WorldWideScience

Sample records for pig production systems

  1. Consumer attitudes to different pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Grunert, Klaus G; Zhou, Yanfeng

    2013-01-01

    In many Western countries, consumers have shown an increasing interest to the way in which food products are being produced. This study investigates Chinese consumers' attitudes towards different pig production systems by means of a conjoint analysis. While there has been a range of studies...... on Western consumers' attitudes to various forms of food production, little is known about the level of Chinese consumers' attitudes. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 472 participants in six Chinese cities. Results indicate that Chinese consumers prefer industrial pig production systems, where...... from Cluster 1 focus almost exclusively on the food safety aspect (food safety focused). Consumers from cluster 2 (indifferent) show generally weak attitudes to pig production systems in general. Cluster 3 (industrial production oriented) stands out by being very positive about industrial, large size...

  2. A description of smallholder pig production systems in eastern Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Geong, Maria; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2015-03-01

    Pig farming is a common practice among smallholder farmers in Nusa Tenggara Timur province (NTT), eastern Indonesia. To understand their production systems a survey of smallholder pig farmers was conducted. Eighteen villages were randomly selected across West Timor, Flores and Sumba islands, and 289 pig farmers were interviewed. Information on pig management, biosecurity practices, pig movements and knowledge of pig health and disease, specifically classical swine fever was collected. The mean number of pigs per herd was 5.0 (not including piglets), and total marketable herd size (pigs≥two months of age) did not differ significantly between islands (P=0.215). Chickens (71%) and dogs (62%) were the most commonly kept animal species in addition to pigs. Pigs were mainly kept as a secondary income source (69%) and 83% of farmers owned at least one sow. Seventy-four percent (74%) of pigs were housed in a kandang (small bamboo pen) and 25% were tethered. Pig feeds were primarily locally sourced agricultural products (93%). The majority of farmers had no knowledge of classical swine fever (91%) and biosecurity practices were minimal. Forty-five percent (45%) reported to consuming a pig when it died and 74% failed to report cases of sick or dead pigs to appropriate authorities. Sixty-five percent (65%) of farmers reported that a veterinarian or animal health worker had never visited their village. Backyard slaughter was common practice (55%), with meat mainly used for home consumption (89%). Most (73%) farmers purchased pigs in order to raise the animal on their farm with 36% purchasing at least one pig within the last year. Predominantly fattener pigs (34%) were given as gifts for celebratory events, most commonly for funerals (32%), traditional ceremonies (27%) and marriages (10%). For improved productivity of this traditional low-input system, research incorporating farming training and improved knowledge on pig disease and biosecurity needs to be integrated with

  3. Integrated resource-driven pig production systems in a mountainous area of Northeast India: production practices and pig performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Pathak, K A; Das, Anubrata; Bardoloi, R K

    2009-10-01

    Data on pig production system was derived through structured household interviews from a total number of 320 rural households and performance of pigs was assessed. Results revealed that the pig production system represented mixed farming based mainly on the common property resources. Majority of the pigs were reared in intensive system and fed with home made cooked feed (kitchen waste and locally available plants). The body weight of crossbred, Burmese and local pigs were 67, 65.4 and 45.6 kg, respectively at 12 months of age with average daily body weight of 184, 179 and 125 g, respectively. The overall mortality among the pigs was 17.96%. The major causes of mortality in pigs were Swine fever, Swine erysipelas, digestive disorders, nephritis and respiratory disorders. The body weight gain in pigs subjected to deworming and mineral mixture supplementation (218 g/day) was significantly (p pigs, while the corresponding ratio for local pigs was 1:1.2. It is inferred that the smallholder resource driven pig production system is economically viable and sustainable at household level and there is enough scope to improve the smallholder resource driven pig production system.

  4. Chinese consumers' attitude towards different pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Grunert, Klaus G.; Yanfeng, Z.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates Chinese consumers' attitude towards different pig production systems by means of a conjoint analysis. While there has been a range of studies on western consumers' attitudes to various forms of food production, little is known about such attitudes in other cultural contexts...... to food safety which furthermore can provide lean meat with consistent quality are also preferred compared to farms that have less focus on food safety. Chinese consumers also rejected imported pig breeds and tasty but variable meat....

  5. Multiperiod planning tool for multisite pig production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal-Roig, E; Plà, L M

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a multiperiod planning tool for multisite pig production systems based on Linear Programming (LP). The aim of the model is to help pig managers of multisite systems in making short-term decisions (mainly related to pig transfers between farms and batch management in fattening units) and mid-term or long-term decisions (according to company targets and expansion strategy). The model skeleton follows the structure of a three-site system that can be adapted to any multisite system present in the modern pig industry. There are three basic phases, namely, piglet production, rearing pigs, and fattening. Each phase involves a different set of farms; therefore, transportation between farms and delivering of pigs to the abattoir are under consideration. The model maximizes the total gross margin calculated from the income of sales to the abattoir and the production costs over the time horizon considered. Production cost depends on each type of farm involved in the process. Parameters like number of farms per phase and distance, farm capacity, reproduction management policies, feeding and veterinary expenses, and transportation costs are taken into account. The model also provides a schedule of transfers between farms in terms of animals to be transported and number of trucks involved. The use of the model is illustrated with a case study based on a real instance of a company located in Catalonia (Spain).

  6. Attitudes of Brazilian citizens towards pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Saab, Maria Stella Melo

    to identify Brazilian citizen clusters. Respondents' socio-demographic profile, attitudes towards issues that are expected to influence the way how people evaluate pig meat production systems, and consumption frequency of various pork products were used as background information for profiling. Three clusters...... and consumption behaviour was found to be weak. As it was suggested for Europe (Krystallis et al., 2009), what people think in their role as citizens related to pig production does not appear to significantly influence their pork consumption choices.......The objective of this study is to map Brazilian citizen attitudes towards pig meat production systems and to investigate whether these attitudes associate with pork and pork product consumption. A conjoint experiment was carried out with empirical data collected from 475 respondents interviewed...

  7. Smallholder pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Mbeya Region, Tanzania, with the aim of describing the distribution and diversity of ectoparasites on pigs, within confinement and free-range production systems of smallholder farms. A total of 128 farms were surveyed, with 96 practising confinement...... and 32 practising free-range production systems. The prevalence of ectoparasites on pigs within confinement and free-range production systems was 24% and 84%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that keeping pigs in a free-range system and the presence of neighbouring pigs were risk...... although highly prevalent within both production systems. Keeping pigs in a free-range system and contact with neighbouring pigs were main risk factors for the presence of ectoparasites. Confinement was highly effective as a preventive tool against hard ticks....

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of pig production systems of the Noir de Bigorre chain

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Launay, F; Rouillon, V; Faure, J; Fonseca, A

    2018-01-01

    Outdoor pig production systems relying on local pig breeds may cope with environmental and socio-economic challenges. They produce high quality products with added economic value and rely mainly on local feed resources. Within the European TREASURE project, we conducted the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the Noir de Bigorre (NDB) pig production systems located in South West of France. The environmental impacts were calculated at farm gate and expressed per kg live pig and per ha land use. Fro...

  9. Evaluation of pig production practices, constraints and opportunities for improvement in smallholder production systems in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuthia, Jackson Mwenda; Rewe, Thomas Odiwuor; Kahi, Alexander Kigunzu

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated pig production practices by smallholder farmers in two distinct production systems geared towards addressing their constraints and prospects for improvement. The production systems evaluated were semi-intensive and extensive and differed in remoteness, market access, resource availability and pig production intensity. Data were collected using structured questionnaires where a total of 102 pig farmers were interviewed. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were employed to define the socioeconomic characteristics of the production systems, understanding the different roles that pigs play, marketing systems and constraints to production. In both systems, regular cash income and insurance against emergencies were ranked as the main reasons for rearing pigs. Marketing of pigs was mainly driven by the type of production operation. Finances, feeds and housing were identified as the major constraints to production. The study provides important parameters and identifies constraints important for consideration in design of sustainable production improvement strategies. Feeding challenges can be improved through understanding the composition and proper utilization of local feed resources. Provision of adequate housing would improve the stocking rates and control mating.

  10. Attitudes of European citizens towards pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study is to map citizen attitudes towards pigmeat production systems, and to investigate whether these attitudes associate with pork and pork product consumption. A conjoint experimentwas carried out with empirical data collected from 1931 individuals in four European countries...... pork with specific fat content, and finally the preferred quality characteristics of the pork end-product. The results of the conjoint analysis were used for a subsequent cluster analysis in order to identify European citizen clusters. Respondents' socio-demographic profile, attitudes towards issues...... that are expected to influence the way people evaluate pig meat production systems, and consumption frequency of various pork products are used as background information to identify segment profiles. Pork appears to play a substantial role as a part of the diet for most respondents in the four countries...

  11. Characterization of smallholder pig production system: productive and reproductive performances of local and crossbred pigs in Sikkim Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, B G; Pathak, P K; Ngachan, S V; Tripathi, A K; Mohanty, A K

    2013-10-01

    The present study was conducted to know the smallholder pig production system in tribal areas of Sikkim State, India. Two hundred tribal farmers were selected randomly from the North and East District of the state. Information on socio-economic characteristics of farmers (gender, occupation, educational status, and farming experience), management practices, disease prevalence, and economics in pig production was collected. The study recorded the mean land holding as 1.2 ± 0.8 ha, and the number of pigs per farm was 5.0 ± 0.28. Pigs were mainly kept as a source of income, and 70 % of farmers reared crossbreed pigs. Ninety percent (90 %) of respondents practiced the intensive system of management whereby kitchen wastes along with cooked mixture comprising maize bhusa, mustard oil cake, pseudostem of banana, tuber, stem, and plant leaves were used to feed their animals. About 40.5 % of farmers procured their breeding stock from government farms that had good records and utilized veterinary services like timely vaccination and deworming. The diseases prevalent in the study area were swine fever, diarrhea, helminthoses, sarcoptic mange, pneumonia, etc. The litter sizes at birth (local, 4.3 ± 0.45; crossbreed, 7.2 ± 0.33), at weaning (local, 2.79 ± 0.24; crossbreed, 6.1 ± 0.21), and age at first farrowing (local, 365.39 ± 7.96 days; crossbreed, 337.24 ± 8.79 days) were recorded. Production costs of meat extracted from local and crossbred pigs were 1.08 $/kg and 0.86 $/kg, respectively.

  12. Energy use in pig production: an examination of current Iowa systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, P J; Kenealy, M D; Kliebenstein, J B; Harmon, J D; Helmers, M J; Honeyman, M S

    2012-03-01

    This paper compares energy use for different pig production systems in Iowa, a leader in US swine production. Pig production systems include not only the growth and performance of the pigs, but also the supporting infrastructure of pig production. This supporting infrastructure includes swine housing, facility management, feedstuff provision, swine diets, and manure management. Six different facility type × diet formulation × cropping sequence scenarios were modeled and compared. The baseline system examined produces 15,600 pigs annually using confinement facilities and a corn-soybean cropping sequence. Diet formulations for the baseline system were corn-soybean meal diets that included the synthetic AA l-lysine and exogenous phytase. The baseline system represents the majority of current US pork production in the Upper Midwest, where most US swine are produced. This system was found to require 744.6 MJ per 136-kg market pig. An alternative system that uses bedded hoop barns for grow-finish pigs and gestating sows would require 3% less (720.8 MJ) energy per 136-kg market pig. When swine production systems were assessed, diet type and feed ingredient processing were the major influences on energy use, accounting for 61 and 79% of total energy in conventional and hoop barn-based systems, respectively. Improving feed efficiency and better matching the diet formulation with the thermal environment and genetic potential are thus key aspects of reducing energy use by pig production, particularly in a hoop barn-based system. The most energy-intensive aspect of provisioning pig feed is the production of synthetic N for crop production; thus, effectively recycling manure nutrients to cropland is another important avenue for future research. Almost 25% of energy use by a conventional farrow-to-finish pig production system is attributable to operation of the swine buildings. Developing strategies to minimize energy use for heating and ventilation of swine buildings while

  13. Production performance of pigs reared in different systems and fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental material comprised 90 growing-finishing pigs, divided into six groups of 15 animals that were diverse in terms of rearing (with or without free access to outdoor runs) and feeding systems (fed increased metabolizable energy (ME) content diets with or without green alfalfa). Different feeding regimes and ...

  14. Multidirectional analysis of technical efficiency for pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labajavo, Katarina; Hansson, Helena; Asmild, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Declining profitability and ongoing structural changes in the pig sector require thorough efficiency analysis of individual production factors. In this study we calculated technical efficiency indices for each input and output using multidirectional efficiency analysis and examined the relationship...... between ‘farm-specific characteristics’ and input and output technical efficiencies by production type (piglet, growing-finishing, finish-to-farrow). The results indicated that advisory services and farm location were not significantly correlated with technical efficiency. Similar results were obtained...... for ‘housing practices’, with the exception of the latest technology such as heated floors in relation to input labour technical efficiency for growing-finishing and finish-to-farrow productions. Use of written instructions for feeding for growing-finishing and finish-to-farrow production and written...

  15. Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong

    2015-01-01

    This thesis, entitled “Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand”, presents many aspects of pig production in Thailand including the characteristics of pig farming system, distribution of pig population and pig farms, spatio-temporal distribution and risk of most important diseases in pig at present, and the suitability area for pig farming. Spatial distribution and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand were studied using time-series pig population data to des...

  16. Seroprevalence and awareness of porcine cysticercosis across different pig production systems in south-central Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderosoye Adenuga

    2018-02-01

    Conclusions: Despite most pigs being kept confined in pens rather than raised in free-roaming systems, porcine cysticercosis appears to be endemic in south-central Cambodia and is associated with smallholder production. Further investigation is needed to identify which Taenia species are causing infections among pigs, and how seroprevalence and zoonotic risk may vary across the country, to understand the risks to public health and assess where interventions might be needed.

  17. Environmental trade-offs of pig production systems under varied operational efficiencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAuliffe, G. A.; Takahashi, T; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    Production of pork, the most consumed meat globally, is estimated to emit 668 m tonnes CO2-eq of greenhouse gases each year. Amongst various production systems that comprise the pig industry, grain-based intensive production is widely regarded as the largest polluter of the environment, and thus ...

  18. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and associated risk factors in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, southern highlands of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komba, Erick V. G.; Kimbi, Eliakunda C.; Ngowi, Helena A.

    2013-01-01

    in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, the major pig rearing region of Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey employing a random sample of 300 pig keepers from 30 villages of Mbozi and Mbeya Rural districts, Mbeya region were used to evaluate pig production systems and practices. Concurrently, 600...... of water from rivers (OR=3.1; 95% CI=1.6-6.3; p... of important risk factors in smallholder pig management that may be addressed (e.g. confinement, quality of pens and water sources) in future interventions and educational campaigns for control of T. solium....

  19. Prediction of Pig Trade Movements in Different European Production Systems Using Exponential Random Graph Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relun, Anne; Grosbois, Vladimir; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose M; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; Molia, Sophie; Etter, Eric Marcel Charles; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    In most European countries, data regarding movements of live animals are routinely collected and can greatly aid predictive epidemic modeling. However, the use of complete movements' dataset to conduct policy-relevant predictions has been so far limited by the massive amount of data that have to be processed (e.g., in intensive commercial systems) or the restricted availability of timely and updated records on animal movements (e.g., in areas where small-scale or extensive production is predominant). The aim of this study was to use exponential random graph models (ERGMs) to reproduce, understand, and predict pig trade networks in different European production systems. Three trade networks were built by aggregating movements of pig batches among premises (farms and trade operators) over 2011 in Bulgaria, Extremadura (Spain), and Côtes-d'Armor (France), where small-scale, extensive, and intensive pig production are predominant, respectively. Three ERGMs were fitted to each network with various demographic and geographic attributes of the nodes as well as six internal network configurations. Several statistical and graphical diagnostic methods were applied to assess the goodness of fit of the models. For all systems, both exogenous (attribute-based) and endogenous (network-based) processes appeared to govern the structure of pig trade network, and neither alone were capable of capturing all aspects of the network structure. Geographic mixing patterns strongly structured pig trade organization in the small-scale production system, whereas belonging to the same company or keeping pigs in the same housing system appeared to be key drivers of pig trade, in intensive and extensive production systems, respectively. Heterogeneous mixing between types of production also explained a part of network structure, whichever production system considered. Limited information is thus needed to capture most of the global structure of pig trade networks. Such findings will be useful

  20. Productivity and parasitic infections of pigs kept under different management systems by smallholder farmers in Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipendele, Calvin Paul; Lekule, Faustine Paul; Mushi, Daniel Elias

    2015-01-01

    -confinement and total confinement. Fifteen pig keeping households were randomly selected from each village to participate in the study. A participatory rural appraisal and structured questionnaire were used for collecting information from the households on pig production and reproduction performance. In addition......, a total of 180 weaner pigs, 2-3 months old, were purchased and randomly allocated to the 90 participating households. The pigs were subjected to three production systems: free range (M1), confinement with local diet (M2) and confinement with a compounded diet and anthelmintic treatment (M3......An on farm experiment was carried out to assess the effects of production systems on the performance of local pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Six villages from Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania were purposely selected based on the prominent pig production systems: free range, semi...

  1. Opportunities and challenges for smallholder pig production systems in a mountainous region of Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Simon; Schiborra, Anne; Huelsebusch, Christian; Huanming, Mao; Schlecht, Eva

    2012-12-01

    China's small-scale pig keepers are the largest community of pork producers worldwide. About 56 % of the world's pigs originate from such systems, each producing 2-5 head per year. This study analyzes pig smallholders in Xishuangbanna, a prefecture of Yunnan Province. Categorical principal component analysis and two-step cluster analysis were used to identify three main production systems: livestock-corn-based (LB; 41 %), rubber based (RB; 39 %), and pig based (PB; 20 %) systems. RB farms earn high income from rubber and fatten cross-bred pigs, often using purchased feeds. PB farms own similar-sized rubber plantations and raise pigs, with fodder mainly being cultivated and collected in the forest. LB farms grow corn, rice, and tea while also raising pigs, fed with collected and cultivated fodder as well. About one third of pigs were marketed (LB, 20 %; RB, 42 %; PB, 25 %), and local pig meat is highly appreciated in the nearby town. High mortality, low reproductive performance, and widespread malnourishment are the systems' main constraints. Basic training in hygiene and reproduction management could significantly increase production; most effective measures would be counterbalancing seasonal malnourishment and exploration of locally available protein feeds. Through support by external expertise, farmers could more effectively trade their pigs at lucrative town markets.

  2. Opportunities and challenges for smallholder pig production systems in a mountainous region of Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Riedel, Simon; Schiborra, Anne; Huelsebusch, Christian; Huanming, Mao; Schlecht, Eva

    2012-01-01

    China’s small-scale pig keepers are the largest community of pork producers worldwide. About 56 % of the world's pigs originate from such systems, each producing 2–5 head per year. This study analyzes pig smallholders in Xishuangbanna, a prefecture of Yunnan Province. Categorical principal component analysis and two-step cluster analysis were used to identify three main production systems: livestock-corn-based (LB; 41 %), rubber based (RB; 39 %), and pig based (PB; 20 %) systems. RB farms ear...

  3. Productivity and parasitic infections of pigs kept under different management systems by smallholder farmers in Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipendele, Calvin Paul; Lekule, Faustine Paul; Mushi, Daniel Elias; Ngowi, Helena; Kimbi, Eliakunda Casmir; Mejer, Helena; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-08-01

    An on farm experiment was carried out to assess the effects of production systems on the performance of local pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Six villages from Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania were purposely selected based on the prominent pig production systems: free range, semi-confinement and total confinement. Fifteen pig keeping households were randomly selected from each village to participate in the study. A participatory rural appraisal and structured questionnaire were used for collecting information from the households on pig production and reproduction performance. In addition, a total of 180 weaner pigs, 2-3 months old, were purchased and randomly allocated to the 90 participating households. The pigs were subjected to three production systems: free range (M1), confinement with local diet (M2) and confinement with a compounded diet and anthelmintic treatment (M3). The anthelmintic treatment (piperazine citrate) was administered at 1 g per kg body weight. Faecal and blood samples were collected at month three of the experiment to assess the burden of intestinal helminths and sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis, respectively. Sows kept under free range system were reported to have smaller litter size both at farrowing and at weaning compared to those kept under confinement. The experiment showed pigs under M3 had higher (P pigs in M2 (73 g/day) and M1 (68 g/day). In addition, pigs in M3 had higher body length and heart girth size with the feed to gain ratio of 8.5. Free range pigs tended to have lower faecal egg counts for most worm species compared to permanently confined pigs. Sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis was 26%, with village prevalence ranging from 8 to 52%. Although pigs kept in M3 performed better than the rest, the compounded feed was too expensive for the farmers to afford. Locally available feed types combined with vitamin and mineral supplements may be a more sustainable option.

  4. Animal health and welfare in production systems for organic fattening pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Kristina; Bochicchio, Davide; Hegelund, Lene

    2014-01-01

    and conventional production. Conventional Danish herds consumed three times as much antibiotics (anthelmintics not included) as the organic herds, whilst there was no difference in mortality rate nor more pigs in need of treatment in the organic herds. Slaughter data indicated that organic pigs had fewer...... and aggression. Minimizing negative environmental impact may conflict with animal welfare, i.e. raising the pigs indoors may not only reduce plant nutrient losses but also reduce the pigs’ activity options. With an increasing number of specialized organic units, implementation of age-segregated production......With the aim to identify European health and welfare strategies in organic pig production, we summarized information about health and welfare status and potential hazards for organic fattening pigs. The results were primarily based on studies of organic production or comparisons between organic...

  5. Dynamics of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae seroconversion and infection in pigs in the three main production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Enrico; Ferrari, Nicola; Pitozzi, Alessandra; Remistani, Michela; Giardiello, Daniele; Maes, Dominiek; Alborali, Giovanni Loris

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the dynamics of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in 66 pig farms, with different production systems (one-, two-, and three-site systems), and considered different risk factors. Serological assay was used to detect serum antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae and real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect M. hyopneumoniae DNA in tracheobronchial swabs. Results demonstrated that M. hyopneumoniae infection status was predominantly influenced by the age of the animals and the type of production system. Infection rates were higher in older animals and the prevalence was higher in the one- and two-site systems than in the three-site systems. Dynamics of infection by RT-PCR showed that earlier M. hyopneumoniae infection on one-site farms occurs earlier, while on two- and three-site farms occurs later but spreads faster, suggesting that contact between animals of different age favors the transmission.

  6. Incorporating Risks in Economic Values for Pigs in Smallholder Production Systems in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbuthias, Jackson; Rewe, Thomas; Okeno, Tobias

    production systems in Kenya. In addition to traditional bio-economic profit model, a risk-rated model was used to derive risk-rated economic values. This model accounted for imperfect knowledge concerning risk attitude of farmers and variance of input and output prices. Positive economic values obtained...... for traits DP, LWg, LWs, PoSR, PrSR, SoSR and TNB indicate that targeting them in improvement would positively impact profitability in pig breeding programmes. Accounting for risks in the EVs did not yield errors greater than ±50%. Therefore both traditional and risk-rated models can be satisfactorily used...

  7. PIGS BREEDING FOR THE PRODUCTION OF TRADITIONAL MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuro Senčić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The fertile Slavonia is known for production of several types of cured meats: kulen, kulen sis, sausage, ham and bacon, and other pork products (“krvavica” - blood sausage, “švargl” - a type of brawn where chopped parts of head are stuffed inside the pig’s stomach, “čvarci” - a variant of pork crisps, fat. These products require “mature pigs” of adequate slaughter quality. Production of pigs intended for traditional meat products may take place in different production systems (open, closed, semi-open, “organic”. Each of these systems provides a specific quality of pigs for slaughter, reflecting on the quality of the final product. Production systems can have a significant impact on growth performance and carcass and meat quality of pigs. This effect arises from the interaction between housing conditions, the amount and composition of food and used pig genotype. The choice of a production system depends on local production conditions, pig genotype, consumer demand (market for a given product quality, and other factors. Due to their quality, the traditional Slavonian meat products can become a recognizable Croatian brand in both domestic and international markets. Production of standard quality products requires standard quality of pigs. Therefore this book is focused on such pigs production.

  8. Participatory assessment of animal health and husbandry practices in smallholder pig production systems in three high poverty districts in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dione, Michel M; Ouma, Emily A; Roesel, Kristina; Kungu, Joseph; Lule, Peter; Pezo, Danilo

    2014-12-01

    While animal health constraints have been identified as a major limiting factor in smallholder pig production in Uganda, researchers and policy makers lack information on the relative incidence of diseases and their impacts on pig production. This study aimed to assess animal health and management practices, constraints and opportunities for intervention in smallholder pig value chains in three high poverty districts of Uganda. Semi-qualitative interview checklists through Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were administered to 340 pig farmers in 35 villages in Masaka, Kamuli and Mukono districts. Quantitative data was obtained during the exercise through group consensus. Results of FGDs were further triangulated with secondary data and information obtained from key informant interviews. Findings show that pig keeping systems are dominated by tethering and scavenging in rural areas. In peri-urban and urban areas, intensive production systems are more practiced, with pigs confined in pens. The main constraints identified by farmers include high disease burden such as African swine fever (ASF) and parasites, poor housing and feeding practices, poor veterinary services, ineffective drugs and a general lack of knowledge on piggery management. According to farmers, ASF is the primary cause of pig mortality with epidemics occurring mainly during the dry season. Worms and ectoparasites namely; mange, lice and flies are endemic leading to stunted growth which reduces the market value of pigs. Diarrhoea and malnutrition are common in piglets. Ninety-three percent of farmers say they practice deworming, 37% practice ectoparasite spraying and 77% castrate their boars. Indigenous curative treatments include the application of human urine and concoctions of local herbs for ASF control and use of old engine oil or tobacco extracts to control ectoparasites. There is a need for better technical services to assist farmers with these problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  9. Smallholder Pig Marketing Systems in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimbi, Eliakunda C.; Mlangwa, James; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2016-01-01

    A study using two cross-sectional and a longitudinal research designs was undertaken to assess smallholder pig marketing system to explore basic information for improving smallholder pig production and marketing systems. The first design involved a cross-sectional survey of 300 pig farmers randomly...... by informal marketing channels, hence, limit the effectiveness of pig production and marketing. Marketed pigs had smaller weights compared to their ages, therefore contributing to poor returns to pig farmers and sub-optimal pork market supply. The study recommends strategic development of pig value chain...... villages who had also participated in the first design. Results showed that, pig-marketing systems had various channels and segments moving mainly pigs and pork to farmers, traders and consumers. Major market participants in the pig market chain were the pig farmers who played a dual role as pig producers...

  10. Detection of Integrase Gene in E. coli Isolated from Pigs at Different Stages of Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia de la Torre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrons are one of the genetic elements involved in the acquisition of antibiotic resistance. The aim of the present research is to investigate the presence of integrons in commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli strains, isolated from pigs at different stages of production system and from the environment in an Argentinian farm. Five sows postpartum and five randomly chosen piglets from each litter were sampled by rectal swabs. They were sampled again at day 21 and at day 70. Environmental samples from the farm were also obtained. E. coli containing any integron class or combination of both integrons was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 100% of sows and in piglets at different stages of production: farrowing pen stage 68.1%;, weaning 60%, and growing/finishing 85.8%, showing an increase along the production system. From environmental samples 78.4% of E. coli containing any integron class was detected. We conclude that animals and farm environment can act as reservoirs for potential spread of resistant bacteria by means of mobile genetic elements as integrons, which has a major impact on production of food animals and that can reach man through the food chain, constituting a problem for public health.

  11. Impact of organic pig production systems on CO2 emission, C sequestration and nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Niels; Hermansen, John Erik; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak

    2010-01-01

    Organic rules for grazing and access to outdoor areas in pig production may be met in different ways, which express compromises between considerations for animal welfare, feed self-reliance and negative environmental impact such as greenhouse gas emissions and nitrate pollution. This article...

  12. pig production in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All matings were natural. All sows were mated three times using the same boar at 12 hour intervals after stand- .... up to 21 days was significantly affected by number of pigs born alive, parity, sow breed, farrowing ..... (1991) reported that under hot summer conditions, pregnant or lactating sows eat less, lose more weight and ...

  13. Breeding objectives for pigs in Kenya. I: bio-economic model development and application to smallholder production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuthia, Jackson M; Rewe, Thomas O; Kahi, Alexander K

    2015-02-01

    A deterministic bio-economic model was developed and applied to evaluate biological and economic variables that characterize smallholder pig production systems in Kenya. Two pig production systems were considered namely, semi-intensive (SI) and extensive (EX). The input variables were categorized into biological variables including production and functional traits, nutritional variables, management variables and economic variables. The model factored the various sow physiological systems including gestation, farrowing, lactation, growth and development. The model was developed to evaluate a farrow to finish operation, but the results were customized to account for a farrow to weaner operation for a comparative analysis. The operations were defined as semi-intensive farrow to finish (SIFF), semi-intensive farrow to weaner (SIFW), extensive farrow to finish (EXFF) and extensive farrow to weaner (EXFW). In SI, the profits were the highest at KES. 74,268.20 per sow per year for SIFF against KES. 4026.12 for SIFW. The corresponding profits for EX were KES. 925.25 and KES. 626.73. Feed costs contributed the major part of the total costs accounting for 67.0, 50.7, 60.5 and 44.5 % in the SIFF, SIFW, EXFF and EXFW operations, respectively. The bio-economic model developed could be extended with modifications for use in deriving economic values for breeding goal traits for pigs under smallholder production systems in other parts of the tropics.

  14. Improving efficiency in pig production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by adopting different strategies for meat production ... lates to some specific nutritional considerations. ... allowances were made for the correlated effects of any change. ... end of her reproductive life the sow is also usually sold for meat ... the experimental work. ... on pigs of up-to-date genotype fed on modern balanced diets.

  15. Weight and season affects androstenone and skatole occurrence in entire male pigs in organic pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Edwards, Sandra; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2015-01-01

    was found between seasons. The study concludes that decreasing live weight at slaughter could be an applicable management tool to reduce risk of boar taint and the level of tainted carcasses for a future production of entire male pigs within the organic pig production system, although further studies...... are needed as great variation in boar taint was found also for low weight animals...

  16. Nitrogen distribution as affected by stocking density in a combined production system of energy crops and free-range pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Uffe; Thuesen, Janni; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    Free-range pig production is typically associated with high risks of nitrogen (N) leaching due to the pigs excretory behaviour creating nitrogen ‘hotspots’ and rooting behaviour destroying the grass sward. This challenge is reinforced at high animal densities causing high nitrogen deposition. A c...

  17. The effect of slaughter weight on pig production efficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    production costs of a weaner pig, it is possible to determine an optimal ... on growth rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, lean meat percentage, production .... versus a classification system neglecting carcass mass is shown in Table 2.

  18. Risk factors, perceptions and practices associated with Taenia solium cysticercosis and its control in the smallholder pig production systems in Uganda: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kungu, Joseph M; Dione, Michel M; Ejobi, Francis; Ocaido, Michael; Grace, Delia

    2017-01-03

    Prevalence studies report Taenia solium cysticercosis in pig and human populations in Uganda. However, the factors influencing occurrence in smallholder pig production systems are not well documented and little is known about farmers' perceptions of T. solium cysticercosis or farmer practices that could reduce transmission. To determine the risk factors, perceptions and practices regarding T. solium cysticercosis, a household survey using a semi-structured questionnaire was conducted in 1185 households in the rural and urban pig production systems in Masaka, Mukono and Kamuli Districts. Logistic regression was used to measure associations of risk factors with infection. Performance scores were calculated to summarise perceptions and practices of farmers regarding taeniosis, human cysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis as well as farmer behavior related to control or breaking transmission. Pig breed type, farmers' knowledge about transmission, sources of water used, and pig keeping homes where family members were unable to use the latrine were all significantly associated with T. solium cysticercosis in pigs. Performance scores indicated that farmers were more aware of taeniosis (63.0%; 95% Confidence Interval 60.0-65.8) than human or porcine cysticercosis; only three farmers (0.3%, 95% CI = 0.1-0.8) had knowledge on all three conditions. More farmers reported that they dewormed pigs (94.1%) than reported deworming themselves and their family members (62.0%). Albendazole was the most commonly used drug for deworming both pigs and humans (85.0 and 81.5% respectively). Just over half (54.6%) of the farmers interviewed had clean water near the latrines for washing hands. Of these, only 41.9% used water with soap to wash hands after latrine use. Factors that significantly influenced occurrence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs were identified. Farmers had some knowledge about the disease but did not link taeniosis, human cysticercosis, and porcine cysticercosis

  19. Longitudinal study of distributions of similar antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella serovars in pigs and their environment in two distinct swine production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelara, Shivaramu; Scott, H Morgan; Morrow, William M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Correa, Maria; Nayak, Rajesh; Stefanova, Rossina; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine and compare the prevalences and genotypic profiles of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) Salmonella isolates from pigs reared in antimicrobial-free (ABF) and conventional production systems at farm, at slaughter, and in their environment. We collected 2,889 pig fecal and 2,122 environmental (feed, water, soil, lagoon, truck, and floor swabs) samples from 10 conventional and eight ABF longitudinal cohorts at different stages of production (farrowing, nursery, finishing) and slaughter (postevisceration, postchill, and mesenteric lymph nodes [MLN]). In addition, we collected 1,363 carcass swabs and 205 lairage and truck samples at slaughter. A total of 1,090 Salmonella isolates were recovered from the samples; these were isolated with a significantly higher prevalence in conventionally reared pigs (4.0%; n = 66) and their environment (11.7%; n = 156) than in ABF pigs (0.2%; n = 2) and their environment (0.6%; n = 5) (P antimicrobial resistance (AR) were exhibited to tetracycline (71%), sulfisoxazole (42%), and streptomycin (17%). Multidrug resistance (resistance to ≥ 3 antimicrobials; MDR) was detected in 27% (n = 254) of the Salmonella isolates from the conventional system. Our study reports a low prevalence of Salmonella in both production systems in pigs on farms, while a higher prevalence was detected among the carcasses at slaughter. The dynamics of Salmonella prevalence in pigs and carcasses were reciprocated in the farm and slaughter environment, clearly indicating an exchange of this pathogen between the pigs and their surroundings. Furthermore, the phenotypic and genotypic fingerprint profile results underscore the potential role played by environmental factors in dissemination of AR Salmonella to pigs.

  20. Socio-economic factors affecting pig production in Enugu state Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regression analysis showed that average market weight of the pigs in the state was 79.0kg. The system of pig production practiced by the farmers highly influenced the weight gain of pigs (P<0.01). It was concluded from the study that majority of the pig farmers in Enugu State were educated, young men who practice ...

  1. Biohydrogen production from pig slurry in a CSTR reactor system with mixed cultures under hyper-thermophilic temperature (70 oC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotsopoulos, Thomas A.; Fotidis, Ioannis A.; Tsolakis, Nikolaos; Martzopoulos, Gerassimos G.

    2009-01-01

    A continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) (750 cm 3 working volume) was operated with pig slurry under hyper-thermophilic (70 o C) temperature for hydrogen production. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 24 h and the organic loading rate was 24.9 g d -1 of volatile solid (VS). The inoculum used in the hyper-thermophilic reactor was sludge obtained from a mesophilic methanogenic reactor. The continuous feeding with active biomass (inoculum) from the mesophilic methanogenic reactor was necessary in order to achieve hydrogen production. The hyper-thermophilic reactor started to produce hydrogen after a short adapted period of 4 days. During the steady state period the mean hydrogen yield was 3.65 cm 3 g -1 of volatile solid added. The high operation temperature of the reactor enhanced the hydrolytic activity in pig slurry and increased the volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. The short HRT (24 h) and the hyper-thermophilic temperature applied in the reactor were enough to prevent methanogenesis. No pre-treatment methods or other control methods for preventing methanogenesis were necessary. Hyper-thermophilic hydrogen production was demonstrated for the first time in a CSTR system, fed with pig slurry, using mixed culture. The results indicate that this system is a promising one for biohydrogen production from pig slurry.

  2. Combined production of free-range pigs and energy crops – animal behaviour and crop damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsted, Klaus; Kongsted, Anne Grete; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2012-01-01

    Intensive free-range pig production on open grasslands has disadvantages in that it creates nutrient hotspots and little opportunity for pigs to seek shelter from the sun. Combining a perennial energy crop and pig production might benefit the environment and animal welfare because perennial energy...... crops like willow (Salix sp.) and Miscanthus offer the pigs protection from the sun while reducing nutrient leaching from pig excrements due to their deep rooting system. The objectives of this study were to evaluate how season and stocking density of pigs in a free-range system with zones of willow...

  3. Typology of the noir de bigorre pig farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Justine Faure; Alexandre Fonseca; Florence Garcia-Launay

    2016-01-01

    Intensive pig production systems are facing economic and environmental challenges that outdoor systems relying on local pig breeds may overcome. The Noir de Bigorre (NDB) pork chain located in South West of France is organized as a cooperative including farmers and processers.

  4. Lesions found at routine meat inspection on finishing pigs are associated with production system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Hanne; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2017-01-01

    raised in conventional free-range and organic free-range production systems had higher odds for white liver-spots (ORPA, 5–7), tail lesions (ORPA, 3–4), arthritis (ORPA, 3), skin lesions (ORPA, 3), bone fractures (ORPA, 2), septicaemia (ORPA, 1.1–1.5) and abscesses (ORPA, 1.1–1.3) at slaughter. Pairwise...... correlation coefficients 21–35%) on the occurrence of white liver-spots, tail lesions, skin lesions and airway infections. These results suggest possibilities for herd-level management interventions of the problems studied...

  5. PERFORMANCES COMPARISON BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL PIG FARMING SYSTEMS IN MANOKWARI, WEST PAPUA PROVINCE INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desni Triana Ruli Saragih

    2015-10-01

    were no differences in household members, experience, average pig owned, working hours, selling period, litter size and number of farrowing. There are nine point of pig farming improvement that should be done to sustain pig farming systems in Manokwari Papua. Education may be improved by provide informal and skillful education. Pig ownership should be increased. Working hours must be increased. Pig keeping in the pens should be done by farmers. Managing pigs with additional time is important so that pigs will be maintained well. Litter sizes both in urban and rural are low, therefore further improvements are needed. Recording pig productivities must be done by every farmer. (Key words: Arfak pig farmers, Pig performance, Rural pig farming, Urban pig farming

  6. Improved Pig Production and Performance in the Tropics | Enem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pig production can yield relatively rapid rate of economic return on capital due to the ... of production, housing, feeding, health, and product marketing were discussed to enable a prospective pig farmer have a wonderful return on investment.

  7. Breeding for Welfare in outdoor pig production : simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gourdine, J.L.; Greef, de K.H.; Rydhmer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the societal and market attention, to our knowledge, there is no breeding program for outdoor pig production in which improvement in animal welfare is emphasized. In this study, a dam-line selected for an outdoor production system was simulated. The purpose was to investigate the

  8. MRSA CC398 in the pig production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Wolf, van der P.J.; Giessen, van de A.W.; Duijkeren, van E.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Nes, van A.; Mevius, D.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a distinct clone of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA CC398) was found in pigs and people in contact with pigs. The structure of the pig production chain in high technology pig husbandry enables pathogens to spread during animal trading, with an increasing prevalence in

  9. Energy production, nutrient recovery and greenhouse gas emission Potentials from Integrated Pig Manure Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2010-01-01

    of waste materials were considered. Data for the analyses were obtained from existing waste treatment facilities, experimental plants, laboratory measurements and literature. The assessment reveals that incineration combined with liquid/solid separation and drying of the solids is a promising management...... option yielding a high potential energy utilization rate and greenhouse gas savings. If maximum electricity production is desired, anaerobic digestion is advantageous as the biogas can be converted to electricity at high efficiency in a gas engine while allowing production of heat for operation...

  10. LOCAL PIG BREEDS AND PORK PRODUCTS IN CROATIA AND SLOVENIA – UNEXPLOITED TREASURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Kušec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The rationale, the concept and key challenges of the H2020 project TREASURE dealing with local pig breeds is presented and discussed. The action addresses the phenotypic and genetic characterization, performance of local pig breeds in diverse production systems and their environmental impact, specific quality of their products and market potential. The goal is to build up the capacities to develop sustainable pork chains based on local pig breeds. A special emphasis is given to describe the workplan for Black Slavonian and Turopolje local pig breeds from Croatia and Slovenian Krškopolje pig.

  11. A thematic review of life cycle assessment (LCA) applied to pig production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAuliffe, Graham A.; Chapman, Deborah V.; Sage, Colin L.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial livestock production is known to have significant impacts on the environment. Pig production is a complex system which involves the production of animal feed, transportation, animal rearing and waste management. One tool for assessing the environmental performance of such complex systems is life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA has been applied to pig production considerably to date. This paper provides a chronological review of state-of-the-art pig production LCAs under three themes: feed production; entire-system livestock rearing; and waste management. The study considers how LCA applications have addressed technological improvements in animal husbandry, and highlights methodological limitations, particularly related to cross-study comparisons. Recent research demonstrates crude protein reduction in feed and anaerobic treatment of pig excreta resulting in bioenergy production are the key targets for environmental performance improvements related to pig production. - Highlights: • An extensive review of LCA applied to pig production is provided chronologically over the past decade. • Individual studies have been categorised into feed, whole-system pig production and waste management themes. • We consider how LCAs have addressed state-of-the-art pig husbandry. • We offer a discussion on key findings, limitations and future research.

  12. A thematic review of life cycle assessment (LCA) applied to pig production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAuliffe, Graham A., E-mail: g.a.mcauliffe@umail.ucc.ie [Department of Geography, University College Cork, O' Donovan' s Road, Cork (Ireland); School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University College Cork, Distillery Fields, North Mall, Cork (Ireland); Chapman, Deborah V. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University College Cork, Distillery Fields, North Mall, Cork (Ireland); Sage, Colin L. [Department of Geography, University College Cork, O' Donovan' s Road, Cork (Ireland)

    2016-01-15

    Commercial livestock production is known to have significant impacts on the environment. Pig production is a complex system which involves the production of animal feed, transportation, animal rearing and waste management. One tool for assessing the environmental performance of such complex systems is life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA has been applied to pig production considerably to date. This paper provides a chronological review of state-of-the-art pig production LCAs under three themes: feed production; entire-system livestock rearing; and waste management. The study considers how LCA applications have addressed technological improvements in animal husbandry, and highlights methodological limitations, particularly related to cross-study comparisons. Recent research demonstrates crude protein reduction in feed and anaerobic treatment of pig excreta resulting in bioenergy production are the key targets for environmental performance improvements related to pig production. - Highlights: • An extensive review of LCA applied to pig production is provided chronologically over the past decade. • Individual studies have been categorised into feed, whole-system pig production and waste management themes. • We consider how LCAs have addressed state-of-the-art pig husbandry. • We offer a discussion on key findings, limitations and future research.

  13. Contribution of semen trait selection, artificial insemination technique, and semen dose to the profitability of pig production systems: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pena, Dianelys; Knox, Robert V; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L

    2016-01-15

    The economic impact of selection for semen traits on pig production systems and potential interaction with artificial insemination (AI) technique and semen dose remains partially understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the financial indicators (gross return, net profit, cost) in a three-tier pig production system under one of two selection strategies: a traditional strategy including nine paternal and maternal traits (S9) and an advanced strategy that adds four semen traits (S13). Maternal traits included the number of pigs born alive, litter birth weight, adjusted 21-day litter weight, and the number of pigs at 21 days, and paternal traits included days to 113.5 kg, back fat, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and carcass lean percentage. The four semen traits included volume, concentration, progressive motility of spermatozoa, and abnormal spermatozoa. Simultaneously, the impact of two AI techniques and a range of fresh refrigerated semen doses including cervical AI with 3 × 10(9) (CAI3) and 2 × 10(9) (CAI2) sperm cells/dose, and intrauterine AI with 1.5 × 10(9) (IUI1.5), 0.75 × 10(9) (IUI0.75), and 0.5 × 10(9) (IUI0.5) sperm cells/dose were evaluated. These factors were also evaluated using a range of farrowing rates (60%-90%), litter sizes (8-14 live-born pigs), and a selected semen collection frequency. The financial impact of the factors was assessed through simulation of a three-way crossbreeding system (maternal nucleus lines A and B and paternal nucleus line C) using ZPLAN. The highest return on investment (profit/cost) of boars was observed at 2.33 collections/wk (three periods of 24 hours between collections). Under this schedule, a significant (P profit. The highest gross return was obtained under S13 with IUI0.75 and IUI0.5. The net profit of S13 was 34.37% higher than the traditional S9 (P profit favored IUI0.5 with relative differences of 4.13%, 2.41%, 1.72%, and 0.43% compared to CAI3, CAI2, IUI1.5, and IUI0

  14. Awareness concerning optimal pig production management and animal welfare among smallholder farmers in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Penrith, M.-L.; Ngowi, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    management practices and welfare assessment based on one pig from each of the 120 households. The results indicated that farmers were not aware of the basic requirements of pigs regardless of the production system practised. Water was often neglected and provided less frequently among those practising free...... system could be easily eliminated with proper management. More knowledge on basic pig husbandry is required in the region and is essential for improving production. Educating farmers on the basic requirements for water and feed, alone, could vastly improve smallholder pig production. Education on pig......The aim of this study was to assess smallholder farmer awareness in terms of good pig management and to identify serious management issues that should be readily changeable despite resources being limited in a rural setting. Methodology was a combination of questionnaire and observational surveys...

  15. Environmental impacts of precision feeding programs applied in pig production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, I; Hauschild, L; Kipper, M; Pires, P G S; Pomar, C

    2017-12-04

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect that switching from conventional to precision feeding systems during the growing-finishing phase would have on the potential environmental impact of Brazilian pig production. Standard life-cycle assessment procedures were used, with a cradle-to-farm gate boundary. The inputs and outputs of each interface of the life cycle (production of feed ingredients, processing in the feed industry, transportation and animal rearing) were organized in a model. Grain production was independently characterized in the Central-West and South regions of Brazil, whereas the pigs were raised in the South region. Three feeding programs were applied for growing-finishing pigs: conventional phase feeding by group (CON); precision daily feeding by group (PFG) (whole herd fed the same daily adjusted diet); and precision daily feeding by individual (PFI) (diets adjusted daily to match individual nutrient requirements). Raising pigs (1 t pig BW at farm gate) in South Brazil under the CON feeding program using grain cultivated in the same region led to emissions of 1840 kg of CO2-eq, 13.1 kg of PO4-eq and 32.2 kg of SO2-eq. Simulations using grain from the Central-West region showed a greater climate change impact. Compared with the previous scenario, a 17% increase in climate change impact was found when simulating with soybeans produced in Central-West Brazil, whereas a 28% increase was observed when simulating with corn and soybeans from Central-West Brazil. Compared with the CON feeding program, the PFG and PFI programs reduced the potential environmental impact. Applying the PFG program mitigated the potential climate change impact and eutrophication by up to 4%, and acidification impact by up to 3% compared with the CON program. Making a further adjustment by feeding pigs according to their individual nutrient requirements mitigated the potential climate change impact by up to 6% and the potential eutrophication and acidification impact

  16. Radiation Preservation of fresh pork from semi-intensive and intensive pig production systems. A case study in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoakoaa, T. L

    2011-07-01

    The Ministry of Food and Agriculture estimates that about 40,000 Ghanaians suffer from several food borne diseases yearly and this poses a great drain on the economy. Meat contains 75% water and is a good substrate for organisms to grow. There are many food microorganisms and parasites associated with pigs, making it practically impossible to be used by many as a main source of protein even though it contains a lot of nutrients and less harmful fat. There is also the problem of recontamination of pork after packaging. Irradiation of food is one method of food preservation that can reduce microbial and parasitic load, prevent recontamination of food and increase its shelf life. The main objective of this study was to use radiation to make pork from semi-intensive and intensive pig production systems safe for human consumption and extend its shelf life. Questionnaires were administrate to 20 farmers and 10 pork samples were collected from 10 different locations within the Greater Accra Region, for both pig production systems. One location in each pig production systems with the least microbial count was selected for pork sampling for irradiation and shelf life studies. The pork samples were irradiated with irradiation doses of 0, 1.5 and 3kGy and stored at 4°C for 28 days. Statistical tools used were Microsoft Excel and Stat Graphics. Means were separated using tukey test and Duncan's Multiple Range Test. The study observed that most farmers did not have any measures in place to control microbial contamination. However the total mean count of total aerobic mesophillic bacteria and the coliform for pork samples from differentiated locations within Greater Accra in both pig production systems were 4.958 ± 0.90 log 10 cfu/g and ranged from 2.9 to 6.0 and 3.277 ± 1.066 log 10 cfu/g which ranged from 2.0 to 5.67 respectively. Results from the pooled means of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and total coliform count indicated that a combination treatment of irradiation

  17. Appraisal of pig production in Songhai redemption farm, Nekede ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the study are to estimate the costs and returns of pig production in the farm estimate the production function of the enterprise and isolate the factors militating against enhanced production performance of pig enterprises in the farm. Data used for the analysis were collected through well-structured ...

  18. Research trends in outdoor pig production — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Suk Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the industrialization of swine production in the late 1900s, swine farms in the United States, as well as in Europe, have largely become consolidated. Pig farms became larger in size but fewer in number, with 91% of market pigs being produced by large operations with 5,000 or more pigs on-site in the US, and only 3% of the total utilized agricultural land representing organic farming. Such change in the market made it difficult for small farmers to stay competitive, forcing them to find alternative ways to reduce the cost of production and increase profit using the outdoor production system. In contrast to the indoor confinement system, outdoor production system uses pasture-based units and/or deep-bedded hoop structures that promote animal welfare and environmental sustainability with a lower capital investment. In accord with the growing concern for animal and environmental welfare and food safety by the consumers, small farmers practicing an outdoor production system are seeing increased opportunities for marketing their products in the pork niche market. Unlike the general belief that the reproductive and growth performance measures of the outdoor sows and piglets are poorer in comparison with the animals reared indoors, studies showed that there was no significant difference in the performance measures, and some traits were even better in outdoor animals. Improved reproductive and production traits can increase the sustainability of outdoor farming. Present study reviewed the recent studies comparing the performance measures, meat quality and health of indoor and outdoor animals, as well as the efforts to improve the outdoor production system through changes in management such as hut types and breed of animals.

  19. Research trends in outdoor pig production — A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Suk; Min, Byungrok; Oh, Sang-Hyon

    2017-01-01

    Since the industrialization of swine production in the late 1900s, swine farms in the United States, as well as in Europe, have largely become consolidated. Pig farms became larger in size but fewer in number, with 91% of market pigs being produced by large operations with 5,000 or more pigs on-site in the US, and only 3% of the total utilized agricultural land representing organic farming. Such change in the market made it difficult for small farmers to stay competitive, forcing them to find alternative ways to reduce the cost of production and increase profit using the outdoor production system. In contrast to the indoor confinement system, outdoor production system uses pasture-based units and/or deep-bedded hoop structures that promote animal welfare and environmental sustainability with a lower capital investment. In accord with the growing concern for animal and environmental welfare and food safety by the consumers, small farmers practicing an outdoor production system are seeing increased opportunities for marketing their products in the pork niche market. Unlike the general belief that the reproductive and growth performance measures of the outdoor sows and piglets are poorer in comparison with the animals reared indoors, studies showed that there was no significant difference in the performance measures, and some traits were even better in outdoor animals. Improved reproductive and production traits can increase the sustainability of outdoor farming. Present study reviewed the recent studies comparing the performance measures, meat quality and health of indoor and outdoor animals, as well as the efforts to improve the outdoor production system through changes in management such as hut types and breed of animals. PMID:28728401

  20. Animal Health and Welfare – Pig Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hämeenoja Pirkko

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Requirements of the organic pig farming create an opportunity to offer good life for animals. The space requirements give animals the possibility to exhibit species-specific behavior and provide them opportunity for more exercise. Bedding and roughage are important in helping to reduce production stress. The most difficult question in a veterinary point of view is how to manage the animal health care. Vaccinations, antibiotics and anthelmintic can be used in organic production but only in a limited way. A lot can be achieved with good management but there are still situations when the use of medicine is necessary. What is the amount of joint inflammations or liver spots to justify the use of medicine? The question has to be solved case by case. The profitability of the production is a crucial point in an organic farm because a poor economy is a great threat to animal welfare.

  1. Perception of the environmental impacts of current and alternative modes of pig production by stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jean; van der Werf, Hayo M G

    2003-08-01

    The current industrial pig production model is in crisis, due to its association with environmental pollution, doubtful product quality and lack of animal well-being. In Bretagne (France), a region of intensive pig production, a survey of seven stakeholder groups concerned with pig production was conducted, as part of a research programme dedicated to the assessment of the environmental impact of different modes of pig production. A very large majority of pig producers (93%) and their suppliers (100%) considers pig farms as an asset for the region, whereas a majority of scientists (58%), activists (78%) and consumers (54%) sees it as a handicap. Differences among stakeholder groups are minor with respect to the perceived importance of environmental and social issues. Stakeholders agree on the relative level of responsibility of pig farms with respect to specific problems. For all groups unpleasant odours and water quality come first with respect to responsibility, for most groups soil quality comes second, followed by product safety and air quality. For a future improved mode of pig production, 76% of pig producers and their suppliers prefer to adapt the current model, for all other groups the majority prefers an alternative model. While pig producers and their suppliers prefer a slurry-based housing system, all other groups prefer a straw-based system. Pig producers see the slurry-based system as technically superior and associate the straw-based system with poor working conditions, whereas consumers associate the slurry-based system in the first place with poor water quality and associate the straw-based system with less pollution. These results will be of use in the research programme on the environmental impact of modes of pig production, as they indicate the environmental impacts to be considered and their relative importance. The results will also help in deciding which options should be assessed. It is concluded that the poor image of the current pig

  2. Technical efficiency in pig production in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to measure the level of technical efficiency and its determinants in pig production in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using a stochastic frontier production function. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select 60 pig farms from which input-output data were collected in 2004. The estimated ...

  3. Changes in pig production in China and their effects on nitrogen and phosphorus use and losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Z H; Ma, L; Qin, W; Chen, Q; Oenema, O; Zhang, F S

    2014-11-04

    China's pig production has increased manifold in the past 50 years, and this has greatly affected the nitrogen and phosphorus use and losses in the pig production sector. However, the magnitude of these changes are not well-known. Here, we provide an in-depth account of the changes in pig production--N and P use and total N and P losses in the whole pig production chain during the period 1960-2010--through simulation modeling and using data from national statistics and farm surveys. For the period of 2010-2030, we explored possible effects of technological and managerial measures aimed at improving the performances of pig production via scenario analysis. We used and further developed the NUtrient flows in Food chains, Environment and Resources use (NUFER) model to calculate the feed requirement and consumption, and N and P losses in different pig production systems for all the years. Between 1960 and 2010, pig production has largely shifted from the so-called backyard system to landless systems. The N use efficiencies at fattener level increased from 18 to 28%, due to the increased animal productivity. However, the N use efficiencies at the whole-system level decreased from 46 to 11% during this period, mainly due to the increase of landless pig farms, which rely on imported feed and have no land-base for manure disposal. The total N and P losses were 5289 and 829 Gg in 2010, which is 30 and 95 times higher than in 1960. In the business as usual scenario, the total N and P losses were projected to increase by 25 and 55% between 2010 and 2030, respectively. Analyses of other scenarios indicate that packages of technological and managerial measures can decrease total N and P losses by 64 and 95%, respectively. Such improvements require major transition in the pig production sector, notably, in manure management, herd management, and feeding practices.

  4. Selection for production and reproduction traits in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de A.G.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction

    Reproduction traits are important for piglet production, whereas production traits are important for fattening. Pig breeding organizations improve both groups of traits by selection in nucleus populations. Optimization of selection in these nucleus populations

  5. Socio-cultural sustainability of pig production: Citizen perceptions in the Netherlands and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boogaard, B.K.; boekhorst, L.J.S.; Oosting, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    positive and six negative aspects on the farms for which they had to write a motivation. The qualitative analysis resulted in seven socio-cultural themes (SCT) of pig production namely: 1) meat production, 2) farm activities, 3) farm income, 4) animals, 5) housing system, 6) environment and nature, and 7......Many sustainability studies of animal production consider three pillars: the economic, environmental and socio-cultural. Farmers and animal scientists tend to put most emphasis on the economic and environmental pillar and largely ignore the socio-cultural pillar. Socio-cultural sustainability...... to gain further insights into socio-cultural sustainability of pig production. Many citizens may not know what contemporary pig production actually entails. To give people a real life experience with pig production, we conducted farm visits with citizen panels with 18 respondents in the Netherlands and 8...

  6. Guinea pig for meat production: A systematic review of factors affecting the production, carcass and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Macías, Davinia; Barba-Maggi, Lida; Morales-delaNuez, Antonio; Palmay-Paredes, Julio

    2018-09-01

    In developing countries, interest in guinea pig farming is growing exponentially because it provides a regular source of high quality animal protein for domestic consumption. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are prolific animals, grow and are capable of reproduction on a flexible diet, and are adaptable to a wide range of climates. This article mainly reviews findings on guinea pig meat production, including factors affecting raising guinea pigs, carcass and meat quality. We also present some studies that describe biological and pathologic effects on carcass component composition. During the last decades no standard procedure has been established for guinea pig carcass evaluation, which makes very difficult any comparison of results with other studies around the world. Herein we highlight a variety of factors that significantly affect carcass and meat quality. Some of these factors are production systems, environmental and genetic factors, management systems, the diet and health status, age, sex and reproductive management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Seasonal organic pig production with a local breed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Claudi-Magnussen, C.; Horsted, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    It is important that organic pork differs markedly from conventional pork regarding taste, appearance and production methods in order to overcome the heavy price competition. That is the hypothesis behind thecurrent project. A seasonal outdoor rearing system based on a traditional and local breed...... to the modern genotype and thefat of the Black-Spotted pig was characterised as having a special nutty taste. In conclusion, preliminaryresults indicate that the local breed differs markedly with respect to several meat quality aspects comparedto the modern breed but also shows clear disadvantages regarding...

  8. Meat quality of Swallow-Belly Mangulica pigs reared under intensive production system and slaughtered at 100 kg live weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomović Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality parameters including sensory and physical characteristics and proximate and mineral composition in M. psoas major, M. semimembranosus, M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum and M. triceps brachii of Swallow-Belly Mangulica pigs were determined. Type of muscles had no significant effect (P>0.05 on water-holding capacity, protein, total fat, K, P and Ca content. The M. psoas major was the highest in pH24h, water-holding capacity, CIEa* and CIEb* values, moisture, K, P aQuality parameters including sensory and physical characteristics and proximate and mineral composition in M. psoas major, M. semimembranosus, M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum and M. triceps brachii of Swallow-Belly Mangulica pigs were determined. Type of muscles had no significant effect (P>0.05 on water-holding capacity, protein, total fat, K, P and Ca content. The M. psoas major was the highest in pH24h, water-holding capacity, CIEa* and CIEb* values, moisture, K, P and Cu content, and the lowest in visual marbling score and total fat content. The M. semimembranosus was the highest in Mg and Ca content, and the lowest in CIEL* value (darkest muscle and K content. The lightest colour (CIEL* value, the highest content of protein, total fat and total ash, and the lowest visual colour score, pH24h, CIEa* and CIEb* values, content of moisture, Na, Ca, Zn, Fe and Cu were found in M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum. The highest visual colour and marbling score, the highest content of Na, Zn and Fe, and the lowest water-holding capacity, content of protein, total ash, P and Mg were found in M. triceps brachii.

  9. Screening the working environment in outdoor pig systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Q; Torén, A; Salomon, E

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated how well organic growing-fattening pig systems provided a safe and healthy working environment and identified areas where improvements are needed. The study formed part of a larger project aimed at identifying strategies for creating a good animal and working environment and resource-efficient nutrient management in outdoor pig systems. Field studies were carried out at six Swedish farms in two types of outdoor pig systems (mobile and stationary). A method known as WEST (Work Environment Screening Tool) and a modified version of WEST, called WEST-agriculture (WEST-AG), were utilized for screening. Together, the two methods covered six factors of the working environment. The results were expressed in WEST-AG points and WEST points, an economic measure of the risk of impacts on health and productivity expressed as Swedish Krona (SEK) per thousand working hours. The results demonstrated that the risk of injury and ergonomic load during manual feeding and watering was much higher than during semi-automatic feeding and watering at farms with the mobile system. The study also identified other health-risk areas and provided valuable information for further improvement of the working environment in different outdoor pig systems.

  10. Pig Production in Tanzania: a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, RT.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania's 1.58 million pigs represent 3.7 per cent of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Some 99.5 per cent of pigs are kept by small producers in units averaging 3.04 animals (range 2-48. About 18 per cent of households with livestock own pigs, 93.7 per cent of these having a herd of less than 19 and 69.2 per cent own 9 or fewer head. Scavenging is the main feed source. Maize bran is the principle supplement but some owners provide oilseed cakes and minerals. Domestic pigs are not indigenous to Tanzania and derive mainly from late 19th/early 20th century introductions. There have been few imports of breeding stock since 1961. Poor management, in-breeding, inadequate nutrition and rudimentary veterinary attention lead to low output from late ages at first farrowing, long inter-birth intervals, small litters, slow growth and high mortality. Government policy is not applied in practice. Animals are slaughtered in primitive private facilities or household compounds with little concern for welfare or hygiene, often with no official inspection. Pigs can make a greater contribution to society but public and private sectors must provide additional support with particular attention to management, nutrition, health, welfare and food safety to achieve this.

