9 and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10 %, 218.3 ± 117.3; the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100 %, 111.4 ± 76.8 and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94 %, 48.4 ± 26.6; and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36 %, 6.2 ± 1.6. The endoparasites we found, were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82 %, 14.8 ± 10.3 per 1000; coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50 %, 0.2 x 103 ± 1.7 x 103 per gr; a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909 López Neyra, 1947 (44 %, 12.3 ± 9.4; and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres fissispina (Diesing, 1861 Travassos, 1915 (4 %, 99.5 ± 34,1, Synhimantus (Dispharynx spiralis (Molin, 1858 (8 %, 46. 8 ± 11.6, Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790 Travassos, 1913 (40 %, 8.4 ± 8.8 and Aonchotheca sp. (18 %, 6.0 ± 3.1. Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.
Foronda, P; Valladares, B; Rivera-Medina, J A; Figueruelo, E; Abreu, N; Casanova, J C
The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia) from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago), were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (%) and mean intensities with their standard deviations): the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (6, 241.0 +/- 138.9) and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10%, 218.3 +/- 117.3); the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100%, 111.4 +/- 76.8) and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94%, 48.4 +/- 26.6); and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36%, 6.2 +/- 1.6). The endoparasites we found were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82%, 14.8 +/- 10.3 per 1000); coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50%, 0.2 x 10(3) +/- 1.7 x 10(3) per gr); a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909) López Neyra, 1947 (44%, 12.3 +/- 9.4); and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres) fissispina (Diesing, 1861) Travassos, 1915 (4%, 99.5 +/- 34.1), Synhimantus (Dispharynx) spiralis (Molin, 1858) (8%, 46.8 +/- 11.6), Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790) Travassos, 1913 (40%, 8.4 +/- 8.8) and Aonchotheca sp. (18%, 6.0 +/- 3.1). Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths) of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.
Sheldon, Julie; Hoover, John P; Payton, Mark E
To determine if blood administered to pigeons by gavage tube would simulate gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a noncarnivorous avian model, be digested in the gastrointestinal tract, and subsequently alter concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, or uric acid, blood from common peacocks (Pavo cristatus) was administered by gavage tube to 5 healthy domestic pigeons (Columba livia) at doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 ml/kg. No significant difference in plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine, or uric acid was seen 4-6 hours after gavage. The findings did not support or rule out the presence of gastrointestinal blood in pigeons as a model for hemorrhage in noncarnivorous avian species.
Sürsal, Neslihan; Atan, Perçem; Gökpınar, Sami; Duru, Özkan; Çakmak, Ayşe; Yıldız, Kader
Haemoproteus spp. are common blood parasites of pigeons. They have been reported in pigeons in many regions worldwide, including Turkey. Pigeon breeding is a popular hobby in Kirikkale province, and there is no information about the prevalence of Haemoproteus spp. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Haemoproteus spp. in tumbler pigeons in Kirikkale province (Kırıkkale and Yahsihan district). Blood samples were taken from the wing vein of pigeons (n: 173) through microcapillary (with/heparin) tubes between February and March 2016. Blood smears were stained with 5% Giemsa solution. Ectoparasites of the pigeons were collected in separate sealed boxes. Epidemiological data of the sampled pigeons (age and sex) were obtained from the breeders. In total, 23 (%13.2) of 173 pigeons were infected with Haemoproteus spp. Parasite was detected in 73.9% of pigeons over 1 year old and 26.1% of pigeon under 1 year age. Haemoproteus spp. was observed in 56.2% of females (13/23) and 43.4% of males (10/23), Sex-related differences were not observed (p = 0.821). Ectoparasites of the pigeons were identified as Columbicola spp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in Kirikkale province that reported the prevalence of Haemoproteus spp. in pigeons.
Kaya, Didar Aydin; Özsoy, Serhat
Rotational deformities of the long bones affect various avian species. Tibiotarsal rotation may cause the leg to deviate up to 180° from the dorsoplantar axis in a matter of days, thus preventing the birds from walking freely and leading to the inability to stand. In this study, tibiotarsal rotation observed in pigeons and partridges was managed by creating a closed fracture in the tibiotarsus and then, following reduction, stabilizing it with an intramedullary tie-in Type 2 external skeletal fixation system. Functional healing was achieved in 12 pigeons (Columba livia domestica; mean healing time, 38 days) and 7 partridges (Alectoris chukar; mean healing time, 40 days). This treatment was successful. In small bird species (<1 kg), this simple and inexpensive surgical intervention may provide a highly effective method for the treatment of rotational deformities.
Chen, Ming-xia; Li, Xiang-guang; Yang, Jun-xian; Gao, Chun-qi; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xiu-qi; Yan, Hui-chao
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between gene expression of nutrient (amino acid, peptide, sodium and proton) transporters in the small intestine and embryonic growth in domestic pigeons (Columba livia). One hundred and twenty-five fertilized eggs were randomly assigned into five groups and were incubated under optimal conditions (temperature of 38.1 °C and relative humidity of 55%). Twenty embryos/birds from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on embryonic day (E) 9, 11, 13, 15 and day of hatch (DOH). The eggs, embryos (without yolk sac), and organs (head, brain, heart, liver, lungs, kidney, gizzard, small intestine, legs, and thorax) were dissected, cleaned, and weighed. Small intestine samples were collected for RNA isolation. The mRNA abundance of intestinal nutrient transporters was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We classified these ten organs into four types according to the changes in relative weight during embryonic development. In addition, the gene expression of nutrient transporters was differentially regulated by embryonic day. The mRNA abundances of b0,+AT, EAAT3, y+LAT2, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, and NHE3 increased linearly with age, whereas mRNA abundances of CAT1, CAT2, LAT1, EAAT2, SNAT1, and SNAT2 were increased to higher levels on E9 or E11 and then decreased to lower levels until DOH. The results of correlation analysis showed that the gene expressions of b0,+AT, EAAT3, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, NHE3, and y+LAT2 had positive correlations with body weight (0.71
Chen, Ming-xia; Li, Xiang-guang; Yang, Jun-xian; Gao, Chun-qi; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xiu-qi; Yan, Hui-chao
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between gene expression of nutrient (amino acid, peptide, sodium and proton) transporters in the small intestine and embryonic growth in domestic pigeons (Columba livia). One hundred and twenty-five fertilized eggs were randomly assigned into five groups and were incubated under optimal conditions (temperature of 38.1 °C and relative humidity of 55%). Twenty embryos/birds from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on embryonic day (E) 9, 11, 13, 15 and day of hatch (DOH). The eggs, embryos (without yolk sac), and organs (head, brain, heart, liver, lungs, kidney, gizzard, small intestine, legs, and thorax) were dissected, cleaned, and weighed. Small intestine samples were collected for RNA isolation. The mRNA abundance of intestinal nutrient transporters was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We classified these ten organs into four types according to the changes in relative weight during embryonic development. In addition, the gene expression of nutrient transporters was differentially regulated by embryonic day. The mRNA abundances of b(0,+)AT, EAAT3, y(+)LAT2, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, and NHE3 increased linearly with age, whereas mRNA abundances of CAT1, CAT2, LAT1, EAAT2, SNAT1, and SNAT2 were increased to higher levels on E9 or E11 and then decreased to lower levels until DOH. The results of correlation analysis showed that the gene expressions of b(0,+)AT, EAAT3, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, NHE3, and y(+)LAT2 had positive correlations with body weight (0.71
Hygromycin-B was administered in varied quantities to pigeons harboring nonvirulent Trichomonas gallinae and to pigeons free of T. gallinae. Both groups responded identically with large yellow caseous lesions in the upper digestive tract which superficially resembled canker (trichomoniasis). No mycotic association with the lesions could be established in either .group from sections stained with periodic acid-Schiff. The lesions observed in Hygromycin-B-treated pigeons were concluded to be the direct result of the drug on the mucosa of the pigeon's upper digestive tract.
Brahma, S.K.; Rabaey, M.; Doorenmaalen, W.J. van
Ontogeny and localization of the lens γ-crystallin antigen were investigated in the embryonic and post-embryonic pigeon lenses by the indirect immunofluorescence with antiserum from rabbit immunized with isolated pigeon lens γ-crystallin. The results show that γ-crystallin appears for the first time
Zhang, Rui-Hua; Xu, Ming-Ju; Wang, Cun-Lian; Xu, Tong; Wei, Dong; Liu, Bao-Jian; Wang, Guo-Hua
The fancy pigeons are domesticated varieties of the rock pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of fancy pigeon for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,233 bp with the base composition of 30.1% for A, 24.0% for T, 31.9% for C, and 14.0% for G and an A-T (54.2 %)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of fancy pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.
Zhang, Rui-Hua; He, Wen-Xiao
The ice pigeon is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of ice pigeon for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,236 bp with the base composition of 30.2% for A, 24.0% for T, 31.9% for C, and 13.9% for G and an A-T (54.2 %)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of ice pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.
Zhang, Rui-Hua; He, Wen-Xiao; Xu, Tong
The king pigeon is a breed of pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding primarily as a utility breed. In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of king pigeon for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,221 bp with the base composition of 30.14% for A, 24.05% for T, 31.82% for C, and 13.99% for G and an A-T (54.22 %)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and one non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of king pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.
Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Yun Kyung; Lee, Dong-Hun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-Tack; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Jeong, Sol; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Song, Chang-Seon; Nahm, Sang-Soep
Wild birds play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and dissemination of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV). Sub-clinical infection with HPAI in resident wild birds could be a source of dissemination of HPAIV and continuous outbreaks. In this study, the pathogenicity and infectivity of two strains of H5N8 clade 220.127.116.11 virus were evaluated in the Mandarin duck (Aix galericulata) and domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). None of the birds experimentally infected with H5N8 viruses showed clinical signs or mortality. The H5N8 viruses efficiently replicated in the virus-inoculated Mandarin ducks and transmitted to co-housed Mandarin ducks. Although relatively high levels of viral shedding were noted in pigeons, viral shedding was not detected in some of the pigeons and the shedding period was relatively short. Furthermore, the infection was not transmitted to co-housed pigeons. Immunohistochemical examination revealed the presence of HPAIV in multiple organs of the infected birds. Histopathological evaluation showed the presence of inflammatory responses primarily in HPAIV-positive organs. Our results indicate that Mandarin ducks and pigeons can be infected with H5N8 HPAIV without exhibiting clinical signs; thus, they may be potential healthy reservoirs of the H5N8 HPAIV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mohammed, Balarabe R; Simon, Malang K; Agbede, Rowland IS; Arzai, Auwalu H
Pigeon coccidiosis is caused by Eimeria spp., a protozoan parasite which limits productivity by causing severe illness. Although numerous studies have been conducted on the coccidiosis of pigeons in some parts of Nigeria, there is no published data from Kano State. The intestinal contents of 144 pigeons (72 females and 72 males) were analysed for Eimeria oocysts in 2007 from 12 Local Government Areas of Kano State over the period of six months including the dry (February–April) and wet (June–August) seasons. The pigeons were divided into three groups according to age: squabs (0–4 weeks), squeakers (5–8 weeks) and youngsters (9+ weeks); each group including 48 pigeons. The results of these studies revealed an overall prevalence of 19.44%. The prevalence was higher in females (20.83%) than males (18.06%) (p<0.05). Furthermore, squabs had the highest prevalence (27.08%) followed by squeakers (20.83%), and youngsters (10.42%) (p<0.05). Infection with Eimeria spp. oocysts was higher during the wet season (8.96%) than dry season (5.98%) (p<0.05). This study provides basic information on the first detection of coccidiosis of pigeons in Kano State, Nigeria which has an implication on the sustainable pigeon production for human protein reguirement.
S. Shaheen, A. D. Anjum and F. Rizvi
Full Text Available A survey was conducted to study clinical signs, gross and histopathological lesions in pigeons with naturally occurring Newcastle disease. For this purpose, 30 pigeon lofts were visited. Among these, 14 lofts showed clinical signs of Newcastle disease, including mainly greenish white mucoid diarrhoea and nervous signs with high morbidity and mortality. Postmortem examination of affected birds showed lesions mainly in brain, liver, kidneys and spleen. Amongst various organs, kidneys were more frequently involved. Histopathological changes were also observed in lungs, liver, kidneys, brain and spleen. The results showed that the Newcastle disease virus was widespread in pigeons locally and caused heavy mortality. No preventive measures or vaccination is being adopted by pigeon fanciers to control the disease.
Li, Chun-Hong; Shi, Wei; Shi, Wan-Yu
The Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. In this work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,239 bp and its overall base composition was estimated to be 30.2% for A, 24.0% for T, 31.9% for C and 13.9% for G, indicating an A-T (54.2%)-rich feature in the mitogenome. It contained the typical structure of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.
Cristina R. Perez
Full Text Available Estimation of the surface area of the avian body is valuable for thermoregulation and metabolism studies as well as for assessing exposure to oil and other surface-active organic pollutants from a spill. The use of frozen carcasses for surface area estimations prevents the ability to modify the posture of the bird. The surface area of six live homing pigeons in the fully extended flight position was estimated using a noninvasive method. An equation was derived to estimate the total surface area of a pigeon based on its body weight. A pigeon's surface area in the fully extended flight position is approximately 4 times larger than the surface area of a pigeon in the perching position. The surface area of a bird is dependent on its physical position, and, therefore, the fully extended flight position exhibits the maximum area of a bird and should be considered the true surface area of a bird.
He, Wen-Xiao; Jia, Jin-Feng
The Jacobin is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding that originated in Asia. In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Jacobin pigeon for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,245 bp with the base composition of 30.18% for A, 23.98% for T, 31.88% for C, and 13.96% for G and an A-T (54.17 %)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region. The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Jacobin pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.
Šupić, Jovana; Alić, Alma Šeho; Hasanić, Melida; Goletić, Šejla; Duscher, Georg G; Hodžić, Adnan; Alić, Amer
Filarial nematodes of the Eulimdana genus inhabit subcutaneous tissue of various avian species, mostly Charadriiforme birds. In domestic pigeons, E. clava is the only species recorded in the subcutaneous tissue in a number of isolated cases. In the present study, we discuss the morphology and histopathology of filarial nematodes recovered from subcutaneous tissue of domestic pigeons in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In total 110 pigeons were submitted to necropsy at the Department of Pathology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Sarajevo. At necropsy, in four pigeons (3.6%) numerous thread-like 0.9-2.1 cm long nematode parasites were observed in the subcutaneous tissue, peritracheal and periesophageal connective tissue. In one pigeon, the parasites were also found free in the body cavity around the heart and lungs. In addition, several 80-90 μm long microfilariae were noted in the tissue cross-sections. No significant lesions were observed associated with adult parasites or microfilariae. Based on morphology, host species and localization detected parasites were identified as E. clava. Molecular analyses of the cox1 and 12S rRNA nucleotide sequences herein generated revealed the close genetic relationship to other filarioid nematodes. The importance of the nematodes in pigeons and the lack of sequences in genetic databases for comparison of avian filarial parasites are emphasized. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ramadan, Sherif; Dawod, Ahmed; El-Garhy, Osama; Nowier, Amira M; Eltanany, Marwa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho
This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationships of 10 Egyptian pigeon populations belonging to Columba livia domestica speciesusing 11 microsatellite markers and to investigate the success of these markers amplification across another eight pigeon species. Genomic DNA was isolated from feather samples of179 pigeon samples from 10 Egyptian breeds: Asfer Weraq (n=14), Austoraly (n=20), Reehani (n=21), Messawed (n=17), Nemssawy (n=27), Otatti (n=12), Morasla (n=17), Tumbler (n=22), Halaby Asfer (n=10), and Karakandy (n=19) in addition to Japanese feral pigeons (n=30). Genotyping was done using 11 specific polymorphic microsatellite makers. Moreover, 37 samples not belonging to C. livia domestica but belonging to another eight pigeon species were genotyped. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were electrophoresed on an ABI 3130xl DNA Sequencer. The basic measures of genetic diversity and phylogenetic trees were computed using bioinformatics software. Across the 10 studied Egyptian populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 19 and the average number of alleles observed was 9.091. The lowest value of expected heterozygosity (0.373) was obtained for the Reehani breed, and the highest value (0.706) was found for Morasla breed. The overall expected heterozygosity of Egyptian pigeons was 0.548. The F ST coefficient which indicates fixation coefficients of subpopulations within the total population for the 11 loci varied from 0.318 to 0.114 with a relatively high mean (0.226). In our study, the F IS showed a relatively high average(0.037). The pairwise Reynolds's genetic distance between the11 studied pigeon populations recorded lower values between Otatti and Austoraly (0.025) and between Morasla and Japanese feral pigeons (0.054). These results are supported by clustering pattern either by the neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree or by a Bayesian clustering of STRUCTURE with the admixture method. We confirm the applicability of
Ramadan, Sherif; Dawod, Ahmed; El-Garhy, Osama; Nowier, Amira M.; Eltanany, Marwa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho
Aim This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationships of 10 Egyptian pigeon populations belonging to Columba livia domestica speciesusing 11 microsatellite markers and to investigate the success of these markers amplification across another eight pigeon species. Methods Genomic DNA was isolated from feather samples of179 pigeon samples from 10 Egyptian breeds: Asfer Weraq (n=14), Austoraly (n=20), Reehani (n=21), Messawed (n=17), Nemssawy (n=27), Otatti (n=12), Morasla (n=17), Tumbler (n=22), Halaby Asfer (n=10), and Karakandy (n=19) in addition to Japanese feral pigeons (n=30). Genotyping was done using 11 specific polymorphic microsatellite makers. Moreover, 37 samples not belonging to C. livia domestica but belonging to another eight pigeon species were genotyped. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were electrophoresed on an ABI 3130xl DNA Sequencer. The basic measures of genetic diversity and phylogenetic trees were computed using bioinformatics software. Results Across the 10 studied Egyptian populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 19 and the average number of alleles observed was 9.091. The lowest value of expected heterozygosity (0.373) was obtained for the Reehani breed, and the highest value (0.706) was found for Morasla breed. The overall expected heterozygosity of Egyptian pigeons was 0.548. The FST coefficient which indicates fixation coefficients of subpopulations within the total population for the 11 loci varied from 0.318 to 0.114 with a relatively high mean (0.226). In our study, the FIS showed a relatively high average(0.037). The pairwise Reynolds’s genetic distance between the11 studied pigeon populations recorded lower values between Otatti and Austoraly (0.025) and between Morasla and Japanese feral pigeons (0.054). These results are supported by clustering pattern either by the neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree or by a Bayesian clustering of STRUCTURE with the admixture method. Conclusions
Rezaei, Farid; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Chalechale, Abdolali; Seidi, Shahin; Gholizadeh, Maryam
This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys from May 2012 to April 2013 to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites in Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Of the total of 600 free-range backyard chickens (185 ♂ and 415 ♀), 700 domestic pigeons (278 ♂ and 422 ♀) and 150 turkeys (53 ♂ and 97 ♀), 389 (64.83 %), 608 (86.85 %) and 54 (36 %) were infected with one or more parasites respectively. Eleven ectoparasites species including five of lice (50.16 % Menacanthus stramineus, 13.66 % Menopon gallinae, 4.83 % Cuclotogaster heterographus, 5.16 % Goniocotes gallinae, 2.33 % Goniodes gigas), three of mites (26.33 % Dermanyssus gallinae, 8.5 % Ornithonyssus bursa, 7 % Cnemidocoptes mutans), one of tick (78.66 % Argas persicus) and two of flea (12.33 % Echidnophaga gallinacea, 2 % Pulex irritans) were found in the backyard chickens. The domestic pigeons were infected with six species of parasites including: Columbicola columbae (61.7 %), M. gallinae (10.43 %), M. stramineus (9 %), D. gallinae (8.28 %), Argas reflexus (74.14 %) and Pseudolynchia canariensis (27.7 %). The ectoparasites species recorded in turkeys were M. gallinae (14 %), M. stramineus (8 %), D. gallinae (12.66 %), C. mutans (6 %), A. persicus (24.66 %) and E. gallinacean (6 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites among free-range backyard chicken, domestic pigeons and turkeys in Kermanshah province. The high prevalence rate of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons indicates that parasitic infection is a common problem in this area.
Herbranson, Walter T; Jeffers, Jacob S
Change blindness is a phenomenon whereby changes to a stimulus are more likely go unnoticed under certain circumstances. Pigeons learned a change detection task, in which they observed sequential stimulus displays consisting of individual colors back-projected onto three response keys. The color of one response key changed during each sequence and pecks to the key that displayed the change were reinforced. Pigeons showed a change blindness effect, in that change detection accuracy was worse when there was an inter-stimulus interval interrupting the transition between consecutive stimulus displays. Birds successfully transferred to stimulus displays involving novel colors, indicating that pigeons learned a general change detection rule. Furthermore, analysis of responses to specific color combinations showed that pigeons could detect changes involving both spectral and non-spectral colors and that accuracy was better for changes involving greater differences in wavelength. These results build upon previous investigations of change blindness in both humans and pigeons and suggest that change blindness may be a general consequence of selective visual attention relevant to multiple species and stimulus dimensions.
Iwasaki, Sumie; Watanabe, Sota; Fujita, Kazuo
Despite their impressive cognitive abilities, avian species have shown less evidence for metacognition than mammals. We suspect that commonly used tasks such as matching to sample might be too demanding to allow metacognitive processing within birds' working memory. Here, we examined whether pigeons could control their behavior as a function of knowledge levels on a three-item sequence learning task, a reference memory task supposedly requiring fewer working memory resources. The experiment used two types of lists differing in familiarity. One was familiar to the pigeons through repeated exposure, whereas the other was novel in every new session. In test sessions, pigeons could choose between a trial with a hint specifying the next item to peck and one with no hint. However, successful responses in trials with a hint resulted in lowered rates of primary reinforcement: .60 in the first test and .75 in the second. Results showed that two of four pigeons chose the trial with a hint significantly more often before receiving a novel list than the familiar list in the four sessions of the first test, and three did so in the second test. Impressively, one bird showed robust evidence in the very first sessions in both tests. These results suggest that pigeons may monitor their long-term knowledge states and thereby control their environment before starting to solve a task.
Li, Chun-Hong; Liu, Fang; Wang, Li
Abstract In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of feral rock pigeon for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,239 bp with the base composition of 30.3% for A, 24.0% for T, 31.9% for C, and 13.8% for G and an A-T (54.3 %)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of feral rock pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.
Coppola, Vincent J; Flaim, Mary E; Carney, Samantha N; Bingman, Verner P
Age-related memory decline in mammals has been well documented. By contrast, very little is known about memory decline in birds as they age. In the current study we trained younger and older homing pigeons on a reference memory task in which a goal location could be encoded by spatial and feature cues. Consistent with a previous working memory study, the results revealed impaired acquisition of combined spatial-feature reference memory in older compared to younger pigeons. Following memory acquisition, we used cue-conflict probe trials to provide an initial assessment of possible age-related differences in cue preference. Both younger and older pigeons displayed a similarly modest preference for feature over spatial cues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Amer, Mohammed S; Hassan, Elham A; Torad, Faisal A
Five female egg-laying pigeons presented with painless, reducible, ventral abdominal swellings located between the keel and the pubis, or close to the cloaca. Based on clinical, radiographic, and ultrasonographic examination, these pigeons were diagnosed with ventral abdominal hernia requiring surgical interference. Reduction was successfully performed under general anesthesia. Radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations were beneficial for confirming the diagnosis and visualizing the hernial content for surgical planning. Lateral radiographs were more helpful than ventrodorsal radiographs for identification of the hernial content and its continuation with the abdominal muscles. Ultrasonographic examination offered a non-invasive diagnostic tool that allowed for the differentiation of hernia from other abdominal swellings. In addition, it played a beneficial role in identification of the hernial content and follow up after surgical interference. In conclusion, radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations were beneficial in the diagnosis, surgical planning, and follow up after surgical interference of ventral abdominal hernia in pigeons.
Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objectives.[/b] [i]Chlamydia psittaci[/i], an obligate intracellular bacterium, which is the etiologic agent of avian chlamydiosis in birds and ornithosis/psittacosis in humans, has been reported to be one of the most common pathogens found in feral pigeons worldwide, and thus constitutes a zoonotic risk. The aim of the study was to investigate pigeons in Slovakia living in areas in close proximity to humans for the presence of C. psittaci, using pharyngeal and cloacal swabs. [b]Material and methods. [/b]122 clinically healthy pigeons from different geographical regions of Slovakia were examined for the presence of [i]C. psittaci[/i]. The adult pigeons of both genders were captured during the summer period in the urban centres of Slovakian towns. Each sample was examined by molecular method PCR, and in the case of positive result the identity of the obtained sequence was examined by a BLAST search. [b]Results.[/b] Of the total number of 244 examined samples, 14 (5.7% showed positivity for [i]C. psittaci[/i] infection, 5 of which were from pharyngeal swabs (4.1% and 9 from cloacal swabs (7.4%. A positive result was detected in 13 pigeons (10.7%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the positive samples are genetically very close to genotypes B and genotype E. [b]Conclusion.[/b] Phylogenetic examination of the 14 isolates of [i]C. psittaci[/i] identified in the presented study, based on 23S rRNA gene sequence, revealed their close relationship with [i]C. psittaci[/i] genotypes B and E. Both genotypes are predominantly prevalent in pigeons and both can be transmitted to humans. Therefore, it is necessary to perform screening examinations of animals and analyse the epidemiological factors affecting the way of transmission and circulation of pathogen.
Huang, Tian; Wang, Xifeng; Si, Run; Chi, Hao; Han, Binyue; Han, Haitang; Cao, Gengsheng; Zhao, Yaofeng
Compared with mammals, the bird Ig genetic system relies on gene conversion to create an Ab repertoire, with inversion of the IgA-encoding gene and very few cases of Ig subclass diversification. Although gene conversion has been studied intensively, class-switch recombination, a mechanism by which the IgH C region is exchanged, has rarely been investigated in birds. In this study, based on the published genome of pigeon ( Columba livia ) and high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of immune-related tissues, we identified a transcriptionally forward α gene and found that the pigeon IgH gene locus is arranged as μ-α-υ1-υ2. In this article, we show that both DNA deletion and inversion may result from IgA and IgY class switching, and similar junction patterns were observed for both types of class-switch recombination. We also identified two subclasses of υ genes in pigeon, which share low sequence identity. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that divergence of the two pigeon υ genes occurred during the early stage of bird evolution. The data obtained in this study provide new insight into class-switch recombination and Ig gene evolution in birds. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Guernsey, Michael W.; Ritscher, Lars; Miller, Matthew A.; Smith, Daniel A.; Schöneberg, Torsten; Shapiro, Michael D.
Variation in the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r) is associated with pigmentation diversity in wild and domesticated populations of vertebrates, including several species of birds. Among domestic bird species, pigmentation variation in the rock pigeon ( Columba livia ) is particularly diverse. To determine the potential contribution of Mc1r variants to pigment diversity in pigeons, we sequenced Mc1r in a wide range of pigeon breeds and identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms, including a variant that codes for an amino acid substitution (Val85Met). In contrast to the association between Val85Met and eumelanism in other avian species, this change was associated with pheomelanism in pigeons. In vitro cAMP accumulation and protein expression assays revealed that Val85Met leads to decreased receptor function and reduced cell surface expression of the mutant protein. The reduced in vitro function is consistent with the observed association with reduced eumelanic pigmentation. Comparative genetic and cellular studies provide important insights about the range of mechanisms underlying diversity among vertebrates, including different phenotypic associations with similar mutations in different species. PMID:23977400
Mohsenzadeh, Mahdieh Sadat; Zaeemi, Mahdieh; Razmyar, Jamshid; Azizzadeh, Mohammad
Biochemical analysis is necessary for diagnosis and monitoring of diseases in birds; however, the small volume of blood that can be safely obtained from small avian species often limits laboratory diagnostic testing. Consequently, a suitable methodology requiring only a small volume of blood must be used. This study was designed to compare blood glucose concentrations in domestic pigeons ( Columba livia domestica) as measured by a commercial, handheld, human glucometer and a standard autoanalyzer. During the first phase of the study, whole blood samples obtained from 30 domestic pigeons were used to measure the blood glucose concentration with a glucometer, the packed cell volume (PCV), and the total erythrocyte count (nRBC). Plasma separated from the each sample was then used to obtain the plasma glucose concentration with the autoanalyzer. During the second phase of the study, 30 pigeons were assigned to 2 equal groups (n = 15). Hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia was induced in each group by intravenous injection of insulin or glucose, respectively. Blood was collected and processed, and glucose concentrations, PCV, and nRBC were measured as previously described. Linear-regression models demonstrated a significant relationship between results measured by the glucometer and autoanalyzer results from normoglycemic (correlation coefficient [R] = 0.43, P = .02), hypoglycemic (R = 0.95; P < .001), and hyperglycemic (R = 0.81; P < .001) birds. The results of this study suggest that we can predict the real blood-glucose concentration of pigeons by using results obtained by a glucometer.
Muhammad A J Qadri
Full Text Available The cognitive and neural mechanisms for recognizing and categorizing behavior are not well understood in non-human animals. In the current experiments, pigeons and humans learned to categorize two non-repeating, complex human behaviors ("martial arts" vs. "Indian dance". Using multiple video exemplars of a digital human model, pigeons discriminated these behaviors in a go/no-go task and humans in a choice task. Experiment 1 found that pigeons already experienced with discriminating the locomotive actions of digital animals acquired the discrimination more rapidly when action information was available than when only pose information was available. Experiments 2 and 3 found this same dynamic superiority effect with naïve pigeons and human participants. Both species used the same combination of immediately available static pose information and more slowly perceived dynamic action cues to discriminate the behavioral categories. Theories based on generalized visual mechanisms, as opposed to embodied, species-specific action networks, offer a parsimonious account of how these different animals recognize behavior across and within species.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fecal samples were collected from 120 domestic pigeons to determine the Attributable risk of Capillaria spp. The Capillaria spp. was observed in 64 out of 120 (51% pigeons (70 males and 50 females under this study. A total of 64 (39 males and 25 females were found naturally infected with Capillaria spp. with infection percentage of 51% and 50% in males and females respectively. Qualitative examinations include the direct microscopy and faecal floatation while quantitative examination includes McMaster technique (worms load was calculated per gram of the faeces. Month wise Attributable risk showed that eggs of the worms were found to be abundant in the month of July during the present study (60% to 73% because of high humidity. Very high and very low temperature is not suitable for the proper development of the eggs. Qualitative and quantitative examination revealed that Capillaria spp. was more prevalent in males (51% than females (50% but overall there was no significant difference (P>0.05 in the male and female because both individuals invest equal amount of energy in search of food and incubating the eggs. Different breeds of pigeons gave different Attributable risk in different months during the study. Groups of pigeons from different locations showed different variable Attributable risk. Areas with high humidity were more suitable for the development of eggs, which is the reason why higher Attributable risk was observed in Shahdara (75% area of Lahore, Pakistan.
Torres-Mejía, Ana María; Blanco-Peña, Kinndle; Rodríguez, César; Duarte, Francisco; Jiménez-Soto, Mauricio; Esperón, Fernando
Most studies on zoonotic agents in pigeons have been conducted in the Palearctic region, but the scarcity of data is notorious in the Neotropical region, where these birds can breed all year around and are in close contact with humans. In this study, we used a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods to identify infectious agents in 141 fecal samples from pigeons collected at four urban parks from Costa Rica. Of these we identified 34 positive samples for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Braenderup (24.1%), 13 for Chlamydophila psittaci (9.2%), 9 for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (6.4% eaeA, 0% stx-1 and 0% stx-2), and 2 for Campylobacter jejuni (1.4%). These populations of pigeons pose low risk for healthy adult humans, however, they may pose a health risk to immunocompromised patients or children. This study provides scientific data, which can be incorporated into educational programs aiming to reverse the public attitude toward pigeon feeding and to rationally justify population control efforts.
Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Pritsos, Chris A
Estimation of the surface area of the avian body is valuable for thermoregulation and metabolism studies as well as for assessing exposure to oil and other surface-active organic pollutants from a spill. The use of frozen carcasses for surface area estimations prevents the ability to modify the posture of the bird. The surface area of six live homing pigeons in the fully extended flight position was estimated using a noninvasive method. An equation was derived to estimate the total surface area of a pigeon based on its body weight. A pigeon's surface area in the fully extended flight position is approximately 4 times larger than the surface area of a pigeon in the perching position. The surface area of a bird is dependent on its physical position, and, therefore, the fully extended flight position exhibits the maximum area of a bird and should be considered the true surface area of a bird. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd | Biology Open.
Full Text Available Aim: To know the prevalence of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli among dead and/or diarrhoic pigeons in and around greater Guwahati. Materials and Methods: Samples were cultured from dead and/or diarrhoic pigeons and identification was done by standard methods. The sensitivity of the isolated E.coli strains to 15 antibiotics of human and veterinary use was also determined. Organs from those dead birds from which E.coli were recovered were processed according to the routine procedure for histopathological studies. Results: Out of 150 pigeons subjected to microbiological investigation, 91(60.67 % samples were found positive for E. coli.The most frequently occurring serotypes were O157 (9.89%, followed by O68, O121 (7.69%, O9, O75, O131 (5.49%, O2, O13, O22 (3.30%. Antibiogram investigation of the isolates revealed that 91isolates (100% exhibited resistance against Ampicillin followed by Nitro-furantoin (73.62%, Tetracycline (65.93 %, Oxytetracycline (62.63 % and Streptomycin (61.54. Gross changes of some birds showed fibrinous pericarditis and perihepatitis and coligranuloma in different organs like liver and serosal surface of intestine. Microscopically, severe congestion and haemorrhages in different organs such as liver, kidney, lung and intestine. In some cases thick layer of fibrinous exudates with large number of heterophills over the surface of liver and heart with early degenerative changes as well as focal necrosis. Conclusion: The result of this study suggests that antimicrobial-resistant pathogenic E.coli is present in pigeons in and around greater Guwahati. Surveillance programs may be introduced to monitor antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic E.coli in pigeons in and around greater guwahati. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 91-94
Full Text Available Hadjelia truncata belongs to the family Habronematidae which affects different groups of birds such as Columbiformes. A large number of Sarcocystis sp. may infect birds as intermediate hosts, but wild Columbiformes, include pigeons, are rarely affected. The present study describes mixed infection of two pigeon flocks with sarcocystosis and nematodiasis (H. truncata which had neurologic and gas-trointestinal clinical signs. The common clinical signs included progressive weight loss, pectoral muscle atrophy, white diarrhoea, depression, torticollis, paralysis, trembling, and 23.4% mortality. At necropsy, a large number of nematodes were detected in the gizzards and diagnosed as H. truncata in parasitological studies. For greater certainty, histopathological examination was conducted routinely. Different development stage of this nematode associated with severe inflammatory cells infiltration and necrosis were observed in tissue sections. Accidentally, the large number of Sarcocystis cysts was observed in tunica muscularis mucosa of gizzard associated with infiltration of inflammatory cells, hyaline degeneration and necrosis around degenerated cysts.
Leandro Almeida Rui
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Orthopedic conditions, such as bone fractures, are very common in avian medicine. External fixators have been considered the gold standard for birds, since they allow early movement of the limbs and minimal invasive surgery. Fractures in several bones have been successfully treated in pigeons. However, to the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first report of successful surgical repair of tarsal-metatarsal fracture in rock pigeon. External fixator was made with four 24G catheters, being inserted manually proximal and distal to the fracture and connected with polymerizable acrylic. Radiographic consolidation of fracture was observed 60 days post-surgery and anti-inflammatory and antibiotic protocols were successful on avoiding pain and infection during surgery and bone healing.
Tabari, M A; Youssefi, M R; Moghadamnia, A A
1. This study was designed to evaluate the antitrichomonal effects of P. harmala alkaloid extract against T. gallinae, both in vitro and in vivo, as well as comparing it to that of metronidazole, conventional antitrichomonal medication and harmine and harmaline, the two alkaloids present in P. harmala. 2. T. gallinae were collected by the wet mount method from infected free-living pigeons. The in vitro assay was performed using multi-well plates containing test compounds in final concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50 or 100 μg/ml. The in vivo assay was done on 60 experimentally infected pigeons dosed with metronidazole at 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) or alkaloids at 25 mg/kg BW. 3. The 24 h minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of alkaloid extract was 15 µg/ml while that of metronidazole was 50 µg/ml. Harmine and harmaline revealed 24 h MIC of 30 and 100 µg/ml, respectively. Treatment of infected pigeons with alkaloids led to a full recovery after 3 d but with metronidazole total eradication of trophozoites was not achieved. 4. In conclusion, data of the present study suggested P. harmala is a potent natural anti-trichomonal agent, effective against T. gallinae.
Walter Troy Herbranson
Full Text Available Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, with one or more line features on a single key differing between consecutive displays. Change salience was manipulated by varying the number of line features that changed on the critical response key. Results indicated that change blindness is reduced if a change is made more salient, and this matches previous human results. Furthermore, accuracy patterns indicate that pigeons’ effective search area expanded over the course of a trial to encompass a larger portion of the stimulus environment. Thus, the data indicate two important aspects of temporal cognition. First, the timing of a change has a profound influence on whether or not that change will be perceived. Second, pigeons appear to engage in a serial search for changes, in which additional time is required to search additional locations.
Johnston, Melissa Jane; Clarkson, Andrew N; Gowing, Emma K; Scarf, Damian; Colombo, Mike
Serial-order behaviour is the ability to complete a sequence of responses in a predetermined order to achieve a reward. In birds, serial-order behaviour is thought to be impaired by damage to the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL). In the current study, we examined the role of the NCL in serial-order behaviour by training pigeons on a 4-item serial-order task and a go/no-go discrimination task. Following training, pigeons were received infusions of 1μl of either tetrodotoxin (TTX) or saline. Saline infusions had no impact on serial-order behaviour whereas TTX infusions resulted in a significant decrease in performance. The serial-order impairments, however, were not the results of errors of any specific error at any specific list item. With respect to the go/no-go discrimination task, saline infusions also had no impact on performance whereas TTX infusions impaired pigeons' discrimination abilities. Given the impairments on the go/no-go discrimination task, which does not require processing of serial-order information, we tentatively conclude that damage to the NCL does not impair serial-order behaviour per se, but rather results in a more generalised impairment that may impact performance across a range of tasks.
The distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was studied autoradiographically in croystat sections of the pigeon telencephalon using 3 H-quinuclidinylbenzylate as a ligand. Highest receptor density was observed in the hyperstriatum ventrale, palaeostriatum augmentatum, septum, and parts of the archistriatum. In sites of known sensory input of neostriatum (field L) and ectostriatum low receptor binding was observed. Acetylcholinesterase distribution is in good agreement with the receptor picture only in the basal telencephalon. In the pallium differences in the pattern of these two components can be seen. (author)
M.S. ISMAILA; K.I. ONIFADE
The effects of detomidine on cloacal temperature, respiratory rate, and heart rates, were evaluated in domestic pigeons. Six birds were used in each of four treatment groups. Detomidine was administered at a dose range of 250µg/kg, 500 µg/kg, 750µg/kg, and 1000 µg/kg intramuscularly. In each of the mentioned doses, the above physiological parameters were determined and recorded before the drug administration and at interval of 15minutes, up to the time when the birds recovered from sedation. ...
Background Genetic variation at the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene is correlated with melanin color variation in many birds. Feral pigeons (Columba livia) show two major melanin-based colorations: a red coloration due to pheomelanic pigment and a black coloration due to eumelanic pigment. Furthermore, within each color type, feral pigeons display continuous variation in the amount of melanin pigment present in the feathers, with individuals varying from pure white to a full dark melanic color. Coloration is highly heritable and it has been suggested that it is under natural or sexual selection, or both. Our objective was to investigate whether MC1R allelic variants are associated with plumage color in feral pigeons. Findings We sequenced 888 bp of the coding sequence of MC1R among pigeons varying both in the type, eumelanin or pheomelanin, and the amount of melanin in their feathers. We detected 10 non-synonymous substitutions and 2 synonymous substitution but none of them were associated with a plumage type. It remains possible that non-synonymous substitutions that influence coloration are present in the short MC1R fragment that we did not sequence but this seems unlikely because we analyzed the entire functionally important region of the gene. Conclusions Our results show that color differences among feral pigeons are probably not attributable to amino acid variation at the MC1R locus. Therefore, variation in regulatory regions of MC1R or variation in other genes may be responsible for the color polymorphism of feral pigeons. PMID:23915680
Zhou, Yingying; Kang, Xilong; Xiong, Dan; Zhu, Shanshan; Zheng, Huijuan; Xu, Ying; Guo, Yaxin; Pan, Zhiming; Jiao, Xinan
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) plays a key antiviral role by promoting type I interferon production. We cloned the pigeon TRAF3 gene (PiTRAF3) according to its predicted mRNA sequence to investigate its function. The 1704-bp full-length open reading frame encodes a 567-amino acid protein. One Ring finger, two TRAF-type Zinc fingers, one Coiled coil, and one MATH domain were inferred. RT-PCR showed that PiTRAF3 was expressed in all tissues, with relatively weak expression in the heart and liver. In HEK293T cells, over-expression of wild-type, △Ring, △Zinc finger, and △Coiled coil PiTRAF3, but not a △MATH form, significantly increased IFN-β promoter activity. Zinc finger and Coiled coil domains were essential for NF-κB activation. In chicken HD11 cells, PiTRAF3 increased IFN-β promoter activity and four domains were all contributing. R848 stimulation of pigeon peripheral blood mononuclear cells and splenocytes significantly increased expression of PiTRAF3 and the inflammatory cytokine genes CCL5, IL-8, and IL-10. These data demonstrate TRAF3's innate immune function and improve understanding of its involvement in poultry antiviral defense. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We used delay-interval interference to investigate the nature of the differential outcomes effect (DOE in pigeons. Birds were trained on a delayed matching-to-sample (DMS task under either common outcome or differential outcome conditions, and then presented with visual interference during the delay period. Consistent with previous literature, the common outcomes birds were slower to learn the DMS task than the differential outcomes birds. The common outcome birds were also more impaired by the visual interference than the differential outcomes birds. Our findings are consistent with the view that the birds trained with common outcomes were likely remembering the sample stimulus during the delay period, and hence were disrupted by the visual interference, whereas the birds trained with differential outcomes were likely relying on the different emotional reactions elicited by the different outcomes to guide their choice behaviour, and hence were less affected by the visual interference. Our findings suggest that the DOE is not truly evidence of anticipatory mediation of short-term retention in pigeons, but rather emotionally driven decision making, which is not truly anticipatory in nature.
Presencia de parásitos y enterobacterias en palomas ferales (Columba livia en áreas urbanas en Envigado, Colombia / Presence of parasites and enterobacteria in feral pigeons (Columba livia in urban areas of Envigado, Colombia
among feral populations of Columba livia inhabiting urban areas of the Envigado municipality, Colombia. Methodology: a descriptive cross-sectional, prospective study in which 40 pigeons were taken from six different areas. The feathers were assessed to determine ectoparasitic infestation. Likewise, coanal and cloacae swab was conducted and blood samples were taken from the axillar veins. Direct examination of feces with saline and iodine solution was performed, the flotation technique was used and the Ziehl-Neelsen staining tests were conducted. Haemoparasites were diagnosed with the thick smear method, Wright and Hemacolor® staining. The API 20e® system was used for enterobacteria. Descriptive statistic procedures were carried out along with a correlation analysis between haemoparasites and ectoparasites. Results: Escherichia coli (95%, Haemoproteus spp. (73%, Columbicola columbae (64%, oocysts compatible with Eimeria spp. (55%, Pseudolynchia canariensis (52%, Trichomona spp. (40%, Capillaria spp. (28%, Menopon gallinae (24%, Ascaridia spp. (8%, and a case of Enterobacter cloacae. Additionally, the presence of Ornithonyssus bursa was detected in the nests of some of the birds sampled in this study. Discussion: In spite of the reports of sparse cases of infection in humans found in the literature, the microorganisms isolated in this study have a low risk of transmission in humans. However, they may become a veterinary public health problem since they are a potential source of infection for the urban wildlife with which they share water, food and refuge. Conclusion: The most important percentage was that of oocysts compatible with Eimeria spp (55% and enterobacteria such as E. coli (95%. The presence of Ornithonyssus bursa in the nests evidences a potentially zoonotic pathogen responsible for dermatological lesions in humans.
Ex vivo biomechanical evaluation of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri and ostectomized humeri stabilized with caudally applied titanium locking plate or stainless steel nonlocking plate constructs.
Darrow, Brett G; Biskup, Jeffrey J; Weigel, Joseph P; Jones, Michael P; Xie, Xie; Liaw, Peter K; Tharpe, Josh L; Sharma, Aashish; Penumadu, Dayakar
OBJECTIVE To evaluate mechanical properties of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri versus ostectomized humeri stabilized with a locking or nonlocking plate. SAMPLE 30 humeri from pigeon cadavers. PROCEDURES Specimens were allocated into 3 groups and tested in bending and torsion. Results for intact pigeon humeri were compared with results for ostectomized humeri repaired with a titanium 1.6-mm screw locking plate or a stainless steel 1.5-mm dynamic compression plate; the ostectomized humeri mimicked a fracture in a thin cortical bone. Locking plates were secured with locking screws (2 bicortical and 4 monocortical), and nonlocking plates were secured with bicortical nonlocking screws. Constructs were cyclically tested nondestructively in 4-point bending and then tested to failure in bending. A second set of constructs were cyclically tested non-destructively and then to failure in torsion. Stiffness, strength, and strain energy of each construct were compared. RESULTS Intact specimens were stiffer and stronger than the repair groups for all testing methods, except for nonlocking constructs, which were significantly stiffer than intact specimens under cyclic bending. Intact bones had significantly higher strain energies than locking plates in both bending and torsion. Locking and nonlocking plates were of equal strength and strain energy, but not stiffness, in bending and were of equal strength, stiffness, and strain energy in torsion. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results for this study suggested that increased torsional strength may be needed before bone plate repair can be considered as the sole fixation method for avian species.
Laverghetta, A. V.; Shimizu, T.
The nucleus rotundus is a large thalamic nucleus in birds and plays a critical role in many visual discrimination tasks. In order to test the hypothesis that there are functionally distinct subdivisions in the nucleus rotundus, effects of selective lesions of the nucleus were studied in pigeons. The birds were trained to discriminate between different types of stationary objects and between different directions of moving objects. Multiple regression analyses revealed that lesions in the anterior, but not posterior, division caused deficits in discrimination of small stationary stimuli. Lesions in neither the anterior nor posterior divisions predicted effects in discrimination of moving stimuli. These results are consistent with a prediction led from the hypothesis that the nucleus is composed of functional subdivisions.
Herold, Christina; Paulitschek, Christina; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Güntürkün, Onur; Zilles, Karl
At the beginning of the 20th century it was suggested that a complex group of nuclei in the avian posterior ventral telencephalon is comparable to the mammalian amygdala. Subsequent findings, however, revealed that most of these structures share premotor characteristics, while some indeed constitute the avian amygdala. These developments resulted in 2004 in a change of nomenclature of these nuclei, which from then on were named arcopallial or amygdala nuclei and referred to as the arcopallium/amygdala complex. The structural basis for the similarities between avian and mammalian arcopallial and amygdala subregions is poorly understood. Therefore, we analyzed binding site densities for glutamatergic AMPA, NMDA and kainate, GABAergic GABA A , muscarinic M 1 , M 2 and nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh; α 4 β 2 subtype), noradrenergic α 1 and α 2 , serotonergic 5-HT 1A and dopaminergic D 1/5 receptors using quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography combined with a detailed analysis of the cyto- and myelo-architecture. Our approach supports a segregation of the pigeon's arcopallium/amygdala complex into the following subregions: the arcopallium anterius (AA), the arcopallium ventrale (AV), the arcopallium dorsale (AD), the arcopallium intermedium (AI), the arcopallium mediale (AM), the arcopallium posterius (AP), the nucleus posterioris amygdalopallii pars basalis (PoAb) and pars compacta (PoAc), the nucleus taeniae amgygdalae (TnA) and the area subpallialis amygdalae (SpA). Some of these subregions showed further subnuclei and each region of the arcopallium/amygdala complex are characterized by a distinct multi-receptor density expression. Here we provide a new detailed map of the pigeon's arcopallium/amygdala complex and compare the receptor architecture of the subregions to their possible mammalian counterparts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Avoidance of mating between related individuals is usually considered adaptive because it decreases the probability of inbreeding depression in offspring. However, mating between related partners can be adaptive if outbreeding depression is stronger than inbreeding depression or if females gain inclusive fitness benefits by mating with close kin. In the present study, we used microsatellite data to infer the parentage of juveniles born in a French colony of feral pigeons, which allowed us to deduce parent pairs. Despite detectable inbreeding depression, we found that pairwise relatedness between mates was significantly higher than between nonmates, with a mean coefficient of relatedness between mates of 0.065, approximately half the theoretical value for first cousins. This higher relatedness between mates cannot be explained by spatial genetic structure in this colonial bird; it therefore probably results from an active choice. As inbreeding but not outbreeding depression is observed in the study population, this finding accords with the idea that mating with genetically similar mates can confer a benefit in terms of inclusive fitness. Our results and published evidence suggest that preference for related individuals as mates might be relatively frequent in birds.
