Sample records for pig mitochondria reveal

  1. EST analysis on pig mitochondria reveal novel expression differences between developmental and adult tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Cirera, Susanna; Gilchrist, Michael J.


    BACKGROUND: The mitochondria are involved in many basic functions in cells of vertebrates, and can be considered the power generator of the cell. Though the mitochondria have been extensively studied there appear to be only few expression studies of mitochondrial genes involving a large number...

  2. In vivo imaging reveals mitophagy independence in the maintenance of axonal mitochondria during normal aging. (United States)

    Cao, Xu; Wang, Haiqiong; Wang, Zhao; Wang, Qingyao; Zhang, Shuang; Deng, Yuanping; Fang, Yanshan


    Mitophagy is thought to be a critical mitochondrial quality control mechanism in neurons and has been extensively studied in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. However, little is known about how mitochondria are maintained in the lengthy neuronal axons in the context of physiological aging. Here, we utilized the unique Drosophila wing nerve model and in vivo imaging to rigorously profile changes in axonal mitochondria during aging. We revealed that mitochondria became fragmented and accumulated in aged axons. However, lack of Pink1 or Parkin did not lead to the accumulation of axonal mitochondria or axonal degeneration. Further, unlike in in vitro cultured neurons, we found that mitophagy rarely occurred in intact axons in vivo, even in aged animals. Furthermore, blocking overall mitophagy by knockdown of the core autophagy genes Atg12 or Atg17 had little effect on the turnover of axonal mitochondria or axonal integrity, suggesting that mitophagy is not required for axonal maintenance; this is regardless of whether the mitophagy is PINK1-Parkin dependent or independent. In contrast, downregulation of mitochondrial fission-fusion genes caused age-dependent axonal degeneration. Moreover, Opa1 expression in the fly head was significantly decreased with age, which may underlie the accumulation of fragmented mitochondria in aged axons. Finally, we showed that adult-onset, neuronal downregulation of the fission-fusion, but not mitophagy genes, dramatically accelerated features of aging. We propose that axonal mitochondria are maintained independently of mitophagy and that mitophagy-independent mechanisms such as fission-fusion may be central to the maintenance of axonal mitochondria and neural integrity during normal aging. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Mitoquinone Reduces Cisplatin-Induced Ototoxicity in Guinea Pigs. (United States)

    Tate, Alan D; Antonelli, Patrick J; Hannabass, Kyle R; Dirain, Carolyn O


    Objective To determine if mitoquinone (MitoQ) attenuates cisplatin-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs. Study Design Prospective and controlled animal study. Setting Academic, tertiary medical center. Subjects and Methods Guinea pigs were injected subcutaneously with either 5 mg/kg MitoQ (n = 9) or normal saline (control, n = 9) for 7 days and 1 hour before receiving a single dose of 10 mg/kg cisplatin. Auditory brainstem response thresholds were measured before MitoQ or saline administration and 3 to 4 days after cisplatin administration. Results Auditory brainstem response threshold shifts after cisplatin treatment were smaller by 28 to 47 dB in guinea pigs injected with MitoQ compared with those in the control group at all tested frequencies (4, 8, 16, and 24 kHz, P = .0002 to .04). Scanning electron microscopy of cochlear hair cells showed less outer hair cell loss and damage in the MitoQ group. Conclusion MitoQ reduced cisplatin-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs. MitoQ appears worthy of further investigation as a means of preventing cisplatin ototoxicity in humans.

  4. Mitochondrial Ca2+ influx and efflux rates in guinea pig cardiac mitochondria: low and high affinity effects of cyclosporine A. (United States)

    Wei, An-Chi; Liu, Ting; Cortassa, Sonia; Winslow, Raimond L; O'Rourke, Brian


    Ca(2+) plays a central role in energy supply and demand matching in cardiomyocytes by transmitting changes in excitation-contraction coupling to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Matrix Ca(2+) is controlled primarily by the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter and the mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, influencing NADH production through Ca(2+)-sensitive dehydrogenases in the Krebs cycle. In addition to the well-accepted role of the Ca(2+)-triggered mitochondrial permeability transition pore in cell death, it has been proposed that the permeability transition pore might also contribute to physiological mitochondrial Ca(2+) release. Here we selectively measure Ca(2+) influx rate through the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter and Ca(2+) efflux rates through Na(+)-dependent and Na(+)-independent pathways in isolated guinea pig heart mitochondria in the presence or absence of inhibitors of mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (CGP 37157) or the permeability transition pore (cyclosporine A). cyclosporine A suppressed the negative bioenergetic consequences (ΔΨ(m) loss, Ca(2+) release, NADH oxidation, swelling) of high extramitochondrial Ca(2+) additions, allowing mitochondria to tolerate total mitochondrial Ca(2+) loads of >400nmol/mg protein. For Ca(2+) pulses up to 15μM, Na(+)-independent Ca(2+) efflux through the permeability transition pore accounted for ~5% of the total Ca(2+) efflux rate compared to that mediated by the mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (in 5mM Na(+)). Unexpectedly, we also observed that cyclosporine A inhibited mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger-mediated Ca(2+) efflux at higher concentrations (IC(50)=2μM) than those required to inhibit the permeability transition pore, with a maximal inhibition of ~40% at 10μM cyclosporine A, while having no effect on the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter. The results suggest a possible alternative mechanism by which cyclosporine A could affect mitochondrial Ca(2+) load in cardiomyocytes, potentially

  5. Aging changes of macromolecular synthesis in the mitochondria of mouse hepatocytes as revealed by microscopic radioautography

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    Nagata, Tetsuji [Shinshu University, Matsumoto (Japan). Dept. of Anatomy and Cell Biology


    This mini-review reports aging changes of macromolecular synthesis in the mitochondria of mouse hepatocytes. We have observed the macromolecular synthesis, such as DNA, RNA and proteins, in the mitochondria of various mammalian cells by means of electron microscopic radioautography technique developed in our laboratory. The number of mitochondria per cell, number of labeled mitochondria per cell with 3H-thymidine, 3H-uridine and 3H-leucine, precursors for DNA, RNA and proteins, respectively, were counted and the labeling indices at various ages, from fetal to postnatal early days and several months to 1 and 2 years in senescence, were calculated, which showed variations due to aging. (author)

  6. Whole-genome resequencing reveals candidate mutations for pig prolificacy. (United States)

    Li, Wen-Ting; Zhang, Meng-Meng; Li, Qi-Gang; Tang, Hui; Zhang, Li-Fan; Wang, Ke-Jun; Zhu, Mu-Zhen; Lu, Yun-Feng; Bao, Hai-Gang; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Li, Qiu-Yan; Wu, Ke-Liang; Wu, Chang-Xin


    Changes in pig fertility have occurred as a result of domestication, but are not understood at the level of genetic variation. To identify variations potentially responsible for prolificacy, we sequenced the genomes of the highly prolific Taihu pig breed and four control breeds. Genes involved in embryogenesis and morphogenesis were targeted in the Taihu pig, consistent with the morphological differences observed between the Taihu pig and others during pregnancy. Additionally, excessive functional non-coding mutations have been specifically fixed or nearly fixed in the Taihu pig. We focused attention on an oestrogen response element (ERE) within the first intron of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type-1B gene ( BMPR1B ) that overlaps with a known quantitative trait locus (QTL) for pig fecundity. Using 242 pigs from 30 different breeds, we confirmed that the genotype of the ERE was nearly fixed in the Taihu pig. ERE function was assessed by luciferase assays, examination of histological sections, chromatin immunoprecipitation, quantitative polymerase chain reactions, and western blots. The results suggest that the ERE may control pig prolificacy via the cis-regulation of BMPR1B expression. This study provides new insight into changes in reproductive performance and highlights the role of non-coding mutations in generating phenotypic diversity between breeds. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Phosphoproteome analysis of functional mitochondria isolated from resting human muscle reveals extensive phosphorylation of inner membrane protein complexes and enzymes

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    Zhao, Xiaolu; Leon, Ileana R; Bak, Steffen


    . In skeletal muscle, mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to insulin resistance in humans with obesity and type 2 diabetes. We performed a phosphoproteomic study of functional mitochondria isolated from human muscle biopsies with the aim to obtain a comprehensive overview of mitochondrial phosphoproteins...... in insulin resistance. We also assigned phosphorylation sites in mitochondrial proteins involved in amino acid degradation, importers and transporters, calcium homeostasis, and apoptosis. Bioinformatics analysis of kinase motifs revealed that many of these mitochondrial phosphoproteins are substrates....... Future comparative phosphoproteome analysis of mitochondria from healthy and diseased individuals will provide insights into the role of abnormal phosphorylation in pathologies, such as type 2 diabetes....

  8. Capillary electrophoretic analysis reveals subcellular binding between individual mitochondria and cytoskeleton (United States)

    Kostal, Vratislav; Arriaga, Edgar A.


    Interactions between the cytoskeleton and mitochondria are essential for normal cellular function. An assessment of such interactions is commonly based on bulk analysis of mitochondrial and cytoskeletal markers present in a given sample, which assumes complete binding between these two organelle types. Such measurements are biased because they rarely account for non-bound ‘free’ subcellular species. Here we report on the use of capillary electrophoresis with dual laser induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) to identify, classify, count and quantify properties of individual binding events of mitochondria and cytoskeleton. Mitochondria were fluorescently labeled with DsRed2 while F-actin, a major cytoskeletal component, was fluorescently labeled with Alexa488-phalloidin. In a typical subcellular fraction of L6 myoblasts, 79% of mitochondrial events did not have detectable levels of F-actin, while the rest had on average ~2 zeptomole F-actin, which theoretically represents a ~ 2.5-μm long network of actin filaments per event. Trypsin treatment of L6 subcellular fractions prior to analysis decreased the fraction of mitochondrial events with detectable levels of F-actin, which is expected from digestion of cytoskeletal proteins on the surface of mitochondria. The electrophoretic mobility distributions of the individual events were also used to further distinguish between cytoskeleton-bound from cytoskeleton-free mitochondrial events. The CE-LIF approach described here could be further developed to explore cytoskeleton interactions with other subcellular structures, the effects of cytoskeleton destabilizing drugs, and the progression of viral infections. PMID:21309532

  9. Single molecule tracking fluorescence microscopy in mitochondria reveals highly dynamic but confined movement of Tom40 (United States)

    Kuzmenko, Anton; Tankov, Stoyan; English, Brian P.; Tarassov, Ivan; Tenson, Tanel; Kamenski, Piotr; Elf, Johan; Hauryliuk, Vasili


    Tom40 is an integral protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane, which as the central component of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM) complex forms a channel for protein import. We characterize the diffusion properties of individual Tom40 molecules fused to the photoconvertable fluorescent protein Dendra2 with millisecond temporal resolution. By imaging individual Tom40 molecules in intact isolated yeast mitochondria using photoactivated localization microscopy with sub-diffraction limited spatial precision, we demonstrate that Tom40 movement in the outer mitochondrial membrane is highly dynamic but confined in nature, suggesting anchoring of the TOM complex as a whole.

  10. [Importance of preservation of biophysical organization of isolated mitochondria for revealing physiological regulation of their functions]. (United States)

    Zakharchenko, M V; Khunderiakova, N V; Kondrashova, M N


    A method has been elaborated that preserves the mitochondrial-reticular network in lymphocytes in composition to the physiological one. Physiologicalby the immobilization of a blood smear on glass and its subsequent incubation in a medium closeresponses of respiration to excitation in the ition of early responses of ions. The recogn organism are well pronounced on these preparat mitochondria to pathogenic agents in the organism is a timely problem of basic and medicinal e- investigations since they play a leading role in the development of pathological states.

  11. Catecholamine secretion by chemical hypoxia in guinea-pig, but not rat, adrenal medullary cells: differences in mitochondria. (United States)

    Harada, K; Endo, Y; Warashina, A; Inoue, M


    The effects of mitochondrial inhibitors (CN(-), a complex IV inhibitor and CCCP, protonophore) on catecholamine (CA) secretion and mitochondrial function were explored functionally and biochemically in rat and guinea-pig adrenal chromaffin cells. Guinea-pig chromaffin cells conspicuously secreted CA in response to CN(-) or CCCP, but rat cells showed a little, if any, secretory response to either of them. The resting metabolic rates in rat adrenal medullae did not differ from those in guinea-pig adrenal medullae. On the other hand, the time course of depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in guinea-pig chromaffin cells in response to CN(-) was slower than that in rat chromaffin cells, and this difference was abolished by oligomycin, an F1F0-ATPase inhibitor. The extent of CCCP-induced decrease in cellular ATP in guinea-pig chromaffin cells, which was indirectly measured using a Mg(2+) indicator, was smaller than that in rat chromaffin cells. Relative expression levels of F1F0-ATPase inhibitor factor in guinea-pig adrenal medullae were smaller than in rat adrenal medullae, and the opposite was true for F1F0-ATPase α subunit. The present results indicate that guinea-pig chromaffin cells secrete more CA in response to a mitochondrial inhibitor than rat chromaffin cells and this higher susceptibility in the former is accounted for by a larger extent of reversed operation of F1F0-ATPase with the consequent decrease in ATP under conditions where ΔΨm is depolarized. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Broad genomic and transcriptional analysis reveals a highly derived genome in dinoflagellate mitochondria

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    Keeling Patrick J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dinoflagellates comprise an ecologically significant and diverse eukaryotic phylum that is sister to the phylum containing apicomplexan endoparasites. The mitochondrial genome of apicomplexans is uniquely reduced in gene content and size, encoding only three proteins and two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs within a highly compacted 6 kb DNA. Dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes have been comparatively poorly studied: limited available data suggest some similarities with apicomplexan mitochondrial genomes but an even more radical type of genomic organization. Here, we investigate structure, content and expression of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes. Results From two dinoflagellates, Crypthecodinium cohnii and Karlodinium micrum, we generated over 42 kb of mitochondrial genomic data that indicate a reduced gene content paralleling that of mitochondrial genomes in apicomplexans, i.e., only three protein-encoding genes and at least eight conserved components of the highly fragmented large and small subunit rRNAs. Unlike in apicomplexans, dinoflagellate mitochondrial genes occur in multiple copies, often as gene fragments, and in numerous genomic contexts. Analysis of cDNAs suggests several novel aspects of dinoflagellate mitochondrial gene expression. Polycistronic transcripts were found, standard start codons are absent, and oligoadenylation occurs upstream of stop codons, resulting in the absence of termination codons. Transcripts of at least one gene, cox3, are apparently trans-spliced to generate full-length mRNAs. RNA substitutional editing, a process previously identified for mRNAs in dinoflagellate mitochondria, is also implicated in rRNA expression. Conclusion The dinoflagellate mitochondrial genome shares the same gene complement and fragmentation of rRNA genes with its apicomplexan counterpart. However, it also exhibits several unique characteristics. Most notable are the expansion of gene copy numbers and their arrangements

  13. Proteomic analysis reveals a novel function of the kinase Sat4p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria.

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    Uta Gey

    Full Text Available The Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinase Sat4p has been originally identified as a protein involved in salt tolerance and stabilization of plasma membrane transporters, implicating a cytoplasmic localization. Our study revealed an additional mitochondrial (mt localization, suggesting a dual function for Sat4p. While no mt related phenotype was observed in the absence of Sat4p, its overexpression resulted in significant changes of a specific mitochondrial subproteome. As shown by a comparative two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE approach combined with mass spectrometry, particularly two groups of proteins were affected: the iron-sulfur containing aconitase-type proteins (Aco1p, Lys4p and the lipoamide-containing subproteome (Lat1p, Kgd2p and Gcv3p. The lipoylation sites of all three proteins could be assigned by nanoLC-MS/MS to Lys75 (Lat1p, Lys114 (Kgd2p and Lys102 (Gcv3p, respectively. Sat4p overexpression resulted in accumulation of the delipoylated protein variants and in reduced levels of aconitase-type proteins, accompanied by a decrease in the activities of the respective enzyme complexes. We propose a regulatory role of Sat4p in the late steps of the maturation of a specific subset of mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster proteins, including Aco1p and lipoate synthase Lip5p. Impairment of the latter enzyme may account for the observed lipoylation defects.

  14. Deconstructing the pig sex metabolome: Targeted metabolomics in heavy pigs revealed sexual dimorphisms in plasma biomarkers and metabolic pathways. (United States)

    Bovo, S; Mazzoni, G; Calò, D G; Galimberti, G; Fanelli, F; Mezzullo, M; Schiavo, G; Scotti, E; Manisi, A; Samoré, A B; Bertolini, F; Trevisi, P; Bosi, P; Dall'Olio, S; Pagotto, U; Fontanesi, L


    Metabolomics has opened new possibilities to investigate metabolic differences among animals. In this study, we applied a targeted metabolomic approach to deconstruct the pig sex metabolome as defined by castrated males and entire gilts. Plasma from 545 performance-tested Italian Large White pigs (172 castrated males and 373 females) sampled at about 160 kg live weight were analyzed for 186 metabolites using the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 Kit. After filtering, 132 metabolites (20 AA, 11 biogenic amines, 1 hexose, 13 acylcarnitines, 11 sphingomyelins, 67 phosphatidylcholines, and 9 lysophosphatidylcholines) were retained for further analyses. The multivariate approach of the sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis was applied, together with a specifically designed statistical pipeline, that included a permutation test and a 10 cross-fold validation procedure that produced stability and effect size statistics for each metabolite. Using this approach, we identified 85 biomarkers (with metabolites from all analyzed chemical families) that contributed to the differences between the 2 groups of pigs ( metabolic shift in castrated males toward energy storage and lipid production. Similar general patterns were observed for most sphingomyelins, phosphatidylcholines, and lysophosphatidylcholines. Metabolomic pathway analysis and pathway enrichment identified several differences between the 2 sexes. This metabolomic overview opened new clues on the biochemical mechanisms underlying sexual dimorphism that, on one hand, might explain differences in terms of economic traits between castrated male pigs and entire gilts and, on the other hand, could strengthen the pig as a model to define metabolic mechanisms related to fat deposition.

  15. ISC1-dependent metabolic adaptation reveals an indispensable role for mitochondria in induction of nuclear genes during the diauxic shift in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Cowart, L Ashley; Matmati, Nabil; Montefusco, David; Gandy, Jason; de Avalos, Silvia Vaena; Novgorodov, Sergei A; Zheng, Jim; Obeid, Lina M; Hannun, Yusuf A


    Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae following glucose depletion (the diauxic shift) depends on a profound metabolic adaptation accompanied by a global reprogramming of gene expression. In this study, we provide evidence for a heretofore unsuspected role for Isc1p in mediating this reprogramming. Initial studies revealed that yeast cells deleted in ISC1, the gene encoding inositol sphingolipid phospholipase C, which resides in mitochondria in the post-diauxic phase, showed defective aerobic respiration in the post-diauxic phase but retained normal intrinsic mitochondrial functions, including intact mitochondrial DNA, normal oxygen consumption, and normal mitochondrial polarization. Microarray analysis revealed that the Deltaisc1 strain failed to up-regulate genes required for nonfermentable carbon source metabolism during the diauxic shift, thus suggesting a mechanism for the defective supply of respiratory substrates into mitochondria in the post-diauxic phase. This defect in regulating nuclear gene induction in response to a defect in a mitochondrial enzyme raised the possibility that mitochondria may initiate diauxic shift-associated regulation of nucleus-encoded genes. This was established by demonstrating that in respiratory-deficient petite cells these genes failed to be up-regulated across the diauxic shift in a manner similar to the Deltaisc1 strain. Isc1p- and mitochondrial function-dependent genes significantly overlapped with Adr1p-, Snf1p-, and Cat8p-dependent genes, suggesting some functional link among these factors. However, the retrograde response was not activated in Deltaisc1, suggesting that the response of Deltaisc1 cannot be simply attributed to mitochondrial dysfunction. These results suggest a novel role for Isc1p in allowing the reprogramming of gene expression during the transition from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism.

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Fetal Ovary Reveals That Ovarian Developmental Potential Is Greater in Meishan Pigs than in Yorkshire Pigs.

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    Mengmeng Xu

    Full Text Available Time-dependent expression of functional proteins in fetal ovaries is important to understand the developmental process of the ovary. This study was carried out to enhance our understanding of the developmental process of porcine fetal ovaries and to better address the differences in fetal ovary development of local and foreign pigs. The objective of the present study is to test the expression of key proteins that regulate the growth and development of fetal ovaries in Meishan and Yorkshire porcine breeds by using proteomics technology. Six Meishan and 6 Yorkshire pregnant gilts were used in this experiment. Fetal ovaries were obtained from Yorkshire and Meishan gilts on days 55 and 90 of the gestation period. Using 2D-DIGE (two dimensional-difference in gel electrophoresis analysis, the results showed that there are about 1551 and 1400 proteins in gilt fetal ovaries on days 55 and 90, respectively of the gestation. Using MALDI TOF-TOF MS analysis, 27 differentially expressed proteins were identified in the fetal ovaries of the 2 breeds on day 55 of gestation, and a total of 18 proteins were identified on day 90 of gestation. These differentially expressed proteins were involved in the regulation of biological processes (cell death, stress response, cytoskeletal proteins and molecular functions (enzyme regulator activity. We also found that alpha-1-antitrypsin, actin, vimentin, and PP2A proteins promote the formation of primordial follicles in the ovaries of Yorkshire pigs on day 55 of gestation while low expression heat shock proteins and high expression alpha-fetoproteins (AFP may promote Meishan fetal ovarian follicular development on day 90 of gestation. These findings provide a deeper understanding of how reduced expression of heat shock proteins and increased expression of AFP can significantly reduce the risk of reproductive disease in obese Meishan sows. Our study also shows how these proteins can increase the ovulation rate and may be

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Fetal Ovary Reveals That Ovarian Developmental Potential Is Greater in Meishan Pigs than in Yorkshire Pigs. (United States)

    Xu, Mengmeng; Che, Long; Wang, Dingyue; Yang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Pan; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Li, Jian; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De; Xu, Shengyu


    Time-dependent expression of functional proteins in fetal ovaries is important to understand the developmental process of the ovary. This study was carried out to enhance our understanding of the developmental process of porcine fetal ovaries and to better address the differences in fetal ovary development of local and foreign pigs. The objective of the present study is to test the expression of key proteins that regulate the growth and development of fetal ovaries in Meishan and Yorkshire porcine breeds by using proteomics technology. Six Meishan and 6 Yorkshire pregnant gilts were used in this experiment. Fetal ovaries were obtained from Yorkshire and Meishan gilts on days 55 and 90 of the gestation period. Using 2D-DIGE (two dimensional-difference in gel electrophoresis) analysis, the results showed that there are about 1551 and 1400 proteins in gilt fetal ovaries on days 55 and 90, respectively of the gestation. Using MALDI TOF-TOF MS analysis, 27 differentially expressed proteins were identified in the fetal ovaries of the 2 breeds on day 55 of gestation, and a total of 18 proteins were identified on day 90 of gestation. These differentially expressed proteins were involved in the regulation of biological processes (cell death, stress response, cytoskeletal proteins) and molecular functions (enzyme regulator activity). We also found that alpha-1-antitrypsin, actin, vimentin, and PP2A proteins promote the formation of primordial follicles in the ovaries of Yorkshire pigs on day 55 of gestation while low expression heat shock proteins and high expression alpha-fetoproteins (AFP) may promote Meishan fetal ovarian follicular development on day 90 of gestation. These findings provide a deeper understanding of how reduced expression of heat shock proteins and increased expression of AFP can significantly reduce the risk of reproductive disease in obese Meishan sows. Our study also shows how these proteins can increase the ovulation rate and may be responsible for

  18. Worldwide Phylogeography of Wild Boar Reveals Multiple Centers of Pig Domestication

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    Larson, Greger; Dobney, Keith; Albarella, Umberto


    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from 686 wild and domestic pig specimens place the origin of wild boar in island Southeast Asia (ISEA), where they dispersed across Eurasia. Previous morphological and genetic evidence suggested pig domestication took place in a limited number of locations (pri...

  19. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis reveals alterations in the liver induced by restricted meal frequency in a pig model. (United States)

    Liu, Jingbo; Liu, Zhengqun; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Hongfu


    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of meal frequency on metabolite levels in pig plasma and hepatic proteome by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis. Twenty-four pigs (60.7 ± 1.0 kg) consumed the same amount of feed either in 2 (M2, n = 12) or 12 (M12, n = 12) meals per day. After an 8-wk feeding period, plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones, hepatic biochemical traits, and proteome (n = 4 per group) were measured. Pigs on the M12 regimen had lower average daily gain and gain-to-feed ratio than pigs fed the M2 regimen. The M2 regimen resulted in lower total lipid, glycogen, and triacylglycerol content in the liver and circulating triacylglycerol concentration than that in the M12 pigs. The metabolic hormone concentrations were not affected by meal frequency, with the exception of elevated fibroblast growth factor 21 concentrations in the M2 regimen compared with the M12 regimen. The iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis revealed 35 differentially expressed proteins in the liver between pigs fed two and 12 meals per day, and these differentially expressed proteins were involved in the regulation of general biological process such as glucose and energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, protein and amino acid metabolism, stress response, and cell redox homeostasis. Altogether, the proteomic results provide insights into the mechanism mediating the beneficial effects of restricted meal frequency on the metabolic fitness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Genomic scan reveals loci under altitude adaptation in Tibetan and Dahe pigs.

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    Kunzhe Dong

    Full Text Available High altitude environments are of particular interest in the studies of local adaptation as well as their implications in physiology and clinical medicine in human. Some Chinese pig breeds, such as Tibetan pig (TBP that is well adapted to the high altitude and Dahe pig (DHP that dwells at the moderate altitude, provide ideal materials to study local adaptation to altitudes. Yet, it is still short of in-depth analysis and understanding of the genetic adaptation to high altitude in the two pig populations. In this study we conducted a genomic scan for selective sweeps using FST to identify genes showing evidence of local adaptations in TBP and DHP, with Wuzhishan pig (WZSP as the low-altitude reference. Totally, we identified 12 specific selective genes (CCBE1, F2RL1, AGGF1, ZFPM2, IL2, FGF5, PLA2G4A, ADAMTS9, NRBF2, JMJD1C, VEGFC and ADAM19 for TBP and six (OGG1, FOXM, FLT3, RTEL1, CRELD1 and RHOG for DHP. In addition, six selective genes (VPS13A, GNA14, GDAP1, PARP8, FGF10 and ADAMTS16 were shared by the two pig breeds. Among these selective genes, three (VEGFC, FGF10 and ADAMTS9 were previously reported to be linked to the local adaptation to high altitudes in pigs, while many others were newly identified by this study. Further bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that majority of these selective signatures have some biological functions relevant to the altitude adaptation, for examples, response to hypoxia, development of blood vessels, DNA repair and several hematological involvements. These results suggest that the local adaptation to high altitude environments is sophisticated, involving numerous genes and multiple biological processes, and the shared selective signatures by the two pig breeds may provide an effective avenue to identify the common adaptive mechanisms to different altitudes.

  1. Adrenaline reveals the torsadogenic effect of combined blockade of potassium channels in anaesthetized guinea pigs. (United States)

    Michael, G; Kane, K A; Coker, S J


    Torsade de pointes (TdP) can be induced in several species by a reduction in cardiac repolarizing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess whether combined I(Kr) and I(Ks) blockade could induce TdP in anaesthetized guinea pigs and whether short-term variability (STV) or triangulation of action potentials could predict TdP. Experiments were performed in open-chest, pentobarbital-anaesthetized, adrenaline-stimulated male Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs, which received three consecutive i.v. infusions of either vehicle, the I(Kr) blocker E-4031 (3, 10 and 30 nmol kg(-1) min(-1)), the I(Ks) blocker HMR1556 (75, 250, 750 nmol kg(-1) min(-1)) or E-4031 and HMR1556 combined. Phenylephrine-stimulated guinea pigs were also treated with the K(+) channel blockers in combination. Arterial blood pressure, ECGs and epicardial monophasic action potential (MAP) were recorded. TdP was observed in 75% of adrenaline-stimulated guinea pigs given the K(+) channel blockers in combination, but was not observed in guinea pigs treated with either I(K) blocker alone, or in phenylephrine-stimulated guinea pigs. Salvos and ventricular tachycardia occurred with adrenaline but not with phenylephrine. No changes in STV or triangulation of the MAP signals were observed before TdP. Combined blockade of both I(Kr) and I(Ks) plus the addition of adrenaline were required to induce TdP in anaesthetized guinea pigs. This suggests that there must be sufficient depletion of repolarization reserve and an appropriate trigger for TdP to occur.

  2. Exploring evidence of positive selection reveals genetic basis of meat quality traits in Berkshire pigs through whole genome sequencing. (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeonsoo; Song, Ki-Duk; Seo, Minseok; Caetano-Anollés, Kelsey; Kim, Jaemin; Kwak, Woori; Oh, Jae-Don; Kim, EuiSoo; Jeong, Dong Kee; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Lee, Hak-Kyo


    Natural and artificial selection following domestication has led to the existence of more than a hundred pig breeds, as well as incredible variation in phenotypic traits. Berkshire pigs are regarded as having superior meat quality compared to other breeds. As the meat production industry seeks selective breeding approaches to improve profitable traits such as meat quality, information about genetic determinants of these traits is in high demand. However, most of the studies have been performed using trained sensory panel analysis without investigating the underlying genetic factors. Here we investigate the relationship between genomic composition and this phenotypic trait by scanning for signatures of positive selection in whole-genome sequencing data. We generated genomes of 10 Berkshire pigs at a total of 100.6 coverage depth, using the Illumina Hiseq2000 platform. Along with the genomes of 11 Landrace and 13 Yorkshire pigs, we identified genomic variants of 18.9 million SNVs and 3.4 million Indels in the mapped regions. We identified several associated genes related to lipid metabolism, intramuscular fatty acid deposition, and muscle fiber type which attribute to pork quality (TG, FABP1, AKIRIN2, GLP2R, TGFBR3, JPH3, ICAM2, and ERN1) by applying between population statistical tests (XP-EHH and XP-CLR). A statistical enrichment test was also conducted to detect breed specific genetic variation. In addition, de novo short sequence read assembly strategy identified several candidate genes (SLC25A14, IGF1, PI4KA, CACNA1A) as also contributing to lipid metabolism. Results revealed several candidate genes involved in Berkshire meat quality; most of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism and intramuscular fat deposition. These results can provide a basis for future research on the genomic characteristics of Berkshire pigs.

  3. Whole genome analysis of porcine astroviruses detected in Japanese pigs reveals genetic diversity and possible intra-genotypic recombination. (United States)

    Ito, Mika; Kuroda, Moegi; Masuda, Tsuneyuki; Akagami, Masataka; Haga, Kei; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Kishimoto, Mai; Naoi, Yuki; Sano, Kaori; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Aoki, Hiroshi; Ichimaru, Toru; Mukono, Itsuro; Ouchi, Yoshinao; Yamasato, Hiroshi; Shirai, Junsuke; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Nagai, Makoto


    Porcine astroviruses (PoAstVs) are ubiquitous enteric virus of pigs that are distributed in several countries throughout the world. Since PoAstVs are detected in apparent healthy pigs, the clinical significance of infection is unknown. However, AstVs have recently been associated with a severe neurological disorder in animals, including humans, and zoonotic potential has been suggested. To date, little is known about the epidemiology of PoAstVs among the pig population in Japan. In this report, we present an analysis of nearly complete genomes of 36 PoAstVs detected by a metagenomics approach in the feces of Japanese pigs. Based on a phylogenetic analysis and pairwise sequence comparison, 10, 5, 15, and 6 sequences were classified as PoAstV2, PoAstV3, PoAstV4, and PoAstV5, respectively. Co-infection with two or three strains was found in individual fecal samples from eight pigs. The phylogenetic trees of ORF1a, ORF1b, and ORF2 of PoAstV2 and PoAstV4 showed differences in their topologies. The PoAstV3 and PoAstV5 strains shared high sequence identities within each genotype in all ORFs; however, one PoAstV3 strain and one PoAstV5 strain showed considerable sequence divergence from the other PoAstV3 and PoAstV5 strains, respectively, in ORF2. Recombination analysis using whole genomes revealed evidence of multiple possible intra-genotype recombination events in PoAstV2 and PoAstV4, suggesting that recombination might have contributed to the genetic diversity and played an important role in the evolution of Japanese PoAstVs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression quantitative trait loci reveals genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Hansen, Mathias Brygger; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    Boar taint (BT) is an offensive odour or taste of meat from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs due to skatole and androstenone accumulation in adipose tissue. Castration is an effective strategy to avoid BT but is currently under debate due to animal welfare concerns. This study aimed...

  5. Proteomic analysis of pig (Sus scrofa olfactory soluble proteome reveals O-GlcNAcylation of secreted odorant-binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The diversity of olfactory binding proteins (OBPs is a key point to understand their role in molecular olfaction. Since only few different sequences were characterized in each mammalian species, they have been considered as passive carriers of odors and pheromones. We have explored the soluble proteome of pig nasal mucus, taking benefit of the powerful tools of proteomics. Combining two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and western-blot with specific antibodies, our analyses revealed for the first time that the pig nasal mucus is mainly composed of secreted OBP isoforms, some of them being potentially modified by O-GlcNAcylation. An ortholog gene of the glycosyltransferase responsible of the O-GlcNAc linking on extracellular proteins in Drosophila and Mouse (EOGT was amplified from tissues of pigs of different ages and sex. The sequence was used in a phylogenetic analysis, which evidenced conservation of EOGT in insect and mammalian models studied in molecular olfaction. Extracellular O-GlcNAcylation of secreted OBPs could finely modulate their binding specificities to odors and pheromones. This constitutes a new mechanism for extracellular signaling by OBPs, suggesting that they act as the first step of odor discrimination.

  6. Differential Permeabilization Effects of Ca2+ and Valinomycin on the Inner and Outer Mitochondrial Membranes as Revealed by Proteomics Analysis of Proteins Released from Mitochondria*S⃞ (United States)

    Yamada, Akiko; Yamamoto, Takenori; Yamazaki, Naoshi; Yamashita, Kikuji; Kataoka, Masatoshi; Nagata, Toshihiko; Terada, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Yasuo


    It is well established that cytochrome c is released from mitochondria when the permeability transition (PT) of this organelle is induced by Ca2+. Our previous study showed that valinomycin also caused the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria but without inducing this PT (Shinohara, Y., Almofti, M. R., Yamamoto, T., Ishida, T., Kita, F., Kanzaki, H., Ohnishi, M., Yamashita, K., Shimizu, S., and Terada, H. (2002) Permeability transition-independent release of mitochondrial cytochrome c induced by valinomycin. Eur. J. Biochem. 269, 5224–5230). These results indicate that cytochrome c may be released from mitochondria with or without the induction of PT. In the present study, we examined the protein species released from valinomycin- and Ca2+-treated mitochondria by LC-MS/MS analysis. As a result, the proteins located in the intermembrane space were found to be specifically released from valinomycin-treated mitochondria, whereas those in the intermembrane space and in the matrix were released from Ca2+-treated mitochondria. These results were confirmed by Western analysis. Furthermore to examine how the protein release occurred, we examined the correlation between the species of released proteins and those of the abundant proteins in mitochondria. Consequently most of the proteins released from mitochondria treated with either agent were highly expressed proteins in mitochondria, indicating that the release occurred not selectively but in a manner dependent on the concentration of the proteins. Based on these results, the permeabilization effects of Ca2+ and valinomycin on the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes are discussed. PMID:19218587

  7. A Haplotype Information Theory Method Reveals Genes of Evolutionary Interest in European vs. Asian Pigs. (United States)

    Hudson, Nicholas J; Naval-Sánchez, Marina; Porto-Neto, Laercio; Pérez-Enciso, Miguel; Reverter, Antonio


    Asian and European wild boars were independently domesticated ca. 10,000 years ago. Since the 17th century, Chinese breeds have been imported to Europe to improve the genetics of European animals by introgression of favourable alleles, resulting in a complex mosaic of haplotypes. To interrogate the structure of these haplotypes further, we have run a new haplotype segregation analysis based on information theory, namely compression efficiency (CE). We applied the approach to sequence data from individuals from each phylogeographic region (n = 23 from Asia and Europe) including a number of major pig breeds. Our genome-wide CE is able to discriminate the breeds in a manner reflecting phylogeography. Furthermore, 24,956 non-overlapping sliding windows (each comprising 1,000 consecutive SNP) were quantified for extent of haplotype sharing within and between Asia and Europe. The genome-wide distribution of extent of haplotype sharing was quite different between groups. Unlike European pigs, Asian pigs haplotype sharing approximates a normal distribution. In line with this, we found the European breeds possessed a number of genomic windows of dramatically higher haplotype sharing than the Asian breeds. Our CE analysis of sliding windows capture some of the genomic regions reported to contain signatures of selection in domestic pigs. Prominent among these regions, we highlight the role of a gene encoding the mitochondrial enzyme LACTB which has been associated with obesity, and the gene encoding MYOG a fundamental transcriptional regulator of myogenesis. The origin of these regions likely reflects either a population bottleneck in European animals, or selective targets on commercial phenotypes reducing allelic diversity in particular genes and/or regulatory regions.

  8. Location of persisting mycobacteria in a Guinea pig model of tuberculosis revealed by r207910. (United States)

    Lenaerts, Anne J; Hoff, Donald; Aly, Sahar; Ehlers, Stefan; Andries, Koen; Cantarero, Luis; Orme, Ian M; Basaraba, Randall J


    The lengthy chemotherapy of tuberculosis reflects the ability of a small subpopulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria to persist in infected individuals. To date, the exact location of these persisting bacteria is not known. Lung lesions in guinea pigs infected with M. tuberculosis have striking similarities, such as necrosis, mineralization, and hypoxia, to natural infections in humans. Guinea pigs develop necrotic primary lesions after aerosol infection that differ in their morphology compared to secondary lesions resulting from hematogenous dissemination. In infected guinea pigs conventional therapy for tuberculosis during 6 weeks reduced the bacterial load by 1.7 logs in the lungs and, although this completely reversed lung inflammation associated with secondary lesions, the primary granulomas remained largely unaffected. Treatment of animals with the experimental drug R207910 (TMC207) for 6 weeks was highly effective with almost complete eradication of the bacteria throughout both the primary and the secondary lesions. Most importantly, the few remnants of acid-fast bacilli remaining after R207910 treatment were to be found extracellular, in a microenvironment of residual primary lesion necrosis with incomplete dystrophic calcification. This zone of the primary granuloma is hypoxic and is morphologically similar to what has been described for human lung lesions. These results show that this acellular rim may, therefore, be a primary location of persisting bacilli withstanding drug treatment.

  9. Location of Persisting Mycobacteria in a Guinea Pig Model of Tuberculosis Revealed by R207910▿ (United States)

    Lenaerts, Anne J.; Hoff, Donald; Aly, Sahar; Ehlers, Stefan; Andries, Koen; Cantarero, Luis; Orme, Ian M.; Basaraba, Randall J.


    The lengthy chemotherapy of tuberculosis reflects the ability of a small subpopulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria to persist in infected individuals. To date, the exact location of these persisting bacteria is not known. Lung lesions in guinea pigs infected with M. tuberculosis have striking similarities, such as necrosis, mineralization, and hypoxia, to natural infections in humans. Guinea pigs develop necrotic primary lesions after aerosol infection that differ in their morphology compared to secondary lesions resulting from hematogenous dissemination. In infected guinea pigs conventional therapy for tuberculosis during 6 weeks reduced the bacterial load by 1.7 logs in the lungs and, although this completely reversed lung inflammation associated with secondary lesions, the primary granulomas remained largely unaffected. Treatment of animals with the experimental drug R207910 (TMC207) for 6 weeks was highly effective with almost complete eradication of the bacteria throughout both the primary and the secondary lesions. Most importantly, the few remnants of acid-fast bacilli remaining after R207910 treatment were to be found extracellular, in a microenvironment of residual primary lesion necrosis with incomplete dystrophic calcification. This zone of the primary granuloma is hypoxic and is morphologically similar to what has been described for human lung lesions. These results show that this acellular rim may, therefore, be a primary location of persisting bacilli withstanding drug treatment. PMID:17517834

  10. The early asthmatic response is associated with glycolysis, calcium binding and mitochondria activity as revealed by proteomic analysis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yu-Dong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inhalation of allergens by allergic asthmatics results in the early asthmatic response (EAR, which is characterized by acute airway obstruction beginning within a few minutes. The EAR is the earliest indicator of the pathological progression of allergic asthma. Because the molecular mechanism underlying the EAR is not fully defined, this study will contribute to a better understanding of asthma. Methods In order to gain insight into the molecular basis of the EAR, we examined changes in protein expression patterns in the lung tissue of asthmatic rats during the EAR using 2-DE/MS-based proteomic techniques. Bioinformatic analysis of the proteomic data was then performed using PPI Spider and KEGG Spider to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism. Results In total, 44 differentially expressed protein spots were detected in the 2-DE gels. Of these 44 protein spots, 42 corresponded to 36 unique proteins successfully identified using mass spectrometry. During subsequent bioinformatic analysis, the gene ontology classification, the protein-protein interaction networking and the biological pathway exploration demonstrated that the identified proteins were mainly involved in glycolysis, calcium binding and mitochondrial activity. Using western blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, we confirmed the changes in expression of five selected proteins, which further supports our proteomic and bioinformatic analyses. Conclusions Our results reveal that the allergen-induced EAR in asthmatic rats is associated with glycolysis, calcium binding and mitochondrial activity, which could establish a functional network in which calcium binding may play a central role in promoting the progression of asthma.

  11. Genome-wide association and pathway analysis of feed efficiency in pigs reveal candidate genes and pathways for residual feed intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Ostersen, Tage


    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a complex trait that is economically important for livestock production; however, the genetic and biological mechanisms regulating RFI are largely unknown in pigs. Therefore, the study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), candidate genes and biol...... revealed key genes and genetic variants that control feed efficiency that could potentially be useful for genetic selection of more feed efficient pigs....

  12. Genome association study through nonlinear mixed models revealed new candidate genes for pig growth curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabyano Fonseca e Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Genome association analyses have been successful in identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs for pig body weights measured at a single age. However, when considering the whole weight trajectories over time in the context of genome association analyses, it is important to look at the markers that affect growth curve parameters. The easiest way to consider them is via the two-step method, in which the growth curve parameters and marker effects are estimated separately, thereby resulting in a reduction of the statistical power and the precision of estimates. One efficient solution is to adopt nonlinear mixed models (NMM, which enables a joint modeling of the individual growth curves and marker effects. Our aim was to propose a genome association analysis for growth curves in pigs based on NMM as well as to compare it with the traditional two-step method. In addition, we also aimed to identify the nearest candidate genes related to significant SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism markers. The NMM presented a higher number of significant SNPs for adult weight (A and maturity rate (K, and provided a direct way to test SNP significance simultaneously for both the A and K parameters. Furthermore, all significant SNPs from the two-step method were also reported in the NMM analysis. The ontology of the three candidate genes (SH3BGRL2, MAPK14, and MYL9 derived from significant SNPs (simultaneously affecting A and K allows us to make inferences with regards to their contribution to the pig growth process in the population studied.

  13. Systems genomics study reveals expression quantitative trait loci, regulator genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Hansen, Mathias B.; Kadarmideen, Haja N.


    Boar taint is an offensive odour and/or taste from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs caused by skatole and androstenone accumulation during sexual maturity. Castration is widely used to avoid boar taint but is currently under debate because of animal welfare concerns. This study aimed...... to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) with potential effects on boar taint compounds to improve breeding possibilities for reduced boar taint. Danish Landrace male boars with low, medium and high genetic merit for skatole and human nose score (HNS) were slaughtered at similar to 100 kg. Gene...... and SSC14. Functional characterisation of eQTLs revealed functions within regulation of androgen and the intracellular steroid hormone receptor signalling pathway and of xenobiotic metabolism by cytochrome P450 system and cellular response to oestradiol. A QTL enrichment test revealed 89 QTL traits...

  14. Growth hormone receptor-deficient pigs resemble the pathophysiology of human Laron syndrome and reveal altered activation of signaling cascades in the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Hinrichs


    Full Text Available Objective: Laron syndrome (LS is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder in humans caused by loss-of-function mutations of the growth hormone receptor (GHR gene. To establish a large animal model for LS, pigs with GHR knockout (KO mutations were generated and characterized. Methods: CRISPR/Cas9 technology was applied to mutate exon 3 of the GHR gene in porcine zygotes. Two heterozygous founder sows with a 1-bp or 7-bp insertion in GHR exon 3 were obtained, and their heterozygous F1 offspring were intercrossed to produce GHR-KO, heterozygous GHR mutant, and wild-type pigs. Since the latter two groups were not significantly different in any parameter investigated, they were pooled as the GHR expressing control group. The characterization program included body and organ growth, body composition, endocrine and clinical-chemical parameters, as well as signaling studies in liver tissue. Results: GHR-KO pigs lacked GHR and had markedly reduced serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 levels and reduced IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3 activity but increased IGFBP2 levels. Serum GH concentrations were significantly elevated compared with control pigs. GHR-KO pigs had a normal birth weight. Growth retardation became significant at the age of five weeks. At the age of six months, the body weight of GHR-KO pigs was reduced by 60% compared with controls. Most organ weights of GHR-KO pigs were reduced proportionally to body weight. However, the weights of liver, kidneys, and heart were disproportionately reduced, while the relative brain weight was almost doubled. GHR-KO pigs had a markedly increased percentage of total body fat relative to body weight and displayed transient juvenile hypoglycemia along with decreased serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Analysis of insulin receptor related signaling in the liver of adult fasted pigs revealed increased phosphorylation of IRS1 and PI3K. In agreement with the loss of GHR, phosphorylation of STAT5 was

  15. Systems genomics study reveals expression quantitative trait loci, regulator genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Drag

    Full Text Available Boar taint is an offensive odour and/or taste from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs caused by skatole and androstenone accumulation during sexual maturity. Castration is widely used to avoid boar taint but is currently under debate because of animal welfare concerns. This study aimed to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs with potential effects on boar taint compounds to improve breeding possibilities for reduced boar taint. Danish Landrace male boars with low, medium and high genetic merit for skatole and human nose score (HNS were slaughtered at ~100 kg. Gene expression profiles were obtained by RNA-Seq, and genotype data were obtained by an Illumina 60K Porcine SNP chip. Following quality control and filtering, 10,545 and 12,731 genes from liver and testis were included in the eQTL analysis, together with 20,827 SNP variants. A total of 205 and 109 single-tissue eQTLs associated with 102 and 58 unique genes were identified in liver and testis, respectively. By employing a multivariate Bayesian hierarchical model, 26 eQTLs were identified as significant multi-tissue eQTLs. The highest densities of eQTLs were found on pig chromosomes SSC12, SSC1, SSC13, SSC9 and SSC14. Functional characterisation of eQTLs revealed functions within regulation of androgen and the intracellular steroid hormone receptor signalling pathway and of xenobiotic metabolism by cytochrome P450 system and cellular response to oestradiol. A QTL enrichment test revealed 89 QTL traits curated by the Animal Genome PigQTL database to be significantly overlapped by the genomic coordinates of cis-acting eQTLs. Finally, a subset of 35 cis-acting eQTLs overlapped with known boar taint QTL traits. These eQTLs could be useful in the development of a DNA test for boar taint but careful monitoring of other overlapping QTL traits should be performed to avoid any negative consequences of selection.

  16. Genetics of the pig tapeworm in madagascar reveal a history of human dispersal and colonization. (United States)

    Yanagida, Tetsuya; Carod, Jean-François; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Hoberg, Eric P; Ito, Akira


    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of human pathogens. The pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serious neglected tropical diseases. Discrete genetic lineages of T. solium in Asia and Africa/Latin America are geographically disjunct; only in Madagascar are they sympatric. Linguistic, archaeological and genetic evidence has indicated that the people in Madagascar have mixed ancestry from Island Southeast Asia and East Africa. Hence, anthropogenic introduction of the tapeworm from Southeast Asia and Africa had been postulated. This study shows that the major mitochondrial haplotype of T. solium in Madagascar is closely related to those from the Indian Subcontinent. Parasitological evidence presented here, and human genetics previously reported, support the hypothesis of an Indian influence on Malagasy culture coinciding with periods of early human migration onto the island. We also found evidence of nuclear-mitochondrial discordance in single tapeworms, indicating unexpected cross-fertilization between the two lineages of T. solium. Analyses of genetic and geographic populations of T. solium in Madagascar will shed light on apparently rapid evolution of this organism driven by recent (<2,000 yr) human migrations, following tens of thousands of years of geographic isolation.

  17. Growth hormone receptor-deficient pigs resemble the pathophysiology of human Laron syndrome and reveal altered activation of signaling cascades in the liver. (United States)

    Hinrichs, Arne; Kessler, Barbara; Kurome, Mayuko; Blutke, Andreas; Kemter, Elisabeth; Bernau, Maren; Scholz, Armin M; Rathkolb, Birgit; Renner, Simone; Bultmann, Sebastian; Leonhardt, Heinrich; de Angelis, Martin Hrabĕ; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Hoeflich, Andreas; Blum, Werner F; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Dahlhoff, Maik; Wolf, Eckhard


    Laron syndrome (LS) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder in humans caused by loss-of-function mutations of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene. To establish a large animal model for LS, pigs with GHR knockout (KO) mutations were generated and characterized. CRISPR/Cas9 technology was applied to mutate exon 3 of the GHR gene in porcine zygotes. Two heterozygous founder sows with a 1-bp or 7-bp insertion in GHR exon 3 were obtained, and their heterozygous F1 offspring were intercrossed to produce GHR-KO, heterozygous GHR mutant, and wild-type pigs. Since the latter two groups were not significantly different in any parameter investigated, they were pooled as the GHR expressing control group. The characterization program included body and organ growth, body composition, endocrine and clinical-chemical parameters, as well as signaling studies in liver tissue. GHR-KO pigs lacked GHR and had markedly reduced serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) levels and reduced IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) activity but increased IGFBP2 levels. Serum GH concentrations were significantly elevated compared with control pigs. GHR-KO pigs had a normal birth weight. Growth retardation became significant at the age of five weeks. At the age of six months, the body weight of GHR-KO pigs was reduced by 60% compared with controls. Most organ weights of GHR-KO pigs were reduced proportionally to body weight. However, the weights of liver, kidneys, and heart were disproportionately reduced, while the relative brain weight was almost doubled. GHR-KO pigs had a markedly increased percentage of total body fat relative to body weight and displayed transient juvenile hypoglycemia along with decreased serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Analysis of insulin receptor related signaling in the liver of adult fasted pigs revealed increased phosphorylation of IRS1 and PI3K. In agreement with the loss of GHR, phosphorylation of STAT5 was significantly reduced. In contrast, phosphorylation

  18. Pig Domestication and Human-Mediated Dispersal in Western Eurasia Revealed through Ancient DNA and Geometric Morphometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottoni, Claudio; Flink, Linus Girdland; Evin, Allowen; Geoerg, Christina; De Cupere, Bea; Van Neer, Wim; Bartosiewicz, Laszlo; Linderholm, Anna; Barnett, Ross; Peters, Joris; Decorte, Ronny; Waelkens, Marc; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Cakirlar, Canan; Cevik, Ozlem; Hoelzel, A. Rus; Mashkour, Marjan; Karimlu, Azadeh Fatemeh Mohaseb; Seno, Shiva Sheikhi; Daujat, Julie; Brock, Fiona; Pinhasi, Ron; Hongo, Hitomi; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Rasmussen, Morten; Frantz, Laurent; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Crooijmans, Richard; Groenen, Martien; Arbuckle, Benjamin; Benecke, Nobert; Vidarsdottir, Una Strand; Burger, Joachim; Cucchi, Thomas; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger

    Zooarcheological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated in Southwest Asia similar to 8,500 BC. They then spread across the Middle and Near East and westward into Europe alongside early agriculturalists. European pigs were either domesticated independently or more likely appeared so as a

  19. Pig Domestication and Human-Mediated Dispersal in Western Eurasia Revealed through Ancient DNA and Geometric Morphometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottoni, C.; Flink, L.G.; Evin, A.; Georg, C.; Cupere, De B.; Neer, van W.; Bartosiewicz, L.; Linderholm, A.; Barnett, R.; Peters, J.; Decorte, R.; Waelkens, M.; Vanderheyden, N.; Ricaut, F.X.; Cakirlar, C.; Cevik, O.; Hoelzel, A.R.; Mashkour, M.; Karimlu, A.F.M.; Seno, S.S.; Daujat, J.; Brock, F.; Pinhasi, R.; Hongo, H.; Perez-Enciso, M.; Rasmussen, M.; Frantz, L.A.F.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Arbuckle, B.; Benecke, N.; Vidarsdottir, U.S.; Burger, J.; Cucchi, T.; Dobney, K.; Larson, G.


    Zooarcheological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated in Southwest Asia ~8,500 BC. They then spread across the Middle and Near East and westward into Europe alongside early agriculturalists. European pigs were either domesticated independently or more likely appeared so as a result of

  20. Study of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Danish pigs at slaughter and in imported retail meat reveals a novel MRSA type in slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Hasman, Henrik; Cavaco, Lina M.


    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), especially CC398, have emerged in livestock worldwide. We investigated the occurrence of MRSA in pigs at slaughter and in retail meat. During 2009, nasal swabs (n=789) were taken from pigs at slaughter. Moreover, 866 meat samples [Danish: pork...... (153), broiler meat (121), beef (142) and; imported: pork (173), broiler meat (193), and beef (84)] were randomly collected in retail stores and outlets. MRSA was isolated from nasal swabs or from meat samples after preenrichment (Mueller Hinton broth with 6.5% NaCl), selective enrichment (tryptone...... soya broth with 4mg/L cefoxitine and 75mg/L aztreonam) and selective plating on Brilliance Chromogenic MRSA agar. The presence of mecA was confirmed by PCR and the MRSA isolates were spa typed. Novel MRSA spa types were characterized by MLST, PFGE and SCCmec typing. Thirteen percent (101...

  1. CA V is present in rat kidney mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodgson, S.J.; Contino, L.C.


    Guinea pig liver mitochondria contain the unique carbonic anhydrase isozyme, CA V. Prior to sacrifice, 15 rats and 15 guinea pigs were either fed normal lab chow (group 1), starved 48 hours (group 2) or fed normal lab chow and given to drink only water with added HCl, pH 2.5 (group 3). Mitochondria were prepared from excised livers and kidneys. CA V activity of disrupted mitochondria was measured by 18 O-mass spectrometric technique at pH 7.4, 37 0 C, 25 mM NaHCO 3 . Mass spectrometric CA assays with intact kidney mitochondria localize CA V activity to the matrix, as was found for liver mitochondria. It has been shown in hepatocytes prepared from starved guinea pigs and rats that inhibition of CA V results in decreased rate of gluconeogenesis from pyruvate. These present results are in line with the published observation that rat kidneys are much more gluconeogenic than guinea pig, and that this is increased by starvation and acidosis

  2. Genome-Wide Footprints of Pig Domestication and Selection Revealed through Massive Parallel Sequencing of Pooled DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, A.J.; Ferretti, L.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Nie, H.; Ramos-Onsins, S.E.; Perez-Enciso, M.; Schook, L.B.; Groenen, M.A.M.


    Background Artificial selection has caused rapid evolution in domesticated species. The identification of selection footprints across domesticated genomes can contribute to uncover the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity. Methodology/Main Findings Genome wide footprints of pig domestication and

  3. Genome-wide association study reveals a locus for nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Danish crossbred pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher


    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is an important human opportunistic pathogen residing on skin and mucosae of healthy people. Pigs have been identified as a source of human colonization and infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and novel measures are needed to control......-pathogen interaction seems to be independent of S. aureus genotype. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest it may be possible to select pigs genetically resistant to S. aureus nasal colonization as a tool to control transmission of livestock-associated MRSA to humans....

  4. Mitochondria in neutrophil apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raam, B. J.; Verhoeven, A. J.; Kuijpers, T. W.


    Central in the regulation of the short life span of neutrophils are their mitochondria. These organelles hardly contribute to the energy status of neutrophils but play a vital role in the apoptotic process. Not only do the mitochondria contain cytotoxic proteins that are released during apoptosis

  5. Peroxisome-mitochondria interplay and disease. (United States)

    Schrader, Michael; Costello, Joseph; Godinho, Luis F; Islinger, Markus


    Peroxisomes and mitochondria are ubiquitous, highly dynamic organelles with an oxidative type of metabolism in eukaryotic cells. Over the years, substantial evidence has been provided that peroxisomes and mitochondria exhibit a close functional interplay which impacts on human health and development. The so-called "peroxisome-mitochondria connection" includes metabolic cooperation in the degradation of fatty acids, a redox-sensitive relationship, an overlap in key components of the membrane fission machineries and cooperation in anti-viral signalling and defence. Furthermore, combined peroxisome-mitochondria disorders with defects in organelle division have been revealed. In this review, we present the latest progress in the emerging field of peroxisomal and mitochondrial interplay in mammals with a particular emphasis on cooperative fatty acid β-oxidation, redox interplay, organelle dynamics, cooperation in anti-viral signalling and the resulting implications for disease.

  6. Establishment of a rat and guinea pig aortic interposition graft model reveals model-specific patterns of intimal hyperplasia. (United States)

    Gregory, Elaine K; Vercammen, Janet M; Flynn, Megan E; Kibbe, Melina R


    Although the aortic interposition bypass model has been widely used to evaluate biomaterials for bypass grafting, there is no comprehensive description of the procedure or of the distribution of intimal hyperplasia that results. The objectives of this study were to (1) review and summarize approaches of aortic interposition grafting in animal models, (2) determine the pertinent anatomy for this procedure, (3) validate this model in the rat and guinea pig, and (4) compare the distribution of intimal hyperplasia that develops in each species. A literature search was performed in PubMed from 1980 to the present to analyze the use of anesthesia, anticoagulation, antiplatelet agents, graft material, suture, and anastomotic techniques. Using 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats and Hartley guinea pigs, we established pertinent aortic anatomy, developed comparable models, and assessed complications for each model. At 30 days, the graft and associated aorta were explanted, intimal formation was assessed morphometrically, and cellularity was assessed via nuclear counting. We reviewed 30 articles and summarized the pertinent procedural findings. Upon establishing both animal models, key anatomic differences between the species that affect this model were noted. Guinea pigs have a much larger cecum, increased retroperitoneal fat, and lack the iliolumbar vessels compared with the rat. Surgical outcomes for the rat model included a 53% technical success rate and a 32% technical error rate. Surgical outcomes for the guinea pig model included a 69% technical success rate and a 31% technical error rate. These two species demonstrated unique distribution of intimal hyperplasia at 30 days. Intimal hyperplasia in the rat model was greatest at two areas, the proximal graft (5400 μm 2 ; P guinea pig model developed similar intimal hyperplasia throughout the graft (4500-5100 μm 2 ; P guinea pig, and describe a unique distribution of intimal formation that results in both species

  7. Longitudinal analysis reveals characteristically high proportions of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina). (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Lei, Ai-Hua; Zheng, Hong-Yi; Lyu, Long-Bao; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Zheng, Yong-Tang


    The complex and dynamic vaginal microbial ecosystem is critical to both health and disease of the host. Studies focusing on how vaginal microbiota influences HIV-1 infection may face limitations in selecting proper animal models. Given that northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, they may be an optimal animal model for elucidating the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota contributes to resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. However, little is known about the composition and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota of the northern pig-tailed macaque. Here, we present a comprehensive catalog of the composition and temporal dynamics of vaginal microbiota of two healthy northern pig-tailed macaques over 19 weeks using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. We found remarkably high proportions of a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. Atopobium and Sneathia were dominant genera, and interestingly, we demonstrated the presence of Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota. Moreover, longitudinal analysis demonstrated that the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota were considerably individualized. Finally, network analysis revealed that vaginal pH may influence the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota, suggesting that inter-subject variability of vaginal bacterial communities could be mirrored in inter-subject variation in correlation profiles of species with each other and with vaginal pH over time. Our results suggest that the northern pig-tailed macaque could be an ideal animal model for prospective investigation of the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota influence susceptibility and resistance to HIV-1 infection in the context of highly polymicrobial and Lactobacillus-dominated states.

  8. Mitochondria in Lung Diseases (United States)

    Aravamudan, Bharathi; Thompson, Michael A.; Pabelick, Christina M.; Prakash, Y. S.


    Summary Mitochondria are autonomous cellular organelles that oversee a variety of functions such as metabolism, energy production, calcium buffering, and cell fate determination. Regulation of their morphology and diverse activities beyond energy production are being recognized as playing major roles in cellular health and dysfunction. This review is aimed at summarizing what is known regarding mitochondrial contributions to pathogenesis of lung diseases. Emphasis is given to understanding the importance of structural and functional aspects of mitochondria in both normal cellular function (based on knowledge from other cell types) and in development and modulation of lung diseases such as asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis and cancer. Emerging techniques that allow examination of mitochondria, and potential strategies to target mitochondria in the treatment of lung diseases are also discussed. PMID:23978003

  9. Photothermal imaging of skeletal muscle mitochondria. (United States)

    Tomimatsu, Toru; Miyazaki, Jun; Kano, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Takayoshi


    The morphology and topology of mitochondria provide useful information about the physiological function of skeletal muscle. Previous studies of skeletal muscle mitochondria are based on observation with transmission, scanning electron microscopy or fluorescence microscopy. In contrast, photothermal (PT) microscopy has advantages over the above commonly used microscopic techniques because of no requirement for complex sample preparation by fixation or fluorescent-dye staining. Here, we employed the PT technique using a simple diode laser to visualize skeletal muscle mitochondria in unstained and stained tissues. The fine mitochondrial network structures in muscle fibers could be imaged with the PT imaging system, even in unstained tissues. PT imaging of tissues stained with toluidine blue revealed the structures of subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria and the swelling behavior of mitochondria in damaged muscle fibers with sufficient image quality. PT image analyses based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) and Grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were performed to derive the characteristic size of mitochondria and to discriminate the image patterns of normal and damaged fibers.

  10. Genetic analysis and CRISPR typing of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from different sources revealed potential transmission from poultry and pig to human. (United States)

    Li, Qiuchun; Wang, Xin; Yin, Kequan; Hu, Yachen; Xu, Haiyan; Xie, Xiaolei; Xu, Lijuan; Fei, Xiao; Chen, Xiang; Jiao, Xinan


    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the most prevalent serotypes in Salmonella isolated from poultry and the most commonly reported cause of human salmonellosis. In this study, we aimed to assess the genetic diversity of 329 S. Enteritidis strains isolated from different sources from 2009 to 2016 in China. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) typing was used to characterize these 262 chicken clinical isolates, 38 human isolates, 18 pig isolates, six duck isolates, three goose isolates and two isolates of unknown source. A total of 18 Enteritidis CRISPR types (ECTs) were identified, with ECT2, ECT8 and ECT4 as the top three ECTs. CRISPR typing identified ECT2 as the most prevalent ECT, which accounted for 41% of S. Enteritidis strains from all the sources except duck. ECT9 and ECT13 were identified in both pig and human isolates and revealed potential transmission from pig to human. A cluster analysis distributed 18 ECTs, including the top three ECTs, into four lineages with LI as the predominant lineage. Forty-eight out of 329 isolates were subjected to whole genome sequence typing, which divided them into four clusters, with Cluster I as the predominant cluster. Cluster I included 92% (34/37) of strains located in LI identified from the CRISPR typing, confirming the good correspondence between both typing methods. In addition, the CRISPR typing also revealed the close relationship between ECTs and isolated areas, confirming that CRISPR spacers might be obtained by bacteria from the unique phage or plasmid pools in the environment. However, further analysis is needed to determine the function of CRISPR-Cas systems in Salmonella and the relationship between spacers and the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Smallholder pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang


    A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Mbeya Region, Tanzania, with the aim of describing the distribution and diversity of ectoparasites on pigs, within confinement and free-range production systems of smallholder farms. A total of 128 farms were surveyed, with 96 practising confinement...... and 32 practising free-range production systems. The prevalence of ectoparasites on pigs within confinement and free-range production systems was 24% and 84%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that keeping pigs in a free-range system and the presence of neighbouring pigs were risk...... although highly prevalent within both production systems. Keeping pigs in a free-range system and contact with neighbouring pigs were main risk factors for the presence of ectoparasites. Confinement was highly effective as a preventive tool against hard ticks....