  11. Profile and Role of Woman Involvement in Dry System Pig Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartoko Hartoko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was purposed to study the profile and role of woman involvement in dry system pig farming (pig housing with mattress from grass, pig manure, vegetable waste and kitchen waste.  The research was carried out from August to November 2003.  Pig housing areas were located on eight villages of Kertek District in Wonosobo Regency (Central Java.  The method applied was survey with intensive observation.  Sample were randomly selected, involved 180 respondents (15 percent of total pig farmers, while the locations of the sample were selected based on purposive sampling method.  The result showed that respondents were in productive age, with low formal education level. Most of all are Moslems (98% and they have small family size.  The level of woman involvement in pig farming was high, approximately 85 percent.  They have other income source and they involve in pig farming to help their husbands in generating income.  Experience in the dry system pig farming was quite long (more than 10 years and skill come from imitating their neighbours otherwise of autodidact. (Animal Production 6(1: 23-29 (2004   Key Words: Pig, Dry System, Woman Profile and Role

  12. Trends in slaughter pig production and antimicrobial consumption in Danish slaughter pig herds, 2002-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Antonio; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Houe, H.

    2011-01-01

    Overuse of antimicrobials in food-animal production is thought to be a major risk factor for the development of resistant bacterial populations. Data on non-human antimicrobial usage is essential for planning of intervention strategies to lower resistance levels at the country, region or herd...... levels. In this study we evaluated Danish national antimicrobial usage data for five antimicrobial classes used in slaughter pigs in different herd sizes and data on the number of slaughter pigs produced per herd, between 2002 and 2008, in Denmark. The objective was to ascertain...... if there is an association between herd size and amount of antimicrobials consumed. During this period, the overall number of herds with slaughter pigs decreased by 43%, with larger herds becoming more prevalent. The tetracycline treatment incidence (TI) rate increased from 0·28 to 0·70 animal-defined daily dose (ADD)/100...

  13. Effect of pig dung fertilizer on zooplankton production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-12-29

    Dec 29, 2014 ... Key-words: pig dung, fertilization, zooplankton production. ... an already widespread practice in many Asian countries (fukusho, et al., ..... Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company,. New York ... Effect on Water Quality, pond productivity and. Growth of ... McQueen DJ, Johannes MRS, Post JR, Stewart TJ, Lean.

  14. Individual behavioural characteristics in pigs and their impact on production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp -, van E.; Kuijpers, A.H.; Schrama, J.W.; Ekkel, E.D.; Tielen, M.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Two studies have been carried out in pigs to determine the relation between escape behaviour and production parameters and between escape behaviour and other factors. In the first, 823 piglets were tested with the backtest at 10 and 17 days of age. Production parameters, such as average daily weight

  15. Impacts of projected climate change on productivity and nitrogen leaching of crop rotations in arable and pig farming systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    The effects of projected changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration on productivity and nitrogen (N) leaching of characteristic arable and pig farming rotations in Denmark were investigated with the FASSET simulation model. The LARS weather generator was used to provide climatic data...... for the baseline period (1961–90) and in combination with two regional circulation models (RCM) to generate climatic data under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A1B emission scenario for four different 20-year time slices (denoted by midpoints 2020, 2040, 2060 and 2080) for two locations...

  16. Production costs of the Mexican poultry and pig sector

    OpenAIRE

    Horne, van, Peter; Hoste, Robert; Wagenberg, van, Coen

    2018-01-01

    Wageningen Economic Research conducted a study on the potential consequences of a free trade agreement between Mexico and the EU. The Dutch government is concerned that giving access to products from countries with a lower level of animal welfare could undermine the EU welfare standard. This study shows that production costs are lower in Mexico compared to the EU in all three sectors investigated: egg production, poultry meat and pig meat. In egg production in particular, the welfare standard...

  17. Monitoring the Perturbation of Soil and Groundwater Microbial Communities Due to Pig Production Activities

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Yannarell, A. C.; Dai, Q.; Ekizoglu, M.; Mackie, R. I.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if biotic contaminants originating from pig production farms are disseminated into soil and groundwater microbial communities. A spatial and temporal sampling of soil and groundwater in proximity to pig production farms

  18. Factors influencing investment in commercial pig production on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following a systematic sampling procedure, 124 households were interviewed to identify variables that influence their decisions on whether or not to invest in commercial pig production. Using a binary logistic regression model the analytical results revealed that the decisions are significantly influenced by gender of ...

  19. Delayed development of systemic immunity in preterm pigs as a model for preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Jiang, Pingping; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    -mediated IL-6 and TNF-α production. These immune parameters remained different between preterm and near-term pigs at 2-3 weeks, even when adjusted for post-conceptional age. Our data suggest that systemic immunity follows a distinct developmental trajectory following preterm birth that may be influenced......Preterm neonates are highly sensitive to systemic infections in early life but little is known about systemic immune development following preterm birth. We hypothesized that preterm neonates have immature systemic immunity with distinct developmental trajectory for the first several weeks of life......, relative to those born at near-term or term. Using pigs as a model, we characterized blood leukocyte subsets, antimicrobial activities and TLR-mediated cytokine production during the first weeks after preterm birth. Relative to near-term and term pigs, newborn preterm pigs had low blood leukocyte counts...

  20. Growth performance and economy of production of grower pigs fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meal-based diets. ... International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems ... Twenty-four landrace x large white grower pigs were used to study the effect of maize-cob- meal-based diets on the growth performance and economy of ...

  1. The effects of clinoptilolite on piglet and heavy pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archimede Mordenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of clinoptilolite on piglet and heavy pig production two separated trials have been performed. In the first trial 40 pigs of the initial body weight of 55 kg were used. Animals were homogeneously allocated to two groups: a control group traditionally fed and a clinoptilolite group in which feed contained the additive at 2%. Pigs were slaugh- tered at about 160 kg body weight. Blood samples were taken to determine blood urea nitrogen (BUN. In the second trial a total of 116 piglets from 12 litters was used. Six litters were fed from the 7th day of life a diet containing clinoptilolite at 2%. According to the dietary treatment of the suckling period, 84 weaned piglets were homogeneously allocated to two groups fed up to 33 kg body weight a diet containing or not clinoptilolite at 2%. In both trials daily weight gain, feed intake and pigs’ health were regularly recorded. The dietary inclusion of clinoptilolite at 2% did not resulted in any modification either of growing performances or of uraemia. Piglets on clinoptilolite diet showed a significant (P<0.05 improvement of faecal dry matter content. At slaughtering the dietary inclusion of clinoptilolite resulted in a trend towards an improvement of lean cuts yield and in a significant increase (P<0.05 of the ratio between lean and fat cuts. From our data it is sug- gested that clinoptilolite does not impair pig growing performances, determines a higher dry matter content of piglet fae- ces and improves carcass quality of heavy pigs with particular regard to lean cuts yield and lean to fat cuts ratio.

  2. The production of multi-transgenic pigs: update and perspectives for xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Heiner; Petersen, Bjoern

    2016-06-01

    The domestic pig shares many genetic, anatomical and physiological similarities to humans and is thus considered to be a suitable organ donor for xenotransplantation. However, prior to clinical application of porcine xenografts, three major hurdles have to be overcome: (1) various immunological rejection responses, (2) physiological incompatibilities between the porcine organ and the human recipient and (3) the risk of transmitting zoonotic pathogens from pig to humans. With the introduction of genetically engineered pigs expressing high levels of human complement regulatory proteins or lacking expression of α-Gal epitopes, the HAR can be consistently overcome. However, none of the transgenic porcine organs available to date was fully protected against the binding of anti-non-Gal xenoreactive natural antibodies. The present view is that long-term survival of xenografts after transplantation into primates requires additional modifications of the porcine genome and a specifically tailored immunosuppression regimen compliant with current clinical standards. This requires the production and characterization of multi-transgenic pigs to control HAR, AVR and DXR. The recent emergence of new sophisticated molecular tools such as Zinc-Finger nucleases, Transcription-activator like endonucleases, and the CRISPR/Cas9 system has significantly increased efficiency and precision of the production of genetically modified pigs for xenotransplantation. Several candidate genes, incl. hTM, hHO-1, hA20, CTLA4Ig, have been explored in their ability to improve long-term survival of porcine xenografts after transplantation into non-human primates. This review provides an update on the current status in the production of multi-transgenic pigs for xenotransplantation which could bring porcine xenografts closer to clinical application.

  3. Live Cells Decreased Methane Production in Intestinal Content of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Gong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro gas production technique was used in this study to elucidate the effect of two strains of active live yeast on methane (CH4 production in the large intestinal content of pigs to provide an insight to whether active live yeast could suppress CH4 production in the hindgut of pigs. Treatments used in this study include blank (no substrate and no live yeast cells, control (no live yeast cells and yeast (YST supplementation groups (supplemented with live yeast cells, YST1 or YST2. The yeast cultures contained 1.8×1010 cells per g, which were added at the rates of 0.2 mg and 0.4 mg per ml of the fermented inoculum. Large intestinal contents were collected from 2 Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire pigs, mixed with a phosphate buffer (1:2, and incubated anaerobically at 39°C for 24 h using 500 mg substrate (dry matter (DM basis. Total gas and CH4 production decreased (p<0.05 with supplementation of yeast. The methane production reduction potential (MRP was calculated by assuming net methane concentration for the control as 100%. The MRP of yeast 2 was more than 25%. Compared with the control group, in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD and total volatile fatty acids (VFA concentration increased (p<0.05 in 0.4 mg/ml YST1 and 0.2 mg/ml YST2 supplementation groups. Proportion of propionate, butyrate and valerate increased (p<0.05, but that of acetate decreased (p<0.05, which led to a decreased (p<0.05 acetate: propionate (A: P ratio in the both YST2 treatments and the 0.4 mg/ml YST 1 supplementation groups. Hydrogen recovery decreased (p<0.05 with yeast supplementation. Quantity of methanogenic archaea per milliliter of inoculum decreased (p<0.05 with yeast supplementation after 24 h of incubation. Our results suggest that live yeast cells suppressed in vitro CH4 production when inoculated into the large intestinal contents of pigs and shifted the fermentation pattern to favor propionate production together with an increased population of acetogenic

  4. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: breeding programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Rydhmer, L; Gourdine, Jean-Luc; de Greef, K; Bonneau, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The sustainability of breeding activities in 15 pig farming systems in five European countries was evaluated. One conventional and two differentiated systems per country were studied. The Conventional systems were the standard systems in their countries. The differentiated systems were of three categories: Adapted Conventional with focus on animal welfare, meat quality or environment (five systems); Traditional with local breeds in small-scale production (three systems) and Organic (two syste...

  5. A decision support system for strategic planning on pig farms

    OpenAIRE

    Backus, Ge B.C.; Timmer, G. Th.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Eidman, V.R.; Vos, F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reported on a decision support system (DSS) for strategic planning on pig farms. The DSS was based . on a stochastic simulation model of investment decisions (ISM). ISM described a farm with one loan and one building using 23 variables. The simulation model calculated the results of a strategic plan for an individual pig farm over a time horizon of a maximum of 20 years for a given scenario. For six distinct replacement strategies, regression metamodels were specified to describe t...

  6. Impact of nutritional strategies on water productivity indicators for pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Pascale Palhares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of water is a poorly considered indicator in animal agriculture. This is because water is a resource still believed by persons in the production network to be abundant and of good quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutritional strategies in water productivity indicators for growing and slaughtering pigs. Five strategies were evaluated: control diet (T1, with a reduction in the level of crude protein (T2, phytase (T3, organic minerals (T4 and the three nutritional strategies combined (T5. The water productivity indicator is defined as the quantity of product by water used. The following indicators were calculated: total weight (kg L-1, cold carcass (kg L-1 lean carcass (L kg-1, and nutrition (kcal L-1. T5 showed the best productivities for each liter of water used. The total weight productivity in this treatment was 3.0 kg L-1, while in T1 was 2.5 kg L-1. T3 had the lowest productivities. The nutritional water productivities were 2,512, 2,763, 2,657, 2,814, and 3,039 kcal L-1, respectively for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5. Nutritional strategies reduce the use of drinking water and therefore improve water productivities. The best productivities were observed when combining the strategies.

  7. The effect of production type and antimicrobial usage on the occurrence of tetracycline resistant E. coli in danish slaughter pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struve, Tina; Vigre, Håkan; Wingstrand, Anne

    The Qualysafe project was initiated in 2007 to support and strengthen the sustainable production systems in Danish food production. One of the objectives of the epidemiological investigation was to find new methods to improve food safety in conventional as well as in alternative pig production...... systems. At nine different slaughterhouses 1500 ceacum samples were collected from slaughter pigs originating from 226 farms. One thousand samples were analyzed and one E. coli isolate per sample was susceptibility tested to Tetracycline. Data on management practice and health status at farm level...... the farm types, with the Organic having the lowest consumption (0.14 doses /annually produced slaughter pig) while Free Range had the highest consumption (0,85 doses/annually produced slaughter pig) and Conventional farms was in between (0.67 doses/annually produced slaughter pig). The effect...

  8. Sustainable production and sales of meat from free-range pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Andersen, Lone Schreiber

    2002-01-01

    These years, the consumption of pork is not only stagnating in Denmark but also on many other European markets. This coincides with a rise in consumer demand for increased welfare among farm animals. In a project about sustainable production and sales of meat from free-range pigs, guidelines...... are developed on a European level for the production of pork from outdoors production systems, which combine animal welfare with high quality of consumption and high quality of health. In cooperation with colleagues in France, Great Britain and Sweden, MAPP is examining the market potential of this type of meat......, based on consumer surveys in these four countries....

  9. EFFICIENCY THE KEY TO FUTURE PIG PRODUCTION E.H. Kemm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The continued production of pigs and pig products will no doubt greatly ..... body mass to 56 days of age has increased fronr l.5kpl to. Thc overall efficiency with ... Braude believes that the annual output of lean meat per sow can be increased ...

  10. Modeling production functions and economic weights in intensive meat production of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Mariam; Cruz, Danny Julio; Blasco, Agustín

    2017-10-01

    A profit function for a typical commercial farm of intensive guinea pig production was designed. The simulated farm contained 86 cages with a ratio of 7:1 females/males, with continuous mating. Kits were weaned at 15 days of age and slaughtered for meat production at 90 days of age. The absolute (EW) and relative economic weights of the main traits were calculated. The highest EW were kits produced per kindling (US$25), kits weaned per kindling (US$22), kits born alive per kindling (US$20), and the number of kindlings per female and year (US$12). Profit, returns, and costs per female and year were US$15, 68, and 53, respectively. Returns came from the production of young guinea pigs and discarded reproductive adults for meat production, 90 and 10% of the total returns. The highest costs were feeding and labor, 44 and 23% of the total cost. The EW and profit did not substantially change when simulating variations of ±20% in the prices of kilograms of fattening feed and kilograms of live weight of guinea pig, showing their robustness to future variations in market prices or to variations in prices between countries. The results obtained highlight the importance of the feeding costs in the guinea pig meat production.

  11. Fermentation products as feed additives mitigate some ill-effects of heat stress in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Bass, B E; Bandrick, M; Loving, C L; Brockmeier, S L; Looft, T; Trachsel, J; Madson, D M; Thomas, M; Casey, T A; Frank, J W; Stanton, T B; Allen, H K

    2017-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) may result in economic losses to pig producers across the USA and worldwide. Despite significant advancements in management practices, HS continues to be a challenge. In this study, an in-feed antibiotic (carbadox, CBX) and antibiotic alternatives ( [XPC], and [SGX] fermentation products) were evaluated in a standard pig starter diet as mitigations against the negative effects of HS in pigs. A total of 100 gilts were obtained at weaning (6.87 ± 0.82 kg BW, 19.36 ± 0.72 d of age) and randomly assigned to dietary treatments (2 rooms/treatment, 2 pens/room, 6 to 7 pigs/pen). After 4 wk of dietary acclimation, half of the pigs in each dietary group (1 room/dietary treatment) were exposed to repeated heat stress conditions (RHS; daily cycles of 19 h at 25°C and 5 h at 40°C, repeated for 9 d), and the remaining pigs were housed at constant thermal neutral temperature (25°C, [NHS]). Pigs subjected to RHS had elevated skin surface temperature ( treatment. Independent of diet, RHS pigs had significantly shorter ( stress resulted in decreased villus height to crypt depth ratio (V:C) in pigs fed with control diet with no added feed additive (NON) and CBX diets at d 3, whereas the pigs fed diets containing XPC or SGX showed no decrease. Transcriptional expression of genes involved in cellular stress (, , , ), tight junction integrity (, , ), and immune response (, , and ) were measured in the ileum mucosa. Pigs in all dietary treatments subjected to RHS had significantly higher ( natural killer () cell numbers or NK cell lytic activity. In conclusion, pigs subjected to RHS had decreased performance, and supplementation with fermentation products in the feed (XPC and SGX) protected pigs from injury to the jejunum mucosa.

  12. Genetic relatedness of commensal Escherichia coli from nursery pigs in intensive pig production in Denmark and molecular characterization of genetically different strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero Fresno, Ana; Larsen, Inge; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the genetic relatedness and the presence of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes in commensal Escherichia coli from nursery pigs in Danish intensive production. METHODS AND RESULTS: The genetic diversity of 1000 E. coli strains randomly picked (N = 50 isolates) from cultured...... in depth the genetic variability of commensal E. coli from pigs in Danish intensive pig production. A tendency for higher diversity was observed with in nursery pigs that were treated with zinc oxide only, in absence of other antimicrobials. Strains with potential to disseminate virulence and antibiotic...

  13. Influence of housing systems on stillbirth and mortality rate in preweaning pigs farrowed by different gilt breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Wellbrock

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the influence of housing systems on stillbirth and mortality rate in preweaning pigs farrowed by different gilt breeds. The investigation included first farrowings of 225 Large White (LW gilts, 297 Swedish Landrace (SL gilts and 260 crossbreed gilts (LWxSL in the period of five years. Despite of positive influence of straw through decreased number of stillborn pigs, especially in LW gilts, in further process of production until weaning, less appropriate microclimatic conditions developed in farrowing houses with straw, especially if accompanied with poor ventilation, can result with higher number of perished pigs and lower number of weaned pigs. Most sensible to unsuitable microclimatic conditions in straw bedded farrowing houses, according to the number of perished pigs before weaning, were the pigs from SL gilts, while the pigs from crossbreed gilts LWxSL were the most resistant. These results suggest that adding straw requires special attention on influence of such production on microclimate conditions in pigs’ biozone in order to maintain its initial benefits in the time of farrowing through the whole preweaning period, especially in pure breeds of gilts.

  14. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: breeding programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydhmer, L; Gourdine, J L; de Greef, K; Bonneau, M

    2014-12-01

    The sustainability of breeding activities in 15 pig farming systems in five European countries was evaluated. One conventional and two differentiated systems per country were studied. The Conventional systems were the standard systems in their countries. The differentiated systems were of three categories: Adapted Conventional with focus on animal welfare, meat quality or environment (five systems); Traditional with local breeds in small-scale production (three systems) and Organic (two systems). Data were collected with a questionnaire from nine breeding organisations providing animals and semen to the studied farming systems and from, on average, five farmers per farming system. The sustainability assessment of breeding activities was performed in four dimensions. The first dimension described whether the market for the product was well defined, and whether the breeding goal reflected the farming system and the farmers' demands. The second dimension described recording and selection procedures, together with genetic change in traits that were important in the system. The third dimension described genetic variation, both within and between pig breeds. The fourth dimension described the management of the breeding organisation, including communication, transparency, and technical and human resources. The results show substantial differences in the sustainability of breeding activities, both between farming systems within the same category and between different categories of farming systems. The breeding activities are assessed to be more sustainable for conventional systems than for differentiated systems in three of the four dimensions. In most differentiated farming systems, breeding goals are not related to the system, as these systems use the same genetic material as conventional systems. The breeds used in Traditional farming systems are important for genetic biodiversity, but the small scale of these systems renders them vulnerable. It is hoped that, by

  15. Evaluating environmental impacts of contrasting pig farming systems with life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourmad, J Y; Ryschawy, J; Trousson, T; Bonneau, M; Gonzàlez, J; Houwers, H W J; Hviid, M; Zimmer, C; Nguyen, T L T; Morgensen, L

    2014-12-01

    Environmental impacts of 15 European pig farming systems were evaluated in the European Union Q-PorkChains project using life cycle assessment. One conventional and two non-conventional systems were evaluated from each of the five countries: Denmark, The Netherlands, Spain, France and Germany. The data needed for calculations were obtained from surveys of 5 to 10 farms from each system. The systems studied were categorised into conventional (C), adapted conventional (AC), traditional (T) and organic (O). Compared with C systems, AC systems differed little, with only minor changes to improve meat quality, animal welfare or environmental impacts, depending on the system. The difference was much larger for T systems, using very fat, slow-growing traditional breeds and generally outdoor raising of fattening pigs. Environmental impacts were calculated at the farm gate and expressed per kg of pig live weight and per ha of land used. For C systems, impacts per kg LW for climate change, acidification, eutrophication, energy use and land occupation were 2.3 kg CO2-eq, 44.0 g SO2-eq, 18.5 g PO4-eq, 16.2 MJ and 4.1 m2, respectively. Compared with C, differences in corresponding mean values were +13%, +5%, 0%, +2% and +16% higher for AC; +54%, +79%, +23%, +50% and +156% for T, and +4%, -16%, +29%, +11% and +121% for O. Conversely, when expressed per ha of land use, mean impacts were 10% to 60% lower for T and O systems, depending on the impact category. This was mainly because of higher land occupation per kg of pig produced, owing to feed production and the outdoor raising of sows and/or fattening pigs. The use of straw bedding tended to increase climate change impact per kg LW. The use of traditional local breeds, with reduced productivity and feed efficiency, resulted in higher impacts per kg LW for all impact categories. T systems with extensive outdoor raising of pigs resulted in markedly lower impact per ha of land used. Eutrophication potential per ha was substantially

  16. The production of the heavy pig for high quality processed products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bosi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review discusses the topics presented below, with experimental data and more evidence for some aspects which areproblematic for the pig producer. To obtain high quality processed pig products, heavy pig production in Italy is subjectedto rules fixed by several Consortia, on the basis of the experience of producers and the results from scientific research.Slaughter animals of at least 9 months of age and 160 kg live weight are required to provide heavy cuts with excellentmeat. Breeds are limited to Italian Large White and Landrace, selected for specific parameters such as loss at 1st saltingof the ham, and their crosses. Crosses with Duroc and hybrids can be used if obtained from selection and crossingschemes that fit the objectives of Italian selection. Backfat thickness must be “sufficient” to obtain retailed fresh hamswith fat cover ranging from 20 to 30 mm, depending on ham weight, and the content of linoleic acid in ham fat covercannot exceed 15%. Fat quantity and quality in feeds should be carefully controlled to satisfy the quality of fat in theham. The feeding level is also relevant, due to the imposed minimum age at slaughter. Feed restriction is a necessarypractice to respect the rules for ham production. For castrate males of medium genetic value, the restriction shouldreduce fat deposition, but the diet composition can be adapted to maintain the maximum growth of protein. For strainswith high lean deposition potential and particularly for gilts, protein deposition should also be limited to maintain a sufficientfat cover of ham.

  17. Doxycycline reduces nitric oxide production in guinea pig inner ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helling, Kai; Wodarzcyk, Karl; Brieger, Jürgen; Schmidtmann, Irene; Li, Huige; Mann, Wolf J; Heinrich, Ulf-Rüdiger

    2011-12-01

    Gentamicin application is an important therapeutic option to control vertigo spells in Ménière's disease. However, even in the case of low-dose intratympanic application, gentamicin might contribute to a pathological NO-increase leading to cochlear damage and hearing impairment. The study was performed to evaluate the nitric oxide (NO) reducing capacity of doxycycline in the inner ear after NO-induction by gentamicin. In a prospective animal study, a single dose of gentamicin (10mg/kg body weight) was injected intratympanically into male guinea pigs (n=48). The auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded prior to application and 3, 5 and 7 days afterwards. The organ of Corti and the lateral wall of 42 animals were isolated after 7 days and incubated separately for 6h in cell culture medium. Doxycycline was adjusted to organ cultures of 5 animals. Two NOS inhibitors, N(G)-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and NG-monomethyl-l-arginine monoacetate (l-NMMA), were applied in three different concentrations to the organ cultures of 30 animals in total (5 animals per concentration). As controls, seven animals received no further substance except gentamicin. The NO-production was quantified by chemiluminescence. Additional six gentamicin-treated animals were used for immunohistochemical studies. The ABRs declined continuously from the first to the seventh day after gentamicin application. Doxycycline reduced NO-production in the lateral wall by 54% (p=.029) comparable to the effect of the applied nitric oxide inhibitors. In the organ of Corti, NO-production was reduced by about 41% showing no statistical significance in respect to great inter-animal variations. The application of doxycycline might offer a new therapeutic approach to prevent NO-induced cochlea damage through ototoxic substances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Is a 10-sow unit economically sustainable? A profitability assessment of productivity amongst small-holder pig farmers, Mpumalanga, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzhelele, Priscilla; Oguttu, James W; Fasina, Folorunso O

    2016-05-12

    The majority of small-holder pig farmers in Mpumalanga had between 1- and 10-sow herds. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the current government agricultural intervention (supply of 10 sows and a boar) in terms of technical and economic feasibilities and ascertain whether the small-scale pig value chain system alleviates poverty. Data were obtained from 220 randomly selected small-holder pig farmers using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results showed that 58% farrowed ≤ 10 piglets/born/sow/litter, 44.2% practiced no weaning method and many fed swill and leftovers alone (41.6%). Pair-wise association revealed that the feeding of commercial feeds had a relationship with pigs in relatively good to very good body condition. Pigs in poor body condition were positively correlated with the feeding of swill alone. The economic models for the 10-sow unit proved that pig farming is unprofitable if the current management and feeding systems that operate in the commercial industry are utilised. However, only through a combination of cooperative systems, benefits of economies of scale, reduction of preweaning mortalities and structured government inputs can pig production be profitable at this scale of production.

  19. Is a 10-sow unit economically sustainable? A profitability assessment of productivity amongst small-holder pig farmers, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Munzhelele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of small-holder pig farmers in Mpumalanga had between 1- and 10-sow herds. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the current government agricultural intervention (supply of 10 sows and a boar in terms of technical and economic feasibilities and ascertain whether the small-scale pig value chain system alleviates poverty. Data were obtained from 220 randomly selected small-holder pig farmers using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results showed that 58% farrowed ≤ 10 piglets/born/sow/litter, 44.2% practiced no weaning method and many fed swill and leftovers alone (41.6%. Pair-wise association revealed that the feeding of commercial feeds had a relationship with pigs in relatively good to very good body condition. Pigs in poor body condition were positively correlated with the feeding of swill alone. The economic models for the 10-sow unit proved that pig farming is unprofitable if the current management and feeding systems that operate in the commercial industry are utilised. However, only through a combination of cooperative systems, benefits of economies of scale, reduction of preweaning mortalities and structured government inputs can pig production be profitable at this scale of production. Keywords: piglets; market; profit; economics; feeds

  20. appraisal of indigenous pig procution and management practices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Adesope

    Key words: indigenous pig production, management systems, disease profile, pig production constraints. ... The soil is rich and suitable for the cultivation of wide range .... advocated because of its durability and high level of hygiene. Table 3: ...

  1. Production, performance, slaughter characteristics, and meat quality of Ziwuling wild crossbred pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoshun; Sui, Yanan

    2018-02-01

    Wild boars, because of their large size and ability to survive adverse conditions, are usually used to cross with domestic breeds to improve the quality of domesticated pigs. This study aimed to investigate the growth performance, slaughter performance, and meat quality of Ziwuling crossbred pigs. Crossbred pigs in four groups (n = 8 per group, 4 boars and 4 sows, all aged 100 days), F 1 [wild × B (Bamei)], F 1  × B, F 1  × Y (Yorkshire), and F 1  × F 1 , were selected at a commercial pig farm. Growth performance, slaughter performance, and meat quality of these crossbred pigs were determined. Characteristics of fatty acids, amino acids, and longissimus muscle fiber in relation to growth, carcass, and meat quality traits were also investigated. Pigs in F 1 and F 1  × F 1 groups had lower average daily weight gain, water and storage loss rates, larger meat color score, higher muscle amino acid levels, larger muscle fiber diameter, and higher ratio of flavor amino acids to unsaturated fatty acids compared to other groups. Crossbred pigs with higher rate of wild boar's consanguinity could improve production performance, slaughter performance, and meat quality. Thus, crossbreeding wild pig with domestic breeds might be an effective method to improve meat quality and flavor.

  2. Evidence for a common mucosal immune system in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Heather L; Obradovic, Milan R

    2015-07-01

    The majority of lymphocytes activated at mucosal sites receive instructions to home back to the local mucosa, but a portion also seed distal mucosa sites. By seeding distal sites with antigen-specific effector or memory lymphocytes, the foundation is laid for the animal's mucosal immune system to respond with a secondary response should to this antigen be encountered at this site in the future. The common mucosal immune system has been studied quite extensively in rodent models but less so in large animal models such as the pig. Reasons for this paucity of reported induction of the common mucosal immune system in this species may be that distal mucosal sites were examined but no induction was observed and therefore it was not reported. However, we suspect that the majority of investigators simply did not sample distal mucosal sites and therefore there is little evidence of immune response induction in the literature. It is our hope that more pig immunologists and infectious disease experts who perform mucosal immunizations or inoculations on pigs will sample distal mucosal sites and report their findings, whether results are positive or negative. In this review, we highlight papers that show that immunization/inoculation using one route triggers mucosal immune system induction locally, systemically, and within at least one distal mucosal site. Only by understanding whether immunizations at one site triggers immunity throughout the common mucosal immune system can we rationally develop vaccines for the pig, and through these works we can gather evidence about the mucosal immune system that may be extrapolated to other livestock species or humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of genotype and feeding strategy on pig performance, plasma concentrations of micro nutrients, immune responses and faecal microbiota composition of growing-finishing pigs in a forage-based system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    In free-range pig production it is important to reduce the input of nutrients from supplementary feed to reduce nutrient leaching and improve the resource efficiency of the system. A promising development might be to encourage foraging behaviour of the pigs. However, very little is known about pi...... significantly to the nutritional supply of pigs fed restrictedly with supplementary feed. There are indications that the mineral content of the premix is not needed in a forage-based free-range system but cautious need to be taken with regards to the vitamin A, D, E supply.......In free-range pig production it is important to reduce the input of nutrients from supplementary feed to reduce nutrient leaching and improve the resource efficiency of the system. A promising development might be to encourage foraging behaviour of the pigs. However, very little is known about pigs......) of either a traditional (Tamworth×(Landrace×Yorkshire)) or a ‘modern’ crossbreed (Duroc×(Landrace×Yorkshire)) fed a pelleted diet as supplementary feed either according to recommendations (NORM), or restrictedly with (RES+) or without (RES–) a supplementary vitamin and mineral mixture. The pigs ‘strip...

  4. The effect of parenteral immunisation on antibody production in the pig colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, A S; Lysons, R J; Stokes, C R; Bourne, F J

    1989-11-30

    Local and systemic antibody production was studied in pigs to compare responses to live and killed bacterial antigen and purified protein antigen, with and without prior mucosal stimulation. Recovery from challenge with live bacteria and intramuscular injection with killed bacteria gave rise to similar high levels of serum IgG antibody, but the ratio of specific IgA to IgG in the colon was significantly higher after infection than following vaccination with killed bacteria. Vaccination with a protein antigen gave rise to serum and local antibody production. Prior feeding of the antigen had a tolerising effect on the serum antibody response, but production of IgG and IgA antibody by the colon was not suppressed.

  5. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document

  6. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  7. Spatiotemporal trends in Canadian domestic wild boar production and habitat predict wild pig distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Nicole; Laforge, Michel; van Beest, Floris

    2017-01-01

    eradication of wild pigs is rarely feasible after establishment over large areas, effective management will depend on strengthening regulations and enforcement of containment practices for Canadian domestic wild boar farms. Initiation of coordinated provincial and federal efforts to implement population...... wild boar and test the propagule pressure hypothesis to improve predictive ability of an existing habitat-based model of wild pigs. We reviewed spatiotemporal patterns in domestic wild boar production across ten Canadian provinces during 1991–2011 and evaluated the ability of wild boar farm...... distribution to improve predictive models of wild pig occurrence using a resource selection probability function for wild pigs in Saskatchewan. Domestic wild boar production in Canada increased from 1991 to 2001 followed by sharp declines in all provinces. The distribution of domestic wild boar farms in 2006...

  8. Animal Welfare and Economic Aspects of Using Nurse Sows in Swedish Pig Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Alvåsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of born piglets per litter has increased in Swedish pig industry, and farmers are struggling to improve piglet survival. A common practice is to make litters more equally sized by moving piglets from large litters to smaller to make sure that all piglets get an own teat to suckle. Litter equalization is not always enough, as many sows have large litters and/or damaged teats, which results in an insufficient number of available teats. One way to solve this problem is to use nurse sows. A nurse sow raises, and weans, her own piglets before receiving a foster litter. The objectives of this study were to address how the use of nurse sows affects the welfare of sows and piglets and to explore how it impacts the contribution margin of pig production in Sweden. A literature search was made to investigate welfare aspects on sows and piglets. As there were few published studies on nurse sows, an expert group meeting was organized. In order to explore the impact on the contribution margin of pig production, a partial budgeting approach with stochastic elements was used for a fictive pig farm. Standard templates for calculating costs and benefits were supplemented with figures from existing literature and the gathered expert opinions. In Sweden, the minimum suckling period is 28 days while published studies involving nurse sows, all from outside of Sweden, weaned the piglets at 21 days. A Swedish nurse sow will thus get longer lactation period which might increase the risk of poor body condition, damaged teats, and shoulder ulcers. This indicates a reduced welfare of the sow and may lead to impaired fertility and increased culling risk. On the other hand, the piglet mortality could be reduced with the use of nurse sows, but the separation and mixing of piglets could be stressful. The partial budgeting suggested that the nurse sow system is slightly more profitable (+6,838 Swedish krona per farrowing group during one dry and one lactation

  9. Impact of swine reproductive technologies on pig and global food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Robert V

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive technologies have dramatically changed the way pigs are raised for pork production in developed and developing countries. This has involved such areas as pigs produced/sow, more consistent pig flow to market, pig growth rate and feed efficiency, carcass yield and quality, labor efficiency, and pig health. Some reproductive technologies are in widespread use for commercial pork operations [Riesenbeck, Reprod Domest Anim 46:1-3, 2011] while others are in limited use in specific segments of the industry [Knox, Reprod Domest Anim 46:4-6, 2011]. Significant changes in the efficiency of pork production have occurred as a direct result of the use of reproductive technologies that were intended to improve the transfer of genes important for food production [Gerrits et al., Theriogenology 63:283-299, 2005]. While some technologies focused on the efficiency of gene transfer, others addressed fertility and labor issues. Among livestock species, pig reproductive efficiency appears to have achieved exceptionally high rates of performance (PigCHAMP 2011) [Benchmark 2011, Ames, IA, 12-16]. From the maternal side, this includes pigs born per litter, farrowing rate, as well as litters per sow per year. On the male side, boar fertility, sperm production, and sows served per sire have improved as well [Knox et al., Theriogenology, 70:1202-1208, 2008]. These shifts in the efficiency of swine fertility have resulted in the modern pig as one of the most efficient livestock species for global food production. These reproductive changes have predominantly occurred in developed countries, but data suggests transfer and adoption of these in developing countries as well (FAO STAT 2009; FAS 2006) [World pig meat production: food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, 2009; FAS, 2006) Worldwide Pork Production, 2006]. Technological advancements in swine reproduction have had profound effects on industry structure, production, efficiency, quality, and profitability. In

  10. Influence of production factors on feed intake and feed conversion ratio of grow-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Abércio da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and quantify, through mathematical models, the production factors of grow-finishing (GF phases that influence the daily feed intake (DFI and feed conversion ratio (FCR in pigs. Sixty-five GF farms were evaluated between 2010 and 2013, linked to a cooperative system located in the western Parana State, Brazil, representing 463 batches, with a mean of 642.79 ± 363.29 animals per batch, equalling approximately 300,000 animals. Forty production factors were considered that related to management, sanitation, installations and equipment, nutrition, genetics and environment on the farms. The DFI was influenced by the barn's position relative to the sun (P = 0.048, initial body weight (P < 0.0001 and final body weight (P < 0.0001. It was observed that the FCR was influenced by the barn’s position relative to the sun (P = 0.0001, the use of humidifiers/misting (P = 0.03, the presence of composters (P = 0.006, trees on the sides of barns (P < 0.045, the initial body weight of the pigs (P < 0.0001 and duration of the grow-finishing phase (P < 0.0001. The variables selected in the models explained approximately 44 and 20% of the total variance in the DFI and FCR, respectively, demonstrating that this resource is a good tool for interpreting the factors related to the parameters evaluated.

  11. Maternal and genetic influences on production and reproduction traits in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der H.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    The profitability of pig production may be expressed as a function of reproductivity and productivity. The optimal selection pressure on reproductivity relative to productivity depends on the response to selection and the economic value of the response. Reproductive performance is primarily a

  12. The “Criollo Negro de la Costa Ecuatoriana” pigs: effect of sex and rearing system on performance, carcass and meat traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, M.A.; Peláez, F.R.; Martínez, A.L.; Avilés, C.; Peña, F.

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of rearing system (confinement, C vs semi-confinement, SC) and sex (barrows vs females) on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of “Criollo negro de la costa ecuatoriana” pigs. A total of 32 pigs, 16 barrows and 16 gilts were used. The average daily gain (0.30 kg/day vs 0.22 kg/day), slaughter weight (51.4 kg vs 43.1 kg), morphometric parameters and weights for the most valuable meat cuts were higher in C pigs than in SC pigs, whereas hot and cold carcass yields were higher in SC pigs than in C pigs. The loin and sirloin percentages from C pigs were lower and higher compared with those SC pigs, respectively. Carcass of C pigs showed higher percentage of fat and lower percentage of lean and bone that SC pigs. The rearing system had scarce effects on meat quality traits and mineral composition. Meat from C pigs showed lower scores for color, brightness, and unctuousness, and higher for metallist taste, juiciness and persistence of flavor than SC pigs. Few sensory attributes of cooking chops were affected by sex. Metallist taste was higher in barrows, while brightness and lard flavor were higher in females. It can be concluded that the rearing system had a significant effect on most of the productive and carcass traits, whereas its effect was limited on the meat traits. Sex had little influence on most of the traits studied. (Author)

  13. Embedded Controller Design for Pig Stable Ventilation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob

    This thesis focuses on zone based climate control in pig stables and how to implement climate controllers in a new range of products. The presented controllers are based on simple models of climate dynamics and simple models of actuators. The implementation uses graphical point and click features....... The thesis is a collection of eight papers. The first two papers deal with the mplementation of controllers and how to integrate the development of controllers into a complete framework that can provide different services e.g. remote monitoring. The same framework is also capable of automatically generating...

  14. Study of the Assessment Method for N Excretion in Sustainable Heavy Pigs Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kaijun; Liu, Fenghua; Xu, Xiaolong; Xu, Jianqin; Zoccarato, Ivo

    Italian heavy pigs, with an average slaughtering body weight of 150-170 kg, are world-wide famous for its Parma ham production. Because the requirement of market diversity, producers are interested in ham production following the procedure of Italian pork industry. However, with ever growing public concern about nitrogen (N) pollution in the environment, it is necessary to determine a suitable method to measure N excretion from heavy pig production. The N retention was calculated by factorial method and compared with estimations of other methods available in literature. The results showed that the N percentage of heavy pigs is 2.43% ± 0.07% on body weight basis and the percentage of N excretion was approximately 69.62% ± 0.20 of N intake. Regarding the N excretion of estimation methods, the proposal of Xiccato et al. was closer to reality of the heavy pig production than other methods and could be used as a standard way to calculate the N excretion. Besides the overall standard, it is opportune to make a N balance sheet for every individual farm under specific conditions. Only in this way, the farmers can realize their deficiencies and will voluntarily follow the Good Management Practice (GMP) indications so as to guarantee a sustainable development of pig production.

  15. Classification of trace elements in tissues from organic and conventional French pig production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parinet, Julien; Royer, Eric; Saint-Hilaire, Mailie; Chafey, Claude; Noël, Laurent; Minvielle, Brice; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Engel, Erwan; Guérin, Thierry

    2018-07-01

    This study assesses the impact of the farming system on the levels of copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in pig tissues from three types of production (Organic (n = 28), Label Rouge (n = 12) and Conventional (n = 30)) randomly sampled in different slaughterhouses. All the concentrations were below regulatory limits. In muscles, Cu, Zn and As were measured at slightly higher levels in organic samples but no differences between organic and Label Rouge was observed. Livers from conventional and Label Rouge pig farms exhibited higher Zn and Cd contents than the organic ones, probably due to different practice in zinc or phytase supplementation of fattening diets. Principal component analysis indicated a correlation between Cu and As concentrations in liver and carcass weight, and between Zn and Cd liver levels and lean meat percentage. The linear discriminant analysis succeeded in predicting the farming process on the basis of the lean meat percentage and the liver Cd level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial Consumption in Medicated Feeds in Vietnamese Pig and Poultry Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Nguyen; Nhung, Nguyen Thi; Nghia, Nguyen Huu; Mai Hoa, Nguyen Thi; Trung, Nguyen Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Carrique-Mas, Juan

    2016-09-01

    Antimicrobials are extensively used as growth promoters in animal feeds worldwide, but reliable estimates are lacking. We conducted an internet-based survey of commercial chicken and pig feed products officially approved for sale in Vietnam over the period March-June 2015. Information on the antimicrobial contents in feed products, alongside animal production data, was used to estimate in-feed antimicrobial consumption to produce one kilogram of live animal (chicken, pig), as well as to estimate country-wide antimicrobial consumption through animal feeds. A total of 1462 commercial feed formulations were examined. The survey-adjusted estimated antimicrobial contents were 25.7 and 62.3 mg/kg in chicken and pig feeds, respectively. Overall, it was estimated that 77.4 mg [95% CI 48.1-106.8] and 286.6 mg [95% CI 191.6-418.3] of in-feed antimicrobials were used to raise 1 kg of live chicken and pig, respectively. Bacitracin (15.5% feeds), chlortetracycline (11.4%), and enramycin (10.8%) were the most common antimicrobials present in chicken feed formulations, whereas bacitracin (24.8%), chlortetracycline (23.9%), and florfenicol (17.4%) were the most common in pig feed formulations. Overall, 57% of the total quantitative usage consisted of antimicrobials regarded by WHO of importance for human medicine, including amoxicillin, colistin, tetracyclines, neomycin, lincomycin, and bacitracin. These figures confirm a very high magnitude of in-feed consumption of antimicrobials, especially in pig production. Results from this study should encourage further monitoring of antimicrobials used in animal production, and foster discussion about existing policies on inclusion of antimicrobials in animal feed rations.

  17. The effects of pressed sugar beet pulp silage (PBPS and dairy whey on heavy pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Sardi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pressed beet pulp silage (PBPS replacing barley for 10% and 20% (DM basis were studied on heavy pigs fed dairy whey-diluted diets. 60 Hypor pigs (average initial weight of 28 kg, 30 barrows and 30 gilts, were homogeneously allocated to three exper- imental groups: T1 (control in which pigs were fed a traditional sweet whey- diluted diet (the ratio between whey and dry matter was 4.5/1; T2 in which PBPS replaced barley for 10% (DM basis during a first period (from the beginning to the 133rd day of trial and thereafter for 20% (DM basis; T3 in which PBPS replaced barley for 20% (DM basis throughout the experimental period. In diets T2 and T3 feed was dairy whey-diluted as in group T1. No significant (P>0.05 differences were observed concerning growth parameters (ADG and FCR. Pigs on diets contain- ing PBPS showed significantly higher (P<0.05 percentages of lean cuts and lower percentages of fat cuts. On the whole, ham weight losses during seasoning were moderate but significantly (P<0.05 more marked for PBPS-fed pigs as a prob- able consequence of their lower adiposity degree. Fatty acid composition of ham fat was unaffected by diets. With regard to m. Semimembranosus colour, pigs receiving PBPS showed lower (P<0.05 “L”, “a” and “Chroma” values. From an economical point of view it can be concluded that the use of PBPS (partially replacing barley and dairy whey in heavy pig production could be of particular interest in areas where both these by products are readily available.

  18. Farm factors associated with the use of antibiotics in pig production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Puister-Jansen, L F; van Asselt, E D; Burgers, S L G E

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate farm-level economic and technical factors that are associated with the use of antibiotics on pig farms. Identification of such factors, like farm size and net farm result, may help to increase epidemiological knowledge and to specify farm advice and policy making to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics. The study used over 300 farm-year records collected during 2004 to 2007 from pig farms in the Netherlands. Data included economic and technical factors as well as antibiotic administration. Data were statistically analyzed for factors associated with antibiotic use, both for fattening pig and sow farms (piglets only), separately. The response variable was the average number of daily dosages per average pig year. Statistical analysis was performed on 16 and 19 potential explanatory factors for the fattening pig and sow farms, respectively. The results showed that, both on the fattening pig and sow farms, the average use of antibiotics increased from 2004 to 2006, but decreased during 2007, but the effect of year was not significant (P > 0.05). Use of antibiotics varied between individual farms. Large farm repeatability for the use of antibiotics in the different years was found. Factors associated (P antibiotics included: farm system, number of pigs, and population density in the region of the farm (for sow farms only). As these factors are easy to collect and to register, they can be used to specify farm advice and investigation, as well as for policy making. The majority of the technical and economic factors were not significantly (P > 0.05) related to the on-farm use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is recommended to focus future research on the potential role of socioeconomic factors associated with antibiotic use on pig farms.

  19. Campylobacter coli in Organic and Conventional Pig Production in France and Sweden: Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Kempf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter coli in conventional and organic pigs from France and Sweden. Fecal or colon samples were collected at farms or at slaughterhouses and cultured for Campylobacter. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and gentamicin were determined by microdilution for a total of 263 French strains from 114 pigs from 50 different farms and 82 Swedish strains from 144 pigs from 54 different farms. Erythromycin resistant isolates were examined for presence of the emerging rRNA methylase erm(B gene. The study showed that within the colon samples obtained in each country there was no significant difference in prevalence of Campylobacter between pigs in organic and conventional productions [France: conventional: 43/58 (74%; organic: 43/56 (77% and Sweden: conventional: 24/36 (67%; organic: 20/36 (56%]. In France, but not in Sweden, significant differences of percentages of resistant isolates were associated with production type (tetracycline, erythromycin and the number of resistances was significantly higher for isolates from conventional pigs. In Sweden, the number of resistances of fecal isolates was significantly higher compared to colon isolates. The erm(B gene was not detected in the 87 erythromycin resistant strains tested.

  20. Applications of Systems Genetics and Biology for Obesity Using Pig Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette; Kadarmideen, Haja N.

    2016-01-01

    approach, a branch of systems biology. In this chapter, we will describe the state of the art of genetic studies on human obesity, using pig populations. We will describe the features of using the pig as a model for human obesity and briefly discuss the genetics of obesity, and we will focus on systems...

  1. Environmental impact of heavy pig production in a sample of Italian farms. A cradle to farm-gate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirlo, G., E-mail: giacomo.pirlo@crea.gov.it [Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Fodder and Dairy Production Research Centre, Via A. Lombardo 11, 26900 Lodi (Italy); Carè, S. [Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Fodder and Dairy Production Research Centre, Via A. Lombardo 11, 26900 Lodi (Italy); Casa, G. Della; Marchetti, R.; Ponzoni, G.; Faeti, V. [Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Research Unit for Swine Husbandry, Via Beccastecca 345, San Cesario sul Panaro, 41018 (Italy); Fantin, V.; Masoni, P.; Buttol, P. [ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Zerbinatti, L. [Associazione Regionale Allevatori dell' Emilia Romagna, Via Roma 89/2—Loc. Viadagola, 40057 Granarolo dell' Emilia (Italy); Falconi, F. [LCA-lab SRL, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-09-15

    Four breeding piggeries and eight growing-fattening piggeries were analyzed to estimate potential environmental impacts of heavy pig production (> 160 kg of live height at slaughtering). Life Cycle Assessment methodology was adopted in the study, considering a system from breeding phase to growing fattening phase. Environmental impacts of breeding phase and growing-fattening phase were accounted separately and then combined to obtain the impacts of heavy pig production. The functional unit was 1 kg of live weight gain. Impact categories investigated were global warming (GW), acidification (AC), eutrophication (EU), abiotic depletion (AD), and photochemical ozone formation (PO). The total environmental impact of 1 kg of live weight gain was 3.3 kg CO{sub 2}eq, 4.9 E − 2 kg SO{sub 2}eq, 3.1 E − 2 kg PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} eq, 3.7 E − 3 kg Sbeq, 1.7 E − 3 kg C{sub 2}H{sub 4}eq for GW, AC, EU, AD, and PO respectively. Feed production was the main hotspot in all impact categories. Greenhouse gases responsible for GW were mainly CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and CO{sub 2}. Ammonia was the most important source of AC, sharing about 90%. Nitrate and NH{sub 3} were the main emissions responsible for EU, whereas P and NOx showed minor contributions. Crude oil and natural gas consumption was the main source of AD. A large spectrum of pollutants had a significant impact on PO: they comprised CH{sub 4} from manure fermentation, CO{sub 2} caused by fossil fuel combustion in agricultural operations and industrial processes, ethane and propene emitted during oil extraction and refining, and hexane used in soybean oil extraction. The farm characteristics that best explained the results were fundamentally connected with performance indicators Farms showed a wide variability of results, meaning that there was wide margin for improving the environmental performance of either breeding or growing-fattening farms. The effectiveness of some mitigation measures was evaluated and the results

  2. Environmental impact of heavy pig production in a sample of Italian farms. A cradle to farm-gate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirlo, G.; Carè, S.; Casa, G. Della; Marchetti, R.; Ponzoni, G.; Faeti, V.; Fantin, V.; Masoni, P.; Buttol, P.; Zerbinatti, L.; Falconi, F.

    2016-01-01

    Four breeding piggeries and eight growing-fattening piggeries were analyzed to estimate potential environmental impacts of heavy pig production (> 160 kg of live height at slaughtering). Life Cycle Assessment methodology was adopted in the study, considering a system from breeding phase to growing fattening phase. Environmental impacts of breeding phase and growing-fattening phase were accounted separately and then combined to obtain the impacts of heavy pig production. The functional unit was 1 kg of live weight gain. Impact categories investigated were global warming (GW), acidification (AC), eutrophication (EU), abiotic depletion (AD), and photochemical ozone formation (PO). The total environmental impact of 1 kg of live weight gain was 3.3 kg CO_2eq, 4.9 E − 2 kg SO_2eq, 3.1 E − 2 kg PO_4"3"− eq, 3.7 E − 3 kg Sbeq, 1.7 E − 3 kg C_2H_4eq for GW, AC, EU, AD, and PO respectively. Feed production was the main hotspot in all impact categories. Greenhouse gases responsible for GW were mainly CH_4, N_2O, and CO_2. Ammonia was the most important source of AC, sharing about 90%. Nitrate and NH_3 were the main emissions responsible for EU, whereas P and NOx showed minor contributions. Crude oil and natural gas consumption was the main source of AD. A large spectrum of pollutants had a significant impact on PO: they comprised CH_4 from manure fermentation, CO_2 caused by fossil fuel combustion in agricultural operations and industrial processes, ethane and propene emitted during oil extraction and refining, and hexane used in soybean oil extraction. The farm characteristics that best explained the results were fundamentally connected with performance indicators Farms showed a wide variability of results, meaning that there was wide margin for improving the environmental performance of either breeding or growing-fattening farms. The effectiveness of some mitigation measures was evaluated and the results that could be obtained by their introduction have been

  3. The effect of bovine colostrum products on intestinal dysfunction and inflammation in a preterm pig model of necrotizing enterocolitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), primarily seen in preterm infants, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis is not fully understood but risk factors include prematurity, enteral feeding (especially with milk formula), and the intestinal microbiota. Mother’s milk, rich...... in bioactive factors, has a protective effect against NEC, but not all preterm infants are able to receive mother’s milk. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate if bovine colostrum (BC), also rich in bioactive factors, could serve as an alternative to mother’s milk. A preterm pig model of NEC...... formula. All three BC products maintained trophic and anti-inflammatory effects on the immature pig intestine. A simple and standardized system was required to investigate the effects of milk formula versus BC on intestinal epithelial cells. In Study III, the IPEC-J2 cell line was evaluated as an in vitro...

  4. Heat production in growing pigs calculated according to the RQ and CN methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, K; Chwalibog, André; Henckel, S

    1988-01-01

    1. Heat production, calculated according to the respiratory quotient methods, HE(RQ), and the carbon nitrogen balance method, HE(CN), was compared using the results from a total of 326 balance trials with 56 castrated male pigs fed different dietary composition and variable feed levels during...

  5. Nitrogen consumption, utilisation and losses in pig production in France, The Netherlands, and Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dourmad, J.Y.; SOve, B.; Latimer, P.; Boisen, S.; Fernández, J.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    1999-01-01

    In highly intensive pig production areas, manure disposal is a major problem especially for nitrogen, because of water pollution by nitrates and air pollution by gaseous ammonia emissions. The situations in three European countries (Denmark, The Netherlands and France) were compared, on average, it

  6. Estimation of protein fermentation in the large intestine of pigs using a gas production technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Lange, L.

    2005-01-01

    Proteolytic fermentation in the colon of pigs and the caecum of poultry can have negative effects on their performance and health due to formation of harmful end products. To reduce this, rations can be formulated with expected carbohydrate fermentation being higher in level, and rate, than that of

  7. Analysing the Effects of a Pigs Production Quota within a Dynamic CGE Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Philip D; Hansen, Lill Thanning; Jacobsen, Lars Bo

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we address the issue of timing and announcement within a dynamic applied general equilibrium model of the Danish economy. Specifically we analyse the introduction of a quota on the production of pigs. Two scenarios are analysed, namely the introduction of a once-off quota without any...

  8. Pilot study of large-scale production of mutant pigs by ENU mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Tang; Cao, Chunwei; Shang, Haitao; Guo, Weiwei; Mu, Yanshuang; Yang, Shulin; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Qiantao; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Xianlong; Liu, Yu; Kong, Qingran; Li, Kui; Wang, Dayu; Qi, Meng; Hong, Qianlong; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xiupeng; Jia, Qitao; Wang, Xiao; Qin, Guosong; Li, Yongshun; Luo, Ailing; Jin, Weiwu; Yao, Jing; Huang, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Hongyong; Li, Menghua; Xie, Xiangmo; Zheng, Xuejuan; Guo, Kenan; Wang, Qinghua; Zhang, Shibin; Li, Liang; Xie, Fei; Zhang, Yu; Weng, Xiaogang; Yin, Zhi; Hu, Kui; Cong, Yimei; Zheng, Peng; Zou, Hailong; Xin, Leilei; Xia, Jihan; Ruan, Jinxue; Li, Hegang; Zhao, Weiming; Yuan, Jing; Liu, Zizhan; Gu, Weiwang; Li, Ming; Wang, Yong; Wang, Hongmei; Yang, Shiming; Liu, Zhonghua; Wei, Hong; Zhao, Jianguo; Zhou, Qi; Meng, Anming

    2017-06-22

    N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis is a powerful tool to generate mutants on a large scale efficiently, and to discover genes with novel functions at the whole-genome level in Caenorhabditis elegans, flies, zebrafish and mice, but it has never been tried in large model animals. We describe a successful systematic three-generation ENU mutagenesis screening in pigs with the establishment of the Chinese Swine Mutagenesis Consortium. A total of 6,770 G1 and 6,800 G3 pigs were screened, 36 dominant and 91 recessive novel pig families with various phenotypes were established. The causative mutations in 10 mutant families were further mapped. As examples, the mutation of SOX10 (R109W) in pig causes inner ear malfunctions and mimics human Mondini dysplasia, and upregulated expression of FBXO32 is associated with congenital splay legs. This study demonstrates the feasibility of artificial random mutagenesis in pigs and opens an avenue for generating a reservoir of mutants for agricultural production and biomedical research.

  9. The production of pig iron from crushing plant waste using hot blast cupola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusno Isnugroho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A production of pig iron has been conducted from crushing plant waste. The process of preparing pig iron was using hot blast cupola (HBC furnace which was injected with charcoal powder to improve temperature process and reduction zone in the furnace. The process was started by washing process and magnetic separation of raw material as an effort to improve iron content degree from crushing plant waste. The next process was preparing the composite pellet with the particle size of −80 + 100 mesh and with the composition of 80% iron ore, 15% wood charcoal, and 5% bentonite. The result of pellet size was 2.5–4.0 mm. The experiment was continued to reduce pellet composite in the HBC furnace. The pig iron produced from this process contained of 93.62%Fe, 3.5%C, 1.55%Si, 0.87%Mn, 0.05%P, and 0.087%S.With this result, the pig iron produced already fulfill the metallurgical specification to be used in smelting industry. Keywords: Pig iron, Pellet, Injection, Charcoal, Hot blast cupola

  10. A multi-dimensional dynamic linear model for monitoring slaughter pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan Børge; Cornou, Cecile; Toft, Nils

    Scientists and farmers still lack an efficient way to unify the large number of different types of data series, which are increasingly being generated in relation to automatic herd monitoring. Such a unifying model should be able to account for the correlations between the various types of data......, feed-and water consumption), measured at different levels of detail (individual pig and double-pen level) and with different observational frequencies (weekly and daily), using series collected for the Danish PigIT project. The presented three-dimensional model serves as a proof of concept......, resulting in a model which could potentially yield more information than can be gained from the individual components separately. Here we present such a model for monitoring slaughter pig production, in the form of a multivariate dynamic linear model. This model unifies three types of data (live weight...

  11. The Pig PeptideAtlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselager, Marianne Overgaard; Codrea, Marius; Sun, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Biological research of Sus scrofa, the domestic pig, is of immediate relevance for food production sciences, and for developing pig as a model organism for human biomedical research. Publicly available data repositories play a fundamental role for all biological sciences, and protein data...... repositories are in particular essential for the successful development of new proteomic methods. Cumulative proteome data repositories, including the PeptideAtlas, provide the means for targeted proteomics, system-wide observations, and cross-species observational studies, but pigs have so far been...... underrepresented in existing repositories. We here present a significantly improved build of the Pig PeptideAtlas, which includes pig proteome data from 25 tissues and three body fluid types mapped to 7139 canonical proteins. The content of the Pig PeptideAtlas reflects actively ongoing research within...

  12. Production of cloned pigs with targeted attenuation of gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilceu Bordignon

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to demonstrate that RNA interference (RNAi and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT technologies can be used to attenuate the expression of specific genes in tissues of swine, a large animal species. Apolipoprotein E (apoE, a secreted glycoprotein known for its major role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and transport, was selected as the target gene for this study. Three synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNA targeting the porcine apoE mRNA were tested in porcine granulosa cells in primary culture and reduced apoE mRNA abundance ranging from 45-82% compared to control cells. The most effective sequence was selected for cloning into a short hairpin RNA (shRNA expression vector under the control of RNA polymerase III (U6 promoter. Stably transfected fetal porcine fibroblast cells were generated and used to produce embryos with in vitro matured porcine oocytes, which were then transferred into the uterus of surrogate gilts. Seven live and one stillborn piglet were born from three gilts that became pregnant. Integration of the shRNA expression vector into the genome of clone piglets was confirmed by PCR and expression of the GFP transgene linked to the expression vector. Analysis showed that apoE protein levels in the liver and plasma of the clone pigs bearing the shRNA expression vector targeting the apoE mRNA was significantly reduced compared to control pigs cloned from non-transfected fibroblasts of the same cell line. These results demonstrate the feasibility of applying RNAi and SCNT technologies for introducing stable genetic modifications in somatic cells for eventual attenuation of gene expression in vivo in large animal species.

  13. Environmental assessment of Ronozyme (R) p5000 CT phytase as an alternative to inorganic phosphate supplementation to pig feed used in intensive pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    be used as an alternative to inorganic phosphorus supplementation to feed and the study addresses the environmental implications of substituting inorganic phosphorus with Ronozyme Phytase in intensive pig production in Denmark. Methods. Life cycle assessment is used as an analytical tool, and modelling...... pig production is justified by major advantages in terms of avoided contributions to global warming, acidification, photochemical ozone formation and particularly nutrient enrichment and by significant energy savings and particularly phosphate savings. A single trade-off in terms of agricultural land......Goal, Scope and Background. Ronozyme (R) P5000 CT is an industrially produced enzyme product (phytase) which is able to degrade naturally occurring phytate in animal feed and release the phytate's content of phosphorus for pig's growth. Ronozyme P5000 CT (hereafter called Ronozyme Phytase) can...

