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Sample records for pig manure slurry

  1. Anaerobic digestion of pig manure fibres from commercial pig slurry separation units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Triolo, Jin M.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of manure fibres (MF) from 17 commercially separated pig slurries and seven raw pig slurries were characterised in terms of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), protein, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The average lignocellulose concentration in manure fibres and pig slurries...

  2. Bacterial antibiotic resistance levels in Danish farmland as a result of treatment with pig manure slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Gitte; Agersø, Yvonne; Halling-Sørensen, B.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to tetracycline, macrolides and streptomycin was measured for a period of 8 months in soil bacteria obtained from farmland treated with pig manure slurry. This was done by spread plating bacteria on selective media (Luria Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with antibiotics). To account...... for seasonal variations in numbers of soil bacteria, ratios of resistant bacteria divided by total count on nonselective plates were calculated. Soil samples were collected from four different farms and from a control soil on a fifth farm. The control soil was not amended with animal manure. The occurrence...... of tetracycline-resistant bacteria was elevated after spread of pig manure slurry but declined throughout the sampling period to a level corresponding to the control soil. Higher load of pig manure slurry yielded higher occurrence of tetracycline resistance after spreading; however, the tetracycline resistance...

  3. Carbon dynamics in different soil types amended with pig slurry, pig manure and its biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanardag, Ibrahim H.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Büyükkiliç-Yanardaǧ, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet R.

    2014-05-01

    Chernozem had higher volatile compounds than Regosol, with no significant differences among treatments. Changes in total weight loss of soil among treatments were small, although endothermic and exothermic calorimetric peaks were different depending on the treatment, mainly in Regosol and Luvisol, being higher in biochar amended samples. The proportion of C containing gas species below 550 ºC was higher in Luvisol and Kastanozem with no differences among treatments. As a general pattern, FTIR absorbance intensity followed the pattern Kastanozem > Luvisol > Regosol due to the different amount of organic matter. Areas of bands representing chemically terminal alkenes moieties at 3286 cm-1 and 3340 cm-1 in Luvisol and Kastanozem. Chemically refractory aromatic moieties at 1580 cm-1 and 1594 cm-1 in Luvisol and Chernozem, and at 729 cm-1 and 754 cm-1 in the three types of soils. Areas of bands representing chemically terminal alkane moieties at 1359 cm-1 and 1380 cm-1, alkenyl moieties at 962 cm-1 and 975 cm-1, and alkynes at 636 cm-1 and 663 cm-1 in all types of soils. The soil samples measured before incubation presented higher absorbance intensity than at the end of incubation, indicating mineralization of organic matter with incubation. No significant alterations in the functional groups were observed with the application of the amendments in any soil. This study suggested that the application of 5 g C kg-1 soil was not sufficient to modify organic functional groups at short term. Thus, different soil types behave differently in terms of amendments applications, being the Regosol more prone to alter SOC content and stability after applications. The application of biochar promoted higher SOC concentrations and stability at the end of the incubation. Keywords: Pig slurry, Pig Manure, Biochar, thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR, soil respiration, soil mineralization.

  4. Thermophilic digestion of pig manure slurries at 48 deg. C; Termofil udraadning af svinegylle ved 48 grader C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, J.; Joergensen, P.; Hannibal, E.

    1995-06-01

    Thermophilic digestion of pig manure slurries can give problems because of its high nitrogen content that, together with high concentrations of ammonia content, can encumber the growth activities of the bacteria so that the production of methane will be stopped. A series of experiments were carried out on a biomass conversion plant located on a farm in order to address this problem. These are described and the resulting data are given. It was concluded that it is possible to solve the problem by operating at a temperature of 48 deg. C, a low thermophilic temperature. The production of methane was also increased under these conditions, to 0.53 cubic meters per kilogram organic dry matter. Methane production is also highly dependent on residence time in the reactor, which is recommended as being 16 days and nights. Bentonite can have a stabilizing effect on the ammonia-binding process. (AB)

  5. Life Cycle Inventory & Assessment Report: Cooling of Manure, Applied to Fattening Pigs Slurry, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

    the “manure management chain” from in-house storage, outdoor storage and to application of the manure to field in combination with the environmental impacts from the energy production for the manure cooling, by use of consequential Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This report on Manure Cooling was prepared...... as part of Work Package 5 on Assessing Sustainability of Manure Technology Chains in the project Baltic Manure....