  12. Mitochondria and Mitochondrial ROS in Cancer: Novel Targets for Anticancer Therapy. (United States)

    Yang, Yuhui; Karakhanova, Svetlana; Hartwig, Werner; D'Haese, Jan G; Philippov, Pavel P; Werner, Jens; Bazhin, Alexandr V


    Mitochondria are indispensable for energy metabolism, apoptosis regulation, and cell signaling. Mitochondria in malignant cells differ structurally and functionally from those in normal cells and participate actively in metabolic reprogramming. Mitochondria in cancer cells are characterized by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, which promotes cancer development by inducing genomic instability, modifying gene expression, and participating in signaling pathways. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA mutations caused by oxidative damage that impair the oxidative phosphorylation process will result in further mitochondrial ROS production, completing the "vicious cycle" between mitochondria, ROS, genomic instability, and cancer development. The multiple essential roles of mitochondria have been utilized for designing novel mitochondria-targeted anticancer agents. Selective drug delivery to mitochondria helps to increase specificity and reduce toxicity of these agents. In order to reduce mitochondrial ROS production, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants can specifically accumulate in mitochondria by affiliating to a lipophilic penetrating cation and prevent mitochondria from oxidative damage. In consistence with the oncogenic role of ROS, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants are found to be effective in cancer prevention and anticancer therapy. A better understanding of the role played by mitochondria in cancer development will help to reveal more therapeutic targets, and will help to increase the activity and selectivity of mitochondria-targeted anticancer drugs. In this review we summarized the impact of mitochondria on cancer and gave summary about the possibilities to target mitochondria for anticancer therapies. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2570-2581, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Systems genomics study reveals expression quantitative trait loci, regulator genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Hansen, Mathias B.; Kadarmideen, Haja N.


    Boar taint is an offensive odour and/or taste from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs caused by skatole and androstenone accumulation during sexual maturity. Castration is widely used to avoid boar taint but is currently under debate because of animal welfare concerns. This study aimed...... to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) with potential effects on boar taint compounds to improve breeding possibilities for reduced boar taint. Danish Landrace male boars with low, medium and high genetic merit for skatole and human nose score (HNS) were slaughtered at similar to 100 kg. Gene...... monitoring of other overlapping QTL traits should be performed to avoid any negative consequences of selection....

  14. On Cellular Darwinism: Mitochondria. (United States)

    Bull, Larry


    The significant role of mitochondria within cells is becoming increasingly clear. This letter uses the NKCS model of coupled fitness landscapes to explore aspects of organelle-nucleus coevolution. The phenomenon of mitochondrial diversity is allowed to emerge under a simple intracellular evolutionary process, including varying the relative rate of evolution by the organelle. It is shown how the conditions for the maintenance of more than one genetic variant of mitochondria are similar to those previously suggested as needed for the original symbiotic origins of the relationship using the NKCS model.

  15. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B


    of four separate and specific substrate titration protocols, the respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondria were capable of oxidizing lactate in the absence of exogenous LDH. The titration of lactate and NAD(+) into the respiration medium stimulated respiration (P = 0.003). The addition...... of exogenous LDH failed to increase lactate-stimulated respiration (P = 1.0). The results further demonstrate that human skeletal muscle mitochondria cannot directly oxidize lactate within the mitochondrial matrix. Alternately, these data support previous claims that lactate is converted to pyruvate within...

  16. The Aging Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Theurey


    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction is a central event in many pathologies and contributes as well to age-related processes. However, distinguishing between primary mitochondrial dysfunction driving aging and a secondary mitochondrial impairment resulting from other cell alterations remains challenging. Indeed, even though mitochondria undeniably play a crucial role in aging pathways at the cellular and organismal level, the original hypothesis in which mitochondrial dysfunction and production of free radicals represent the main driving force of cell degeneration has been strongly challenged. In this review, we will first describe mitochondrial dysfunctions observed in aged tissue, and how these features have been linked to mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS–mediated cell damage and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations. We will also discuss the clues that led to consider mitochondria as the starting point in the aging process, and how recent research has showed that the mitochondria aging axis represents instead a more complex and multifactorial signaling pathway. New working hypothesis will be also presented in which mitochondria are considered at the center of a complex web of cell dysfunctions that eventually leads to cell senescence and death.

  17. RNA Editing in Plant Mitochondria (United States)

    Hiesel, Rudolf; Wissinger, Bernd; Schuster, Wolfgang; Brennicke, Axel


    Comparative sequence analysis of genomic and complementary DNA clones from several mitochondrial genes in the higher plant Oenothera revealed nucleotide sequence divergences between the genomic and the messenger RNA-derived sequences. These sequence alterations could be most easily explained by specific post-transcriptional nucleotide modifications. Most of the nucleotide exchanges in coding regions lead to altered codons in the mRNA that specify amino acids better conserved in evolution than those encoded by the genomic DNA. Several instances show that the genomic arginine codon CGG is edited in the mRNA to the tryptophan codon TGG in amino acid positions that are highly conserved as tryptophan in the homologous proteins of other species. This editing suggests that the standard genetic code is used in plant mitochondria and resolves the frequent coincidence of CGG codons and tryptophan in different plant species. The apparently frequent and non-species-specific equivalency of CGG and TGG codons in particular suggests that RNA editing is a common feature of all higher plant mitochondria.

  18. Mitochondria and Endothelial Function (United States)

    Kluge, Matthew A.; Fetterman, Jessica L.; Vita, Joseph A.


    In contrast to their role in other cell types with higher energy demands, mitochondria in endothelial cells primarily function in signaling cellular responses to environmental cues. This article provides an overview of key aspects of mitochondrial biology in endothelial cells, including subcellular location, biogenesis, dynamics, autophagy, ROS production and signaling, calcium homeostasis, regulated cell death, and heme biosynthesis. In each section, we introduce key concepts and then review studies showing the importance of that mechanism to endothelial control of vasomotor tone, angiogenesis, and inflammatory activation. We particularly highlight the small number of clinical and translational studies that have investigated each mechanism in human subjects. Finally, we review interventions that target different aspects of mitochondrial function and their effects on endothelial function. The ultimate goal of such research is the identification of new approaches for therapy. The reviewed studies make it clear that mitochondria are important in endothelial physiology and pathophysiology. A great deal of work will be needed, however, before mitochondria-directed therapies are available for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23580773

  19. Programming Pig

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Alan


    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  20. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solinas, Paola [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Fujioka, Hisashi [Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Tandler, Bernard [Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Hoppel, Charles L., E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  1. Mature Erythrocytes of Iguana iguana (Squamata, Iguanidae Possess Functional Mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Di Giacomo

    Full Text Available Electron microscopy analyses of Iguana iguana blood preparations revealed the presence of mitochondria within erythrocytes with well-structured cristae. Fluorescence microscopy analyses upon incubation with phalloidin-FITC, Hoechst 33342 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm-sensitive probe MitoTracker Red indicated that mitochondria i widely occur in erythrocytes, ii are polarized, and iii seem to be preferentially confined at a "perinuclear" region, as confirmed by electron microscopy. The analysis of NADH-dependent oxygen consumption showed that red blood cells retain the capability to consume oxygen, thereby providing compelling evidence that mitochondria of Iguana erythrocytes are functional and capable to perform oxidative phosphorylation.

  2. Mature Erythrocytes of Iguana iguana (Squamata, Iguanidae) Possess Functional Mitochondria. (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Giuseppina; Campello, Silvia; Corrado, Mauro; Di Giambattista, Livia; Cirotti, Claudia; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Gentile, Gabriele


    Electron microscopy analyses of Iguana iguana blood preparations revealed the presence of mitochondria within erythrocytes with well-structured cristae. Fluorescence microscopy analyses upon incubation with phalloidin-FITC, Hoechst 33342 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm)-sensitive probe MitoTracker Red indicated that mitochondria i) widely occur in erythrocytes, ii) are polarized, and iii) seem to be preferentially confined at a "perinuclear" region, as confirmed by electron microscopy. The analysis of NADH-dependent oxygen consumption showed that red blood cells retain the capability to consume oxygen, thereby providing compelling evidence that mitochondria of Iguana erythrocytes are functional and capable to perform oxidative phosphorylation.

  3. Pathology of mitochondria in MELAS syndrome: an ultrastructural study. (United States)

    Felczak, Paulina; Lewandowska, Eliza; Stępniak, Iwona; Ołdak, Monika; Pollak, Agnieszka; Lechowicz, Urszula; Pasennik, Elżbieta; Stępień, Tomasz; Wierzba-Bobrowicz, Teresa

    Ultrastructural changes in skeletal muscle biopsy in a 24-year-old female patient with clinically suspected mitochondrial encephalomyopathy lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome are presented. We observed proliferation and/or pleomorphism of mitochondria in skeletal muscle and smooth muscle cells of arterioles, as well as in pericytes of capillaries. Paracrystalline inclusions were found only in damaged mitochondria of skeletal muscle. Genetic testing revealed a point mutation in A3243G tRNALeu(UUR) typical for MELAS syndrome. We conclude that differentiated pathological changes of mitochondria in the studied types of cells may be associated with the different energy requirements of these cells.

  4. Glutathione and Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent eRibas


    Full Text Available Glutathione (GSH is the main nonprotein thiol in cells whose functions are dependent on the redox-active thiol of its cysteine moiety that serves as a cofactor for a number of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. While synthesized exclusively in the cytosol from its constituent amino acids, GSH is distributed in different compartments, including mitochondria where its concentration in the matrix equals that of the cytosol. This feature and its negative charge at physiological pH imply the existence of specific carriers to import GSH from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix, where it plays a key role in defense against respiration-induced reactive oxygen species and in the detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides and electrophiles. Moreover, as mitochondria play a central strategic role in the activation and mode of cell death, mitochondrial GSH has been shown to critically regulate the level of sensitization to secondary hits that induce mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and release of proteins confined in the intermembrane space that once in the cytosol engage the molecular machinery of cell death. In this review, we summarize recent data on the regulation of mitochondrial GSH and its role in cell death and prevalent human diseases, such as cancer, fatty liver disease and Alzheimer’s disease.

  5. Biochemistry of Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Koc


    Full Text Available Mitochondria are energy source of cells. They have external and internal membranes, cristas and matrix. External membranes consist of specialized transport proteins. They have monoamine oxidase and citokrome-c reductase which both play role in KREBS cycle as catalyst and many enzymes which are necessary for phospholipid and phosphoric acid synthesis. Enzymes of electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation are located in the internal membranes. Also, here, there are transport systems for specific substances, such as ATP, ADP, P1, pyruvate, succinate, malate, citrate, and -ketoglutarate . Matrix; having gel-like consistency, contains a large number of enzymes. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(0.100: 1-13

  6. Aging and mitochondria. (United States)

    Gadaleta, M N; Cormio, A; Pesce, V; Lezza, A M; Cantatore, P


    Aging is a complex physiological phenomenon and several different theories have been elaborated about its origin. Among such theories, the 'mitochondrial theory of aging', which has gained a large support, indicates the accumulation of somatic mutations of mitochondrial DNA leading to the decline of mitochondrial functionality as one of the driving forces for the process itself. In this review data on rat and man from our laboratory and from recent literature have been thoroughly examined and compared in order to provide the 'state-of-the-art' on the role of mitochondria in aging. Alterations of structure and expression of mitochondrial genome with aging, to find out the eventual relevant changes of mitochondrial biogenesis, have been studied in rat whereas the relationship between cytochrome c oxidase activity and 'common deletion' has been studied in man. Results on the effect of acetyl-L-carnitine on the mitochondrial functionality are also reported.

  7. Mitochondria in health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, Jon Ambæk; Madsen, Claus Desler; Rasmussen, Lene Juel


    The primary role of mitochondria was long considered to be production of cellular energy. However, as the understanding of mitochondria in disease is ever expanding, so is their additional function for a healthy organism. Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to a range of pathologies, including...... (SMRM) was titled "Mitochondria in Health and Disease". The conference was organized by Gayathri N, K Thangaraj, and KK Singh and was held at the National Institute of Mental Health & Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS) in Bangalore, India, from the 19th to 20th of December 2013. The meeting featured...

  8. Melatonin, mitochondria and hypertension. (United States)

    Baltatu, Ovidiu C; Amaral, Fernanda G; Campos, Luciana A; Cipolla-Neto, Jose


    Melatonin, due to its multiple means and mechanisms of action, plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the organismal physiology by fine tunning several functions. The cardiovascular system is an important site of action as melatonin regulates blood pressure both by central and peripheral interventions, in addition to its relation with the renin-angiotensin system. Besides, the systemic management of several processes, melatonin acts on mitochondria regulation to maintain a healthy cardiovascular system. Hypertension affects target organs in different ways and cellular energy metabolism is frequently involved due to mitochondrial alterations that include a rise in reactive oxygen species production and an ATP synthesis decrease. The discussion that follows shows the role played by melatonin in the regulation of mitochondrial physiology in several levels of the cardiovascular system, including brain, heart, kidney, blood vessels and, particularly, regulating the renin-angiotensin system. This discussion shows the putative importance of using melatonin as a therapeutic tool involving its antioxidant potential and its action on mitochondrial physiology in the cardiovascular system.

  9. Interaction theory of mammalian mitochondria. (United States)

    Nakada, K; Inoue, K; Hayashi, J


    We generated mice with deletion mutant mtDNA by its introduction from somatic cells into mouse zygotes. Expressions of disease phenotypes are limited to tissues expressing mitochondrial dysfunction. Considering that all these mice share the same nuclear background, these observations suggest that accumulation of the mutant mtDNA and resultant expressions of mitochondrial dysfunction are responsible for expression of disease phenotypes. On the other hand, mitochondrial dysfunction and expression of clinical abnormalities were not observed until the mutant mtDNA accumulated predominantly. This protection is due to the presence of extensive and continuous interaction between exogenous mitochondria from cybrids and recipient mitochondria from embryos. Thus, we would like to propose a new hypothesis on mitochondrial biogenesis, interaction theory of mitochondria: mammalian mitochondria exchange genetic contents, and thus lost the individuality and function as a single dynamic cellular unit. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  10. Genomic Characteristics of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum Pig Isolates and Wild Boar Isolates Reveal the Unique Presence of a Putative Mobile Genetic Element with tetW for Pig Farm Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Tsuchida


    Full Text Available Genomic analysis was performed on seven strains of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum, a Sus-associated Bifidobacterium. Three strains from the feces of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus and four strains from the rectal feces of free-range Japanese wild boars (S. s. scrofa were compared. The phylogenetic position of these isolates suggested by genomic analyses were not concordant with that suggested by 16S rRNA sequence. There was biased distribution of genes for virulence, phage, metabolism of aromatic compounds, iron acquisition, cell division, and DNA metabolism. In particular four wild boar isolates harbored fiber-degrading enzymes, such as endoglucanase, while two of the pig isolates obtained from those grown under an intensive feeding practice with routine use of antimicrobials, particularly tetracycline harbored a tetracycline resistance gene, which was further proved functional by disk diffusion test. The tetW gene is associated with a serine recombinase of an apparently non-bifidobacterial origin. The insertion site of the tetW cassette was precisely defined by analyzing the corresponding genomic regions in the other tetracycline-susceptible isolates. The cassette may have been transferred from some other bacteria in the pig gut.

  11. Comparative Analyses between Skeletal Muscle miRNAomes from Large White and Min Pigs Revealed MicroRNAs Associated with Postnatal Muscle Hypertrophy. (United States)

    Sheng, Xihui; Wang, Ligang; Ni, Hemin; Wang, Lixian; Qi, Xiaolong; Xing, Shuhan; Guo, Yong


    The molecular mechanism regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) that underlies postnatal hypertrophy of skeletal muscle is complex and remains unclear. Here, the miRNAomes of longissimus dorsi muscle collected at five postnatal stages (60, 120, 150, 180, and 210 days after birth) from Large White (commercial breed) and Min pigs (indigenous breed of China) were analyzed by Illumina sequencing. We identified 734 miRNAs comprising 308 annotated miRNAs and 426 novel miRNAs, of which 307 could be considered pig-specific. Comparative analysis between two breeds suggested that 60 and 120 days after birth were important stages for skeletal muscle hypertrophy and intramuscular fat accumulation. A total of 263 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between two breeds at one or more developmental stages. In addition, the differentially expressed miRNAs between every two adjacent developmental stages in each breed were determined. Notably, ssc-miR-204 was significantly more highly expressed in Min pig skeletal muscle at all postnatal stages compared with its expression in Large White pig skeletal muscle. Based on gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses of its predicted target genes, we concluded that ssc-miR-204 may exert an impact on postnatal hypertrophy of skeletal muscle by regulating myoblast proliferation. The results of this study will help in elucidating the mechanism underlying postnatal hypertrophy of skeletal muscle modulated by miRNAs, which could provide valuable information for improvement of pork quality and human myopathy.

  12. Protonmotive force in muscle mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, D.A.; Haas, R.; Eguren, L.A.; Parks, J.K.; Eilert, R.E.


    The protonmotive force (delta p) of muscle mitochondria was measured by estimating the distribution of 14C-labeled TPMP (trimethylphenylphosphonium iodide) and 14C-labeled acetate across the inner membrane of muscle mitochondria. The matrix volume was simultaneously determined using 3H-labeled H2O and 3H-labeled mannitol and repeated drying to distinguish the label in these 2 compounds. Rapid separation of mitochondria from the incubation medium by centrifugation through silicone oil avoids the problems of potential anaerobic conditions associated with conventional centrifugation and large volumes of trapped media associated with filtration. The value for delta p (mean +/- SD) was 192+/- 26 mV in 30 determinations with rat muscle mitochondria during state 4. Measurement of oxygen consumption allowed calculation of membrane conductance (Cm,H+) which was 0.49 +/- 0.18 nmol of H+/min/mg protein/mV. The values for delta p and Cm,H+ are reported for a variety of experimental conditions and are consistent with Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory. Biopsy specimens obtained from human muscle gave state-4 delta p values of 197+/- 30 mV (n .5) and Cm,H+ values of 0.52 +/- 0.12 nmol of H+/min/mg/mV (n . 4). This delta p assay is the first described for coupled mammalian muscle mitochondria and will be useful in assessing membrane function

  13. Longitudinal analysis reveals characteristically high proportions of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina)


    ZHU, Lin; LEI, Ai-Hua; ZHENG, Hong-Yi; LYU, Long-Bao; ZHANG, Zhi-Gang; ZHENG, Yong-Tang


    The complex and dynamic vaginal microbial ecosystem is critical to both health and disease of the host. Studies focusing on how vaginal microbiota influences HIV-1 infection may face limitations in selecting proper animal models. Given that northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, they may be an optimal animal model for elucidating the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota contributes to resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. However, littl...

  14. Extended local similarity analysis (eLSA) reveals unique associations between bacterial community structure and odor emission during pig carcasses decomposition. (United States)

    Ki, Bo-Min; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-Suk


    Soil burial and composting methods have been widely used for the disposal of pig carcasses. The relationship between bacterial community structure and odor emission was examined using extended local similarity analysis (eLSA) during the degradation of pig carcasses in soil and compost. In soil, Hyphomicrobium, Niastella, Rhodanobacter, Polaromonas, Dokdonella and Mesorhizobium were associated with the emission of sulfur-containing odors such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl disulfide. Sphingomonas, Rhodanobacter, Mesorhizobium, Dokdonella, Leucobacter and Truepera were associated with the emission of nitrogen-containing odors including ammonia and trimetylamine. In compost, however, Carnobacteriaceae, Lachnospiaceae and Clostridiales were highly correlated with the emission of sulfur-containing odors, while Rumincoccaceae was associated with the emission of nitrogen-containing odors. The emission of organic acids was closely related to Massilia, Sphaerobacter and Bradyrhizobiaceae in soil, but to Actinobacteria, Sporacetigenium, Micromonosporaceae and Solirubrobacteriales in compost. This study suggests that network analysis using eLSA is a useful strategy for exploring the mechanisms of odor emission during biodegradation of pig carcasses.

  15. Immobilization of Mitochondria on Graphene (United States)


    poly-L-lysine has also been reported for immobilization of yeast mitochondria. Coating was performed by repetitive washing of cover slips with 0.02...of Poly-L-lysine Applications of PLL PLL is a production of bacterial fermentation and is used as a food preservative. In biology, PLL is used in

  16. Mitochondria in aging cell differentiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palková, Zdena; Váchová, Libuše


    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2016), s. 1287-1288 ISSN 1945-4589 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : mitochondria * cell differentiation * retrograde signaling Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.867, year: 2016

  17. Are mitochondria a permanent source of reactive oxygen species? (United States)

    Staniek, K; Nohl, H


    The observation that in isolated mitochondria electrons may leak out of the respiratory chain to form superoxide radicals (O(2)(radical-)) has prompted the assumption that O(2)(radical-) formation is a compulsory by-product of respiration. Since mitochondrial O(2)(radical-) formation under homeostatic conditions could not be demonstrated in situ so far, conclusions drawn from isolated mitochondria must be considered with precaution. The present study reveals a link between electron deviation from the respiratory chain to oxygen and the coupling state in the presence of antimycin A. Another important factor is the analytical system applied for the detection of activated oxygen species. Due to the presence of superoxide dismutase in mitochondria, O(2)(radical-) release cannot be realistically determined in intact mitochondria. We therefore followed the release of the stable dismutation product H(2)O(2) by comparing most frequently used H(2)O(2) detection methods. The possible interaction of the detection systems with the respiratory chain was avoided by a recently developed method, which was compared with conventional methods. Irrespective of the methods applied, the substrates used for respiration and the state of respiration established, intact mitochondria could not be made to release H(2)O(2) from dismutating O(2)(radical-). Although regular mitochondrial respiration is unlikely to supply single electrons for O(2)(radical-) formation our study does not exclude the possibility of the respiratory chain becoming a radical source under certain conditions.

  18. Exogenous ether lipids predominantly target mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuerschner, Lars; Richter, Doris; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian


    Ether lipids are ubiquitous constituents of cellular membranes with no discrete cell biological function assigned yet. Using fluorescent polyene-ether lipids we analyzed their intracellular distribution in living cells by microscopy. Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum accumulated high......, accumulated to mitochondria and induced morphological changes and cellular apoptosis. These data indicate that edelfosine could exert its pro-apoptotic power by targeting and damaging mitochondria and thereby inducing cellular apoptosis. In general, this study implies an important role of mitochondria...

  19. NMR-based metabonomic studies reveal changes in the biochemical profile of plasma and urine from pigs fed high fibre rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne C.; Bach Knudsen, Knud E.; Serena, Anja


    This study presents an NMR-based metabonomic approach to elucidate the overall endogenous biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet. Two diets with similar levels of dietary fibre and macronutrients, but with contrasting levels of wholegrain ingredients, were prepared from wholegrain rye (wholegrain...... diet (WGD)) and non-wholegrain wheat (non-wholegrain diet (NWD)) and fed to four pigs in a crossover design. Plasma samples were collected after 7 d on each diet, and 1H NMR spectra were acquired on these. Partial least squares regression discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) on spectra obtained for plasma...

  20. The Rise of Mitochondria in Medicine (United States)

    Picard, Martin; Wallace, Douglas C; Burelle, Yan


    Once considered exclusively the cell's powerhouse, mitochondria are now recognized to perform multiple essential cellular functions beyond energy production, impacting most areas of cell biology and medicine. Since the emergence of molecular biology and the discovery of pathogenic mitochondrial DNA defects in the 1980's, research advances have revealed a number of common human diseases which share an underlying pathogenesis involving mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria undergo function-defining dynamic shape changes, communicate with each other, regulate gene expression within the nucleus, modulate synaptic transmission within the brain, release molecules that contribute to oncogenic transformation and trigger inflammatory responses systemically, and influence the regulation of complex physiological systems. Novel “mitopathogenic” mechanisms are thus being uncovered across a number of medical disciplines including genetics, oncology, neurology, immunology, and critical care medicine. Increasing knowledge of the bioenergetic aspects of human disease has provided new opportunities for diagnosis, therapy, prevention, and in connecting various domains of medicine. In this article, we overview specific aspects of mitochondrial biology that have contributed to – and likely will continue to enhance the progress of modern medicine. PMID:27423788

  1. Farm-by-farm analysis of microsatellite, mtDNA and SNP genotype data reveals inbreeding and crossbreeding as threats to the survival of a native Spanish pig breed. (United States)

    Herrero-Medrano, J M; Megens, H J; Crooijmans, R P; Abellaneda, J M; Ramis, G


    The Chato Murciano (CM), a pig breed from the Murcia region in the southeastern region of Spain, is a good model for endangered livestock populations. The remaining populations are bred on approximately 15 small farms, and no herdbook exists. To assess the genetic threats to the integrity and survival of the CM breed, and to aid in designing a conservation program, three genetic marker systems - microsatellites, SNPs and mtDNA - were applied across the majority of the total breeding stock. In addition, mtDNA and SNPs were genotyped in breeds that likely contributed genetically to the current CM gene pool. The analyses revealed the levels of genetic diversity within the range of other European local breeds (H(e) = 0.53). However, when the eight farms that rear at least 10 CM pigs were independently analyzed, high levels of inbreeding were found in some. Despite the evidence for recent crossbreeding with commercial breeds on a few farms, the entire breeding stock remains readily identifiable as CM, facilitating the design of traceability assays. The genetic management of the breed is consistent with farm size, farm owner and presence of other pig breeds on the farm, demonstrating the highly ad hoc nature of current CM breeding. The results of genetic diversity and substructure of the entire breed, as well as admixture and crossbreeding obtained in the present study, provide a benchmark to develop future conservation strategies. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that identifying farm-based practices and farm-based breeding stocks can aid in the design of a sustainable breeding program for minority breeds. © 2012 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  2. Oscillatory systems in mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooch, V D; Packer, L


    Comparison of known mitochondrial oscillatory systems suggest that they all have a common mechanism. Investigation of the requirements of these various systems reveals a common set of basic features that indicate ion-transport processes to be the key components mediating oscillatory behavior. These ion-transport processes include (a) a diffusional transport of a cation and a H/sup +/, (b) a diffusional, non-ionic, coupled transport of a H/sup +/ with a weak acid anion, and (c) an energy-linked H/sup +/ transport. To adequately describe the oscillatory phenomenon, however, it is necessary to consider also the presence of (a) nonlinear concentration profiles of one or more ions within the membrane and its unstirred layers, and (b) feedback loops developed as a result of molecular conformational changes or membrane structural changes affecting ionic flows, each having a major influence on the other.

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Genetic Architecture of Eating Behaviors in Pigs and its Implications for Humans Obesity by Comparative Genome Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Ostersen, Tage


    per visit (TPV), mean feed intake per visit(FPV) and mean feed intake rate (FR) were available on 1130 boars. All boars weregenotyped using the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip. The association analyseswere performed using the GenABEL package in R. Sixteen SNPs had moderategenome-wide significant (p...... association with feeding behavior traits. Locus M1GA0016584 located close to theMSI2 gene on chromosome (SSC) 14 was very strongly associated with NVD (p =9.6E-07). Thirty six SNPs were located in genome regions where QTLs havepreviously been reported......, dephosphorylation and positive regulation of peptide secretiongenes were found highly significantly associated with feeding behavior traits byfunctional annotation. This is the first GWAS to identify genetic variants and biologicalmechanisms for feeding behavior in pigs and these results are important...

  4. Genome-wide association study reveals genetic architecture of eating behavior in pigs and its implications for humans obesity by comparative mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Ostersen, Tage


    ), average duration of each visit (TPV), mean feed intake per visit (FPV) and mean feed intake rate (FR) were available for 1130 boars. All boars were genotyped using the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip. The association analyses were performed using the GenABEL package in the R program. Sixteen SNPs were...... found to have moderate genome-wide significance (passociation with feeding behavior traits. MSI2 gene on chromosome (SSC) 14 was very strongly associated with NVD. Thirty-six SNPs were located in genome regions where QTLs have previously been reported......1, PTPN4, MTMR4 and RNGTT) and positive regulation of peptide secretion genes (GHRH, NNAT and TCF7L2) were highly significantly associated with feeding behavior traits. This is the first GWAS to identify genetic variants and biological mechanisms for eating behavior in pigs and these results...

  5. Analysis of the behavior of mitochondria in the ovaries of the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta Rosa 1839.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Faron

    Full Text Available We examined six types of cells that form the ovary of the earthworm Dendrobena veneta ogonia, prooocytes, vitellogenic oocytes, trophocytes, fully grown postvitellogenic oocytes and somatic cells of the gonad. The quantitative stereological method revealed a much higher "volume density" of mitochondria in all of the types of germ-line cells except for the somatic cells. Fluorescent vital stain JC-1, however, showed a much higher oxidative activity of mitochondria in the somatic cells than in the germ-line cells. The distribution of active and inactive mitochondria within the studied cells was assessed using the computer program ImageJ. The analysis showed a higher luminosity of inactive mitochondria in all of the types of germ-line cells and a higher luminosity of active mitochondria in somatic cells. The OXPHOS activity was found in somatic cells mitochondria and in the peripheral mitochondria of the vitellogenic oocytes. The detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS revealed a differentiated distribution of ROS in the different cell types. The amount of ROS substances was lower in somatic cells than in younger germ-line cells. The ROS level was also low in the cytoplasm of fully grown postwitellogenic oocytes. The distribution of the MnSOD enzyme that protects mitochondria against destructive role of ROS substances was high in the oogonia and in prooocytes and it was very high in vitellogenic and postvitellogenic oocytes. However, a much lower level of this protective enzyme was observed in the trophocytes and the lowest level was found in the cytoplasm of somatic cells. The lower mitochondrial activity and higher level of MnSOD activity in germ-line cells when compared to somatic cells testifies to the necessity of the organisms to protect the mitochondria of oocytes against the destructive role of the ROS that are produced during oxidative phosphorylation. The protection of the mitochondria in oocytes is essential for the transfer of healthy

  6. [Mitochondria inheritance in yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae]. (United States)

    Fizikova, A Iu


    The review is devoted to the main mechanisms of mitochondria inheritance in yeast Saccharonmyces cerevisiae. The genetic mechanisms of functionally active mitochondria inheritance in eukaryotic cells is one of the most relevant in modem researches. A great number of genetic diseases are associated with mitochondria dysfunction. Plasticity of eukaryotic cell metabolism according to the environmental changes is ensured by adequate mitochondria functioning by means of ATP synthesis coordination, reactive oxygen species accumulation, apoptosis regulation and is an important factor of cell adaptation to stress. Mitochondria participation in important for cell vitality processes masters the presence of accurate mechanisms of mitochondria functions regulation according to environment fluctuations. The mechanisms of mitochondria division and distribution are highly conserved. Baker yeast S. cerevisiae is an ideal model object for mitochondria researches due to energetic metabolism lability, ability to switch over respiration to fermentation, and petite-positive phenotype. Correction of metabolism according to the environmental changes is necessary for cell vitality. The influence of respiratory, carbon, amino acid and phosphate metabolism on mitochondria functions was shown. As far as the mechanisms that stabilize functions of mitochondria and mtDNA are highly conserve, we can project yeast regularities on higher eukaryotes systems. This makes it possible to approximate understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of a great number of human diseases.

  7. Mitochondria and Neurotransmission: Evacuating the Synapse


    Hollenbeck, Peter J.


    An abundance of mitochondria has been the hallmark of synapses since their first ultrastructural description 50 years ago. Mitochondria have been shown to be essential for synaptic form and function in many systems, but until recently it has not been clear exactly what role(s) they play in neurotransmission. Now, evidence from the nervous system of Drosophila identifies the specific subcellular events that are most dependent upon nearby mitochondria.

  8. Mitochondria in biology and medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Rasmussen, Lene Juel


    pathologies (Luft, 1994). Since 1959, the understanding of mitochondrial cytopathies has evolved immensely and mitochondrial cytopathies are now known to be the largest group of metabolic diseases and to be resulting in a wide variety of pathologies. "Mitochondria in Biology and Medicine" was the title...... of the first annual conference of Society of Mitochondrial Research and Medicine - India. The conference was organized by A. S. Sreedhar, Keshav Singh and Kumarasamy Thangaraj, and was held at The Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) Hyderabad, India, during 9-10 December 2011. The conference...

  9. Dynamic survey of mitochondria by ubiquitin (United States)

    Escobar-Henriques, Mafalda; Langer, Thomas


    Ubiquitin is a post-translational modifier with proteolytic and non-proteolytic roles in many biological processes. At mitochondria, it performs regulatory homeostatic functions and contributes to mitochondrial quality control. Ubiquitin is essential for mitochondrial fusion, regulates mitochondria-ER contacts, and participates in maternal mtDNA inheritance. Under stress, mitochondrial dysfunction induces ubiquitin-dependent responses that involve mitochondrial proteome remodeling and culminate in organelle removal by mitophagy. In addition, many ubiquitin-dependent mechanisms have been shown to regulate innate immune responses and xenophagy. Here, we review the emerging roles of ubiquitin at mitochondria. PMID:24569520

  10. Melatonin, mitochondria, and the skin. (United States)

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Zmijewski, Michal A; Semak, Igor; Kim, Tae-Kang; Janjetovic, Zorica; Slominski, Radomir M; Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W


    The skin being a protective barrier between external and internal (body) environments has the sensory and adaptive capacity to maintain local and global body homeostasis in response to noxious factors. An important part of the skin response to stress is its ability for melatonin synthesis and subsequent metabolism through the indolic and kynuric pathways. Indeed, melatonin and its metabolites have emerged as indispensable for physiological skin functions and for effective protection of a cutaneous homeostasis from hostile environmental factors. Moreover, they attenuate the pathological processes including carcinogenesis and other hyperproliferative/inflammatory conditions. Interestingly, mitochondria appear to be a central hub of melatonin metabolism in the skin cells. Furthermore, substantial evidence has accumulated on the protective role of the melatonin against ultraviolet radiation and the attendant mitochondrial dysfunction. Melatonin and its metabolites appear to have a modulatory impact on mitochondrion redox and bioenergetic homeostasis, as well as the anti-apoptotic effects. Of note, some metabolites exhibit even greater impact than melatonin alone. Herein, we emphasize that melatonin-mitochondria axis would control integumental functions designed to protect local and perhaps global homeostasis. Given the phylogenetic origin and primordial actions of melatonin, we propose that the melatonin-related mitochondrial functions represent an evolutionary conserved mechanism involved in cellular adaptive response to skin injury and repair.

  11. Role of mitochondria-associated hexokinase II in cancer cell death induced by 3-Bromopyruvate (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Weiqin; Huang, Peng


    Summary It has long been observed that cancer cells rely more on glycolysis to generate ATP and actively use certain glycolytic metabolic intermediates for biosynthesis. Hexokinase II (HKII) is a key glycolytic enzyme that plays a role in the regulation of the mitochondria-initiated apoptotic cell death. As a potent inhibitor of hexokinase, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) is known to inhibit cancer cell energy metabolism and trigger cell death, supposedly through depletion of cellular ATP. The current study showed that 3-BrPA caused a covalent modification of HKII protein and directly triggered its dissociation from mitochondria, leading to a specific release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria to cytosol and eventual cell death. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed a physical interaction between HKII and AIF. Using a competitive peptide of HKII, we showed that the dissociation of hexokinase II from mitochondria alone could cause apoptotic cell death, especially in the mitochondria-deficient ρ0 cells that highly express HKII. Interestingly, the dissociation of HKII itself did no directly affect the mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS generation, and oxidative phosphorylation. Our study suggests that the physical association between HKII and AIF is important for the normal localization of AIF in the mitochondria, and disruption of this protein complex by 3-BrPA leads to their release from the mitochondria and eventual cell death. PMID:19285479

  12. Your mitochondria are what you eat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Wenche; Rud, Kasper Abildgaard; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig


    of the mitochondria. Here, we report that rat muscle mitochondria does show the normal Randle‐type fat‐carbohydrate interaction seen in vivo. The mechanism behind this metabolic flexibility at the level of the isolated mitochondria is a regulation of the flux‐ratio: pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)/β‐oxidation to suit...... the actual substrate availability, with the PDH flux as the major point of regulation. We further report that this regulatory mechanism of carbohydrate‐fat metabolic interaction surprisingly is lost in mitochondria obtained from animals exposed for 12 weeks to a HF‐ or a HS diet as compared to rats given...... a normal chow diet. The mechanism seems to be a loss of the PDH flux decrease seen in controls, when fatty acid is supplied as substrate in addition to pyruvate, and vice versa for the supply of pyruvate as substrate to mitochondria oxidizing fatty acid. Finally, we report that the calculated TCA flux...

  13. Potassium channels in brain mitochondria. (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Piotr


    Potassium channels are the most widely distributed class of ion channels. These channels are transmembrane proteins known to play important roles in both normal and pathophysiological functions in all cell types. Various potassium channels are recognised as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, brain/spinal cord ischaemia and sepsis. In addition to their importance as therapeutic targets, certain potassium channels are known for their beneficial roles in anaesthesia, cardioprotection and neuroprotection. Some types of potassium channels present in the plasma membrane of various cells have been found in the inner mitochondrial membrane as well. Potassium channels have been proposed to regulate mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration, matrix volume and Ca(+) ion homeostasis. It has been proposed that mitochondrial potassium channels mediate ischaemic preconditioning in various tissues. However, the specificity of a pharmacological agents and the mechanisms underlying their effects on ischaemic preconditioning remain controversial. The following potassium channels from various tissues have been identified in the inner mitochondrial membrane: ATP-regulated (mitoK(ATP)) channel, large conductance Ca(2+)-regulated (mitoBK(Ca)) channel, intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-regulated (mitoIK(Ca)) channel, voltage-gated (mitoKv1.3 type) channel, and twin-pore domain (mitoTASK-3) channel. It has been shown that increased potassium flux into brain mitochondria induced by either the mitoK(ATP) channel or mitoBK(Ca) channel affects the beneficial effects on neuronal cell survival under pathological conditions. Recently, differential distribution of mitoBK(Ca) channels has been observed in neuronal mitochondria. These findings may suggest a neuroprotective role for the mitoBK(Ca) channel in specific brain structures. This minireview summarises current data on brain mitochondrial potassium channels and the efforts to identify

  14. Sequence-Based Genotyping of Expressed Swine Leukocyte Antigen Class I Alleles by Next-Generation Sequencing Reveal Novel Swine Leukocyte Antigen Class I Haplotypes and Alleles in Belgian, Danish, and Kenyan Fattening Pigs and Göttingen Minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Maria Rathmann; Ilsøe, Mette; Strube, Mikael Lenz


    for the prediction of epitope binding in pigs. The low number of known SLA class I alleles and the limited knowledge of their prevalence in different pig breeds emphasizes the need for efficient SLA typing methods. This study utilizes an SLA class I-typing method based on next-generation sequencing of barcoded PCR...

  15. Comparative proteomic analysis of lung tissue from guinea pigs with Leptospiral Pulmonary Haemorrhage Syndrome (LPHS) reveals a decrease in abundance of host proteins involved in cytoskeletal and cellular organization (United States)

    The recent completion of the complete genome sequence of the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) provides innovative opportunities to apply proteomic technologies to an important animal model of disease. In this study, a 2-D guinea pig proteome lung map was used to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms of ...


    Greenawalt, John W.; Rossi, Carlo S.; Lehninger, Albert L.


    Rat liver mitochondria allowed to accumulate maximal amounts of Ca++ and HPO4 = ions from the suspending medium in vitro during respiration have a considerably higher specific gravity than normal mitochondria and may be easily separated from the latter by isopycnic centrifugation in density gradients of sucrose or cesium chloride. When the mitochondria are allowed to accumulate less than maximal amounts of Ca++ and HPO4 = from the medium, they have intermediate specific gravities which are roughly proportional to their content of calcium phosphate. Maximally "loaded" mitochondria are relatively homogeneous with respect to specific gravity. Correlated biochemical and electron microscopic studies show that Ca++-loaded mitochondria contain numerous dense granules, of which some 85 per cent are over 500 A in diameter. These granules are electron-opaque not only following fixation and staining with heavy metal reagents, but also following fixation with formaldehyde, demonstrating that the characteristic granules in Ca++-loaded mitochondria have intrinsic electron-opacity. The dense granules are almost always located within the inner compartment of the mitochondria and not in the space between the inner and outer membranes. They are frequently located at or near the cristae and they often show electron-transparent "cores." Such granules appear to be made up of clusters of smaller dense particles, but preliminary x-ray diffraction analysis and electron diffraction studies have revealed no evidence of crystallinity in the deposits. The electron-opaque granules decrease in number when the Ca++-loaded mitochondria are incubated with 2,4-dinitrophenol; simultaneously there is discharge of Ca++ and phosphate from the mitochondria into the medium. PMID:14228516

  17. Treating pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Mie S.; Svendsen, Mette N.


    This paper explores how animal modelling is negotiated and practised in the field of translational neonatology research in Denmark. Based on ethnography from a biomedical research centre, NEOMUNE, in which veterinary and medical scientists worked on developing a ‘preterm pig brain model’, we...... examine how they strived to balance traditional scientific norms of standardisation against clinical researchers’ requests for clinical care in the modelling practice. We develop the notion of ‘patientising’ to capture how the research piglets are made to model not only the biological consequences...... of prematurity, but also the suffering of the human patient entitled to individual care. Based on this ethnographic fieldwork we argue that the demand for clinical relevance in translational research highlights the animal laboratory as also being a “moral laboratory” (Mattingly, 2014). In seeking to align...

  18. Integrated resource-driven pig production systems in a mountainous area of Northeast India: production practices and pig performance. (United States)

    Kumaresan, A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Pathak, K A; Das, Anubrata; Bardoloi, R K


    Data on pig production system was derived through structured household interviews from a total number of 320 rural households and performance of pigs was assessed. Results revealed that the pig production system represented mixed farming based mainly on the common property resources. Majority of the pigs were reared in intensive system and fed with home made cooked feed (kitchen waste and locally available plants). The body weight of crossbred, Burmese and local pigs were 67, 65.4 and 45.6 kg, respectively at 12 months of age with average daily body weight of 184, 179 and 125 g, respectively. The overall mortality among the pigs was 17.96%. The major causes of mortality in pigs were Swine fever, Swine erysipelas, digestive disorders, nephritis and respiratory disorders. The body weight gain in pigs subjected to deworming and mineral mixture supplementation (218 g/day) was significantly (p pigs, while the corresponding ratio for local pigs was 1:1.2. It is inferred that the smallholder resource driven pig production system is economically viable and sustainable at household level and there is enough scope to improve the smallholder resource driven pig production system.

  19. Mechanisms of communication between mitochondria and lysosomes. (United States)

    Raimundo, Nuno; Fernández-Mosquera, Lorena; Yambire, King Faisal; Diogo, Cátia V


    Mitochondria and lysosomes have long been studied in the context of their classic functions: energy factory and recycle bin, respectively. In the last twenty years, it became evident that these organelles are much more than simple industrial units, and are indeed in charge of many of cellular processes. Both mitochondria and lysosomes are now recognized as far-reaching signaling platforms, regulating many key aspects of cell and tissue physiology. It has furthermore become clear that mitochondria and lysosomes impact each other. The mechanisms underlying the cross-talk between these organelles are only now starting to be addressed. In this review, we briefly summarize how mitochondria, lysosomes and the lysosome-related process of autophagy affect each other in physiology and pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation of Mitochondria from Potato Tubers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jesper F.; Salvato, Fernanda; Chen, Mingjie


    One way to study the function of plant mitochondria is to extract them from plant tissues in an uncontaminated, intact and functional form. The reductionist assumption is that the components present in such a preparation and the in vitro measurable functions or activities reliably reflect...... the in vivo properties of the organelle inside the plant cell. Here, we describe a method to isolate mitochondria from a relatively homogeneous plant tissue, the dormant potato tuber. The homogenization is done using a juice extractor, which is a relatively gentle homogenization procedure where...... the mitochondria are only exposed to strong shearing forces once. After removal of starch and large tissue pieces by filtration, differential centrifugation is used to remove residual starch as well as larger organelles. The crude mitochondria are then first purified by using a step Percoll gradient...

  1. Exogenous ether lipids predominantly target mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kuerschner

    Full Text Available Ether lipids are ubiquitous constituents of cellular membranes with no discrete cell biological function assigned yet. Using fluorescent polyene-ether lipids we analyzed their intracellular distribution in living cells by microscopy. Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum accumulated high amounts of ether-phosphatidylcholine and ether-phosphatidylethanolamine. Both lipids were specifically labeled using the corresponding lyso-ether lipids, which we established as supreme precursors for lipid tagging. Polyfosine, a fluorescent analogue of the anti-neoplastic ether lipid edelfosine, accumulated to mitochondria and induced morphological changes and cellular apoptosis. These data indicate that edelfosine could exert its pro-apoptotic power by targeting and damaging mitochondria and thereby inducing cellular apoptosis. In general, this study implies an important role of mitochondria in ether lipid metabolism and intracellular ether lipid trafficking.

  2. Functional Mitochondria in Health and Disease. (United States)

    Herst, Patries M; Rowe, Matthew R; Carson, Georgia M; Berridge, Michael V


    The ability to rapidly adapt cellular bioenergetic capabilities to meet rapidly changing environmental conditions is mandatory for normal cellular function and for cancer progression. Any loss of this adaptive response has the potential to compromise cellular function and render the cell more susceptible to external stressors such as oxidative stress, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, and hypoxia. Mitochondria play a vital role in bioenergetic and biosynthetic pathways and can rapidly adjust to meet the metabolic needs of the cell. Increased demand is met by mitochondrial biogenesis and fusion of individual mitochondria into dynamic networks, whereas a decrease in demand results in the removal of superfluous mitochondria through fission and mitophagy. Effective communication between nucleus and mitochondria (mito-nuclear cross talk), involving the generation of different mitochondrial stress signals as well as the nuclear stress response pathways to deal with these stressors, maintains bioenergetic homeostasis under most conditions. However, when mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations accumulate and mito-nuclear cross talk falters, mitochondria fail to deliver critical functional outputs. Mutations in mtDNA have been implicated in neuromuscular and neurodegenerative mitochondriopathies and complex diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, skin disorders, aging, and cancer. In some cases, drastic measures such as acquisition of new mitochondria from donor cells occurs to ensure cell survival. This review starts with a brief discussion of the evolutionary origin of mitochondria and summarizes how mutations in mtDNA lead to mitochondriopathies and other degenerative diseases. Mito-nuclear cross talk, including various stress signals generated by mitochondria and corresponding stress response pathways activated by the nucleus are summarized. We also introduce and discuss a small family of recently discovered hormone-like mitopeptides

  3. Functional Mitochondria in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patries M. Herst


    Full Text Available The ability to rapidly adapt cellular bioenergetic capabilities to meet rapidly changing environmental conditions is mandatory for normal cellular function and for cancer progression. Any loss of this adaptive response has the potential to compromise cellular function and render the cell more susceptible to external stressors such as oxidative stress, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, and hypoxia. Mitochondria play a vital role in bioenergetic and biosynthetic pathways and can rapidly adjust to meet the metabolic needs of the cell. Increased demand is met by mitochondrial biogenesis and fusion of individual mitochondria into dynamic networks, whereas a decrease in demand results in the removal of superfluous mitochondria through fission and mitophagy. Effective communication between nucleus and mitochondria (mito-nuclear cross talk, involving the generation of different mitochondrial stress signals as well as the nuclear stress response pathways to deal with these stressors, maintains bioenergetic homeostasis under most conditions. However, when mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations accumulate and mito-nuclear cross talk falters, mitochondria fail to deliver critical functional outputs. Mutations in mtDNA have been implicated in neuromuscular and neurodegenerative mitochondriopathies and complex diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, skin disorders, aging, and cancer. In some cases, drastic measures such as acquisition of new mitochondria from donor cells occurs to ensure cell survival. This review starts with a brief discussion of the evolutionary origin of mitochondria and summarizes how mutations in mtDNA lead to mitochondriopathies and other degenerative diseases. Mito-nuclear cross talk, including various stress signals generated by mitochondria and corresponding stress response pathways activated by the nucleus are summarized. We also introduce and discuss a small family of recently discovered hormone

  4. Role for cER and Mmr1p in anchorage of mitochondria at sites of polarized surface growth in budding yeast. (United States)

    Swayne, Theresa C; Zhou, Chun; Boldogh, Istvan R; Charalel, Joseph K; McFaline-Figueroa, José Ricardo; Thoms, Sven; Yang, Christine; Leung, Galen; McInnes, Joseph; Erdmann, Ralf; Pon, Liza A


    Mitochondria accumulate at neuronal and immunological synapses and yeast bud tips and associate with the ER during phospholipid biosynthesis, calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrial fission. Here we show that mitochondria are associated with cortical ER (cER) sheets underlying the plasma membrane in the bud tip and confirm that a deletion in YPT11, which inhibits cER accumulation in the bud tip, also inhibits bud tip anchorage of mitochondria. Time-lapse imaging reveals that mitochondria are anchored at specific sites in the bud tip. Mmr1p, a member of the DSL1 family of tethering proteins, localizes to punctate structures on opposing surfaces of mitochondria and cER sheets underlying the bud tip and is recovered with isolated mitochondria and ER. Deletion of MMR1 impairs bud tip anchorage of mitochondria without affecting mitochondrial velocity or cER distribution. Deletion of the phosphatase PTC1 results in increased Mmr1p phosphorylation, mislocalization of Mmr1p, defects in association of Mmr1p with mitochondria and ER, and defects in bud tip anchorage of mitochondria. These findings indicate that Mmr1p contributes to mitochondrial inheritance as a mediator of anchorage of mitochondria to cER sheets in the yeast bud tip and that Ptc1p regulates Mmr1p phosphorylation, localization, and function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mitochondria: more than just a powerhouse. (United States)

    McBride, Heidi M; Neuspiel, Margaret; Wasiak, Sylwia


    Pioneering biochemical studies have long forged the concept that the mitochondria are the 'energy powerhouse of the cell'. These studies, combined with the unique evolutionary origin of the mitochondria, led the way to decades of research focusing on the organelle as an essential, yet independent, functional component of the cell. Recently, however, our conceptual view of this isolated organelle has been profoundly altered with the discovery that mitochondria function within an integrated reticulum that is continually remodeled by both fusion and fission events. The identification of a number of proteins that regulate these activities is beginning to provide mechanistic details of mitochondrial membrane remodeling. However, the broader question remains regarding the underlying purpose of mitochondrial dynamics and the translation of these morphological transitions into altered functional output. One hypothesis has been that mitochondrial respiration and metabolism may be spatially and temporally regulated by the architecture and positioning of the organelle. Recent evidence supports and expands this idea by demonstrating that mitochondria are an integral part of multiple cell signaling cascades. Interestingly, proteins such as GTPases, kinases and phosphatases are involved in bi-directional communication between the mitochondrial reticulum and the rest of the cell. These proteins link mitochondrial function and dynamics to the regulation of metabolism, cell-cycle control, development, antiviral responses and cell death. In this review we will highlight the emerging evidence that provides molecular definition to mitochondria as a central platform in the execution of diverse cellular events.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Iman Bouzenita


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Biotechnology has opened a new chapter with the advent of mitochondria transplantation for cell-based therapy. Mitochondrial transplantation was successfully led to birth; however, cytoplasmic transplantation has caused apprehension, since the mixing of human ooplasm from two different maternal sources may generate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA heteroplasmy in the offspring. Islamic legal verdicts on human cloning and somatic cell transfer have been overweighing explicit as to its prohibition, due to the change of creation, mixing of lineage and other evaluations. Is mitochondria transplantation equivalent to human cloning in that genetic information is proliferated and does it, therefore, take the same legal rule? Are there possible benefits (masalih for medical treatment that may render mitochondria transplantation permissible, or are possible harms (mafasid overweighing? Or is it a completely different procedure, taking a different rule? The paper will investigate into these questions and discuss the dimensions of Islamic ethics on the issue.

  7. Redox interplay between mitochondria and peroxisomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celien eLismont


    Full Text Available Reduction-oxidation or ‘redox’ reactions are an integral part of a broad range of cellular processes such as gene expression, energy metabolism, protein import and folding, and autophagy. As many of these processes are intimately linked with cell fate decisions, transient or chronic changes in cellular redox equilibrium are likely to contribute to the initiation and progression of a plethora of human diseases. Since a long time, it is known that mitochondria are major players in redox regulation and signaling. More recently, it has become clear that also peroxisomes have the capacity to impact redox-linked physiological processes. To serve this function, peroxisomes cooperate with other organelles, including mitochondria. This review provides a comprehensive picture of what is currently known about the redox interplay between mitochondria and peroxisomes in mammals. We first outline the pro- and antioxidant systems of both organelles and how they may function as redox signaling nodes. Next, we critically review and discuss emerging evidence that peroxisomes and mitochondria share an intricate redox-sensitive relationship and cooperate in cell fate decisions. Key issues include possible physiological roles, messengers, and mechanisms. We also provide examples of how data mining of publicly-available datasets from ‘omics’ technologies can be a powerful means to gain additional insights into potential redox signaling pathways between peroxisomes and mitochondria. Finally, we highlight the need for more studies that seek to clarify the mechanisms of how mitochondria may act as dynamic receivers, integrators, and transmitters of peroxisome-derived mediators of oxidative stress. The outcome of such studies may open up exciting new avenues for the community of researchers working on cellular responses to organelle-derived oxidative stress, a research field in which the role of peroxisomes is currently highly underestimated and an issue of

  8. The effect of anthralin (dithranol) on mitochondria. (United States)

    Morlière, P; Dubertret, L; Sa e Melo, T; Salet, C; Fosse, M; Santus, R


    The short-term effect of topical application of anthralin (dithranol) on normal human skin was investigated by electron microscopy. Mitochondria appeared markedly damaged. By contrast other cellular structures, particularly the nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes were unchanged. In vitro experiments were therefore performed on isolated rat liver mitochondria and it was shown that anthralin acts as an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. These results suggest that anthralin can inhibit the adenosine triphosphate supply in epidermal cells. This loss of energy supply in keratinocytes could explain, at least in part, the therapeutic efficiency of anthralin in psoriasis.

  9. Mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes allow adaptation of mitochondrial metabolism to glucose availability in the liver. (United States)

    Theurey, Pierre; Tubbs, Emily; Vial, Guillaume; Jacquemetton, Julien; Bendridi, Nadia; Chauvin, Marie-Agnès; Alam, Muhammad Rizwan; Le Romancer, Muriel; Vidal, Hubert; Rieusset, Jennifer


    Mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAM) play a key role in mitochondrial dynamics and function and in hepatic insulin action. Whereas mitochondria are important regulators of energy metabolism, the nutritional regulation of MAM in the liver and its role in the adaptation of mitochondria physiology to nutrient availability are unknown. In this study, we found that the fasted to postprandial transition reduced the number of endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria contact points in mouse liver. Screening of potential hormonal/metabolic signals revealed glucose as the main nutritional regulator of hepatic MAM integrity both in vitro and in vivo Glucose reduced organelle interactions through the pentose phosphate-protein phosphatase 2A (PP-PP2A) pathway, induced mitochondria fission, and impaired respiration. Blocking MAM reduction counteracted glucose-induced mitochondrial alterations. Furthermore, disruption of MAM integrity mimicked effects of glucose on mitochondria dynamics and function. This glucose-sensing system is deficient in the liver of insulin-resistant ob/ob and cyclophilin D-KO mice, both characterized by chronic disruption of MAM integrity, mitochondrial fission, and altered mitochondrial respiration. These data indicate that MAM contribute to the hepatic glucose-sensing system, allowing regulation of mitochondria dynamics and function during nutritional transition. Chronic disruption of MAM may participate in hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction associated with insulin resistance. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Pig model for diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a transgenic pig comprising a mutated IAPP gene and displaying a phenotype associated with diabetes. The invention also relates to a transgenic blastocyst, embryo, fetus, donor cell and/or cell nucleusderived from said transgenic pig. The invention further relates...... to use of the transgenic pig as a model system for studying therapy, treatment and/or prevention of diabetes....

  11. Proteomic analysis indicates that mitochondrial energy metabolism in skeletal muscle tissue is negatively correlated with feed efficiency in pigs (United States)

    Fu, Liangliang; Xu, Yueyuan; Hou, Ye; Qi, Xiaolong; Zhou, Lian; Liu, Huiying; Luan, Yu; Jing, Lu; Miao, Yuanxin; Zhao, Shuhong; Liu, Huazhen; Li, Xinyun


    Feed efficiency (FE) is a highly important economic trait in pig production. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of FE is essential for trait improvement. In this study, the skeletal muscle proteome of high-FE and low-FE pigs were investigated by the iTRAQ approach. A total of 1780 proteins were identified, among which 124 proteins were differentially expressed between the high- and low-FE pigs, with 74 up-regulated and 50 down-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Ten randomly selected differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were validated by Western blotting and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that all the 25 DEPs located in mitochondria were down-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Furthermore, the glucose-pyruvate-tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-oxidative phosphorylation energy metabolism signaling pathway was found to differ between high- and low-FE pigs. The key enzymes involved in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate were up-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Thus, our results suggested mitochondrial energy metabolism in the skeletal muscle tissue was negatively correlated with FE in pigs, and glucose utilization to generate ATP was more efficient in the skeletal muscle tissue of high-FE pigs. This study offered new targets and pathways for improvement of FE in pigs.

  12. Mitochondria in biology and medicine--2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Rasmussen, Lene Juel


    as biomarkers for the diseases and most important, it opens the possibility of a treatment or a cure for a disease. "Mitochondria in Biology and Medicine" was the title of the second annual conference of Society of Mitochondrial Research and Medicine-India. The conference was organized by Rana P. Singh, Keshav...

  13. Toxicity of polyhydroxylated fullerene to mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Li-Yun [State Key Laboratory of Virology & Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (MOE), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Gao, Jia-Ling [Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023 (China); Gao, Tian; Dong, Ping; Ma, Long; Jiang, Feng-Lei [State Key Laboratory of Virology & Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (MOE), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Liu, Yi, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Virology & Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (MOE), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)


    Highlights: • Fullerenol-induced mitochondrial dysfunction was investigated at mitochondrial level. • Fullerenol disturbed mitochondrial inner membrane in polar protein regions. • Fullerenol affected the inner membrane and respiration chain of mitochondria. - Abstract: Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered as a crucial mechanism of nanomaterial toxicity. Herein, we investigated the effects of polyhydroxylated fullerene (C{sub 60}(OH){sub 44}, fullerenol), a model carbon-based nanomaterial with high water solubility, on isolated mitochondria. Our study demonstrated that fullerenol enhanced the permeabilization of mitochondrial inner membrane to H{sup +} and K{sup +} and induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). The fullerenol-induced swelling was dose-dependent and could be effectively inhibited by MPT inhibitors such as cyclosporin A (CsA), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), ruthenium red (RR) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After treating the mitochondria with fullerenol, the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was found collapsed in a concentration-independent manner. The fluorescence anisotropy of hematoporphyrin (HP) changed significantly with the addition of fullerenol, while that of 1,6-diphenyl-hexatriene (DPH) changed slightly. Moreover, a decrease of respiration state 3 and increase of respiration state 4 were observed when mitochondria were energized with complex II substrate succinate. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) provided direct evidence that fullerenol damaged the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The investigations can provide comprehensive information to elucidate the possible toxic mechanism of fullerenols at subcellular level.

  14. Psychological Stress and Mitochondria: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Picard, Martin; McEwen, Bruce S

    Mitochondria are multifunctional life-sustaining organelles that represent a potential intersection point between psychosocial experiences and biological stress responses. This article provides a systematic review of the effects of psychological stress on mitochondrial structure and function. A systematic review of the literature investigating the effects of psychological stress on mitochondrial function was conducted. The review focused on experimentally controlled studies allowing us to draw causal inference about the effect of induced psychological stress on mitochondria. A total of 23 studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies involved male laboratory animals, and most demonstrated that acute and chronic stressors influenced specific facets of mitochondrial function, particularly within the brain. Nineteen studies showed significant adverse effects of psychological stress on mitochondria and four found increases in function or size after stress. In humans, only six observational studies were available, none with experimental designs, and most only measured biological markers that do not directly reflect mitochondrial function, such as mitochondrial DNA copy number. Overall, evidence supports the notion that acute and chronic stressors influence various aspects of mitochondrial biology, and that chronic stress exposure can lead to molecular and functional recalibrations among mitochondria. Limitations of current animal and human studies are discussed. Maladaptive mitochondrial changes that characterize this subcellular state of stress are termed mitochondrial allostatic load. Prospective studies with sensitive measures of specific mitochondrial outcomes will be needed to establish the link between psychosocial stressors, emotional states, the resulting neuroendocrine and immune processes, and mitochondrial energetics relevant to mind-body research in humans.

  15. The Rice Mitochondria Proteome and its Response During Development and to the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobai eHuang


    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is both a major crop species and the key model grass for molecular and physiological research. Mitochondria are important in rice, as in all crops, as the main source of ATP for cell maintenance and growth. However, the practical significance of understanding the function of mitochondria in rice is increased by the widespread farming practice of using hybrids to boost rice production. This relies on cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS lines with abortive pollen caused by dysfunctional mitochondria. We provide an overview of what is known about the mitochondrial proteome of rice seedlings. To date, more than 320 proteins have been identified in purified rice mitochondria using mass spectrometry. The insights from this work include a broad understanding of the major subunits of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and TCA cycle enzymes, carbon and nitrogen metabolism enzymes as well as details of the supporting machinery for biogenesis and the subset of stress-responsive mitochondrial proteins. Many proteins with unknown functions have also been found in rice mitochondria. Proteomic analysis has also revealed the features of rice mitochondrial protein presequences required for mitochondrial targeting, as well as cleavage site features for processing of precursors after import. Changes in the abundance of rice mitochondrial proteins in response to different stresses, especially anoxia and light, are summarized. Future research on quantitative analysis of the rice mitochondrial proteomes at the spatial and developmental level, its response to environmental stresses and recent advances in understanding of basis of rice CMS systems are highlighted.

  16. Dual peptide conjugation strategy for improved cellular uptake and mitochondria targeting. (United States)

    Lin, Ran; Zhang, Pengcheng; Cheetham, Andrew G; Walston, Jeremy; Abadir, Peter; Cui, Honggang


    Mitochondria are critical regulators of cellular function and survival. Delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents into mitochondria is a challenging task in modern pharmacology because the molecule to be delivered needs to first overcome the cell membrane barrier and then be able to actively target the intracellular organelle. Current strategy of conjugating either a cell penetrating peptide (CPP) or a subcellular targeting sequence to the molecule of interest only has limited success. We report here a dual peptide conjugation strategy to achieve effective delivery of a non-membrane-penetrating dye 5-carboxyfluorescein (5-FAM) into mitochondria through the incorporation of both a mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) and a CPP into one conjugated molecule. Notably, circular dichroism studies reveal that the combined use of α-helix and PPII-like secondary structures has an unexpected, synergistic contribution to the internalization of the conjugate. Our results suggest that although the use of positively charged MTS peptide allows for improved targeting of mitochondria, with MTS alone it showed poor cellular uptake. With further covalent linkage of the MTS-5-FAM conjugate to a CPP sequence (R8), the dually conjugated molecule was found to show both improved cellular uptake and effective mitochondria targeting. We believe these results offer important insight into the rational design of peptide conjugates for intracellular delivery.

  17. A survey of the interaction of calcium ions with mitochondria from different tissues and species (United States)

    Carafoli, Ernesto; Lehninger, Albert L.


    A survey was made of the capacity of mitochondria isolated from a number of different tissues and species to accumulate Ca2+ from the suspending medium during electron transport. The species examined included the rat, mouse, rabbit, hamster, guinea pig, cow, chicken, turtle, blowfly, yeast and Neurospora crassa. The tissues examined included vertebrate liver, kidney, brain, heart, spleen, thyroid and adrenal cortex, and the flight muscle of the blowfly. The mitochondria from all vertebrate tissues examined showed: (a) stimulation of State 4 respiration by added Ca2+ (Ca2+/~ activation ratio about 2.0), accompanied by accumulation of Ca2+ and ejection of H+, with a H+/Ca2+ ratio about 1.0; (b) a requirement of phosphate for accumulation of large amounts of Ca2+; (c) respiration-independent high-affinity binding sites for Ca2+; (d) endogenous Ca2+, which is largely released by uncoupling agents. However, mitochondria from yeast and blowfly flight muscle are unable to accumulate Ca2+ in a respiration-dependent process and possess no high-affinity Ca2+-binding sites. These findings support the view that the high-affinity sites represent the ligand-binding sites of a specific Ca2+ `permease' or transport system in the membrane. The relatively high affinity for Ca2+, which equals or exceeds the affinity for ADP, and the generally uniform characteristics of Ca2+ transport in all the vertebrate mitochondria tested strongly suggest that respiration-linked Ca2+ accumulation plays a general and fundamental role in vertebrate cell physiology. PMID:5129264

  18. A non-toxic fluorogenic dye for mitochondria labeling. (United States)

    Han, Junyan; Han, Myung Shin; Tung, Ching-Hsuan


    Mitochondria, powerhouses of cells, are responsible for many critical cellular functions, such as cell energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species production, and apoptosis regulation. Monitoring mitochondria morphology in live cells temporally and spatially could help with the understanding of the mechanisms of mitochondrial functional regulation and the pathogenesis of mitochondria-related diseases. A novel non-cytotoxic fluorogenic compound, AcQCy7, was developed as a mitochondria-specific dye. AcQCy7 emitted no fluorescent signal outside of cells, but it became fluorescent after intracellular hydrolysis of the acetyl group. The hydrolyzed fluorescent product was well retained in mitochondria, enabling long-lasting fluorescence imaging of mitochondria without cell washing. A 2-day culture study using AcQCy7 showed no sign of cytotoxicity, whereas a commonly used mitochondria-staining probe, Mitochondria Tracker Green, caused significant cell death even at a much lower concentration. Apoptosis-causing mitochondria fission was monitored clearly in real time by AcQCy7. A simple add-and-read mitochondria specific dye AcQCy7 has been validated in various cell models. Bright mitochondria specific fluorescent signal in treated cells lasted several days without noticeable toxicity. The probe AcQCy7 has been proofed to be a non-toxic agent for long-term mitochondria imaging. © 2013.