  14. Microbial production of volatile sulphur compounds in the large intestine of pigs fed two different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, H V; Jensen, B B; Finster, K; Spence, C; Whitehead, T R; Cotta, M A; Canibe, N

    2012-07-01

      To investigate the production of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) in the segments of the large intestine of pigs and to assess the impact of diet on this production.   Pigs were fed two diets based on either wheat and barley (STD) or wheat and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Net production of VSC and potential sulphate reduction rate (SRR) (sulphate saturated) along the large intestine were determined by means of in vitro incubations. The net production rate of hydrogen sulphide and potential SRR increased from caecum towards distal colon and were significantly higher in the STD group. Conversely, the net methanethiol production rate was significantly higher in the DDGS group, while no difference was observed for dimethyl sulphide. The number of sulphate-reducing bacteria and total bacteria were determined by quantitative PCR and showed a significant increase along the large intestine, whereas no diet-related differences were observed.   VSC net production varies widely throughout the large intestine of pigs and the microbial processes involved in this production can be affected by diet.   This first report on intestinal production of all VSC shows both spatial and dietary effects, which are relevant to both bowel disease- and odour mitigation research. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Stability of odorants from pig production in sampling bags for olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J; Adamsen, Anders P S; Feilberg, Anders; Jonassen, Kristoffer E N

    2011-01-01

    Odor from pig production facilities is typically measured with olfactometry, whereby odor samples are collected in sampling bags and assessed by human panelists within 30 h. In the present study, the storage stability of odorants in two types of sampling bags that are often used for olfactometry was investigated. The bags were made of Tedlar or Nalophan. In a field experiment, humid and dried air samples were collected from a pig production facility with growing-finishing pigs and analyzed with a gas chromatograph with an amperometric sulfur detector at 4, 8, 12, 28, 52, and 76 h after sampling. In a laboratory experiment, the bags were filled with a humid gas mixture containing carboxylic acids, phenols, indoles, and sulfur compounds and analyzed with proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry after 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of carboxylic acids, phenols, and indoles decreased by 50 to >99% during the 24 h of storage in Tedlar and Nalophan bags. The concentration of hydrogen sulfide decreased by approximately 30% during the 24 h of storage in Nalophan bags, whereas in Tedlar bags the concentration of sulfur compounds decreased by bags, and the composition changes toward a higher relative presence of sulfur compounds. This can result in underestimation of odor emissions from pig production facilities and of the effect of odor reduction technologies. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Effects of floor cooling during high ambient temperatures on the lying behavior and productivity of growing finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Kemp, B.

    2004-01-01

    Given that exposing rapidly growing pigs to high ambient temperatures can induce heat stress, which reduces their welfare and production, this study looked at the influence of floor cooling on pigs¿ behavior and performance. Pens in room 1 had a solid floor (60%) and a metal slatted floor (40%). The

  17. Economic feasibility of animal welfare improvements in Dutch intensive livestock production: A comparison between broiler, laying hen, and fattening pig farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, E.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Voermans, G.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the economic feasibility of production systems with different levels of animal welfare (AW) in the broiler, laying hen, and fattening pig sectors. Economic feasibility over a five-year time horizon was assessed using stochastic bio-economic simulation models. The results suggest

  18. Infectious and rearing-system related risk factors for chronic pleuritis in slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enøe, Claes; Mousing, Jan; Schirmer, Anna Luise

    2002-01-01

    retrieved through a questionnaire included health status, production type, herd size (i.e. pigs per year) and vaccination procedures. Associations between CP and infectious, individual and herd-related factors were investigated by logistic regression with random effects. Among pigs from herds......Chronic pleuritis (CP) in Danish pigs for slaughter is by far the most frequent finding at the routine post-mortem meat inspection. An initial investigation published in 1990 demonstrated infectious and management-related risk factors. Serological testing for additional infectious agents, as well...... exhibiting (not exhibiting) PAR. An association of PAR with CP was found, and PAR interacted with AP serotype 7: OR = 10.0 (4.3) when both factors were present among pigs exposed (non-exposed) to SI. The OR (0.97) for an increase of carcass weight by 1 kg was negligible. In pigs from specific pathogen...

  19. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here...

  20. Performance Of Growing Pigs And Finisher Broilers Housed Together

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and cost of feeding young growing pigs and finisher broilers under integrated broiler/pig production system were investigated. Four young growing pigs (the control) were housed in pen A and fed 4% of their body weight as commercial growers feed. Another 4 were housed in pen B with broilers in ...

  1. Review of wallowing in pigs: implications for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Most modern production systems, especially in temperate climates, do not offer wallowing facilities to pigs and, to date, this has neither generated much concern in welfare science nor public debate on pig welfare. Nevertheless, wallowing is a natural behaviour of pigs which may be important to

  2. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC whey product as protein source for growing pigs 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Näsi

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available A digestibility and balance trial was performed with three growing pigs to evaluate the nutritive value and protein utilization of a carboxymethyl cellulose(CMC whey product used to replace 50 % or 100 % of the dried skim supplement in a barley-based diet. The effect of CMC whey on clinical chemical blood parameters was also investigated. The CMC whey protein contained 39.6 % crude protein and 36.0 % true protein in DM. The proportion of CMC in the product was 18.3% of DM. CMC whey had high contents of lysine, cystine, methionine and threonine: 10.3, 2.9, 2.1 and 5.6 g/16 g N, respectively. NFE digestibility was lower on the CMC whey diet than on the skim milk diet (P < 0.05. Faecal excretion of CMC averaged 59.0 %. Protein utilization was effective on the CMC whey diet: 69.9 % of absorbed N was retained. Judging from the blood analyses, the CMC whey product did not have any detrimental effect on the metabolism or health of the pigs. The CMC whey product is well suited as a protein supplement in pig feeding because of its high contents of essential amino acids.

  3. Comparison of Respiratory Disease Prevalence among Voluntary Monitoring Systems for Pig Health and Welfare in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J I Eze

    Full Text Available Surveillance of animal diseases provides information essential for the protection of animal health and ultimately public health. The voluntary pig health schemes, implemented in the United Kingdom, are integrated systems which capture information on different macroscopic disease conditions detected in slaughtered pigs. Many of these conditions have been associated with a reduction in performance traits and consequent increases in production costs. The schemes are the Wholesome Pigs Scotland in Scotland, the BPEX Pig Health Scheme in England and Wales and the Pig Regen Ltd. health and welfare checks done in Northern Ireland. This report set out to compare the prevalence of four respiratory conditions (enzootic pneumonia-like lesions, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia lesions and abscesses in the lung assessed by these three Pig Health Schemes. The seasonal variations and year trends associated with the conditions in each scheme are presented. The paper also highlights the differences in prevalence for each condition across these schemes and areas where further research is needed. A general increase in the prevalence of enzootic pneumonia like lesions was observed in Scotland, England and Wales since 2009, while a general decrease was observed in Northern Ireland over the years of the scheme. Pleurisy prevalence has increased since 2010 in all three schemes, whilst pleuropneumonia has been decreasing. Prevalence of abscesses in the lung has decreased in England, Wales and Northern Ireland but has increased in Scotland. This analysis highlights the value of surveillance schemes based on abattoir pathology monitoring of four respiratory lesions. The outputs at scheme level have significant value as indicators of endemic and emerging disease, and for producers and herd veterinarians in planning and evaluating herd health control programs when comparing individual farm results with national averages.

  4. Comparison of Respiratory Disease Prevalence among Voluntary Monitoring Systems for Pig Health and Welfare in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, J I; Correia-Gomes, C; Borobia-Belsué, J; Tucker, A W; Sparrow, D; Strachan, D W; Gunn, G J

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of animal diseases provides information essential for the protection of animal health and ultimately public health. The voluntary pig health schemes, implemented in the United Kingdom, are integrated systems which capture information on different macroscopic disease conditions detected in slaughtered pigs. Many of these conditions have been associated with a reduction in performance traits and consequent increases in production costs. The schemes are the Wholesome Pigs Scotland in Scotland, the BPEX Pig Health Scheme in England and Wales and the Pig Regen Ltd. health and welfare checks done in Northern Ireland. This report set out to compare the prevalence of four respiratory conditions (enzootic pneumonia-like lesions, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia lesions and abscesses in the lung) assessed by these three Pig Health Schemes. The seasonal variations and year trends associated with the conditions in each scheme are presented. The paper also highlights the differences in prevalence for each condition across these schemes and areas where further research is needed. A general increase in the prevalence of enzootic pneumonia like lesions was observed in Scotland, England and Wales since 2009, while a general decrease was observed in Northern Ireland over the years of the scheme. Pleurisy prevalence has increased since 2010 in all three schemes, whilst pleuropneumonia has been decreasing. Prevalence of abscesses in the lung has decreased in England, Wales and Northern Ireland but has increased in Scotland. This analysis highlights the value of surveillance schemes based on abattoir pathology monitoring of four respiratory lesions. The outputs at scheme level have significant value as indicators of endemic and emerging disease, and for producers and herd veterinarians in planning and evaluating herd health control programs when comparing individual farm results with national averages.

  5. Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems......Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems...

  6. Stretch independent regulation of prostaglandin E(2) production within the isolated guinea-pig lamina propria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Christopher J; de Vente, Jan; Gillespie, James I

    2010-02-01

    To use an isolated preparation of the guinea-pig bladder lamina propria (LP) to investigate the effects of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) and nitric oxide (NO) on the release of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). The bladders of female guinea-pigs (200-400 g) were isolated and opened to expose the urothelial surface. The LP was dissected free of the underlying detrusor muscle and cut into strips from the dome to base. Strips were then incubated in Krebs buffer at 37 degrees C. Each tissue piece was then exposed to the stable ATP analogue, BzATP, and a NO donor, diethylamine-NONOate (DEANO), and the effect on PGE(2) output into the supernatant determined using the Parameter(TM) PGE(2) enzyme immunoassay kit (R & D Systems, Abingdon, UK). Experiments were repeated in the presence of purinergic receptor and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, COX I and COX II, antagonists. The cellular location of COX I, COX II and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) within the bladder LP was also determined by immunohistochemistry. PGE(2) production was significantly increased by BzATP. Antagonist studies showed the purinergic stimulation involved both P(2)X and P(2)Y receptors. The BzATP response was inhibited by the COX inhibitor indomethacin (COX I >COX II) but not by DUP 697 (COX II >COX I). Thus, BzATP stimulation occurs because of COX I stimulation. NO had no effect on PGE(2) production over the initial 10 min of an exposure. However, PGE(2) output was increased 100 min after exposure to the NO donor. In the presence of NO, the BzATP stimulation was abolished. Immunohistochemistry was used to confirm the location of COX I to the basal and inner intermediate urothelial layers and to cells within the diffuse layer of LP interstitial cells. In addition, nNOS was also located in the basal urothelial layers whilst COX II was found in the interstitial cell layers. There is complex interaction between ATP and NO to modulate PGE(2) release from the bladder LP in the un-stretched preparation. Such

  7. Anti frictional materials iron-pig iron-brass manufacture using shaving waste products of pig-iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasamov, S. N.; Krivij, N.; Gudenau, H. W.; Babich, A. I.; Garcia, L. L.; Formoso, A.; Cores, A.

    2003-01-01

    Parts based on iron and steel powders are widely used in the manufacture of automobile and domestic equipment. This work was done to study the anti-friction properties of iron-pig iron-brass compositions of materials which were obtained by pressing and sintering from a mix of iron powders and industrial by products of cast-iron turnings, brass, talc and technical sulphur. Experiments were performed using cold pressure technology in the flowing matrix of the powder composite without solid lubricants. The subsequent sintering was carried out at 1200 degree centigree under isothermal conditions in a nitrogen atmosphere in the sintering zone during 1 h. The physical-mechanical and anti-friction properties were almost double by the active drainage of the gases from the compression mould. The study of the microstructure of the sintered materials showed that free cementite existed between the particle limits and around the pores. large agglomerations of dark inclusions could be observed, consisting of graphite, zinc and iron oxides, which were points of tension in the materials that reduce its durability and, therefore, its wear resistance to dry friction. (Author) 34 refs

  8. Comparison of Human and Guinea Pig Acetylcholinesterase Sequences and Rates of Oxime-Assisted Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    of appropriate animal model systems. For OP poisoning, the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is a commonly used animal model because guinea pigs more...endogenous bioscavenger in vivo. Although guinea pigs historically have been used to test OP poisoning therapies, it has been found recently that guinea pig AChE...transcribed mRNA encoding guinea pig AChE, amplified the resulting cDNA, and sequenced this product. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of

  9. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Jingqing [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Guohui [School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Yuan, Zhenhong, E-mail: yuanzh@ms.giec.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. • The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. • The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. • VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. • The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9–70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others.

  10. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Jingqing; Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming; Wang, Guohui; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. • The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. • The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. • VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. • The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9–70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others

  11. Agent-based modelling in applied ethology: an exploratory case study of behavioural dynamics in tail biting in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, I.J.M.M.; Hofstede, G.J.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding behavioural dynamics in pigs is important to assess pig welfare in current intensive pig production systems. Agent-based modelling (ABM) is an approach to gain insight into behavioural dynamics in pigs, but its use in applied ethology and animal welfare science has been limited so far.

  12. Evaluation of pet food by-product as an alternative feedstuff in weanling pig diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, E A; Jones, R D; Azain, M J

    2006-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate pet food by-product (PFB) as a component of nursery starter diets and its effects on pig performance. The PFB used in these studies was a pelleted dog food that contained (as-fed basis) 21% CP, 1.25% total lysine, and 8.3% ether extract. In Exp. 1, 288 early-weaned pigs (5.2 kg at 14 d) were used to determine the effects of replacing animal protein and energy sources with PFB at 0, 10, 30, and 50% (as-fed basis) inclusion levels in phase I (d 0 to 7 after weaning) and phase II (d 7 to 21 after weaning) diets. Phase I diets contained 27.5% whey, 18.75% soybean meal, 1.50% lysine, 0.90% Ca, and 0.80% P, with PFB substituted for corn, fat, plasma protein, fish meal, limestone, and dicalcium phosphate. Phase II diets had a constant 10% whey, 1.35% lysine, and PFB was substituted for blood cells, a portion of the soybean meal, and other ingredients as in phase I diets. In phase I, growth performance by pigs fed PFB-containing diets was similar to that of the control diet. In phase II, ADG (linear; P PFB inclusion. In Exp. 2, 80 weaned pigs (6.7 kg at 21 d) were fed a common phase I diet for 1 wk and used to further evaluate the effect of PFB in phase II diets (same as Exp 1; initial BW = 8.1 kg) on growth performance and apparent total tract nutrient digestibility. There were no differences in ADG, ADFI, or G:F across treatments. Dry matter and energy digestibility did not differ among diets; however, digestibilities of CP (P PFB was increased in the diet. In Exp. 3, the performance by pigs (n = 1 70; 5.5 kg; 21 d of age) fed diets with 0 or 30% PFB in both phases I and II was examined. Growth performance was similar in both diets. These studies demonstrate that pet food by-product can effectively be used as a partial replacement for animal protein sources and grain energy sources in the diets of young nursery pigs.

  13. Gaseous emission during the composting of pig feces from Chinese Ganqinfen system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guo Xue; Guo, Rui; Luo, Yi Ming

    2013-01-01

    The Ganqinfen system - a process of manually cleaning animal feces by means of a shovel - is a widely used manure separating method in Chinese pig farms. Ganqinfen pig feces and chopped corn stalks were mixed at the ratio of 7:1, and composted in 1.5 m(3) rotting boxes for 70 d. Evolution of CH(4), N(2)O and NH(3) during composting, and the effects of turning and covering, were studied in this research. Results showed that 20-39% and 0.5-4% of total nitrogen were lost in the form of NH(3) and N(2)O respectively, and 0.1-0.9% of initial organic carbon was emitted as CH(4). Turning enhanced air exchange in the piles, thus decreasing CH(4) emission by 83-93% and shortening the maturing period. When trials were finished, all non-turned piles were separated to three layers by moisture content. This structure caused the N(2)O losses of non-turning treatments to be 6-12.7 times higher than that of turning treatments. Covering materials reduced air exchange at the surface of the pile, thus decreasing the O(2) supply and consequently increasing CH(4) production by 33-45%. Covering also reduced NH(3) emission by 4-34%. For the composting of Ganqinfen pig feces, we suggest that a program of turning twice weekly without covering will result in compost that is sufficiently matured after 6 wk with the lowest resultant greenhouse gas emission. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Production costs of the Mexican poultry and pig sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van Peter; Hoste, Robert; Wagenberg, van Coen

    2018-01-01

    Wageningen Economic Research conducted a study on the potential consequences of a free trade agreement between Mexico and the EU. The Dutch government is concerned that giving access to products from countries with a lower level of animal welfare could undermine the EU welfare standard. This study

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs reared under different management systems in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hove

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples from 474 domestic pigs (Sus scrofa from Zimbabwe were tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread in Zimbabwean pigs. Seroprevalence was lowest in fattening pigs from large and small-scale commercial farms that practise good hygiene (19.75 % of 238 and highest in backyard scavenging pigs (35.71 % of 70. Only 11.7 % (11 of the 127 positive samples had titres of > 1:400 and nine (81.82 % of these 11 originated from pigs reared under poor hygienic conditions. A prevalence of 3.51 % was found in the same group of fattening pigs using an indirect IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at the single serum dilution of 1:400. The serosurvey shows the importance of modern intensive husbandry systems in reducing the prevalences of T. gondii infection in domestic pigs.

  16. [Influence of personal attitude of the manager on antibiotic use in pig production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, J; Kaufmann, G; Hirsiger, P; Kümmerlen, D; Arnold, C; Spring, P; Sidler, X

    2015-12-01

    The attitude as well as the expertise of a person affect the behavior and actions in daily life. To investigate the influence of attitude and knowledge of pig producers on the use of antibiotics in farms, 220 Swiss pig producers were questioned on health awareness, attitude towards sustainable production, risk behavior, intrinsic motivation and knowledge about antibiotics and resistance development. In addition, the strategy of antibiotic use (therapeutic or prophylactic) and the business practice (single or group therapy) for the amount of antibiotics on one hand and for the risk of antibiotic resistance development on the other hand, were determined in a personal interview. Farmers using antibiotics only therapeutically had a better business practice. A direct link between the personal attitude and the antibiotic use or a higher risk of development of antibiotic resistance was not found in this investigation.

  17. EFFECT OF SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION ON PIG PRODUCTION PROPERTIES, ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND MEAT QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Šperanda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food containing functional ingredients to achieve a positive effect on health and reducing the risk of infection is increasing production. It is also very important to improve the quality of pork with respect to change the genetic makeup of pigs that raised leanness, being inversely correlated with the quality of meat. This study monitored the effectiveness of addition of higher doses of organic selenium in the diet of fattening pigs in relation to their growth, immunity, antioxidant power, the quality of meat and possibility of meat enriching with selenium. The experiment was carried out on 100 pigs (crossbred WJxSLxP of both sexes, from 28 kg to 98 kg body weight during a period of 98 days. Piglets fed the finished feed mixture for fattening up to 60 kg (ST-1 and a mixture for fattening up to 100 kg (DM-2 in addition, by the groups as follows: K-0. 3 mg/kg organic selenium, P1-0.5 mg/kg inorganic selenium, P2-0.5 mg/kg organic selenium, P3-0.5 mg/ kg organic selenium +0.2% zeolite clinoptilolite treated vibrotehnology and P4-gradual increase in selenium so that the concentration of the last month was 0.7 mg/ kg diet of organic selenium. All groups of pigs fed high concentration of organic selenium had a higher proportion of lymphocytes, especially CD4 T lymphocytes. Glutathione peroxidase activity was higher in all groups fed elevated selenium levels and significantly higher in the P3 and P4 groups 71st and 98th days of the trials. Glutathione reductase was significantly higher in the P3 and P4 group 98th days compared to the control. Antioxidant indicators suggested increased antioxidant protection in groups supplemented with 0.5 ppm organic selenium and selenium formulations of the same with the addition of zeolite under stress intensive pig production. No differences were found in the products of lipid peroxidation (TBARS in raw meat or in meat after a week in refrigerator storage. By histological examination statistically higher level of

  18. Ascorbic acid reduces noise-induced nitric oxide production in the guinea pig ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Ulf-Rüdiger; Fischer, Ilka; Brieger, Jürgen; Rümelin, Andreas; Schmidtmann, Irene; Li, Huige; Mann, Wolf J; Helling, Kai

    2008-05-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss can be caused, among other causes, by increased nitric oxide (NO) production in the inner ear leading to nitroactive stress and cell destruction. Some studies in the literature suggest that the degree of hearing loss (HL) could be reduced in an animal model through ascorbic acid supplementation. To identify the effect of ascorbic acid on tissue-dependent NO content in the inner ear of the guinea pig, we determined the local NO production in the organ of Corti and the lateral wall separately 6 hours after noise exposure. Prospective animal study in guinea pigs. Over a period of 7 days, male guinea pigs were supplied with minimum (25 mg/kg body weight/day) and maximum (525 mg/kg body weight/day) ascorbic acid doses, and afterwards exposed to noise (90 dB sound pressure level for 1 hour). The acoustic-evoked potentials were recorded before and after noise exposure. The organ of Corti and the lateral wall were incubated differently for 6 hours in culture medium, and the degree of NO production was determined by chemiluminescence. Ascorbic acid treatment reduced the hearing threshold shift after noise exposure depending on concentration. When the maximum ascorbic acid dose was substituted, NO production was significantly reduced in the lateral wall after noise exposure and slightly reduced in the organ of Corti. Oral supplementation of the natural radical scavenger ascorbic acid reduces the NO-production rate in the inner ear in noisy conditions. This finding supports the concept of inner ear protection by ascorbic acid supplementation.

  19. Running head: Ensiled catfish by-products for finishing pigs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2016-07-25

    Jul 25, 2016 ... reduced feed costs, complete replacement of FM would still be ... Before the start of the experiment, the DM and chemical composition of ... The RP-HPLC system was used as Spectra-Physics 8800 ternary solvent delivery with.

  20. 17β-Estradiol reduces nitric oxide production in the Guinea pig cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, U-R; Brieger, J; Striedter, C; Fischer, I; Schmidtmann, I; Li, H; Mann, W J; Helling, K

    2013-11-01

    Intense noise exposure and the application of ototoxic substances result in increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), such as nitric oxide (NO). In order to reduce the free NO concentration in the inner ear under pathological conditions, the use of natural cytoprotective substances such as 17β-estradiol is a promising therapeutic concept. In male guinea pigs the organ of Corti and the lateral wall were isolated from the cochlea and afterwards incubated for 6 h in cell-culture medium. 17β-Estradiol was adjusted in 2 concentrations to organ cultures of the right ears (12 animals per concentration). The left ears were used as controls. The NO production was quantified in the supernatant by chemiluminescence after incubation. Depending on the concentration, 17β-estradiol reduced NO in the organ of Corti by 43% (p=0.015) and 46% (p=0.026), respectively. In the lateral wall, the NO concentration was reduced by 24%, but without statistical significance (p=0.86). However, when analyzing the association between the 2 cochlear regions for each animal separately, the NO concentrations were lower in nearly all 17β-estradiol-treated ears compared to controls. In order to demonstrate the flexibility of the organ culture system, the NO donor DETA NONOate and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors L-NAME and L-NMMA were applied. The electron microscopic analysis revealed a well-preserved cochlear cell morphology after incubation. The ability of 17β-estradiol to influence the NO production preferentially in the organ of Corti might offer new therapeutic perspectives for inner ear protection. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Determination of stimulation effective dose of gamma ray on guinea pig to be used for antibody production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arifin, Muchson; Soewarsono, M.

    1983-01-01

    The experiment has been performed on guinea pigs which were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 150, 300 and 600 rad. Observations were carried out on peripheral blood in regard to red blood cell, white blood cell and haemoglobine, every week after irradiation. +he result obtained showed that 150 rad was the optimal stimulation effective dose for antibody production in guinea pigs. (author)

  2. Determination of stimulation effective dose of gamma ray on guinea pig to be used for antibody production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arifin, M; Soewarsono, M [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre

    1983-04-01

    The experiment has been performed on guinea pigs which were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 150, 300 and 600 rad. Observations were carried out on peripheral blood in regard to red blood cell, white blood cell and haemoglobine, every week after irradiation. The result obtained showed that 150 rad was the optimal stimulation effective dose for antibody production in guinea pigs. 10 refs.

  3. Product quality and microbial dynamics during vermicomposting and maturation of compost from pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Iria; Alves, David; Mato, Salustiano

    2017-11-01

    This research evaluates, through microbial dynamics, the use of earthworms Eisenia andrei for maturation of pre-composted pig manure in comparison with maturation under static conditions and with vermicomposting of fresh pig manure. Therefore, two substrates were used (fresh and pre-composted pig manure) and four treatments were developed: fresh manure vermicomposting, control of fresh manure without earthworms, pre-composting followed by vermicomposting and static maturation of pre-composted manure. In order to determine the microbial dynamics, the enzymatic activities and profiles of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were evaluated over a 112-days period. Physicochemical and biological parameters of the obtained products were also analyzed. The presence of earthworms significantly reduced (pquality values, it is necessary to optimize the vermicompost aging phase period to improve the stability. Static maturation presented stability on microbial dynamics that indicated a slow degradation of organic compounds so that, maturation of pre-composted manure through vermicomposting is better option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a genetic tool for product regulation in the diverse British pig breed market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkinson Samantha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of DNA markers for the identification of biological samples from both human and non-human species is widespread and includes use in food authentication. In the food industry the financial incentive to substituting the true name of a food product with a higher value alternative is driving food fraud. This applies to British pork products where products derived from traditional pig breeds are of premium value. The objective of this study was to develop a genetic assay for regulatory authentication of traditional pig breed-labelled products in the porcine food industry in the United Kingdom. Results The dataset comprised of a comprehensive coverage of breed types present in Britain: 460 individuals from 7 traditional breeds, 5 commercial purebreds, 1 imported European breed and 1 imported Asian breed were genotyped using the PorcineSNP60 beadchip. Following breed-informative SNP selection, assignment power was calculated for increasing SNP panel size. A 96-plex assay created using the most informative SNPs revealed remarkably high genetic differentiation between the British pig breeds, with an average FST of 0.54 and Bayesian clustering analysis also indicated that they were distinct homogenous populations. The posterior probability of assignment of any individual of a presumed origin actually originating from that breed given an alternative breed origin was > 99.5% in 174 out of 182 contrasts, at a test value of log(LR > 0. Validation of the 96-plex assay using independent test samples of known origin was successful; a subsequent survey of market samples revealed a high level of breed label conformity. Conclusion The newly created 96-plex assay using selected markers from the PorcineSNP60 beadchip enables powerful assignment of samples to traditional breed origin and can effectively identify mislabelling, providing a highly effective tool for DNA analysis in food forensics.

  5. Development of a genetic tool for product regulation in the diverse British pig breed market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Samantha; Archibald, Alan L; Haley, Chris S; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Groenen, Martien A M; Wiener, Pamela; Ogden, Rob

    2012-11-15

    The application of DNA markers for the identification of biological samples from both human and non-human species is widespread and includes use in food authentication. In the food industry the financial incentive to substituting the true name of a food product with a higher value alternative is driving food fraud. This applies to British pork products where products derived from traditional pig breeds are of premium value. The objective of this study was to develop a genetic assay for regulatory authentication of traditional pig breed-labelled products in the porcine food industry in the United Kingdom. The dataset comprised of a comprehensive coverage of breed types present in Britain: 460 individuals from 7 traditional breeds, 5 commercial purebreds, 1 imported European breed and 1 imported Asian breed were genotyped using the PorcineSNP60 beadchip. Following breed-informative SNP selection, assignment power was calculated for increasing SNP panel size. A 96-plex assay created using the most informative SNPs revealed remarkably high genetic differentiation between the British pig breeds, with an average FST of 0.54 and Bayesian clustering analysis also indicated that they were distinct homogenous populations. The posterior probability of assignment of any individual of a presumed origin actually originating from that breed given an alternative breed origin was > 99.5% in 174 out of 182 contrasts, at a test value of log(LR) > 0. Validation of the 96-plex assay using independent test samples of known origin was successful; a subsequent survey of market samples revealed a high level of breed label conformity. The newly created 96-plex assay using selected markers from the PorcineSNP60 beadchip enables powerful assignment of samples to traditional breed origin and can effectively identify mislabelling, providing a highly effective tool for DNA analysis in food forensics.

  6. Effect of whole body irradiation on O2- production in polymorphonuclear leukocyte of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niiya, Harutaka

    1987-01-01

    The capacity of superoxide anion production of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) has been determined after whole body irradiation. A diminished capacity of superoxide anion production in the presence of opsonized zymosan was found in PMNL taken from guinea pigs irradiated in vivo with 5, 10, and 20 Gy. However, no such diminution was found after a dose of 2 Gy. On the other hand, levels of superoxide anion production stimulated by myristate, N-Formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine (FMLP), and Concanavalin A remained unchanged compared to the control. PMNL irradiated in vitro with 20 Gy had a capacity of superoxide anion production similar to that of the control samples in the presence of either opsonized zymosan or FMLP and myristate. These results suggest that the capacity of superoxide anion production stimulated by zymosan is damaged by whole body irradiation. (author)

  7. Welfare of entire males and females in organic pig production when reared in single-sex groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Bonde, Marianne Kjær; Rousing, Tine

    2012-01-01

    90 min in total. Number of skin lesions and prevalence of lameness and general debility were assessed for each animal. The mean aggression levels were 4.3 interactions per animal per hour during ‘roughage provision’ and 1.9 during ‘post-roughage provision’, with no difference between genders......In the 25 EU countries more than 100 million male piglets are castrated each year. Castration is particularly problematic in organic pig production because it conflicts with the high welfare and other ethical standards associated with this system of animal production. The objective...... kg. Behaviour observations was made in two different periods, ‘roughage provision’ with observation of aggressive interactions lasting 30 min, and ‘post-roughage provision’ with observations of aggressive interactions, number of mountings and number of active animals in intervals of 15 min, lasting...

  8. Body temperature and motion: Evaluation of an online monitoring system in pigs challenged with Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süli, Tamás; Halas, Máté; Benyeda, Zsófia; Boda, Réka; Belák, Sándor; Martínez-Avilés, Marta; Fernández-Carrión, Eduardo; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2017-10-01

    Highly contagious and emerging diseases cause significant losses in the pig producing industry worldwide. Rapid and exact acquisition of real-time data, like body temperature and animal movement from the production facilities would enable early disease detection and facilitate adequate response. In this study, carried out within the European Union research project RAPIDIA FIELD, we tested an online monitoring system on pigs experimentally infected with the East European subtype 3 Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) strain Lena. We linked data from different body temperature measurement methods and the real-time movement of the pigs. The results showed a negative correlation between body temperature and movement of the animals. The correlation was similar with both body temperature obtaining methods, rectal and thermal sensing microchip, suggesting some advantages of body temperature measurement with transponders compared with invasive and laborious rectal measuring. We also found a significant difference between motion values before and after the challenge with a virulent PRRSV strain. The decrease in motion values was noticeable before any clinical sign was recorded. Based on our results the online monitoring system could represent a practical tool in registering early warning signs of health status alterations, both in experimental and commercial production settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Monitoring the Perturbation of Soil and Groundwater Microbial Communities Due to Pig Production Activities

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying

    2013-02-08

    This study aimed to determine if biotic contaminants originating from pig production farms are disseminated into soil and groundwater microbial communities. A spatial and temporal sampling of soil and groundwater in proximity to pig production farms was conducted, and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) was utilized to determine the abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (i.e., tetQ and tetZ) and integrase genes (i.e., intI1 and intI2). We observed that the abundances of tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in the soils increased at least 6-fold after manure application, and their abundances remained elevated above the background for up to 16 months. Q-PCR further determined total abundances of up to 5.88 × 109 copies/ng DNA for tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in some of the groundwater wells that were situated next to the manure lagoon and in the facility well used to supply water for one of the farms. We further utilized 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing to assess the microbial communities, and our comparative analyses suggest that most of the soil samples collected before and after manure application did not change significantly, sharing a high Bray-Curtis similarity of 78.5%. In contrast, an increase in Bacteroidetes and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial populations was observed in the groundwaters collected from lagoon-associated groundwater wells. Genera associated with opportunistic human and animal pathogens, such as Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, Yersinia, and Coxiella, were detected in some of the manure-treated soils and affected groundwater wells. Feces-associated bacteria such as Streptococcus, Erysipelothrix, and Bacteroides were detected in the manure, soil, and groundwater ecosystems, suggesting a perturbation of the soil and groundwater environments by invader species from pig production activities.

  10. Leucocyte profile and offspring production of guinea pig (Cavia cobaya given Anredera cordifolia leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wijayanti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine leucocyte and offspring production of guinea pig (Cavia cobaya giving Anredera cordifolia leaf extract. Materials used were female 16 heads of guinea pig with body weight of 425g. The treatments were an extract of A. cordifolia leaf at doses of 0, 10, 50 and 90 mg/head, designated as T0, T1, T2 and T3, respectively. A. cordifolia leaf extract was administered orally from 10 days prepartum to 10 days postpartum. Blood was taken at 10 days prepartum and 10 days postpartum. Total birth of the offspring was observed. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and if there was effect of treatment, then continued with Duncan multiple range test and Chi-Square test for fetal production between the given A. cordifolia leaf extract and control. The result showed that there was no significant difference for 10 days prepartum after addition of A cordifolia leaf extract treatment. The postpartum treated showed a total 50 mg/head level increaed for monocytes than that of level 0, 10 and 90 mg/head. Ten days postpartum treatment showed the total increase for leucocyte and monocytes total were 50 and 90 mg/head, respectively compared to 10 mg/head level. Total lymphocyte of 90 mg/head increased compared to level 10 and 50 mg/head. The highest total neutrophil as found at level of 50 mg/head which increased compared to the level of 0 and 10 mg/head. ProvisioningA. cordifolialeaf extract at doses level of 50 and 90 mg/head could increase litter size (P<0.05; χ2=9.267 and decreased offspring mortality (P<0.05; χ2=6.4. In conclusion, by giving 50 mg/head A. cordifolia leaf extract could increase leucocyte profile and offspring production of guinea pig.

  11. Indications and patterns of therapeutic use of antimicrobial agents in the Danish pig production from 2002 to 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2011-01-01

    This study describes trends in the use and indications for prescriptions of antimicrobial agents in the Danish pig production in the period between 2002 and 2008 and is the first description of a complete prescription pattern for one animal species in an entire country. Data on all prescription...... for pigs in Denmark were retrieved from the VetStat database. Antimicrobial use was measured in defined animal daily doses (ADD) for the specific age-group and in ADDkg as a measure of amounts used. According to the results of the ADDkg data, 26% of all antimicrobials were prescribed for sows, 38....../piglets, by 141% for weaning pigs, and by 81% for finisher pig. The most commonly used class of antibiotics was tetracycline for all age-groups, replacing the previously used macrolide/lincosamide group. The use of pleuromutilin increased in 2008 to the level of macrolides. In sow/piglets, the second most used...

  12. Systemic gene delivery transduces the enteric nervous system of guinea pigs and cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombash, S E; Cowley, C J; Fitzgerald, J A; Lepak, C A; Neides, M G; Hook, K; Todd, L J; Wang, G-D; Mueller, C; Kaspar, B K; Bielefeld, E C; Fischer, A J; Wood, J D; Foust, K D

    2017-10-01

    Characterization of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) mediated gene delivery to the enteric nervous system (ENS) was recently described in mice and rats. In these proof-of-concept experiments, we show that intravenous injections of clinically relevant AAVs can transduce the ENS in guinea pigs and non-human primates. Neonatal guinea pigs were given intravenous injections of either AAV8 or AAV9 vectors that contained a green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression cassette or phosphate-buffered saline. Piglets were euthanized three weeks post injection and tissues were harvested for immunofluorescent analysis. GFP expression was detected in myenteric and submucosal neurons along the length of the gastrointestinal tract in AAV8 injected guinea pigs. GFP-positive neurons were found in dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and dorsal root ganglia. Less transduction occurred in AAV9-treated tissues. Gastrointestinal tissues were analyzed from young cynomolgus macaques that received systemic injection of AAV9 GFP. GFP expression was detected in myenteric neurons of the stomach, small and large intestine. These data demonstrate that ENS gene delivery translates to larger species. This work develops tools for the field of neurogastroenterology to explore gut physiology and anatomy using emerging technologies such as optogenetics and gene editing. It also provides a basis to develop novel therapies for chronic gut disorders.

  13. Carbothermic Reduction of Nickeliferous Laterite Ores for Nickel Pig Iron Production in China: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mingjun; Li, Guanghui; Jiang, Tao; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Yuanbo; Fan, Xiaohui

    2013-11-01

    Both the consumption and production of crude stainless steel in China rank first in the world. In 2011, the nickel production in China amounted to 446 kilotons, with the proportion of electrolytic nickel and nickel pig iron (NPI) registering 41.5% and 56.5%, respectively. NPI is a low-cost feedstock for stainless steel production when used as a substitute for electrolytic nickel. The existing commercial NPI production processes such as blast furnace smelting, rotary kiln-electric furnace smelting, and Krupp-Renn (Nipon Yakin Oheyama) processes are discussed. As low-temperature (below 1300°C) reduction of nickeliferous laterite ores followed by magnetic separation could provide an alternative avenue without smelting at high temperature (~1500°C) for producing ferronickel with low cost, the fundamentals and recent developments of the low-temperature reduction of nickeliferous laterite ores are reviewed.

  14. Production of arachidonic and linoleic acid metabolites by guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosthuizen, M.J.; Engels, F.; Van Esch, B.; Henricks, P.A.; Nijkamp, F.P.

    1990-01-01

    Pulmonary epithelial cells may be responsible for regulating airway smooth muscle function, in part by release of fatty acid-derived mediators. Incubation of isolated guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells with radiolabeled arachidonic acid (AA) leads to the production of 5- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5- and 15-HETE) and smaller amounts of leukotriene (LT) B4 and C4 and 12-hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (HHT). Epithelial cells also are able to release linoleic acid (LA) metabolites. Incubation with radiolabeled linoleic acid leads to the formation of 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9- and 13-HODE). The biological significance of these mediators produced by epithelial cells is discussed

  15. Product Configuration Systems and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results...

  16. Anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and algae: impact of intracellular algal products recovery on co-digestion performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astals, S; Musenze, R S; Bai, X; Tannock, S; Tait, S; Pratt, S; Jensen, P D

    2015-04-01

    This paper investigates anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and algae (Scenedesmus sp.) with and without extraction of intracellular algal co-products, with views towards the development of a biorefinery concept for lipid, protein and/or biogas production. Protein and/or lipids were extracted from Scenedesmus sp. using free nitrous acid pre-treatments and solvent-based Soxhlet extraction, respectively. Processing increased algae methane yield between 29% and 37% compared to raw algae (VS basis), but reduced the amount of algae available for digestion. Co-digestion experiments showed a synergy between pig manure and raw algae that increased raw algae methane yield from 0.163 to 0.245 m(3) CH4 kg(-1)VS. No such synergy was observed when algal residues were co-digested with pig manure. Finally, experimental results were used to develop a high-level concept for an integrated biorefinery processing pig manure and onsite cultivated algae, evaluating methane production and co-product recovery per mass of pig manure entering the refinery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CHANGES AND PERSPECTIVES OF SLOVENIAN PIG PRODUCTION BEFORE AND AFTER ACCESSION TO THE EU: THE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kastelić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in pig production during the last six to ten years were studied in case of Farme Ihan d. d., the Slovenian pig producer. At the beginning of the period, the company produced 70 to 75 thousand slaughtering pigs per year. At the end of the period the production increased to 150 thousand. As expected, the prices of pigs were reduced during that period. According to the new legislation, the large part of facilities was reconstructed and some environment protection investments were done. The production was improved: the number of weaned pigs per sow per year increased from 19.2 in 1996 to 25.48 in 2006 and reached the Danish average. The percentage of meat was increased in the same period from 52.7 % to 58.6 %. The progress in daily gain and in feed conversion ratio was moderate. To secure the access to the market, the own slaughter facility was bought and reconstructed. For the same reason, the company became shareholder of two meat processing companies. The transition period has not been finished yet. Production results may improve faster than in old EU member countries. Investment cycle has also not been finished yet. More investments, especially in environment protection are needed.

  18. Enhanced biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of pig slurry and horse manure with mechanical pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Madalena; Baptista, Patrícia; Duarte, Elizabeth; Moreira, António L N

    2018-01-02

    Enhanced biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of pig slurry and horse manure with mechanical pre-treatment. In this study, co-digestion of horse manure and pig slurry was investigated in a continuously stirred tank reactor, with a mechanical pre-treatment. Experiments were conducted at 37°C, with hydraulic retention times of 23 days and increasing shares of horse manure, corresponding to different horse manure to pig slurry ratios (HM:PS) equal to 0:100, 10:90, 13:87 and 20:80, in terms of percentage of inlet volatile solids (%VS inlet). The results show that the best synergetic effect between the microbial consortia of pig slurry and the high Carbon to Nitrogen ratio (C/N) of horse manure is obtained for the mixture of 20:80%VS inlet, yielding the highest specific methane production (SMP = 142.6 L kg TCOD -1 ) and the highest soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) reduction (68.5%), due to the high volatile dissolved solids content and soluble chemical oxygen demand to total chemical oxygen demand ratio (SCOD/TCOD). Thus, co-digestion of horse manure and pig slurry is shown to be a promising approach for biogas production and as a waste treatment solution. Furthermore, the analysis provides a methodology for the pre-treatment of these substrates and to investigate into the best combination for improved biogas production.

  19. Enhanced methane production from pig slurry with pulsed electric field pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Seyedeh Masoumeh; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2018-02-01

    Intensive amount of manure produced in pig breeding sectors represents negative impact on the environment and requires optimal management. Anaerobic digestion as a well-known manure management process was optimized in this experimental study by pulsed electric field (PEF) pre-treatment. The effect of PEF on methane production was investigated at three different intensities (15, 30 and 50 kWh/m 3 ). The results indicate that the methane production and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was improved by continuous escalation of applied intensity, up to 50 kWh/m 3 . In comparison with untreated slurry, methane production and COD removal were increased up to 58% and 44%, respectively.

  20. Pigs and poultry number adequation for joint biodigesters operation systems; Adequacao de planteis de suinos e de frangos de corte para operacao conjunta de biodigestores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Laura Vanessa C. da; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], emails: aurahcosta@fca.unesp.br, jlucas@fcav.unesp.br

    2011-07-01

    Pigs and Poultry production are considered activities with large quantity waste generation. It is evaluated that each pig in complete cycle of production produces approximately 150 to 200 L of wastewater per day. In poultry production is not different, larger quantities of litter are generated, approximately 2,0 t for each thousand head. In Brazil, both activities are very close and are coordinated by large companies integrative. The objective of this work was to establish a case study based on experimental results, evaluating the appropriateness of pigs and poultry number relation, the waste production by activities, the relationship of pigs for chicken, as well as the necessary quantity of biofertilizer to dilute the chicken litter in order to operate biodigesters systems for biogas and biofertilizer production. The results showed a good relation for a piggery with 1000 sows and a shed commercial poultry with 250 thousand heard. The total biogas production, for a 50 days period, showed values of 1,477 m{sup 3} and 85,108 m{sup 3}, respectively. (author)

  1. Streptococcus suis: a re-emerging pathogen associated with occupational exposure to pigs or pork products. Part I - Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Sroka, Jacek; Zając, Violetta; Wasiński, Bernard; Cisak, Ewa; Sawczyn, Anna; Kloc, Anna; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina

    2017-12-23

    Streptococcus suis (ex Elliot 1966, Kilpper-Bälz & Schleifer 1987) is a facultatively anaerobic Gram-positive ovoid or coccal bacterium surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule. Based on the antigenic diversity of the capsule, S. suis strains are classified serologically into 35 serotypes. Streptococcus suis is a commensal of pigs, commonly colonizing their tonsils and nasal cavities, mostly in weaning piglets between 4-10 weeks of age. This species occurs also in cattle and other mammals, in birds and in humans. Some strains, mostly those belonging to serotype 2, are also pathogenic for pigs, as well as for other animals and humans. Meningitis is the primary disease syndrome caused by S. suis, both in pigs and in humans. It is estimated that meningitis accounted for 68.0% of all cases of human disease reported until the end of 2012, followed by septicaemia (including life-threatening condition described as 'streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome' - STSLS), arthritis, endocarditis, and endophthalmitis. Hearing loss and/or ves tibular dysfunction are the most common sequelae after recovery from meningitis caused by S. suis, occurring in more than 50% of patients. In the last two decades, the number of reported human cases due to S. suis has dramatically increased, mostly due to epidemics recorded in China in 1998 and 2005, and the fulminant increase in morbidity in the countries of south-eastern Asia, mostly Vietnam and Thailand. Out of 1,642 cases of S. suis infections identified between 2002-2013 worldwide in humans, 90.2% occurred in Asia, 8.5% in Europe and 1.3% in other parts of the globe. The human disease has mostly a zoonotic and occupational origin and occurs in pig breeders, abattoir workers, butchers and workers of meat processing facilities, veterinarians and meat inspectors. Bacteria are transmitted to workers by close contact with pigs or pig products, usually through contamination of minor cuts or abrasions on skin of hands and/or arms, or by pig bite

  2. Streptococcus suis: a re-emerging pathogen associated with occupational exposure to pigs or pork products. Part I – Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis (ex Elliot 1966, Kilpper-Bälz & Schleifer 1987 is a facultatively anaerobic Gram-positive ovoid or coccal bacterium surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule. Based on the antigenic diversity of the capsule, S. suis strains are classified serologically into 35 serotypes. Streptococcus suis is a commensal of pigs, commonly colonizing their tonsils and nasal cavities, mostly in weaning piglets between 4–10 weeks of age. This species occurs also in cattle and other mammals, in birds and in humans. Some strains, mostly those belonging to serotype 2, are also pathogenic for pigs, as well as for other animals and humans. Meningitis is the primary disease syndrome caused by S. suis , both in pigs and in humans. It is estimated that meningitis accounted for 68.0% of all cases of human disease reported until the end of 2012, followed by septicaemia (including life-threatening condition described as ‘streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome’ – STSLS, arthritis, endocarditis, and endophthalmitis. Hearing loss and/or ves tibular dysfunction are the most common sequelae after recovery from meningitis caused by S. suis , occurring in more than 50% of patients. In the last two decades, the number of reported human cases due to S. suis has dramatically increased, mostly due to epidemics recorded in China in 1998 and 2005, and the fulminant increase in morbidity in the countries of south-eastern Asia, mostly Vietnam and Thailand. Out of 1,642 cases of S. suis infections identified between 2002–2013 worldwide in humans, 90.2% occurred in Asia, 8.5% in Europe and 1.3% in other parts of the globe. The human disease has mostly a zoonotic and occupational origin and occurs in pig breeders, abattoir workers, butchers and workers of meat processing facilities, veterinarians and meat inspectors. Bacteria are transmitted to workers by close contact with pigs or pig products, usually through contamination of minor cuts or abrasions on skin of

  3. Evaluation of environmental adjustment contract for pig production in Pinhal river sub-basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Regina Mulinari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Environmental Adjustment Contract for pig production (EAC in improving the water quality in Pinhal River sub-basin, located in Concordia, west part of Santa Catarina State. The monitoring of water parameters occurred in eight sites of the river, during three years (2006-2009. To assess whether the EAC was efficient, Brazilian Water Law was used. The average annual concentrations of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS were: 130.2 mg/L, 137.0 mg/L, and 99.8 mg/L. Turbidity showed the same trend of TDS. Concentrations of nitrate and Total Phosphorus (TP decreased from 2006 to 2009; nitrate from 1.81 mg/L NO3-N to 1.54 mg NO3-N; TP from 0.29 mg/L to 0.10 mg/L, respectively. The same trends occurred for Fecal Coliforms and E. coli. These results show that obligations proposed by EAC had potentially improved water quality. These results can help the government, farmers, and society to establish environmentally sound and sustainable programs for pig production.

  4. Heat production of pig platelets in relation with glycolysis and respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanri, H; Minakami, S

    1983-01-01

    Heat production of pig platelets was measured on a flow microcalorimeter with simultaneous measurements of the oxygen consumption and metabolite change of the suspension. The heat production associated with the glycolytic reaction was estimated from the decrease in the heat production caused by the addition of sodium fluoride. The glycolytic heat production was about -75 kJ per mol of lactate formed, which is the sum of the enthalpy values for the conversion of glucose to lactic acid and that for the neutralization of the acid. The heat production due to the respiration was estimated from the heat production of the cells at various pH. The respiratory heat production was about -475 kJ per mol oxygen consumed, which agrees with the enthalpy change for the non-phosphorylating respiration of mitochondria or for the complete oxidation of glucose or fatty acids. The heat production of the cells increased by the alkalinization of the medium, and the increase of the heat production was parallel with the increase in the lactate formation.

  5. Isolation and purification of G immunoglobulin from guinea-pig for the production of a second antibody for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.R.; Borghi, V.C.; Bellini, M.H.; Wajchenberg, W.A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The IgG of guinea-pig was isolated and purified by precipitation with caprylic acid and the batch absorption with DEAE-cellulose. The efficiency of the operating was verified by the determination of total proteins, during the purification stages. The purity of the end product was proved by immuno electrophoresis face to rabbit serum total antiserum of guinea-pig. it was obtained 240 mg of purity IgG to be used in the production of second specific antibody for radioimmunoassay. (C.G.C.)

  6. Recombinant guinea pig CCL5 (RANTES) differentially modulates cytokine production in alveolar and peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwor, Troy A; Cho, Hyosun; Cassidy, Craig; Yoshimura, Teizo; McMurray, David N

    2004-12-01

    The CC chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5; regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted) is known to recruit and activate leukocytes; however, its role in altering the responses of host cells to a subsequent encounter with a microbial pathogen has rarely been studied. Recombinant guinea pig (rgp)CCL5 was prepared, and its influence on peritoneal and alveolar macrophage activation was examined by measuring cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in cells stimulated with rgpCCL5 alone or exposed to rgpCCL5 prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Levels of mRNA for guinea pig tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta, CCL2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), and CXC chemokine ligand 8 (IL-8) were analyzed by reverse transcription followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis using SYBR Green. Bioactive TNF-alpha protein concentration was measured using the L929 bioassay. Both macrophage populations displayed significant enhancement of all the genes and TNF-alpha protein levels when stimulated with rgpCCL5, except for CCL2 in alveolar macrophages. When peritoneal or alveolar macrophages were pretreated with rgpCCL5 for 2 h and then exposed to low concentrations of LPS, diminished cytokine and chemokine mRNA levels were apparent at 6 h compared with LPS alone. At the protein level, there was a reduction in TNF-alpha protein at 6 h in the CCL5-pretreated cells compared with LPS alone. These results further support a role for CCL5 in macrophage activation in addition to chemotactic properties and suggest a role in regulating the inflammatory response to LPS in the guinea pig by modulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages.

  7. Implantación del Sistema de Gestión de Calidad y Seguridad en la producción de cerdos con destino farmacéutico Introduction of Quality and Safety Management System in pig's production with pharmaceutical fates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidys Dolores Jiménez Domínguez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Para obtener una materia prima farmacéutica de origen biológico (pulmones útiles de cerdo, a partir de cerdos jóvenes, con los requisitos de calidad e inocuidad establecidos para ser empleada en la producción de medicamentos (Surfacen, se implantó un modelo de Gestión de Calidad y Seguridad en este proceso productivo, para lo cual se emplearon como materiales de trabajo las normas de las Buenas Prácticas de Producción, las regulaciones farmacéuticas, los requisitos del Sistema de Análisis de Peligros y Control de Puntos Críticos, así como la evaluación de los indicadores productivos y de eficiencia. Los resultados obtenidos están en correspondencia con la información recopilada en el diagnóstico aplicado en la etapa del diseño y se evidenciaron en la aplicación de los manuales del Sistema de Análisis de Peligros y Control de Puntos Críticos, los procedimientos normalizativos de operación e instructivos y los registros de las actividades. Se concluye que el sistema implantado permitió capacitar al personal, identificar los puntos críticos de control del proceso, documentar y registrar las actividades, incrementar los controles, así como recopilar datos para medir la trazabilidad de las operaciones y dar respuestas oportunas a las solicitudes de los clientes.To obtain a biological-origin pharmaceutical raw material (pig useful lung from young pigs fulfilling the safety and quality requirements to use in drug manufacture (Surfacen®, Quality and Safety Management model was applied in this productive process where work materials used were the Good Practice of Production guidelines, pharmaceutical regulations, requirements of Analysis System of Dangers and Control of Critical Points, as well as the evaluation of productive end efficient indicators. Results obtained corresponding to collected information in diagnosis applied in design stage evidenced in the manual application of Analysis System of Dangers and Control of

  8. Production Practices and Statistics of the Pig Industry in Zuru Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pig is one of the earliest domesticated animals and plays an integral part in a number of peasant economies in the tropics. The people of Zuru Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria keep Pig as a source of animal protein and also to generate income. Seven communities of Zuru Local Government rear pig.

  9. Association study of molecular polymorphisms in candidate genes related to stress responses with production and meat quality traits in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenina, E; Babigumira, B M; Le Mignon, G; Bazovkina, D; Rousseau, S; Salin, F; Bendixen, C; Mormede, P

    2013-02-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis exerts a large range of effects on metabolism, the immune system, inflammatory processes, and brain functions. Together with the sympathetic nervous system, it is also the most important stress-responsive neuroendocrine system. Both systems influence production traits, carcass composition, and meat quality. The HPA axis may be a critical target for genetic selection of more robust animals. Indeed, numerous studies in various species have demonstrated the importance of genetic factors in shaping the individual HPA axis phenotype, and genetic polymorphism can be found at each level of the axis, including hormone production by the adrenal cortices under stimulation by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), hormone bioavailability, or receptor and postreceptor mechanisms. The aim of the present experiment was to extend these findings to the brain neurochemical systems involved in stress responses. To this end, a number of candidate genes were sequenced for molecular polymorphisms and their association was studied with stress neuroendocrine and production traits in a genetically diverse population consisting of 100 female pigs from an advanced intercross (F10-F12) between 2 highly divergent breeds, Large White (LW) and Meishan (MS). The LW breed has a high production potential for lean meat and a low HPA axis activity, and the MS breed has low growth rate, fat carcasses-but large litters of highly viable piglets-and a high HPA axis activity. Candidate genes were chosen in the catecholaminergic and serotonergic pathways, in the pituitary control of cortisol production, among genes previously demonstrated to be differentially expressed in ACTH-stimulated adrenal glands from LW and MS pigs, and in cortisol receptors. Sixty new polymorphisms were found. The association study with carcass and meat quality traits and with endocrine traits showed a number of significant results, such as monoamine oxidase (MAOA) polymorphisms with

  10. Spatial analysis and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Linard, Catherine; Chinson, Pornpiroon; Kasemsuwan, Suwicha; Visser, Marjolein; Gaughan, Andrea E; Epprech, Michael; Robinson, Timothy P; Gilbert, Marius

    2016-10-06

    In Thailand, pig production intensified significantly during the last decade, with many economic, epidemiological and environmental implications. Strategies toward more sustainable future developments are currently investigated, and these could be informed by a detailed assessment of the main trends in the pig sector, and on how different production systems are geographically distributed. This study had two main objectives. First, we aimed to describe the main trends and geographic patterns of pig production systems in Thailand in terms of pig type (native, breeding, and fattening pigs), farm scales (smallholder and large-scale farming systems) and type of farming systems (farrow-to-finish, nursery, and finishing systems) based on a very detailed 2010 census. Second, we aimed to study the statistical spatial association between these different types of pig farming distribution and a set of spatial variables describing access to feed and markets. Over the last decades, pig population gradually increased, with a continuously increasing number of pigs per holder, suggesting a continuing intensification of the sector. The different pig-production systems showed very contrasted geographical distributions. The spatial distribution of large-scale pig farms corresponds with that of commercial pig breeds, and spatial analysis conducted using Random Forest distribution models indicated that these were concentrated in lowland urban or peri-urban areas, close to means of transportation, facilitating supply to major markets such as provincial capitals and the Bangkok Metropolitan region. Conversely the smallholders were distributed throughout the country, with higher densities located in highland, remote, and rural areas, where they supply local rural markets. A limitation of the study was that pig farming systems were defined from the number of animals per farm, resulting in their possible misclassification, but this should have a limited impact on the main patterns revealed

  11. Heat production and quantitative oxidation of nutrients by physical activity in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K; Chwalibog, André; Henckel, S

    1994-01-01

    Two groups of pigs weighing 90 (Expt A) or 80 (Expt B) kg walked on a horizontal moving rubber belt for a distance of 315 m at a speed of 25.6 +/- 0.38 and 28.8 +/- 0.35 m/min respectively for 10 min in an open-air-circuit respiration unit. From measurements of VO2 and VCO2, heat production...... and oxidation of carbohydrate and fat were calculated 30 min before (I), 10 min during walking (II) and in intervals of 10 min (III, IV) and 30 min (V) after walking. Heat production increased 2-3 times in section II in relation to section I, remained high for 20 min in section III and IV, but reached the basal...

  12. Enzymatic production of wheat and ryegrass derived xylooligosaccharides and evaluation of their in vitro effect on pig gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotsenko, Gleb; Meyer, Anne S.; Canibe, Nuria

    2017-01-01

    This study examines enzymatic production of linear xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and branched arabinoxylooligosaccharides (AXOS) from monocotyledonous biomass, wheat straw and ryegrass, and compares the in vitro effects of these XOS and AXOS on pig gut microbiota. XOS and AXOS were obtained from...... the biomass by treatment with different endo-1,4-β-xylanases. XOS of DP2-6 from wheat straw, obtained after treatment with Aspergillus niger endo GH11, suppressed growth of Clostridium perfringens and resulted in a high level of lactic acid production when fermented in vitro by pig fecal microbiota...... (GH11). These results indicate that wheat straw as well as green grass biomass such as ryegrass have potential as new sources of putative prebiotics for pig feed....

  13. An Electronic Worker Service System of the Pig House Based on ATmega16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liu-An; Jin, Tian-Ming; Yu, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Hong, Tao

    Pork is very important for people in daily life. Quality of livestock environment is closely related to the growth of animals. To improve environmental quality, the paper designed an electronic worker service system of the pig house based on ATmega16, which consisted of 6 detection modules, wireless data collecting, GSM, time circuit, display, anti-th alarm and music player, etc. A small LAN was constructed by wireless transceiver module to test and collect data of temperature, humidity and harmful gas concentration in the pig house. If one detection point exists that harmful pollutant gases concentration exceeds the standard value, GSM module took a message for livestock farmers, so that farmers can promptly arrive at the pig house to ventilate or deal with manure in the pig house, which can effectively prevent from bad things. Time of pyroelectric detector deployment can be freely set, and intrusion information was timely sent to the users. The anti-th alarm function was achieved by the auxiliary light. The music playing module is open by timer module in order to soothing pigs' life state. All are suitable for small farms and can save human resources.

  14. Dietary lactoferrin supplementation to gilts during gestation and lactation improves pig production and immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marefa Jahan

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (LF, a sialylated iron-binding glycoprotein, performs multiple beneficial functions including modulating immunity and improves neurodevelopment, health and growth performance. Maternal LF intervention for gilts (first parity sows on the performance of gilts and their offspring remains unknown. In the current study gilts were fed with a commercial pig feed supplemented with 1g LF /day (treatment group or 1g milk casein/day (control group from day 1 post mating throughout pregnancy and lactation for about 135 days. The milk production and body weight gain was monitored. The immunoglobulin concentrations in the serum of gilts and piglets were measured using ELISA. Our study showed that maternal LF supplementation to the gilt (1 significantly increased milk production at different time points (day 1, 3, 7 and 19 of lactation compared to the control (p<0.001; (2 significantly increased body weight gain of their piglets during the first 19 days of life compared to the control group (p<0.05; (3 tended to increase pregnancy rate, litter size and birth weight, number of piglets born alive, and decrease the number of dead and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR piglets; (4 significantly increased the concentration of serum IgA in gilt and serum sIgA in piglet (p<0.05. In summary, maternal Lf intervention in gilts can improve milk production, pig production and serum IgA and sIgA levels, and therefore plays a key role in shaping the performance of their progeny.

  15. Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Madsen, Henry; Anh, Le Xuan; Ngoc, Pham Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-02-01

    Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers) and to assess fecal contamination levels in biogas effluent. Results showed that 84% of the farmers in Hanoi and 42% in Hue used both pig slurry and human excreta for biogas production. Biogas digestion only reduced E. coli concentrations by 1 to 2 log units to 3.70 ± 0.84 Escherichia coli (log10) cfu/ml on average in effluent as compared with raw slurry. Biogas effluent was commonly used to fertilize vegetables or discharged directly into the garden or aquatic recipients. Reduced problems with bad smells and flies were reported as main reasons for establishing a biogas digester. Further studies are needed to assess human and animal health hazards associated with the discharge and use of biogas effluent from small-scale biogas systems. © 2013.