Stephan, Claudia; Steurer, Michael M; Aust, Ulrike
The type of stimulus material employed in visual tasks is crucial to all comparative cognition research that involves object recognition. There is considerable controversy about the use of 2-dimensional stimuli and the impact that the lack of the 3rd dimension (i.e., depth) may have on animals' performance in tests for their visual and cognitive abilities. We report evidence of discrimination learning using a completely novel type of stimuli, namely, holograms. Like real objects, holograms provide full 3-dimensional shape information but they also offer many possibilities for systematically modifying the appearance of a stimulus. Hence, they provide a promising means for investigating visual perception and cognition of different species in a comparative way. We trained pigeons and humans to discriminate either between 2 real objects or between holograms of the same 2 objects, and we subsequently tested both species for the transfer of discrimination to the other presentation mode. The lack of any decrements in accuracy suggests that real objects and holograms were perceived as equivalent in both species and shows the general appropriateness of holograms as stimuli in visual tasks. A follow-up experiment involving the presentation of novel views of the training objects and holograms revealed some interspecies differences in rotational invariance, thereby confirming and extending the results of previous studies. Taken together, these results suggest that holograms may not only provide a promising tool for investigating yet unexplored issues, but their use may also lead to novel insights into some crucial aspects of comparative visual perception and categorization.
Schwarz, I.E.; Schwarz, D.W.
The cerebellar cortex of the pigeon receiving direct vestibular afferents was delineated by anterograde transport of (/sup 3/H)-amino acids injected into the vestibular nerve. Labelled mossy fiber rosettes in the granular layer were concentrated in lobule X (nodulus) and to a lesser extent, in the ventral portion of lobule IXd (uvula and paraflocculus). A few solitary labelled rosettes were also found in more dorsal portions of lobule IX, as well as in the anterior lobe between lobule II and IV. The lingula remained unlabelled. Discrete injections of (/sup 3/H)-leucine into the cristae of each of the three semicircular canals or the utricular macula yielded a similar distribution of fewer labelled rosettes. A few primary mossy fiber terminals labelled after cochlear injections are attributed to afferents from the lagenar macula. Since effective diffusion of label from the injection site was excluded by controls, it is concluded that projection of individual canal and macula nerves to the vestibulocerebellar cortex is not topographically separated. It is proposed that this extensive convergence of various afferents is required by the cerebellum to compute precise and directionally specific control signals during head rotation in all conceivable planes.
Schwarz, I.E.; Schwarz, D.W.
The cerebellar cortex of the pigeon receiving direct vestibular afferents was delineated by anterograde transport of [ 3 H]-amino acids injected into the vestibular nerve. Labelled mossy fiber rosettes in the granular layer were concentrated in lobule X (nodulus) and to a lesser extent, in the ventral portion of lobule IXd (uvula and paraflocculus). A few solitary labelled rosettes were also found in more dorsal portions of lobule IX, as well as in the anterior lobe between lobule II and IV. The lingula remained unlabelled. Discrete injections of [ 3 H]-leucine into the cristae of each of the three semicircular canals or the utricular macula yielded a similar distribution of fewer labelled rosettes. A few primary mossy fiber terminals labelled after cochlear injections are attributed to afferents from the lagenar macula. Since effective diffusion of label from the injection site was excluded by controls, it is concluded that projection of individual canal and macula nerves to the vestibulocerebellar cortex is not topographically separated. It is proposed that this extensive convergence of various afferents is required by the cerebellum to compute precise and directionally specific control signals during head rotation in all conceivable planes
Hu, X-C; Gao, C-Q; Wang, X-H; Yan, H-C; Chen, Z-S; Wang, X-Q
The experiment was conducted to study whether insulin receptor substance 1 (IRS1) / Protein kinase B (Akt)/target of the rapamycin (TOR) signalling pathway activation stimulates crop milk protein synthesis in the domestic pigeon (Columba livia). Crop milk was collected from ten 1-d-old squabs and analysed for nutrient content. During the non-breeding period and the first day of lactation, blood samples were collected from 5 pairs of breeding pigeons and the levels of prolactin and insulin were determined. Crop samples were collected from 5 pairs of breeders at d 14 and 16 of the incubation period and d 1, 3 and 7 of the lactation period. Crop samples were evaluated for changes in crop weight and thickness and changes in the expression patterns of IRS1/Akt/TOR signalling pathway-related proteins. The results demonstrated that prolactin induces a gradual increase in the relative weight and thickness of the crop, with crops reaching a maximum size at the third day of lactation. Pigeon crop milk contains 64.1% crude protein and 29.7% crude fat based on dry weight. Serum prolactin and insulin levels in the lactation period were significantly higher than those in the non-breeding period. Compared with non-breeding pigeons, the expression of the phosphorylated IRS1 phosphorylated Akt, phosphorylated TOR, phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinase, phosphorylated S6, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E were significantly up-regulated in the crop of pigeons in the lactation period. In conclusion, prolactin might induce changes in crop tissue and form the physiological structure for crop milk synthesis. Furthermore, the synthesis of crop milk protein is regulated by activation of the IRS1/Akt/TOR signalling pathway.
Bloch, Rebecca A; Cronin, Kimberly; Hoover, John P; Pechman, Robert D; Payton, Mark E
Barium impregnated polyethylene spheres (BIPS) are used in small animal medicine as an alternative to barium sulfate for radiographic studies of the gastrointestinal tract. To determine the usefulness of BIPS as an alternative to barium suspension in measuring gastrointestinal (GI) transit time for avian species, ventrodorsal radiographs were used to follow the passage of BIPS and 30% barium sulfate suspension through the GI tracts of domestic pigeons (Columba livia). Gastrointestinal transit times of thirty 1.5-mm BIPS administered in moistened gelatin capsules and 30% barium sulfate suspension gavaged into the crop were compared in 6 pigeons. Although the barium suspension passed out of the GI tract of all pigeons within 24 hours, the 1.5-mm BIPS remained in the ventriculus for 368.0 +/- 176.8 hours and did not clear the GI tract for 424.0 +/- 204.6 hours. Although the times for passage of BIPS and 30% barium sulfate suspension from the crop into the ventriculus were not significantly different (P = .14), the times for passage of BIPS from the ventriculus into the large intestine-cloaca and for clearance from the GI tract of the pigeons were significantly longer (P barium sulfate suspension. From the results of this study, we conclude that BIPS are not useful for radiographically evaluating GI transit times in pigeons and are unlikely to be useful in other avian species that have a muscular ventriculus. BIPS may or may not be useful for evaluating GI transit times in species that lack a muscular ventriculus.
Azizi, Amir Hossein; Pusch, Roland; Koenen, Charlotte; Klatt, Sebastian; Bröcker, Franziska; Thiele, Samuel; Kellermann, Janosch; Güntürkün, Onur; Cheng, Sen
Recognizing and categorizing visual stimuli are cognitive functions vital for survival, and an important feature of visual systems in primates as well as in birds. Visual stimuli are processed along the ventral visual pathway. At every stage in the hierarchy, neurons respond selectively to more complex features, transforming the population representation of the stimuli. It is therefore easier to read-out category information in higher visual areas. While explicit category representations have been observed in the primate brain, less is known on equivalent processes in the avian brain. Even though their brain anatomies are radically different, it has been hypothesized that visual object representations are comparable across mammals and birds. In the present study, we investigated category representations in the pigeon visual forebrain using recordings from single cells responding to photographs of real-world objects. Using a linear classifier, we found that the population activity in the visual associative area mesopallium ventrolaterale (MVL) distinguishes between animate and inanimate objects, although this distinction is not required by the task. By contrast, a population of cells in the entopallium, a region that is lower in the hierarchy of visual areas and that is related to the primate extrastriate cortex, lacked this information. A model that pools responses of simple cells, which function as edge detectors, can account for the animate vs. inanimate categorization in the MVL, but performance in the model is based on different features than in MVL. Therefore, processing in MVL cells is very likely more abstract than simple computations on the output of edge detectors. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Patzke, N; Manns, M; Güntürkün, O
Pigeons use olfactory cues to navigate over unfamiliar areas, and any impairment of the olfactory system generates remarkable reduction of homing performance. Lesion and deprivation studies suggest a critical involvement of the right nostril and thus, the right olfactory bulb (OB) and the left piriform cortex (CPi) for initial orientation. This functional pattern suggests that OB and CPi are asymmetrically connected with a stronger projection from the right OB to the left CPi. However, the structural organization of the olfactory system is not unequivocally clarified yet. Thus, we re-analyzed the system by antero- and retrograde tract tracing with biotinylated dextran amine and choleratoxin subunit B, and we especially evaluated quantitative differences in the number of cells in the OB innervating the left and right CPi. Our anterograde tracing data verified a strong bilateral input to the CPi, and the prepiriform cortex (CPP), as well as small projections to the ipsilateral medial septum and the dorsolateral corticoid area and the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala in both hemispheres. Apart from the bilateral bulbar afferents, CPi in turn receives unequivocal input from the ipsilateral CPP, hyperpallium densocellulare, dorsal arcopallium, and from a cluster of cells located within the frontolateral nidopallium. Thus, an indirect connection between OB and CPi is only mediated by the CPP. For quantitative analysis of bulbar input to the CPi, we counted the number of ipsi- and contralaterally projecting neurons located in the OB after injections into the left or right CPi. Retrogradely labeled cells were found bilaterally in the OB with a higher number of ipsilaterally located cells. The bilaterality index did not differ after left- or right-sided CPi injections indicating that the functional lateralization of the olfactory system is not simply based on differences in the number of projecting axons of the major processing stream. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by
Gao, C Q; Yang, J X; Chen, M X; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q
Two experiments were conducted to fit growth curves, and determine age-related changes in carcass characteristics, organs, serum biochemical parameters, and gene expression of intestinal nutrient transporters in domestic pigeon (Columba livia). In experiment 1, body weight (BW) of 30 pigeons was respectively determined at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days old to fit growth curves and to describe the growth of pigeons. In experiment 2, eighty-four 1-day-old squabs were grouped by weight into 7 groups. On d 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35, twelve birds from each group were randomly selected for slaughter and post-slaughter analysis. The results showed that BW of pigeons increased rapidly from d 1 to d 28 (a 25.7-fold increase), and then had little change until d 35. The Logistic, Gompertz, and Von Bertalanffy functions can all be well fitted with the growth curve of domestic pigeons (R2>0.90) and the Gompertz model showed the highest R2value among the models (R2=0.9997). The equation of Gompertz model was Y=507.72×e-(3.76exp(-0.17t))(Y=BW of pigeon (g); t=time (day)). In addition, breast meat yield (%) increased with age throughout the experiment, whereas the leg meat yield (%) reached to the peak on d 14. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, and glucose concentration were increased with age, whereas serum uric acid concentration was decreased (P<0.05). Furthermore, the gene expressions of nutrient transporters (y+LAT2, LAT1, B0AT1, PepT1, and NHE2) in jejunum of pigeon were increased with age. The results of correlation analysis showed the gene expressions of B0AT1, PepT1, and NHE2 had positive correlations with BW (0.73
Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Schauberger, Günther
The diagnostic evaluation of the glomerular filtration rate by urinary clearance has significant practical limitations in birds because urine is excreted together with feces. Thus, pharmacokinetic modeling of an exogenous plasma creatinine clearance could be useful for assessing renal creatinine excretion in birds. For this study, creatinine (50 mg/kg) was administered to 2 groups of 15 pigeons (Columba livia) each; in one group by the intravenous (IV) route and in the second by the intramuscular (IM) route. The time series of the plasma creatinine concentrations were analyzed by pharmacokinetic models. Body mass-specific creatinine excretion was determined for IV and IM administration to be between 6.30 and 6.44 mL/min per kg, respectively. Body surface area-specific creatinine clearance, which is related to the metabolic rate, was calculated between 0.506 and 0.523 mL/min per dm2, respectively. The results showed that IV as well as IM administration can be used for assessing renal creatinine excretion in pigeons. For practical reasons, IM administration is recommended, with the use of the Bateman function to calculate creatinine elimination.
Dong, X Y; Wang, Y M; Yuan, C; Zou, X T
To better understand the digestive capacity in domestic pigeons (Columba livia), this study was conducted to evaluate nutrient transporters and digestive enzymes gene expression in small intestine and yolk sac membrane (YSM) during pre- and posthatch development. We investigated the oligopeptide transporter Pept1, sodium glucose transporter SGLT1, glucose transporter GLUT2, aminopeptidase-N (APN), and sucrase-isomaltase (SI). Intestine was collected at embryo d 12, 14, and 16, day of hatch, and d 1, 3, 5, 8, and 14 posthatch. The YSM was collected at embryo d 12, 14, 16, and day of hatch. The cDNA fragments for Pept1, SGLT1, GLUT2, APN, and SI were isolated and cloned using reverse-transcription PCR. The sequences data showed that these genes were highly identical to the gene of chicken. The mRNA expression of each gene was assayed using real-time PCR. Expression of intestinal nutrient transporters increased linearly (Ppigeons and establish a foundation for future research on the nutrients requirements for young pigeons.
Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elloit, Aileen; Ryan, Una
An Eimeria species is described from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). Sporulated oocysts (n = 35) were subspherical, with a smooth bi-layered oocyst wall (1.0 μm thick). Oocysts measured 20.2 × 16.1 (22.0-18.9 × 15.7-18.9) μm, oocyst length/width (L/W) ratio, 1.38. Oocyst residuum and a polar granule were present. The micropyle was absent. Sporocysts are elongate-ovoid, 13.0 × 6.1 (14.5-12.5 × 5.5-7.0) μm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 2.13 (2.0-2.2), sporocyst residuum was present, composed of numerous granules in a spherical or ovoid mass. Each sporocyst contained 2 banana-shaped sporozoites, 12.3 × 3.5 (11.8-13.0 × 3.3-3.6) μm. A spherical-ellipsoid posterior refractile body was found in the sporozoites. A nucleus was located immediately anterior to the posterior refractile body. Molecular analysis was conducted at three loci; the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (COI). At the 18S locus, the new isolate shared 98.0% genetic similarity with three Isospora isolates from Japan from the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). At the 28S locus, it grouped separately and shared 92.4% and 92.5% genetic similarity with Isospora anthochaerae (KF766053) from a red wattlebird (Anthochaera carunculata) from Australia and an Isospora sp. (MS-2003 - AY283845) from a Himalayan grey-headed bullfinch (Pyrrhula erythaca) respectively. At COI locus, this new isolate was in a separate clade and shared 95.6% and 90.0% similarity respectively with Eimeria tiliquae n. sp. from a shingleback skink in Australia and an Eimeria sp. from a common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) from America. Based on the morphological data, this isolate is most similar to Eimeria labbeana. As no molecular data for E. labbeana is available and previous morphological data is incomplete, we refer to the current isolate as E. labbeana-like. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Ming; Wang, Xian-Song; Xu, Feng-Ping; Liu, Shuang; Xu, Shi-Wen; Li, Shu
The expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) commonly increases to provide neuroprotection when brain tissues are under stress conditions. Residues of avermectins (AVMs) have neurotoxic effects on a number of non-target organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AVM exposure on the expression levels of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 for pigeon (Columba livia) neurons both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that in general, the mRNA and protein levels of Hsps were increased in treated groups relative to control groups after AVM exposure for 30d, 60d and 90d in the cerebrum, cerebellum and optic lobe in vivo. However, AVM exposure had no significant effects on the transcription expression of Hsps for 90d in the optic lobe and decreased the translation expression of Hsps significantly for 90d in the optic lobe. In vitro, the LC50 of avermectin for King pigeon neurons is between 15μgL(-1) and 20μgL(-1). Following AVM (2.5-20μgL(-1)) exposure, the mRNA expression of the 3 Hsps was up-regulated to different degrees. Compared with the control groups, a significant decrease, a remarkable increase and a non-significant change was found in the protein expression of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 separately following AVM (2.5-20μgL(-1)) exposure. Based on these results, we conclude that AVM exposure can induce a protective stress response in pigeons by means of promoting the mRNA and protein expression of Hsps under in vivo and in vitro conditions, thus easing the neurotoxic effects of AVM to some extent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bennert, Beatrice M; Kircher, Patrick R; Gutbrod, Andreas; Riechert, Juliane; Hatt, Jean-Michel
Although plate fixation has advantages over other fixation methods for certain indications, it is rarely used in avian surgery, especially in birds that weigh less than 1000 g. Exceptionally small plating systems for these birds are required, which are relatively expensive and difficult to insert. To study avian fracture healing after repair using miniplates, we evaluated 2 steel miniplate systems in 27 pigeons ( Columba livia ) divided into 4 groups. In each pigeon, the left ulna and radius were transected and the ulna was repaired with a bone plate. In groups A and B, a 1.3-mm adaption plate was applied without and with a figure-of-eight bandage; in groups C and D, a 1.0-mm compression plate was applied without and with a bandage, respectively. Healing was evaluated with radiographs after 3, 14, and 28 days; flight tests were conducted after 14, 21, and 28 days; and the wing was macroscopically examined after euthanasia of birds on day 28. Fractures healed without bending or distortion of the plate in all 27 birds, and no significant differences in healing were found between treatment groups. At the end of the study, 23 pigeons (85.2%) showed good or very good flight ability. Results show the 1.3-mm adaption plate and the 1.0-mm compression plate meet the requirements for avian osteosynthesis and can be recommended for fracture repair of the ulna or other long bones in birds weighing less than 500 g. The application of a figure-of-eight bandage might be beneficial in fracture healing.
Redução fechada e fixação esquelética externa tipo II para o tratamento de fraturas de tibiotarso em pombos domésticos (Columba livia Closed reduction and type-II external skeletal fixation for treatment of tibiotarsus fractures in domestic pigeons (Columba livia
Marcelo Meller Alievi
Full Text Available A redução fechada e o fixador esquelético externo tipo II foram avaliados para o tratamento de fraturas de tibiotarso em pombos domésticos (Columba livia. Foram utilizadas doze aves adultas. Os pombos foram anestesiados com a associação de xilazina e cetamina e, em seguida, foi realizada fratura do tibiotarso direito através de pressão digital sobre a diáfise do membro. Quatro pinos de Kirschner, dois proximais e dois distais ao foco da fratura, foram inseridos através de ambas as corticais ósseas e, após redução fechada da fratura, conectados externamente por duas barras de acrílico autopolimerizável, uma na face lateral e outra na face medial do membro. Em cinco aves, foi observado radiograficamente desvio ósseo angular, porém, a função do membro não foi afetada. O tempo médio e o desvio padrão para a cicatrização óssea foram 24,8 ± 4,89 dias. Os resultados demonstram que a redução fechada e o fixador esquelético externo tipo II são efetivos para o tratamento de fraturas de tibiotarso em pombos domésticos (Columba livia.The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of closed reduction and type-II external skeletal fixation for treatment of tibiotarsus fractures in domestic pigeons (Columba livia. Twelve adult domestic pigeons were used. Anesthesia was induced with xylazine and ketamine hydrochloride; the right tibiotarsus was manually fractured by digital pressure applied at the mid-diaphysis. Four Kirschner wires were placed through both cortices of the bone, two proximal and two distal to the fracture site, and, after closed reduction of the fracture, they were stabilized by two acrilic bars, one in the lateral and another in the medial surface of the tibiotarsus. Abnormalities in bone angulation were observed radiographically in five birds; however, the function of the limb was not noticeably impaired. The mean time ± standard deviation for fracture healing was 24.8 ± 4.89 days. The results of this
Gutierrez-Ibanez, Cristian; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Jensen, Megan; Graham, David J; Pogány, Ákos; Mongomery, Benjamin C; Stafford, James L; Luksch, Harald; Wylie, Douglas R
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptides (CARTp) are neuropeptides that act as neurotransmitters in the brain of vertebrates. The expression of CARTp has been characterized in teleosts, amphibians, and several mammalian species, but comparative data in reptiles and birds are nonexistent. In this study, we show the distribution of immunoreactivity against CART peptides (CARTp-ir) in the brains of two bird species: the pigeon (Columba livia) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). We found CARTp-ir cells and terminals in the brains of both, but no major differences between the two species. As in mammals, teleost fish, and amphibians, CARTp-ir terminals and cells were abundant in subpallial regions, particularly the striatum and nucleus accumbens. We also found CARTp-ir cells and terminals in the hypothalamus, and a large number of CARTp-ir terminals in the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, periaqueductal gray, parabrachial nucleus, and dorsal vagal complex. However, in contrast to other vertebrates, CARTp-ir was not found in the olfactory bulb. In addition there was almost no CARTp-ir in the pallium or the hippocampal formation, and little CARTp-ir in the cerebellum. The conserved expression of CARTp in the subpallium, hypothalamus, and dorsal vagal complex of birds suggests that some of the functions of CARTp, such as regulation of food intake and interactions with the social control network and mesolimbic reward system, are conserved among vertebrates. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3747-3773, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Haag-Wackernagel, Daniel; Spiewak, Radosław
The report concerns a married couple who were repeatedly invaded by pigeon fleas (Ceratophyllus columbae) over a period of 2 months. The source of the fleas was a pair of breeding feral pigeons (Columba livia). The birds' nest was located in the attic immediately above the couple's apartment, and the fleas found their way along an unsealed heating pipe. The people encountered up to 40 bites per night. With invasions repeated almost every night, the man gradually developed an allergic urticarial reaction. The most traumatic experience for the couple, however, was to learn that they were invaded by fleas (initially, they had presumed they were bothered by mosquitoes). This information resulted in severe psychological distress with phobic reactions and insomnia. Despite the successful removal of the fleas and the pigeons that were source of the pest, parasitophobia of the man persisted over the following 4 months. This case is discussed from the broader aspect of health risks related to feral pigeons and animal fleas. Also summarised are previous observations on people invaded by pigeon fleas.
Four Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at the Philadelphia Zoo died suddenly. Necropsy examination revealed macroscopic hepatitis. Microscopically, the predominant lesions were in liver, characterized with necrosis and mixed cell inflammatory response. Sarcocystis calchasi-like schizonts and fr...
Elezaj I. R.
Full Text Available The concentration of lead in blood and tibia (Pb, zinc (Zn and cupper (Cu in tibia, blood δ- aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D; EC: 18.104.22.168 activity, hematocrit value (Hct and micronuclei frequency (MN of peripheral erythrocytes have been determinated in three different populations of feral pigeons (Columba livia; forma urbana and forma domestica, collected in Mitrovica town (situated close to smelter “Trepça”, down closed in 2000 year and in rural area (Koshare willage . The blood lead level in feral pigeons from Mitrovica (forma urbana was 3 times higher (149.6; 50.5 μg% in comparison with that in feral pigeons from Mitrovica (forma domestica and 27.7 times higher (5.4 μg% in comparison with pigeons from rural area. The Pb concentration of tibia of feral pigeons (froma urbana and forma domestica, from Mitrovica town was significantly higher (P<0.001 in comparison with control. The concentration of Zn in tibia of feral pigeons from Mitrovica town (forma urbana, was significantly higher (P<0.006 in comparison with control. The blood ALA-D activity of feral pigeons from Mitrovica town (forma urbana and froma domestica, was significantly inhibited in comparison with control. The blood ALA-D activity of feral pigeons –forma urbana from Mitrovica town was significantly inhibited (P<0.001 in comparison with the blood ALA-D activity of feral pigeons-forma domestica from Mitrovica town. The erythrocyte MN frequency of feral pigeons from Mitrovica was significantly higher (P <0.001 in comparison with controls. The smelter “Trepça” ten year after closed down pose a threat to the local environment, biota and people’s health.
de Groot, M; van Haeringen, W A
In this study, the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) recommended panel for the identification of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) is characterized based on commonly used statistical parameters. The marker panel is based on 16 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (PIGN15, PIGN10, PIGN57, PIGN26, CliμD16, CliμD19, PIGN12, CliμD17, CliμT17, PIGN04, CliμD01, CliμD11, CliμD35, CliμT02, CliμT13, CliμT43). The alleles of the 16 loci consist of a mixture of tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexameric repeat patterns. A sex determination marker was included in the multiplex for quality control. The repeat sequence of the PIGN markers was previously unpublished and therefore sequenced to reveal the sequence pattern. In total, 1421 pigeons were genotyped on 16 STR loci to generate allele frequency data for each locus. For all 16 markers combined, a PE1 (combined non-exclusion probability, first parent) of 0.9986 and PE2 (combined non-exclusion probability, second parent) of >0.9999 was observed. Comparing the alleged father and mother, a PE value of >0.9999 was observed. Two of the markers, CliμD19 and PIGN12, were found to have relatively high Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and F(null) values. Therefore these markers may be considered to be replaced by other STRs. Another point of discussion may be to add a gender identification marker to the recommended ISAG panel. Not only can this serve as an extra identification marker, but this can also confirm the sex of a sample, because it is challenging to determine the sex based on phenotypical characteristics, especially for chicks. In conclusion, the set of 16 STR markers can be used in routine parentage verification and the identification of individuals. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.
Chen, M X; Li, X G; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q; Gao, C Q
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of egg weight on the composition of the egg, the growth of the embryo, and the expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia). A total of 240 fertilized eggs were collected and divided into two groups based on the weight of the eggs, light (LE) and heavy (HE). The composition of 20 eggs from each group was measured, and the remaining eggs were weighed and placed in an incubator. On embryonic days (E) 9, 11, 13, and 15 and day of hatch (DOH), 15 embryos/hatchlings from each group were measured for embryonic growth, and samples were collected. The HE had heavier yolk and albumen weights than the LE (P < 0.01). Compared with the LE, the HE had heavier yolk-free embryonic body and yolk sac weights from E13 to DOH (P < 0.05). Additionally, the HE had larger yolk sac membrane weights from E13 to E15 (P < 0.05) and had more residual yolk sac content on DOH than those of the LE (P < 0.01). The yolk absorption was greater for the HE than for the LE from E11 to E13 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the abundance of CAT2 and PepT1 mRNA in the yolk sac membranes was greater in the HE than in the LE on E13 (P < 0.05). Compared with the LE, the gene expression of EAAT2 in the intestine on E13 was greater in the HE, whereas the expression of EAAT3 was lower in the HE (P < 0.05). Taken together, our results suggest that egg weight influenced the composition of the eggs, embryonic development, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of pigeon embryos. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Spennemann Dirk H. R.
Full Text Available Pigeons are considered to be urban pests, causing untold damage to buildings and potentially impacting the health of humans who come into contact with them or their faeces. Pigeon faecal matter has been implicated in both health impacts and building damage, with the acidity of the excreta playing an important role. Purpose of the Review. This paper is a wide-ranging review of the chemical processes of excreta in the pigeon to aid our understanding of the potential problems of pigeons to buildings and human amenity in the urban space. The natural pH of pigeons is shown to vary based on the bird’s and age as well as reproductive stage. Key findings of the review. The influences of the altered diet between the rock dove (the wild progenitor of the feral pigeon and the feral pigeon are detailed, indicating that the human-based diet of urban pigeons most likely causes the feral pigeon excreta to be more acidic than the rock dove excreta. This higher acidity is due in part to diet, but also to potential increases in faecal and/or uric acid volumes due to the low quality of human-based diets. Again, this area of interest is highly data deficient due to the few number of studies and unspecified dietary intake before pH measurement. Implications of the review. Humans are increasingly concerned about pigeon populations (and presumably their accumulated faeces in the urban space, and control comprises a large part of the interaction between humans and feral pigeons. This review provides a greater understanding of feral pigeons and the true effects of their excreta.
Mabuchi, Yuko; Frankel, Theresa L.
Racing pigeons are exposed to and act as carriers of diseases. Dietary protein requirement for their maintenance has not been determined experimentally despite their being domesticated for over 7000 years. A maintenance nitrogen (protein) requirement (MNR) for pigeons was determined in a balance study using diets containing 6, 10 and 14% crude protein (CP). Then, the effects of feeding the diets were investigated to determine whether they were adequate to sustain innate and acquired immune functions. Nitrogen intake from the 6% CP diet was sufficient to maintain nitrogen balance and body weight in pigeons. However, the immune functions of phagocytosis, oxidative burst and lymphocyte proliferation in pigeons fed this diet were reduced compared with those fed 10 and 14% CP diets. Pigeons given the 6 and 10% CP diets had lower antibody titres following inoculation against Newcastle disease (ND) than those on the 14% CP diet. A confounding factor found on autopsy was the presence of intestinal parasites in some of the pigeons given the 6 and 10% CP diets; however, none of the pigeons used to measure MNR or acquired immunity to ND were infested with parasites. In conclusion, neither the 6 nor 10% CP diets adequately sustained acquired immune function of pigeons. PMID:27069640
Borges, Clarissa A; Maluta, Renato P; Beraldo, Lívia G; Cardozo, Marita V; Guastalli, Elisabete A L; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; DebRoy, Chitrita; Ávila, Fernando A
Thirty Escherichia coli isolates from captive and free-living pigeons in Brazil were characterised. Virulence-associated genes identified in pigeons included those which occur relatively frequently in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) from commercial poultry worldwide. Eleven of 30 E. coli isolates from pigeons, belonging mainly to B1 and B2 phylogenetic groups, had high or intermediate pathogenicity for 1-day-old chicks. The frequency of multi-drug resistant (MDR) E. coli in captive pigeons was relatively high and included one isolate positive for the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) gene bla CTX-M-8 . Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed high heterogeneity among isolates. There is potential for pigeons to transmit antibiotic resistant pathogenic E. coli to other species through environmental contamination or direct contact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sokoloff, A. J.
The M. pectoralis (pars thoracicus) of pigeons (Columba livia) is comprised of short muscle fibres that do not extend from muscle origin to insertion but overlap 'in-series'. Individual pectoralis motor units are limited in territory to a portion of muscle length and are comprised of either fast twitch, oxidative and glycolytic fibres (FOG) or fast twitch and glycolytic fibres (FG). FOG fibres make up 88 to 90% of the total muscle population and have a mean diameter one-half of that of the relatively large FG fibres. Here we report on the organization of individual fibres identified in six muscle units depleted of glycogen, three comprised of FOG fibres and three comprised of FG fibres. For each motor unit, fibre counts revealed unequal numbers of depleted fibres in different unit cross-sections. We traced individual fibres in one unit comprised of FOG fibres and a second comprised of FG fibres. Six fibres from a FOG unit (total length 15.45 mm) ranged from 10.11 to 11.82 mm in length and averaged (± s.d.) 10.74 ± 0.79 mm. All originated bluntly (en mass) from a fascicle near the proximal end of the muscle unit and all terminated intramuscularly. Five of these ended in a taper and one ended bluntly. Fibres coursed on average for 70% of the muscle unit length. Six fibres from a FG unit (total length 34.76 mm) ranged from 8.97 to 18.38 mm in length and averaged 15.32 ± 3.75 mm. All originated bluntly and terminated intramuscularly; one of these ended in a taper and five ended bluntly. Fibres coursed on average for 44% of the muscle unit length. Because fibres of individual muscle units do not extend the whole muscle unit territory, the effective cross-sectional area changes along the motor unit length. These non-uniformities in the distribution of fibres within a muscle unit emphasize that the functional interactions within and between motor units are complex.
Full Text Available We determined the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone on aggression, emotion, feeder control, and eating behavior in high and low aggression female pigeons maintained at 80% of their normal weight and exposed to food competition interactions. Pigeons were divided into pairs by previously ranked high aggression (total time spent in offensive aggression exceeding 60 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs and low aggression females (time spent in offensive aggression less than 10 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs. A pigeon in each pair received an sc dose of naloxone (1 mg kg-1 ml saline-1 and the other animal received the vehicle. Trials (10 min were performed 30 min after the naloxone/vehicle administration. The naloxone group of high aggression pigeons showed lower scores of total time spent in offensive aggression (control: 98.6 ± 12.0; naloxone: 46.8 ± 6.6 s; P < 0.05 and higher scores of time spent in emotional responses (control: 3.5 ± 0.6; naloxone: 10.8 ± 2.4 s; P < 0.05 than controls. The other behaviors scored, feeder control and eating behavior, were not affected in this group. The naloxone group of low aggression pigeons, however, showed higher scores of offensive aggression than their controls (5.3 ± 1.3; naloxone: 28.7 ± 8.0 s; P < 0.05. The present results suggest that opiate receptor mechanisms are implicated in offensive aggression responses in high and low aggression pigeons. However, as reported for brain 5-hydroxytryptamine manipulation and GABA-A-benzodiazepine receptor manipulation, the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist on food competition aggression in pigeons was related to their pretreatment level of aggression.
Coppola, Vincent J; Kanyok, Nate; Schreiber, Austin J; Flaim, Mary E; Bingman, Verner P
The mammalian hippocampus is particularly susceptible to age-related structural changes, which have been used to explain, in part, age-related memory decline. These changes are generally characterized by atrophy (e.g., a decrease in volume and number of synaptic contacts). Recent studies have reported age-related spatial memory deficits in older pigeons similar to those seen in older mammals. However, to date, little is known about any co-occurring changes in the aging avian hippocampal formation (HF). In the current study, it was found that the HF of older pigeons was actually larger and contained more neurons than the HF of younger pigeons, a finding that suggests that the pattern of structural changes during aging in the avian HF is different from that seen in the mammalian hippocampus. A working hypothesis for relating the observed structural changes with spatial-cognitive decline is offered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A comparative analysis of the categorization of multidimensional stimuli: I. Unidimensional classification does not necessarily imply analytic processing; evidence from pigeons (Columba livia), squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and humans (Homo sapiens).
Wills, A J; Lea, Stephen E G; Leaver, Lisa A; Osthaus, Britta; Ryan, Catriona M E; Suret, Mark B; Bryant, Catherine M L; Chapman, Sue J A; Millar, Louise
Pigeons (Columba livia), gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and undergraduates (Homo sapiens) learned discrimination tasks involving multiple mutually redundant dimensions. First, pigeons and undergraduates learned conditional discriminations between stimuli composed of three spatially separated dimensions, after first learning to discriminate the individual elements of the stimuli. When subsequently tested with stimuli in which one of the dimensions took an anomalous value, the majority of both species categorized test stimuli by their overall similarity to training stimuli. However some individuals of both species categorized them according to a single dimension. In a second set of experiments, squirrels, pigeons, and undergraduates learned go/no-go discriminations using multiple simultaneous presentations of stimuli composed of three spatially integrated, highly salient dimensions. The tendency to categorize test stimuli including anomalous dimension values unidimensionally was higher than in the first set of experiments and did not differ significantly between species. The authors conclude that unidimensional categorization of multidimensional stimuli is not diagnostic for analytic cognitive processing, and that any differences between human's and pigeons' behavior in such tasks are not due to special features of avian visual cognition.
Cordula V Mora
Full Text Available It has long been thought that birds may use the Earth's magnetic field not only as a compass for direction finding, but that it could also provide spatial information for position determination analogous to a map during navigation. Since magnetic field intensity varies systematically with latitude and theoretically could also provide longitudinal information during position determination, birds using a magnetic map should be able to discriminate magnetic field intensity cues in the laboratory. Here we demonstrate a novel behavioural paradigm requiring homing pigeons to identify the direction of a magnetic field intensity gradient in a "virtual magnetic map" during a spatial conditioning task. Not only were the pigeons able to detect the direction of the intensity gradient, but they were even able to discriminate upward versus downward movement on the gradient by differentiating between increasing and decreasing intensity values. Furthermore, the pigeons typically spent more than half of the 15 second sampling period in front of the feeder associated with the rewarded gradient direction indicating that they required only several seconds to make the correct choice. Our results therefore demonstrate for the first time that pigeons not only can detect the presence and absence of magnetic anomalies, as previous studies had shown, but are even able to detect and respond to changes in magnetic field intensity alone, including the directionality of such changes, in the context of spatial orientation within an experimental arena. This opens up the possibility for systematic and detailed studies of how pigeons could use magnetic intensity cues during position determination as well as how intensity is perceived and where it is processed in the brain.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Owls are known for their silent flight. Even though there is some information available on the mechanisms that lead to a reduction of noise emission, neither the morphological basis, nor the biological mechanisms of the owl's silent flight are known. Therefore, we have initiated a systematic analysis of wing morphology in both a specialist, the barn owl, and a generalist, the pigeon. This report presents a comparison between the feathers of the barn owl and the pigeon and emphasise the specific characteristics of the owl's feathers on macroscopic and microscopic level. An understanding of the features and mechanisms underlying this silent flight might eventually be employed for aerodynamic purposes and lead to a new wing design in modern aircrafts. Results A variety of different feathers (six remiges and six coverts, taken from several specimen in either species, were investigated. Quantitative analysis of digital images and scanning electron microscopy were used for a morphometric characterisation. Although both species have comparable body weights, barn owl feathers were in general larger than pigeon feathers. For both species, the depth and the area of the outer vanes of the remiges were typically smaller than those of the inner vanes. This difference was more pronounced in the barn owl than in the pigeon. Owl feathers also had lesser radiates, longer pennula, and were more translucent than pigeon feathers. The two species achieved smooth edges and regular surfaces of the vanes by different construction principles: while the angles of attachment to the rachis and the length of the barbs was nearly constant for the barn owl, these parameters varied in the pigeon. We also present a quantitative description of several characteristic features of barn owl feathers, e.g., the serrations at the leading edge of the wing, the fringes at the edges of each feather, and the velvet-like dorsal surface. Conclusion The quantitative
Xie, P; Zhang, A T; Wang, C; Azzam, M M M; Zou, X T
Fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays an important role in transporting long-chain fatty acids. In the current study, a full-length cDNA of FAT/CD36 was first cloned from the intestine of White King pigeon by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The full-length cDNA of pigeon FAT/CD36 was 2,282 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region of 224 bp, a 3'-untranslated region of 642 bp, and an open reading frame of 1,416 bp encoding a protein of 471 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 52.7 kDa. Sequence comparison indicated that FAT/CD36 of pigeon had high identity with other avian FAT/CD36. Using quantitative real-time PCR, expression of FAT/CD36 was the greatest in the duodenum at 28 d posthatch, and in the jejunum, the expression of FAT/CD36 at 14 d posthatch was greater than at 8 d but the same as 28 d posthatch. However, in the ileum, expression of FAT/CD36 peaked at embryonic d 15 and 8 d posthatch. The effects of long-chain fatty acids on pigeon FAT/CD36 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) mRNA expression were also investigated in vitro. It showed that a low concentration (5 μM) of oleic acid, palmitic acid, and linoleic acid can significantly increase FAT/CD36 and PPARγ mRNA level in pigeon jejunum. However, for linolenic acid or arachidonic acid, the induction of both gene expressions needed a higher concentration (50 μM or 250 μM). Two hundred and 50 μM palmitic acid was shown to suppress FAT/CD36 gene expression. The results suggest that FAT/CD36 may be a representative of intestine development in pigeon, and it could be regulated by long-chain fatty acids via PPARγ pathway.
Effect of γ-irradiation with lethal dose (1000 rads) on alkaline phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase have been studied in two different regions (duodenum and ileum) of small intestine of pigeons. The enzymes were studied at different intervals like 2, 4, 6 and 8 days after irradiation. The sp. activities of enzyme increased significantly both in duodenum and ileum. However, significant increase in alkaline phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase were observed at the 2nd and the 4th days post-irradiation respectively. The increase in enzyme activities may present de novo synthesis of these enzymes after lethal dose of irradiation. The histologic picture revealed that after the 4th day of irradiation, the number of goblet cells increased and after the 6th day crypt-villus system was destroyed completely as compared to sham-irradiated pigeons. (author)
Gadhia, P.K. (South Gujarat Univ., Surat (India). Dept. of Biosciences); Shah, V.C. (Gujarat Univ. School of Sciences, Ahmedabad (India))
Effect of ..gamma..-irradiation with lethal dose (1000 rads) on alkaline phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase have been studied in two different regions (duodenum and ileum) of small intestine of pigeons. The enzymes were studied at different intervals like 2, 4, 6 and 8 days after irradiation. The sp. activities of enzyme increased significantly both in duodenum and ileum. However, significant increase in alkaline phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase were observed at the 2nd and the 4th days post-irradiation respectively. The increase in enzyme activities may present de novo synthesis of these enzymes after lethal dose of irradiation. The histologic picture revealed that after the 4th day of irradiation, the number of goblet cells increased and after the 6th day crypt-villus system was destroyed completely as compared to sham-irradiated pigeons.
Spedicato, M; Carmine, I; Bellacicco, A L; Marruchella, G; Marini, V; Pisciella, M; Di Francesco, G; Lorusso, A; Monaco, F; Savini, G
West Nile virus (WNV) circulation dynamics in the context of the urban environment is not yet elucidated. In this perspective, three groups of eight rock pigeons (Columbia livia) were inoculated with three WNV lineage 1 strains isolated in Italy between 2009 and 2012. The pigeons did not develop any clinical signs consistent with WNV acute infection. All animals seroconverted and shed virus up to 15 days post-infection by the oral or cloacal routes. In all infected groups viraemia lasted for 4 days post-infection. No WNV-specific gross or histological lesions were found in infected birds compared to control birds and immunohistochemistry remained constantly negative from all tissues. The reservoir competence index was also assessed and it ranged between 0·11 and 0·14. This study demonstrates that pigeons are competent reservoir hosts for Italian WNV lineage 1 circulating strains thus potentially posing a risk to the public health system.
Adriano B. Carregaro
Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the effects of intraosseous infusion of lactated Ringer's and 0.9% sodium chloride solutions on the electrolytes and acid-base balance in pigeons submitted to humerus osteosynthesis. Eighteen pigeons were undergoing to isoflurane anesthesia by an avalvular circuit system. They were randomly assigned into two groups (n=9 receiving lactated Ringer's solution (LR or 0.9% sodium chloride (SC, in a continuous infusion rate of 20mL/kg/h, by using an intraosseous catheter into the tibiotarsus during 60-minute anesthetic procedure. Heart rate (HR, and respiratory rate (RR were measured every 10 min. Venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30 and 60 minutes to analyze blood pH, PvCO2, HCO3 -, Na+ and K+. Blood gases and electrolytes showed respiratory acidosis in both groups during induction, under physical restraint. This acidosis was evidenced by a decrease of pH since 0 min, associated with a compensatory response, observed by increasing of HCO3 - concentration, at 30 and 60 min. It was not observed any changes on Na+ and K+ serum concentrations. According to the results, there is no reason for choosing one of the two solutions, and it could be concluded that both fluid therapy solutions do not promote any impact on acid-base balance and electrolyte concentrations in pigeons submitted to humerus osteosynthesis.
Dong, X Y; Jiang, Y J; Wang, M Q; Wang, Y M; Zou, X T
The effects of in ovo feeding of carbohydrates on hatchability, BW, yolk sac weights (YSW), pectoral muscle weights (PMW), liver and pectoral muscle glycogen concentration, serum glucose level, and hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity of domestic pigeons, hatched from eggs laid by a 40-wk-old breeder flock, were investigated. At 14.5 of incubation, fertile eggs were injected with 200 μL of 1.5% maltose (M) + 1.5% sucrose (S), 2.5% M + 2.5% S, 3.5% M + 3.5% S, or 4.5% M + 4.5% S in 0.75% saline, with controls not injected. Results showed that in ovo injection with 1.5% M + 1.5% S or 2.5% M + 2.5% S increased the hatchability compared with the control, whereas injection of 4.5% M + 4.5% S decreased the hatchability. The BW at hatch was quadratic, and BW was maximized by injecting 2.5% M + 2.5% S. The YSW at hatch decreased linearly by the injection with 3.5% M + 3.5% S compared with the control group. In ovo injection of 2.5% M + 2.5% S increased the PMW at hatch. There were no significant differences between any of the treatment groups for liver glycogen reserves. Serum glucose level at hatch was quadratic, and the glucose level was maximized between supplemental 2.5% M + 2.5% S and supplemental 3.5% M + 3.5% S. The pectoral muscle glycogen reserves increased quadratically as supplemental carbohydrates increased, and the response was maximized by injecting 2.5% M + 2.5% S. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that the injected carbohydrates are available for use and storage. In ovo feeding of carbohydrates, especially at the level of 2.5% M + 2.5% S, on 14.5 d of incubation can improve the hatchability, BW, and PMW by elevating the pectoral muscle glycogen reserves in domestic pigeons at hatch. Results also suggested that in ovo injection of carbohydrates could increase the yolk sac nutrient utilization and hence might enhance the pigeon enteric development.
Testing of an oral dosing technique for double-crested cormorants, Phalacocorax auritus, laughing gulls, Leucophaeus atricilla, homing pigeons, Columba livia, and western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, with artificially weather MC252 oil.
Dean, K M; Cacela, D; Carney, M W; Cunningham, F L; Ellis, C; Gerson, A R; Guglielmo, C G; Hanson-Dorr, K C; Harr, K E; Healy, K A; Horak, K E; Isanhart, J P; Kennedy, L V; Link, J E; Lipton, I; McFadden, A K; Moye, J K; Perez, C R; Pritsos, C A; Pritsos, K L; Muthumalage, T; Shriner, S A; Bursian, S J
Scoping studies were designed to determine if double-crested cormorants (Phalacocorax auritus), laughing gulls (Leucophaues atricilla), homing pigeons (Columba livia) and western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) that were gavaged with a mixture of artificially weathered MC252 oil and food for either a single day or 4-5 consecutive days showed signs of oil toxicity. Where volume allowed, samples were collected for hematology, plasma protein electrophoresis, clinical chemistry and electrolytes, oxidative stress and organ weigh changes. Double-crested cormorants, laughing gulls and western sandpipers all excreted oil within 30min of dose, while pigeons regurgitated within less than one hour of dosing. There were species differences in the effectiveness of the dosing technique, with double-crested cormorants having the greatest number of responsive endpoints at the completion of the trial. Statistically significant changes in packed cell volume, white cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, gamma glutamyl transferase, uric acid, chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium, total glutathione, glutathione disulfide, reduced glutathione, spleen and liver weights were measured in double-crested cormorants. Homing pigeons had statistically significant changes in creatine phosphokinase, total glutathione, glutathione disulfide, reduced glutathione and Trolox equivalents. Laughing gulls exhibited statistically significant decreases in spleen and kidney weight, and no changes were observed in any measurement endpoints tested in western sandpipers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dubbeldam, J L
The afferent connections of the facial nerve and glossopharyngeal nerve in the pigeon have been studied with the Fink-Heimer I method after ganglion lesions. The nucleus ventrolateralis anterior of the solitary complex and an indistinct cell group S VII medial to the nucleus interpolaris of the descending trigeminal tract are the terminal fields for facial afferents. The n. ventrolateralis anterior also receives an important projection from the distal glossopharyngeal ganglion. Other projection areas of this ganglion are the n. presulcalis , n. centralis anterior, n. intermedius anterior and the parasolitary nucleus. Both ganglia have only ipsilateral projections. A lesion in the jugular ganglion complex causes degeneration throughout the ipsilateral solitary complex, in the contralateral n. commissuralis and n. centralis posterior and in the n. cuneatus externus. The lack of a substantial contribution to the trigeminal system is ascribed to the absence of mechanoreceptors in the tongue. The implications for the organization of neuronal pathways related to the feeding behavior are discussed.
Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Lino-de-Oliveira, C; Marino-Neto, J
Tonic immobility (TI) is a response to a predator attack, or other inescapable danger, characterized by immobility, analgesia and unresponsiveness to external stimuli. In mammals, the periaqueductal gray (PAG) and deep tectal regions control the expression of TI as well as other defensive behaviors. In birds, little is known about the mesencephalic circuitry involved in the control of TI. Here, adult pigeons (both sex, n = 4/group), randomly assigned to non-handled, handled or TI groups, were killed 90 min after manipulations and the brains processed for detection of c-Fos immunoreactive cells (c-Fos-ir, marker for neural activity) in the mesencephalic central gray (GCt) and the adjacent nucleus intercollicularis (ICo). The NADPH-diaphorase staining delineated the boundaries of the sub nuclei in the ICo-GCt complex. Compared to non-handled, TI (but not handling) induced c-Fos-ir in NADPH-diaphorase-rich and -poor regions. After TI, the number of c-Fos-ir increased in the caudal and intermediate areas of the ICo (but not in the GCt), throughout the rostrocaudal axis of the dorsal stratum griseum periventriculare (SGPd) of the optic tectum and in the n. mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd), which is part of the ascending auditory pathway. These data suggest that inescapable threatening stimuli such as TI may recruit neurons in discrete areas of ICo-GCt complex, deep tectal layer and in ascending auditory circuits that may control the expression of defensive behaviors in pigeons. Additionally, data indicate that the contiguous deep tectal SCPd (but not GCt) in birds may be functionally comparable to the mammalian dorsal PAG.
Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Tremblay, Donald; Harel, Josée; Côté, Nathalie; Arsenault, Julie
Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) can harbor a range of zoonotic pathogens. A transversal study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of feral pigeons infected by various pathogens in public areas in Montreal, Quebec. Cloacal swabs from captured birds were cultured for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Coxiella burnetii. An oropharyngeal swab was also submitted to real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) for the detection of Newcastle disease virus. Among the 187 pigeons tested from 10 public areas, 9.1% (95% CI: 3.0 to 15.2) were positive for Campylobacter spp. with all strains identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The Campylobacter status of birds was not associated with individual characteristics of birds, with the exception of body score. None of the pigeons tested positive for the other pathogens. Direct or indirect contacts with feral pigeons may constitute a potential risk for Campylobacter infection in humans. PMID:26733736
Osteossíntese de úmero em pombos domésticos (Columba livia associando-se pinos metálicos e polimetilmetacrilato intramedulares após osteotomia diafisária Humerus osteosynthesis using intramedullary pins and polymethylmethacrylate in domestic pigeons (Columba livia
Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 28 aves adultas, separadas aleatoriamente em quatro grupos. Os pombos foram anestesiados com isoflurano para a realização da osteotomia diafisária transversa do úmero direito. No grupo I, a osteossíntese foi realizada associando-se dois pinos de Kirschner e polimetilmetacrilato, intramedulares; no grupo II, os pinos de Kirschner foram substituídos por pinos de Schanz; no grupo III, foram utilizados apenas dois pinos de Kirschner; e, no grupo IV, apenas dois pinos de Shanz. Os tempos médios para a consolidação óssea foram de 29±4,04 dias no grupo I; 24±5,29 dias no grupo II; 33±3,74 dias no grupo III; e 32,9±5,21 dias no grupo IV. Foi observada migração dos pinos em 42,9% dos animais do grupo I, em 0% nos do grupo II, em 85,7% nos do grupo III, e em 28,6% nos do grupo IV. Em duas aves dos grupos I, III e IV notou-se incapacidade de voar. Os resultados demonstram que a associação de dois pinos de Schanz e polimetilmetacrilato, ambos intramedulares, é um método efetivo para osteossíntese de úmero em pombos domésticos (Columba livia, proporcionando rápida consolidação óssea e mínimas complicações.Twenty-eight adult domestic pigeons (Columba livia were randomly divided into four groups of seven birds each. Anesthesia was performed with isoflurane and oxygen, and an osteotomy of the right humerus midshaft was performed with an electric cutter. On the sequence, one of the following treatments was chosen: group I, two Kirschner pins and polymethylmethacrylate intramedullary; group II, two Schanz pins and polymethylmethacrylate intramedullary; group III, two Kirschner pins only; and group IV, two Schanz pins only. The mean time ± standard deviation for fracture healing was 29±4.04 days in group I; 24±5.29 days in group II; 33±3.74 days in group III; 32.9±5.21 days in group IV. Pin migration was observed in 42.9% of the group I animals, 0% of group II, 85.7% of group III, and 28.6% of group IV. Two
Fortes, Inês; Machado, Armando; Vasconcelos, Marco
In the natural environment, when an animal encounters a stimulus that signals the absence of food-a 'bad-news' stimulus-it will most likely redirect its search to another patch or prey. Because the animal does not pay the opportunity cost of waiting in the presence of a bad-news stimulus, the properties of the stimulus (e.g., its duration and probability) may have little impact in the evolution of the decision processes deployed in these circumstances. Hence, in the laboratory, when animals are forced to experience a bad-news stimulus they seem to ignore its duration, even though they pay the cost of waiting. Under certain circumstances, this insensitivity to the opportunity cost can lead to suboptimal preferences, such as a preference for an option yielding a low rather than a high rate of reinforcement. In 2 experiments, we tested Vasconcelos, Monteiro, and Kacelnik's (2015) assumption that, if given the opportunity, animals will escape the bad-news stimulus. To predict when an escape response should occur, we incorporated ideas from the prey choice model into Vasconcelos et al. (2015) model and made 2 novel predictions. Namely, both longer intertrial intervals and longer durations of signals predicting food or no food should lead to higher proportions of escape responses. The results of 2 experiments with pigeons supported these predictions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Hof, P.R.; Dietl, M.M.; Charnay, Y.; Martin, J.L.; Bouras, C.; Palacios, J.M.; Magistretti, P.J.
The distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding sites in the pigeon brain was examined by in vitro autoradiography on slide-mounted sections. A fully characterized monoiodinated form of VIP, which maintains the biological activity of the native peptide, was used throughout this study. The highest densities of binding sites were observed in the hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, auditory field L of neostriatum, area corticoidea dorsolateralis and temporo-parieto-occipitalis, area parahippocampalis, tectum opticum, nucleus dorsomedialis anterior thalami, and in the periventricular area of the hypothalamus. Lower densities of specific binding occurred in the neostriatum, hyperstriatum ventrale and nucleus septi lateralis, dorsolateral area of the thalamus, and lateral and posteromedial hypothalamus. Very low to background levels of VIP binding were detected in the ectostriatum, paleostriatum primitivum, paleostriatum augmentatum, lobus parolfactorius, nucleus accumbens, most of the brainstem, and the cerebellum. The distribution of VIP-containing fibers and terminals was examined by indirect immunofluorescence using a polyclonal antibody against porcine VIP. Fibers and terminals were observed in the area corticoidea dorsolateralis, area parahippocampalis, hippocampus, hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, tuberculum olfactorium, nuclei dorsolateralis and dorsomedialis of the thalamus, and throughout the hypothalamus and the median eminence. Long projecting fibers were visualized in the tractus septohippocampalis. In the brainstem VIP immunoreactive fibers and terminals were observed mainly in the substantia grisea centralis, fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, lemniscus lateralis, and in the area surrounding the nuclei of the 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves
Fixação esquelética externa tipo Ia (unilateral-uniplanar para osteossíntese diafisária de úmero em pombos domésticos (Columba livia Type Ia (unilateral-uniplanar external Skeletal fixation for treatment of humeral diaphysis fracture in domestic pigeons (Columba livia
Alessandro Moraes Leotte
Full Text Available Das várias patologias que podem acometer as aves, são mais freqüentes as fraturas de ossos longos das asas e dos membros pélvicos. Este experimento teve como objetivo observar, por meio de exames clínicos, histológicos e radiográficos, a resposta cicatricial óssea ao uso do fixador externo tipo Ia (unilateral-uniplanar na redução aberta de fratura diafisária, de úmero em pombos domésticos (Columba livia. Foram estudados 14 pombos com peso variando entre 290 e 420 gramas. A fratura foi realizada na diáfise do úmero direito e, logo após, estabilizada com aparelho de fixação externa tipo Ia, utilizando-se, como barra de fixação, o acrílico autopolimerizável. O tempo médio para o completo desaparecimento da linha de fratura foi de 28±6,44 dias e para formação de calo ósseo, 17±3,26 dias. As aves, mesmo com o aparelho de fixação, retornaram ao vôo aos 28±1,2 dias, exceto uma que não recuperou a capacidade de vôo. A técnica de fixação externa demonstrou ser eficaz para o tratamento de fraturas diafisárias de úmero em pombos domésticos.Among the various pathologies that can inflict birds, the long bones fractures of the wings, and pelvic members are more commom. Fourteeen domestic pigeons (Columba livia weighing 290 to 420g, were submitted to open reduction of humeral diaphysis fracture with external fixator type Ia (unilateral-uniplanar in order to evaluate the clinical, histological and radiographic evolution of the bone healing. The external fixator device was stabilized with methilmetacrylate acrylic. The average time necessary to the complete disappearance of the fracture line by radiographic evaluation was 28±6.44 days. The bone callus was identified at 17±3.26 postoperative days. The birds returned to flying in 28±1.2 days yet with the fixation device and only one did not recovere the flying abillity. The external fixation technique is an efficient method to treat diaphiseal humeral fracture in domestic
Albonetti, Paolo; Marletta, Antonio; Repetto, Ivano; Sasso, Emanuela Assunta
This study describes the results of a retrospective evaluation (8 years: 2005-2012) of the efficacy of the anti-fertility drug, Ovistop® nicarbazin (800 ppm) added to corn kernels used to feed non-migratory feral pigeon colonies, Columba livia var. domestica, in the city of Genoa, Italy. The observation interested 4 non-migratory feral pigeon colonies located into well‑defined areas of the city of Genoa, Italy. Three of these colonies were treated for 12 months, with 10 g of drug (Ovistop®) provided per bird per day for 5 days each week; the other colony was treated in the same way but with a placebo (control station). Each colony and the relative area where the colony was located were both monitored with the same daily examination. Statistical analysis techniques were applied to the findings recorded - both descriptive (indices of central and dispersion trends) and comparative (one-way variance analysis). In the colonies treated with the drug, following an initial increase in the population ('magnet effect'), a reduction was observed over the following 4 years (-35% >x> -45%) and a further decrease (-65% >x> -70%) was observed over the subsequent 4 years (statistically significant one-way ANOVA p<0.01). This phenomenon was recorded across the board in the 3 treated stations, compared to the overall unstable trend observed for the control station. As no external or exceptional anthropic or natural factors were observed, it can be stated that, given the results observed, the drug seemed effective in reducing the treated bird populations.
Full Text Available Homing pigeons are known for their excellent homing ability, and their brains seem to be functionally adapted to homing. It is known that pigeons with navigational experience show a larger hippocampus and also a more lateralised brain than pigeons without navigational experience. So we hypothesized that experience may have an influence also on orientation ability. We examined two groups of pigeons (11 with navigational experience and 17 without in a standard operant chamber with a touch screen monitor showing a 2-D schematic of a rectangular environment (as "geometric" information and one uniquely shaped and colored feature in each corner (as "landmark" information. Pigeons were trained first for pecking on one of these features and then we examined their ability to encode geometric and landmark information in four tests by modifying the rectangular environment. All tests were done under binocular and monocular viewing to test hemispheric dominance. The number of pecks was counted for analysis. Results show that generally both groups orientate on the basis of landmarks and the geometry of environment, but landmark information was preferred. Pigeons with navigational experience did not perform better on the tests but showed a better conjunction of the different kinds of information. Significant differences between monocular and binocular viewing were detected particularly in pigeons without navigational experience on two tests with reduced information. Our data suggest that the conjunction of geometric and landmark information might be integrated after processing separately in each hemisphere and that this process is influenced by experience.
Mehlhorn, Julia; Rehkaemper, Gerd
Homing pigeons are known for their excellent homing ability, and their brains seem to be functionally adapted to homing. It is known that pigeons with navigational experience show a larger hippocampus and also a more lateralised brain than pigeons without navigational experience. So we hypothesized that experience may have an influence also on orientation ability. We examined two groups of pigeons (11 with navigational experience and 17 without) in a standard operant chamber with a touch screen monitor showing a 2-D schematic of a rectangular environment (as "geometric" information) and one uniquely shaped and colored feature in each corner (as "landmark" information). Pigeons were trained first for pecking on one of these features and then we examined their ability to encode geometric and landmark information in four tests by modifying the rectangular environment. All tests were done under binocular and monocular viewing to test hemispheric dominance. The number of pecks was counted for analysis. Results show that generally both groups orientate on the basis of landmarks and the geometry of environment, but landmark information was preferred. Pigeons with navigational experience did not perform better on the tests but showed a better conjunction of the different kinds of information. Significant differences between monocular and binocular viewing were detected particularly in pigeons without navigational experience on two tests with reduced information. Our data suggest that the conjunction of geometric and landmark information might be integrated after processing separately in each hemisphere and that this process is influenced by experience.
Full Text Available Recently, several studies have demonstrated that pigeon is an important reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of this pathogen in urban pigeons in the city of Napoli. The sampling was carried out during the period November 2005/July 2006. The city was subdivided in 56 quadrants by Geographical Information System. Each quadrant was analysed three times. From each quadrant, 3 pigeons were analysed by cloacal swabs. A total of 504 cloacal swabs was obtained. We isolated four E. coli O157:H7 strains. By multiplex PCR, all strains carried eae and stx2 genes, whereas only one strain carried the stx1 gene. 2/4 isolated strains carried hly gene which is considered a hallmark of human pathogenic strains. Our results indicate that pigeon faces are a source of E. coli O157:H7 for birds, mammals and humans.
Brasel, Jeffrey M.; Collier, Abby C.; Pritsos, Chris A.
Cholinesterase inhibiting compounds such as carbamates and organophosphate insecticides have been widely used in agriculture since the ban on organochlorines in the 1970s. Carbofuran, a carbamate, and diazinon, an organophosphate, are among the most commonly implicated cholinesterase inhibitors in episodes of accidental avian toxicity and mortality. Despite the apparent effects of these compounds, little work has been done to study effects of low-level, environmentally relevant doses at the population level in migratory bird species. In this study, homing pigeons were used as surrogate species to assess the differences in the effect of incrementally low doses (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg) of carbofuran and diazinon on time of flight and determine whether there was a threshold dose of either or both xenobiotics when orally administered at these levels. The results indicate that there is a significant dose-dependent increase in flight time in pigeons dosed with carbofuran while diazinon exposed pigeons showed little effect. More profound effects were noted with carbofuran with pigeons falling off the pace of the flock and a dose for highly significant increase in flight time elucidated between 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg. The results of the studies validate the homing pigeon as a good subject for comparative studies of cholinesterase inhibitors in birds and the need for further research on repeated low-level exposures on populations of avian species
Xie, P; Yuan, C; Wang, C; Zou, X-T; Po, Z; Tong, H-B; Zou, J-M
1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are involved in lipid metabolism through transcriptional regulation of target gene expression. The objective of the current study was to clone and characterise the PPARα and PPARγ genes in pigeon. 2. The full-length of 1941-bp PPARα and 1653-bp PPARγ were cloned from pigeons. The two genes were predicted to encode 468 and 475 amino acids, respectively. Both proteins contained two C4-type zinc fingers, a nuclear hormone receptor DNA-binding region signature and a HOLI domain (ligand binding domain of hormone receptors), and had high identities with other corresponding avian genes. 3. Using quantitative real-time PCR, pigeon PPARα gene expression was shown to be high in kidney, liver, gizzard and duodenum whereas PPARγ was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue.
Aust, Ulrike; Braunöder, Elisabeth
The present experiment investigated pigeons' and humans' processing styles-local or global-in an exemplar-based visual categorization task in which category membership of every stimulus had to be learned individually, and in a rule-based task in which category membership was defined by a perceptual rule. Group Intact was trained with the original pictures (providing both intact local and global information), Group Scrambled was trained with scrambled versions of the same pictures (impairing global information), and Group Blurred was trained with blurred versions (impairing local information). Subsequently, all subjects were tested for transfer to the 2 untrained presentation modes. Humans outperformed pigeons regarding learning speed and accuracy as well as transfer performance and showed good learning irrespective of group assignment, whereas the pigeons of Group Blurred needed longer to learn the training tasks than the pigeons of Groups Intact and Scrambled. Also, whereas humans generalized equally well to any novel presentation mode, pigeons' transfer from and to blurred stimuli was impaired. Both species showed faster learning and, for the most part, better transfer in the rule-based than in the exemplar-based task, but there was no evidence of the used processing mode depending on the type of task (exemplar- or rule-based). Whereas pigeons relied on local information throughout, humans did not show a preference for either processing level. Additional tests with grayscale versions of the training stimuli, with versions that were both blurred and scrambled, and with novel instances of the rule-based task confirmed and further extended these findings. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Mora, Cordula V.; Bingman, Verner P.
It has long been thought that birds may use the Earth's magnetic field not only as a compass for direction finding, but that it could also provide spatial information for position determination analogous to a map during navigation. Since magnetic field intensity varies systematically with latitude and theoretically could also provide longitudinal information during position determination, birds using a magnetic map should be able to discriminate magnetic field intensity cues in the laboratory. Here we demonstrate a novel behavioural paradigm requiring homing pigeons to identify the direction of a magnetic field intensity gradient in a “virtual magnetic map” during a spatial conditioning task. Not only were the pigeons able to detect the direction of the intensity gradient, but they were even able to discriminate upward versus downward movement on the gradient by differentiating between increasing and decreasing intensity values. Furthermore, the pigeons typically spent more than half of the 15 second sampling period in front of the feeder associated with the rewarded gradient direction indicating that they required only several seconds to make the correct choice. Our results therefore demonstrate for the first time that pigeons not only can detect the presence and absence of magnetic anomalies, as previous studies had shown, but are even able to detect and respond to changes in magnetic field intensity alone, including the directionality of such changes, in the context of spatial orientation within an experimental arena. This opens up the possibility for systematic and detailed studies of how pigeons could use magnetic intensity cues during position determination as well as how intensity is perceived and where it is processed in the brain. PMID:24039812
Martínez-Herrero, M C; Garijo-Toledo, M M; Liebhart, D; Ganas, P; Martínez-Díaz, R A; Ponce-Gordo, F; Carrero-Ruiz, A; Hess, M; Gómez-Muñoz, M T
Extensive diversity has been described within the avian oropharyngeal trichomonad complex in recent years. In this study we developed clonal cultures from four isolates selected by their different ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 (ITS) genotype and their association with gross lesions of avian trichomonosis. Isolates were obtained from an adult racing pigeon and a nestling of Eurasian eagle owl with macroscopic lesions, and from a juvenile wood pigeon and an European turtle dove without clinical signs. Multi-locus sequence typing analysis of the ITS, small subunit of ribosomal rRNA (SSUrRNA) and Fe-hydrogenase (Fe-hyd) genes together with a morphological study by optical and scanning electron microscopy was performed. No significant differences in the structures were observed with scanning electron microscopy. However, the genetic characterisation revealed novel sequence types for the SSUrRNA region and Fe-hyd gene. Two clones were identified as Trichomonas gallinae in the MLST analysis, but the clones from the racing pigeon and European turtle dove showed higher similarity with Trichomonas tenax and Trichomonas canistomae than with T. gallinae at their ITS region, respectively. SSUrRNA sequences grouped all the clones in a clade that includes T. gallinae, T. tenax and T. canistomae. Further diversity was detected within the Fe-hyd locus, with a clear separation from T. gallinae of the clones obtained from the racing pigeon and the European turtle dove. In addition, morphometric comparison by optical microscopy with clonal cultures of T. gallinae revealed significant statistical differences on axostyle projection length in the clone from the European turtle dove. Morphometric and genetic data indicate that possible new species within the Trichomonas genus were detected. Taking in consideration the diversity in Trichomonas species present in the oral cavity of birds, a proper genetic analysis is highly recommended when outbreaks occur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights
Schoonheere, N; Dotreppe, O; Pincemail, J; Istasse, L; Hornick, J L
Selenium is a trace element of importance for animal health. It is essential for adequate functioning of many enzymes such as, the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase, which protects the cell against free radicals. A muscular effort induces a rise in reactive oxygen species production which, in turn, can generate an oxidative stress. Two groups of eight racing pigeons were fed respectively with a diet containing 30.3 (control group) and 195.3 (selenium group) microg selenium/kg diet. The pigeons were submitted to a standardised simulation of a flying effort during 2 h. Blood was taken before and after the effort to measure antioxidant markers and blood parameters related to muscle metabolism. Plasma selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly higher in the selenium group. There were no significant differences for the other measured parameters. As a consequence of the effort, the pigeons of the selenium group showed a higher increase of glutathione peroxidase activity and a smaller increase of plasma lactate concentration. Variations because of the effort in the other markers were not significantly different between the two groups. It is concluded that the selenium status was improved with the feeding of feedstuffs high in Selenium.
The distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was studied autoradiographically in croystat sections of the pigeon telencephalon using TH-quinuclidinylbenzylate as a ligand. Highest receptor density was observed in the hyperstriatum ventrale, palaeostriatum augmentatum, septum, and parts of the archistriatum. In sites of known sensory input of neostriatum (field L) and ectostriatum low receptor binding was observed. Acetylcholinesterase distribution is in good agreement with the receptor picture only in the basal telencephalon. In the pallium differences in the pattern of these two components can be seen.
Leising, Kenneth J; Elmore, L Caitlin; Rivera, Jacquelyne J; Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A
Change detection is commonly used to assess capacity (number of objects) of human visual short-term memory (VSTM). Comparisons with the performance of non-human animals completing similar tasks have shown similarities and differences in object-based VSTM, which is only one aspect ("what") of memory. Another important aspect of memory, which has received less attention, is spatial short-term memory for "where" an object is in space. In this article, we show for the first time that a monkey and pigeons can be accurately trained to identify location changes, much as humans do, in change detection tasks similar to those used to test object capacity of VSTM. The subject's task was to identify (touch/peck) an item that changed location across a brief delay. Both the monkey and pigeons showed transfer to delays longer than the training delay, to greater and smaller distance changes than in training, and to novel colors. These results are the first to demonstrate location-change detection in any non-human species and encourage comparative investigations into the nature of spatial and visual short-term memory.
Zhang, X Y; Li, L L; Miao, L P; Zhang, N N; Zou, X T
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of in ovo feeding of cationic amino acids on hatchability, hatch weights, and organ developments in pigeon squabs. Two experiments were conducted in this study. Eggs in Exp. 1 were subjected to modification of in ovo feeding in pigeons. Optimal time was determined by checking amniotic fluid volume, and suitable length was confirmed through ink injection. Results showed that the optimum time of in ovo feeding was on d 13 of embryonic development, and the suitable injected length was 20 mm to reach the amniotic cavity of the embryo. Eggs in Exp. 2 were transferred to access in ovo feeding of cationic amino acids. A total of 75 fertile pigeon eggs was randomly distributed into 5 treatments of 15 replicate eggs. Treatments in Exp. 2 consisted of non-injected controls (Control), a sterile buffered solution (0.75% saline), or a cationic amino acid mixture (> 98.5% purity crystalline L-arginine, > 98% purity crystalline L-lysine, and > 98.5% purity L-histidine) containing 0.1, 1, or 10% concentration (Conc.), which were relative to their total content in the eggs, respectively. The crystalline amino acids were dissolved in 200 μL buffered solution prior to in ovo feeding. After hatching, hatch weight (HW) and organ weight (OW) of the squabs were measured immediately. In ovo feeding of cationic amino acids increased the proportions of yolk-free hatch weight to hatch weight (YFHW/HW) (quadratic P = 0.01), and those of OW to YFHW including the heart (quadratic P = 0.01), kidney (quadratic P < 0.01), and liver (quadratic P = 0.02) compared to the control group, and the levels of those ratios were maximized in the 1% Conc group. Also, a proportion of small intestine weight to YFHW improved (linear P = 0.02, quadratic P = 0.05) after in ovo feeding. The organ weight of the head, leg, heart, lung, kidney, proventriculus, pancreas, liver, and small intestine correlated with YFHW positively (0.4 < correlation coefficient < 0
Full Text Available The presence and cell localization of TrkB, the main receptor for the neurotrophins (NTs, was investigated immunohistochemically in the small intestine of adult pigeons, with special reference to the enteric nervous system (ENS. Several neuronal (neurofilament proteins and PGP 9.5 and glial cell (S100 protein markers were studied in parallel. TrkB immunoreactivity (TrkB-IR was found to be restricted to immunohistochemically-identified glial cells present in the enteric plexuses, and to Schwann cells forming the perivascular plexus. Also, TrkB-IR was detected in enterochromaffin cells and in unidentified dendritic cells within the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. The present results demonstrate that as for mammals, TrkB in the ENS is restricted to the glial cells. The possible function of the TrkB ligands, however, remains to be established.
Full Text Available The present study reports the isolation of Salmonella enterica in organs of free-living domestic pigeons. In the clinic examination, the presence of feces in the peri-cloacal and abdominal regions were observed, as well as symptoms such as cachexy, incoordination and opisthotonos. Before any therapeutic protocol was applied the bird died and a necropsy was then performed for the removal of spleen, liver, kidney and intestine for bacteriological examination and antibiotic sensitivity test. Salmonella enterica subsp.enterica (O:4,5:i- and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium were isolated from the liver and intestine and the sensitivity test demonstrated that these strains are sensitive to several antibiotics.
Letelier, Juan-Carlos; Marin, Gonzalo; Sentis, Elisa; Tenreiro, Andrea; Fredes, Felipe; Mpodozis, Jorge
Most of the physiological studies of the pigeon retino-tectal visual pathway have investigated the accessible tectum, a small dorso-lateral tectal section that can be easily accessed by a simple craniotomy. However, at present we lack a detailed study of the topographical arrangement between the visual field, the retina and the accessible tectum. In particular, it is not known which section of the visual field is mapped onto the accessible tectum, and which of the specialized retinal areas mediates this projection. Here we determined, using local field potential (LFP) recordings and reverse retinoscopy, the shape, size and position in the visual space of the portion of the visual field mapped onto the accessible tectum (called here the accessible visual field, or AVF). Using this data and the mapping of Nalbach et al. [Vis. Res. 30 (4) (1990) 529], the retinal area corresponding to the AVF was determined. Such retinal area was also directly delimited by means of retrograde transport of DiI. The results indicate that the AVF is a triangular perifoveal zone encompassing only 15% of total visual field. The retinal region corresponding to the AVF has the shape of an elongated triangle that runs parallel to the visual equator and contains the fovea, the tip of the pecten, a perifoveal region of the yellow field and a small crescent of the red field. In agreement with this anatomical heterogeneity, visual evoked potentials measured in different parts of the accessible tectum present steep variations in shape and size. These results are helpful to better design and interpret anatomical and physiological experiments involving the pigeon's visual system.
Zhang, X Y; Wan, X P; Miao, L P; Zou, X T; Dong, X Y
The objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that in ovo feeding of arginine (Arg) may improve hatchability and posthatch performance in domestic pigeons (). A completely randomized design ( = 3) with an Arg feeding treatment (Arg group, 1.14 mg Arg dissolved in 200 μL of 0.75% NaCl buffered saline as 1% concentration compared to total Arg in the egg), a buffered saline feeding treatment (SC group, 7.5 g NaCl dissolved in 1 L sterile distilled water as the concentration of poultry physiological saline), and a nonfeeding treatment (NC group) was used. Six squabs from each treatment were randomly sampled on day of hatch (DOH), posthatch d 7 (D7), and posthatch d 14 (D14), respectively. Hatchability, hatch time, BW, organ development, and carcass traits were examined. Results showed that in ovo feeding of the Arg solution increased ( < 0.05) the hatchability and advanced ( < 0.05) the hatching time in comparison with those of the other groups. Body weight of pigeon squabs that received Arg in ovo feeding was heavier ( < 0.05) on DOH and D14 than that of the NC group, and a greater ( < 0.05) BW gain from DOH to D14 and D7 to D14 was observed. Three clusters of 12 organs were classified according to the changes of organ indices. Squabs provided the Arg in ovo feeding treatment gained a priority in organ development. The heart index and gizzard index on D7 and the proventriculus index on D14 of squabs receiving Arg in ovo feeding were increased ( < 0.05) compared to those of the other groups. The brain index on DOH, the small intestine index and pancreas index on D7, and the liver index, pancreas index, and spleen index on D14 of squabs fed Arg were higher ( < 0.05) than those of the NC group. The spleen index on D7 and the small intestine index on D14 of squabs provided the Arg feeding treatment were enhanced ( < 0.05) compared with those of the SC group. The semieviscerated carcass weight of squabs receiving Arg was higher ( < 0.05) on D14 than that of
González-Acevedo, Anahi; García-Salas, Juan A; Gosálvez, Jaime; Fernández, José Luis; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Méndez-López, Luis F; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I
The concentrations of recognized or suspected genotoxic and carcinogenic agents found in the air of large cities and, in particular, developing countries, have raised concerns about the potential for chronic health effects in the populations exposed to them. The biomonitoring of environmental genotoxicity requires the selection of representative organisms as "sentinels," as well as the development of suitable and sensitive assays, such as those aimed at assessing DNA damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage levels in erythrocytes from Columba livia living in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico, compared with control animals via comet assay, and to confirm the results via Micronuclei test (MN) and DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH). Our results showed a significant increase in DNA migration in animals from the area assayed compared with that observed in control animals sampled in non-contaminated areas. These results were confirmed by MN test and DBD-FISH. In conclusion, these observations confirm that the examination of erythrocytes from Columba livia via alkaline comet assay provides a sensitive and reliable end point for the detection of environmental genotoxicants.
Amaral, Hugo Leonardo da Cunha; Bergmann, Fabiane Borba; Dos Santos, Paulo Roberto Silveira; Silveira, Tony; Krüger, Rodrigo Ferreira
Parasites may influence host fitness and consequently exert a selective pressure on distinct phenotypes of the host population. This pressure can result in an evolutionary response, maintaining only individuals with certain traits in the population. The present study was aimed at identifying the morphological characteristics of juveniles and adults of Columba livia that may influence the distribution patterns of lice, Pseudolynchia canariensis and Haemoproteus columbae and how the populations of these parasites vary throughout the seasons of the year. Between July 2012 and July 2014, 377 specimens of C. livia were captured. We observed a significant increase in the mean intensities of infestation by pigeon flies and lice, as well as in species richness of ectoparasites during the warmest seasons, suggesting a reproductive synchrony between ectoparasites and host species. Bill length, body mass, and body length did not affect the infestation levels of ectoparasites on adults and juveniles of C. livia with three distinct plumage colors. In juveniles, plumage color affected only the mean intensity of infestation by lice, with Spread individuals as the most infested. This indicates that melanin in feathers was not an effective barrier against ectoparasites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
АНДРЕЕВ ВАЛЕРИЙ АРКАДЬЕВИЧ
Recopilación de observaciones de la Paloma bravía (Columba livia) realizadas durante numerosas salidas de campo a diferentes enclaves de las provincias de Valladolid y Burgos, entre fechas anteriores al 27 de junio de 1948, y 1956. Compilation of observations of the Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) achieved through many field trips to different habitats of the provinces of Valladolid and Burgos, prior to the period between the 27th of June of 1948, and 1956.
Li, Chao; Chang, Wei Shan
Partial sequence cloning of interferon receptor (IFNAR-1) of Columba livia. In order to obtain a certain length (630 bp) of gene, a pair of primers was designed according to the conserved nucleotide sequence of Gallus (EU477527.1) and Taeniopygia guttata (XM_002189232.1) IFNAR-1 gene fragment that was published by GenBank. Special primers were designed by the Race method to amplify the 3'terminal cDNA. The Columba livia IFNAR-1 displayed 88.5%, 80.5% and 73.8% nucleotide identity to Falco peregrinus, Gallus and Taeniopygia guttata, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the IFNAR1 gene showed that the relationship of Columba livia, Falco peregrinus and chicken had high homology. We successfully obtained a Columba livia IFNAR-1 gene partial sequence. Analysis of the genetic tree showed that the relationship of Columba livia and Falco peregrinus IFNAR-1 had high homology. This result can be used as reference for further research and practical application.
Shbailat, Seba Jamal; Aslan, Ibtisam Omar
The transfer of egg white into the yolk and consumption of yolk proteins by the embryo are largely unexplored in the pigeon Columba livia domestica. Here, we investigated the route of egg white transfer as well as the degradation and uptake of yolk proteins by the pigeon embryo. Initially, we tested the electrophoretic patterns of proteins in different egg compartments throughout development. Then, we used lysozyme as a reference protein to follow the egg white transfer, and we measured its activity using Micrococcus lysodeikticus as a substrate. Moreover, we determined the general protease activity during different developmental stages in the yolk using casein. Finally, we examined the expression of aminopeptidase-N (APN) and oligopeptide transporter PepT1 genes in the yolk sac membrane (YSM) from incubation day 8 until day 17. Several electrophoretic bands of presumptive egg white proteins appeared in different egg compartments. Also, lysozyme activity was detected chronologically in the egg compartments. It appeared on day 12 in the amniotic and intestinal fluids and on day 14 in the yolk. Moreover, protease activity in the yolk increased significantly on day 14 and thereafter. APN expression was largest on day 8 and reduced generally afterward, whereas PepT1 expression peaked between days 13 and 15 but then reduced substantially. Our results suggest that the egg white proteins move through the amnion and intestine into the yolk where they undergo degradation by the activated proteases. Furthermore, the YSM appears to have a role in protein consumption, and this role decreases toward hatch. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sicolo, Matteo; Tringali, Maria; Orsi, Federica; Santagostino, Angela
The study has explored two conservative biomarkers, porphyrin pattern in guano and methemoglobin levels in blood of Columba livia, in order to assay their potential use for monitoring toxic effects induced by exposure to urban air pollution. Fieldwork was conducted between October 2003 and June 2005 in the city of Milan, Italy, by sampling the pigeons in different areas almost twice a week. Six air contaminants, CO, PM10, NO(2), O(3), SO(2), and C(6)H(6), plus polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fine particles, temperature, and UV index, were considered. Protoporphyrins from pigeon excreta sampled outdoors were always higher than in indoor animals, particularly in winter. A positive correlation (p urban air showed significant differences from season to season but only in summer and autumn did the outdoor pigeons show higher values than indoor animals. In summer, a regression model with a positive correlation between O(3) and benzene was determined (p urban air pollution as well as for detecting complex interactions between contaminants in the urban air pollutant mixture was discussed.
Xie, Peng; Wang, Xue-Ping; Bu, Zhu; Zou, Xiao-Ting
1. The growth performance of squabs reared solely by male or female parent pigeons was measured, and the changes of lipid content of crop milk and the expression profiles of genes potentially involved in lipid accumulation by crop tissues of parent pigeons were evaluated during incubation and chick rearing. 2. Squabs increased in body weight during 25 d of rearing, whereas both male and female pigeons lost weight after finishing rearing chicks, and the weight loss of male pigeons was significantly greater than that of female parent pigeons. Lipid content of crop milk from both parent pigeons gradually decreased to the crude fat level in the formulated diet after 10 d (R10) of chick rearing. 3. The gene expression of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), fatty acid-binding protein 5 (EFABP) and acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) in male pigeon crop tissue were the greatest at 17 d (I17) of incubation. In female pigeons, FAT/CD36 expression was the highest at I14, and both EFABP and ACBP expression peaked at I14 and R7. The expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase in male pigeons reached the maximum level at R1, while they peaked at I14 and I17, respectively in female pigeons. The gene expression of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) was the greatest at I17 in the male, while it was at I14 in the female. However, no regular changing pattern was found in PPARα gene expression in male pigeons. 4. These results indicated that male and female pigeons may make different contributions in rearing squabs. The gene expression study suggested that fatty acids used in lipid biosynthesis of crop milk probably originated from both exogenous supply and de novo synthesis. The sex of the parent pigeon affected the lipid content of crop milk and the expression profiles of genes involved in fatty acid transportation and lipogenesis.
Guilherme Maerschner Ogawa
Full Text Available Resumo. Foi realizado um estudo sobre artrópodes que vivem em ninhos de Columba livia Gmelin 1789, ave conhecida como pombo urbano e que nidifica em construções humanas, com o intuito de inventariar as espécies de artrópodes associadas. Foram coletados 14 ninhos de C. livia em nove bairros da área urbana de Manaus os quais foram levados ao laboratótio e colocados em um extrator do tipo Berlese-Tulgren por 12 dias, para a captura dos artrópodes. Foram encontrados 10.323 artrópodes, pertencentes a 3 subfilos, 3 classes, 14 ordens e 33famílias. Acari foi mais abundante com 7.879 indivíduos, sendo o gênero Caloglyphus Berlese, 1923, o mais representativo (75%. A maioria das espécies encontradas é detritívora. A diversidade de artrópodes foi menor em Manaus se comparada à registrada em trabalhos da região Paleártica, provavelmente por C. livia ser uma espécie exótica na fauna Neotropical. Arthropods in the nests of Columba livia Gmelin 1789 (Aves, Columbidae in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Abstract. The objective of this study was identify the arthropod fauna in nests of the urban pigeon, Columba livia Gmelin 1789 who build their nests in man-made buildings. Fourteen nests were collected in nine districts of the built up area of the city of Manaus. For twelve days, arthropods were extracted in a Berlese-Tulgren funnel. A total of 10.323 arthropods representing 3 subphyla, 3 classes, 14 orders and 33 families were detected. Acari was the most abundant group with 7879 individuals. Mites of the genus Caloglyphus Berlese, 1923, made up over 75 % of all arthropods collected. Most of the arthropods extracted are detrivorous and apterous. The diversity found in Manaus was lower than that reported for samples collected in the Palearctic Region, probably because C. livia is exotic in the Neotropical fauna. The introduction of this pigeon can be responsible for a major contact between some arthropods and humans.
Dos Santos, Tiago Souza; Krüger, Jéssica; Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Herold, Christina; Zilles, Karl; Poli, Anicleto; Güntürkün, Onur; Marino-Neto, José
Serotonin 1A receptors (5-HT1ARs), which are widely distributed in the mammalian brain, participate in cognitive and emotional functions. In birds, 5-HT1ARs are expressed in prosencephalic areas involved in visual and cognitive functions. Diverse evidence supports 5-HT1AR-mediated 5-HT-induced ingestive and sleep behaviors in birds. Here, we describe the distribution of 5-HT1ARs in the hypothalamus and brainstem of birds, analyze their potential roles in sleep and ingestive behaviors, and attempt to determine the involvement of auto-/hetero-5-HT1ARs in these behaviors. In 6 pigeons, the anatomical distribution of [(3)H]8-OH-DPAT binding in the rostral brainstem and hypothalamus was examined. Ingestive/sleep behaviors were recorded (1h) in 16 pigeons pretreated with MM77 (a heterosynaptic 5-HT1AR antagonist; 23 or 69 nmol) for 20 min, followed by intracerebroventricular ICV injection of 5-HT (N:8; 150 nmol), 8-OH-DPAT (DPAT, a 5-HT1A,7R agonist, 30 nmol N:8) or vehicle. 5-HT- and DPAT-induced sleep and ingestive behaviors, brainstem 5-HT neuronal density and brain 5-HT content were examined in 12 pigeons, pretreated by ICV with the 5-HT neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) or vehicle (N:6/group). The distribution of brainstem and diencephalic c-Fos immunoreactivity after ICV injection of 5-HT, DPAT or vehicle (N:5/group) into birds provided with or denied access to water is also described. 5-HT1ARs are concentrated in the brainstem 5-HTergic areas and throughout the periventricular hypothalamus, preoptic nuclei and circumventricular organs. 5-HT and DPAT produced a complex c-Fos expression pattern in the 5-HT1AR-enriched preoptic hypothalamus and the circumventricular organs, which are related to drinking and sleep regulation, but modestly affected c-Fos expression in 5-HTergic neurons. The 5-HT-induced ingestivebehaviors and the 5-HT- and DPAT-induced sleep behaviors were reduced by MM77 pretreatment. 5,7-DHT increased sleep per se, decreased tryptophan
Sandra Maria das Graças Maruch
Full Text Available Known as "domestic dove", the Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789 is a columbidae species widely distributed in Brazil, whose reproductive biology has been studied by many researchers. The testes of 12 Columba livia males were collected and prepared for histologic examination under an optical microscope, the results of which were analysed and photographed. The tunica albuginea that covers the testes consists of a thick, not very cellular layer of dense connective tissue. Groups of interstitial cells with typical morphological appearance and surrounded by loose, well vascularized connective tissue are observable within the organ, between the seminiferous tubules. The seminiferous tubules are thick, intensely wound and, when seen in cross section, show Sertoli cells and spermatogenic lineage cells in different stages of development. These include spermatogonia (type A, clear; type A, dark; and type B, spermatocytes I and II, spermatids, and a large number of spermatozoons. Similarities are found between the histological findings described and those reported for the testes of Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811.
Senar, J. C.
Full Text Available Estimate of the abundance of pigeons (Columba livia var. in the city of Barcelona and evaluation of effectiveness of elimination measures Culling is one of the most commonly used methods to control urban pigeon populations. The Barcelona Public Health Agency (ASPB eliminated a total of 227,479 pigeons using this technique between 1991 and 2006. We compared the estimate of abundance of pigeons in Barcelona city in 1991 (183.667 ± 14.914 with that in 2006 ( 256.663 ± 26.210 (CI 95%. While pigeon density did not increase in the city centre during this period, density in a ring around the city increased significantly, leading to a general increase in the urban population of these birds. The number of complaints regarding pigeons received per district did not correlate with abundance. ASPB culling per district correlated with abundance and not with numbers of complaints received, indicating interventions generally followed a technical protocol. Pigeon density per district correlated significantly with the human population density but not with the total number of inhabitants. Findings indicate the effectiveness of culling is low in this setting and suggest greater emphasis should be placed on control measures centered on limiting factors, particularly reduction of food availability and nest removal.
Husband, S. A.; Shimizu, T.
The ectostriatum is a major visual component of the avian telencephalon. The core region of the ectostriatum (Ec) receives visual input from the optic tectum through thalamic nuclei. In the present study, the efferent projections of the ectostriatum were investigated by using the anterograde tracers Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin and biotinylated dextran amine. Projection patterns resulting from these tracers were confirmed by the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B. When anterograde tracers were injected in Ec, primary projections were seen traveling dorsolaterally to the belt region of the ectostriatum (Ep) and the neostriatal area immediately surrounding Ep (Ep2). Neurons in Ep sent projections primarily to the overlying Ep2. The efferents of Ep2 traveled dorsolaterally to terminate in three telencephalic regions, from anterior to posterior: (1) neostriatum frontale, pars lateralis (NFL), (2) area temporo-parieto-occipitalis (TPO), and (3) neostriatum intermedium, pars lateralis (NIL). A part of the archistriatum intermedium and the lateral part of the neostriatum caudale also received somewhat minor projections. In addition, some neurons in Ec were also the source of direct, but minor, projections to the NFL, TPO, NIL, and archistriatum intermedium. The topographical relationship among the primary (Ec), secondary (Ep and Ep2), and tertiary (NFL, TPO, NIL) areas indicate that the neural populations for visual processing are organized along the rostral-caudal axis. Thus, the anterior Ec sent efferents to the anterior Ep, which in turn sent projections to anterior Ep2. Neurons in the anterior Ep2 sent projections to NFL and the anterior TPO. Similarly, the intermediate and posterior Ec sent projections to corresponding parts of Ep, whose efferents projected to intermediate and posterior Ep2, respectively. The intermediate Ep2 gave rise to major projections to TPO, whereas posterior Ep2 neurons sent efferents primarily to NIL. The organization of this neural circuit is compared with those of other sensory circuits in the avian telencephalon, as well as the laminar arrangement of the mammalian isocortex.
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Aspectos histológicos e histoquímicos da cloaca feminina de Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiformes Histological and histochemical aspects of female cloaca of Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiforme
Maria Eloíza de Oliveira Teles
Full Text Available The domestic dove Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789 is a species well adapted to Brazil and the study of its reproductive biology is part of a broad research project on birds. This essay describes the morphological aspects of the cloaca of female Columba livia, describing compartments lengthwise starting from the head such as the coprodeo, urodeo and proctodeo limited by mucosal folds. Each compartment of the cloaca presents its own morphological characteristics which differ one from the other in form, height and position of mucosal projections, kinds of tissues, presence and histological aspects of glands, presence of lymphonodus. The rectum opens into the coprodeo, the ureter opens into the oviduct and the cloacal sac opening into the proctodeo. Histochemical studies have shown the presence of glycoproteins in tissue cells and gland cells on the three segments of the cloaca.
Full Text Available Relata-se um surto de malária por Haemoproteus columbae em pombos-correio (Columba livia, caracterizado por um quadro agudo com mortalidade de 3% ao dia em aves de aspecto saudável ou crônico com prostração e fraqueza. O exame clínico das aves doentes evidenciou sinusite e conjuntivite e à necropsia traqueíte hemorrágica, aerossaculite, esplenomegalia, nefromegalia e hepatomegalia com hemorragias. O díptero hematófago da família Hippoboscidae Pseudolynchia canariensis foi encontrado inserido entre as penas dos indivíduos. Esfregaços de sangue periférico e cardíaco e impressões de baço e fígado corados por Giemsa permitiram a visualização de inclusões intraeritrocitárias características de Haemoproteus columbae
From June to October of 2012, samples were collected from wild Rock Pigeons (Columba livia) in urban neighborhoods of Atlanta, Georgia to ascertain the prevalence of pigeon paramyxovirus serotype-1 (PPMV-1). PPMV-1 strains are a subset of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1) commonly isolated fro...
Shapiro, Michael D.; Kronenberg, Zev; Li, Cai
The geographic origins of breeds and the genetic basis of variation within the widely distributed and phenotypically diverse domestic rock pigeon (Columba livia) remain largely unknown. We generated a rock pigeon reference genome and additional genome sequences representing domestic and feral...
Chalmers, G. A.
The occurrence of ovotestes associated with male behavioral characteristics in two mature female racing pigeons (Columba livia) is recorded. An ovotestis developed in the area of the vestigial right gonad of one bird and within the functional left ovary of the second bird.
Karst. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) – a mushrooming medicinal mushroom. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 1: 139 –. 146. Chang ST and Mshigeni KE (2001) Mushrooms and human health: their growing significance as potent dietary supplements. University of Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia, 79. Costanon JIR ...
Full Text Available A existência de populações numerosas de pombos (Columba livia em centros urbanos, em quase todo o mundo, tem se tornado um risco à saúde pública em vista das zoonoses que podem transmitir. A infecção por Chlamydophila psittaci foi avaliada em pombos que frequentam áreas públicas, como praças, ruas e pontos turísticos na cidade de Salvador, Bahia, por meio da PCR em amostras de fezes frescas, suabes cloacais e orofaríngeos. O estudo revelou uma frequência de infecção por C. psittaci de 11,7% (16/137 dos pombos, e oito dos 10 locais pesquisados apresentavam aves infectadas. A detecção de C. psittaci em amostras de cloaca e orofaringe foi maior (15,8% - 3/19 que em amostras de fezes frescas (11% - 13/118. Os resultados demonstram a ocorrência de infecção por C. psittaci em pombos que habitam as áreas públicas da cidade de Salvador e apontam para a necessária elaboração de medidas de controle e monitoramento das populações de pombos urbanos, bem como de ações voltadas à conscientização da sociedade sobre os riscos à saúde pública.
Bwala, Dauda G; Fasina, Folorunso O; Duncan, Neil M
A flightless wild juvenile rock pigeon (Columba guinea) with pox-like lesions was picked up on the premises of the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort. The pigeon was housed overnight for possible treatment the following day but died before any other intervention could be instituted. At necropsy, coalescing masses of yellowish nodular cutaneous tumour-like lesions principally on the featherless areas were noticed on the dead pigeon's head as well as the beak. Histological examination of the sampled skin lesions revealed multifocal areas of hypertrophic and hyperplastic epidermal epithelial cells with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies). Extract from the lesion was processed and inoculated on the chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) of 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs and this produced pocks on one of the CAM at day 7 post-inoculation. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of poxvirus in the CAM with the pock lesions.
de Oliveira, Mirela C V; Camargo, Beatriz Q; Cunha, Marcos P V; Saidenberg, Andre Becker; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Matajira, Carlos E C; Moreno, Luisa Z; Gomes, Vasco T M; Christ, Ana P G; Barbosa, Mikaela R F; Sato, Maria I Z; Moreno, Andrea M; Knöbl, Terezinha
The presence of free-ranging urban birds is a risk factor for transmitting pathogens to captive animals and humans alike, including Salmonella spp. and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Cloacal swabs from 156 synanthropic Great egrets (Ardea alba) and feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) that inhabit the surroundings of an urban zoo were processed for the identification of Salmonella spp. and diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes. Bacterial species identification and genotypic characterization employed the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and PCR techniques, respectively, comparing their phylogenetic profiles through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. A total of 11 birds were positive for Salmonella Typhimurium (7%) and 9 individuals (5.8%) for diarrheagenic E. coli (enteropathogenic E. coli/Shiga-toxin producing E. coli [EPEC/STEC]) strains. S. Typhimurium strains presented highly similar AFLP profiles (85-100%), whereas EPEC/STEC strains showed more polymorphism. The results show free-ranging birds as carriers for both microorganisms in a zoo environment in Brazil for the first time and suggest these species as possible sources of infection to other animals as well as exposing personnel and visitors to potential zoonotic microorganisms. The presence of carriers highlights the importance of a surveillance system and the need for preventive measures to avoid attracting growing number of synanthropic avian species.