  19. Preparation of intact mitochondria using free-flow isoelectric focusing with post-pH gradient sample injection for morphological, functional and proteomics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yu-Chen; Kong, Fan-Zhi; Fan, Liu-Yin; Wu, Jane Y.; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Li, Jun; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Ying; Wu, Xue-Jing; Xiao, Hua; Cao, Cheng-Xi


    Mitochondria play essential roles in both energy metabolism and cell signaling, which are critical for cell survival. Although significant efforts have been invested in understanding mitochondrial biology, methods for intact mitochondria preparation are technically challenging and remain to be improved. New methods for heterogeneous mitochondria purification will therefore boost our understanding on their physiological and biophysical properties. Herein, we developed a novel recycling free-flow isoelectric focusing (RFFIEF) with post-pH gradient sample injection (post-PGSI) for preparative separation of mitochondria. Crude mitochondria of rabbit liver obtained from differential centrifugation were purified by the developed method according to their pI values as six fractions. Transmission electron microscope images revealed that intact mitochondria existed in two fractions of pH 6.24 and 6.61, degenerative mitochondria were in two fractions of pH 5.46 and 5.72, and inner membrane vesicles (IMVs) appeared in the fractions of pH 4.70 and 5.04. Membrane potential measurement proved a dramatic difference between intact mitochondria and IMVs, which reflected the bioactivity of obtained populations. Particularly, proteomics analyses revealed that more number of proteins were identified in the intact fractions than that of IMVs or crude mitochondria, which demonstrated that RFFIEF could be powerful tool for the preparation of intact organelle as well as their proteomic and in-depth biological analysis. - Highlights: • Mitochondrial subpopulation was successfully separated according to their pIs via the developed RFFIEF method. • The post-PGSI method was introduced for the first time to achieve higher recovery of intact mitochondria. • Quick preparation of mitochondria subpopulation via the developed RFFIEF for both pI determination and downstream research.

  20. Lipid droplets interact with mitochondria using SNAP23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jägerström, Sara; Polesie, Sam; Wickström, Ylva


    peroxisomes and the endoplasmic reticulum. We have used electron and confocal microscopy to demonstrate that LD form complexes with mitochondria in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Using an in vitro system of purified LD and mitochondria, we also show the formation of the LD-mitochondria complex, in which cytosolic...... factors are involved. Moreover, the presence of LD markers in mitochondria isolated by subcellular fractionations is demonstrated. Finally, ablation of SNAP23 using siRNA reduced complex formation and beta oxidation, which suggests that the LD-mitochondria complex is functional in the cell....

  1. Ultrastructure and mitochondrial numbers in pre- and postpubertal pig oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard; Callesen, Henrik; Løvendahl, Peter


    Prepubertal pig oocytes are associated with lower developmental competence. The aim of this experiment was to conduct an exhaustive survey of oocyte ultrastructure and to use a design-unbiased stereological approach to quantify the numerical density and total number of mitochondria in oocytes...... with different diameters from pre- and postpubertal pigs. The ultrastructure of smaller prepubertal immature oocytes indicated active cells in close contact with cumulus cells. The postpubertal oocytes were more quiescent cell types. The small prepubertal oocytes had a lower total mitochondrial number......, but no differences were observed in mitochondrial densities between groups. Mature postpubertal oocytes adhered to the following characteristics: presence of metaphase II, lack of contact between cumulus cells and oocyte, absence of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes, peripheral location of cortical...

  2. Cardiovascular Disease, Mitochondria, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang


    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we show that cardiovascular disease is negatively affected by mutations in mitochondrial DNA and that TCM can be used to treat cardiovascular disease by regulating the structure and function of mitochondria via increases in mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, modulation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and decreases in mitochondrial ROS. However further research is still required to identify the mechanism by which TCM affects CVD and modifies mitochondrial DNA.

  3. Fluoroacetylcarnitine: metabolism and metabolic effects in mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremer, J; Davis, E J


    The metabolism and metabolic effects of fluoroacetylcarnitine have been investigated. Carnitineacetyltransferase transfers the fluoro-acetyl group of fluoroacetylcarnitine nearly as rapidly to CoA as the acetyl group of acetylcarnitine. Fluorocitrate is then formed by citrate synthase, but this second reaction is relatively slow. The fluorocitrate formed intramitochondrially inhibits the metabolism of citrate. In heart and skeletal muscle mitochondria the accumulated citrate inhibits citrate synthesis and the ..beta..-oxidation of fatty acids. Free acetate is formed, presumably because accumulated acetyl-CoA is hydrolyzed. In liver mitochondria the accumulation of citrate leads to a relatively increased rate of ketogenesis. Increased ketogenesis is obtained also upon the addition of citrate to the reaction mixture.

  4. Spatial analysis and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand. (United States)

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Linard, Catherine; Chinson, Pornpiroon; Kasemsuwan, Suwicha; Visser, Marjolein; Gaughan, Andrea E; Epprech, Michael; Robinson, Timothy P; Gilbert, Marius


    In Thailand, pig production intensified significantly during the last decade, with many economic, epidemiological and environmental implications. Strategies toward more sustainable future developments are currently investigated, and these could be informed by a detailed assessment of the main trends in the pig sector, and on how different production systems are geographically distributed. This study had two main objectives. First, we aimed to describe the main trends and geographic patterns of pig production systems in Thailand in terms of pig type (native, breeding, and fattening pigs), farm scales (smallholder and large-scale farming systems) and type of farming systems (farrow-to-finish, nursery, and finishing systems) based on a very detailed 2010 census. Second, we aimed to study the statistical spatial association between these different types of pig farming distribution and a set of spatial variables describing access to feed and markets. Over the last decades, pig population gradually increased, with a continuously increasing number of pigs per holder, suggesting a continuing intensification of the sector. The different pig-production systems showed very contrasted geographical distributions. The spatial distribution of large-scale pig farms corresponds with that of commercial pig breeds, and spatial analysis conducted using Random Forest distribution models indicated that these were concentrated in lowland urban or peri-urban areas, close to means of transportation, facilitating supply to major markets such as provincial capitals and the Bangkok Metropolitan region. Conversely the smallholders were distributed throughout the country, with higher densities located in highland, remote, and rural areas, where they supply local rural markets. A limitation of the study was that pig farming systems were defined from the number of animals per farm, resulting in their possible misclassification, but this should have a limited impact on the main patterns revealed

  5. Response of skeletal muscle mitochondria to hypoxia. (United States)

    Hoppeler, Hans; Vogt, Michael; Weibel, Ewald R; Flück, Martin


    This review explores the current concepts relating the structural and functional modifications of skeletal muscle mitochondria to the molecular mechanisms activated when organisms are exposed to a hypoxic environment. In contrast to earlier assumptions it is now established that permanent or long-term exposure to severe environmental hypoxia decreases the mitochondrial content of muscle fibres. Oxidative muscle metabolism is shifted towards a higher reliance on carbohydrates as a fuel, and intramyocellular lipid substrate stores are reduced. Moreover, in muscle cells of mountaineers returning from the Himalayas, we find accumulations of lipofuscin, believed to be a mitochondrial degradation product. Low mitochondrial contents are also observed in high-altitude natives such as Sherpas. In these subjects high-altitude performance seems to be improved by better coupling between ATP demand and supply pathways as well as better metabolite homeostasis. The hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) has been identified as a master regulator for the expression of genes involved in the hypoxia response, such as genes coding for glucose transporters, glycolytic enzymes and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). HIF-1 achieves this by binding to hypoxia response elements in the promoter regions of these genes, whereby the increase of HIF-1 in hypoxia is the consequence of a reduced degradation of its dominant subunit HIF-1a. A further mechanism that seems implicated in the hypoxia response of muscle mitochondria is related to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria during oxidative phosphorylation. How exactly ROS interfere with HIF-1a as well as MAP kinase and other signalling pathways is debated. The current evidence suggests that mitochondria themselves could be important players in oxygen sensing.

  6. Oxidative damage and aging: spotlight on mitochondria. (United States)

    Linford, Nancy J; Schriner, Samuel E; Rabinovitch, Peter S


    Whereas free radical damage has been proposed as a key component in the tissue degeneration associated with aging, there has been little evidence that free radical damage limits life span in mammals. The current research shows that overexpression of the antioxidant enzyme catalase in mitochondria can extend mouse life span. These results highlight the importance of mitochondrial damage in aging and suggest that when targeted appropriately, boosting antioxidant defenses can increase mammalian life span.

  7. Pyruvate transport by thermogenic-tissue mitochondria.


    Proudlove, M O; Beechey, R B; Moore, A L


    1. Mitochondria isolated from the thermogenic spadices of Arum maculatum and Sauromatum guttatum plants oxidized external NADH, succinate, citrate, malate, 2-oxoglutarate and pyruvate without the need to add exogenous cofactors. 2. Oxidation of substrates was virtually all via the alternative oxidase, the cytochrome pathway constituting only 10-20% of the total activity, depending on the stage of spadix development. 3. During later stages of spadix development, pyruvate oxidation was enhanced...

  8. Regulation of protein phosphorylation in oat mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, C.; Kopeck, K.; Sceppa, E.


    We sought to identify phosphorylated proteins in isolated oat mitocchondria and to characterize the enzymatic and regulatory properties of the protein kinase(s). Mitochondria from oats (Avena sativa L. cv. Garry) were purified on Percoll gradients. Mitochondria were incubated with 32 P-γ-ATP; proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE. A small number of bands was detected on autoradiograms, most prominently at 70 kD and 42 kD; the latter band has been tentatively identified as a subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, a well-known phosphoprotein. The protein kinase(s) could also phosphorylate casein, but not histone. Spermine enhanced the phosphorylation of casein and inhibited the phosphorylation of the 42 kD band. These studies were carried out on both intact and burst mitochondria. Control by calcium and other ions was investigated. The question of the action of regulators on protein kinase or protein phosphatase was studied by the use of 35 S-adenosine thiotriphosphate

  9. Mitochondria in anthropology and forensic medicine. (United States)

    Grzybowski, Tomasz; Rogalla, Urszula


    Mitochondria's role in crucial metabolic pathways is probably the first answer which comes to our minds for the question: what do these tiny organelles serve for? However, specific features of their DNA made them extremely useful also in the field of anthropology and forensics. MtDNA analyses became a milestone in the complex task of unraveling earliest human migrations. Evidence provided by these experiments left no doubts on modern humans origins pointing to Africa being our cradle. It also contributed to interpretation of putative ways of our dispersal around Asia and Americas thousands years ago. On the other hand, analysis of mtDNA is well established and valuable tool in forensic genetics. When other definitely more popular markers give no answer on identity, it is the time to employ information carried by mitochondria. This chapter summarizes not only current reports on the role of mitochondria in forensics and reconstruction of modern humans phylogeny, but also calls one's attention to a broad range of difficulties and constraints associated with mtDNA analyses.

  10. Connecting Mitochondria, Metabolism, and Stem Cell Fate (United States)

    Wanet, Anaïs; Arnould, Thierry; Najimi, Mustapha


    As sites of cellular respiration and energy production, mitochondria play a central role in cell metabolism. Cell differentiation is associated with an increase in mitochondrial content and activity and with a metabolic shift toward increased oxidative phosphorylation activity. The opposite occurs during reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. Studies have provided evidence of mitochondrial and metabolic changes during the differentiation of both embryonic and somatic (or adult) stem cells (SSCs), such as hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and tissue-specific progenitor cells. We thus propose to consider those mitochondrial and metabolic changes as hallmarks of differentiation processes. We review how mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, and function are directly involved in embryonic and SSC differentiation and how metabolic and sensing pathways connect mitochondria and metabolism with cell fate and pluripotency. Understanding the basis of the crosstalk between mitochondria and cell fate is of critical importance, given the promising application of stem cells in regenerative medicine. In addition to the development of novel strategies to improve the in vitro lineage-directed differentiation of stem cells, understanding the molecular basis of this interplay could lead to the identification of novel targets to improve the treatment of degenerative diseases. PMID:26134242

  11. Role of mitochondria in parvovirus pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Nykky

    Full Text Available Proper functioning of the mitochondria is crucial for the survival of the cell. Viruses are able to interfere with mitochondrial functions as they infect the host cell. Parvoviruses are known to induce apoptosis in infected cells, but the role of the mitochondria in parvovirus induced cytopathy is only partially known. Here we demonstrate with confocal and electron microscopy that canine parvovirus (CPV associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane from the onset of infection. During viral entry a transient depolarization of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and increase in ROS level was detected. Subsequently, mitochondrial homeostasis was normalized shortly, as detected by repolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and decrease of ROS. Indeed, activation of cell survival signalling through ERK1/2 cascade was observed early in CPV infected cells. At 12 hours post infection, concurrent with the expression of viral non-structural protein 1, damage to the mitochondrial structure and depolarization of its membrane were apparent. Results of this study provide additional insight of parvovirus pathology and also more general information of virus-mitochondria association.

  12. Mitochondria and the evolutionary roots of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila, Alfonso F; Zamorano, Pedro


    Cancer disease is inherent to, and widespread among, metazoans. Yet, some of the hallmarks of cancer such as uncontrolled cell proliferation, lack of apoptosis, hypoxia, fermentative metabolism and free cell motility (metastasis) are akin to a prokaryotic lifestyle, suggesting a link between cancer disease and evolution. In this hypothesis paper, we propose that cancer cells represent a phenotypic reversion to the earliest stage of eukaryotic evolution. This reversion is triggered by the dysregulation of the mitochondria due to cumulative oxidative damage to mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. As a result, the phenotype of normal, differentiated cells gradually reverts to the phenotype of a facultative anaerobic, heterotrophic cell optimized for survival and proliferation in hypoxic environments. This phenotype matches the phenotype of the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) that resulted from the endosymbiosis between an α-proteobacteria (which later became the mitochondria) and an archaebacteria. As such, the evolution of cancer within one individual can be viewed as a recapitulation of the evolution of the eukaryotic cell from fully differentiated cells to LECA. This evolutionary model of cancer is compatible with the current understanding of the disease, and explains the evolutionary basis for most of the hallmarks of cancer, as well as the link between the disease and aging. It could also open new avenues for treatment directed at reestablishing the synergy between the mitochondria and the cancerous cell. (paper)

  13. Calcium regulates cell death in cancer: Roles of the mitochondria and mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). (United States)

    Danese, Alberto; Patergnani, Simone; Bonora, Massimo; Wieckowski, Mariusz R; Previati, Maurizio; Giorgi, Carlotta; Pinton, Paolo


    Until 1972, the term 'apoptosis' was used to differentiate the programmed cell death that naturally occurs in organismal development from the acute tissue death referred to as necrosis. Many studies on cell death and programmed cell death have been published and most are, at least to some degree, related to cancer. Some key proteins and molecular pathways implicated in cell death have been analyzed, whereas others are still being actively researched; therefore, an increasing number of cellular compartments and organelles are being implicated in cell death and cancer. Here, we discuss the mitochondria and subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that interact with mitochondria, the mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), which have been identified as critical hubs in the regulation of cell death and tumor growth. MAMs-dependent calcium (Ca 2+ ) release from the ER allows selective Ca 2+ uptake by the mitochondria. The perturbation of Ca 2+ homeostasis in cancer cells is correlated with sustained cell proliferation and the inhibition of cell death through the modulation of Ca 2+ signaling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Mitochondria in Cancer, edited by Giuseppe Gasparre, Rodrigue Rossignol and Pierre Sonveaux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Manipulating early pig embryos. (United States)

    Niemann, H; Reichelt, B


    On the basis of established surgical procedures for embryo recovery and transfer, the early pig embryo can be subjected to various manipulations aimed at a long-term preservation of genetic material, the generation of identical multiplets, the early determination of sex or the alteration of the genetic make-up. Most of these procedures are still at an experimental stage and despite recent considerable progress are far from practical application. Normal piglets have been obtained after cryopreservation of pig blastocysts hatched in vitro, whereas all attempts to freeze embryos with intact zona pellucida have been unsuccessful. Pig embryos at the morula and blastocyst stage can be bisected microsurgically and the resulting demi-embryos possess a high developmental potential in vitro, whereas their development in vivo is impaired. Pregnancy rates are similar (80%) but litter size is reduced compared with intact embryos and twinning rate is approximately 2%. Pig blastomeres isolated from embryos up to the 16-cell stage can be grown in culture and result in normal blastocysts. Normal piglets have been born upon transfer of blastocysts derived from isolated eight-cell blastomeres, clearly underlining the totipotency of this developmental stage. Upon nuclear transfer the developmental capacity of reconstituted pig embryos is low and culture. Sex determination can be achieved either by separation of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa by flow cytometry or by analysing the expression of the HY antigen in pig embryos from the eight-cell to morula stage. Microinjection of foreign DNA has been successfully used to alter growth and development of transgenic pigs, and to produce foreign proteins in the mammary gland or in the bloodstream, indicating that pigs can be used as donors for valuable human pharmaceutical proteins. Another promising area of gene transfer is the increase of disease resistance in transgenic lines of pigs. Approximately 30% of pig spermatozoa bind

  15. Genetic design of pigs as experimental models in the combat between chronic diseases and healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolund, Lars


    with and without intervention. The genome of different pig breeds have been sequenced, revealing that the pig is genetically more similar to man than conventional laboratory animals - in agreement with the similarities in organ development, physiology and metabolism. Genetically designed minipigs (Göttingen...... pigs. We can also produce clones of pigs, some disease prone and some fluorescing, to perform experiments in regenerative medicine where the fate of healthy fluorescent cells can be followed in the, basically identical, disease prone animals. It is also our hope that our pig models can contribute...

  16. Abnormal mitochondria in Rett syndrome: one case report. (United States)

    Mak, S C; Chi, C S; Chen, C H; Shian, W J


    A 6-year-9-month-old girl with the characteristic features of Rett syndrome is reported. Clinically, she had microcephaly, psychomotor arrest, deterioration of communication, autistic behaviour, loss of language development, gait apraxia and stereotyped hand washing movement. Amino acid and organic acid analysis were normal. An abnormal rise in serum lactate was noted 120 minutes after oral glucose loading. Muscle biopsy was performed and there was no specific finding noted under light microscope. Electron microscopic evaluation revealed mild accumulation of mitochondria at subsarcolemmal area with abnormal tubular cristae. The cause of Rett syndrome remains obscure. Several articles concerning abnormal mitochondrial morphology or respiratory enzymes have been reported. The exact pathogenesis requires further investigation.

  17. Progressive atrophic rhinitis in a medium-scale pig farm in Kiambu, Kenya : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Wabacha


    Full Text Available Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to muco-purulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intra-muscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15 % lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7. Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were madeat the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.

  18. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization of experimental Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli infection in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian; Boye, Mette


    Two groups of six 8-week-old pigs were challenged with 1X10(9) cfu Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli or Serpulina intermedia daily for 3 consecutive days to study the pathology of porcine colonic spirochetosis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH......; however, only two pigs developed transient watery diarrhea. S. intermedia was reisolated from four of the inoculated pigs, but clinical signs were not observed. Gross examination of the B. pilosicoli-infected pigs revealed dilated large intestines with a hyperemic mucosa, whereas the large intestines...... of the S. intermedia-inoculated pigs and the control pigs appeared normal. SEM examination of B. pilosicoli-infected pigs revealed degenerated epithelial cells and spirochetal colonization of the colonic mucosa in four pigs. By FISH, B. pilosicoli cells were found colonizing and invading the surface...

  19. Association between ROS production, swelling and the respirasome integrity in cardiac mitochondria. (United States)

    Jang, Sehwan; Javadov, Sabzali


    Although mitochondrial Ca 2+ overload and ROS production play a critical role in mitochondria-mediated cell death, a cause-effect relationship between them remains elusive. This study elucidated the crosstalk between mitochondrial swelling, ROS production, and electron transfer chain (ETC) supercomplexes in rat heart mitochondria in response to Ca 2+ and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH), a lipid-soluble organic peroxide. Results showed that ROS production induced by TBH was significantly increased in the presence of Ca 2+ in a dose-dependent manner. TBH markedly inhibited the state 3 respiration rate with no effect on the mitochondrial swelling. Ca 2+ exerted a slight effect on mitochondrial respiration that was greatly aggravated by TBH. Analysis of supercomplexes revealed a minor difference in the presence of TBH and/or Ca 2+ . However, incubation of mitochondria in the presence of high Ca 2+ (1 mM) or inhibitors of ETC complexes (rotenone and antimycin A) induced disintegration of the main supercomplex, respirasome. Thus, PTP-dependent swelling of mitochondria solely depends on Ca 2+ but not ROS. TBH has no effect on the respirasome while Ca 2+ induces disintegration of the supercomplex only at a high concentration. Intactness of individual ETC complexes I and III is important for maintenance of the structural integrity of the respirasome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Triage of oxidation-prone proteins by Sqstm1/p62 within the mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minjung [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine and Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Suwon-Si, Kyonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jaekyoon, E-mail: [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine and Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Suwon-Si, Kyonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: {yields} The mitochondrion contains its own protein quality control system. {yields} p62 localizes within the mitochondria and forms mega-dalton sized complexes. {yields} p62 interacts with oxidation-prone proteins and the proteins of quality control. {yields} In vitro delivery of p62 improves mitochondrial functions. {yields} p62 is implicated as a participant in mitochondrial protein quality control. -- Abstract: As the mitochondrion is vulnerable to oxidative stress, cells have evolved several strategies to maintain mitochondrial integrity, including mitochondrial protein quality control mechanisms and autophagic removal of damaged mitochondria. Involvement of an autophagy adaptor, Sqstm1/p62, in the latter process has been recently described. In the present study, we provide evidence that a portion of p62 directly localizes within the mitochondria and supports stable electron transport by forming heterogeneous protein complexes. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) of mitochondrial proteins co-purified with p62 revealed that p62 interacts with several oxidation-prone proteins, including a few components of the electron transport chain complexes, as well as multiple chaperone molecules and redox regulatory enzymes. Accordingly, p62-deficient mitochondria exhibited compromised electron transport, and the compromised function was partially restored by in vitro delivery of p62. These results suggest that p62 plays an additional role in maintaining mitochondrial integrity at the vicinity of target machineries through its function in relation to protein quality control.

  1. The Activity of Menkes Disease Protein ATP7A Is Essential for Redox Balance in Mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Ashima; Yang, Haojun; Duffy, Megan; Robinson, Emily; Conrad-Antoville, Arianrhod; Lu, Ya-Wen; Capps, Tony; Braiterman, Lelita; Wolfgang, Michael; Murphy, Michael P.; Yi, Ling; Kaler, Stephen G.; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Ralle, Martina


    Copper-transporting ATPase ATP7A is essential for mammalian copper homeostasis. Loss of ATP7A activity is associated with fatal Menkes disease and various other pathologies. In cells, ATP7A inactivation disrupts copper transport from the cytosol into the secretory pathway. Using fibroblasts from Menkes disease patients and mouse 3T3-L1 cells with a CRISPR/Cas9-inactivated ATP7A, we demonstrate that ATP7A dysfunction is also damaging to mitochondrial redox balance. In these cells, copper accumulates in nuclei, cytosol, and mitochondria, causing distinct changes in their redox environment. Quantitative imaging of live cells using GRX1-roGFP2 and HyPer sensors reveals highest glutathione oxidation and elevation of H2O2 in mitochondria, whereas the redox environment of nuclei and the cytosol is much less affected. Decreasing the H2O2 levels in mitochondria with MitoQ does not prevent glutathione oxidation; i.e. elevated copper and not H2O2 is a primary cause of glutathione oxidation. Redox misbalance does not significantly affect mitochondrion morphology or the activity of respiratory complex IV but markedly increases cell sensitivity to even mild glutathione depletion, resulting in loss of cell viability. Thus, ATP7A activity protects mitochondria from excessive copper entry, which is deleterious to redox buffers. Mitochondrial redox misbalance could significantly contribute to pathologies associated with ATP7A inactivation in tissues with paradoxical accumulation of copper (i.e. renal epithelia).

  2. Citrate and succinate uptake by potato mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, D.W.; Laties, G.G.


    Potato mitochondria, in the absence of respiration, have a very low capacity for uptake by exchange with endogenous anions, taking up only 2.4 nanomoles citrate and 2.0 nanomoles succinate per milligram protein. Maximum citrate uptake of over 17 nanomoles per milligram protein occurs in the presence of inorganic phosphate, a dicarboxylic acid, and an external energy source (NADH), conditions where net anion accumulation proceeds, mediated by the interlinking of the inorganic phosphate, dicarboxylate, and tricarboxylate carriers. Maximum succinate uptake in the absence of respiratory inhibitors requires only added inorganic phosphate. Compounds which inhibit respiration (antimycin), the exchange carriers (mersalyl and benzylmalonate), or the establishment of the membrane proton motive force (uncouplers) reduce substrate accumulation. A potent inhibitor of the citrate carrier in animal mitochondria, 1,2,3-benzenetricarboxylic acid, does not inhibit citrate uptake in potato mitochondria. Citrate uptake is reduced by concurrent ADP phosphorylation and this reduction is sensitive to oligomycin. The initiation of state 3 after a 3-minute substrate state results in a reduction of the steady-state of citrate uptake by approximately 50%. Accumulation of succinate initially is inhibited by increasing sucrose concentration in the reaction medium from 50 to 400 millimolar. Limited substrate uptake is one of the factors responsible for the often observed depressed initial state 3 respiration rates in many mitochondrial preparations. Since nonlimiting levels of substrate in the matrix cannot be attained by energy-independent exchange, a dependence on respiration for adequate uptake results. Substrate limitation therefore occurs in the matrix for the period of time needed for energy-dependent accumulation of nonlimiting levels

  3. BioMEMS for mitochondria medicine (United States)

    Padmaraj, Divya

    A BioMEMS device to study cell-mitochondrial physiological functionalities was developed. The pathogenesis of many diseases including obesity, diabetes and heart failure as well as aging has been linked to functional defects of mitochondria. The synthesis of Adenosine Tri Phosphate (ATP) is determined by the electrical potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane and by the pH difference due to proton flux across it. Therefore, electrical characterization by E-fields with complementary chemical testing was used here. The BioMEMS device was fabricated as an SU-8 based microfluidic system with gold electrodes on SiO2/Si wafers for electromagnetic interrogation. Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistors (ISFETs) were incorporated for proton studies important in the electron transport chain, together with monitoring Na+, K+ and Ca++ ions for ion channel studies. ISFETs are chemically sensitive Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) devices and their threshold voltage is directly proportional to the electrolytic H+ ion variation. These ISFETs (sensitivity ˜55 mV/pH for H+) were further realized as specific ion sensitive Chemical Field Effect Transistors (CHEMFETs) by depositing a specific ion sensitive membrane on the gate. Electrodes for dielectric spectroscopy studies of mitochondria were designed as 2- and 4-probe structures for optimized operation over a wide frequency range. In addition, to limit polarization effects, a 4-electrode set-up with unique meshed pickup electrodes (7.5x7.5 mum2 loops with 4 mum wires) was fabricated. Sensitivity of impedance spectroscopy to membrane potential changes was confirmed by studying the influence of uncouplers and glucose on mitochondria. An electrical model was developed for the mitochondrial sample, and its frequency response correlated with impedance spectroscopy experiments of sarcolemmal mitochondria. Using the mesh electrode structure, we obtained a reduction of 83.28% in impedance at 200 Hz. COMSOL

  4. Localization of mitochondria in living cells with rhodamine 123. (United States)

    Johnson, L V; Walsh, M L; Chen, L B


    The laser dye rhodamine 123 is shown to be a specific probe for the localization of mitochondria in living cells. By virtue of its selectivity for mitochondria and its fluorescent properties, the detectability of mitochondria stained with rhodamine 123 is significantly improved over that provided by conventional light microscopic techniques. With the use of rhodamine 123, it is possible to detect alterations in mitochondrial distribution following transformation by Rous sarcoma virus and changes in the shape and organization of mitochondria induced by colchicine treatment. Images PMID:6965798

  5. Intra- and Intercellular Quality Control Mechanisms of Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimitsu Kiriyama


    Full Text Available Mitochondria function to generate ATP and also play important roles in cellular homeostasis, signaling, apoptosis, autophagy, and metabolism. The loss of mitochondrial function results in cell death and various types of diseases. Therefore, quality control of mitochondria via intra- and intercellular pathways is crucial. Intracellular quality control consists of biogenesis, fusion and fission, and degradation of mitochondria in the cell, whereas intercellular quality control involves tunneling nanotubes and extracellular vesicles. In this review, we outline the current knowledge on the intra- and intercellular quality control mechanisms of mitochondria.

  6. Mitochondria Targeting with Luminescent Rhenium(I) Complexes. (United States)

    Skiba, Joanna; Bernaś, Tytus; Trzybiński, Damian; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Ferraro, Giarita; Marasco, Daniela; Merlino, Antonello; Shafikov, Marsel Z; Czerwieniec, Rafał; Kowalski, Konrad


    Two new neutral fac -[Re(CO)₃(phen)L] compounds ( 1 , 2 ), with phen = 1,10-phenanthroline and L = O₂C(CH₂)₅CH₃ or O₂C(CH₂)₄C≡CH, were synthetized in one-pot procedures from fac -[Re(CO)₃(phen)Cl] and the corresponding carboxylic acids, and were fully characterized by IR and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, ¹H- and 13 C-NMR, mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. The compounds, which display orange luminescence, were used as probes for living cancer HeLa cell staining. Confocal microscopy revealed accumulation of both dyes in mitochondria. To investigate the mechanism of mitochondrial staining, a new non-emissive compound, fac -[Re(CO)₃(phen)L], with L = O₂C(CH₂)₃((C₅H₅)Fe(C₅H₄), i.e., containing a ferrocenyl moiety, was synthetized and characterized ( 3 ). 3 shows the same mitochondrial accumulation pattern as 1 and 2 . Emission of 3 can only be possible when ferrocene-containing ligand dissociates from the metal center to produce a species containing the luminescent fac -[Re(CO)₃(phen)]⁺ core. The release of ligands from the Re center was verified in vitro through the conjugation with model proteins. These findings suggest that the mitochondria accumulation of compounds 1 - 3 is due to the formation of luminescent fac -[Re(CO)₃(phen)]⁺ products, which react with cellular matrix molecules giving secondary products and are uptaken into the negatively charged mitochondrial membranes. Thus, reported compounds feature a rare dissociation-driven mechanism of action with great potential for biological applications.

  7. Mitochondria Targeting with Luminescent Rhenium(I Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Skiba


    Full Text Available Two new neutral fac-[Re(CO3(phenL] compounds (1,2, with phen = 1,10-phenanthroline and L = O2C(CH25CH3 or O2C(CH24C≡CH, were synthetized in one-pot procedures from fac-[Re(CO3(phenCl] and the corresponding carboxylic acids, and were fully characterized by IR and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, 1H- and 13C-NMR, mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. The compounds, which display orange luminescence, were used as probes for living cancer HeLa cell staining. Confocal microscopy revealed accumulation of both dyes in mitochondria. To investigate the mechanism of mitochondrial staining, a new non-emissive compound, fac-[Re(CO3(phenL], with L = O2C(CH23((C5H5Fe(C5H4, i.e., containing a ferrocenyl moiety, was synthetized and characterized (3. 3 shows the same mitochondrial accumulation pattern as 1 and 2. Emission of 3 can only be possible when ferrocene-containing ligand dissociates from the metal center to produce a species containing the luminescent fac­[Re(CO3(phen]+ core. The release of ligands from the Re center was verified in vitro through the conjugation with model proteins. These findings suggest that the mitochondria accumulation of compounds 1–3 is due to the formation of luminescent fac-[Re(CO3(phen]+ products, which react with cellular matrix molecules giving secondary products and are uptaken into the negatively charged mitochondrial membranes. Thus, reported compounds feature a rare dissociation-driven mechanism of action with great potential for biological applications.

  8. Direct and indirect transmission of four Salmonella enterica serotypes in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Österberg Julia


    was low in all groups and no obvious differences between feed-associated and pig-associated serotypes in the transmission to naïve pigs and their subsequent faecal shedding were revealed. However, the post mortem results indicated a higher detection of S Typhimurium in the ileocecal lymph nodes of pigs introduced into a contaminated environment in comparison with the other three serotypes.

  9. Mitochondria: Target organelles for estrogen action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Chmielewska


    Full Text Available Estrogens belong to a group of sex hormones, which have been shown to act in multidirectional way. Estrogenic effects are mediated by two types of intracellular receptors: estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1 and estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2. There are two basic mechanisms of estrogen action: 1 classical-genomic, in which the ligand-receptor complex acts as a transcriptional factor and 2 a nongenomic one, which is still not fully understood, but has been seen to lead to distinct biological effects, depending on tissue and ligand type. It is postulated that nongenomic effects may be associated with membrane signaling and the presence of classical nuclear receptors within the cell membrane. Estrogens act in a multidirectional way also within cell organelles. It is assumed that there is a mechanism which manages the migration of ESR into the mitochondrial membrane, wherein the exogenous estrogen affect the morphology of mitochondria. Estrogen, through its receptor, can directly modulate mitochondrial gene expression. Moreover, by regulating the level of reactive oxygen species, estrogens affect the biology of mitochondria. The considerations presented in this paper indicate the pleiotropic effects of estrogens, which represent a multidirectional pathway of signal transduction.

  10. Influence of varying diets on radiosensitivity of quinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darenskaya, N.G.; Kuznetsova, S.S.; Lebengarts, Ya.Z.


    Seven groups of 25-day-old Guinea pig males given different diets during the entire observation period. Six groups received full-ration granulated mixed food varying in the contents of protein and cellulose, while the seventh group ate natural food. Experiments with irradiation failed to reveal any essential differences in radiosensitivity of animals grown on natural and mixed food, which enabled us to propose full-ration granulated mixed food for feeding laboratory guinea pigs

  11. Influence of varying diets on radiosensitivity of quinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darenskaya, N G; Kuznetsova, S S; Lebengarts, Ya Z


    Seven groups of 25-day-old Guinea pig males given different diets during the entire observation period. Six groups received full-ration granulated mixed food varying in the contents of protein and cellulose, while the seventh group ate natural food. Experiments with irradiation failed to reveal any essential differences in radiosensitivity of animals grown on natural and mixed food, which enabled us to propose full-ration granulated mixed food for feeding laboratory guinea pigs.

  12. Bioenergetic and antiapoptotic properties of mitochondria from cultured human prostate cancer cell lines PC-3, DU145 and LNCaP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Panov

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to reveal the metabolic features of mitochondria that might be essential for inhibition of apoptotic potential in prostate cancer cells. We studied mitochondria isolated from normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC, metastatic prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, PC-3, DU145; and non-prostate cancer cells - human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells; and normal human lymphoblastoid cells. PrEC cells contained 2 to 4 times less mitochondria per gram of cells than the three PC cell lines. Respiratory activities of PrEC cell mitochondria were 5-20-fold lower than PC mitochondria, depending on substrates and the metabolic state, due to lower content and lower activity of the respiratory enzyme complexes. Mitochondria from the three metastatic prostate cancer cell lines revealed several features that are distinctive only to these cells: low affinity of Complex I for NADH, 20-30 mV higher electrical membrane potential (ΔΨ. Unprotected with cyclosporine A (CsA the PC-3 mitochondria required 4 times more Ca²⁺ to open the permeability transition pore (mPTP when compared with the PrEC mitochondria, and they did not undergo swelling even in the presence of alamethicin, a large pore forming antibiotic. In the presence of CsA, the PC-3 mitochondria did not open spontaneously the mPTP. We conclude that the low apoptotic potential of the metastatic PC cells may arise from inhibition of the Ca²⁺-dependent permeability transition due to a very high ΔΨ and higher capacity to sequester Ca²⁺. We suggest that due to the high ΔΨ, mitochondrial metabolism of the metastatic prostate cancer cells is predominantly based on utilization of glutamate and glutamine, which may promote development of cachexia.

  13. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn


    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  14. Pipeline pig or swipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, H J


    A pig or swipe is used for cleaning piplines and for maintaining fluids separated while being transmitted through the line. It is adapted to be propelled through the line by a pressure gradient therein. The pig includes a sponge-like body of foamed plastic material, having an external coating or cover of durable material, such as unfoamed plastic in which reenforcing material, such a wire mesh or glass fabric may be embedded to increase resistance to tearing and wear. The covering is applied to leave openings through which the sponge-like body may project into wiping contact with the surrounding internal surface of the pipe when a longitudinal compressive force is exerted on the pig by the fluid in the pipe in advance of and following the pig therein. The pig also has a barrier layer at one end positioned to close the sponge-like body against the passage of fluid there through and to form a fluid-tight seal with the surrounding pipe. (3 claims)

  15. Cannabinoid-Induced Changes in the Activity of Electron Transport Chain Complexes of Brain Mitochondria. (United States)

    Singh, Namrata; Hroudová, Jana; Fišar, Zdeněk


    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the activity of individual mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (I, II/III, IV) and citrate synthase induced by pharmacologically different cannabinoids. In vitro effects of selected cannabinoids on mitochondrial enzymes were measured in crude mitochondrial fraction isolated from pig brain. Both cannabinoid receptor agonists, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, anandamide, and R-(+)-WIN55,212-2, and antagonist/inverse agonists of cannabinoid receptors, AM251, and cannabidiol were examined in pig brain mitochondria. Different effects of these cannabinoids on mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and citrate synthase were found. Citrate synthase activity was decreased only by Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and AM251. Significant increase in the complex I activity was induced by anandamide. At micromolar concentration, all the tested cannabinoids inhibited the activity of electron transport chain complexes II/III and IV. Stimulatory effect of anandamide on activity of complex I may participate on distinct physiological effects of endocannabinoids compared to phytocannabinoids or synthetic cannabinoids. Common inhibitory effect of cannabinoids on activity of complex II/III and IV confirmed a non-receptor-mediated mechanism of cannabinoid action on individual components of system of oxidative phosphorylation.

  16. Disruption of Mitochondria-Associated Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane (MAM) Integrity Contributes to Muscle Insulin Resistance in Mice and Humans. (United States)

    Tubbs, Emily; Chanon, Stéphanie; Robert, Maud; Bendridi, Nadia; Bidaux, Gabriel; Chauvin, Marie-Agnès; Ji-Cao, Jingwei; Durand, Christine; Gauvrit-Ramette, Daphné; Vidal, Hubert; Lefai, Etienne; Rieusset, Jennifer


    Modifications of the interactions between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, defined as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), were recently shown to be involved in the control of hepatic insulin action and glucose homeostasis, but with conflicting results. Whereas skeletal muscle is the primary site of insulin-mediated glucose uptake and the main target for alterations in insulin-resistant states, the relevance of MAM integrity in muscle insulin resistance is unknown. Deciphering the importance of MAMs on muscle insulin signaling could help to clarify this controversy. Here, we show in skeletal muscle of different mice models of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) a marked disruption of ER-mitochondria interactions as an early event preceding mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Furthermore, in human myotubes, palmitate-induced insulin resistance is associated with a reduction of structural and functional ER-mitochondria interactions. Importantly, experimental increase of ER-mitochondria contacts in human myotubes prevents palmitate-induced alterations of insulin signaling and action, whereas disruption of MAM integrity alters the action of the hormone. Lastly, we found an association between altered insulin signaling and ER-mitochondria interactions in human myotubes from obese subjects with or without T2D compared with healthy lean subjects. Collectively, our data reveal a new role of MAM integrity in insulin action of skeletal muscle and highlight MAM disruption as an essential subcellular alteration associated with muscle insulin resistance in mice and humans. Therefore, reduced ER-mitochondria coupling could be a common alteration of several insulin-sensitive tissues playing a key role in altered glucose homeostasis in the context of obesity and T2D. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  17. Endurance training increases the efficiency of rat skeletal muscle mitochondria. (United States)

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Koziel, Agnieszka; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej; Celichowski, Jan; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa


    Endurance training enhances mitochondrial oxidative capacity, but its effect on mitochondria functioning is poorly understood. In the present study, the influence of an 8-week endurance training on the bioenergetic functioning of rat skeletal muscle mitochondria under different assay temperatures (25, 35, and 42 °C) was investigated. The study was performed on 24 adult 4-month-old male Wistar rats, which were randomly assigned to either a treadmill training group (n = 12) or a sedentary control group (n = 12). In skeletal muscles, endurance training stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity. In isolated mitochondria, endurance training increased the phosphorylation rate and elevated levels of coenzyme Q. Moreover, a decrease in mitochondrial uncoupling, including uncoupling protein-mediated proton leak, was observed after training, which could explain the increased reactive oxygen species production (in nonphosphorylating mitochondria) and enhanced oxidative phosphorylation efficiency. At all studied temperatures, endurance training significantly augmented H2O2 production (and coenzyme Q reduction level) in nonphosphorylating mitochondria and decreased H2O2 production (and coenzyme Q reduction level) in phosphorylating mitochondria. Endurance training magnified the hyperthermia-induced increase in oxidative capacity and attenuated the hyperthermia-induced decline in oxidative phosphorylation efficiency and reactive oxygen species formation of nonphosphorylating mitochondria via proton leak enhancement. Thus, endurance training induces both quantitative and qualitative changes in muscle mitochondria that are important for cell signaling as well as for maintaining muscle energy homeostasis, especially at high temperatures.

  18. Transport of N-acetylglutamate in rat-liver mitochondria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A. J.; van Woerkom, G. M.; Wanders, R. J.; Lof, C.


    The permeability properties of the rat-liver mitochondrial membrane for N-acetylglutamate, the activator of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (ammonia), were studied. 1. Transport of N-acetylglutamate into the mitochondria was only observed in partially or fully de-energized mitochondria and when the

  19. Functional characterization of mitochondria in neutrophils: a role restricted to apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maianski, N. A.; Geissler, J.; Srinivasula, S. M.; Alnemri, E. S.; Roos, D.; Kuijpers, T. W.


    Mitochondria are known to combine life-supporting functions with participation in apoptosis by controlling caspase activity. Here, we report that in human blood neutrophils the mitochondria are different, because they preserve mainly death-mediating abilities. Neutrophil mitochondria hardly

  20. Electronic microscopy evidence for mitochondria as targets for Cd/Se/Te-based quantum dot 705 toxicity in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hua Lin


    Full Text Available The safety of quantum dots (QDs 705 was evaluated in this study. Mice were treated with QD705 (intravenous at a single dose of (40 pmol for 4, 12, 16, and 24 weeks. Effects of QD705 on kidneys were examined. While there was a lack of histopathology, reduction in renal functions was detected at 16 weeks. Electron microscopic examination revealed alterations in proximal convoluted tubule (PCT cell mitochondria at even much earlier time, including disorientation and reduction of mitochondrial number (early change, mitochondrial swelling, and later compensatory mitochondrial hypertrophy (enlargement mitochondria: giant mitochondria with hyperplastic inner cristae as well as mitochondrial hyperplasia (increase in mitochondrial biogenesis and numbers were observed. Such changes probably represent compensatory attempts of the mitochondria for functional loss or reduction of mitochondria in QD705 treated animals. Moreover, degeneration of mitochondria (myelin-figure and cytoplasmic membranous body formation and degradation of cytoplasmic materials (isolated cytoplasmic pockets of degenerated materials and focal cytoplasmic degradation also occurred in later time points (16–24 weeks. Such mitochondrial changes were not identical with those induced by pure cadmium. Taken together, we suggest that mitochondria appeared to be the target of QD705 toxicity and specific mitochondrial markers may be useful parameters for toxicity assessments of QDs or other metal-based nanomaterials.

  1. Pig design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pasupuleti, Pradeep


    Pig makes Hadoop programming simple, intuitive, and fun to work with. It removes the complexity from Map Reduce programming by giving the programmer immense power through its flexibility. What used to be extremely lengthy and intricate code written in other high level languages can now be written in almost one tenth of the size using its easy to understand constructs. Pig has proven to be the easiest way to learn how to program Hadoop clusters, as evidenced by its widespread adoption. This comprehensive guide enables readers to readily use design patterns to simplify the creation of complex da

  2. Arsenate uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in isolated plant mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickes, W A; Wiskich, J T


    The uncoupling by arsenate of beetroot and cauliflower bud mitochondria showed the following characteristics: arsenate stimulation of respiration above the rate found with phosphate; inhibition of arsenate-stimulated respiration by phosphate; enhancement of arsenate-stimulated respiration by ADP; only partial prevention of this ADP-enhanced respiration by atractyloside; inhibition by oligomycin of the arsenate-stimulated respiration back to the phosphate rate; and the absence of any stimulatory effect of ADP in the presence of oligomycin. These results are qualitatively analogous to those reported for arsenate uncoupling in rat liver mitochondria. Arsenate stimulated malate oxidation, presumably by stimulating malate entry, in both beetroot and cauliflower bud mitochondria; however, high rates of oxidation, and presumably entry, were only sustained with arsenate in beetroot mitochondria. NADH was oxidized rapidly in cauliflower bud mitochondria in the presence of arsenate, showing that arsenate did not inhibit electron transfer processes.

  3. The sequence and analysis of a Chinese pig genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xiaodong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pig is an economically important food source, amounting to approximately 40% of all meat consumed worldwide. Pigs also serve as an important model organism because of their similarity to humans at the anatomical, physiological and genetic level, making them very useful for studying a variety of human diseases. A pig strain of particular interest is the miniature pig, specifically the Wuzhishan pig (WZSP, as it has been extensively inbred. Its high level of homozygosity offers increased ease for selective breeding for specific traits and a more straightforward understanding of the genetic changes that underlie its biological characteristics. WZSP also serves as a promising means for applications in surgery, tissue engineering, and xenotransplantation. Here, we report the sequencing and analysis of an inbreeding WZSP genome. Results Our results reveal some unique genomic features, including a relatively high level of homozygosity in the diploid genome, an unusual distribution of heterozygosity, an over-representation of tRNA-derived transposable elements, a small amount of porcine endogenous retrovirus, and a lack of type C retroviruses. In addition, we carried out systematic research on gene evolution, together with a detailed investigation of the counterparts of human drug target genes. Conclusion Our results provide the opportunity to more clearly define the genomic character of pig, which could enhance our ability to create more useful pig models.

  4. Nitric oxide and mitochondria in metabolic syndrome (United States)

    Litvinova, Larisa; Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Fattakhov, Nikolai; Vasilenko, Mariia; Zatolokin, Pavel; Kirienkova, Elena


    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders that collectively increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a crucial role in the pathogeneses of MS components and is involved in different mitochondrial signaling pathways that control respiration and apoptosis. The present review summarizes the recent information regarding the interrelations of mitochondria and NO in MS. Changes in the activities of different NO synthase isoforms lead to the formation of metabolic disorders and therefore are highlighted here. Reduced endothelial NOS activity and NO bioavailability, as the main factors underlying the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in MS, are discussed in this review in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. We also focus on potential therapeutic strategies involving NO signaling pathways that can be used to treat patients with metabolic disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The article may help researchers develop new approaches for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of MS. PMID:25741283

  5. Mitochondria in cancer: not just innocent bystanders. (United States)

    Frezza, Christian; Gottlieb, Eyal


    The first half of the 20th century produced substantial breakthroughs in bioenergetics and mitochondria research. During that time, Otto Warburg observed abnormally high glycolysis and lactate production in oxygenated cancer cells, leading him to suggest that defects in mitochondrial functions are at the heart of malignant cell transformation. Warburg's hypothesis profoundly influenced the present perception of cancer metabolism, positioning what is termed aerobic glycolysis in the mainstream of clinical oncology. While some of his ideas stood the test of time, they also frequently generated misconceptions regarding the biochemical mechanisms of cell transformation. This review examines experimental evidence which supports or refutes the Warburg effect and discusses the possible advantages conferred on cancer cells by 'metabolic transformation'.

  6. Apoptosis in Drosophila: which role for mitochondria? (United States)

    Clavier, Amandine; Rincheval-Arnold, Aurore; Colin, Jessie; Mignotte, Bernard; Guénal, Isabelle


    It is now well established that the mitochondrion is a central regulator of mammalian cell apoptosis. However, the importance of this organelle in non-mammalian apoptosis has long been regarded as minor, mainly because of the absence of a crucial role for cytochrome c in caspase activation. Recent results indicate that the control of caspase activation and cell death in Drosophila occurs at the mitochondrial level. Numerous proteins, including RHG proteins and proteins of the Bcl-2 family that are key regulators of Drosophila apoptosis, constitutively or transiently localize in mitochondria. These proteins participate in the cell death process at different levels such as degradation of Diap1, a Drosophila IAP, production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species or stimulation of the mitochondrial fission machinery. Here, we review these mitochondrial events that might have their counterpart in human.

  7. Mitochondria, cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Mancuso, M; Calsolaro, V; Orsucci, D; Carlesi, C; Choub, A; Piazza, S; Siciliano, G


    To date, the beta amyloid (Abeta) cascade hypothesis remains the main pathogenetic model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its role in the majority of sporadic AD cases is unclear. The "mitochondrial cascade hypothesis" could explain many of the biochemical, genetic, and pathological features of sporadic AD. Somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) could cause energy failure, increased oxidative stress, and accumulation of Abeta, which in a vicious cycle reinforce the mtDNA damage and the oxidative stress. Despite the evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in AD, no causative mutations in the mtDNA have been detected so far. Indeed, results of studies on the role of mtDNA haplogroups in AD are controversial. In this review we discuss the role of the mitochondria, and especially of the mtDNA, in the cascade of events leading to neurodegeneration, dementia, and AD.

  8. Melatonin, mitochondria, and the metabolic syndrome. (United States)

    Cardinali, Daniel P; Vigo, Daniel E


    A number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease including hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, obesity, and elevated blood pressure are collectively known as metabolic syndrome (MS). Since mitochondrial activity is modulated by the availability of energy in cells, the disruption of key regulators of metabolism in MS not only affects the activity of mitochondria but also their dynamics and turnover. Therefore, a link of MS with mitochondrial dysfunction has been suspected since long. As a chronobiotic/cytoprotective agent, melatonin has a special place in prevention and treatment of MS. Melatonin levels are reduced in diseases associated with insulin resistance like MS. Melatonin improves sleep efficiency and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, partly for its role as a metabolic regulator and mitochondrial protector. We discuss in the present review the several cytoprotective melatonin actions that attenuate inflammatory responses in MS. The clinical data that support the potential therapeutical value of melatonin in human MS are reviewed.

  9. Disruption of the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) plays a central role in palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance. (United States)

    Shinjo, Satoko; Jiang, Shuying; Nameta, Masaaki; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kanai, Mai; Nomura, Yuta; Goda, Nobuhito


    The mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) is a specialized subdomain of ER that physically connects with mitochondria. Although disruption of inter-organellar crosstalk via the MAM impairs cellular homeostasis, its pathological significance in insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus remains unclear. Here, we reveal the importance of reduced MAM formation in the induction of fatty acid-evoked insulin resistance in hepatocytes. Palmitic acid (PA) repressed insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in HepG2 cells within 12h. Treatment with an inhibitor of the ER stress response failed to restore PA-mediated suppression of Akt activation. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production did not increase in PA-treated cells. Even short-term exposure (3h) to PA reduced the calcium flux from ER to mitochondria, followed by a significant decrease in MAM contact area, suggesting that PA suppressed the functional interaction between ER and mitochondria. Forced expression of mitofusin-2, a critical component of the MAM, partially restored MAM contact area and ameliorated the PA-elicited suppression of insulin sensitivity with Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt selectively improved. These results suggest that loss of proximity between ER and mitochondria, but not perturbation of homeostasis in the two organelles individually, plays crucial roles in PA-evoked Akt inactivation in hepatic insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Commonly Used Pesticides in China on the Mitochondria and Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Chen


    Full Text Available Evidence continues to accumulate that pesticides are the leading candidates of environmental toxins that may contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. The mechanisms, however, remain largely unclear. According to epidemiological studies, we selected nine representative pesticides (paraquat, rotenone, chlorpyrifos, pendimethalin, endosulfan, fenpyroximate, tebufenpyrad, trichlorphon and carbaryl which are commonly used in China and detected the effects of the pesticides on mitochondria and ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS function. Our results reveal that all the nine studied pesticides induce morphological changes of mitochondria at low concentrations. Paraquat, rotenone, chlorpyrifos, pendimethalin, endosulfan, fenpyroximate and tebufenpyrad induced mitochondria fragmentation. Furthermore, some of them (paraquat, rotenone, chlorpyrifos, fenpyroximate and tebufenpyrad caused a significant dose-dependent decrease of intracellular ATP. Interestingly, these pesticides which induce mitochondria dysfunction also inhibit 26S and 20S proteasome activity. However, two out of the nine pesticides, namely trichlorphon and carbaryl, were found not to cause mitochondrial fragmentation or functional damage, nor inhibit the activity of the proteasome, which provides significant guidance for selection of pesticides in China. Moreover, our results demonstrate a potential link between inhibition of mitochondria and the UPS, and pesticide-induced Parkinsonism.

  11. Mitochondria and Energetic Depression in Cell Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Zierz


    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of almost all diseases. Acquired or inherited mutations of the mitochondrial genome DNA may give rise to mitochondrial diseases. Another class of disorders, in which mitochondrial impairments are initiated by extramitochondrial factors, includes neurodegenerative diseases and syndromes resulting from typical pathological processes, such as hypoxia/ischemia, inflammation, intoxications, and carcinogenesis. Both classes of diseases lead to cellular energetic depression (CED, which is characterized by decreased cytosolic phosphorylation potential that suppresses the cell’s ability to do work and control the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and its redox state. If progressing, CED leads to cell death, whose type is linked to the functional status of the mitochondria. In the case of limited deterioration, when some amounts of ATP can still be generated due to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS, mitochondria launch the apoptotic cell death program by release of cytochrome c. Following pronounced CED, cytoplasmic ATP levels fall below the thresholds required for processing the ATP-dependent apoptotic cascade and the cell dies from necrosis. Both types of death can be grouped together as a mitochondrial cell death (MCD. However, there exist multiple adaptive reactions aimed at protecting cells against CED. In this context, a metabolic shift characterized by suppression of OXPHOS combined with activation of aerobic glycolysis as the main pathway for ATP synthesis (Warburg effect is of central importance. Whereas this type of adaptation is sufficiently effective to avoid CED and to control the cellular redox state, thereby ensuring the cell survival, it also favors the avoidance of apoptotic cell death. This scenario may underlie uncontrolled cellular proliferation and growth, eventually resulting in carcinogenesis.

  12. Spectrophotometric retinal oximetry in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Karlsson, Robert


    PURPOSE: To assess the validity of spectrophotometric retinal oximetry, by comparison to blood gas analysis and intra-vitreal measurements of partial pressure of oxygen (pO2). METHODS: Female domestic pigs were used for all experiments (n=8). Oxygen fraction in inspired air was changed using...... a mixture of room air, pure oxygen and pure nitrogen, ranging from 5% to 100% oxygen. Femoral arterial blood gas analysis and retinal oximetry was performed at each level of inspiratory oxygen fraction. Retinal oximetry was performed using a commercial instrument, the Oxymap Retinal Oximeter T1 (Oxymap ehf...... arterial oxygen saturation and the optical density ratio over retinal arteries revealed an approximately linear relationship (R(2) = 0.74, p = 3.4 x 10(-9)). In order to test the validity of applying the arterial calibration to veins, we compared non-invasive oximetry measurements to invasive pO2...

  13. Social behaviour of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, S. Y,; Oord, R. van; Staay, F.J. van der; Nordquist, R.E.


    Improper social behavior development brings problems in later social life. Several time points are known to be crucial for the development and in other words, susceptible to interruptions during those time points. In conventional pigs, those time points could be categorized to three interaction

  14. pig production in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All matings were natural. All sows were mated three times using the same boar at 12 hour intervals after stand- .... up to 21 days was significantly affected by number of pigs born alive, parity, sow breed, farrowing ..... (1991) reported that under hot summer conditions, pregnant or lactating sows eat less, lose more weight and ...

  15. (EPEC) from pig

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 26, 2014 ... 16 belonged to O60 (94.1%) and 1(5.88%) was untypeable. Virulence genes ..... Figure 4. a) Confluent monolayer of healthy vero cells; b) CPE in verocells after 12 h of incubation with filtrate extracts .... about 5 to 10 pigs near their residence and share the ... of Stx to vero cells remains the 'gold standard' for.

  16. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner


    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  17. The mitochondria-mediate apoptosis of Lepidopteran cells induced by azadirachtin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfei Huang

    Full Text Available Mitochondria have been shown to play an important role in apoptosis using mammalian cell lines. However, this seems not to be the case in Drosophila, an insect model organism; thus more in-depth studies of insect cell apoptosis are necessary. In the present study, mitochondrial involvement during azadirachtin- and camptothecin-induced apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells (isolated from Spodoptera frugiperda pupal ovarian tissue was investigated. The results showed that both azadirachtin and camptothecin could induce apoptosis in Sf9 cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, activation of mitochondrial permeability transition pores (MPTPs and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP were observed very early during apoptosis and were followed subsequently by the release of cytochrome-c from the mitochondria. Furthermore, the results also revealed that the opening of MPTPs and the loss of MMP induced by azadirachtin could be significantly inhibited by the permeability transition pore (PTP inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA, which was used to identify the key role of mitochondria in the apoptosis of Sf9 cells. However, in camptothecin-treated Sf9 cells, CsA could not suppress the opening of MPTPs and the loss of MMP when apoptosis was induced. The data from caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity assays and detection of apoptosis by morphological observation and flow cytometry also uncovered the different effect of CsA on the two botanical apoptosis inducers. Although different mechanisms of apoptosis induction exist, our study revealed that mitochondria play a crucial role in insect cell line apoptosis.

  18. The mitochondria-mediate apoptosis of Lepidopteran cells induced by azadirachtin. (United States)

    Huang, Jingfei; Lv, Chaojun; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua


    Mitochondria have been shown to play an important role in apoptosis using mammalian cell lines. However, this seems not to be the case in Drosophila, an insect model organism; thus more in-depth studies of insect cell apoptosis are necessary. In the present study, mitochondrial involvement during azadirachtin- and camptothecin-induced apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells (isolated from Spodoptera frugiperda pupal ovarian tissue) was investigated. The results showed that both azadirachtin and camptothecin could induce apoptosis in Sf9 cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, activation of mitochondrial permeability transition pores (MPTPs) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were observed very early during apoptosis and were followed subsequently by the release of cytochrome-c from the mitochondria. Furthermore, the results also revealed that the opening of MPTPs and the loss of MMP induced by azadirachtin could be significantly inhibited by the permeability transition pore (PTP) inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA), which was used to identify the key role of mitochondria in the apoptosis of Sf9 cells. However, in camptothecin-treated Sf9 cells, CsA could not suppress the opening of MPTPs and the loss of MMP when apoptosis was induced. The data from caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity assays and detection of apoptosis by morphological observation and flow cytometry also uncovered the different effect of CsA on the two botanical apoptosis inducers. Although different mechanisms of apoptosis induction exist, our study revealed that mitochondria play a crucial role in insect cell line apoptosis.

  19. Quality Saving Mechanisms of Mitochondria during Aging in a Fully Time-Dependent Computational Biophysical Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mellem

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are essential for the energy production of eukaryotic cells. During aging mitochondria run through various processes which change their quality in terms of activity, health and metabolic supply. In recent years, many of these processes such as fission and fusion of mitochondria, mitophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis and energy consumption have been subject of research. Based on numerous experimental insights, it was possible to qualify mitochondrial behaviour in computational simulations. Here, we present a new biophysical model based on the approach of Figge et al. in 2012. We introduce exponential decay and growth laws for each mitochondrial process to derive its time-dependent probability during the aging of cells. All mitochondrial processes of the original model are mathematically and biophysically redefined and additional processes are implemented: Mitochondrial fission and fusion is separated into a metabolic outer-membrane part and a protein-related inner-membrane part, a quality-dependent threshold for mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis is introduced and processes for activity-dependent internal oxidative stress as well as mitochondrial repair mechanisms are newly included. Our findings reveal a decrease of mitochondrial quality and a fragmentation of the mitochondrial network during aging. Additionally, the model discloses a quality increasing mechanism due to the interplay of the mitophagy and biogenesis cycle and the fission and fusion cycle of mitochondria. It is revealed that decreased mitochondrial repair can be a quality saving process in aged cells. Furthermore, the model finds strategies to sustain the quality of the mitochondrial network in cells with high production rates of reactive oxygen species due to large energy demands. Hence, the model adds new insights to biophysical mechanisms of mitochondrial aging and provides novel understandings of the interdependency of mitochondrial processes.

  20. Strong signatures of selection in the domestic pig genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Carl-Johan; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Barrio, Alvaro Martinez


    Domestication of wild boar (Sus scrofa) and subsequent selection have resulted in dramatic phenotypic changes in domestic pigs for a number of traits, including behavior, body composition, reproduction, and coat color. Here we have used whole-genome resequencing to reveal some of the loci that un...... to strong directional selection.......Domestication of wild boar (Sus scrofa) and subsequent selection have resulted in dramatic phenotypic changes in domestic pigs for a number of traits, including behavior, body composition, reproduction, and coat color. Here we have used whole-genome resequencing to reveal some of the loci...... that underlie phenotypic evolution in European domestic pigs. Selective sweep analyses revealed strong signatures of selection at three loci harboring quantitative trait loci that explain a considerable part of one of the most characteristic morphological changes in the domestic pig—the elongation of the back...

  1. Jejuno-jejunal intussusception in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara J. Fetzer


    Full Text Available An approximately four-year-old male castrated guinea pig (Cavia porcellus was presented for painful defecation with a 24-hour history of hyporexia and intermittent episodes of rolling behavior. Upon presentation the patient was quiet, alert, and responsive, and mildly hypothermic. Abdominal palpation revealed an approximately 2-cm long oblong mass within the caudal abdomen. Abdominal radiographs revealed gastric dilation without volvulus and a peritoneal mass effect. The patient was euthanized following gastric reflux of brown malodorous fluid from his nares and oral cavity. A necropsy was performed and revealed a jejuno-jejunal intussusception causing mechanical gastrointestinal ileus, and gastric dilatation without volvulus. While non-obstructive gastrointestinal stasis is common and obstructive ileus is uncommon in guinea pigs, this report shows that intestinal intussusception is a differential in guinea pigs with ileus and gastric dilatation.

  2. Protein oxidation in plant mitochondria as a stress indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, I.M.; Kristensen, B.K.


    oxidation of cysteine and methionine side chains is an important mechanism for regulating enzyme activity. Mitochondria from both mammalian and plant tissues contain a number of oxidised proteins, but the relative abundance of these post-translationally modified forms is as yet unknown......, as are the consequences of the modification for the properties and turnover time of the proteins. Specific proteins appear to be particularly vulnerable to oxidative carbonylation in the matrix of plant mitochondria; these include several enzymes of the Krebs cycle, glycine decarboxylase, superoxide dismutase and heat...... shock proteins. Plant mitochondria contain a number of different proteases, but their role in removing oxidatively damaged proteins is, as yet, unclear....

  3. Bacterial infection increases risk of carcinogenesis by targeting mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A.B.; Desler, Claus; Rasmussen, Lene Juel


    pathways, and compares the impact of the bacterial alteration of mitochondrial function to that of cancer. Bacterial virulence factors have been demonstrated to induce mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and to modulate DNA repair pathways of the mitochondria. Furthermore, virulence factors can induce...... or impair the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. The effect of bacterial targeting of mitochondria is analogous to behavior of mitochondria in a wide array of tumours, and this strongly suggests that mitochondrial targeting of bacteria is a risk factor for carcinogenesis....