  16. A survey of group-level antibiotic prescriptions in pig production in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Claire; Beloeil, Pierre-Alexandre; Orand, Jean-Pierre; Sanders, Pascal; Madec, François

    2002-09-30

    There is world-wide concern that antimicrobial use in food-producing animals might contribute to antimicrobial resistance both in animals and in humans. The relationship between antimicrobial use and resistance is likely to be related to frequency of prescription of the compound, dose and duration of treatment. Routine collection of that information is not possible today in France. A postal survey of French pig veterinarians therefore was carried out in October 2000. The questionnaire focused on the last antibiotic group-level prescription made; data were collected on the type of animals, presumptive clinical diagnosis and drug prescription. The list frame was defined using a veterinary yearbook. All practitioners with mention of pig in the treated species or with employment in intensive animal production were sent the questionnaire. Out of the 431 selected practitioners, 303 responded to the self-administered questionnaire (overall return proportion 70%). 159 prescriptions were received and analysed (response proportion 37%). Their repartitions according to indications and active compounds were summarised. Mean prescribed daily doses and mean treatment length were calculated for four antibiotics: amoxicillin, colistin, oxytetracycline, tylosin. Prescribed daily dose were in the range of dosages used and recommended in Europe. High variations were encountered in treatment length: from 3 to 21 days.

  17. Effect of feeding strategy on environmental impacts of pig fattening in different contexts of production: evaluation through life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, A N T R; Garcia-Launay, F; Brossard, L; Wilfart, A; Dourmad, J-Y

    2016-11-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used in many studies to evaluate the effect of feeding strategy on the environmental impact of pig production. However, because most studies have been conducted in European conditions, the question of possible interactions with the context of production is still under debate. The objective of this study was to evaluate these effects in 2 contrasted geographic contexts of production, South America (Brazil) and Europe (France). The LCA considered the process of pig fattening, including production and transport of feed ingredients and feed, raising of fattening pigs, and manure storage, transport, and spreading. Impacts were calculated at the farm gate, and the functional unit considered was 1 kg of BW gain over the fattening period. The performances of pigs were simulated for each scenario using the InraPorc population model (2,000 pigs per scenario considering between-animal variability). The LCA calculations were performed for each pig according to its own performance and excretion, and the results were subjected to variance analysis. The results indicate that for some impacts there are clear interactions between the effects of the feeding program, the origin of soybean, and the location of production. For climate change, interest in phase feeding and incorporation of crystalline AA (CAA) is limited and even counterproductive in Brazil with soybeans from the South (without deforestation), whereas they appear to be efficient strategies with soybeans from the Center West (with deforestation), especially in France. Rather similar effects, as those for climate change, were observed for cumulative energy demand. Conversely, potential eutrophication and acidification impacts were reduced by phase feeding and CAA addition in a rather similar way in all situations. Individual daily feeding, the only strategy that took into account between-animal variability, was the most effective approach for reducing the life cycle impact of pig

  18. The use of acute phase proteins for monitoring animal health and welfare in the pig production chain: the validation of an immunochromatographic method for the detection of elevated levels of pig-MAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Matilde; Morales, Joaquín; Vizcaíno, Elena; Murillo, José Alberto; Klauke, Thorsten; Petersen, Brigitte; Piñeiro, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    The serum concentration of acute phase proteins (APPs) increases in the presence of disease or stress, which makes APPs notable parameters for the global assessment of animal health and welfare. A rapid, immunochromatographic test (ICT) for the detection of elevated levels of pig Major Acute-phase Protein (pig-MAP), one of the main APPs in pigs, was evaluated in more than 1400 pig serum samples obtained from commercial farms. The ICT showed a good performance with a relative sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp) of 94 and 97%, respectively, for a threshold of 1.5mg/mL (comparison with ELISA). Differences in the pig-MAP levels and the number of positive samples with the ICT were observed within the season of sampling, farms, and age groups at one farm, according to the presence of disease or lesions. The ICT was also evaluated in blood samples obtained at slaughter in association with the carcase inspection. The results from this study indicate that the ICT may be used for the evaluation of groups of pigs, after analysing one sub-sample of these pigs, and might be a useful tool in routine health and welfare monitoring programmes aimed to improve the quality of pig production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  20. Guinea pig-adapted foot-and-mouth disease virus with altered receptor recognition can productively infect a natural host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, José I; Molina, Nicolas; Baranowski, Eric; Domingo, Esteban; Clark, Stuart; Burman, Alison; Berryman, Stephen; Jackson, Terry; Sobrino, Francisco

    2007-08-01

    We report that adaptation to infect the guinea pig did not modify the capacity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) to kill suckling mice and to cause an acute and transmissible disease in the pig, an important natural host for this pathogen. Adaptive amino acid replacements (I(248)-->T in 2C, Q(44)-->R in 3A, and L(147)-->P in VP1), selected upon serial passages of a type C FMDV isolated from swine (biological clone C-S8c1) in the guinea pig, were maintained after virus multiplication in swine and suckling mice. However, the adaptive replacement L(147)-->P, next to the integrin-binding RGD motif at the GH loop in VP1, abolished growth of the virus in different established cell lines and modified its antigenicity. In contrast, primary bovine thyroid cell cultures could be productively infected by viruses with replacement L(147)-->P, and this infection was inhibited by antibodies to alphavbeta6 and by an FMDV-derived RGD-containing peptide, suggesting that integrin alphavbeta6 may be used as a receptor for these mutants in the animal (porcine, guinea pig, and suckling mice) host. Substitution T(248)-->N in 2C was not detectable in C-S8c1 but was present in a low proportion of the guinea pig-adapted virus. This substitution became rapidly dominant in the viral population after the reintroduction of the guinea pig-adapted virus into pigs. These observations illustrate how the appearance of minority variant viruses in an unnatural host can result in the dominance of these viruses on reinfection of the original host species.

  1. Predictive ability of the feeding system in Iberian pig by means of several analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of several analytical methods proposed to predict the feeding system received by Iberian pigs during the fattening period has been contrasted. Samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue were analyzed from 38 batches of pigs fattened in three seasons of montanera (acorn and pastures feeding. They corresponded to the four categories described in the Quality Standard for Iberian pig products: 251 samples of bellota, 164 of recebo, 197 of cebo de campo and 137 of cebo. To perform the study, the following analytical methods were used: fatty acid quantification, NIR, alpha and gamma tocopherol, chemical sensor, triacilglycerides, stable isotopes and neophytadiene. The laboratories received the samples without any information about the fattening system to which they belonged and remitted their predictions with respect to the above categories. The results showed a high percentage of accurate predictions of the methods when the fattening type corresponds to the extreme categories (bellota and cebo, however, the methods had difficulty in discerning between samples from a mixed feeding regime with acorn and feed (recebo and problems when pigs are fattened with compound feeds including vegetable fats with high levels of oleic acid. Although a simplification into only two categories (cebo/campo and recebo/bellota results in a success rate higher than 90% for some methods, the combination of two or three techniques with problematic samples allows for differentiating among the four categories with the same accuracy.Se ha contrastado la fiabilidad de varios métodos analíticos para determinar el tipo de alimentación recibida durante el cebo por cerdos Ibéricos a partir de muestras de tejido adiposo subcutáneo, procedentes de 38 partidas de cerdos de tres campañas de montanera. Las muestras correspondieron con las categorías de alimentación contempladas en la Norma de Calidad: 251 fueron de bellota, 164 de recebo, 197 de campo y 137 de cebo

  2. Optimization of sugar and blood feeding regimen in Anopheles gambiae mass production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedofia, B. K

    2013-07-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is being developed for the control of malaria transmitting mosquitoes. Critical to the success of applying the SIT is the establishment of standardized mass production systems for the target species. As part of efforts to develop standardised mass production systems for malaria vectors, this project sought to optimize adult blood and sugar feeding in a mass production system. Different sugar types (glucose, sucrose and honey) were evaluated at 6% and 10% concentrations in water to determine the best sugar diet and concentration for feeding adult An. gambiae. Different blood feeding methods, restrained Guinea pig, anaesthetised Guinea pig and human arm feeding were evaluated. Adult survival, female insemination and egg production were used as criteria to determine optimum sugar and blood feeding. The effect of anaesthetics on blood feeding response and egg production of female An. gambiae was determined by comparing feeding response and egg production of females fed with anaesthetised Guinea pigs as against physically restrained Guinea pigs (Control). The specific effect of different anaesthetic agents on blood feeding response and egg production of female mosquitoes were was also determined by comparing the feeding response and egg production of females fed with either Ketamine/Xylazine anaesthetised Guinea pigs or Ketamine/Diazepam anaesthetised Guinea pigs. Effects due to sugar types and concentrations on percentage survival of male and female mosquitoes were observed to be significant at (p 0.05). However, human ann feeding (HAP) method and Ketamine/Xylazine (KX) anaesthetics fed for 25 minutes recorded higher percentage feeding (76.0% and 68.0% respectively) and egg production of 19.0% and 20.8% respectively. Anaesthetised Guinea pig feeding (AGF) of adults for 15 minutes followed closely with 60.0% and 15.1% blood feeding and egg production respectively whilst restrained Guinea pig feeding (RGF) method and Ketamine

  3. Potential development of compressed bio-methane gas production from pig farms and elephant grass silage for transportation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussadee, Natthawud; Reansuwan, Kamoldara; Ramaraj, Rameshprabu

    2014-03-01

    This research project evaluated biogas production using anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and elephant grass silage in large scale to delivered transportation directly for cars. Anaerobic co-digestion was estimated in three full-scale continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) at 40°C. In the form of compressed bio-methane gas (CBG) production was 14,400m(3)/day (CH4 60-70%) amount of CBG was 9600m(3)/day. The procedure was enhanced by using molecular sieve, activated carbon for removal of moisture and CO2 membrane H2S and CO2 respectively. The results were demonstrated the amount of CO2, H2S gas was reduced along with CH4 was improved up to 90% by volume and compressed to 250bar tank pressure gauge to the fuel for cars. The CBG production, methane gas improvement and performance were evaluated before entering the delivered systems according to the energy standards. The production of CBG is advantageous to strengthen the Thailand biogas market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of two different dietary fermentable carbohydrates on activity and heat production in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, M.M.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Schrama, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of two sources of dietary fiber (DF) on behavior and heat production (HP) in group-housed growing pigs were studied. Twenty clusters of 14 barrows (50 kg) were fed one of 10 diets. Diets differed mainly in type,and content of fermentable DF (fDF) and in content of digestible starch. Five

  5. Integrating animal manure-based bioenergy production with invasive species control: A case study at Tongren Pig Farm in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianbo; Zhu, Lei [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hu, Guoliang [Rural Energy Section, Agricultural Bureau of Haining City, Zhejiang Province 314400 (China); Wu, Jianguo [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); School of Life Sciences and Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Integrated approach and bioresource engineering are often required to deal with multiple and interactive environmental problems for sustainable development at local and regional scales. Pig farming has flourished with fast growing economy and increasing human demands for meat in China. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a noxious invasive species, has encroached into most of the local rivers and lakes. Both the wastes from the booming pig farms as well as the massive plant materials of water hyacinth have caused a range of serious ecological and environmental problems. Here we present an integrated sustainable, ecological and experimental study that was designed to deal with these two problems simultaneously. Our experimental results showed that the mixtures of water hyacinth with pig manure consistently had much higher biogas production than pig manure alone, and that the highest biogas production was achieved when 15% of the fermentation substrates were water hyacinth. Our analysis further revealed that the changing C/N ratio and the lignin content in the fermentation feedstock due to the addition of water hyacinth might be two important factors affecting the biogas production. We also found that the solar-powered water-heating unit significantly increased the biogas production (especially in winter time). Overall, the project proved to be successful ecologically and socially. Through such an integrated approach and bioresource engineering, wastes are treated, energy is harvested, and the environment is protected. (author)

  6. In vitro digestion and fermentation characteristics of canola co-products simulate their digestion in the pig intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyengo, T A; Jha, R; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2016-06-01

    Canola co-products are sources of amino acid and energy in pig feeds, but their fermentation characteristics in the pig intestine are unknown. Thus, we determined the in vitro fermentation characteristics of the canola co-products Brassica juncea solvent-extracted canola meal (JSECM), Brassica napus solvent-extracted canola meal (NSECM), B. napus expeller-pressed canola meal (NEPCM) and B. napus cold-pressed canola cake (NCPCC) in comparison with soybean meal (SBM). Samples were hydrolysed in two steps using pepsin and pancreatin. Subsequently, residues were incubated in a buffer solution with fresh pig faeces as inocula for 72 h to measure gas production. Concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) per gram of dry matter (DM) of feedstuff was measured in fermented solutions. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent hindgut fermentation (AHF) of gross energy (GE) for feedstuffs were obtained from pigs fed the same feedstuffs. On DM basis, SBM, JSECM, NSECM, NEPCM and NCPCC contained 15, 19, 22, 117 and 231 g/kg ether extract; and 85, 223, 306, 208 and 176 g/kg NDF, respectively. In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDDM) of SBM (82.3%) was greater (Pfermentation characteristics of canola co-products and SBM simulated their fermentation in the small and large intestine of pigs, respectively. The 30% greater VFA production for JSECM than NSECM due to lower lignified fibre of JSECM indicates that fermentation characteristics differ between canola species. The NSECM had the highest fermentability followed by NEPCM and then NCPCC, indicating that fat in canola co-products can limit their fermentability in the hindgut.

  7. Pilot project of biogas production from pig manure and urine mixture at ambient temperature in Ventanilla (Lima, Peru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, I.; Gamiz, M.; Almeida, M.; Ruiz, A.

    2009-01-01

    Parque Porcino de Ventanilla has an extension of 840 ha with 2200 farmers dedicated to pig production. There is a lack of services in the area (i.e., water supply, electricity, or waste collection). Anaerobic treatment of pig manure would replace current dumping and incineration, reducing environmental pollution and hazards to public health, as well as providing an organic fertilizer and biogas. The objective of the present work was to study the viability of ambient temperature anaerobic digestion of pig manure diluted in urine, by means of on-site pilot scale reactors. The final goal was to establish design parameters for anaerobic digesters to be implemented; since it was part of a project to improve life conditions for the farmers through the incorporation of better management techniques. Experiments were carried out in a low-cost pilot plant, which consists of three anaerobic digesters (225 L total volume), without heating or agitation, placed in a greenhouse. The start-up of the digestion process was performed with a mixture of temperature adapted pig manure-sludge and fresh rumen, and showed a good performance regardless of the dilution of pig manure with water or urine, which is a key parameter due to the scarcity of water in the area under study

  8. Pilot project of biogas production from pig manure and urine mixture at ambient temperature in Ventanilla (Lima, Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, I; Gamiz, M; Almeida, M; Ruiz, A

    2009-01-01

    Parque Porcino de Ventanilla has an extension of 840ha with 2200 farmers dedicated to pig production. There is a lack of services in the area (i.e., water supply, electricity, or waste collection). Anaerobic treatment of pig manure would replace current dumping and incineration, reducing environmental pollution and hazards to public health, as well as providing an organic fertilizer and biogas. The objective of the present work was to study the viability of ambient temperature anaerobic digestion of pig manure diluted in urine, by means of on-site pilot scale reactors. The final goal was to establish design parameters for anaerobic digesters to be implemented; since it was part of a project to improve life conditions for the farmers through the incorporation of better management techniques. Experiments were carried out in a low-cost pilot plant, which consists of three anaerobic digesters (225L total volume), without heating or agitation, placed in a greenhouse. The start-up of the digestion process was performed with a mixture of temperature adapted pig manure-sludge and fresh rumen, and showed a good performance regardless of the dilution of pig manure with water or urine, which is a key parameter due to the scarcity of water in the area under study.

  9. Interactions between sire family and production environment (temperate vs. tropical) on performance and thermoregulation responses in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosé, R; Gilbert, H; Loyau, T; Giorgi, M; Billon, Y; Riquet, J; Renaudeau, D; Gourdine, J-L

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2 climatic environments (temperate [TEMP] vs. tropical humid [TROP]) on production and thermoregulation traits in growing pigs. A backcross design involving Large White (LW; heat sensitive) and Creole (CR; heat tolerant) pigs was studied. The same 10 F LW × CR boars were mated with related LW sows in each environment. A total of 1,298 backcross pigs ( = 634 pigs from 11 batches for the TEMP environment and = 664 pigs from 12 batches for the TROP environment) were phenotyped on BW (every 15 d from wk 11 to 23 of age), voluntary feed intake (ADFI, from wk 11 to 23), backfat thickness (BFT; at wk 19 and 23), skin temperature (ST; at wk 19 and 23), and rectal temperature (RT; at wk 19, 21, and 23). The feed conversion ratio was computed for the whole test period (11 to 23 wk). The calculation of the temperature-humidity index showed an average difference of 2.4°C between the TEMP and TROP environments. The ADG and ADFI were higher in the TEMP environment than in the TROP environment (834 vs. 754 g/d and 2.20 vs. 1.80 kg/d, respectively; environment than in the TEMP environment (35.9 vs. 34.8°C for ST and 39.5 vs. 39.3°C for RT, respectively; environment interactions ( environment interaction and to detect QTL related to heat tolerance.

  10. Merging and elevation of ventilation chimneys as method to reduce odour nuisance from pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt

    they can use standard curves that gives the required distance to neighbours calculated at standardized preconditions. If the thresholds are not met, the farmer can include environmental technologies mentioned on a special list maintained by the environmental authorities. Currently biological air cleaners...... are the sole technology mentioned on the list that significantly can reduces the odour emission and the consequent required distance to the neighbours. An alternative to the relative expensive biological air cleaners is to release the air at a larger height which increases the dilution of odour before...... of this work is to enlighten the potential of merging and elevation of ventilation chimneys in order to reduce odour concentration around large pig production facilities. The analyses are based on an assumed facility with an installed ventilation capacity of 720000 m3 h -1, which, in the reference case...

  11. Antibody production by the pig colon during infection with Treponema hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, A S; Lysons, R J; Stokes, C R; Bourne, F J

    1989-09-01

    When 47 pigs were dosed orally with cultures of Treponema hyodysenteriae, 44 (94 per cent) developed swine dysentery. Of those which recovered and were rechallenged, nine of 21 (43 per cent) showed clinical signs, as did one of 10 (10 per cent) challenged on a third occasion. Clinical disease was associated with development of specific IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies in serum and the local production of IgA in gut mucosal tissues. The appearance of antibody was not directly related to protection but rather indicated either prolonged exposure (in the case of serum IgG) or recent exposure to T hyodysenteriae (for secretory IgA). Infection also resulted in the appearance of IgG and IgA memory cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissue. However, these studies indicated that humoral immunity alone is not responsible for the onset of a protective response to T hyodysenteriae in the colon.

  12. Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luu, Huong Quynh; Madsen, Henry; Anh, Le Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers) and to as......Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers......) and to assess fecal contamination levels in biogas effluent. Results showed that 84% of the farmers in Hanoi and 42% in Hue used both pig slurry and human excreta for biogas production. Biogas digestion only reduced E. coli concentrations by 1 to 2 log units to 3.70±0.84 Escherichia coli (log) cfu/ml on average...

  13. Environmental and public health related risk of veterinary zinc in pig production - Using Denmark as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, John; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Battisti, Antonio; Baptiste, Keith Edward

    2018-05-01

    At great economic cost, important steps have been taken over the last many decades to reduce and control emissions of heavy metals in order to protect the environment and public health. Monitoring has confirmed the success of these policies with progressive declines of heavy metals in for example air, sewage sludge and environmental samples. For zinc, such improvements may nevertheless be counter-acted by its widely usage as a feed additive and veterinary medicinal product to piglets in the post-weaning period resulting in reduced occurrence of diarrhea and improvement of daily weight gain. This review therefore focuses on two major concerns associated with veterinary use of zinc, namely the quantifiable risks to the environment and promotion of (multi) resistant bacteria like LA-MRSA in pig farms. Denmark is used as an informed and realistic worst-case scenario, representing the largest pig production per capita in Europe. It is furthermore, one of the countries where most recent information can be found regarding soil monitoring data and zinc consumption within the pig production. An average increase in soil concentration by >45% was recently reported within the period 1998-2014. In order to predict future risk, this review presents new and simplified model predictions using current soil concentrations, annual load rates and predicted accumulation rates. In conclusion, it is estimated that within 25 years, continued agricultural practice of current zinc loads may result in a situation where almost all soils receiving manure from intensive piglet production may be at risk, but also other pig production types may result in scenarios with predicted risk to soil dwelling species, especially in sandy soils. Besides the quantifiable risks to soil ecosystems, high levels of zinc furthermore co-select for the persistence of LA-MRSA CC398 and other resistant bacteria on pig farms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of emodin on mobility signal transduction system of gallbladder smooth muscle in Guinea pig with cholelithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Bang-Jiang; Shen, Jun-Yi; Zhang, Hua; Zhou, Shuang; Lyu, Chuan-Zhu; Xie, Yi-Qiang

    2016-10-01

    To study the effect of emodin on protein and gene expressions of the massagers in mobility signal transduction system of cholecyst smooth muscle cells in guinea pig with cholesterol calculus. The guinea pigs were randomly divided into 4 groups, such as control group, gall-stone (GS) group, emodin group and ursodeoxycholic acid (UA) group. Cholesterol calculus models were induced in guinea pigs of GS, emodin and UA groups by lithogenic diet, while emodin or UA were given to the corresponding group for 7 weeks. The histomorphological and ultrastructure change of gallbladder were detected by microscope and electron microscope, the content of plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) and [Ca 2+ ] i were analyzed successively by radioimmunoassay and flow cytometry. The protein and mRNA of Gsα, Giα and Cap in cholecyst cells were determined by western blotting and real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Emodin or UA can relieve pathogenic changes in epithelial cells and muscle cells in gallbladder of guinea pig with cholesterol calculus by microscope and transmission electron microscope. In the cholecyst cells of GS group, CCK levels in plasma and [Ca 2+ ] i decreased, the protein and mRNA of GS were down-regulated, the protein and mRNA of Gi and Cap were up-regulated. Emodin significantly decreased the formative rate of gallstone, improved the pathogenic change in epithelial cells and muscle cells, increased CCK levels in plasma and [Ca 2+ ] i in cholecyst cells, enhanced the protein and mRNA of Gs in cholecyst cells, reduced the protein and mRNA of Gi and Cap in cholecyst cells in guinea pig with cholesterol calculus. The dysfunction of gallbladder contraction gives rise to the disorders of mobility signal transduction system in cholecyst smooth muscle cells, including low content of plasma CCK and [Ca 2+ ] i in cholecyst cells, abnormal protein and mRNA of Gs, Gi and Cap. Emodin can enhance the contractibility of gallbladder and alleviate cholestasis by regulating plasma

  15. The effect of production type and antimicrobial usage on the occurrence of tetracycline resistant E. coli in danish slaughter pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struve, Tina; Vigre, Håkan; Wingstrand, Anne

    The Qualysafe project was initiated in 2007 to support and strengthen the sustainable production systems in Danish food production. One of the objectives of the epidemiological investigation was to find new methods to improve food safety in conventional as well as in alternative pig production sy...... of potential risk factors on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in animal production....... (organic, free range and conventional farms) was a risk factor for occurrence of antimicrobial resistance and Tetracycline usage was regarded as an intervening factor between production type and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, the effect of production type and Tetracycline usage...... was estimated in two separate models using logistic regression, taking into account the correlation of results obtained from the same farm. Among the 411 isolates, 129 was found resistant to Tetracycline (Organic: 10%, Free Range: 27 % Conventional: 39 %). Differences was seen in the consumption pattern among...

  16. Application of cleaner production tools and failure modes and effects analysis in pig slaughterhourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Fonseca

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner production programs (CP and Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA are tools used to improve the sustainability of industries, ensuring greater profitability, quality, reliability and safety of their products and services. The meat industry is among the most polluting industries because of the large amounts of organic waste produced during meat processing. The objective of this study was to combine the CP and FMEA tools and to apply them in a pig slaughterhouse in order to detect critical points along the production chain that have a major environmental impact and to establish corrective and preventive actions that could minimize these problems. The results showed that water is the most consumed resource by the industry and also the main producer of waste due to microbiological contamination with animal feces and blood and meat residues. All impacts were found to be real due to their daily occurrence in the industry. Their severity, occurrence, detection and coverage were classified as moderate and high, high, low and moderate, and moderate and high, respectively. The application of the CP and FMEA tools was efficient in identifying and evaluating the environmental impacts caused by the slaughter and processing of pork carcasses. Liquid slaughter effluents and solid wastes (blood and bones are the factors that pose the greatest risks to the environment. The substitution of treatment plant chemicals with decomposing microorganisms, composting, and the production of animal meal and feed from solid waste are appropriate measures the industry could adopt to minimize the contamination of water resources and soil.

  17. Modulation of the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs supplemented with an all-natural saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Saccharamyces cerevisiae fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce the stress and acute phase responses (APR) following an acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n = 20; 6.4 ± 0.2 kg BW) were obtained and transported to an environment...

  18. Determining the effects of early gestation in utero heat stress on postnatal fasting heat production and circulating biomarkers associated with metabolism in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study objective was to determine the effects of in utero heat stress (IUHS) on postnatal fasting heat production (FHP) in growing pigs. Based on our previous observation of increased postnatal core body temperature ‘set-point’ in IUHS pigs, we hypothesized that FHP would be greater during postna...

  19. Effects of two different dietary fermentable carbohydrates on activity and heat production in group-housed growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnen, M M J A; Verstegen, M W A; Heetkamp, M J W; Schrama, J W

    2003-05-01

    The effects of two sources of dietary fiber (DF) on behavior and heat production (HP) in group-housed growing pigs were studied. Twenty clusters of 14 barrows (50 kg) were fed one of 10 diets. Diets differed mainly in type and content of fermentable DF (fDF) and in content of digestible starch. Five diets contained solvent-extracted coconut meal (SECM) and five diets contained soybean hulls (SBH) as the main fDF source. On an as-fed basis, pigs received 3.5, 13.2, 23.0, 32.7, or 42.4 g x kg(-0.75) x d(-1) of SECM or SBH. A total of 280 crossbred growing pigs were used, divided into clusters of 14 pigs each. Pigs were group-housed and fed at 2.5 times the assumed maintenance energy requirements. All clusters were fed similar amounts of NE, ileal-digestible protein and amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Consequently, DMI differed among diets because NE content decreased with increasing DF content. After a 32-d preliminary period, HP was measured per cluster during a 7-d experimental period in environmentally controlled respiration chambers. Behavior of the pigs was recorded using time-lapse video recordings during two different days within the experimental period. Intake of digestible starch and fDF was different (P < 0.001) among diets, whereas intake of digestible CP was similar among diets. On average, pigs spent 153 min standing, 42 min sitting, 202 min lying on their chest, and 1,043 min lying on their flanks each day. Pigs fed SECM diets spent, on average, less time (P < 0.05) lying on their chest than pigs fed SBH diets. Total time spent on physical activity (i.e., standing plus sitting, 195 min/d) was not affected by diet. Total HP and resting HP were affected by diet and were on average lower (P < 0.01) for pigs fed SECM diets than for pigs fed SBH diets. Activity-related heat production (AHP) averaged 65 kJ x kg(-0.75) x d(-1) and was not affected by diet. There was a linear relationship (P < 0.001) between fDF intake and HP, but there was no relationship

  20. Hyposmotic stimulation-induced nitric oxide production in outer hair cells of the guinea pig cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda-Nakazawa, Hiroko; Harada, Narinobu; Shen, Jing; Kubo, Nobuo; Zenner, Hans-Peter; Yamashita, Toshio

    2007-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) production during hyposmotic stimulation in outer hair cells (OHCs) of the guinea pig cochlea was investigated using the NO sensitive dye DAF-2. Simultaneous measurement of the cell length and NO production showed rapid hyposmotic-induced cell swelling to precede NO production in OHCs. Hyposmotic stimulation failed to induce NO production in the Ca2+-free solution. L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a non-specific NO synthase inhibitor and gadolinium, a stretch-activated channel blocker inhibited the hyposmotic stimulation-induced NO production whereas suramin, a P2 receptor antagonist did not. S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), a NO donor inhibited the hyposmotic stimulation-induced increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) while L-NAME enhanced it. 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3a]quinoxalin-1-one, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase and KT5823, an inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) mimicked effects of L-NAME on the Ca2+ response. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), an osmo- and mechanosensitive channel was expressed in the OHCs by means of immunohistochemistry. 4alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, a TRPV4 synthetic activator, induced NO production in OHCs. These results suggest that hyposmotic stimulation can induce NO production by the [Ca2+]i increase, which is presumably mediated by the activation of TRPV4 in OHCs. NO conversely inhibits the Ca2+ response via the NO-cGMP-PKG pathway by a feedback mechanism.

  1. Influence of various levels of milk by-products in weaner diets on growth performance, blood urea nitrogen, diarrhea incidence, and pork quality of weaning to finishing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to evaluate various levels of milk by-product in weaning pig diet on growth performance, blood profiles, carcass characteristics and economic performance for weaning to finishing pigs. Methods A total of 160 weaning pigs ([Yorkshire×Landrace]×Duroc), average 7.01±1.32 kg body weight (BW), were allotted to four treatments by BW and sex in 10 replications with 4 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were fed each treatment diet with various levels of milk by-product (Phase 1: 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, Phase 2: 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively). During weaning period (0 to 5 week), weaning pigs were fed experimental diets and all pigs were fed the same commercial feed during growing-finishing period (6 to 14 week). Results In the growth trial, BW, average daily gain (ADG), and average daily feed intake (ADFI) in the nursery period (5 weeks) increased as the milk by-product level in the diet increased (linear, pby-product in weaner diet decreased crude protein (quadratic, p = 0.05) and crude ash (Linear, p = 0.05) of Longissimus muscle. In addition, cooking loss and water holding capacity increased with increasing milk product levels in the weaner diets (linear, pby-product treatment had higher feed cost per weight gain compared to non-milk by-products treatment (linear, p = 0.01). Conclusion Supplementation of 10% to 5% milk by-products in weaning pig diet had results equivalent to the 30% to 15% milk treatment and 0% milk by-product supplementation in the diet had no negative influence on growth performance of finishing pigs. PMID:29103280

  2. Effects of epidermal growth factor, interleukin 1 and nitric oxide on prostaglandin production by guinea-pig uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeble, J E; Poyser, N L

    2002-08-01

    Initial experiments in the present study investigated the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF), interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and sodium nitroprusside (a nitric oxide donor) on the output of prostaglandins from guinea-pig uterus on day 7 of the oestrous cycle. Superfusion of day 7 guinea-pig uterus in vitro with either EGF or sodium nitroprusside increased the output of PGF(2alpha) and 6-keto-PGF(1alpha), but not of PGE(2). IL-1beta had no effect on the output of these three prostaglandins. EGF still increased the output of PGF(2alpha), but did not increase the output of 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) in a calcium-depleted superfusate. Subsequent experiments investigated the effect of sodium nitroprusside on contractile activity of day 7 guinea-pig uterus. Basal spontaneous activity of both the intact uterus and isolated myometrium superfused in vitro was low. Sodium nitroprusside increased the contractile activity of these tissues two- to fourfold. EGF did not affect the contractile activity of the uterus, indicating that sodium nitroprusside-induced contractions are not due to increased prostaglandin production. Overall, the findings indicate that EGF and nitric oxide may act as mediators in the mechanism by which oestradiol acting on a progesterone-primed uterus stimulates the increase in PGF(2alpha) production by the guinea-pig uterus necessary for luteolysis. Nitric oxide may increase the spontaneous activity of the uterus when this activity is low.

  3. Comparison of Performance, Meat Lipids and Oxidative Status of Pigs from Commercial Breed and Organic Crossbreed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Martino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the effect of rearing systems for pig production, as concerns performance, meat lipid content, the fatty acid profile, histidinic antioxidants, coenzyme Q10, and TBARs. One hundred pigs were assigned to one of three treatments: intensively reared commercial hybrid pig (I, free range commercial hybrid pig (FR or organically reared crossbred pig (O, according to organic EU Regulations. I pigs showed the best productive performance, but FR and O increased: C20:1n9, Δ9-desaturase (C18 and thioesterase indices in meat. Lipid, dipeptides and CoQ10 appeared correlated to glycolytic and oxidative metabolic pathways. We can conclude that all studied parameters were influenced by the rearing system used, and that differences were particularly evident in the O system, which produced leaner meat with higher oxidative stability. In this respect, the organic pig rearing system promotes and enhances biodiversity, environmental sustainability and food quality.

  4. Public Attitudes to Housing Systems for Pregnant Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, E B; Fraser, D; Weary, D M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding concerns about the welfare of farm animals is important for the development of socially sustainable production practices. This study used an online survey to test how views on group versus stall housing for pregnant sows varied when Canadian and US participants were provided information about these systems, including access to scientific papers, YouTube videos, Google images, and a frequently-asked-questions page (S1 Appendix). Initial responses and changes in responses after accessing the information were analyzed from Likert scores of 242 participants and from their written comments. Participants were less willing to accept the use of gestation stalls after viewing information on sow housing. For example, initially 30.4% of respondents indicated that they supported the use of gestation stalls; this declined to 17.8% after participants were provided additional information. Qualitative analysis of comments showed that supporters of gestation stalls expressed concern about the spread of disease and aggression between animals in less confined systems, whereas supporters of group housing placed more emphasis on the sow's ability to interact socially and perform natural behaviors. These results point to public opposition to the use of gestation stalls, and indicate that the more that the public learns about gestation stalls the less willing they will be to accept their use.

  5. A multi-dimensional dynamic linear model for monitoring slaughter pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan Børge; Cornou, Cecile; Toft, Nils

    , feed- and water consumption), measured at different levels of detail (individual pig and double-pen level) and with different observational frequencies (weekly and daily), using series collected for the Danish PigIT project. The presented three-dimensional model serves as a proof of concept...

  6. Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in Danish pig herds: productivity, clinical symptoms, and pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, E. Okholm; Enøe, Claes; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind

    2008-01-01

    were 36 g and 52 g less in the case herds than in the control herds. By examining three weaner pigs from each herd the PMWS diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in 78 per cent of the case herds, but at least one PMWS-positive weaner pig was found in 19 of the control herds...

  7. Postweaning multisystematic wasting syndrome in Danish pig herds: productivity, clinical signs and pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okholm Nielsen, Elisabeth; Enøe, Claes; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind

    2008-01-01

    were 36 g and 52 g less in the case herds than in the control herds. By examining three weaner pigs from each herd the PMWS diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in 78 per cent of the case herds, but at least one PMWS-positive weaner pig was found in 19 of the control herds...

  8. Effects of different space allowances on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality in a grow-to-finish production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J C; Jin, X H; Hong, J S; Kim, Y Y

    2017-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the optimal space allowance on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs. A total of ninety crossbred pigs [(Yorkshire×Landrace)×Duroc, 30.25±1.13 kg] were allocated into three treatments (0.96: four pigs/pen, 0.96 m2/pig; 0.80: five pigs/pen, 0.80 m2/pig; 0.69: six pigs/pen, 0.69 m2/pig) in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were housed in balanced sex and had free access to feed in all phases for 14 weeks (growing phase I, growing phase II, finishing phase I, and finishing phase II). There was no statistical difference in growing phase, but a linear decrease was observed on average daily gain (ADG, pspace allowance in late finishing phase. On the other hand, a quadratic effect was observed on gain to feed ratio in early finishing phase (pspace allowance (pspace allowance. Floor area allowance did not affect pork colors, but shear force linearly increased as floor space decreased (pspace allocation. Serum IgG was linearly ameliorated as space allowance increased on 10 week (pspace allowance deteriorates the immune system as well as growth performance of pigs, resulting in poor pork quality. Recommended adequate space allowance in a grow-to-finish production system is more than 0.80 m2/pig for maximizing growth performance and production efficiency.

  9. PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCES OF TWO ITALIAN CROSSBRED PIGS FED HIGH ENERGY DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. FORTINA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the trial was to compare the average daily gain (ADG, the carcass characteristics, and the meat and fat quality of 18 Italian crossbred pigs fed high energy diets formulated for improved genotypes (digestible energy: DE >14 MJ/kg DM. Nine “Fumati” crossbreds (Large White x Mora Romagnola; average initial live weight: 84 kg and nine “Borghigiana” (Large White x Nera di Parma; average initial live weight: 90 kg, reared under similar environmental and nutritional conditions, were slaughtered at the average final weight of 180 kg (285 days. Calculated dry matter intake (DMI and feed conversion index (FCI were similar; no significant differences were observed with respect to average daily gain (ADG: 679 vs. 658 g/d. At slaughtering, the dressing percentage of the Fumati was significantly lower than that of the Borghigiana (80.9 vs. 84.5. The Fumati seemed more prone to fattening than the Borghigiana, as confirmed by the statistically higher percentage of belly (14.9 vs.12.2, and fat (3.9 vs. 2.4 and marbling of M. longissimus dorsi (2.7 vs. 1.4. On colour analysis, the Fumati had statistically higher L* and hue values, and lower a* of M. longissimus dorsi. The fatty acid composition of meat was similar between crossbreds; backfat fatty acid composition of the Fumati showed a significantly higher percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, and lower amounts of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA than in the Borghigiana. Results showed that performances and meat quality of local crossbreeds still bred in semi-intensive systems, like Fumati and Borghigiana, can be positively influenced when fed diets considered suitable for improved pig genotypes.

  10. PORK CARCASS COMPOSITION AND THE MEAT QUALITY OF THE BLACK SLAVONIAN PIG – THE ENDANGERED BREEDS IN THE INDOOR AND OUTDOOR KEEPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Butko

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The research has been made on 20 Black Slavonian Pigs in both ways of keeping them (indoor, outdoor. The pigs have been fed up to 135 kg body weight. The pigs in the outdoor system have been held on a natural pasture ground. Other than pasture, the pigs have consumed, over the summer period, the food offered on stubble-fields after the harvest (barley, wheat and over the winter times after corn harvest. They had only minimal corn consumption; mostly during the winter (average daily consumption was 0.15 kg. Dissection of cold (+40C right sided pig body composition has been made by the modified Weniger et al (1963 method. The meat quality has been determined on a long back muscle sample (musculus longissimus dorsi- MLD taken berween 13th and 14th rib. The pig carcasses in the outdoor system had a very significant (P<0.01 absolute and relative leg share, less belly-rib share and higher meat quantity. Commercially, more valuable parts-legs and back had a greater share of muscle tissue in pigs' carcasses in the outdoor system. The meat of the pigs in the outdoor system had no signifficant differences from the pigs in the indoor system, concerning the pH1, pH2, water holding capacity, colour and marbling. However, the meat of the pigs in the outdoor system had higher content of crude fat from the pigs in the indoor system.

  11. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in slaughtered pigs and pork products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Bardasi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available During the years 2015-2016, 83 faecal samples were collected at slaughter from pigs reared in farms located in Central- Northern Italy. During the years 2014-2016 a total of 562 pork products [465 not-ready-to-eat (NRTE and 97 ready-to-eat (RTE products] were collected from retail outlets, large retailers and processing plants. The samples were analysed according to ISO TS 13136:2012. Out of 83 swine faecal samples, 77 (92.8% resulted stx-positive by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR, 5 stx2+ and 1 stx1+ Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC strains were isolated. Among the 465 NRTE samples, 65 (14.0% resulted stx-positive by real time PCR and 7 stx2+ STEC strains were isolated. The stx2 gene was detected more frequently than the stx1 gene both in faecal samples (90.4 vs 8.4% and in NRTE pork products (13.3 vs 1.3%. All the RTE samples included in the analysis resulted stxnegative. Among the samples resulted positive for stx and eae genes, serogroup-associated genes were detected at high frequency: O26 resulted the most frequent in faecal samples (81.3% and O145 in pork products (88.1%. The O157 serogroup resulted positive in 83.3 and 78.1% of pork products and faecal samples, respectively. Despite the frequent detection by real time PCR of genes indicating the possible presence of STEC strains belonging to the six serogroups, the bacteriological step did not confirm the isolation of any such strains.

  12. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed to be a simple, easily stowed, high growth volume, low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables...

  13. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Related to African Swine Fever Within Smallholder Pig Production in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenais, E; Boqvist, S; Sternberg-Lewerin, S; Emanuelson, U; Ouma, E; Dione, M; Aliro, T; Crafoord, F; Masembe, C; Ståhl, K

    2017-02-01

    Uganda is a low-income country with the largest pig population in East Africa. Pig keeping has a large potential, commercially and as a tool for poverty reduction, but African swine fever (ASF) is a major hurdle for development of the sector. The objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices related to ASF in the smallholder pig production value chain in northern Uganda. The study included three separate series of participatory rural appraisals (PRA), comprising purposively selected farmers and other actors in the pig production value chain. In the PRAs, various participatory epidemiology tools were used. A total of 49 PRAs and 574 participants, representing 64 different villages, were included. The results indicate that participants were well aware of the clinical signs of ASF, routes for disease spread and measures for disease control. However, awareness of the control measures did not guarantee their implementation. A majority of middlemen and butchers acknowledged having sold live pigs, carcasses or pork they believed infected with ASF. Outbreaks of ASF had a strong negative impact on participants' socio-economic status with loss of revenue and reversal into more severe poverty. In conclusion, lack of knowledge is not what is driving the continuous circulation of ASF virus in this setting. To control ASF and reduce its impact, initiatives that stimulate changes in management are needed. Because the behaviour of all actors in the value chain is largely influenced by the deep rural poverty in the region, this needs to be combined with efforts to reduce rural poverty. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Environmental impact of heavy pig production in a sample of Italian farms. A cradle to farm-gate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirlo, G; Carè, S; Casa, G Della; Marchetti, R; Ponzoni, G; Faeti, V; Fantin, V; Masoni, P; Buttol, P; Zerbinatti, L; Falconi, F

    2016-09-15

    Four breeding piggeries and eight growing-fattening piggeries were analyzed to estimate potential environmental impacts of heavy pig production (>160kg of live height at slaughtering). Life Cycle Assessment methodology was adopted in the study, considering a system from breeding phase to growing fattening phase. Environmental impacts of breeding phase and growing-fattening phase were accounted separately and then combined to obtain the impacts of heavy pig production. The functional unit was 1kg of live weight gain. Impact categories investigated were global warming (GW), acidification (AC), eutrophication (EU), abiotic depletion (AD), and photochemical ozone formation (PO). The total environmental impact of 1kg of live weight gain was 3.3kg CO2eq, 4.9E-2kg SO2eq, 3.1E-2kg PO4(3-)eq, 3.7E-3kg Sbeq, 1.7E-3kg C2H4eq for GW, AC, EU, AD, and PO respectively. Feed production was the main hotspot in all impact categories. Greenhouse gases responsible for GW were mainly CH4, N2O, and CO2. Ammonia was the most important source of AC, sharing about 90%. Nitrate and NH3 were the main emissions responsible for EU, whereas P and NOx showed minor contributions. Crude oil and natural gas consumption was the main source of AD. A large spectrum of pollutants had a significant impact on PO: they comprised CH4 from manure fermentation, CO2 caused by fossil fuel combustion in agricultural operations and industrial processes, ethane and propene emitted during oil extraction and refining, and hexane used in soybean oil extraction. The farm characteristics that best explained the results were fundamentally connected with performance indicators Farms showed a wide variability of results, meaning that there was wide margin for improving the environmental performance of either breeding or growing-fattening farms. The effectiveness of some mitigation measures was evaluated and the results that could be obtained by their introduction have been presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  15. Genetic diversity, virulotyping and antimicrobial resistance susceptibility of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from pigs and porcine products in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Kwai Lin; Tan, Lai Kuan; Ooi, Peck Toung

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the antimicrobial resistance, virulotypes and genetic diversity of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from uncooked porcine food and live pigs in Malaysia. Thirty-two non-repeat Y. enterocolitica strains of three bioserotypes (3 variant/O:3, n = 27; 1B/O:8, n = 3; 1A/O:5, n = 2) were analysed. Approximately 90% of strains were multidrug-resistant with a multiple antibiotic resistance index Yersinia enterocolitica could be distinguished distinctly into three clusters by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with each belonging to a particular bioserotype. Strains of 3 variant/O:3 were more heterogeneous than others. Eleven of the 15 virulence genes tested (hreP, virF, rfbC, myfA, sat, inv, ail, ymoA, ystA, tccC, yadA) and pYV virulence plasmid were present in all the bioserotpe 3 variant/03 strains. The occurrence of virulent strains of Y. enterocolitica in pigs and porcine products reiterated that pigs are important reservoirs for Y. enterocolitica. The increasing trend of multidrug resistant strains is a public health concern. This is the first report on the occurrence of potential pathogenic and resistant strains of Y. enterocolitica in pigs in Malaysia. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Evidenced Based Approach for a Definition of Defined Daily Dosages of Antibiotics Used in German Pig Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Kreienbrock

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine and a resulting development of antimicrobial resistance is a topic of major concern. Especially for primary care, evidence is needed to guarantee the efficacy of anti­biotic drugs in future. For this, the correct dosage is an essential measure to prevent antibiotic resistance. Because veterinarians used practice differs from the manufacturer’s recommendations, data is needed to describe evidence-based defined daily doses for animals (DDDA.In 2011 data was collected on the usage of antibiotics in farm animals in conjunction with the Vet­CAb-study (Veterinary consumption of antibiotics in Germany (see vetcab-s.de, van Rennings et al., 2015. Since then, data is continuously collected on the kind of antibiotics, the number of doses, number of animals treated and treatment frequencies. For this presentation the antibiotic usage in 2011 of 500 German pig farms totalling 18,150 treatment courses were recorded and analysed with regard to their dosage. The used daily dosage (UDD was calculated from the amount of the drug used and a defined standard weight for the four different age groups in pig production: sows (200kg, piglets (4kg, weaners (15kg and fattening pigs (50 kg.Apart from the UDD the expertise of pharmacologists was also taken into account to determine a DDDA for each antibiotic. This definition of DDDA is pinpointed by the recommendation of the EMA and has to be determined for each drug in combination with animal species and the form of application.The study showed that in pig production, the antibiotic groups tetracycline and ß-lactams are mainly used. More than 90% of all treatments are given orally. For tetracycline the manufacturers recommend a dose of approximately 80 mg / kg orally in pigs. The DDDAs determined from expert opinions are around 50mg/ kg. In the present study with 500 analysed pig farms the average UDD was 39.6 mg / kg. Previous stud­ies in Germany identified an

  17. Energy production systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, Thomas Howard

    2017-01-01

    Energy Production Systems Engineering presents IEEE, Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA), and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards of engineering systems and equipment in utility electric generation stations. Electrical engineers that practice in the energy industry must understand the specific characteristics of electrical and mechanical equipment commonly applied to energy production and conversion processes, including the mechanical and chemical processes involved, in order to design, operate and maintain electrical systems that support and enable these processes. To aid this understanding, Energy Production Systems Engineeringdescribes the equipment and systems found in various types of utility electric generation stations. This information is accompanied by examples and practice problems. It also addresses common issues of electrical safety that arise in electric generation stations.

  18. Risk assessment of antimicrobial usage in Danish pig production on the human exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria from pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struve, Tina

    to antimicrobials are influenced by the use of antimicrobial agents, and the prudence of antimicrobial use have been emphasized since the Swann report in 1969 recommended that antibiotics used in human medicine should not be used as growth promoters in food-producing animals. In 2007, the World Health Organisation...... the human exposure to cephalosporin resistance from pork purchased in retail shops was assessed using different scenarios for the amount of antimicrobial used in the primary production. Also, farm-related factors affecting the antimicrobial usage were investigated as a part of this thesis. The thesis...... producing E. coli through the purchase of pork chops Objective 3: Identification of management factors in the Danish finishing pig production important for antimicrobial usage In Objective 1, the occurrence (presence/non-presence) of ESC producing E. coli in samples from healthy pigs at slaughter...

  19. Influence of Housing System and Number of Transported Animals on Transport-induced Mortality in Slaughter Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Voslářová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study monitored the effect of the housing system and the number of animals transported together on transport-induced mortality of slaughter pigs in the Czech Republic in the period from 2004 to 2008. Concerning the type of housing during the fattening, the lowest mortality rate during the subsequent transport to slaughter houses was detected among pigs fattened on solid floor (0.047% and on deep bedding (0.084%. The highest mortality during transport was detected among pigs fattened on fully or partially slatted floor (0.139%, a significant difference (p p < 0.01 compared to the load sizes of up to 40 animals.

  20. Influence of diet and rearing system on heavy pig performance, carcass and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Falaschini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying alternative dietary protein sources and new types of outdoor rearing techniques that enhance animal welfare, thus optimising costs and production performance, are among the main objectives of nutritionists and breeders. The aim of this study was to compare two types of rations where pea and potato concentrate completely substituted soybean in intensively and extensively bred swine. Forty Large White × Duroc piglets weighing about 40 kg were divided into 4 groups of 10 sex- and weightmatched individuals: Indoor rearing + Control diet, Indoor rearing + Experimental diet, Outdoor rearing + Control diet, Outdoor rearing + Experimental diet. Different diets were formulated for the growing phase (40-100 kg and the fattening period (100-slaughter; pigs, weighed individually every 40 days to estimate the average daily gain and feed conversion rate, were slaughtered when they reached the weight for Italian ham production. The following measurements were obtained: carcass weight, slaughtered yield, weight of lean cuts, pH 45 minutes and 24 hours post mortem. 40 semimembranosus muscle samples were analysed for colour parameters (L*, a* and b*, moisture, fat, protein and ash while the energy values were calculated. Semimembranosus intramuscular fat and ham backfat were analysed for fatty acid profile. Statistical analysis of performances data was conducted using design with repeated measures and the slaughterhouse, meat and fat composition data were subjected to ANOVA. The results show that soybean can be completely substituted with other protein crops. Rearing and slaughterhouse performances were not affected by the diet, whereas significant differences emerged with the rearing system. Diet composition significantly affected lean meat proportion (50.0 vs 48.2 and fat thickness of 3/4 Thoracic Vertebra (25.3 vs 28.3 mm, while the rearing system significantly affected all carcass quality measures. Some parameters were better in outdoorthan

  1. Technological Options to Ameliorate Waste Treatment of Intensive Pig Production in China:An Analysis Based on Bio-Economic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wen-cong; MA Yong-xi; Holger Bergmann

    2014-01-01

    Ameliorating waste treatment by technological improvements affects the economic and the ecological-environment beneifts of intensive pig production. The objective of the research was to develop and test a method to determine the technical optimization to ameliorate waste treatment methods and gain insight into the relationship between technological options and the economic and ecological effects. We developed an integrated bio-economic model which incorporates the farming production and waste disposal systems to simulate the impact of technological improvements in pig manure treatment on economic and environmental benefits for the case of a pilot farm in Beijing, China. Based on different waste treatment technology options, three scenarios are applied for the simulation analysis of the model. The simulation results reveal that the economic-environmental beneifts of the livestock farm could be improved by reducing the cropland manure application and increasing the composting production with the current technologies. Nevertheless, the technical efifciency, the waste treatment capacity and the economic beneifts could be further improved by the introduction of new technologies. It implies that technological and economic support policies should be implemented comprehensively on waste disposal and resource utilization to promote sustainable development in intensive livestock production in China.

  2. Innovativeness in production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Henrik; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    Alignment of market demand and manufacturing capabilities are directly linked to the potential competitive advantage. Pressure for manufacturing companies to customize increase the need for productions systems to handle innovations, especially in SMEs. The paper claims that innovativeness has...... a positive influence of the ability of the manufacturing system to provide specific capabilities that enables the entire production system to positively influence the competitiveness. A comparative case study of three SMEs shows that competitive advantages are obtained through innovative technologies......, but revealed also automation potential in data and information management to be more responsive and cost-effective....

  3. Antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli strains isolated from surface water and groundwater samples in a pig production area

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Neto Schneider; André Nadvorny; Verônica Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    The use of antibiotics, so excessive and indiscriminate in intensive animal production, has triggered an increase in the number of resistant microorganisms which can be transported to aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of the antimicrobial resistance of samples of Escherichia coli isolated from groundwater and surface water in a region of pig breeding. Through the test of antimicrobial susceptibility, we analyzed 205 strains of E. coli. A high rate of res...

  4. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panichnumsin, Pornpan [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Excellent Center of Waste Utilization and Management, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Nopharatana, Annop [Pilot Plant Development and Training Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Ahring, Birgitte [AAU, Copenhagen Institute of Technology, Lautrupvang 15, 2750 Ballerup (Denmark); Chaiprasert, Pawinee [School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 C) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m{sup -3} d{sup -1} and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g{sup -1} VS{sub added} and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity. (author)

  5. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panichnumsin, Pornpan; Nopharatana, Annop; Ahring, Birgitte; Chaiprasert, Pawinee

    2010-01-01

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 o C) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m -3 d -1 and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g -1 VS added and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity.

  6. Possible pathogenic interplay between Chlamydia suis, Chlamydophila abortus and PCV-2 on a pig production farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schautteet, K; Beeckman, D S A; Delava, P; Vanrompay, D

    2010-03-13

    A concurrent outbreak of chlamydial disease in boars, sows and gilts and postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in weaned piglets was investigated on a large pig production farm in Estonia. Chlamydia suis DNA was detected in conjunctival swabs from boars, sows and gilts, but also in the faeces of boars and sows. Chlamydophila abortus DNA was found in semen, and in conjunctival swabs from sows; DNA was demonstrated by microarrays. Serum samples from boars were examined using a Chlamydiaceae-specific recombinant ELISA. All 10 serum samples examined were positive (1:960 to 1:3840). Chlamydiosis was characterised by reproductive failure and conjunctivitis. Piglets were not examined for Chlamydiaceae, as eye problems were not observed. Piglets showed wasting, respiratory signs, diarrhoea, enlargement of lymph nodes and increased mortality (10 per cent). Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) was detected in the lymph nodes of piglets by immunohistochemistry, and PCV-2 antibodies were demonstrated in all 10 serum samples from sows examined using an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay.

  7. Phytotoxicity and Chemical Characterization of Compost Derived from Pig Slurry Solid Fraction for Organic Pellet Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niccolò Pampuro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytotoxicity of four different composts obtained from pig slurry solid fraction composted by itself (SSFC and mixed with sawdust (SC, woodchips (WCC and wheat straw (WSC was tested with bioassay methods. For each compost type, the effect of water extracts of compost on seed germination and primary root growth of cress (Lepidium Sativum L. was investigated. Composts were also chemically analysed for total nitrogen, ammonium, electrical conductivity and heavy metal (Cu and Zn. The chemicals were correlated to phytotoxicity indices. The mean values of the germination index (GI obtained were 160.7, 187.9, 200.9 and 264.4 for WSC, WCC, SC and SSFC, respectively. Growth index (GrI ranged from the 229.4%, the highest value, for SSFC, followed by 201.9% for SC, and 193.1% for WCC, to the lowest value, 121.4%, for WSC. Electrical conductivity showed a significant and negative correlation with relative seed germination at the 50% and 75% concentrations. A strong positive correlation was found for water-extractable Cu with relative root growth and germination index at the 10% concentration. Water-extractable Zn showed a significant positive correlation with relative root growth and GI at the 10% concentration. These results highlighted that the four composts could be used for organic pellet production and subsequently distributed as a soil amendment with positive effects on seed germination and plant growth (GI > 80%.

  8. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in European soya bean and rapeseed products fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewtapee, C; Mosenthin, R; Nenning, S; Wiltafsky, M; Schäffler, M; Eklund, M; Rosenfelder-Kuon, P

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility coefficients (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) of European soya bean and rapeseed products in pigs. Six soya bean and two rapeseed products were used as the sole dietary source of CP and AA, including raw (FFSB) and roasted full-fat soya beans (FFSB R oasted ), soya bean (SBC) and rapeseed cake (RSC), and rapeseed meal (RSM) from Bavaria (Germany), soya bean meal (SBM) from the Danube region (Austria; SBM A ustria ), a commercially available standard SBM (SBM S td ) and an imported genetically modified organism-free SBM (SBM GMO -free ). Eight ileal- cannulated pigs with an initial body weight of 32 ± 2 kg were allotted to a row-column design with eight diets and six periods of seven days each. Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) ranged from 1.8 in SBM S td to 24.5 mg/g DM in FFSB. The SID of CP and all AA in FFSB R oasted were greater than in FFSB, but lower when compared to SBC and SBM A ustria (p soya bean and rapeseed products as influenced by differences in processing conditions. European SBC and SBM A ustria can be used as alternative to imported SBM GMO -free and SBM S td in diets for growing pigs. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Produção pecuária no montado: suínos Livestock production in the “montado”: pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Nunes

    2007-01-01

    feedstuffs resources (pastures, acorns etc. and local breeds. In Portugal, during the first half of last century Alentejano pig breed represented almost 50% of total pigs raised in the country. Intensification on agricultural systems and on livestock management contributed to a strong decrease on extensive system pig herds and in 1986 the amount of autochthonous pigs in Portugal represented about 2%. Local breeds of pigs, sheep, goats or even cattle recently got a new opportunity. Considering high grade products they can apply for an add value, by valorisation of the originality linked to the traditional production system, under oaks or chestnuts canopy. PAC evolution and a progressive environmental concern also helped to restart, on a sustainable way, the finishing animal grazing in open spaces, pigs fattened under acorns (montanheira or chestnuts. That means the fattening of hogs aged 14 to 18 months grazing under oaks, during autumn and winter. This late fattening, performed on a diet rich in starch, produces heavy carcasses, from 120 kg to 140 kg, with high percentage of fat and an important intermuscular infiltration of fat. To recommend a proper livestock management to optimise the carcass and meat characteristics, in farming systems using natural resources it’s necessary to know, objectively, the natural feedstuffs resources, the particular physiology of local breeds, physical and chemical characteristics and sensorial request of traditional products, as well as fresh meat parameters.

  10. Production of human CD59-transgenic pigs by embryonic germ cell nuclear transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kwang Sung; Won, Ji Young [Department of Physiology, Dankook University School of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Ki [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Sorrell, Alice M. [Department of Physiology, Dankook University School of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Soon Young; Kang, Jee Hyun [Department of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jae-Seok [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bong-Hwan [Genomics and Bioinformatics Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Won-Kyong [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Hosup, E-mail: shim@dku.edu [Department of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Human CD59 (hCD59) gene was introduced into porcine embryonic germ (EG) cells. {yields} hCD59-transgenic EG cells were resistant to hyperacute rejection in cytolytic assay. {yields} hCD59-transgenic pigs were produced by EG cell nuclear transfer. -- Abstract: This study was performed to produce transgenic pigs expressing the human complement regulatory protein CD59 (hCD59) using the nuclear transfer (NT) of embryonic germ (EG) cells, which are undifferentiated stem cells derived from primordial germ cells. Because EG cells can be cultured indefinitely in an undifferentiated state, they may provide an inexhaustible source of nuclear donor cells for NT to produce transgenic pigs. A total of 1980 NT embryos derived from hCD59-transgenic EG cells were transferred to ten recipients, resulting in the birth of fifteen piglets from three pregnancies. Among these offspring, ten were alive without overt health problems. Based on PCR analysis, all fifteen piglets were confirmed as hCD59 transgenic. The expression of the hCD59 transgene in the ten living piglets was verified by RT-PCR. Western analysis showed the expression of the hCD59 protein in four of the ten RT-PCR-positive piglets. These results demonstrate that hCD59-transgenic pigs could effectively be produced by EG cell NT and that such transgenic pigs may be used as organ donors in pig-to-human xenotransplantation.

  11. Production of transgenic pigs over-expressing the antiviral gene Mx1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanmei Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The myxovirus resistance gene (Mx1 has a broad spectrum of antiviral activities. It is therefore an interesting candidate gene to improve disease resistance in farm animals. In this study, we report the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT to produce transgenic pigs over-expressing the Mx1 gene. These transgenic pigs express approximately 15–25 times more Mx1 mRNA than non-transgenic pigs, and the protein level of Mx1 was also markedly enhanced. We challenged fibroblast cells isolated from the ear skin of transgenic and control pigs with influenza A virus and classical swine fever virus (CFSV. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA revealed a profound decrease of influenza A proliferation in Mx1 transgenic cells. Growth kinetics showed an approximately 10-fold reduction of viral copies in the transgenic cells compared to non-transgenic controls. Additionally, we found that the Mx1 transgenic cells were more resistant to CSFV infection in comparison to non-transgenic cells. These results demonstrate that the Mx1 transgene can protect against viral infection in cells of transgenic pigs and indicate that the Mx1 transgene can be harnessed to develop disease-resistant pigs.

  12. Production of human CD59-transgenic pigs by embryonic germ cell nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Kwang Sung; Won, Ji Young; Park, Jin-Ki; Sorrell, Alice M.; Heo, Soon Young; Kang, Jee Hyun; Woo, Jae-Seok; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Chang, Won-Kyong; Shim, Hosup

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Human CD59 (hCD59) gene was introduced into porcine embryonic germ (EG) cells. → hCD59-transgenic EG cells were resistant to hyperacute rejection in cytolytic assay. → hCD59-transgenic pigs were produced by EG cell nuclear transfer. -- Abstract: This study was performed to produce transgenic pigs expressing the human complement regulatory protein CD59 (hCD59) using the nuclear transfer (NT) of embryonic germ (EG) cells, which are undifferentiated stem cells derived from primordial germ cells. Because EG cells can be cultured indefinitely in an undifferentiated state, they may provide an inexhaustible source of nuclear donor cells for NT to produce transgenic pigs. A total of 1980 NT embryos derived from hCD59-transgenic EG cells were transferred to ten recipients, resulting in the birth of fifteen piglets from three pregnancies. Among these offspring, ten were alive without overt health problems. Based on PCR analysis, all fifteen piglets were confirmed as hCD59 transgenic. The expression of the hCD59 transgene in the ten living piglets was verified by RT-PCR. Western analysis showed the expression of the hCD59 protein in four of the ten RT-PCR-positive piglets. These results demonstrate that hCD59-transgenic pigs could effectively be produced by EG cell NT and that such transgenic pigs may be used as organ donors in pig-to-human xenotransplantation.