Schmitz, Anke; Ponitz, Benjamin; Brücker, Christoph; Schmitz, Helmut; Herweg, Jan; Bleckmann, Horst
We investigated the mechanical properties (Young's modulus, bending stiffness, barb separation forces) of the tenth primary of the wings, of the alulae and of the middle tail feathers of Falco peregrinus. For comparison, we also investigated the corresponding feathers in pigeons (Columba livia), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus). In all four species, the Young's moduli of the feathers ranged from 5.9 to 8.4 GPa. The feather shafts of F. peregrinus had the largest cross-sections and the highest specific bending stiffness. When normalized with respect to body mass, the specific bending stiffness of primary number 10 was highest in F. tinnunculus, while that of the alula was highest in A. nisus. In comparison, the specific bending stiffness, measured at the base of the tail feathers and in dorso-ventral bending direction, was much higher in F. peregrinus than in the other three species. This seems to correlate with the flight styles of the birds: F. tinnunculus hovers and its primaries might therefore withstand large mechanical forces. A. nisus has often to change its flight directions during hunting and perhaps needs its alulae for this maneuvers, and in F. peregrinus, the base of the tail feathers might need a high stiffness during breaking after diving. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Maina, J. N.; Cowley, H. M.
Free (surface) avian respiratory macrophages (FARMs) were harvested by lavage of the lung/air-sac system of the rock dove, Columba livia. The presence of FARMs in the atria and infundibula was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The respiratory system has developed several cellular defence lines that include surface macrophages, epithelial, subepithelial and interstitial phagocytes, and pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs). Hence, C. livia appears to have a multiple pulmonary cellular protective armoury. Ultrastructurally, the FARMs and the PIMs were similar to the corresponding cells of mammals. The purported high susceptibility of birds to respiratory diseases, a state that has largely been deduced from morbidities and mortalities of commercial birds, and which has chiefly been attributed to paucity of the FARMs, is not supported by the present observations.
Hofman, R.; Segenhout, J. M.; Wit, H. P.
Three-dimensional reconstructions of the inner ear of the pigeon (Columba livia domestica), from two-dimensional images, obtained with (conventional) light microscopy or orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning (OPFOS), are presented. The results are compared with available information on
Chen, Xiu; Li, Gui-Ding; Li, Qin-Yuan; Xu, Fang-Ji; Jiang, Cheng-Lin; Han, Li; Huang, Xue-Shi; Jiang, Yi
A novel, yellow, aerobic strain, YIM 101168T, isolated from the faeces of a dove (Columba livia), was studied to determine its taxonomic position. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, short rod-shaped, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive and non-motile. The strain could grow at 7-37 °C, at pH 6-10 and in the presence of 0-13 % (w/v) NaCl. The strain had a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness value with Microbacteriumgubbeenense NCIMB 30129T of 97.8 % and 41.5±8.7 %, respectively. Ornithine was detected as the diagnostic amino acid in the hydrolysate of the cell wall. Whole-cell sugars were found to be galactose, glucose, rhamnose, mannose and ribose. Major fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. Major menaquinones were identified as MK-10, MK-11 and MK-12. The polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, glycolipids and four unidentified lipids. The phylogenetic analyses as well as the chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics indicate that strain YIM 101168T represents a novel species of the genus Microbacterium; the name Microbacterium faecale sp. nov. is proposed for the novel species and the type strain is YIM 101168T (=DSM 27232T=KCTC 39554T=CGMCC 1.15152T).
Olea, G B; Aguirre, M V; Lombardo, D M
In this work, testicular ontogeny is analyzed at the anatomical, histological and immunohistochemical levels; the latter through the detection of GnRHR and PCNA in the testicles of embryos, neonates and juveniles of Columba livia. We analyzed 150 embryos, 25 neonates and 5 juveniles by means of observations under a stereoscopic magnifying glass and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The histological analysis was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining techniques and the PAS reaction. For the immunohistochemical analysis, the expression of GnRHR and PCNA in embryos corresponding to stages 41, 43 and in neonates of 2, 5, 7 and 75 days post-hatch was revealed in testicular histological preparations. That gonadal outline is evident in stage 18. In stage 29, the testes are constituted of a medulla in which the PGCs are surrounded by the Sertoli cells, constituting the seminiferous tubules. From stage 37 a greater organization of the tubules is visualized and at the time of hatching the testicle is constituted of the closed seminiferous tubules, formed of the PGCs and Sertoli cells. The Leydig cells are evident outside the tubules. In the juvenile stages, the differentiation of germline cells and the organization of small vessels that irrigate the developing testicle begin to be visible. In the analyzed stages, the immunodetection of the GnRHR receptor and PCNA revealed specific marking in the plasma membrane and in the perinuclear zone for GnRHR and in the nucleus of the germline cells in juvenile testicles for PCNA. These results can be used as a basis for further study of endocrine regulation events during testicular ontogeny in avian species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Dauda G. Bwala
Full Text Available A flightless wild juvenile rock pigeon (Columba guinea with pox-like lesions was picked up on the premises of the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort. The pigeon was housed overnight for possible treatment the following day but died before any other intervention could be instituted. At necropsy, coalescing masses of yellowish nodular cutaneous tumour-like lesions principally on the featherless areas were noticed on the dead pigeon’s head as well as the beak. Histological examination of the sampled skin lesions revealed multifocal areas of hypertrophic and hyperplastic epidermal epithelial cells with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies. Extract from the lesion was processed and inoculated on the chorioallantoic membranes (CAM of 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs and this produced pocks on one of the CAM at day 7 post-inoculation. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of poxvirus in the CAM with the pock lesions.
Raphaela da Cunha Franceschi
Full Text Available No estudo referente aos territórios vásculo-nervosos em membro torácico de Pombos (Columba livia foram utilizados 10 animais. Após a retirada de penas e pele, procedeu-se à identificação dos nervos no membro torácico direito, iniciando-se pela aplicação de compressas de ácido acético glacial 3% e dissecação de cada ramo do plexo braquial e seus músculos de inervação. Para a identificação dos territórios vasculares realizou-se a abertura da cavidade toracoabdominal, canulação do coração seguida de injeção de látex sintético via ventrículo esquerdo, dissecação dos vasos, medição e confecção de esquemas dos resultados. O plexo braquial é composto pelos nervos axilar, radial, peitoral e medianoulnar, em que os dois primeiros são responsáveis pela inervação da musculatura extensora, enquanto os dois últimos responsabilizam-se pela motricidade da musculatura flexora. Ainda pode ser observado um plexo acessório. O tronco braquiocefálico surge da Aorta ascendente, sendo encontrado um tronco direito e um esquerdo, emitindo as artérias carótida comum e subclávia como troncos principais. Destes surgem vasos que irrigam a cabeça, a região cervical e os membros torácicos. Em todas as aves observou-se uma constância na irrigação e inervação da musculatura, articulações e ossos do membro torácico, onde se pode presumir que existe uma constante na delimitação dos territórios vásculo-nervosos.
Avaliação radiográfica e de função de vôo após fixação de osteotomias distais do úmero em pombas (Columba livia, com modelo de fixador externo articulado Radiologic and flight function evaluation after fixation of distal humeral osteotomies in pigeons, with model of articulated external fixator
Vanessa C.M. Ferraz
of the elbow joint, and, therefore keeping flight function viable, using as a model, rock pigeons (Columba lívia. The proposed method of maintenance of wing function in the dynamic wing, demonstrated being effective in maintaining the length of the bone, the amplitude of the wing as well as viability of muscles and tendons, guaranteeing flight capacity of the studied birds, being a good method for the repair of distal humeral fractures of birds, when rehabilitation and release are intended.
Wortel, J.F.; Wubbels, R.J.; Nuboer, J.F.W.
The spectral sensitivities of the red field and the yellow field in the retina of the homing pigeon (Columba Livia) were determined on the basis of ERG responses. Between 450 and 550 nm the relative spectral sensitivity of the yellow field turned out to be higher than that of the red field. The
Wang, Ying; Ding, Jia-tong; Yang, Hai-ming; Yan, Zheng-jie; Cao, Wei; Li, Yang-bai
Monochromatic light is widely applied to promote poultry reproductive performance, yet little is currently known regarding the mechanism by which light wavelengths affect pigeon reproduction. Recently, high-throughput sequencing technologies have been used to provide genomic information for solving this problem. In this study, we employed Illumina Hiseq 2000 to identify differentially expressed genes in ovary tissue from pigeons under blue and white light conditions and de novo transcriptome assembly to construct a comprehensive sequence database containing information on the mechanisms of follicle development. A total of 157,774 unigenes (mean length: 790 bp) were obtained by the Trinity program, and 35.83% of these unigenes were matched to genes in a non-redundant protein database. Gene description, gene ontology, and the clustering of orthologous group terms were performed to annotate the transcriptome assembly. Differentially expressed genes between blue and white light conditions included those related to oocyte maturation, hormone biosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Furthermore, 17,574 SSRs and 533,887 potential SNPs were identified in this transcriptome assembly. This work is the first transcriptome analysis of the Columba ovary using Illumina technology, and the resulting transcriptome and differentially expressed gene data can facilitate further investigations into the molecular mechanism of the effect of blue light on follicle development and reproduction in pigeons and other bird species. PMID:26599806
Full Text Available Monochromatic light is widely applied to promote poultry reproductive performance, yet little is currently known regarding the mechanism by which light wavelengths affect pigeon reproduction. Recently, high-throughput sequencing technologies have been used to provide genomic information for solving this problem. In this study, we employed Illumina Hiseq 2000 to identify differentially expressed genes in ovary tissue from pigeons under blue and white light conditions and de novo transcriptome assembly to construct a comprehensive sequence database containing information on the mechanisms of follicle development. A total of 157,774 unigenes (mean length: 790 bp were obtained by the Trinity program, and 35.83% of these unigenes were matched to genes in a non-redundant protein database. Gene description, gene ontology, and the clustering of orthologous group terms were performed to annotate the transcriptome assembly. Differentially expressed genes between blue and white light conditions included those related to oocyte maturation, hormone biosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Furthermore, 17,574 SSRs and 533,887 potential SNPs were identified in this transcriptome assembly. This work is the first transcriptome analysis of the Columba ovary using Illumina technology, and the resulting transcriptome and differentially expressed gene data can facilitate further investigations into the molecular mechanism of the effect of blue light on follicle development and reproduction in pigeons and other bird species.
Litzow, Michael A.; Piatt, John F.; Abookire, Alisa A.; Prichard, A.K.; Robards, Martin D.
We evaluated pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) as monitors of nearshore fish abundance and community composition during 1995-1999 at Kachemak Bay, Alaska. We studied the composition of chick diets at 10 colonies and simultaneously measured fish abundance around colonies with beach seines and bottom trawls. Sandeels (Ammodytes hexapterus) formed the majority of the diet at one group of colonies. Temporal variability in sandeel abundance explained 74% of inter-annual variability in diet composition at these colonies and 93% of seasonal variability. Diets at other colonies were dominated by demersal fish. Among these colonies, 81% of the variability in the proportion of sandeels in diets was explained by spatial differences in sanded abundance. Pigeon guillemots exhibited a non-linear functional response to sandeel abundance in the area where these fish were most abundant. Temporal and spatial variability in demersal fish abundance was not consistently reflected in diets. Spatial differences in the proportion of different demersal fishes in the diet may have been driven by differences in guillemot prey preference. Prey specialization by individual pigeon guillemots was common, and may operate at the colony level. Inter-annual variability in sandeel abundance may have been tracked more accurately because the magnitude of change (11-fold) was greater than that of demersal fish (three-fold). (C) 2000 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.
Changes in hormone profiles, growth factors, and mRNA expression of the related receptors in crop tissue, relative organ weight, and serum biochemical parameters in the domestic pigeon (Columba livia) during incubation and chick-rearing periods under artificial farming conditions.
Xie, P; Wan, X P; Bu, Z; Diao, E J; Gong, D Q; Zou, X T
The present study was conducted to determine the changes in concentrations of hormones and growth factors and their related receptor gene expressions in crop tissue, relative organ weight, and serum biochemical parameters in male and female pigeons during incubation and chick-rearing periods under artificial farming conditions. Seventy-eight pairs of 60-week-old White King pigeons with 2 fertile eggs per pair were randomly divided into 13 groups by different breeding stages. Serum prolactin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations in crop tissue homogenates were the highest in both male and female pigeons at 1 d of chick-rearing (R1), while epidermal growth factor (EGF) in female pigeons peaked at d 17 of incubation (I17) (P < 0.05). mRNA expression of the prolactin and EGF receptors in the crop tissue increased at the end of incubation and the early chick-rearing stage in both sexes. However, estrogen, progesterone, and growth hormone receptor expression each decreased during the early chick-rearing stage (P < 0.05). In male pigeons, IGF-1 receptor gene expression reached its peak at R7, while in female pigeons, it increased at the end of incubation. The relative weight of breast and abdominal fat in both sexes and thighs in the males was lowest at R7, and then gradually increased to the incubation period level. Serum total protein, albumin, and globulin concentrations increased to the highest levels at I17 (P < 0.05). Total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein reached their highest values at I17 in male pigeons and R25 in female pigeons (P < 0.05). In conclusion, hormones, growth factors, and their receptors potentially underlie pigeon crop tissue development. Changes in organs and serum biochemical profiles suggested their different breeding-cycle patterns with sexual effects.
Ando, Haruko; Kaneko, Shingo; Suzuki, Hajime; Horikoshi, Kazuo; Takano, Hajime; Ogawa, Hiroko; Isagi, Yuji
The Japanese wood pigeon Columba janthina is endemic to islands of East Asia and is listed as Near Threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). One subspecies, C. janthina nitens, in particular, is at the greatest risk of extinction due to its small population size. To reduce the extinction risk of C. janthina, it is important to understand the species' present genetic status and to develop an appropriate conservation plan based on genetic data. We developed seven new microsatellite markers for two subspecies of C. janthina: C. janthina janthina and C. janthina nitens. We also confirmed the cross-use of one microsatellite marker developed for Columba livia var. domestica. Seven loci were polymorphic in C. janthina janthina, while two loci were polymorphic in C. janthina nitens. Using the markers, we performed preliminary analysis of genetic diversity and genetic structure within each subspecies. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 0.64 in C. janthina janthina and from 0.00 to 0.08 in C. janthina nitens. Each subspecies and each population within C. janthina janthina had different allele frequencies. C. janthina nitens exhibited far lower genetic diversity than C. janthina janthina. Furthermore, C. janthina nitens appears to have experienced strong genetic drift from a common ancestral population, inferred by STRUCTURE analysis. The markers described here may be useful for investigating genetic diversity and genetic structure of C. janthina populations, and could be used to estimate appropriate evolutionary significant unit and to guide development of a captive breeding program based on genetic information.
Matson, Kevin D.; Horrocks, Nicholas P. C.; Tieleman, B. Irene; Haase, Eberhard
Most birds rely on flight for survival. Yet as an energetically taxing and physiologically integrative process, flight has many repercussions. Studying pigeons (Columba livia) and employing physiological and immunological indices that are relevant to ecologists working with wild birds, we determined
Matson, K.D.; Horrocks, N.P.C.; Tieleman, B.I.; Haase, E.
Most birds rely on flight for survival. Yet as an energetically taxing and physiologically integrative process, flight has many repercussions. Studying pigeons (Columba livia) and employing physiological and immunological indices that are relevant to ecologists working with wild birds, we determined
Matson, Kevin D.; Horrocks, Nicholas P. C.; Tieleman, B. Irene; Haase, Eberhard
Most birds rely on flight for survival. Yet as an energetically taxing and physiologically integrative process, flight has many repercussions. Studying pigeons (Columba livia) and employing physiological and immunological indices that are relevant to ecologists working with wild birds, we determined
Sarkar, A.K.; Mukherji, R.N.
A single subcutaneous injection of 0.5 mg of cadmium chloride per 100 g body weight was followed by a significant decrease in the level of progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, and estriol in the gonadal tissues two days after treatment. In the adrenals cadmium chloride was not so effective as in the gonads. The concentration of sex-steroids and cholesterol returned to normal within ten days after treatment. It is supposed that cadmium chloride temporarily inhibits the 3-..beta..dehydrogenase system.
Goerlich-Jansson, Vivian C.; Muller, Martina S.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.
Across various animal taxa not only the secondary sex ratio but also the primary sex ratio (at conception) shows significant deviations from the expected equal proportions of sons and daughters. Birds are especially intriguing to study this phenomenon as avian females are the heterogametic sex (ZW);
Atoji, Yasuro; Sarkar, Sonjoy; Wild, J Martin
The visual Wulst in birds shows a four-layered structure: apical part of the hyperpallium (HA), interstitial part of HA (IHA), intercalated part of hyperpallium (HI), and densocellular part of hyperpallium (HD). HD also connects with the hippocampus and olfactory system. Because HD is subjacent to HI, the two have been treated as one structure in many studies, and the fiber connections of HD have been examined by afferents and efferents originating outside HD. However, to clarify the difference between these two layers, they need to be treated separately. In the present study, the fiber connections of HD and HI were analyzed with tract-tracing techniques using a combination of injections of cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) for retrograde tracing and biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) for anterograde tracing. When the two tracers were bilaterally injected in HD, a major reciprocal connection was seen with the dorsolateral subdivision (DL) of the hippocampal formation. When CTB and BDA were bilaterally injected in HI, strong reciprocal connections were found between HI and HA. Next, projection neurons in HD and HI were examined by double staining for CTB combined with vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2) mRNA in situ hybridization. After CTB was injected in DL or HA, many neurons revealed CTB+/vGluT2+ in HD or HI, respectively. Furthermore, in situ hybridization showed that DL and HA contained neurons expressing various subunits of ionotropic glutamate receptors: AMPA, kainate, and NMDA types. These results suggest that glutamatergic neurons in HD and HI project primarily to DL and HA, respectively. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sanabria, Federico; Thrailkill, Eric
The game of Matching Pennies (MP), a simplified version of the more popular Rock, Papers, Scissors, schematically represents competitions between organisms with incentives to predict each other's behavior. Optimal performance in iterated MP competitions involves the production of random choice patterns and the detection of nonrandomness in the…
Roberts, William A; Macpherson, Krista; Strang, Caroline
The interaction between working and reference memory systems was examined under conditions in which salient contextual cues were presented during memory retrieval. Ambient colored lights (red or green) bathed the operant chamber during the presentation of comparison stimuli in delayed matching-to-sample training (working memory) and during the presentation of the comparison stimuli as S+ and S- cues in discrimination training (reference memory). Strong competition between memory systems appeared when the same contextual cue appeared during working and reference memory training. When different contextual cues were used, however, working memory was completely protected from reference memory interference. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Letzner, Sara; Simon, Annika; Güntürkün, Onur
The anterior commissure (AC) and the much smaller hippocampal commissure constitute the only interhemispheric pathways at the telencephalic level in birds. Since the degeneration study from Zeier and Karten (), no detailed description of the topographic organization of the AC has been performed. This information is not only necessary for a better understanding of interhemispheric transfer in birds, but also for a comparative analysis of the evolution of commissural systems in the vertebrate classes. We therefore examined the fiber connections of the AC by using choleratoxin subunit B (CTB) and biotinylated dextran amine (BDA). Injections into subareas of the arcopallium and posterior amygdala (PoA) demonstrated contralateral projection fields within the anterior arcopallium (AA), intermediate arcopallium (AI), PoA, lateral, caudolateral and central nidopallium, dorsal and ventral mesopallium, and medial striatum (MSt). Interestingly, only arcopallial and amygdaloid projections were reciprocally organized, and all AC projections originated within a rather small area of the arcopallium and the PoA. The commissural neurons were not GABA-positive, and thus possibly not of an inhibitory nature. In sum, our neuroanatomical study demonstrates that a small group of arcopallial and amygdaloid neurons constitute a wide range of contralateral projections to sensorimotor and limbic structures. Different from mammals, in birds the neurons that project via the AC constitute mostly heterotopically organized and unidirectional connections. In addition, the great majority of pallial areas do not participate by themselves in interhemispheric exchange in birds. Instead, commissural exchange rests on a rather small arcopallial and amygdaloid cluster of neurons. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Letzner, Sara; Simon, Annika; G?nt?rk?n, Onur
Abstract The anterior commissure (AC) and the much smaller hippocampal commissure constitute the only interhemispheric pathways at the telencephalic level in birds. Since the degeneration study from Zeier and Karten (1973), no detailed description of the topographic organization of the AC has been performed. This information is not only necessary for a better understanding of interhemispheric transfer in birds, but also for a comparative analysis of the evolution of commissural systems in the...
Koompapong Khuanchai; Mori Hirotake; Thammasonthijarern Nipa; Prasertbun Rapeepun; Pintong Ai-rada; Popruk Supaluk; Rojekittikhun Wichit; Chaisiri Kittipong; Sukthana Yaowalark; Mahittikorn Aongart
Zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp., particularly C. meleagridis, C. canis, and C. felis, are enteric protozoa responsible for major public health concerns around the world. To determine the spread of this parasite in Thailand, we conducted molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. from animal samples around the country, by collecting and investigating the feces of seagulls (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus and Chroicocephalus ridibundus), domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica), dogs, and ...
Irianto, Agus; Budiyanto, B Heru
Probiotic is live microbial cells supplementation that has beneficial effect to the host. Feeding adult pigeons (Columba livia) with food supplemented with probiotic, Lactobacillus sp., at concentration 106,108, and 1010 cells g-1 respectively have been done in order to improve the immunologic quality of the squabs. Immunologic response namely the number and activity of kidney’s macrophage were examined. Also, the pathologic signs which developed following artificial infection by intramuscula...
Meza Vélez, Iván
Se analizó la física de la flotación en la mantarraya Manta birostrisy se comparó el nado con el ciclo de vuelo de la paloma doméstica Columba livia, con la finalidad de encontrar similitudes y diferencias en las locomociones y las leyes físicas que intervienen. Se demostró que uno de los dos ciclos de nado estudiados de esta especie posee tres de las cuatro fases principales del ciclo de vuelo de la paloma doméstica. También se demostró un “efecto paracaídas” en M. birostris, el cual le ...
Iván Meza Vélez
Full Text Available Se analizó la física de la flotación en la mantarraya Manta birostrisy se comparó el nado con el ciclo de vuelo de la paloma doméstica Columba livia, con la finalidad de encontrar similitudes y diferencias en las locomociones y las leyes físicas que intervienen. Se demostró que uno de los dos ciclos de nado estudiados de esta especie posee tres de las cuatro fases principales del ciclo de vuelo de la paloma doméstica. También se demostró un “efecto paracaídas” en M. birostris, el cual le ofrece una ventaja en su locomoción. Adicionalmente, se describió cómo el concepto físico de torque se aplica al giro de esta especie.
Frantz, Adrien; Pottier, Marie-Anne; Karimi, Battle; Corbel, Hélène; Aubry, Emmanuel; Haussy, Claudy; Gasparini, Julien; Castrec-Rouelle, Maryse
Despite restrictions in emissions, heavy metals may remain a major environmental issue due to their numerous sources and their persistence. Here, we assessed current levels of 4 metals (Copper, Cadmium, Lead, Zinc) in the feathers of 91 feral pigeons (Columba livia) from 7 sites in the urbanized region of Paris. Elements were detected in all pigeons, indicating that metals persist in urbanized areas. The ratio between metal concentrations in the feathers vs. in the environment calculated using data from other studies was 2–90 times higher for cadmium than for other metals, underlying its ecological importance. Concentrations in the feathers depended on locality, suggesting that pigeons remain in local habitats at this restricted scale, as expected from previous observations. Overall, our study suggests that urban feral pigeons may represent a good model system for metal biomonitoring. Highlights: ► We measured the concentrations of 4 heavy metals in pigeon feathers through Paris. ► Cadmium, Copper, Lead and Zinc were present in pigeons from all 7 sites. ► Metals thus still persist in the city though their emissions have been reduced. ► Metal concentrations in the feathers depended on the local origin of the pigeons. ► These differences suggest limited pigeon movements at a very restricted scale. - Concentrations of metals in the feathers of Parisian feral pigeons (Columba livia) strongly differ at a restricted spatial scale, suggesting limited movements in urban areas.
Gaiga Leandro Haczkiewicz
Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivo avaliar clínica, histológica e radiograficamente o emprego de fíbula e tíbia canina, preservadas em mel, no tratamento de fratura transversa diafisária de úmero em pombos domésticos (Columba livia. Foram estudados 14 pombos. A indução e a manutenção da anestesia foi feita com halotano e a fratura foi realizada na diáfise do úmero direito com serra oscilatória, e, logo após, estabilizada por xenoenxerto ósseo inserido dentro do canal medular e associado a fio de aço interfragmentar. O tempo médio e o desvio padrão para restabelecimento do vôo foi de 24,81 + 3,65 dias.O tempo médio e o desvio padrão para a consolidação óssea foram de 41 + 4,74 dias. Uma ave não apresentou consolidação óssea. Ocorreu reabsorção do xenoenxerto aos 180 dias. A técnica proposta é eficiente para o tratamento de fratura de úmero em pombos domésticos (Columba livia. Os resultados obtidos nesse experimento demonstram que o mel é adequado como meio de preservação de xenoenxerto ósseo cortical.
Mora, Cordula V; Ross, Jeremy D; Gorsevski, Peter V; Chowdhury, Budhaditya; Bingman, Verner P
Considerable efforts have been made to investigate how homing pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) are able to return to their loft from distant, unfamiliar sites while the mechanisms underlying navigation in familiar territory have received less attention. With the recent advent of global positioning system (GPS) data loggers small enough to be carried by pigeons, the role of visual environmental features in guiding navigation over familiar areas is beginning to be understood, yet, surprisingly, we still know very little about whether homing pigeons can rely on discrete, visual landmarks to guide navigation. To assess a possible role of discrete, visual landmarks in navigation, homing pigeons were first trained to home from a site with four wind turbines as salient landmarks as well as from a control site without any distinctive, discrete landmark features. The GPS-recorded flight paths of the pigeons on the last training release were straighter and more similar among birds from the turbine site compared with those from the control site. The pigeons were then released from both sites following a clock-shift manipulation. Vanishing bearings from the turbine site continued to be homeward oriented as 13 of 14 pigeons returned home. By contrast, at the control site the vanishing bearings were deflected in the expected clock-shift direction and only 5 of 13 pigeons returned home. Taken together, our results offer the first strong evidence that discrete, visual landmarks are one source of spatial information homing pigeons can utilize to navigate when flying over a familiar area.
Seiser, P.E.; Duffy, L.K.; McGuire, David A.; Roby, D.D.; Golet, Gregory H.; Litzow, Michael A.
In 1997, we compared the haematological and plasma biochemical profiles among populations of pigeon guillemots, Cepphus columba, in areas oiled and not oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) that occurred in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. Pigeon guillemot populations in PWS were injured by EVOS and have not returned to pre-spill levels. If oil contamination is limiting recovery of pigeon guillemots in PWS, then we expected that blood parameters of pigeon guillemots would differ between oiled and unoiled areas and that these differences would be consistent with either toxic responses or lower fitness. We collected blood samples from chicks at approximately 20 and 30 days after hatching. Physiological changes associated with chick growth were noted in several blood parameters. We found that only calcium and mean cell volume were significantly different between the chicks in oiled and unoiled areas. Despite these differences, blood biomarkers provided little evidence of continuing oil injury to pigeon guillemot chicks, eight years after the EVOS. Preliminary data from adults indicated elevated aspartate aminotransferase activity in the adults from the oiled area, which is consistent with hepatocellular injury. Because adults have greater opportunities for exposure to residual oil than nestlings, we recommend studies that fully evaluate the health of adults residing in oiled areas. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Full Text Available Millions of feral pigeons (Columba livia live in close association with the human population in our cities. They pose serious health risks to humans and lead to high economic loss due to damage caused to buildings. Consequently, house owners and city authorities are not willing to allow pigeons on their buildings. While various avian repellents are regularly introduced onto the market, scientific proof of efficacy is lacking. This study aimed at testing the effectiveness of two avian gel repellents and additionally examined their application from animal welfare standpoint. The gels used an alleged tactile or visual aversion of the birds, reinforced by additional sensory cues. We mounted experimental shelves with the installed repellents in a pigeon loft and observed the behavior of free-living feral pigeons towards the systems. Both gels showed a restricted, transient repellent effect, but failed to prove the claimed complete effectiveness. Additionally, the gels’ adhesive effect remains doubtful in view of animal welfare because gluing of plumage presents a risk to feral pigeons and also to other non-target birds. This study infers that both gels lack the promised complete efficacy, conflict with animal welfare concerns and are therefore not suitable for feral pigeon management in urban areas.
Full Text Available We investigated the effects of hippocampal lesions with ibotenic acid (IBO on the memory of the sound-context-shock association during reexposure to the conditioning context. Twenty-nine adult pigeons were assigned to a non-lesioned control group (CG, N = 7, a sham-lesioned group (SG, N = 7, a hippocampus-lesioned experimental group (EG, N = 7, and to an unpaired nonlesioned group (tone-alone exposure (NG, N = 8. All pigeons were submitted to a 20-min session in the conditioning chamber with three associations of sound (1000 Hz, 85 dB, 1 s and shock (10 mA, 1 s. Experimental and sham lesions were performed 24 h later (EG and SG when EG birds received three bilateral injections (anteroposterior (A, 4.5, 5.25 and 7.0 of IBO (1 µl and 1 µg/µl and SG received one bilateral injection (A, 5.25 of PBS. The animals were reexposed to the training context 5 days after the lesion. Behavior was videotaped for 20 min and analyzed at 30-s intervals. A significantly higher percent rating of immobility was observed for CG (median, 95.1; range, 79.2 to 100.0 and SG (median, 90.0; range, 69.6 to 95.0 compared to EG (median, 11.62; range, 3.83 to 50.1 and NG (median, 7.33; range, 6.2 to 28.1 (P<0.001 in the training context. These results suggest impairment of contextual fear in birds who received lesions one day after conditioning and a role for the hippocampus in the modulation of emotional aversive memories in pigeons.
Full Text Available Estudaram-se a redução fechada e a fixação esquelética externa tipo I para o tratamento de fraturas de tibiotarso em 10 pombos domésticos (Columba livia adultos. As aves foram anestesiadas com a associação de xilazina e cetamina e em seguida foi realizada fratura do tibiotarso direito por pressão digital sobre a diáfise do membro. Quatro pinos de Kirschner, dois proximais e dois distais à linha da fratura, foram inseridos percutaneamente através de ambas as corticais ósseas e, após redução fechada da fratura, conectados externamente por uma barra de acrílico autopolimerizável na face lateral do membro. Em três aves foi observado radiograficamente desvio ósseo angular, porém, a função do membro não foi afetada. O tempo médio e o desvio-padrão para a cicatrização óssea foram 23,4± 3,0 dias. Os resultados demonstram que a redução fechada e a aplicação de fixador esquelético externo tipo I é um método efetivo para o tratamento de fraturas de tibiotarso em pombos domésticos (Columba livia.
Deegan, Carrie S; Burns, Joseph E; Huguenin, Michael; Steinhaus, Eliza Y; Panella, Nicholas A; Beckett, Susan; Komar, Nicholas
Sentinel pigeons, Columba livia, were installed in lard-can traps at heights of 1.5 m and 7.6-9.1 m within differing canopy cover classes in New York City. Adult mosquitoes were collected weekly from July to October 2002, as were serum samples from each pigeon. Culex pipiens L. and Culex restuans Theobald comprised 97% of mosquitoes collected and were most numerous in canopy-level, forested traps. The West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) seroconversion rate was significantly greater for pigeons in canopy-level traps, although seroconversions occurred concurrently with human cases in the city and were of little prognostic value to public health agencies. Our results indicate that sentinel pigeons were most effective for monitoring enzootic transmission of WNV when placed in single-sentinel caging 7.6-9.1 m above ground level.
Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Sullivan, Kelsey; Irons, David
Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators
Kim, C-Yoon; Oh, Hanseul; Song, Juha; Hur, Moonsuk; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Taek; Oh, Hong-Shik; Park, Jae-Hak
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen that has spread throughout Europe and the United States. Recently, WNV spread to East and Southeast Asia, and great efforts have been made in South Korea to prevent the spread of WNV from neighboring countries. In this study, we diagnosed the first case of WNV in pigeons ( Columba livia domestica ) residing in cities using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed it with nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis and sequencing. This is the first report to provide convincing evidence that WNV is present within South Korea.
Marcelo Ismar Santana
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n2p125 O presente estudo objetivou definir a origem e a distribuição da artéria celíaca e de seus ramos colaterais em 15 aves da espécie Columba livia, cedidas pelo Centro de Controle de Zoonoses de Brasília. Com a finalidade de marcar o sistema arterial dos espécimes, o tronco braquiocefálico esquerdo foi canulado e injetado com solução aquosa de látex corado. Posteriormente, procedeu-se a fixação das aves com solução aquosa de formol 10% e a dissecação com instrumentos adequados, obtendo-se os resultados a seguir. A artéria celíaca originou-se da face ventral da aorta descendente. O primeiro ramo colateral surgiu da própria artéria celíaca, constituindo a artéria esofágica. Posteriormente, artéria celíaca se bifurcou em dois ramos, denominados ramo esquerdo da artéria celíaca e ramo direito da artéria celíaca. O ramo esquerdo emitiu a artéria proventricular ventral, seguida das artérias esplênicas, da artéria proventricular dorsal e da artéria hepática esquerda. Por fim, o ramo esquerdo se bifurcou, originando as artérias gástricas ventral e esquerda. O ramo direito emitiu a artéria hepática direita, seguida da artéria ileal e da artéria gástrica direita. Por fim, o ramo direito prosseguiu como artéria pancreaticoduodenal. Os achados deste trabalho apresentaram grande similaridade com as linhagens de aves da espécie Gallus gallus, exceto pela ausência da artéria ileocecal, de ramos císticos e da artéria gástrica dorsal.
Zhao, Panpan; Ma, Jian; Guo, Ying; Tian, Li; Guo, Guangyang; Zhang, Kexin; Xing, Mingwei
A herpesvirus was isolated during a diagnostic investigation of severe cases of conjunctivitis in feral pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica). Isolates of the virus were recovered from throat swabs of the pigeons followed by inoculation of the swab samples in chicken embryo fibroblasts. Pigeons inoculated with the isolated virus had similar clinical signs to those observed in naturally infected birds. Transmission electron microscopy revealed viral structures with typical herpesvirus morphology. Polymerase chain reaction amplification, using herpesvirus-identifying primers resulted in an amplicon of the expected size for herpesvirus. Sequencing of these amplicons and database comparisons identified the herpesvirus UL30 homologue. Phylogenetic reconstructions suggested that the isolated herpesvirus belongs to the Mardivirus genus of Alphaherpesvirinae. Using the current herpesvirus nomenclature conventions, the authors propose that the herpesvirus be named Columbid herpesvirus-1 Heilongjiang. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hsu, Bin-Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Darras, Veerle M.; Vries, de Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G. G.
Thyroid hormones (THs) - triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) - are essential for embryonic development in vertebrates. All vertebrate embryos are exposed to THs from maternal origin. As maternal TH levels are known to be essential to embryonic development, the natural variation of maternal THs
Biswal, Debraj; Nandi, Anadi Prasad; Chatterjee, Soumendranath
Analysis of the major biochemical constituents of Cotugnia cuneata revealed that the total protein, carbohydrate, glycogen and lipid contents (as percentage of dry weight) were 25.22 ± 0.93, 32.90 ± 0.30, 21.33 ± 0.99 and 9.94 ± 0.42 respectively. The results showed that the carbohydrate content was the highest followed by protein and lipid contents respectively. Glycogen content was relatively high which showed that carbohydrate was mainly present in the form of glycogen in these cestodes. The A + T and G + C contents were obtained as 49.82 and 50.18 % respectively. The phylogenetic tree showed that C. cuneata branched with its closest cluster comprising of Raillietina tunetensis, Raillietina australis, Fuhrmannetta malakartis and Raillietina sonini with 99 % bootstrap support.
Biswal, Debraj; Nandi, Anadi Prasad; Chatterjee, Soumendranath
Analysis of the major biochemical constituents of Cotugnia cuneata revealed that the total protein, carbohydrate, glycogen and lipid contents (as percentage of dry weight) were 25.22 ± 0.93, 32.90 ± 0.30, 21.33 ± 0.99 and 9.94 ± 0.42 respectively. The results showed that the carbohydrate content was the highest followed by protein and lipid contents respectively. Glycogen content was relatively high which showed that carbohydrate was mainly present in the form of glycogen in these cestodes. T...
Hieronymus, Tobin L
Mechanisms for passively coordinating forelimb movements and flight feather abduction and adduction have been described separately from both in vivo and ex vivo studies. Skeletal coordination has been identified as a way for birds to simplify the neuromotor task of controlling flight stroke, but an understanding of the relationship between skeletal coordination and the coordination of the aerodynamic control surface (the flight feathers) has been slow to materialize. This break between the biomechanical and aerodynamic approaches - between skeletal kinematics and airfoil shape - has hindered the study of dynamic flight behaviors. Here I use dissection and histology to identify previously overlooked interconnections between musculoskeletal elements and flight feathers. Many of these structures are well-placed to directly link elements of the passive musculoskeletal coordination system with flight feather movements. Small bundles of smooth muscle form prominent connections between upper forearm coverts (deck feathers) and the ulna, as well as the majority of interconnections between major flight feathers of the hand. Abundant smooth muscle may play a role in efficient maintenance of folded wing posture, and may also provide an autonomically regulated means of tuning wing shape and aeroelastic behavior in flight. The pattern of muscular and ligamentous linkages of flight feathers to underlying muscle and bone may provide predictable passive guidance for the shape of the airfoil during flight stroke. The structures described here provide an anatomical touchstone for in vivo experimental tests of wing surface coordination in an extensively researched avian model species. © 2016 Anatomical Society.
Ben J. Novak
Full Text Available For tens of thousands of years, passenger pigeons (Ectopistes migratorius were a dominant member of eastern North American forest communities, with megaflocks comprising up to several billion individuals. The extinction of passenger pigeons in the early twentieth century undoubtedly influenced associated species and ecosystems as interactions stemming from the pigeons disappeared suddenly. Here, we strive to better understand what was probably one of the most significant of these interactions—that between passenger pigeons and seed bearing trees. Using the band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata and the rock dove (Columba livia as physical and ecological proxies, we evaluated passenger pigeon dietary range and potential to disperse seeds. Our findings suggest that the passenger pigeon's dietary range, observed historically to be taxonomically broad, was constrained to certain seed sizes due to bill gape size. In addition, we conclude that the digestive process invariably destroyed consumed seeds but the potential for a nutrition/dispersal mutualism might still have existed via regurgitation and post-mortem release of crop contents. Our results highlight the range of ecological interactions that can be lost with species' extinction and the inherent challenge of understanding the consequences of those interactions.
Pirali-Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Dehghani-Samani, Amir; Ahmadi-Baberi, Nader; Najafzadeh, Vida
Background: Pigeons (Columba livia) have been kept as pet and reared for food in several countries including Iran. Ectoparasites are regarded as the basic causes of retardation in growth, lowered vitality and poor conditions of the birds. Pseudolynchia canariensis a hippoboscidae fly is one of the important ectoparasites of pigeons and is responsible for the transmission of pathogens to birds and humans same as pathogenic protozoan Haemoproteus columbae. Methods: A herd of domestic pigeons contained 50 pigeons in Shahrekord, southwest Iran was evaluated clinically infested by ectoparasites. Ectoparasites were removed. The samples were collected and then referred to the Laboratory of Parasitology of Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran. Results: Usin diagnostic key for diptera fly, these flies were find P. canariensis. This is a rare report of infestation of pigeons herd by P. canariensis in Iran. The infestation rate was 40% that rate of infestation in pipers was more than females and in females was more than males. Conclusion: The rate of infested pipers was more than adults that maybe the less potential of pipers in removing of ectoparasites is reason of this higher rate. PMID:27308301
Full Text Available Background: Pigeons (Columba livia have been kept as pet and reared for food in several countries including Iran. Ectoparasites are regarded as the basic causes of retardation in growth, lowered vitality and poor conditions of the birds. Pseudolynchia canariensis a hippoboscidae fly is one of the important ectoparasites of pigeons and is responsible for the transmission of pathogens to birds and humans same as pathogenic protozoan Haemoproteus columbae.Methods: A herd of domestic pigeons contained 50 pigeons in Shahrekord, southwest Iran was evaluated clinically infested by ectoparasites. Ectoparasites were removed. The samples were collected and then referred to the Laboratory of Parasitology of Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.Results: Usin diagnostic key for diptera fly, these flies were find P. canariensis. This is a rare report of infestation of pigeons herd by P. canariensis in Iran. The infestation rate was 40% that rate of infestation in pipers was more than females and in females was more than males.Conclusion: The rate of infested pipers was more than adults that maybe the less potential of pipers in removing of ectoparasites is reason of this higher rate.
Gadhia, P.K.; Shah, V.C.; Desai, R.
A study of the effects of total-body 60 Coγ radiation (200 to 2000 rad) on the common pigeon (Columba livia) has indicated a LD 50/30 of 950 +- 50 rad. There were no deaths before 6 days and the peak frequency in average deaths occurred 9 days after irradiation. Most of the birds showed small changes in activity or behaviour in the first five days. A histopathological study was made of femoral bone marrow from irradiated (1000 rad) pigeons sacrificed 1 to 18 days post-irradiation. Slight aplasia was observed on the first day after irradiation, moderately marked on the third day and extensive on the fourth and fifth days. At the end of the second week regeneration was observed as the primitive lymphocyte-like cells were differentiating into granulocytes and erythrocytes. (UK)
Shapiro, Michael D; Kronenberg, Zev; Li, Cai; Domyan, Eric T; Pan, Hailin; Campbell, Michael; Tan, Hao; Huff, Chad D; Hu, Haofu; Vickrey, Anna I; Nielsen, Sandra C A; Stringham, Sydney A; Hu, Hao; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Yandell, Mark; Zhang, Guojie; Wang, Jun
The geographic origins of breeds and the genetic basis of variation within the widely distributed and phenotypically diverse domestic rock pigeon (Columba livia) remain largely unknown. We generated a rock pigeon reference genome and additional genome sequences representing domestic and feral populations. We found evidence for the origins of major breed groups in the Middle East and contributions from a racing breed to North American feral populations. We identified the gene EphB2 as a strong candidate for the derived head crest phenotype shared by numerous breeds, an important trait in mate selection in many avian species. We also found evidence that this trait evolved just once and spread throughout the species, and that the crest originates early in development by the localized molecular reversal of feather bud polarity.
Williams, C David; Biewener, Andrew A
Individuals traversing challenging obstacles are faced with a decision: they can adopt traversal strategies that minimally disrupt their normal locomotion patterns or they can adopt strategies that substantially alter their gait, conferring new advantages and disadvantages. We flew pigeons (Columba livia) through an array of vertical obstacles in a flight arena, presenting them with this choice. The pigeons selected either a strategy involving only a slight pause in the normal wing beat cycle, or a wings-folded posture granting reduced efficiency but greater stability should a misjudgment lead to collision. The more stable but less efficient flight strategy was not used to traverse easy obstacles with wide gaps for passage but came to dominate the postures used as obstacle challenge increased with narrower gaps and there was a greater chance of a collision. These results indicate that birds weigh potential obstacle negotiation strategies and estimate task difficulty during locomotor pattern selection.
Ivo G. Ros
Full Text Available Similar flight control principles operate across insect and vertebrate fliers. These principles indicate that robust solutions have evolved to meet complex behavioral challenges. Following from studies of visual and cervical feedback control of flight in insects, we investigate the role of head stabilization in providing feedback cues for controlling turning flight in pigeons. Based on previous observations that the eyes of pigeons remain at relatively fixed orientations within the head during flight, we test potential sensory control inputs derived from head and body movements during 90° aerial turns. We observe that periods of angular head stabilization alternate with rapid head repositioning movements (head saccades, and confirm that control of head motion is decoupled from aerodynamic and inertial forces acting on the bird's continuously rotating body during turning flapping flight. Visual cues inferred from head saccades correlate with changes in flight trajectory; whereas the magnitude of neck bending predicts angular changes in body position. The control of head motion to stabilize a pigeon's gaze may therefore facilitate extraction of important motion cues, in addition to offering mechanisms for controlling body and wing movements. Strong similarities between the sensory flight control of birds and insects may also inspire novel designs of robust controllers for human-engineered autonomous aerial vehicles.
A. T. Borghare
Full Text Available Present study was planned to investigate the helminthic infection in captive wild pigeons (Columba livia at Maharajbagh Zoo Nagpur. All the 30 samples examined were found positive either with single or mixed helminthic infections. The result showed that the incidence of Capillaria sp, Ascaridia sp and Hetarakis sp. were 56.66%, 76.66%, 16.66% respectively. Mixed parasitic infection was recorded in around 17 samples with either Ascaridia sp. and Capillaria sp or with Ascaridia sp. and Heterakis sp. One of 30 samples examined were found with the cysts of Balantidium coli. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 343-
Koompapong, Khuanchai; Mori, Hirotake; Thammasonthijarern, Nipa; Prasertbun, Rapeepun; Pintong, Ai-rada; Popruk, Supaluk; Rojekittikhun, Wichit; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Sukthana, Yaowalark; Mahittikorn, Aongart
Zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp., particularly C. meleagridis, C. canis, and C. felis, are enteric protozoa responsible for major public health concerns around the world. To determine the spread of this parasite in Thailand, we conducted molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. from animal samples around the country, by collecting and investigating the feces of seagulls (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus and Chroicocephalus ridibundus), domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica), dogs, and cats. Seagull and pigeon samples were collected at the seaside and on the riverside to evaluate their potential for waterborne transmission. Ten pigeon samples were combined into one set, and a total of seven sets were collected. Seventy seagull samples were combined into one set, and a total of 13 sets were collected. In addition, 111 dog samples were collected from cattle farms, and 95 dog and 80 cat samples were collected from a temple. We identified C. meleagridis in pigeons, Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls, C. canis in dogs, and C. felis in cats. In the temple, the prevalence was 2.1% (2/95) for dogs and 2.5% (2/80) for cats. No Cryptosporidium was found in dog samples from cattle farms. These are the first findings of C. meleagridis in domestic pigeons, and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls. Our study invites further molecular epidemiological investigations of Cryptosporidium in these animals and their environment to evaluate the public health risk in Thailand. K. Koompapong et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014
Full Text Available Zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp., particularly C. meleagridis, C. canis, and C. felis, are enteric protozoa responsible for major public health concerns around the world. To determine the spread of this parasite in Thailand, we conducted molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. from animal samples around the country, by collecting and investigating the feces of seagulls (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus and Chroicocephalus ridibundus, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica, dogs, and cats. Seagull and pigeon samples were collected at the seaside and on the riverside to evaluate their potential for waterborne transmission. Ten pigeon samples were combined into one set, and a total of seven sets were collected. Seventy seagull samples were combined into one set, and a total of 13 sets were collected. In addition, 111 dog samples were collected from cattle farms, and 95 dog and 80 cat samples were collected from a temple. We identified C. meleagridis in pigeons, Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls, C. canis in dogs, and C. felis in cats. In the temple, the prevalence was 2.1% (2/95 for dogs and 2.5% (2/80 for cats. No Cryptosporidium was found in dog samples from cattle farms. These are the first findings of C. meleagridis in domestic pigeons, and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls. Our study invites further molecular epidemiological investigations of Cryptosporidium in these animals and their environment to evaluate the public health risk in Thailand.
Tung Gia Phan
Full Text Available Birds are frequent sources of emerging human infectious diseases. Viral particles were enriched from the feces of 51 wild urban pigeons (Columba livia from Hong Kong and Hungary, their nucleic acids randomly amplified and then sequenced. We identified sequences from known and novel species from the viral families Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, Picornaviridae, Reoviridae, Adenovirus, Astroviridae, and Caliciviridae (listed in decreasing number of reads, as well as plant and insect viruses likely originating from consumed food. The near full genome of a new species of a proposed parvovirus genus provisionally called Aviparvovirus contained an unusually long middle ORF showing weak similarity to an ORF of unknown function from a fowl adenovirus. Picornaviruses found in both Asia and Europe that are distantly related to the turkey megrivirus and contained a highly divergent 2A1 region were named mesiviruses. All eleven segments of a novel rotavirus subgroup related to a chicken rotavirus in group G were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. This study provides an initial assessment of the enteric virome in the droppings of pigeons, a feral urban species with frequent human contact.
Kolomak I. O.
Full Text Available The species composition of pigeon lice parasitic on pigeons of ornamental breeds on the specialized closed-type farm (Poltava was studied. Five species of these ectoparasites were registered: Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758, Campanulotes compar Burmeister, 1838, (Philopteridae, Ischnocera, Bonomiella columbae Emerson, 1957, Hohorstiella lata Piaget, 1880 and Neocolpocephalus turbinatum (Denny, 1842 (Menoponidae, Amblycera. For each species, the data on infection prevalence, intensity and abundance were obtained. High prevalence of infection was registered for all pigeon lice species, while the intensity and, especially, the abundance were considerably different. C. columbae turned out to be the most abundant. B. columbae was rather common. The peculiarities of pigeon lice species localization on the host body were investigated. During the intensive infection of pigeons with lice, the complex of clinical signs is manifested, which testifies about considerable effect of these parasites on the host. The highest pathogenicity is characteristic for H. lata, which usually feeds on blood and lymph.