  4. Population structure of pigs determined by single nucleotide polymorphisms observed in assembled expressed sequence tags. (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshimi; Okumura, Naohiko; Uenishi, Hirohide; Hayashi, Takeshi; Hamasima, Noriyuki; Awata, Takashi


    We have collected more than 190000 porcine expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries and identified more than 2800 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In this study, we tentatively chose 222 SNPs observed in assembled ESTs to study pigs of different breeds; 104 were selected by comparing the cDNA sequences of a Meishan pig and samples of three-way cross pigs (Landrace, Large White, and Duroc: LWD), and 118 were selected from LWD samples. To evaluate the genetic variation between the chosen SNPs from pig breeds, we determined the genotypes for 192 pig samples (11 pig groups) from our DNA reference panel with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of the 222 reference SNPs, 186 were successfully genotyped. A neighbor-joining tree showed that the pig groups were classified into two large clusters, namely, Euro-American and East Asian pig populations. F-statistics and the analysis of molecular variance of Euro-American pig groups revealed that approximately 25% of the genetic variations occurred because of intergroup differences. As the F(IS) values were less than the F(ST) values(,) the clustering, based on the Bayesian inference, implied that there was strong genetic differentiation among pig groups and less divergence within the groups in our samples. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli induces resistance of guinea pigs to virulent Trypanosoma cruzi. (United States)

    Basso, B; Moretti, E; Fretes, R


    Chagas' disease, endemic in Latin America, is spread in natural environments through animal reservoirs, including marsupials, mice and guinea pigs. Farms breeding guinea pigs for food are located in some Latin-American countries with consequent risk of digestive infection. The aim of this work was to study the effect of vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli in guinea pigs challenged with Trypanosoma cruzi. Animals were vaccinated with fixated epimastigotes of T. rangeli, emulsified with saponin. Controls received only PBS. Before being challenged with T. cruzi, parasitemia, survival rates and histological studies were performed. The vaccinated guinea pigs revealed significantly lower parasitemia than controls (pguinea pigs and dogs. The development of vaccines for use in animals, like domestic dogs and guinea pigs in captivity, opens up new opportunities for preventive tools, and could reduce the risk of infection with T. cruzi in the community. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tributyltin interacts with mitochondria and induces cytochrome c release. (United States)

    Nishikimi, A; Kira, Y; Kasahara, E; Sato, E F; Kanno, T; Utsumi, K; Inoue, M


    Although triorganotins are potent inducers of apoptosis in various cell types, the critical targets of these compounds and the mechanisms by which they lead to cell death remain to be elucidated. There are two major pathways by which apoptotic cell death occurs: one is triggered by a cytokine mediator and the other is by a mitochondrion-dependent mechanism. To elucidate the mechanism of triorganotin-induced apoptosis, we studied the effect of tributyltin on mitochondrial function. We found that moderately low doses of tributyltin decrease mitochondrial membrane potential and induce cytochrome c release by a mechanism inhibited by cyclosporine A and bongkrekic acid. Tributyltin-induced cytochrome c release is also prevented by dithiols such as dithiothreitol and 2,3-dimercaptopropanol but not by monothiols such as GSH, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, L-cysteine and 2-mercaptoethanol. Further studies with phenylarsine oxide agarose revealed that tributyltin interacts with the adenine nucleotide translocator, a functional constituent of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, which is selectively inhibited by dithiothreitol. These results suggest that, at low doses, tributyltin interacts selectively with critical thiol residues in the adenine nucleotide translocator and opens the permeability transition pore, thereby decreasing membrane potential and releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria, a series of events consistent with established mechanistic models of apoptosis. PMID:11368793

  7. Respiratory analysis of coupled mitochondria in cryopreserved liver biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes García-Roche


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a cryopreservation method of small liver biopsies for in situ mitochondrial function assessment. Herein we describe a detailed protocol for tissue collection, cryopreservation, high-resolution respirometry using complex I and II substrates, calculation and interpretation of respiratory parameters. Liver biopsies from cow and rat were sequentially frozen in a medium containing dimethylsulfoxide as cryoprotectant and stored for up to 3 months at −80 °C. Oxygen consumption rate studies of fresh and cryopreserved samples revealed that most respiratory parameters remained unchanged. Additionally, outer mitochondrial membrane integrity was assessed adding cytochrome c, proving that our cryopreservation method does not harm mitochondrial structure. In sum, we present a reliable way to cryopreserve small liver biopsies without affecting mitochondrial function. Our protocol will enable the transport and storage of samples, extending and facilitating mitochondrial function analysis of liver biopsies. Keywords: Cryopreservation, Mitochondria, Biopsy, Oxygen consumption rate, High-resolution respirometry, Mitochondrial function

  8. The Pig PeptideAtlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselager, Marianne Overgaard; Codrea, Marius; Sun, Zhi


    Biological research of Sus scrofa, the domestic pig, is of immediate relevance for food production sciences, and for developing pig as a model organism for human biomedical research. Publicly available data repositories play a fundamental role for all biological sciences, and protein data...... repositories are in particular essential for the successful development of new proteomic methods. Cumulative proteome data repositories, including the PeptideAtlas, provide the means for targeted proteomics, system-wide observations, and cross-species observational studies, but pigs have so far been...... underrepresented in existing repositories. We here present a significantly improved build of the Pig PeptideAtlas, which includes pig proteome data from 25 tissues and three body fluid types mapped to 7139 canonical proteins. The content of the Pig PeptideAtlas reflects actively ongoing research within...

  9. Detection of genomic signatures for pig hairlessness using high-density SNP data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying SU,Yi LONG,Xinjun LIAO,Huashui AI,Zhiyan ZHANG,Bin YANG,Shijun XIAO,Jianhong TANG,Wenshui XIN,Lusheng HUANG,Jun REN,Nengshui DING


    Full Text Available Hair provides thermal regulation for mammals and protects the skin from wounds, bites and ultraviolet (UV radiation, and is important in adaptation to volatile environments. Pigs in nature are divided into hairy and hairless, which provide a good model for deciphering the molecular mechanisms of hairlessness. We conducted a genomic scan for genetically differentiated regions between hairy and hairless pigs using 60K SNP data, with the aim to better understand the genetic basis for the hairless phenotype in pigs. A total of 38405 SNPs in 498 animals from 36 diverse breeds were used to detect genomic signatures for pig hairlessness by estimating between-population (FST values. Seven diversifying signatures between Yucatan hairless pig and hairy pigs were identified on pig chromosomes (SSC 1, 3, 7, 8, 10, 11 and 16, and the biological functions of two notable genes, RGS17 and RB1, were revealed. When Mexican hairless pigs were contrasted with hairypigs, strong signatures were detected on SSC1 and SSC10, which harbor two functionally plausible genes, REV3L and BAMBI. KEGG pathway analysis showed a subset of overrepresented genes involved in the T cell receptor signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway and the tight junction pathways. All of these pathways may be important in local adaptability of hairless pigs. The potential mechanisms underlying the hairless phenotype in pigs are reported for the first time. RB1 and BAMBI are interesting candidate genes for the hairless phenotype in Yucatan hairless and Mexico hairless pigs, respectively. RGS17, REV3L, ICOS and RASGRP1 as well as other genes involved in the MAPK and T cell receptor signaling pathways may be important in environmental adaption by improved tolerance to UV damage in hairless pigs. These findings improve our understanding of the genetic basis for inherited hairlessness in pigs.

  10. Neurosteroids: oligodendrocyte mitochondria convert cholesterol to pregnenolone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Z.Y.; Bourreau, E.; Jung-Testas, I.; Robel, P.; Baulieu, E.E.


    Oligodendrocyte mitochondria from 21-day-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were incubated with 100 nM [ 3 H]cholesterol. It yielded [ 3 H]pregnenolone at a rate of 2.5 +/- 0.7 and 5-[ 3 H]pregnene-3β,20α-diol at a rate of 2.5 +/- 1.1 pmol per mg of protein per hr. Cultures of glial cells from 19- to 21-day-old fetuses (a mixed population of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) were incubated for 24 hr with [ 3 H]mevalonolactone. [ 3 H]Cholesterol, [ 3 H]pregnenolone, and 5-[ 3 H]pregnene-3β,20α-diol were characterized in cellular extracts. The formation of the 3 H-labeled steroids was increased by dibutyryl cAMP (0.2 mM) added to the culture medium. The active cholesterol side-chain cleavage mechanism, recently suggested immunohistochemically and already observed in cultures of C6 glioma cells, reinforces the concept of neurosteroids applied to Δ 5 -3β-hydroxysteroids previously isolated from brain

  11. Mitochondria-targeted nutraceuticals in sports medicine: a new perspective. (United States)

    Ostojic, Sergej M


    Since mitochondria have been recognized as the cells' key organelles involved in the energy utilization during exercise, targeting the organelle with specifically designed compounds (mitochondria-targeted nutraceuticals, MTNs) may have a great promise in the prevention and treatment of heavy exercise-related mitochondrial dysfunction. In vitro studies suggested that MTNs have antioxidant effects at the molecular level, and might boost mitochondrial biogenesis and organelle bioenergetics, with both processes are known to positively affect exercise performance and recovery. However, while there are a number of different MTNs evaluated for a potential benefit as a therapy for mitochondria-related diseases and conditions, only few human studies evaluated the possible impact of novel MTNs in the field of sports medicine. This mini review summarizes recent research findings regarding the efficacy of different mitochondria-targeted nutritional agents, emphasizing their roles in sports medicine.

  12. Redox conditions and protein oxidation in plant mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Kasimova, Marina R.; Krab, Klaas


    Redox conditions and protein oxidation in plant mitochondria NAD(P)H has a central position in respiratory metabolism. It is produced by a large number of enzymes, e.g. the Krebs cycle dehydrogenases, in the mitochondrial matrix and is oxidised by, amongst others, the respiratory chain. Most...... of this NAD(P)H appears to be bound to proteins, in fact free NAD(P)H – an important parameter in metabolic regulation - has never been observed in mitochondria. We have estimated free and bound NAD(P)H in isolated plant mitochondria under different metabolic conditions. The fluorescence spectra of free...... and bound NADH was determined and used to deconvolute fluorescence spectra of actively respiring mitochondria. Most of the mitochondrial NADH is bound in states 2 and 4. The amount of free NADH is lower but relatively constant even increasing a little in state 3 where it is about equal to bound NADH...

  13. The destiny of Ca(2+) released by mitochondria. (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ayako; Kim, Bongju; Matsuoka, Satoshi


    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) is known to regulate diverse cellular functions, for example energy production and cell death, by modulating mitochondrial dehydrogenases, inducing production of reactive oxygen species, and opening mitochondrial permeability transition pores. In addition to the action of Ca(2+) within mitochondria, Ca(2+) released from mitochondria is also important in a variety of cellular functions. In the last 5 years, the molecules responsible for mitochondrial Ca(2+) dynamics have been identified: a mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU), a mitochondrial Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger (NCLX), and a candidate for a mitochondrial H(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger (Letm1). In this review, we focus on the mitochondrial Ca(2+) release system, and discuss its physiological and pathophysiological significance. Accumulating evidence suggests that the mitochondrial Ca(2+) release system is not only crucial in maintaining mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis but also participates in the Ca(2+) crosstalk between mitochondria and the plasma membrane and between mitochondria and the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum.

  14. Characterization of DNA-binding proteins from pea mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatzack, F.A.; Dombrowski, S.; Brennicke, A.


    We studied transcription initiation in the mitochondria of higher plants, with particular respect to promoter structures. Conserved elements of these promoters have been successfully identified by in vitro transcription systems in different species, whereas the involved protein components are still...


    Seyedhosseini, Mojtaba; Ellisman, Mark H; Tasdizen, Tolga


    High-resolution microscopy techniques have been used to generate large volumes of data with enough details for understanding the complex structure of the nervous system. However, automatic techniques are required to segment cells and intracellular structures in these multi-terabyte datasets and make anatomical analysis possible on a large scale. We propose a fully automated method that exploits both shape information and regional statistics to segment irregularly shaped intracellular structures such as mitochondria in electron microscopy (EM) images. The main idea is to use algebraic curves to extract shape features together with texture features from image patches. Then, these powerful features are used to learn a random forest classifier, which can predict mitochondria locations precisely. Finally, the algebraic curves together with regional information are used to segment the mitochondria at the predicted locations. We demonstrate that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms in segmentation of mitochondria in EM images.

  16. Interorganelle Communication between Mitochondria and the Endolysosomal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Soto-Heredero


    Full Text Available The function of mitochondria and lysosomes has classically been studied separately. However, evidence has now emerged of intense crosstalk between these two organelles, such that the activity or stress status of one organelle may affect the other. Direct physical contacts between mitochondria and the endolysosomal compartment have been reported as a rapid means of interorganelle communication, mediating lipid or other metabolite exchange. Moreover, mitochondrial derived vesicles can traffic obsolete mitochondrial proteins into the endolysosomal system for their degradation or secretion to the extracellular milieu as exosomes, representing an additional mitochondrial quality control mechanism that connects mitochondria and lysosomes independently of autophagosome formation. Here, we present what is currently known about the functional and physical communication between mitochondria and lysosomes or lysosome-related organelles, and their role in sustaining cellular homeostasis.

  17. The guinea-pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D


    14C ring-labelled hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid dissolved in acetone were applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (4 microgram/cm2). Percutaneous absorption was quantified by following the excretion of tracer in urine and faeces for 5 days. Absorption of hydrocortisone and benzoic acid...... was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the skin...

  18. The Myriad Roles of Miro in the Nervous System: Axonal Transport of Mitochondria and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingwei eLu


    Full Text Available Mitochondrial rho GTPase (Miro is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein containing two GTPase domains and two helix-loop-helix Ca2+-binding domains called EF hands. Pioneering genetic studies in Drosophila first revealed a key function of Miro in regulating the axonal transport of mitochondria, during which Miro forms a multi-protein transport complex with Milton and Kinesin heavy chain (KHC to link trafficking mitochondria with the microtubule cytoskeleton. Recent studies showed that through binding to the EF hands of Miro and causing conformational changes of Miro and alteration of protein-protein interactions within the transport complex, Ca2+ can alter the engagement of mitochondria with the microtubule (MT/kinesin network, offering one mechanism to match mitochondrial distribution with neuronal activity. Despite the importance of the Miro/Milton/Kinesin complex in regulating mitochondrial transport in metazoans, not all components of the transport complex are conserved in lower organisms, and transport-independent functions of Miro are emerging. Here we review the diverse functions of the evolutionarily conserved Miro proteins that are relevant to the development, maintenance, and functioning of the nervous system and discuss the potential contribution of Miro dysfunction to the pathogenesis of diseases of the nervous system.

  19. Are maternal mitochondria the selfish entities that are masters of the cells of eukaryotic multicellular organisms? (United States)

    Barlow, Peter W; Baldelli, E; Baluška, Frantisek


    The Energide concept, as well as the endosymbiotic theory of eukaryotic cell organization and evolution, proposes that present-day cells of eukaryotic organisms are mosaics of specialized and cooperating units, or organelles. Some of these units were originally free-living prokaryotes, which were engulfed during evolutionary time. Mitochondria represent one of these types of previously independent organisms, the Energide, is another type. This new perspective on the organization of the cell has been further expanded to reveal the concept of a public milieu, the cytosol, in which Energides and mitochondria live, each with their own private internal milieu. The present paper discusses how the endosymbiotic theory implicates a new hypothesis about the hierarchical and communicational organization of the integrated prokaryotic components of the eukaryotic cell and provides a new angle from which to consider the theory of evolution and its bearing upon cellular complexity. Thus, it is proposed that the “selfish gene” hypothesis of Dawkins1 is not the only possible perspective for comprehending genomic and cellular evolution. Our proposal is that maternal mitochondria are the selfish “master” entities of the eukaryotic cell with respect not only to their propagation from cell-to-cell and from generation-to-generation but also to their regulation of all other cellular functions. However, it should be recognized that the concept of “master” and “servant” cell components is a metaphor; in present-day living organisms their organellar components are considered to be interdependent and inseparable. PMID:19513277

  20. Hypervitaminosis D in Guinea Pigs with α-Mannosidosis (United States)

    Jensen, JanLee A; Brice, Angela K; Bagel, Jessica H; Mexas, Angela M; Yoon, Sea Young; Wolfe, John H


    A colony of guinea pigs (n = 9) with α-mannosidosis was fed a pelleted commercial laboratory guinea pig diet. Over 2 mo, all 9 guinea pigs unexpectedly showed anorexia and weight loss (11.7% to 30.0% of baseline weight), and 3 animals demonstrated transient polyuria and polydipsia. Blood chemistry panels in these 3 guinea pigs revealed high-normal total calcium, high-normal phosphate, and high ALP. Urine specific gravity was dilute (1.003, 1.009, 1.013) in the 3 animals tested. Postmortem examination of 7 animals that were euthanized after failing to respond to supportive care revealed renal interstitial fibrosis with tubular mineralization, soft tissue mineralization in multiple organs, hepatic lipidosis, and pneumonia. Analysis of the pelleted diet revealed that it had been formulated with a vitamin D3 content of more than 150 times the normal concentration. Ionized calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D values were both high in serum saved from 2 euthanized animals, confirming the diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D. This report discusses the clinical signs, blood chemistry results, and gross and histologic findings of hypervitaminosis D in a colony of guinea pigs. When unexpected signs occur colony-wide, dietary differentials should be investigated at an early time point. PMID:23582422

  1. Natural selection of mitochondria during somatic lifetime promotes healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodell, Anders; Rasmussen, Lene J; Bergersen, Linda H


    Stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis during life-time challenges both eliminates disadvantageous properties and drives adaptive selection of advantageous phenotypic variations. Intermittent fission and fusion of mitochondria provide specific targets for health promotion by brief temporal...... stressors, interspersed with periods of recovery and biogenesis. For mitochondria, the mechanisms of selection, variability, and heritability, are complicated by interaction of two independent genomes, including the multiple copies of DNA in each mitochondrion, as well as the shared nuclear genome of each...

  2. Physiology of pepper fruit and the metabolism of antioxidants: chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes (United States)

    Palma, José M.; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana; del Río, Luis A.; Corpas, Francisco J.; Álvarez de Morales, Paz; Camejo, Daymi M.


    Background and Aims Pepper (Capsicum annuum) contains high levels of antioxidants, such as vitamins A and C and flavonoids. However, information on the role of these beneficial compounds in the physiology of pepper fruit remains scarce. Recent studies have shown that antioxidants in ripe pepper fruit play a key role in responses to temperature changes, and the redox state at the time of harvest affects the nutritional value for human consumption. In this paper, the role of antioxidant metabolism of pepper fruit during ripening and in the response to low temperature is addressed, paying particular attention to ascorbate, NADPH and the superoxide dismutase enzymatic system. The participation of chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes in the ripening process is also investigated. Scope and Results Important changes occur at a subcellular level during ripening of pepper fruit. Chloroplasts turn into chromoplasts, with drastic conversion of their metabolism, and the role of the ascorbate–glutathione cycle is essential. In mitochondria from red fruits, higher ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and Mn-SOD activities are involved in avoiding the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in these organelles during ripening. Peroxisomes, whose antioxidant capacity at fruit ripening is substantially affected, display an atypical metabolic pattern during this physiological stage. In spite of these differences observed in the antioxidative metabolism of mitochondria and peroxisomes, proteomic analysis of these organelles, carried out by 2-D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF and provided here for the first time, reveals no changes between the antioxidant metabolism from immature (green) and ripe (red) fruits. Conclusions Taken together, the results show that investigation of molecular and enzymatic antioxidants from cell compartments, especially chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes, is a useful tool to study the physiology of pepper fruit, particularly in the context of

  3. Exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus chromogenes. (United States)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Ahrens, Peter; Daugaard, Lise; Bille-Hansen, Vivi


    Staphylococcus chromogenes is closely related to Staphylococcus hyicus, which is recognised as the causative agent of exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs. S. chromogenes is part of the normal skin flora of pigs, cattle and poultry and has so far been considered non-pathogenic to pigs. A strain of S. chromogenes producing exfoliative toxin type B, ExhB, was identified by the use of a multiplex PCR specific for the exfoliative toxins from S. hyicus. The exfoliative toxin from S. chromogenes reacted in immunoblot analysis with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific to ExhB from S. hyicus and had an apparent molecular weight of 30 kDa. Sequencing the gene encoding the exfoliative toxin from S. chromogenes revealed that the molecular weight of the toxin with the signal peptide and the mature toxin was 30,553 and 26,694 Da, respectively. Comparison of the exhB genes from S. chromogenes strain VA654 and S. hyicus strain 1289D-88 showed differences in seven base pairs of the DNA sequences and in two amino acid residues in the deduced amino acid sequences. Pigs were experimentally inoculated with S. chromogenes strain VA654. By clinical observations and histopathological evaluation of the skin alterations, all pigs revealed development of generalized exudative epidermitis. No toxin producing S. hyicus was isolated from the pigs and all ExhB-positive bacterial isolates were identified as S. chromogenes. This confirmed that the disease-causing agent was the inoculated S. chromogenes strain VA654. The results of this study show that S. chromogenes may cause exudative epidermitis in pigs.

  4. Ca2+-associated triphasic pH changes in mitochondria during brown adipocyte activation. (United States)

    Hou, Yanyan; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Kriszt, Rókus; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Raghunath, Michael; Suzuki, Madoka


    Brown adipocytes (BAs) are endowed with a high metabolic capacity for energy expenditure due to their high mitochondria content. While mitochondrial pH is dynamically regulated in response to stimulation and, in return, affects various metabolic processes, how mitochondrial pH is regulated during adrenergic stimulation-induced thermogenesis is unknown. We aimed to reveal the spatial and temporal dynamics of mitochondrial pH in stimulated BAs and the mechanisms behind the dynamic pH changes. A mitochondrial targeted pH-sensitive protein, mito-pHluorin, was constructed and transfected to BAs. Transfected BAs were stimulated by an adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. The pH changes in mitochondria were characterized by dual-color imaging with indicators that monitor mitochondrial membrane potential and heat production. The mechanisms of pH changes were studied by examining the involvement of electron transport chain (ETC) activity and Ca 2+ profiles in mitochondria and the intracellular Ca 2+ store, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A triphasic mitochondrial pH change in BAs upon adrenergic stimulation was revealed. In comparison to a thermosensitive dye, we reveal that phases 1 and 2 of the pH increase precede thermogenesis, while phase 3, characterized by a pH decrease, occurs during thermogenesis. The mechanism of pH increase is partially related to ETC. In addition, the pH increase occurs concurrently with an increase in mitochondrial Ca 2+ . This Ca 2+ increase is contributed to by an influx from the ER, and it is further involved in mitochondrial pH regulation. We demonstrate that an increase in mitochondrial pH is implicated as an early event in adrenergically stimulated BAs. We further suggest that this pH increase may play a role in the potentiation of thermogenesis.

  5. Enteric Methane Emission from Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach


    per kg meat produced is increased (Fernández et al. 1983; Lekule et al. 1990). The present chapter will summarise our current knowledge concerning dietary and enteric fermentation that may influence the methane (CH4) emission in pigs. Enteric fermentation is the digestive process by which.......3 % of the worlds pig population. The main number of pigs is in Asia (59.6 %) where the main pig population stay in China (47.8 % of the worlds pig population). The objective of the chapter is therefore: To obtain a general overview of the pigs’ contribution to methane emission. Where is the pigs’ enteric gas...... produced and how is it measured. The variation in methane emission and factors affecting the emission. Possibility for reducing the enteric methane emission and the consequences....

  6. Novel mitochondria-targeted heat-soluble proteins identified in the anhydrobiotic Tardigrade improve osmotic tolerance of human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Tanaka

    Full Text Available Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration through transition to a metabolically inactive state, called "anhydrobiosis". Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins are heat-soluble proteins involved in the desiccation tolerance of many anhydrobiotic organisms. Tardigrades, Ramazzottius varieornatus, however, express predominantly tardigrade-unique heat-soluble proteins: CAHS (Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble and SAHS (Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble proteins, which are secreted or localized in most intracellular compartments, except the mitochondria. Although mitochondrial integrity is crucial to ensure cellular survival, protective molecules for mitochondria have remained elusive. Here, we identified two novel mitochondrial heat-soluble proteins, RvLEAM and MAHS (Mitochondrial Abundant Heat Soluble, as potent mitochondrial protectants from Ramazzottius varieornatus. RvLEAM is a group3 LEA protein and immunohistochemistry confirmed its mitochondrial localization in tardigrade cells. MAHS-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localized in human mitochondria and was heat-soluble in vitro, though no sequence similarity with other known proteins was found, and one region was conserved among tardigrades. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RvLEAM protein as well as MAHS protein improved the hyperosmotic tolerance of human cells. The findings of the present study revealed that tardigrade mitochondria contain at least two types of heat-soluble proteins that might have protective roles in water-deficient environments.

  7. Factors influencing investment in commercial pig production on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following a systematic sampling procedure, 124 households were interviewed to identify variables that influence their decisions on whether or not to invest in commercial pig production. Using a binary logistic regression model the analytical results revealed that the decisions are significantly influenced by gender of ...

  8. Mitochondria: 3-bromopyruvate vs. mitochondria? A small molecule that attacks tumors by targeting their bioenergetic diversity. (United States)

    Galina, Antonio


    Enhanced glycolysis, the classic bioenergetic phenotype of cancer cells was described by Otto Warburg approximately 90 years ago. However, the Warburg hypothesis does not necessarily imply mitochondrial dysfunction. The alkyl-halogen, 3-bromopyruvate (3BP), would not be expected to have selective targets for cancer therapy due to its high potential reactivity toward many SH side groups. Contrary to predictions, 3BP interferes with glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in cancer cells without side effects in normal tissues. The mitochondrial hexokinase II has been claimed as the main target. This "Organelle in focus" article presents a historical view of the use of 3BP in biochemistry and its effects on ATP-producing pathways of cancer cells. I will discuss how the alkylated enzymes contribute to the cooperative collapse of mitochondria and apoptosis. Perspectives for targeting 3BP to bioenergetics enzymes for cancer treatment will be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fluoxetine and the mitochondria: A review of the toxicological aspects. (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto


    Fluoxetine (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)) is used as an antidepressant by modulating the levels of serotonin in the synaptic cleft. Nevertheless, fluoxetine also induces undesirable effects, such as anxiety, sexual dysfunction, sleep disturbances, and gastrointestinal impairments. Fluoxetine has been viewed as an agent that may interfere with cell fate by triggering apoptosis. On the other hand, fluoxetine intake has been associated with increased cancer risk. Nonetheless, data remain contradictory and no conclusions were taken. Several studies demonstrated that fluoxetine interacts with mitochondria triggering apoptosis and/or altering mitochondrial function by modulating the activity of respiratory chain components and enzymes of the Krebs cycle. Furthermore, fluoxetine affects mitochondria-related redox parameters in different experimental models. In this review, data demonstrating the effects of fluoxetine upon mammalian mitochondria are described and discussed, as well as several unsolved questions in this field of research are addressed. A separate section deals with future needs regarding the research involving the impact of fluoxetine treatment upon mitochondria and mitochondria-related signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand


    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong


    This thesis, entitled “Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand”, presents many aspects of pig production in Thailand including the characteristics of pig farming system, distribution of pig population and pig farms, spatio-temporal distribution and risk of most important diseases in pig at present, and the suitability area for pig farming. Spatial distribution and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand were studied using time-series pig population data to des...

  11. Role of Mitochondria in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chowdhury, Subir K


    ... (LNCaP DU145 RC3 and CL1). Immunoblot Real Time RT-RCR polarographic and spectrophotometric analysis revealed that mGPDH abundance and activity was significantly elevated in prostate cancer cell lines when compared to normal...

  12. Role of Mitochondria in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chowdhury, Subir K


    ... (LNCaP, DU145, PC3, and CL1). Immunoblot, Real Time RTPCR, polarographic, and spectrophotometric analysis revealed that mGPDH abundance and activity was significantly elevated in prostate cancer cell lines when compared to normal...

  13. Aspirin Induces Apoptosis through Release of Cytochrome c from Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja C. Zimmermann


    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID reduce the risk for cancer, due to their anti proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects. A critical pathway for apoptosis involves the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, which then interacts with Apaf-1 to activate caspase proteases that orchestrate cell death. In this study we found that treatment of a human cancer cell line with aspirin induced caspase activation and the apoptotic cell morphology, which was blocked by the caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. Further analysis of the mechanism underlying this apoptotic event showed that aspirin induces translocation of Bax to the mitochondria and triggers release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. The release of cytochrome c from mitochondria was inhibited by overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and cells that lack Apaf-1 were resistant to aspirin-induced apoptosis. These data provide evidence that the release of cytochrome c is an important part of the apoptotic mechanism of aspirin.

  14. Doxorubicin Action on Mitochondria: Relevance to Osteosarcoma Therapy? (United States)

    Armstrong, Jo; Dass, Crispin R


    The mitochondria may very well determine the final commitment of the cell to death, particularly in times of energy stress. Cancer chemotherapeutics such as the anthracycline doxorubicin perturb mitochondrial structure and function in tumour cells, as evidenced in osteosarcoma, for which doxorubicin is used clinically as frontline therapy. This same mechanism of cell inhibition is also pertinent to doxorubicin's primary cause of side-effects, that to the cardiac tissue, culminating in such dire events as congestive heart failure. Reactive oxygen species are partly to blame for this effect on the mitochondria, which impact the electron transport chain. As this review highlights that, there is much more to be learnt about the mitochondria and how it is affected by such effective but toxic drugs as doxorubicin. Such information will aid researchers who search for cancer treatment able to preserve mitochondrial number and function in normal cells. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  15. [Organization of mitochondria in the growing hyphae of Neurospora crassa]. (United States)

    Potapova, T V; Boĭtsova, L Iu; Golyshev, S A; Popinako, A V


    In vivo fluorescent labeling of mitochondria in Neurospora crassa showed the concentration of filamentous mitochondria within 30 μm of apex in growing hyphae. These mitochondrial assemblies propagated forward with the elongation of hyphae, split and segregated as the growing tip bifurcated and formed de novo when new branches formed farther away from the apex. The efficiency of the mitochondria concentration in the apical 30 μm zone is related to the growth rate and identical in hyphae cultivated in glucose- and sorbitol-containing media. The obtained data are discussed in connection with the behavior of microtubules in growing hyphae as well as with the electric heterogeneity of N. crassa hyphal apex described previously.

  16. RECQL4 localizes to mitochondria and preserves mitochondrial DNA integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croteau, Deborah L; Rossi, Marie L; Canugovi, Chandrika


    in premature aging. There is no information about whether any of the RecQ helicases play roles in mitochondrial biogenesis, which is strongly implicated in the aging process. Here, we used microscopy to visualize RECQL4 in mitochondria. Fractionation of human and mouse cells also showed that RECQL4 was present...... in mitochondria. Q-PCR amplification of mitochondrial DNA demonstrated that mtDNA damage accumulated in RECQL4-deficient cells. Microarray analysis suggested that mitochondrial bioenergetic pathways might be affected in RTS. Measurements of mitochondrial bioenergetics showed a reduction in the mitochondrial......Q helicase to be found in both human and mouse mitochondria, and the loss of RECQL4 alters mitochondrial integrity....

  17. Chatty Mitochondria: Keeping Balance in Cellular Protein Homeostasis. (United States)

    Topf, Ulrike; Wrobel, Lidia; Chacinska, Agnieszka


    Mitochondria are multifunctional cellular organelles that host many biochemical pathways including oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Defective mitochondria pose a threat to cellular homeostasis and compensatory responses exist to curtail the source of stress and/or its consequences. The mitochondrial proteome comprises proteins encoded by the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Disturbances in protein homeostasis may originate from mistargeting of nuclear encoded mitochondrial proteins. Defective protein import and accumulation of mistargeted proteins leads to stress that triggers translation alterations and proteasomal activation. These cytosolic pathways are complementary to the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) that aims to increase the capacity of protein quality control mechanisms inside mitochondria. They constitute putative targets for interventions aimed at increasing the fitness, stress resistance, and longevity of cells and organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mitochondria As the Target for the Modulatory Effect of Curcumin in Oxaliplatin-induced Toxicity in Isolated Rat Liver Mitochondria. (United States)

    Waseem, Mohammad; Parvez, Suhel; Tabassum, Heena


    To explore hepatoprotective action of curcumin (CMN, a bioflavonoid) on oxaliplatin (Oxa)-triggered mitochondrial oxidative stress and respiratory chain complexes in liver of rats. Oxa is a ubiquitously utilized platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent commonly used for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Mitochondria have recently emerged as targets for anticancer drugs in several kinds of toxicity including hepatotoxicity that can lead to neoplastic disease. There is a dearth of evidence involving the role of mitochondria in mediating Oxa-evoked hepatotoxicity and its underlying mechanism is still debatable. The study was performed in mitochondria isolated from liver of Wistar rats. Oxa (200 μg/mL) and CMN (5 μmol) were incubated under in vitro conditions. Oxa evoked a significant increase in the membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, protein carbonyl (PC) contents, decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) and nonprotein thiol (NP-SH) levels. Oxa also caused a marked decline in the activities of enzymatic antioxidants and respiratory chain enzymes (I, II, III and V) in liver mitochondria. CMN pre-treatment significantly prevented the activities of enzymatic antioxidants and mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes. CMN also restored the LPO and PC contents, GSH and NP-SH levels in liver mitochondria. CMN intake might be effective in regulation of Oxa-evoked mitotoxicity during chemotherapy. Moreover, it is included in the armamentarium for anticancer agent-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fe-S Cluster Biogenesis in Isolated Mammalian Mitochondria (United States)

    Pandey, Alok; Pain, Jayashree; Ghosh, Arnab K.; Dancis, Andrew; Pain, Debkumar


    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are essential cofactors, and mitochondria contain several Fe-S proteins, including the [4Fe-4S] protein aconitase and the [2Fe-2S] protein ferredoxin. Fe-S cluster assembly of these proteins occurs within mitochondria. Although considerable data exist for yeast mitochondria, this biosynthetic process has never been directly demonstrated in mammalian mitochondria. Using [35S]cysteine as the source of sulfur, here we show that mitochondria isolated from Cath.A-derived cells, a murine neuronal cell line, can synthesize and insert new Fe-35S clusters into aconitase and ferredoxins. The process requires GTP, NADH, ATP, and iron, and hydrolysis of both GTP and ATP is necessary. Importantly, we have identified the 35S-labeled persulfide on the NFS1 cysteine desulfurase as a genuine intermediate en route to Fe-S cluster synthesis. In physiological settings, the persulfide sulfur is released from NFS1 and transferred to a scaffold protein, where it combines with iron to form an Fe-S cluster intermediate. We found that the release of persulfide sulfur from NFS1 requires iron, showing that the use of iron and sulfur for the synthesis of Fe-S cluster intermediates is a highly coordinated process. The release of persulfide sulfur also requires GTP and NADH, probably mediated by a GTPase and a reductase, respectively. ATP, a cofactor for a multifunctional Hsp70 chaperone, is not required at this step. The experimental system described here may help to define the biochemical basis of diseases that are associated with impaired Fe-S cluster biogenesis in mitochondria, such as Friedreich ataxia. PMID:25398879

  20. Preclinical electrogastrography in experimental pigs (United States)

    Květina, Jaroslav; Varayil, Jithinraj Edakkanambeth; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Kuneš, Martin; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopáčová, Marcela


    Surface electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive means of recording gastric myoelectric activity or slow waves from cutaneous leads placed over the stomach. This paper provides a comprehensive review of preclinical EGG. Our group recently set up and worked out the methods for EGG in experimental pigs. We gained our initial experience in the use of EGG in assessment of porcine gastric myoelectric activity after volume challenge and after intragastric administration of itopride and erythromycin. The mean dominant frequency in pigs is comparable with that found in humans. EGG in experimental pigs is feasible. Experimental EGG is an important basis for further preclinical projects in pharmacology and toxicology. PMID:21217873

  1. Arsanilic acid blindness in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, R.W.; Kintner, L.D.; Selby, L.A.; Stewart, R.W.; Marlenfeld, C.J.


    Blindness in pigs that were given an overdosage of arsanilic acid is reported. A 0.0375% level of arsanilic acid was fed to 640 pigs for 90 days beginning when the animals were 3 months old. Approximately one month after the start of feeding, partial or complete blindness was observed in 50 of the pigs. Clinical signs, pathologic findings and the chemical analysis of hair are discussed. The level of arsanilic acid used was that recommended for the control of swine dysentery, to be fed for only five or six days. The overdosage resulted from a misunderstanding between the farmer and the feed mill.

  2. On the Mechanism(s of Membrane Permeability Transition in Liver Mitochondria of Lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis L.: Insights from Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Belyaeva


    Full Text Available Previously we have shown that opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in its low conductance state is the case in hepatocytes of the Baltic lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis L. during reversible metabolic depression taking place in the period of its prespawning migration when the exogenous feeding is switched off. The depression is observed in the last year of the lamprey life cycle and is conditioned by reversible mitochondrial dysfunction (mitochondrial uncoupling in winter and coupling in spring. To further elucidate the mechanism(s of induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in the lamprey liver, we used Cd2+ and Ca2+ plus Pi as the pore inducers. We found that Ca2+ plus Pi induced the high-amplitude swelling of the isolated “winter” mitochondria both in isotonic sucrose and ammonium nitrate medium while both low and high Cd2+ did not produce the mitochondrial swelling in these media. Low Cd2+ enhanced the inhibition of basal respiration rate of the “winter” mitochondria energized by NAD-dependent substrates whereas the same concentrations of the heavy metal evoked its partial stimulation on FAD-dependent substrates. The above changes produced by Cd2+ or Ca2+ plus Pi in the “winter” mitochondria were only weakly (if so sensitive to cyclosporine A (a potent pharmacological desensitizer of the nonselective pore added alone and they were not sensitive to dithiothreitol (a dithiol reducing agent. Under monitoring of the transmembrane potential of the “spring” lamprey liver mitochondria, we revealed that Cd2+ produced its decrease on both types of the respiratory substrates used that was strongly hampered by cyclosporine A, and the membrane potential was partially restored by dithiothreitol. The effects of different membrane permeability modulators on the lamprey liver mitochondria function and the seasonal changes in their action are discussed.

  3. Extracellular anti-angiogenic proteins augment an endosomal protein trafficking pathway to reach mitochondria and execute apoptosis in HUVECs. (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Qiu, Tao; Wu, Jiajie; Yang, Yang; Wright, Graham D; Wu, Min; Ge, Ruowen


    Classic endocytosis destinations include the recycling endosome returning to the plasma membrane or the late endosome (LE) merging with lysosomes for cargo degradation. However, the anti-angiogenic proteins angiostatin and isthmin, are endocytosed and trafficked to mitochondria (Mito) to execute apoptosis of endothelial cells. How these extracellular proteins reach mitochondria remains a mystery. Through confocal and super-resolution fluorescent microscopy, we demonstrate that angiostatin and isthmin are trafficked to mitochondria through the interaction between LE and Mito. Using purified organelles, the LE-Mito interaction is confirmed through in vitro lipid-fusion assay, as well as single vesicle total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy. LE-Mito interaction enables the transfer of not only lipids but also proteins from LE to Mito. Angiostatin and isthmin augment this endosomal protein trafficking pathway and make use of it to reach mitochondria to execute apoptosis. Cell fractionation and biochemical analysis identified that the cytosolic scaffold protein Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) associated with LE and the t-SNARE protein synaptosome-associated protein 25 kDa (SNAP25) associated with Mito form an interaction complex to facilitate LE-Mito interaction. Proximity ligation assay coupled with fluorescent microscopy showed that both NHERF1 and SNAP25 are located at the contacting face between LE and Mito. RNAi knockdown of either NHERF1 or SNAP25 suppressed not only the mitochondrial trafficking of angiostatin and isthmin but also their anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic functions. Hence, this study reveals a previously unrealized endosomal protein trafficking pathway from LE to Mito that allows extracellular proteins to reach mitochondria and execute apoptosis.

  4. New nanocomposites for SERS studies of living cells and mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarycheva, A. S.; Brazhe, N. A.; Baizhumanov, A. A.


    A great enhancement in Raman scattering (SERS) from heme-containing submembrane biomolecules inside intact erythrocytes and functional mitochondria is demonstrated for the first time using silver–silica beads prepared using a new method involving aerosol pyrolysis with aqueous diamminesilver...... molecules. The SERS spectra of functional mitochondria are sensitive to the activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, thus making the method a novel label-free approach to monitor the redox state and conformation of cytochromes in their natural cell environment. The developed nanocomposites...

  5. Exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus chromogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Ahrens, Peter; Daugaard, Lise


    Staphylococcus chromogenes is closely related to Staphylococcus hyicus, which is recognised as the causative agent of exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs. S. chromogenes is part of the normal skin flora of pigs, cattle and poultry and has so far been considered non-pathogenic to pigs. A strain of S....... chromogenes producing exfoliative toxin type B, ExhB, was identified by the use of a multiplex PCR specific for the exfoliative toxins from S. hyicus. The exfoliative toxin from S. chromogenes reacted in immunoblot analysis with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific to ExhB from S. hyicus and had...... an apparent molecular weight of 30 kDa. Sequencing the gene encoding the exfoliative toxin from S. chromogenes revealed that the molecular weight of the toxin with the signal peptide and the mature toxin was 30,553 and 26,694 Da, respectively. Comparison of the exhB genes from S. chromogenes strain VA654...

  6. Proteomic analysis of pancreas derived from adult cloned pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Jung-Il; Cho, Young Keun; Cho, Seong-Keun; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Han, Yong-Mahn; Koo, Deog-Bon; Lee, Kyung-Kwang


    The potential medical applications of animal cloning include xenotransplantation, but the complex molecular cascades that control porcine organ development are not fully understood. Still, it has become apparent that organs derived from cloned pigs may be suitable for transplantation into humans. In this study, we examined the pancreas of an adult cloned pig developed through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and Western blotting. Proteomic analysis revealed 69 differentially regulated proteins, including such apoptosis-related species as annexins, lamins, and heat shock proteins, which were unanimously upregulated in the SCNT sample. Among the downregulated proteins in SCNT pancreas were peroxiredoxins and catalase. Western blot results indicate that several antioxidant enzymes and the anti-apoptotic protein were downregulated in SCNT pancreas, whereas several caspases were upregulated. Together, these data suggest that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pancreas of an adult cloned pig leads to apoptosis

  7. Developing guinea pig brain as a model for cortical folding. (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Sato, Haruka; Shimamura, Kenji


    The cerebral cortex in mammals, the neocortex specifically, is highly diverse among species with respect to its size and morphology, likely reflecting the immense adaptiveness of this lineage. In particular, the pattern and number of convoluted ridges and fissures, called gyri and sulci, respectively, on the surface of the cortex are variable among species and even individuals. However, little is known about the mechanism of cortical folding, although there have been several hypotheses proposed. Recent studies on embryonic neurogenesis revealed the differences in cortical progenitors as a critical factor of the process of gyrification. Here, we investigated the gyrification processes using developing guinea pig brains that form a simple but fundamental pattern of gyri. In addition, we established an electroporation-mediated gene transfer method for guinea pig embryos. We introduce the guinea pig brain as a useful model system to understand the mechanisms and basic principle of cortical folding. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  8. The influence of dietary iodine and enviromental temperature on the activity of mitochondria in liver and kidney. (United States)

    Chaiyabutr, N; Jakobsen, P E


    It was found that both effect of temperatures and diets influence metabolic changes in rabbits. In animals fed basal and PTU diets (propyl-thiouracil diets) at 34 degrees C for 4 weeks the metabolic response showed a marked reduction in feed intake and body weight, compared with animals fed at normal temperatures. In the animals fed the iodine diet, there was an increase in daily food consumption and weekly body weight gain at 34 degrees C. This indicates a rise in metabolic activity in this case. Studying the activity of kidney mitochondria of the three groups of animals using succinate as a substrate revealed that the P/O ratio tends to decrease in animals kept at 6 degrees C while the RCR value was not altered by changing conditions or produced by the different diets. At the temperature of 6 degrees C both the P/O ratios and the RCR values of liver mitochondria using succinate as a substrate decreased in the group of rabbits fed the basal and iodine diets, but were not significantly different in the group fed the PTU diet. In the experiment on kidney mitochondrial activity using alpha-ketoglutarate as a substrate it was found that both the P/O ratios and the RCR values from animals fed basal and PTU diets at 6 degrees C decreased slightly as compared with animals fed at 20 degrees C and 34 degrees C. In liver mitochondria, using alpha-ketoglutarate as a substrate a significant decrease in the P/O ratio and the RCR value was found for both rabbits fed the basal and the iodine diets at 6 degrees C. In the group of rabbits fed the PTU diet, the P/O ratio also decreased but the fall was not significant. These results suggested that the activity of succinate dehydrogenase in liver mitochondria increases in animals fed basal and iodine diets at 6 degrees C. The enzyme dehydrogenase involved in oxidation of alpha-ketoglutarate which is localized in the outer membrane of mitochondria seems to be affected by different temperatures and diets as compared with succinate

  9. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from pigs and cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Vigre, Håkan; Enemark, Heidi L.


    The genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis from dairy cattle and pigs in Denmark was determined in the present study. Faecal samples from 1237 pigs and 1150 cattle originating from 50 sow herds and 50 dairy herds, respectively, were analysed for the presence of the two...... parasites by immunofluorescence microscopy. A large proportion of the (oo)cyst containing samples were selected for molecular characterization. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA locus and/or the HSP70 gene of 183 pig and 154 cattle isolates of Cryptosporidium revealed the presence of C....... suis, pig genotype II, C. parvum (cattle genotype), C. bovis, Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype and a novel C. suis-like genotype. For both cattle and pigs, a host age-related change in distribution of species/genotypes was observed. The zoonotic C. parvum (cattle genotype) was most prevalent in young...

  10. In vitro and in vivo studies of creatine monohydrate supplementation to Duroc and Landrace pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Jette F.; Bertram, Hanne Christine; Theil, Peter Kappel


    Duroc and Landrace pigs as well as primary myotubes from these breeds were used to investigate mechanisms behind differences in their response to creatine monohydrate (CMH). Pigs were supplemented with 0, 12.5, 25 or 50g CMH/d for 5 days (n=10 per treatment and breed). Plasma levels of creatine...... increased dose-dependently in both breeds, while muscle-creatine phosphate content increased only in the Duroc pigs. (1)H NMR metabolic profiling showed a tendency towards clustering according to CMH supplementation only among Duroc pigs, revealing a stronger response compared to Landrace pigs....... The abundance of insulin-like growth factor I and myostatin mRNA was decreased by CMH supplementation while that of type 1 IGF-receptor and creatine transporter was unaffected. Protein synthesis, increased in the myotubes from both breeds, indicating protein accretion, but no effect was observed on the m...

  11. Management practices associated with the carriage of Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at farm level. (United States)

    Vilar, María J; Virtanen, Sonja; Heinonen, Mari; Korkeala, Hannu


    Pigs are the most important reservoir of Yersinia enterocolitica infections in humans. Knowledge of farm management practices that contribute to the transmission of this bacterial species in pigs is essential to understand how to control this foodborne pathogen in food production. The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica, and other results obtained from an age trend analysis were used to estimate the on-farm risk of transmission of specific management practices for this pathogen in 30 pig farms in Finland. Log-linear analysis revealed that rearing pigs in pens without or with sparse amounts of bedding and buying piglets from more than one farm were the variables that contribute most to the occurrence of Y. enterocolitica. The study also found that using an all-in/all-out management system and supplying water of municipal origin were factors that might reduce the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica, and therefore the risk of transmission of Y. enterocolitica in pig farms.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katyshev A.I.


    Full Text Available Earlier, we had showed that isolated mitochondria from different organisms can import DNA. Exploiting this mechanism, we assessed the possibility of genes transfer in tobacco mitochondria in vitro and in vivo. Whereas homologous recombination is a rare occasion in higher plant nuclei, recombination between the large direct repeats in plant mitochondrial genome generates its multipartite structure. Following transfection of isolated organelles with constructs composed of a partial gfp gene flanked by mitochondrial DNA fragments, we showed the homologous recombination of imported DNA with the resident DNA and the integration of the reporter gene. The recombination yielded an insertion of a continuous exogenous DNA fragment including the gfp sequence and at least the 0.5 kb of the flanking sequence on each side. Using of transfection constructs carrying multiple sequences homologous to mitochondrial DNA could be suitable for insertion of a target gene into any region of the mitochondrial genome, which turns this approach to be of a general and methodical importance. Usually mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS level is under strict control of the antioxidant system including the Mn-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD. MnSOD is presented in multiple forms encoded by several genes in plants. Possibly, this enzyme, beside its catalytic function, fulfills as well some unknown biochemical functions. Thus, one of maize SOD enzymes (SOD3.4 could bind with mitochondrial DNA. Another SOD form (SOD3.1 is located in close proximity to mitochondrial respiratory complexes, where ROS are generated. To study possible physiological functions of this enzyme, we cloned the maize SOD3.1 gene. Compared to the SOD3.4, this enzyme didn't demonstrate DNA-binding activity. At the same time, SOD3.1 didn't show non-specific DNA-hydrolyzing activity as Cu/ZnSOD does. It means that this enzyme might have some DNA protective function. We made NtPcob-sod3.1-IGR

  13. Critical review evaluating the pig as a model for human nutritional physiology. (United States)

    Roura, Eugeni; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Le Huerou-Luron, Isabelle; de Jager, Nadia; Schuurman, Teun; Val-Laillet, David


    The present review examines the pig as a model for physiological studies in human subjects related to nutrient sensing, appetite regulation, gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota and nutritional neuroscience. The nutrient-sensing mechanisms regarding acids (sour), carbohydrates (sweet), glutamic acid (umami) and fatty acids are conserved between humans and pigs. In contrast, pigs show limited perception of high-intensity sweeteners and NaCl and sense a wider array of amino acids than humans. Differences on bitter taste may reflect the adaptation to ecosystems. In relation to appetite regulation, plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide-1 are similar in pigs and humans, while peptide YY in pigs is ten to twenty times higher and ghrelin two to five times lower than in humans. Pigs are an excellent model for human studies for vagal nerve function related to the hormonal regulation of food intake. Similarly, the study of gut barrier functions reveals conserved defence mechanisms between the two species particularly in functional permeability. However, human data are scant for some of the defence systems and nutritional programming. The pig model has been valuable for studying the changes in human microbiota following nutritional interventions. In particular, the use of human flora-associated pigs is a useful model for infants, but the long-term stability of the implanted human microbiota in pigs remains to be investigated. The similarity of the pig and human brain anatomy and development is paradigmatic. Brain explorations and therapies described in pig, when compared with available human data, highlight their value in nutritional neuroscience, particularly regarding functional neuroimaging techniques.

  14. Protein S-glutathionylation lowers superoxide/hydrogen peroxide release from skeletal muscle mitochondria through modification of complex I and inhibition of pyruvate uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Gill

    Full Text Available Protein S-glutathionylation is a reversible redox modification that regulates mitochondrial metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS production in liver and cardiac tissue. However, whether or not it controls ROS release from skeletal muscle mitochondria has not been explored. In the present study, we examined if chemically-induced protein S-glutathionylation could alter superoxide (O2●-/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 release from isolated muscle mitochondria. Disulfiram, a powerful chemical S-glutathionylation catalyst, was used to S-glutathionylate mitochondrial proteins and ascertain if it can alter ROS production. It was found that O2●-/H2O2 release rates from permeabilized muscle mitochondria decreased with increasing doses of disulfiram (100-500 μM. This effect was highest in mitochondria oxidizing succinate or palmitoyl-carnitine, where a ~80-90% decrease in the rate of ROS release was observed. Similar effects were detected in intact mitochondria respiring under state 4 conditions. Incubation of disulfiram-treated mitochondria with DTT (2 mM restored ROS release confirming that these effects were associated with protein S-glutathionylation. Disulfiram treatment also inhibited phosphorylating and proton leak-dependent respiration. Radiolabelled substrate uptake experiments demonstrated that disulfiram inhibited pyruvate import but had no effect on carnitine uptake. Immunoblot analysis of complex I revealed that it contained several protein S-glutathionylation targets including NDUSF1, a subunit required for NADH oxidation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that O2●-/H2O2 release from muscle mitochondria can be altered by protein S-glutathionylation. We attribute these changes to the protein S-glutathionylation complex I and inhibition of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier.

  15. Erythroid precursors from patients with low-risk myelodysplasia demonstrate ultrastructural features of enhanced autophagy of mitochondria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwerzijl, E. J.; Pol, H-W D.; Blom, N. R.; van der Want, J. J. L.; de Wolf, J. Thm; Vellenga, E.

    Recent studies in erythroid cells have shown that autophagy is an important process for the physiological clearance of mitochondria during terminal differentiation. However, autophagy also plays an important role in removing damaged and dysfunctional mitochondria. Defective mitochondria and impaired

  16. Extensive intestinal spirochaetosis in pigs challenged with Brachyspira pilosicoli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Boye, Mette; Møller, Kristian


    of the study). Mild mucosal reddening and flecks of pus characterized the gross lesions, while diffuse, catarrhal colitis was revealed microscopically in all animals. Intestinal spirochaetosis with moderate to densely packed end-attached B. pilosicoli organisms was revealed extensively on the mucosal surface...... of the large intestines by light microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization. This study is the first to report extensive intestinal spirochaetosis in pigs challenged with B. pilosicoli....

  17. Pigs in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.


    of public health, made me re-evaluate both what ‘public’ and what ‘health’ means in public health. In this commentary I provide a short personal account of that intellectual journey. I argue that entanglements between species make it urgent that public health scholars investigate the moral, socio......Animals are rare topics in public health science texts and speech despite the fact that animal bodies and lives are woven into the health of human populations, and vice versa. Years of ethnographic and documentary research – following pigs and their humans in and out of biomedical research – made......-economic, material, and bacterial passages between humans and animals that constitute the various publics of public health and profoundly shape the health of human and animal populations in a globalized world....

  18. Analysis of effects of 2,2',5,5'-tetracholorobiphenyl on the flux control in oxidative phosphorylation system in rat liver mitochondria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mildaziene, V.; Nauciene, Z.; Baniene, R.; Demin, O.V.; Krab, K.


    Modular kinetic analysis reveals that the environmental pollutant 2,2′,5,5′tetrachlorobiphenyl (2,2′,5,5′-TCB) affects a large number of steps in oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver mitochondria. 2,2′,5,5′-TCB increases membrane permeability to ions, and inhibits NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome

  19. Analyses of pig genomes provide insight into porcine demography and evolution (United States)

    Groenen, Martien A. M.; Archibald, Alan L.; Uenishi, Hirohide; Tuggle, Christopher K.; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Rothschild, Max F.; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire; Park, Chankyu; Milan, Denis; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Li, Shengting; Larkin, Denis M.; Kim, Heebal; Frantz, Laurent A. F.; Caccamo, Mario; Ahn, Hyeonju; Aken, Bronwen L.; Anselmo, Anna; Anthon, Christian; Auvil, Loretta; Badaoui, Bouabid; Beattie, Craig W.; Bendixen, Christian; Berman, Daniel; Blecha, Frank; Blomberg, Jonas; Bolund, Lars; Bosse, Mirte; Botti, Sara; Bujie, Zhan; Bystrom, Megan; Capitanu, Boris; Silva, Denise Carvalho; Chardon, Patrick; Chen, Celine; Cheng, Ryan; Choi, Sang-Haeng; Chow, William; Clark, Richard C.; Clee, Christopher; Crooijmans, Richard P. M. A.; Dawson, Harry D.; Dehais, Patrice; De Sapio, Fioravante; Dibbits, Bert; Drou, Nizar; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Eversole, Kellye; Fadista, João; Fairley, Susan; Faraut, Thomas; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Fowler, Katie E.; Fredholm, Merete; Fritz, Eric; Gilbert, James G. R.; Giuffra, Elisabetta; Gorodkin, Jan; Griffin, Darren K.; Harrow, Jennifer L.; Hayward, Alexander; Howe, Kerstin; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Humphray, Sean J.; Hunt, Toby; Hornshøj, Henrik; Jeon, Jin-Tae; Jern, Patric; Jones, Matthew; Jurka, Jerzy; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Kapetanovic, Ronan; Kim, Jaebum; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Tae-Hun; Larson, Greger; Lee, Kyooyeol; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Leggett, Richard; Lewin, Harris A.; Li, Yingrui; Liu, Wansheng; Loveland, Jane E.; Lu, Yao; Lunney, Joan K.; Ma, Jian; Madsen, Ole; Mann, Katherine; Matthews, Lucy; McLaren, Stuart; Morozumi, Takeya; Murtaugh, Michael P.; Narayan, Jitendra; Nguyen, Dinh Truong; Ni, Peixiang; Oh, Song-Jung; Onteru, Suneel; Panitz, Frank; Park, Eung-Woo; Park, Hong-Seog; Pascal, Geraldine; Paudel, Yogesh; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Reecy, James M.; Zas, Sandra Rodriguez; Rohrer, Gary A.; Rund, Lauretta; Sang, Yongming; Schachtschneider, Kyle; Schraiber, Joshua G.; Schwartz, John; Scobie, Linda; Scott, Carol; Searle, Stephen; Servin, Bertrand; Southey, Bruce R.; Sperber, Goran; Stadler, Peter; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Tafer, Hakim; Thomsen, Bo; Wali, Rashmi; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; White, Simon; Xu, Xun; Yerle, Martine; Zhang, Guojie; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Shuhong; Rogers, Jane; Churcher, Carol; Schook, Lawrence B.


    For 10,000 years pigs and humans have shared a close and complex relationship. From domestication to modern breeding practices, humans have shaped the genomes of domestic pigs. Here we present the assembly and analysis of the genome sequence of a female domestic Duroc pig (Sus scrofa) and a comparison with the genomes of wild and domestic pigs from Europe and Asia. Wild pigs emerged in South East Asia and subsequently spread across Eurasia. Our results reveal a deep phylogenetic split between European and Asian wild boars ~1 million years ago, and a selective sweep analysis indicates selection on genes involved in RNA processing and regulation. Genes associated with immune response and olfaction exhibit fast evolution. Pigs have the largest repertoire of functional olfactory receptor genes, reflecting the importance of smell in this scavenging animal. The pig genome sequence provides an important resource for further improvements of this important livestock species, and our identification of many putative disease-causing variants extends the potential of the pig as a biomedical model. PMID:23151582

  20. Enamel microstructure and microstrain in the fracture of human and pig molar cusps. (United States)

    Popowics, T E; Rensberger, J M; Herring, S W


    The role of microstructure in enamel strain and breakage was investigated in human molar cusps and those of the pig, Sus scrofa. Rosette strain gauges were affixed to cusp surfaces (buccal human M3, n=15, and lingual pig M1, n=13), and a compressive load was applied to individual cusps using an MTS materials testing machine. Load and strain data were recorded simultaneously until cusp fracture, and these data were used to estimate enamel stresses, principal strains, and stiffness. Fractured and polished enamel fragments were examined in multiple planes using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Human cusp enamel showed greater stiffness than pig enamel (P=0.02), and tensile stress at yield was higher (17.9 N/mm2 in humans versus 8.9 N/mm2 in pigs, P=0.06). SEM revealed enamel rod decussation in both human and pig enamel; however, only pig enamel showed a decussation plane between rod and inter-rod crystallites. Human inter-rod enamel was densely packed between rods, whereas in pig enamel, inter-rod enamel formed partitions between rows of enamel rods. Overall, human enamel structure enabled molar cusps to withstand horizontal tensile stress during both elastic and plastic phases of compressive loading. In contrast, pig cusp enamel was less resistant to horizontal tensile stresses, but appeared to fortify the enamel against crack propagation in multiple directions. These structural and biomechanical differences in cusp enamel are likely to reflect species-level differences in occlusal function.

  1. Molecular cloning, expression, and in silico structural analysis of guinea pig IL-17. (United States)

    Dirisala, Vijaya R; Jeevan, Amminikutty; Ramasamy, Suresh K; McMurray, David N


    Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine and the signature cytokine of Th17 cells, a subset which is involved in cytokine and chemokine production, neutrophil recruitment, promotion of T cell priming, and antibody production. IL-17 may play an important role in tuberculosis and other infectious diseases. In preparation for investigating its role in the highly relevant guinea pig model of pulmonary tuberculosis, we cloned guinea pig IL-17A for the first time. The complete coding sequence of the guinea pig IL-17A gene (477 nucleotides; 159 amino acids) was subcloned into a prokaryotic expression vector (pET-30a) resulting in the expression of a 17 kDa recombinant guinea pig IL-17A protein which was confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. Homology modeling of guinea pig IL-17A revealed that the three-dimensional structure resembles that of human IL-17A. The secondary structure predicted for this protein showed the presence of one extra helix in the N-terminal region. The expression profile of IL-17A was analyzed quantitatively in spleen, lymph node, and lung cells from BCG-vaccinated guinea pigs by real-time PCR. The guinea pig IL-17A cDNA and its recombinant protein will serve as valuable tools for molecular and immunological studies in the guinea pig model of pulmonary TB and other human diseases.

  2. Molecular cloning and expression of the calmodulin gene from guinea pig hearts. (United States)

    Feng, Rui; Liu, Yan; Sun, Xuefei; Wang, Yan; Hu, Huiyuan; Guo, Feng; Zhao, Jinsheng; Hao, Liying


    The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone encoding the calmodulin (CaM; GenBank accession no. FJ012165) gene from guinea pig hearts. The CaM gene was amplified from cDNA collected from guinea pig hearts and inserted into a pGEM®-T Easy vector. Subsequently, CaM nucleotide and protein sequence similarity analysis was conducted between guinea pigs and other species. In addition, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to investigate the CaM 3 expression patterns in different guinea pig tissues. Sequence analysis revealed that the CaM gene isolated from the guinea pig heart had ∼90% sequence identity with the CaM 3 genes in humans, mice and rats. Furthermore, the deduced peptide sequences of CaM 3 in the guinea pig showed 100% homology to the CaM proteins from other species. In addition, the RT-PCR results indicated that CaM 3 was widely and differentially expressed in guinea pigs. In conclusion, the current study provided valuable information with regard to the cloning and expression of CaM 3 in guinea pig hearts. These findings may be helpful for understanding the function of CaM3 and the possible role of CaM3 in cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Comparative analysis of detection methods for congenital cytomegalovirus infection in a Guinea pig model. (United States)

    Park, Albert H; Mann, David; Error, Marc E; Miller, Matthew; Firpo, Matthew A; Wang, Yong; Alder, Stephen C; Schleiss, Mark R


    To assess the validity of the guinea pig as a model for congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection by comparing the effectiveness of detecting the virus by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in blood, urine, and saliva. Case-control study. Academic research. Eleven pregnant Hartley guinea pigs. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected from guinea pig pups delivered from pregnant dams inoculated with guinea pig CMV. These samples were then evaluated for the presence of guinea pig CMV by real-time PCR assuming 100% transmission. Thirty-one pups delivered from 9 inoculated pregnant dams and 8 uninfected control pups underwent testing for guinea pig CMV and for auditory brainstem response hearing loss. Repeated-measures analysis of variance demonstrated no statistically significantly lower weight for the infected pups compared with the noninfected control pups. Six infected pups demonstrated auditory brainstem response hearing loss. The sensitivity and specificity of the real-time PCR assay on saliva samples were 74.2% and 100.0%, respectively. The sensitivity of the real-time PCR on blood and urine samples was significantly lower than that on saliva samples. Real-time PCR assays of blood, urine, and saliva revealed that saliva samples show high sensitivity and specificity for detecting congenital CMV infection in guinea pigs. This finding is consistent with recent screening studies in human newborns. The guinea pig may be a good animal model in which to compare different diagnostic assays for congenital CMV infection.

  4. Molecular cloning, sequence identification and expression profile of domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus UGT1A1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Deming


    Full Text Available Domestic guinea pig is a model animal for human disease research. Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1 is an important human disease-related gene. In this study, the complete coding sequence of domestic guinea pig gene UGT1A1 was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The open reading frame of the domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 gene is 1602 bp in length and was found to encode a protein of 533 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that the UGT1A1 protein of domestic guinea pig shared high homology with the UGT1A1 proteins of degu (84%, damara mole-rat (84%, human (80%, northern white-cheeked gibbon (80%, Colobus angolensis palliatus (80% and golden snub-nosed monkey (79%. This gene contains five exons and four introns, as revealed by the computer-assisted analysis. The results also showed that the domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 gene had a close genetic relationship with the UGT1A1 gene of degu. The prediction of transmembrane helices showed that domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 might be a transmembrane protein. Expression profile analysis indicated that the domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 gene was differentially expressed in detected domestic guinea pig tissues. Our experiment laid a primary foundation for using the domestic guinea pig as a model animal to study the UGT1A1-related human diseases.

  5. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farlen José Bebber Miranda


    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain. Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis.

  6. Mitochondria can Power Cells to Life and Death

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    molecular basis of pathogenicity and ... Mitochondria were discovered by R Altman in 1890 and the word was coined ... Diabetes mellitus ... 2 x 103 per cell) depending upon where and in which tissue they exist. They can .... is released, which then gears up other types of caspases to orchestrate .... Cellular Biology, CDFD.

  7. Rejuvenating cellular respiration for optimizing respiratory function: targeting mitochondria. (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan


    Altered bioenergetics with increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and degradation of epithelial function are key aspects of pathogenesis in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This motif is not unique to obstructive airway disease, reported in related airway diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and parenchymal diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis. Similarly, mitochondrial dysfunction in vascular endothelium or skeletal muscles contributes to the development of pulmonary hypertension and systemic manifestations of lung disease. In experimental models of COPD or asthma, the use of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, such as MitoQ, has substantially improved mitochondrial health and restored respiratory function. Modulation of noncoding RNA or protein regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, or degradation has been found to be effective in models of fibrosis, emphysema, asthma, and pulmonary hypertension. Transfer of healthy mitochondria to epithelial cells has been associated with remarkable therapeutic efficacy in models of acute lung injury and asthma. Together, these form a 3R model--repair, reprogramming, and replacement--for mitochondria-targeted therapies in lung disease. This review highlights the key role of mitochondrial function in lung health and disease, with a focus on asthma and COPD, and provides an overview of mitochondria-targeted strategies for rejuvenating cellular respiration and optimizing respiratory function in lung diseases. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Mitochondria as Pharmacological Targets: The Discovery of Novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When food intake chronically exceeds the body's energy need, an efficient metabolism results in the storage of the excess energy as fat. Mitochondria are the main centre for energy production in eukaryotic cells. Mitochondrial proton cycling is responsible for a significant proportion of basal or standard metabolic rate, ...