  6. Comparative characterization of digestate versus pig slurry and cow manure - Chemical composition and effects on soil microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risberg, Kajsa; Cederlund, Harald; Pell, Mikael; Arthurson, Veronica; Schnürer, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The growing number of biogas plants in Europe has resulted in increased production of nutrient-rich digestate with great potential as fertilizer for arable land. The nutrient composition of digestate varies with the substrate treated in the biogas plant and may contain compounds that stimulate or inhibit soil microbial activity. This study compared 20 digestates (D) with 10 pig slurries (PS) and 10 cow manures (CM) regarding their chemical content and their effect on soil microbial activities, i.e. potential ammonia oxidation rate (PAO) and soil respiration. The results showed no significant differences within the D group when divided based on substrate type. i.e. manure dominated vs. other organic waste materials in any of the tests. In general D contained significantly higher concentrations of ammonium while the concentrations of total carbon and volatile fatty acids were higher in PS and CM than in D. The D showed both stimulating and inhibiting effects on PAO, while all CM and all PS except one showed inhibiting effects on PAO. However, PAO activity was negatively correlated with the content of volatile fatty acids in the residues indicating that these compounds may be the cause of the inhibition. The maximum respiration activity (hpeakmax) was lower and the time point for the maximum respiration activity (tpeakmax) occurred earlier for D compared with CM and PS. This earlier peak time could be indicative of a high proportion of easily degradable carbon in D compared with PS and CM. However, the utilization rate of carbon, i.e. the proportion of added organic C converted to CO2-C during 12days, did not differ significantly between D, PS and CM, indicating that overall carbon quality in the different fertilizers was still roughly comparable. In short, our results suggest that digestates were different compared with PS and CM but without posing a higher risk with respect to their impact on soil microbial activity. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by

  7. Effect of tetracycline residues in pig manure slurry on tetracycline-resistant bacteria and resistance gene tet(M) in soil microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Wulff, Gitte; Vaclavik, Elvira;

    2006-01-01

    manure slurry and a tetracycline-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, CG I 10, containing the tetracycline resistance gene tet(m) (on the conjugative transposon, Tn916). The prevalence of both tetracycline-resistant aerobic bacteria and tetracycline-resistant enterococci declined rapidly until day 45 where...... no significant differences in the levels of tetracycline-resistant bacteria in any of the four types of microcosms could be detected. tet(M) could be detected in microcosms supplemented with either pig manure slurry and/or E. faecalis CG 110 (tet(M)) for the whole period (152 days). tet(M) could be detected...... longer than tetracycline-resistant enterococci could be isolated (limit of detection 100 CFU/g soil) probably due to viable but not culturable (VBNC) bacteria with tet(M), horizontal gene transfer of tet(M) to indigenous soil bacteria or presence of "free" DNA. The concentration of chlortetracycline...

  8. Biodegradation of pig manure by the housefly, Musca domestica: a viable ecological strategy for pig manure management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Čičková

    Full Text Available The technology for biodegradation of pig manure by using houseflies in a pilot plant capable of processing 500-700 kg of pig manure per week is described. A single adult cage loaded with 25,000 pupae produced 177.7±32.0 ml of eggs in a 15-day egg-collection period. With an inoculation ratio of 0.4-1.0 ml eggs/kg of manure, the amount of eggs produced by a single cage can suffice for the biodegradation of 178-444 kg of manure. Larval development varied among four different types of pig manure (centrifuged slurry, fresh manure, manure with sawdust, manure without sawdust. Larval survival ranged from 46.9±2.1%, in manure without sawdust, to 76.8±11.9% in centrifuged slurry. Larval development took 6-11 days, depending on the manure type. Processing of 1 kg of wet manure produced 43.9-74.3 g of housefly pupae and the weight of the residue after biodegradation decreased to 0.18-0.65 kg, with marked differences among manure types. Recommendations for the operation of industrial-scale biodegradation facilities are presented and discussed.