Scriba, M F; Gasparini, J; Jacquin, L; Mettke-Hofmann, C; Rattenborg, N C; Roulin, A
Poor environmental conditions experienced during early development can have negative long-term consequences on fitness. Animals can compensate for negative developmental effects through phenotypic plasticity by diverting resources from non-vital to vital traits such as spatial memory to enhance foraging efficiency. We tested in young feral pigeons ( Columba livia ) how diets of different nutritional value during development affect the capacity to retrieve food hidden in a spatially complex environment, a process we refer to as 'spatial memory'. Parents were fed with either high- or low-quality food from egg laying until young fledged, after which all young pigeons received the same high-quality diet until memory performance was tested at 6 months of age. The pigeons were trained to learn a food location out of 18 possible locations in one session, and then their memory of this location was tested 24 h later. Birds reared with the low-quality diet made fewer errors in the memory test. These results demonstrate that food quality during development has long-lasting effects on memory, with a moderate nutritional deficit improving spatial memory performance in a foraging context. It might be that under poor feeding conditions resources are redirected from non-vital to vital traits, or pigeons raised with low-quality food might be better in using environmental cues such as the position of the sun to find where food was hidden. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Wada, Yoshiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Satoru
Still now several hypotheses about the mechanisms of the caloric nystagmus have been in conclusive. In this study we confirmed the convection effect and the volume change effect of the endolymph in horizontal semicircular canal following the caloric stimulation using pigeons ( Columba livia). Although the direction of the caloric nystagmus depended on the head position and the stimulus site of calorization, the caloric nystagmus disappeared after plugging of horizontal semicircular canal. On the other hand, the ampulla pressure increased by cold calorization and decreased by hot calorization and these pressure changes had no relation to the head position. These results show that the main role of the mechanisms of the caloric nystagmus under 1G is the convection effect but the volume change effect may act on the caloric nystagmus not only under 1G but also under microgravity.
Mora, Cordula V; Walker, Michael M
How homing pigeons (Columba livia) return to their loft from distant, unfamiliar sites has long been a mystery. At many release sites, untreated birds consistently vanish from view in a direction different from the home direction, a phenomenon called the release-site bias. These deviations in flight direction have been implicated in the position determination (or map) step of navigation because they may reflect local distortions in information about location that the birds obtain from the geophysical environment at the release site. Here, we performed a post hoc analysis of the relationship between vanishing bearings and local variations in magnetic intensity using previously published datasets for pigeons homing to lofts in Germany. Vanishing bearings of both experienced and naïve birds were strongly associated with magnetic intensity variations at release sites, with 90 per cent of bearings lying within +/-29 degrees of the magnetic intensity slope or contour direction. Our results (i) demonstrate that pigeons respond in an orderly manner to the local structure of the magnetic field at release sites, (ii) provide a mechanism for the occurrence of release-site biases and (iii) suggest that pigeons may derive spatial information from the magnetic field at the release site that could be used to estimate their current position relative to their loft.
Carlos D Santos
Full Text Available Organized flight of homing pigeons (Columba livia was previously shown to rely on simple leadership rules between flock mates, yet the stability of this social structuring over time and across different contexts remains unclear. We quantified the repeatability of leadership-based flock structures within a flight and across multiple flights conducted with the same animals. We compared two contexts of flock composition: flocks of birds of the same age and flight experience; and, flocks of birds of different ages and flight experience. All flocks displayed consistent leadership-based structures over time, showing that individuals have stable roles in the navigational decisions of the flock. However, flocks of balanced age and flight experience exhibited reduced leadership stability, indicating that these factors promote flock structuring. Our study empirically demonstrates that leadership and followership are consistent behaviours in homing pigeon flocks, but such consistency is affected by the heterogeneity of individual flight experiences and/or age. Similar evidence from other species suggests leadership as an important mechanism for coordinated motion in small groups of animals with strong social bonds.
Johnston, Melissa; Anderson, Catrona; Colombo, Michael
We recorded neuronal activity from the nidopallium caudolaterale, the avian equivalent of mammalian prefrontal cortex, and the entopallium, the avian equivalent of the mammalian visual cortex, in four birds trained on a differential outcomes delayed matching-to-sample procedure in which one sample stimulus was followed by reward and the other was not. Despite similar incidence of reward-specific and reward-unspecific delay cell types across the two areas, overall entopallium delay activity occurred following both rewarded and non-rewarded stimuli, whereas nidopallium caudolaterale delay activity tended to occur following the rewarded stimulus but not the non-rewarded stimulus. These findings are consistent with the view that delay activity in entopallium represents a code of the sample stimulus whereas delay activity in nidopallium caudolaterale represents a code of the possibility of an upcoming reward. However, based on the types of delay cells encountered, cells in NCL also code the sample stimulus and cells in ENTO are influenced by reward. We conclude that both areas support the retention of information, but that the activity in each area is differentially modulated by factors such as reward and attentional mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Following spatial disorientation, animals can reorient themselves by relying on geometric cues (metric and sense specified both by the macroscopic surface layout of an enclosed space and prominent visual landmarks in arrays. Whether spatial reorientation in arrays of landmarks is based on explicit representation of the geometric cues is a matter of debate. Here we trained homing pigeons (Columba livia to locate a food-reward in a rectangular array of four identical or differently coloured pipes provided with four openings, only one of which allowed the birds to have access to the reward. Pigeons were trained either with a stable or a variable position of the opening on pipes, so that they could view the array either from the same or a variable perspective. Explicit mapping of configural geometry would predict successful reorientation irrespective of access condition. In contrast, we found that a stable view of the array facilitated spatial learning in homing pigeons, likely through the formation of snapshot-like memories.
McGraw, Kevin J.
Recent studies of colorful plumage signals in birds have been aided by the finding that birds can see ultraviolet (UV) light and thus may communicate using colors invisible to humans. Some of the pioneering and more pivotal work on avian color vision was performed with domestic pigeons (Columba livia), yet surprisingly there have been few detailed reports of the UV-reflecting properties of pigeon feathers. Here, I use UV-VIS fiber-optic spectrometry to document the full-spectrum reflectance characteristics of iridescent purple and green neck plumage in pigeons. Neck feathers that appear purple to the human eye exhibit four reflectance peaks-two in the UV and one in the blue and red regions-and thus exhibit a UV-purple hue. Neck feathers that appear green to the human eye are characterized by five spectral peaks: two in the UV (UVA and UVB), a predominant green peak, and secondary violet and red peaks, conferring a UV-purple-green color. Such elaborate UV coloration suggests that birds may use an even more complex and `hidden' UV signaling system than previously thought.
Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco
Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.
Ectoparasites and intestinal helminths of speckled pigeon ( Columba guinea Hartlaub and Finsch 1870) in Zaria, Nigeria. ... Science World Journal ... A total of 30 (20 males and 10 females) Speckled Pigeons trapped from the wild in Zaria and its environs, Nigeria, were examined for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths, ...
Magnino, S; Haag-Wackernagel, D; Geigenfeind, I; Helmecke, S; Dovc, A; Prukner-Radovcić, E; Residbegović, E; Ilieski, V; Laroucau, K; Donati, M; Martinov, S; Kaleta, E F
Feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica), which thrive in most European towns and cities, are commonly infected with the zoonotic bacterium Chlamydophila psittaci, the agent of psittacosis (also known as ornithosis) in humans. A number of surveys carried out over the last thirty years across Europe have detected high seropositivity values and high percentages of infection in feral pigeon populations. Overall, when considering data from 11 European countries, seropositivity values to C. psittaci in the sampled populations ranged from 19.4% to 95.6%. In most surveys, the complement fixation test was used, and antibodies were detected in 19.4-66.3% of the samples, with a median of 46.1%. Indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA tests were employed less frequently, but led to the detection of higher percentages of seropositivity (23.7-67.7% and 35.9-95.6%, respectively). Attempts to grow C. psittaci in cell culture or embryonated chicken eggs were successful in 2-42.3% and 0-57.1% of samples, respectively, antigen detection methods were positive in 2.3-40% of samples, while conventional PCR and real-time PCR using different genomic targets detected the organism in 3.4-50% of samples. Twenty-five C. psittaci isolates from pigeons were typed as ompA genotype B (n=14), E (n=10) and E/B (n=1). The huge increase of feral pigeon populations in Europe is a major cause of concern for the detrimental effect of pigeon droppings on environmental hygiene, in addition to the extensive damage due to the fouling of buildings and monuments. The most important pathogenic organism transmissible from feral pigeons to humans is C. psittaci, with 101 cases of disease reported in the literature. Exposure to C. psittaci-contaminated dust, direct contact with pigeons through handling and, to a lesser extent, through pigeon feeding have been identified as hazardous exposures in more than half of the human cases, while loose or transient contacts with feral pigeons have been mentioned in about 40
Gadhia, P.K.; Shah, V.C.
Effects of total body γ-irradiation with sub-lethal dose (400 rads) on acid phosphatase have been studied in the liver of pigeon. The histochemical study showed increased activity of acid phosphatase in liver after 48 hr and 72 hr of irradiation. (author)
Full Text Available A total of 119 fresh faecal samples were collected from graylag geese migrating northwards in April. Also, cloacal swabs were taken from 100 carcasses of graylag geese shot during the hunting season in August. In addition, samples were taken from 200 feral pigeons and five mallards. The cultivation of bacteria detected Campylobacter jejuni jejuni in six of the pigeons, and in one of the mallards. Salmonella diarizona 14:k:z53 was detected in one graylag goose, while all pigeons and mallards were negative for salmonellae. No avian paramyxovirus was found in any of the samples tested. One mallard, from an Oslo river, was influenza A virus positive, confirmed by RT-PCR and by inoculation of embryonated eggs. The isolate termed A/Duck/Norway/1/03 was found to be of H3N8 type based on sequence analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments, and serological tests. This is the first time an avian influenza virus has been isolated in Norway. The study demonstrates that the wild bird species examined may constitute a reservoir for important bird pathogens and zoonotic agents in Norway.
Pence, D B; Canaris, A G
Tinaminyssus juxtamelloi sp. n. is described from the nasal passages of Columba fasciata in New Mexico. The new species is most similar to Tinaminyssus melloi (Castro) 1948 and T. turturi (Fain) 1962, but differs in (1) possessing only 5 pairs of ventral opisthosomal setae, (2) presence of 3 pairs of enlarged setae on the dorsal opisthosoma at the posterolateral margin of the podosomal plate (1 pair) and at the lateral margins of the opisthosomal plate (2 pairs), (3) elongate shape and larger size of the poststigmatic plates, and (4) chaetotaxy and solenidiotaxy of the legs, especially tarsus I with a cluster of 4 solenida and 1 club-shaped solenidion on the apex of the dorsum. The relationships of this with allied species of the genus Tinaminyssus from columbiform birds are briefly discussed.
Sasaki, Takao; Mann, Richard P; Warren, Katherine N; Herbert, Tristian; Wilson, Tara; Biro, Dora
While collective movement is ecologically widespread and conveys numerous benefits on individuals, it also poses a coordination problem: who controls the group's movements? The role that animal 'personalities' play in this question has recently become a focus of research interest. Although many animal groups have distributed leadership (i.e. multiple individuals influence collective decisions), studies linking personality and leadership have focused predominantly on the group's single most influential individual. In this study, we investigate the relationship between personality and the influence of multiple leaders on collective movement using homing pigeons, Columba livia , a species known to display complex multilevel leadership hierarchies during flock flights. Our results show that more exploratory (i.e. 'bold') birds are more likely to occupy higher ranks in the leadership hierarchy and thus have more influence on the direction of collective movement than less exploratory (i.e. 'shy') birds during both free flights around their lofts and homing flights from a distant site. Our data also show that bold pigeons fly faster than shy birds during solo flights. We discuss our results in light of theories about the evolution of personality, with specific reference to the adaptive value of heterogeneity in animal groups.This article is part of the theme issue 'Collective movement ecology'. © 2018 The Author(s).
H. S. Al-Bakry
Full Text Available The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul city during 2005-2007. In addition, the work aimed to investigate the effects of possible relationships between age, sex, season of the year, weight and health status on the incidence of the disease. Three species of pigeons were included viz, stock dove (Columba oenas, rock mountain dove (C. livia, and collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto.Examination of 250, 200 and 40 doves of the three fore–mentioned groups of birds indicated prevalence rates of 22%, 17.5% and 10%, for the three species, respectively. High infection rates were reported in squabs of all birds of the three groups. Regarding the effect of sex on the infection rate, the results revealed high percentage of infection were seen in male stock doves and female rock doves in comparison with their counterparts, however similar rates were observed in both sexes of collared doves. Also, it was found that there was an impact of season of the year on the prevalence rates of the parasite, so the infection was increased in spring and winter more than other seasons, for all birds studied. Depending upon our findings, factors such as body weight and health status have no effects on incidence of the disease.
Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Pritsos, Chris A
Access to water along a bird's migratory flyway is essential during the vital process of migration. Because of the scarcity of water in some environments, there is potential for migratory birds to encounter and drink from contaminated bodies of water. Ingestion of contaminated water may cause injury and compromise flying ability, leading to a disruption of migration. To determine injury to birds from potential exposure, it is essential to know not only the concentration of a given contaminant in the water but also the quantity and rate of water consumption by the birds. Homing pigeons (Columba livia) were used in a series of experiments to determine differences in drinking behavior after various flights and after periods of resting. Results from the present study demonstrate that homing pigeons' water consumption is dramatically different when assessed according to activity, flight distance, and time elapsed after flight. This suggests that the drinking rates of birds during migration are extremely important and much greater than estimated using traditional exposure assessment procedures. Thus, exposure to contaminants via drinking water may be greatly underestimated, and the rate of water consumption should be considered when estimating potential exposure risk to avian species. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:870-876. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.
Rosario Medina, Inmaculada; Román Fuentes, Lorena; Batista Arteaga, Miguel; Real Valcárcel, Fernando; Acosta Arbelo, Félix; Padilla Del Castillo, Daniel; Déniz Suárez, Soraya; Ferrer Quintana, Otilia; Vega Gutiérrez, Belinda; Silva Sergent, Freddy; Acosta-Hernández, Begoña
The importance of pigeons as reservoirs and carriers of Cryptococcus neoformans and other species of this genus is well-known; however, less is known about their role as reservoirs and carriers of other yeasts that impact public health. The present study was performed on Gran Canaria Island to define yeasts other than Cryptococcus spp. that have been reported to impact public health and which could be carried by pigeons. Samples were obtained from 83 pigeon lofts (Columba livia); moreover, 331 crop samples, 331 cloacal samples and 174 dropping samples were collected. In addition, 17 dropping samples were taken from a total of 17 public squares. Samples were inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol. Different yeast species, i.e. Candida guilliermondii (24.36%), Candida kefyr (1.21%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2.43%), and Trichosporon asahii (1.21%) were isolated for the first time from the cloaca. The most frequently isolated yeast from the crop, cloaca and dropping samples from lofts was C. guilliermondii (30.46%, 24.36% and 49.37%, respectively). In addition, for the first time, C. kefyr (3.65%), Candida pelliculosa (2.43%), Candida rugosa (1.21%), T. asahii (3.65%), Trichosporon mucoides (3.65%) and Prototheca wickerhamii (1.21%) were obtained from crop samples; Candida pelliculosa (1.20%), T. asahii (9.63%) and T. mucoides (7.22%) were isolated from dropping samples in the lofts. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated yeast in dropping samples collected in public squares. It can be assumed that pigeons and their droppings act as carriers and reservoirs of Candida spp. and other zoonotic yeasts. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Angelier, Frédéric; Parenteau, Charline; Trouvé, Colette; Angelier, Nicole
Although the transfer of wild animals to captivity is crucial for conservation purposes, this process is often challenging because some species or individuals do not adjust well to captive conditions. Chronic stress has been identified as a major concern for animals held on long-term captivity. Surprisingly, the first hours or days of captivity have been relatively overlooked. However, they are certainly very stressful, because individuals are being transferred to a totally novel and confined environment. To ensure the success of conservation programmes, it appears crucial to better understand the proximate causes of interspecific and interindividual variability in the sensitivity to these first hours of captivity. In that respect, the study of stress hormones is relevant, because the hormonal stress response may help to assess whether specific individuals or species adjust, or not, to such captive conditions ('the stress response-adjustment to captivity hypothesis'). We tested this hypothesis in rock pigeons by measuring their corticosterone stress response and their ability to adjust to short-term captivity (body mass loss and circulating corticosterone levels after a day of captivity). We showed that an increased corticosterone stress response is associated with a lower ability to adjust to short-term captivity (i.e. higher body mass loss and circulating corticosterone levels). Our study suggests, therefore, that a low physiological sensitivity to stress may be beneficial for adjusting to captivity. Future studies should now explore whether the stress response can be useful to predict the ability of individuals from different populations or species to not only adjust to short-term but also long-term captivity.
Ros, Ivo G; Badger, Marc A; Pierson, Alyssa N; Bassman, Lori C; Biewener, Andrew A
The complexity of low speed maneuvering flight is apparent from the combination of two critical aspects of this behavior: high power and precise control. To understand how such control is achieved, we examined the underlying kinematics and resulting aerodynamic mechanisms of low speed turning flight in the pigeon (Columba livia). Three birds were trained to perform 90 deg level turns in a stereotypical fashion and detailed three-dimensional (3D) kinematics were recorded at high speeds. Applying the angular momentum principle, we used mechanical modeling based on time-varying 3D inertia properties of individual sections of the pigeon's body to separate angular accelerations of the torso based on aerodynamics from those based on inertial effects. Directly measured angular accelerations of the torso were predicted by aerodynamic torques, justifying inferences of aerodynamic torque generation based on inside wing versus outside wing kinematics. Surprisingly, contralateral asymmetries in wing speed did not appear to underlie the 90 deg aerial turns, nor did contralateral differences in wing area, angle of attack, wingbeat amplitude or timing. Instead, torso angular accelerations into the turn were associated with the outside wing sweeping more anteriorly compared with a more laterally directed inside wing. In addition to moving through a relatively more retracted path, the inside wing was also more strongly pronated about its long axis compared with the outside wing, offsetting any difference in aerodynamic angle of attack that might arise from the observed asymmetry in wing trajectories. Therefore, to generate roll and pitch torques into the turn, pigeons simply reorient their wing trajectories toward the desired flight direction. As a result, by acting above the center of mass, the net aerodynamic force produced by the wings is directed inward, generating the necessary torques for turning. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Comparison of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and comparison with common eider (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba), and tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska
Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael
There is an abundance of field data for levels of metals from a range of places, but relatively few from the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers from common eiders (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba), tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska. Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that there are no trophic levels relationships for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium among these five species of birds breeding in the marine environment of the Aleutians. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels. As predicted bald eagles had the highest levels of arsenic, chromium, lead, and manganese, but puffins had the highest levels of selenium, and pigeon guillemot had higher levels of mercury than eagles (although the differences were not significant). Common eiders, at the lowest trophic level had the lowest levels of some metals (chromium, mercury and selenium). However, eiders had higher levels than all other species (except eagles) for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and manganese. Levels of lead were higher in breast than in wing feathers of bald eagles. Except for lead, there were no significant differences in metal levels in feathers of bald eagles nesting on Adak and Amchitka Island; lead was higher on Adak than Amchitka. Eagle chicks tended to have lower levels of manganese than older eagles. PMID:18521716
Fleissner, Gerta; Holtkamp-Rötzler, Elke; Hanzlik, Marianne; Winklhofer, Michael; Fleissner, Günther; Petersen, Nikolai; Wiltschko, Wolfgang
With the use of different light and electron microscopic methods, we investigated the subcellular organization of afferent trigeminal terminals in the upper beak of the homing pigeon, Columba livia, which are about 5 microm in diameter and contain superparamagnetic magnetite (SPM) crystals. The SPM nanocrystals are assembled in clusters (diameter, approximately 1-2 microm). About 10 to 15 of these clusters occur inside one nerve terminal, arranged along the cell membrane. Each SPM cluster is embedded in a solid fibrous cup, open towards the cell surface, to which the cluster adheres by delicate fiber strands. In addition to the SPM clusters, a second inorganic iron compound has been identified: noncrystalline platelets of iron phosphate (about 500 nm wide and long and maximally 100 nm thick) that occur along a fibrous core of the terminal. The anatomic features suggested that these nerve endings could detect small intensity changes of the geomagnetic field. Such stimuli can induce deformations of the SPM clusters, which could be transduced into primary receptor potentials by mechanosensitive membrane receptor channels. The subepidermal fat cells surrounding the nerve endings prevent the inside from external mechanical stimuli. These structural findings corresponded to conclusions inferred from rock magnetic measurements, theoretical calculations, model experiments, and behavioral data, which also matched previous electrophysiologic recordings from migratory birds. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Dye, B. J.; Frank, T. C.; Newlands, S. D.; Dickman, J. D.
Vestibular and cochlear regeneration following ototoxic insult from aminoglycoside antibiotics has been well documented, particularly in birds. In the present study, intraotic application of a 2 mg streptomycin paste was used to achieve complete vestibular hair cell destruction in pigeons (Columba livia) while preserving regenerative ability. Scanning electron microscopy was used to quantify hair cell density longitudinally during regeneration in three different utricular macula locations, including the striola, central and peripheral regions. The utricular epithelium was void of stereocilia (indicating hair cell loss) at 4 days after intraotic treatment with streptomycin. At 2 weeks the stereocilia began to appear randomly and mostly in an immature form. However, when present most kinocilia were polarized toward the developing striola. Initially, regeneration occurred more rapidly in the central and peripheral regions of the utricle as compared to the striola. As regeneration proceeded from 2 to 12 weeks, hair cell density in the striola region equaled the density noted in the central and peripheral regions. At 24 weeks, hair cell density of the central and peripheral regions was equal to normal values, however the striola region had a slightly greater hair cell density than that observed for normal animals.
Frank, T. C.; Dye, B. J.; Newlands, S. D.; Dickman, J. D.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop a technique to investigate the regeneration of utricular hair cells in the adult pigeon (Columba livia) following complete hair cell loss through administration of streptomycin. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental animal study. METHODS: Animals were divided into four groups. Group 1 received 10 to 15 days of systemic streptomycin injections. Animals in Groups 2 and 3 received a single direct placement of a 1-, 2-, 4-, or 8-mg streptomycin dose into the perilymphatic space. Animals in Groups 1 and 2 were analyzed within 1 week from injection to investigate hair cell destruction, whereas Group 3 was investigated at later dates to study hair cell recovery. Group 4 animals received a control injection of saline into the perilymphatic space. Damage and recovery were quantified by counting hair cells in isolated utricles using scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Although systemic injections failed to reliably achieve complete utricular hair cell destruction, a single direct placement of a 2-, 4-, or 8-mg streptomycin dose caused complete destruction within the first week. Incomplete hair cell loss was observed with the 1-mg dose. Over the long term, regeneration of the hair cells was seen with the 2-mg dose but not the 8-mg dose. Control injections of saline into the perilymphatic space caused no measurable hair cell loss. CONCLUSIONS: Direct placement of streptomycin into the perilymph is an effective, reliable method for complete destruction of utricular hair cells while preserving the regenerative potential of the neuroepithelium.
Hagstrum, J. T.; McIsaac, H. P.; Drob, D. P.
The remarkable navigational ability of homing pigeons (Columba livia) is influenced by a number of factors, an unknown one of which causes the "Wintereffekt"1 or annual variation in homing performance. Minima in homeward orientation and return speeds have been observed in winter, with maxima in summer, during repetitive pigeon releases from single sites near experimental lofts in Wilhelmshaven, Göttingen, and Munich, Germany, and near Pisa, Italy1-4. Overall the annual variation is more pronounced in northern Germany than Italy4, and both mature and juvenile cohorts respond to this seasonal factor. Older, more experienced pigeons are better at compensating for its effects than naïve ones, but are still affected after numerous releases. The narrow low-frequency band of atmospheric background noise (microbaroms; 0.1-0.3 Hz) also varies with an annual cycle that generally has higher amplitudes in winter than in summer depending on location5. In addition, homing pigeons, and possibly other birds, apparently use infrasonic signals of similar frequency as navigational cues6, and a seasonal variation in background noise levels could cause corresponding changes in signal-to-noise ratios and thus in homing performance. The annual variation in homing performance, however, was not observed during long-term pigeon releases at two sites in eastern North America. The annual and geographic variability in homing performance in the northern hemisphere can be explained to a first order by seasonal changes in infrasonic noise sources related to ocean storm activity, and to the direction and intensity of stratospheric winds. In addition, increased dispersion in departure bearings of individual birds for some North American releases were likely caused by additional infrasonic noise associated with severe weather events during tornado and Atlantic hurricane seasons. 1Kramer, G. & von Saint Paul, U., J. Ornithol. 97, 353-370 (1956); 2Wallraff, H. G., Z. Tierpsychol. 17, 82-113 (1960
certain parasites which cause health problems in humans and domestic animals ... The genomic DNA was isolated using standard protocol as described by ..... panel of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Himalayan monal. Lophophorus ...
Hagstrum, J. T.; Baker, L. M.; Spritzer, J. M.; McKenna, M. H.
Pigeons (Columba livia) released at distant sites commonly depart in directions significantly off the actual homeward bearing. Such site-dependent deviations, or biases, for birds from a given loft are generally stable over time, but can also change from hour to hour, day to day, and year to year. At some release sites, birds consistently vanish in random directions and have longer flight times and lower return rates. Release sites characterized by frequent disorientation are not uncommon for pigeon lofts in both Europe and the USA. One such site is the Jersey Hill fire tower in upstate New York located ~120 km W of the Cornell loft in Ithaca. Cornell birds released at Jersey Hill between 1968 and 1987 almost always vanished randomly, although birds from other lofts had little difficulty orienting there. The results for one day, however, stand out: on August 13, 1969, Cornell birds released at Jersey Hill vanished consistently to the NE (r = 0.921; n=7) and returned home after normal flight times. Cornell pigeons released the next day again showed 'normal' behavior for the site and departed randomly. If, in fact, the birds are using acoustic cues to navigate, the long-term acoustic 'dead' zone we propose for Jersey Hill, due to prevailing atmospheric conditions, indicates that the cues are coming from a single, relatively restricted area, most likely surrounding the home loft. We have modeled the transmission of infrasonic waves, presumably coupled to the atmosphere from ocean-generated microseisms (0.14 Hz), between the Cornell loft and a number of release sites using HARPA (Hamiltonian Acoustic Ray-tracing Program for the Atmosphere) and rawinsonde data collected near Albany and Buffalo, NY. The HARPA modeling shows that acoustic signals from the Cornell loft reached Jersey Hill only on a few release days with unusual atmospheric conditions, including August 13, and were launched at angles less than ~2° above horizontal, most likely from steep-sided terrain in
Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the expression of the Zenk protein within the nucleus taeniae of the pigeon’s amygdala (TnA after training in a classical aversive conditioning, in order to improve our understanding of its functional role in birds. Thirty-two 18-month-old adult male pigeons (Columba livia, weighing on average 350 g, were trained under different conditions: with tone-shock associations (experimental group; EG; with shock-alone presentations (shock group; SG; with tone-alone presentations (tone group; TG; with exposure to the training chamber without stimulation (context group; CG, and with daily handling (naive group; NG. The number of immunoreactive nuclei was counted in the whole TnA region and is reported as density of Zenk-positive nuclei. This density of Zenk-positive cells in the TnA was significantly greater for the EG, SG and TG than for the CG and NG (P < 0.05. The data indicate an expression of Zenk in the TnA that was driven by experience, supporting the role of this brain area as a critical element for neural processing of aversive stimuli as well as meaningful novel stimuli.
Portugal, Steven J; Ricketts, Rhianna L; Chappell, Jackie; White, Craig R; Shepard, Emily L; Biro, Dora
Group living has been proposed to yield benefits that enhance fitness above the level that would be achieved through living as solitary individuals. Dominance hierarchies occur commonly in these social assemblages, and result, by definition, in resources not being evenly distributed between group members. Determinants of rank within a dominance hierarchy can be associated with morphological characteristics, previous experience of the individual, or personality traits such as exploration tendencies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether greater exploration and positive responses to novel objects in homing pigeons ( Columba livia ) measured under laboratory conditions were associated with (i) greater initial exploration of the local area around the home loft during spontaneous exploration flights (SEF), (ii) faster and more efficient homing flights when released from further afield, and (iii) whether the traits of greater exploration and more positive responses to novel objects were more likely to be exhibited by the more dominant individuals within the group. There was no relationship between laboratory-based novel object exploration and position within the dominance hierarchy. Pigeons that were neophobic under laboratory conditions did not explore the local area during SEF opportunities. When released from sites further from home, neophobic pigeons took longer routes to home compared to those birds that had not exhibited neophobic traits under laboratory conditions, and had spontaneously explored to a greater extent. The lack of exploration in the neophobic birds is likely to have resulted in the increased costs of homing following release: unfamiliarity with the landscape likely led to the greater distances travelled and less efficient routes taken. Birds that demonstrated a lack of neophobia were not the dominant individuals inside the loft, and thus would have less access to resources such as food and potentially mates. However, a lack of
Mitchell, J A
Three experiments were conducted with the pigeon (Columbia livia) to investigate the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the paleostriatum on classical conditioning paradigms. In Experiment 1 naive subjects were given autoshaping training to a white centre key light and it was found that paleostriatal pigeons showed higher peck rates than unoperated controls. A further group of naive paleostriatal pigeons showed higher rates of autoshaped responding but did not differ from controls on a successive autoshaping discrimination with colour (Experiment 2A) or striped (Experiment 2B) stimuli. In Experiment 3 paleostriatal pigeons performed better than controls on a go, no-go alternation. The higher response rates shown by paleostriatal pigeons during autoshaping could not readily be explained in terms of a (non-associative) motor disturbance such as a tremor which could have caused multiple key pecks to be emitted in view of the demonstrations of unimpaired discrimination (Experiment 2) and better alternation (Experiment 3). Instead, the results suggest that paleostriatal pigeons may show potentiated classical conditioning.
Full Text Available The ability of mothers to transfer antibodies (Abs to their young and the temporal persistence of maternal Abs in offspring constitute important life-history traits that can impact the evolution of host-parasite interactions. Here, we examined the effects of food availability and parental immunization on the transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons (Columba livia. This species can transmit maternal Abs to offspring before hatching through the egg yolk and potentially after hatching through crop milk. However, the role of this postnatal substance in immunity remains elusive. We used a full cross-fostering design to disentangle the effects of food limitation and parental immunization both before and after hatching on the levels and persistence of maternal Abs in chicks. Parents were immunized via injection with keyhole limpet hemocyanin antigens. Using an immunoassay that specifically detected the IgY antibodies that are known to be transmitted via the yolk, we found that the levels of anti-KLH Abs in newly hatched chicks were positively correlated with the levels of anti-KLH Abs in the blood of their biological mothers. However, this correlation was not present between chicks and their foster parents, suggesting limited IgY transfer via crop milk to the chick's bloodstream. Interestingly, biological mothers subjected to food limitation during egg laying transferred significantly fewer specific maternal Abs, which suggests that the transfer of antibodies might be costly for them. In addition, the persistence of maternal Abs in a chick's bloodstream was not affected by food limitation or the foster parents' anti-KLH Ab levels; it was only affected by the initial level of maternal anti-KLH Abs that were present in newly hatched chicks. These results suggest that the maternal transfer of Abs could be costly but that their persistence in an offspring's bloodstream may not necessarily be affected by environmental conditions.
Full Text Available Cryptochromes are ubiquitously expressed in various animal tissues including the retina. Some cryptochromes are involved in regulating circadian activity. Cryptochrome proteins have also been suggested to mediate the primary mechanism in light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds. Cryptochrome 1b (Cry1b exhibits a unique carboxy terminus exclusively found in birds so far, which might be indicative for a specialised function. Cryptochrome 1a (Cry1a is so far the only cryptochrome protein that has been localised to specific cell types within the retina of migratory birds. Here we show that Cry1b, an alternative splice variant of Cry1a, is also expressed in the retina of migratory birds, but it is primarily located in other cell types than Cry1a. This could suggest different functions for the two splice products. Using diagnostic bird-specific antibodies (that allow for a precise discrimination between both proteins, we show that Cry1b protein is found in the retinae of migratory European robins (Erithacus rubecula, migratory Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe and pigeons (Columba livia. In all three species, retinal Cry1b is localised in cell types which have been discussed as potentially well suited locations for magnetoreception: Cry1b is observed in the cytosol of ganglion cells, displaced ganglion cells, and in photoreceptor inner segments. The cytosolic rather than nucleic location of Cry1b in the retina reported here speaks against a circadian clock regulatory function of Cry1b and it allows for the possible involvement of Cry1b in a radical-pair-based magnetoreception mechanism.
Nevin, John A.
Explains the use of pigeons in behavioral psychology research for modeling human behavior and discusses instructional objectives for humans. Topics addressed include the relationship between response rate and reinforcer rate; resistance to alternative reinforcement; choice and matching; and persistence and reinforcement. (Contains 11 references.)…
Hagstrum, J. T.
Pigeons ( Columba livia) and other birds released from distant familiar and unfamiliar sites generally head in the homeward (loft) direction, but often vanish from view or radio contact consistently off the exact homeward bearing. At some sites the deviation can be a significant and stable amount, while at other sites birds can appear to become completely lost and depart in random directions. These deviations or biases can change from hour to hour, day to day, and year to year, but have not, over the last ~50 years of intensive research, been related to any atmospheric factor. They are, however, still considered to reflect significant irregularities in the pigeons' "map" function. Celestial and geomagnetic "compasses" have been shown to orient avian flight, but how pigeons determine their location in order to select the correct homeward bearing remains controversial. At present the debate is primarily between workers advocating an olfactory "map" and those advocating variations in the direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field as map functions. Alternatively, infrasonic cues can travel 1000s of km in the atmosphere with little attenuation, and can be detected in the laboratory by pigeons at frequencies down to 0.05 Hz. Although infrasound has been considered as a navigational tool for homing and migratory birds, little supporting evidence of its use has been found. Infrasonic ray paths in the atmosphere are controlled primarily by temperature and secondarily by wind. Assuming birds use infrasonic cues, atmospheric conditions could cause the perplexing changes (both geographic and temporal) observed in the mean vanishing bearings (MVBs) of pigeons released from experimental sites. To test for correlations between MVBs and tropospheric conditions, release data collected by the late W.T. Keeton between 1968 and 1980 from around the Cornell University lofts in upstate NY are compared to rawinsonde data from stations near Buffalo and Albany. For example, birds
Offerman, Kristy; Carulei, Olivia; van der Walt, Anelda Philine; Douglass, Nicola; Williamson, Anna-Lise
Two novel avipoxviruses from South Africa have been sequenced, one from a Feral Pigeon (Columba livia) (FeP2) and the other from an African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) (PEPV). We present a purpose-designed bioinformatics pipeline for analysis of next generation sequence data of avian poxviruses and compare the different avipoxviruses sequenced to date with specific emphasis on their evolution and gene content. The FeP2 (282 kbp) and PEPV (306 kbp) genomes encode 271 and 284 open reading frames respectively and are more closely related to one another (94.4%) than to either fowlpox virus (FWPV) (85.3% and 84.0% respectively) or Canarypox virus (CNPV) (62.0% and 63.4% respectively). Overall, FeP2, PEPV and FWPV have syntenic gene arrangements; however, major differences exist throughout their genomes. The most striking difference between FeP2 and the FWPV-like avipoxviruses is a large deletion of ~16 kbp from the central region of the genome of FeP2 deleting a cc-chemokine-like gene, two Variola virus B22R orthologues, an N1R/p28-like gene and a V-type Ig domain family gene. FeP2 and PEPV both encode orthologues of vaccinia virus C7L and Interleukin 10. PEPV contains a 77 amino acid long orthologue of Ubiquitin sharing 97% amino acid identity to human ubiquitin. The genome sequences of FeP2 and PEPV have greatly added to the limited repository of genomic information available for the Avipoxvirus genus. In the comparison of FeP2 and PEPV to existing sequences, FWPV and CNPV, we have established insights into African avipoxvirus evolution. Our data supports the independent evolution of these South African avipoxviruses from a common ancestral virus to FWPV and CNPV.
Pino ósseo homólogo conservado em glicerina a 98% e hemicerclagem com fio poliglactina 910 na osteossíntese umeral de pombos domésticos Homologous bone pin conserved in glycerin at 98% and hemicerclagem with a thread of poliglactina 910 in humerus osteosyntesis of domestic pigeons
Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a utilização de um pino intramedular ósseo homólogo, conservado em glicerina a 98%, associado à hemicerclagem com fio poliglactina 910 na osteossíntese umeral transversa de pombos domésticos (Columba livia. Utilizou-se como pino ósseo a parte distal do tibiotarso, conservado com medula óssea. Foram operados 20 pombos domésticos, adultos, não-sexados e clinicamente sadios. Esses animais foram separados ao acaso em cinco grupos, com quatro indivíduos. O úmero foi seccionado cirurgicamente na sua diáfise, de forma transversa, e o pino ósseo foi devidamente implantado no seio do osso. Orifícios foram realizados e por eles procedeu-se hemicerclagem do tipo pontos de Wolff com poliglactina 910. Os animais foram avaliados clinicamente, por meio de radiografias semanais, e histologicamente após os períodos de 15, 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias. A conservação do pino ósseo em glicerina a 98% foi avaliada por meio de exames microbiológicos. Em todos os animais, pode-se notar, clinicamente, excelente adaptação à cirurgia e normalidade do uso do membro já radiologicamente pode-se observar formação de calo ósseo e cicatrização da fratura. Histologicamente pode-se observar que ocorreu formação de calo ósseo 15 dias após a cirurgia e cicatrização com remodelação completa a partir dos 90 dias. Nesse exame, além de leve a moderada reação inflamatória no período inicial de avaliação, nenhum outro evento foi notado nos períodos subseqüentes. Concluiu-se que a técnica e os materiais utilizados se tornam uma opção altamente viável na osteossíntese umeral transversa de pombos domésticos.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of a homologous bone intramedullary pin, conserved in glycerin at 98% associated to hemicerclage with a thread of polyglactina 910 in the transverse humerus osteosynthesis of domestic pigeon (Columba livia. The distal part of the
Soares, André E R; Novak, Ben J; Haile, James; Heupink, Tim H; Fjeldså, Jon; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Poinar, Hendrik; Church, George M; Shapiro, Beth
Pigeons and doves (Columbiformes) are one of the oldest and most diverse extant lineages of birds. However, the nature and timing of the group's evolutionary radiation remains poorly resolved, despite recent advances in DNA sequencing and assembly and the growing database of pigeon mitochondrial genomes. One challenge has been to generate comparative data from the large number of extinct pigeon lineages, some of which are morphologically unique and therefore difficult to place in a phylogenetic context. We used ancient DNA and next generation sequencing approaches to assemble complete mitochondrial genomes for eleven pigeons, including the extinct Ryukyu wood pigeon (Columba jouyi), the thick-billed ground dove (Alopecoenas salamonis), the spotted green pigeon (Caloenas maculata), the Rodrigues solitaire (Pezophaps solitaria), and the dodo (Raphus cucullatus). We used a Bayesian approach to infer the evolutionary relationships among 24 species of living and extinct pigeons and doves. Our analyses indicate that the earliest radiation of the Columbidae crown group most likely occurred during the Oligocene, with continued divergence of major clades into the Miocene, suggesting that diversification within the Columbidae occurred more recently than has been reported previously.
Perea, Ramón; Gutiérrez-Galán, Alejandro
Animals may disperse cultivated trees outside the agricultural land, favoring the naturalization or, even, the invasiveness of domestic plants. However, the ecological and conservation implications of new or unexplored mutualisms between cultivated trees and wild animals are still far from clear. Here, we examine the possible role of an expanding and, locally, overabundant pigeon species (Columba palumbus) as an effective disperser of domestic olive trees (Olea europaea), a widespread cultivated tree, considered a naturalized and invasive species in many areas of the world. By analyzing crop and gizzard content we found that olive fruits were an important food item for pigeons in late winter and spring. A proportion of 40.3% pigeons consumed olive seeds, with an average consumption of 7.8 seeds per pigeon and day. Additionally, most seed sizes (up to 0.7 g) passed undamaged through the gut and were dispersed from cultivated olive orchards to areas covered by protected Mediterranean vegetation, recording minimal dispersal distances of 1.8-7.4 km. Greenhouse experiments showed that seeds dispersed by pigeons significantly favored the germination and establishment in comparison to non-ingested seeds. The ability of pigeons to effectively disperse domestic olive seeds may facilitate the introduction of cultivated olive trees into natural systems, including highly-protected wild olive woodlands. We recommend harvesting ornamental olive trees to reduce both pigeon overpopulation and the spread of artificially selected trees into the natural environment.
Although feral rock doves Columba livia and rock pigeons C. guineafly daily in mixed flocks between roosting and nesting sites in Cape Town, South Africa, they feed separately in farmlands north of the city during the austral summer. Examination of the crop contents of 32 feral rock doves and 48 rock pigeons revealed that ...
We report a preliminary study on the effect of grower feed diet supplemented with mashed Ganoderma lucidum against some enteric zoonotic parasites of wild rock pigeons (Columba livia) in Benin City, Nigeria. The pigeons were fed ad libitum with supplemented and non-supplemented grower feed diet in sawdust-floored ...
Rolla, G; Heffler, E; Boita, M
Anaphylaxis is a serious systemic allergic reaction with rapid onset and potentially life-threatening. We report in detail a case of severe nocturnal anaphylaxis due to pigeon tick bite showing the diagnostic value of the extract and the recombinant allergen in the diagnostic procedures (basophil...... reagents. Because of the growing number of pigeons in Middle and Southern Europe cities, some cases of idiopathic anaphylaxis could potentially be caused by A. reflexus in those countries. The identification of pigeon ticks as a trigger of anaphylaxis would greatly improve medical care and advice...
To enable studies of the dependence of Cryptococcus neoformans and its perfect and imperfect states upon bird manure as a habitat of this pathogen, a nutrient medium closely resembling natural conditions was prepared. As sole nutrient, the water soluble ingredients of manure from pigeons (Columbia livia) were used. There was no heat sterilization of the manure filtrate. Using a standard pair of C. neoformans strains for mating, it could be demonstrated that the perfect state of the fungus developed on this so called pigeon manure filtrate agar within 48 h at 26 degrees C. This medium is supposed to help in the elucidation of the epidemiological significance of the perfect and imperfect states of this pathogen.
Kretzschmar, C.; Kalenscher, T.; Güntürkün, O.; Kaernbach, C.
It is unknown whether birds are able to retain the memory of purely sensory auditory information such as white noise over an extended period of time. In a Pavlovian heart rate conditioning paradigm, four pigeons were trained to associate a mild electric shock with periodic random waveforms, and no
Turdus migratorius American robin Selasphorus sasin Allen’s hummingbird Mimus polyglottos Northern mockingbird Columba livia Rock pigeon Toxostoma...when the soil is wet is likely to kill tarplant seeds as weU as young seedlings. Overall, the Air Force has adversely affected approximately 0.50
Gastrointestinal helminths of the domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica gmelin, 1789 aves:columbidae) in Zaria, northern Nigeria. EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. K.L Adang, S.L Oniye, O.J Ajanusi, A.U Ezealor, P.A Abdu.
Anand, M.; Agrawal, A.K.; Gopal, K.; Sur, R.N.; Seth, P.K.
Single exposure of endosulfan (5 mg/kg) to pigeons (Columbia livia) caused neuronal hyperexcitability as evidence by spike discharges of 200-500 μV in the electroencephalograms (EEG) from the telencephalon and hyperstriatum, but there was not effect on the ectostriatal area. Cholinergic (muscarinic) receptor binding study using [ 3 H]quinuclidinyl benzilate ([ 3 H]QNB) as a specific ligand indicated that a single exposure to 5 mg/kg of endosulfan caused a significant increase in [ 3 H]QNB binding to the striatal membrane. Behavior study further indicated that a single dose of 200 μg/kg of oxotremorine produced a significant induction in the tremor in endosulfan-pretreated pigeons. The results of this behavioral and biochemical study indicate the involvement of a cholinergic (muscarinic) transmitter system in endosulfan-induced neurotoxicity
Greaves, I; Kane, K; Richards, N T; Elliott, T S; Adu, D; Michael, J
We report an outbreak of fungal peritonitis due to Candida parapsilosis in 12 patients undergoing chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). All 12 patients were treated by removal of the CAPD catheter together with systemic antifungal therapy. There were no peritonitis-related deaths. Four patients were successfully returned to CAPD at a later date. Microbiological investigation during the outbreak demonstrated colonization of various areas of the CAPD Unit and medical ward with the organism. C. parapsilosis was also isolated from pigeon guano obtained from window-sills. The number of cases of peritonitis due to this organism decreased markedly after bird-proof netting was installed. We believe that this is the first report of an outbreak of CAPD peritonitis due to faecal carriage of C. parapsilosis by pigeons.
Formulation and evaluation of complementary food based on bambara nut ( Voandze subterranean ) and pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) ... Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences ... Objectives: The study formulated and evaluated complementary food made from composites of maize, bambara nut and pigeon pea. Materials ...
To begin, a short overview of the organization and the realization of the racing pigeon sport. Some physiological facts, relevant to racing pigeons, will be touched on. Lastly, a focus on the flights, their completion and the problems involved with the, in some cases, high number of lost pigeons. The German Club of Pigeon Breeders, has made improvements but, it is certainly not enough. The topic of "City Pigeons" will be briefed. The final part deals with pertinent animal rights issues, causes of mishaps, and some rectifying possibilities, which are available to the government veterinarian. Special emphasis will be placed on the international uniformity of this issue. The lecture should prove that there is a need for every government veterinarian to become actively involved, because the described problematic has a major effect on a very large number of animals.
Aline Silva Gouvêa
grupo 3, houve maior precocidade no apoio do membro e menor grau de envergamento em relação aos outros grupos. Histologicamente, foi verificada a formação de calo ósseo em todos os animais e presença de tecido ósseo ao redor da microplaca e dos microparafusos. Apesar das complicações observadas, as microplacas de titânio são uma opção para osteossíntese de tibiotarso em aves de médio porte.Among the surgical problems in birds, the fractures are the most prevalent. Due to variations in size, weight, peculiar bone anatomy, high incidence of complicated fractures and functional demands of different species and individuals, it is still not possible to establish an ideal method for osteosynthesis of long bones in birds. Titanium microplates commonly used in human maxillofacial surgery have been recently employed in osteosynthesis of birds, but with few results available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of titanium microplates in the treatment of tibiotarsus fractures in 30 pigeons (Columba livia , adult males and females, with 7 months old, weighing from 400 to 500. The animals were divided into 3 groups with ten animals each. In group 1, a titanium microplate with 6 holes and a central spacer was used; in group 2, a titanium microplate with 8 holes without a spacer in the center was used; in group 3, a titanium microplate with 8 holes with central spacer was used. After clinical evaluation, the birds were submitted to mid-diaphyseal osteotomy in the right bone for placement of different configurations of the titanium plate, and fixed with titanium microscrews 7mm long. The animals were evaluated clinically and radiographically until 90 days postoperatively. After this period, euthanasia was performed in 2 animals from each group. In all animals was observed bone healing and in group 1 the mean and standard deviation were 32.9±9.9 days, in group 2, 30.8±6.7 days in group 3, 26.6±6.4 days. There was no statistical difference in healing time
Laude, Jennifer R; Pattison, Kristina F; Zentall, Thomas R
Hungry animals will often choose suboptimally by being attracted to reliable signals for food that occur infrequently (they gamble) over less reliable signals for food that occur more often. That is, pigeons prefer an option that 50 % of the time provides them with a reliable signal for the appearance of food but 50 % of the time provides them with a reliable signal for the absence of food (overall 50 % reinforcement) over an alternative that always provides them with a signal for the appearance of food 75 % of the time (overall 75 % reinforcement). The pigeons appear to choose impulsively for the possibility of obtaining the reliable signal for reinforcement. There is evidence that greater hunger is associated with greater impulsivity. We tested the hypothesis that if the pigeons were less hungry, they would be less impulsive and, thus, would choose more optimally (i.e., on the basis of the overall probability of reinforcement). We found that hungry pigeons choose the 50 % reinforcement alternative suboptimally but less hungry pigeons prefer the more optimal 75 % reinforcement. Paradoxically, pigeons that needed the food more received less of it. These findings have implications for how level of motivation may also affect human suboptimal choice (e.g., purchase of lottery tickets and playing slot machines).