  9. Mitochondria and aging: innocent bystanders or guilty parties? (United States)

    Tońska, K; Sołyga, A; Bartnik, E


    There are many theories of aging and a number of them encompass the role of mitochondria in this process. Mitochondrial DNA mutations and deletions have been shown to accumulate in many tissues in mammals during aging. However, there is little evidence that these mutations could affect the functioning of aging tissues.

  10. Atorvastatin affects negatively respiratory function of isolated endothelial mitochondria. (United States)

    Broniarek, Izabela; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa


    The purpose of this research was to elucidate the direct effects of two popular blood cholesterol-lowering drugs used to treat cardiovascular diseases, atorvastatin and pravastatin, on respiratory function, membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species formation in mitochondria isolated from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926 cell line). Hydrophilic pravastatin did not significantly affect endothelial mitochondria function. In contrast, hydrophobic calcium-containing atorvastatin induced a loss of outer mitochondrial membrane integrity, an increase in hydrogen peroxide formation, and reductions in maximal (phosphorylating or uncoupled) respiratory rate, membrane potential and oxidative phosphorylation efficiency. The atorvastatin-induced changes indicate an impairment of mitochondrial function at the level of ATP synthesis and at the level of the respiratory chain, likely at complex I and complex III. The atorvastatin action on endothelial mitochondria was highly dependent on calcium ions and led to a disturbance in mitochondrial calcium homeostasis. Uptake of calcium ions included in atorvastatin molecule induced mitochondrial uncoupling that enhanced the inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain by atorvastatin. Our results indicate that hydrophobic calcium-containing atorvastatin, widely used as anti-atherosclerotic agent, has a direct negative action on isolated endothelial mitochondria. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Mitochondria: An intriguing target for killing tumour-initiating cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yan, B.; Dong, L.; Neužil, Jiří


    Roč. 26, JAN 2016 (2016), s. 86-93 ISSN 1567-7249 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Tumour-initiating cells * ALPHA-TOCOPHERYL SUCCINATE * Therapeutic resistance * Mitochondria Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.704, year: 2016

  12. Conserved genes encode guide RNAs in mitochondria of Crithidia fasciculata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, H.; Arts, G. J.; Zwaal, R. R.; van den Burg, J.; Sloof, P.; Benne, R.


    RNA editing is the post-transcriptional alteration of the nucleotide sequence of RNA, which in trypanosome mitochondria is characterized by the insertion and deletion of uridine residues. It has recently been proposed that the information for the sequence alteration in Leishmania tarentolae is

  13. Aprataxin localizes to mitochondria and preserves mitochondrial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sykora, Peter; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A


    aborted ligation reactions. We report herein that aprataxin localizes to mitochondria in human cells and we identify an N-terminal amino acid sequence that targets certain isoforms of the protein to this intracellular compartment. We also show that transcripts encoding this unique N-terminal stretch...

  14. Phosphorylation of formate dehydrogenase in potato tuber mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bykova, N.V.; Stensballe, A.; Egsgaard, H.


    Two highly phosphorylated proteins were detected after two-dimensional (blue native/SDS-PAGE) gel electrophoretic separation of the matrix fraction isolated from potato tuber mitochondria. These two phosphoproteins were identified by mass spectrometry as formate dehydrogenase (FDH) and the E1alpha...

  15. Mitochondria mediate septin cage assembly to promote autophagy of Shigella. (United States)

    Sirianni, Andrea; Krokowski, Sina; Lobato-Márquez, Damián; Buranyi, Stephen; Pfanzelter, Julia; Galea, Dieter; Willis, Alexandra; Culley, Siân; Henriques, Ricardo; Larrouy-Maumus, Gerald; Hollinshead, Michael; Sancho-Shimizu, Vanessa; Way, Michael; Mostowy, Serge


    Septins, cytoskeletal proteins with well-characterised roles in cytokinesis, form cage-like structures around cytosolic Shigella flexneri and promote their targeting to autophagosomes. However, the processes underlying septin cage assembly, and whether they influence S. flexneri proliferation, remain to be established. Using single-cell analysis, we show that the septin cages inhibit S. flexneri proliferation. To study mechanisms of septin cage assembly, we used proteomics and found mitochondrial proteins associate with septins in S. flexneri-infected cells. Strikingly, mitochondria associated with S. flexneri promote septin assembly into cages that entrap bacteria for autophagy. We demonstrate that the cytosolic GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) interacts with septins to enhance mitochondrial fission. To avoid autophagy, actin-polymerising Shigella fragment mitochondria to escape from septin caging. Our results demonstrate a role for mitochondria in anti-Shigella autophagy and uncover a fundamental link between septin assembly and mitochondria. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  16. Lupeol induces S-phase arrest and mitochondria-mediated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Lupeol induces S-phase arrest and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Nupoor Prasad1, Akash Sabarwal2, Umesh C. S. Yadav1, Rana P. Singh2,*. 1School of Life Sciences, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. 2Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal ...

  17. Mitochondria-targeted vitamin E analogs inhibit breast cancer cell energy metabolism and promote cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Gang; Zielonka, Jacek; McAllister, Donna M; Mackinnon, A Craig Jr; Joseph, Joy; Dwinell, Michael B; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman


    Recent research has revealed that targeting mitochondrial bioenergetic metabolism is a promising chemotherapeutic strategy. Key to successful implementation of this chemotherapeutic strategy is the use of new and improved mitochondria-targeted cationic agents that selectively inhibit energy metabolism in breast cancer cells, while exerting little or no long-term cytotoxic effect in normal cells. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and alterations in bioenergetic metabolism induced by mitochondria-targeted vitamin E analog (Mito-chromanol, Mito-ChM) and its acetylated ester analog (Mito-ChMAc). Assays of cell death, colony formation, mitochondrial bioenergetic function, intracellular ATP levels, intracellular and tissue concentrations of tested compounds, and in vivo tumor growth were performed. Both Mito-ChM and Mito-ChMAc selectively depleted intracellular ATP and caused prolonged inhibition of ATP-linked oxygen consumption rate in breast cancer cells, but not in non-cancerous cells. These effects were significantly augmented by inhibition of glycolysis. Mito-ChM and Mito-ChMAc exhibited anti-proliferative effects and cytotoxicity in several breast cancer cells with different genetic background. Furthermore, Mito-ChM selectively accumulated in tumor tissue and inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft model of human breast cancer. We conclude that mitochondria-targeted small molecular weight chromanols exhibit selective anti-proliferative effects and cytotoxicity in multiple breast cancer cells, and that esterification of the hydroxyl group in mito-chromanols is not a critical requirement for its anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effect

  18. Zinc-dependent multi-conductance channel activity in mitochondria isolated from ischemic brain. (United States)

    Bonanni, Laura; Chachar, Mushtaque; Jover-Mengual, Teresa; Li, Hongmei; Jones, Adrienne; Yokota, Hidenori; Ofengeim, Dimitry; Flannery, Richard J; Miyawaki, Takahiro; Cho, Chang-Hoon; Polster, Brian M; Pypaert, Marc; Hardwick, J Marie; Sensi, Stefano L; Zukin, R Suzanne; Jonas, Elizabeth A


    Transient global ischemia is a neuronal insult that induces delayed cell death. A hallmark event in the early post-ischemic period is enhanced permeability of mitochondrial membranes. The precise mechanisms by which mitochondrial function is disrupted are, as yet, unclear. Here we show that global ischemia promotes alterations in mitochondrial membrane contact points, a rise in intramitochondrial Zn2+, and activation of large, multi-conductance channels in mitochondrial outer membranes by 1 h after insult. Mitochondrial channel activity was associated with enhanced protease activity and proteolytic cleavage of BCL-xL to generate its pro-death counterpart, deltaN-BCL-xL. The findings implicate deltaN-BCL-xL in large, multi-conductance channel activity. Consistent with this, large channel activity was mimicked by introduction of recombinant deltaN-BCL-xL to control mitochondria and blocked by introduction of a functional BCL-xL antibody to post-ischemic mitochondria via the patch pipette. Channel activity was also inhibited by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, indicative of a role for the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) of the outer mitochondrial membrane. In vivo administration of the membrane-impermeant Zn2+ chelator CaEDTA before ischemia or in vitro application of the membrane-permeant Zn2+ chelator tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine attenuated channel activity, suggesting a requirement for Zn2+. These findings reveal a novel mechanism by which ischemic insults disrupt the functional integrity of the outer mitochondrial membrane and implicate deltaN-BCL-xL and VDAC in the large, Zn2+-dependent mitochondrial channels observed in post-ischemic hippocampal mitochondria.

  19. Ovarian ageing: the role of mitochondria in oocytes and follicles. (United States)

    May-Panloup, Pascale; Boucret, Lisa; Chao de la Barca, Juan-Manuel; Desquiret-Dumas, Valérie; Ferré-L'Hotellier, Véronique; Morinière, Catherine; Descamps, Philippe; Procaccio, Vincent; Reynier, Pascal


    There is a great inter-individual variability of ovarian ageing, and almost 20% of patients consulting for infertility show signs of premature ovarian ageing. This feature, taken together with delayed childbearing in modern society, leads to the emergence of age-related ovarian dysfunction concomitantly with the desire for pregnancy. Assisted reproductive technology is frequently inefficacious in cases of ovarian ageing, thus raising the economic, medical and societal costs of the procedures. Ovarian ageing is characterized by quantitative and qualitative alteration of the ovarian oocyte reserve. Mitochondria play a central role in follicular atresia and could be the main target of the ooplasmic factors determining oocyte quality adversely affected by ageing. Indeed, the oocyte is the richest cell of the body in mitochondria and depends largely on these organelles to acquire competence for fertilization and early embryonic development. Moreover, the oocyte ensures the uniparental transmission and stability of the mitochondrial genome across the generations. This review focuses on the role played by mitochondria in ovarian ageing and on the possible consequences over the generations. PubMed was used to search the MEDLINE database for peer-reviewed original articles and reviews concerning mitochondria and ovarian ageing, in animal and human species. Searches were performed using keywords belonging to three groups: 'mitochondria' or 'mitochondrial DNA'; 'ovarian reserve', 'oocyte', 'ovary' or 'cumulus cells'; and 'ageing' or 'ovarian ageing'. These keywords were combined with other search phrases relevant to the topic. References from these articles were used to obtain additional articles. There is a close relationship, in mammalian models and humans, between mitochondria and the decline of oocyte quality with ageing. Qualitatively, ageing-related mitochondrial (mt) DNA instability, which leads to the accumulation of mtDNA mutations in the oocyte, plays a key role in

  20. The energetic state of mitochondria modulates complex III biogenesis through the ATP-dependent activity of Bcs1. (United States)

    Ostojić, Jelena; Panozzo, Cristina; Lasserre, Jean-Paul; Nouet, Cécile; Courtin, Florence; Blancard, Corinne; di Rago, Jean-Paul; Dujardin, Geneviève


    Our understanding of the mechanisms involved in mitochondrial biogenesis has continuously expanded during the last decades, yet little is known about how they are modulated to optimize the functioning of mitochondria. Here, we show that mutations in the ATP binding domain of Bcs1, a chaperone involved in the assembly of complex III, can be rescued by mutations that decrease the ATP hydrolytic activity of the ATP synthase. Our results reveal a Bcs1-mediated control loop in which the biogenesis of complex III is modulated by the energy-transducing activity of mitochondria. Although ATP is well known as a regulator of a number of cellular activities, we show here that ATP can be also used to modulate the biogenesis of an enzyme by controlling a specific chaperone involved in its assembly. Our study further highlights the intramitochondrial adenine nucleotide pool as a potential target for the treatment of Bcs1-based disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of functionally important amino acid residues in the mitochondria targeting sequence of Hepatitis B virus X protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sai Kam; Ho, Sai Fan; Tsui, Kwok Wing; Fung, Kwok Pui; Waye, M.Y. Mary


    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been strongly associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the X protein (HBx) is thought to mediate the cellular changes associated with carcinogenesis. Recently, isolation of the hepatitis B virus integrants from HCC tissue by others have established the fact that the X gene is often truncated at its C-terminus. Expression of the GFP fusion proteins of HBx and its truncation mutants with a GFP tag in human liver cell-lines in this study revealed that the C-terminus of HBx is indispensable for its specific localization in the mitochondria. A crucial region of seven amino acids at the C-terminus has been mapped out in which the cysteine residue at position 115 serves as the most important residue for the subcellular localization. When cysteine 115 of HBx is mutated to alanine the mitochondria targeting property of HBx is abrogated

  2. Basic pulmonary function tests in pig farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuričić Slaviša M.


    pulmonary function tests are shown in table 2. The values of FEV1 and FVC in each groups were between 92% and 97% of predicted values, and FEV1/FVCx100 was not lower than 82%. There were no differences in the average values of FEV1 (p=0.574 and FEV1 % predicted (p=0.653 between pig farmers and control subjects. Pearson coefficient of correlation and Spearman nonparametric correlation test revealed a high level of correlation of FEV1 values with sex and age and no correlation of pig farming exposure with cigarette smoking as predictor variables (Table 3. The analysis by linear regression method showed that all examined predictor variables had the effect on the value of FEV1 (Table 4. After the elimination of the two least significant predictor variables it was possible to make the equation for prediction of FEV1 values. DISCUSSION In the present study there are no significant alterations in the values of the basic pulmonary function tests in pig farmers. In the majority of previous similar studies the differences in the average values of FEV1 and FVC between pig farmers and control subjects were also not found. However, in some studies the alterations in several more specific lung function parameters were registered. The decreased values of FEV1 during workshift were also found and they are probably connected to the bronchial hyper reactivity registered in many studies in pig farmers. Longer exposure to swine confinement environment caused more decline in FEV1 and FVC and accelerated mean age-related annual decline in FEV1 was observed reaching to 44 ml/yrs more than expected. The correlations between values of FEV, with pig farming exposure and cigarette smoking in this study were not found. However, the analysis by linear regression method showed that all examined predictor variables had the effect on the value of FEV1. In a few previous bronchoscopic, BAL, and sputum studies some signs of inflammation and morphological changes of the respiratory tract were observed. The

  3. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica in Pigs Slaughtered in Chinese Abattoirs (United States)

    Liang, Junrong; Wang, Xin; Xiao, Yuchun; Cui, Zhigang; Xia, Shengli; Hao, Qiong; Yang, Jinchuan; Luo, Longze; Wang, Shukun; Li, Kewei; Yang, Haoshu; Gu, Wenpeng; Xu, Jianguo; Kan, Biao


    The distribution of Yersinia enterocolitica in slaughtered pigs in China was studied. A total of 8,773 samples were collected and examined from different pig abattoirs in 11 provinces from 2009 to 2011. Of these, 4,495 were oral-pharyngeal swab (tonsils) samples from pigs, 1,239 were from intestinal contents, and 3,039 were feces samples from abattoirs or local pigpens. The data showed that 1,132 strains were obtained, from which the isolation rate for Yersinia enterocolitica was 19.53% (878/4,495) from the tonsil samples, 7.51% (93/1,239) from intestinal contents, and 5.30% (161/3,039) from feces. Of the 850 pathogenic Yersinia strains, except for three of bioserotype 2/O:9 and three of bioserotype 4/O:3, most (844/850) were of bioserotype 3/O:3. Interestingly, pathogenic Y. enterocolitica accounted for the majority of the isolated strains from most provinces (85.17% to 100%), whereas from Heilongjiang, 96.52% (111/115) were classified as nonpathogenic biotype 1A with various serotypes, and only 3.48% of the strains (4/115) were pathogenic 3/O:3. All of the pathogenic strains were analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and 49 patterns were obtained for the O:3 pathogenic strains; most of them were K6GN11C30021 (53.13%: 450/847) and K6GN11C30012 (21.37%: 181/847). Several strains from diarrhea patient samples revealed PFGE patterns identical to that from samples of local pigs, suggesting a possible link between porcine isolates and human infection. The results above suggested that Yersinia enterocolitica in slaughtered pigs from Chinese abattoirs was characterized by region-specific PFGE patterns and confirmed that strains isolated from pigs are closely related to those from human infections. PMID:22327599

  4. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Haider, N; Khan, M S U; Hossain, M B; Sazzad, H M S; Rahman, M Z; Ahmed, F; Zeidner, N S


    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare the history of jaundice between pig handlers and people not exposed to pigs and pork. Blood and faecal samples were collected from 100 pigs derived from three slaughterhouses in the Gazipur district of Bangladesh from January to June, 2011. We also interviewed 200 pig handlers and 250 non-exposed people who did not eat pork or handled pigs in the past 2 years. We tested the pig sera for HEV-specific antibodies using a competitive ELISA and pig faecal samples for HEV RNA using real-time RT-PCR. Of 100 pig sera, 82% (n = 82) had detectable antibody against HEV. Of the 200 pig handlers, 28% (56/200) demonstrated jaundice within the past 2 years, whereas only 17% (43/250) of controls had a history of jaundice (p Bangladesh demonstrated evidence of HEV infection, and a history of jaundice was significantly more frequent in pig handlers. Identifying and genotyping HEV in pigs and pig handlers may provide further evidence of the pig's role in zoonotic HEV transmission in Bangladesh. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Genome Wide Distributions and Functional Characterization of Copy Number Variations between Chinese and Western Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyang Wang

    Full Text Available Copy number variations (CNVs refer to large insertions, deletions and duplications in the genomic structure ranging from one thousand to several million bases in size. Since the development of next generation sequencing technology, several methods have been well built for detection of copy number variations with high credibility and accuracy. Evidence has shown that CNV occurring in gene region could lead to phenotypic changes due to the alteration in gene structure and dosage. However, it still remains unexplored whether CNVs underlie the phenotypic differences between Chinese and Western domestic pigs. Based on the read-depth methods, we investigated copy number variations using 49 individuals derived from both Chinese and Western pig breeds. A total of 3,131 copy number variation regions (CNVRs were identified with an average size of 13.4 Kb in all individuals during domestication, harboring 1,363 genes. Among them, 129 and 147 CNVRs were Chinese and Western pig specific, respectively. Gene functional enrichments revealed that these CNVRs contribute to strong disease resistance and high prolificacy in Chinese domestic pigs, but strong muscle tissue development in Western domestic pigs. This finding is strongly consistent with the morphologic characteristics of Chinese and Western pigs, indicating that these group-specific CNVRs might have been preserved by artificial selection for the favored phenotypes during independent domestication of Chinese and Western pigs. In this study, we built high-resolution CNV maps in several domestic pig breeds and discovered the group specific CNVs by comparing Chinese and Western pigs, which could provide new insight into genomic variations during pigs' independent domestication, and facilitate further functional studies of CNV-associated genes.

  6. Coat colour phenotype of Qingyu pig is associated with polymorphisms of melanocortin receptor 1 gene. (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoqian; Tan, Zhendong; Shen, Linyuan; Yang, Qiong; Cheng, Xiao; Liao, Kun; Bai, Lin; Shuai, Surong; Li, Mingzhou; Li, Xuewei; Zhang, Shunhua; Zhu, Li


    Qingyu pig, a Chinese indigenous pig breed, exhibits two types of coat colour phenotypes, including pure black and white with black spotting respectively. Melanocortin receptor 1 ( MC1R ) and agouti signaling protein ( ASIP ) are two widely reported pivotal genes that significantly affect the regulation of coat colour. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the polymorphisms of these two genes are associated with coat colour and analyze the molecular mechanism of the coat colour separation in Qingyu pig. We studied the phenotype segregation and used polymerase chain reaction amplification and Sanger sequencing to investigate the polymorphism of MC1R and ASIP in 121 Qingyu pigs, consisting of 115 black and 6 white with black spotted pigs. Coat colour of Qingyu pig is associated with the polymorphisms of MC1R but not ASIP . We only found 2 haplotypes, E QY and E qy , based on the 13 observed mutations from MC1R gene. Among which, E qy presented a recessive inheritance mode in black spotted Qingyu pigs. Further analysis revealed a g.462-463CC insertion that caused a frameshift mutation and a premature stop codon, thus changed the first transmembrane domain completely and lost the remaining six transmembrane domains. Altogether, our results strongly support that the variety of Qingyu pig's coat colour is related to MC1R . Our findings indicated that black coat colour in Qingyu pig was dominant to white with black spotted phenotype and MC1R gene polymorphism was associated with coat colour separation in Qingyu pig.

  7. Do the mitochondria of malaria parasites behave like the phoenix after return in the mosquito? Regeneration of degenerated mitochondria is required for successful Plasmodium infection. (United States)

    Bongaerts, Ger


    Mitochondria are energy generators in eukaryotic organisms like man and the pathogenic malaria parasites, the Plasmodium spp. From the moment a mosquito-mediated malaria infection occurs in man the parasite multiplies profusely, but eventually the oxygen supply becomes the limiting factor in this process. Consequently, the parasite will increasingly generate energy (and lactic acid) from sugar fermentation. Simultaneously, the cristate structure of Plasmodium mitochondria degenerates and becomes acristate. The degenerated acristate mitochondria of mammalian Plasmodium parasites seem to be able to revitalise by transforming to cristate mitochondria inside the oxygen-rich mosquito, like the rebirth of the old phoenix. In this way the infectivity of the parasite is revitalised.

  8. Dosis Facit Sanitatem—Concentration-Dependent Effects of Resveratrol on Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina T. Madreiter-Sokolowski


    Full Text Available The naturally occurring polyphenol, resveratrol (RSV, is known for a broad range of actions. These include a positive impact on lifespan and health, but also pro-apoptotic anti-cancer properties. Interestingly, cell culture experiments have revealed a strong impact of RSV on mitochondrial function. The compound was demonstrated to affect mitochondrial respiration, structure and mass of mitochondria as well as mitochondrial membrane potential and, ultimately, mitochondria-associated cell death pathways. Notably, the mitochondrial effects of RSV show a very strict and remarkable concentration dependency: At low concentrations, RSV (<50 μM fosters cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms, activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK- and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1-linked pathways and enhances mitochondrial network formation. These mechanisms crucially contribute to the cytoprotective effects of RSV against toxins and disease-related damage, in vitro and in vivo. However, at higher concentrations, RSV (>50 μM triggers changes in (sub-cellular Ca2+ homeostasis, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspases selectively yielding apoptotic cancer cell death, in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we discuss the promising therapeutic potential of RSV, which is most probably related to the compound’s concentration-dependent manipulation of mitochondrial function and structure.

  9. Purification, kinetic behavior, and regulation of NAD(P)+ malic enzyme of tumor mitochondria. (United States)

    Moreadith, R W; Lehninger, A L


    The purification and kinetic characterization of an NAD(P)+-malic enzyme from 22aH mouse hepatoma mitochondria are described. The enzyme was purified 328-fold with a final yield of 51% and specific activity of 38.1 units/mg of protein by employing DEAE-cellulose chromatography and an ATP affinity column. Sephadex G-200 chromatography yielded a native Mr = 240,000. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a major subunit with Mr = 61,000, suggesting a tetrameric structure, and also showed that the preparation contained less than 10% polypeptide impurities. Use of the ATP affinity column required the presence of MnCl2 and fumarate (an allosteric activator) in the elution buffers. In the absence of fumarate, the Michaelis constants for malate, NAD+, and NADP+ were 3.6 mM, 55 microM, and 72 microM, respectively; in the presence of fumarate (2 mM), the constants were 0.34 mM, 9 microM, and 13 microM, respectively. ATP was shown to be an allosteric inhibitor, competitive with malate. However, the inhibition by ATP displayed hyperbolic competitive kinetics with a KI (ATP) of 80 microM (minus fumarate) and 0.5 mM (plus 2 mM fumarate). The allosteric properties of the enzyme are integrated into a rationale for its specific role in the pathways of malate and glutamate oxidation in tumor mitochondria.

  10. Shikonin Directly Targets Mitochondria and Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Wiench


    Full Text Available Chemotherapy is a mainstay of cancer treatment. Due to increased drug resistance and the severe side effects of currently used therapeutics, new candidate compounds are required for improvement of therapy success. Shikonin, a natural naphthoquinone, was used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of different inflammatory diseases and recent studies revealed the anticancer activities of shikonin. We found that shikonin has strong cytotoxic effects on 15 cancer cell lines, including multidrug-resistant cell lines. Transcriptome-wide mRNA expression studies showed that shikonin induced genetic pathways regulating cell cycle, mitochondrial function, levels of reactive oxygen species, and cytoskeletal formation. Taking advantage of the inherent fluorescence of shikonin, we analyzed its uptake and distribution in live cells with high spatial and temporal resolution using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Shikonin was specifically accumulated in the mitochondria, and this accumulation was associated with a shikonin-dependent deregulation of cellular Ca2+ and ROS levels. This deregulation led to a breakdown of the mitochondrial membrane potential, dysfunction of microtubules, cell-cycle arrest, and ultimately induction of apoptosis. Seeing as both the metabolism and the structure of mitochondria show marked differences between cancer cells and normal cells, shikonin is a promising candidate for the next generation of chemotherapy.

  11. Using Pig skin to treat Burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katebe, R.


    The paper discusses the use of irradiated Pig Skin for the treatment of Burns, traumatic dermal denudations and poorly healing Decubitus ulcers. It gives a brief history of Pig skin use its characteristics

  12. Mitochondria, Energetics, Epigenetics, and Cellular Responses to Stress (United States)

    McAllister, Kimberly; Worth, Leroy; Haugen, Astrid C.; Meyer, Joel N.; Domann, Frederick E.; Van Houten, Bennett; Mostoslavsky, Raul; Bultman, Scott J.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Begley, Thomas J.; Sobol, Robert W.; Hirschey, Matthew D.; Ideker, Trey; Santos, Janine H.; Copeland, William C.; Tice, Raymond R.; Balshaw, David M.; Tyson, Frederick L.


    Background: Cells respond to environmental stressors through several key pathways, including response to reactive oxygen species (ROS), nutrient and ATP sensing, DNA damage response (DDR), and epigenetic alterations. Mitochondria play a central role in these pathways not only through energetics and ATP production but also through metabolites generated in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, as well as mitochondria–nuclear signaling related to mitochondria morphology, biogenesis, fission/fusion, mitophagy, apoptosis, and epigenetic regulation. Objectives: We investigated the concept of bidirectional interactions between mitochondria and cellular pathways in response to environmental stress with a focus on epigenetic regulation, and we examined DNA repair and DDR pathways as examples of biological processes that respond to exogenous insults through changes in homeostasis and altered mitochondrial function. Methods: The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences sponsored the Workshop on Mitochondria, Energetics, Epigenetics, Environment, and DNA Damage Response on 25–26 March 2013. Here, we summarize key points and ideas emerging from this meeting. Discussion: A more comprehensive understanding of signaling mechanisms (cross-talk) between the mitochondria and nucleus is central to elucidating the integration of mitochondrial functions with other cellular response pathways in modulating the effects of environmental agents. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of mitochondrial functions in epigenetic regulation and DDR with environmental stress. Development and application of novel technologies, enhanced experimental models, and a systems-type research approach will help to discern how environmentally induced mitochondrial dysfunction affects key mechanistic pathways. Conclusions: Understanding mitochondria–cell signaling will provide insight into individual responses to environmental hazards, improving prediction of hazard and susceptibility to

  13. Dietary marker effects on fecal microbial ecology, fecal VFA, nutrient digestibility coefficients, and growth performance in finishing pigs. (United States)

    Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Ziemer, C J


    Use of indigestible markers such as Cr2O3, Fe2O3, and TiO2 are commonly used in animal studies to evaluate digesta rate of passage and nutrient digestibility. Yet, the potential impact of indigestible markers on fecal microbial ecology and subsequent VFA generation is not known. Two experiments utilizing a total of 72 individually fed finishing pigs were conducted to describe the impact of dietary markers on fecal microbial ecology, fecal ammonia and VFA concentrations, nutrient digestibility, and pig performance. All pigs were fed a common diet with no marker or with 0.5% Cr2O3, Fe2O3, or TiO2. In Exp. 1, after 33 d of feeding, fresh fecal samples were collected for evaluation of microbial ecology, fecal ammonia and VFA concentrations, and nutrient digestibility, along with measures of animal performance. No differences were noted in total microbes or bacterial counts in pig feces obtained from pigs fed the different dietary markers while Archaea counts were decreased (P = 0.07) in feces obtained from pigs fed the diet containing Fe2O 3compared to pigs fed the control diet. Feeding Cr2O3, Fe2O3, or TiO2 increased fecal bacterial richness (P = 0.03, 0.01, and 0.10; respectively) when compared to pigs fed diets containing no marker, but no dietary marker effects were noted on fecal microbial evenness or the Shannon-Wiener index. Analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis gels did not reveal band pattern alterations due to inclusion of dietary markers in pig diets. There was no effect of dietary marker on fecal DM, ammonia, or VFA concentrations. Pigs fed diets containing Cr2O3 had greater Ca, Cu, Fe, and P (P ≤ 0.02), but lower Ti ( P= 0.08) digestibility compared to pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed diets containing Fe2O3 had greater Ca (P = 0.08) but lower Ti (P = 0.01) digestibility compared to pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed diets containing TiO2 had greater Fe and Zn (P ≤ 0.09), but lower Ti ( P= 0.01) digestibility compared to pigs fed the

  14. Odors from evaporation of acidified pig urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, H.C.; Hobbs, P.J.; Ogink, N.W.M.


    In the Dutch Hercules project feces and urine from pigs are collected separately underneath the slatted floor in a pig house and treated in two processes. Feces are composted and urine is concentrated by water evaporation in a packed bed. Exhaust air from the pig house is used for the evaporation in

  15. Reactions of pigs to a hot environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.


    When compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are relatively sensitive to high environmental temperatures because the pig cannot sweat and is relatively poor at panting. Little information is available about the ambient temperatures above which group-housed pigs start to adapt their

  16. The use of pigs in neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Nanna Marie; Moustgaard, Anette; Jelsing, Jacob


    The use of pigs in neuroscience research has increased in the past decade, which has seen broader recognition of the potential of pigs as an animal for experimental modeling of human brain disorders. The volume of available background data concerning pig brain anatomy and neurochemistry has...

  17. Salmonella in the lairage of pig slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanenburg, M.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Keuzenkamp, D.A.; Snijders, J.M.A.


    The purpose of this study was to determine if lairages of pig slaughterhouses can act as a source of contamination of slaughtered pigs with Salmonella. The prevalence and variety of serotypes of Salmonella in the lairages of two pig slaughterhouses were determined, and the efficacy of the usual

  18. Laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy in pigs - experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando de Oliveira Caldas


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluated laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy as treatment of experimental ureteropelvic junction (UPJ obstruction in pigs. Ten male Large White pigs weighting approximately 28.4 (±1.43 kg were used in the current study. The UPJ obstruction was created laparoscopically by double-clipping of the left ureter. After 14 days the animals underwent laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy f The animals were sacrificed for subsequent retrograde pyelography in order to assess the anastomotic patency on the 28th day. The laparoscopic procedure for experimental obstruction of UPJ was successfully performed in all animals, as well as the laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy. There was intestinal iatrogenic injury in one animal. Satisfactory UPJ patency was noted in 75% of the animals. There was no stenosis of the proximal anastomosis between the ureter and the lower pole of the kidney in 37.5%, mild stenosis in 37.5% and severe stenosis in 25% of the animals. The laparoscopic approach for reestablishment he urinary flow by ureterocalicostomy was feasible in the porcine model. The ascending pyelography revealed satisfactory results of the laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy

  19. [Acetylcholine activation of alpha-ketoglutarate oxidation in liver mitochondria]. (United States)

    Shostakovskaia, I V; Doliba, N M; Gordiĭ, S K; Babskiĭ, A M; Kondrashova, M N


    Activation of alpha-ketoglutarate oxidation in the rat liver mitochondria takes place 15 and 30 min after intraperitoneal injection of acetyl choline. This mediator in doses of 25, 50 and 100 micrograms per 100 g of body weight causes a pronounced stimulation of phosphorylation respiration rate and calcium capacity of mitochondria with alpha-ketoglutarate oxidation. Acetyl choline is found to have a moderate inhibitory action on oxidation of lower (physiological) concentrations of succinate. Its stimulating action on alpha-ketoglutarate oxidation is associated with activation of M-cholinoreceptors; atropine, a choline-blocker, removes completely this effect. It is supposed that alpha-ketoglutarate and succinate are included into the composition of two reciprocal hormonal-substrate nucleotide systems.

  20. Membrane potential of mitochondria from the liver of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomenko, B.S.; Kaminin, A.N.; Elfimova, I.A.; Akoev, I.G.


    Measurements of the membrane potential of rat liver mitochondria 1 hour after irradiation with 800 R dose showed a decrease of its value. The potential decreased against the background of the activation of the generating mechanisms (the electron transport chain and ATP-ases). During energization of the membranes by the electron transport chain similar effect has been observed with different oxidation substrates (NAD linked substrates and succinate). It suggests that similar causative factors are at the basis of the changes observed. It is quite possible that the increase in the rate of both mitochondria respiration and ATP hydrolysis after the irradiation of animals was a consequence of the radiation-induced decrease in the potential value. (author)

  1. Mitochondria, Energy and Cancer: The Relationship with Ascorbic Acid (United States)

    González, Michael J.; Rosario-Pérez, Glorivee; Guzmán, Angélica M.; Miranda-Massari, Jorge R.; Duconge, Jorge; Lavergne, Julio; Fernandez, Nadia; Ortiz, Norma; Quintero, Ana; Mikirova, Nina; Riordan, Neil H.; Ricart, Carlos M.


    Ascorbic Acid (AA) has been used in the prevention and treatment of cancer with reported effectiveness. Mitochondria may be one of the principal targets of ascorbate's cellular activity and it may play an important role in the development and progression of cancer. Mitochondria, besides generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP), has a role in apoptosis regulation and in the production of regulatory oxidative species that may be relevant in gene expression. At higher concentrations AA may increase ATP production by increasing mitochondrial electron flux, also may induce apoptotic cell death in tumor cell lines, probably via its pro-oxidant action In contrast, at lower concentrations AA displays antioxidant properties that may prevent the activation of oxidant-induced apoptosis. These concentration dependent activities of ascorbate may explain in part the seemingly contradictory results that have been reported previously. PMID:23565030

  2. The role of mitochondria in yeast programmed cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Ždralević, Maša; Antonacci, Lucia; Passarella, Salvatore; Marra, Ersilia; Giannattasio, Sergio


    Mammalian apoptosis and yeast programmed cell death (PCD) share a variety of features including reactive oxygen species production, protease activity and a major role played by mitochondria. In view of this, and of the distinctive characteristics differentiating yeast and multicellular organism PCD, the mitochondrial contribution to cell death in the genetically tractable yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been intensively investigated. In this mini-review we report whether and how yeast mitochondrial function and proteins belonging to oxidative phosphorylation, protein trafficking into and out of mitochondria, and mitochondrial dynamics, play a role in PCD. Since in PCD many processes take place over time, emphasis will be placed on an experimental model based on acetic acid-induced PCD (AA-PCD) which has the unique feature of having been investigated as a function of time. As will be described there are at least two AA-PCD pathways each with a multifaceted role played by mitochondrial components, in particular by cytochrome c.

  3. The dynamic regulation of NAD metabolism in mitochondria (United States)

    Stein, Liana Roberts; Imai, Shin-ichiro


    Mitochondria are intracellular powerhouses that produce ATP and carry out diverse functions for cellular energy metabolism. While the maintenance of an optimal NAD/NADH ratio is essential for mitochondrial function, it has recently become apparent that the maintenance of the mitochondrial NAD pool also has critical importance. The biosynthesis, transport, and catabolism of NAD and its key intermediates play an important role in the regulation of NAD-consuming mediators, such as sirtuins, poly-ADP-ribose polymerases, and CD38/157 ectoenzymes, in intra- and extracellular compartments. Mitochondrial NAD biosynthesis is also modulated in response to nutritional and environmental stimuli. In this article, we discuss this dynamic regulation of NAD metabolism in mitochondria to shed light on the intimate connection between NAD and mitochondrial function. PMID:22819213


    Gotterer, Gerald S.; Thompson, Thomas E.; Lehninger, Albert L.


    Angular light-scattering studies have been carried out on suspensions of isolated rat liver mitochondria. The angular scatter pattern has a large forward component, typical of large particles. Changes in dissymmetry and in the intensity of light scattered at 90° have been correlated with changes in optical density during the course of mitochondrial swelling and contraction. Such changes can be measured at mitochondrial concentrations much below those required for optical density measurements. Changes in mitochondrial geometry caused by factors "leaking" from mitochondria, not detectable by optical density measurements, have been demonstrated by measuring changes in dissymmetry. Angular light-scattering measurements therefore offer the advantages of increased sensitivity and of added indices of changes in mitochondrial conformation. PMID:19866589

  5. Mitochondria: role of citrulline and arginine supplementation in MELAS syndrome. (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Emrick, Lisa T; Chanprasert, Sirisak; Craigen, William J; Scaglia, Fernando


    Mitochondria are found in all nucleated human cells and generate most of the cellular energy. Mitochondrial disorders result from dysfunctional mitochondria that are unable to generate sufficient ATP to meet the energy needs of various organs. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a frequent maternally inherited mitochondrial disorder. There is growing evidence that nitric oxide (NO) deficiency occurs in MELAS syndrome and results in impaired blood perfusion that contributes significantly to several complications including stroke-like episodes, myopathy, and lactic acidosis. Both arginine and citrulline act as NO precursors and their administration results in increased NO production and hence can potentially have therapeutic utility in MELAS syndrome. Citrulline raises NO production to a greater extent than arginine, therefore, citrulline may have a better therapeutic effect. Controlled studies assessing the effects of arginine or citrulline supplementation on different clinical aspects of MELAS syndrome are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The rapid mode of calcium uptake into heart mitochondria (RaM): comparison to RaM in liver mitochondria. (United States)

    Buntinas, L; Gunter, K K; Sparagna, G C; Gunter, T E


    A mechanism of Ca(2+) uptake, capable of sequestering significant amounts of Ca(2+) from cytosolic Ca(2+) pulses, has previously been identified in liver mitochondria. This mechanism, the Rapid Mode of Ca(2+) uptake (RaM), was shown to sequester Ca(2+) very rapidly at the beginning of each pulse in a sequence [Sparagna et al. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 27510-27515]. The existence and properties of RaM in heart mitochondria, however, are unknown and are the basis for this study. We show that RaM functions in heart mitochondria with some of the characteristics of RaM in liver, but its activation and inhibition are quite different. It is feasible that these differences represent different physiological adaptations in these two tissues. In both tissues, RaM is highly conductive at the beginning of a Ca(2+) pulse, but is inhibited by the rising [Ca(2+)] of the pulse itself. In heart mitochondria, the time required at low [Ca(2+)] to reestablish high Ca(2+) conductivity via RaM i.e. the 'resetting time' of RaM is much longer than in liver. RaM in liver mitochondria is strongly activated by spermine, activated by ATP or GTP and unaffected by ADP and AMP. In heart, RaM is activated much less strongly by spermine and unaffected by ATP or GTP. RaM in heart is strongly inhibited by AMP and has a biphasic response to ADP; it is activated at low concentrations and inhibited at high concentrations. Finally, an hypothesis consistent with the data and characteristics of liver and heart is presented to explain how RaM may function to control the rate of oxidative phosphorylation in each tissue. Under this hypothesis, RaM functions to create a brief, high free Ca(2+) concentration inside mitochondria which may activate intramitochondrial metabolic reactions with relatively small amounts of Ca(2+) uptake. This hypothesis is consistent with the view that intramitochondrial [Ca(2+)] may be used to control the rate of ADP phosphorylation in such a way as to minimize the probability of

  7. Degenerative processes in bioprosthetic mitral valves in juvenile pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Torben B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutaraldehyde-treated bioprosthetic heart valves are commonly used for replacement of diseased heart valves. However, calcification and wear limit their durability, and the development of new and improved bioprosthetic valve designs is needed and must be evaluated in a reliable animal model. We studied glutaraldehyde-treated valves 6 months after implantation to evaluate bioprosthetic valve complications in the mitral position in juvenile pigs. Materials The study material comprised eight, 5-month old, 60-kg pigs. All pigs received a size 27, glutaraldehyde-treated, stented, Carpentier-Edwards S.A.V. mitral valve prosthesis. After six months, echocardiography was performed, and the valves explanted for gross examination, high resolution X-ray, and histological evaluation. Results Five pigs survived the follow-up period. Preexplant echocardiography revealed a median peak and mean velocity of 1.61 m/s (range: 1.17-2.00 and 1.20 (SD = ±0.25, respectively, and a median peak and mean pressure difference of 10.42 mmHg (range: 5.83-16.55 and 6.51 mmHg (SD = ±2.57, respectively. Gross examination showed minor thrombotic depositions at two commissures in two valves and at all three commissures in three valves. High resolution X-ray imaging revealed different degrees of calcification in all explanted valves, primarily in the commissural and belly areas. In all valves, histological evaluation demonstrated various degrees of fibrous sheath formation, limited immunological infiltration, and no overgrowth of host endothelium. Conclusions Bioprosthetic glutaraldehyde-treated mitral valves can be implanted into the mitral position in pigs and function after 6 months. Echocardiographic data, calcification, and histological examinations were comparable to results obtained in sheep models and human demonstrating the suitability of the porcine model.

  8. Mitochondria-meditated pathways of organ failure upon inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Kozlov


    Full Text Available Liver failure induced by systemic inflammatory response (SIRS is often associated with mitochondrial dysfunction but the mechanism linking SIRS and mitochondria-mediated liver failure is still a matter of discussion. Current hypotheses suggest that causative events could be a drop in ATP synthesis, opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore, specific changes in mitochondrial morphology, impaired Ca2+ uptake, generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS, turnover of mitochondria and imbalance in electron supply to the respiratory chain. The aim of this review is to critically analyze existing hypotheses, in order to highlight the most promising research lines helping to prevent liver failure induced by SIRS. Evaluation of the literature shows that there is no consistent support that impaired Ca++ metabolism, electron transport chain function and ultrastructure of mitochondria substantially contribute to liver failure. Moreover, our analysis suggests that the drop in ATP levels has protective rather than a deleterious character. Recent data suggest that the most critical mitochondrial event occurring upon SIRS is the release of mtROS in cytoplasm, which can activate two specific intracellular signaling cascades. The first is the mtROS-mediated activation of NADPH-oxidase in liver macrophages and endothelial cells; the second is the acceleration of the expression of inflammatory genes in hepatocytes. The signaling action of mtROS is strictly controlled in mitochondria at three points, (i at the site of ROS generation at complex I, (ii the site of mtROS release in cytoplasm via permeability transition pore, and (iii interaction with specific kinases in cytoplasm. The systems controlling mtROS-signaling include pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide, Ca2+ and NADPH-oxidase. Analysis of the literature suggests that further research should be focused on the impact of mtROS on organ failure induced by inflammation

  9. Mitochondria as determinant of nucleotide pools and chromosomal stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Stevnsner, Tinna


    Mitochondrial function plays an important role in multiple human diseases and mutations in the mitochondrial genome have been detected in nearly every type of cancer investigated to date. However, the mechanism underlying the interrelation is unknown. We used human cell lines depleted of mitochon...... mitochondrial activity. Our results suggest that mitochondria are central players in maintaining genomic stability and in controlling essential nuclear processes such as upholding a balanced supply of nucleotides....

  10. Functional Mitochondria Are Important for the Effect of Resveratrol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widlund, Anne Lykkegaard; Baral, Kaushal; Dalgaard, Louise Torp


    Resveratrol (Resv) is a polyphenol reported to modulate mitochondrial activity. The aim was to use HeLa and 143B cells to characterize the action of Resv on mitochondrial activity, cell size and proliferation using wild type (WT) and Rho 0 cells deficient in mitochondrial DNA. In both HeLa WT and......, but not in Rho 0 when treated with Resv. Overall, the findings presented indicate that functional mitochondria are a prerequisite for cell enlargement by Resv....

  11. Mitochondria: An Organelle of Bacterial Origin Controlling Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Meyer


    Full Text Available Inflammation is a cellular and molecular response to infection and/or tissues injury. While a suited inflammatory response in intensity and time allows for killing pathogens, clearing necrotic tissue, and healing injury; an excessive inflammatory response drives various diseases in which inflammation and tissues damages/stress self-sustain each other. Microbes have been poorly implied in non-resolving inflammation, emphasizing the importance of endogenous regulation of inflammation. Mitochondria have been historically identified as the main source of cellular energy, by coupling the oxidation of fatty acids and pyruvate with the production of high amount of adenosine triphosphate by the electron transport chain. Mitochondria are also the main source of reactive oxygen species. Interestingly, research in the last decade has highlighted that since its integration in eukaryote cells, this organelle of bacterial origin has not only been tolerated by immunity, but has also been placed as a central regulator of cell defense. In intact cells, mitochondria regulate cell responses to critical innate immune receptors engagement. Downstream intracellular signaling pathways interact with mitochondrial proteins and are tuned by mitochondrial functioning. Moreover, upon cell stress or damages, mitochondrial components are released into the cytoplasm or the extra cellular milieu, where they act as danger signals when recognized by innate immune receptors. Finally, by regulating the energetic state of immunological synapse between dendritic cells and lymphocytes, mitochondria regulate the inflammation fate toward immunotolerance or immunogenicity. As dysregulations of these processes have been recently involved in various diseases, the identification of the underlying mechanisms might open new avenues to modulate inflammation.

  12. Diverse accumulation of several dehydrin-like proteins in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Arabidopsis thaliana and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) mitochondria under cold and heat stress. (United States)

    Rurek, Michal


    Dehydrins represent hydrophilic proteins acting mainly during cell dehydration and stress response. Dehydrins are generally thermostable; however, the so-called dehydrin-like (dehydrin-related) proteins show variable thermolability. Both groups immunoreact with antibodies directed against the K-segment of dehydrins. Plant mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins are poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to extend previous reports on plant dehydrins by comparing the level of immunoprecipitated dehydrin-like proteins in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Arabidopsis thaliana and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) mitochondria under cold and heat stress. All the analyzed plant species showed constitutive accumulation of thermostable mitochondrial putative dehydrins ranging from 50 to 70 kDa. The mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins observed in cauliflower and Arabidopsis ranged from 10 to 100 kDa and in lupin imbibed seeds and hypocotyls--from 20 to 90 kDa. Cold treatment increased mainly the accumulation of 10-100 kDa cauliflower and Arabidopsis dehydrin-like proteins, in the patterns different in cauliflower leaf and inflorescence mitochondria. However, in lupin mitochondria, cold affected mainly 25-50 kDa proteins and seemed to induce the appearance of some novel dehydrin-like proteins. The influence of frost stress on cauliflower leaf mitochondrial dehydrin- like proteins was less significant. The impact of heat stress was less significant in lupin and Arabidopsis than in cauliflower inflorescence mitochondria. Cauliflower mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins are localized mostly in the mitochondrial matrix; it seems that some of them may interact with mitochondrial membranes. All the results reveal an unexpectedly broad spectrum of dehydrin-like proteins accumulated during some abiotic stress in the mitochondria of the plant species analyzed. They display only limited similarity in size to those reported previously in maize, wheat and rye

  13. Abnormal Mitochondrial Dynamics and Synaptic Degeneration as Early Events in Alzheimer’s Disease: Implications to Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Therapeutics (United States)

    Reddy, P. Hemachandra; Tripathy, Raghav; Troung, Quang; Thirumala, Karuna; Reddy, Tejaswini P.; Anekonda, Vishwanath; Shirendeb, Ulziibat P.; Calkins, Marcus J.; Reddy, Arubala P.; Mao, Peizhong; Manczak, Maria


    Synaptic pathology and mitochondrial oxidative damage are early events in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression. Loss of synapses and synaptic damage are the best correlate of cognitive deficits found in AD patients. Recent research on amyloid bet (Aβ) and mitochondria in AD revealed that Aβ accumulates in synapses and synaptic mitochondria, leading to abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and synaptic degeneration in AD neurons. Further, recent studies using live-cell imaging and primary neurons from amyloid beta precursor protein (AβPP) transgenic mice revealed that reduced mitochondrial mass, defective axonal transport of mitochondria and synaptic degeneration, indicating that Aβ is responsible for mitochondrial and synaptic deficiencies. Tremendous progress has been made in studying antioxidant approaches in mouse models of AD and clinical trials of AD patients. This article highlights the recent developments made in Aβ-induced abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, defective mitochondrial biogenesis, impaired axonal transport and synaptic deficiencies in AD. This article also focuses on mitochondrial approaches in treating AD, and also discusses latest research on mitochondria-targeted antioxidants in AD. PMID:22037588

  14. The oncolytic peptide LTX-315 induces cell death and DAMP release by mitochondria distortion in human melanoma cells (United States)

    Eike, Liv-Marie; Yang, Nannan; Rekdal, Øystein; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur


    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are naturally occurring molecules found in most species, in which they play a significant role in the first line defense against intruding pathogens, and several HDPs have been shown to possess anticancer activity. Structure-activity relationship studies on the HDP bovine lactoferricin revealed a de novo design of a nonamer peptide LTX-315, with oncolytic properties. In the present study, we investigated the oncolytic activity of LTX-315 in human melanoma cells (A375). LTX-315 induced a rapid plasma membrane disruption and cell death within 2 hours. At a low concentration, fluorescence-labeled LTX-315 was internalized and accumulated in cytoplasmic vacuoles in close proximity to the mitochondria. The mitochondrial membrane potential was shown to depolarize as a consequence of LTX-315 treatment and at ultrastructural level, the mitochondria morphology was significantly altered. Release of danger signals (DAMPs) such as ATP, Cytochrome C and HMGB1 into the cell supernatant of cultured cells was evident minutes after peptide treatment. The oncolytic effect of LTX-315 involving perturbation of both the cell membrane and the mitochondria with subsequent release of DAMPs may highlight the ability of LTX-315 to induce complete regression and long-term protective immune responses as previously reported in experimental animal models. PMID:26472184

  15. Modeling population dynamics of mitochondria in mammalian cells (United States)

    Kornick, Kellianne; Das, Moumita

    Mitochondria are organelles located inside eukaryotic cells and are essential for several key cellular processes such as energy (ATP) production, cell signaling, differentiation, and apoptosis. All organisms are believed to have low levels of variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and alterations in mtDNA are connected to a range of human health conditions, including epilepsy, heart failure, Parkinsons disease, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. Therefore, understanding how changes in mtDNA accumulate over time and are correlated to changes in mitochondrial function and cell properties can have a profound impact on our understanding of cell physiology and the origins of some diseases. Motivated by this, we develop and study a mathematical model to determine which cellular parameters have the largest impact on mtDNA population dynamics. The model consists of coupled ODEs to describe subpopulations of healthy and dysfunctional mitochondria subject to mitochondrial fission, fusion, autophagy, and mutation. We study the time evolution and stability of each sub-population under specific selection biases and pressures by tuning specific terms in our model. Our results may provide insights into how sub-populations of mitochondria survive and evolve under different selection pressures. This work was supported by a Grant from the Moore Foundation.

  16. Molecular Strategies for Targeting Antioxidants to Mitochondria: Therapeutic Implications (United States)


    Abstract Mitochondrial function and specifically its implication in cellular redox/oxidative balance is fundamental in controlling the life and death of cells, and has been implicated in a wide range of human pathologies. In this context, mitochondrial therapeutics, particularly those involving mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, have attracted increasing interest as potentially effective therapies for several human diseases. For the past 10 years, great progress has been made in the development and functional testing of molecules that specifically target mitochondria, and there has been special focus on compounds with antioxidant properties. In this review, we will discuss several such strategies, including molecules conjugated with lipophilic cations (e.g., triphenylphosphonium) or rhodamine, conjugates of plant alkaloids, amino-acid- and peptide-based compounds, and liposomes. This area has several major challenges that need to be confronted. Apart from antioxidants and other redox active molecules, current research aims at developing compounds that are capable of modulating other mitochondria-controlled processes, such as apoptosis and autophagy. Multiple chemically different molecular strategies have been developed as delivery tools that offer broad opportunities for mitochondrial manipulation. Additional studies, and particularly in vivo approaches under physiologically relevant conditions, are necessary to confirm the clinical usefulness of these molecules. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 686–729. PMID:25546574

  17. Viral degradasome hijacks mitochondria to suppress innate immunity (United States)

    Goswami, Ramansu; Majumdar, Tanmay; Dhar, Jayeeta; Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Bandyopadhyay, Sudip K; Verbovetskaya, Valentina; Sen, Ganes C; Barik, Sailen


    The balance between the innate immunity of the host and the ability of a pathogen to evade it strongly influences pathogenesis and virulence. The two nonstructural (NS) proteins, NS1 and NS2, of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are critically required for RSV virulence. Together, they strongly suppress the type I interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immunity of the host cells by degrading or inhibiting multiple cellular factors required for either IFN induction or response pathways, including RIG-I, IRF3, IRF7, TBK1 and STAT2. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of a large and heterogeneous degradative complex assembled by the NS proteins, which we named “NS-degradasome” (NSD). The NSD is roughly ∼300-750 kD in size, and its degradative activity was enhanced by the addition of purified mitochondria in vitro. Inside the cell, the majority of the NS proteins and the substrates of the NSD translocated to the mitochondria upon RSV infection. Genetic and pharmacological evidence shows that optimal suppression of innate immunity requires mitochondrial MAVS and mitochondrial motility. Together, we propose a novel paradigm in which the mitochondria, known to be important for the innate immune activation of the host, are also important for viral suppression of the innate immunity. PMID:23877405

  18. Identification of nitric oxide in mitochondria of myometrium cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylovych Yu. V.


    Full Text Available Aim. To demonstrate the possibility of NO synthesis in intact myocytes of uterus. Methods. Confocal scanning microscopy method, NO-sensitive fluorescent probe DAF-FM, MitoTracker Orange CM-H2TMRos. Results. The basal production of NO in intact myocytes was shown using DAF-FM. Incubation of myocytes with NO donor – sodium nitroprusside (SNP – led to an increase of the DAF-FM-T fluorescent signal. On the contrary, the addition of NO-synthase inhibitor – N-nitro-L-arginine (NA – results in the reduction of fluorescent intensity. It was demonstrated colocalizition of specific probe for mitochondria MitoTracker Orange CM-H2TMRos and NO-sensitive dye DAF-FM. Conclusions. For the first time it has been demonstrated the presence of NO in smooth muscle cell mitochondria using laser confocal microscopy, NO-sensitive probe DAF-FM and specific marker of the functionally active mitochondria MitoTracker Orange CM-H2TMRos.

  19. New Insights in the Amyloid-Beta Interaction with Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Spuch


    Full Text Available Biochemical and morphological alterations of mitochondria may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Particularly, mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of amyloid-beta-induced neuronal toxicity in Alzheimer’s disease. The recent emphasis on the intracellular biology of amyloid-beta and its precursor protein (APP has led researchers to consider the possibility that mitochondria-associated and mitochondrial amyloid-beta may directly cause neurotoxicity. Both proteins are known to localize to mitochondrial membranes, block the transport of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins to mitochondria, interact with mitochondrial proteins, disrupt the electron transport chain, increase reactive oxygen species production, cause mitochondrial damage, and prevent neurons from functioning normally. In this paper, we will outline current knowledge of the intracellular localization of amyloid-beta. Moreover, we summarize evidence from AD postmortem brain as well as animal AD models showing that amyloid-beta triggers mitochondrial dysfunction through a number of pathways such as impairment of oxidative phosphorylation, elevation of reactive oxygen species production, alteration of mitochondrial dynamics, and interaction with mitochondrial proteins. Thus, this paper supports the Alzheimer cascade mitochondrial hypothesis such as the most important early events in this disease, and probably one of the future strategies on the therapy of this neurodegenerative disease.

  20. Whipworms in humans and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawash, Mohamed Bayoumi Fahmy; Betson, Martha; Al-Jubury, Azmi


    BACKGROUND: Trichuris suis and T. trichiura are two different whipworm species that infect pigs and humans, respectively. T. suis is found in pigs worldwide while T. trichiura is responsible for nearly 460 million infections in people, mainly in areas of poor sanitation in tropical and subtropical...... on different continents, namely Denmark, USA, Uganda, Ecuador, China and St. Kitts (Caribbean). Additional sequences available from GenBank were incorporated into the analyses. RESULTS: We found no differentiation between human-derived Trichuris in Uganda and the majority of the Trichuris samples from non...

  1. [Spontaneous neoplasms in guinea pigs]. (United States)

    Khar'kovskaia, N A; Khrustalev, S A; Vasil'eva, N N


    The authors present an analysis of the data of foreign literature and the results of their personal studies of spontaneous neoplasms in 40 guinea pigs of national breeding observed during observed during a 5-year period. In 4 of them malignant tumors were diagnosed-lympholeucosis (2 cases), dermoid ovarian cysts and also cancer and adenoma of the adrenal cortex (in one animal). The neoplasms described developed in guinea pigs, aged over 4 years, and they are referred to as mostly common tumors in this species of animals.

  2. Gut health in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pluske, J. R.; Hansen, Christian Fink; Payne, H. G.


    Gastrointestinal disturbances can cause large economic losses in the pig industry. Diseases and conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that can cause economic loss have generally been controlled by the use of dietary (and or in the water) antimicrobial compounds, such as antibiotic feed......' and caused enormous interest in alternative means to control diseases and conditions of the GIT. There are now available a wide array of products and strategies available to the pig industry that influence 'gut health'. The products in the market place are characterised predominately not only...

  3. Detection of antibodies against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus GDVII strain in experimental guinea pigs. (United States)

    Häger, C; Glage, S; Held, N; Bleich, E M; Burghard, A; Mähler, M; Bleich, André


    A disease affecting guinea pigs called 'guinea pig lameness' characterized by clinical signs of depression, lameness of limbs, flaccid paralysis, weight loss and death within a few weeks was first described by Römer in 1911. After a research group in our facility kept laboratory guinea pigs from two different origins together in one room, lameness was observed in two animals. Further investigations revealed a serological immune response against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV; GDVII strain) in these animals. Histopathology of the lumbar spinal cord of these animals showed mononuclear cell infiltration and necrotic neurons in the anterior horn. Therefore, all guinea pigs from this contaminated animal unit, from other units in our facility, as well as from different European institutions and breeding centres were screened for antibodies directed against GDVII. Our investigations showed that approximately 80% of all guinea pigs from the contaminated animal unit were seropositive for GDVII, whereas animals from other separate units were completely negative. In addition, 43% of tested sera from the different European institutions and breeding centres contained antibodies against GDVII. The present data confirm that an unknown viral infection causes an immune response in experimental guinea pigs leading to seroconversion against GDVII and that guinea pigs from a commercial breeder are the source of the infection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Systematic mapping of contact sites reveals tethers and a function for the peroxisome-mitochondria contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shai, Nadav; Yifrach, Eden; van Roermund, Carlo W T; Cohen, Nir; Bibi, Chen; IJlst, Lodewijk; Cavellini, Laetitia; Meurisse, Julie; Schuster, Ramona; Zada, Lior; Mari, Muriel C; Reggiori, Fulvio M; Hughes, Adam L; Escobar-Henriques, Mafalda; Cohen, Mickael M; Waterham, Hans R; Wanders, Ronald J A; Schuldiner, Maya; Zalckvar, Einat


    The understanding that organelles are not floating in the cytosol, but rather held in an organized yet dynamic interplay through membrane contact sites, is altering the way we grasp cell biological phenomena. However, we still have not identified the entire repertoire of contact sites, their

  5. Reduction in reactive oxygen species production by mitochondria from elderly subjects with normal and impaired glucose tolerance. (United States)

    Ghosh, Sangeeta; Lertwattanarak, Raweewan; Lefort, Natalie; Molina-Carrion, Marjorie; Joya-Galeana, Joaquin; Bowen, Benjamin P; Garduno-Garcia, Jose de Jesus; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad; Richardson, Arlan; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Mandarino, Lawrence; Van Remmen, Holly; Musi, Nicolas


    Aging increases the risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes. It has been proposed that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by dysfunctional mitochondria could play a role in the pathogenesis of these metabolic abnormalities. We examined whether aging per se (in subjects with normal glucose tolerance [NGT]) impairs mitochondrial function and how this relates to ROS generation, whether older subjects with IGT have a further worsening of mitochondrial function (lower ATP production and elevated ROS generation), and whether exercise reverses age-related changes in mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial ATP and ROS production were measured in muscle from younger individuals with NGT, older individuals with NGT, and older individuals with IGT. Measurements were performed before and after 16 weeks of aerobic exercise. ATP synthesis was lower in older subjects with NGT and older subjects with IGT versus younger subjects. Notably, mitochondria from older subjects (with NGT and IGT) displayed reduced ROS production versus the younger group. ATP and ROS production were similar between older groups. Exercise increased ATP synthesis in the three groups. Mitochondrial ROS production also increased after training. Proteomic analysis revealed downregulation of several electron transport chain proteins with aging, and this was reversed by exercise. Old mitochondria from subjects with NGT and IGT display mitochondrial dysfunction as manifested by reduced ATP production but not with respect to increased ROS production. When adjusted to age, the development of IGT in elderly individuals does not involve changes in mitochondrial ATP and ROS production. Lastly, exercise reverses the mitochondrial phenotype (proteome and function) of old mitochondria.

  6. Hydrophobic analogues of rhodamine B and rhodamine 101: potent fluorescent probes of mitochondria in living C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie F. Mottram


    Full Text Available Mitochondria undergo dynamic fusion and fission events that affect the structure and function of these critical energy-producing cellular organelles. Defects in these dynamic processes have been implicated in a wide range of human diseases including ischemia, neurodegeneration, metabolic disease, and cancer. To provide new tools for imaging of mitochondria in vivo, we synthesized novel hydrophobic analogues of the red fluorescent dyes rhodamine B and rhodamine 101 that replace the carboxylate with a methyl group. Compared to the parent compounds, methyl analogues termed HRB and HR101 exhibit slightly red-shifted absorbance and emission spectra (5–9 nm, modest reductions in molar extinction coefficent and quantum yield, and enhanced partitioning into octanol compared with aqueous buffer of 10-fold or more. Comparison of living C. elegans (nematode roundworm animals treated with the classic fluorescent mitochondrial stains rhodamine 123, rhodamine 6G, and rhodamine B, as well as the structurally related fluorophores rhodamine 101, and basic violet 11, revealed that HRB and HR101 are the most potent mitochondrial probes, enabling imaging of mitochondrial motility, fusion, and fission in the germline and other tissues by confocal laser scanning microscopy after treatment for 2 h at concentrations as low as 100 picomolar. Because transgenes are poorly expressed in the germline of these animals, these small molecules represent superior tools for labeling dynamic mitochondria in this tissue compared with the expression of mitochondria-targeted fluorescent proteins. The high bioavailabilty of these novel fluorescent probes may facilitate the identification of agents and factors that affect diverse aspects of mitochondrial biology in vivo.