  9. Characteristics of volatile compounds removal in biogas slurry of pig manure by ozone oxidation and organic solvents extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yujun Wang; Lianshuang Feng; Xiaosong Zhao; Xiulan Ma; Jingmin Yang; Huiqing Liu; Sen Dou

    2013-01-01

    Biogas slurry is not suitable for liquid fertilizer due to its high amounts of volatile materials being of complicated composition and peculiar smell.In order to remove volatiles from biogas slurry efficiently,the dynamic headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to clear the composition of volatiles.Nitrogen stripping and superfluous ozone were also used to remove volatiles from biogas slurry.The results showed that there were 21 kinds of volatile compounds in the biogas slurry,including sulfur compounds,organic amines,benzene,halogen generation of hydrocarbons and alkanes,some of which had strong peculiar smell.The volatile compounds in biogas slurry can be removed with the rate of 53.0% by nitrogen stripping and with rate of 81.7% by the oxidization and stripping of the superfluous ozone.On this basis,the removal rate of the volatile compounds reached 99.2%by chloroform and n-hexane extraction,and almost all of odor was eliminated.The contents of some dissolved organic compounds decreased obviously and however main plant nutrients had no significant change in the biogas slurry after being treated.

  10. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anna Bang; Elsgaard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source......Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment Technologies such as anaerobic digestion....... In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig...

  11. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v and 1.95% (v/v respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v. Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR, while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent.

  12. Changes of Nutrients in Anaerobically Digested Slurry of Pig Manure During Storage%猪粪沼液贮存过程中养分变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴华山; 郭德杰; 马艳; 常志州

    2012-01-01

    为实现沼液养分有效利用与管理,研究了规模化养猪场沼液在不同季节、不同方式贮存条件下,沼液中COD、pH、TN、TP、TK等变化,结果表明:贮存90d后,沼液中TN、TP、TK含量分别减少了67.22%~84.31%、59.70%~93.45%、35.27%~80.25%,COD下降了24.78%~42.96%;贮存期内铵态氮含量持续下降,至60d后基本保持稳定,90d后4个处理铵态氮减少了75.35%~89.71%,硝态氮含量增加了3~6倍.比较不同季节,在贮存期前60d内,夏秋季的COD浓度以及TN、TP、NH4+-N下降幅度高于冬春季,而在贮存60 d后,冬春季贮存沼液中TN、TP、NH4+-N下降幅度显著高于夏秋季;沼液加盖贮存,在前期可减少沼液中TN、TP、NH4+-N量的下降,但贮存90 d时,其贮存方式对TN、TP、NH4+-N量变化的影响已不明显.试验结果为沼液的存放和农田施用提供了重要参数.%Changes of COD and nutrients content in anaerobically digested slurry (ADS) of pig manure produced from large biogas plant are monitored during 90-day storage under different conditions to achieve its effective utilization and management of nutrients The results showed that the contents of total N(TN), total P(TP), total K(TK) and COD decreased by 67.22%乣84.31%, 59.70%乣93.45%,35.27%乣 80.25% and 24.78%乣42.96%,respectively. The ammonium-N content decreased constantly in the 60-day storage time and remained stable in the next 30 days. The ammonium-N concentration reduced by 75.35%乣89.71% while the nitrate content increased by 4乣6 folds after storage for 90 days. During the first 60 days , the decrement of concentration of COD, TN, TP, TK , ammonium-N and nitrate was more significant in Summer-Autumn than those of in Winter-Spring. However, the reduction of T-N, T-P and ammonium-N contents were more significant in Winter-Spring than those of in Summer-Autumn 60 days later. The ADS stored in sedimentation pond covered by lid lessened the de-creasement of TN, TP