  13. ATLAS production system

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Klimentov, Alexei; Golubkov, Dmitry; Maeno, Tadashi; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Wenaus, Torre; Padolski, Siarhei

    2016-01-01

    The second generation of the ATLAS production system called ProdSys2 is a distributed workload manager which used by thousands of physicists to analyze the data remotely, with the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, across a more than hundred heterogeneous sites. It achieves high utilization by combining dynamic job definition based on many criterias, such as input and output size, memory requirements and CPU consumption with manageable scheduling policies and by supporting different kind of computational resources, such as GRID, clouds, supercomputers and volunteering computers. Besides jobs definition Production System also includes flexible web user interface, which implements user-friendly environment for main ATLAS workflows, e.g. simple way of combining different data flows, and real-time monitoring, optimised for using with huge amount of information to present. We present an overview of the ATLAS Production System major components: job and task definition, workflow manager web user i...

  14. Oil production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, J F

    1983-12-21

    A new oil producing system is proposed which consists of a group of underwater wells, an underwater riser and a floating storage facility for the production of the wells. The group of wells and the riser are interconnected through a manifold system in such a way that the production from any well or from the entire group of wells go to the base (foundation) of the riser. From above the riser is connected with the floating storage facility which is equipped, besides tanks for storing the well products, with a separation device for separating the oil and the accompanying gas. The gas is used as a fuel for producing electric power required by the dynamic positioning systems. The products from each well are tested by means of a regulable coupling controlled by means of a cable, which is passed from the surface through the riser. The wellhead equipment for the unslanted wells is mounted on a template previously installed on the sea floor. From the template the well products enter the riser through the manifold unit system.

  15. Development of Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the initial considerations related to a Ph.D. study initiated at IPV, DTU in February 1997, concerning the research subject "Development of Production Systems". The content and aim of this paper is to 1) to introduce the study by......This paper presents the initial considerations related to a Ph.D. study initiated at IPV, DTU in February 1997, concerning the research subject "Development of Production Systems". The content and aim of this paper is to 1) to introduce the study by...

  16. Lifetime and per year productivity of sows in four pig farms in the tropics of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek-Mex, Jesús Enrique; Segura-Correa, José Candelario; Alzina-López, Alejandro; Batista-Garcia, Laura

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the lifetime and per year productivity of sows and to determine the effect of some factor on those traits in four pig farms in the tropics of Mexico. Data from 7526 sows for lifetime number of piglets born alive per sow (LBA), lifetime kilograms of piglets at farrowing (LKF), number of piglets born alive per year (NPF/Y), and kilograms of piglets at farrowing per year (KPF/Y); and data from 7230 sows for lifetime number of piglets weaned (LPW), lifetime kilograms of piglets weaned (LKW), number of piglets weaned per year (NPW/Y), and kilograms of piglets weaned per year (KPW/Y) per sow were used. The statistical model for all traits included the fixed effects of farm, year of first farrowing, season of first farrowing, litter size at first farrowing, age at first farrowing, removal reason, simple interactions, and the error term. The means for LBA, LKF, NPF/Y, and KPF/Y were 45.1 piglets, 67.1 kg, 22.7 piglets, and 33.7 kg, respectively. The means for LPW, LKW, NPW/Y, and KPW/Y were 43.2 piglets, 251.9 kg, 21.5 piglets, and 125.1 kg, respectively. All factors were significant for all traits, except for age at first farrowing on LPW and LKW. Sows with large litter sizes and those that farrowed the first time, at an early age, had the highest lifetime and per year productivity. Therefore, more care and better management should be provided to those types of sows to improve the farms profit.

  17. Effect of Farm on Productive and Reproductive Performance in Sows of Prestice Black-pied Pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Nevrkla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate productive and reproductive performance of Prestice Black‑Pied sows including losses of piglets from birth to weaning in conditions of two farms. The experiment involved one hundred sows of Prestice Black‑Pied pig from the 1st to the 7th parity (50 from farm A and 50 from farm B. The evaluation of productive parameters revealed a highly statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.001 between gilts of the observed farms in percentage of lean meat. Backfat thickness was 0.19 cm lower in gilts from the farm A, which is a very highly statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.001. The evaluation of reproductive performance showed, that age at the time of the first insemination and farrowing was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05 in gilts from the farm A compared to gilts from the farm B by 38 days on average. The analysis also indicates that there was no significant difference in length of gestation, total number of piglets and numbers of live-born and reared piglets between the sows of the evaluated farms. A highly statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.01 was found in number of stillborn piglets. Interval length was significantly longer (P ≤ 0.05 in sows from the farm A, by 14.29 days. The evaluation of losses of piglets revealed a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 between the farms in favor of piglets from the farm A.

  18. Nutritional evaluation of former food products (ex-food) intended for pig nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giromini, C; Ottoboni, M; Tretola, M; Marchis, D; Gottardo, D; Caprarulo, V; Baldi, A; Pinotti, L

    2017-08-01

    Ex-food or former food products (FFPs) have been proposed as one of the categories with great promise as alternative feed ingredients. FFPs' nutritional potential is not yet fully exploited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a nutritional evaluation of selected FFPs. In particular, six samples of mixed FFPs, all based on bakery products, were analysed for moisture, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, starch and ash. Nitrogen-free extractives and non-structural carbohydrate were also determined. Based on FFPs' composition data, estimation of digestible energy and metabolisable energy values for pigs were calculated. Further, the in vitro digestibility values of FFPs were investigated using a multi-step enzymatic technique. A wheat sample was included as a control feed ingredient in the study. All data were reported on dry matter basis. FFPs have shown a nutrient composition comparable with cereal grains. In the tested FFPs, the average protein content was 10.0% and the average starch content was 52.4%. Nitrogen-free extractive ranged from 61.2% to 74.7%, whereas non-structural carbohydrate ranged from 58.5% to 79.3%. Compared with wheat, FFPs were characterised by a relative high fat content, averaging about 10.1%. The relatively high nitrogen-free extractive/non-structural carbohydrate/starch and fat concentration designated FFPs as valuable energy sources. Digestible energy and metabolisable energy averages were 17.2 and 16.9 MJ kg -1 , respectively. The average in vitro digestibility value of FFPs samples was 88.2% ± 5.8%, comparable with that of wheat (90.6% ± 1.6%). FFPs are a fat-fortified version of common cereals grains. The high energy content and digestibility values elect FFPs as promising non-traditional ingredients for swine.

  19. Photochemical hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Both technical and economic factors affect the cost of producing hydrogen by photochemical processes. Technical factors include the efficiency and the capital and operating costs of the renewable hydrogen conversion system; economic factors include discount rates, economic life, credit for co-product oxygen, and the value of the energy produced. This paper presents technical and economic data for a system that generates on-peak electric power form photochemically produced hydrogen

  20. Independence and Product Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skeide, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Starting from elementary considerations about independence and Markov processes in classical probability we arrive at the new concept of conditional monotone independence (or operator-valued monotone independence). With the help of product systems of Hilbert modules we show that monotone conditional independence arises naturally in dilation theory.

  1. Effect of breeding strategy and feeding system on the within-herd variation of lean meat percents in Danish slaughter pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stege, H; Bagger, J; Nielsen, J P; Ersbøll, A K

    2011-08-01

    In several countries slaughter pigs are paid for individually, according to slaughter weight and lean meat percent (LMP). Production of uniform batches of pigs within the optimal weight and LMP limits will obtain the best price. Therefore, all pigs should have a similar growth rate (average daily gain, ADG) and reach an appropriate slaughter weight within the same time period. LMP may serve as a proxy for ADG since pigs with low LMP have significantly higher ADG than pigs with high LMP and vice versa. Both breeding strategy and feeding system may influence the range of variation among pigs. The aim of this study was to test the two following hypotheses: (1) Herds purchasing breeding gilts have a higher mean value and a lower variation (standard deviation) in LMP than herds producing their own breeding gilts and (2) Herds using restricted feeding of finishers have a higher mean value and a lower variation (standard deviation) in LMP than herds with ad libitum feeding of finishers. The study included 72 herds and a total of 345,132 pigs slaughtered during one year. Among the 72 herds, 40 were home-breeders and 32 purchased breeding gilts from a breeding company. Nineteen herds used restricted feeding, of which 8 (42%) were home-breeders. Fifty-three herds used ad libitum feeding, of which 32 (60%) were home-breeders. Breeding strategy had a significant effect on SDLMP (p=0.003), where purchase of breeding gilts resulted in a significantly lower standard deviation of the monthly LMP compared to home-bred gilts (a difference in median SDLMP of 0.2 percentage points or 8% difference between groups). Feeding system had a significant effect on the meanLMP (p<0.001), with a significantly higher meanLMP in herds using restrictive feeding compared to ad libitum feeding (60.7% versus 60.0%). Restrictive feeding also resulted in a significantly lower SDLMP (p<0.001) compared to ad libitum feeding (2.2% versus 2.5% or a 12% difference between groups). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  2. Anatomical study of the renal excretory system in pigs. A review of its characteristics as compared to its human counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, F A; Ballesteros, L E; Estupiñán, H Y

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of the pyelocalyceal system in the pig as an experimental model, there is little information about this particular anatomical subject. We determined the morphological characteristics of the renal excretory system in pigs. This descriptive cross-sectional study evaluated 130 pairs of kidneys of pigs destined to slaughter. The pyelocalyceal system was subjected to injection technique - corrosion by infusion of polyester resin (85% Palatal and 15% Styrene) and subsequent infusion in potassium hydroxide (KOH) for 10 days. The significance level used was p renal excretory system is characterised by the presence of type A major cranial and caudal calyxes seen in 34.3% of the kidneys (type A1 in 30% and type A2 in 4.3%). type B calyxes, corresponding to minor calyxes draining directly into the renal pelvis, were present in 65.7% of the specimens (type B1 59.2%; type B2 6.5% of the cases). The number of minor calyxes in the collector system was 7.9 ± 2.27 with statistically significant differences in side (p = 0.0047). The morphometric characteristics of the kidneys in this study are slightly smaller than reported in humans. Similarly, the incidence of type A renal excretory system distribution is highest in humans and lowest in pigs. Due to its few morphological differences, the pig kidney is an excellent model for teaching- -learning processes, for research purposes, and for training of urologic applications.

  3. Systemic and local immune response in pigs intradermally and intramuscularly injected with inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, P; Saleri, R; Cavalli, V; De Angelis, E; Ferrari, L; Benetti, M; Ferrarini, G; Merialdi, G; Borghetti, P

    2014-01-31

    The systemic and respiratory local immune response induced by the intradermal administration of a commercial inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae whole-cell vaccine (Porcilis(®) MHYO ID ONCE - MSD AH) in comparison with two commercial vaccines administered via the intramuscular route and a negative control (adjuvant only) was investigated. Forty conventional M. hyopneumoniae-free pigs were randomly assigned to four groups (ten animals each): Group A=intradermal administration of the test vaccine by using the needle-less IDAL(®) vaccinator at a dose of 0.2 ml; Group B=intramuscular administration of a commercially available vaccine (vaccine B); Group C=intramuscular administration of the adjuvant only (2 ml of X-solve adjuvant); Group D=intramuscular administration of a commercially available vaccine (vaccine D). Pigs were vaccinated at 28 days of age. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples were collected at vaccination (blood only), 4 and 8 weeks post-vaccination. Serum and BAL fluid were tested for the presence of antibodies by ELISA test. Peripheral blood monomorphonuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated to quantify the number of IFN-γ secreting cells by ELISpot. Moreover, cytokine gene expression from the BAL fluid was performed. Total antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae and specific IgG were detected in serum of intradermally and intramuscularly (vaccine B only) vaccinated pigs at 4 and 8 weeks post-vaccination. M. hyopneumoniae specific IgA were detected in BAL fluid from vaccinated animals (Groups A and B) but not from controls and animals vaccinated with the bacterin D (padministration of an adjuvanted bacterin induces both systemic and mucosal immune responses. Moreover, the intramuscularly administered commercial vaccines each had a different ability to stimulate the immune response both systemically and locally. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pig model for diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a transgenic pig comprising a mutated IAPP gene and displaying a phenotype associated with diabetes. The invention also relates to a transgenic blastocyst, embryo, fetus, donor cell and/or cell nucleusderived from said transgenic pig. The invention further relates...... to use of the transgenic pig as a model system for studying therapy, treatment and/or prevention of diabetes....

  5. Effect of whole body irradiation on O/sub 2//sup -/ production in polymorphonuclear leukocyte of guinea pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niiya, Harutaka

    1987-01-01

    The capacity of superoxide anion production of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) has been determined after whole body irradiation. A diminished capacity of superoxide anion production in the presence of opsonized zymosan was found in PMNL taken from guinea pigs irradiated in vivo with 5, 10, and 20 Gy. However, no such diminution was found after a dose of 2 Gy. On the other hand, levels of superoxide anion production stimulated by myristate, N-Formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine (FMLP), and Concanavalin A remained unchanged compared to the control. PMNL irradiated in vitro with 20 Gy had a capacity of superoxide anion production similar to that of the control samples in the presence of either opsonized zymosan or FMLP and myristate. These results suggest that the capacity of superoxide anion production stimulated by zymosan is damaged by whole body irradiation.

  6. Population Genetic Structure of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated From the Pig and Pork Production Chain in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Félix

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is an ubiquitous pathogenic bacterium, transmissible to humans through the consumption of contaminated food. The pork production sector has been hit hard by a series of L. monocytogenes-related food poisoning outbreaks in France. An overview of the diversity of strains circulating at all levels of the pork production chain, from pig farming (PF to finished food products (FFP, is needed to identify the contamination routes and improve food safety. Until now, no typing data has been available on strains isolated across the entire pig and pork production chain. Here, we analyzed the population genetic structure of 687 L. monocytogenes strains isolated over the last 20 years in virtually all the French départements from three compartments of this production sector: PF, the food processing environment (FPE, and FFP. The genetic structure was described based on Multilocus sequence typing (MLST clonal complexes (CCs. The CCs were obtained by mapping the PFGE profiles of the strains. The distribution of CCs was compared firstly between the three compartments and then with CCs obtained from 1106 strains isolated from other food production sectors in France. The predominant CCs of pig and pork strains were not equally distributed among the three compartments: the CC37, CC59, and CC77 strains, rarely found in FPE and FFP, were prevalent in PF. The two most prevalent CCs in the FPE and FFP compartments, CC9 and CC121, were rarely or never detected in PF. No CC was exclusively associated with the pork sector. Three CCs (CC5, CC6, and CC2 were considered ubiquitous, because they were observed in comparable proportions in all food production sectors. The two most prevalent CCs in all sectors were CC9 and CC121, but their distribution was disparate. CC9 was associated with meat products and food products combining several food categories, whereas CC121 was not associated with any given sector. Based on these results, CC121 is likely able

  7. Population Genetic Structure of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated From the Pig and Pork Production Chain in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Benjamin; Feurer, Carole; Maillet, Aurelien; Guillier, Laurent; Boscher, Evelyne; Kerouanton, Annaëlle; Denis, Martine; Roussel, Sophie

    2018-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an ubiquitous pathogenic bacterium, transmissible to humans through the consumption of contaminated food. The pork production sector has been hit hard by a series of L. monocytogenes-related food poisoning outbreaks in France. An overview of the diversity of strains circulating at all levels of the pork production chain, from pig farming (PF) to finished food products (FFP), is needed to identify the contamination routes and improve food safety. Until now, no typing data has been available on strains isolated across the entire pig and pork production chain. Here, we analyzed the population genetic structure of 687 L. monocytogenes strains isolated over the last 20 years in virtually all the French départements from three compartments of this production sector: PF, the food processing environment (FPE), and FFP. The genetic structure was described based on Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) clonal complexes (CCs). The CCs were obtained by mapping the PFGE profiles of the strains. The distribution of CCs was compared firstly between the three compartments and then with CCs obtained from 1106 strains isolated from other food production sectors in France. The predominant CCs of pig and pork strains were not equally distributed among the three compartments: the CC37, CC59, and CC77 strains, rarely found in FPE and FFP, were prevalent in PF. The two most prevalent CCs in the FPE and FFP compartments, CC9 and CC121, were rarely or never detected in PF. No CC was exclusively associated with the pork sector. Three CCs (CC5, CC6, and CC2) were considered ubiquitous, because they were observed in comparable proportions in all food production sectors. The two most prevalent CCs in all sectors were CC9 and CC121, but their distribution was disparate. CC9 was associated with meat products and food products combining several food categories, whereas CC121 was not associated with any given sector. Based on these results, CC121 is likely able to colonize a

  8. Analysis of integrated animal-fish production system under subtropical hill agro ecosystem in India: growth performance of animals, total biomass production and monetary benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, A; Pathak, K A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Vinod, K

    2009-03-01

    The present study assessed the benefits of integration of animals with fish production in optimizing the bio mass production from unit land in subtropical hill agro ecosystem. Hampshire pigs and Khaki Campbell ducks were integrated with composite fish culture. The pig and duck excreta were directly allowed into the pond and no supplementary feed was given to fish during the period of study. The average levels of N, P and K in dried pig and duck manure were 0.9, 0.7 and 0.6 per cent and 1.3, 0.6 and 0.5 per cent, respectively. The average body weight of pig and duck at 11 months age was 90 and 1.74 kg with an average daily weight gain of 333.33 and 6.44 g, respectively. The fish production in pig-fish and duck-fish systems were 2209 and 2964 kg/ha, respectively while the fish productivity in control pond was only 820 kg/ha. The total biomass (animal and fish) production was higher (pfeeding system compared to the traditional system, however the input/output ratio was 1:1.2 and 1:1.55 for commercial and traditional systems, respectively. It was inferred that the total biomass production per unit land was high (pfish were integrated together.

  9. Investigation of the effect of UV-LED exposure conditions on the production of vitamin D in pig skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Line Lundbæk; Argyraki, Aikaterini; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2016-01-01

    study the exposure conditions with ultraviolet (UV) LEDs were systematically investigated in the wavelength range 280-340 nm for achieving optimal vitamin D bio-fortification in pig skin. A wavelength of 296 nm was found to be optimal for vitamin D3 production. The maximum dose of 20 kJ/m2 produced 3.......5-4 µg vitamin D3/cm2 pig skin. Vitamin D3 produced was independent on the combination of time and intensity of the LED source. The increased UV exposure by UV-LEDs may be readily implemented in existing food production facilities, without major modifications to the process or processing equipment......The dietary intake of vitamin D is currently below the recommended intake of 10-20 µg vitamin D/day. Foods with increased content of vitamin D or new products with enhanced vitamin D are warranted. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a potential new resource in food production lines. In the present...

  10. Very high expander processing of maize on animal performance, digestibility and product quality of finishing pigs and broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntigam, R; Schedle, K; Schwarz, C; Wanzenböck, E; Eipper, J; Lechner, E-M; Yin, L; Gierus, M

    2017-11-06

    The present study investigated the effect of hydrothermic maize processing and supplementation of amino acids (AA) in two experiments. In total, 60 barrows and 384 broilers were fed four diets including either unprocessed (T1), or hydrothermically processed maize, that is short- (T2), or long-term conditioned (LC) (T3), and subsequently expanded maize of the same batch. Assuming a higher metabolizable energy (ME) content after processing, the fourth diet (T4) contains maize processed as treatment T3, but AA were supplemented to maintain the ideal protein value. Performance, digestibility and product quality in both species were assessed. Results show that in pigs receiving T4 the average daily feed intake was lower compared with the other treatments, whereas no difference was observed in broilers. The T3 improved the feed conversion rate compared with T1 (Panimal species, suggesting a higher ME content in diets with processed maize. The higher ME content of diets with processed maize is supported also by measurements of product quality. Supplementation of AA in T4 enhanced the loin depth in pigs as well as the amount of breast meat in broilers. Further effects of processing maize on meat quality were the reduced yellowness and antioxidative capacity (Panimal performance and digestibility in both species. However, effects on carcass characteristics and product quality differed. The negative effects on product quality could be partly compensated with the AA supplementation, whereas a change in meat colour and reduced antioxidative capacity was observed in all groups fed hydrothermic maize processing.

  11. Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotic treatment suppresses whole body urea production in neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined whether changes in the gut microbiota induced by clinically relevant interventions would impact the bioavailability of dietary amino acids in neonates. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of the gut microbiota in neonatal pigs receiving no treatment (control), intravenously administ...

  12. Production of germline ablated male pigs via Crispr/Cas editing of the NANOS2 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of alternative models to flies, worms, and mice for studying germ cell biology is important for translating findings to higher order mammals. In this context, investigations in pigs and other livestock species can also serve to find applications for both basic biomedical research ...

  13. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panichnumsin, Pan; Nopharatana, Annop; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2010-01-01

    digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 C) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m...

  14. Farm factors associated with the use of antobiotics in pig production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Puister-Jansen, L.F.; Asselt, van E.D.; Burgers, S.L.G.E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate farm-level economic and technical factors that are associated with the use of antibiotics on pig farms. Identification of such factors, like farm size and net farm result, may help to increase epidemiological knowledge and to specify farm advice and policy

  15. STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pacheco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to point a set of practical strategies that can be adopted to increase the capacity of constraints resources on production systems, when the constraint is inside the factory and not is in the market. To serve this purpose will be presented strategies based on best practices of the Theory of Constraints, Lean Manufacturing and Total Productive Maintenance. This article also presents the mains tools for the deployment of these methodologies. The survey results have provided an objective set of practical strategy that can be used to increase the capacity and productivity of production systems according to the needs of each manufacturing system.

  16. Production monitoring system for understanding product robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    study is used to demonstrate how the monitoring system can be used to efficiently guide corrective action to improve product performance. It is claimed that the monitoring system can be used to dramatically cut the time taken to identify, planand execute corrective action related to typical quality......In the current quality paradigm, the performance of a product is kept within specification by ensuring that its parts are within specification. Product performance is then validated after final assembly. However, this does not control how robust the product performance is, i.e. how much...... it will vary between the specification limits. In this paper, a model for predicting product performance is proposed, taking into account design, assembly and process parameters live from production. This empowers production to maintain final product performance, instead of part quality. The PRECI‐IN case...

  17. Models to quantify excretion of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon in growing pigs fed regional diets

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Henry; Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Vu, Van Thi Khanh; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2013-01-01

    Modern pig production contributes to many environmental problems that relate to manure, especially in areas with highly intensive production systems and in regions like Asia where the regulative control is not effective. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use three different pig diets varying in dietary protein, fibre and fat as representative for Danish (DK), Thai (TH) and Vietnamese (VN) pig production to develop and evaluate different approaches to predict/calculate excretion fr...

  18. Characterization of Bacterial Community Dynamics during the Decomposition of Pig Carcasses in Simulated Soil Burial and Composting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Bo-Min; Kim, Yu Mi; Jeon, Jun Min; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-12-28

    Soil burial is the most widely used disposal method for infected pig carcasses, but composting has gained attention as an alternative disposal method because pig carcasses can be decomposed rapidly and safely by composting. To understand the pig carcass decomposition process in soil burial and by composting, pilot-scale test systems that simulated soil burial and composting were designed and constructed in the field. The envelope material samples were collected using special sampling devices without disturbance, and bacterial community dynamics were analyzed by high-throughput pyrosequencing for 340 days. Based on the odor gas intensity profiles, it was estimated that the active and advanced decay stages were reached earlier by composting than by soil burial. The dominant bacterial communities in the soil were aerobic and/or facultatively anaerobic gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas, Gelidibacter, Mucilaginibacter , and Brevundimonas . However, the dominant bacteria in the composting system were anaerobic, thermophilic, endospore-forming, and/or halophilic gram-positive bacteria such as Pelotomaculum, Lentibacillus, Clostridium , and Caldicoprobacter . Different dominant bacteria played important roles in the decomposition of pig carcasses in the soil and compost. This study provides useful comparative date for the degradation of pig carcasses in the soil burial and composting systems.

  19. Foraging behaviour, nutrient intake from pasture and performance of free-range growing pigs in relation to feed CP level in two organic cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Malene; Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2015-01-01

    In organic pig production one of the major challenges is to be able to fulfil amino acid requirements based on organic and locally grown protein feed crops. The pig is an opportunistic omnivore with a unique capacity for foraging above and below the soil surface. It is hypothesized that direct fo...

  20. Ammonia Nitrogen Added to Diets Deficient in Dispensable Amino Acid Nitrogen Is Poorly Utilized for Urea Production in Growing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla, Wilfredo D; Silva, Kayla E; Zhu, Cuilan L; Nyachoti, Charles M; Htoo, John K; Cant, John P; de Lange, Cornelis Fm

    2017-12-01

    production across splanchnic organs when pigs are fed diets deficient in DAA nitrogen. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Defining product service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2002-01-01

    , company and society benefit from the service systems related to each one of these dimensions, rather than simply one of the above. There are existing examples of the enhancement of business and market share by focusing on PSS, but this is often not a result of upfront strategy and ambitious goals. We...... attempt to identify the nature of such a multiple definition of PSS, the link to proper understanding of value and utility and innovative approaches for PSS-oriented product development. This paper will expand on the phenomenon of PSS in the belief that a proper understanding of PSS will give us...

  2. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  3. Colistin in pig production: Chemistry, Mechanism of antibacterial action, Microbial resistance emergence, and One Health Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Rhouma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Colistin (Polymyxin E is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread. Co-localization of the mcr-1 gene and Extended-Spectrum- β-lactamase (ESBL genes on a unique plasmid has been also identified in many isolates from animal origin. The use of colistin in pigs as a growth promoter and for prophylaxis purposes should be banned, and the implantation of sustainable measures in pig farms for microbial infection prevention should be actively encouraged and financed. The scientific research should be encouraged in swine medicine to generate data helping to reduce the exacerbation of colistin resistance in pigs and in manure. The establishment of guidelines ensuring a judicious therapeutic use of colistin in pigs, in countries where this drug is approved, is of crucial importance. The implementation of a microbiological withdrawal period that could reduce the potential contamination of consumers with colistin resistant bacteria of porcine origin should be encouraged. Moreover, the management of colistin resistance at the human-pig-environment interface requires the urgent use of the One Health approach for effective control and prevention. This approach needs the collaborative effort of multiple disciplines and close

  4. Colistin in Pig Production: Chemistry, Mechanism of Antibacterial Action, Microbial Resistance Emergence, and One Health Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhouma, Mohamed; Beaudry, Francis; Thériault, William; Letellier, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Colistin (Polymyxin E) is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Klebsiella pneumoniae . Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread. Co-localization of the mcr-1 gene and Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase genes on a unique plasmid has been also identified in many isolates from animal origin. The use of colistin in pigs as a growth promoter and for prophylaxis purposes should be banned, and the implantation of sustainable measures in pig farms for microbial infection prevention should be actively encouraged and financed. The scientific research should be encouraged in swine medicine to generate data helping to reduce the exacerbation of colistin resistance in pigs and in manure. The establishment of guidelines ensuring a judicious therapeutic use of colistin in pigs, in countries where this drug is approved, is of crucial importance. The implementation of a microbiological withdrawal period that could reduce the potential contamination of consumers with colistin resistant bacteria of porcine origin should be encouraged. Moreover, the management of colistin resistance at the human-pig-environment interface requires the urgent use of the One Health approach for effective control and prevention. This approach needs the collaborative effort of multiple disciplines and close cooperation between physicians

  5. Colistin in Pig Production: Chemistry, Mechanism of Antibacterial Action, Microbial Resistance Emergence, and One Health Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhouma, Mohamed; Beaudry, Francis; Thériault, William; Letellier, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Colistin (Polymyxin E) is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread. Co-localization of the mcr-1 gene and Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase genes on a unique plasmid has been also identified in many isolates from animal origin. The use of colistin in pigs as a growth promoter and for prophylaxis purposes should be banned, and the implantation of sustainable measures in pig farms for microbial infection prevention should be actively encouraged and financed. The scientific research should be encouraged in swine medicine to generate data helping to reduce the exacerbation of colistin resistance in pigs and in manure. The establishment of guidelines ensuring a judicious therapeutic use of colistin in pigs, in countries where this drug is approved, is of crucial importance. The implementation of a microbiological withdrawal period that could reduce the potential contamination of consumers with colistin resistant bacteria of porcine origin should be encouraged. Moreover, the management of colistin resistance at the human-pig-environment interface requires the urgent use of the One Health approach for effective control and prevention. This approach needs the collaborative effort of multiple disciplines and close cooperation between physicians

  6. Spatial analysis and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Linard, Catherine; Chinson, Pornpiroon; Kasemsuwan, Suwicha; Visser, Marjolein; Gaughan, Andrea E.; Epprech, Michael; Robinson, Timothy P.; Gilbert, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Background In Thailand, pig production intensified significantly during the last decade, with many economic, epidemiological and environmental implications. Strategies toward more sustainable future developments are currently investigated, and these could be informed by a detailed assessment of the main trends in the pig sector, and on how different production systems are geographically distributed. This study had two main objectives. First, we aimed to describe the main trends and geographic...

  7. Epidemiology and control measures for Salmonella in pigs and pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Hald, Tine; Wolf, P. J. van der

    2002-01-01

    at the abattoir and during lairage, exposing negative pigs to Salmonella. Positive pigs carry Salmonella on the skin, in the gastro-intestinal system or in the mouth. The (cross-)contamination of carcasses is basically a matter of redistributing the Salmonella bacteria from the positive pigs during the various...... slaughter processes. Although the manufacturing and retail levels of pork production depend on the quality of raw materials that are delivered, they share the responsibility for the quality and safety of the end products reaching the consumer. At this level and onwards, the three main factors which...

  8. Prevalence, serotypes and resistance patterns of Salmonella in Danish pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arguello, Hector; Sørensen, Gitte; Carvajal, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Typhimurium in finishers and Salmonella Derby in breeding herds while the most prevalent phage types of the S. Typhimurium isolates were DT 12 and DT 120. The antimicrobial resistance analysis yielded a 35.2% of the isolates from the slaughter pigs resistant to one or more antimicrobials while 19.3% were...... resistant to four or more antimicrobials. A significantly higher percentage of resistance to antimicrobials was found in the S. Typhimurium isolates (χ2=4.72, p=0.029), where 42.9% presented resistance to one or more compounds. In breeding herds, just S. Typhimurium and S. 4,5],12:i: – isolates were tested......The objective of this paper is to analyse in further detail the Danish results of the EFSA baseline studies in slaughter pigs and breeding herds, and compare them with the results obtained in (1) the pre-implementation study that was carried out to establish the initial prevalence values...

  9. Production and characterization of guinea pig recombinant gamma interferon and its effect on macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevan, A; McFarland, C T; Yoshimura, T; Skwor, T; Cho, H; Lasco, T; McMurray, D N

    2006-01-01

    Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) plays a critical role in the protective immune responses against mycobacteria. We previously cloned a cDNA coding for guinea pig IFN-gamma (gpIFN-gamma) and reported that BCG vaccination induced a significant increase in the IFN-gamma mRNA expression in guinea pig cells in response to living mycobacteria and that the virulent H37Rv strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis stimulated less IFN-gamma mRNA than did the attenuated H37Ra strain. In this study, we successfully expressed and characterized recombinant gpIFN-gamma with a histidine tag at the N terminus (His-tagged rgpIFN-gamma) in Escherichia coli. rgpIFN-gamma was identified as an 18-kDa band in the insoluble fraction; therefore, the protein was purified under denaturing conditions and renatured. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the recombinant protein yielded the sequence corresponding to the N terminus of His-tagged gpIFN-gamma. The recombinant protein upregulated major histocompatibility complex class II expression in peritoneal macrophages. The antiviral activity of rgpIFN-gamma was demonstrated with a guinea pig fibroblast cell line (104C1) infected with encephalomyocarditis virus. Interestingly, peritoneal macrophages treated with rgpIFN-gamma did not produce any nitric oxide but did produce hydrogen peroxide and suppressed the intracellular growth of mycobacteria. Furthermore, rgpIFN-gamma induced morphological alterations in cultured macrophages. Thus, biologically active rgpIFN-gamma has been successfully produced and characterized in our laboratory. The study of rgpIFN-gamma will further increase our understanding of the cellular and molecular responses induced by BCG vaccination in the guinea pig model of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  10. High concentrations of thiosulfate in scala tympani perilymph after systemic administration in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Pernilla Videhult; Engmér, Cecilia; Wallin, Inger; Laurell, Göran; Ehrsson, Hans

    2009-02-01

    High concentrations of the antioxidant thiosulfate reach scala tympani perilymph after i.v. administration in the guinea pig. Thiosulfate concentrations in perilymph remain elevated longer than in blood. This warrants further studies on the possibility of obtaining otoprotection by thiosulfate administration several hours before that of cisplatin without compromising the anticancer effect caused by cisplatin inactivation in the blood compartment. Thiosulfate may reduce cisplatin-induced ototoxicity, presumably by oxidative stress relief and formation of inactivate platinum complexes. This study aimed to explore to what extent thiosulfate reaches scala tympani perilymph after systemic administration in the guinea pig. Scala tympani perilymph (1 microl) was aspirated from the basal turn of each cochlea up to 3 h after thiosulfate administration (103 mg/kg b.w., i.v.). Blood samples were also taken. Thiosulfate was quantified by HPLC and fluorescence detection. Substantial thiosulfate concentrations were found in perilymph. The area under the concentration-time curve for thiosulfate in perilymph and blood was 3100 microMxmin and 6300 microMxmin, respectively. The highest thiosulfate concentrations in perilymph were found at the first sampling at about 10 min. Due to a more rapid elimination from blood, perilymph concentrations exceeded those of blood towards the end of the experiment.

  11. Criação intensiva de suínos em confinamento ou ao ar livre: estudo meta-analítico do desempenho zootécnico nas fases de crescimento e terminação e avaliação de carcaça e carne no Longissimus dorsi Intensive pig production in confinement or outdoor systems: a meta-analytical study of the production performance in the growing and finishing phases and carcass and meat evaluation from the Longissimus dorsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Bogoni Demori

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Uma meta-análise foi realizada para avaliar o desempenho e a qualidade de carcaça e carne de suínos em função do sistema de alojamento nas fases de crescimento/terminação. Foram selecionadas publicações indexadas com resultados de experimentos comparando variáveis de desempenho e de pós-abate de suínos alojados em sistemas intensivos convencionais ou ao ar livre. A base de dados contemplou 27 artigos publicados entre 1997 e 2009. Ao total, foram considerados 2.985 animais e 701 médias na análise de dados. A meta-análise foi realizada através de duas análises sequenciais: gráfica e de variância-covariância. O sistema de criação de suínos ao ar livre aumentou em 9% (P0,05 pelo sistema de alojamento dos suínos. Concluiu-se que o sistema de criação influencia no desempenho dos suínos, mas não interfere nas características de carcaça e carne estudadas.A meta-analysis was carried out to study performance and characteristics of carcass and meat in pigs in function of housing system during the growing/finishing period. Indexed publications with results of experiments comparing performance and post-slaughter variables of pigs housed in outdoor or conventional intensive systems were selected. In total, 2.985 animals and 701 averages were considered in the data analysis. Meta-analysis followed two sequential analyses: graphic and variance. The outdoor productive system increased in 9% (P0.05 by the housing system. It is concluded that the housing system influences the pig performance, but does not interfere in characteristics of carcass and meat.

  12. Programming Pig

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  13. The design of system for operative planning of blast furnace production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malindžák Dušan

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A system for operative planning of blast furnace production process is described in the paper. The suggested system is based on the use of a new hierarchy of operative plans, consisting of one-month plan, (7+3 days plan, and 24-hour plan. The system allows smoothing of production process at the blast furnace plant, and at the same time satisfies all requirements of the steel plant regarding to the amount of pig iron.

  14. Survey among Belgian pig producers about the introduction of group housing systems for gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyttens, F A M; Van Gansbeke, S; Ampe, B

    2011-03-01

    There is a global move from individual to group housing of gestating sows. In the European Union, individual gestating stalls will be banned by 2013. Just like in other industrialized regions, these stalls have been the standard housing system for intensively kept sows from the 1960s onward in the Flemish region of Belgium. Because the socioeconomic consequences for the pig industry may be far-reaching and because farmer attitude may influence the realization of the hoped-for improvement in animal welfare in practice, we conducted a survey from 2003 until 2009 among representative samples of Flemish pig producers every 2 yr. The share of farms with group housing increased from 10.5% in 2003 to 29.8% in 2007, but then dropped to 24.6% in 2009. It appears that after 2005 users of old group housing systems in particular stopped farming. Because sow herd size increased more on farms with vs. without group housing and because the proportion of the herd that was group-housed also tended to increase between 2003 to 2009, the change to group housing took place faster when expressed at the level of the sow (from 9.1% in 2003 to 34.1% in 2009) instead of farm. The percentage of farmers planning to convert to group housing within 2 yr was 4.1% in 2003, and 6 to 7% thereafter. These were typically young farmers (P = 0.006) with a large sow herd (P manual feed delivery. User satisfaction was generally high but depended on whether or not all gestating sows were kept in group (P importance of economic reasons (P = 0.007) and type of labor (P = 0.043) decreased with the age of the system. In 2003 and 2005 the main reason for not having converted to group housing was that farmers would stop keeping sows by 2013. In 2007 and 2009 the reasons mainly concerned uncertainty about the future and maximally delaying the conversion. Belgium is one of the European Union countries where the pig industry is expected to undergo drastic changes during the few years remaining before the ban on

  15. Evaluation of in situ valine production by Bacillus subtilis in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, J V; Canibe, N; Soumeh, E A; Jensen, B B; Nielsen, B; Derkx, P; Cantor, M D; Blaabjerg, K; Poulsen, H D

    2016-11-01

    Mutants of Bacillus subtilis can be developed to overproduce Val in vitro. It was hypothesized that addition of Bacillus subtilis mutants to pig diets can be a strategy to supply the animal with Val. The objective was to investigate the effect of Bacillus subtilis mutants on growth performance and blood amino acid (AA) concentrations when fed to piglets. Experiment 1 included 18 pigs (15.0±1.1 kg) fed one of three diets containing either 0.63 or 0.69 standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val : Lys, or 0.63 SID Val : Lys supplemented with a Bacillus subtilis mutant (mutant 1). Blood samples were obtained 0.5 h before feeding and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after feeding and analyzed for AAs. In Experiment 2, 80 piglets (9.1±1.1 kg) were fed one of four diets containing 0.63 or 0.67 SID Val : Lys, or 0.63 SID Val : Lys supplemented with another Bacillus subtilis mutant (mutant 2) or its parent wild type. Average daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured on days 7, 14 and 21. On day 17, blood samples were taken and analyzed for AAs. On days 24 to 26, six pigs from each dietary treatment were fitted with a permanent jugular vein catheter, and blood samples were taken for AA analysis 0.5 h before feeding and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after feeding. In experiment 1, Bacillus subtilis mutant 1 tended (PBacillus subtilis mutant 2 and the wild type did not result in a growth performance different from the negative and positive controls. In conclusion, results obtained with the mutant strains of Bacillus subtilis were not better than results obtained with the wild-type strain, and for both strains, the results were not different than the negative control.

  16. Modeling Novo Nordisk Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1997-01-01

    This report describes attributes of models and systems, and how models can be used for description of production systems. There are special attention on the 'Theory of Domains'.......This report describes attributes of models and systems, and how models can be used for description of production systems. There are special attention on the 'Theory of Domains'....

  17. Swine production characteristics and management systems of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, ectoparasites of importance in the study areas were ticks, lice and mange. Smallholder farmers practised semi-intensive system of management where pigs usually scavenge for food and supplemented with cereal brans, kitchen wastes and vegetables. Farmers provide housing and veterinary services to enhance ...

  18. Herd-specific interventions to reduce antimicrobial usage in pig production without jeopardising technical and economic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collineau, L; Rojo-Gimeno, C; Léger, A; Backhans, A; Loesken, S; Nielsen, E Okholm; Postma, M; Emanuelson, U; Beilage, E Grosse; Sjölund, M; Wauters, E; Stärk, K D C; Dewulf, J; Belloc, C; Krebs, S

    2017-09-01

    Pig farmers are strongly encouraged to reduce their antimicrobial usage in order to reduce the risk of antimicrobial resistance. Herd-level intervention is needed to achieve national and European reduction targets. Alternative, especially preventive measures, have to be implemented to reduce the need for antimicrobial treatments. However, little is known about the feasibility, effectiveness and return on investment of such measures. The objective of this study was to assess, across four countries, the technical and economic impact of herd-specific interventions aiming at reducing antimicrobial usage in pig production while implementing alternative measures. An intervention study was conducted between February 2014 and August 2015 in 70 farrow-to-finish pig farms located in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden. Herd-specific interventions were defined together with the farmer and the herd veterinarian. Farms were followed over one year and their antimicrobial usage and technical performance were compared with values from the year before intervention. Compliance with the intervention plan was also monitored. Changes in margin over feed cost and net farm profit were estimated in a subset of 33 Belgian and French farms with sufficient data, using deterministic and stochastic modeling. Following interventions, a substantial reduction in antimicrobial use was achieved without negative impact the overall farm technical performance. A median reduction of 47.0% of antimicrobial usage was achieved across four countries when expressed in terms of treatment incidence from birth to slaughter, corresponding to a 30.5% median reduction of antimicrobial expenditures. Farm compliance with intervention plans was high (median: 93%; min-max: 20; 100) and farms with higher compliance tended to achieve bigger reduction (ρ=-0.18, p=0.162). No association was found between achieved reduction and type or number of alternative measures implemented. Mortality in suckling piglets, weaners and

  19. Evaluation of in situ valine production by Bacillus subtilis in young pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Canibe, Nuria; Assadi Soumeh, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Mutants of Bacillus subtilis can be developed to overproduce Val in vitro. It was hypothesized that addition of Bacillus subtilis mutants to pig diets can be a strategy to supply the animal with Val. The objective was to investigate the effect of Bacillus subtilis mutants on growth performance...... and blood amino acid (AA) concentrations when fed to piglets. Experiment 1 included 18 pigs (15.0±1.1 kg) fed one of three diets containing either 0.63 or 0.69 standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val : Lys, or 0.63 SID Val : Lys supplemented with a Bacillus subtilis mutant (mutant 1). Blood samples were...... obtained 0.5 h before feeding and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after feeding and analyzed for AAs. In Experiment 2, 80 piglets (9.1±1.1 kg) were fed one of four diets containing 0.63 or 0.67 SID Val : Lys, or 0.63 SID Val : Lys supplemented with another Bacillus subtilis mutant (mutant 2) or its parent wild...

  20. Intact nitric oxide production is obligatory for the sustained flow response during hypercapnic acidosis in guinea pig heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Anke; Koch, Thea; Deussen, Andreas

    2005-04-01

    The mechanisms underlying hypercapnic coronary dilation remain unsettled. This study tests the hypothesis that flow dependent NO production is obligatory for the hypercapnic flow response. In isolated, constant pressure (CP) perfused guinea pig hearts a step change of arterial pCO(2) from 38.6 to 61.4 mm Hg induced a bi-phasic flow response with an early transient (maximum 60 s) and a consecutive persisting flow rise (121.6+/-6.6 (S.D.) % after 10 min). In contrast, when perfused with constant flow (CF), perfusion pressure only transiently (2 min) fell by 7.4+/-4.8 % following the step change of arterial pCO(2). In CP perfused hearts L-NAME (100 micromol/l) specifically abolished the delayed flow rise during hypercapnic acidosis (102.37+/-2.9% after 10 min), whereas the inhibitor had no effect on perfusion pressure response in CF perfused hearts. Under CP perfusion arterial hypercapnia resulted in a transient rise of coronary cGMP release (from 0.69+/-0.35 to 1.12+/-0.68 pmol/ml), which was abolished after L-NAME. Surprisingly, the K(+)ATP channel blocker glibenclamide did not have any significant effect on the hypercapnic flow response but largely blunted reactive hyperemia after a 20 s flow stop. The delayed steady state hypercapnic flow response in guinea pig heart requires intact NO production. The absence of a persisting decrease in coronary resistance under CF perfusion points to an important role of shear stress dependent NO production.

  1. Production Systems and Supplier Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedraza-Acosta, Isabel; Pilkington, Alan; Barnes, David

    2016-01-01

    strategic stamping suppliers. Findings: Our contribution is the multi-phased production and product innovation process. This is an advance from traditional supplier selection and also an extension of ideas of supplier-located product development as it includes production system development, and complements...

  2. Investment and export opportunities in a sustainable pig supply chain in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoste, R.; Hu, D.; Tolkamp, J.

    2013-01-01

    Given the increasing average income of the Chinese consumer, increasing awareness of food safety and giant performance arrears there is a large need for investments in the entire pig supply chain. The Netherlands can contribute to a more sustainable Chinese pig production system, both by exporting

  3. Glucagon-like peptides GLP-1 and GLP-2, predicted products of the glucagon gene, are secreted separately from pig small intestine but not pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1986-01-01

    We developed specific antibodies and RIAs for glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2), two predicted products of the glucagon gene, and studied the occurrence, nature, and secretion of immunoreactive GLP-1 and GLP-2 in pig pancreas and small intestine. Immunoreactive GLP-1 and GLP-2 were...

  4. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in major and candidate genes for production traits in Nero Siciliano pig breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Zumbo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nero Siciliano (NS; Sicilian Black is a local pig breed reared on the island of Sicily mainly under extensive management.The breed is well adapted to marginal conditions and is appreciated for its reproductive performance, disease resistanceand production of tasty meat. For a genetic characterization of this breed we analyzed the allele frequencies of singlenucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in eight major or candidate genes (ryanodine receptor 1, RYR1; Na+, K+ ATPase subunitα 2, ATP1A2; myosin heavy chain 2B, MYH4; sarcolipin, SLN; cathepsin B, CTSB; cystatin B, CSTB; estrogen receptor,ESR; melanocortin receptor 1, MC1R for performance and phenotypic traits. The animals that were sampled andanalyzed represent about 6-8% of the total NS pig population. PCR-RFLP or PCR-SSCP techniques were used to type theDNA markers in the selected loci. Exact test of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was computed for each locus, Fis statisticsand heterozygosity were calculated for each locus and over all loci. Allele frequencies obtained in NS breed were comparedto the frequencies already available in literature for the Large White, Landrace, Duroc, Belgian Landrace, Piétrain,Hampshire and Meishan breeds. For the ESR locus, as no information on the distribution of the two alleles were available,we typed a sample of unrelated pigs from the considered breeds.Even if only eight loci were studied in NS breed, important elements were obtained from the data. The 1843T (n alleleat the RYR1 locus is present in NS breed, thus the molecular test to identify the carriers of this allele should be adoptedto avoid its spreading in the population. Moreover, other studies are needed to clarify the allelic structure of the MC1Rgene, which affects coat color, in order to evaluate if this gene could be used in genetic tests for the traceability of themeat products of this breed. Finally, the present work represents an attempt to evaluate data on mutations within majorand candidate genes

  5. Detection of systemic hypersensitivity to drugs using standard guinea pig assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, James L; Staten, David; Swann, Joslyn; Armstrong, George; Bates, Melissa; Hastings, Kenneth L

    2003-12-01

    The most commonly used assays designed to detect either skin or systemic immune-based hypersensitivity reactions are those using guinea pigs (GP). We obtained data from various FDA records to evaluate the correlation between GP assay results and reported post-marketing systemic hypersensitivity reactions. We examined the new drug application (NDA) reviews of approved drugs for the results of GP assays. Post-marketing human data were extracted from the FDA adverse event reporting system (AERS). Drug usage data were obtained from a commercial database maintained by IMS Health Inc. We found 83 (21%) of 396 drugs approved between 1978 and 1998 had reported GP test results. Among these 83 drugs, 14 (17%) were found to have positive results in at least one GP assay. Simple reporting index (RI) values for systemic hypersensitivity reactions were calculated from AERS data and usage to produce the index of adverse event reports per million shipping units of drug. A variety of definitions of positive human response were examined. A statistically significant association was seen for rash between post-marketing and clinical trials adverse event reports. No statistically significant associations between human data and GP test results were observed. These data suggest that standard GP assays have limited ability to predict human systemic hypersensitivity potential for pharmaceuticals.

  6. Accumulation of glycation products in. cap alpha. -H pig lens crystallin and its bearing to diabetic cataract genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, P; Cabezas-Cerrato, J

    1988-01-01

    The incorporation of /sup 11/C-glucose in native pig crystalline by in vitro incubation was found, after subsequent dialysis, to affect all 5 classes of crystallin separated by Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. Though the radioactivity of the ..cap alpha..-H fraction was three times greater than that of any of the others, autoradiographs of SDS-PAGE gels showed /sup 11/C-glucose adducts to be present in all soluble protein subunits, without there being any evidence of preferential glycation of the ..cap alpha..-H subunits. The concentration of stable glycation products in the ..cap alpha..-H chromatographic fraction of soluble crystallins is suggested to be due the addition of glycated material to this fraction as result of glycation-induced hyperaggregation, and not because the ..cap alpha..-H subunits were especially susceptible to glycation.

  7. Hydroxyl radicals' production and ECG parameters during ischemia and reperfusion in rat, guinea pig and rabbit isolated heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulova, Hana; Stracina, Tibor; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Novakova, Marie; Taborska, Eva

    2013-06-01

    Ischemic and reperfusion injury is a serious condition related to numerous biochemical and electrical abnormalities of the myocardium. It has been repeatedly studied in various animal models. In this study, the production of hydroxyl radicals and electrophysiological parameters were compared in three species. Rat, guinea pig and rabbit isolated hearts were perfused according to Langendorff under strictly identical conditions. The heart rate and arrhythmia were monitored during ischemia and reperfusion periods at defined time intervals; the production of hydroxyl radical was determined by HPLC as 2.5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2.5-DHBA) formed by salicylic acid hydroxylation. Relationship between arrhythmias and production of 2.5-DHBA was studied. The inter-species differences were observed in timing of arrhythmias onset and their severity, and in the production of 2.5-DHBA in both ischemia and reperfusion. The most considerable changes were observed in rats, where arrhythmias appeared early and with highest severity during ischemia on one side and the regular rhythm was restored early and completely during reperfusion. The corresponding changes in the production of 2.5-DHBA were observed. It can be concluded that rat isolated heart is the most suitable model for evaluation of ischemia/reperfusion injury under given experimental conditions.

  8. Do the ban on use of anti-microbial growth promoter impact on technical change and the efficiency of slaughter-pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, Lartey; Otto, Lars; Jensen, Peter Vig

    2005-01-01

    infections, and in effect stimu-lated the utilization of feedstuff and reduced the mortality rate. However, fears for increas-ing bacteria resistance with subsequent health hazards for humans and livestock has lead to societal debates about the pros and cons of its use in livestock production. Antibiotic......This study aims at investigating the effects of the ban on the use of anti-microbial growth promoters in the production of “Finishing Pigs” for slaughter. We investigate if the ban on the use of anti-microbial growth promoters has for specialised pig-producers altered the productivity of inputs......, technical change and the efficiency of production. This paper complements an earlier paper that investigated the impact of the ban on weaned-pig produc-tion. Background: The study is motivated by the fact that antimicrobial growth promoters have been known world wide to protect livestock from bacteria...

  9. Products in fusion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henke, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the notion of a product of a normal subsystem with a p-subgroup as defined by Aschbacher (2011) [Asc11, Chapter 8]. In particular, we give a previously unknown, more transparent construction....

  10. Processed Products Database System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood products. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...

  11. Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotic treatment suppresses whole body urea production in neonatal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puiman, Patrycja; Stoll, Barbara; Mølbak, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether changes in the gut microbiota induced by clinically relevant interventions would impact the bioavailability of dietary amino acids in neonates. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of the gut microbiota in neonatal pigs receiving no treatment (control), intravenously...... administered antibiotics, or probiotics affects whole body nitrogen and amino acid turnover. We quantified whole body urea kinetics, threonine fluxes, and threonine disposal into protein, oxidation, and tissue protein synthesis with stable isotope techniques. Compared with controls, antibiotics reduced...... the number and diversity of bacterial species in the distal small intestine (SI) and colon. Antibiotics decreased plasma urea concentrations via decreased urea synthesis. Antibiotics elevated threonine plasma concentrations and turnover, as well as whole body protein synthesis and proteolysis. Antibiotics...

  12. Combustion products from various kinds of fibers: toxicological hazards from smoke exposure. [Guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betol, E.; Mari, F.; Orzalesi, G.; Volpato, I.

    1983-08-15

    The smoke exposure hazards during combustion of carbon and nitrogen-containing fibers were evaluated in guinea pigs intoxicated by gradual exposure to HCN and CO neo-formed from foam rubber, wool and PAN (Polyacrylonitrile). The most prominent result of our study was that the neo-formation of HCN from 1 g of PAN was 1500 ppm, much higher than from foam rubber and wool because of the presence of many -CN groups in the polymer chemical structure. This concentration of HCN is estimated to be lethal. Extrapolating this data, a lethal concentration of HCN could be obtained by burning 2 kg of PAN in an average sized living room. The above-mentioned 1 g of PAN was burned in a 15.6-liter combustion chamber.

  13. Nonrenewable Energy Cost and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of a “Pig-Biogas-Fish” System in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the energy savings and emission reductions of the present rural biogas system in China. The life cycle assessment (LCA method is used to analyze a “pig-biogas-fish” system in Jingzhou, Hubei Province, China. The nonrenewable energy cost and the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of the system, including the pigsty, the biogas digester, and the fishpond, are taken into account. The border definition is standardized because of the utilization of the database in this paper. The results indicate that the nonrenewable energy consumption intensity of the “pig-biogas-fish” system is 0.60 MJ/MJ and the equivalent CO2 emission intensity is 0.05 kg CO2-eq/MJ. Compared with the conventional animal husbandry system, the “pig-biogas-fish” system shows high renewability and GHG reduction benefit, which indicates that the system is a scientific and environmentally friendly chain combining energy and ecology.

  14. Alternative farrowing accommodation: welfare and economic aspects of existing farrowing and lactation systems for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, E M; Lawrence, A B; Edwards, S A

    2012-01-01

    There is growing societal pressure, expressed through government legislation and consumers' purchasing choices, to abolish livestock systems considered detrimental to farm animal welfare. Such systems include farrowing crates, which are behaviourally and physically restrictive for sows. Therefore, identifying less restrictive farrowing systems for commercial implementation has become an important focus of pig research. Despite numerous attempts to develop indoor alternatives to crates, there is as yet no universal acceptance of such systems at the commercial level. The primary concern is piglet survival, because often favourable figures are reported at the experimental level, but not replicated in commercial evaluation. Alternative farrowing systems should equal or surpass survival levels in conventional systems and perform consistently across a range of farm circumstances for widespread commercial implementation. In addition, it is important that alternatives consider ease of management, operator safety and economic sustainability. Utilising a large database of literature, 12 existing alternative indoor systems were identified and compared against each other, conventional crates and outdoor systems. An assessment of how well alternative systems satisfy the design criteria for meeting animals' biological needs was carried out by developing a welfare design index (WDI). The physical and financial performance of these systems was also evaluated and summarised. The derived WDI yielded values of 0.95 for conventional crates, with higher scores for commercial outdoor systems of 1.10 and indoor group farrowing or multi-suckling systems (e.g. Thorstensson = 2.20). However, the high total piglet mortality (23.7% ± s.e. 2.26) in indoor group systems compared with conventional crates (18.3% ± s.e. 0.63) and outdoor systems (17.0% ± s.e. 2.05), together with the added capital cost (92% more than conventional crates, 249% more than commercial outdoor huts), mainly as a

  15. Sodium nitrite induces acute central nervous system toxicity in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehler, Paul W.; Butt, Omer I. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Vascular Biology, Division of Hematology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); D' Agnillo, Felice, E-mail: felice.dagnillo@fda.hhs.gov [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Vascular Biology, Division of Hematology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Toxicological implications associated with the use of NaNO{sub 2} therapy to treat systemic cell-free Hb exposure are not well-defined. {yields} Systemic Hb exposure followed by NaNO{sub 2} infusion induces acute CNS toxicities in guinea pigs. {yields} These CNS effects were not reproduced by the infusion of cell-free Hb or NaNO{sub 2} alone. {yields} NaNO{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of cell-free Hb may play a causative role in the observed CNS changes. -- Abstract: Systemic cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) released via hemolysis disrupts vascular homeostasis, in part, through the scavenging of nitric oxide (NO). Sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) therapy can attenuate the hypertensive effects of Hb. However, the chemical reactivity of NaNO{sub 2} with Hb may enhance heme- or iron-mediated toxicities. Here, we investigate the effect of NaNO{sub 2} on the central nervous system (CNS) in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free Hb. Intravascular infusion of NaNO{sub 2}, at doses sufficient to alleviate Hb-mediated blood pressure changes, reduced the expression of occludin, but not zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) or claudin-5, in cerebral tight junctions 4 h after Hb infusion. This was accompanied by increased perivascular heme oxygenase-1 expression, neuronal iron deposition, increased astrocyte and microglial activation, and reduced expression of neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN). These CNS changes were not observed in animals treated with Hb or NaNO{sub 2} alone. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of nitrite salts to treat systemic Hb exposure may promote acute CNS toxicity.

  16. Sodium nitrite induces acute central nervous system toxicity in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, Paul W.; Butt, Omer I.; D'Agnillo, Felice

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Toxicological implications associated with the use of NaNO 2 therapy to treat systemic cell-free Hb exposure are not well-defined. → Systemic Hb exposure followed by NaNO 2 infusion induces acute CNS toxicities in guinea pigs. → These CNS effects were not reproduced by the infusion of cell-free Hb or NaNO 2 alone. → NaNO 2 -mediated oxidation of cell-free Hb may play a causative role in the observed CNS changes. -- Abstract: Systemic cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) released via hemolysis disrupts vascular homeostasis, in part, through the scavenging of nitric oxide (NO). Sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ) therapy can attenuate the hypertensive effects of Hb. However, the chemical reactivity of NaNO 2 with Hb may enhance heme- or iron-mediated toxicities. Here, we investigate the effect of NaNO 2 on the central nervous system (CNS) in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free Hb. Intravascular infusion of NaNO 2 , at doses sufficient to alleviate Hb-mediated blood pressure changes, reduced the expression of occludin, but not zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) or claudin-5, in cerebral tight junctions 4 h after Hb infusion. This was accompanied by increased perivascular heme oxygenase-1 expression, neuronal iron deposition, increased astrocyte and microglial activation, and reduced expression of neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN). These CNS changes were not observed in animals treated with Hb or NaNO 2 alone. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of nitrite salts to treat systemic Hb exposure may promote acute CNS toxicity.

  17. Comparative performance and microbial community of single-phase and two-phase anaerobic systems co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panichnumsin, P.; Ahring, B.K.; Nopharatana, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we illustrated the performance and microbial community of single- and two-phase systems anaerobically co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure. The results showed that the volatile solid reduction and biogas productivity of two-phase CSTR were 66 ± 4% and 2000 ± 210 ml l-1 d-1, while...... those of singlephase CSTR were 59 ± 1% and 1670 ± 60 ml l-1 d-1, respectively. Codigestion in two-phase CSTR gave higher 12% solid degradation and 25% methane production than single-phase CSTR. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA clone library revealed that the Bacteroidetes were the most abundant group......, followed by the Clostridia in singlephase CSTR. In hydrolysis/acidification reactor of two-phase system, the bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes, especially Clostridium, Eubacteriaceae and Lactobacillus were the dominant phylogenetic groups. Among the Archaea, Methanosaeta sp. was the exclusive...

  18. Methane content and potential of biogas' production by manure of pigs fed with corn or sorghum-based diets in different phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Adelia Pereira; Lucas Junior, Jorge de; Thomaz, Maria Cristina; Fukayama, Ellen Hatsumi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this trial was to value the methane content and potential of biogas' production by manure of pigs fed with corn or sorghum-based diets (energy's source) in different phases. The manures were daily collected, diluted in water and homogeneous. Were used 267 mL of influent with 6% total solids concentration for supply of continuous-flow laboratory anaerobic digesters, with 30 days of detention time (DT) and temperature of 35 deg C. The experiment was completely randomized design with 2 treatments (corn or sorghum) and 3 phases of growth (initial x growing x finishing) in 10 replications (anaerobic digesters). The methane contents by manure of pigs fed with corn were greater (p<0.01) than pigs fed with sorghum (65.19 and 67.32%) on the phases of growing and finishing, respectively. The most potential of biogas' production (0.181, 0.138 and 0.162 m{sup 3}/kg of manure) was with manure of pigs fed with corn on the phases of initial, growing and finishing, respectively (p<0.01). Considering all the phases, the most potential of biogas' production (p<0.01) was observed in the initial phase, in both treatments. (author)

  19. Performance of the macrophyte Lemna valdiviana in tertiary pig waste treatment and its contribution to the sustainability of swine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio R. Lapolli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to contribute to the sustainability of swine production by evaluating usage of the aquatic macrophyte Lemna valdiviana in the tertiary treatment of pig waste. Five assays (1 to 5 in triplicate were conducted using swine effluent with different COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand concentrations: 400, 550, 700, 850 and 1,000mg.L-1, respectively. The trial lasted for 21 days and the evaluated variables were: (a pollutant removal efficiency, (b biomass production and (c plant protein content under the different detention times of 7, 14 and 21 days. In general, assays 1 and 2 (CODs of 400 and 550mg.L-1 presented the best removal efficiencies under a detention time of 21 days. Regarding the purpose of both nutrient removal and production of high protein biomass, assay 3 (COD of 700mg.L-1 showed the best results under 14 days’ detention time (36.81% crude protein. It was established that the use of duckweeds in the tertiary swine waste treatment was able to provide a sustainable alternative regarding its advantages such as effluent polishing, minimization of environmental impact, and production of high protein feed.