  7. Low Birth Weight Impairs Acquisition of Spatial Memory Task in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Roelofs


    Full Text Available In commercial pig farming, an increasing number of low birth weight (LBW piglets are born, due to selection for large litter sizes. While LBW piglets have a higher risk of pre-weaning mortality, a considerable number of these piglets survive to slaughter age. In humans, LBW is a risk factor for long-term cognitive impairments. In pigs, studies examining the post-weaning effects of LBW on cognition have reported contradictory results. Therefore, the current study aimed to assess the effects of LBW on cognitive development in pigs using an improved study design, by (1 testing a larger sample size than previous studies, (2 assessing acute and chronic stress responses to account for a potential altered stress response in LBW pigs, and (3 testing both female and male pigs to account for potential confounding effects of sex. Learning and memory of 20 LBW pigs and 20 normal birth weight (NBW pigs, both groups consisting of 10 females and 10 males, were compared using a spatial holeboard task. In this task, pigs had to learn and remember the locations of hidden food rewards. After a pig had successfully acquired the task, it was presented with two successive reversal phases during which it was presented with a new configuration of reward locations. The holeboard allows for simultaneous assessment of working and reference memory, as well as measures of motivation, exploration, and behavioral flexibility. Mixed model ANOVAs revealed a transiently impaired reference memory performance of LBW pigs, implying they had more difficulty learning their reward configuration in the holeboard. Also, LBW piglets showed increased pre-weaning hair cortisol concentrations compared to their NBW siblings. No other effects of LBW were found. Sex had no direct or interaction effects on any measures of holeboard performance or stress. It is possible that the enriched housing conditions applied during our study had an ameliorating effect on our pigs' cognitive development

  8. Transmission pattern of parainfluenza 3 virus in guinea pig breeding herds. (United States)

    Blomqvist, Gunilla A M; Martin, Krister; Morein, Bror


    In searching for the cause of experimental variations in respiratory research data, serology revealed the prevalence of antibodies against parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV 3) in guinea pigs. The aim of the present study was to explore the transmission rate, course, and kinetics of enzootic PIV 3 infection in guinea pig breeding units. In the first part of the study, blood samples to be analyzed for PIV 3 antibodies were collected from guinea pigs of a PIV 3-positive breeding colony at different times after birth. In the same breeding unit, 6 of 12 2-week-old guinea pigs were relocated and separately housed. The PIV 3 serum antibody titers of the two groups were compared at various times from birth to 13 weeks after birth. In the second part of the study, the spread of infectious virus and virus persistence were explored by housing seronegative sentinel animals together with 2- to 3-week-old guinea pigs from three different PIV 3-positive breeding units. The guinea pigs remaining in the breeding colony as well as those removed and housed separately showed declining serum antibody titers for about 1 month after birth, thereafter the titers were stable until about 8 weeks after birth. Five weeks later, the mean antibody titer of the guinea pigs remaining in the breeding colony had increased to a markedly higher level than that of the relocated, separately housed guinea pigs. Seroconversion was demonstrated in 7 of the 14 sentinels housed with the 2- to 3-week-old guinea pigs from PIV 3-positive breeding units. Sentinels housed together with PIV 3-positive guinea pigs 24 weeks after the start of the experiment did not seroconvert. We conclude that young guinea pigs born to PIV 3-positive mothers were protected by maternal immunity against infection with PIV 3 during their first 14 days of life. The guinea pig offspring became infected during the period from about 2 weeks until 8 weeks after birth, as demonstrated by seroconversion of sentinel animals and an increasing

  9. Bcl-xL-mediated remodeling of rod and cone synaptic mitochondria after postnatal lead exposure: electron microscopy, tomography and oxygen consumption. (United States)

    Perkins, Guy A; Scott, Ray; Perez, Alex; Ellisman, Mark H; Johnson, Jerry E; Fox, Donald A


    and dark-adapted photoreceptor synaptic terminal QO(2). Bcl-xL partially blocked many of the lead-induced alterations relative to controls. However, spherules still had partially decreased abundance, whereas pedicles still had increased branching, increased crista segments per volume, and increased crista junction diameter. Moreover, photoreceptor and synaptic QO(2) were only partially recovered. These findings reveal cellular and compartmental specific differences in the structure and vulnerability of rod and cone inner segment and synaptic mitochondria to postnatal lead exposure. Spherule and pedicle mitochondria in lead-exposed mice displayed complex and distinguishing patterns of cristae and matrix damage and remodeling consistent with studies showing that synaptic mitochondria are more sensitive to Ca(2+) overload, oxidative stress, and ATP loss than non-synaptic mitochondria. The lead-induced decreases in QO(2) likely resulted from the decreased spherule cristae abundance and smaller cristae, perhaps due to Bax-mediated effects as they occurred in apoptotic rod inner segments. The increase in pedicle cristae abundance and CJ diameter could have resulted from increased Drp1-mediated fission, as small mitochondrial fragments were observed. The mechanisms of Bcl-xL-mediated remodeling might occur via interaction with formation of CJ protein 1 (Fcj1), whereas the partial protection of synaptic QO(2) might result from the enhanced efficiency of energy metabolism via Bcl-xL's direct interaction with the F1F0 ATP synthase and/or regulation of cellular redox status. These lead-induced alterations in photoreceptor synaptic terminal mitochondria likely underlie the persistent scotopic and mesopic deficits in lead-exposed children, workers, and experimental animals. Our findings stress the clinical and scientific importance of examining synaptic dysfunction following injury or disease during development, and developing therapeutic treatments that prevent synaptic

  10. Improving efficiency in pig production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by adopting different strategies for meat production ... lates to some specific nutritional considerations. ... allowances were made for the correlated effects of any change. ... end of her reproductive life the sow is also usually sold for meat ... the experimental work. ... on pigs of up-to-date genotype fed on modern balanced diets.

  11. Liver Function in the Pig

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 12, 1974 ... The assessment of function of the isolated perfused liver remains complex. Much of this problem relates to an inability to compare function in vitro with that in vivo, because of a lack of knowledge of hepatic blood flow. This article documents measurement of total hepatic and portal blood flow in vivo in pigs, ...

  12. People, Pigs, Pork and Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Cecilie Agnete H

    , depending on whether they relate to an everyday or production context. Furthermore, some interesting national differences emerged, pointing at the need for more than one marketing strategy if pig welfare is to be supported through consumer demand. Overall, this thesis contributes with important findings...

  13. Coat colour phenotype of Qingyu pig is associated with polymorphisms of melanocortin receptor 1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Wu


    Full Text Available Objective Qingyu pig, a Chinese indigenous pig breed, exhibits two types of coat colour phenotypes, including pure black and white with black spotting respectively. Melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R and agouti signaling protein (ASIP are two widely reported pivotal genes that significantly affect the regulation of coat colour. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the polymorphisms of these two genes are associated with coat colour and analyze the molecular mechanism of the coat colour separation in Qingyu pig. Methods We studied the phenotype segregation and used polymerase chain reaction amplification and Sanger sequencing to investigate the polymorphism of MC1R and ASIP in 121 Qingyu pigs, consisting of 115 black and 6 white with black spotted pigs. Results Coat colour of Qingyu pig is associated with the polymorphisms of MC1R but not ASIP. We only found 2 haplotypes, EQY and Eqy, based on the 13 observed mutations from MC1R gene. Among which, Eqy presented a recessive inheritance mode in black spotted Qingyu pigs. Further analysis revealed a g.462–463CC insertion that caused a frameshift mutation and a premature stop codon, thus changed the first transmembrane domain completely and lost the remaining six transmembrane domains. Altogether, our results strongly support that the variety of Qingyu pig’s coat colour is related to MC1R. Conclusion Our findings indicated that black coat colour in Qingyu pig was dominant to white with black spotted phenotype and MC1R gene polymorphism was associated with coat colour separation in Qingyu pig.

  14. A comprehensive study of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs entering a slaughterhouse in Slovenia. (United States)

    Raspor Lainšček, Petra; Toplak, Ivan; Kirbiš, Andrej


    Hepatitis E is a zoonotic viral disease of pigs with increasing public health concern in industrialized countries. Presented broad study of hepatitis E virus (HEV) presence in pigs in Slovenia is the first attempt to overview the HEV situation in pigs entering a slaughterhouse and, further, to analyse the possibility of HEV entering into the food supply chain. 2433 samples from 811 clinically healthy pigs were collected at four slaughterhouses in Slovenia. Sampling covered three different age groups of pigs and three different types of samples (faeces, bile and liver) important for tracing HEV in a pig population. In addition, 63 swab samples were collected systematically from three different sites on the slaughter line, as well as 22 samples of minced meat and 30 bratwurst samples. All the samples were screened for the presence of HEV nucleic acids by specific real-time RT-PCR assay. In the group of three month old pigs 13.7% of faeces, 13.0% of bile and 2.1% of liver samples were HEV positive. In the group of six months old pigs only 0.25% of liver and 0.25% of bile samples were positive. In the category of sows, no positive samples were found. Two out of 63 swab samples collected on the slaughter line were HEV positive. All tested samples of minced meat and bratwurst were negative. The phylogenetic analysis of 50 HEV positive samples, with comparison of 366 nucleotides in ORF1 region, revealed high diversity of identified strains of HEV in pigs, belonging into subtypes 3a, 3b, 3c and 3e. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Why pigs are free-roaming: Communities' perceptions, knowledge and practices regarding pig management and taeniosis/cysticercosis in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia. (United States)

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Andrew M; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Isaac K; Gabriël, Sarah


    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis in many developing countries including Zambia. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. Socio-cultural determinants related to free range pig management and their implications for control of T. solium remain unclear. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, reported practices and knowledge regarding management of pigs and taeniosis/cysticercosis (including neurocysticercosis) in an endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia, and to identify possible barriers to pig related control measures such as pig confinement. A total of 21 focus group discussions on pig husbandry practices were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages from Petauke district. The findings reveal that the perception of pigs and their role in society (financial, agricultural and traditional), the distribution of the management tasks among the family members owning pigs (feeding, building kraal, seeking care) and environmental aspects (feed supply, presence of bush, wood use priorities, rainy season) prevailing in the study area affect pig confinement. People have a fragmented knowledge of the pork tapeworm and its transmission. Even if negative aspects/health risks of free-range pigs keeping are perceived, people are ready to take the risk for socio-economic reasons. Finally, gender plays an important role because women, and also children, seem to have a higher perception of the risks but lack power in terms of economic decision-making compared to men. Currently pig confinement is not seen as an acceptable method to control porcine cysticercosis by many farmers in Eastern Zambia, vaccination and treatment seemed to be more appropriate. Embedded in a One Health approach, disease control programs should therefore ensure a complementary appropriate set of control

  16. Mitochondria-targeted superoxide dismutase (SOD2) regulates radiation resistance and radiation stress response in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoki, Ayaka; Yonekura, Shin-Ichiro; Zhao, Qing-Li


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as a mediator of ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage. Previous studies have indicated that MnSOD (SOD2) plays a critical role in protection against ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. In this study, we constructed two types of stable HeLa cell lines overexpressing SOD2, HeLa S3/SOD2 and T-REx HeLa/SOD2, to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the protection against radiation by SOD2. SOD2 overexpression in mitochondria enhanced the survival of HeLa S3 and T-REx HeLa cells following γ-irradiation. The levels of γH2AX significantly decreased in HeLa S3/SOD2 and T-REx HeLa/SOD2 cells compared with those in the control cells. MitoSox TM Red assays showed that both lines of SOD2-expressing cells showed suppression of the superoxide generation in mitochondria. Furthermore, flow cytometry with a fluorescent probe (2',7'-dichlorofluorescein) revealed that the cellular levels of ROS increased in HeLa S3 cells during post-irradiation incubation, but the increase was markedly attenuated in HeLa S3/SOD2 cells. DNA microarray analysis revealed that, of 47,000 probe sets analyzed, 117 and 166 probes showed more than 2-fold changes after 5.5 Gy of γ-irradiation in control and HeLa S3/SOD2 cells, respectively. Pathway analysis revealed different expression profiles in irradiated control cells and irradiated SOD2-overexpressing cells. These results indicate that SOD2 protects HeLa cells against cellular effects of γ-rays through suppressing oxidative stress in irradiated cells caused by ROS generated in the mitochondria and through regulating the expression of genes which play a critical role in protection against ionizing radiation. (author)

  17. L-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute L-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette Rønne; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens


    products prone to oxidation-was studied. Our aim was to compare tissue accumulation of vitamin C in guinea pigs receiving different oral doses of either ascorbate or DHA. In all tissues tested (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, adrenal glands, kidney, muscle, heart, and brain), only sporadic differences......, we continued to explore the ability to recycle DHA in blood, liver and intestine in guinea pigs, rats and mice. These investigations revealed that guinea pigs have similar recycling capacity in red blood cells as observed in humans, while rats and mice do not have near the same ability to reduce DHA...... in erythrocytes. In liver and intestinal homogenates, guinea pigs also showed a significantly higher ability to recycle DHA compared to rats and mice. These data demonstrate that DHA in guinea pigs-as in humans-is almost as effective as ascorbate as vitamin C source when it comes to taking up and storing vitamin...

  18. Oxidation and reduction of pyridine nucleotides in alamethicin-permeabilized plant mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, F.I.; Michalecka, A.M.; Møller, I.M.


    method to permearbilize mitochondria and study the highly branched electron-transport chain in potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum) and pea leaf (Pisum sativum) mitochondria. We show that AlaM permeabilized the inner membrane of plant mitochondria to NAD(P)H, allowing the quantification of internal NAD......M-treated mitochondria was much higher than what has been previously measured by other techniques. Our results also show a difference in substrate specificities for complex I in mitochondria as compared with inside-out submitochondrial particles. AlaM facilitated the passage of cofactors to and from the mitochondrial...... environment not only in plant mitochondria but also in other membrane-enclosed compartments, such as intact cells, chloroplasts and peroxisomes....

  19. Improving oocyte quality by transfer of autologous mitochondria from fully grown oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine Gry; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth; Andersen, Claus Yding


    options using autologous mitochondria to potentially augment pregnancy potential in ART. Autologous transfer of mitochondria from the patient's own germline cells has attracted much attention as a possible new treatment to revitalize deficient oocytes. IVF births have been reported after transfer...... of oogonial precursor cell-derived mitochondria; however, the source and quality of the mitochondria are still unclear. In contrast, fully grown oocytes are loaded with mitochondria which have passed the genetic bottleneck and are likely to be of high quality. An increased supply of such oocytes could...... with high quality mitochondria can be obtained from natural or stimulated ovaries and potentially be used to improve both quality and quantity of oocytes available for fertility treatment....

  20. Human cultured cells are capable to incorporate isolated plant mitochondria loaded with exogenous DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laktionov P. P.


    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the possibility of human cultured cells to incorporate isolated mitochondria together with exogenous DNA introduced into organelles. Methods. Two approaches were used for this purpose, fluorescent labelling of mitochondria and/or DNA with subsequent analysis of the cells subjected to incubation by microscopy or by quantitative PCR. Results. We have shown that human cultured cells lines, HeLa and HUVEC, are capable to uptake isolated plant mitochondria and that this process depends on the incubation time and concentration of organelles present in medium. The incorporated mitochondria can serve as vehicles to deliver exogenous DNA into human cells, this DNA is then distributed in different cell compartments. Conclusions. These results are preliminary and need further investigations, including testing the possibility of human cells to incorporate the mitochondria of human or animal origin and creating genetic construction which could provide certain selectivity or stability of the transferred exogenous DNA upon cell uptake of the mitochondria as vectors.

  1. Vitamin K2 Induces Mitochondria-Related Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer Cells via ROS and JNK/p38 MAPK Signal Pathways. (United States)

    Duan, Fengsen; Yu, Yuejin; Guan, Rijian; Xu, Zhiliang; Liang, Huageng; Hong, Ling


    The effects of vitamin K2 on apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells have been well established in previous studies. However, the apoptotic effect of vitamin K2 on bladder cancer cells has not been evaluated. The aim of this study is to examine the apoptotic activity of Vitamin K2 in bladder cancer cells and investigate the underlying mechanism. In this study, Vitamin K2 induced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells through mitochondria pathway including loss of mitochondria membrane potential, cytochrome C release and caspase-3 cascade. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK was detected in Vitamin K2-treated cells and both SP600125 (an inhibitor of JNK) and SB203580 (an inhibitor of p38 MAPK) completely abolished the Vitamin K2-induced apoptosis and loss of mitochondria membrane potential. Moreover, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected in bladder cancer cells, upon treatment of vitamin K2 and the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) almost blocked the Vitamin K2-triggered apoptosis, loss of mitochondria membrane potential and activation of JNK and p38 MAPK. Taken together, these findings revealed that Vitamin K2 induces apoptosis in bladder cancer cells via ROS-mediated JNK/p38 MAPK and Mitochondrial pathways.

  2. Computational properties of mitochondria in T cell activation and fate. (United States)

    Uzhachenko, Roman; Shanker, Anil; Dupont, Geneviève


    In this article, we review how mitochondrial Ca 2+ transport (mitochondrial Ca 2+ uptake and Na + /Ca 2+ exchange) is involved in T cell biology, including activation and differentiation through shaping cellular Ca 2+ signals. Based on recent observations, we propose that the Ca 2+ crosstalk between mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm may form a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. This PID mechanism (which is well known in engineering) could be responsible for computing cellular decisions. In addition, we point out the importance of analogue and digital signal processing in T cell life and implication of mitochondrial Ca 2+ transport in this process. © 2016 The Authors.

  3. An ancestral bacterial division system is widespread in eukaryotic mitochondria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leger, M.M.; Petrů, M.; Žárský, V.; Eme, L.; Vlček, Čestmír; Harding, T.; Lang, B.F.; Eliáš, M.; Doležal, P.; Roger, A. J.


    Roč. 112, č. 33 (2015), s. 10239-10246 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-24983S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Grant - others:GA ČR GA13-29423S; GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : mitochondria * Min proteins * MinCDE * mitochondrial fission * mitochondrial division Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.423, year: 2015

  4. The role of mitochondria in carbon catabolite repression in yeast. (United States)

    Haussmann, P; Zimmermann, F K


    The role of mitochondria in carbon catabolite repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated by comparing normal, respiratory competent (RHO) strains with their mitochondrially inherited, respiratory deficient mutant derivatives (rho). Formation of maltase and invertase was used as an indicator system for the effect of carbon catabolite repression on carbon catabolic reactions. Fermentation rates for glucose, maltose and sucrose were the same in RHO and rho strains. Specific activities of maltase and invertase were usually higher in the rho-mutants. A very pronounced difference in invertase levels was observed when cells were grown on maltose; rho-mutants had around 30 times more invertase than their RHO parent strains. The fact that rho-mutants were much less sensitive to carbon catabolite repression of invertase synthesis than their RHO parents was used to search for the mitochondrial factor(s) or function(s) involved in carbon catabolite repression. A possible metabolic influence of mitochondria on this system of regulation was tested after growth of RHO strains under anaerobic conditions (no respiration nor oxidative phosphorylation), in the presence of KCN (respiration inhibited), dinitrophenol (uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation) and of both inhibitors anaerobic conditions and dinitrophenol had no effect on the extent of invertase repression. KCN reduced the degree of repression but not to the level found in rho-mutants. A combination of both inhibitors gave the same results as with KCN alone. Erythromycin and chloramphenicol were used as specific inhibitors of mitochondrial protein synthesis. Erythromycin prevented the formation of mitochondrial respiratory systems but did not induce rho-mutants under the conditions used. However, repression of invertase was as strong as in the absence of the inhibitor. Chloramphenicol led only to a slight reduction of the respiratory systems and did not affect invertase levels. A combination of both

  5. Preservation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial content in older adults: relationship between mitochondria, fibre type and high-intensity exercise training. (United States)

    Wyckelsma, Victoria L; Levinger, Itamar; McKenna, Michael J; Formosa, Luke E; Ryan, Michael T; Petersen, Aaron C; Anderson, Mitchell J; Murphy, Robyn M


    muscle and Mfn2 content decreased in type II fibres. Increases in citrate synthase activity (55%) and mitochondrial respiratory chain subunits COXIV (37%) and NDUFA9 (48%) and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (∼70-100%) were observed in homogenates and/or single fibres. These findings reveal (i) a similar amount of mitochondria in muscle from young and healthy older adults and (ii) a robust increase of mitochondrial content following 12 weeks of HIT exercise in older adults. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  6. A conserved endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein complex (EMC facilitates phospholipid transfer from the ER to mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujoy Lahiri


    Full Text Available Mitochondrial membrane biogenesis and lipid metabolism require phospholipid transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER to mitochondria. Transfer is thought to occur at regions of close contact of these organelles and to be nonvesicular, but the mechanism is not known. Here we used a novel genetic screen in S. cerevisiae to identify mutants with defects in lipid exchange between the ER and mitochondria. We show that a strain missing multiple components of the conserved ER membrane protein complex (EMC has decreased phosphatidylserine (PS transfer from the ER to mitochondria. Mitochondria from this strain have significantly reduced levels of PS and its derivative phosphatidylethanolamine (PE. Cells lacking EMC proteins and the ER-mitochondria tethering complex called ERMES (the ER-mitochondria encounter structure are inviable, suggesting that the EMC also functions as a tether. These defects are corrected by expression of an engineered ER-mitochondrial tethering protein that artificially tethers the ER to mitochondria. EMC mutants have a significant reduction in the amount of ER tethered to mitochondria even though ERMES remained intact in these mutants, suggesting that the EMC performs an additional tethering function to ERMES. We find that all Emc proteins interact with the mitochondrial translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex protein Tom5 and this interaction is important for PS transfer and cell growth, suggesting that the EMC forms a tether by associating with the TOM complex. Together, our findings support that the EMC tethers ER to mitochondria, which is required for phospholipid synthesis and cell growth.

  7. Rapid efflux of Ca2+ from heart mitochondria in the presence of inorganic pyrophosphate. (United States)

    Vercesi, A; Lehninger, A L


    Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in the intracellular concentration range causes rapid efflux of Ca2+ from rat heart mitochondria oxidizing pyruvate + malate in a low Na+ medium. Half-maximal rates of Ca2+ efflux were given by 20 microM PPi. During and after PPi-stimulated Ca2+ efflux the mitochondria retain their structural integrity and complete respiratory control. Carboxyatractyloside inhibits PPi-stimulated Ca2+ efflux, indicating PPi must enter the matrix in order to promote Ca2+ efflux. Heart mitochondria have a much higher affinity for PPi uptake and PPi-induced Ca2+ efflux than liver mitochondria.

  8. Isolation and characterization of plasma membranes from guinea pig ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    A plasma membrane fraction from guinea pig ileum has been isolated by extraction of a crude microsomal fraction with a low ionic strength buffer containing ATP and Ca 2+ . The extracted microsomes were subjected to sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation in the presence of 0.6 M KCl. The plasma membranes were substantially free from contamination with contractile proteins, mitochondria and sarco-plasmic reticulum. The plasma membrane vesicles were enriched 30-to-40-fold in Na + -K + -ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase activities. The plasma membrane vesicles accumulated Ca 2+ in the presence of ATP. The addition of Ca 2+ ionophore A23187 to vesicles loaded with Ca 2+ in the presence of ATP removed Ca 2+ completely from the vesicles in one minute. The Km values for the Ca 2+ -dependent phosphorylated intermediates of Ca 2+ -Mg 2+ -ATPase and Ca 2+ uptake were approximately 0.8 μM indicating that the phosphorylated intermediates represent phosphorylation of Ca 2+ pump ATPase. The 3 H-nitrendipine binding to plasma membranes was characterized by high affinity with Kd of 185 pM and B/sub max/ 1280 fmol/mg protein. The plasma membrane vesicles prepared by these procedures can prove useful for the study of ion transport

  9. The dose-response relationship between the amount of straw provided on the floor and gastric ulceration of pars oesophagea in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karin Hjelholt; Jørgensen, Lisbeth; Haugegaard, Svend


    of straw provided affected stomach health in a curvilinear manner. Provision of up to approximately 300 g straw/pig/day progressively decreased the risk of oesophageal ulceration and scarring. At larger amounts of straw the ulceroprotective effect of straw was reduced which requires further investigation...... the structure of the stomach contents as revealed by the increased weight and dry matter content and decreased sedimentation of the digesta. Provision of approximately 300 g straw/pig/day on the floor may be a potential strategy to reduce, but not inevitably eliminate, oesophageal ulceration in pigs......The aim of the present study was (1) to determine the dose-response relationship between the amount of straw provided on the floor and oesophageal ulceration in pigs kept under typical Danish production conditions (18 pigs/pen, 0.7 m2/pig, partly slatted floor, ad libitum access to feed), (2...

  10. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli


    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  11. Smallholder Pig Marketing Systems in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimbi, Eliakunda C.; Mlangwa, James; Thamsborg, Stig Milan


    A study using two cross-sectional and a longitudinal research designs was undertaken to assess smallholder pig marketing system to explore basic information for improving smallholder pig production and marketing systems. The first design involved a cross-sectional survey of 300 pig farmers randomly...... by informal marketing channels, hence, limit the effectiveness of pig production and marketing. Marketed pigs had smaller weights compared to their ages, therefore contributing to poor returns to pig farmers and sub-optimal pork market supply. The study recommends strategic development of pig value chain...... villages who had also participated in the first design. Results showed that, pig-marketing systems had various channels and segments moving mainly pigs and pork to farmers, traders and consumers. Major market participants in the pig market chain were the pig farmers who played a dual role as pig producers...

  12. Derivatives of Rhodamine 19 as Mild Mitochondria-targeted Cationic Uncouplers* (United States)

    Antonenko, Yuri N.; Avetisyan, Armine V.; Cherepanov, Dmitry A.; Knorre, Dmitry A.; Korshunova, Galina A.; Markova, Olga V.; Ojovan, Silvia M.; Perevoshchikova, Irina V.; Pustovidko, Antonina V.; Rokitskaya, Tatyana I.; Severina, Inna I.; Simonyan, Ruben A.; Smirnova, Ekaterina A.; Sobko, Alexander A.; Sumbatyan, Natalia V.; Severin, Fedor F.; Skulachev, Vladimir P.


    A limited decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential can be beneficial for cells, especially under some pathological conditions, suggesting that mild uncouplers (protonophores) causing such an effect are promising candidates for therapeutic uses. The great majority of protonophores are weak acids capable of permeating across membranes in their neutral and anionic forms. In the present study, protonophorous activity of a series of derivatives of cationic rhodamine 19, including dodecylrhodamine (C12R1) and its conjugate with plastoquinone (SkQR1), was revealed using a variety of assays. Derivatives of rhodamine B, lacking dissociable protons, showed no protonophorous properties. In planar bilayer lipid membranes, separating two compartments differing in pH, diffusion potential of H+ ions was generated in the presence of C12R1 and SkQR1. These compounds induced pH equilibration in liposomes loaded with the pH probe pyranine. C12R1 and SkQR1 partially stimulated respiration of rat liver mitochondria in State 4 and decreased their membrane potential. Also, C12R1 partially stimulated respiration of yeast cells but, unlike the anionic protonophore FCCP, did not suppress their growth. Loss of function of mitochondrial DNA in yeast (grande-petite transformation) is known to cause a major decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. We found that petite yeast cells are relatively more sensitive to the anionic uncouplers than to C12R1 compared with grande cells. Together, our data suggest that rhodamine 19-based cationic protonophores are self-limiting; their uncoupling activity is maximal at high membrane potential, but the activity decreases membrane potentials, which causes partial efflux of the uncouplers from mitochondria and, hence, prevents further membrane potential decrease. PMID:21454507

  13. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Najmul; Khan, M. S. U.; Hossain, M. B.


    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare...

  14. The effect of stimulating rates of ionizing radiation on the stability of liver cell mitochondria in chick embryos and young chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, B.


    Treatments at the rate of 3 rad of chick embryos and young birds have led to the stabilizing of the mitochondrial structures and to lowering the access of enzymes to their substrates. The free activity of malate dehydrogenase drops. Electron microscopic studies reveal that the number of mitochondria rises following irradiation with stimulating doses (3 rad). Mitochondrial cristae remain intact and the matrix presents higher electronic density. (author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.


    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  16. Euglena mitochondria and chloroplasts form tyrosine-O-sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidha, T.; Hanfstingl, U.; Schiff, J.A. (Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (USA))


    Mitochondria from light-grown wild-type Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris Cori or dark-grown mutant W{sub 10}BSmL incubated with {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and ATP, or with {sup 14}C-tyrosine, non-radioactive sulfate and ATP accumulate a labeled compound in the medium. Since this compound shows exact coelectrophoresis with tyrosine-O-sulfate (TOS) at pH 2.0, 5.8 or 8.0., yields sulfate and tyrosine on acid hydrolysis, and treatment with aryl sulfatase from Aerobacter aerogenes yields sulfate and tyrosine but no tyrosine methyl ester, it is identified as TOS. No TOS is found outside purified developing chloroplasts incubated with {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and ATP, but both chloroplasts and mitochondria form to {sup 35}S externally when incubated with adenosine 3{prime} phosphate 5{prime}phospho({sup 35}S) sulfate (PAP{sup 35}S). Since no tyrosine need be added, tyrosine is provided from endogenous sources. Although TOS is found in the free pool of Euglena cells it cannot be detected in proteins of cells or mucus ruling our sulfation of tyrosine of protein or incorporation of TOS into proteins. The system forming TOS is membrane-bound and may be involved in tyrosine transport.

  17. Pluripotent Stem Cell Metabolism and Mitochondria: Beyond ATP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmon G. Lees


    Full Text Available Metabolism is central to embryonic stem cell (ESC pluripotency and differentiation, with distinct profiles apparent under different nutrient milieu, and conditions that maintain alternate cell states. The significance of altered nutrient availability, particularly oxygen, and metabolic pathway activity has been highlighted by extensive studies of their impact on preimplantation embryo development, physiology, and viability. ESC similarly modulate their metabolism in response to altered metabolite levels, with changes in nutrient availability shown to have a lasting impact on derived cell identity through the regulation of the epigenetic landscape. Further, the preferential use of glucose and anaplerotic glutamine metabolism serves to not only support cell growth and proliferation but also minimise reactive oxygen species production. However, the perinuclear localisation of spherical, electron-poor mitochondria in ESC is proposed to sustain ESC nuclear-mitochondrial crosstalk and a mitochondrial-H2O2 presence, to facilitate signalling to support self-renewal through the stabilisation of HIFα, a process that may be favoured under physiological oxygen. The environment in which a cell is grown is therefore a critical regulator and determinant of cell fate, with metabolism, and particularly mitochondria, acting as an interface between the environment and the epigenome.

  18. Action of diclofenac on kidney mitochondria and cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Lin Eng; Vincent, Annette S.; Halliwell, Barry; Wong, Kim Ping


    The mitochondrial membrane potential measured in isolated rat kidney mitochondria and in digitonin-permeabilized MDCK type II cells pre-energized with succinate, glutamate, and/or malate was reduced by micromolar diclofenac dose-dependently. However, ATP biosynthesis from glutamate/malate was significantly more compromised compared to that from succinate. Inhibition of the malate-aspartate shuttle by diclofenac with a resultant decrease in the ability of mitochondria to generate NAD(P)H was demonstrated. Diclofenac however had no effect on the activities of NADH dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase. In conclusion, decreased NAD(P)H production due to an inhibition of the entry of malate and glutamate via the malate-aspartate shuttle explained the more pronounced decreased rate of ATP biosynthesis from glutamate and malate by diclofenac. This drug, therefore affects the bioavailability of two major respiratory complex I substrates which would normally contribute substantially to supplying the reducing equivalents for mitochondrial electron transport for generation of ATP in the renal cell

  19. Targeting Mitochondria to Counteract Age-Related Cellular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina T. Madreiter-Sokolowski


    Full Text Available Senescence is related to the loss of cellular homeostasis and functions, which leads to a progressive decline in physiological ability and to aging-associated diseases. Since mitochondria are essential to energy supply, cell differentiation, cell cycle control, intracellular signaling and Ca2+ sequestration, fine-tuning mitochondrial activity appropriately, is a tightrope walk during aging. For instance, the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS ensures a supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP, but is also the main source of potentially harmful levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Moreover, mitochondrial function is strongly linked to mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis and mitochondrial shape, which undergo various alterations during aging. Since mitochondria play such a critical role in an organism’s process of aging, they also offer promising targets for manipulation of senescent cellular functions. Accordingly, interventions delaying the onset of age-associated disorders involve the manipulation of mitochondrial function, including caloric restriction (CR or exercise, as well as drugs, such as metformin, aspirin, and polyphenols. In this review, we discuss mitochondria’s role in and impact on cellular aging and their potential to serve as a target for therapeutic interventions against age-related cellular dysfunction.

  20. Mitochondria and Reactive Oxygen Species: Physiology and Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashini Bolisetty


    Full Text Available The air that we breathe contains nearly 21% oxygen, most of which is utilized by mitochondria during respiration. While we cannot live without it, it was perceived as a bane to aerobic organisms due to the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen metabolites by mitochondria and other cellular compartments. However, this dogma was challenged when these species were demonstrated to modulate cellular responses through altering signaling pathways. In fact, since this discovery of a dichotomous role of reactive species in immune function and signal transduction, research in this field grew at an exponential pace and the pursuit for mechanisms involved began. Due to a significant number of review articles present on the reactive species mediated cell death, we have focused on emerging novel pathways such as autophagy, signaling and maintenance of the mitochondrial network. Despite its role in several processes, increased reactive species generation has been associated with the origin and pathogenesis of a plethora of diseases. While it is tempting to speculate that anti-oxidant therapy would protect against these disorders, growing evidence suggests that this may not be true. This further supports our belief that these reactive species play a fundamental role in maintenance of cellular and tissue homeostasis.

  1. Adenine nucleotide translocator transports haem precursors into mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoki Azuma


    Full Text Available Haem is a prosthetic group for haem proteins, which play an essential role in oxygen transport, respiration, signal transduction, and detoxification. In haem biosynthesis, the haem precursor protoporphyrin IX (PP IX must be accumulated into the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane, but its mechanism is largely unclear. Here we show that adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT, the inner membrane transporter, contributes to haem biosynthesis by facilitating mitochondrial accumulation of its precursors. We identified that haem and PP IX specifically bind to ANT. Mitochondrial uptake of PP IX was inhibited by ADP, a known substrate of ANT. Conversely, ADP uptake into mitochondria was competitively inhibited by haem and its precursors, suggesting that haem-related porphyrins are accumulated into mitochondria via ANT. Furthermore, disruption of the ANT genes in yeast resulted in a reduction of haem biosynthesis by blocking the translocation of haem precursors into the matrix. Our results represent a new model that ANT plays a crucial role in haem biosynthesis by facilitating accumulation of its precursors into the mitochondrial matrix.

  2. Slower Dynamics and Aged Mitochondria in Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (United States)

    Gargini, Ricardo; García, Esther; Perry, George


    Sporadic Alzheimer's disease corresponds to 95% of cases whose origin is multifactorial and elusive. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major feature of Alzheimer's pathology, which might be one of the early events that trigger downstream principal events. Here, we show that multiple genes that control mitochondrial homeostasis, including fission and fusion, are downregulated in Alzheimer's patients. Additionally, we demonstrate that some of these dysregulations, such as diminished DLP1 levels and its mitochondrial localization, as well as reduced STOML2 and MFN2 fusion protein levels, take place in fibroblasts from sporadic Alzheimer's disease patients. The analysis of mitochondrial network disruption using CCCP indicates that the patients' fibroblasts exhibit slower dynamics and mitochondrial membrane potential recovery. These defects lead to strong accumulation of aged mitochondria in Alzheimer's fibroblasts. Accordingly, the analysis of autophagy and mitophagy involved genes in the patients demonstrates a downregulation indicating that the recycling mechanism of these aged mitochondria might be impaired. Our data reinforce the idea that mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the key early events of the disease intimately related with aging. PMID:29201274

  3. Effect of heavy water on isolated rat liver mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, G.


    The rate of O 2 consumption by isolated rat liver mitochondria was determined polarographically with a Clark electrode at 25 0 C in the active (state 3), strongly coupled (state 4) and decoupled state of the mitochondria in media containing H 2 16 O, D 2 16 O or H 2 18 O. The results confirm the value of the D 2 O isotope effect in the form on an O 2 -consumption inhibition. In H 2 18 O no isotope effect has been detected in the state of controlled respiration. In contrast, a strongly marked inverse isotope effect has been found in the active state after ADP addition and in the decoupled state after DNP addition. This inverse isotope effect occurs in reactions involving a preceding equilibrium. According to the chemiosmotic hypothesis of oxidative phosphorylation the formation of hydronium ions is part of this reaction. The equilibrium constant k 2 = 0.9774 for the hydronium ion in H 2 16 O and H 2 18 O implies that the formation of the hydronium ion in H 2 18 O is preferred to that in H 2 16 O. The high inverse H 2 18 O isotope effect respiration shows that the formation of H 3 O + contributes to the vectorial proton transport, probably as a preceding equilibrium, and that in the active state of the respiratory chain this reaction may be the rate-determining step. (author)

  4. Dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. (United States)

    Kraemer, A; Mueller, R S; Werckenthin, C; Straubinger, R K; Hein, J


    The frequency of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. To determine the frequency and types of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. First, 2153 samples collected from pet Guinea pigs (n=1132) and rabbits (n=1021) with suspected dermatophytosis and submitted to three different laboratories for fungal culture were analysed. Subsequently, healthy Guinea pigs and rabbits, animals with skin lesions and with noncutaneous diseases were examined prospectively for dermatophytes. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was the most common fungal species isolated (91.6% and 72.3% of positive cultures from Guinea pigs (n=431) and rabbits (n=83), respectively). Animals with positive fungal culture did not show any gender predisposition, but affected animals were younger than those with negative fungal culture (PGuinea pigs and 0/140 healthy rabbits. In addition, fungal cultures of Guinea pigs with skin lesions (n=26) and other diseases (n=25) were positive in 7.7% and 8.0% respectively. Samples collected from 17 rabbits with skin lesions and 32 rabbits with noncutaneous disease were all negative in culture. T. mentagrophytes is the most common dermatophyte in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits, asymptomatic carriers are regularly seen in Guinea pigs, but not in rabbits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondria as a model system for studying germ line formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Milani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Doubly Uniparental Inheritance (DUI of mitochondria occurs when both mothers and fathers are capable of transmitting mitochondria to their offspring, in contrast to the typical Strictly Maternal Inheritance (SMI. DUI was found in some bivalve molluscs, in which two mitochondrial genomes are inherited, one through eggs, the other through sperm. During male embryo development, spermatozoon mitochondria aggregate in proximity of the first cleavage furrow and end up in the primordial germ cells, while they are dispersed in female embryos. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used MitoTracker, microtubule staining and transmission electron microscopy to examine the mechanisms of this unusual distribution of sperm mitochondria in the DUI species Ruditapes philippinarum. Our results suggest that in male embryos the midbody deriving from the mitotic spindle of the first division concurs in positioning the aggregate of sperm mitochondria. Furthermore, an immunocytochemical analysis showed that the germ line determinant Vasa segregates close to the first cleavage furrow. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In DUI male embryos, spermatozoon mitochondria aggregate in a stable area on the animal-vegetal axis: in organisms with spiral segmentation this zone is not involved in cleavage, so the aggregation is maintained. Moreover, sperm mitochondria reach the same embryonic area in which also germ plasm is transferred. In 2-blastomere embryos, the segregation of sperm mitochondria in the same region with Vasa suggests their contribution in male germ line formation. In DUI male embryos, M-type mitochondria must be recognized by egg factors to be actively transferred in the germ line, where they become dominant replacing the Balbiani body mitochondria. The typical features of germ line assembly point to a common biological mechanism shared by DUI and SMI organisms. Although the molecular dynamics of the segregation of sperm mitochondria in DUI species are unknown

  6. Production of transgenic pigs over-expressing the antiviral gene Mx1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanmei Yan


    Full Text Available The myxovirus resistance gene (Mx1 has a broad spectrum of antiviral activities. It is therefore an interesting candidate gene to improve disease resistance in farm animals. In this study, we report the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT to produce transgenic pigs over-expressing the Mx1 gene. These transgenic pigs express approximately 15–25 times more Mx1 mRNA than non-transgenic pigs, and the protein level of Mx1 was also markedly enhanced. We challenged fibroblast cells isolated from the ear skin of transgenic and control pigs with influenza A virus and classical swine fever virus (CFSV. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA revealed a profound decrease of influenza A proliferation in Mx1 transgenic cells. Growth kinetics showed an approximately 10-fold reduction of viral copies in the transgenic cells compared to non-transgenic controls. Additionally, we found that the Mx1 transgenic cells were more resistant to CSFV infection in comparison to non-transgenic cells. These results demonstrate that the Mx1 transgene can protect against viral infection in cells of transgenic pigs and indicate that the Mx1 transgene can be harnessed to develop disease-resistant pigs.

  7. Assessment of Fecal Microflora Changes in Pigs Supplemented with Herbal Residue and Prebiotic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Kumar Samanta

    Full Text Available Antibiotic usage in animals as a growth promoter is considered as public health issue due to its negative impact on consumer health and environment. The present study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of herbal residue (ginger, Zingiber officinale, dried rhizome powder and prebiotic (inulin as an alternative to antibiotics by comparing fecal microflora composition using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The grower pigs were offered feed containing antibiotic (tetracycline, ginger and inulin separately and un-supplemented group served as control. The study revealed significant changes in the microbial abundance based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs among the groups. Presumptive identification of organisms was established based on the fragment length of OTUs generated with three restriction enzymes (MspI, Sau3AI and BsuRI. The abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Eubacterium oxidoreducens, Selonomonas sp., Methylobacterium sp. and Denitrobacter sp. was found significantly greater in inulin supplemented pigs. Similarly, the abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Selonomonas sp., and Phascolarcobacterium faecium was found significantly greater in ginger supplemented pigs. In contrast, the abundance of OTUs representing pathogenic microorganisms Atopostipes suicloacalis and Bartonella quintana str. Toulouse was significantly reduced in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The OTUs were found to be clustered under two major phylotypes; ginger-inulin and control-tetracycline. Additionally, the abundance of OTUs was similar in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The results suggest the potential of ginger and prebioticsto replace antibiotics in the diet of grower pig.

  8. Disconnect Between Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Cardiometabolic Dysfunction in Ossabaw Pigs (United States)

    Vieira-Potter, Victoria J.; Lee, Sewon; Bayless, David S.; Scroggins, Rebecca J.; Welly, Rebecca J.; Fleming, Nicholas J.; Smith, Thomas N.; Meers, Grace M.; Hill, Michael A.; Rector, R. Scott; Padilla, Jaume


    Objective The Ossabaw pig is emerging as an attractive model of human cardiometabolic disease due to its size and susceptibility to atherosclerosis, among other characteristics. Here we investigated the relationship between adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in this model. Methods Young female Ossabaw pigs were fed a western-style high-fat diet (HFD) (n=4) or control low-fat diet (LFD) (n=4) for a period of 9 months and compared for cardiometabolic outcomes and adipose tissue inflammation. Results The HFD-fed “OBESE” pigs were 2.5 times heavier (p<0.001) than LFD-fed “LEAN” pigs and developed severe obesity. HFD-feeding caused pronounced dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance (systemic and adipose) as well as induction of inflammatory genes, impairments in vasomotor reactivity to insulin and atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries. Remarkably, visceral, subcutaneous and perivascular adipose tissue inflammation (via FACS analysis and RT-PCR) was not increased in OBESE pigs, nor were circulating inflammatory cytokines. Conclusions These findings reveal a disconnect between adipose tissue inflammation and cardiometabolic dysfunction induced by western diet feeding in the Ossabaw pig model. PMID:26524201

  9. Characterization of fetal growth by repeated ultrasound measurements in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea). (United States)

    Schumann, K; Guenther, A; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K


    Fetal growth during pregnancy has previously been studied in the domesticated guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) after dissecting pregnant females, but there are no studies describing the fetal growth in their wild progenitor, the wild guinea pig (C aperea). In this study, 50 pregnancies of wild guinea pig sows were investigated using modern ultrasound technique. The two most common fetal growth parameters (biparietal diameter [BPD] and crown-rump-length [CRL]) and uterine position were measured. Data revealed similar fetal growth patterns in the wild guinea pig and domesticated guinea pig in the investigated gestation period, although they differ in reproductive milestones such as gestation length (average duration of pregnancy 68 days), average birth weight, and litter mass. In this study, pregnancy lasted on average 60.2 days with a variance of less than a day (0.96 days). The measured fetal growth parameters are strongly correlated with each (R = 0.91; P guinea pig. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparative pathological finding in pigs exposed to fumonisin B1 and/or Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. (United States)

    Pósa, Roland; Stoev, Stoycho; Kovács, Melinda; Donkó, Tamás; Repa, Imre; Magyar, Tibor


    A more complicated pathology was observed in female pigs infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, when the same were exposed to 20 ppm dietary levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1) starting 14 days before infection for a period of 42 days as was assessed by gross pathology and pathomorphological examinations or computed tomography, and also manifested by the strong deterioration of the pneumonic process in two pigs and the subsequent euthanizing of one pig. Typical damages in FB1-fed pigs were a strong oedema in the lung and slight oedema in the other internal organs and mild degenerative changes in the kidneys, whereas the typical pathomorphological changes in M. hyopneumoniae-infected pigs corresponded to the morphologic pattern of a catarrhal bronchointerstitial pneumonia more pronounced in the cranial and middle lobes or in the cranial third of the caudal lobe of the lung. The pigs treated by both pathogens (toxic and infectious) revealed strong oedematous changes in the interstitium of lung in addition to deteriorated and extended bronchointerstitial pneumonic process. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Oxidative metabolism and Ca2+ handling in isolated brain mitochondria and striatal neurons from R6/2 mice, a model of Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Hamilton, James; Pellman, Jessica J; Brustovetsky, Tatiana; Harris, Robert A; Brustovetsky, Nickolay


    Alterations in oxidative metabolism and defects in mitochondrial Ca 2+ handling have been implicated in the pathology of Huntington's disease (HD), but existing data are contradictory. We investigated the effect of human mHtt fragments on oxidative metabolism and Ca 2+ handling in isolated brain mitochondria and cultured striatal neurons from the R6/2 mouse model of HD. Non-synaptic and synaptic mitochondria isolated from the brains of R6/2 mice had similar respiratory rates and Ca 2+ uptake capacity compared with mitochondria from wild-type (WT) mice. Respiratory activity of cultured striatal neurons measured with Seahorse XF24 flux analyzer revealed unaltered cellular respiration in neurons derived from R6/2 mice compared with neurons from WT animals. Consistent with the lack of respiratory dysfunction, ATP content of cultured striatal neurons from R6/2 and WT mice was similar. Mitochondrial Ca 2+ accumulation was also evaluated in cultured striatal neurons from R6/2 and WT animals. Our data obtained with striatal neurons derived from R6/2 and WT mice show that both glutamate-induced increases in cytosolic Ca 2+ and subsequent carbonilcyanide p-triflouromethoxyphenylhydrazone-induced increases in cytosolic Ca 2+ were similar between WT and R6/2, suggesting that mitochondria in neurons derived from both types of animals accumulated comparable amounts of Ca 2+ Overall, our data argue against respiratory deficiency and impaired Ca 2+ handling induced by human mHtt fragments in both isolated brain mitochondria and cultured striatal neurons from transgenic R6/2 mice. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  12. Cellular characterization of human dermal fibroblasts, focus on mitochondria and maple syrup urine disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Guerra, Paula

    and functions are expressed in HDFs’ culture environment. Studies of molecular disease mechanisms often point to the involvement of mitochondria. Mitochondria are involved in the regulation of cell cycle and programmed cell death as well as cellular stress responses because they are the main producers...

  13. Experiences after Twenty Months with Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Infection in the Naïve Norwegian Pig Population (United States)

    Gjerset, B.; Er, C.; Løtvedt, S.; Jørgensen, A.; Hungnes, O.; Lium, B.; Germundsson, A.


    Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus was detected in Norwegian pigs in October 2009. Until then, Norway was regarded free of swine influenza. Intensified screening revealed 91 positive herds within three months. The virus was rapidly transmitted to the susceptible population, including closed breeding herds with high biosecurity. Humans were important for the introduction as well as spread of the virus to pigs. Mild or no clinical signs were observed in infected pigs. Surveillance of SIV in 2010 revealed that 41% of all the Norwegian pig herds had antibodies to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. Furthermore, this surveillance indicated that pigs born in positive herds after the active phase did not seroconvert, suggesting no ongoing infection in the herds. However, results from surveillance in 2011 show a continuing spread of the infection in many herds, either caused by new introduction or by virus circulation since 2009. PMID:23074654

  14. Kidney outer medulla mitochondria are more efficient compared to cortex mitochondria as a strategy to sustain ATP production in a suboptimal environment. (United States)

    Schiffer, Tomas A; Gustafsson, Håkan; Palm, Fredrik


    The kidneys receive approximately 25% of cardiac output, which is a prerequisite in order to maintain sufficient glomerular filtration rate. However, both intrarenal regional renal blood flow and tissue oxygen levels are heterogeneous with decreasing levels in the inner part of the medulla. These differences in combination with the heterogeneous metabolic activity of the different nephron segment located in the different parts of the kidney may constitute a functional problem when challenged. The proximal tubule and the medullary thick ascending limb of Henle are considered to have the highest metabolic rate, which is relating to the high mitochondria content needed to sustain sufficient ATP production from oxidative phosphorylation in order to support high electrolyte transport activity in these nephron segments. Interestingly, the cells located in kidney medulla functions at the verge of hypoxia and the mitochondria may have adapted to the surrounding environment. However, little is known about intrarenal differences in mitochondria function. We therefore investigated functional differences between mitochondria isolated from kidney cortex and medulla of healthy normoglycemic rats were estimated using high-resolution respirometry. The results demonstrate that medullary mitochondria had a higher degree of coupling, are more efficient and have higher oxygen affinity, which would make them more suitable to function in an environment with limited oxygen supply. Furthermore, these results support the hypothesis that mitochondria of medullary cells have adapted to the normal hypoxic in vivo situation as a strategy of sustaining ATP production in a suboptimal environment.

  15. Effects of Various Kynurenine Metabolites on Respiratory Parameters of Rat Brain, Liver and Heart Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Baran*


    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated that the endogenous glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid dose-dependently and significantly affected rat heart mitochondria. Now we have investigated the effects of L-tryptophan, L-kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine and kynurenic, anthranilic, 3-hydroxyanthranilic, xanthurenic and quinolinic acids on respiratory parameters (ie, state 2, state 3, respiratory control index (RC and ADP/oxygen ratio in brain, liver and heart mitochondria of adult rats. Mitochondria were incubated with glutamate/malate (5 mM or succinate (10 mM and in the presence of L-tryptophan metabolites (1 mM or in the absence, as control. Kynurenic and anthranilic acids significantly reduced RC values of heart mitochondria in the presence of glutamate/malate. Xanthurenic acid significantly reduced RC values of brain mitochondria in the presence of glutamate/malate. Furthermore, 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid decreased RC values of brain, liver and heart mitochondria using glutamate/malate. In the presence of succinate, 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid affected RC values of brain mitochondria, whereas in liver and heart mitochondria only 3-hydroxykynurenine lowered RC values significantly. Furthermore, lowered ADP/oxygen ratios were observed in brain mitochondria in the presence of succinate with 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, and to a lesser extent with glutamate/malate. In addition, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid significantly lowered the ADP/oxygen ratio in heart mitochondria exposed to glutamate/malate, while in the liver mitochondria only a mild reduction was found. Tests of the influence of L-tryptophan and its metabolites on complex I in liver mitochondria showed that only 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and L-kynurenine led to a significant acceleration of NADH-driven complex I activities. The data indicate that L-tryptophan metabolites had different effects on brain, liver

  16. Coping Style Modifies General and Affective Autonomic Reactions of Domestic Pigs in Different Behavioral Contexts

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    Annika Krause


    Full Text Available Based on individual adaptive strategies (coping, animals may react differently to environmental challenges in terms of behavior and physiology according to their emotional perception. Emotional valence as well as arousal may be derived by measuring vagal and sympathetic tone of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. We investigated the situation-dependent autonomic response of 16 domestic pigs with either a reactive or a proactive coping style, previously selected according to the backtest which is accepted in piglets to assess escape behavior. At 11 weeks of age, the pigs were equipped with an implantable telemetric device, and heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP and their respective variabilities (HRV, BPV were recorded for 1 h daily over a time period of 10 days and analyzed in four behavioral contexts (resting, feeding, idling, handling. Additionally, the first minute of feeding and handling was used for a short-term analysis of these parameters in 10-s intervals. Data from day 1–3 (period 1 and day 8–10 (period 2 were grouped into two separate periods. Our results revealed general differences between the coping styles during feeding, resting and handling, with proactive pigs showing higher HR compared to reactive pigs. This elevated HR was based on either lower vagal (resting or elevated sympathetic activation (feeding, handling. The short-term analysis of the autonomic activation during feeding revealed a physiological anticipation reaction in proactive pigs in period 1, whereas reactive pigs showed this reaction only in period 2. Food intake was characterized by sympathetic arousal with concurrent vagal withdrawal, which was more pronounced in proactive pigs. In contrast, neither coping style resulted in an anticipation reaction to handling. Vagal activation increased in reactive pigs during handling, while proactive pigs showed an increase in sympathetically driven arousal in period 2. Our findings confirm significant context

  17. Gene introduction into the mitochondria of Arabidopsis thaliana via peptide-based carriers (United States)

    Chuah, Jo-Ann; Yoshizumi, Takeshi; Kodama, Yutaka; Numata, Keiji


    Available methods in plant genetic transformation are nuclear and plastid transformations because similar procedures have not yet been established for the mitochondria. The double membrane and small size of the organelle, in addition to its large population in cells, are major obstacles in mitochondrial transfection. Here we report the intracellular delivery of exogenous DNA localized to the mitochondria of Arabidopsis thaliana using a combination of mitochondria-targeting peptide and cell-penetrating peptide. Low concentrations of peptides were sufficient to deliver DNA into the mitochondria and expression of imported DNA reached detectable levels within a short incubation period (12 h). We found that electrostatic interaction with the cell membrane is not a critical factor for complex internalization, instead, improved intracellular penetration of mitochondria-targeted complexes significantly enhanced gene transfer efficiency. Our results delineate a simple and effective peptide-based method, as a starting point for the development of more sophisticated plant mitochondrial transfection strategies.

  18. The fate of paternal mitochondria in marmoset pre-implantation embryos. (United States)

    Luetjens, C M; Wesselmann, R


    Sperm-derived mitochondria are integrated into the oocyte at fertilization but seem to vanish during the early cleavage phase. The developmental potential of pre-implantation embryos seems to be closely related to their ability to induce degeneration of these mitochondria, but the mechanisms underlying their loss of function are not yet understood. This study focuses on the fate of paternal mitochondria in pre-implantation embryos. Stimulation, collection and in vitro culture of oocytes from Callithrix jacchus, allows the study of the destiny of paternal mitochondria by utilizing immunostaining of pre-implantation embryos, fluorescence and laserscanning microscopy. Live pre-implantation embryos were stained with a fluorescence indicator reflecting mitochondrial membrane potential. Evidence indicating the loss of mitochondrial function was not found nor that apoptosis pathways were involved in the disappearance of paternally derived mitochondria. These findings may have implications for mitochondrially inherited diseases and could lead to new strategies for improving assisted reproduction.

  19. Effect of sclerin on amino acid incorporation into mitochondria isolated from rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Masanori; Satomura, Yukio


    Though sclerin (SCL) stimulated amino acid incorporation into the protein fraction of post mitochondrial supernatant of rat liver homogenate, it had no effect on the incorporation into the isolated mitochondria at pH 7.2, despite of its stimulating effect on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. SCL stimulated amino acid incorporation into the mitochondria at pH 6.1, and to some extent maintained the activity on that in mitochondria during aging in hypotonic Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.2). Since SCL prevented leakage of amino acids from the mitochondria into these buffers, it was suggested that SCL may protect a structure of mitochondrial membrane which appeared to have a significance on transport of amino acids. In liver slices, SCL stimulated amino acid incorporation only into the extra-mitochondrial fraction for the first 3 min, but gradually turned to simulate incorporation into mitochondria within 30 min. (auth.)

  20. Uncoupling and oxidative stress in liver mitochondria isolated from rats with acute iron overload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo Andreu, G.L. [Centro de Quimica Farmaceutica, Departamento de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba); Inada, N.M.; Vercesi, A.E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Departamento de Patologia Clinica, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Curti, C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)


    One hypothesis for the etiology of cell damage arising from iron overload is that its excess selectively affects mitochondria. Here we tested the effects of acute iron overload on liver mitochondria isolated from rats subjected to a single dose of i.p. 500 mg/kg iron-dextran. The treatment increased the levels of iron in mitochondria (from 21{+-}4 to 130{+-}7 nmol/mg protein) and caused both lipid peroxidation and glutathione oxidation. The mitochondria of iron-treated rats showed lower respiratory control ratio in association with higher resting respiration. The mitochondrial uncoupling elicited by iron-treatment did not affect the phosphorylation efficiency or the ATP levels, suggesting that uncoupling is a mitochondrial protective mechanism against acute iron overload. Therefore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/H{sup +} leak couple, functioning as a mitochondrial redox homeostatic mechanism could play a protective role in the acutely iron-loaded mitochondria. (orig.)

  1. Specificity of DNA import into isolated mitochondria from plants and mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koulintchenko M. V.


    Full Text Available Aim. Investigation of different features of DNA import into plant and human mitochondria, for a better understanding of mitochondrial genetics and generation of biotechnological tools. Methods. DNA up-take experiments with isolated plant mitochondria, using as substrates various sequences associated or not with the specific terminal inverted repeats (TIRs present at each end of the plant mitochondrial linear plasmids. Results. It was established that the DNA import efficiency has a non-linear dependence on DNA size. It was shown that import into plant mitochondria of DNA molecules of «medium» sizes, i. e. between 4 and 7 kb, barely has any sequence specificity: neither TIRs from the 11.6 kb Brassica plasmid, nor TIRs from the Zea mays S-plasmids influenced DNA import into Solanum tuberosum mitochondria. Conclusions. The data obtained support the hypothesis about species-specific import mechanism operating under the mitochondrial linear plasmids transfer into plant mitochondria.

  2. Nanopreparations for mitochondria targeting drug delivery system: Current strategies and future prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjie Wang


    Full Text Available Mitochondria are a novel and promising therapeutic target for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of a lot of human diseases such as cancer, metabolic diseases and neurodegenerative disease. Owing to the mitochondrial special bilayer structure and highly negative potential nature, therapeutic molecules have multiple difficulties in reaching mitochondria. To overcome multiple barriers for targeting mitochondria, the researchers developed various pharmaceutical preparations such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles and inorganic nanoparticles modified by mitochondriotropic moieties like dequalinium (DQA, triphenylphosphonium (TPP, mitochondrial penetrating peptides (MPPs and mitochondrial protein import machinery that allow specific targeting. The targeted formulations exhibited enhanced pharmacological effect and better therapeutic effect than their untargeted counterpart both in vitro and in vivo. Nanocarriers may be used for bio-therapeutic delivery into specific mitochondria that possess a great potential treatment of mitochondria related diseases.

  3. Effect of sclerin on amino acid incorporation into mitochondria isolated from rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, M; Satomura, Y [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science


    Though sclerin (SCL) stimulated amino acid incorporation into the protein fraction of post mitochondrial supernatant of rat liver homogenate, it had no effect on the incorporation into the isolated mitochondria at pH 7.2, despite of its stimulating effect on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. SCL stimulated amino acid incorporation into the mitochondria at pH 6.1, and to some extent maintained the activity on that in mitochondria during aging in hypotonic Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.2). Since SCL prevented leakage of amino acids from the mitochondria into these buffers, it was suggested that SCL may protect a structure of mitochondrial membrane which appeared to have a significance on transport of amino acids. In liver slices, SCL stimulated amino acid incorporation only into the extra-mitochondrial fraction for the first 3 min, but gradually turned to simulate incorporation into mitochondria within 30 min.

  4. Huperzine A protects isolated rat brain mitochondria against beta-amyloid peptide. (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Zheng, Chun Yan; Yang, Ling; Tang, Xi Can; Zhang, Hai Yan


    Our previous work in cells and animals showed that mitochondria are involved in the neuroprotective effect of huperzine A (HupA). In this study, the effects of HupA on isolated rat brain mitochondria were investigated. In addition to inhibiting the Abeta(25-35) (40 microM)-induced decrease in mitochondrial respiration, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, enzyme activity, and transmembrane potential, HupA (0.01 or 0.1 microM) effectively prevented Abeta-induced mitochondrial swelling, reactive oxygen species increase, and cytochrome c release. More interestingly, administration of HupA to isolated mitochondria promoted the rate of ATP production and blocked mitochondrial swelling caused by normal osmosis. These results indicate that HupA protects mitochondria against Abeta at least in part by preserving membrane integrity and improving energy metabolism. These direct effects on mitochondria further extend the noncholinergic functions of HupA.

  5. SPARQling Pig - Processing Linked data with Pig Latin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Stefan; Hose, Katja; Sattler, Kai-Uwe


    the specifics of modern datasets available on the Web, which often use the RDF data model. Graph patterns, for instance, are one of the core concepts of SPARQL but have to be formulated as explicit joins, which burdens the user with the details of efficient query processing strategies. In this paper, we address......In recent years, dataflow languages such as Pig Latin have emerged as flexible and powerful tools for handling complex analysis tasks on big data. These languages support schema flexibility as well as common programming patterns such as iteration. They offer extensibility through user...

  6. Correlation between chloride flux via the mitochondria-rich cells and transepithelial water movement in isolated frog skin (Rana esculenta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Robert


    Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells.......Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells....

  7. Obesity-exposed oocytes accumulate and transmit damaged mitochondria due to an inability to activate mitophagy. (United States)

    Boudoures, Anna L; Saben, Jessica; Drury, Andrea; Scheaffer, Suzanne; Modi, Zeel; Zhang, Wendy; Moley, Kelle H


    Mitochondria are the most prominent organelle in the oocyte. Somatic cells maintain a healthy population of mitochondria by degrading damaged mitochondria via mitophagy, a specialized autophagy pathway. However, evidence from previous work investigating the more general macroautophagy pathway in oocytes suggests that mitophagy may not be active in the oocyte. This would leave the vast numbers of mitochondria - poised to be inherited by the offspring - vulnerable to damage. Here we test the hypothesis that inactive mitophagy in the oocyte underlies maternal transmission of dysfunctional mitochondria. To determine whether oocytes can complete mitophagy, we used either CCCP or AntimycinA to depolarize mitochondria and trigger mitophagy. After depolarization, we did not detect co-localization of mitochondria with autophagosomes and mitochondrial DNA copy number remained unchanged, indicating the non-functional mitochondrial population was not removed. To investigate the impact of an absence of mitophagy in oocytes with damaged mitochondria on offspring mitochondrial function, we utilized in vitro fertilization of high fat high sugar (HF/HS)-exposed oocytes, which have lower mitochondrial membrane potential and damaged mitochondria. Here, we demonstrate that blastocysts generated from HF/HS oocytes have decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, lower metabolites involved in ATP generation, and accumulation of PINK1, a mitophagy marker protein. This mitochondrial phenotype in the blastocyst mirrors the phenotype we show in HF/HS exposed oocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that the mechanisms governing oocyte mitophagy are fundamentally distinct from those governing somatic cell mitophagy and that the absence of mitophagy in the setting of HF/HS exposure contributes to the oocyte-to-blastocyst transmission of dysfunctional mitochondria. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Involvement of S6K1 in mitochondria function and structure in HeLa cells. (United States)

    Park, Jisoo; Tran, Quangdon; Mun, Kisun; Masuda, Kouhei; Kwon, So Hee; Kim, Seon-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Thomas, George; Park, Jongsun


    The major biological function of mitochondria is to generate cellular energy through oxidative phosphorylation. Apart from cellular respiration, mitochondria also play a key role in signaling processes, including aging and cancer metabolism. It has been shown that S6K1-knockout mice are resistant to obesity due to enhanced beta-oxidation, with an increased number of large mitochondria. Therefore, in this report, the possible involvement of S6K1 in regulating mitochondria dynamics and function has been investigated in stable lenti-shS6K1-HeLa cells. Interestingly, S6K1-stably depleted HeLa cells showed phenotypical changes in mitochondria morphology. This observation was further confirmed by detailed image analysis of mitochondria shape. Corresponding molecular changes were also observed in these cells, such as the induction of mitochondrial fission proteins (Drp1 and Fis1). Oxygen consumption is elevated in S6K1-depeleted HeLa cells and FL5.12 cells. In addition, S6K1 depletion leads to enhancement of ATP production in cytoplasm and mitochondria. However, the relative ratio of mitochondrial ATP to cytoplasmic ATP is actually decreased in lenti-shS6K1-HeLa cells compared to control cells. Lastly, induction of mitophagy was found in lenti-shS6K1-HeLa cells with corresponding changes of mitochondria shape on electron microscope analysis. Taken together, our results indicate that S6K1 is involved in the regulation of mitochondria morphology and function in HeLa cells. This study will provide novel insights into S6K1 function in mitochondria-mediated cellular signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Vaginal Microbiota of Guinea Pigs


    Hafner, L. M.; Rush, C. M.; Timms, P.


    The vaginae of four guinea pigs were swabbed and samples cultured aerobically on horse blood agar, in 5 per cent carbon dioxide on MRS agar or anaerobically on anaerobic horse blood agar. Vaginal microbiota consisted almost exclusively of gram-positive bacteria including Corynebacterium, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus and Lactobacillus species.Keywords: guinea pigs, vaginal microbiota, vaginal vaccines.

  10. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Reeth, Van Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M.; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S.; Brown, Ian H.; Loeffen, Willie; Meulen, Van der Karen; Schlegel, Michael; Bublot, Michel; Kellam, Paul; Watson, Simon; Lewis, Nicola S.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Webby, Richard; Chen, Hualan; Vincent, Amy L.


    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs

  11. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony? (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.


    In his interesting and informative book "Is That a Fact?," Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on…

  12. Selected hematological and immunological parameters in pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood was collected from 64 healthy growing pigs one week before and one week after they were transferred to the finishing house. The following tests were performed: complete blood count with machine differential, immunoglobulin levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) level and cortisol level. Pigs were divided into two groups.