  13. Microbial Community Dynamics During Biogas Slurry and Cow Manure Compost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-yan; LI Jie; LIU Jing-jing; L Yu-cai; WANG Xiao-fen; CUI Zong-jun

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the microbial community dynamics and maturation time of two compost systems: biogas slurry compost and cow manure compost, with the aim of evaluating the potential utility of a biogas slurry compost system. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), gene clone library, temperature, C/N ratio, and the germination index were employed for the investigation, cow manure compost was used as the control. Results showed that the basic strip and dominant strips of the DGGE bands for biogas slurry compost were similar to those of cow manure compost, but the brightness of the respective strips for each system were different. Shannon-Weaver indices of the two compost systems differed, possessing only 22%similarity in the primary and maturity stages of the compost process. Using bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, 88 bacterial clones were detected. Further, 18 and 13 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were present in biogas slurry and cow manure compost, respectively. The 18 OTUs of the biogas slurry compost belonged to nine bacterial genera, of which the dominant strains were Bacillus sp. and Carnobacterium sp.;the 13 OTUs of the cow manure compost belonged to eight bacterial genera, of which the dominant strains were Psychrobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Clostridium sp. Results demonstrated that the duration of the thermophilic phase (more than 50°C) for biogas slurry compost was 8 d less than the according duration for cow manure compost, and the maturation times for biogas slurry and cow manure compost were 45 and 60 d, respectively. It is an effective biogas slurry assimilate technology by application of biogas slurry as nitrogen additives in the manufacture of organic fertilizer.

  14. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anna Bang; Elsgaard, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    . In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig...... less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential...

  15. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anne B.; Elsgaard, Lars; Triolo, Jin Mi; Sommer, Sven G.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment technologies such as anaerobic digestion. In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source. Fractions of degradable volatile solids (VSd, kg kg-1 VS) were estimated using an aerobic biodegradability assay and total organic C analyses. The VSd in pig and cattle slurry averaged 0.51 and 0.33 kg kg-1 VS, and it was estimated that on average 43 and 28% of VSd in fresh excreta from pigs and cattle, respectively, had been lost at the time of sampling. An empirical model of CH4 emissions from slurry was reparameterised based on experimental results. A sensitivity analysis indicated that predicted CH4 emissions were highly sensitive to uncertainties in the value of lnA of the Arrhenius equation, but much less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential of treatments such as anaerobic digestion, are discussed. PMID:27529692

  16. Effects of cattle slurry manure management on grass yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Kok, I.P.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of application method, cattle slurry manure type and use of additives on grassland performance were studied in a 3-year field experiment on two farms on sandy soils in the northern part of the Netherlands. The objectives were to determine the effects on (1) nitrogen (N) utilization, (2)

  17. Nitrogen transformations during pig manure composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Composting is now suggested as one of the environmentallyand friendly alternative method for disposal of solid organic wastes, as it leads to minimization, stabilization, and utilization of organic waste. Transformations of nitrogen were investigated inco-composting of pig manure with different amendments, such as sawdust and leaves. Samples were analyzed for pH, total-N, soluble NH4-N, soluble NO3-N and soluble organic-N. The total-N increased after 63 days of composting, as well as the soluble NO3-N and soluble organic-N. Soluble NH4-N increased significantly and showed peak values at day 7, thereafter decreased sharply and gradually to lower levels. Seed germination index (GI) showed that co-composting of pig manure with sawdust reached maturity after 49 days of composting, while co-composting of pig manure with sawdust and leaves required shorter time for 35 days. Soluble NH4-N was significantly negatively (P<0.05), while soluble NO3-N and soluble organic-N were significantly positively (P<0.05), correlated with seed germination index (GI). Addition of leaves in co-composting of pig manure with sawdust had no significant impacts on nitrogen transformations, but it was beneficial for maturity of pig manure compost.

  18. Comparison of three distinct management strategies for pig slurry applied to three groups of farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauden, A.; Teresa, M.; Siegler, C.; Bescos, B.; Burton, C.