  20. Genetics of residual feed intake in growing pigs: Relationships with production traits, and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintilan, R; Mérour, I; Brossard, L; Tribout, T; Dourmad, J Y; Sellier, P; Bidanel, J; van Milgen, J; Gilbert, H

    2013-06-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed ADFI and the ADFI predicted from production and maintenance requirements. The objectives of this study were to evaluate RFI as a selection criterion to improve feed efficiency and its potential to reduce N and P excretion in 4 pig breeds. Data were collected between 2000 and 2009 in French central test stations for 2 dam breeds [French Landrace (LR) and Large White (LWD)], and 2 sire breeds [Large White (LWS) and Piétrain (PP)]. Numbers of recorded pigs were 6407, 10,694, 2342, and 2448 for the LR, LWD, LWS, and PP breeds, respectively. All PP animals were genotyped for the halothane mutation. This data set was used to calculate RFI equations for each of the 4 breeds, and to estimate genetic parameters for RFI together with growth, carcass, and meat quality traits, and N and P excretion during the test period (35 to 110 kg BW). The RFI explained 20.1% in PP, 26.5% in LWS, 27.6% in LWD, and 29.5% in LR of the phenotypic variability of ADFI. The PP breed differed from the others in this respect, probably due to a lower impact of the variation of body composition on ADFI. Heritability estimates of RFI ranged from 0.21 ± 0.03 (LWD) to 0.33 ± 0.06 (PP) depending on the breed. Heritabilities of N and P excretion traits ranged from 0.29 ± 0.06 to 0.40 ± 0.06. The RFI showed positive genetic correlations with feed conversion ratio (FCR) and excretion traits, these correlations being greater in the sire breeds (from 0.57 to 0.86) than in the dam breeds (from 0.38 to 0.53). Compared with FCR, RFI had weaker genetic correlations with carcass composition, growth rate, and excretion traits. Estimates of genetic correlations between FCR and excretion traits were very close to 1 for all breeds. Finally, excretion traits were, at the genetic level, correlated positively with ADFI, negatively with growth rate and carcass leanness, whereas the halothane n mutation in PP was shown to reduce N and P

  1. Relationships between the H and A-O blood types, phosphohexose isomerase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase red cell enzyme systems and halothane sensitivity, and economic traits in a superior and an inferior selection line of swiss landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vögeli, P; Stranzinger, G; Schneebeli, H; Hagger, C; Künzi, N; Gerwig, C

    1984-12-01

    Associations between production traits and the genes for halothane sensitivity (HAL), S, A and H blood group systems and phosphohexose isomerase (PHI) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD) enzyme systems were investigated in two lines of pigs selected for an index. The phenotypic variance-covariance matrix of the index included backfat thickness and daily gain, whereas the genetic variance-covariance matrix included daily gain, feed conversion and percentage of lean meat. The experiment was conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Animal Production and has been underway since 1973. The same index was applied but in two opposite directions to give a superior and inferior line in relation to the production traits. One hundred twenty-nine animals of the superior line in the seventh generation and 88 animals of the inferior line in the sixth generation were studied. Forty-two percent (54/129) of the animals of the superior line were halothane-positive. No animals in the inferior line were halothane reactors. Of the halothane-positive pigs, 70.4% (38/54) in the superior line had the HaHa and 94.4% (51/54) had the SsSs genotype, whereas only 4% (3/75) of the HaHa and 12% (9/75) of the SsSs pigs were halothane-negative. By practicing selection at the H and S loci, it seems possible to efficiently reduce halothane sensitivity in Swiss Landrace pigs. In pigs of the superior line, there were significant differences in percentage of lean meat, carcass length, pH1 (pH value at 45 min to 1 h postmortem, M. longissimus) and reflectance values among genotypes of the HAL, S and H systems and among some genotypes of the 6-PGD system. Poorest meat quality, highest percentage of lean meat and shortest carcass length were observed in pigs homozygous for the alleles HALn, Ss, Ha, PHIB and 6-PGDA. In the inferior line, these associations were absent. As the HAL locus is associated with the above mentioned production traits, linkage disequilibria may explain the

  2. Assessment of the Contribution of Poultry and Pig Production to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in South Korea Over the Last 10 Years (2005 through 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waewaree Boontiam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to estimate the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG, namely methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, and carbon dioxide (CO2 from poultry and pig production in South Korea over the last 10 years (2005 through 2014. The calculations of GHG emissions were based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC guidelines. Over the study period, the CH4 emission from manure management decreased in layer chickens, nursery to finishing pigs and gestating to lactating sows, but there was a gradual increase in CH4 emission from broiler chickens and male breeding pigs. Both sows and nursery to finishing pigs were associated with greater emissions from enteric fermentation than the boars, especially in 2009. Layer chickens produced lower direct and indirect N2O emissions from 2009 to 2014, whereas the average direct and indirect N2O emissions from manure management for broiler chickens were 12.48 and 4.93 Gg CO2-eq/yr, respectively. Annual direct and indirect N2O emissions for broiler chickens tended to decrease in 2014. Average CO2 emission from direct on-farm energy uses for broiler and layer chickens were 46.62 and 136.56 Gg CO2-eq/yr, respectively. For pig sectors, the N2O emission from direct and indirect sources gradually increased, but they decreased for breeding pigs. Carbon dioxide emission from direct on-farm energy uses reached a maximum of 53.93 Gg CO2-eq/yr in 2009, but this total gradually declined in 2010 and 2011. For boars, the greatest CO2 emission occurred in 2012 and was 9.44 Gg CO2-eq/yr. Indirect N2O emission was the largest component of GHG emissions in broilers. In layer chickens, the largest contributing factor to GHG emissions was CO2 from direct on-farm energy uses. For pig production, the largest component of GHG emissions was CH4 from manure management, followed by CO2 emission from direct on-farm energy use and CH4 enteric fermentation emission, which accounted for 8.47, 2.85, and 2.82 Gg-CO2/yr

  3. Assessment of the Contribution of Poultry and Pig Production to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in South Korea Over the Last 10 Years (2005 through 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boontiam, Waewaree; Shin, Yongjin; Choi, Hong Lim; Kumari, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to estimate the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), namely methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) from poultry and pig production in South Korea over the last 10 years (2005 through 2014). The calculations of GHG emissions were based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. Over the study period, the CH4 emission from manure management decreased in layer chickens, nursery to finishing pigs and gestating to lactating sows, but there was a gradual increase in CH4 emission from broiler chickens and male breeding pigs. Both sows and nursery to finishing pigs were associated with greater emissions from enteric fermentation than the boars, especially in 2009. Layer chickens produced lower direct and indirect N2O emissions from 2009 to 2014, whereas the average direct and indirect N2O emissions from manure management for broiler chickens were 12.48 and 4.93 Gg CO2-eq/yr, respectively. Annual direct and indirect N2O emissions for broiler chickens tended to decrease in 2014. Average CO2 emission from direct on-farm energy uses for broiler and layer chickens were 46.62 and 136.56 Gg CO2-eq/yr, respectively. For pig sectors, the N2O emission from direct and indirect sources gradually increased, but they decreased for breeding pigs. Carbon dioxide emission from direct on-farm energy uses reached a maximum of 53.93 Gg CO2-eq/yr in 2009, but this total gradually declined in 2010 and 2011. For boars, the greatest CO2 emission occurred in 2012 and was 9.44 Gg CO2-eq/yr. Indirect N2O emission was the largest component of GHG emissions in broilers. In layer chickens, the largest contributing factor to GHG emissions was CO2 from direct on-farm energy uses. For pig production, the largest component of GHG emissions was CH4 from manure management, followed by CO2 emission from direct on-farm energy use and CH4 enteric fermentation emission, which accounted for 8.47, 2.85, and 2.82 Gg-CO2/yr, respectively. The

  4. Comparing validation of four ELISA-systems for detection of Salmonella derby- and Salmonella infantis-infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Uwe; Szabo, Istvan; Matthies, Claudia; Albrecht, Kerstin; Leffler, Martin; Scherer, Kathrin; Nöckler, Karsten; Lehmann, Jörg; Methner, Ulrich; Hensel, Andreas; Truyen, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was the comparative evaluation of four indirect Salmonella ELISA tests at study time approved in Germany to detect Salmonella infection in pigs.Three tests are based on a LPS-antigen mix and directed against specific IgG antibodies. The fourth test is based on a purified S. Typhimurium whole-cell lysate antigen and discriminates between Salmonella-specific IgM-, IgA-, and IgG- antibodies. In a longitudinal study, two groups of six weeks old hybrid piglets were orally infected with a porcine S. Infantis or S. Derby strain. Clinical and bacteriological parameters were monitored weekly during an observation period of 130 days after infection and serum samples were investigated in parallel with the respective ELISAs. Apparently, the LPS-based ELISA systems used in this study failed to recognize S. Infantis-infected pigs although those animals shed the pathogen in high amounts throughout the study until day 81 post infection (p. i.). In contrast, the isotype-specific Salmonella Typhimurium whole-cell-lysate based ELISA was capable of detecting Salmonella-infected pigs from day ten p. i. at all tested serotypes and revealed the highest sensitivity in detection of S. Infantis-infected pigs. Furthermore, it became apparent that the often used surveillance cut-off value of 40 OD% is not appropriate for intra-vitam detection of S. Infantis- and S. Derby-infected pigs. In contrast, the cut-off values of the ELISAs given by the suppliers result in considerable higher detection rates.

  5. Automated plant, production management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, V. I.; Belov, V. I.

    1984-12-01

    The development of a complex of tasks for the operational management of production (OUP) within the framework of an automated system for production management (ASUP) shows that it is impossible to have effective computations without reliable initial information. The influence of many factors involving the production and economic activity of the entire enterprise upon the plan and course of production are considered. It is suggested that an adequate model should be available which covers all levels of the hierarchical system: workplace, section (bridgade), shop, enterprise, and the model should be incorporated into the technological sequence of performance and there should be provisions for an adequate man machine system.

  6. Adrenomedullin stimulates cyclic AMP production in the airway epithelial cells of guinea-pigs and in the human epithelial cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kawaguchi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effects of adrenomedullin (AM on airway epithelial cells. Primary cultures of guinea-pig tracheal epithelial cells and the human bronchiolar epithelial cell line NCI-H441 were used. Intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, and stable end-products of nitric oxide were assayed. Adrenomedullin (10−6 mol/L stimulated cAMP production in guinea-pig epithelial cells. Indomethacin (10−5 mol/L significantly decreased the basal level of intracellular cAMP in guinea-pig epithelial cells, but not in NCI-H441 cells. However, AM did not stimulate production of PGE2, a major product that can increase cAMP formation. In the case of NCI-H441 cells, AM (10−8 – 10−6 mol/L did not significantly affect intracellular cGMP levels or nitrite content in conditioned medium. Adrenomedullin and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP each stimulated cAMP production in NCI-H441 cells, but AM-stimulated cAMP production was antagonized by the CGRP fragment CGRP8–37. These findings suggest that AM stimulates cAMP production and functionally competes with CGRP for binding sites in airway epithelial cells, at least in human epithelial cells, but that it does not stimulate the release of PGE2 and nitric oxide. Though cyclooxygenase products contribute to some extent to cAMP formation in guinea-pigs, AM independently stimulates intracellular cAMP formation in airway epithelial cells.

  7. GLOBAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The most significant transformations that globalization produces occur in production. Since the '60s, a new division of labor has made its presence felt in the world, arising from the "de-industrialization" of the developed and transfer production capacity of resource-intensive industries and pollutants from these countries to the developing world. "Dislocation" industry had the interim foreign direct investment made in the new industrialized countries, the latter becoming, in turn, sources of direct foreign investment, taking its capital in other countries in developing handsets. Currently, FDI destination is no longer a priority in developing countries, yet they are increasingly leaning towards the developed countries, due to the attractiveness offered by their economies.

  8. Streptococcus suis: a re-emerging pathogen associated with occupational exposure to pigs or pork products. Part II – Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a re-emerging zoonotic pathogen that may cause severe disease, mostly meningitis, in pigs and in humans having occupational contact with pigs and pork, such as farmers, slaughterhose workers and butchers. The first stage of the pathogenic process, similar in pigs and humans, is adherence to and colonisation of mucosal and/or epithelial surface(s of the host. The second stage is invasion into deeper tissue and extracellular translocation of bacterium in the bloodstream, either free in circulation or attached to the surface of monocytes. If S. suis present in blood fails to cause fatal septicaemia, it is able to progress into the third stage comprising penetration into host’s organs, mostly by crossing the blood-brain barrier and/or blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier to gain access to the central nervous system (CNS and cause meningitis. The fourth stage is inflammation that plays a key role in the pathogen esis of both systemic and CNS infections caused by S. suis . The pathogen may induce the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines that cause septic shock and/or the recruitment and activation of different leukocyte populations, causing acute inflammation of the CNS. Streptococcus suis can also evoke – through activation of microglial cells, astrocytes and possibly other cell types – a fulminant inflammatory reaction of the brain which leads to intracranial complications, including brain oedema, increased intracranial pressure, cerebrovascular insults, and deafness, as a result of cochlear sepsis. In all stages of the pathogenic process, S. suis interacts with many types of immunocompetent host’s cells, such as polymorphonuclear leukocytes, mononuclear macrophages, lymphocytes, dendritic cells and microglia, using a range of versatile virulence factors for evasion of the innate and adaptive immune defence of the host, and for overcoming environmental stress. It is estimated that S. suis produces more than

  9. Long-lasting effects of Early-life Antibiotic Treatment and routine Animal Handling on Gut Microbiota Composition and Immune System in Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, D.; Zhang, J.; Vastenhouw, S.A.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Smidt, H.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Smits, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In intensive pig husbandry systems, antibiotics are frequently administrated during early life stages to prevent respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract infections, often in combination with stressful handlings. The immediate effects of these treatments on microbial colonization and

  10. Effect of microscale ZVI/magnetite on methane production and bioavailability of heavy metals during anaerobic digestion of diluted pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yue-Gan; Li, Xiu-Juan; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Li-Gan; Cheng, Beijiu

    2017-05-01

    Low methane production and high levels of heavy metal in pig slurries limit the feasibility of anaerobic digestion of pig manure. In this study, changes in the methane production and bioavailability of heavy metals in the anaerobic digestion of diluted pig manure were evaluated using single and combined action of microscale zero-valence iron (ZVI) and magnetite. After 30 days of anaerobic digestion, the methane yield ranged from 246.9 to 334.5 mL/g VS added, which increased by 20-26% in the group added with microscale ZVI and/or magnetite relative to that in the control group. Results of the first-order kinetic model revealed that addition of microscale ZVI and/or magnetite increased the biogas production potential, rather than the biogas production rate constant. These treatments also changed the distribution of chemical fractions for heavy metal. The addition of ZVI decreased the bioavailability of Cu and Zn in the solid digested residues. Moreover, a better performance was observed in the combined action of microscale ZVI and magnetite, and the ZVI anaerobic corrosion end-product, magnetite, might help enhance methane production through direct interspecies electron transfer in ZVI-anaerobic digestion process.

  11. THE OCCURRENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ANTIBODIES IN BACKYARD PIGS AND CATS FROM AN ENDEMIC TROPICAL AREA OF MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Matilde Jimenez-Coello; Karla Y Acosta-Viana; Eugenia Guzman-Marín; Edwin J Gutierrez-ruiz; Roger I Rodriguez-Vivas; Manuel E Bolio-Gonzalez; Antonio Ortega-Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico, backyard animal production system is an important source of food for domestic consumption as in many other developing countries and is characterized by a virtually nonexistent sanitary management. With the objective to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors associated with antibodies against T. gondii in pigs and cats from an endemic area in the Mexican tropics, a cross-sectional study was performed in 30 backyard pigs and 50 cats. Pigs and cats were blood sampled and tested by a...

  12. Kiwifruit fibre level influences the predicted production and absorption of SCFA in the hindgut of growing pigs using a combined in vivo-in vitro digestion methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    Combined in vivo (ileal cannulated pig) and in vitro (faecal inoculum-based fermentation) digestion methodologies were used to predict the production and absorption of SCFA in the hindgut of growing pigs. Ileal and faecal samples were collected from animals (n 7) fed diets containing either 25 or 50 g/kg DM of kiwifruit fibre from added kiwifruit for 14 d. Ileal and faecal SCFA concentrations normalised for food DM intake (DMI) and nutrient digestibility were determined. Ileal digesta were collected and fermented for 38 h using a fresh pig faecal inoculum to predict SCFA production. The predicted hindgut SCFA production along with the determined ileal and faecal SCFA were then used to predict SCFA absorption in the hindgut and total tract organic matter digestibility. The determined ileal and faecal SCFA concentrations (e.g. 8·5 and 4·4 mmol/kg DMI, respectively, for acetic acid for the low-fibre diet) represented only 0·2-3·2 % of the predicted hindgut SCFA production (e.g. 270 mmol/kg DMI for acetic acid). Predicted production and absorption of acetic, butyric and propionic acids were the highest for the high-fibre diet (P0·05). In conclusion, determined ileal and faecal SCFA concentrations represent only a small fraction of total SCFA production, and may therefore be misleading in relation to the effect of diets on SCFA production and absorption. Considerable quantities of SCFA are produced and absorbed in the hindgut of the pig by the fermentation of kiwifruit.

  13. Such as pigs eat: the rise and fall of the pannage pig in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wealleans, Alexandra L

    2013-07-01

    Mast-feeding systems once formed the mainstay of pork production across Europe, but have now largely been forgotten. One of the earliest farming practices, it allowed people to fatten pigs on an otherwise wasted resource. Mast feeding was vital in the ancient world: Rome, Saxon England and the Normans all relied heavily on woodland pigs. As time and technology advanced, mast systems became outmoded and fell into disuse. However, recent public interest in improved animal welfare and sustainable agriculture, combined with anecdotal reports of improved flavour, has once again brought mast feeding into the spotlight. This article chronicles the changes in popularity and perception of mast-feeding systems throughout history, and uses the historical perspective to outline a possible future for woodland pigs. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Production control system specified quality sausage products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tokarev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of management of production target in technological system of production of sausages of the set quality is considered in article. Decomposition of technological system is considered. Functions of management are allocated: formation of an optimum compounding of forcemeat, expert analysis of a compounding, laboratory analysis of a compounding and its statement. Information technology of interaction of these functions is offered. The mathematical problem definition of finding of an optimum compounding meat product with use of possible substitutes of ingredients is presented. This mathematical problem is a classical linear programming problem whose solution has the standard program. Since the manufacture of the finished product are various nonlinear effects are taken into account at the present time it is practically impossible, the methodology provided in this operation "Expert analysis of the formulation" and "Laboratory analysis of the finished product." An example of calculating the optimum alternative base recipe "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002. For an alternative formulation demands were made at a cost of meat, the ingredient composition, as well as the final product organoleptic and physic-chemical indicators should comply with regulatory requirements "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002. Indicator acid activity (pH calculated stuffing formulation should be in the range 6.0-6.3. As a partial replacement for the main raw material have been proposed acceptable substitutes. It was necessary to calculate on the basis of the formulation "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002 optimal price and quality alternative formulation. As a result of depreciation of the value of alternative stuffing recipe was 14,5 % when all of the restrictions on the consumer properties. The proposed information technology implemented in the software package "Multi

  15. Voluntary ban on cephalosporin use in Danish pig production has effectively reduced extended-spectrum cephalosporinase-producing Escherichia coli in slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2013-01-01

    . For detection of ESC-producing E. coli, three sampling types were included: at slaughter, caecal samples were collected from pigs in 2009 and 2010 (June) before and in two periods (2010 and 2011) after a voluntary ban on cephalosporins was effected (July 2010); at farm level, pools of five stool samples from...... different pigsties were collected in 2010 and in 2011; and samples from pork were collected randomly at retail stores and outlets from 2009 to 2011. ESC-producing E. coli was isolated after selective enrichment in MacConkey broth with 1 mg/L ceftriaxone. ESC genes were detected using PCR, microtube array...

  16. Cooled Water Production System,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invention refers to the field of air conditioning and regards an apparatus for obtaining cooled water . The purpose of the invention is to develop...such a system for obtaining cooled water which would permit the maximum use of the cooling effect of the water -cooling tower.

  17. Evaluation of the air quality in pig housing facilities equipped with a liquid-solid separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, J.; Beaudet, Y.; Letourneau, C.; Godbout, S.; Lemay, S.; Belzile, M.; Lachance, I.; Pouliot, F.

    2006-01-01

    A new regulation regarding agricultural operations in Quebec was passed in June 2002. It stated the new standards for managing phosphorous generated from animal livestock. The regulation is intended to protect the environment, more specifically, water, soil and air quality. This new regulation stipulates that agricultural producers acquire a balanced phosphorous assessment by 2010. In order to achieve this, a system is needed to separate solid and liquid pig manure on a daily basis. Producers must also comply with environmental requirements on odour elimination and atmospheric control. The proposed solid-liquid separation system would improve the indoor and outdoor air quality at pig housing facilities by reducing toxic gas and bioaerosol formation. In addition, it would contribute to stream purification. The solid-liquid separation technique was successfully tested in a pilot project at a mini pig housing facility. It was concluded that type of separation equipment system could readily used for other types of animal farming, such as cattle raising. 41 refs., 13 tabs., 12 figs

  18. The system Around the Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

          The design discipline has traditionally focused on products physical aspects, giving for granted that the context of services, infrastructures and technology will support the product life. A systemic perspective would revise such a focus, in order to project design competences over systemic...... aspects usually neglected by designers. This perspective shift is a challenge for designers, who have very efficient methods and tools to handle physical aspects of product design, but need to define an ?operative paradigm? to operate in a systemic context. An operative paradigm consists of a set of tools...... and methods to handle immaterial aspects such as time sequences, actors? role and logical links in a product service system (PSS). Tools and methods can be borrowed from other disciplinary contexts, their relevance, though, derives from their adaptation to this specific study area: designing in a systemic...

  19. Antibiotic use in Brazilian broiler and pig production: an indication and forecast of trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokma-Bakker, M.H.; Bondt, N.; Neijenhuis, F.; Mevius, D.J.; Ruiter, S.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight in antibiotic use in relation to imported products the current use of antibiotics in pork and broiler production in Brazil are identified and trend forecasting of antibiotic use in the coming 3-5 years is performed.

  20. [Use of new immunoglobulin isotype-specific ELISA-systems to detect Salmonella infections in pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Joachim; Alt, Michael; Trepnau, Daniela; Lehmann, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    In Germany, the program for controlling salmonella infections in pigs is based on tests detecting salmonella-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced antibodies in meat-juice or blood. These conventional tests which are based on the technology of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detect exclusively or mainly immunoglobulin(lg)G antibodies. Meanwhile, novel ELISA systems (WCE-ELISA, 3-Isotype-Screening-ELISA) have been developed, which additionally detect the antibody classes IgM and IgA.This fact enables the registration of fresh salmonella infections (starting with day 5 p.i.) and thus, the distinction between early and older infections. The results show that animals with early salmonella infections appear significantly more often in herds with a high than with a low prevalence. With the newly developed tests this group of animals can be detected much more efficiently and precisely than with the tests used so far. Due to their clearly improved sensitivity the application of the WCE-ELISA and the 3-Isotype-Screening-ELISA in terms of the QS-Salmonella-Monitoring program can therefore significantly improve the selection of farms with potential salmonella excretors. Additionally, the WCE-ELISA can be applied very suitable for the examination of individual animals.

  1. An assessment of soybeans and other vegetable proteins as source of salmonella contamination in pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häggblom Per

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of salmonella contaminated feed ingredients on the risk for spreading salmonella to pigs was assessed in response to two incidences when salmonella was spread by feed from two feed mills to 78 swine producing herds. Methods The assessment was based on results from the salmonella surveillance of feed ingredients before introduction to feed mills and from HACCP - based surveillance of the feed mills. Results from the mills of the Company (A that produced the salmonella contaminated feed, were by the Chi. Square test compared to the results from all the other (B - E feed producers registered in Sweden. Isolated serovars were compared to serovars from human cases of salmonellosis. Results Salmonella (28 serovars was frequently isolated from imported consignments of soybean meal (14.6% and rape seed meal (10.0%. Company A largely imported soybean meal from crushing plants with a history of unknown or frequent salmonella contamination. The risk for consignments of vegetable proteins to be salmonella contaminated was 2.4 times (P Conclusions Salmonella contaminated feed ingredients are an important source for introducing salmonella into the feed and food chain. Effective HACCP-based control and associated corrective actions are required to prevent salmonella contamination of feed. Efforts should be taken to prevent salmonella contamination already at the crushing plants. This is challenge for the EU - feed industry due to the fact that 98% of the use of soybean/meal, an essential feed ingredient, is imported from crushing plants of third countries usually with an unknown salmonella status.

  2. Genotype by environment interaction for carcass traits and intramuscular fat content in heavy Iberian pigs fattened in two different free-range systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. García Casco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Genotype by environment interaction (G×E is a potential source of reduced efficiency in genetic improvement programs in livestock. The objective of the current work consisted of checking the existence of G×E interaction in carcass traits and in intramuscular fat content (IMF in Iberian pigs fattened in two free-range systems. Genetic component and estimated breeding values (EBV of the percentage of hams, shoulders and loins and IMF in loin were obtained from records of 4,348 and 1,818 pigs fattened in campo (C and montanera (M systems, respectively. A multitrait model where the performances of each system are considered as different traits was implemented. Three selection indexes were built with different treatments about the quality trait, two of them based in the optimal trait theory. The Pearson correlation between EBV and indexes and the Spearman correlation between the rankings of progenies of 21 boars fattened in both systems were calculated. Heritability results were different in both systems (h2 range from 0.43 to 0.66 and from 0.24 to 0.33 in C and M system, respectively and genetic correlation of same traits expressed in the two systems also pointed out to a weak G×E interaction (0.64, 0.67 and 0.66 in hams, shoulders and IMF, respectively. Pearson and Spearman correlations were always significantly different to 1. The obtained results advised to consider this G×E interaction in the analysis model of a breeding program focused on free range production system and to include IMF in the index selection assuming an optimum range for this quality trait, in order to avoid negative effects of selection for carcass performances.

  3. Effects of Xingbi gel on leukotriene E4 and immunoglobulin E production and nasal eosinophilia in a guinea pig model for allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Si; Zheng, Jian; Chu, Ke-Dan; Zhang, Hong-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the nasal airways.Many therapies do not have immediate effects,even which have side-effects.However,the effects of Xingbi gel for the treatment of AR was investigated. We investigated the effects of Xingbi gel on serum levels of leukotriene E4 (LTE4) and immunoglobulin E (IgE), as well as eosinophil counts in the nasal mucosa using a guinea pig model of allergic rhinitis (AR). In addition to a healthy control group without AR, guinea pigs with AR were randomly divided into untreated AR control group, low-dose Xingbi gel (0.2483 g/mL) group, high-dose Xingbi gel (0.4966 g/mL) group, and budesonide group. Compared to the healthy controls, untreated AR guinea pigs had significantly higher ethology scores, serum LTE4 and IgE levels, and nasal mucosa eosinophil counts (p guinea pigs (p production and reducing eosinophilia in the nasal mucosa.

  4. Quantitative approach for the risk assessment of African swine fever and Classical swine fever introduction into the United States through legal imports of pigs and swine products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Herrera-Ibatá

    Full Text Available The US livestock safety strongly depends on its capacity to prevent the introduction of Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs. Therefore, accurate and updated information on the location and origin of those potential TADs risks is essential, so preventive measures as market restrictions can be put on place. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the current risk of African swine fever (ASF and Classical swine fever (CSF introduction into the US through the legal importations of live pigs and swine products using a quantitative approach that could be later applied to other risks. Four quantitative stochastic risk assessment models were developed to estimate the monthly probabilities of ASF and CSF release into the US, and the exposure of susceptible populations (domestic and feral swine to these introductions at state level. The results suggest a low annual probability of either ASF or CSF introduction into the US, by any of the analyzed pathways (5.5*10-3. Being the probability of introduction through legal imports of live pigs (1.8*10-3 for ASF, and 2.5*10-3 for CSF higher than the risk of legally imported swine products (8.90*10-4 for ASF, and 1.56*10-3 for CSF. This could be caused due to the low probability of exposure associated with this type of commodity (products. The risk of feral pigs accessing to swine products discarded in landfills was slightly higher than the potential exposure of domestic pigs through swill feeding. The identification of the months at highest risk, the origin of the higher risk imports, and the location of the US states most vulnerable to those introductions (Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin for live swine and California, Florida and Texas for swine products, is valuable information that would help to design prevention, risk-mitigation and early-detection strategies that would help to minimize the catastrophic consequences of potential ASF/CSF introductions into the US.

  5. The SPOOKI post production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, M.; Klasa, M.; Fortier, S.; Fortin, F.; Hardy, G.; Pelletier, L.; Edouard, S.; Archambault, B.; Yazidi, H.

    2010-09-01

    The Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) delivers a large number of numerical weather prediction products to the various weather offices and clients throughout Canada and abroad. The current post production system was built according to the needs and ideology of the 1980's and it is becoming obsolete with time. Its cumbersome architecture is difficult to maintain and requires a lot of human and computing resources. The "Weather Elements" section of CMC is aware of the problems associated with its maintenance in the long term and has therefore decided to review in depth the whole approach to the operational post production. The analysis of present and future needs have led to the development of an innovative concept in the operational production field inspired by the "Plug and Play" process. SPOOKI (Système de Production Orienté-Objet contennant une Kyrielle d'Informations - Object oriented production system containing a myriad of information) was created in its present form in 2007. It is based on a modular approach where each plug-in component is specialized, reusable and autonomous. These object oriented programming characteristics greatly simplify the maintenance of the system. Particular attention was also given to create a user-friendly system for novice users. An experimental version of SPOOKI is currently running in development mode and an operational one is planned to be implemented in the coming year. The poster presentation will describe SPOOKI, the future CMC operational post production system. Several examples of usage will be shown.

  6. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  7. Nutritional value of high fiber co-products from the copra, palm kernel, and rice industries in diets fed to pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Hans Henrik; Casas, Gloria Amparo; Abelilla, Jerubella Jerusalem; Liu, Yanhong; Sulabo, Rommel Casilda

    2015-01-01

    High fiber co-products from the copra and palm kernel industries are by-products of the production of coconut oil and palm kernel oil. The co-products include copra meal, copra expellers, palm kernel meal, and palm kernel expellers. All 4 ingredients are very high in fiber and the energy value is relatively low when fed to pigs. The protein concentration is between 14 and 22 % and the protein has a low biological value and a very high Arg:Lys ratio. Digestibility of most amino acids is less than in soybean meal but close to that in corn. However, the digestibility of Lys is sometimes low due to Maillard reactions that are initiated due to overheating during drying. Copra and palm kernel ingredients contain 0.5 to 0.6 % P. Most of the P in palm kernel meal and palm kernel expellers is bound to phytate, but in copra products less than one third of the P is bound to phytate. The digestibility of P is, therefore, greater in copra meal and copra expellers than in palm kernel ingredients. Inclusion of copra meal should be less than 15 % in diets fed to weanling pigs and less than 25 % in diets for growing-finishing pigs. Palm kernel meal may be included by 15 % in diets for weanling pigs and 25 % in diets for growing and finishing pigs. Rice bran contains the pericarp and aleurone layers of brown rice that is removed before polished rice is produced. Rice bran contains approximately 25 % neutral detergent fiber and 25 to 30 % starch. Rice bran has a greater concentration of P than most other plant ingredients, but 75 to 90 % of the P is bound in phytate. Inclusion of microbial phytase in the diets is, therefore, necessary if rice bran is used. Rice bran may contain 15 to 24 % fat, but it may also have been defatted in which case the fat concentration is less than 5 %. Concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) are slightly less in full fat rice bran than in corn, but defatted rice bran contains less than 75 % of the DE and ME in

  8. Essays on pig production efficiency and farmers' financial decisions under uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Labajova, Katarina.

    2018-01-01

    Recent structural changes in agricultural production towards fewer, but larger, units pose challenges for farmers in decision making about practical production and about managerial practices to increase efficiency, which are vital for farm productivity and profitability. In studies using mathematical programming and econometric models, this thesis evaluated farm-specific characteristics related to the individual technical efficiency (TE) of each input and output factor and of managerial chara...

  9. Production of Pigs by Hand-Made Cloning Using Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenzhen; Vajta, Gábor; Xu, Ying; Luan, Jing; Lin, Mufei; Liu, Cong; Tian, Jianing; Dou, Hongwei; Li, Yong; Liu, Tianbin; Zhang, Yijie; Li, Lin; Yang, Wenxian; Bolund, Lars; Yang, Huanming; Du, Yutao

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibited self-renewal and less differentiation, making the MSCs promising candidates for adult somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In this article, we tried to produce genome identical pigs through hand-made cloning (HMC), with MSCs and adult skin fibroblasts as donor cells. MSCs were derived from either adipose tissue or peripheral blood (aMSCs and bMSCs, respectively). MSCs usually showed the expression pattern of CD29, CD73, CD90, and CD105 together with lack of expression of the hematopoietic markers CD34and CD45. Flow cytometry results demonstrated high expression of CD29 and CD90 in both MSC lines, while CD73, CD34, and CD45 expression were not detected. In contrary, in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, CD73 and CD34 were detected indicating that human antibodies CD73 and CD34 were not suitable to identify porcine cell surface markers and porcine MSC cellular surface markers of CD34 might be different from other species. MSCs also had potential to differentiate successfully into chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes. After HMC, embryos reconstructed with aMSCs had higher blastocyst rate on day 5 and 6 than those reconstructed with bMSCs and fibroblasts (29.6% ± 1.3% and 41.1% ± 1.4% for aMSCs vs. 23.9% ± 1.2% and 35.5% ± 1.6% for bMSCs and 22.1% ± 0.9% and 33.3% ± 1.1% for fibroblasts, respectively). Live birth rate per transferred blastocyst achieved with bMSCs (1.59%) was the highest among the three groups. This article was the first report to compare the efficiency among bMSCs, aMSCs, and fibroblasts for boar cloning, which offered a realistic perspective to use the HMC technology for commercial breeding.

  10. The system around the product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    The design discipline has traditionally focused on products’ physical aspects, giving for granted that the context of services, infrastructures and technology will support the product life. A systemic perspective would revise such a focus, in order to project design competences over systemic...... aspects usually neglected by designers. This perspective shift is a challenge for designers, who have very efficient methods and tools to handle physical aspects of product design, but need to define an ‘operative paradigm’ to operate in a systemic context. An operative paradigm consists of a set of tools...... and methods to handle immaterial aspects such as time sequences, actors’ role and logical links in a product service system (PSS). Tools and methods can be borrowed from other disciplinary contexts, their relevance, though, derives from their adaptation to this specific study area: designing in a systemic...

  11. EFFECT OF LIVER DENERVATION ON GLUCOSE-PRODUCTION DURING RUNNING IN GUINEA-PIGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERSMA, MML; VISSING, J; MIKINES, KJ; STEFFENS, AB; GALBO, H

    Activity in sympathetic liver nerves has been proposed to be important for glucose production in exercising humans. However, liver denervation does not influence the exercise-induced increase in glucose production in the rat and dog. These species have a poor sympathetic liver innervation in

  12. Biogas Production from Protein-Rich Biomass: Fed-Batch Anaerobic Fermentation of Casein and of Pig Blood and Associated Changes in Microbial Community Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Etelka; Wirth, Roland; Maróti, Gergely; Bagi, Zoltán; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted as a fact in the biogas technology that protein-rich biomass substrates should be avoided due to inevitable process inhibition. Substrate compositions with a low C/N ratio are considered difficult to handle and may lead to process failure, though protein-rich industrial waste products have outstanding biogas generation potential. This common belief has been challenged by using protein-rich substrates, i.e. casein and precipitated pig blood protein in laboratory scale continuously stirred mesophilic fed-batch biogas fermenters. Both substrates proved suitable for sustained biogas production (0.447 L CH4/g protein oDM, i.e. organic total solids) in high yield without any additives, following a period of adaptation of the microbial community. The apparent key limiting factors in the anaerobic degradation of these proteinaceous materials were the accumulation of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Changes in time in the composition of the microbiological community were determined by next-generation sequencing-based metagenomic analyses. Characteristic rearrangements of the biogas-producing community upon protein feeding and specific differences due to the individual protein substrates were recognized. The results clearly demonstrate that sustained biogas production is readily achievable, provided the system is well-characterized, understood and controlled. Biogas yields (0.45 L CH4/g oDM) significantly exceeding those of the commonly used agricultural substrates (0.25-0.28 L CH4/g oDM) were routinely obtained. The results amply reveal that these high-energy-content waste products can be converted to biogas, a renewable energy carrier with flexible uses that can replace fossil natural gas in its applications. Process control, with appropriate acclimation of the microbial community to the unusual substrate, is necessary. Metagenomic analysis of the microbial community by next-generation sequencing allows a precise determination of the alterations in

  13. Biogas production from protein-rich biomass: fed-batch anaerobic fermentation of casein and of pig blood and associated changes in microbial community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etelka Kovács

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted as a fact in the biogas technology that protein-rich biomass substrates should be avoided due to inevitable process inhibition. Substrate compositions with a low C/N ratio are considered difficult to handle and may lead to process failure, though protein-rich industrial waste products have outstanding biogas generation potential. This common belief has been challenged by using protein-rich substrates, i.e. casein and precipitated pig blood protein in laboratory scale continuously stirred mesophilic fed-batch biogas fermenters. Both substrates proved suitable for sustained biogas production (0.447 L CH4/g protein oDM, i.e. organic total solids in high yield without any additives, following a period of adaptation of the microbial community. The apparent key limiting factors in the anaerobic degradation of these proteinaceous materials were the accumulation of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Changes in time in the composition of the microbiological community were determined by next-generation sequencing-based metagenomic analyses. Characteristic rearrangements of the biogas-producing community upon protein feeding and specific differences due to the individual protein substrates were recognized. The results clearly demonstrate that sustained biogas production is readily achievable, provided the system is well-characterized, understood and controlled. Biogas yields (0.45 L CH4/g oDM significantly exceeding those of the commonly used agricultural substrates (0.25-0.28 L CH4/g oDM were routinely obtained. The results amply reveal that these high-energy-content waste products can be converted to biogas, a renewable energy carrier with flexible uses that can replace fossil natural gas in its applications. Process control, with appropriate acclimation of the microbial community to the unusual substrate, is necessary. Metagenomic analysis of the microbial community by next-generation sequencing allows a precise determination of the

  14. Genomics and systems biology of boar taint and meat quality in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Kogelman, Lisette JA; Meinert, Lene

    2015-01-01

    , economic losses associated with castrated pigs and a ban on castration in the EU effective by 2018. The main objective of the PhD project is to unravel the underlying mechanisms of BT at the genomic, transcriptomic and phenotypic levels as well as its connection with sensory meat quality (SMQ) in order...... to enable optimized breeding strategies as alternative to castration. Male pigs with different genetic merit of BT were selected and tissue from liver and testes were subjected to transcriptomic profiling by stranded paired end RNA-Seq which produced ~30 mio. reads per sample. The reads were subjected...

  15. Antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli strains isolated from surface water and groundwater samples in a pig production area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Neto Schneider

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics, so excessive and indiscriminate in intensive animal production, has triggered an increase in the number of resistant microorganisms which can be transported to aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of the antimicrobial resistance of samples of Escherichia coli isolated from groundwater and surface water in a region of pig breeding. Through the test of antimicrobial susceptibility, we analyzed 205 strains of E. coli. A high rate of resistance to cefaclor was observed, both in surface water (51.9% and groundwater (62.9%, while all samples were sensitive to amikacin. The percentages of multi-resistant samples were 25.96% and 26.73% in surface water and groundwater, respectively, while 19.23% and 13.86% were sensitive to all antibiotics tested. It was determined that the rate of multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR was 0.164 for surface water and 0.184 for groundwater. No significant differences were found in the profile of the antimicrobial resistance in strains of E. coli isolated in surface water and groundwater, but the index MAR calculated in certain points of groundwater may offer a potential risk of transmission of resistant genes.

  16. Amplitude and phase of distortion product otoacoustic emissions in the guinea pig in an (f1,f2) area study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sandra; Prijs, Vera F.; Schoonhoven, Ruurd

    2003-06-01

    Lower sideband distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), measured in the ear canal upon stimulation with two continuous pure tones, are the result of interfering contributions from two different mechanisms, the nonlinear distortion component and the linear reflection component. The two contributors have been shown to have a different amplitude and, in particular, a different phase behavior as a function of the stimulus frequencies. The dominance of either component was investigated in an extensive (f1,f2) area study of DPOAE amplitude and phase in the guinea pig, which allows for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of isophase contours. Making a minimum of additional assumptions, simple relations between the direction of constant phase in the (f1,f2) plane and the group delays in f1-sweep, f2-sweep, and fixed f2/f1 paradigms can be derived, both for distortion (wave-fixed) and reflection (place-fixed) components. The experimental data indicate the presence of both components in the lower sideband DPOAEs, with the reflection component as the dominant contributor for low f2/f1 ratios and the distortion component for intermediate ratios. At high ratios the behavior cannot be explained by dominance of either component.

  17. A Determination and Comparison of Urease Activity in Feces and Fresh Manure from Pig and Cattle in Relation to Ammonia Production and pH Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaorong; Karring, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia emission from animal production is a major environmental problem and has impacts on the animal health and working environment inside production houses. Ammonia is formed in manure by the enzymatic degradation of urinary urea and catalyzed by urease that is present in feces. We have determined and compared the urease activity in feces and manure (a urine and feces mixture) from pigs and cattle at 25°C by using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. To obtain accurate estimates of kinetic parameters Vmax and K'm, we used a 5 min reaction time to determine the initial reaction velocities based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) concentrations. The resulting Vmax value (mmol urea hydrolyzed per kg wet feces per min) was 2.06±0.08 mmol urea/kg/min and 0.80±0.04 mmol urea/kg/min for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. The K'm values were 32.59±5.65 mmol urea/l and 15.43±2.94 mmol urea/l for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. Thus, our results reveal that both the Vmax and K'm values of the urease activity for pig feces are more than 2-fold higher than those for cattle feces. The difference in urea hydrolysis rates between animal species is even more significant in fresh manure. The initial velocities of TAN formation are 1.53 mM/min and 0.33 mM/min for pig and cattle manure, respectively. Furthermore, our investigation shows that the maximum urease activity for pig feces occurs at approximately pH 7, and in cattle feces it is closer to pH 8, indicating that the predominant fecal ureolytic bacteria species differ between animal species. We believe that our study contributes to a better understanding of the urea hydrolysis process in manure and provides a basis for more accurate and animal-specific prediction models for urea hydrolysis rates and ammonia concentration in manures and thus can be used to predict ammonia volatilization rates from animal production. PMID:25397404

  18. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section... Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the animals...

  19. Production of cloned NIBS (Nippon Institute for Biological Science) and α-1, 3-galactosyltransferase knockout MGH miniature pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer using the NIBS breed as surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimatsu, Yoshiki; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Horii, Wataru; Hirakata, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Yuji; Waki, Shiori; Sano, Junichi; Saitoh, Toshiki; Sahara, Hisashi; Shimizu, Akira; Yazawa, Hajime; Sachs, David H.; Nunoya, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Background Nuclear transfer (NT) technologies offer a means for producing the genetically modified pigs necessary to develop swine models for mechanistic studies of disease processes as well as to serve as organ donors for xenotransplantation. Most previous studies have used commercial pigs as surrogates. Method and Results In this study, we established a cloning technique for miniature pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using Nippon Institute for Biological Science (NIBS) miniature pigs as surrogates. Moreover, utilizing this technique, we have successfully produced an α-1, 3-galactosyltransferase knockout (GalT-KO) miniature swine. Fibroblasts procured from a NIBS miniature pig fetus were injected into 1312 enucleated oocytes. The cloned embryos were transferred to 11 surrogates of which five successfully delivered 13 cloned offspring; the production efficiency was 1.0% (13/1312). In a second experiment, lung fibroblasts obtained from neonatal GalT-KO MGH miniature swine were used as donor cells and 1953 cloned embryos were transferred to 12 surrogates. Six cloned offspring were born from five surrogates, a production efficiency of 0.3% (6/1953). Conclusions These results demonstrate successful establishment of a miniature pig cloning technique by SCNT using NIBS miniature pigs as surrogates. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of successful production of GalT-KO miniature swine using miniature swine surrogates. This technique could help to ensure a stable supply of the cloned pigs through the use of miniature pig surrogates and could expand production in countries with limited space or in facilities with special regulations such as specific pathogen-free or good laboratory practice. PMID:23581451

  20. Characterization of vascular lesions in pigs affected by porcine circovirus type 2-systemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendes, A R; Segalés, J

    2015-05-01

    Vascular lesions and their association with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were evaluated in multiple organs from 10 pigs affected with PCV2-systemic disease (PCV2-SD). Animals had vascular lesions in multiple organs, consisting of lymphohistiocytic lymphangitis and/or phlebitis, mild to severe necrotizing arteritis, and thrombosis within splenic arterioles and choroid plexus capillaries. Variable amounts of PCV2 nucleic acid detected by in situ hybridization were present within endothelial cells, tunica media myocytes, and perivascular and/or intralesional inflammatory cell infiltrates. PCV2 nucleic acid was detected within endothelial cells of both lymphatic and blood vessels without lesions in the associated tissues. Necrotizing arteritis was principally present in lymph nodes and kidney and consisted of degeneration, necrosis, and pyknosis of myocytes, often with intracytoplasmic, brightly eosinophilic inclusion bodies that were strongly positive for PCV2 nucleic acid. Segmental or circumferential fibrinoid necrosis was mainly present in vessels of the lymph node, spleen, and choroid plexus and was variably associated with PCV2 nucleic acid. Severe lymphangitis associated with strong intralesional PCV2 labeling was frequently detected within the mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes and the lamina propria of the ileum. In most tissues, medium and large lymphatics and/or veins often had disruption of the intima and mild mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration that was variably associated with PCV2 nucleic acid. The present study indicates that vasculitis is a frequent finding in natural cases of PCV2-SD and that PCV2 may have a direct cytopathic effect on tunica media myocytes of small- and medium-sized arteries as well as endothelium. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. A selective genotyping approach identifies single nucleotide polymorphisms in porcine chromosome 2 genes associated with production and carcass traits in Italian heavy pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Russo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that porcine chromosome 2 (SSC2 harbors important quantitative trait loci (QTL for production traits. In particular, an imprinted QTL for muscle mass production is determined by a mutation in the IGF2 gene (intron3-g.3072G>A. We recently identified and analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes (cathepsin D, CTSD g.70G>A; cathepsin F, CTSF g.22G>C; lactate dehydrogenase A, LDHA g.46G>T localized on SSC2 (including the IGF2 intron3-g.3072G>A SNP showing association with production traits in Italian Large White pigs and/or localizing them on QTL regions. Here we analysed these markers applying a selective genotyping approach based on estimated breeding values (EBVs. Three groups of Italian Large White pigs each made by animals with the most positive (n. 50 and most negative (n. 50 EBVs for average daily gain (ADG, backfat thickness (BFT or weight of lean cuts (LC and one group of Italian Duroc pigs made by 50 animals with most positive and 50 animals with most negative EBV for visible intermuscular fat (VIF were genotyped. In Italian Large White pigs, allele frequency differences for the IGF2 intron3-g.3072G>A SNP between the two extreme tails for all groups were highly significant (considering all analysed animals: P=9.53E-20 for LC; P=3.16E-15 for BFT; P=4.41E-6 for ADG. Significant allele frequency differences were also observed for the CTSD g.70G>A (P=0.0002 for ADG; P=0.00068 and LDHA g.46G>T (P=2.32E-5 for ADG polymorphisms. These results provide further support on the effects of these polymorphisms or genes whose application on marker assisted selection programs could be envisaged.

  2. Simulation of the energy performance of maize production integrated to pig farming Simulação do desempenho energético da produção de milho integrada à suinocultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio L. Perin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the energy performance of pig farming integrated with maize production in mechanized no-tillage system. In this proposed conception of integration, the swine excrement is used as fertilizers in the maize crop. The system was designed involving the activities associated to the pig management and maize production (soil management, cultivation and harvest. A one-year period of analysis was considered, enabling the production of three batches of pigs and two crops of maize. To evaluate the energy performance, three indicators were created: energy efficiency, use of non-renewable resources efficiency and cost of non-renewable energy to produce protein. The energy inputs are composed by the inputs and infrastructure used by the breeding of pigs and maize production, as well as the solar energy incident on the agroecosystem. The energy outputs are represented by the products (finished pigs and maize. The results obtained in the simulation indicates that the integration improves the energy performance of pig farms, with an increase in the energy efficiency (186% as well as in the use of the non-renewable energy resources efficiency (352%, while reducing the cost of non-renewable energy to produce protein (‑58%.Foi avaliado o desempenho energético da suinocultura integrada à produção de milho em grão em sistema de plantio direto mecanizado. Nesta concepção de integração proposta, os dejetos suínos são utilizados como fertilizantes na produção de milho. O sistema foi delimitado envolvendo as atividades associadas ao manejo dos suínos e de produção do milho (manejo do solo, cultivo e colheita. O período de análise considerado foi de um ano, o que possibilita a produção de três lotes de suínos e duas safras de milho. Para avaliar o desempenho energético, foram criados três indicadores: eficiência energética, eficiência de uso de fontes não renováveis e o custo de energia não renovável para a produção de

  3. Effect of systemic clarithromycin and prednisolone on histamine-induced otitis media in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozan, Günay; Aktan, Bülent; Sakat, Muhammed Sedat; Kurt, Sezgin; Öner, Fatih; Kara, Adem

    2015-01-01

    The results of the study showed that clarithromycin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and, when it is combined with prednisolone, those effects gain strength. The present study aims to investigate the effects that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of clarithromycin and/or prednisolone have on experimental otitis media in effusion-induced guinea-pigs. In this study, 35-male guinea pigs were randomly divided into five-groups. For the experimental otitis media, intra-tympanic histamine (0.1 ml) was injected into the guinea pigs in all of the groups except the control group. Then, 24-h after the intra-tympanic injections, clarithromycin (15 mg/kg/day) and/or prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day) were applied intraperitoneally to the guinea-pigs for 7-days. The biochemical analysis showed an increase in antioxidant capacity and a decrease in oxidant status and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the clarithromycin group and the prednisolone group and especially in the clarithromycin+prednisolone group, as compared to the experimental group (p < 0.05). In the cytokine analysis, lower levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-17A and higher IL-10 were found in the clarithromycin, prednisolone, and clarithromycin+prednisolone groups than in the experimental group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the histologic analyses showed histopathologic changes in the middle ear mucosa of the experimental group, but comparatively fewer-histopathologic changes were observed in the clarithromycin, prednisolone, and clarithromycin+prednisolone groups.

  4. Evaluation of Four Farm-scale Systems for the Treatment of Liquid Pig Manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Verdoes, N.

    2005-01-01

    In some regions in the Netherlands, high pig concentrations and limited availability of arable land have led to a surplus of manure which results in high off-farm manure disposal costs. The aim of manure treatment is to lower manure transport costs by reducing the volume and to improve market

  5. Overview of Pigs and Poultry: Specific Livestock Industries, Livestock Diseases and Policies in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Thomas; Tisdell, Clem

    1995-01-01

    The pigs and poultry industries are the major livestock sectors in terms of commercial livestock production in Thailand. The dramatic growth of the Thai economy since the 1960s was spearheaded by rapid expansion of agricultural industries such as the poultry sector and has since generated increased demand for other livestock commodities such as pork. While pigs have traditionally been an important part of the integrated farm system in Thailand, pork production has only recently developed into...

  6. Pig slurry characteristics, nutrient balance and biogas production as affected by separation and acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S G; Hjorth, Maibritt; Leahy, J J

    2015-01-01

    and separation fraction applied to fields and crop need. Total biogas production was not affected by separation, whereas acidification reduced biogas production because the process was inhibited by a low pH and a high sulphur concentration. The amount of copper applied per hectare in the liquid manure...... to the wheat field was lower than the amount taken up and more zink and copper was applied in the solid fraction to maize field than taken up. The transportation and field application of solids and liquids did not increase management costs when compared to the transportation of slurry alone, but the investment...

  7. Generation of GHR-modified pigs as Laron syndrome models via a dual-sgRNAs/Cas9 system and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Honghao; Long, Weihu; Zhang, Xuezeng; Xu, Kaixiang; Guo, Jianxiong; Zhao, Heng; Li, Honghui; Qing, Yubo; Pan, Weirong; Jia, Baoyu; Zhao, Hong-Ye; Huang, Xingxu; Wei, Hong-Jiang

    2018-02-27

    Laron syndrome is an autosomal disease resulting from mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene. The only therapeutic treatment for Laron syndrome is recombinant insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), which has been shown to have various side effects. The improved Laron syndrome models are important for better understanding the pathogenesis of the disease and developing corresponding therapeutics. Pigs have become attractive biomedical models for human condition due to similarities in anatomy, physiology, and metabolism relative to humans, which could serve as an appropriate model for Laron syndrome. To further improve the GHR knockout (GHRKO) efficiency and explore the feasibility of precise DNA deletion at targeted sites, the dual-sgRNAs/Cas9 system was designed to target GHR exon 3 in pig fetal fibroblasts (PFFs). The vectors encoding sgRNAs and Cas9 were co-transfected into PFFs by electroporation and GHRKO cell lines were established by single cell cloning culture. Two biallelic knockout cell lines were selected as the donor cell line for somatic cell nuclear transfer for the generation of GHRKO pigs. The genotype of colonies, cloned fetuses and piglets were identified by T7 endonuclease I (T7ENI) assay and sequencing. The GHR expression in the fibroblasts and piglets was analyzed by confocal microscopy, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR), western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The phenotype of GHRKO pigs was recapitulated through level detection of IGF-I and glucose, and measurement of body weight and body size. GHRKO F1 generation were generated by crossing with wild-type pigs, and their genotype was detected by T7ENI assay and sequencing. GHRKO F2 generation was obtained via self-cross of GHRKO F1 pigs. Their genotypes of GHRKO F2 generation was also detected by Sanger sequencing. In total, 19 of 20 single-cell colonies exhibited biallelic modified GHR (95%), and the efficiency of DNA deletion mediated by dual

  8. Improving pig husbandry in tropical resource-poor communities and its potential to reduce risk of porcine cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekule, Faustin P; Kyvsgaard, Niels C

    2003-06-01

    To minimise the risk of cysticercosis in pigs it is necessary to raise pigs in confinement. The prevailing production system using free-range pigs is apparently very resilient although economic studies have shown that these traditional production systems are wasteful and unprofitable due to poor feed conversion, high mortality rates, low reproductive rates and poor final products. However, experiences from Africa show that intensive pig farming is stagnant and the sustainability of the traditional sector is better than that of the intensive sector. Examples from various African countries are given on the failure of intensive pig farming. This apparent paradox has various explanations. The lower fixed cost of traditional pig production compared with intensive production is one. Another explanation is that many households have some kind of kitchen waste, which can be exploited by a pig, but there is only enough for the partial feeding of a single pig. A third explanation of the paradox is that the pig has functions that are not reflected in a simple economic balance. The pig is a source of capital income, which can be realised at times of major expenses, and it can also be used as a way to put aside small amounts of money, which alternatively might evaporate. The pig's scavenging behaviour has clear nutritional benefits. Thus, a diet consisting of e.g. maize or sorghum, which are some of the feeds available on the small farms, will only provide approximately 30% of the pigs requirements of lysine and methionine, which are the most limiting amino-acids in pig feeds. Simulations with data available for green feeds and material of animal origin show that a 20% "supplement" from the fields may increase the amino-acid provision to about 80% of the optimum. If pigs are kept enclosed this supplement has to be fed to the pig which involves purchase and labour costs. The paper discusses the various options in terms of feeding, housing and use of genetic resources for the

  9. Effects of a yeast-dried milk product in creep and phase-1 nursery diets on growth performance, circulating immunoglobulin A, and fecal microbiota of nursing and nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H; Bundy, J W; Hinkle, E E; Walter, J; Burkey, T E; Miller, P S

    2014-10-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of yeast-dried milk (YDM) product in creep and phase-1 nursery diets. In Exp. 1, 24 parity-4 litters were allotted to 3 dietary treatments (8 litters/treatment) including no creep (NC), control creep (CTL), and experimental creep (EC; 10% YDM). Creep diets were fed twice daily from d 7 after birth until weaning (23.6 ± 1.8 d). In Exp. 2, 108 weaned pigs were selected based on mean BW of pigs from the respective treatments in Exp. 1. For phase 1 (d 0 to 7 postweaning) of Exp. 2, NC and CTL pigs were fed the CTL diet and EC pigs continued to receive the EC diet. For phase 2 and 3 (d 7 to 28 postweaning) of Exp. 2, all pigs received a common diet containing antibiotics. Blood and fecal samples were collected on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 postweaning to evaluate serum IgA and fecal microbiota. In Exp. 1, pigs fed EC and CTL tended to have greater (P < 0.10) weaning BW compared with NC pigs. Pigs fed EC had greater (P < 0.05) ADFI compared with CTL pigs. In Exp. 2, pigs fed EC tended to have greater BW (P < 0.10) and greater ADG (P < 0.05) and ADFI (P < 0.01) compared with CTL and NC pigs (d 0 to 28). For serum IgA, EC and CTL pigs tended (P < 0.10) to have greater IgA compared with NC pigs. For microbial data, EC pigs had greater (P < 0.01) microbial diversity compared with CTL (d 7 postweaning). On d 7 and 21 postweaning, microbial similarity decreased (P < 0.01) in pigs fed EC compared with NC and CTL. Overall (d 0 to 14), lactobacilli gene copy numbers tended (P < 0.10) to be greater in EC (7.3 log10) compared with NC pigs (6.9 log10). In Exp. 3, 23 parity-1 litters were allotted to 3 dietary treatments as described for Exp. 1. In Exp. 4, 108 weaned pigs were selected based on mean BW of all pigs from Exp. 3 and dietary treatments were the same as described for Exp. 2 except no antibiotic was included in phase-2 diet. In Exp. 3, there were no treatment effects on litter ADFI, ADG, and serum IgA, but a tendency (P < 0

  10. Effects of indomethacin, NS-398 (a selective prostaglandin H synthase-2 inhibitor) and protein synthesis inhibitors on prostaglandin production by the guinea-pig placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, H; Poyser, N L

    2001-01-01

    The outputs of PGF(2 alpha), PGE2 and 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha)were similar from the day 22 guinea-pig placenta and sub-placenta in culture, except for PGE2 output from the sub-placenta which was lower. Between days 22 and 29 of pregnancy, the outputs of PGF(2 alpha), PGE2 and 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha)during the initial 2 h culture period increased 6.9-, 1.1- and 3.2-fold, respectively, from the placenta, and 2.1-, 1.4- and 2.2-fold, respectively, from the sub-placenta. Therefore, there was a relatively specific increase in PGF(2 alpha)production by the guinea-pig placenta between days 22 and 29 of pregnancy. The output of PGFM from the cultured placenta also increased between days 22 and 29, indicating that the increase in PGF(2 alpha)output was due to increased synthesis rather than to decreased metabolism. By comparing the amounts of prostaglandins produced by tissue homogenates during a 1 h incubation period, it appears that there is approximately a 2-fold increase in the amount of prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS) present in the guinea-pig placenta between days 22 and 29. NS-398 (a specific inhibitor of PGHS-2) and indomethacin (an inhibitor of both PGHS-1 and PGHS-2) both inhibited prostaglandin production by homogenates of day 22 and day 29 placenta. Indomethacin was more effective than NS-398, except for their actions on PGF(2 alpha)production by the day 29 placenta where indomethacin and NS-398 were equiactive. Indomethacin and NS-398 were both very effective at inhibiting the outputs of PGF(2 alpha), PGE2 and 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha)from the day 22 and day 29 placenta and sub-placenta in culture, indicating that prostaglandin production by the guinea-pig placenta and sub-placenta in culture is largely dependent upon the activity of PGHS-2. The high production of PGF(2 alpha)by the day 29 placenta is not dependent on the continual synthesis of fresh protein(s), as inhibitors of protein synthesis did not reduce PGF(2 alpha)output from the day 29 guinea-pig placenta in culture

  11. Development of a genetic tool for product regulation in the diverse British pig breed market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, H.S.; Archibald, A.L.; Haley, C.S.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background - The application of DNA markers for the identification of biological samples from both human and non-human species is widespread and includes use in food authentication. In the food industry the financial incentive to substituting the true name of a food product with a higher value

  12. Involvement of both protein kinase C and G proteins in superoxide production after IgE triggering in guinea pig eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Aizawa

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the function and mechanism of eosinophils via the low affinity IgE receptor (FceRII, we examined the production of 02 metabolites by measuring the luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (LDCL response and the generation of cysteinyl leukotrienes. Eosinophils obtained from guinea pig peritoneal fluid sensitized with horse serum were purified. Luminol-dependent chemiluminescence was induced by stimulation with monoclonal anti-CD23 antibody, but not by mouse serum (controls. The mean (±SEM value of LDCL was 20.6±1.3X103 c.p.m. This reaction consisted of an initial rapid phase and a propagation phase and ended within lOmin. Guinea pig eosinophils were histochemically stained with monoclonal anti-CD23 antibody. The major product generated in the LDCL response was superoxide, as determined by the measurement of superoxide by cytochrome c reduction and the complete inhibitory effect of superoxide dismutase on the LDCL response. Pretreatment with either pertussis toxin or cholera toxin inhibited the LDCL reaction. Depletion of bivalent ions by EDTA inhibited this response and the protein kinase C inhibitor D-sphingosin inhibited both 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol-induced and FcϵRII-mediated LDCL. These findings suggest that the NADPH-protein kinase C pathway may be involved in the FceRII-mediated LDCL response in guinea pig eosinophils.