  13. Protective immunity against influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, Peter Paul


    Swine influenza is a highly contagious acute viral disease of the respiratory tract in pigs, which is prevalent world-wide. The disease causes considerable economic damage primarily due to reduced weight gain in finishing pigs and reduced reproductive performance of sows. In addition, influenza is a

  14. PET radioligand injection for pig neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord; Landau, Anne M.


    Pigs are useful models in neuroimaging studies with positron emission tomography. Radiolabeled ligands are injected intravenously at the start of the scan and in pigs, the most easily accessible route of administration is the ear vein. However, in brain studies the short distance between the brai...

  15. Protein digestion kinetics in pigs and poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Hsuan


    Increasing the protein efficiency is considered a main strategy for sustainable feeding of pigs and poultry. In practice, protein in pig and poultry diets originates from different ingredients, selected in diet formulation based on their nutritional value and cost. Currently, the nutritional

  16. Pig skin apposite dehydrated by lyophilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Gonzalez V, C.; Flores A, M.; Peralta R, J.; Reboyo B, D.; Rodriguez U, M.D.


    Taking like base a work carried out in 2001 in the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) in which lyophilized apposite of pig skin were obtained at laboratory scale, this work is presented that had as purpose to process pig skin to produce temporary covers of skin (apposite) dehydrated by lyophilization to commercial scale. (Author)

  17. Animal models got you puzzled?: think pig. (United States)

    Walters, Eric M; Agca, Yuksel; Ganjam, Venkataseshu; Evans, Tim


    Swine are an excellent large animal model for human health and disease because their size and physiology are similar to humans, in particular, with respect to the skin, heart, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. In addition, the pig has many emerging technologies that will only enhance the development of the pig as the nonrodent biomedical model of choice. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Nutritional studies in native, Thai Kadon pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasupen, K


    In the North-East of Thailand native, so-called Kadon pigs are typically kept on small-holder farms. Kadon pig is believed to be on the edge of extinction and in 2003 it was designated as a protected species of production animals. The main objective of this thesis was to study various nutritional

  19. Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.


    Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

  20. Guinea pigs as an animal model for sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abu Rafee


    Full Text Available The overwhelming use of rat models in nerve regeneration studies is likely to induce skewness in treatment outcomes. To address the problem, this study was conducted in 8 adult guinea pigs of either sex to investigate the suitability of guinea pig as an alternative model for nerve regeneration studies. A crush injury was inflicted to the sciatic nerve of the left limb, which led to significant decrease in the pain perception and neurorecovery up to the 4th weak. Lengthening of foot print and shortening of toe spread were observed in the paw after nerve injury. A 3.49 ± 0.35 fold increase in expression of neuropilin 1 (NRP1 gene and 2.09 ± 0.51 fold increase in neuropilin 2 (NRP2 gene were recorded 1 week after nerve injury as compared to the normal nerve. Ratios of gastrocnemius muscle weight and volume of the experimental limb to control limb showed more than 50% decrease on the 30th day. Histopathologically, vacuolated appearance of the nerve was observed with presence of degenerated myelin debris in digestion chambers. Gastrocnemius muscle also showed degenerative changes. Scanning electron microscopy revealed loose and rough arrangement of connective tissue fibrils and presence of large spherical globules in crushed sciatic nerve. The findings suggest that guinea pigs could be used as an alternative animal model for nerve regeneration studies and might be preferred over rats due to their cooperative nature while recording different parameters.

  1. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Chen


    Full Text Available Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v and 1.95% (v/v respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v. Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR, while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent.

  2. Mitochondria, Cybrids, Aging, and Alzheimer’s Disease (United States)

    Swerdlow, Russell H.; Koppel, Scott; Weidling, Ian; Hayley, Clay; Ji, Yan; Wilkins, Heather M.


    Mitochondrial and bioenergetic function change with advancing age and may drive aging phenotypes. Mitochondrial and bioenergetic changes are also documented in various age-related neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In some instances AD mitochondrial and bioenergetic changes are reminiscent of those observed with advancing age, but are greater in magnitude. Mitochondrial and bioenergetic dysfunction could, therefore, link neurodegeneration to brain aging. Interestingly, mitochondrial defects in AD patients are not brain-limited, and mitochondrial function can be linked to classic AD histologic changes including amyloid precursor protein processing to beta amyloid. Also, transferring mitochondria from AD subjects to cell lines depleted of endogenous mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) creates cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) cell lines that recapitulate specific biochemical, molecular, and histologic AD features. Such findings have led to the formulation of a “mitochondrial cascade hypothesis” that places mitochondrial dysfunction at the apex of the AD pathology pyramid. Data pertinent to this premise are reviewed. PMID:28253988

  3. The genome and transcriptome of perennial ryegrass mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Md. Shofiqul; Studer, Bruno; Byrne, Stephen


    Background: Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is one of the most important forage and turf grass species of temperate regions worldwide. Its mitochondrial genome is inherited maternally and contains genes that can influence traits of agricultural importance. Moreover, the DNA sequence...... and annotation of the complete mitochondrial genome from perennial ryegrass. Results: Intact mitochondria from perennial ryegrass leaves were isolated and used for mtDNA extraction. The mitochondrial genome was sequenced to a 167-fold coverage using the Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium platform, and assembled...... of mitochondrial genomes has been established and compared for a large number of species in order to characterize evolutionary relationships.Therefore, it is crucial to understand the organization of the mitochondrial genome and how it varies between and within species. Here, we report the first de novo assembly...

  4. Sensitivity of mitochondria of the mouse liver cells to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, Akihiro


    In order to study the sensitivity of mitochondria (Mt) of the liver cells to radiation, 0.4 mg of riboflavine (RF) was intraperitoneally injected into mice which had been fed RF deficient food for 13 weeks. Three hours later 400 R of X-ray (190 KVP, 25 mA, 0.5 mmCu, 0.5 mmAl filter, FSD 61.5 cm, and HVL 0.80 mmCu) were irradiated to the whole body, and giant Mt of the liver cells were observed. When the liver cells were observed 24 hours after injection, neither giant Mt nor mitotic findings of Mt were found. All Mt observed were small (1.2 μ), although mice received 400 R of X-ray. (Serizawa, K.)

  5. Sensitivity of mitochondria of the mouse liver cells to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, A [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science


    In order to study the sensitivity of mitochondria (Mt) of the liver cells to radiation, 0.4 mg of riboflavine (RF) was intraperitoneally injected into mice which had been fed RF deficient food for 13 weeks. Three hours later 400 R of X-ray (190 KVP, 25 mA, 0.5 mmCu, 0.5 mmAl filter, FSD 61.5 cm, and HVL 0.80 mmCu) were irradiated to the whole body, and giant Mt of the liver cells were observed. When the liver cells were observed 24 hours after injection, neither giant Mt nor mitotic findings of Mt were found. All Mt observed were small (1.2, although mice received 400 R of X-ray.

  6. Aerobic mitochondria of parasitic protists: Diverse genomes and complex functions. (United States)

    Zíková, Alena; Hampl, Vladimír; Paris, Zdeněk; Týč, Jiří; Lukeš, Julius

    In this review the main features of the mitochondria of aerobic parasitic protists are discussed. While the best characterized organelles are by far those of kinetoplastid flagellates and Plasmodium, we also consider amoebae Naegleria and Acanthamoeba, a ciliate Ichthyophthirius and related lineages. The simplistic view of the mitochondrion as just a power house of the cell has already been abandoned in multicellular organisms and available data indicate that this also does not apply for protists. We discuss in more details the following mitochondrial features: genomes, post-transcriptional processing, translation, biogenesis of iron-sulfur complexes, heme metabolism and the electron transport chain. Substantial differences in all these core mitochondrial features between lineages are compatible with the view that aerobic protists harbor organelles that are more complex and flexible than previously appreciated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ribosomal protein S14 transcripts are edited in Oenothera mitochondria. (United States)

    Schuster, W; Unseld, M; Wissinger, B; Brennicke, A


    The gene encoding ribosomal protein S14 (rps14) in Oenothera mitochondria is located upstream of the cytochrome b gene (cob). Sequence analysis of independently derived cDNA clones covering the entire rps14 coding region shows two nucleotides edited from the genomic DNA to the mRNA derived sequences by C to U modifications. A third editing event occurs four nucleotides upstream of the AUG initiation codon and improves a potential ribosome binding site. A CGG codon specifying arginine in a position conserved in evolution between chloroplasts and E. coli as a UGG tryptophan codon is not edited in any of the cDNAs analysed. An inverted repeat 3' of an unidentified open reading frame is located upstream of the rps14 gene. The inverted repeat sequence is highly conserved at analogous regions in other Oenothera mitochondrial loci. Images PMID:2326162

  8. Mitochondria recycle nitrite back to the bioregulator nitric monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohl, H.; Staniek, K.; Sobhian, B.; Bahrami, S.; Redl, H.; Kozlov, A.V.


    Nitric monoxide (NO) exerts a great variety of physiological functions. L-Arginine supplies amino groups which are transformed to NO in various NO-synthase-active isoenzyme complexes. NO-synthesis is stimulated under various conditions increasing the tissue of stable NO-metabolites. The major oxidation product found is nitrite. Elevated nitrite levels were reported to exist in a variety of diseases including HIV, reperfusion injury and hypovolemic shock. Denitrifying bacteria such as Paracoccus denitrificans have a membrane bound set of cytochromes (cyt cd 1 , cyt bc) which were shown to be involved in nitrite reduction activities. Mammalian mitochondria have similar cytochromes which form part of the respiratory chain. Like in bacteria quinols are used as reductants of these types of cytochromes. The observation of one-e - divergence from this redox-couple to external dioxygen made us to study whether this site of the respiratory chain may also recycle nitrite back to its bioactive form NO. Thus, the aim of the present study was therefore to confirm the existence of a reductive pathway which reestablishes the existence of the bioregulator NO from its main metabolite NO 2 - . Our results show that respiring mitochondria readily reduce added nitrite to NO which was made visible by nitrosylation of deoxyhemoglobin. The adduct gives characteristic triplet-ESR-signals. Using inhibitors of the respiratory chain for chemical sequestration of respiratory segments we were able to identify the site where nitrite is reduced. The results confirm the ubiquinone/cyt bc 1 couple as the reductant site where nitrite is recycled. The high affinity of NO to the heme-iron of cytochrome oxidase will result in an impairment of mitochondrial energy-production. ''Nitrite tolerance'' of angina pectoris patients using NO-donors may be explained in that way. (author)

  9. Ca(2+-dependent regulation of the Ca(2+ concentration in the myometrium mitochondria. II. Ca(2+ effects on mitochondria membranes polarization and [Ca(2+](m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Babich


    Full Text Available It is known that Ca2+ accumulation in the mitochondria undergoes complex regulation by Ca2+ itself. But the mechanisms of such regulation are still discussed. In this paper we have shown that Ca ions directly or indirectly regulate the level of myometrium mitochondria membranes polarization. The additions of 100 µM Ca2+ were accompanied by depolarization of the mitochondria membranes. The following experiments were designed to study the impact of Ca2+ on the myometrium mitochondria [Ca2+]m. Isolated myometrium mitochondria were preincubated without or with 10 μM Са2+ followed by 100 μM Са2+ addition. Experiments were conducted in three mediums: without ATP and Mg2+ (0-medium, in the presence of 3 mM Mg2+ (Mg-medium and 3 mM Mg2+ + 3 mM ATP (Mg,ATP-medium. It was shown that the effects of 10 μM Са2+ addition were different in different mediums, namely in 0- and Mg-medium the [Ca2+]m values increased, whereas in Mg,ATP-medium statistically reliable changes were not registered. Preincubation of mitochondria with 10 μM Са2+ did not affect the [Ca2+]m value after the addition of 100 μM Са2+. The [Ca2+]m values after 100 μM Са2+ addition were the same in 0- and Mg,ATP-mediums and somewhat lower in Mg-medium. Preliminary incubation of mitochondria with 10 μM Са2+ in 0- and Mg-mediums reduced changes of Fluo 4 normalized fluorescence values that were induced by 100 μM Са2+ additions, but in Mg,ATP-medium such differences were not recorded. It is concluded that Са2+ exchange in myometrium mitochondria is regulated by the concentration of Ca ions as in the external medium, so in the matrix of mitochondria. The medium composition had a significant impact on the [Са2+]m values in the absence of exogenous cation. It is suggested that light increase of [Са2+]m before the addition of 100 μM Са2+ may have a positive effect on the functional activity of the mitochondria.

  10. Aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtulini, S; Macchi, C; Ballanti, P


    The effect of intramuscular injection of 40 mg/2 ml aluminium hydroxide in the neck of pigs was examined in a number of ways. The investigation followed repeated slaughterhouse reports, according to which 64.8% of pigs from one particular farm were found at slaughter to have one or more nodules...... in the muscles of the neck (group slaughtered). The pigs had been injected with a vaccine containing 40 mg/2 ml dose of aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. Research consisted of two phases: first, an epidemiological study was carried out, aimed at determining the risk factors for the granulomas. The results...... and adjuvant) to pigs inoculated twice with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group water) and to pigs inoculated once with the adjuvant and once with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group adjuvant/water). Both studies agreed in their conclusions, which indicate that the high amount of aluminium hydroxide...

  11. Endocrine tumours in the guinea pig. (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Mayer, Jörg


    Functional endocrine tumours have long been thought to be rare in guinea pigs, although conditions such as hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been documented with increasing frequency so the prevalence of hormonal disorders may have been underestimated. Both the clinical signs and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs appear to be very similar to those described in feline hyperthyroidism, and methimazole has been proven to be a practical therapy option. Hyperadrenocorticism has been confirmed in several guinea pigs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test using saliva as a non-invasive sample matrix; trilostane has been successfully used to treat a guinea pig with hyperadrenocorticism. Insulinomas have only rarely been documented in guinea pigs and one animal was effectively treated with diazoxide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoch-Ligeti, C.; Congdon, C.C.; Deringer, M.K.; Stewart, H.L.


    Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder developed in 17 of 68 untreated and in 26 of 83 irradiated guinea pigs of inbred strains 2 and 13. The carcinomas spread widely by direct extension and through lymphatic and blood vessels to lymph nodes, mesenteries, omenta, abdominal wall, liver, lungs, bones, and spleen. Whole-body exposure to gamma or x radiation increased both the number of tumors and metastases in male inbred guinea pigs but not in females. Significantly fewer (9 of 98) noninbred than inbred guinea pigs developed gallbladder carcinomas after irradiation. In 9 untreated noninbred guinea pigs gallbladder carcinomas were not found. Inasmuch as the effect of irradiation was not dose-dependent, an indirect systemic effect of irradiation was postulated. This is the first report on the occurrence of spontaneous gallbladder adenocarcinomas in guinea pigs

  13. A consumer study of entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godt, Jannik; Kristensen, Kai; Poulsen, Carsten Stig


    made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... on a number of castrated male pigs and gilts. No difference was found in the way the odour components affected the eating quality determined by men and women. A total of 5.4% of the consumers in the study reacted negatively in their evaluation of the eating quality of the cutlets selected for the study......Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...

  14. Semen quality of Italian local pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandini


    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.

  15. A Consumer Study of Entire Male Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Godt, J.; Kristensen, K.


    Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...... made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... on a number of castrated male pigs and gilts. No difference was found in the way the odour components affected the eating quality determined by men and women. A total of 5.4% of the consumers in the study reacted negatively in their evaluation of the eating quality of the cutlets selected for the study...

  16. Evaluation of a pig femoral head osteonecrosis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Harry


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major cause of osteonecrosis of the femoral head is interruption of a blood supply to the proximal femur. In order to evaluate blood circulation and pathogenetic alterations, a pig femoral head osteonecrosis model was examined to address whether ligature of the femoral neck (vasculature deprivation induces a reduction of blood circulation in the femoral head, and whether transphyseal vessels exist for communications between the epiphysis and the metaphysis. We also tested the hypothesis that the vessels surrounding the femoral neck and the ligamentum teres represent the primary source of blood flow to the femoral head. Methods Avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral head was induced in Yorkshire pigs by transecting the ligamentum teres and placing two ligatures around the femoral neck. After heparinized saline infusion and microfil perfusion via the abdominal aorta, blood circulation in the femoral head was evaluated by optical and CT imaging. Results An angiogram of the microfil casted sample allowed identification of the major blood vessels to the proximal femur including the iliac, common femoral, superficial femoral, deep femoral and circumflex arteries. Optical imaging in the femoral neck showed that a microfil stained vessel network was visible in control sections but less noticeable in necrotic sections. CT images showed a lack of microfil staining in the epiphysis. Furthermore, no transphyseal vessels were observed to link the epiphysis to the metaphysis. Conclusion Optical and CT imaging analyses revealed that in this present pig model the ligatures around the femoral neck were the primary cause of induction of avascular osteonecrosis. Since the vessels surrounding the femoral neck are comprised of the branches of the medial and the lateral femoral circumflex vessels, together with the extracapsular arterial ring and the lateral epiphyseal arteries, augmentation of blood circulation in those arteries will improve

  17. Qualitative and quantitative modifications of root mitochondria during senescence of above-ground parts of Arabidopis thaliana. (United States)

    Fanello, Diego Darío; Bartoli, Carlos Guillermo; Guiamet, Juan José


    This work studied modifications experienced by root mitochondria during whole plant senescence or under light deprivation, using Arabidopsis thaliana plants with YFP tagged to mitochondria. During post-bolting development, root respiratory activity started to decline after aboveground organs (i.e., rosette leaves) had senesced. This suggests that carbohydrate starvation may induce root senescence. Similarly, darkening the whole plant induced a decrease in respiration of roots. This was partially due to a decrease in the number of total mitochondria (YFP-labelled mitochondria) and most probably to a decrease in the quantity of mitochondria with a developed inner membrane potential (ΔΨm, i.e., Mitotracker red- labelled mitochondria). Also, the lower amount of mitochondria with ΔΨm compared to YFP-labelled mitochondria at 10d of whole darkened plant, suggests the presence of mitochondria in a "standby state". The experiments also suggest that small mitochondria made the main contribution to the respiratory activity that was lost during root senescence. Sugar supplementation partially restored the respiration of mitochondria after 10d of whole plant dark treatment. These results suggest that root senescence is triggered by carbohydrate starvation, with loss of ΔΨm mitochondria and changes in mitochondrial size distribution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S; Jahangir Hossain, M; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P


    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers.

  19. MRSA CC398 in the pig production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Wolf, van der P.J.; Giessen, van de A.W.; Duijkeren, van E.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Nes, van A.; Mevius, D.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.


    In 2005, a distinct clone of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA CC398) was found in pigs and people in contact with pigs. The structure of the pig production chain in high technology pig husbandry enables pathogens to spread during animal trading, with an increasing prevalence in

  20. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section... Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the animals...

  1. Positive Streptobacillus moniliformis PCR in guinea pigs likely due to Leptotrichia spp. (United States)

    Boot, Ron; Van de Berg, Lia; Reubsaet, Frans A G; Vlemminx, Maurice J


    Streptobacillus moniliformis is a zoonotic bacterium. We obtained positive S. moniliformis PCR results in oral swab samples from guinea pigs from an experimental colony and the breeding colony of origin. Comparison of the DNA sequence of an amplicon with deposited 16S rDNA sequences revealed that Leptotrichia sp. can be the source of a false positive S. moniliformis PCR outcome.

  2. Fine structure of the ultimobranchial cysts in the thyroid of the adult guinea pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zelander, T; Kirkeby, S


    The ultimobranchial cysts in the thyroid of the adult guinea pig are identified by a cytochemical method. The ultimobranchial tissue has the shape of an irregular cyst, with non-specific esterase activity that is resistent to HgCl2 inhibition. The TEM reveals five different types of epithelial cell...

  3. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs. (United States)

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C


    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. The role of uncoupling protein 3 regulating calcium ion uptake into mitochondria during sarcopenia (United States)

    Nikawa, Takeshi; Choi, Inho; Haruna, Marie; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Maita Ohno, Ayako; Kondo Teshima, Shigetada

    Overloaded mitochondrial calcium concentration contributes to progression of mitochondrial dysfunction in aged muscle, leading to sarcopenia. Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is primarily expressed in the inner membrane of skeletal muscle mitochondria. Recently, it has been reported that UCP3 is associated with calcium uptake into mitochondria. However, the mechanisms by which UCP3 regulates mitochondrial calcium uptake are not well understood. Here we report that UCP3 interacts with HS-1 associated protein X-1 (Hax-1), an anti-apoptotic protein that is localized in mitochondria, which is involved in cellular responses to calcium ion. The hydrophilic sequences within the loop 2, matrix-localized hydrophilic domain of mouse UCP3 are necessary for binding to Hax-1 of the C-terminal domain in adjacent to mitochondrial innermembrane. Interestingly, these proteins interaction occur the calcium-dependent manner. Indeed, overexpression of UCP3 significantly enhanced calcium uptake into mitochondria on Hax-1 endogenously expressing C2C12 myoblasts. In addition, Hax-1 knock-down enhanced calcium uptake into mitochondria on both UCP3 and Hax-1 endogenously expressing C2C12 myotubes, but not myoblasts. Finally, the dissociation of UCP3 and Hax-1 enhances calcium uptake into mitochondria in aged muscle. These studies identify a novel UCP3-Hax-1 complex regulates the influx of calcium ion into mitochondria in muscle. Thus, the efficacy of UCP3-Hax-1 in mitochondrial calcium regulation may provide a novel therapeutic approach against mitochondrial dysfunction-related disease containing sarcopenia.

  5. Mitochondria-Associated Membranes As Networking Platforms and Regulators of Cancer Cell Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Livia Sassano


    Full Text Available The tight cross talk between two essential organelles of the cell, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondria, is spatially and functionally regulated by specific microdomains known as the mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs. MAMs are hot spots of Ca2+ transfer between the ER and mitochondria, and emerging data indicate their vital role in the regulation of fundamental physiological processes, chief among them mitochondria bioenergetics, proteostasis, cell death, and autophagy. Moreover, and perhaps not surprisingly, it has become clear that signaling events regulated at the ER–mitochondria intersection regulate key processes in oncogenesis and in the response of cancer cells to therapeutics. ER–mitochondria appositions have been shown to dynamically recruit oncogenes and tumor suppressors, modulating their activity and protein complex formation, adapt the bioenergetic demand of cancer cells and to regulate cell death pathways and redox signaling in cancer cells. In this review, we discuss some emerging players of the ER–mitochondria contact sites in mammalian cells, the key processes they regulate and recent evidence highlighting the role of MAMs in shaping cell-autonomous and non-autonomous signals that regulate cancer growth.

  6. Effects of Ca2+ on oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria from the thermogenic organ of marlin. (United States)

    O'Brien, J; Block, B A


    Mitochondria from the muscle-derived thermogenic (heater) organ and oxidative red muscle of the blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) were studied in order to evaluate aspects of the mechanism of thermogenesis in heater tissue. We investigated whether short-term Ca(2+)-induced uncoupling of mitochondria contributes to the thermogenic cycle of the heater organ by enhancing the respiration rate. Specific electrodes were used to obtain simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption and Ca2+ fluxes on isolated mitochondria, and the effects of various concentrations of Ca2+ on respiration rates and the ADP phosphorylated/atomic oxygen consumed (P/O) ratio were examined. Addition of Ca2+ in excess of 10 mumol l-1 to respiring heater organ or red muscle mitochondria partially inhibited state 3 respiration and reduced the P/O ratio, indicating that the mitochondria were partially uncoupled. These effects were blocked by 2 mumol l-1 Ruthenium Red. In heater organ mitochondria, state 3 respiration rate and the P/O ratio were not significantly reduced by 1 mumol l-1 free Ca2+, a concentration likely to be near the maximum achieved in a stimulated cell. This indicates that transient increases in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration may not significantly reduce the P/O ratio of heater organ mitochondria. The activity of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase in heater organ mitochondria was stimulated by approximately 15% by Ca2+ concentrations between 0.2 and 1 mumol l-1. These results suggest that heater organ mitochondria are able to maintain a normal P/O ratio and should maintain ATP output during transient increases in Ca2+ concentration, supporting a model in which an ATP-consuming process drives thermogenesis. Activation of mitochondrial dehydrogenases by low levels of Ca2+ may also enhance respiration and contribute to thermogenesis.

  7. Melatonin as a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant: one of evolution's best ideas. (United States)

    Reiter, Russel J; Rosales-Corral, Sergio; Tan, Dun Xian; Jou, Mei Jie; Galano, Annia; Xu, Bing


    Melatonin is an ancient antioxidant. After its initial development in bacteria, it has been retained throughout evolution such that it may be or may have been present in every species that have existed. Even though it has been maintained throughout evolution during the diversification of species, melatonin's chemical structure has never changed; thus, the melatonin present in currently living humans is identical to that present in cyanobacteria that have existed on Earth for billions of years. Melatonin in the systemic circulation of mammals quickly disappears from the blood presumably due to its uptake by cells, particularly when they are under high oxidative stress conditions. The measurement of the subcellular distribution of melatonin has shown that the concentration of this indole in the mitochondria greatly exceeds that in the blood. Melatonin presumably enters mitochondria through oligopeptide transporters, PEPT1, and PEPT2. Thus, melatonin is specifically targeted to the mitochondria where it seems to function as an apex antioxidant. In addition to being taken up from the circulation, melatonin may be produced in the mitochondria as well. During evolution, mitochondria likely originated when melatonin-forming bacteria were engulfed as food by ancestral prokaryotes. Over time, engulfed bacteria evolved into mitochondria; this is known as the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of mitochondria. When they did so, the mitochondria retained the ability to synthesize melatonin. Thus, melatonin is not only taken up by mitochondria but these organelles, in addition to many other functions, also probably produce melatonin as well. Melatonin's high concentrations and multiple actions as an antioxidant provide potent antioxidant protection to these organelles which are exposed to abundant free radicals.

  8. Structure of cells chloroplasts and mitochondria of cotton leaves following gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslanova, S V [AN Uzbekskoj SSR, Tashkent. Inst. Ehksperimental' noj Biologii Rastenij


    The article investigates the structural changes in the plastides and mitochondria of cotton leaf cells after irradiation. Cotton seeds that had been moistened for 24 hours were irradiated by a gamma source with a dose of 10 kR (intensity: 19 R/s.). For the study of the plastides and mitochondria of the leaf cells samples were taken in the cotyledonous leaf and flowering phases of the cotton. The cells of the cotton leaf mesophillum in the standard consists of chloroplast with developed interior structures. Study of the ultrastructure of the cells of the mesophilic tissue of the cotyledonous leaf in irradiated cotton plants showed that the chloroplastide membranes are not damaged. A change in the form of the chloroplasts, an accumulation of starch and plastic substances in the chloroplasts, and a reduction in the number of inter-grain bonds were noted. It was discovered that gamma irradiation produces an excessive build-up of starch in the chloroplasts. The mitochondria are often located close to the plastides. The optical density is typical of the matrix of the mitochondria in non-irradiated plants. After cotton seeds that have sprouted are irradiated with a dose of 10 kR in the cotyledonous leaf phase, part of the mitochondria swells. The matrix becomes more transparent, and the number of chrysts decreases. Part of the mitochondria remains intact. The optical density and internal membranes of the mitochondria remain the same as in the control group. The disturbances of the chloroplast and the mitochondria are also observed in the budding and flowering phases (under conditions of a natural day). It was noted that a shortened day facilitated to some extent a normalization of metabolism, and this produced in turn a normal development of the chloroplasts, leaf mitochondria and ATF generation, which reduces the final biological effect of the radiation.

  9. Rhein Elicits In Vitro Cytotoxicity in Primary Human Liver HL-7702 Cells by Inducing Apoptosis through Mitochondria-Mediated Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy-Armel Bounda


    Full Text Available Objective. To study rhein-induced apoptosis signaling pathway and to investigate its molecular mechanisms in primary human hepatic cells. Results. Cell viability of HL-7702 cells treated with rhein showed significant decrease in dose-dependent manner. Following rhein treatment (25 μM, 50 μM, and 100 μM for 12 h, the detection of apoptotic cells was significantly analyzed by flow cytometry and nuclear morphological changes by Hoechst 33258, respectively. Fatty degeneration studies showed upregulation level of the relevant hepatic markers (P < 0.01. Caspase activities expressed significant upregulation of caspase-3, caspase-9, and caspase-8. Moreover, apoptotic cells by rhein were significantly inhibited by Z-LEHD-FMK and Z-DEVD-FMK, caspase-9 inhibitor, and caspase-3 inhibitor, respectively. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential were detected by fluorometry. Additionally, NAC, a ROS scavenger, significantly attenuated rhein-induced oxidative damage in HL-7702 cells. Furthermore, real-time qPCR results showed significant upregulation of p53, PUMA, Apaf-1, and Casp-9 and Casp-3 mRNA, with no significant changes of Fas and Cytochrome-c. Immunoblotting revealed significant Cytochrome-c release from mitochondria into cytosol and no change in Fas expression. Conclusion. Taken together, these observations suggested that rhein could induce apoptosis in HL-7702 cells via mitochondria-mediated signal pathway with involvement of oxidative stress mechanism.

  10. Melatonin promotes Bax sequestration to mitochondria reducing cell susceptibility to apoptosis via the lipoxygenase metabolite 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Radogna, Flavia


    Extra-neurological functions of melatonin include control of the immune system and modulation of apoptosis. We previously showed that melatonin inhibits the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in leukocytes via stimulation of high affinity MT1/MT2 receptors, thereby promoting re-localization of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein to mitochondria. Here we show that Bcl-2 sequesters pro-apoptotic Bax into mitochondria in an inactive form after melatonin treatment, thus reducing cell propensity to apoptosis. Bax translocation and the anti-apoptotic effect of melatonin are strictly dependent on the presence of Bcl-2, and on the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) metabolite 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), which we have previously shown to be produced as a consequence of melatonin binding to its low affinity target calmodulin. Therefore, the anti-apoptotic effect of melatonin requires the simultaneous, independent interaction with high (MT1/MT2) and low (calmodulin) affinity targets, eliciting two independent signal transduction pathways converging into Bax sequestration and inactivation. MT1/MT2 vs. lipoxygenase pathways are activated by 10-9 vs. 10-5M melatonin, respectively; the anti-apoptotic effect of melatonin is achieved at 10-5M, but drops to 10-9M upon addition of exogenous 5-HETE, revealing that lipoxygenase activation is the rate-limiting pathway. Therefore, in areas of inflammation with increased 5-HETE levels, physiological nanomolar concentrations of melatonin may suffice to maintain leukocyte viability.

  11. Percutaneous removal of pulmonary artery emboli with hydrolyser catheter in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoursiere, L.; Millward, S.; Veinot, J.P.; Labinaz, M.


    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Hydrolyser catheter for per,cutaneous treatment of massive pulmonary embolism in pigs. Twelve pigs, each weighing between 55 kg and 89 kg, were used. Radio-opaque 9 cm x 0.8 cm and 4.5 cm x 0.8 cm clots, produced by mixing pig blood with iodinated contrast agent in vacutainers, were injected via the jugular vein until central pulmonary embolism (main and proximal lobar arteries) was obtained with significant systemic and pulmonary hemodynamic modifications. From a femoral approach, the 7-French Hydrolyser thrombectomy catheter was run over a 0.025-inch (0.64-mm) guide wire to remove the pulmonary emboli. Hemodynamic, gasometric and angiographic monitoring was performed before and after treatment. The procedure's safety and completeness of emboli removal was assessed by cardiopulmonary autopsy. Three of the 12 pigs died during embolization. Thrombectomy was therefore performed in 9, and central emboli could be obtained in 7 of the 9. The Hydrolyser could be manipulated only in central pulmonary arteries and could aspirate only central emboli in 5 of the 7 pigs that had them. Despite minimal angiographic improvement seen in these 5, there was no significant hemodynamic and gasometric improvement after treatment. The procedure induced an increase in free hemoglobin blood levels. Autopsies revealed an average of 2 endothelial injuries per pig (mainly adherent endocardial thrombi) in both nontreated (n = 3) and Hydrolyser-treated (n = 9) groups. The Hydrolyser thrombectomy catheter can be promptly positioned and easily steered in central pulmonary arteries. It can be used to partially remove central emboli, but not peripheral pulmonary emboli. Most of the injuries observed may not have been strictly related to Hydrolyser use. The pig might not be a suitable animal model for treatment of massive pulmonary embolism. (author)

  12. Polyamine conjugation of curcumin analogues toward the discovery of mitochondria-directed neuroprotective agents. (United States)

    Simoni, Elena; Bergamini, Christian; Fato, Romana; Tarozzi, Andrea; Bains, Sandip; Motterlini, Roberto; Cavalli, Andrea; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Minarini, Anna; Hrelia, Patrizia; Lenaz, Giorgio; Rosini, Michela; Melchiorre, Carlo


    Mitochondria-directed antioxidants 2-5 were designed by conjugating curcumin congeners with different polyamine motifs as vehicle tools. The conjugates emerged as efficient antioxidants in mitochondria and fibroblasts and also exerted a protecting role through heme oxygenase-1 activation. Notably, the insertion of a polyamine function into the curcumin-like moiety allowed an efficient intracellular uptake and mitochondria targeting. It also resulted in a significant decrease in the cytotoxicity effects. 2-5 are therefore promising molecules for neuroprotectant lead discovery.

  13. Raman probing of lipids, proteins, and mitochondria in skeletal myocytes: a case study on obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Nadezda A.; Nikelshparg, Evelina I.; Prats, Clara


    We propose a novel approach to assess simultaneously lipid composition in lipid droplets, the redox state of cytochromes, and the relative amount of [Fe–S] clusters in the electron transport chain in the mitochondria of skeletal myocytes by means of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Mitochondria...... technique allows to estimate qualitatively the relative amount of cholesterol and unsaturated lipids, ordering of lipid phase in lipid droplets, changes in the redox state of c-type and b-type cytochromes, and the relative amount of [Fe–S] clusters in the mitochondria of intact myocytes. The proposed...

  14. Gamma radiation effect on the mitochondria ultrastructure in different radiosensitive types of cotton plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslanov, S V


    When germinated seeds are irradiated with a dose of 10 krad, the mitochondrial ultrastructure is disrupted in the early-ripening 1306-DV and the late-ripening S-1622 varieties of the cotton-plant. The mitochondria exhibited swelling, breakdown of internal structure and vacuolation. In the S-1622 variety the mitochondria shrink owing to their small number and larger size and to the smaller number of cristae. Changes in the ultrafine organization of mitochondria lead to inhibition of carbohydrate oxidation through the Krebs cycle and intensification of oxidation through the pentosophosphate cycle.

  15. Demonstration of a specific C3a receptor on guinea pig platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Y.; Hugli, T.E.


    Guinea pig platelets reportedly contain receptors specific for the anaphylatoxin C3a based on both ligand-binding studies and functional responses. A portion of the human 125I-C3a that binds to guinea pig platelets is competitively displaced by excess unlabeled C3a; however, the majority of ligand uptake was nonspecific. Uptake of 125I-C3a by guinea pig platelets is maximal in 1 min, and stimulation of guinea pig platelets by thrombin, ADP, or the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 showed little influence on binding of the ligand. Scatchard analysis indicated that approximately 1200 binding sites for C3a exist per cell with an estimated Kd of 8 x 10(-10) M. Human C3a des Arg also binds to guinea pig platelets, but Scatchard analysis indicated that no specific binding occurred. Because the ligand-binding studies were complicated by high levels of nonspecific uptake, we attempted to chemically cross-link the C3a molecule to a specific component on the platelet surface. Cross-linkage of 125I-C3a to guinea pig platelets with bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate revealed radioactive complexes at 105,000 and 115,000 m.w. on SDS-PAGE gels by autoradiographic analysis. In the presence of excess unlabeled C3a, complex formation was inhibited. No cross-linkage could be demonstrated between the inactive 125I-C3a des Arg and the putative C3a-R on guinea pig platelets. Human C3a, but not C3a des Arg induces serotonin release and aggregation of the guinea pig platelets. Human C3a was unable to induce either serotonin release or promote aggregation of human platelets. Uptake of human 125I-C3a by human platelets was not saturable, and Scatchard analysis was inconclusive. Attempts to cross-link 125I-C3a to components on the surface of human platelets also failed to reveal a ligand-receptor complex. Therefore, we conclude that guinea pig platelets have specific surface receptors to C3a and that human platelets appear devoid of receptors to the anaphylatoxin

  16. Why Danish pig farms have far more land and pigs than Dutch farms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Jaap; van Grinsven, H.J.M.; Jacobsen, Brian H


    The Netherlands and Denmark are the two biggest pig meat exporters in Europe, both with a strong focus on the German market. The structure of pig farms is very different: an average Danish pig farm has 3500 pigs, 170 ha of agricultural land on which a major part of the feed cereals are grown...... holdings using external sources of feed supply, and Danish farmers on efficient production of feed cereals on large holdings. Due to a gradual lowering of manure and fertiliser application standards, Dutch farmers increasingly have to process manure and export manure, further increasing the total costs...... pig farmers are less sensitive to nutrient policies and feed prices than those in the Netherlands, but the high debt rate makes the sector vulnerable to low pig prices....

  17. Detection of selection signatures of population-specific genomic regions selected during domestication process in Jinhua pigs. (United States)

    Li, Zhengcao; Chen, Jiucheng; Wang, Zhen; Pan, Yuchun; Wang, Qishan; Xu, Ningying; Wang, Zhengguang


    Chinese pigs have been undergoing both natural and artificial selection for thousands of years. Jinhua pigs are of great importance, as they can be a valuable model for exploring the genetic mechanisms linked to meat quality and other traits such as disease resistance, reproduction and production. The purpose of this study was to identify distinctive footprints of selection between Jinhua pigs and other breeds utilizing genome-wide SNP data. Genotyping by genome reducing and sequencing was implemented in order to perform cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity to reveal strong signatures of selection for those economically important traits. This work was performed at a 2% genome level, which comprised 152 006 SNPs genotyped in a total of 517 individuals. Population-specific footprints of selective sweeps were searched for in the genome of Jinhua pigs using six native breeds and three European breeds as reference groups. Several candidate genes associated with meat quality, health and reproduction, such as GH1, CRHR2, TRAF4 and CCK, were found to be overlapping with the significantly positive outliers. Additionally, the results revealed that some genomic regions associated with meat quality, immune response and reproduction in Jinhua pigs have evolved directionally under domestication and subsequent selections. The identified genes and biological pathways in Jinhua pigs showed different selection patterns in comparison with the Chinese and European breeds. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  18. Influence of social mixing and group size on skin lesions and mounting in organic entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Edwards, Sandra A; Rousing, Tine


    in management procedures and production system might be needed. Elements from the organic pig production system might be beneficial in this aspect. The aim of this article is to investigate the effect of grouping strategy including social mixing and group size on levels of mounting behaviour and skin lesions...... at weaning. A second mixing occurred at insertion to fattening pens for pigs being regrouped. Counting of skin lesions (1348 or 1124 pigs) and registration of mounting behaviour (1434 or 1258 pigs) were done on two occasions during the experimental period. No interactive effects were found between social...... mixing and group size on either skin lesions or mounting frequency. Herd differences were found for both mounting frequency and number of skin lesions. No association between skin lesions and mounting were revealed. Social mixing and group size were shown as interacting effects with herds on mounting...

  19. Pig and guinea pig skin as surrogates for human in vitro penetration studies: a quantitative review. (United States)

    Barbero, Ana M; Frasch, H Frederick


    Both human and animal skin in vitro models are used to predict percutaneous penetration in humans. The objective of this review is a quantitative comparison of permeability and lag time measurements between human and animal skin, including an evaluation of the intra and inter species variability. We limit our focus to domestic pig and rodent guinea pig skin as surrogates for human skin, and consider only studies in which both animal and human penetration of a given chemical were measured jointly in the same lab. When the in vitro permeability of pig and human skin were compared, the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) was 0.88 (Ppig and 35% for human, and an inter species average coefficient of variation of 37% for the set of studied compounds (n=41). The lag times of pig skin and human skin did not correlate (r=0.35, P=0.26). When the in vitro permeability of guinea pig and human skin were compared, r=0.96 (Pguinea pig and 24% for human, and an inter species coefficient of variation of permeability of 41% for the set of studied compounds (n=15). Lag times of guinea pig and human skin correlated (r=0.90, Ppig skin (n=50) and guinea pig skin (n=25). For pig skin, 80% of measurements fell within the range 0.3guinea pig skin, 65% fell within that range. Both pig and guinea pig are good models for human skin permeability and have less variability than the human skin model. The skin model of choice will depend on the final purpose of the study and the compound under investigation.

  20. F4-related mutation and expression analysis of the aminopeptidase N gene in pigs. (United States)

    Goetstouwers, T; Van Poucke, M; Nguyen, V U; Melkebeek, V; Coddens, A; Deforce, D; Cox, E; Peelman, L J


    Intestinal infections with F4 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are worldwide an important cause of diarrhea in neonatal and recently weaned pigs. Adherence of F4 ETEC to the small intestine by binding to specific receptors is mediated by F4 fimbriae. Porcine aminopeptidase N (ANPEP) was recently identified as a new F4 receptor. In this study, 7 coding mutations and 1 mutation in the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR)were identified in ANPEP by reverse transcriptase (RT-) PCR and sequencing using 3 F4 receptor-positive (F4R+) and 2 F4 receptor-negative (F4R-) pigs, which were F4 phenotyped based on the MUC4 TaqMan, oral immunization, and the in vitro villous adhesion assay. Three potential differential mutations (g.2615C > T, g.8214A > G, and g.16875C > G) identified by comparative analysis between the 3 F4R+ and 2 F4R- pigs were genotyped in 41 additional F4 phenotyped pigs. However, none of these 3 mutations could be associated with F4 ETEC susceptibility. In addition, the RT-PCR experiments did not reveal any differential expression or alternative splicing in the small intestine of F4R+ and F4R- pigs. In conclusion, we hypothesize that the difference in F4 binding to ANPEP is due to modifications in its carbohydrate moieties.

  1. Effect of therapeutic doses of enrofloxacin on circulating lymphocyte subpopulations in pigs

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    Pomorska-Mól Małgorzata


    Full Text Available Twenty pigs of similar genetics (PIC were used. Pigs were randomly divided into two groups: experimental (ENRO, n = 10 and control (C, n = 10. From day 0 to day 4, pigs from ENRO group received enrofloxacin at the recommended therapeutic dose. Pigs from C group received PBS instead of enrofloxacin. Blood samples were collected on days 0 (before antibiotic administration, 2, 4 (during antibiotic therapy, 9, and 13 of the study (after enrofloxacin administration. Haematological examination and flow cytometry were used to establish the relative and absolute counts of various leukocyte subsets. Lymphocyte subpopulations were measured by fluorochrom-labelled antibodies according to following definitions: CD3+ (T cells, CD21+ (B cells, CD4+CD8- (helper T cells, Th, CD4-CD8+ (cytolytic T cells, CLT, CD4+CD8+ (cytolytic and memory T cells. The present study revealed the modulating effect of enrofloxacin on the composition of circulating lymphocytes in pigs. Concentration and percentage of CD8+ cells decreased significantly after treatment with enrofloxacin and as a result the absolute CD4/CD8 ratio increased significantly as compared to control group (P < 0.05.These findings should prompt further studies on the practical significance of the results obtained in terms of clinical implications. In view of the results, it cannot be excluded that enrofloxacin may also have immunomodulatory effects on host response to infection.

  2. Spontaneous occurrence of a potentially night blinding disorder in guinea pigs. (United States)

    Racine, Julie; Behn, Darren; Simard, Eric; Lachapelle, Pierre


    Several hereditary retinal disorders such as retinitis pigmentosa and congenital stationary night blindness compromise, sometimes exclusively, the activity of the rod pathway. Unfortunately, there are few animal models of these disorders that could help us better understand the pathophysiological processes involved. The purpose of this report is to present a pedigree of guinea pigs where, as a result of a consanguineous mating and subsequent selective breeding, we developed a new and naturally occurring animal model of a rod disorder. Analysis of the retinal function with the electroretinogram reveals that the threshold for rod-mediated electroretinograms (ERGs) is significantly increased by more than 2 log-units compared to that of normal guinea pigs. Furthermore, in response to a suprathreshold stimulus, also delivered under scotopic condition, which yield a mixed cone-rod response in normal guinea pigs, the ERG waveform in our mutant guinea pigs is almost identical (amplitude and timing of a- and b-waves) to that evoked in photopic condition. The above would thus suggest either a structural (abnormal development or absence) or a functional deficiency of the rod photoreceptors. We believe that our pedigree possibly represents a new animal model of a night blinding disorder, and that this condition is inherited as anautosomal recessive trait in the guinea pig population.

  3. A new approach for categorizing pig lying behaviour based on a Delaunay triangulation method. (United States)

    Nasirahmadi, A; Hensel, O; Edwards, S A; Sturm, B


    Machine vision-based monitoring of pig lying behaviour is a fast and non-intrusive approach that could be used to improve animal health and welfare. Four pens with 22 pigs in each were selected at a commercial pig farm and monitored for 15 days using top view cameras. Three thermal categories were selected relative to room setpoint temperature. An image processing technique based on Delaunay triangulation (DT) was utilized. Different lying patterns (close, normal and far) were defined regarding the perimeter of each DT triangle and the percentages of each lying pattern were obtained in each thermal category. A method using a multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network, to automatically classify group lying behaviour of pigs into three thermal categories, was developed and tested for its feasibility. The DT features (mean value of perimeters, maximum and minimum length of sides of triangles) were calculated as inputs for the MLP classifier. The network was trained, validated and tested and the results revealed that MLP could classify lying features into the three thermal categories with high overall accuracy (95.6%). The technique indicates that a combination of image processing, MLP classification and mathematical modelling can be used as a precise method for quantifying pig lying behaviour in welfare investigations.

  4. Assessing pig body language: agreement and consistency between pig farmers, veterinarians, and animal activists. (United States)

    Wemelsfelder, F; Hunter, A E; Paul, E S; Lawrence, A B


    This study investigates the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of qualitative behavior assessments (QBA) of individual pigs by 3 observer groups selected for their diverging backgrounds, experience, and views of pigs. Qualitative behavior assessment is a "whole animal" assessment approach that characterizes the demeanor of an animal as an expressive body language, using descriptors such as relaxed, anxious, or content. This paper addresses the concern that use of such descriptors in animal science may be prone to distortion by observer-related bias. Using a free-choice profiling methodology, 12 pig farmers, 10 large animal veterinarians, and 10 animal protectionists were instructed to describe and score the behavioral expressions of 10 individual pigs (sus scrofa) in 2 repeat sets of 10 video clips, showing these pigs in interaction with a human female. They were also asked to fill in a questionnaire gauging their experiences with and views on pigs. Pig scores were analyzed with generalized procrustes analysis and effect of treatment on these scores with ANOVA. Questionnaire scores were analyzed with a χ(2) test or ANOVA. Observers achieved consensus both within and among observer groups (P 0.90). The 3 groups also repeated their assessments of individual pigs with high precision (r > 0.85). Animal protectionists used a wider quantitative range in scoring individual pigs on dimension 2 than the other groups (P body language. This supports the empirical nature of QBA in context of the wider anthropomorphism debate.

  5. Pure myopathy with enlarged mitochondria associated to a new mutation in MTND2 gene

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    Alice Zanolini


    Full Text Available To date, only few mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA-encoded ND2 subunit of Complex I have been reported, usually presenting a severe phenotype characterized by early onset encephalomyopathy and early death. In this report, we describe a new mutation in the MTND2 gene in a 21-year-old man with a mild myopathic phenotype characterized by exercise intolerance and increased plasma lactate at rest. Electromyography and brain NMR were normal, and no cardiac involvement was present. Muscle biopsy showed a massive presence of ragged red – COX-positive fibres, with enlarged mitochondria containing osmiophilic inclusions. Biochemical assays revealed a severe isolated complex I deficiency. We identified a novel, heteroplasmic mutation m.4831G>A in the MTND2 gene, causing the p.Gly121Asp substitution in the ND2 protein. The mutation was present in the 95% of mitochondrial genomes from patient's muscle tissue, at a lower level in cells from the urinary tract and at a lowest level in lymphocytes from patient's blood; the base substitution was absent in fibroblasts and in the tissues from proband's healthy mother and brother. The specific skeletal muscle tissue involvement can explain the childhood-onset and the relatively benign, exclusively myopathic course of the disease.

  6. A new pH-sensitive rectifying potassium channel in mitochondria from the embryonic rat hippocampus. (United States)

    Kajma, Anna; Szewczyk, Adam


    Patch-clamp single-channel studies on mitochondria isolated from embryonic rat hippocampus revealed the presence of two different potassium ion channels: a large-conductance (288±4pS) calcium-activated potassium channel and second potassium channel with outwardly rectifying activity under symmetric conditions (150/150mM KCl). At positive voltages, this channel displayed a conductance of 67.84pS and a strong voltage dependence at holding potentials from -80mV to +80mV. The open probability was higher at positive than at negative voltages. Patch-clamp studies at the mitoplast-attached mode showed that the channel was not sensitive to activators and inhibitors of mitochondrial potassium channels but was regulated by pH. Moreover, we demonstrated that the channel activity was not affected by the application of lidocaine, an inhibitor of two-pore domain potassium channels, or by tertiapin, an inhibitor of inwardly rectifying potassium channels. In summary, based on the single-channel recordings, we characterised for the first time mitochondrial pH-sensitive ion channel that is selective for cations, permeable to potassium ions, displays voltage sensitivity and does not correspond to any previously described potassium ion channels in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A mitochondria-dependent pathway mediates the apoptosis of GSE-induced yeast.

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    Sishuo Cao

    Full Text Available Grapefruit seed extract (GSE, which has powerful anti-fungal activity, can induce apoptosis in S. cerevisiae. The yeast cells underwent apoptosis as determined by testing for apoptotic markers of DNA cleavage and typical chromatin condensation by Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL and 4,6'-diaminidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI staining and electron microscopy. The changes of ΔΨmt (mitochondrial transmembrane potential and ROS (reactive oxygen species indicated that the mitochondria took part in the apoptotic process. Changes in this process detected by metabonomics and proteomics revealed that the yeast cells tenaciously resisted adversity. Proteins related to redox, cellular structure, membrane, energy and DNA repair were significantly increased. In this study, the relative changes in the levels of proteins and metabolites showed the tenacious resistance of yeast cells. However, GSE induced apoptosis in the yeast cells by destruction of the mitochondrial 60 S ribosomal protein, L14-A, and prevented the conversion of pantothenic acid to coenzyme A (CoA. The relationship between the proteins and metabolites was analyzed by orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS. We found that the changes of the metabolites and the protein changes had relevant consistency.

  8. Mitochondria-targeted molecules determine the redness of the zebra finch bill. (United States)

    Cantarero, Alejandro; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos


    The evolution and production mechanisms of red carotenoid-based ornaments in animals are poorly understood. Recently, it has been suggested that enzymes transforming yellow carotenoids to red pigments (ketolases) in animal cells may be positioned in the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) intimately linked to the electron transport chain. These enzymes may mostly synthesize coenzyme Q 10 (coQ 10 ), a key redox-cycler antioxidant molecularly similar to yellow carotenoids. It has been hypothesized that this shared pathway favours the evolution of red traits as sexually selected individual quality indices by revealing a well-adjusted oxidative metabolism. We administered mitochondria-targeted molecules to male zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata ) measuring their bill redness, a trait produced by transforming yellow carotenoids. One molecule included coQ 10 (mitoquinone mesylate, MitoQ) and the other one (decyl-triphenylphosphonium; dTPP) has the same structure without the coQ 10 aromatic ring. At the highest dose, the bill colour of MitoQ and dTPP birds strongly differed: MitoQ birds' bills were redder and dTPP birds showed paler bills even compared to birds injected with saline only. These results suggest that ketolases are indeed placed at the IMM and that coQ 10 antioxidant properties may improve their efficiency. The implications for evolutionary theories of sexual signalling are discussed. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Effects of Ropivacaine and Bupivacaine on Rabbit Myocardial Energetic Metabolism and Mitochondria Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张诗海; 姚尚龙; 李晴


    Summary: To compare the cardiotoxicity induced by ropivacaine and bupivacaine and to investigatethe mechanism of cardiotoxicity, 24 mature New Zealand rabbits were divided randomly into controlgroup (group C), ropivacaine group (group R) and bupivacaine group (group B). Hearts were drawnout rapidly from the anesthetized animals and cardiac perfusion was performed immediately. Ropiva-caine 500 ng/ml (group R) or bupivacaine 500 ng/ml (group B) was added to the perfusion solution.Ventricular myocardial ATP, ADP and AMP were measured with high performance liquid chro-matogram. The ability of myocardial mitochondria oxidation to pyruvate or palmitoylcarnitine wasdetected with Clark electrode. Our results showed that myocardial ATP and ADP decreased signifi-cantly (P<0. 05) in group R and most significantly (P<0. 01) in group B as compared with groupC. Myocardial ATP and ADP decreased most significantly (P<0. 01) in group B as compared withgroup R. The changes of myocardial AMP revealed significant difference among three groups. Thechanges of pyruvate oxidation exibited no significant difference among the three groups. Palmitoyl-carnitine oxidation decreased markedly (P<0. 05) in group R and most significantly (P<0. 01) ingroup B as compared with group C. The present study indicated that the inhibition of lipid substrateoxidation may be responsible for the cardiotoxicity induced by bupivacaine and ropivacaine. The car-diotoxicity induced by ropivacaine is far more less than bupivacaine.

  10. Presynaptic mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity: effects on vesicular release, vesicle clustering and mitochondria number. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Guariglia, Sara R; McGlothan, Jennifer L; Stansfield, Kirstie H; Stanton, Patric K; Guilarte, Tomás R


    Childhood lead (Pb2+) intoxication is a global public health problem and accounts for 0.6% of the global burden of disease associated with intellectual disabilities. Despite the recognition that childhood Pb2+ intoxication contributes significantly to intellectual disabilities, there is a fundamental lack of knowledge on presynaptic mechanisms by which Pb2+ disrupts synaptic function. In this study, using a well-characterized rodent model of developmental Pb2+ neurotoxicity, we show that Pb2+ exposure markedly inhibits presynaptic vesicular release in hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in young adult rats. This effect was associated with ultrastructural changes which revealed a reduction in vesicle number in the readily releasable/docked vesicle pool, disperse vesicle clusters in the resting pool, and a reduced number of presynaptic terminals with multiple mitochondria with no change in presynaptic calcium influx. These studies provide fundamental knowledge on mechanisms by which Pb2+ produces profound inhibition of presynaptic vesicular release that contribute to deficits in synaptic plasticity and intellectual development.

  11. A mitochondria-dependent pathway mediates the apoptosis of GSE-induced yeast. (United States)

    Cao, Sishuo; Xu, Wentao; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Yan; Luo, YunBo; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun


    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE), which has powerful anti-fungal activity, can induce apoptosis in S. cerevisiae. The yeast cells underwent apoptosis as determined by testing for apoptotic markers of DNA cleavage and typical chromatin condensation by Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) and 4,6'-diaminidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and electron microscopy. The changes of ΔΨmt (mitochondrial transmembrane potential) and ROS (reactive oxygen species) indicated that the mitochondria took part in the apoptotic process. Changes in this process detected by metabonomics and proteomics revealed that the yeast cells tenaciously resisted adversity. Proteins related to redox, cellular structure, membrane, energy and DNA repair were significantly increased. In this study, the relative changes in the levels of proteins and metabolites showed the tenacious resistance of yeast cells. However, GSE induced apoptosis in the yeast cells by destruction of the mitochondrial 60 S ribosomal protein, L14-A, and prevented the conversion of pantothenic acid to coenzyme A (CoA). The relationship between the proteins and metabolites was analyzed by orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS). We found that the changes of the metabolites and the protein changes had relevant consistency.

  12. Coevolution study of mitochondria respiratory chain proteins: toward the understanding of protein--protein interaction. (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Ge, Yan; Wu, Jiayan; Xiao, Jingfa; Yu, Jun


    Coevolution can be seen as the interdependency between evolutionary histories. In the context of protein evolution, functional correlation proteins are ever-present coordinated evolutionary characters without disruption of organismal integrity. As to complex system, there are two forms of protein--protein interactions in vivo, which refer to inter-complex interaction and intra-complex interaction. In this paper, we studied the difference of coevolution characters between inter-complex interaction and intra-complex interaction using "Mirror tree" method on the respiratory chain (RC) proteins. We divided the correlation coefficients of every pairwise RC proteins into two groups corresponding to the binary protein--protein interaction in intra-complex and the binary protein--protein interaction in inter-complex, respectively. A dramatical discrepancy is detected between the coevolution characters of the two sets of protein interactions (Wilcoxon test, p-value = 4.4 × 10(-6)). Our finding reveals some critical information on coevolutionary study and assists the mechanical investigation of protein--protein interaction. Furthermore, the results also provide some unique clue for supramolecular organization of protein complexes in the mitochondrial inner membrane. More detailed binding sites map and genome information of nuclear encoded RC proteins will be extraordinary valuable for the further mitochondria dynamics study. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Impacts of high ATP supply from chloroplasts and mitochondria on the leaf metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Chao eLiang


    Full Text Available Chloroplasts and mitochondria are the major ATP producing organelles in plant leaves. Arabidopsis thaliana purple acid phosphatase 2 (AtPAP2 is a phosphatase dually targeted to the outer membranes of both organelles and it plays a role in the import of selected nuclear-encoded proteins into these two organelles. Overexpression (OE of AtPAP2 in Arabidopsis thaliana accelerates plant growth and promotes flowering, seed yield and biomass at maturity. Measurement of ADP/ATP/NADP+/NADPH contents in the leaves of 20-day-old OE and wild-type lines at the end of night and at 1 and 8 h following illumination in a 16/8 h photoperiod revealed that the ATP levels and ATP/NADPH ratios were significantly increased in the OE line at all three time points. The AtPAP2 OE line is therefore a good model to investigate the impact of high energy on the global molecular status of Arabidopsis. In this study, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome profiles of the high ATP transgenic line were examined and compared with those of wild-type plants. A comparison of OE and WT at the end of the night provide valuable information on the impact of higher ATP output from mitochondria on plant physiology, as mitochondrial respiration is the major source of ATP in the dark in leaves. Similarly, comparison of OE and WT following illumination will provide information on the impact of higher energy output from chloroplasts on plant physiology. Overexpression of AtPAP2 was found to significantly affect the transcript and protein abundances of genes encoded by the two organellar genomes. For example, the protein abundances of many ribosomal proteins encoded by the chloroplast genome were higher in the AtPAP2 OE line under both light and dark conditions, while the protein abundances of multiple components of the photosynthetic complexes were lower. RNA-seq data also showed that the transcription of the mitochondrial genome is greatly affected by the availability of energy. These data

  14. Modeling of mitochondria bioenergetics using a composable chemiosmotic energy transduction rate law: theory and experimental validation.

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    Ivan Chang

    our experimentally fitted parameters to those of existing models. Finally, we present a complete perturbation study of these parameters to reveal how they can significantly and differentially influence global flux and operational thresholds, suggesting that this modeling approach could help enable the comparative analysis of mitochondria from different systems and pathological states. The procedures and results are available in Mathematica notebooks at

  15. Modeling of mitochondria bioenergetics using a composable chemiosmotic energy transduction rate law: theory and experimental validation. (United States)

    Chang, Ivan; Heiske, Margit; Letellier, Thierry; Wallace, Douglas; Baldi, Pierre


    fitted parameters to those of existing models. Finally, we present a complete perturbation study of these parameters to reveal how they can significantly and differentially influence global flux and operational thresholds, suggesting that this modeling approach could help enable the comparative analysis of mitochondria from different systems and pathological states. The procedures and results are available in Mathematica notebooks at

  16. A new hypothesis of pathogenesis based on the divorce between mitochondria and their host cells: possible relevance for Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Agnati, L F; Guidolin, D; Baluska, F; Leo, G; Barlow, P W; Carone, C; Genedani, S


    On the basis of not only the endosymbiotic theory of eukaryotic cell organization and evolution but also of observations of transcellular communication via Tunneling NanoTubes (TNTs), the hypothesis is put forward that when mitochondria, which were once independently living prokaryote-like organisms, are subjected to detrimental genetic, toxic, or environmental conditions, including age-related endogenous factors, they can regress towards their original independent state. At that point, they can become potentially pathogenic intruders within their eukaryotic host cell. Because of the protoplasmic disequilibrium caused by an altered, or mutated, mitochondral population, certain host cells with a minimal capacity for self-renewal, such as dopaminergic neurons, risk a loss of function and degenerate. It is also proposed that altered mitochondria, as well as their mutated mtDNA, can migrate, via TNTs, into adjacent cells. In this way, neurodegenerative states are propagated between cells (glia and/or neurons) of the Central Nervous System (CNS) and that this leads to conditions such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. This proposal finds indirect support from observations on rotenone-poisoned glioblastoma cells which have been co-cultured with non-poisoned cells. Immunocytochemical techniques revealed that mitochondria, moving along the TNTs, migrated from the poisoned cells towards the healthy cells. It has also been demonstrated by means of immunocytochemistry that, in glioblastoma cell cultures, Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) is present in TNTs, hence it may migrate from one cell to neighbouring cells. This datum may be of high relevance for a better understanding of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) since molecular, cellular, and animal model studies have revealed that the formation of amyloid beta (Abeta) and other derivatives of the APP are key pathogenic factors in AD, causing mitochondrial dysfunction, free radical generation, oxidative damage, and inflammation

  17. Optic nerve head and intraocular pressure in the guinea pig eye. (United States)

    Ostrin, Lisa A; Wildsoet, Christine F


    The guinea pig is becoming an increasingly popular model for studying human myopia, which carries an increased risk of glaucoma. As a step towards understanding this association, this study sought to characterize the normal, developmental intraocular pressure (IOP) profiles, as well as the anatomy of the optic nerve head (ONH) and adjacent sclera of young guinea pigs. IOP was tracked in pigmented guinea pigs up to 3 months of age. One guinea pig was imaged in vivo with OCT and one with a fundus camera. The eyes of pigmented and albino guinea pigs (ages 2 months) were enucleated and sections from the posterior segment, including the ONH and surrounding sclera, processed for histological analyses - either hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of paraffin embedded, sectioned tissue (n = 1), or cryostat sectioned tissue, processed for immunohistochemistry (n = 3), using primary antibodies against collagen types I-V, elastin, fibronectin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) studies of ONHs were also undertaken (n = 2 & 5 respectively). Mean IOPs ranged from 17.33 to 22.7 mmHg, increasing slightly across the age range studied, and the IOPs of individual animals also exhibited diurnal variations, peaking in the early morning (mean of 25.8, mmHg, ∼9 am), and decreasing across the day. H&E-stained sections showed retinal ganglion cell axons organized into fascicles in the prelaminar and laminar region of the ONHs, with immunostained sections revealing collagen types I, III, IV and V, as well as elastin, GFAP and fibronectin in the ONHs. SEM revealed a well-defined lamina cribrosa (LC), with radially-oriented collagen beams. TEM revealed collagen fibrils surrounding non-myelinated nerve fiber bundles in the LC region, with myelination and decreased collagen posterior to the LC. The adjacent sclera comprised mainly crimped collagen fibers in a crisscross arrangement. Both the sclera and LC were

  18. Ion transport by mitochondria-rich cells in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Ussing, H H; Spring, K R


    The optical sectioning video imaging technique was used for measurements of the volume of mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells of the isolated epithelium of toad skin. Under short-circuit conditions, cell volume decreased by about 14% in response to bilateral exposure to Cl-free (gluconate substitution....... Unilateral exposure to a Cl-free solution did not prevent ouabain-induced cell swelling. It is concluded that m.r. cells have an amiloride-blockable Na conductance in the apical membrane, a ouabain-sensitive Na pump in the basolateral membrane, and a passive Cl permeability in both membranes. From...... the initial rate of ouabain-induced cell volume increase the active Na current carried by a single m.r. cell was estimated to be 9.9 +/- 1.3 pA. Voltage clamping of the preparation in the physiological range of potentials (0 to -100 mV, serosa grounded) resulted in a cell volume increase with a time course...