    2009-07-01

    Poor management of pig slurry can lead to the contamination of the soil, water and air, which is mostly of the result of sur-plus nutrients. Such environmental impact from pig farming are common in areas with intensive livestock farming. The projects primary objectives is to demonstrate at farm scale the application of the three main manure management technologies deployed within structured local schemes to minimize the environmental impact. (Author)

  19. Effects of different treatments of cattle slurry manure on water-extractable phosphorus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapuis-Lardy, L.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cattle slurry manure applied to land increases the risk of phosphorus (P) movement to surface waters, which may lead to eutrophication. The water-extractable fraction of P in slurry manure is correlated with P concentration in runoff from soils amended with slurry smanure, and thus is an effective i

  20. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION IN SANITIZATION OF PIG SLURRY AND BIOMASS IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Grudziński

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig slurry is one of the production manure, which should be managed properly because of environmental threats it can cause. Pig slurry contains a wide range of microorganisms, most of which are opportunistic or obligatory pathogens for people and animals. Spreading it on fields without control can cause microbial contaminations of water and soil. Use of pig slurry as substrate in anaerobic digestion can be an effective way of sanitization. In this work role of methanogenic fermentation in pig slurry sanitization was laboratory examined. Study materials were biological samples: 1 sample of raw slurry and 3 samples of fermented biomass from different stages of fermentation. Total number of coliforms was determined by MPN (most probable number method, and presence of enterococci was verified in each sample. Study have shown that anaerobic digestion reduced total number of coliforms from initial amount of 7.0 x 106 [MPN/ml] in raw slurry to 3.7 x 104 [MPN/ml]. Total reduction was 99.47%. Moreover, after first fermentation, enterococci in the sample were undetectable. Results of this study proved anaerobic fermentation to be an affective way to neutralize microbial threat, that is pig slurry.

  1. Reference life cycle assessment scenarios for manure management in the Baltic Sea Regions - An assessment covering six animal production, five BSR countries, and four manure types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    types (fattening pig slurry, dairy cow slurry, hens manure, bulls deep litter, fattening pig solid manure, dairy cow solid manure, horse manure & broilers manure) and five Baltic Sea Regions (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Poland), for a total of 15 reference systems. It presents, for each...

  2. Environmental Consequences of Pig Slurry Treatment Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke

    occur during manure storage and after field application. The main emissions are ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, nitrate, phosphorus and odour. Slurry treatment technologies have been and are being developed in order to reduce the environmental impacts of manure. However, it is important...... with a reference scenario. The treatment scenarios were field acidification, in-house acidification, screw press separation with and without composting of the solid fraction, decanter centrifuge separation with and without ammonia stripping of the liquid fraction, and four anaerobic digestion scenarios...... and excluding biogenic carbon, marine and freshwater eutrophication potential, terrestrial acidification and eutrophication potential, and fossil resource depletion potential. The different types of treatment technologies showed varying environmental profiles, meaning that one type of technology was beneficial...

  3. Pig Manure Application for Remediation of Mine Soils in Murcia Province, SE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Faz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In southern Spain, specifically in Murcia Province, an increased pig population causes large amounts of slurry production that creates a very serious environmental concern. Our aim was to use this waste to reduce the acid mine drainage process, heavy metal mobilization, and to improve soil conditions to enhance plant establishment in mine soils. Pig manure, sewage sludge, and lime were used as soil amendments in a field experiment and in undisturbed soil column. Field experiments showed an increase in pH, total nitrogen, organic carbon, and carbonate contents; a reduction of diethylene-tetramine pentaacetic acid (DTPA– and water-extractable metals; and an improvement of plant establishment. The field studies showed that pig manure could be utilized to remediate polluted soils. Column studies in the laboratory showed that amendment of mine soil with pig manure initially increased soil pH from 2.21 to 6.34, promoted reduced conditions in the surface soil, and decreased the metal mobility. After 21 weeks, while the leachate was slightly acidic, however, the mobility of metals was substantially low. Additions of 7 and 14% of pig manure were insufficient to maintain a neutral pH in the leachate. Therefore, continuous application of the pig manure may be advised.