  13. Analysis of association between a microsatellite at intron 1 of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 gene and fat deposition, meat production and quality traits in Italian Large White and Italian Duroc pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Fontanesi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A few studies have shown that a microsatellite at intron 1 of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 gene is associated with several production traits in a few pig populations. In the current work we evaluated associations between this microsatellite and production traits in Italian Large White and Italian Duroc pigs. Association studies were carried out on a total of 1120 animals using two experimental designs: i a selective genotyping approach based on extreme and divergent Italian Large White pigs for back fat thickness (BFT estimated breeding value (EBV or on extreme and divergent Italian Duroc pigs for visible intermuscular fat (VIF EBV; and ii analysis of unselected pigs (random groups coming from populations of the two breeds. Allele distributions between Italian Large White and Italian Duroc pigs were different (P<0.05 with longer alleles being more frequent in Italian Large White. Results of the association analyses from two different random groups showed that this marker affects average daily gain EBV, lean cut EBV and BFT EBV in Italian Large White and BFT EBV in Italian Duroc (P<0.05. Association analysis carried out with random residuals confirmed, to some extent (P=0.096, the effects on BFT in the same animals. However, this result was not confirmed in the two extreme and divergent Italian Large White groups used in the selective genotyping experiment. These inconsistent results may indicate that the effect of the IGF1 microsatellite is doubtful in the investigated finishing pigs.

  14. Research on hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagiri, Toshio

    2002-07-01

    Hydrogen is closely watched for environmental issues in recent years. In this research, hydrogen production systems and production techniques are widely investigated, and selected some hydrogen production process which have high validity for FBR system. Conclusions of the investigation are shown below. (1) Water-electrolysis processes and steam reform processes at low temperatures are already realized in other fields, so they well be easily adopted for FBR system. FBR system has no advantage when compared with other systems, because water-electrolysis processes can be adopted for other electricity generation system. On the other hand, FBR system has an advantage when steam reforming processes at low temperatures will be adopted, because steam reforming processes at 550-600degC can't be adopted for LWR. (2) Thermochemical processes will be able to adopted for FBR when process temperature will be lowered and material problems solved, because their efficiencies are expected high. Radiolysis processes which use ray (for example, gamma rya) emitted in reactor can be generate hydrogen easily, so they will be able to be adopted for FBR if splitting efficiency will be higher. Further investigation and R and D to realize these processes are considered necessary. (author)

  15. The ATLAS Production System Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The second generation of the ATLAS Production System called ProdSys2 is a distributed workload manager that runs daily hundreds of thousands of jobs, from dozens of different ATLAS-specific workflows, across more than a hundred heterogeneous sites. It achieves high utilization by combining dynamic job definition based upon many criteria, such as input and output size, memory requirements and CPU consumption, with manageable scheduling policies and by supporting different kinds of computational resources, such as GRID, clouds, supercomputers and volunteer computers. The system dynamically assigns a group of jobs (task) to a group of geographically distributed computing resources. Dynamic assignment and resource utilization is one of the major features of the system. The Production System has a sophisticated job fault recovery mechanism, which efficiently allows running multi-terabyte tasks without human intervention. We have implemented new features which allow automatic task submission and chaining of differe...

  16. Preclinical study of selective thermal neutron capture treatment of pigs having spontaneous melanoma using melanin productive activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Ichiro; Sawaya, Hiroshi; Nomura, Toyoichiro

    1980-01-01

    Four pigs having spontaneous melanoma were irradiated with 0.5 - 2 x 10 13 n/cm 2 of thermal neutron under remote anesthesia. Compounds of 10 B used in this experiment were 10 B 12 -chlorpromazine ( 10 B 12 -CPZ), 10 B-dopa, and 10 B 1 -para-boronophenylalanine ( 10 B 1 -BPA), and they were injected into melanoma or regions around melanoma. After irradiation of thermal neutron, melanoma tended to reduce in four pigs, and melanoma cells in white fur and hair bulb disappeared in 3 of 4 pigs. Hematological examinations and blood chemistry tests did not show any changes in blood findings both before and after the irradiation, and white blood cell counts were within a normal range. Dermatitis following the irradiation disappeared one week later. Histological changes one month after the irradiation indicated that many melanophages feeding melanosome replaced melanoma cells, which suggested disintegration of melanoma cells. Marked effectiveness of this treatment was recognized in each pig. 10 B-BPA.HCI was injected into one pig twice, and its accumulation in melanoma and normal regions around melanoma was expressed as boron concentrations. As a result, the accumulation in melanoma (6.6 μg/g wet tissue) was 3.1 times as much as that in normal regions around melanoma (2.1 μg/g wet tissue). (Tsunoda, M.)

  17. Models to quantify excretion of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon in growing pigs fed regional diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Prapaspongsa, Trakarn

    2013-01-01

    used in a digestibility and balance experiment. Excretion of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) of the experimental diets were determined. Due to the highest dietary fibre content, VN had the lowest digestibility of N, P and C (73, 49, and 73%, respectively) compared......Modern pig production contributes to many environmental problems that relate to manure, especially in areas with highly intensive production systems and in regions like Asia where the regulative control is not effective. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use three different pig diets...... varying in dietary protein, fibre and fat as representative for Danish (DK), Thai (TH) and Vietnamese (VN) pig production to develop and evaluate different approaches to predict/calculate excretion from growing pigs in comparison with the experimentally determined values. Nine female growing pigs were...

  18. Management practices associated with the carriage of Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at farm level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, María J; Virtanen, Sonja; Heinonen, Mari; Korkeala, Hannu

    2013-07-01

    Pigs are the most important reservoir of Yersinia enterocolitica infections in humans. Knowledge of farm management practices that contribute to the transmission of this bacterial species in pigs is essential to understand how to control this foodborne pathogen in food production. The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica, and other results obtained from an age trend analysis were used to estimate the on-farm risk of transmission of specific management practices for this pathogen in 30 pig farms in Finland. Log-linear analysis revealed that rearing pigs in pens without or with sparse amounts of bedding and buying piglets from more than one farm were the variables that contribute most to the occurrence of Y. enterocolitica. The study also found that using an all-in/all-out management system and supplying water of municipal origin were factors that might reduce the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica, and therefore the risk of transmission of Y. enterocolitica in pig farms.

  19. Effects of amoxicillin, ceftiofur, doxycycline, tiamulin and tulathromycin on pig humoral immune responses induced by erysipelas vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, M; Kwit, K; Wierzchosławski, K; Dors, A; Pejsak, Z

    2016-05-28

    It addition to their antimicrobial properties, antibiotics can influence the host immune system (modulation of cytokine secretion, antibody production and T-cell proliferation). In the present study, the authors studied the effects of therapeutic doses of amoxicillin (AMX), ceftiofur (CEF), doxycycline (DOXY), tiamulin (TIAM) and tulathromycin (TUL) on the postvaccinal immune response after pigs had been vaccinated against erysipelas. Because humoral immunity is considered as the most important in the protection against swine erysipelas, the present study focused on the interactions between antibiotics and postvaccinal humoral immunity. One hundred and five, eight-week-old pigs of both sexes were used. Specific antibodies to the Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae antigen were determined using a commercial ELISA test. In pigs treated with DOXY or CEF or TIAM, a significant reduction in the number of positive pigs was observed four and six weeks after the second dose of vaccine, compared with the remaining vaccinated groups. In pigs treated with CEF, the ELISA score was significantly lower than in non-treated vaccinated pigs. While in vaccinated pigs treated with AMX or TUL, the ELISA score was significantly higher than in pigs treated with the remaining antibiotics and than in non-treated vaccinated controls. The results of the present study indicate that vaccination of pigs against erysipelas in the presence of antibiotics may result in a decrease (CEF, DOXY, TIAM) or enhancement (AMX, TUL) in the production of specific antibodies. British Veterinary Association.

  20. Effects of co-digestion of cucumber residues to corn stover and pig manure ratio on methane production in solid state anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaya; Li, Guoxue; Chi, Menghao; Sun, Yanbo; Zhang, Jiaxing; Jiang, Shixu; Cui, Zongjun

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the performance of co-digesting cucumber residues, corn stover, and pig manure at different ratios. Microbial community structure was analyzed to elucidate functional microorganism contributing to methane production during co-digestion. Results show that mixing cucumber residues with pig manure and corn stover could significantly improved methane yields 1.27-3.46 times higher than mono-feedstock. The methane yields decreased with the cucumber residues increasing when the pig manure ratio was fixed at 4 and 3, and was opposite at ratio 5. The optimal mixture ratio was T2 with the highest methane yield (305.4 mL/g VS) and co-digestion performance index (1.97). The main microbiological community in T2 was bacteria of Firmicutes (44.6%), Bacteroidetes (32.5%), Synergistetes (3.8%) and archaea of Methanosaeta (37.1%), Methanospirillum (18.2%). The mixture ratios changed the microbial community structures. The adding proportion of cucumber residues changed the community composition of the archaea, especially the proportion of Methanosaeta. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of citrus pulp, fish by-product and Bacillus subtilis fermentation biomass on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and fecal microflora of weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hyun Suk; Ingale, Santosh Laxman; Lee, Su Hyup; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Kwon, Ill Kyong; Kim, Young Hwa; Chae, Byung Jo

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with citrus pulp, fish by-product, and Bacillus subtilis fermentation biomass on the growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, and fecal microflora of weanling pigs. A total of 180 weaned piglets (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) were randomly allotted to three treatments on the basis of body weight (BW). There were six replicate pens in each treatment with 10 piglets per pen. Dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal-based basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 2.5, and 5.0% citrus pulp, fish by-product, and B. subtilis fermentation biomass. The isocaloric and isoproteineous experimental diets were fed in mash form in two phases (d 0 ~ 14, phase I and d 15 ~ 28, phase II). Dietary treatments had significant linear effects on gain to feed ratio (G:F) in all periods, whereas significant linear effects on ATTD of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), and ash were only observed in phase I. Piglets fed diet supplemented with 5.0% citrus pulp, fish by-product, and B. subtilis fermentation biomass showed greater (p by-product and B. subtilis fermentation biomass showed greater (p by-product, and B. subtilis fermentation biomass has the potential to improve the feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, and fecal microflora of weanling pigs.

  2. The spatial ecology of free-ranging domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lian F; de Glanville, William A; Cook, Elizabeth A; Fèvre, Eric M

    2013-03-07

    In many parts of the developing world, pigs are kept under low-input systems where they roam freely to scavenge food. These systems allow poor farmers the opportunity to enter into livestock keeping without large capital investments. This, combined with a growing demand for pork, especially in urban areas, has led to an increase in the number of small-holder farmers keeping free range pigs as a commercial enterprise. Despite the benefits which pig production can bring to a household, keeping pigs under a free range system increases the risk of the pig acquiring diseases, either production-limiting or zoonotic in nature. This study used Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to track free range domestic pigs in rural western Kenya, in order to understand their movement patterns and interactions with elements of the peri-domestic environment. We found that these pigs travel an average of 4,340 m in a 12 hr period and had a mean home range of 10,343 m(2) (range 2,937-32,759 m(2)) within which the core utilisation distribution was found to be 964 m(2) (range 246-3,289 m(2)) with pigs spending on average 47% of their time outside their homestead of origin. These are the first data available on the home range of domestic pigs kept under a free range system: the data show that pigs in these systems spend much of their time scavenging outside their homesteads, suggesting that these pigs may be exposed to infectious agents over a wide area. Control policies for diseases such as Taenia solium, Trypanosomiasis, Trichinellosis, Toxoplasmosis or African Swine Fever therefore require a community-wide focus and pig farmers require education on the inherent risks of keeping pigs under a free range system. The work presented here will enable future research to incorporate movement data into studies of disease transmission, for example for the understanding of transmission of African Swine Fever between individuals, or in relation to the life-cycle of parasites including Taenia

  3. Growth of and valine production by a Bacillus subtilis mutant in the small intestine of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Nørgaard, Jan Værum

    2016-01-01

    :Lys of 0.63:1 (Neg), 2) the Neg diet with added Bacillus subtilis-valine (1.28 × 108 cfu/g feed) (+Bac), and 3) the Neg diet with added L-Val to a Val:Lys of 0.69:1 (+Val). Eighteen gilts (6 on each treatment) with initial weights of ∼15 kg were fed the diets for 23 d before the animals were euthanized...... and samples from the small intestine were obtained. The number of B. subtilis cfu in digesta was higher in the +Bac group than in the Neg group (P subtilis cfu were detected in the Neg group, whereas numbers between 3.4 and 4.4 log cfu/g and numerically higher Val and Lys...... concentrations were measured in the +Bac group. Short-term in vitro incubations of digesta showed a decrease (P ≤ 0.03) in the number of B. subtilis cfu over time for the +Bac group and no difference in the rate of Val production compared to that in the Neg group. In conclusion, more B. subtilis cfu were present...

  4. Associations between the proportion of Salmonella seropositive slaughter pigs and the presence of herd level risk factors for introduction and transmission of Salmonella in 34 Danish organic, outdoor (non-organic) and indoor finishing-pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, D.M.; Bonde, Marianne; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the association between herd level risk factors for introduction and transmission of Salmonella in farms with three different production systems: organic, outdoor (non-organic) and indoor finishing-pig farms, and the presence of seropositive animals in the herds. Potential risk...... factors for Salmonella in the three pig production systems were identified through a literature review, and management information as well as serological data were collected in 34 pig farms: 11 organic farms, 12 outdoor farms, and 11 indoor farms. There were no general differences in the proportion...

  5. Productivity raising approaches in the logistic production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Rakyta

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the productivity of the logistic production system. The aim is to define the intermediate state of the production machines and equipment (OOE, identification of the material flows, idle time and breakdown forecasting, with the following purchase of the required spare parts. The goal of the system is the satisfaction of the customer´s needs and the minimalisation of not fulfilling the required terms for delivery with simultaneous increasing of the logistic production system productivity.

  6. Radical production in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Akabani, G.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes our effort to develop a metric for radiation exposure that is more fundamental than adsorbed dose and upon which a metric for exposure to chemicals could be based. This metric is based on the production of radicals by the two agents. Radicals produced by radiation in biological systems commonly assumed to be the same as those produced in water despite the presence of a variety of complex molecules. This may explain why the extensive efforts to describe the relationship between energy deposition (track structure) and molecular damage to DNA, based on the spectrum of radicals produced, have not been successful in explaining simple biological effects such as cell killing. Current models assume that DNA and its basic elements are immersed in water-like media and only model the production and diffusion of water-based radicals and their interaction with DNA structures; these models lack the cross sections associated with each macro-component of DNA and only treat water-based radicals. It has been found that such models are not realistic because DNA is not immersed in pure water. A computer code capable of simulating electron tracks, low-energy electrons, energy deposition in small molecules, and radical production and diffusion in water like media has been developed. This code is still in at a primitive stage and development is continuing. It is being used to study radical production by radiation, and radical diffusion and interactions in simple molecular systems following their production. We are extending the code to radical production by chemicals to complement our PBPK modeling efforts. It therefore has been developed primarily for use with radionuclides that are in biological materials, and not for radiation fields

  7. Nutritional characteristics of by-products originating from the Central European ethanol fuel industry for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrayová, S; Brestensky, M; Patrás, P; Heger, J

    2012-12-01

    Chemical composition and nutrient and energy digestibilities were determined in 4 samples of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and 1 sample of wet distillers grains (WDG) from 4 ethanol fuel manufacturers. The cereal sources used for ethanol production were wheat (Triticum aestivum; 1 sample), wheat + barley (Hordeum vulgare; 2 samples), and maize (Zea mays; 2 samples). The nutrient contents (expressed as % of DM) were variable, ranging from 30.5 to 39.5 CP, 4.4 to 12.3 fat, 7.5 to 12.9 crude fiber, 2.7 to 7.8 ash, and 0.4 to 0.9 total P. The concentration of Lys ranged from 2.05 to 5.20 g/kg DM. The diets were fed to 6 gilts (39.9 ± 1.9 kg BW) fitted with ileal T-cannulas using a 5 × 6 Youden square. Each experimental period comprised a 5-d adaptation followed by a 2-d collection of urine and feces and 1-d (24 h) collection of ileal digesta. Using acid-insoluble ash as a marker, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and energy and AID of AA were calculated. The ATTD of N ranged from 55.7 to 83.7%. The N retention expressed as percentage of N intake ranged from 10.2 to 32.0. Except for wheat-based DDGS, the AID of N was 66.8%. The ATTD and AID values of NDF were 52.8 and 24.4%, respectively. The concentration of total P in WDG was half of values in DDGS, which likely caused its very low ATTD (1.4%). The ATTD and AID of energy ranged from 58.8 to 73.9% and from 40.6 to 54.1%, respectively. The AID of AA was greatest (P origin is an important determinant of quality.

  8. Energy savings in heating systems for nursery pigs; Uso racional de energia eletrica em sistema de aquecimento para creches de leitoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarubbi, Juliana; Rossi, Luiz Antonio; Moura, Daniella Jorge de; Oliveira, Rafael Augustus de; David, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: rossi@feagri.unicamp.br, daniella.moura@feagri.unicamp.br, augustus@feagri.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    Energy saving procedures in pig industry are important to bring sustainability to this economic activity. Energy savings can contribute to the economic and environmental feasibility of the livestock and improve animal welfare conditions. This research work aimed to perform a comparison among three heating technologies for nursery pigs related to the energy saving aspects. Three heating systems were studied: TR - suspended electrical resistors, TP - heated floor and TA - convection heating. The heated floor system was considered better than other under the aspect of electrical energy use. (author)

  9. Increased Foraging in Outdoor Organic Pig Production—Modeling Environmental Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malene Jakobsen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumers’ motivations for buying organic products include a wish of acquiring healthy, environmentally friendly products from production systems that also ensure a high level of animal welfare. However, the current Danish organic pig production faces important challenges regarding environmental impact of the system. High ammonia emissions arise from outdoor concrete areas with growing pigs and sows on pasture possess an increased risk of nitrogen (N leaching. Direct foraging in the range area is suggested as a way to improve the nutrient efficiency at farm level and to support a more natural behavior of the pig. Thus, by modeling, we investigated the environmental consequences of two alternative scenarios with growing pigs foraging in the range area and different levels of crops available for foraging—grass–clover or a combination of Jerusalem artichokes and lucerne. It was possible to have growing pigs on free-range without increasing N leaching compared to the current practice. The alternative system with Jerusalem artichokes and lucerne (high integration of forage showed the lowest carbon foot print with 3.12 CO2 eq kg−1 live weight pig compared to the current Danish pasture based system with 3.69 kg CO2 eq kg−1 live weight pig. Due to positive impact on soil carbon sequestration, the second alternative system based on grass-clover (low integration of forage showed a similar carbon foot print compared to current practice with 3.68 kg CO2 eq kg−1 live weight pig. It is concluded that in practice there is room for development of organic farming systems where direct foraging plays a central role.

  10. Solar based hydrogen production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of various solar based hydrogen production systems. The book covers first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provides a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book gives a clear understanding of the sustainability and environmental impact analysis of the above systems. The book will be particularly useful for a clear understanding

  11. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and

  12. Use of pig by-products (bristles and hooves) as alternative protein raw material in fish feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Ekmann, K.S.; Frørup, J.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing growth in the aquaculture industry calls for employment of innovative technologies that will ensure sustainability in the sector, given the rising competition for feed raw material. A technology that can convert low quality biological waste resources such as pig bristles and hooves int...

  13. Nitrogen utilization in pigs fed diets with soybean and rapeseed products leading to different ileal endogenous nitrogen losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grala, W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Huisman, J.; Wasilewko, J.

    1998-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) balance was determined in 36 pigs (BW 24 to 30 kg) fed diets inducing different ileal endogenous N losses (ENL). We tested the hypothesis that enhanced ENL may be indicative of a higher recycling of endogenous proteins that will induce a greater urinary N loss and a lower efficiency of

  14. Management systems in production operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, K.B.; Henderson, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Cullen Enquiry into the Piper Alpha disaster in the U.K. North Sea recommended that an operator should formally present it's company Management System and demonstrate how safety is achieved throughout the life cycle of a platform, from design through operation to abandonment. Brunei Shell Petroleum has prepared a corporate level Safety Management System. As part of Safety Case work, the corporate system is being extended to include the development of specific Management Systems with particular emphasis on offshore production operations involving integrated oil and gas facilities. This paper will describe the development of Management Systems, which includes an intensive Business Process Analysis and will comment upon it's applicability and relationship to ISO 9000. The paper will further describe the applicability and benefits of Management Systems and offer guidance on required effort. The paper will conclude that development of structured Management Systems for safety critical business processes is worthwhile but prioritization of effort will be necessary. As such the full adoption of Management Systems will be directional in nature

  15. Exploring the role of small-scale livestock keepers for national biosecurity-The pig case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia-Gomes, Carla; Henry, Madeleine K; Auty, Harriet K; Gunn, George J

    2017-09-15

    current disease programmes and contingency plans to the reality of small-scale pig-keeping enterprises' health and biosecurity status. We predict that some conclusions from this work will be relevant to countries with similar pig production systems and importantly some of these findings will relate to small-scale producers in other livestock sectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Detailed design of product oriented manufacturing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Sílvio Carmo; Alves, Anabela Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for the detailed design and redesign of manufacturing systems within a framework of constantly fitting production system configuration to the varying production needs of products. With such an approach is achieved the design of Product Oriented Manufacturing Systems – POMS. This approach is in opposition to the fitting, before hand, of a production system to all products within a company. In this case is usual to adopt a Function Oriented Manufactur...

  17. Sustainable livestock production: Low emission farm – The innovative combination of nutrient, emission and waste management with special emphasis on Chinese pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kaufmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Global livestock production is going to be more and more sophisticated in order to improve efficiency needed to supply the rising demand for animal protein of a growing, more urban and affluent population. To cope with the rising public importance of sustainability is a big challenge for all animal farmers and more industrialized operations especially. Confined animal farming operations (CAFO are seen very critical by many consumers with regard to their sustainability performance, however, the need to improve the sustainability performance especially in the ecological and social dimension exists at both ends of the intensity, i.e., also for the small holder and family owned animal farming models. As in livestock operations, feed and manure contribute the majority to the three most critical environmental impact categories global warming potential (GWP, acidification (AP and eutrophication potential (EP any effort for improvement should start there. Intelligent combination of nutrient-, emission- and waste management in an integrated low emission farm (LEF concept not only significantly reduces the environmental footprint in the ecological dimension of sustainability, but by producing renewable energy (heat, electricity, biomethane with animal manure as major feedstock in an anaerobic digester also the economic dimension can be improved. Model calculations using new software show the ecological improvement potential of low protein diets using more supplemented amino acids for the Chinese pig production. The ecological impact of producing biogas or upgraded biomethane, of further treatment of the digestate and producing defined fertilizers is discussed. Finally, the LEF concept allows the integration of an insect protein plant module which offers additional ecological and economical sustainability improvement potential in the future. Active stakeholder communication about implementation steps of LEF examples improves also the social aspect of

  18. The occurrence of Chlamydia spp. in pigs with and without clinical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Englund Stina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the genera Chlamydia, the development of refined diagnostic techniques has allowed the identification of four species that are capable of infecting pigs. The epidemiology, clinical, and zoonotic impacts of these species are however largely unknown. The study aimed to investigate the presence of Chlamydia spp. in the intestines of growing pigs and in conjunctival swabs from finisher pigs, and relate the findings to clinical signs. Results By histology, 20 of 48 pigs had intestinal lesions that may be consistent with chlamydial infection. By PCR, forty-six of the pigs were positive whereas two samples were inhibited. Sequencing of 19 DNA extracts identified these as Chlamydia suis. By immunohistochemistry, 32 of 44 samples were positive and a significant relationship was detected between macroscopically visible intestinal lesions and a high degree of infection. By real-time PCR, a significant difference was detected between pigs with and without conjunctivitis when a Ct value of 36 was employed but not when a Ct value of 38 was employed. Conclusions Chlamydia suis was demonstrated in most samples and overall, no correlation to clinical signs was detected. However, a correlation was noted between samples with a high degree of infection and the presence of clinical signs. It is possible, that the intensive pig production systems studied might predispose for the transmission and maintenance of the infection thus increasing the infectious load and the risk for disease in the pig.

  19. Modeling the live-pig trade network in Georgia: Implications for disease prevention and control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Andrea Kukielka

    Full Text Available Live pig trade patterns, drivers and characteristics, particularly in backyard predominant systems, remain largely unexplored despite their important contribution to the spread of infectious diseases in the swine industry. A better understanding of the pig trade dynamics can inform the implementation of risk-based and more cost-effective prevention and control programs for swine diseases. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire elaborated by FAO and implemented to 487 farmers was used to collect data regarding basic characteristics about pig demographics and live-pig trade among villages in the country of Georgia, where very scarce information is available. Social network analysis and exponential random graph models were used to better understand the structure, contact patterns and main drivers for pig trade in the country. Results indicate relatively infrequent (a total of 599 shipments in one year and geographically localized (median Euclidean distance between shipments = 6.08 km; IQR = 0-13.88 km pig movements in the studied regions. The main factors contributing to live-pig trade movements among villages were being from the same region (i.e., local trade, usage of a middleman or a live animal market to trade live pigs by at least one farmer in the village, and having a large number of pig farmers in the village. The identified villages' characteristics and structural network properties could be used to inform the design of more cost-effective surveillance systems in a country which pig industry was recently devastated by African swine fever epidemics and where backyard production systems are predominant.

  20. Changes in parasympathetic system in medulla oblongata in male pigs in the course of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszek, Alicja; Kiczak, Liliana; Bania, Jacek; Krupa, Paweł; Pasławska, Urszula; Zacharski, Maciej; Janiszewski, Adrian; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Zyśko, Dorota; Ardehali, Hossein; Jankowska, Ewa A; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2013-10-01

    Autonomic imbalance constituting a fundamental feature of heart failure (HF) has been assessed mainly at the periphery. Changes in the functioning of autonomic centers in the brain remain unclear. We investigated the molecular elements of parasympathetic system, i.e. α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) and enzymes metabolizing acetylcholine (acetylcholinesterase, AChE, choline acetyltransferase, ChAT) in medulla oblongata (MO) of male pigs with chronic tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy. The mRNA levels of AChE, ChAT, α7nAChR and X-box binding protein 1 (spliced form, XBP1s) in MO were analyzed using qPCR, AChE and ChAT activities using spectrophotometry, proteasome activity using fluorometry, and the protein level of α7nAChR using Western blotting. The development of systolic HF was accompanied by an increase in circulating catecholamines, a decrease in the AChE and α7nAChR mRNA in MO, an increase in AChE activity (all pmedulla oblongata during the progression of systolic non-ischemic heart failure in male pigs, indicating a functional link between MO and heart in HF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of two different high doses of irradiation on antioxidant system in the liver of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Yildiz; Bukan, Neslihan; Dizman, Aysen; Hicsonmez, Ayse; Bilgihan, Ayse

    2004-03-01

    To examine the state of the oxidant-antioxidant system in the liver of guinea pig caused by high doses of ionizing radiation in the early period. The research was carried out on guinea pigs irradiated with the doses of 8 Gy (group 2) or 15 Gy (group 3) (single dose/whole body) in comparison with control group (group 1). The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and glutathione (GSH), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the levels of selenium in the liver were measured. TBARS levels in the irradiated animals were markedly higher than those in controls. In group 3, GSH levels and GSH-Px activity were significantly increased while activity of SOD and CAT were significantly decreased compared to groups 1 and 2. Liver selenium levels were not influenced by irradiation. The data have shown that gamma-irradiation at the doses of 8 Gy or 15 Gy results in significant increase in free radical formation while antioxidant enzymes were affected only at a dose of 15 Gy.

  2. Effects of passive inhalation of cigarette smoke on structural and functional parameters in the respiratory system of guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effects of passive inhalation of cigarette smoke on the respiratory system of guinea pigs. Methods: Male guinea pigs were divided into two groups: control and passive smoking, the latter being exposed to the smoke of ten cigarettes for 20 min in the morning, afternoon and evening (30 cigarettes/day for five days. After that period, inflammatory parameters were studied by quantifying mesenteric mast cell degranulation, as well as oxidative stress, in BAL fluid. In addition, we determined MIP, MEP, and mucociliary transport (in vivo, as well as tracheal contractility response (in vitro. Results: In comparison with the control group, the passive smoking group showed a significant increase in mast cell degranulation (19.75 ± 3.77% vs. 42.53 ± 0.42%; p < 0.001 and in the levels of reduced glutathione (293.9 ± 19.21 vs. 723.7 ± 67.43 nM/g of tissue; p < 0.05; as well as a significant reduction in mucociliary clearance (p < 0.05, which caused significant changes in pulmonary function (in MIP and MEP; p < 0.05 for both and airway hyperreactivity. Conclusions: Passive inhalation of cigarette smoke caused significant increases in mast cell degranulation and oxidative stress. This inflammatory process seems to influence the decrease in mucociliary transport and to cause changes in pulmonary function, leading to tracheal hyperreactivity.

  3. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken L. Smith; Marc E. Leveque

    2005-05-31

    The report herein is a summary of the work performed on three projects to demonstrate hydrocarbon drilling and production methods applicable to deep and ultra deepwater field developments in the Gulf of Mexico and other like applications around the world. This work advances technology that could lead to more economic development and exploitation of reserves in ultra-deep water or remote areas. The first project is Subsea Processing. Its scope includes a review of the ''state of the art'' in subsea components to enable primary production process functions such as first stage liquids and gas separation, flow boosting, chemical treatment, flow metering, etc. These components are then combined to allow for the elimination of costly surface production facilities at the well site. A number of studies were then performed on proposed field development projects to validate the economic potential of this technology. The second project involved the design and testing of a light weight production riser made of composite material. The proposed design was to meet an actual Gulf of Mexico deepwater development project. The various engineering and testing work is reviewed, including test results. The third project described in this report encompasses the development and testing of a close tolerance liner drilling system, a new technology aimed at reducing deepwater drilling costs. The design and prototype testing in a test well are described in detail.

  4. A hierarchical Markov decision process modeling feeding and marketing decisions of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pourmoayed, Reza; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is the most important cost in the production of growing pigs and has a direct impact on the marketing decisions, growth and the final quality of the meat. In this paper, we address the sequential decision problem of when to change the feed-mix within a finisher pig pen and when to pick pigs...... for marketing. We formulate a hierarchical Markov decision process with three levels representing the decision process. The model considers decisions related to feeding and marketing and finds the optimal decision given the current state of the pen. The state of the system is based on information from on...

  5. Sterile Product Packaging and Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Both conventional and more advanced product container and delivery systems are the focus of this brief article. Six different product container systems will be discussed, plus advances in primary packaging for special delivery systems and needle technology.

  6. ASPECTOS EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS DE UM FOCO DE TUNGÍASE (Tunga penetrans, SIPHONAPTERA EM UM SISTEMA INTENSIVO DE SUÍNOS CRIADOS AO AR LIVRE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF A FOCUS OF Tunga penetrans INFESTATION IN OUTDOOR PIG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Antônio Dalla Costa

    2007-09-01

    reproductive, pregnancy and nursing periods on pasture limited by wiring and/or electric fences. The aim of the present report was to describe the epidemiological aspects of an outbreak of Tunga penetrans in an outdoor pig production system. A total of six mature boars, 9 lactating sows, 13 pregnant sows, 9 mating sows, 20 suckling pigs and 34 weaned pigs were clinically examined. None of the boars were infested, while 50% of all sows examined had the parasite lesions, most frequently observed in the breast area, thus resulting in agalactia in lactating sows due to obstruction of the galactophorus channel, with subsequent involution of the mammary gland. In 90% of suckling piglets walking difficulty was observed, caused by the presence of the parasite in the hoofs, with 25% of these animals also showing hock lesions (farm number 1, n = 48. Similar lesions were observed in 100% of 40-47 days old weaned pigs (farm number 2, n = 24 and in 80% of 70 days old weaned pigs (farm number 3, n = 10, all of which had been transferred to finishing units in a confinement system. Therefore we conclude that Tunga penetrans can infest pigs reared or kept outdoors, causing agalactia in lactating sows, and walking disorders in suckling and weaned pigs.

    KEY-WORDS: Chiggers, agalactia in sows; outdoors pig production.

  7. The productivity and work load in flexible production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhijn, J.W. van; Looze, M.P. de; Schoenmaker, N.; Bosch, T.; Deursen, J. van

    2006-01-01

    A negative aspect of serial flow production systems is its lack of flexibility. Other production systems like the flexing flow and the shopping system are more flexible as the number of workers can be easily adjusted to temporal demands. But how efficient are these flexible systems? In a laboratory

  8. Implementation of a validated HACCP system for the control of microbiological contamination of pig carcasses at a small abattoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jeffrey; Brereton, Donald A.; Gill, Colin O.

    2003-01-01

    To guide the implementation of a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system at a small abattoir, the microbiological conditions of pig carcasses at various stages of processing were assessed by enumerating total aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli in samples collected from randomly selected sites on the carcasses. Those data indicated that carcasses were contaminated with bacteria mainly during dehairing and operations on the head. When carcasses were pasteurized after head removal, the numbers of total aerobes on dressed carcasses were reduced by about 1 order and the numbers of coliforms and E. coli were reduced by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Implementation of an HACCP system on the basis of the microbiological data gave cooled carcasses with mean numbers of total aerobes < 100/cm2, and mean numbers of coliforms and E. coli about 1/1000 cm2. PMID:12619556

  9. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica isolated from broiler chickens, pigs and meat products in Thailand-Cambodia border provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trongjit, Suthathip; Angkititrakul, Sunpetch; Tuttle, R Emerson; Poungseree, Jiratchaya; Padungtod, Pawin; Chuanchuen, Rungtip

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Salmonella isolates from broiler chickens, pigs and their associated meat products in the Thailand-Cambodia border provinces. A total of 941 samples were collected from pigs and broiler chickens at slaughter houses and from carcasses at local fresh markets in Sa Kaeo, Thailand (n = 554) and Banteay Meanchey, Cambodia (n = 387) in 2014 and 2015. From these samples, 345 Salmonella isolates were collected from Sa Keao (n = 145; 23%) and Banteay Meanchey (n = 200; 47%) and assayed for antimicrobial susceptibility, class 1 integrons and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes. Serovars Typhimurium (29%) and Rissen (29%) were the most common serotypes found in Thai and Cambodian isolates, respectively. Multidrug resistance was detected in 34% and 52% of isolates from Sa Keao and Banteay Meanchey, respectively. The majority of the Thai isolates were resistant to ampicillin (72.4%), whereas most Cambodian isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole (71%). Eleven isolates from Sa Keao and 44 from Banteay Meanchey carried class 1 integrons comprising resistance gene cassettes. The most common gene cassette array was dfrA12-aadA2 (61.1%). Six isolates were ESBL producers. The β-lactamase genes found included bla TEM-1 , bla CTX-M-55 and bla CMY-2 . Some of these class 1 integrons and ESBL genes were located on conjugative plasmid. In conclusion, multidrug-resistant Salmonella are common in pigs, chickens and their products in the Thailand-Cambodia border provinces. Our findings indicate that class 1 integrons play a role in spread of AMR in the strains in this study. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Effect of dietary soybean oil and soybean protein concentration on the concentration of digestible amino acids in soybean products fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Pahm, S K; Stein, H H

    2008-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure the effect of adding soybean oil to soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) on apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of CP and AA by growing pigs. A second objective was to compare AID and SID of AA in a new high-protein variety of full fat soybeans (FFSB) to values obtained in other soybean products. Commercial sources of FFSB (FFSB-CV), SBM, and SPC, and of a new high-protein variety of FFSB (FFSB-HP) were used in the experiment. Four diets were prepared using each soybean product as the sole source of CP and AA in 1 diet. Two additional diets were formulated by adding soybean oil (7.55 and 7.35%, respectively) to the diets containing SBM and SPC. A nitrogen-free diet was also used to measure basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. The 2 sources of FFSB were extruded at 150 degrees C before being used in the experiment. Seven growing barrows (initial BW = 26.2 kg) were prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a 7 x 7 Latin square design. Ileal digesta were collected from the pigs on d 6 and 7 of each period. All digesta samples were lyophilized and analyzed for DM, CP, AA, and chromium, and values for AID and SID of CP and AA were calculated. The addition of oil improved (P oil and SPC, but these values were lower (P oil. In conclusion, the addition of oil improved the SID of most AA in SBM and SPC fed to growing pigs, and the SID of AA in FFSB-HP were greater than in SBM and similar to the SID of AA in SBM with oil and in SPC.

  11. Greenhouse production systems for people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, G.A.; Sase, S.; Cramer, R.; Hoogeboom, J.; McKenzie, A.; Parbst, K.; Sacrascia-Mugnozza, G.; Selina, P.; Sharp, D.A.; Voogt, J.O.; Weel, van P.A.; Mears, D.

    2012-01-01

    Environmentally sound greenhouse production requires that: demand for market products is understood; greenhouse design addresses the climate circum-stances; input resources are available and consumed efficiently, and; there must be a reasonable balance of production products to the environmental

  12. Effects of road transportation on excitability scores of pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... excitability scores of pigs administered ascorbic acid (AA) during the hot-dry season in Northern. Nigeria. Thirteen .... the Northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria for transportation of pigs was .... modern swine production.

  13. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Smith; M. E. Leveque

    2004-09-30

    This report includes technical progress made during the period October, 2003 through September, 2004. At the end of the last technical progress report, the subsea processing aspects of the work program had been dropped due to the lack of commercial opportunity within ConocoPhillips, and the program had been redirected towards two other promising deepwater technologies: the development and demonstration of a composite production riser, and the development and testing of a close-tolerance liner drilling system. This report focuses on these two technologies.

  14. A Classification Scheme for Production System Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Daniel Grud Hellerup; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2018-01-01

    Manufacturing companies often have difficulties developing production platforms, partly due to the complexity of many production systems and difficulty determining which processes constitute a platform. Understanding production processes is an important step to identifying candidate processes...... for a production platform based on existing production systems. Reviewing a number of existing classifications and taxonomies, a consolidated classification scheme for processes in production of discrete products has been outlined. The classification scheme helps ensure consistency during mapping of existing...

  15. The Application of Internet of Things in Pig Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Shang , Minghua; Dong , Gang; Mu , Yuanjie; Wang , Fujun; Ruan , Huaijun

    2015-01-01

    International audience; A pig breeding IoT system is designed, in view of the human resources, natural resources consumption, the quality and safety problems occurred frequently, the management mode is backward and so on. In this paper, the system architecture, information awareness, system application of the three aspects of pig farming system is introduced. The system can use all aspects of pig farming to sales, has some reference to the intensive farming of pigs.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance of fecal Salmonella spp. isolated from all phases of pig production in 20 herds in Alberta and Saskatchewan

    OpenAIRE

    Rosengren, Leigh B.; Waldner, Cheryl L.; Reid‐Smith, Richard J.; Checkley, Sylvia L.; McFall, Margaret E.; Rajíc, Andrijana

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella spp. (n = 468), isolated from the feces of sows, nursery, and grow‐finish pigs in 20 farrow‐to‐finish herds in Alberta and Saskatchewan, were tested for susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials. No resistance was identified to amikacin, amoxicillin‐clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin or nalidixic acid, and less than 1% of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin and gentamicin. Isolates were most commonly resistant to tetracycline (35%) and sulfamethoxazole (27%). Ove...

  17. Mapping of neurons in the central nervous system of the guinea pig by use of antisera specific to the molluscan neuropeptide FMRFamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triepel, J; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1984-01-01

    Immunoreactive neurons were mapped in the central nervous system of colchicine-treated and untreated guinea pigs with the use of two antisera to the molluscan neuropeptide FMRFamide. These antisera were especially selected for their incapability to react with peptides of the pancreatic polypeptide...

  18. Effects of different space allowances on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality in a grow-to-finish production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was conducted to evaluate the optimal space allowance on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs. Methods A total of ninety crossbred pigs [(Yorkshire×Landrace×Duroc, 30.25±1.13 kg] were allocated into three treatments (0.96: four pigs/pen, 0.96 m2/pig; 0.80: five pigs/pen, 0.80 m2/pig; 0.69: six pigs/pen, 0.69 m2/pig in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were housed in balanced sex and had free access to feed in all phases for 14 weeks (growing phase I, growing phase II, finishing phase I, and finishing phase II. Results There was no statistical difference in growing phase, but a linear decrease was observed on average daily gain (ADG, p<0.01, average daily feed intake (ADFI, p<0.01, and body weight (BW, p<0.01 with decreasing space allowance in late finishing phase. On the other hand, a quadratic effect was observed on gain to feed ratio in early finishing phase (p<0.03. Consequently, overall ADG, ADFI, and final BW linearly declined in response to decreased space allowance (p<0.01. The pH of pork had no significant difference in 1 hour after slaughter, whereas there was a linear decrease in 24 h after slaughter with decreasing space allowance. Floor area allowance did not affect pork colors, but shear force linearly increased as floor space decreased (p<0.01. There was a linear increase in serum cortisol concentration on 14 week (p<0.05 with decreased space allocation. Serum IgG was linearly ameliorated as space allowance increased on 10 week (p<0.05 and 14 week (p<0.01. Conclusion Data from current study indicated that stress derived from reduced space allowance deteriorates the immune system as well as growth performance of pigs, resulting in poor pork quality. Recommended adequate space allowance in a grow-to-finish production system is more than 0.80 m2/pig for maximizing growth performance and production efficiency.

  19. Effect of the inclusion of dry pasta by-products at different levels in the diet of typical Italian finishing heavy pigs: Performance, carcass characteristics, and ham quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Moschini, M; Giuberti, G; Morlacchini, M

    2016-04-01

    The effect of pasta inclusion in finishing pig diets was evaluated on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ham quality. Pigs (144) were assigned to 4 diets with different pasta levels: 0 (control, corn-based diet), 30, 60, or 80%. Pigs fed pasta had greater (linear, PPasta increased (quadratic, PPasta decreased (linear, Ppasta. Pasta could be considered as an ingredient in the diet for typical Italian finishing heavy pigs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of the amount of straw provided to pigs kept in intensive production conditions on the occurrence and severity of gastric ulceration at slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Henrik E.; Jespersen, Anna

    2016-01-01

    were used, three from each of 15 pens. After euthanization, the dimension of the non-glandular region of the stomach was measured. Lesions were characterized and scored. Irrespective of straw provided, 67% of the pigs showed signs of gastric pathology. Pigs provided with 500 or 1000 g straw were pooled...... as ‘permanent access’. The proportion of pigs with ulcerations was reduced by permanent access to straw (7 vs. 33%; P ulceration in pigs....

  1. Systems genomics study reveals expression quantitative trait loci, regulator genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Hansen, Mathias B.; Kadarmideen, Haja N.

    2018-01-01

    Boar taint is an offensive odour and/or taste from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs caused by skatole and androstenone accumulation during sexual maturity. Castration is widely used to avoid boar taint but is currently under debate because of animal welfare concerns. This study aimed...... to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) with potential effects on boar taint compounds to improve breeding possibilities for reduced boar taint. Danish Landrace male boars with low, medium and high genetic merit for skatole and human nose score (HNS) were slaughtered at similar to 100 kg. Gene...... and SSC14. Functional characterisation of eQTLs revealed functions within regulation of androgen and the intracellular steroid hormone receptor signalling pathway and of xenobiotic metabolism by cytochrome P450 system and cellular response to oestradiol. A QTL enrichment test revealed 89 QTL traits...

  2. Ensiled citrus pulp as a by-product feedstuff for finishing pigs: nutritional value and effects on intestinal microflora and carcass quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Moset

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Forty pigs of 76.8 ± 4.2 kg body weight were fed four different diets varying in ensiled citrus pulp (ECP inclusion level (0, 50, 100, and 150 g of ECP/kg of diet on dry matter base. The trial lasted 5 weeks. During the last week, faecal samples were obtained to calculate apparent nutrient digestibility; also volatile fatty acids (VFA content in faeces was determined. The digestible energy and protein of ECP was estimated by regression analysis. During the trial faecal samples were collected to determine enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts. At slaughter, carcass characteristics were registered. The inclusion of ECP in the diets decreased energy digestibility but increased neutral and acid detergent fibre digestibility linearly (p<0.05. The estimated digestible energy and protein of ECP were lower than expected (7.0 MJ/kg dry matter (DM and 33.8 g/kg DM, respectively. Total VFA production in faeces was not affected by the diet. Both enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts were lower (p<0.01 with than without ECP inclusion at the end of the study. Carcass yield decreased linearly (p<0.05 and backfat at gluteus medius increased quadratically (p<0.05 with the inclusion of ECP in the diet. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the internal subcutaneous fat layer decreased quadratically (p<0.05 with the inclusion of ECP. Thus, the nutritive value of ECP for finishing pigs is low and levels of 150g/kg can negatively affect carcass yield. However, including up to 100 g of ECP/kg in finishing pig diets did not affect nutrient digestibility, carcass yield and subcutaneous fat FA profile. Additionally, increasing ECP levels in diets decreases faecal enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts in faeces.

  3. Ensiled citrus pulp as a by-product feedstuff for finishing pigs: nutritional value and effects on intestinal microflora and carcass quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moset, V.; Piquer, O.; Cervera, C.; Fernández, J.; Hernández, P.; Cerisuelo, A.

    2015-07-01

    Forty pigs of 76.8 ± 4.2 kg body weight were fed four different diets varying in ensiled citrus pulp (ECP) inclusion level (0, 50, 100, and 150 g of ECP/kg of diet on dry matter base). The trial lasted 5 weeks. During the last week, faecal samples were obtained to calculate apparent nutrient digestibility; also volatile fatty acids (VFA) content in faeces was determined. The digestible energy and protein of ECP was estimated by regression analysis. During the trial faecal samples were collected to determine enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts. At slaughter, carcass characteristics were registered. The inclusion of ECP in the diets decreased energy digestibility but increased neutral and acid detergent fibre digestibility linearly (p<0.05). The estimated digestible energy and protein of ECP were lower than expected (7.0 MJ/kg dry matter (DM) and 33.8 g/kg DM, respectively). Total VFA production in faeces was not affected by the diet. Both enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts were lower (p<0.01) with than without ECP inclusion at the end of the study. Carcass yield decreased linearly (p<0.05) and backfat at gluteus medius increased quadratically (p<0.05) with the inclusion of ECP in the diet. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the internal subcutaneous fat layer decreased quadratically (p<0.05) with the inclusion of ECP. Thus, the nutritive value of ECP for finishing pigs is low and levels of 150g/kg can negatively affect carcass yield. However, including up to 100 g of ECP/kg in finishing pig diets did not affect nutrient digestibility, carcass yield and subcutaneous fat FA profile. Additionally, increasing ECP levels in diets decreases faecal enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts in faeces. (Author)

  4. The impact of phosphorus on the immune system and the intestinal microbiota with special focus on the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Charlotte M E; Weiss, Eva; Schmucker, Sonja; Rodehutscord, Markus; Hoelzle, Ludwig E; Mosenthin, Rainer; Stefanski, Volker

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing interest in dietary ingredients that are appropriate to support digestive and immune functions, but also maintain a stable microbial ecosystem in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), particularly in weaned pigs. P is an essential nutrient for both microbes and their host, as it is involved, for example, in bone formation, energy metabolism, cellular signalling and stabilisation of cell membranes. Non-ruminant animals have limited access to phytate, the main storage form of P in plant seeds. The release of P bound to phytate requires phytase activity of plant or microbial origin, resulting in the formation of variable phosphorylated inositol phosphates (InsPs). The present review focuses on interactions between variations in dietary P supply, the immune system of the host, and the intestinal microbial ecosystem. Although results on the interaction between P and the immune system are inconsistent, several studies in different species have shown a positive impact of dietary P and phytase addition on the adaptive immune response. Recent studies with pigs suggest that P supply may influence intestinal microbial composition and activity. Individual InsPs or phosphate may also affect properties of pathogenic micro-organisms, such as metabolism or virulence. In conclusion, P may be considered as part of an integrated approach to support immune functions and maintain a stable microbial ecosystem in the GIT, thereby providing a barrier against potential pathogens. Within this regard, differences in phytate-P content and intrinsic phytase activity of plant feedstuffs, as well as the formation of individual InsPs, have to be taken into account.

  5. Optimal slaughter weight of pigs assessed by means of the asymmetric S-curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusec, G.; Kralik, G.; Djurkin, I.; Baulain, U.; Kallweit, E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out on 68 barrows equally distributed into two different feeding groups (intensive and restricted). MR tomography was used to obtain data needed for the calculation of optimal slaughter weight. Growth analyses and predictions were performed using an asymmetric S-function. The differences between the predicted and real time needed to achieve 100 kg live weight calculated for the two feeding groups of pigs were not statistically significant. The prediction was fairly accurate in 88% of the cases for the intensive group and in 79% of the cases for the restrictively fed pigs. The point of muscle growth saturation (tC=51.31 cubic dm) calculated for pigs from the intensive group occurred at 164 days of age. Restrictively fed pigs reached this point after 167 days. It was calculated that at 164 days of age intensively fed pigs reached about 126 kg; the pigs from the restricted group reached about 112 kg at 167 days. These weights can be regarded as optimal slaughter weights for pigs from the present study in the sense of maximum utilisation of muscle growth. Since both groups of pigs reach the same muscle volume of 51 cubic dm at the estimated times, the difference in live weights can be attributed to the volume of fat. This makes the intensive system of feeding undesirable in economical pig production. It is concluded that the obtained parameters of the asymmetric S-function may be used for the growth analysis of other pigs, assuming that they are of the same genetic background and reared in the same conditions

  6. Sources and fate of antimicrobials in integrated fish-pig and non-integrated tilapia farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Liu, Liping; Zhan, Jia; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Hvidtfeldt, Kristian; Liu, Yuan; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2017-10-01

    Antimicrobial contamination in aquaculture products constitutes a food safety hazard, but little is known about the introduction and accumulation of antimicrobials in integrated fish-pig aquaculture. This study, conducted in 2013, aimed to determine the residues of 11 types of antimicrobials by UPLC-MS/MS analysis in fish feed (n=37), pig feed (n=9), pig manure (n=9), pond sediment (n=20), fish skin (n=20) and muscle tissue (n=20) sampled from integrated tilapia-pig farms, non-integrated tilapia farms and fish feed supply shops. There was a higher occurrence of antimicrobial residues in fish skin from both integrated and non-integrated farms, and in pig manure. Enrofloxacin (3.9-129.3μg/kg) and sulfadiazine (0.7-7.8μg/kg) were commonly detected in fish skin and muscle, pig manure and pond sediment from integrated farms, with different types of antimicrobials found in pig manure and tilapia samples. In non-integrated farms, sulfadiazine (2.5-89.9μg/kg) was the predominant antimicrobial detected in fish skin and muscle, fish feed and pond sediment. In general, antimicrobials seemed not to be commonly transmitted from pig to fish in tilapia-pig integrated farms, and fish feed, pig feed and pond sediment did not seem as important sources of the antimicrobials found in fish from both systems. The frequent findings of antimicrobial residues in fish skin compared with fish muscle was probably due to different pharmacokinetics in different tissue types, which have practical food safety implications since antimicrobial residues monitoring is usually performed analyzing mixed skin and fish muscle samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Solution on Identification and Rearing Files Insmallhold Pig Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Benhai; Fu, Runting; Lin, Zhaohui; Luo, Qingyao; Yang, Liang

    In order to meet government supervision of pork production safety as well as consumeŕs right to know what they buy, this study adopts animal identification, mobile PDA reader, GPRS and other information technologies, and put forward a data collection method to set up rearing files of pig in smallhold pig farming, and designs related metadata structures and its mobile database, and develops a mobile PDA embedded system to collect individual information of pig and uploading into the remote central database, and finally realizes mobile links to the a specific website. The embedded PDA can identify both a special pig bar ear tag appointed by the Ministry of Agricultural and a general data matrix bar ear tag designed by this study by mobile reader, and can record all kinds of inputs data including bacterins, feed additives, animal drugs and even some forbidden medicines and submitted them to the center database through GPRS. At the same time, the remote center database can be maintained by mobile PDA and GPRS, and finally reached pork tracking from its origin to consumption and its tracing through turn-over direction. This study has suggested a feasible technology solution how to set up network pig electronic rearing files involved smallhold pig farming based on farmer and the solution is proved practical through its application in the Tianjińs pork quality traceability system construction. Although some individual techniques have some adverse effects on the system running such as GPRS transmitting speed now, these will be resolved with the development of communication technology. The full implementation of the solution around China will supply technical supports in guaranteeing the quality and safety of pork production supervision and meet consumer demand.

  8. Systems genomics study reveals expression quantitative trait loci, regulator genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Drag

    Full Text Available Boar taint is an offensive odour and/or taste from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs caused by skatole and androstenone accumulation during sexual maturity. Castration is widely used to avoid boar taint but is currently under debate because of animal welfare concerns. This study aimed to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs with potential effects on boar taint compounds to improve breeding possibilities for reduced boar taint. Danish Landrace male boars with low, medium and high genetic merit for skatole and human nose score (HNS were slaughtered at ~100 kg. Gene expression profiles were obtained by RNA-Seq, and genotype data were obtained by an Illumina 60K Porcine SNP chip. Following quality control and filtering, 10,545 and 12,731 genes from liver and testis were included in the eQTL analysis, together with 20,827 SNP variants. A total of 205 and 109 single-tissue eQTLs associated with 102 and 58 unique genes were identified in liver and testis, respectively. By employing a multivariate Bayesian hierarchical model, 26 eQTLs were identified as significant multi-tissue eQTLs. The highest densities of eQTLs were found on pig chromosomes SSC12, SSC1, SSC13, SSC9 and SSC14. Functional characterisation of eQTLs revealed functions within regulation of androgen and the intracellular steroid hormone receptor signalling pathway and of xenobiotic metabolism by cytochrome P450 system and cellular response to oestradiol. A QTL enrichment test revealed 89 QTL traits curated by the Animal Genome PigQTL database to be significantly overlapped by the genomic coordinates of cis-acting eQTLs. Finally, a subset of 35 cis-acting eQTLs overlapped with known boar taint QTL traits. These eQTLs could be useful in the development of a DNA test for boar taint but careful monitoring of other overlapping QTL traits should be performed to avoid any negative consequences of selection.

  9. Effects of narasin (Skycis) on live performance and carcass traits of finishing pigs sold in a three-phase marketing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkfeld, E K; Carr, S N; Rincker, P J; Gruber, S L; Allee, G L; Dilger, A C; Boler, D D

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding narasin (Skycis; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs sold in a 3-phase marketing system. Pigs ( = 1,232) were housed in 56 single-sex pens (22 pigs/pen) divided into 2 even blocks based on initiation of treatment. Each treatment × sex combination was replicated 14 times. Pigs were fed either 0 mg/kg narasin (control) or 15 mg/kg narasin for up to 85 d of finishing (initiated at an average of 52.95 kg BW). In each pen, 18% (4 pigs per pen) of pigs were sold in the first marketing group (Day 64 of dietary treatment), 50% (11 of the original 22) were sold in the second marketing group (Day 78), and 32% (the remaining 7 pigs) were sold in the third marketing group (Day 85). Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with pen as the experimental unit. The model included the fixed effects of diet, sex, and their interaction. Block and replicate nested within block were random variables. Carcass data from pigs in marketing group 3 of block 2 was not collected due to inclement weather. Narasin had no effect on growth performance traits ( ≥ 0.15) in phases 1 (Days 1-28) or 2 (Days 29-56), regardless of sex. Barrows fed narasin had a 2.0% greater overall (Day 0-85) ADG than barrows fed the control diet ( carcass composition in marketing groups 1 and 2. Narasin-fed barrows in marketing group 3 had 0.9 percentage units lower ( carcass lean compared with barrows fed control diets (51.0 vs. 52.0%); no difference existed in gilts ( = 0.21). This is likely due to narasin-fed barrows of marketing group 3 tending ( = 0.06) to have 7.7% greater fat depth than control barrows of marketing group 3. Pooled effects (across all 3 marketing groups) of feeding narasin tended ( = 0.08) to reduce loin depth by 1.1% (60.00 vs. 60.66 mm), but there were no effects on fat depth ( = 0.24) or estimated carcass lean ( = 0.11). Overall, narasin can be used during

  10. Nitrogen cycling in an ecological farming system of milk vetch culture - pig raising - biogas fermentation - rice culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.R.; Berge, ten H.F.M.; Zhang, M.L.; Wu, J.F.; Guo, C.Z.; Liu, W.

    2002-01-01

    The [15]N - labeled technique was used to study the stock, transformation, fate and utilization efficiency of N in the farming-pig husbandry-biogas ecosystem in rice areas. It was shown that the crude protein digestibility of the ensilaged milk vetch by pig was 53.76%, the recovery rates of

  11. Assessment of protein quality of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal toasted in the presence of lignosulfonate by amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and Maillard reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, T G; Bikker, P; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H

    2016-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine protein quality in processed protein sources using the content of AA, -methylisourea (OMIU)-reactive Lys, Maillard reaction products (MRP), and cross-link products; the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA; and growth performance in growing pigs as criteria. Differences in protein quality were created by secondary toasting (at 95°C for 30 min) of soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) in the presence of lignosulfonate resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and processed RSM (pRSM). The processing treatment was used as a model for overprocessed protein sources. Ten growing pigs were each fed 1 of the 4 diets containing SBM, pSBM, RSM, or pRSM in each of 3 periods. Ileal chyme was collected at the end of each period and analyzed for CP, AA, and OMIU-reactive Lys. Diets were analyzed for furosine and carboxymethyllysine (CML) as an indicator for MRP and lysinoalanine (LAL), which is a cross-link product. The SBM and RSM diets contained furosine, CML, and LAL, indicating that the Maillard reaction and cross-linking had taken place in SBM and RSM, presumably during the oil extraction/desolventizing process. The amounts of furosine, CML, and LAL were elevated in pSBM and pRSM due to further processing. Processing resulted in a reduction in total and OMIU-reactive Lys contents and a decrease in G:F from 0.52 to 0.42 for SBM and 0.46 to 0.39 for RSM ( = 0.006), SID of CP from 83.9 to 71.6% for SBM and 74.9 to 64.6% for RSM ( < 0.001), and SID of AA ( < 0.001), with the largest effects for total and OMIU-reactive Lys. The effects of processing could be substantial and should be taken into account when using processed protein sources in diets for growing pigs. The extent of protein damage may be assessed by additional analyses of MRP and cross-link products.

  12. Evaluation of the implementation of new traceability and food safety requirements in the pig industry in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jover, M; Schembri, N; Toribio, J-A; Holyoake, P K

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the implementation and barriers to adoption, among pig producers, of a newly introduced traceability and food safety system in Australia. Implementation of the PigPass national vendor declaration (NVD) linked to an on-farm quality assurance (QA) program was evaluated in May and December 2007 at saleyards and abattoirs in New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland. Four focus group discussions with saleyard producers were held between April and July 2007. Implementation of the PigPass system in terms of accurate completion of the form and QA accreditation was higher at the export abattoir than at the regional saleyard at the first audit (P 64%), and many vendors did not appear to be QA-accredited. During focus groups, producers expressed the view that PigPass implementation improved animal and product traceability. They identified the associated costs and a perceived lack of support by information providers as obstacles for adoption. Improvement in the implementation of PigPass among producers marketing pigs at export abattoirs was observed during the 8-month period of the study. There is a need for a more uniform message to producers from government agencies on the importance of the PigPass NVD and QA and extension and education targeted toward producers supplying pigs to saleyards and domestic abattoirs to ensure compliance with the traceability requirements.