Kretzschmar, Christina; Kalenscher, Tobias; Güntürkün, Onur; Kaernbach, Christian
It is unknown whether birds are able to retain the memory of purely sensory auditory information such as white noise over an extended period of time. In a Pavlovian heart rate conditioning paradigm, four pigeons were trained to associate a mild electric shock with periodic random waveforms, and no shock with aperiodic noise. Periodic waveform detection requires echoic memory, i.e., the online retention of a waveform pattern over a limited time. Starting with 40ms, the waveform period was increased after successful learning until no significant stimulus discrimination could be found. Significant discrimination was achieved at periods of up to 2560ms. This is the first demonstration that echoic memory performance in birds is clearly superior to cats and gerbils, and comparable to naive human performance.
MARÍA EUGENIA CIMINARI
Full Text Available Columba livia, original from Europe, is at present widely distributed all over the world. These granivores colonized urban environments where the availability of crops and seeds is not always permanent and, for that are forced to exploit other resources with different composition, e.g. high protein foodstuff. Thus, feral pigeons should have the ability to survive on a diet rich in protein as they do with starchy items by having an adequate digestive biochemical machinery to process it. Phylogenetical and functional hypothesis has been proposed linking dietary flexibility and enzyme lability. All Passeriformes studied to date show the expected positive correlation between aminopeptidase-N and dietary protein but not for intestinal carbohydrases. Conversely, all the non-passerine species modulate intestinal carbohydrases, but not peptidases. Moreover, different scenarios may be posed as the output of a phylogenetical effect, e.g., adding constraints to a lability scheme in certain groups or just determining it (e.g., intestinal disaccharidases modulated in Galloanserae and peptidases modulated in Passeriformes. Consequently, we tested the prediction that feral pigeons adjust digestive enzyme activities according to the level of the respective substrate (e.g., carbohydrates, protein in the diet. Birds were fed for 15 days with two different diets, one with high protein content (low in starch (HP and the other rich in starch and low in proteins (HS. Pigeons fed on the HP were able to survive with no other dietary supplement, as predicted. Pancreatic enzymes did not change between diet treatments. Birds fed on HP exhibited the predicted upward modulation of aminopeptidase-N activity, when compared to birds on HS, while intestinal carbohydrases did not show differences between diets. These results give an apparent support to the functional hypothesis, but are not enough to reject that the observed intestinal protease lability has a phylogenetical
Full Text Available We analysed pigeon flock flights using GPS trajectory data to reveal the most important kinematic aspects of flocking behaviour. We quantitatively investigated the internal motion of the flock based on pairwise statistics and found the following general relationships in all datasets: i the temporal order of decisions characterised by the delay between directional changes is strictly related to the spatial order characterised by the longitudinal relative position within the flock; ii during circling motion, pigeons use a mixture of two idealised and fundamentally different turning strategies, namely, parallel-path and equal-radius type turning. While pigeons tend to maintain their relative position within the flock on average, as in the parallel-path approximation, those who turn later also get behind as in the equal-radius case. Equal-radius type turning also tends to be expressed more during smaller radius turns.
Zhongqiu Li; Franck Courchamp; Daniel T. Blumstein
Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our resu...
Yomosa, Makoto; Mizuguchi, Tsuyoshi; V?s?rhelyi, G?bor; Nagy, M?t?
We analysed pigeon flock flights using GPS trajectory data to reveal the most important kinematic aspects of flocking behaviour. We quantitatively investigated the internal motion of the flock based on pairwise statistics and found the following general relationships in all datasets: i) the temporal order of decisions characterised by the delay between directional changes is strictly related to the spatial order characterised by the longitudinal relative position within the flock; ii) during ...
Ten pigeons (Columba livia domestic form) with humeral diaphyseal fracture were treated with external and internal fixation techniques (Boston technique and intamedullary pin). Longitudinal space was intentionally left between fracture surfaces during osteosynthesis. This space was filled with bovine lyophilized collagen, set around an intramedullary pin, in five samples. Ossification process was checked by radiography every seven days. Results show the utility of this technique in pneumatic bird bones. In fact, shortening control and callus formation facility were observed [it
Kingsley, Robert A.; Kay, Sally; Connor, Thomas; Barquist, Lars; Sait, Leanne; Holt, Kathryn E.; Sivaraman, Karthi; Wileman, Thomas; Goulding, David; Clare, Simon; Hale, Christine; Seshasayee, Aswin; Harris, Simon; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Gardner, Paul
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive type 2 (DT2) is host restricted to Columba livia (rock or feral pigeon) but is also closely related to S. Typhimurium isolates that circulate in livestock and cause a zoonosis characterized by gastroenteritis in humans. DT2 isolates formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster within S. Typhimurium based on whole-genome-sequence polymorphisms. Comparative genome analysis of DT2 94-213 and S. Typhimurium SL1344, DT104, and D23580 identified few diff...
Young, Michael E.; Beckmann, Joshua S.; Wasserman, Edward A.
We trained four pigeons to discriminate a Michotte launching animation from three other animations using a go/no-go task. The pigeons received food for pecking at one of the animations, but not for pecking at the others. The four animations featured two types of interactions among objects: causal (direct launching) and noncausal (delayed, distal,…
CABALLERO, Moisés; RIVERA, Isabel; JARA, Luis M.; ULLOA-STANOJLOVIC, Francisco M.; SHIVA, Carlos
SUMMARY Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) live in close contact with humans and other animals. They can transmit potentially pathogenic and zoonotic agents. The objective of this study was to isolate and detect strains of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni of urban feral pigeons from an area of Lima, Peru. Fresh dropping samples from urban parks were collected for microbiological isolation of E. coli strains in selective agar, and Campylobacter by filtration method. Molecular identification of diarrheagenic pathotypes of E.coli and Campylobacter jejuni was performed by PCR. Twenty-two parks were sampled and 16 colonies of Campylobacter spp. were isolated. The 100% of isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Furthermore, 102 colonies of E. coliwere isolated and the 5.88% resulted as Enteropathogenic (EPEC) type and 0.98% as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The urban feral pigeons of Lima in Peru can act as a reservoir or carriers of zoonotic potentially pathogenic enteric agents. PMID:26603225
Cheng, Ken; Spetch, Marcia L; Kelly, Debbie M; Bingman, Verner P
Roberts and Van Veldhuizen's [Roberts, W.A., Van Veldhuizen, N., 1985. Spatial memory in pigeons on the radial maze. J. Exp. Psychol.: Anim. Behav. Proc. 11, 241-260] study on pigeons in the radial maze sparked research on landmark use by pigeons in lab-based tasks as well as variants of the radial-maze task. Pigeons perform well on open-field versions of the radial maze, with feeders scattered on the laboratory floor. Pigeons can also be trained to search precisely for buried food. The search can be based on multiple landmarks, but is sometimes controlled by just one or two landmarks, with the preferred landmarks varying across individuals. Findings are similar in landmark-based searching on a computer monitor and on a lab floor, despite many differences between the two kinds of tasks. A number of general learning principles are found in landmark-based searching, such as cue competition, generalization and peak shift, and selective attention. Pigeons also learn the geometry of the environment in which they are searching. Neurophysiological studies have implicated the hippocampal formation (HF) in avian spatial cognition, with the right hippocampus hypothesized to play a more important role in the spatial recognition of goal locations. Most recently, single-cell recording from the pigeon's hippocampal formation has revealed cells with different properties from the classic 'place' cells of rats, as well as differences in the two sides of the hippocampus.
Bingman, V P; Hodos, W
The effect of hippocampal lesions on performance in two psychophysical measures of spatial vision (acuity and size-difference threshold) was examined in 7 pigeons. No difference between the preoperative and postoperative thresholds of the experimental birds was found. The visual performance of pigeons in the psychophysical tasks failed to reveal a role of the hippocampal formation in vision. The results argue strongly that the behavioral deficits found in pigeons with hippocampal lesions when tested in a variety of memory-related spatial tasks is not based on a defect in spatial vision but impaired spatial cognition.
The Occurrence of Heamoproteuscolumbae in Pigeons ( Columbidaelivia ) Based on Microscopy and PCR Based Method Analysis and Identification of New Lineage in the MalAvi Data Base in Kano State, Nigeria.
Wasserman, Edward A.; Teng, Yuejia; Brooks, Daniel I.
Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of such contextual cueing. Pigeons had to peck a target which could appear in one of four locations on color photographs of real-world scenes. On half of the trials, each of four scenes was consistently paired with one of four possible target locations; on the other half of the trials, each of four different scenes was randomly paired with the same four possible target locations. In Experiments 1 and 2, pigeons exhibited robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 1 s to 8 s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials. Pigeons also responded more frequently during the delay on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials; indeed, during the delay on predictive-scene trials, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. In Experiment 3, involving left-right and top-bottom scene reversals, pigeons exhibited stronger control by global than by local scene cues. These results attest to the robustness and associative basis of contextual cueing in pigeons. PMID:25546098
Hagmann, Carl Erick; Cook, Robert G
Analogical thinking necessitates mapping shared relations across two separate domains. We investigated whether pigeons could learn faster with ordinal mapping of relations across two physical dimensions (circle size & choice spatial position) relative to random mapping of these relations. Pigeons were trained to relate six circular samples of different sizes to horizontally positioned choice locations in a six alternative matching-to-sample task. Three pigeons were trained in a mapped condition in which circle size mapped directly onto choice spatial position. Three other pigeons were trained in a random condition in which the relations between size and choice position were arbitrarily assigned. The mapped group showed an advantage over the random group in acquiring this task. In a subsequent second phase, relations between the dimensions were ordinally reversed for the mapped group and re-randomized for the random group. There was no difference in how quickly matching accuracy re-emerged in the two groups, although the mapped group eventually performed more accurately. Analyses suggested this mapped advantage was likely due to endpoint distinctiveness and the benefits of proximity errors during choice responding rather than a conceptual or relational advantage attributable to the common or ordinal mapping of the two dimensions. This potential difficulty in mapping relations across dimensions may limit the pigeons' capacity for more advanced types of analogical reasoning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Awad, A; Khalil, S. R; Abd-Elhakim, Y. M
Veritable identification and differentiation of avian species is a vital step in conservative, taxonomic, forensic, legal and other ornithological interventions. Therefore, this study involved the application of molecular approach to identify some avian species i.e. Chicken (Gallus gallus), Muskovy duck (Cairina moschata), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), Laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis), and Rock pigeon (Columba livia). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples and partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (358 bp) was amplified and sequenced using universal primers. Sequences alignment and phylogenetic analyses were performed by CLC main workbench program. The obtained five sequences were deposited in GenBank and compared with those previously registered in GenBank. The similarity percentage was 88.60% between Gallus gallus and Coturnix japonica and 80.46% between Gallus gallus and Columba livia. The percentage of identity between the studied species and GenBank species ranged from 77.20% (Columba oenas and Anas platyrhynchos) to 100% (Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii, Coturnix coturnix and Coturnix japonica, Meleagris gallopavo and Columba livia). Amplification of the partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene proved to be practical for identification of an avian species unambiguously. PMID:27175180
Hagmann, Carl Erick; Cook, Robert G.
Analogical thinking necessitates mapping shared relations across two separate domains. We investigated whether pigeons could learn faster with ordinal mapping of relations across two physical dimensions (circle size & choice spatial position) relative to random mapping of these relations. Pigeons were trained to relate six circular samples of different sizes to horizontally positioned choice locations in a six alternative matching-to-sample task. Three pigeons were trained in a mapped condition in which circle size mapped directly onto choice spatial position. Three other pigeons were trained in a random condition in which the relations between size and choice position were arbitrarily assigned. The mapped group showed an advantage over the random group in acquiring this task. In a subsequent second phase, reassignment, relations between the dimensions were ordinally reversed for the mapped group and re-randomized for the random group. There was no difference in how quickly matching accuracy re-emerged in the two groups, although the mapped group eventually performed more accurately. Analyses suggested this mapped advantage was likely due endpoint distinctiveness and the benefits of proximity errors during choice responding rather than a conceptual or relational advantage attributable to the common or ordinal map of the two dimensions. This potential difficulty in mapping relations across dimensions may limit the pigeons’ capacity for more advanced types of analogical reasoning. PMID:25447511
Luethgen, W.; Krautwald-Junghanns, M.E.
In a pigeon of the breed ''Thuringian White Bib'' a stunted third leg was found, which was attached to the left of the ventral cloacal aspect. A disturbance of the embryonic development at the third to fourth day of incubation was thought to be the cause of this anomaly
Biedermann, Traci; Garlick, Dennis; Blaisdell, Aaron P
Although food reward plays a large role in learning and behavioral experiments, there have been few studies examining the most motivating food reward for pigeons. Brown (1969) found that pigeons had a tendency to prefer peas, while Killeen et al. (1993) found pigeons to prefer peas and popcorn in Experiment 1A. We looked to further explore these options as well as expand upon the types of foods examined beyond mainly grains and seeds. Pigeons were presented with six novel foods (granulated peanuts, popping corn, freeze-dried mealworms, bread crumbs, split peas, and sunflower hearts) allocated into two sets of three food items. Once the most consumed food from each food set was determined, they were pooled together with sorghum seeds (a familiar food) to form a third set. Sunflower hearts were the most consumed of all the food items, followed by corn and granulated peanuts. We discuss the potential factors mediating consumption choice, including nutritional profile and food particle size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Six pigeons were trained using a matching-to-sample procedure where sample and rewarded comparisons matched on both attributional (color and relational (horizontal or vertical orientation dimensions. Probes then evaluated the pigeons’ preference to comparisons that varied in these dimensions. A strong preference was found for the attribute of color. The discrimination was not found to transfer to novel colors, however, suggesting that a general color rule had not been learned. Further, when color could not be used to guide responding, some influence of other attributional cues such as shape, but not relational cues, was found. We conclude that pigeons based their performance on attributional properties of but not on relational properties between elements in our matching-to-sample procedure.. Future studies should look at examining other attributes to compare attributional versus relational processing.
Wasserman, Edward A; Brzykcy, Stephen J
Procrastination is the tendency to delay initiating or completing tasks. Rosenbaum et al. (Psychological Science, May 8, 2014) recently documented the opposite of procrastination: pre-crastination, the tendency to begin or to finish tasks as soon as possible. We devised a simple two-alternative forced-choice task, in which pigeons could choose to switch response location either sooner or later in a sequence of actions eventuating in food reward. Even though there was no economic advantage for doing so, pigeons chose to switch response location sooner rather than later in the sequence, showing pre-crastination to be quite general. Pre-crastination thus joins other anticipatory learning phenomena in challenging rational or optimal accounts of behavioral adaptation.
Uchino, Emiko; Watanabe, Shigeru
Recognition of a self-image in a mirror is investigated using the mark test during which a mark is placed onto a point on the body that is not directly visible, and the presence or absence of self-directed behaviors is evaluated for the mirror-observing subjects. Great apes, dolphins, possibly elephants, and magpies have all passed the mark test, that is, displayed self-directed behaviors, whereas monkeys, crows, and other animals have failed the test even though they were able to use a mirror to find a not-directly-visible object. Self-directed behavior and mirror use are prerequisites of a successful mark test, and the absence of these behaviors may lead to false negative results. Epstein, Lanza, and Skinner (1981) reported self-directed behavior of pigeons in front of a mirror after explicit training of self-directed pecking and of pecking an object with the aid of a mirror, but certain other researchers could not confirm the results. The aim of the present study was to conduct the mark test with two pigeons that had received extensive training of the prerequisite behaviors. Crucial points of the training were identical topography (pecking) and the same reinforcement (food) in the prerequisite behaviors as well as sufficient training of these behaviors. After training for the prerequisite behaviors, both pigeons spontaneously integrated the learned self-directed and mirror-use behavior and displayed self-directed behavior in a mark test. This indicates that pigeons display mirror self-recognition after training of suitable ontogenetic contingency. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Aitken, Michael R. F.
In a series of experiments, both pigeon and human subjects were trained to categorise two groups of confusable stimuli, with each category being made up of distortions of a ‘Prototype’. Once the subjects had successfully learned to categorise the training stimuli, they were tested on their responding to a variety of previously unseen stimuli: these were distortions of the Prototypes towards (‘Closer’ exemplars), or away from (‘Further’ exemplars), the other category, and the Prototypes thems...
Two positive results were recorded for white pigeons, while only one black pigeon showed evidence of NDV. From this study, the carrier rate of NDV in pigeons in Owerri area of Imo State is estimated at 5% Keywords: Carrier Rate, Newcastle Disease Virus, Pigeons. Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences Vol. 14 (1) 2005: ...
Full Text Available Os pombos possuem uma rica diversidade de microrganismo, entre eles fungos sapróbios, como do gênero Cryptococcus, que podem atuar como agentes patogênicos para o homem e animais. Objetivou-se o isolamento, a caracterização bioquímica e a molecular de amostras de Cryptococcus spp. de excretas ambientas de pombos. Foram colhidas 100 amostras ambientais de pontos equidistantes e representativos da área da cidade de Araçatuba, São Paulo. As amostras foram rasteladas do solo de vias públicas, armazenadas em frasco coletor e encaminhadas para o Laboratório de Bacteriologia e Micologia da FMVA, onde foram processadas e cultivadas em duplicata, em placas de Petri contendo ágar Sabouraud dextrose a 4% e Niger. Em seguida, foram incubadas à temperatura ambiente e a 30ºC, respectivamente, por um período não inferior a 15 dias. Após a observação diária, as colônias sugestivas para levedura foram reisoladas em ágar Niger e submetidas a testes bioquímicos para posterior caracterização molecular pela técnica da PCR. Como resultado, a caracterização bioquímica e a molecular isolaram 32 colônias leveduriformes, sendo 8% dos cultivos positivos para Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans, 17% para Rhodotorula rubidae e 7% Candida albicans. Pelo exposto, concluiu-se que excretas ambientais de pombos constituem um microfoco para Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans e outras leveduras com potencial patogênico, representando um risco à saúde pública, sendo necessárias medidas preventivas, como a higienização com a correta remoção das excretas, a fim de minimizar os riscos de exposição ambiental.
Maíra Aparecida Stefanini
Full Text Available A região epididimária do pombo doméstico compreende a parte principal da rede testicular, os dúctulos eferentes do testículo e o ducto epididimário. Os canais epiteliais da rede testicular são contínuos com o segmento extratesticular da rede, o qual, por sua vez, é seqüente com os dúctulos eferentes proximais e distais e, finalmente, o ducto epididimário se forma em continuidade aos eferentes distais. O epitélio de revestimento deste sistema tubular extratesticular é cúbico simples na rede testicular e pseudo-estratificado colunar nos outros ductos da região epididimária, com células ciliadas e não-ciliadas presentes principalmente nos dúctulos eferentes. As características ultra-estruturais das células epiteliais dos túbulos da região epididimária do pombo, com base comparativa, permitiram inferir que a reabsorção de fluido seminífero parece ser a função principal dessas células, embora outros papéis citofisiológicos foram também propostos, tais como: endocitose adsorptiva, ciliogênese, e possivelmente secreção apócrina nas células não-ciliadas escuras.
Ferreira, João Manuel Silva Loureiro Alves
O crescimento da população humana deverá continuar até 2050. Por este motivo, a competição por matérias-primas entre a nossa alimentação e a alimentação animal será inevitável, tornando importante o recurso a matérias-primas alternativas, provenientes dos excedentes da indústria alimentar, como o bagaço de maçã e o resíduo da filtração do sumo concentrado denominado por retentato de maçã. Dentro das gamas de produtos fabricados pela indústria da alimentação animal, temos as rações para pom...
Germination increased water absorption capacity, bulk density, oil absorption capacity, foaming capacity, foaming stability, emulsion activity, nitrogen solubility and decreased gelatin and wetability of the pigeon pea flour. Germinated pigeon pea flour has great potentials in food prperations that require hydration to improve ...
One hundred and eighty 7-day old broilers were used in a 28-day feeding trial to determine the substitution value of toasted pigeon pea seeds meal (TPSM) for soybean meal and maize in boiler starter diet. The brown coat coloured pigeon pea seeds were toasted at 100oC for 15minutes and milled. The inclusion levels of ...
Effective management of pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) in a crop/livestock integrated farming system in northern Ghana. ... Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science ... Pigeon pea plots with row lengths averaging 11 m and a planting geometry of 80 cm W 50 cm, were either pruned at 60 or 100 cm above ground level or not ...
Patton, N M; Brown, R V; Middleton, C C
Exogenous cholesterol was fed to F1 pigeons of high and low serum cholesterol differentiated lines of White Carneau and Racing Homer pigeons that had previously been developed by selection and positive assortive mating. The serum cholesterol response of the various high and low lines was dependent upon the breed and the amount of cholesterol in the diet. Racing Homer pigeons were found to be more resistant to aortic atherosclerosis and more susceptible to coronary atherosclerosis than White Carneau pigeons. Data from necropsy examinations showed significant differences in both aortic and coronary atherosclerosis between lines within the White Carneau breed, but no differences between lines of the Racing Homer breed. Mean organ weights for the 4 lines of pigeons were reported.
Olias, Philipp; Olias, Lena; Krücken, Jürgen; Lierz, Michael; Gruber, Achim D
The emerging Sarcocystis calchasi induces a severe and lethal central nervous disease in its intermediate host, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica). Experimental studies have identified the Northern goshawk (Accipiter g. gentilis) as final host. Phylogenetically closely related European sparrowhawks (Accipiter n. nisus) and wood pigeons (Columba palumbus) have been found to harbor genetically closely related Sarcocystis spp. However, data on the prevalence and potential interspecies occurrence of these parasites are lacking. Here, we report that European Accipiter hawks (Accipitrinae) are highly infected with S. calchasi, S. columbae and Sarcocystis sp. ex A. nisus in their small intestine. Thirty-one of 50 (62%) Northern goshawks necropsied during 1997-2008 were positive for S. calchasi in a newly established species-specific semi-nested PCR assay based on the first internal transcribed spacer region. Unexpectedly, 14 of 20 (71.4%) European sparrowhawks tested also positive. In addition, birds of both species were found to be infested with S. columbae and an, as yet, unnamed Sarcocystis sp. recently isolated from European sparrowhawks. These findings raise new questions about the host specificity of S. calchasi and its high virulence in domestic pigeons, since sparrowhawks only rarely prey on pigeons. Notably, isolated sporocysts from both infected Accipiter spp. measured 8 μm × 11.9 μm, precluding a preliminary identification of S. calchasi in feces of Accipiter hawks based on morphology alone. Importantly, three of four Northern goshawks used in falconry tested positive for S. calchasi. In conclusion, the results indicate that both European Accipter spp. in Germany serve as natural final hosts of S. calchasi and suggest that falconry and pigeon sport may serve as risk factors for the spread of this pathogen in domestic pigeons. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maria Clorinda Soares Fioravanti
Full Text Available Esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da termocauterização do folículo após a remoção das penas rêmiges primárias e da amputação do II e III metacarpianos (pinioning para coibir o vôo em pombos (Columba livia. Foram utilizadas trinta aves adultas, distribuídas de forma igualitária entre machos e fêmeas. Os animais foram alocados ao acaso em três grupos de dez animais. Nas aves do grupo 1 utilizou-se a técnica de pinioning; nas do grupo 2 praticou-se a termocauterização do folículo após a remoção das penas rêmiges primárias. O grupo 3 foi utilizado como controle. Quando se utilizou a técnica de pinioning, não houve crescimento das penas rêmiges primárias, exceto em um pássaro (10%, em que os ossos foram amputados no ponto médio entre as articulações carpo-metacarpo e falange. No grupo em que se utilizou a termocauterização, observaramse no pós-operatório necrose e sinais típicos de queimaduras, além de reposição parcial ou total das penas rêmiges primárias. Nesse grupo duas aves voaram normalmente, três voaram com dificuldade, duas alçaram vôos baixos e curtos e três não voaram. Avaliando os dois procedimentos, concluiu-se que a técnica de pinioning coibiu o vôo em 100% das aves operadas enquanto a termocauterização só coibiu 20%. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Asa, pinionig, termocauterização, pombo (Columbia livia.
Full Text Available Despite the fact that squab is consumed throughout the world because of its high nutritional value and appreciated sensory attributes, aspects related to its characterization, and in particular genetic issues, have rarely been studied. In this study, meat traits in terms of pH, water-holding capacity, intramuscular fat content, and fatty acid profile of the breast muscle of squabs from two meat pigeon breeds were determined. Breed-specific differences were detected in fat-related traits of intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition. RNA-Sequencing was applied to compare the transcriptomes of muscle and liver tissues between squabs of two breeds to identify candidate genes associated with the differences in the capacity of fat deposition. A total of 27 differentially expressed genes assigned to pathways of lipid metabolism were identified, of which, six genes belonged to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway along with four other genes. Our results confirmed in part previous reports in livestock and provided also a number of genes which had not been related to fat deposition so far. These genes can serve as a basis for further investigations to screen markers closely associated with intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in squabs. The data from this study were deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI’s Sequence Read Archive under the accession numbers SRX1680021 and SRX1680022. This is the first transcriptome analysis of the muscle and liver tissue in Columba using next generation sequencing technology. Data provided here are of potential value to dissect functional genes influencing fat deposition in squabs.
Pinkerton, Marie E; Wellehan, James F X; Johnson, April J; Childress, April L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Kinsel, Michael J
We report two separate naturally occurring cases of fatal herpesviral disease in Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii). Gross lesions included splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, with diffuse pale mottling or scattered small white foci. Histologic lesions included splenic and hepatic necrosis associated with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies characteristic of herpesvirus. In one case, necrosis and inclusions were also noted in bone marrow, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, ceca, and the enteric system. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated viral particles typical of herpesvirus within hepatocyte nuclei and budding from the nuclear membrane. Herpesviral DNA was amplified via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of paraffin-embedded liver and spleen, and sequence data were consistent with columbid herpesvirus-1, an alphaherpesvirus of Rock Pigeons (Columba livia). PCR results provide evidence that this disease is transmitted to raptors via Rock Pigeons, most likely through ingestion of Rock Pigeons as prey.
During the final down-thrust of a pigeon's head, the eyes are closed gradually, a response that was thought to block visual input. This phase of pecking was therefore assumed to be under feed-forward control exclusively. Analysis of high resolution video-recordings showed that visual information collected during the down-thrust of the head could be used for 'on-line' modulations of pecks in progress. We thus concluded that the final down-thrust of the head is not exclusively controlled by feed-forward mechanisms but also by visual feedback components. We could further establish that as a rule the eyes are never closed completely but instead the eyelids form a slit which leaves a part of the pupil uncovered. The width of the slit between the pigeon' eyelids is highly sensitive to both, ambient luminance and the visual background against which seeds are offered. It was concluded that eyelid slits increase the focal depth of retinal images at extreme near-field viewing-conditions. Applying pharmacological methods we could confirm that pupil size and eyelid slit width are controlled through conjoint neuronal mechanisms. This shared neuronal network is particularly sensitive to drugs that affect dopamine receptors.
Fetterman, J Gregor; Killeen, P Richard
Pigeons discriminated between two pairs of durations: a short set (2.5 and 5 sec) and a long set (5 and 10 sec). The pairs were intermixed within sessions and identified by the colors on the signal and choice keys. Once the task was learned, the pigeons experienced the following three conditions seriatim: (1) The signal key was made ambiguous about the test change, but the choice keys were informative (retrospective); (2) the signal key identified the test range, but the choice keys did not (prospective); (3) probe trials were introduced in which the color of the center key signaled one test range, but the color of the choice keys signaled the other test range (inconsistent). Accuracy of choice decreased in the retrospective condition and, returned to baseline levels, was higher under the prospective condition than under the retrospective condition. In a final condition, referred to as conflict trials, the center-key color signified one test range and the choice-key colors the other range. The results from these conflict-inconsistent tests indicate that choice behavior was largely controlled by the signal-key color and not by the choice-key color. We relate these findings to different approaches to timing in animals.
year (2010 and 2011 cropping seasons) field investigation conducted at the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, South Eastern Nigeria. Treatments comprised three pigeon pea hedgerow alley populations of 20,000, 33,333 and ...
Humans have the unique ability to create art, but non-human animals may be able to discriminate "good" art from "bad" art. In this study, I investigated whether pigeons could be trained to discriminate between paintings that had been judged by humans as either "bad" or "good". To do this, adult human observers first classified several children's paintings as either "good" (beautiful) or "bad" (ugly). Using operant conditioning procedures, pigeons were then reinforced for pecking at "good" paintings. After the pigeons learned the discrimination task, they were presented with novel pictures of both "good" and "bad" children's paintings to test whether they had successfully learned to discriminate between these two stimulus categories. The results showed that pigeons could discriminate novel "good" and "bad" paintings. Then, to determine which cues the subjects used for the discrimination, I conducted tests of the stimuli when the paintings were of reduced size or grayscale. In addition, I tested their ability to discriminate when the painting stimuli were mosaic and partial occluded. The pigeons maintained discrimination performance when the paintings were reduced in size. However, discrimination performance decreased when stimuli were presented as grayscale images or when a mosaic effect was applied to the original stimuli in order to disrupt spatial frequency. Thus, the pigeons used both color and pattern cues for their discrimination. The partial occlusion did not disrupt the discriminative behavior suggesting that the pigeons did not attend to particular parts, namely upper, lower, left or right half, of the paintings. These results suggest that the pigeons are capable of learning the concept of a stimulus class that humans name "good" pictures. The second experiment showed that pigeons learned to discriminate watercolor paintings from pastel paintings. The subjects showed generalization to novel paintings. Then, as the first experiment, size reduction test
Stagner, Jessica P; Case, Jacob P; Sticklen, Mary F; Duncan, Amanda K; Zentall, Thomas R
Pigeons show suboptimal choice on a gambling-like task similar to that shown by humans. Humans also show a preference for gambles in which there are near hits (losses that come close to winning). In the present research, we asked if pigeons would show a preference for alternatives with near-hit-like trials. In Experiment 1, we included an alternative that presented a near hit, in which a stimulus associated with reinforcement (a presumed conditioned reinforcer) changed to a stimulus associated with the absence of reinforcement (a presumed conditioned inhibitor). The pigeons tended to avoid this alternative. In Experiment 2, we varied the duration of the presumed conditioned reinforcer (2 vs. 8 s) that changed to a presumed conditioned inhibitor (8 vs. 2 s) and found that the longer the conditioned reinforcer was presented, the more the pigeons avoided it. In Experiment 3, the near-hit alternative involved an ambiguous stimulus for 8 s that changed to a presumed conditioned reinforcer (or a presumed conditioned inhibitor) for 2 s, but the pigeons still avoided it. In Experiment 4, we controlled for the duration of the conditioned reinforcer by presenting it first for 2 s followed by the ambiguous stimulus for 8 s. Once again, the pigeons avoided the alternative with the near-hit trials. In all 4 experiments, the pigeons tended to avoid alternatives that provided near-hit-like trials. We concluded that humans may be attracted to near-hit trials because near-hit trials give them the illusion of control, whereas this does not appear to be a factor for pigeons. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Sakagami, Takayuki; Lattal, Kennon A.
We describe an early operant conditioning chamber fabricated by Harvard University instrument maker Ralph Gerbrands and shipped to Japan in 1952 in response to a request of Professor B. F. Skinner by Japanese psychologists. It is a rare example, perhaps the earliest still physically existing, of such a chamber for use with pigeons. Although the overall structure and many of the components are similar to contemporary pigeon chambers, several differences are noted and contrasted to evolutionary...
Wright, Anthony A; Elmore, L Caitlin
Three pigeons were trained to remember arrays of 2-6 colored squares and detect which of two squares had changed color to test their visual short-term memory. Procedures (e.g., stimuli, displays, viewing times, delays) were similar to those used to test monkeys and humans. Following extensive training, pigeons performed slightly better than similarly trained monkeys, but both animal species were considerably less accurate than humans with the same array sizes (2, 4 and 6 items). Pigeons and monkeys showed calculated memory capacities of one item or less, whereas humans showed a memory capacity of 2.5 items. Despite the differences in calculated memory capacities, the pigeons' memory results, like those from monkeys and humans, were all well characterized by an inverse power-law function fit to d' values for the five display sizes. This characterization provides a simple, straightforward summary of the fundamental processing of visual short-term memory (how visual short-term memory declines with memory load) that emphasizes species similarities based upon similar functional relationships. By closely matching pigeon testing parameters to those of monkeys and humans, these similar functional relationships suggest similar underlying processes of visual short-term memory in pigeons, monkeys and humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Belda, Antonio; Cort?s, Carolina; Peir?, Victoriano
Background: The importance that birds of the Columbidae family have had throughout history is visible on the Mediterranean coast. Pigeon fancying is the art of breeding and training carrier pigeons and currently, several breeds exist. The sport of racing pigeons consists in covering a distance at maximum possible speed. However, pigeon breeding has another modality called “sport pigeon”, where several males follow a female. This study focusses on ethnobotanical knowledge of native and exotic ...
Wajid, Abdul; Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima; Sharma, Poonam; Goraichuk, Iryna V.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Afonso, Claudio L.
Two complete genome sequences of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are described here. Virulent isolates pigeon/Pakistan/Lahore/21A/2015 and pigeon/Pakistan/Lahore/25A/2015 were obtained from racing pigeons sampled in the Pakistani province of Punjab during 2015. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein genes and complete genomes classified the isolates as members of NDV class II, genotype VI.
Vanessa Barreto Xavier
Full Text Available Paratanaisia bragai is a trematode parasite that reaches sexual maturity in the kidney collecting ducts of domesticated and wild fowl and whose intermediate hosts are the snails Subulina octona and Leptinaria unilamellata. There are some discrepancies in descriptions of the pathology of this parasite in bird kidneys. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the kidneys of rock pigeons (Columba livia naturally infected and of chickens (Gallus gallus experimentally infected with Paratanaisia bragai, by means of macroscopic observation and by light and scanning electron microscopy. Both bird species showed significantly dilated collecting ducts. In addition, lymphocyte infiltration was observed in the kidneys of C. livia and metaplasia in the epithelial lining of the kidney collecting ducts of G. gallus.
Chen, Duxin; Vicsek, Tamás; Liu, Xiaolu; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Hai-Tao
To explore the fascinating inter-individual interaction mechanism governing the abundant biological grouping behaviors, more and more efforts have been devoted to collective motion investigation in recent years. Therein, bird flocking is one of the most intensively studied behaviors. A previous study (Nagy M. et al., Nature, 464 (2010) 890.) claims the existence of a well-defined hierarchical structure in pigeon flocks, which implies that a multi-layer leadership network leads to the occurrence of highly coordinated pigeon flock movements. However, in this study, by using high-resolution GPS data of homing flight of pigeon flocks, we reveal an explicit switching hierarchical mechanism underlying the group motions of pigeons. That is, a pigeon flock has a long-term leader for smooth moving trajectories, whereas the leading tenure passes to a temporary one upon sudden turns or zigzags. Therefore, the present observation helps explore more deeply into the principle of a huge volume of bird flocking dynamics. Meanwhile, from the engineering point of view, it may shed some light onto industrial multi-robot coordination and unmanned air vehicle formation control.
Retnaningsih, C.; Sumardi; Meiliana; Surya, A.
The objective of this study wasto investigate the physicochemical and sensory properties of the soy sauce substituted with pigeon pea. Soybean was substituted by 20%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of pigeon pea. The observation included viscosity, total solids, protein levels, antioxidant activity, and sensory characteristics. The results showed that the more substitution of pigeon pea, the less the protein content of soy sauce and the more the antioxidant activity as well as total solids. The most favored group was 25% pigeon pea substitution. It is suggested that soy sauce could be prepared using 25% to 75% pigeon pea substitution.
Full Text Available The project, Lomba Merpati, is a series of photographs and video works documenting pigeon racing in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Associated as a lower socio-economic class sport and tied up with expressions of Javanese masculinity, pigeon racing occupies a central position within much of the daily social activity of Javanese villages. The project explores the significance of pigeon training grounds as communal gathering points for young men in Yogyakarta. Comprising short video and photographic portraits, the series focuses on the performative gestures enacted by pigeon fanciers as they train their pigeons for short distance sprinting.
Stolf, Hamilton Ometto; Reis, Rejane d'Ávila; Espósito, Ana Cláudia Cavalcante; Haddad Júnior, Vidal
Pigeon lice are insects that feed on feathers of these birds; their life cycle includes egg, nymph and adult and they may cause dermatoses in humans. Four persons of the same family, living in an urban area, presented with widespread intensely pruritic erythematous papules. A great number of lice were seen in their house, which moved from a nest of pigeons located on the condenser of the air-conditioning to the dormitory of one of the patients. Even in urban environments, dermatitis caused by parasites of birds is a possibility in cases of acute prurigo simplex. Pigeon lice are possible etiological agents of this kind of skin eruption, although they are often neglected, even by dermatologists.
Klein, Marty; Rilling, Mark
Three groups of four pigeons, trained to press a treadle on a free-operant avoidance schedule, were given auditory discrimination training. Alternating 2-min components of avoidance and no shock were paired with either a tone or white noise. The pigeons were subsequently given two types of generalization tests, with and without avoidable shocks scheduled. Two of the groups, trained interdimensionally, produced excitatory and inhibitory generalization gradients along the tone frequency dimension. A predicted post-discrimination gradient was computed from the algebraic summation of these gradients of excitation and inhibition. The predicted gradient was compared with the actual post-discrimination gradient obtained from the third group of pigeons that had been given intradimensional discrimination training on the tone frequency dimension. The predicted postdiscrimination gradient agreed in shape with the empirical postdiscrimination gradient. The results in general support Spence's (1937) gradient interaction theory. PMID:16811735
Klumpp, S.A.; Clarkson, T.B.
The basis for atherosclerosis susceptibility of White Carneau (WC) and resistance of Show Racer (SR) pigeons is not known. Body weight (BW), total serum cholesterol (TSC), growth of the aorta and replication of endothelial cells of the distal thoracic aorta (lesion prone site) of 1, 2 and 4 week old squabs were studied. Aortic measurements were determined morphometrically, and endothelial cell replication was quantitated by 24-hour 3 H-thymidine labeling and whole-mount SEM autoradiography. From hatching to 4 weeks, BW increased more in WC than SR (22 to 473 gm in WC vs 19 to 416 gm in SR, p 2 ) in WC and 44% (101, 140 and 146 mm 2 ) in SR. Aortic surface area was significantly larger (0 = 0.002) in the 4 week WC than 4 week SR. 3 H-thymidine labeled endothelial cells at 1, 2 and 4 weeks were 783, 387 and 53 in WC and 674, 283 and 27 cells/mm 2 in SR. Endothelial replication in the 4 week WC was twice that of the SR and significantly different between breeds at 2 and 4 weeks (p = 0.04; p = 0.02, respectively). Higher TSC, endothelial cell replication and larger aortic surface area in the WC may be contributing factors to increased atherosclerosis susceptibility
Pigeons exposed to gradually increasing intensities of pulsing electric shock pecked a key and thereby reduced the intensity of shock to zero for 2 min. Acquisition of key pecking was brought about through an autoshaping process in which periodic brief keylight presentations immediately preceded automatic reduction of the shock. On the occasions of such automatic reduction of shock preceding the first measured key peck, little or no orientation to the key was observed. Observations of pigeons with autoshaping of positive reinforcement also revealed little evidence of orientation toward the key. ImagesFig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:16811371
Pigeons exposed to gradually increasing intensities of pulsing electric shock pecked a key and thereby reduced the intensity of shock to zero for 2 min. Acquisition of key pecking was brought about through an autoshaping process in which periodic brief keylight presentations immediately preceded automatic reduction of the shock. On the occasions of such automatic reduction of shock preceding the first measured key peck, little or no orientation to the key was observed. Observations of pigeons with autoshaping of positive reinforcement also revealed little evidence of orientation toward the key.
Sakagami, Takayuki; Lattal, Kennon A
We describe an early operant conditioning chamber fabricated by Harvard University instrument maker Ralph Gerbrands and shipped to Japan in 1952 in response to a request of Professor B. F. Skinner by Japanese psychologists. It is a rare example, perhaps the earliest still physically existing, of such a chamber for use with pigeons. Although the overall structure and many of the components are similar to contemporary pigeon chambers, several differences are noted and contrasted to evolutionary changes in this most important laboratory tool in the experimental analysis of behavior. The chamber also is testimony to the early internationalization of behavior analysis.
Full Text Available The mechanisms of pigeon homing are still not understood, in particular how they determine their position at unfamiliar locations. The "gravity vector" theory holds that pigeons memorize the gravity vector at their home loft and deduct home direction and distance from the angular difference between memorized and actual gravity vector. However, the gravity vector is tilted by different densities in the earth crust leading to gravity anomalies. We predicted that pigeons reared on different gravity anomalies would show different initial orientation and also show changes in their flight path when crossing a gravity anomaly. We reared one group of pigeons in a strong gravity anomaly with a north-to-south gravity gradient, and the other group of pigeons in a normal area but on a spot with a strong local anomaly with a west-to-east gravity gradient. After training over shorter distances, pigeons were released from a gravitationally and geomagnetically normal site 50 km north in the same direction for both home lofts. As expected by the theory, the two groups of pigeons showed divergent initial orientation. In addition, some of the GPS-tracked pigeons also showed changes in their flight paths when crossing gravity anomalies. We conclude that even small local gravity anomalies at the birth place of pigeons may have the potential to bias the map sense of pigeons, while reactivity to gravity gradients during flight was variable and appeared to depend on individual navigational strategies and frequency of position updates.
Angelier, Fr?d?ric; Parenteau, Charline; Trouv?, Colette; Angelier, Nicole
Although the transfer of wild animals to captivity is crucial for conservation purposes, this process is often challenging because some species or individuals do not adjust well to captive conditions. Chronic stress has been identified as a major concern for animals held on long-term captivity. Surprisingly, the first hours or days of captivity have been relatively overlooked. However, they are certainly very stressful, because individuals are being transferred to a totally novel and confined...
Kuroda, Toshikazu; Lattal, Kennon A.; García-Penagos, Andrés
Using a conditional discrimination procedure, pigeons were exposed to a nonverbal analogue of qualifying autoclitics such as "definitely" and "maybe." It has been suggested that these autoclitics are similar to tacts except that they are under the control of private discriminative stimuli. Instead of the conventional assumption…
Reinking, A.; Steyn-Parvé, Elizabeth P.
[14C6]Glucose was given orally to pigeons. After 3 h, the state—other than glycogen or fatty acids—in which radioactive carbon was present in the tissues was investigated. Nearly all the radioactive material could be extracted with 5% trichloroacetic acid. Most of the label thus extracted was
Despite a stream of publications acknowledging the war-time role of non- ... discourse on the military or of bridging the “long-existing gap in the larger narrative ... the pigeon memorialisation movement in general and in France and Belgium in ...... a short time: New perspectives on the Anglo-Boer War, Pretoria: Nexus.
Dixit, A K; Kushwaha, R K
Keratinophilic fungi were isolated from feathers of most common Indian birds, viz. domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic pigeon (Columba livia), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), house crow (Corvus splendens), duck (Anas sp.), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Out of 87 birds, 58 yielded 4 keratinophilic fungal genera representing 13 fungal species and one sterile mycelium. The isolated fungi were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar at 28 +/- 2 degrees C. Chrysosporium species were isolated on most of the birds. Chrysosporium lucknowense and Chrysosporium tropicum were the most common fungal species associated with these Indian birds. Maximum occurrence of fungi (47%) was recorded on domestic chickens and the least number of keratinophilic fungi was isolated from the domestic pigeon and duck. The average number of fungi per bird was found to be the 0.44.
Bernstein, M H; Hudson, D M; Stearns, J M; Hoyt, R W
This paper presents the procedures and equations to be utilized for measurement of evaporative water loss (mw), by use of the dew-point hygrometer, in small animals exposed to air containing water vapor in an open-flow system. The system accounted accurately for the water evaporated from a bubble flask. In addition, hygrometric measurements of pulmocutaneous mw in pigeons (Columba livia, mean mass 0.31 kg) agreed closely with simultaneous gravimetric measurements, utilizing a desiccant in the sample stream, in a manner independently of air temperature (Ta, 20 or 40 degrees C), ambient water vapor pressure (PW, 4-16 10(2) Pa), or mw (5-66 mg-min-1). Evaporation in pigeons was independent of PW at 20 degrees C, but increased with decreasing PW at 40 degrees C, suggesting differences in ventilatory adjustments to changes in PW at the two temperatures.
Full Text Available Pigeons are often considered a nuisance in urban environments, leading to the attempted control or eradication of their populations. This study explored the perceptions of 246 staff members employed on the University of South Africa’s Muckleneuk campus to ascertain the extent and nature of the perceived pigeon problem, suggested control methodologies and their anticipated results. The study found that the majority of staff do not consider the pigeons to pose a problem on the campus and that, should control be imposed, humane, non-lethal measures were preferred over eradication. The isolated pigeon-related complaints revealed that the management’s negative perceptions of the pigeons were not representative of staff members in general. The study concludes that a comprehensive public participation process is a necessary and integral part of the development and implementation of a sustainable and efficient pigeon control plan.
Murray, Gemma G R; Soares, André E R; Novak, Ben J; Schaefer, Nathan K; Cahill, James A; Baker, Allan J; Demboski, John R; Doll, Andrew; Da Fonseca, Rute R; Fulton, Tara L; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Heintzman, Peter D; Letts, Brandon; McIntosh, George; O'Connell, Brendan L; Peck, Mark; Pipes, Marie-Lorraine; Rice, Edward S; Santos, Kathryn M; Sohrweide, A Gregory; Vohr, Samuel H; Corbett-Detig, Russell B; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth
The extinct passenger pigeon was once the most abundant bird in North America, and possibly the world. Although theory predicts that large populations will be more genetically diverse, passenger pigeon genetic diversity was surprisingly low. To investigate this disconnect, we analyzed 41 mitochondrial and 4 nuclear genomes from passenger pigeons and 2 genomes from band-tailed pigeons, which are passenger pigeons' closest living relatives. Passenger pigeons' large population size appears to have allowed for faster adaptive evolution and removal of harmful mutations, driving a huge loss in their neutral genetic diversity. These results demonstrate the effect that selection can have on a vertebrate genome and contradict results that suggested that population instability contributed to this species's surprisingly rapid extinction. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Wajid, Abdul; Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima; Sharma, Poonam; Goraichuk, Iryna V.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.
Two complete genome sequences of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are described here. Virulent isolates pigeon/Pakistan/Lahore/21A/2015 and pigeon/Pakistan/Lahore/25A/2015 were obtained from racing pigeons sampled in the Pakistani province of Punjab during 2015. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein genes and complete genomes classified the isolates as members of NDV class II, genotype VI. PMID:27540069
Antonissen, Gunther; Haesendonck, Roel; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; Verbrugghe, Elin; De Saeger, Sarah; Audenaert, Kris; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Croubels, Siska; Martel, An
Seed-based pigeon diets could be expected to result in exposure of pigeons to mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). Ingestion of low to moderate contamination levels of DON may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host-pathogen interactions and thus different outcome of infections. Here we demonstrate that DON was one of the most frequently detected mycotoxins in seed-based racing pigeons feed, contaminating 5 out of 10 samples (range 177-...
Adenekan, Monilola K.; Fadimu, Gbemisola J.; Odunmbaku, Lukumon A.; Oke, Emmanuel K.
Abstract In this study, the effect of different isolation techniques on the isolated proteins from pigeon pea was investigated. Water, methanol, ammonium sulfate, and acetone were used for the precipitation of proteins from pigeon pea. Proximate composition, and antinutritional and functional properties of the pigeon pea flour and the isolated proteins were measured. Data generated were statistically analyzed. The proximate composition of the water‐extracted protein isolate was moisture 8.30%...
Zuckerman, B.; Rhee, Joseph H.; Song, Inseok; Bessell, M. S.
We propose 35 star systems within ∼70 pc of Earth as newly identified members of nearby young stellar kinematic groups; these identifications include the first A- and late-B-type members of the AB Doradus moving group and field Argus Association. All but one of the 35 systems contain a bright solar- or earlier-type star that should make an excellent target for the next generation of adaptive optics (AO) imaging systems on large telescopes. AO imaging has revealed four massive planets in orbit around the λ Boo star HR 8799. Initially, the planets were of uncertain mass due in large part to the uncertain age of the star. We find that HR 8799 is a likely member of the ∼30 Myr old Columba Association, implying planet masses ∼6 times that of Jupiter. We consider Spitzer Space Telescope MIPS photometry of stars in the ∼30 Myr old Tucana/Horologium and Columba Associations, the ∼40 Myr old field Argus Association, and the ∼70 Myr old AB Doradus moving group. The percentage of stars in these young stellar groups that display excess emission above the stellar photosphere at 24 and 70 μm wavelengths-indicative of the presence of a dusty debris disk-is compared with corresponding percentages for members of 11 open clusters and stellar associations with ages between 8 and 750 Myr, thus elucidating the decay of debris disks with time.