  4. Observations on microbial activity in acidified pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lars Ditlev Mørck; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Nielsen, Daniel Aagren;

    2009-01-01

    Acidification of pig slurry to pH 5.5 is used as a measure to reduce ammonia emission from pits and storages. The slurry is acidified with sulphuric acid in a process tank and pumped back to the slurry pits or to a storage tank. We investigated the effect of acidification on microbial activity...

  5. Biovailability of copper and zinc in pig and cattle slurries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubus, M.; Dach, J.; Starmans, D.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Slurry is an important source of macronutrients, micro-nutrients and organic matter. Despite the considerable fertilizer value of slurry, it may be abundant in amounts of copper and zinc originating from dietary. The study presents quantitative changes in copper and zinc in individual slurries (pig

  6. Enhanced methane production from pig slurry with pulsed electric field pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Seyedeh Masoumeh; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2017-03-08

    Intensive amount of manure produced in pig breeding sectors represents negative impact on the environment and requires optimal management. Anaerobic digestion as a well-known manure management process was optimized in this experimental study by pulsed electric field (PEF) pre-treatment. The effect of PEF on methane production was investigated at three different intensities (15, 30 and 50 kWh/m(3)). The results indicate that the methane production and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was improved by continuous escalation of applied intensity, up to 50 kWh/m(3). In comparison with untreated slurry, methane production and COD removal were increased up to 58% and 44%, respectively.

  7. Redistribution of contaminants from pig slurry after direct injection into soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Bech, T B; Forslund, A;

    2010-01-01

    The redistribution of pig manure-borne contaminants after direct injection to soil was investigated in a field study. The spatial distribution of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium Bacteriophage 28B and other slurry components in and around the injection slit was measured on day 0.15, 1, 6......, 18, and 46/49 at Silstrup (sandy clay loam) and Estrup (sandy loam), Denmark. Transport of the slurry components away from the slit was slower at Silstrup in comparison to Estrup, probably because of a higher slurry dry matter content and soil clay content. Slurry NH4-N dissipated and....../or was nitrified gradually at Silstrup and more rapidly at Estrup, but had disappeared completely at both sites within 49 days. The rate of disappearance of E. coli at Estrup was lower than at Silstrup. Survival of E. coli was high in the upper soil layer at both sites. The overall persistence of the bacteriophage...

  8. Pig manure treatment and purification by filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makara, A; Kowalski, Z

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to develop a new, complex pig manure treatment and filtration process. The final scheme, called the AMAK process, comprised the following successive steps: mineralization with mineral acids, alkalization with lime milk, superphosphate addition, a second alkalization, thermal treatment, and pressure filtration. The proposed method produced a filtrate with 95%, 80%, and 96% reductions in chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen content, and phosphorus content, respectively. An advantage of the proposed method was that it incorporated a crystalline phase into the solid organic part of the manure, which enabled high filtration rates (>1000 kg m(-2) h(-1)) and efficient separation. The process also eliminated odor emissions from the filtrate and sediment. The treated filtrate could be used to irrigate crops or it could be further treated in conventional biological wastewater treatment plants. The sediment could be used for producing mineral-organic fertilizer. The AMAK process is inexpensive, and it requires low investment costs.

  9. Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luu, Huong Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale biogas digesters are widely promoted worldwide as a sustainable technology to manage livestock manure. In Vietnam, pig slurry is commonly applied to biogas digesters for production of gas for electricity and cooking with the effluent being used to fertilize field crops, vegetables....... and the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and spores of Clostridium perfringens in biogas digesters operated by small-scale Vietnamese pig farmers. The serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated were also established. The study was conducted in 12 farms (6 farms...