  19. Branchial mitochondria-rich cells in the dogfish Squalus acanthias. (United States)

    Wilson, Jonathan M; Morgan, John D; Vogl, A Wayne; Randall, David J


    In marine teleost fishes, the gill mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) are responsible for NaCl elimination; however, in elasmobranch fishes, the specialized rectal gland is considered to be the most important site for salt secretion. The role of the gills in elasmobranch ion regulation, although clearly shown to be secondary, is not well characterized. In the present study, we investigated some morphological properties of the branchial MRCs and the localization, and activity of the important ionoregulatory enzyme Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, under control conditions and following rectal gland removal (1 month) in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias. A clear correlation can be made between MRC numbers and the levels of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in crude gill homogenates (r(2)=-0.69). Strong Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase immunoreactivity is also clearly associated with the basolateral membrane of these MRCs. In addition, the dogfish were able to maintain ionic balance after rectal gland removal. These results all suggest a possible role of the dogfish gill in salt secretion. MRCs were, however, unresponsive to rectal gland removal in terms of changes in number, fine structure and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, as might be expected if they were compensating for the loss of salt secretion by the rectal gland. Thus, the specific role that these MRCs play in ion regulation in the dogfish remains to be determined

  20. Homeostasis of the protonmotive force in phosphorylating mitochondria. (United States)

    Duszyński, J; Bogucka, K; Wojtczak, L


    The relationship between the respiration rate and the magnitude of the electrochemical proton potential (delta mu H+) in rat liver mitochondria was investigated. (1) Under the active-state conditions, the action of inhibitors of either phosphorylation (oligomycin) or respiration (rotenone, malonate) on the respiration and delta mu H+ was measured. Both inhibitors diminished the respiration, whereas rotenone resulted in a decrease of delta mu H+, and oligomycin produced an increase of this potential. The effect of the inhibitors was much more pronounced on the respiration rate than on delta mu H+; for example, the excess of oligomycin produced a 90% inhibition of the respiration while delta mu H+ was changed only by 9%. (2) Under the resting-state conditions, small concentrations of the uncoupler stimulated the respiration while changing delta mu H+ to a relatively small extent. The uncoupler concentrations which doubled and tripled the respiration rate produced only 5 and 9% decrease of delta mu H+, respectively. (3) The present results enabled us to propose a model describing the interrelationship between respiration and delta mu H+.

  1. The role of mitochondria for the regulation of cardiac alternans

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    Stela M Florea


    Full Text Available Electromechanical and Ca alternans is a beat-to-beat alternation of action potential duration, contraction strength and Ca transient amplitude observed in cardiac myocytes at regular stimulation frequency. Ca alternans is a multifactorial process that is causally linked to cardiac arrhythmias. At the cellular level, conditions that increase fractional release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum or reduce diastolic Ca sequestration favor the occurrence of alternans. Mitochondria play a significant role in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and Ca signaling by providing the energy for contraction and ATP-dependent processes and possibly by serving as Ca buffering organelles. Here we tested the hypothesis that impairment of mitochondrial function generates conditions that favor the occurrence of Ca alternans. Alternans were elicited by electrical pacing (>1 Hz in single cat atrial myocytes and intracellular Ca ([Ca]i was measured with the fluorescent Ca indicator Indo-1. The degree of alternans was quantified as the alternans ratio (AR=1-S/L, where S/L is the ratio of the small to the large amplitude of a pair of alternating Ca transients. Dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (with FCCP as well as inhibition of mitochondrial F1/F0-ATP synthase (oligomycin, electrontransport chain (rotenone, antimycin, CN-, Ca-dependent dehydrogenases and mitochondrial Ca uptake or extrusion, all enhanced AR and lowered the threshold for the occurrence of Ca alternans. The data indicate that impairment of mitochondrial function adversely affects cardiac Ca cycling leading to proarrhythmic Ca alternans.

  2. Strigolactones Stimulate Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi by Activating Mitochondria (United States)

    Besserer, Arnaud; Puech-Pagès, Virginie; Kiefer, Patrick; Gomez-Roldan, Victoria; Jauneau, Alain; Roy, Sébastien; Portais, Jean-Charles; Roux, Christophe; Bécard, Guillaume


    The association of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi with plant roots is the oldest and ecologically most important symbiotic relationship between higher plants and microorganisms, yet the mechanism by which these fungi detect the presence of a plant host is poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that roots secrete a branching factor (BF) that strongly stimulates branching of hyphae during germination of the spores of AM fungi. In the BF of Lotus, a strigolactone was found to be the active molecule. Strigolactones are known as germination stimulants of the parasitic plants Striga and Orobanche. In this paper, we show that the BF of a monocotyledonous plant, Sorghum, also contains a strigolactone. Strigolactones strongly and rapidly stimulated cell proliferation of the AM fungus Gigaspora rosea at concentrations as low as 10 −13 M. This effect was not found with other sesquiterperne lactones known as germination stimulants of parasitic weeds. Within 1 h of treatment, the density of mitochondria in the fungal cells increased, and their shape and movement changed dramatically. Strigolactones stimulated spore germination of two other phylogenetically distant AM fungi, Glomus intraradices and Gl. claroideum. This was also associated with a rapid increase of mitochondrial density and respiration as shown with Gl. intraradices. We conclude that strigolactones are important rhizospheric plant signals involved in stimulating both the pre-symbiotic growth of AM fungi and the germination of parasitic plants. PMID:16787107

  3. Strigolactones stimulate arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by activating mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Besserer


    Full Text Available The association of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi with plant roots is the oldest and ecologically most important symbiotic relationship between higher plants and microorganisms, yet the mechanism by which these fungi detect the presence of a plant host is poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that roots secrete a branching factor (BF that strongly stimulates branching of hyphae during germination of the spores of AM fungi. In the BF of Lotus, a strigolactone was found to be the active molecule. Strigolactones are known as germination stimulants of the parasitic plants Striga and Orobanche. In this paper, we show that the BF of a monocotyledonous plant, Sorghum, also contains a strigolactone. Strigolactones strongly and rapidly stimulated cell proliferation of the AM fungus Gigaspora rosea at concentrations as low as 10(-13 M. This effect was not found with other sesquiterperne lactones known as germination stimulants of parasitic weeds. Within 1 h of treatment, the density of mitochondria in the fungal cells increased, and their shape and movement changed dramatically. Strigolactones stimulated spore germination of two other phylogenetically distant AM fungi, Glomus intraradices and Gl. claroideum. This was also associated with a rapid increase of mitochondrial density and respiration as shown with Gl. intraradices. We conclude that strigolactones are important rhizospheric plant signals involved in stimulating both the pre-symbiotic growth of AM fungi and the germination of parasitic plants.

  4. Are Synonymous Substitutions in Flowering Plant Mitochondria Neutral? (United States)

    Wynn, Emily L; Christensen, Alan C


    Angiosperm mitochondrial genes appear to have very low mutation rates, while non-gene regions expand, diverge, and rearrange quickly. One possible explanation for this disparity is that synonymous substitutions in plant mitochondrial genes are not truly neutral and selection keeps their occurrence low. If this were true, the explanation for the disparity in mutation rates in genes and non-genes needs to consider selection as well as mechanisms of DNA repair. Rps14 is co-transcribed with cob and rpl5 in most plant mitochondrial genomes, but in some genomes, rps14 has been duplicated to the nucleus leaving a pseudogene in the mitochondria. This provides an opportunity to compare neutral substitution rates in pseudogenes with synonymous substitution rates in the orthologs. Genes and pseudogenes of rps14 have been aligned among different species and the mutation rates have been calculated. Neutral substitution rates in pseudogenes and synonymous substitution rates in genes are significantly different, providing evidence that synonymous substitutions in plant mitochondrial genes are not completely neutral. The non-neutrality is not sufficient to completely explain the exceptionally low mutation rates in land plant mitochondrial genomes, but selective forces appear to play a small role.

  5. DNA maintenance in plastids and mitochondria of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delene J Oldenburg


    Full Text Available The DNA molecules in plastids and mitochondria of plants have been studied for over 40 years. Here, we review the data on the circular or linear form, replication, repair, and persistence of the organellar DNA (orgDNA in plants. The bacterial origin of orgDNA appears to have profoundly influenced ideas about the properties of chromosomal DNA molecules in these organelles to the point of dismissing data inconsistent with ideas from the 1970s. When found at all, circular genome-sized molecules comprise a few percent of orgDNA. In cells active in orgDNA replication, most orgDNA is found as linear and branched-linear forms larger than the size of the genome, likely a consequence of a virus-like DNA replication mechanism. In contrast to the stable chromosomal DNA molecules in bacteria and the plant nucleus, the molecular integrity of orgDNA declines during leaf development at a rate that varies among plant species. This decline is attributed to degradation of damaged-but-not-repaired molecules, with a proposed repair cost-saving benefit most evident in grasses. All orgDNA maintenance activities are proposed to occur on the nucleoid tethered to organellar membranes by developmentally-regulated proteins.

  6. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth


    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  7. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.


    not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable...... substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further...... underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible...

  8. The effect of alpha-tocopheryl succinate on succinate respiration in rat liver mitochondria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobotka, O.; Drahota, Zdeněk; Kučera, O.; Endlicher, R.; Rauchová, Hana; Červinková, Z.


    Roč. 64, Suppl.5 (2015), S609-S615 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : tocopheryl succinate * Complex II * liver * mitochondria * homogenate * hepatocytes Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2015

  9. PEGylated anticancer-carbon nanotubes complex targeting mitochondria of lung cancer cells (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Lee, Jong Yeon; Hong, Jeong Hee; Khang, Dongwoo


    Although activating apoptosis in cancer cells by targeting the mitochondria is an effective strategy for cancer therapy, insufficient targeting of the mitochondria in cancer cells restricts the availability in clinical treatment. Here, we report on a polyethylene glycol-coated carbon nanotube (CNT)-ABT737 nanodrug that improves the mitochondrial targeting of lung cancer cells. The polyethylene glycol-coated CNT-ABT737 nanodrug internalized into the early endosomes via macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis in advance of early endosomal escape and delivered into the mitochondria. Cytosol release of the nanodrug led to apoptosis of lung cancer cells by abruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, inducing Bcl-2-mediated apoptosis and generating intracellular reactive oxygen species. As such, this study provides an effective strategy for increasing the anti-lung cancer efficacy by increasing mitochondria accumulation rate of cytosol released anticancer nanodrugs.

  10. Inherited complex I deficiency is associated with faster protein diffusion in the matrix of moving mitochondria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, W.J.H.; Distelmaier, F.; Hink, M.A.; Verkaart, S.; Wijers, M.; Fransen, J.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Willems, P.H.G.M.


    Mitochondria continuously change shape, position, and matrix configuration for optimal metabolite exchange. It is well established that changes in mitochondrial metabolism influence mitochondrial shape and matrix configuration. We demonstrated previously that inhibition of mitochondrial complex I

  11. Ultrastructural and functional abnormalities of mitochondria in cultivated fibroblasts from α -mannosidosis patiens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brantová, O.; Asfaw, B.; Sládková, J.; Poupětová, H.; Živný, J.; Magner, M.; Krůšek, Jan; Veselá, K.; Hansíková, H.; Ledvinová, J.; Tesařová, M.; Zeman, J.


    Roč. 64, č. 2 (2009), s. 394-401 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mitochondria * endoplasmatic reticulum * ultrastructure Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2009


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R Roberts


    Mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer has expanded to include defects in mitochondrial genomics and biogenesis, apoptotic signaling and mitochondrial dynamics. This review will focus on the role of mitochondria and their influence on cancer initiation, progression and treatment in the lung.

  13. Thioredoxin-2 (TRX-2) is an essential gene regulating mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. (United States)

    Tanaka, Toru; Hosoi, Fumihito; Yamaguchi-Iwai, Yuko; Nakamura, Hajime; Masutani, Hiroshi; Ueda, Shugo; Nishiyama, Akira; Takeda, Shunichi; Wada, Hiromi; Spyrou, Giannis; Yodoi, Junji


    Thioredoxin-2 (Trx-2) is a mitochondria-specific member of the thioredoxin superfamily. Mitochondria have a crucial role in the signal transduction for apoptosis. To investigate the biological significance of Trx-2, we cloned chicken TRX-2 cDNA and generated clones of the conditional Trx-2-deficient cells using chicken B-cell line, DT40. Here we show that TRX-2 is an essential gene and that Trx-2-deficient cells undergo apoptosis upon repression of the TRX-2 transgene, showing an accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cytochrome c is released from mitochondria, while caspase-9 and caspase-3, but not caspase-8, are activated upon inhibition of the TRX-2 transgene. In addition, Trx-2 and cytochrome c are co-immunoprecipitated in an in vitro assay. These results suggest that mitochondrial Trx-2 is essential for cell viability, playing a crucial role in the scavenging ROS in mitochondria and regulating the mitochondrial apoptosis signaling pathway.

  14. Xanthurenic acid translocates proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins into mitochondria and impairs mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess Otto M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xanthurenic acid is an endogenous molecule produced by tryptophan degradation, produced in the cytoplasm and mitochondria. Its accumulation can be observed in aging-related diseases, e.g. senile cataract and infectious disease. We previously reported that xanthurenic acid provokes apoptosis, and now present a study of the response of mitochondria to xanthurenic acid. Results Xanthurenic acid at 10 or 20 μM in culture media of human aortic smooth muscle cells induces translocation of the proteins Bax, Bak, Bclxs, and Bad into mitochondria. In 20 μM xanthurenic acid, Bax is also translocated to the nucleus. In isolated mitochondria xanthurenic acid leads to Bax and Bclxs oligomerization, accumulation of Ca2+, and increased oxygen consumption. Conclusion Xanthurenic acid interacts directly with Bcl-2 family proteins, inducing mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis and impairing mitochondrial functions.

  15. Temperature controls oxidative phosphorylation and reactive oxygen species production through uncoupling in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria. (United States)

    Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej; Koziel, Agnieszka; Majerczak, Joanna; Zoladz, Jerzy A


    Mitochondrial respiratory and phosphorylation activities, mitochondrial uncoupling, and hydrogen peroxide formation were studied in isolated rat skeletal muscle mitochondria during experimentally induced hypothermia (25 °C) and hyperthermia (42 °C) compared to the physiological temperature of resting muscle (35 °C). For nonphosphorylating mitochondria, increasing the temperature from 25 to 42 °C led to a decrease in membrane potential, hydrogen peroxide production, and quinone reduction levels. For phosphorylating mitochondria, no temperature-dependent changes in these mitochondrial functions were observed. However, the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation decreased, whereas the oxidation and phosphorylation rates and oxidative capacities of the mitochondria increased, with increasing assay temperature. An increase in proton leak, including uncoupling protein-mediated proton leak, was observed with increasing assay temperature, which could explain the reduced oxidative phosphorylation efficiency and reactive oxygen species production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Novel Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptotic Pathway (MAP) in Prostate Cancer (Pca) Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chandra, Dhyan


    ...) are also up-regulated (Chandra et al., J. Biol. Chem., 277, 50842-54; 2002). Later, when the apoptotic machinery is activated, I notice that there is prominent localization of active caspase-9 and -3 in the mitochondria...

  17. Disassembled DJ-1 high molecular weight complex in cortex mitochondria from Parkinson's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler Charles


    Full Text Available Abstract Correction to Nural H, He P, Beach T, Sue L, Xia W, Shen Y. Disassembled DJ-1 high molecular weight complex in cortex mitochondria from Parkinson's disease patients Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009, 4:23.

  18. Effect of Lactobacillus salivarius on growth performance, diarrhea incidence, fecal bacterial population and intestinal morphology of suckling pigs challenged with F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Sayan, Harutai; Assavacheep, Pornchalit; Angkanaporn, Kris; Assavacheep, Anongnart


    Gut health improvements were monitored with respect to growth performance, diarrhea incidence, fecal bacterial population and intestinal morphology of suckling pigs orally supplemented with live Lactobacillus salivarius oral suspensions and challenged with F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Two groups of newborn pigs from 18 multiparous sows were randomly designated as non-supplemented (control: n=114 piglets) and L. salivarius supplemented groups (treatment: n=87 piglets). Treatment pigs were orally administered with 2 ml of 109 CFU/ml L. salivarius on days 1 - 3, then they were orally administered with 5 ml of 109 CFU/ml L. salivarius on days 4 - 10, while those in control group received an equal amount of phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS). On day 24 (2 weeks post supplementation), one pig per replicate of both groups was orally administered with 108 CFU/ml F4+ ETEC, then they were euthanized on day 29 of experiment. Results revealed that pigs in treatment group had statistically significant in average daily gain (ADG), body weight and weight gain, and tended to lower diarrhea throughout the study. Numbers of Lactobacillus population in feces of treatment pigs were higher than control pigs, especially on day 10 of study. Numbers of total bacteria in intestinal contents of control pigs were also increased, but not Coliform and Lactobacillus populations. Histological examination revealed statistically significant improvement of villous height and villous/crypt ratio of duodenum, proximal jejunum and distal jejunum parts of treatment pigs better than control. Duodenal pH of treatment group was significantly decreased. Oral supplementation of live L. salivarius during the first 10 days of suckling pig promoted growth performance and guts health, reduced diarrhea incidence, and increased fecal Lactobacillus populations, and improved intestinal morphology.

  19. Two-Photon Probes for Lysosomes and Mitochondria: Simultaneous Detection of Lysosomes and Mitochondria in Live Tissues by Dual-Color Two-Photon Microscopy Imaging. (United States)

    Lim, Chang Su; Hong, Seung Taek; Ryu, Seong Shick; Kang, Dong Eun; Cho, Bong Rae


    Novel two-photon (TP) probes were developed for lysosomes (PLT-yellow) and mitochondria (BMT-blue and PMT-yellow). These probes emitted strong TP-excited fluorescence in cells at widely separated wavelength regions and displayed high organelle selectivity, good cell permeability, low cytotoxicity, and pH insensitivity. The BMT-blue and PLT-yellow probes could be utilized to detect lysosomes and mitochondria simultaneously in live tissues by using dual-color two-photon microscopy, with minimum interference from each other. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English (US) Español ...

  1. Mitochondrial genome of Taiwan pig (Sus Scrofa)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 28, 2011 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2011 Academic Journals ... 2Livestock Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Executive ... with both the European and Asian pig breeds; the genetic exchange ...

  2. Edaravone Decreases Paraquat Toxicity in A549 Cells and Lung Isolated Mitochondria


    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Shaki, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Rezagholizadeh, Neda; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh


    Edaravone, an antioxidant and radical scavenger, showed protective effects against oxidative stress-like condition. Paraquat (PQ) is toxic herbicide considerable evidence suggests that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to PQ toxicity. In this study, protective effect of edaravone against PQ induced toxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in A549 cells and lung isolated mitochondria were evaluated. A549 cells and lung isolated mitochondria were divided int...

  3. A Powerful Mitochondria-Targeted Iron Chelator Affords High Photoprotection against Solar Ultraviolet A Radiation


    Reelfs, Olivier; Abbate, Vincenzo; Hider, Robert C.; Pourzand, Charareh


    Mitochondria are the principal destination for labile iron, making these organelles particularly susceptible to oxidative damage on exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA, 320?400 nm), the oxidizing component of sunlight. The labile iron-mediated oxidative damage caused by UVA to mitochondria leads to necrotic cell death via adenosine triphosphate depletion. Therefore, targeted removal of mitochondrial labile iron via highly specific tools from these organelles may be an effective approach to protect...

  4. Radioprotective effects of Asparagus racemosus extracts against free radical damage in rat liver mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boloor, K.K.; Kamat, J.P.; Devasagayam, T.P.A.; Venkatachalam, S.R.


    The possible antioxidant effect of the extracts of Asparagus racemosus against membrane damage induced by free radicals generated during γ-radiation was examined in rat liver/brain mitochondria. These extracts displayed significant antioxidant properties in mitochondria against oxidation of both lipids and proteins as assessed by lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and depletion of thiols. The inhibitory effect of the extracts, rich in polysaccharides like galactose, was more than that of the established antioxidants glutathione and ascorbic acid. (author)

  5. “Pulling the plug” on cellular copper: The role of mitochondria in copper export


    Leary, Scot C.; Winge, Dennis R.; Cobine, Paul A.


    Mitochondria contain two enzymes, Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) and cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), that require copper as a cofactor for their biological activity. The copper used for their metallation originates from a conserved, bioactive pool contained within the mitochondrial matrix, the size of which changes in response to either genetic or pharmacological manipulation of cellular copper status. Its dynamic nature implies molecular mechanisms exist that functionally couple mitochondria...

  6. Polysaccharide prodigiosan therapy of irradiated guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, K.S.; Mosina, Z.M.; Khramchenkova, S.P.


    In the experiments with irradiated guinea-pigs, a therapeutic action of prodigiosan has been detected. A parenteral administration of the preparation (125 to 500 μg/kg) within the interval from 15 min to 6 hours after a short-term exposure increased the survival of animals to 50%. Prodigiosan administered to guinea-pigs given prolonged irradiation failed to affect the survival rate

  7. Bovine lactoferricin causes apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells by sequential permeabilization of the cell membrane and targeting of mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mader, Jamie S.; Richardson, Angela; Salsman, Jayme; Top, Deniz; Antueno, Roberto de; Duncan, Roy; Hoskin, David W.


    Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a cationic antimicrobial peptide that kills Jurkat T-leukemia cells by the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. However, the process by which LfcinB triggers mitochondria-dependent apoptosis is not well understood. Here, we show that LfcinB-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells was preceded by LfcinB binding to, and progressive permeabilization of the cell membrane. Colloidal gold electron microscopy revealed that LfcinB entered the cytoplasm of Jurkat T-leukemia cells prior to the onset of mitochondrial depolarization. LfcinB was not internalized by endocytosis because endocytosis inhibitors did not prevent LfcinB-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, intracellular delivery of LfcinB via fusogenic liposomes caused the death of Jurkat T-leukemia cells, as well as normal human fibroblasts. Collectively, these findings suggest that LfcinB caused damage to the cell membrane that allowed LfcinB to enter the cytoplasm of Jurkat T-leukemia cells and mediate cytotoxicity. In addition, confocal microscopy showed that intracellular LfcinB co-localized with mitochondria in Jurkat T-leukemia cells, while flow cytometry and colloidal gold electron microscopy showed that LfcinB rapidly associated with purified mitochondria. Furthermore, purified mitochondria treated with LfcinB rapidly lost transmembrane potential and released cytochrome c. We conclude that LfcinB-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells resulted from cell membrane damage and the subsequent disruption of mitochondrial membranes by internalized LfcinB

  8. Inhibition of Rac1 ameliorates neuronal oxidative stress damage via reducing Bcl-2/Rac1 complex formation in mitochondria through PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. (United States)

    Pan, Yundan; Wang, Na; Xia, Pingping; Wang, E; Guo, Qulian; Ye, Zhi


    Although the neuroprotective effects of Rac1 inhibition have been reported in various cerebral ischemic models, the molecular mechanisms of action have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether the inhibition of Rac1 provided neuroprotection in a diabetic rat model of focal cerebral ischemia and hyperglycemia-exposed PC-12 cells. Intracerebroventricular administration of lentivirus expressing the Rac1 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) and specific Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 not only decreased the infarct volumes and improved neurologic deficits with a correlated significant activation of mitochondrial DNA specific proteins, such as OGG1 and POLG, but also elevated Bcl-2 S70 phosphorylation in mitochondria. Furthermore, the levels of p-PI3K, p-Akt and p-mTOR increased, while 8-OHdG, ROS production and Bcl-2/Rac1 complex formation in mitochondria reduced in both Rac1-shRNA- and NSC23766-treated rats. Moreover, to confirm our in vivo observations, inhibition of Rac1 activity by NSC23766 suppressed the interactions between Bcl-2 and Rac1 in the mitochondria of PC-12 cells cultured in high glucose conditions and protected PC-12 cells from high glucose-induced neurotoxicity. More importantly, these beneficial effects of Rac1 inhibition were abolished by PI3K inhibitor LY294002. In contrast to NSC23766 treatment, LY294002 had little effect on the decrement of p-PTEN level. Taken together, these findings revealed novel neuroprotective roles of Rac1 inhibition against cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury in vivo and high glucose-induced neurotoxicity in PC-12 cells in vitro, by reducing Bcl-2/Rac1 complex formation in mitochondria through the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR survival pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mitochondria from rat uterine smooth muscle possess ATP-sensitive potassium channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga B. Vadzyuk


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to detect ATP-sensitive K+ uptake in rat uterine smooth muscle mitochondria and to determine possible effects of its activation on mitochondrial physiology. By means of fluorescent technique with usage of K+-sensitive fluorescent probe PBFI (potassium-binding benzofuran isophthalate we showed that accumulation of K ions in isolated mitochondria from rat myometrium is sensitive to effectors of KATP-channel (ATP-sensitive K+-channel – ATP, diazoxide, glibenclamide and 5HD (5-hydroxydecanoate. Our data demonstrates that K+ uptake in isolated myometrium mitochondria results in a slight decrease in membrane potential, enhancement of generation of ROS (reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial swelling. Particularly, the addition of ATP into incubation medium led to a decrease in mitochondrial swelling and ROS production, and an increase in membrane potential. These effects were eliminated by diazoxide. If blockers of KATP-channel were added along with diazoxide, the effects of diazoxide were removed. So, we postulate the existence of KATP-channels in rat uterus mitochondria and assume that their functioning may regulate physiological conditions of mitochondria, such as matrix volume, ROS generation and polarization of mitochondrial membrane. Keywords: ATP-sensitive potassium channel, Diazoxide, 5-hydroxydecanoate, Myometrium, Mitochondria, Mitochondrial swelling, Mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS

  10. Mitochondria morphologic changes and metabolic effects of rat hippocampus after microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Li; Peng Ruiyun; Gao Yabing; Wang Shuiming; Wang Lifeng; Dong Qi; Xu Xinping; Ma Junjie


    Objective: To investigate the effect of microwave on mitochondria morphologic and metabolism of rat hippocampus. Methods: 30 male rats were exposed to microwave with the average power density of 30 mW/cm 2 . Rats were sacrificed at 6 h, 1 d, 3 d and 7 d after irradiation. Electron microscope, enzymatic activity staining and spectrophotometer were used to study ultrastructure change of hippocampus mitochondria and activity of ATPase, SDH and MAO. Mitochondrial ATP, ADP and AMP contents were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: At 6 h after microwave radiation, the sizes and shapes of hippocampus mitochondria were abnormal and the injury of mitochondria was aggravated at 1 and 3 d after radiation. The mitochondria presented swell, cavitation including disorder, shortness and decrease of crest. The activity of SDH and content of ATP were decreased at 6 h, most serious at 3 d(P<0.01), and recovered at 7 d after radiation. The activity of ATPase and MAO increased notably at 1 d and 3 d after radiation (P<0.01). Conclusions: Microwave can damage the structure and function of mitochondria in rat hippocampus, and cause the energy metabolism of enzyme disorder. (authors)

  11. Diabetes-Induced Dysfunction of Mitochondria and Stem Cells in Skeletal Muscle and the Nervous System (United States)

    Fujimaki, Shin; Kuwabara, Tomoko


    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic diseases spread all over the world, which results in hyperglycemia caused by the breakdown of insulin secretion or insulin action or both. Diabetes has been reported to disrupt the functions and dynamics of mitochondria, which play a fundamental role in regulating metabolic pathways and are crucial to maintain appropriate energy balance. Similar to mitochondria, the functions and the abilities of stem cells are attenuated under diabetic condition in several tissues. In recent years, several studies have suggested that the regulation of mitochondria functions and dynamics is critical for the precise differentiation of stem cells. Importantly, physical exercise is very useful for preventing the diabetic alteration by improving the functions of both mitochondria and stem cells. In the present review, we provide an overview of the diabetic alterations of mitochondria and stem cells and the preventive effects of physical exercise on diabetes, focused on skeletal muscle and the nervous system. We propose physical exercise as a countermeasure for the dysfunction of mitochondria and stem cells in several target tissues under diabetes complication and to improve the physiological function of patients with diabetes, resulting in their quality of life being maintained. PMID:29036909

  12. Calculation of ion currents across the inner membrane of functionally intact mitochondria (United States)

    Kane, Daniel A; Pavlov, Evgeny V


    Mitochondrial ion transport systems play a central role in cell physiology. Rates of Ca2+ and K+ transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane have been derived from the measurement of ion accumulation over time within functional isolated mitochondria or mitochondria of cultured cells. Alternatively, the electrical currents generated by ionic flux have been directly measured in purified and swollen mitochondrial samples (mitoplasts) or reconstituted channels, and typically range from 1 pA to several 100s pA. However, the direct electrophysiological approach necessarily requires extensive processing of the mitochondria prior to measurement, which can only be performed on isolated mitoplasts. To compare rates of mitochondrial ion transport measured in electrophysiological experiments to those measured in intact mitochondria and cells, we converted published rates of mitochondrial ion uptake into units of ionic current. We estimate that for monovalent ions, uptake by intact mitochondria at the rate of 1 nmol ∙ mg−1 protein ∙ min−1 is equivalent to 0.2 fA of current per whole single mitochondrion (0.4 fA for divalent ions). In intact mitochondria, estimated rates of electrogenic cation uptake are limited to 1–100 fA of integral current per single mitochondrion. These estimates are orders of magnitude lower than the currents through mitochondrial channels directly measured via patch-clamp or artificial lipid bilayer approaches. PMID:24037064

  13. Reversible blockade of complex I or inhibition of PKCβ reduces activation and mitochondria translocation of p66Shc to preserve cardiac function after ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Yang

    Full Text Available Excess mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS play a vital role in cardiac ischemia reperfusion (IR injury. P66Shc, a splice variant of the ShcA adaptor protein family, enhances mROS production by oxidizing reduced cytochrome c to yield H2O2. Ablation of p66Shc protects against IR injury, but it is unknown if and when p66Shc is activated during cardiac ischemia and/or reperfusion and if attenuating complex I electron transfer or deactivating PKCβ alters p66Shc activation during IR is associated with cardioprotection.Isolated guinea pig hearts were perfused and subjected to increasing periods of ischemia and reperfusion with or without amobarbital, a complex I blocker, or hispidin, a PKCβ inhibitor. Phosphorylation of p66Shc at serine 36 and levels of p66Shc in mitochondria and cytosol were measured. Cardiac functional variables and redox states were monitored online before, during and after ischemia. Infarct size was assessed in some hearts after 120 min reperfusion.Phosphorylation of p66Shc and its translocation into mitochondria increased during reperfusion after 20 and 30 min ischemia, but not during ischemia only, or during 5 or 10 min ischemia followed by 20 min reperfusion. Correspondingly, cytosolic p66Shc levels decreased during these ischemia and reperfusion periods. Amobarbital or hispidin reduced phosphorylation of p66Shc and its mitochondrial translocation induced by 30 min ischemia and 20 min reperfusion. Decreased phosphorylation of p66Shc by amobarbital or hispidin led to better functional recovery and less infarction during reperfusion.Our results show that IR activates p66Shc and that reversible blockade of electron transfer from complex I, or inhibition of PKCβ activation, decreases p66Shc activation and translocation and reduces IR damage. These observations support a novel potential therapeutic intervention against cardiac IR injury.

  14. Landmark Study Reveals Antarctic Glacier's Long History of Retreat


    Kuska, Dale M.


    Faculty Showcase Archive Article Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A major study, released in late November in the journal “Nature,” reveals the history of retreat of the massive Pine Island Glacier (PIG) in western Antarctica, widely considered one of the largest contributors to global sea-level rise.

  15. Analysis of Transmission of MRSA and ESBL-E among Pigs and Farm Personnel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricarda Maria Schmithausen

    Full Text Available Livestock-associated bacteria with resistance to two or more antibiotic drug classes have heightened our awareness for the consequences of antibiotic consumption and spread of resistant bacterial strains in the veterinary field. In this study we assessed the prevalence of concomitant colonization with livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA and enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum betalactamases (ESBL-E in farms at the German-Dutch border region. Nasal colonization of pigs with MRSA (113/547 (20.7% was less frequent than rectal colonization with ESBL-E (163/540 (30.2%. On the individual farm level MRSA correlated with ESBL-E recovery. The data further provide information on prevalence at different stages of pig production, including abattoirs, as well as in air samples and humans living and working on the farms. Notably, MRSA was detected in stable air samples of 34 out of 35 pig farms, highlighting air as an important MRSA transmission reservoir. The majority of MRSA isolates, including those from humans, displayed tetracycline resistance and spa types t011 and t034 characteristic for LA-MRSA, demonstrating transmission from pigs to humans. ESBL-E positive air samples were detected on 6 out of 35 farms but no pig-to-human transmission was found. Detection of ESBL-E, e.g. mostly Escherichia coli with CTX-M-type ESBL, was limited to these six farms. Molecular typing revealed transmission of ESBL-E within the pig compartments; however, related strains were also found on unrelated farms. Although our data suggest that acquisition of MRSA and ESBL-E might occur among pigs in the abattoirs, MRSA and ESBL-E were not detected on the carcasses. Altogether, our data define stable air (MRSA, pig compartments (ESBL-E and abattoir waiting areas (MRSA and ESBL-E as major hot spots for transmission of MRSA and/or ESBL-E along the pig production chain.

  16. The pan-genome of Lactobacillus reuteri strains originating from the pig gastrointestinal tract. (United States)

    Wegmann, Udo; MacKenzie, Donald A; Zheng, Jinshui; Goesmann, Alexander; Roos, Stefan; Swarbreck, David; Walter, Jens; Crossman, Lisa C; Juge, Nathalie


    Lactobacillus reuteri is a gut symbiont of a wide variety of vertebrate species that has diversified into distinct phylogenetic clades which are to a large degree host-specific. Previous work demonstrated host specificity in mice and begun to determine the mechanisms by which gut colonisation and host restriction is achieved. However, how L. reuteri strains colonise the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of pigs is unknown. To gain insight into the ecology of L. reuteri in the pig gut, the genome sequence of the porcine small intestinal isolate L. reuteri ATCC 53608 was completed and consisted of a chromosome of 1.94 Mbp and two plasmids of 138.5 kbp and 9.09 kbp, respectively. Furthermore, we generated draft genomes of four additional L. reuteri strains isolated from pig faeces or lower GI tract, lp167-67, pg-3b, 20-2 and 3c6, and subjected all five genomes to a comparative genomic analysis together with the previously completed genome of strain I5007. A phylogenetic analysis based on whole genomes showed that porcine L. reuteri strains fall into two distinct clades, as previously suggested by multi-locus sequence analysis. These six pig L. reuteri genomes contained a core set of 1364 orthologous gene clusters, as determined by OrthoMCL analysis, that contributed to a pan-genome totalling 3373 gene clusters. Genome comparisons of the six pig L. reuteri strains with 14 L. reuteri strains from other host origins gave a total pan-genome of 5225 gene clusters that included a core genome of 851 gene clusters but revealed that there were no pig-specific genes per se. However, genes specific for and conserved among strains of the two pig phylogenetic lineages were detected, some of which encoded cell surface proteins that could contribute to the diversification of the two lineages and their observed host specificity. This study extends the phylogenetic analysis of L. reuteri strains at a genome-wide level, pointing to distinct evolutionary trajectories of porcine L. reuteri

  17. Pervasive within-Mitochondrion Single-Nucleotide Variant Heteroplasmy as Revealed by Single-Mitochondrion Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Morris


    Full Text Available Summary: A number of mitochondrial diseases arise from single-nucleotide variant (SNV accumulation in multiple mitochondria. Here, we present a method for identification of variants present at the single-mitochondrion level in individual mouse and human neuronal cells, allowing for extremely high-resolution study of mitochondrial mutation dynamics. We identified extensive heteroplasmy between individual mitochondrion, along with three high-confidence variants in mouse and one in human that were present in multiple mitochondria across cells. The pattern of variation revealed by single-mitochondrion data shows surprisingly pervasive levels of heteroplasmy in inbred mice. Distribution of SNV loci suggests inheritance of variants across generations, resulting in Poisson jackpot lines with large SNV load. Comparison of human and mouse variants suggests that the two species might employ distinct modes of somatic segregation. Single-mitochondrion resolution revealed mitochondria mutational dynamics that we hypothesize to affect risk probabilities for mutations reaching disease thresholds. : Morris et al. use independent sequencing of multiple individual mitochondria from mouse and human brain cells to show high pervasiveness of mutations. The mutations are heteroplasmic within single mitochondria and within and between cells. These findings suggest mechanisms by which mutations accumulate over time, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and disease. Keywords: single mitochondrion, single cell, human neuron, mouse neuron, single-nucleotide variation

  18. Manipulating the mitochondria activity in human hepatic cell line Huh7 by low-power laser irradiation (United States)

    Lynnyk, Anna; Lunova, Mariia; Jirsa, Milan; Egorova, Daria; Kulikov, Andrei; Kubinová, Šárka; Lunov, Oleg; Dejneka, Alexandr


    Low-power laser irradiation of red light has been recognized as a promising tool across a vast variety of biomedical applications. However, deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind laser-induced cellular effects remains a significant challenge. Here, we investigated mechanisms involved in the death process in human hepatic cell line Huh7 at a laser irradiation. We decoupled distinct cell death pathways targeted by laser irradiations of different powers. Our data demonstrate that high dose laser irradiation exhibited the highest levels of total reactive oxygen species production, leading to cyclophilin D-related necrosis via the mitochondrial permeability transition. On the contrary, low dose laser irradiation resulted in the nuclear accumulation of superoxide and apoptosis execution. Our findings offer a novel insight into laser-induced cellular responses, and reveal distinct cell death pathways triggered by laser irradiation. The observed link between mitochondria depolarization and triggering ROS could be a fundamental phenomenon in laser-induced cellular responses. PMID:29541521

  19. Respiration and substrate transport rates as well as reactive oxygen species production distinguish mitochondria from brain and liver. (United States)

    Gusdon, Aaron M; Fernandez-Bueno, Gabriel A; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie; Fernandez, Jenelle; Chen, Jing; Mathews, Clayton E


    Aberrant mitochondrial function, including excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human diseases. The use of mitochondrial inhibitors to ascertain the sites in the electron transport chain (ETC) resulting in altered ROS production can be an important tool. However, the response of mouse mitochondria to ETC inhibitors has not been thoroughly assessed. Here we set out to characterize the differences in phenotypic response to ETC inhibitors between the more energetically demanding brain mitochondria and less energetically demanding liver mitochondria in commonly utilized C57BL/6J mice. We show that in contrast to brain mitochondria, inhibiting distally within complex I or within complex III does not increase liver mitochondrial ROS production supported by complex I substrates, and liver mitochondrial ROS production supported by complex II substrates occurred primarily independent of membrane potential. Complex I, II, and III enzymatic activities and membrane potential were equivalent between liver and brain and responded to ETC. inhibitors similarly. Brain mitochondria exhibited an approximately two-fold increase in complex I and II supported respiration compared with liver mitochondria while exhibiting similar responses to inhibitors. Elevated NADH transport and heightened complex II-III coupled activity accounted for increased complex I and II supported respiration, respectively in brain mitochondria. We conclude that important mechanistic differences exist between mouse liver and brain mitochondria and that mouse mitochondria exhibit phenotypic differences compared with mitochondria from other species.

  20. ONC201 kills breast cancer cells in vitro by targeting mitochondria. (United States)

    Greer, Yoshimi Endo; Porat-Shliom, Natalie; Nagashima, Kunio; Stuelten, Christina; Crooks, Dan; Koparde, Vishal N; Gilbert, Samuel F; Islam, Celia; Ubaldini, Ashley; Ji, Yun; Gattinoni, Luca; Soheilian, Ferri; Wang, Xiantao; Hafner, Markus; Shetty, Jyoti; Tran, Bao; Jailwala, Parthav; Cam, Maggie; Lang, Martin; Voeller, Donna; Reinhold, William C; Rajapakse, Vinodh; Pommier, Yves; Weigert, Roberto; Linehan, W Marston; Lipkowitz, Stanley


    We report a novel mechanism of action of ONC201 as a mitochondria-targeting drug in cancer cells. ONC201 was originally identified as a small molecule that induces transcription of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and subsequently kills cancer cells by activating TRAIL death receptors. In this study, we examined ONC201 toxicity on multiple human breast and endometrial cancer cell lines. ONC201 attenuated cell viability in all cancer cell lines tested. Unexpectedly, ONC201 toxicity was not dependent on either TRAIL receptors nor caspases. Time-lapse live cell imaging revealed that ONC201 induces cell membrane ballooning followed by rupture, distinct from the morphology of cells undergoing apoptosis. Further investigation found that ONC201 induces phosphorylation of AMP-dependent kinase and ATP loss. Cytotoxicity and ATP depletion were significantly enhanced in the absence of glucose, suggesting that ONC201 targets mitochondrial respiration. Further analysis indicated that ONC201 indirectly inhibits mitochondrial respiration. Confocal and electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that ONC201 triggers mitochondrial structural damage and functional impairment. Moreover, ONC201 decreased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). RNAseq analysis revealed that ONC201 suppresses expression of multiple mtDNA-encoded genes and nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation and other mitochondrial functions. Importantly, fumarate hydratase deficient cancer cells and multiple cancer cell lines with reduced amounts of mtDNA were resistant to ONC201. These results indicate that cells not dependent on mitochondrial respiration are ONC201-resistant. Our data demonstrate that ONC201 kills cancer cells by disrupting mitochondrial function and further suggests that cancer cells that are dependent on glycolysis will be resistant to ONC201.

  1. Effect of transportation stress on heat shock protein 70 concentration and mRNA expression in heart and kidney tissues and serum enzyme activities and hormone concentrations of pigs. (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Bao, En-Dong; Zhao, Ru-Qian; Lv, Qiong-Xia


    To determine the enzymatic and hormonal responses, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) production, and Hsp70 mRNA expression in heart and kidney tissues of transport-stressed pigs. 24 pigs (mean weight, 20 +/- 1 kg). Pigs were randomly placed into groups of 12 each. One group was transported for 2 hours. The other group was kept under normal conditions and used as control pigs. Sera were used to detect triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and cortisol concentrations and alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase activities. The heart and kidneys of anesthetized pigs were harvested and frozen in liquid nitrogen for quantification of Hsp70 and Hsp70 mRNA. No significant differences were detected in serum alanine aminotransferase activity and triiodothyronine and cortisol concentrations between groups; however, the serum creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and thyroxine concentrations were higher in transported pigs. Densitometric readings of western blots revealed that the amount of Hsp70 in heart and kidney tissues was significantly higher in transported pigs, compared with control pigs. Results of fluorescence quantitative real-time PCR assay revealed that the Hsp70 mRNA transcription in heart tissue, but not kidney tissue, was significantly higher in transported pigs, compared with control pigs. Transportation imposed a severe stress on pigs that was manifested as increased serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase and increased amounts of Hsp70 and Hsp70 mRNA expression in heart and kidney tissues. Changes in serum enzyme activities were related to the tissue damage of transport-stressed pigs.

  2. Weight and season affects androstenone and skatole occurrence in entire male pigs in organic pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Edwards, Sandra; Jensen, Bent Borg


    was found between seasons. The study concludes that decreasing live weight at slaughter could be an applicable management tool to reduce risk of boar taint and the level of tainted carcasses for a future production of entire male pigs within the organic pig production system, although further studies...... are needed as great variation in boar taint was found also for low weight animals...

  3. Anaerobic digestion of pig manure fibres from commercial pig slurry separation units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Triolo, Jin M.; Sommer, Sven G.


    and screw press on average produced approximately 220l [CH4]kg-1 [VS]. Initial methane production can be described using a first-order kinetic model. The average rate constant for manure fibres was 0.030d-1 and for pig slurry 0.071d-1, showing that pig slurry is digested much faster than manure fibres....

  4. A permeability transition in liver mitochondria and liposomes induced by α,ω-dioic acids and Ca(2+). (United States)

    Dubinin, Mikhail V; Samartsev, Victor N; Astashev, Maxim E; Kazakov, Alexey S; Belosludtsev, Konstantin N


    The article examines the molecular mechanism of the Ca(2+)-dependent cyclosporin A (CsA)-insensitive permeability transition in rat liver mitochondria induced by α,ω-dioic acids. The addition of α,ω-hexadecanedioic acid (HDA) to Ca(2+)-loaded liver mitochondria was shown to induce a high-amplitude swelling of the organelles, a drop of membrane potential and the release of Ca(2+) from the matrix, the effects being insensitive to CsA. The experiments with liposomes loaded with sulforhodamine B (SRB) revealed that, like palmitic acid (PA), HDA was able to cause permeabilization of liposomal membranes. However, the kinetics of HDA- and PA-induced release of SRB from liposomes was different, and HDA was less effective than PA in the induction of SRB release. Using the method of ultrasound interferometry, we also showed that the addition of Ca(2+) to HDA-containing liposomes did not change the phase state of liposomal membranes-in contrast to what was observed when Ca(2+) was added to PA-containing vesicles. It was suggested that HDA/Ca(2+)- and PA/Ca(2+)-induced permeability transition occurs by different mechanisms. Using the method of dynamic light scattering, we further revealed that the addition of Ca(2+) to HDA-containing liposomes induced their aggregation/fusion. Apparently, these processes result in a partial release of SRB due to the formation of fusion pores. The possibility that this mechanism underlies the HDA/Ca(2+)-induced permeability transition of the mitochondrial membrane is discussed.

  5. High Dietary Fat Selectively Increases Catalase Expression within Cardiac Mitochondria* (United States)

    Rindler, Paul M.; Plafker, Scott M.; Szweda, Luke I.; Kinter, Michael


    Obesity is a predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One consequence of obesity is dyslipidemia characterized by high blood triglycerides. It has been proposed that oxidative stress, driven by utilization of lipids for energy, contributes to these diseases. The effects of oxidative stress are mitigated by an endogenous antioxidant enzyme network, but little is known about its response to high fat utilization. Our experiments used a multiplexed quantitative proteomics method to measure antioxidant enzyme expression in heart tissue in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. This experiment showed a rapid and specific up-regulation of catalase protein, with subsequent assays showing increases in activity and mRNA. Catalase, traditionally considered a peroxisomal protein, was found to be present in cardiac mitochondria and significantly increased in content and activity during high fat feeding. These data, coupled with the fact that fatty acid oxidation enhances mitochondrial H2O2 production, suggest that a localized catalase increase is needed to consume excessive mitochondrial H2O2 produced by increased fat metabolism. To determine whether the catalase-specific response is a common feature of physiological conditions that increase blood triglycerides and fatty acid oxidation, we measured changes in antioxidant expression in fasted versus fed mice. Indeed, a similar specific catalase increase was observed in mice fasted for 24 h. Our findings suggest a fundamental metabolic process in which catalase expression is regulated to prevent damage while preserving an H2O2-mediated sensing of diet composition that appropriately adjusts insulin sensitivity in the short term as needed to prioritize lipid metabolism for complete utilization. PMID:23204527

  6. The role of cholesterol in the association of endoplasmic reticulum membranes with mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Michiko; Hayashi, Teruo; Su, Tsung-Ping


    Highlights: ► The endoplasmic reticulum subdomain termed MAM associates with mitochondria. ► The biophysical role of lipids in the MAM–mitochondria association is unknown. ► The in vitro membrane association assay was used to examine the role of lipids. ► Cholesterol was found to negatively regulate the association. -- Abstract: The unique endoplasmic reticulum (ER) subdomain termed the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) engages the physical connection between the ER and the mitochondrial outer membrane and plays a role in regulating IP 3 receptor-mediated Ca 2+ influx and the phospholipid transport between the two organelles. The MAM contains certain signaling and membrane-tethering proteins but also lipids including cholesterol. The biophysical role of lipids at the MAM, specifically in the physical interaction between the MAM of the ER and mitochondria, remains not totally clarified. Here we employed the in vitro membrane association assay to investigate the role of cholesterol in the association between MAMs and mitochondria. The purified MAMs and mitochondria were mixed in vitro in a test tube and then the physical association of the two subcellular organelles was quantified indirectly by measuring the presence of the MAM-specific protein sigma-1 receptors in the mitochondria fraction. Purified MAMs contained free cholesterol approximately 7 times higher than that in microsomes. We found that depletion of cholesterol in MAMs with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβC) significantly increases the association between MAMs and mitochondria, whereas MβC saturated with cholesterol does not change the association. 14 C-Serine pulse-labeling demonstrated that the treatment of living cells with MβC decreases the level of de novo synthesized 14 C-phosphatidylserine (PtSer) and concomitantly increases greatly the synthesis of 14 C-phosphatidylethanolamine (PtEt). Apparently, cholesterol depletion increased the PtSer transport from MAMs to mitochondria. Our

  7. The role of cholesterol in the association of endoplasmic reticulum membranes with mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Michiko [Cellular Stress Signaling Unit, Integrative Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States); Hayashi, Teruo, E-mail: [Cellular Stress Signaling Unit, Integrative Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States); Su, Tsung-Ping, E-mail: [Cellular Pathobiology Section, Integrative Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The endoplasmic reticulum subdomain termed MAM associates with mitochondria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biophysical role of lipids in the MAM-mitochondria association is unknown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The in vitro membrane association assay was used to examine the role of lipids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cholesterol was found to negatively regulate the association. -- Abstract: The unique endoplasmic reticulum (ER) subdomain termed the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) engages the physical connection between the ER and the mitochondrial outer membrane and plays a role in regulating IP{sub 3} receptor-mediated Ca{sup 2+} influx and the phospholipid transport between the two organelles. The MAM contains certain signaling and membrane-tethering proteins but also lipids including cholesterol. The biophysical role of lipids at the MAM, specifically in the physical interaction between the MAM of the ER and mitochondria, remains not totally clarified. Here we employed the in vitro membrane association assay to investigate the role of cholesterol in the association between MAMs and mitochondria. The purified MAMs and mitochondria were mixed in vitro in a test tube and then the physical association of the two subcellular organelles was quantified indirectly by measuring the presence of the MAM-specific protein sigma-1 receptors in the mitochondria fraction. Purified MAMs contained free cholesterol approximately 7 times higher than that in microsomes. We found that depletion of cholesterol in MAMs with methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (M{beta}C) significantly increases the association between MAMs and mitochondria, whereas M{beta}C saturated with cholesterol does not change the association. {sup 14}C-Serine pulse-labeling demonstrated that the treatment of living cells with M{beta}C decreases the level of de novo synthesized {sup 14}C-phosphatidylserine (PtSer) and concomitantly increases greatly the synthesis of

  8. Intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in neonatal pigs compared to rats and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasser, L.B.; Jarboe, G.E.


    The purpose of this study was to measure intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in the newborn pig and to compare data from the pig, rat and guinea pig, three species that differ greatly in their ability to absorb macromolecules at birth. Newborn pigs were administered a single oral dose of 50 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd 24 hours after birth and killed at intervals between 1 and 14 days after dosing. Cd absorption and gastrointestinal retention were then determined; these data were compared with similar data from the rat and guinea pig. Cd absorption in the neonate appears to be a two-step process; mucosal uptake of Cd from the lumen, probably by pinocytosis, followed by transfer of a portion of this Cd into the body. This transfer process is similar, but does not entirely coincide with changes associated with protein absorption in the neonate

  9. Do the mitochondria of malaria parasites behave like the phoenix after return in the mosquito? Regeneration of degenerated mitochondria is required for successful Plasmodium infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, G.P.A.


    Mitochondria are energy generators in eukaryotic organisms like man and the pathogenic malaria parasites, the Plasmodium spp. From the moment a mosquito-mediated malaria infection occurs in man the parasite multiplies profusely, but eventually the oxygen supply becomes the limiting factor in this

  10. Prenatal effects of trichlorfon on the guinea pig brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, G.N.; Nafstad, I.; Fonnum, F.


    The organophosphorus compound trichlorfon, dimethyl (2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl) phosphonate, was administered by stomach tube (100 mg/kg) to pregnant guinea pigs at two different stages of gestation (days 36, 37, 38 and 51, 52, 53). The pups developed locomotory disturbances, and post mortem examination revealed significantly decreased weights of the total brain and the cerebellum, as compared to controls. There was also a significant weight reduction particularly of the medulla oblongata, but also of the hippocampus, the thalamus, and the colliculi. Histological examination of the cerebellum revealed reduction of the external granular layer and the molecular layer, and regional absence of Purkinje cells. The activities of the neutrotransmitter enzymes choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in cerebellum were reduced as compared to the control values. (orig.)

  11. Multi-diameter pigging: factors affecting the design and selection of pigging tools for multi-diameter pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Karl [Pipeline Engineering and Supply Co. Ltd., Richmond, NY (United States)


    This paper will consider the process involved in pigging tool selection for pipelines with two or more significant internal diameters which require pigging tools capable of negotiating the different internal diameters whilst also carrying out the necessary pipeline cleaning operation. The paper will include an analysis of pipeline features that affect pigging tool selection and then go on to look at other variables that determine the pigging tool design; this will include a step by step guide outlining how the tool is designed, the development of prototype pigs and the importance of testing and validation prior to final deployment in operational pigging programmes. (author)

  12. A description of smallholder pig production systems in eastern Indonesia. (United States)

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Geong, Maria; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L


    Pig farming is a common practice among smallholder farmers in Nusa Tenggara Timur province (NTT), eastern Indonesia. To understand their production systems a survey of smallholder pig farmers was conducted. Eighteen villages were randomly selected across West Timor, Flores and Sumba islands, and 289 pig farmers were interviewed. Information on pig management, biosecurity practices, pig movements and knowledge of pig health and disease, specifically classical swine fever was collected. The mean number of pigs per herd was 5.0 (not including piglets), and total marketable herd size (pigs≥two months of age) did not differ significantly between islands (P=0.215). Chickens (71%) and dogs (62%) were the most commonly kept animal species in addition to pigs. Pigs were mainly kept as a secondary income source (69%) and 83% of farmers owned at least one sow. Seventy-four percent (74%) of pigs were housed in a kandang (small bamboo pen) and 25% were tethered. Pig feeds were primarily locally sourced agricultural products (93%). The majority of farmers had no knowledge of classical swine fever (91%) and biosecurity practices were minimal. Forty-five percent (45%) reported to consuming a pig when it died and 74% failed to report cases of sick or dead pigs to appropriate authorities. Sixty-five percent (65%) of farmers reported that a veterinarian or animal health worker had never visited their village. Backyard slaughter was common practice (55%), with meat mainly used for home consumption (89%). Most (73%) farmers purchased pigs in order to raise the animal on their farm with 36% purchasing at least one pig within the last year. Predominantly fattener pigs (34%) were given as gifts for celebratory events, most commonly for funerals (32%), traditional ceremonies (27%) and marriages (10%). For improved productivity of this traditional low-input system, research incorporating farming training and improved knowledge on pig disease and biosecurity needs to be integrated with

  13. The effect of long or chopped straw on pig behaviour. (United States)

    Lahrmann, H P; Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H; Nielsen, M B F; D'Eath, R B


    In the EU, pigs must have permanent access to manipulable materials such as straw, rope, wood, etc. Long straw can fulfil this function, but can increase labour requirements for cleaning pens, and result in problems with blocked slatted floors and slurry systems. Chopped straw might be more practical, but what is the effect on pigs' behaviour of using chopped straw instead of long straw? Commercial pigs in 1/3 slatted, 2/3 solid pens of 15 pigs were provided with either 100 g/pig per day of long straw (20 pens) or of chopped straw (19 pens). Behavioural observations were made of three focal pigs per pen (one from each of small, medium and large weight tertiles) for one full day between 0600 and 2300 h at each of ~40 and ~80 kg. The time spent rooting/investigating overall (709 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 533 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), or directed to the straw/solid floor (497 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 343 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), was not affected by straw length but reduced with age. Time spent investigating other pigs (83 s/pig per hour at 40 kg), the slatted floor (57 s/pig per hour) or pen fixtures (21 s/pig per hour) was not affected by age or straw length. Aggressive behaviour was infrequent, but lasted about twice as long in pens with chopped straw (2.3 s/pig per hour at 40 kg) compared with pens with long straw (1.0 s/pig per hour at 40 kg, P=0.060). There were no significant effects of straw length on tail or ear lesions, but shoulders were significantly more likely to have minor scratches with chopped straw (P=0.031), which may reflect the higher levels of aggression. Smaller pigs showed more rooting/investigatory behaviour, and in particular directed towards the straw/solid floor and the slatted floor than their larger pen-mates. Females exhibited more straw and pen fixture-directed behaviour than males. There were no effects of pig size or sex on behaviour directed towards other pigs. In summary, pigs spent similar amounts of time interacting with straw

  14. Estimation of body composition of pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrell, C.L.; Cornelius, S.G.


    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of deuterium oxide (D2O) for in vivo estimation of body composition of diverse types of pigs. Obese (Ob, 30) and contemporary Hampshire X Yorkshire (C, 30) types of pigs used in the study were managed and fed under typical management regimens. Indwelling catheters were placed in a jugular vein of 6 Ob and 6 C pigs at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 wk of age. The D2O was infused (.5 g/kg body weight) as a .9% NaCl solution into the jugular catheter. Blood samples were taken immediately before and at .25, 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after the D2O infusion and D2O concentration in blood water was determined. Pigs were subsequently killed by euthanasia injection. Contents of the gastrointestinal tract were removed and the empty body was then frozen and later ground and sampled for subsequent analyses. Ground body tissue samples were analyzed for water, fat, N, fat-free organic matter and ash. Pig type, age and the type X age interaction were significant sources of variation in live weight, D2O pool size and all empty body components, as well as all fat-free empty body components. Relationships between age and live weight or weight of empty body components, and between live weight, empty body weight, empty body water or D2O space and weight of empty components were highly significant but influenced, in most cases, by pig type. The results of this study suggested that, although relationships between D2O space and body component weights were highly significant, they were influenced by pig type and were little better than live weight for the estimation of body composition

  15. Temporal Progression of Lesions in Guinea Pigs Infected With Lassa Virus. (United States)

    Bell, T M; Shaia, C I; Bearss, J J; Mattix, M E; Koistinen, K A; Honnold, S P; Zeng, X; Blancett, C D; Donnelly, G C; Shamblin, J D; Wilkinson, E R; Cashman, K A


    Lassa virus (LASV) infection causes an acute, multisystemic viral hemorrhagic fever that annually infects an estimated 100 000 to 300 000 persons in West Africa. This pathogenesis study evaluated the temporal progression of disease in guinea pigs following aerosol and subcutaneous inoculation of the Josiah strain of LASV as well as the usefulness of Strain 13 guinea pigs as an animal model for Lassa fever. After experimental infection, guinea pigs ( Cavia porcellus; n = 67) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and serum chemistry and hematologic changes. Guinea pigs developed viremia on day 5 to 6 postexposure (PE), with clinical signs appearing by day 7 to 8 PE. Complete blood counts revealed lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Gross pathologic findings included skin lesions and congested lungs. Histologic lesions consisted of cortical lymphoid depletion by day 6 to 7 PE with lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia at 7 to 8 days PE. Scattered hepatocellular degeneration and cell death were also noted in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in other tissues including the haired skin, lung, heart, adrenal gland, lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen. The first cell types to demonstrate staining for viral antigen were fibroblastic reticular cells and macrophages/dendritic cells in the lymph nodes on day 5 to 6 PE. This study demonstrates similarities between Lassa viral disease in human infections and experimental guinea pig infection. These shared pathologic characteristics support the utility of guinea pigs as an additional animal model for vaccine and therapeutic development under the Food and Drug Administration's Animal Rule.

  16. Pathogenesis of swine influenza virus (Thai isolates in weanling pigs: an experimental trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitikoon Pravina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to investigate the pathogenesis of swine influenza virus (SIV subtype H1N1 and H3N2 (Thai isolates in 22-day-old SPF pigs. Results The study found that all pigs in the infected groups developed typical signs of flu-like symptoms on 1–4 days post- infection (dpi. The H1N1-infected pigs had greater lung lesion scores than those of the H3N2-infected pigs. Histopathological lesions related to swine influenza-induced lesions consisting of epithelial cells damage, airway plugging and peribronchial and perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration were present in both infected groups. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry using nucleoprotein specific monoclonal antibodies revealed positive staining cells in lung sections of both infected groups at 2 and 4 dpi. Virus shedding was detected at 2 dpi from both infected groups as demonstrated by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Conclusion The results demonstrated that both SIV subtypes were able to induce flu-like symptoms and lung lesions in weanling pigs. However the severity of the diseases with regards to lung lesions both gross and microscopic lesions was greater in the H1N1-infected pigs. Based on phylogenetic analysis, haemagglutinin gene of subtype H1N1 from Thailand clustered with the classical H1 SIV sequences and neuraminidase gene clustered with virus of avian origin, whereas, both genes of H3N2 subtype clustered with H3N2 human-like SIV from the 1970s.

  17. Nicotine facilitates nicotinic acetylcholine receptor targeting to mitochondria but makes them less susceptible to selective ligands. (United States)

    Uspenska, Kateryna; Lykhmus, Olena; Gergalova, Galyna; Chernyshov, Volodymyr; Arias, Hugo R; Komisarenko, Sergiy; Skok, Maryna


    Several nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes are expressed in mitochondria to regulate the internal pathway of apoptosis in ion channel-independent manner. However, the mechanisms of nAChR activation in mitochondria and targeting to mitochondria are still unknown. Nicotine has been shown to favor nAChR pentamer assembly, folding, and maturation on the way of biosynthesis. The idea of the present work was to determine whether nicotine affects the content, glycosylation, and function of mitochondrial nAChRs. Experiments were performed in isolated liver mitochondria from mice, that either consumed or not nicotine with the drinking water (200μL/L) for 7days. Mitochondria detergent lysates were studied by sandwich or lectin ELISA for the presence and carbohydrate composition of different nAChR subunits. Intact mitochondria were examined by flow cytometry for the binding of fluorescently labeled α-cobratoxin and were tested in functional assay of cytochrome c release under the effect of either Ca 2+ or wortmannin in the presence or absence of nAChR-selective ligands, including PNU-282987 (1nM), dihydro-β-erythroidine (DhβE, 1μM), PNU-120596 (0.3, 3, or 10μM) and desformylflustrabromine hydrochloride (dFBr, 0.001, 0.3, or 1μM). It was found that nicotine consumption increased the ratio of mitochondrial vs non-mitochondrial nAChRs in the liver, enhanced fucosylation of mitochondrial nAChRs, but prevented the binding of α-cobratoxin and the cytochrome c release-attenuating effects of nAChR-specific agonists, antagonists, or positive allosteric modulators. It is concluded that nicotine consumption in vivo favors nAChR glycosylation and trafficking to mitochondria but makes them less susceptible to the effects of specific ligands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ca2+ Transport by Mitochondria from L1210 Mouse Ascites Tumor Cells (United States)

    Reynafarje, Baltazar; Lehninger, Albert L.


    Mitochondria isolated from the ascites form of L1210 mouse leukemia cells readily accumulate Ca2+ from the suspending medium and eject H+ during oxidation of succinate in the presence of phosphate and Mg2+, with normal stoichiometry between Ca2+ uptake and electron transport. Ca2+ loads up to 1600 ng-atoms per mg of protein are attained. As is the case in mitochondria from normal tissues, Ca2+ uptake takes precedence over oxidative phosphorylation. However, Ca2+ transport by the L-1210 mitochondria is unusual in other respects, which may possibly have general significance in tumor cells. The apparent affinity of the L1210 mitochondria for Ca2+ in stimulation of oxygen uptake is about 3-fold greater than in normal liver mitochondria; moreover, the maximal rate of Ca2+ transport is also considerably higher. Furthermore, when Ca2+ pulses are added to L1210 mitochondria in the absence of phosphate or other permeant anions, much larger amounts of Ca2+ are bound and H+ ejected per atom of oxygen consumed than in the presence of phosphate; up to 7 Ca2+ ions are bound per pair of electrons passing each energy-conserving site of the electron-transport chain. Such “superstoichiometry” of Ca2+ uptake can be accounted for by two distinct types of respiration-dependent interaction of Ca2+ with the L1210 mitochondria. One is the stimulation of oxygen consumption, which is achieved by relatively low concentrations of Ca2+ (Km ≅ 8 μM) and is accompanied by binding of Ca2+ up to 40 ng-atoms per mg of protein. The second process, also dependent on electron transport, is the binding of further Ca2+ from the medium in exchange with previously stored membrane-bound protons, in which the affinity for Ca2+ is much lower (Km ≅ 120 μM). PMID:4515933

  19. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker


    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  20. Effects of Increasing Space Allowance by Removing a Pig or Gate Adjustment on Finishing Pig Growth Performance. (United States)

    Carpenter, Corey B; Holder, Cheyenne J; Wu, Fanghou; Woodworth, Jason C; DeRouchey, Joel M; Tokach, Mike D; Goodband, Robert D; Dritz, Steve S


    A total of 256 pigs (initially 55.9 ± 4.88 kg) were used in a 71-d study to determine the effects of increasing space allowance and pig removal on pig growth performance. Pens of pigs were blocked by body weight (BW) and allotted to one of four space allowance treatments, initially with 8 pigs per pen and 8 pens per treatment. First two treatments included pens with 0.91 m2 per pig or 0.63 m2 per pig for the entire study; two additional treatments initially provided 0.63 m2 per pig, but either a gate was adjusted on d 28, 45, and 62 or the heaviest pig in the pen was removed from the pen on d 28 and 45 to provide more space and keep pigs in accordance with their predicted minimum space requirement [(m2) = 0.0336 × (BW, kg)0.67]. From d 0 to 14 (56 to 69 kg), there was no effect of stocking density observed for average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain:feed (G:F). From d 14 to 28 (69 to 83 kg), pigs provided 0.91 m2 had increased (P space adjustment treatments had greater (P space adjustments intermediate. In summary, pigs with 0.91 m2 grew faster and consumed more feed than pigs restricted in space. As pigs reached the critical k value, gate adjustments and pig removals affected growth similarly. As pigs grew to the predicted space requirement and were subsequently allowed more space, performance was greater than those provided 0.63 m2 but less than those allowed 0.91 m2. It appears that the industry accepted critical k value, 0.0336, may not be adequate for optimal pig performance across multiple BW ranges.