Zuckerman, B.; Rhee, Joseph H.; Song, Inseok; Bessell, M. S.
We propose 35 star systems within ~70 pc of Earth as newly identified members of nearby young stellar kinematic groups; these identifications include the first A- and late-B-type members of the AB Doradus moving group and field Argus Association. All but one of the 35 systems contain a bright solar- or earlier-type star that should make an excellent target for the next generation of adaptive optics (AO) imaging systems on large telescopes. AO imaging has revealed four massive planets in orbit around the λ Boo star HR 8799. Initially, the planets were of uncertain mass due in large part to the uncertain age of the star. We find that HR 8799 is a likely member of the ~30 Myr old Columba Association, implying planet masses ~6 times that of Jupiter. We consider Spitzer Space Telescope MIPS photometry of stars in the ~30 Myr old Tucana/Horologium and Columba Associations, the ~40 Myr old field Argus Association, and the ~70 Myr old AB Doradus moving group. The percentage of stars in these young stellar groups that display excess emission above the stellar photosphere at 24 and 70 μm wavelengths—indicative of the presence of a dusty debris disk—is compared with corresponding percentages for members of 11 open clusters and stellar associations with ages between 8 and 750 Myr, thus elucidating the decay of debris disks with time.
Passe, Dennis H.
A classical conditioning procedure (autoshaping) was used to determine absolute visual threshold in the pigeon. This method provides the basis for a standardized visual psychophysical paradigm. PMID:16812228
Full Text Available Soil decompaction is generally achieved through mechanical cultivation practices; however biological processes can significantly add to this process through root growth, development, and later senescence. This study was carried out in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil and had the purpose of selecting, among forty one pure pigeon pea lines, the most efficient genotypes that promote soil decompaction by roots penetrating compacted soil layers. Utilizing artificially compacted 30 mm high soil blocks, in a series of experiments, these lines were compared to the cultivar Fava Larga taken as a standard. Three lines were preliminarily selected out of the initial group, and afterwards, in more detailed screenings by monitoring soil resistance to penetration and also evaluating the behavior of Tanzania grass plants seeded after pigeon pea, two of them, g5-94 and g8-95, were selected as possessing the most fit root system to penetrate compacted soil layers.
Carmen Lucia Navarro V
Full Text Available Due to the current situation of inadequate nutrition in the population of many countries, including Colombia. Search sources rich in proteins and low-cost alternatives. The pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan is an important legume that contain a mo derate amount of protein, calories, vitamins and minerals, its use in foods is limited by the presence of anti-nutritional factors, which can be reduced or eliminated through the use of treatments. The proteins have functional properties that can be take advantage in meat, dairy and bakery products. The purpose of this review is to present an overview of the skills nutritional and functional properties of pigeon pea application opportunities in various applications in the food industry.
Young, Michael E; Wasserman, Edward A
We taught 8 pigeons to discriminate 16-icon arrays that differed in their visual variability or "entropy" to see whether the relationship between entropy and discriminative behavior is linear (in which equivalent differences in entropy should produce equivalent changes in behavior) or logarithmic (in which higher entropy values should be less discriminable from one another than lower entropy values). Pigeons received a go/no-go task in which the lower entropy arrays were reinforced for one group and the higher entropy arrays were reinforced for a second group. The superior discrimination of the second group was predicted by a theoretical analysis in which excitatory and inhibitory stimulus generalization gradients fall along a logarithmic, but not a linear scale. Reanalysis of previously published data also yielded results consistent with a logarithmic relationship between entropy and discriminative behavior.
Wada, Y; Kondo, H; Itakura, C
An occurrence of peripheral neuropathy in nine 14- to 55-day-old racing pigeons was documented. The predominant clinical signs were diarrhea, and leg and wing paralysis. Grossly, there was discoloration and swelling of all the peripheral nerve trunks. Microscopic lesions comprising swelling, fragmentation and demyelination of myelin sheaths, and proliferation of Schwann cells, were seen in the peripheral nerves of all birds examined. These changes were associated with moderate to severe swelling, fragmentation, atrophy and loss of axons. The peripheral nerve lesions in these cases were similar to those of dietary riboflavin deficiency in chickens. An analysis of the diet given to the pigeons indicated that the riboflavin concentration was only 0.9 mg/kg feed.
Full Text Available The pigeon squabs, aged 5-26 day-old, showed clinical signs of dullness, anorexia, indigestion, reten-tion of feed in crop, progressive emaciation then died. The morbidity rate and mortality rate were 7.14% (50/700. The adult pigeons did not show any signs of disease. From pathological finding, pharyngitis, esophagitis were found with diphtheritic membrane covering necrotic ulcers on the mucosa of pharynx, esophagus and crop. From histopathological findings, esophagitis with epithelial hyperplasia and sloughed, lamina propria mucosa edema with lymphoid cells infiltration were found in duodenum and jejunum. The intranuclear inclusion body, Cowdry type A, was found in epithelial mucosa of esophagus, enterocyte of jejunum and lymphoid cells in spleen. FA test to duck virus enteritis and inoculation to ducklings showed negative results. Electron microscopic study revealed electron dense core sized 146-167 nm., which was identified as herpesvirus.
Roberts, William A; Strang, Caroline; Macpherson, Krista
Pigeons' performance on a working memory task, symbolic delayed matching-to-sample, was used to examine the interaction between working memory and reference memory. Reference memory was established by training pigeons to discriminate between the comparison cues used in delayed matching as S+ and S- stimuli. Delayed matching retention tests then measured accuracy when working and reference memory were congruent and incongruent. In 4 experiments, it was shown that the interaction between working and reference memory is reciprocal: Strengthening either type of memory leads to a decrease in the influence of the other type of memory. A process dissociation procedure analysis of the data from Experiment 4 showed independence of working and reference memory, and a model of working memory and reference memory interaction was shown to predict the findings reported in the 4 experiments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Beisner, Kimberly R.; Paretti, Nicholas; Tillman, Fred; Naftz, David L.; Bills, Donald; Walton-Day, Katie; Gallegos, Tanya J.
The processes that affect water chemistry as the water flows from recharge areas through breccia-pipe uranium deposits in the Grand Canyon region of the southwestern United States are not well understood. Pigeon Spring had elevated uranium in 1982 (44 μg/L), compared to other perched springs (2.7–18 μg/L), prior to mining operations at the nearby Pigeon Mine. Perched groundwater springs in an area around the Pigeon Mine were sampled between 2009 and 2015 and compared with material from the Pigeon Mine to better understand the geochemistry and hydrology of the area. Two general groups of perched groundwater springs were identified from this study; one group is characterized by calcium sulfate type water, low uranium activity ratio 234U/238U (UAR) values, and a mixture of water with some component of modern water, and the other group by calcium-magnesium sulfate type water, higher UAR values, and radiocarbon ages indicating recharge on the order of several thousand years ago. Multivariate statistical principal components analysis of Pigeon Mine and spring samples indicate Cu, Pb, As, Mn, and Cd concentrations distinguished mining-related leachates from perched groundwater springs. The groundwater potentiometric surface indicates that perched groundwater at Pigeon Mine would likely flow toward the northwest away from Pigeon Spring. The geochemical analysis of the water, sediment and rock samples collected from the Snake Gulch area indicate that the elevated uranium at Pigeon Spring is likely related to a natural source of uranium upgradient from the spring and not likely related to the Pigeon Mine.
Andrade, Leonardo F; Hackenberg, Timothy D
Pigeons made repeated choices between earning and exchanging reinforcer-specific tokens (green tokens exchangeable for food, red tokens exchangeable for water) and reinforcer-general tokens (white tokens exchangeable for food or water) in a closed token economy. Food and green food tokens could be earned on one panel; water and red water tokens could be earned on a second panel; white generalized tokens could be earned on either panel. Responses on one key produced tokens according to a fixed-ratio schedule, whereas responses on a second key produced exchange periods, during which all previously earned tokens could be exchanged for the appropriate commodity. Most conditions were conducted in a closed economy, and pigeons distributed their token allocation in ways that permitted food and water consumption. When the price of all tokens was equal and low, most pigeons preferred the generalized tokens. When token-production prices were manipulated, pigeons reduced production of the tokens that increased in price while increasing production of the generalized tokens that remained at a fixed price. The latter is consistent with a substitution effect: Generalized tokens increased and were exchanged for the more expensive reinforcer. When food and water were made freely available outside the session, token production and exchange was sharply reduced but was not eliminated, even in conditions when it no longer produced tokens. The results join with other recent data in showing sustained generalized functions of token reinforcers, and demonstrate the utility of token-economic methods for assessing demand for and substitution among multiple commodities in a laboratory context. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
... mourning and white-winged doves and wild pigeons. 20.103 Section 20.103 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... shooting hours for mourning and white-winged doves and wild pigeons. This section provides for the annual hunting of certain doves and pigeons in the 48 contiguous United States. The mourning dove hunting...
Garcia, Andres; Benjumea, Santiago
In Experiment 1, 10 pigeons were exposed to a successive symbolic matching-to-sample procedure in which the sample was generated by the pigeons' own behavior. Each trial began with both response keys illuminated white, one being the "correct" key and the other the "incorrect" key. The pigeons had no way of discriminating which key was correct and…
Woodruff, Guy; Williams, D. R.
Fifteen pigeons were exposed to either response-independent or response-dependent schedules of water reinforcement, whereby water was injected directly into the unrestrained pigeons' mandibles. Key-contact responses were released by a lighted key correlated with water, but not by a lighted key uncorrelated with water. A negative response-reinforcer contingency suppressed autoshaped key-contact responses, resulting in responding directed away from the lighted key. In all pigeons, water injected directly into the mandibles elicited a consummatory fixed-action pattern of “mumbling” and swallowing. The lighted key correlated with water released a broader set of both appetitive and consummatory responses: approach to the lighted key, “bowing”, “rooting”, “mumbling”, and swallowing. Key-contact responses were “rooting” and “mumbling” motions of the beak on the surface of the key. Views of autoshaping based on stimulus substitution or stimulus surrogation do not fully explain the origin of autoshaped responses not previously elicited by the reinforcer. The present findings are consonant with views of conditioning that emphasize the large degree of biological pre-organization in conditioned response patterns, and the importance of associative factors in the control of such patterns. PMID:16811924
Ploog, Bertram O
A modified autoshaping paradigm (significantly different from those previously reported in the summation literature) was employed to allow for the simultaneous assessment of stimulus summation and subtraction in pigeons. The response requirements and the probability of food delivery were adjusted such that towards the end of training 12 of 48 trials ended in food delivery, the same proportion as under testing. Stimuli (outlines of squares of three sizes and colors: A, B, and C) were used that could be presented separately or in any combination of two or three stimuli. Twelve of the pigeons (summation groups) were trained with either A, B, and C or with AB, BC, and CA, and tested with ABC. The remaining 12 pigeons (subtraction groups) received training with ABC but were tested with A, B, and C or with AB, BC, and CA. These groups were further subdivided according to whether stimulus elements were presented either in a concentric or dispersed manner. Summation did not occur; subtraction occurred in the two concentric groups. For interpretation of the results, configural theory, the Rescorla-Wagner model, and the composite-stimulus control model were considered. The results suggest different mechanisms responsible for summation and subtraction.
Wasserman, Edward A.; Teng, Yuejia; Castro, Leyre
Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of this contextual cueing effect using a novel Cueing-Miscueing design. Pigeons had to peck a target which could appear in one of four possible locations on four possible color backgrounds or four possible color photographs of real-world scenes. On 80% of the trials, each of the contexts was uniquely paired with one of the target locations; on the other 20% of the trials, each of the contexts was randomly paired with the remaining target locations. Pigeons came to exhibit robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 2 s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on correctly-cued trials than on incorrectly-cued trials. Contextual cueing proved to be more robust with photographic backgrounds than with uniformly colored backgrounds. In addition, during the context-target delay, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. These findings confirm the effectiveness of animal models of contextual cueing and underscore the important part played by associative learning in producing the effect. PMID:24491468
Forsyth, I.A.; Buntin, J.D.; Nicoll, C.S.
Ovine prolactin, labelled with 125 I by either lactoperoxidase or a mild chloramine T method, was bound to receptors from the pigeon crop sac mucosa cells of prolactin-injected pigeons. Binding was demonstrated in a crude homogenate of mucosal cells removed from the crop by scraping and in a subcellular fraction in which 5'- nucleotidase activity was enhanced two- to three-fold. The binding was specific, dependent on time, temperature and the concentration of receptors and had a dissociation constant of 7 x 10 -10 mol/l. The binding capacity of the crop tissue was 71 fmol/mg membrane protein. Nine purified preparations of prolactin from four species were assayed by local pigeon crop sac bioassay and by radioreceptor assay. The two methods were highly correlated (r = 0.934). The regression equation was radioreceptor assay = 1.22 bioassay - 0.18 indicating a 1:1 correspondence between the two methods for prolactin purified from sheep, rat, horse and pig anterior pituitary glands. (author)
Full Text Available The article discusses representations of time and space in the frescoes in the garden room of Empress Livia's villa at Prima Porta, near Rome. The frescoes, dated to ca 30–20 B.C., decorates an underground chamber in a vast villa-complex and show an "impossible garden" in that its vegetation is simultaneously and continuously flowering, without any realistic connection to time. Through analysis of the vegetation's spatial organization, the representation of birds and the chamber's placement in the villa-complex, the article examines the significance of the garden, be it real or imaginary, as an arena for instilling and expressing Roman civic values and duties. It addresses the potential relevance of the villa's imperial connection and questions whether the frescoes are to be read as expressions of "art of the state" or "state of the art".
Ahmed John, S.
A study was undertaken in pigeon pea parents and their F 1 hybrid to analyse the pollen and seed fertility following gamma irradiation. It is found that the reduction of pollen and seed fertility in pigeon pea was lesser over those of black gram and cowpea. 5 refs., 1 tab
Urcuioli, Peter J.
Five experiments assessed associative symmetry in pigeons. In Experiments 1A, 1B and 2, pigeons learned two-alternative symbolic matching with identical sample- and comparison-response requirements and with matching stimuli appearing in all possible locations. Despite controlling for the nature of the functional stimuli and insuring all requisite…
Use of Cowpea and Pigeon pea as Nutritional Ingredients in Culture Media. ... Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences ... Cheap, locally available plant seeds such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) could be used in the design and formulation of microbial culture media in order to reduce the cost.
Goring, R L; Goldman, A; Kaufman, K J; Roberts, C; Quesenberry, K E; Kollias, G V
A technique for duodenal alimentation (needle catheter duodenostomy) of birds was developed, using the domestic pigeon (Columba livia) as the experimental model. A needle catheter was inserted into the descending duodenum of 5 pigeons and was secured to the body wall and dorsum of each bird. A liquid diet was administered daily (in equal amounts of 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 hours) for 14 days without adverse effects. On day 15, the catheters were removed, and the birds immediately resumed normal consumption of a pigeon ration and water diet. Although 4 of the 5 birds had minor weight loss, dietary alterations probably could be used on an individual basis to alleviate this problem. After oral alimentation was resumed, the 5 birds exceeded their initial body weight within 7 days. Four weeks after catheter removal, positive-contrast radiographic evaluations indicated that the duodenum of each pigeon appeared normal. Needle catheter duodenostomy was a viable method of alimentation in the domestic pigeon. This technique should be applicable for other avian species requiring bypass of the upper gastrointestinal tract proximal to the region of catheter insertion in the duodenum.
Heupink, Tim H; van Grouw, Hein; Lambert, David M
The closely related and extinct Dodo (Raphus cucullatus) and Rodrigues Solitaire (Pezophaps solitaria), both in the subfamily Raphinae, are members of a clade of morphologically very diverse pigeons. Genetic analyses have revealed that the Nicobar Pigeon (Caloenas nicobarica) is the closest living relative of these birds, thereby highlighting their ancestors' remarkable migration and morphological evolution. The Spotted Green Pigeon (Caloenas maculata) was described in 1783 and showed some similarities to the Nicobar Pigeon. Soon however the taxon fell into obscurity, as it was regarded as simply an abnormal form of the Nicobar Pigeon. The relationship between both taxa has occasionally been questioned, leading some ornithologists to suggest that the two may in fact be different taxa. Today only one of the original two specimens survives and nothing is known about the origin of the taxon. Due to its potential close relationship, the Spotted Green Pigeon may hold clues to the historical migration, isolation and morphological evolution of the Dodo and its kindred. We use ancient DNA methodologies to investigate the phylogeny and authenticity of the Spotted Green Pigeon. A novel extraction method with the ability to retain and purify heavily fragmented DNA is used to investigate two feathers from the sole surviving specimen. Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analyses reveal that the Spotted Green Pigeon is a unique lineage and together with the Nicobar Pigeon, is basal to the Dodo and Rodrigues Solitaire. The distance observed for the Spotted Green Pigeon and Nicobar Pigeon is larger than that observed within other Pigeon species, indicating that the Spotted Green pigeon is a unique taxon, thereby also indicating it is a genuine addition to the list of extinct species. The phylogenetic placement of the Spotted Green Pigeon indicates that the ancestors of both Caloenas and therefore Raphinae displayed and shared the following traits: ability of flight, semi
Antonissen, Gunther; Haesendonck, Roel; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; Verbrugghe, Elin; De Saeger, Sarah; Audenaert, Kris; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Croubels, Siska; Martel, An
Seed-based pigeon diets could be expected to result in exposure of pigeons to mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). Ingestion of low to moderate contamination levels of DON may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host-pathogen interactions and thus different outcome of infections. Here we demonstrate that DON was one of the most frequently detected mycotoxins in seed-based racing pigeons feed, contaminating 5 out of 10 samples (range 177-1,466 μg/kg). Subsequently, a toxicokinetic analysis revealed a low absolute oral bioavailability (F) of DON in pigeons (30.4%), which is comparable to other avian species. Furthermore, semi-quantitative analysis using high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed that DON-3α-sulphate is the major metabolite of DON in pigeons after intravenous as well as oral administration. Following ingestion of DON contaminated feed, the intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to significant DON concentrations which eventually may affect intestinal translocation and colonization of bacteria. Feeding pigeons a DON contaminated diet resulted in an increased percentage of pigeons shedding Salmonella compared to birds fed control diet, 87 ± 17% versus 74 ± 13%, respectively. However, no impact of DON was observed on the Salmonella induced disease signs, organ lesions, faecal and organ Salmonella counts. The presented risk assessment indicates that pigeons are frequently exposed to mycotoxins such as DON, which can affect the outcome of a Salmonella infection. The increasing number of pigeons shedding Salmonella suggests that DON can promote the spread of the bacterium within pigeon populations.
Full Text Available Seed-based pigeon diets could be expected to result in exposure of pigeons to mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON. Ingestion of low to moderate contamination levels of DON may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host-pathogen interactions and thus different outcome of infections. Here we demonstrate that DON was one of the most frequently detected mycotoxins in seed-based racing pigeons feed, contaminating 5 out of 10 samples (range 177-1,466 μg/kg. Subsequently, a toxicokinetic analysis revealed a low absolute oral bioavailability (F of DON in pigeons (30.4%, which is comparable to other avian species. Furthermore, semi-quantitative analysis using high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed that DON-3α-sulphate is the major metabolite of DON in pigeons after intravenous as well as oral administration. Following ingestion of DON contaminated feed, the intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to significant DON concentrations which eventually may affect intestinal translocation and colonization of bacteria. Feeding pigeons a DON contaminated diet resulted in an increased percentage of pigeons shedding Salmonella compared to birds fed control diet, 87 ± 17% versus 74 ± 13%, respectively. However, no impact of DON was observed on the Salmonella induced disease signs, organ lesions, faecal and organ Salmonella counts. The presented risk assessment indicates that pigeons are frequently exposed to mycotoxins such as DON, which can affect the outcome of a Salmonella infection. The increasing number of pigeons shedding Salmonella suggests that DON can promote the spread of the bacterium within pigeon populations.
Uchegbu, Nneka N; Ishiwu, Charles N
This work studied the antioxidant activity of extract of germinated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Germination was carried out in a dark chamber under room temperature (28°C). The total phenolic, 1,1,diphenyl-2-picrylhy-drazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase were done in vitro and blood glucose levels of the animal were investigated. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were analyzed spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic and DPPH scavenging activity increased by 30% and 63%, respectively, after germinating pigeon pea. Also after germination there was an increase in the inhibitory potential of pigeon pea extract against α-glucosidase compared with the nongerminated pigeon pea extract. There was a significant increase (P pigeon pea extract gave rise to a reduced fasting blood glucose level in diabetic rats. On administration of germinated pigeon pea extract, LPO reduced drastically but there was an increase in the level of GSH. This study concluded that intake of germinated pigeon pea is a good dietary supplement for controlling hyperglycemia and LPO.
Johnson, Kevin P; Clayton, Dale H; Dumbacher, John P; Fleischer, Robert C
The human-caused extinction of the Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) is one of the best known and documented of any bird. This event was particularly alarming because the Passenger Pigeon went from being one of the most numerous avian species in the world to extinct in a period of decades, when the last individual died in captivity in a Cincinnati Zoo in 1914. While a great deal of information exists on the likely direct and indirect causes of its demise, as well as information on life-history, the phylogenetic relationships of this species have been subject to considerable speculation. Here we use DNA sequences obtained from museum specimens to resolve the phylogenetic position of this species with respect to other pigeons and doves (Columbiformes). We show that the Passenger Pigeon is not related to the New World mourning doves (Zenaida) as many authors have suggested, but is the sister taxon of all other New World pigeons (Patagioenas). Biogeographic analysis suggests the Passenger Pigeon lineage may have colonized North America from Asia, and subsequently dispersed into South America, leading to a more extensive radiation of New World pigeons. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Belda, Antonio; Cortés, Carolina; Peiró, Victoriano
The importance that birds of the Columbidae family have had throughout history is visible on the Mediterranean coast. Pigeon fancying is the art of breeding and training carrier pigeons and currently, several breeds exist. The sport of racing pigeons consists in covering a distance at maximum possible speed. However, pigeon breeding has another modality called "sport pigeon", where several males follow a female. This study focusses on ethnobotanical knowledge of native and exotic plant species that are used for diet, breeding, stimulation, healing illnesses and staining the plumage of pigeons bred in captivity. Using semi-structured interviews, we gathered information about the different plant species traditionally used for pigeon-breeding in the region of Valencia. Background material on remedies for bird illnesses was gathered from folk botanical references, local books and journals.The plant species were collected in the study area, then identified in the laboratory using dichotomous keys and vouchered in the ABH (Herbarium of Alicante University). We used Excel (®) 2003 to perform a simple statistical analysis of the data collected. We collected 56 species of plants (and one variety) that included 29 botanical families. The total number of species was made up of 35 cultivated and 21 wild plants. The most common were Gramineae (14 species), Leguminosae (6 species), and Compositae (4 species). Pigeon breeding is an immensely popular activity in Eastern Spain, and ethnobiological knowledge about breeding pigeons and caring for them is considerable. The names and traditional uses of plants depend on their geographical location, vernacular names serve as an intangible heritage. Feeding, environmental features, and genetic makeup of individuals are relevant aspects in the maintenance of avian health.
Full Text Available Recent evidence of the occurrence of atypical Chlamydiaceae strains in pigeons, different from the established Chlamydiaceae, requires the development of a specific and rapid detection tool to investigate their prevalence and significance. Here is described a new real-time PCR assay that allows specific detection of atypical Chlamydiaceae from pigeons. The assay has been used to assess the dissemination of these strains in field samples collected from Parisian pigeon populations in 2009. The results suggest a limited dissemination compared to the usually higher prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci that is the main species associated with avian chlamydiosis.
Knisley, J.O.; Herman, C.M.
The occurrence of Haemoproteus in pigeons throughout the world and in mourning doves in the United States is reviewed. Haemoproteus has previously been reported only once from pigeons in Maryland. During this study it was found in all of 18 pigeons from one area but in none of 12 from an adjacent area. No infections were found in 90 Maryland mourning doves. All of the 10 mourning doves from Florida were infected whereas 60 nestlings from Texas and Mississippi had no parasites. None was found in 358 nestling white-winged doves from Texas.
Meagan J Gillespie
Full Text Available Pigeon 'milk' and mammalian milk have functional similarities in terms of nutritional benefit and delivery of immunoglobulins to the young. Mammalian milk has been clearly shown to aid in the development of the immune system and microbiota of the young, but similar effects have not yet been attributed to pigeon 'milk'. Therefore, using a chicken model, we investigated the effect of pigeon 'milk' on immune gene expression in the Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT and on the composition of the caecal microbiota. Chickens fed pigeon 'milk' had a faster rate of growth and a better feed conversion ratio than control chickens. There was significantly enhanced expression of immune-related gene pathways and interferon-stimulated genes in the GALT of pigeon 'milk'-fed chickens. These pathways include the innate immune response, regulation of cytokine production and regulation of B cell activation and proliferation. The caecal microbiota of pigeon 'milk'-fed chickens was significantly more diverse than control chickens, and appears to be affected by prebiotics in pigeon 'milk', as well as being directly seeded by bacteria present in pigeon 'milk'. Our results demonstrate that pigeon 'milk' has further modes of action which make it functionally similar to mammalian milk. We hypothesise that pigeon 'lactation' and mammalian lactation evolved independently but resulted in similarly functional products.
Richmond, Jenny; Colombo, Michael
Both pigeons and rats with damage to the hippocampus are slow to acquire an autoshaped response and emit fewer overall responses than control animals. Experiment 1 explored the possibility that the autoshaping deficit was due to an impairment in contextual retrieval. Pigeons were trained for 14 days on an autoshaping task in which a red stimulus was followed by reinforcement in context A, and a green stimulus was followed by reinforcement in context B. On day 15, the subjects were given a context test in which the red and green stimuli were presented simultaneously in context A and then later in context B. Both control and hippocampal animals showed context specificity, that is, they responded more to the red stimulus in context A and to the green stimulus in context B. In Experiment 2 we video-recorded the control and hippocampal animals performing the autoshaping task. Hippocampal animals tended to miss-peck the key more often than control animals. In addition, the number of missed pecks increased across days for hippocampal animals but not for control animals, suggesting that while the control animals increased their pecking accuracy, the hippocampal animals actually decreased their pecking accuracy. Our findings suggest that impairments in moving through space may underlie the hippocampal autoshaping deficit.
Scarf, Damian; Colombo, Michael
Ordinal knowledge is a fundamental aspect of advanced cognition. It is self-evident that humans represent ordinal knowledge, and over the past 20 years it has become clear that nonhuman primates share this ability. In contrast, evidence that nonprimate species represent ordinal knowledge is missing from the comparative literature. To address this issue, in the present experiment we trained pigeons on three 4-item lists and then tested them with derived lists in which, relative to the training lists, the ordinal position of the items was either maintained or changed. Similar to the findings with human and nonhuman primates, our pigeons performed markedly better on the maintained lists compared to the changed lists, and displayed errors consistent with the view that they used their knowledge of ordinal position to guide responding on the derived lists. These findings demonstrate that the ability to acquire ordinal knowledge is not unique to the primate lineage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
Sachse, Konrad; Kuehlewind, Simone; Ruettger, Anke; Schubert, Evelyn; Rohde, Gernot
In the literature, studies of Chlamydia infection in birds have usually been confined to the search for Chlamydia (C., formerly Chlamydophila) psittaci, so that little is known about the presence of other chlamydial agents. In the present study, cloacal swabs and faeces samples of urban pigeons have been examined by real-time PCR, DNA microarray assays and partial ompA sequencing. Whilst C. psittaci was the predominant chlamydial agent in this pigeon population (75.8% of all Chlamydiaceae positives), the combined use of highly specific and sensitive molecular assays facilitated the detection of atypical serovars of C. psittaci, as well as other species of Chlamydia, such as C. abortus. Detection of C. pecorum and C. trachomatis from an avian host is reported here for the first time. Rather unexpectedly, 19.5% of all Chlamydiaceae-positive cases turned out to be infected with non-classified organisms. The considerable prevalence of these novel agents raises the question of their epidemiological importance and possible role as pathogens. Future surveys in domestic and wild birds will have to take the extended variety of chlamydial organisms into account. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pettit, Benjamin; Perna, Andrea; Biro, Dora; Sumpter, David J. T.
Travelling in groups gives animals opportunities to share route information by following cues from each other's movement. The outcome of group navigation will depend on how individuals respond to each other within a flock, school, swarm or herd. Despite the abundance of modelling studies, only recently have researchers developed techniques to determine the interaction rules among real animals. Here, we use high-resolution GPS (global positioning system) tracking to study these interactions in pairs of pigeons flying home from a familiar site. Momentary changes in velocity indicate alignment with the neighbour's direction, as well as attraction or avoidance depending on distance. Responses were stronger when the neighbour was in front. From the flocking behaviour, we develop a model to predict features of group navigation. Specifically, we show that the interactions between pigeons stabilize a side-by-side configuration, promoting bidirectional information transfer and reducing the risk of separation. However, if one bird gets in front it will lead directional choices. Our model further predicts, and observations confirm, that a faster bird (as measured from solo flights) will fly slightly in front and thus dominate the choice of homing route. Our results explain how group decisions emerge from individual differences in homing flight behaviour. PMID:24068173
Pettit, Benjamin; Ákos, Zsuzsa; Vicsek, Tamás; Biro, Dora
A key question in collective behavior is how individual differences structure animal groups, affect the flow of information, and give some group members greater weight in decisions. Depending on what factors contribute to leadership, despotic decisions could either improve decision accuracy or interfere with swarm intelligence. The mechanisms behind leadership are therefore important for understanding its functional significance. In this study, we compared pigeons' relative influence over flock direction to their solo flight characteristics. A pigeon's degree of leadership was predicted by its ground speeds from earlier solo flights, but not by the straightness of its previous solo route. By testing the birds individually after a series of flock flights, we found that leaders had learned straighter homing routes than followers, as we would expect if followers attended less to the landscape and more to conspecifics. We repeated the experiment from three homing sites using multiple independent flocks and found individual consistency in leadership and speed. Our results suggest that the leadership hierarchies observed in previous studies could arise from differences in the birds' typical speeds. Rather than reflecting social preferences that optimize group decisions, leadership may be an inevitable consequence of heterogeneous flight characteristics within self-organized flocks. We also found that leaders learn faster and become better navigators, even if leadership is not initially due to navigational ability. The roles that individuals fall into during collective motion might therefore have far-reaching effects on how they learn about the environment and use social information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aaron P Smith
Full Text Available Pigeons have shown suboptimal gambling-like behavior when preferring a stimulus that infrequently signals reliable reinforcement over alternatives that provide greater reinforcement overall. As a mechanism for this behavior, recent research proposed that the stimulus value of alternatives with more reliable signals for reinforcement will be preferred relatively independently of their frequencies. The present study tested this hypothesis using a simplified design of a Discriminative alternative that, 50% of the time, led to either a signal for 100% reinforcement or a blackout period indicative of 0% reinforcement against a Nondiscriminative alternative that always led to a signal that predicted 50% reinforcement. Pigeons showed a strong preference for the Discriminative alternative that remained despite reducing the frequency of the signal for reinforcement in subsequent phases to 25% and then 12.5%. In Experiment 2, using the original design of Experiment 1, the stimulus following choice of the Nondiscriminative alternative was increased to 75% and then to 100%. Results showed that preference for the Discriminative alternative decreased only when the signals for reinforcement for the two alternatives predicted the same probability of reinforcement. The ability of several models to predict this behavior are discussed, but the terminal link stimulus value offers the most parsimonious account of this suboptimal behavior.
Wang, Xian-Song; Liu, Ci; Khoso, Pervez Ahmed; Zheng, Weijia; Li, Ming; Li, Shu
Pesticide residues are an important aspect of environmental pollution. Environmental avermectin residues have produced adverse effects in organisms. Many pesticides exert their toxic effects via the mechanism of autophagy. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in autophagy levels and in autophagy-related genes, including LC3, Beclin 1, Dynein, ATG5, TORC1, and TORC2, resulting from exposure to subchronic levels of AVM in liver tissue in the king pigeon model. We observed abundant autophagic vacuoles with extensively degraded organelles, autophagosomal vacuoles, secondary lysosomes, and double-membrane structures in the liver. The expression levels of the autophagy-related genes LC3-I, LC3-II, Beclin 1, ATG5, and Dynein were up-regulated; however, TORC1 and TORC2 expression levels were down-regulated. These changes occurred in a concentration-dependent manner after AVM exposure for 30, 60, and 90 days in pigeons. Taken together, these results suggested that AVM increased the autophagic flux and that upregulation of autophagy might be closely related to the hepatotoxicity of AVM in birds.
Saxon, D.J.; Blankenship, T.
The metabolism of arachidonic acid was investigated using thrombocyte-enriched-plasma from RBWC and WC-II white carneau pigeons, which differ genetically in their susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Thrombocytes were incubated at 42 C with [ 14 C] arachidonate in Puck's solution. After a 1 hour labeling period the WC-II cells had taken up 69% and RBWC 77% of the [ 14 C]arachidonate from the medium. When 8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid or 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid were added to incubation media the [ 14 C] uptake was reduced in each type cell, with WC-II exhibiting the greatest effect. Release of [ 14 C]molecules from cells labeled with [ 14 ]Carachidonate was studied using calcium ionophore and indomethacin. Indomethacin inhibited [ 14 C] molecule release similarly in both RBWC and WC-II cells. Calcium ionophore was twice as effective in stimulating [ 14 C]molecule release from WC-II than RBWC cells. Therefore, the WE-II cells (from pigeons greater in susceptibility to atherosclerosis) are more sensitive to calcium ionophore than the REWC cells
Full Text Available Abstract Genetic parameters of body weight at weaning and of prolificacy were estimated in three commercial lines of pigeons selected by BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction on both traits. The model of analysis took into account the direct genetic effects for both traits and the effect of parental permanent environment for body weight. Depending on the line considered, body weight varied from 556.7 g to 647.6 g and prolificacy ranged from 12.5 to 16.8 pigeons weaned per couple of parents per year. Heritability of body weight was high, varying between 0.46 and 0.60, and permanent environment was responsible for 6% to 9% of the total variability. On the contrary, prolificacy was poorly heritable (0.04 to 0.12. They were highly and negatively correlated (-0.77 to -0.82. Body weight showed significant genetic trends in lines B and C. No significant genetic difference could be observed between males and females for both traits.
Dall'Antonia, P; Luschi, P
It has been proposed that homing pigeons may use pilotage to orient home when released from familiar sites. To test this possibility, a group of pigeons was released from familiar locations after being exposed to a constant bright light. This treatment produced the loss of the circadian rhythmicity of general activity of the birds and thus presumably impaired their time-compensating sun compass mechanism. Experimental birds, both anosmic and olfactorily unimpaired, did not show any tendency to orient home, their bearing distributions being generally not different from random. Their homing performances were also affected. These results show that initial orientation of pigeons released from familiar sites entails the use of the sun compass even when the birds are released after a treatment that makes them arrhythmic in their activity. The possibility that pilotage may play a role in the first part of the homing flight of pigeons remains to be demonstrated.
Qiu, Huaxin; Duan, Haibin
Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flocking control is a serious and challenging problem due to local interactions and changing environments. In this paper, a pigeon flocking model and a pigeon coordinated obstacle-avoiding model are proposed based on a behavior that pigeon flocks will switch between hierarchical and egalitarian interaction mode at different flight phases. Owning to the similarity between bird flocks and UAV swarms in essence, a distributed flocking control algorithm based on the proposed pigeon flocking and coordinated obstacle-avoiding models is designed to coordinate a heterogeneous UAV swarm to fly though obstacle environments with few informed individuals. The comparative simulation results are elaborated to show the feasibility, validity and superiority of our proposed algorithm. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Conclusion: The presence of pigeons and Eucalyptus trees in the vicinity of some particular places such as rest homes and hospitals should be considered as a risk factor for the immunocompromised population.
Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Akanbi, Charles T
The effect of gamma irradiation at various doses (5, 10, 15, 20 kGy) was observed on pigeon pea flour stored for 3 months on proximate composition, functional properties, and peroxide value. Sensory evaluation was also carried out on bean cake (moinmoin) made from nonirradiated and irradiated pigeon pea flour. The results showed that stored gamma-irradiated samples had significantly lower (P flours showed slight increase in water absorption capacity, swelling capacity and bulk density. The peroxide value of crude oil increased significantly with dose increases for the period of storage. The sensory evaluation of moinmoin samples prepared from irradiated pigeon pea flour showed no significant difference from the moinmoin sample prepared from nonirradiated flour. It can be concluded that gamma irradiation can extend the shelf life of pigeon pea flour.
Pawar, S.E.; Wanjari, K.B.
The present communication emphasis the developing of high yielding varieties of pigeon pea, mungbean and black gram using induced mutation with disease resistance in these crops. This would help in stabilisation of the higher yield potential
Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Overton, Cory T.; Howe, Kristy H.
Context: The band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata) is a migratory species occurring in western North America with low recruitment potential and populations that have declined an average of 2.4% per year since the 1960s. Investigations into band-tailed pigeon demographic rates date back to the early 1900s, and existing annual survival rate estimates were derived in the 1970s using band return data.
Le Roux, Marga
Objective: To prepare and evaluate three different dosage forms, containing doxycycline hydrochloride (HCI) and bromhexine hydrochloride (HCI) respectively and in combination, for the treatment of respiratory diseases in pigeons. Background: Birds have held a place in man's affection since the ancient Egyptians and Romans kept birds. Europeans have successfully bred birds, especially smaller birds and pigeons, for centuries. Only in recent years, however, have science and me...
Gibson, Brett; Wasserman, Edward; Luck, Steven J.
Visual short-term memory plays a key role in guiding behavior, and individual differences in visual short-term memory capacity are strongly predictive of higher cognitive abilities. To provide a broader evolutionary context for understanding this memory system, we directly compared the behavior of pigeons and humans on a change detection task. Although pigeons had a lower storage capacity and a higher lapse rate than humans, both species stored multiple items in short-term memory and conforme...
BEIGHAMI, Mojgan; GHAHARI, Azadeh; PANAH, Hossein Hojjat; KALAEE, Ebrahim Amir
Abstract. Pigeon Houses are used in Iran in science simultaneously because of the diversity of forms and interior architecture and miracle and also it is used in the masterpieces of Iranian architecture which has always been interested by travelers and foreign tourists. Isfahan has long been considered for diversity of pigeon houses that produce natural fertilizer with high quality. Unfortunately, in recent years, much of this valuable building in the city is being destroyed . Hence, identif...
Catania, A Charles
During the years 1958-1962, the final years of support by the National Science Foundation for B. F. Skinner's Pigeon Lab in Memorial Hall at Harvard University, 20 or so pigeon experiments (plus some with other organisms) ran concurrently 7 days a week. The research style emphasized experimental analyses, exploratory procedures, and the parametric exploration of variables. This reminiscence describes some features of the laboratory, the context within which it operated, and the activities of ...
Gharaibeh, S; Shamoun, M
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a respiratory virus that infects a range of avian hosts, including chickens and turkeys. Migratory and local wild birds are implicated in aMPV spread among farms, countries, and seasonal outbreaks of the disease. A subtype B aMPV isolate from commercial chicken flocks suffering from respiratory disease was experimentally inoculated oculonasally into 7-week old chickens, young pigeons, and sparrows. Chickens showed minimal tracheal rales, whereas pigeons and sparrows were asymptomatic. Shedding of aMPV was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on homogenates from nasal turbinates. At 5 days postinfection, 5 of 5 chickens, 2 of 5 pigeons, and 1 of 5 sparrows were positive; at 10 or 15 days, none were positive. At 2 and 5 days, aMPV antigens were localized at the ciliated boarder of respiratory epithelium in nasal cavity and trachea of chickens, as well as to the conjunctival epithelium. Pigeons had detectable viral antigens in only the trachea at 2 and 5 days; sparrow tissues did not show any positive staining. At the end of the experiment, at 21 days postinfection, 14 of 15 inoculated chickens seroconverted against aMPV, but none of the inoculated pigeons or sparrows did. The authors believe that pigeons and sparrows have the ability to transmit the virus between chicken farms, although they do not consider pigeons and sparrows as natural hosts for aMPV, given that they failed to seroconvert. In conclusion, pigeons and sparrows are partially susceptible to aMPV infection, probably acting more as mechanical vectors because infection is only temporary and short-lived.
ABSTRACT: One of the minor works of cardinal Roberto Bellarmino, De Gemitu Columbae sive De Bono lacrymarum (1617 is composed of three books: the first is dedicated to the "need for moans"; the second and third, respectively, to the sources and the fruits of the "tears". In investigating the origin of the moan, after quoting Isaiah and Nahum, the Author insists on a verse, particularly evocative, taken from the Song of Songs (6, 9. Therefore, the moan is not referred only to the animal in itself, but also to the whole Church: the work in question seems to be more connected to the textures of a "political theology" than to the classic counter-reformed edification readings. The present contribution aims to examine the relationships between De gemitu and the jus publicum ecclesiasticum, not only externum but also - and above all - internum. And, by this way, the highly debated theme of belonging to the Ecclesia, faced by the great Counter-reform theorist through the images of the dove and the chant.
Magalhães, Paula; White, K Geoffrey
We investigated suboptimal choice between different work requirements in pigeons (Columba livia), namely the sunk cost effect, an irrational tendency to persist with an initial investment, despite the availability of a better option. Pigeons chose between two keys, one with a fixed work requirement to food of 20 pecks (left key), and the other with a work requirement to food which varied across conditions (center key). On some trials within each session, such choices were preceded by an investment of 35 pecks on the center key, whereas on others they were not. On choice trials preceded by the investment, the pigeons tended to stay and complete the schedule associated with the center key, even when the number of pecks to obtain reward was greater than for the concurrently available left key. This result indicates that pigeons, like humans, commit the sunk cost effect. With higher work requirements, this preference was extended to trials where there was no initial investment, so an overall preference for the key associated with more work was evident, consistent with the work ethic effect. We conclude that a more general work ethic effect is amplified by the effect of the prior investment, that is, the sunk cost effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Terregino, Calogero; Cattoli, Giovanni; Grossele, Barbara; Bertoli, Elena; Tisato, Ernesto; Capua, Ilaria
Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) are thought to originate from India and they have colonized, throughout the centuries, the Middle East and, more recently, Mediterranean countries such as Italy and Spain. In the present paper we report of the isolation and characterization of Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) obtained from Eurasian collared doves during 2000-2001, and compare them to isolates obtained from feral pigeons (Columba livia) during the same period. All isolates could be classified as avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV1) and belonged to the pigeon variant group (PPMV1), as their haemagglutinating activity was inhibited by mAb 161/617 which is specific for PPMV1. The intracerebral pathogenicity indices ranged from 0.68 to 1.38 and all isolates contained multiple basic amino acids at the deduced cleavage site of the fusion protein, which is a typical feature of virulent viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates indicate that 18/20 of these form a separate cluster from the isolates obtained from pigeons in the same period. These findings suggest that different lineages are circulating in feral pigeon populations, and that a separate lineage affects Eurasian collared doves.
Novotny, N. M.; Hausback, B. P.
The Sutter Buttes are a volcanic complex located in the center of the Great Valley north of Sacramento. They are comprised of numerous inter-intruding andesite and rhyolite lava domes of varying compositions surrounded by a shallow rampart of associated tephras. The Pigeon Peak block-and-ash flow sequence is located in the rampart and made up of a porphyritic Biotite bearing Hornblende Andesite. The andesite blocks demonstrate a high degree of propylization in hornblende crystals, highly zoned plagioclase, trace olivine, and display a red to gray color gradation. DAR is an andesite dome located less than one mile from Pigeon Peak. Of the 15 to 25 andesite lava domes within four miles from Pigeon Peak, only DAR displays trace olivine, red to grey color stratification, low biotite content, and propylitized hornblende. These characteristic similarities suggest that DAR may be the source for Pigeon Peak. My investigation used microprobe analysis of the DAR and Pigeon Peak feldspar crystals to identify the magmatic history of the magma body before emplacement. Correlation of the anorthite zoning within the feldspars from both locations support my hypothesis that DAR is the source of the Pigeon Peak block-and-ash flow.
Cui, Jia; Halbrook, Richard S; Zang, Shuying; Han, Shuang; Li, Xinyu
Atmospheric pollution in urban areas is a major worldwide concern with potential adverse impacts on wildlife and humans. Biomonitoring can provide direct evidence of the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of toxic metals in the environment that is not available with mechanical air monitoring. The current study continues our evaluation of the usefulness of homing pigeon lung tissue as a biomonitor of atmospheric pollution. Homing pigeons (1-2, 5-6, and 9-10+ year old (yo)) collected from Guangzhou during 2015 were necropsied and concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) were measured in lung tissue. Lung Cd and Pb concentrations were significantly greater in 9-10+-year-old pigeons compared with those in other age groups, indicating their bioavailability and bioaccumulation. Lung Pb and Cd concentrations measured in 5-yo pigeons collected from Guangzhou during 2015 were significantly lower than concentrations reported in 5-yo homing pigeons collected from Guangzhou during 2011 and correlated with concentrations measured using mechanical air monitoring. In addition to temporal differences, spatial differences in concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Hg reported in ambient air samples and in pigeon lung tissues collected from Beijing and Guangzhou are discussed.
Ploog, Bertram O
Four pigeons and eight chickens received autoshaping training where a keylight (conditioned stimulus) signaled response-independent deliveries of water (unconditioned stimulus). Pigeons drink while keeping their beaks submerged in water and moving their beaks to create suction ("mumbling"), whereas chickens drink by trapping a small amount of water in their mouths and then lifting their heads so the water trickles down. This experiment tested whether these and other species-specific differences in drinking and related behaviors of pigeons and chickens would be reflected in the form of conditioned (autoshaped) responding. Touchscreens and videotapes were used for data recording. Results showed that chickens moved their heads more than pigeons when drinking (unconditioned response). The birds also differed in conditioned responding in the presence of the keylight: Pigeons produced more keyswitch closures and mumbled at the keylight more than chickens whereas chickens scratched more than pigeons. In conclusion, with this unique comparative method that employed identical contingencies and comparable deprivation levels, species-specific differences in unconditioned responses and, more importantly, differences in their corresponding conditioned responses were observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pinto, Carlos; Machado, Armando
To investigate the coding strategies that pigeons may use in a temporal discrimination tasks, pigeons were trained on a matching-to-sample procedure with three sample durations (2s, 6s and 18s) and two comparisons (red and green hues). One comparison was correct following 2-s samples and the other was correct following both 6-s and 18-s samples. Tests were then run to contrast the predictions of two hypotheses concerning the pigeons' coding strategies, the multiple-coding and the single-code/default. According to the multiple-coding hypothesis, three response rules are acquired, one for each sample. According to the single-code/default hypothesis, only two response rules are acquired, one for the 2-s sample and a "default" rule for any other duration. In retention interval tests, pigeons preferred the "default" key, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. In no-sample tests, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 2-s sample, a result predicted by multiple-coding. Finally, in generalization tests, when the sample duration equaled 3.5s, the geometric mean of 2s and 6s, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 6-s and 18-s samples, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. The pattern of results suggests the need for models that take into account multiple sources of stimulus control. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Dziewulska, D; Stenzel, T; Smialek, M; Tykalowski, B; Koncicki, A
The progressive decrease in the efficiency of synthetic drugs has prompted research into phytogenic feed additives with potentially immunomodulatory and anti-infective properties. Complex diseases with a mixed etiology, including viral, pose a growing problem in domestic pigeons. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of various doses of aloe vera and licorice extracts on the course of experimental PPMV-1 infection in pigeons. The experiment was performed on pigeons divided into 5 groups, including one control group and 4 experimental groups, which were orally administered aloe vera or licorice extracts at 300 or 500 mg/kg BW for 7 d after experimental inoculation with PPMV-1. On d 4, 7, and 14 after inoculation, cloacal swabs and samples of organs were collected from 4 birds in each group. The samples were analyzed to determine the copy number of PPMV-1 RNA by TaqMan qPCR. The results indicate that licorice and aloe vera extracts inhibited PPMV-1 replication by decreasing viral RNA copy numbers in the examined organs. The most inhibitory effect was observed in pigeons receiving aloe vera extract at 300 mg/kg BW, for which PPMV-1 RNA copy numbers were approximately 7-fold lower (brain), 9-fold lower (kidneys), and 14-fold lower (liver) than in the control group. The results of this study point to the potentially antiviral effects of aloe vera and licorice extracts in pigeons infected with PPMV-1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the antiviral properties of aloe vera and licorice extracts in domestic pigeons. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.