  10. ORGANIC NITROGEN IN A TYPIC HAPLUDOX FERTILIZED WITH PIG SLURRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco André Grohskopf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of pig slurry may have a different effect on nitrogen dynamics in soil compared to mineral fertilization. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the different forms of organic N in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (Typic Hapludox and their relationship to N uptake by crops in response to 10 years of annual application of pig slurry and mineral fertilizer. The treatments were application rates of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 m3 ha-1 of pig slurry, in addition to mineral fertilizer, organized in a randomized block design with four replications. The N contents were determined in the plant tissue and in the forms of total N and acid hydrolyzed fractions: ammonium-N, hexosamine-N, α-amino-N, amide-N, and unidentified-N. Annual application of pig slurry or mineral fertilizer increased the total-N content in the 0-10 cm depth layer. The main fractions of organic N in the soil were α-amino-N when pig slurry was applied and unidentified-N in the case of mineral fertilizers. Pig slurry increased the N fractions considered as labile: α-amino-N, ammonium-N, and amide-N. The increase in these labile organic N fractions in the soil through pig slurry application allows greater N uptake by the maize and oat crops in a no-tillage system.

  11. Persistence of pathogens in liquid pig manure processed in manure tanks and biodigesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Betancur H.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the persistence of virus, bacteria, mold, yeast and parasites in liquid pig manure, processed in biodigesters and manure tanks in the central-western part of Colombia. Materials and methods. A directed observational study analyzed descriptively was carried out in three pig farms located where the manure tanks were assembled and its biodigesters were used. A sampling of liquid pig manure was taken to assess the presence of 26 pathogens at the beginning of the study and another one at the end of the process in manure tanks and biodigesters. For the manure tank, a 250 liters tank was filled with fresh pig manure and was analyzed after three days of storage. The biodigesters were of continuous flow and its effluents were analyzed, according to the specific hydraulic retention times. The diagnostic techniques were those recommended specifically for each microorganism and were carried out in certified labs by the Colombian Animal Health authority. Results. Of the 26 pathogens that were investigated, 15 appeared in the fresh pig manure used in pig manure tanks and 12 in the one used in biodigestors. In manure tanks, Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2, mold, yeast, Salmonella spp., Balantidium coli and Strongylids did not persist. In biodigesters, PCV2, yeast, Strongylids, B. coli and Strongyloides spp., did not persist. Conclusions. In both manure tanks and biodigesters, a variation could be seen in pathogen persistency, indicating that they act as transformation systems of pig manure for the removal of the latter, as long as the storage times are increased if the efficiency wants to be improved.

  12. Relationships among slurry characteristics and gaseous emissions at different types of commercial Spanish pig farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becaccia, A.; Ferrer, P.; Ibañez, M.A.; Estellés, F.; Rodríguez, C.; Moset, V.; Blas, C. de; Calvet, P.; García-Rebollar, P.

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to analyse several factors of variation of slurry composition and to establish prediction equations for potential methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) emissions. Seventy-nine feed and slurry samples were collected at two seasons (summer and winter) from commercial pig farms sited at two Spanish regions (Centre and Mediterranean). Nursery, growing-fattening, gestating and lactating facilities were sampled. Feed and slurry composition were determined, and potential CH4 and NH3 emissions measured at laboratory. Feed nutrient contents were used as covariates in the analysis. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was evaluated as a predicting tool for slurry composition and potential gaseous emissions. A wide variability was found both in feed and slurry composition. Mediterranean farms had a higher pH (p<0.001) and ash (p=0.02) concentration than those located at the Centre of Spain. Also, type of farm affected ether extract content of the slurry (p=0.02), with highest values obtained for the youngest animal facilities. Results suggested a buffer effect of dietary fibre on slurry pH and a direct relationship (p<0.05) with fibre constituents of manure. Dietary protein content did not affect slurry nitrogen content but decreased (p=0.003) total and volatile solids concentration. Prediction models of potential NH3 emissions (R2=0.89) and CH4 yield (R2=0.61) were obtained from slurry composition. Predictions from NIRS showed a high accuracy for most slurry constituents (R2>0.90) and similar accuracy of prediction of potential NH3 and CH4 emissions (R2=0.84 and 0.68, respectively) to models using slurry characteristics, which can be of interest to estimate emissions from commercial farms and establish mitigation strategies or optimize biogas production. (Author)