  13. Quantitative multiplexed proteomics of Taenia solium cysts obtained from the skeletal muscle and central nervous system of pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Navarrete-Perea

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In human and porcine cysticercosis caused by the tapeworm Taenia solium, the larval stage (cysts can infest several tissues including the central nervous system (CNS and the skeletal muscles (SM. The cyst's proteomics changes associated with the tissue localization in the host tissues have been poorly studied. Quantitative multiplexed proteomics has the power to evaluate global proteome changes in response to different conditions. Here, using a TMT-multiplexed strategy we identified and quantified over 4,200 proteins in cysts obtained from the SM and CNS of pigs, of which 891 were host proteins. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive intermixing of host and parasite proteins reported for tapeworm infections.Several antigens in cysticercosis, i.e., GP50, paramyosin and a calcium-binding protein were enriched in skeletal muscle cysts. Our results suggested the occurrence of tissue-enriched antigen that could be useful in the improvement of the immunodiagnosis for cysticercosis. Using several algorithms for epitope detection, we selected 42 highly antigenic proteins enriched for each tissue localization of the cysts. Taking into account the fold changes and the antigen/epitope contents, we selected 10 proteins and produced synthetic peptides from the best epitopes. Nine peptides were recognized by serum antibodies of cysticercotic pigs, suggesting that those peptides are antigens. Mixtures of peptides derived from SM and CNS cysts yielded better results than mixtures of peptides derived from a single tissue location, however the identification of the 'optimal' tissue-enriched antigens remains to be discovered. Through machine learning technologies, we determined that a reliable immunodiagnostic test for porcine cysticercosis required at least five different antigenic determinants.

  14. Quantitative multiplexed proteomics of Taenia solium cysts obtained from the skeletal muscle and central nervous system of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Isasa, Marta; Paulo, Joao A; Corral-Corral, Ricardo; Flores-Bautista, Jeanette; Hernández-Téllez, Beatriz; Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Soberón, Xavier; Gygi, Steven P; Laclette, Juan P

    2017-09-01

    In human and porcine cysticercosis caused by the tapeworm Taenia solium, the larval stage (cysts) can infest several tissues including the central nervous system (CNS) and the skeletal muscles (SM). The cyst's proteomics changes associated with the tissue localization in the host tissues have been poorly studied. Quantitative multiplexed proteomics has the power to evaluate global proteome changes in response to different conditions. Here, using a TMT-multiplexed strategy we identified and quantified over 4,200 proteins in cysts obtained from the SM and CNS of pigs, of which 891 were host proteins. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive intermixing of host and parasite proteins reported for tapeworm infections.Several antigens in cysticercosis, i.e., GP50, paramyosin and a calcium-binding protein were enriched in skeletal muscle cysts. Our results suggested the occurrence of tissue-enriched antigen that could be useful in the improvement of the immunodiagnosis for cysticercosis. Using several algorithms for epitope detection, we selected 42 highly antigenic proteins enriched for each tissue localization of the cysts. Taking into account the fold changes and the antigen/epitope contents, we selected 10 proteins and produced synthetic peptides from the best epitopes. Nine peptides were recognized by serum antibodies of cysticercotic pigs, suggesting that those peptides are antigens. Mixtures of peptides derived from SM and CNS cysts yielded better results than mixtures of peptides derived from a single tissue location, however the identification of the 'optimal' tissue-enriched antigens remains to be discovered. Through machine learning technologies, we determined that a reliable immunodiagnostic test for porcine cysticercosis required at least five different antigenic determinants.

  15. Description, Modelling and Design of Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter; Rudolph, Carsten

    1997-01-01

    Design of production systems are rarely an activity in which decision makers in most production companies have much experience. In future, this activity is to be more recurrent due to more and more frequent changes in the production task. Consequently, the decision makers are in need of better...... management tools and methods for description and modelling of production systems supporting the decisions. In this article a structural framework to describe and model production systems will be introduced, and it is shown how the production system of a minor Danish manufacturer of electromechanical...

  16. Life cycle assessment as a tool to evaluate the impact of reducing crude protein in pig diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Nardina Trícia Rigo Monteiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Environmental impacts of livestock systems, especially pig production, have come under increasing debate in recent years. The challenge is in meeting the growing demand for food at an affordable cost, without compromising environmental integrity. Previous studies have shown that feed production is responsible for the majority of CO2-eq. emission resulting from pig farming systems. This seems to indicate that feed strategies could be an effective tool to achieve the sustainability of the pork chain. Therefore, dietary crude protein reduction, through the addition of industrial amino acids, lessens the nitrogen excretion by pigs and, consequently, could mitigate the effects on the environment of pig production. In this sense, to effectively evaluate the environmental impacts of pig production systems, life cycle assessment has been widely used in agriculture, but the effects of feed are still understudied in Brazilian conditions. Owing to the importance and the great concern in this research area, we presented in this paper an updated review focusing on the nutritional techniques and their potential to reduce the global warming potential of pig production, considering both the direct effects, related to the choice of feed ingredients and the indirect effects, related to changes in the efficiency of use of nutrient by the animals.

  17. Effects of free-range and confined housing on joint health in a herd of fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etterlin, Pernille Engelsen; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Lundeheim, Nils; Heldmer, Eva; Österberg, Julia; Ekman, Stina

    2014-09-11

    Free-range housing, in which pigs have access to both indoor and outdoor areas, is mandatory in organic pig production in Europe, but little is known about the effects of this housing on joint health in pigs. A high level of joint condemnations at slaughter has been reported in organic free-range pigs in Sweden, compared with pigs raised in conventional confined housing. We hypothesised that biomechanical forces imposed on the joints of pigs that range freely promote the development of osteochondrosis and lead to joint condemnation. We compared the prevalence of osteochondrosis and other joint lesions (e.g. arthritis, traumatic) in the elbow and hock joints of 91 crossbred Hampshire (Yorkshire × Landrace) fattening pigs that were housed in a free-range indoor/outdoor system with that in 45 pigs housed in confined indoor pens. A larger proportion of free-range than confined pigs had osteochondrosis in the elbow joints (69 vs. 50%, p free-range pigs showed moderate or severe lesions (33 vs. 16%, p free-range pigs also showed a higher prevalence of osteochondrosis in the hock joints (83 vs. 62%, p free-range pigs had condemned joints, all of which showed severe osteochondrosis, while no joints of confined pigs were condemned. In this experiment the prevalence of osteochondrosis in the elbow and the hock was higher, and lesions were more severe, in free-range than in confined pigs, suggesting that free-range housing increases the risk of acquiring osteochondrosis. Increased biomechanical stress to vulnerable joint structures may be the mechanism behind this effect, however more studies are needed to verify these results. This study suggests that modification of housing, and breeding for joints that are more adapted to free-range movement may be needed in free-range pig production. Severe osteochondrosis is a cause of joint condemnation, but the condemnation rate at slaughter underestimates the actual frequency of joint lesions and hence is a poor assessment of joint

  18. Product Configuration Systems - Implications for Product Innovation and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2004-01-01

    configurations. However, costs are but one parameter on which firms compete and firms must continually innovate new and develop existing products. This paper presents original empirical insights on implementation and use of product configuration systems in a number of Danish industrial firms. The paper discusses...... the organisational changes associated with PCS and how this affects product innovation and development. The paper begins by introducing product configuration systems, which are then placed in context to the firm as a process technology which coordinate different processes: product development, order acquisition......Product Configuration Systems (PCS) is a step in the direction of mass customization in the sense that PCS allows a firm to significantly lower the unit cost of configuration. Thus PCS is a valuable technology for lowering operating costs while retaining a high number of possible product...

  19. Smart pigging - a contribution to the monitoring of the anti-corrosion protection systems on pig-inspectable high-pressure gas transmission pipelines; Intelligente Molchung - ein Beitrag zur Ueberwachung des Korrosionsschutzes molchbarer Gashochdruckleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, M.; Schoeneich, H.G. [Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany). Kompetenz-Center Korrosionsschutz

    2000-07-01

    High-pressure gas transmission pipelines installed underground are exposed to the risk of external corrosion. The application of a sheathing (passive protection) and, since the 1950s, the installation of a cathodic anti-corrosion protection system, provide pipelines with effective protection against this danger. In the past, the effectiveness of cathodic anti-corrosion protection systems was verified by means of intensive measuring and re-measuring cycles. It became apparent that points of damage to the sheathing were protected in the majority of cases against corrosion by the cathodic anti-corrosion protection system. There are, however, particular design circumstances and ambient conditions which can make this anti-corrosion protection concept either partially or completely ineffective. The use of smart pigs for inspection of pig-inspectable gas transmission pipelines makes it possible to detect and eliminate these weak points. (orig.) [German] Gashochdruckleitungen, die im Erdboden verlegt werden, unterliegen einer Gefaehrdung durch Aussenkorrosion. Durch eine Umhuellung (passiver Schutz) und seit den 50er Jahren durch die Einrichtung des kathodischen Korrosionsschutzes (aktiver Schutz) sind die Leitungen gegen diese Gefaehrdung wirkungsvoll geschuetzt. In der Vergangenheit wurde die Ueberpruefung der Wirksamkeit des kathodischen Korrosionsschutzes durch Intensivmessungen und Nachmessungen sichergestellt. Dabei zeigte sich, dass in der ueberwiegenden Zahl Umhuellungsbeschaedigungen durch den kathodischen Korrosionsschutz gegen Korrosion geschuetzt sind. Es gibt jedoch besondere konstruktive oder Umgebungsbedingungen, die dieses Korrosionsschuzkonzept teilweise oder vollstaendig unwirksam werden lassen. Mit dem Einsatz von intelligenten Molchen zur Inspektion molchbarer Gastransportleitungen koennen diese Schwachstellen erkannt und beseitigt werden. (orig.)

  20. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PPIS includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pesticidal type, formulation code, and registration status for all products registered in the U.S.

  1. A comparison between lesions found during meat inspection of finishing pigs raised under organic/free-range conditions and conventional, indoor conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Lis; Petersen, Jesper Valentin; Busch, Marie Erika

    2015-01-01

    It is often argued that pigs raised under less intensive production conditions - such as organic or free-range - have a higher level of animal welfare compared with conventionally raised pigs. To look into this, an analysis of data from a large Danish abattoir slaughtering organic, free-range, and conventionally raised finishing pigs was undertaken. First, the requirements for each of the three types of production systems were investigated. Next, meat inspection data from a period of 1 year were collected. These covered 201,160 organic/free-range pigs and 1,173,213 conventionally raised pigs. The prevalence of each individual type of lesion was calculated, followed by a statistical comparison between the prevalences in organic/free-range and conventional pigs. Because of the large number of data, the P-value for significance was lowered to P = 0.001, and only biological associations reflecting Odds Ratios above 1.2 or below 0.8 were considered to be of significance. The majority of the lesion types were recorded infrequently (free-range pigs than among conventional pigs - among others old fractures, tail lesions and osteomyelitis. Four lesion types were equally frequent in the two groups: chronic pneumonia, chronic pleuritis, fresh fracture, and abscess in head/ear. Four lesion types were recorded less frequently among organic/free-range pigs compared with conventionally raised pigs. These included abscess in leg/toe, hernia and scar/hock lesion. Possible associations between the individual lesion types and the production systems - including the requirements for each system - are discussed. The results emphasize the importance of using direct animal based parameters when evaluating animal welfare in different types of production systems. Moreover, individual solutions to the health problems observed in a herd should be found, e.g. in collaboration with the veterinary practitioner and other advisors.

  2. Rapid production of maggots as feed supplement and organic fertilizer by the two-stage composting of pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Xiang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Hong, Chun-Lai; Feng, Ming-Guang; Xue, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Xiao-Yang; Yao, Yan-Lai; Yu, Man

    2012-07-01

    A two-stage composting experiment was performed to utilize pig manure for producing maggots as feed supplement and organic fertilizer. Seven-day composting of 1.8 ton fresh manure inoculated with 9 kg mixture of housefly neonates and wheat bran produced 193 kg aging maggots, followed by 12 week composting to maturity. Reaching the thermophilic phase and final maturity faster was characteristic of the maggot-treated compost compared with the same-size natural compost. Upon the transit of the maggot-treated compost to the second stage, the composting temperature maintained around 55 °C for 9 days and the moisture decreased to ~40%. Moreover, higher pH, faster detoxification and different activity patterns for some microbial enzymes were observed. There was a strong material loss (35% water-soluble carbon and 16% total nitrogen) caused by the maggot culture in the first stage. Our results highlight a higher economic value of pig manure achieved through the two-stage composting without bulking agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutritional studies in native, Thai Kadon pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasupen, K

    2007-01-01

    In the North-East of Thailand native, so-called Kadon pigs are typically kept on small-holder farms. Kadon pig is believed to be on the edge of extinction and in 2003 it was designated as a protected species of production animals. The main objective of this thesis was to study various nutritional

  4. Energy saving in the pig iron production in the blast furnace no. 5; Ahorro de energia en la produccion de arrabio en el alto horno No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Diaz, Ricardo A; J Quiroz, Francisco; Rodriguez, Rita Patricia; Banuelos Garza, Yolanda [Altos Hornos de Mexico, S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA) is an iron and steel industry integrated to Grupo Acereros del Norte in Monclova, in the Coahuila state. With an a installed capacity of 3.1 millions of tons per annum o liquid steel. In its installations, AHMSA has the highest capacity blast furnace installed in Mexico, blast furnace No. 5, that has a useful volume of 2,163 cubic meters, designed to produce 4,800 tons of pig iron per day. The basic goal to achieve in the operations involved in the production of steel through the pig iron production in the blast furnace, is the hot metal production at the lowest attainable cost within the quality requirements specified by the steel makers. The most important criterion for the recognition of the attained success is the fuel consumption per ton of pig iron produced, with coke as the main fuel fed to the blast furnace and therefore of the greatest impact on the final product cost. AHMSA contemplated within its strategic plan, the reduction in the production of its coking plants derived from the natural aging of its furnaces, consequently it is pending the shortage of coke for productions higher than 2.6 MMT of liquid iron. In response to this, and faced to the true need of diminishing the production costs in the process of making pig iron, new practices have been implemented in the use of complementary fuels to partially substitute the metallurgical coke as an energy source for the blast furnace process. The use of natural gas, fuel oil and the gradual increase of the temperature of hot blow, have strongly impacted the metallurgical coke consumption, lowering it considerably and diminishing the costs per ton of pig iron in blast furnace No. 5. Another important issue, is the utilization of coke fines resulting form the sieving of the same, directly fed to the furnace load. This practice reduced the coke consumption, and most of all, the output of our coking plants was increased on being utilized at the maximum coke production

  5. Energy saving in the pig iron production in the blast furnace no. 5; Ahorro de energia en la produccion de arrabio en el alto horno No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Diaz, Ricardo A.; J Quiroz, Francisco; Rodriguez, Rita Patricia; Banuelos Garza, Yolanda [Altos Hornos de Mexico, S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA) is an iron and steel industry integrated to Grupo Acereros del Norte in Monclova, in the Coahuila state. With an a installed capacity of 3.1 millions of tons per annum o liquid steel. In its installations, AHMSA has the highest capacity blast furnace installed in Mexico, blast furnace No. 5, that has a useful volume of 2,163 cubic meters, designed to produce 4,800 tons of pig iron per day. The basic goal to achieve in the operations involved in the production of steel through the pig iron production in the blast furnace, is the hot metal production at the lowest attainable cost within the quality requirements specified by the steel makers. The most important criterion for the recognition of the attained success is the fuel consumption per ton of pig iron produced, with coke as the main fuel fed to the blast furnace and therefore of the greatest impact on the final product cost. AHMSA contemplated within its strategic plan, the reduction in the production of its coking plants derived from the natural aging of its furnaces, consequently it is pending the shortage of coke for productions higher than 2.6 MMT of liquid iron. In response to this, and faced to the true need of diminishing the production costs in the process of making pig iron, new practices have been implemented in the use of complementary fuels to partially substitute the metallurgical coke as an energy source for the blast furnace process. The use of natural gas, fuel oil and the gradual increase of the temperature of hot blow, have strongly impacted the metallurgical coke consumption, lowering it considerably and diminishing the costs per ton of pig iron in blast furnace No. 5. Another important issue, is the utilization of coke fines resulting form the sieving of the same, directly fed to the furnace load. This practice reduced the coke consumption, and most of all, the output of our coking plants was increased on being utilized at the maximum coke production

  6. Ileal Digesta Nondietary Substrates from Cannulated Pigs Are Major Contributors to In Vitro Human Hindgut Short-Chain Fatty Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2017-02-01

    It has been assumed that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colon originate mainly from dietary fiber fermentation. However, SCFAs in the colon are also produced from the fermentation of nondietary material. We aimed to predict the relative contributions of dietary and nondietary substrates in the production of SCFAs with the use of a human fecal inoculum for diets containing kiwifruit as a model fiber. Terminal ileal digesta were collected from ileal-cannulated male pigs [n = 7; mean ± SD: 41.4 ± 2.98 kg body weight] adapted (44-d feeding) to diets containing either 25 g/kg dry matter (DM) of kiwifruit fiber (KFf) (25 KFf) or 50 g/kg DM of KFf (50 KFf) and then again after receiving a fiber-free diet (n = 14) for a further 7 d. Pigs were used as a model for adult humans for digestion in the upper digestive tract (mouth to the terminal ileum). The ileal digesta (either unfractionated or fractionated into crude mucin and microbial fractions) were fermented in vitro for 24 h with the use of a fresh human fecal inoculum to predict SCFA production in the human hindgut. SCFAs of nondietary origin were the main source (65%) of total SCFAs predicted to be produced in the human hindgut. The contribution of SCFAs from KFf was only 26% of the total SCFAs, and that from total dietary material was 35%. The higher contribution of nondietary material to total predicted SCFA production was observed at both dietary fiber concentrations. Predicted SCFA intake from dietary fiber was 76 and 105 mmol/kg diet DM intake for the diets containing 25 KFf and 50 KFf, respectively, and from the nondietary substrates it was 178 and 280 mmol/kg diet DM intake, respectively. A considerable proportion of the SCFAs produced in the human hindgut seems to be derived from the fermentation of nondietary substrates. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Salmonella in pork retail outlets and dissemination of its pulsotypes through pig production chain in Chiang Mai and surrounding areas, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchanee, Prapas; Tansiricharoenkul, Kankanok; Buawiratlert, Tunyamai; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Angchokchatchawal, Kittipat; Yamsakul, Panuwat; Yano, Terdsak; Boonkhot, Phacharaporn; Rojanasatien, Suvichai; Tadee, Pakpoom

    2016-08-01

    Salmonella spp. is acknowledged as a significant zoonotic foodborne pathogen throughout the world. Contaminated pork consumption is considered as a main cause of human salmonellosis. In the later stage of the pig production chain, poor hygiene and unsuitable storage conditions in retail outlets are considered to be key factors linked to the risk of Salmonella infection. The purpose of current study, which was conducted throughout April 2014 to September 2014, was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. in pork sold at the retail stage in wet markets and supermarkets in the Chiang Mai urban area of Thailand. Additionally, clonal relations between Salmonella strains described in this study and those identified in earlier study from the same geographical area were considered. It is provided as a means of contributing to current knowledge regarding Salmonella epidemiology with an ultimate aim of improved food security and consumer protection in this region. From a total of 82 pork samples analyzed in this study, 41% were positive for Salmonella, with prevalence of 73.2% from wet markets (n=30/41) and 9.8% from supermarkets (n=4/41). Twelve Salmonella serovars were identified, S. Rissen being the most commonly encountered. Antibiotic resistance of the isolates was highest for ampicillin and tetracycline (53%), followed by streptomycin (44%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and subsequent geographical distribution analysis indicated that the clonal Salmonella strains originated from multiple sources had been spread over a wide area. The existence of a common pig supply chain "farm-slaughterhouse-retail" transmission route is inferred. Continuous monitoring of Salmonella along the entire production chain is needed to reduce contamination loads and to ensure the safety of pork products for end consumers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Physiological responses of growing pigs to high ambient temperature and/or inflammatory challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Reis Furtado Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Global warming is one of the major environmental threats facing the world in the 21st century. This fact will have a significant impact on pig production due to its direct effects on welfare, health, and performance of pigs. Besides, the effects of high temperatures will presumably become more important over the next decades due to the development of pig production in developing countries mainly located in tropical and subtropical areas, where animals are often exposed to ambient temperatures above their thermal comfort zone. Furthermore, pigs reared in tropical areas are often confronted to sanitary challenges including poor hygiene conditions, lack of respect for sanitary rules, and pathogens. This results in the stimulation of the immune system and, as a consequence, in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and neuroendocrine adjustments that, in turn, usually have a negative impact on growth and feed efficiency. Although the effects of high ambient temperature and disease on pig physiology and performance have been well documented in literature, little is known about the associated effects of both factors. This understanding may contribute to a better quantification and comprehension of the physiological and metabolic disturbances occurring in practical conditions of pig production in tropical areas and, more generally, in many other geographic areas that will be influenced by the perspective of global warming. Therefore, the objective of this work is to provide an overview of recent research advances on the physiological responses of growing pigs during acclimation to high ambient temperature and on the potential effects of high ambient temperature on the ability of growing pigs to resist, cope with, or recover from an inflammatory challenge.

  9. Gut health in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pluske, J. R.; Hansen, Christian Fink; Payne, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disturbances can cause large economic losses in the pig industry. Diseases and conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that can cause economic loss have generally been controlled by the use of dietary (and or in the water) antimicrobial compounds, such as antibiotic feed......' and caused enormous interest in alternative means to control diseases and conditions of the GIT. There are now available a wide array of products and strategies available to the pig industry that influence 'gut health'. The products in the market place are characterised predominately not only...

  10. 养猪业清洁生产途径与循环经济发展模式探讨%Pig industry clean production and recycling and the mode of economic development approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严良政; 朱金城; 林成先; 矫学成

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, China's pig industry has developed rapidly, faster economic growth in rural areas, farmers" incomes and living standards improved significantly. Meanwhile, the pig pig manure produced increasingly serious pollution has seriously affected production and living of local residents and health.To remove the rural pig farm pig manure smell of sewage and pollution, improve environmental quality in rural areas, promote agricultural economic development, Authors conscientiously sum up long been engaged in clean production and recycling economic development research experience, made a clean way of producing the pig industry and the recycling economy development model, aimed at prevention and control at source pollution, clean production and vigorously promote the pig farming industry and rural economy can be recycled sustainable development,and concern for clean production and recycling of China's pig counterparts reference of economic development.%近年来,我国养猪业发展迅速,农村经济增长较快,农民收入和生活水平明显提高。同时,养猪业产生的猪粪便污染日趋严重,已严重影响当地居民生产生活和身体健康。为了彻底消除农村养猪场猪粪便污水和臭味污染,改善农村环境质量,促进农业经济发展,总结了长期从事清洁生产和循环经济发展研究的实践经验,提出了养猪业清洁生产途径和循环经济发展模式,意在从源头预防控制污染,大力推进养猪业清洁生产与农村经济可循环持续发展,并供关心我国养猪清洁生产与循环经济发展的同行借鉴参考。

  11. Inspiration from Ecocycle Clean Production Mode of Pig Farm to Sustainable Development of Stockbreeding-A Case Study in Guoxing Pig Farm of Dongtai City%猪场生态循环清洁生产模式对畜牧业可持续发展的启示--以东台市国兴猪场为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长青

    2014-01-01

    以东台市国兴猪场为例,详细介绍了该猪场采取的“猪-沼-粮-猪”、“猪-沼-渔”和“猪-沼-加-猪”等以沼气为中心环节,突出解决猪粪尿生物物质多层次利用的生态循环清洁生产模式及其效益,在此基础上,提出了畜牧业应从种养结合,提高综合利用效益;延伸产业链,实行生物质多级多重循环;加大政策引导和扶持,促进畜牧业转型升级等方面解决畜禽养殖粪尿污染问题,以实现畜牧业的可持续发展。%Taking Guoxing Pig Farm of Dongtai City as the example, the ecocycle clean production mode used in the pig farm, which taking methane as the central point such as“pig-methane-grain-pig”,“pig-methane-ifshery”and“pig-methane-processing-pig”, and giving emphasis on multi-layer utilization of biological substances in pig manure, had been introduced detailedly, and its benefit was analyzed. Then, it proposed some suggestions in order to solve the problem of manure pollution in stockbreeding and realize the target of sustainable development of stockbreeding, such as enhancing comprehensive utilization benefit of stockbreeding via combining planting and farming; extending industry chain and applying multi-level and multi-layer cycle of biological substances; strengthening policy guidance and supporting to promoting transformation and upgrading of stockbreeding.

  12. Production System Design for Multiple Brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer; Christensen, Irene

    Production systems enabling both cost efficiency and flexibility in terms of high product variation are explored. The study follows an explorative longitudinal field study approach. The database consists of three large global corporations, each consisting of several companies producing household ......-outs, worker skills, integration of distribution channels, after sales service and degree of servitization. Three production system design principles called VXY emerge....

  13. Design of Agricultural Cleaner Production Technology System

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jun-mei; Wang, Xin-jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the introduction of agricultural cleaner production, technology system design of planting cleaner production is discussed from five aspects of water-saving irrigation technology, fertilization technology, diseases and insects control technology, straw comprehensive utilization technology and plastic film pollution control technology. Cleaner production technology system of livestock and poultry raise is constructed from the aspects of source control technology, reduction technique in...

  14. Product/Service-System Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Timothy Charles; Gall, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Product/service-systems’ (PSS) are innovation strategies where instead of focusing on the value of selling physical products, one focuses on the value of the utility of products and services throughout the product’s life period. This approach enables companies to provide customers with offerings...... that continuously deliver value and create a strong competitive advantage. PSS attempts to transcend the old industrial credo that value is embedded in products and the consideration of ‘cost-quality-time’ relates to the physical artefact. While there is increasing interest in PSS, limited research has been done...

  15. Strain- and Dose-Dependent Reduction of Toxoplasma gondii Burden in Pigs Is Associated with Interferon-Gamma Production by CD8+ Lymphocytes in a Heterologous Challenge Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Jennes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide prevalent parasite of humans and animals. The global infection burden exceeds yearly one million disability-adjusted life years (DALY's in infected individuals. Therefore, effective preventive measures should be taken to decrease the risk of infection in humans. Although human toxoplasmosis is predominantly foodborne by ingestion of tissue cysts in meat from domestic animals such as pigs, the incidence risk is difficult to estimate due to the lack of screening of animals for infection and insights in location and persistence of the parasite in the tissues. Hence, experimental infections in pigs can provide more information on the risk for zoonosis based on the parasite burden in meat products intended for human consumption and on the immune responses induced by infection. In the present study, homo- and heterologous infection experiments with two distinct T. gondii strains (IPB-LR and IPB-Gangji were performed. The humoral and cellular immune responses, the presence of viable parasites and the parasite load in edible meat samples were evaluated. In homologous infection experiments the parasite persistence was clearly strain-dependent and inversely correlated with the infection dose. The results strongly indicate a change in the amount of parasite DNA and viable cysts in porcine tissues over time. Heterologous challenge infections demonstrated that IPB-G strain could considerably reduce the parasite burden in the subsequent IPB-LR infection. A strong, however, not protective humoral response was observed against GRA7 and TLA antigens upon inoculation with both strains. The in vitro IFN-γ production by TLA-stimulated PBMCs was correlated with the infection dose and predominantly brought about by CD3+CD4−CD8αbright T-lymphocytes. The described adaptive cellular and humoral immune responses in pigs are in line with the induced or natural infections in mice and humans. Previous studies underscored the

  16. Development of sustainable precision farming systems for swine: estimating real-time individual amino acid requirements in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, L; Lovatto, P A; Pomar, J; Pomar, C

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a mathematical model used to estimate the daily amino acid requirements of individual growing-finishing pigs. The model includes empirical and mechanistic model components. The empirical component estimates daily feed intake (DFI), BW, and daily gain (DG) based on individual pig information collected in real time. Based on DFI, BW, and DG estimates, the mechanistic component uses classic factorial equations to estimate the optimal concentration of amino acids that must be offered to each pig to meet its requirements. The model was evaluated with data from a study that investigated the effect of feeding pigs with a 3-phase or daily multiphase system. The DFI and BW values measured in this study were compared with those estimated by the empirical component of the model. The coherence of the values estimated by the mechanistic component was evaluated by analyzing if it followed a normal pattern of requirements. Lastly, the proposed model was evaluated by comparing its estimates with those generated by the existing growth model (InraPorc). The precision of the proposed model and InraPorc in estimating DFI and BW was evaluated through the mean absolute error. The empirical component results indicated that the DFI and BW trajectories of individual pigs fed ad libitum could be predicted 1 d (DFI) or 7 d (BW) ahead with the average mean absolute error of 12.45 and 1.85%, respectively. The average mean absolute error obtained with the InraPorc for the average individual of the population was 14.72% for DFI and 5.38% for BW. Major differences were observed when estimates from InraPorc were compared with individual observations. The proposed model, however, was effective in tracking the change in DFI and BW for each individual pig. The mechanistic model component estimated the optimal standardized ileal digestible Lys to NE ratio with reasonable between animal (average CV = 7%) and overtime (average CV = 14%) variation

  17. Providing straw to allow exploratory behaviour in a pig experimental system does not modify putative indicators of positive welfare: peripheral oxytocin and serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcet Rius, M; Cozzi, A; Bienboire-Frosini, C; Teruel, E; Chabaud, C; Monneret, P; Leclercq, J; Lafont-Lecuelle, C; Pageat, P

    2018-01-22

    Numerous studies have shown that providing straw to pigs can reduce undesirable behaviours such as aggression, tail biting and stereotypy. The measurement of various neuromodulators can be helpful in assessing the development of positive behaviours and overall animal welfare. The oxytocin release is frequently linked to positive emotions and positive welfare. It has been suggested that oxytocin modulates the serotoninergic system. This study aims to investigate the potential effect of straw provision in pigs on peripheral levels of oxytocin and serotonin. In total, 18 mini-pigs were involved in an exploratory study conducted in two parallel groups, Enriched (n=10) and Control (n=8) groups. Pigs were divided by group and housed in pens of two individuals. Straw was provided continuously only in Enriched group and renewed each day for 2 weeks. Two blood samples were drawn from each animal 5 to 10 min before providing the straw, and 15 min after providing straw, during the 1st week, to analyse peripheral changes in oxytocin and serotonin before and after straw provision, and determine the existence of a putative short-term effect. The same procedure was carried out for Control group, without straw provision. Long-term effects of straw provision were also examined using blood samples drawn at the same hour from each animal in the 2nd and 3rd weeks. During this time, animals had the permanent possibility to explore the straw in Enriched group but not in Control group. At the end of each week, one animal-keeper completed two visual analogue scales for each mini-pig regarding the difficulty/ease to work with and handle it and its trust in humans. Results showed peripheral oxytocin increases in both groups after 2 weeks (P=0.02). Results did not demonstrate any effect of providing straw to allow exploratory behaviour on peripheral serotonin. Other results were not significant. This preliminary study explored the relationship between peripheral oxytocin and serotonin and

  18. A dynamic growth model for prediction of nutrient partitioning and manure production in growing–finishing pigs: Model development and evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danfær, Allan Christian; Jørgensen, Henry; Kebreab, E

    2015-01-01

    trials using growing–finishing pig diets that had a wide range of nutrient chemical composition. Nutrient and water excretion were quantified using the principle of mass conservation. The average daily observed and predicted manure production was 3.79 and 3.99 kg/d, respectively, with a RMSPE of 0.49 kg......Nutrient loading and air emissions from swine operations raise environmental concerns. The objective of the study was to describe and evaluate a mathematical model (Davis Swine Model) of nutrient partitioning and predict manure excretion and composition on a daily basis. State variables...... the body constituent pools. It was assumed that fluxes of metabolites follow saturation kinetics, depending on metabolite concentrations. The main inputs to the model were diet nutrient composition, feed intake, water-to-feed ratio, and initial BW. First, the model was challenged with nutrient partitioning...

  19. Influence of social mixing and group size on skin lesions and mounting in organic entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Edwards, Sandra A; Rousing, Tine

    2016-01-01

    in management procedures and production system might be needed. Elements from the organic pig production system might be beneficial in this aspect. The aim of this article is to investigate the effect of grouping strategy including social mixing and group size on levels of mounting behaviour and skin lesions...... at weaning. A second mixing occurred at insertion to fattening pens for pigs being regrouped. Counting of skin lesions (1348 or 1124 pigs) and registration of mounting behaviour (1434 or 1258 pigs) were done on two occasions during the experimental period. No interactive effects were found between social...... mixing and group size on either skin lesions or mounting frequency. Herd differences were found for both mounting frequency and number of skin lesions. No association between skin lesions and mounting were revealed. Social mixing and group size were shown as interacting effects with herds on mounting...

  20. A pilot study of common health problems in smallholder pigs in Angónia and Boane districts, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Matos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Apilot survey was conducted in 2 districts in Mozambique to determine the most important health problems facing smallholder pig producers. While African swine fever is the most serious disease that affects pigs at all levels of production in Mozambique, it is likely that productivity is reduced by the presence of mange and gastrointestinal parasites, while in traditional systems the conditions are favourable for the development of porcine cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, which poses a health risk to communities. Results of the pilot survey confirmed that, with the exception of African swine fever, ecto- and endoparasites are probably the most important health risks for producers. Porcine cysticercosis is more prevalent among pigs in traditional, free-ranging systems, while mange becomes a serious factor when pigs are permanently confined.

  1. Restricted use of antibiotics in organic pig farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Søren; Jensen, Annette Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    Can the restricted use of antibiotics in organic pig farming be documented to provide a safer, high quality meat product with less antibiotic resistant bacteria? The project SafeOrganic aims to document that the restricted use of antimicrobials in organic pig production leads to lower levels...... of antibiotic resistant bacteria compared with the level in conventional pigs. However, the project will also address the risk of losing this quality parameter, due to a widespread practice of slaughtering organic pigs together with conventional pigs, implying a risk of cross-contamination....

  2. In vivo efficiency of four commercial monopolar radiofrequency ablation systems: a comparative experimental study in pig liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieger, Jens; Pereira, Philippe L; Trübenbach, Jochen; Schenk, Martin; Kröber, Stefan-Martin; Schmidt, Diethard; Aubé, Christophe; Claussen, Claus D; Schick, Fritz

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of 4 radiofrequency (RF) systems by assessing the amount of delivered energy for each thermal induced lesion after perfusion mediated RF ablation and to compare the influence of perfusion mediation types on the energy efficiency. A total of 43 ablations in 16 male landrace pigs with 4 RF devices were performed strictly according to the manufacturers' instructions. Total absorbed energy was computed and then related to 3D volumetry obtained after histopathological evaluation. Sixteen ablations were performed under physiological liver perfusion and 27 ablations with occlusion of portal vein, hepatic artery, or both vessels. Energy efficiency values of the RF systems for different vascular occlusion techniques were compared and analyzed by a nonparametrical rank sum test. Under physiological perfusion, the average energy delivered to produce 1-cm3 lesion size was calculated to 1650 +/- 929, 3097 +/- 389, 8312 +/- 2068, and 5493 +/- 2306 Watt x s/cm3 for the Berchtold, Radionics, Radiotherapeutics, and RITA system, respectively. After perfusion-mediated RF ablation, artery occlusion was not as effective as portal vein occlusion, which reduced the energy to 587 +/- 148, 869 +/- 276, and 903 +/- 394 Watt. s/cm3 for the Berchtold, Radionics, and Radiotherapeutics system, respectively. The occlusion of vessels, portal vein, and artery or portal vein alone increased the energy efficiency compared with physiological liver perfusion or occlusion of the artery (P = 0,003). Under physiological liver perfusion the open perfused system and the internally cooled system provided the best efficiency values with lowest standard deviations. The energy efficiency was increased markedly for all systems after occlusion of the portal vein either alone or in combination with arterial occlusion. Occlusion of the hepatic artery did not improve the efficiency.

  3. Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web page describes the continuing effort to modernize the federal regulatory system for biotechnology products as well as clarify various roles of EPA, FDA and USDA in evaluating new biotechnology products.

  4. Animal and management factors influencing grower and finisher pig performance and efficiency in European systems: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, S L; Szyszka, O; Stoddart, K; Edwards, S A; Kyriazakis, I

    2015-07-01

    A meta-analysis on the effects of management and animal-based factors on the performance and feed efficiency of growing pigs can provide information on single factor and interaction effects absent in individual studies. This study analysed the effects of such factors on average daily gain (ADG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of grower and finisher pigs. The multivariate models identified significant effects of: (1) bedding (Panimals with the least amount of floor space having a higher FI when given a feed with a low metabolisable energy (ME) content, in contrast to all other pigs, which showed a higher FI with increased ME content. The meta-analysis confirmed the significant effect of several well-known factors on the performance and efficiency of grower and finisher pigs, the effects of some less established ones and, importantly, the interactions between such factors.

  5. Wireless sensing on surface hydrocarbon production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, D; McStay, D; Mulholland, J; Costello, L

    2009-01-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks for monitoring and optimising the performance of surface hydrocarbon production systems is reported. Wireless sensor networks are shown to be able to produce comprehensively instrumented XTs and other equipment that generate the data required by Intelligent Oilfield systems. The information produced by such systems information can be used for real-time operational control, production optimization and troubleshooting.

  6. The Effect of Systemic Steroid on Hearing Preservation After Cochlear Implantation via Round Window Approach: A Guinea Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mun Young; Rah, Yoon Chan; Choi, Jun Jae; Woo, Shin Wook; Hwang, Yu-Jung; Eastwood, Hayden; O'Leary, Stephen J; Lee, Jun Ho

    2017-08-01

    When administered perioperatively, systemic dexamethasone will reduce the hearing loss associated with cochlear implantation (CI) performed via the round window approach. The benefits of electroacoustic stimulation have led to interest in pharmacological interventions to preserve hearing after CI. Thirty guinea pigs were randomly divided into three experimental groups: a control group; a 3-day infusion group; and a 7-day infusion group. Dexamethasone was delivered via a mini-osmotic pump for either 3 or 7 days after CI via the round window. Pure tone-evoked auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were monitored for a period of 12 weeks after CI. The cochleae were then collected for histology. At 4 and 12 weeks after CI, ABR threshold shifts were significantly reduced in both 7-day and 3-day infusion groups compared with the control group. Furthermore, the 7-day infusion group has significantly reduced ABR threshold shifts compared with the 3-day infusion group. The total tissue response, including fibrosis and ossification, was significantly reduced in the 7-day infusion group compared with the control group. On multiple regression the extent of fibrosis predicted hearing loss across most frequencies, while hair cell counts predicted ABR thresholds at 32 kHz. Hearing protection after systemic administration of steroids is more effective when continued for at least a week after CI. Similarly, this treatment approach was more effective in reducing the fibrosis that encapsulates the CI electrode. Reduced fibrosis seemed to be the most likely explanation for the hearing protection.

  7. Effects of dietary polyphenol-rich plant products from grape or hop on pro-inflammatory gene expression in the intestine, nutrient digestibility and faecal microbiota of weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiesel, Anja; Gessner, Denise K; Most, Erika; Eder, Klaus

    2014-09-04

    Feeding polyphenol-rich plant products has been shown to increase the gain:feed ratio in growing pigs. The reason for this finding has not yet been elucidated. In order to find the reasons for an increase of the gain:feed ratio, this study investigated the effect of two polyphenol-rich dietary supplements, grape seed and grape marc meal extract (GSGME) or spent hops (SH), on gut morphology, apparent digestibility of nutrients, microbial composition in faeces and the expression of pro-inflammatory genes in the intestine of pigs. Pigs fed GSGME or SH showed an improved gain:feed ratio in comparison to the control group (P value, lower levels of volatile fatty acids and lower counts of Streptococcus spp. and Clostridium Cluster XIVa in the faecal microbiota (P pro-inflammatory genes in duodenum, ileum and colon than the control group (P present study suggests that dietary plant products rich in polyphenols are able to improve the gain:feed ratio in growing pigs. It is assumed that an alteration in the microbial composition and anti-inflammatory effects of the polyphenol-rich plant products in the intestine might contribute to this effect.

  8. The 14C-monomethylamino-antipyrine breath test as in vivo parameter for characterizing the induction of the drug catabolizing enzyme system in the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramatzki, S.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of these investigations was to help clarify the following questions: 1) Does MAAP, following 14 C labelling of the exocyclic aminomethyl group, offer a suitable substrate for a breath test in guinea pigs. 2) Which procedures for evaluating the 14 C exhalation curves of the breath test are especially valid. 3) Can an induction of the drug catabolizing enzyme system following pre-treatment with various inducing substances be detected by the 14 C-MAAP breath test. 4) Do inducer-specific differences arise in response to the 14 C-MAAP breath test by which the inducers can be characterized. 5) Is monomethylamino-antipyrine similar to amidopyrine in that it is a suitable independent in vivo parameter for the drug metasbolizing enzyme system in the liver of guinea pigs. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Automation System Products and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rintala, Mikko; Sormunen, Jussi; Kuisma, Petri; Rahkala, Matti

    2014-01-01

    Automation systems are used in most buildings nowadays. In the past they were mainly used in industry to control and monitor critical systems. During the past few decades the automation systems have become more common and are used today from big industrial solutions to homes of private customers. With the growing need for ecologic and cost-efficient management systems, home and building automation systems are becoming a standard way of controlling lighting, ventilation, heating etc. Auto...

  10. European Food Safety Authority; Analysis of the baseline survey of Salmonella in holdings with breeding pigs, in the EU, 2008; Part B: Analysis of factors potentially associated with Salmonella pen positivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    or slaughter (production holdings) were sampled. In each selected holding, pooled fresh faecal samples were collected from 10 randomly chosen pens of breeding pigs over six months of age, representing the different stages of the breeding herd, and examined for the presence of Salmonella. Analyses at country......, multivariable regression analysis showed that the odds of Salmonella-positive pens with pigs increased with the number of breeding pigs in the holding and with the following pen-level factors: flooring systems other than slatted floors or solid floors with straw, presence of maiden gilts, number of pigs per pen...

  11. Evaluation of the feeding value of Dichrostachys cinerea pods for fattening pigs in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Casas, N; Reinoso-Pérez, M; García-Díaz, J R; Hansen, H H; Nielsen, M O

    2017-08-01

    Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn. is a tropical leguminous shrub widely regarded as an invasive species in Cuba, after having invaded a significant proportion of its arable land during the past decades. Concurrently, smallholder pig producers are highly constrained by the scarcity of protein feeds. This study aimed to assess the feeding value of D. cinerea pod meal (DCPM) as an alternative protein supplement for pigs in Cuban smallholder production systems. An on-farm feeding trial was carried out with three groups (N = 10) of growing-fattening pigs over 60 days, where DCPM replaced 0, 15, and 30% in DM of a dietary commercial concentrate. Then, in an in vivo digestibility trial with eight growing pigs, apparent digestibilities of DCPM were determined for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP). Finally, in vitro digestibilities for OM (fecal and ileal) and CP (ileal) were determined. In the feeding trial, pig body weight gains were not affected by increased dietary substitution levels of concentrate for DCPM. Blood parameters, with a few exceptions, did not show significant differences among groups. Values for in vivo OM and CP digestibilities were 40.81 and 50.26%, and substantially higher than in vitro values. In conclusion, our results showed that at least 30% of DM in commercial concentrate could be substituted by DCPM without affecting pig growth performances under Cuban smallholder conditions. The low digestibility of DCPM is, however, not acceptable for intensive pig production systems. In vitro enzyme digestibility methods developed for commercial pig feeds are not suitable for DCPM without further calibration.

  12. NOAA Soil Moisture Products System (SMOPS) Daily Blended Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Soil Moisture Operational Products System (SMOPS) combines soil moisture retrievals from multiple satellite sensors to provide a global soil moisture map with...

  13. Robust Medical Isotope Production System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimpland, Robert Herbert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The success of this theoretical undertaking provided confidence that the behavior of new and evolving designs of fissile solution systems may be accurately estimated. Scaled up versions of SUPO, subcritical acceleratordriven systems, and other evolutionary designs have been examined.

  14. Effects of incorporating environmental cost and risk aversion on economic values of pig breeding goal traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, B M; de Mey, Y; Bastiaansen, J W M; Oude Lansink, A G J M

    2018-06-01

    Economic values (EVs) of traits, accounting for environmental impacts and risk preferences of farmers, are required to design breeding goals that contribute to both economic and environmental sustainability. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of incorporating environmental costs and the risk preferences of farmers on the EVs of pig breeding goal traits. A breeding goal consisting of both sow efficiency and production traits was defined for a typical Brazilian farrow-to-finish pig farm with 1,500 productive sows. A mean-variance utility function was employed for deriving the EVs at finishing pig level assuming fixed slaughter weight. The inclusion of risk and risk aversion reduces the economic weights of sow efficiency traits (17%) while increasing the importance of production traits (7%). For a risk-neutral producer, inclusion of environmental cost reduces the economic importance of sow efficiency traits (3%) while increasing the importance of production traits (1%). Genetic changes of breeding goal traits by their genetic standard deviations reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, and excretions of nitrogen and phosphorus per finished pig by up to 6% while increasing farm profit. The estimated EVs could be used to improve selection criteria and thereby contribute to the sustainability of pig production systems. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Product Configuration Systems and Consequences for Productivity and Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    with informations about expected and realised costs and benefits in implemented PCS's we have the following results: the three highest aggregated scoring expected benefits are: 1)improved quality in specifications, 2)lower turnaround time, and 3)using less resources.The results achieved are in accordance......Product Configuration Systems (PCS) are systems to produce quotations to potential buyers of the products an enterprise produces. Typically the products are complex and will first be produced according to specific needs from the customers. From twelve case studies in Danish industry...

  16. Treating pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Mie S.; Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores how animal modelling is negotiated and practised in the field of translational neonatology research in Denmark. Based on ethnography from a biomedical research centre, NEOMUNE, in which veterinary and medical scientists worked on developing a ‘preterm pig brain model’, we...... examine how they strived to balance traditional scientific norms of standardisation against clinical researchers’ requests for clinical care in the modelling practice. We develop the notion of ‘patientising’ to capture how the research piglets are made to model not only the biological consequences...... of prematurity, but also the suffering of the human patient entitled to individual care. Based on this ethnographic fieldwork we argue that the demand for clinical relevance in translational research highlights the animal laboratory as also being a “moral laboratory” (Mattingly, 2014). In seeking to align...

  17. Why Danish pig farms have far more land and pigs than Dutch farms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Jaap; van Grinsven, H.J.M.; Jacobsen, Brian H

    2016-01-01

    The Netherlands and Denmark are the two biggest pig meat exporters in Europe, both with a strong focus on the German market. The structure of pig farms is very different: an average Danish pig farm has 3500 pigs, 170 ha of agricultural land on which a major part of the feed cereals are grown...... holdings using external sources of feed supply, and Danish farmers on efficient production of feed cereals on large holdings. Due to a gradual lowering of manure and fertiliser application standards, Dutch farmers increasingly have to process manure and export manure, further increasing the total costs...... pig farmers are less sensitive to nutrient policies and feed prices than those in the Netherlands, but the high debt rate makes the sector vulnerable to low pig prices....

  18. Assessing product service systems (PSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; McAloone, Tim C.; Neugebauer, Line

    We apply a management tool to classify different integrated PSS within the context of Danish maritime industry. We investigate how a firm should organize its operations to manage the transition from being a manufacturing to a servitizing company, and to provide a guideline for strategic positioni...... and planning of the balance between product sales and service activities....

  19. Alert Systems for production Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2005-01-01

    We present a new methodology for detecting faults and abnormal behavior in production plants. The methodology stems from a joint project with a Danish energy consortium. During the course of the project we encountered several problems that we believe are common for projects of this type. Most...

  20. Changes of the kallikrein-kinin system in the course of the postirradiation syndrome in rats and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouckova, P.; Pospisil, J.; Dienstbier, Z.

    1978-01-01

    Within the study of the postirradiation distortion of the hemocoagulation and hemostasis changes were investigated of the level of prekallikrein, kininogens, and kininases in the blood serum and plasma of the whole-body irradiated animals. The rats and guinea pigs were exposed to 800 R (206.4 mC.kg -1 ) and 300 R (77.4 mC.kg -1 ), respectively, of 60 Co gamma rays which represented the LD 50/30 for the two species. In the observed postirradiation time intervals i.e. 10, 30, 60, 120 min, 6, 12 and 24 hrs the changes of the level of prekallikrein were idential with those of the level of prekallikrein in the blood serum whole-body irradiated guinea pigs. At 2, 4, 7, 10, 12 and 14 days after irradiation the course of the level of the prekallikrein in the blood serum of the rats and guinea pigs showed mutual mirror symmetry. Changes were observed of the level of kininogens in the blood plasma of the rats and guinea pigs after the exposures to 800 and 300 R, respectively. In this case, the level of kininogens in the rats and guinea pigs had changed similarly, in the guinea pigs, however, the changes of the level of kininogens varied within the range of control values. The level of kininases in the blood plasma of irradiated rats reached its maximum value on the 4th day after total irradiation, and later decreased. In the blood plasma of irradiated guinea pigs the course of the level of kininases was characterized by mirror symmetry, always with maximum and minimum values on the 7th day after total exposure. (author)

  1. Binding of the fibronectin-mimetic peptide, PR_b, to α5β1 on pig islet cells increases fibronectin production and facilitates internalization of PR_b functionalized liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Nicole A.; Fan, Wei; Papas, Klearchos K.; Hering, Bernhard J.; Tsapatsis, Michael; Kokkoli, Efrosini

    2010-01-01

    Islet transplantation is a promising treatment for type 1 diabetes. Recent studies have demonstrated that human islet allografts can restore insulin independence to patients with this disease. As islet isolation and immunotherapeutic techniques improve, the demand for this cell-based therapy will dictate the need for other sources of islets. Pig islets could provide an unlimited supply for xenotransplantation and have shown promise as an alternative to human islet allografts. However, stresses imposed during islet isolation and transplantation decrease islet viability, leading to loss of graft function. In this study, we investigated the ability of a fibronectin-mimetic peptide, PR_b, which specifically binds to the α5β1 integrin, to reestablish lost extracellular matrix (ECM) around isolated pig islets and increase internalization of liposomes. Confocal microscopy and western blotting were used to show the presence of the integrin α5β1 on the pig islets on day 0 (day of isolation), as well as different days of islet culture. Islets cultured in medium supplemented with free PR_b for 48 hours were found to have increased levels of ECM fibronectin secretion compared to islets in normal culture conditions. Using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry we found that PR_b peptide-amphiphile functionalized liposomes delivered to the pig islets internalized into the cells in a PR_b concentration dependent manner, and non-functionalized liposomes showed minimal internalization. These studies proved that the fibronectin-mimetic peptide, PR_b, is an appropriate peptide bullet for applications involving α5β1 expressing pig islet cells. Fibronectin production stimulated through α5β1 PR_b binding may decrease apoptosis and therefore increase islet viability in culture. In addition, PR_b peptide-amphiphile functionalized liposomes may be used for targeted delivery of different agents to pig islet cells. PMID:20704278

  2. People, Pigs, Pork and Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Cecilie Agnete H

    , depending on whether they relate to an everyday or production context. Furthermore, some interesting national differences emerged, pointing at the need for more than one marketing strategy if pig welfare is to be supported through consumer demand. Overall, this thesis contributes with important findings...

  3. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites

  4. Expected energy production evaluation for photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Peng, Wang

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system consists of many solar panels, which are connected in series, parallel or a combination of both. Energy production for the PV system with various configurations is different. In this paper, a methodology is developed to evaluate and analyze the expected energy production...

  5. NDSI products system based on Hadoop platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Jiang, He; Yang, Xiaoxia; Geng, Erhui

    2015-12-01

    Snow is solid state of water resources on earth, and plays an important role in human life. Satellite remote sensing is significant in snow extraction with the advantages of cyclical, macro, comprehensiveness, objectivity, timeliness. With the continuous development of remote sensing technology, remote sensing data access to the trend of multiple platforms, multiple sensors and multiple perspectives. At the same time, in view of the remote sensing data of compute-intensive applications demand increase gradually. However, current the producing system of remote sensing products is in a serial mode, and this kind of production system is used for professional remote sensing researchers mostly, and production systems achieving automatic or semi-automatic production are relatively less. Facing massive remote sensing data, the traditional serial mode producing system with its low efficiency has been difficult to meet the requirements of mass data timely and efficient processing. In order to effectively improve the production efficiency of NDSI products, meet the demand of large-scale remote sensing data processed timely and efficiently, this paper build NDSI products production system based on Hadoop platform, and the system mainly includes the remote sensing image management module, NDSI production module, and system service module. Main research contents and results including: (1)The remote sensing image management module: includes image import and image metadata management two parts. Import mass basis IRS images and NDSI product images (the system performing the production task output) into HDFS file system; At the same time, read the corresponding orbit ranks number, maximum/minimum longitude and latitude, product date, HDFS storage path, Hadoop task ID (NDSI products), and other metadata information, and then create thumbnails, and unique ID number for each record distribution, import it into base/product image metadata database. (2)NDSI production module: includes

  6. Anaerobic digestion of pig manure fibres from commercial pig slurry separation units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Triolo, Jin M.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2014-01-01

    and screw press on average produced approximately 220l [CH4]kg-1 [VS]. Initial methane production can be described using a first-order kinetic model. The average rate constant for manure fibres was 0.030d-1 and for pig slurry 0.071d-1, showing that pig slurry is digested much faster than manure fibres....

  7. Semen quality of Italian local pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.

  8. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Smith; M. E. Leveque

    2003-09-30

    This report includes technical progress made during the period October, 2002 through September, 2003. At the end of the second technical progress report, the ConocoPhillips opportunities to apply subsea processing in the Gulf of Mexico had been exhausted, and an alternative site was identified in Norway. This was a non-ConocoPhillips operated field, and the subsea processing was proposed as a phased development approach with 2-phase separation at the field, and then gas and liquids exported via pipeline to remote platform locations for processing. Although the unrisked economics were quite favorable, the risked economic evaluation compelled the operator to develop the field with the more conventional and proven Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) option. Work on the subsea processing was suspended at this time. Discussions with DOE regarding two other step-change deepwater technologies ensued. One was an effort to develop a light-weight, high pressure composite production riser. A field demonstration of the design would then be performed by deploying a limited number of composite joints in a Gulf of Mexico deepwater development. The other was to begin the process of taking drilling with casing technology to the deepwater. This is called, ''close-tolerance liner drilling''. It was agreed that both technologies should be pursued, and the work began. During this reporting period, the initial production riser design had been completed and preliminary test sample components were being fabricated. Regarding the liner drilling, the sub-contractors were selected, the design basis was agreed and designs progressed towards meeting a projected first quarter, 2004 onshore test program.

  9. The effect of long or chopped straw on pig behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahrmann, H P; Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H; Nielsen, M B F; D'Eath, R B

    2015-05-01

    In the EU, pigs must have permanent access to manipulable materials such as straw, rope, wood, etc. Long straw can fulfil this function, but can increase labour requirements for cleaning pens, and result in problems with blocked slatted floors and slurry systems. Chopped straw might be more practical, but what is the effect on pigs' behaviour of using chopped straw instead of long straw? Commercial pigs in 1/3 slatted, 2/3 solid pens of 15 pigs were provided with either 100 g/pig per day of long straw (20 pens) or of chopped straw (19 pens). Behavioural observations were made of three focal pigs per pen (one from each of small, medium and large weight tertiles) for one full day between 0600 and 2300 h at each of ~40 and ~80 kg. The time spent rooting/investigating overall (709 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 533 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), or directed to the straw/solid floor (497 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 343 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), was not affected by straw length but reduced with age. Time spent investigating other pigs (83 s/pig per hour at 40 kg), the slatted floor (57 s/pig per hour) or pen fixtures (21 s/pig per hour) was not affected by age or straw length. Aggressive behaviour was infrequent, but lasted about twice as long in pens with chopped straw (2.3 s/pig per hour at 40 kg) compared with pens with long straw (1.0 s/pig per hour at 40 kg, P=0.060). There were no significant effects of straw length on tail or ear lesions, but shoulders were significantly more likely to have minor scratches with chopped straw (P=0.031), which may reflect the higher levels of aggression. Smaller pigs showed more rooting/investigatory behaviour, and in particular directed towards the straw/solid floor and the slatted floor than their larger pen-mates. Females exhibited more straw and pen fixture-directed behaviour than males. There were no effects of pig size or sex on behaviour directed towards other pigs. In summary, pigs spent similar amounts of time interacting with straw

  10. Integrated Monitoring System of Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oborski Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated monitoring system for discrete manufacturing processes is presented in the paper. The multilayer hardware and software reference model was developed. Original research are an answer for industry needs of the integration of information flow in production process. Reference model corresponds with proposed data model based on multilayer data tree allowing to describe orders, products, processes and save monitoring data. Elaborated models were implemented in the integrated monitoring system demonstrator developed in the project. It was built on the base of multiagent technology to assure high flexibility and openness on applying intelligent algorithms for data processing. Currently on the base of achieved experience an application integrated monitoring system for real production system is developed. In the article the main problems of monitoring integration are presented, including specificity of discrete production, data processing and future application of Cyber-Physical-Systems. Development of manufacturing systems is based more and more on taking an advantage of applying intelligent solutions into machine and production process control and monitoring. Connection of technical systems, machine tools and manufacturing processes monitoring with advanced information processing seems to be one of the most important areas of near future development. It will play important role in efficient operation and competitiveness of the whole production system. It is also important area of applying in the future Cyber-Physical-Systems that can radically improve functionally of monitoring systems and reduce the cost of its implementation.

  11. Modeling the spatio-temporal dynamics of porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome cases at farm level using geographical distance and pig trade network matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirpour Haredasht, Sara; Polson, Dale; Main, Rodger; Lee, Kyuyoung; Holtkamp, Derald; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2017-06-07

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically devastating infectious diseases for the swine industry. A better understanding of the disease dynamics and the transmission pathways under diverse epidemiological scenarios is a key for the successful PRRS control and elimination in endemic settings. In this paper we used a two step parameter-driven (PD) Bayesian approach to model the spatio-temporal dynamics of PRRS and predict the PRRS status on farm in subsequent time periods in an endemic setting in the US. For such purpose we used information from a production system with 124 pig sites that reported 237 PRRS cases from 2012 to 2015 and from which the pig trade network and geographical location of farms (i.e., distance was used as a proxy of airborne transmission) was available. We estimated five PD models with different weights namely: (i) geographical distance weight which contains the inverse distance between each pair of farms in kilometers, (ii) pig trade weight (PT ji ) which contains the absolute number of pig movements between each pair of farms, (iii) the product between the distance weight and the standardized relative pig trade weight, (iv) the product between the standardized distance weight and the standardized relative pig trade weight, and (v) the product of the distance weight and the pig trade weight. The model that included the pig trade weight matrix provided the best fit to model the dynamics of PRRS cases on a 6-month basis from 2012 to 2015 and was able to predict PRRS outbreaks in the subsequent time period with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.88 and the accuracy of 85% (105/124). The result of this study reinforces the importance of pig trade in PRRS transmission in the US. Methods and results of this study may be easily adapted to any production system to characterize the PRRS dynamics under diverse epidemic settings to more timely support decision-making.

  12. C-11 cyanide production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyun; Alexoff, David; Kim, Sung Won; Hooker, Jacob M.; Ferrieri, Richard A.

    2017-11-21

    A method for providing .sup.11C-labeled cyanides from .sup.11C labeled oxides in a target gas stream retrieved from an irradiated high pressure gaseous target containing O.sub.2, wherein .sup.11C labeled oxides are reduced with H.sub.2 in the presence of a nickel catalyst under a pressure and a temperature sufficient to form a product stream comprising at least about 95% .sup.11CH.sub.4, the .sup.11CH.sub.4 is then combined with an excess of NH.sub.3 in a carrier/reaction stream flowing at an accelerated velocity and the combined .sup.11CH4 carrier/reaction stream is then contacted with a platinum (Pt) catalyst particulate supported on a substantially-chemically-nonreactive heat-stable support at a temperature of at least about 900.degree. C., whereby a product stream comprising at least about 60% H.sup.11CN is provided in less than 10 minutes from retrieval of the .sup.11C labeled oxide.

  13. Environmental methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus contamination in pig herds in relation to the productive phase and application of cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merialdi, G; Galletti, E; Guazzetti, S; Rosignoli, C; Alborali, G; Battisti, A; Franco, A; Bonilauri, P; Rugna, G; Martelli, P

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study is to better understand MRSA environmental contamination in pig holdings in relation to the productive phase and the application of environmental cleaning and disinfection practices (C&D). This study was carried out on six herds. Dust samples from farrowing crates, weaning boxes, growing and finishing pens were collected from each herd environment prior to and after C&D and cultured for MRSA. Ten samples were collected at the end of each productive phase with the animals present and 10 additional samples were collected after C&D, prior to introduction of a new stock. The proportion of positive samples prior to C&D was lower in fattening than in other phases. The proportion of positive samples prior to and after C&D was 121/240 (50%) and 46/240 (19%) respectively. In the mixed effects logistic regression analysis it was shown not only that both productive phase and C&D were associated with the probability of having a positive sample but also that the C&D effect was different in the different