Gottlieb, Daniel A
Contemporary time accumulation models make the unique prediction that acquisition of a conditioned response will be equally rapid with partial and continuous reinforcement, if the time between conditioned stimuli is held constant. To investigate this, acquisition of conditioned responding was examined in pigeon autoshaping under conditions of 100% and 25% reinforcement, holding intertrial interval constant. Contrary to what was predicted, evidence for slowed acquisition in partially reinforced animals was observed with several response measures. However, asymptotic performance was superior with 25% reinforcement. A switching of reinforcement contingencies after initial acquisition did not immediately affect responding. After further sessions, partial reinforcement augmented responding, whereas continuous reinforcement did not, irrespective of an animal's reinforcement history. Subsequent training with a novel stimulus maintained the response patterns. These acquisition results generally support associative, rather than time accumulation, accounts of conditioning.
Khallad, Y; Moore, J
Three experiments used pigeons in an autoshaping procedure and a single-subject design to examine compound stimulus control in classical conditioning. Experiment 1 examined the blocking effect, and Experiment 2 examined the unblocking effect. In both experiments, response-independent food was first delivered intermittently in the presence of one distinctively colored houselight but not another. Then, conventional autoshaping trials were carried out in the presence of each houselight. In Experiment 1, the keylight readily elicited responding in the presence of the houselight that had been negatively correlated with food, but not in the presence of the houselight that had been positively correlated with food. In Experiment 2, the keylight readily elicited responding in the presence of the houselight positively correlated with food, but only when the amount of food used on the autoshaping trials was either greater or less than that previously delivered in the presence of the houselight. Experiment 3 examined the overexpectation effect. Conventional autoshaping trials were first carried out by presenting each of two keylights individually. Then, additional autoshaping trials were carried out by presenting the two keylights as a compound, with either the same amount of food or a greater amount of food per trial. Finally, the keylights were retested by again presenting them individually. The number of responses per trial elicited by the keylights decreased when the amount of food used in compound trials was the same as that used in individual trials. However, the number of responses per trial remained approximately the same when the amount of food used in compound trials was greater than that used in individual trials. Taken together, the results of the three experiments demonstrate (a) the generality of the blocking, unblocking, and overexpectation effects by virtue of their extension to appetitive unconditioned stimuli; (b) the suitability of pigeons as subjects and
Siegfried, W.R.; Frost, P.G.H.; Redelinghuys, E.P.; van der Merwe, R.P.
The lead content of bones of laughing doves Streptopelia senegalensis was assayed by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A significant difference in the mean lead content was found between two groups of wild doves. The one group was taken in the city of Cape Town, and the other group 50 km away in rural farmland near Stellenbosch. The bones of the urban doves contained on average seven times more lead per unit weight of tissue than those of their rural con-specifics. Concentrations of lead in the bones of rural and urban doves are approximately 70% and 80% below those recorded for corresponding pigeon Columba livia populations in Pennsylvania, USA. These differences between urban and rural populations are believed to reflect the relatively greater degree of lead in the atmosphere of the urban environment, presumably as a result of motor car exhaust emissions. 2 references, 1 table.
Naldo, J.L.; Samour, J.H.; Bailey, T.A.
A serial radiographic study was conducted on eight kori bustard (Ardeotis kori) and four white-bellied bustard (Eupodotis senegalensis) chicks to determine the pattern of long bone development and to establish radiographic standards for assessing skeletal maturity. The ossification pattern, appearance of secondary ossification centres, and epiphyseal fusion of the long bones in kori and white-bellied bustards were similar to those in houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii),rufous-crested bustards (Eupodotis ruficrista), domestic fowl (Gallusgallus), house wrens (Troglodytes aedon aedon), racing pigeons (Columba livia), and barn owls (Tyto alba). Secondary ossification centres were present at the proximal and distal tibiotarsus, proximal tarsometatarsus and proximal metacarpal III. The ossification of long bones occurred earlier in female kori bustards compared with males
Raulf, M; Sander, I; Gonnissen, D; Zahradnik, E; Brüning, T
In most of the cases health pests are carriers of pathogens or parasites which have a negative impact on human health or affect the health of other mammals. What is lesser known is that they can also act as allergens. Most of the health pests in this sense belong to the arthropods, such as cockroaches (Blattaria), mosquitos (Culiciformia), lice (Pediculus humanus corporis), fleas (Siphonaptera) and ticks (Argasidae). In the group of vertebrates rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus), house mice (Mus musculus) and pigeons (Columba livia domestica) are also classified as health pests. Also storage pests which are not carriers of pathogens can induce secondary infestation with hygiene pests or molds and have an underestimated impact on human health. In this article selected examples of health pests and also storage pests as an allergen source are described, taking into account the sensitization prevalence and identified single allergens.
Savini, G; Monaco, F; Calistri, P; Lelli, R
In Italy the first occurrence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection was reported in Tuscany region during the late summer of 1998. In August 2008, the WNV infection re-emerged in Italy, in areas surrounding the Po river delta, and involving three regions Lombardy, Emilia Romagna and Veneto. WNV was isolated from blood and organs samples of one horse, one donkey, one pigeon (Columba livia) and three magpies (Pica pica). The phylogenetic analysis of the isolates, conducted on 255 bp in the region coding for the E protein, indicates that these isolates belong to the lineage I among the European strains. According to the analysis, both the 1998 and 2008 Italian strains as well as isolates from Romania, Russia, Senegal and Kenya fell in the same sub-cluster.
Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.
The abundance of Band-tailed Pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis) has declined substantially from historic numbers along the Pacific Coast. Identification of patterns and causative factors of this decline are hampered because habitat use data are limited, and temporal and spatial variability patterns associated with population indices are not known. Furthermore, counts are influenced not only by pigeon abundance but also by rate of visitation to mineral sites, which may not be consistent. To address these issues, we conducted mineral site counts during 2001 and 2002 at 20 locations from 4 regions in the Pacific Northwest, including central Oregon and western Washington, USA, and British Columbia, Canada. We developed inference models that consisted of environmental factors and spatial characteristics at multiple spatial scales. Based on information theory, we compared models within a final set that included variables measured at 3 spatial scales (0.03 ha, 3.14 ha, and 7850 ha). Pigeon counts increased from central Oregon through northern Oregon and decreased into British Columbia. After accounting for this spatial pattern, we found that pigeon counts increased 12% ± 2.7 with a 10% increase in the amount of deciduous forested area within 100 m from a mineral site. Also, distance from the mineral site of interest to the nearest known mineral site was positively related to pigeon counts. These findings provide direction for future research focusing on understanding the relationships between indices of relative abundance and complete counts (censuses) of pigeon populations by identifying habitat characteristics that might influence visitation rates. Furthermore, our results suggest that spatial arrangement of mineral sites influences Band-tailed Pigeon counts and the populations which those counts represent.
Full Text Available Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I, a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor (PRR, can sense various RNA viruses, including the avian influenza virus (AIV and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV, and trigger the innate immune response. Previous studies have shown that mammalian RIG-I (human and mice and waterfowl RIG-I (ducks and geese are essential for type I interferon (IFN synthesis during AIV infection. Like ducks, pigeons are also susceptible to infection but are ineffective propagators and disseminators of AIVs, i.e., “dead end” hosts for AIVs and even highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI. Consequently, we sought to identify pigeon RIG-I and investigate its roles in the detection of A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 (H9N2 (ZB07, Gansu/Tianshui (IBDV TS and Beijing/CJ/1980 (IBDV CJ-801 strains in chicken DF-1 fibroblasts or human 293T cells. Pigeon mRNA encoding the putative pigeon RIG-I analogs was identified. The exogenous expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP-tagged pigeon RIG-I and caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs, strongly induced antiviral gene (IFN-β, Mx, and PKR mRNA synthesis, decreased viral gene (M gene and VP2 mRNA expression, and reduced the viral titers of ZB07 and IBDV TS/CJ-801 virus strains in chicken DF-1 cells, but not in 293T cells. We also compared the antiviral abilities of RIG-I proteins from waterfowl (duck and goose and pigeon. Our data indicated that waterfowl RIG-I are more effective in the induction of antiviral genes and the repression of ZB07 and IBDV TS/CJ-801 strain replication than pigeon RIG-I. Furthermore, chicken melanoma differentiation associated gene 5(MDA5/ mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS silencing combined with RIG-I transfection suggested that pigeon RIG-I can restore the antiviral response in MDA5-silenced DF-1 cells but not in MAVS-silenced DF-1 cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that pigeon RIG-I and CARDs have a strong antiviral
Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus intermedius has been isolated from healthy dogs and pigeons as well as diseased dogs. Similar to Staphylococcus aureus, S. intermedius is known to carry many virulence factors but most of these factors remain to be studied. In this study, we examined 106 S. intermedius isolates (44 dog isolates and 62 pigeon isolates for their hemolytic activity, biofilm formation, protease activity, and clumping factor and protein A production. Results Forty-three dog isolates (97.7% and all pigeon isolates were hemolytic on sheep RBCs with a mean hemolytic titer of 336.7 and 47.32, respectively, whereas 43 dog isolates (97.7% and 11 pigeon isolates (17.7% exhibited a significant difference in their hemolytic activity on rabbit RBCs with a mean hemolytic titer of 11.04 and 3.76, respectively (p Conclusion S. intermedius strains carrying the virulence factors examined in this study were more prevalent in dogs than pigeons.
Gagliardo, Anna; Filannino, Caterina; Ioalè, Paolo; Pecchia, Tommaso; Wikelski, Martin; Vallortigara, Giorgio
A large body of evidence has shown that pigeons rely on an olfactory-based navigational map when homing from unfamiliar locations. Previous studies on pigeons released with one nostril occluded highlighted an asymmetry in favour of the right nostril, particularly concerning the initial orientation performance of naïve birds. Nevertheless, all pigeons experiencing only unilateral olfactory input showed impaired homing, regardless of the side of the occluded nostril. So far this phenomenon has been documented only by observing the birds' vanishing bearings. In the present work we recorded the flight tracks of pigeons with previous homing experience equipped with a GPS data logger and released from an unfamiliar location with the right or the left nostril occluded. The analysis of the tracks revealed that the flight path of the birds with the right nostril occluded was more tortuous than that of unmanipulated controls. Moreover, the pigeons smelling with the left nostril interrupted their journey significantly more frequently and displayed more exploratory activity than the control birds, e.g. during flights around a stopover site. These data suggest a more important involvement of the right olfactory system in processing the olfactory information needed for the operation of the navigational map.
Ünver, Emre; Garland, Alexis; Tabrik, Sepideh; Güntürkün, Onur
A small number of species are capable of recognizing themselves in the mirror when tested with the mark-and-mirror test. This ability is often seen as evidence of self-recognition and possibly even self-awareness. Strangely, a number of species, for example monkeys, pigs and dogs, are unable to pass the mark test but can locate rewarding objects by using the reflective properties of a mirror. Thus, these species seem to understand how a visual reflection functions but cannot apply it to their own image. We tested this discrepancy in pigeons-a species that does not spontaneously pass the mark test. Indeed, we discovered that pigeons can successfully find a hidden food reward using only the reflection, suggesting that pigeons can also use and potentially understand the reflective properties of mirrors, even in the absence of self-recognition. However, tested under monocular conditions, the pigeons approached and attempted to walk through the mirror rather than approach the physical food, displaying similar behavior to patients with mirror agnosia. These findings clearly show that pigeons do not use the reflection of mirrors to locate reward, but actually see the food peripherally with their near-panoramic vision. A re-evaluation of our current understanding of mirror-mediated behavior might be necessary-especially taking more fully into account species differences in visual field. This study suggests that use of reflections in a mirrored surface as a tool may be less widespread than currently thought.
Geigenfeind, Ila; Haag-Wackernagel, Daniel
Chlamydophila psittaci (Lillie, 1930) Everett et al., 1999, the pathogenic agent of human ornithosis, is widespread in feral pigeon populations and many cases of transmission from feral pigeons to humans have been reported. The aim of the present study was to detect C. psittaci in environmental samples to find out more about possible transmission routes and, therefore, to assess the zoonotic risk for humans. Fecal samples were collected from nest boxes in a feral pigeon loft. Additionally, samples were taken from the feather dust film covering the water surface of public fountains where pigeons regularly bathe. The samples were tested for the presence of chlamydial antigen using an antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to prove shedding of C. psittaci by feral pigeons. This test detects a genus specific lipopolysaccharide in the outer membrane of the chlamydial bacteria. Samples were tested using the IDEIA PCE Chlamydia Test kit (DakoCytomation) and positive results were verified with IDEIA Chlamydia Blocking Reagents (DakoCytomation). The IDEIA PCE Chlamydia Test yields a high proportion of positive results. However, when IDEIA Chlamydia Blocking was performed, most of the positive results turned out to be negative or could not be interpreted. We conclude that antigen-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests are not suitable for detecting C. psittaci in environmental samples. Previous publications where no blocking test was used should be reconsidered critically. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.
Full Text Available Birds can rely on a variety of cues for orientation during migration and homing. Celestial rotation provides the key information for the development of a functioning star and/or sun compass. This celestial compass seems to be the primary reference for calibrating the other orientation systems including the magnetic compass. Thus, detection of the celestial rotational axis is crucial for bird orientation. Here, we use operant conditioning to demonstrate that homing pigeons can principally learn to detect a rotational centre in a rotating dot pattern and we examine their behavioural response strategies in a series of experiments. Initially, most pigeons applied a strategy based on local stimulus information such as movement characteristics of single dots. One pigeon seemed to immediately ignore eccentric stationary dots. After special training, all pigeons could shift their attention to more global cues, which implies that pigeons can learn the concept of a rotational axis. In our experiments, the ability to precisely locate the rotational centre was strongly dependent on the rotational velocity of the dot pattern and it crashed at velocities that were still much faster than natural celestial rotation. We therefore suggest that the axis of the very slow, natural, celestial rotation could be perceived by birds through the movement itself, but that a time-delayed pattern comparison should also be considered as a very likely alternative strategy.
Si, Xiaohong; Zakir, Mridha Md; Dickman, J. David
Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was used to retrogradely label afferents innervating the utricular macula in adult pigeons. The pigeon utriclar macula consists of a large rectangular-shaped neuroepithelium with a dorsally curved anterior edge and an extended medioposterior tail. The macula could be demarcated into several regions based on cytoarchitectural differences. The striola occupied 30% of the macula and contained a large density of type I hair cells with fewer type II hair cells. Medial and lateral extrastriola zones were located outside the striola and contained only type II hair cells. A six- to eight-cell-wide band of type II hair cells existed near the center of the striola. The reversal line marked by the morphological polarization of hair cells coursed throughout the epithelium, near the peripheral margin, and through the center of the type II band. Calyx afferents innervated type I hair cells with calyceal terminals that contained between 2 and 15 receptor cells. Calyx afferents were located only in the striola region, exclusive of the type II band, had small total fiber innervation areas and low innervation densities. Dimorph afferents innervated both type I and type II hair cells with calyceal and bouton terminals and were primarily located in the striola region. Dimorph afferents had smaller calyceal terminals with few type I hair cells, extended fiber branches with bouton terminals and larger innervation areas. Bouton afferents innervated only type II hair cells in the extrastriola and type II band regions. Bouton afferents innervating the type II band had smaller terminal fields with fewer bouton terminals and smaller innervation areas than fibers located in the extrastriolar zones. Bouton afferents had the most bouton terminals on the longest fibers, the largest innervation areas with the highest innervation densities of all afferents. Among all afferents, smaller terminal innervation fields were observed in the striola and large fields were
Mahata, S K; Mandal, A; Ghosh, A
A single intraperitoneal (IP) melatonin injection (0.5 mg/100 g body wt.) caused an increase in norepinephrine (NE) fluorescence and elevation of NE content in newly-hatched pigeons (Columba livia), but a reduction of NE fluorescence and depletion of NE content in the adrenal medulla of newly-hatched crows (Corvus splendens) after 0.5 h of treatment. In contrast, in adults melatonin caused increase in NE fluorescence and elevation of NE content only in the parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Half an hour of IP melatonin treatment (0.5 mg/100 g body wt.) induced release of epinephrine (E) from the adrenal medulla of newly-hatched pigeon and parakeet. In contrast, in the adults melatonin caused more than a two-fold increase in E in the pigeon, and a significant increase in the crow. Single IP melatonin injection (0.5 mg/100 g body wt.) caused hypoglycemia in the newly-hatched parakeet and adult pigeon, and hyperglycemia in newly-hatched pigeon after 0.5 h of treatment. Melatonin failed to regulate glucose homoeostasis in newly-hatched and adult crow. Splanchnic denervation of the left adrenal gland was performed in the adult pigeon. The right adrenal served as the innervated gland. Melatonin-induced modulation of catecholamines following a single IP injection (0.5 mg/100 g body wt.) revealed significant increases in NE fluorescence and NE content at 4 and 12 h after treatment in the denervated gland only, which gradually approached normal levels 9 days after treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Sarkar, S; Ghosh, S; Sengupta, S; Dasadhikari, S; Ghosh, A
The effect of prostaglandin (PG) inhibitors differing in their chemical nature, viz. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), Mefenamic acid (fenamates), Diclofenac (phenylacetic acid derivative) and Piroxicam (oxicam derivative) on the adrenal hormones was studied in acutely stressed pigeons. None of these PG blockers exerted any significant effect on the catecholamine and corticosterone content of the control, i.e. unstressed pigeon adrenal gland excepting mefenamic acid which caused a release of epinephrine. Aspirin, diclofenac and piroxicam did not modulate the catecholamine or corticosterone secretion whereas mefenamic acid caused a released of both epinephrine and norepinephrine and increased the adrenal corticosterone content in the acutely stressed pigeons. These results were compared with those obtained from studies on the effects of other chemically different PG blockers, indomethacin (a methylated indole derivative) and ibuprofen (a propionic acid derivative). It is suggested that chemically and structurally different PG inhibitors show diverse action in the same species under similar stress conditions.
Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Ponnuraj, Karthe, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Centre of Advanced Study in Crystallography and Biophysics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India)
Urease from pigeon pea was purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected at 2.5 Å resolution. Urease is a seed protein that is common to most Leguminosae. It also occurs in many bacteria, fungi and several species of yeast. Urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, thus allowing organisms to use exogenous and internally generated urea as a nitrogen source. Urease from pigeon pea seeds has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a series of steps involving ammonium sulfate fractionation, acid precipitation, ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography techniques. The pigeon pea urease was crystallized and the resulting crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution. The crystals belong to the rhombohedral space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 176.29, c = 346.44 Å.
Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Ponnuraj, Karthe
Urease from pigeon pea was purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected at 2.5 Å resolution. Urease is a seed protein that is common to most Leguminosae. It also occurs in many bacteria, fungi and several species of yeast. Urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, thus allowing organisms to use exogenous and internally generated urea as a nitrogen source. Urease from pigeon pea seeds has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a series of steps involving ammonium sulfate fractionation, acid precipitation, ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography techniques. The pigeon pea urease was crystallized and the resulting crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution. The crystals belong to the rhombohedral space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 176.29, c = 346.44 Å
Full Text Available Three out of 10 Nicobar pigeons (Caloenas nicobaria in an aviary collection in South Africa were found dead with no presenting clinical symptoms. Histological examination of formalin-fixed tissues from all these birds revealed necrotic foci in various visceral organs (liver, spleen, heart, kidney and lungs, plus diffuse pulmonary congestion and oedema with vasculitis. Numerous protozoal tachyzoites were present in all organs and there was strong positive immunohistochemical (IHC labelling of these organisms for Toxoplasma gondii. Pathology was consistent with acute systemic toxoplasmosis as a consequence of oocyst ingestion. Feral cats were known to be a problem at the facility. Clinical toxoplasmosis is rarely reported in pigeons and this is believed to be the 1st report of toxoplasmosis in Nicobar pigeons.
Abolnik, C; Gerdes, G H; Kitching, J; Swanepoel, S; Romito, M; Bisschop, S P R
Pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1), a variant of Newcastle disease virus that primarily affects doves and pigeons has been isolated in South Africa since the mid-1980s. Phylogenetic evidence indicates that pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 viruses were introduced into South Africa on multiple occasions, based on the presence of two separate lineages, 4bi and 4bii, that have been circulating in Europe and the Far East since the early 1990s. During 2006, a PPMV-1 virus was isolated from an African ground hornbill (Bucorvus leadbeateri) which became acutely infected with PPMV-1 and died, probably after scavenging off infected dove carcasses in the region, since a closely-related PPMV-1 strain was also isolated from doves collected nearby. The hornbill isolate had ICPI and MDT values characteristic of PPMV-1 strains. The threat of PPMV-1 to poultry production and biodiversity in southern Africa highlights the importance of monitoring the spread of this strain.
Gibson, Brett; Wasserman, Edward; Luck, Steven J
Visual short-term memory plays a key role in guiding behavior, and individual differences in visual short-term memory capacity are strongly predictive of higher cognitive abilities. To provide a broader evolutionary context for understanding this memory system, we directly compared the behavior of pigeons and humans on a change detection task. Although pigeons had a lower storage capacity and a higher lapse rate than humans, both species stored multiple items in short-term memory and conformed to the same basic performance model. Thus, despite their very different evolutionary histories and neural architectures, pigeons and humans have functionally similar visual short-term memory systems, suggesting that the functional properties of visual short-term memory are subject to similar selective pressures across these distant species.
Yang, Junqing; Huai, Ruituo; Wang, Hui; Lv, Changzhi; Su, Xuecheng
In this paper, we describe a new multi-mode telestimulation system for brain-microstimulation for the navigation of a robo-pigeon, a new type of bio-robot based on Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) techniques. The multi-mode telestimulation system overcomes neuron adaptation that was a key shortcoming of the previous single-mode stimulation by the use of non-steady TTL biphasic pulses accomplished by randomly alternating pulse modes. To improve efficiency, a new behavior model ("virtual fear") is proposed and applied to the robo-pigeon. Unlike the previous "virtual reward" model, the "virtual fear" behavior model does not require special training. The performance and effectiveness of the system to alleviate the adaptation of neurons was verified by a robo-pigeon navigation test, simultaneously confirming the practicality of the "virtual fear" behavioral model.
Lazareva, Olga E; Castro, Leyre; Vecera, Shaun P; Wasserman, Edward A
Four pigeons discriminated whether a target spot appeared on a colored figural shape or on a differently colored background by first pecking the target and then reporting its location: on the figure or the background. We recorded three dependent variables: target detection time, choice response time, and choice accuracy. The birds were faster to detect the target, to report its location, and to learn the correct response on figure trials than on background trials. Later tests suggested that the pigeons might have attended to the figural region as a whole rather than using local properties in performing the figure-background discrimination. The location of the figural region did not affect figure-ground assignment. Finally, when 4 other pigeons had to detect and peck the target without making a choice report, no figural advantage emerged in target detection time, suggesting that the birds' attention may not have been automatically summoned to the figural region.
Potdukhe, N.R.; Narkhede, M.N.
Seeds of pigeon pea cv.ICPL-87119 were treated separately with gamma rays, ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and sodium azide (SA). Physical and chemical mutagens were found effective in affecting the germination and survival of plants in M 1 , M 2 and M 3 generations. However, reduction in survival was more pronounced in M 1 as compared to M 2 and M 3 generation and was increased as the dose or concentration increased. The survival of plants was comparatively affected more than germination of seeds due to the fact that the seedlings failed to grow after primary leaf stage due to shoot and root damage. Seedling damage and reduction in pollen fertility revealed linear trend with increase in dosage of three mutagens. As regards the pollen diameter of both fertile and sterile pollen reduction was more pronounced in EMS and sodium azide as compared to gamma rays. Among the mutagens, sodium azide was the most effective and EMS the least in causing irregularities. The meiotic cell division in the PMC's of morphological variant viz., simple leaf mutant, robust leaf mutant, dwarf and bushy mutant, xantha, branchless, uniculm and bunchy flowered mutant etc. isolated in M 2 generation. (author)
Roitblat, H L; Scopatz, R A
Pigeons were tested in a three-alternative delayed matching-to-sample task in which second-choices were permitted following first-choice errors. Sequences of responses both within and between trials were examined in three experiments. The first experiment demonstrates that the sample information contained in first-choice errors is not sufficient to account for the observed pattern of second choices. This result implies that second-choices following first-choice errors are based on a second examination of the contents of working memory. Proactive interference was found in the second experiment in the form of a dependency, beyond that expected on the basis of trial independent response bias, of first-choices from one trial on the first-choice emitted on the previous trial. Samples from the previous trial were not found to exert a significant influence on later trials. The magnitude of the intertrial association (Experiment 3) did not depend on the duration of the intertrial interval. In contrast, longer intertrial intervals and longer sample durations did facilitate choice accuracy, by strengthening the association between current samples and choices. These results are incompatible with a trace-decay and competition model; they suggest strongly that multiple influences act simultaneously and independently to control delayed matching-to-sample responding. These multiple influences include memory for the choice occurring on the previous trial, memory for the sample, and general effects of trial spacing.
Hung, Chih-Ming; Shaner, Pei-Jen L; Zink, Robert M; Liu, Wei-Chung; Chu, Te-Chin; Huang, Wen-San; Li, Shou-Hsien
To assess the role of human disturbances in species' extinction requires an understanding of the species population history before human impact. The passenger pigeon was once the most abundant bird in the world, with a population size estimated at 3-5 billion in the 1800s; its abrupt extinction in 1914 raises the question of how such an abundant bird could have been driven to extinction in mere decades. Although human exploitation is often blamed, the role of natural population dynamics in the passenger pigeon's extinction remains unexplored. Applying high-throughput sequencing technologies to obtain sequences from most of the genome, we calculated that the passenger pigeon's effective population size throughout the last million years was persistently about 1/10,000 of the 1800's estimated number of individuals, a ratio 1,000-times lower than typically found. This result suggests that the passenger pigeon was not always super abundant but experienced dramatic population fluctuations, resembling those of an "outbreak" species. Ecological niche models supported inference of drastic changes in the extent of its breeding range over the last glacial-interglacial cycle. An estimate of acorn-based carrying capacity during the past 21,000 y showed great year-to-year variations. Based on our results, we hypothesize that ecological conditions that dramatically reduced population size under natural conditions could have interacted with human exploitation in causing the passenger pigeon's rapid demise. Our study illustrates that even species as abundant as the passenger pigeon can be vulnerable to human threats if they are subject to dramatic population fluctuations, and provides a new perspective on the greatest human-caused extinction in recorded history.
Chae, H S; Park, G N; Kim, S H; Jo, H J; Kim, J T; Jeoung, H Y; An, D J; Kim, N H; Shin, B W; Kang, Y I; Chang, K S
Isolation and identification of Cryptococcus neoformans and pathogenic yeast-like fungi from pigeon droppings has been taken for a long time and requires various nutrients for its growth. In this study, we attempted to establish a rapid direct identification method of Cr. neoformans from pigeon dropping samples by nested-PCR using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) CAP64 and CNLAC1 genes, polysaccharide capsule gene and laccase-associated gene to produce melanin pigment, respectively, which are common genes of yeasts. The ITS and CAP64 genes were amplified in all pathogenic yeasts, but CNLAC1 was amplified only in Cr. neoformans. The ITS gene was useful for yeast genotyping depending on nucleotide sequence. Homology of CAP64 genes among the yeasts were very high. The specificity of PCR using CNLAC1 was demonstrated in Cr. neoformans environmental strains but not in other yeast-like fungi. The CNLAC1 gene was detected in 5 serotypes of Cr. neoformans. The nested-PCR amplified up to 10(-11) μg of the genomic DNA and showed high sensitivity. All pigeon droppings among 31 Cr. neoformans-positive samples were positive and all pigeon droppings among 348 Cr. neoformans-negative samples were negative by the direct nested-PCR. In addition, after primary enrichment of pigeon droppings in Sabouraud dextrose broth, all Cr. neoformans-negative samples were negative by the nested-PCR, which showed high specificity. The nested-PCR showed high sensitivity without culture of pigeon droppings. Nested-PCR using CNLAC1 provides a rapid and reliable molecular diagnostic method to overcome weak points such as long culture time of many conventional methods.
Gadhia, P.K.; Shah, V.C.
The histochemical changes in succinate dehydrogenase were investigated in pectoralis major muscle of pigeon exposed to sub-lethal dose (400 rad) of γ-irradiation. Biochemical study was also carried out after 200, 300 and 400 rad of irradiation. In the present study the overall decrease in enzyme activity could be due to the structural and/or functional damage to mitochondria after treatment of pigeon to different sub-lethal doses of γ-irradiation. The significance of these results has been discussed with special reference to oxidative metabolism. (author)
LARISSA C. SNEIDERIS
Full Text Available In this work we investigated whether priming with auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and ethylene, alters the physiological responses of seeds of pigeon pea germinated under water and cadmium stress. Seeds treated with water or non-treated seeds were used as control. Although compared to non-treated seeds we found that the hormone treatments improve the germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress, however, these treatments did not differ from water. However, we also observed a trend of tolerance to the effects of cadmium in the presence of ethylene, suggesting that the use of this hormone may be an efficient method to overcome seed germination under metal stress.
Haidar, I; Alvarez, I; Prévot, A C
This paper addresses the issue of managing urban pigeon population using some possible actions that make it reach a density target with respect to socio-ecological constraints. A mathematical model describing the dynamic of this population is introduced. This model incorporates the effect of some regulatory actions on the dynamic of this population. We use mathematical viability theory, which provides a framework to study compatibility between dynamics and state constraints. The viability study shows when and how it is possible to regulate the pigeon population with respect to the constraints. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Akanbi, Charles T
The effect of gamma irradiation at various doses (5, 10, 15, 20 kGy) was observed on pigeon pea flour stored for 3 months on proximate composition, functional properties, and peroxide value. Sensory evaluation was also carried out on bean cake (moinmoin) made from nonirradiated and irradiated pigeon pea flour. The results showed that stored gamma-irradiated samples had significantly lower (P < 0.05) value of protein and little or no effect on moisture content. There were slight decreases in c...
Ohizua, Ehimen R; Adeola, Abiodun A; Idowu, Micheal A; Sobukola, Olajide P; Afolabi, T Adeniyi; Ishola, Raphael O; Ayansina, Simeon O; Oyekale, Tolulope O; Falomo, Ayorinde
This study investigated some quality attributes of unripe cooking banana (UBF), pigeon pea (PPF), and sweetpotato (SPF) flour blends. Simplex centroid mixture design was used to obtain 17 blends from the flours. The nutrient composition, color, and functional properties of the blends were evaluated using standard methods. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and treatment means were compared using Duncan's multiple range test at 5% probability level. There were significant ( p pigeon pea-sweetpotato flour blends are desirable for alleviating malnutrition in Nigeria and developing new food formulations.
Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Jin Tong; Zu, Yuan Gang; Fu, Yu Jie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Efferth, Thomas
Five fungal endophytes (K4, K5, K6, K9, K14) producing Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid) were isolated from the roots of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. CSA is responsible for the prominent pharmacological activities in pigeon pea. The amount of CSA in culture solution varied among the five fungal endophytes. K4 produced the highest levels of CSA (1037.13 µg/L) among the endophytes tested after incubation for five days. Both morphologi...
Cui, Jia; Wu, Bin; Halbrook, Richard S; Zang, Shuying
Biomonitoring provides direct evidence of the bioavailability and accumulation of toxic elements in the environment. In the current study, 1-2, 5-6, and 9-10+ year old homing pigeons collected from the Haidian District of Beijing during 2011 were necropsied and concentrations of cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured in liver, lung, and kidney tissue. At necropsy, gray/black discoloration of the margins of the lungs was observed in 98 % of the pigeons. There were no significant differences in metal concentrations as a function of gender. Cadmium concentrations in all tissues and Pb concentrations in the lung tissues were significantly greater in 9-10+ year old pigeons compared to other age groups indicating that Cd and Pb were bioavailable. Mercury concentrations were not significantly different among age groups. Cadmium concentrations in kidney and lung tissues of 9-10+ year old pigeons were similar to or exceeded concentrations of Cd reported in pigeons from another high traffic urban area and most wild avian species from Korea suggesting that Cd in this region of Beijing may be of concern. Homing pigeons provide valuable exposure and bioaccumulation data not readily available from air monitoring alone, thus providing information regarding potential health effects in wildlife and humans in urban areas. As environmental quality standards are implemented in China, homing pigeons will serve as a valuable bio-monitor of the efficacy of these actions.
Lee, Bao-Hong; Lai, Yi-Syuan; Wu, She-Ching
Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained using B. subtilis 14715 fermentation for 32 hours. In addition, the levels of antioxidants (phenolics and flavonoids) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were increased in B. subtilis 14715-fermented pigeon pea, compared with those in nonfermented pigeon pea. In an animal model, we found that both water extracts of pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight) and water extracts of B. subtilis-fermented pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight) significantly improved systolic blood pressure (21 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (30 mmHg) in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These results suggest that Bacillus-fermented pigeon pea has benefits for cardiovascular health and can be developed as a new dietary supplement or functional food that prevents hypertension. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained using B. subtilis 14715 fermentation for 32 hours. In addition, the levels of antioxidants (phenolics and flavonoids and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were increased in B. subtilis 14715-fermented pigeon pea, compared with those in nonfermented pigeon pea. In an animal model, we found that both water extracts of pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight and water extracts of B. subtilis-fermented pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight significantly improved systolic blood pressure (21 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (30 mmHg in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These results suggest that Bacillus-fermented pigeon pea has benefits for cardiovascular health and can be developed as a new dietary supplement or functional food that prevents hypertension.
Hafidh I. Al- Sadi and Aws Z. Hamodi
Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of trichomoniasis and its pathology in pigeons. A total of 100 free living urban pigeons were collected during the months August and September 2007. The overall prevalence was 16%. In infected pigeons, yellowish – white masses of caseous necrotic material were seen grossly in the oral cavity, esophagus, crop, and proventiculus. Pale to yellow necrotic areas were noted in the liver. Multiple foci of caseous necrosis were seen microscopically in the oral mucosa together with heavy infiltration of inflammatory cells (mainly heterophils. Foci of necrotic inflammation were seen in the liver and there was thickening of the lining mucosa of the esophagus due to extensive infiltration of heterophils. Collections of necrotic material were seen in the mucosa and submucosa of the esophagus. Infection occurred more frequently in young than in adult pigeons. A higher prevalence of the infection was noted in male than in female pigeons. In all of the infected pigeons, trichomoniasis occured in the absence of apparent secondary disease. It was concluded that trichomonad infection is fairly common in free living urban pigeons in the city of Mosul, Iraq. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 12-14
Tilak Chandra Nath
Full Text Available The blood protozoa of two important domestic birds namely chickens (Gallus domesticus and pigeon (Columba livia reared in the hilly areas of Bangladesh were studied. A total of 400 birds (200 chicken and 200 pigeons were examined of which 149 (37.3% [95% CI] birds were found infected by one or more haemoprotozoan parasites. Haemoprotozoa belonging to three genera were identified. Pigeon 80 (40% was recorded more susceptible to haemoprotozoa infection than chicken 69 (34.5%. 118 birds (29.5% were found to be infected with single infection where as mixed infections were found in 31 birds (7.8%. The prevalence of blood protozoa in female birds (69.5% was found significantly higher (p ≤ 0.0001 [95% CI] than male birds (5%. Within the study period, the prevalence rate of Haemoprotozoa was 60.6% in summer season, 36.7% in rainy and 23% winter seasons. This study has archived a high prevalence of haemoparasites, henceforth encourage further to determine the effect of contamination on the productivity and profitability of these birds, and evaluation of cost-benefit of various control strategies need to be undertaken.
Vickrey, Anna I.; Domyan, Eric T.; Horvath, Martin P.; Shapiro, Michael D.
Head crests are important display structures in wild bird species and are also common in domesticated lineages. Many breeds of domestic rock pigeon (Columba livia) have crests of reversed occipital feathers, and this recessive trait is associated with a nonsynonymous coding mutation in the intracellular kinase domain of EphB2 (Ephrin receptor B2). The domestic ringneck dove (Streptopelia risoria) also has a recessive crested morph with reversed occipital feathers, and interspecific crosses between crested doves and pigeons produce crested offspring, suggesting a similar genetic basis for this trait in both species. We therefore investigated EphB2 as a candidate for the head crest phenotype of ringneck doves and identified a nonsynonymous coding mutation in the intracellular kinase domain that is significantly associated with the crested morph. This mutation is over 100 amino acid positions away from the crest mutation found in rock pigeons, yet both mutations are predicted to negatively affect the function of ATP-binding pocket. Furthermore, bacterial toxicity assays suggest that “crest” mutations in both species severely impact kinase activity. We conclude that head crests are associated with different mutations in the same functional domain of the same gene in two different columbid species, thereby representing striking evolutionary convergence in morphology and molecules. PMID:26104009
Full Text Available Besides direct impacts of urban biodiversity on local ecosystem services, the contact of city dwellers with urban nature in their everyday life could increase their awareness on conservation issues. In this paper, we focused on a particularly common animal urban species, the feral pigeon Columba livia. Through an observational approach, we examined behavioral interactions between city dwellers and this species in the Paris metropolis, France. We found that most people (mean: 81% do not interact with pigeons. Further, interactions (either positive or negative are context and age-dependent: children interact more than adults and the elderly, while people in tourist spots interact more than people in urban parks or in railway stations, a result that suggests that people interacting with pigeons are mostly tourists. We discuss these results in terms of public normative pressures on city dwellers' access to and reconnection with urban nature. We call for caution in how urban species are publically portrayed and managed, given the importance of interactions with ordinary biodiversity for the fate of nature conservation.
Bodkin, James L.
Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.
Gibson, Brett M; Wasserman, Edward A
The authors taught pigeons to discriminate displays of 16 identical items from displays of 16 nonidentical items. Unlike most same-different discrimination studies--where only stimulus relations could serve a discriminative function--both the identity of the items and the relations among the items were discriminative features of the displays. The pigeons learned about both stimulus identity and stimulus relations when these 2 sources of information served as redundant, relevant cues. In tests of associative competition, identity cues exerted greater stimulus control than relational cues. These results suggest that the pigeon can respond to both specific stimuli and general relations in the environment.
Preference and acceptability of twelve vegetable pigeon pea genotypes of medium maturity was evaluated in Eastern Kenya based on six seed cultivar parameters of color, appearance, taste, odor, tenderness and overall seed acceptability. The sensory characteristics were scored by consumers and farmers...
Heddema, Edou R.; ter Sluis, Sietske; Buys, Jan A.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; van Wijnen, Joop H.; Visser, Caroline E.
In many cities, the feral rock dove is an abundant bird species that can harbor Chlamydophila psittaci. We determined the prevalence and genotype of C. psittaci in fresh fecal samples from feral pigeons in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The prevalence was 7.9% overall (26/331; 95% confidence interval,
Gagliardo, Anna; Odetti, Francesca; Ioalè, Paolo
To orient from familiar sites, homing pigeons can rely on both an olfactory map and visual familiar landmarks. The latter can in principle be used in two different ways: either within a topographical map exploited for piloting or in a so-called mosaic map associated with a compass bearing. One way to investigate the matter is to put the compass and the topographical information in conflict by releasing clock-shifted pigeons from familiar locations. Although the compass orientation is in general dominant over a piloting strategy, a stronger or weaker tendency to correct towards the home direction by clock-shifted pigeons released from very familiar sites has often been observed. To investigate which factors are involved in the reduction of the deviation due to clock-shift, we performed a series of releases with intact and anosmic pigeons from familiar sites in unshifted and clock-shifted conditions and a series of releases from the same sites with naive clock-shifted birds. Our data suggest that the following factors have a role in reducing deviation due to the clock-shift: familiarity with the release site, the lack of olfactory information and some unknown site-dependent features.
Full Text Available Homing pigeons develop preferred routes when released alone several times from the same site, but they sometimes diverge from their preferred route when subsequently released with another pigeon. Additionally, group flights show a better homing performance than solo flights. But this knowledge is based on studies involving both sexes and lacks analyses of social parameters such as mating or breeding status, even though it is known that such parameters have an influence on behavior and on motivation for specific behavioral patterns. GPS trackers were used to track 24 homing pigeons (9 breeding pairs and 6 unmated females as they performed a familiar 10km route in various pair and group combinations. Comparisons of efficiency indices (quotient between straight-line distance and pigeon's track reveal that unmated females show the best efficiency in single flights. Generally, group flights show the best efficiency followed by pair flights with a social partner of the opposite sex. Pair flights with the mated partner exhibit the poorest performance. Additionally, just before squabs hatching, females show a higher efficiency index when released at 8 am, compared to releases at 2 pm. Our results indicate that homing flight efficiency can provide insight into individual motivation and that social parameters have an influence on homing performance on a familiar route.
Overton, C.T.; Schmitz, R.A.; Casazza, Michael L.
Many animal surveys to estimate populations or index trends include protocol prohibiting counts during rain but fail to address effects of rainfall preceding the count. Prior research on Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis) documented declines in use of mineral sites during rainfall. We hypothesized that prior precipitation was associated with a short-term increase in use of mineral sites following rain. We conducted weekly counts of band-tailed pigeons at 19 Pacific Northwest mineral sites in 2001 and 20 sites in 2002. Results from regression analysis indicated higher counts ???2 days after rain (11.31??5.00% [x????SE]) compared to ???3 days. Individual index counts conducted ???2 days after rain were biased high, resulting in reduced ability to accurately estimate population trends. Models of band-tailed pigeon visitation rates throughout the summer showed increased mineral-site counts during both June and August migration periods, relative to the July breeding period. Our research supported previous studies recommending that mineral-site counts used to index the band-tailed pigeon population be conducted during July. We further recommend conducting counts >3 days after rain to avoid weather-related bias in index estimation. The design of other population sampling strategies that rely on annual counts should consider the influence of aberrant weather not only coincident with but also preceding surveys if weather patterns are thought to influence behavior or detection probability of target species.
Magalhães, Paula; White, K Geoffrey
Persistence in a losing course of action due to prior investments of time, known as the sunk time effect, has seldom been studied in nonhuman animals. On every trial in the present study, pigeons were required to choose between two response keys. Responses on one key produced food after a short fixed interval (FI) of time on some trials, or on other trials, no food (Extinction) after a longer time. FI and Extinction trials were not differently signaled, were equiprobable, and alternated randomly. Responses on a second Escape key allowed the pigeon to terminate the current trial and start a new one. The optimal behavior was for pigeons to peck the escape key once the duration equivalent to the short FI had elapsed without reward. Durations of the short FI and the longer Extinction schedules were varied over conditions. In some conditions, the pigeons suboptimally responded through the Extinction interval, thus committing the sunk time effect. The absolute duration of the short FI had no effect on the choice between persisting and escaping. Instead, the ratio of FI and Extinction durations determined the likelihood of persistence during extinction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lyons, Damian M; MacDonall, James S; Cunningham, Kelly M
Contact switches and touch screens are the state of the art for recording pigeons' pecking behavior. Recording other behavior, however, requires a different sensor for each behavior, and some behaviors cannot easily be recorded. We present a flexible and inexpensive image-based approach to detecting and counting pigeon behaviors that is based on the Kinect sensor from Microsoft. Although the system is as easy to set up and use as the standard approaches, it is more flexible because it can record behaviors in addition to key pecking. In this article, we show how both the fast, fine motion of key pecking and the gross body activity of feeding can be measured. Five pigeons were trained to peck at a lighted contact switch, a pigeon key, to obtain food reward. The timing of the pecks and the food reward signals were recorded in a log file using standard equipment. The Kinect-based system, called BehaviorWatch, also measured the pecking and feeding behavior and generated a different log file. For key pecking, BehaviorWatch had an average sensitivity of 95% and a precision of 91%, which were very similar to the pecking measurements from the standard equipment. For detecting feeding activity, BehaviorWatch had a sensitivity of 95% and a precision of 97%. These results allow us to demonstrate that an advantage of the Kinect-based approach is that it can also be reliably used to measure activity other than key pecking.
Ghosh, Natasha; Lea, S. E. G.; Noury, Malia
Two experiments examined pigeons' generalization to intermediate forms following training of concept discriminations. In Experiment 1, the training stimuli were sets of images of dogs and cats, and the transfer stimuli were head/body chimeras, which humans tend to categorize more readily in terms of the head part rather than the body part. In…
Soltani, Maryam; Bayat, Mansour; Hashemi, Seyed J; Zia, Mohammadali; Pestechian, Nader
Invasive fungal infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. Pigeon droppings could especially be a potential carrier in the spread of pathogenic yeasts and mold fungi into the environment. The objective of this study was to isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and other opportunistic fungi from pigeon droppings. One hundred twenty samples of pigeon droppings were suspended 1:10 in saline solution and then cultured. Identification of C. neoformans was performed on bird seed agar, presence of a capsule on India ink preparation, urease production on urea agar medium and RapID yeast plus system. The identification of candida species was based on micro-morphological analysis on corn meal-Tween 80 agar, RapID yeast plus system and growth in CHROMagar candida. The identification of other fungi was based on macromorphologic, microscopic, biochemical and physiological characteristics. The highest frequency of yeasts and mold fungi were observed in Candida albicans 6.6% and Penicillium spp. 25%. The frequency rate of C. neoformans isolation was 2.5%. Several types of fungi are present in pigeon droppings that can spread in environment and transmit to children and elderly as well as immunocompromised patients who are at increased risk of contracting opportunistic diseases.
Full Text Available Background: Invasive fungal infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. Pigeon droppings could especially be a potential carrier in the spread of pathogenic yeasts and mold fungi into the environment. The objective of this study was to isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and other opportunistic fungi from pigeon droppings. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty samples of pigeon droppings were suspended 1:10 in saline solution and then cultured. Identification of C. neoformans was performed on bird seed agar, presence of a capsule on India ink preparation, urease production on urea agar medium and RapID yeast plus system. The identification of candida species was based on micro-morphological analysis on corn meal-Tween 80 agar, RapID yeast plus system and growth in CHROMagar candida. The identification of other fungi was based on macromorphologic, microscopic, biochemical and physiological characteristics. Results: The highest frequency of yeasts and mold fungi were observed in Candida albicans 6.6% and Penicillium spp. 25%. The frequency rate of C. neoformans isolation was 2.5%. Conclusion: Several types of fungi are present in pigeon droppings that can spread in environment and transmit to children and elderly as well as immunocompromised patients who are at increased risk of contracting opportunistic diseases.
Cassava flour (CF) and pigeon pea flours (PF) were respectively produced and blended in the ratios of 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20. The flour blends were subjected to proximate, functional and anti-nutrient analysis after which they were used to produce cookies. The sensory and physical characteristics were ...
Lagorio, Carla H.; Hackenberg, Timothy D.
Pigeons were given repeated choices between variable and fixed numbers of token reinforcers (stimulus lamps arrayed above the response keys), with each earned token exchangeable for food. The number of tokens provided by the fixed-amount option remained constant within blocks of sessions, but varied parametrically across phases, assuming values of…
Revis, N.W.; Bull, R.; Laurie, D.; Schiller, C.A.
The frequency of atherosclerotic lesions of the abdominal aorta has been reported to increase significantly in chickens exposed to benzo(a)pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a,h)anthracene. The present studies were performed to determine in another experimental model frequently used in atherosclerotic studies (i.e. White Carneau Pigeons) whether these and other chemical carcinogens enhance atherosclerosis. The induction and enhancement of atherosclerotic lesions were observed in pigeons treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a,h)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene and 3-methylcholanthrene. The number and size of plaques in the aorta were frequently greater in pigeons treated with the higher concentrations (i.e. 100 mg/kg) of these 3 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Benzo(e)pyrene and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol were ineffective in the induction or enhancement of atherosclerosis in the pigeons. The results of the present and previous studies suggest that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (excluding benzo(e)pyrene) may be the only potential atherogens in avian atherosclerosis. This relationship may be associated with how these hydrocarbons are transported in the plasma (i.e. by lipoproteins) as demonstrated by the present distribution studies (author)
Purushottam R Lomate
Full Text Available Jasmonate inducible plant leucine aminopeptidase (LAP is proposed to serve as direct defense in the insect midgut. However, exact functions of inducible plant LAPs in the insect midgut remain to be estimated. In the present investigation, we report the direct defensive role of pigeon pea inducible LAP in the midgut of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and responses of midgut soluble aminopeptidases and serine proteinases upon LAP ingestion. Larval growth and survival was significantly reduced on the diets supplemented with pigeon pea LAP. Aminopeptidase activities in larvae remain unaltered in presence or absence of inducible LAP in the diet. On the contrary, serine proteinase activities were significantly decreased in the larvae reared on pigeon pea LAP containing diet as compared to larvae fed on diet without LAP. Our data suggest that pigeon pea inducible LAP is responsible for the degradation of midgut serine proteinases upon ingestion. Reduction in the aminopeptidase activity with LpNA in the H. armigera larvae was compensated with an induction of aminopeptidase activity with ApNA. Our findings could be helpful to further dissect the roles of plant inducible LAPs in the direct plant defense against herbivory.