  13. Radical change of Zn speciation in pig slurry amended soil: Key role of nano-sized sulfide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentini, Thiago Augusto; Legros, Samuel; Fernandes, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo; Pinheiro, Adilson; Le Bars, Maureen; Levard, Clément; Mallmann, Fábio Joel Kochem; da Veiga, Milton; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-03-01

    Spreading livestock manure as fertilizer on farmlands is a widespread practice. It represents the major source of heavy metal(loid)s (HM) input in agricultural soils. Since zinc (Zn) is present at high concentrations in manure, it poses special environmental concerns related to phytotoxicity, groundwater contamination, and introduction in the food chain. Therefore, investigations on the fate and behavior of manure-borne Zn, when it enters the soil environment, are necessary to predict the environmental effects. Nevertheless, long-term field studies assessing Zn speciation in the organic waste matrix, as well as within the soil after manure application, are lacking. This study was designed to fill this gap. Using SEM-EDS and XAS analysis, we reported the following new results: (i) ZnS made up 100% of the Zn speciation in the pig slurry (the highest proportion of ZnS ever observed in organic waste); and (ii) ZnS aggregates were about 1-μm diameter (the smallest particle size ever reported in pig slurry). Moreover, the pig slurry containing ZnS was spread on the soil over an 11-year period, totaling 22 applications, and the resulting Zn speciation within the amended soil was analyzed. Surprisingly, ZnS, i.e. the only species responsible for a nearly 2-fold increase in the Zn concentration within the amended soil, was not detected in this soil. Based on SEM-EDS and XAS observations, we put forward the hypothesis that Zn in the pig slurry consisted of nano-sized ZnS crystallites that further aggregated. The low stability of ZnS nanoparticles within oxic and complex environments such as the studied soil was the key explanation for the radical change in pig slurry-borne Zn speciation after long-term amendments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sorption of 17b-Estradiol to Pig Slurry Separates and Soil in the Soil-Slurry Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of freshwater by estrogens from manure applied to agricultural land is of grave concern because of the potentially harmful effects on aquatic life and human health. Recent developments in liquid manure (slurry) management include partial removal of particulate slurry dry matter (PSDM...

  15. Removal of Suspended Solids in Anaerobically Digested Slurries of Livestock and Poultry Manure by Coagulation Using Different Dosages of Polyaluminum Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Zhang, C. J.; Zhao, T. K.; Zhong, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, anaerobically digested slurries of livestock and poultry manure were pretreated by coagulation-sedimentation using an inorganic polymer coagulant, polyaluminum chloride (PAC). The effect of different PAC dosages on suspended solids (SS) removal and pH in the biogas slurries was assessed to provide reference values for reducing the organic load of biogas slurry in the coagulation-sedimentation process and explore the feasibility of reducing the difficulty in subsequent utilization or processing of biogas slurry. The results showed that for the pig slurry containing approximately 5000 mg/L SS, the removal rate of SS reached up to 81.6% with the coagulant dosage of 0.28 g/L PAC. For the chicken slurry containing approximately 2600 mg/L SS, the removal rate of SS was 30.2% with the coagulant dosage of 0.33 g/L PAC. The removal rate of SS in both slurries of livestock and poultry manure exhibited a downward trend with high PAC dosage. Therefore, there is a need to control the PAC dosage in practical use. The pH changed little in the two types of biogas slurries after treatment with different PAC dosages and both were in line with the standard values specified in the “Standards for Irrigation Water Quality”.

  16. Environmental evaluation of transfer and treatment of excess pig slurry by life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Werf, Hayo van der; Paillat, Jean Marie; Le Bris, Bertrand

    2009-02-01

    Slurry management is a central topic in the agronomic and environmental analysis of intensive livestock production systems. The objective of this study is to compare the environmental performance of two scenarios of collective slurry management for the disposal of excess nitrogen from animal manure. The scenarios are the transfer of slurry and its injection to crop land, and the treatment of slurry in a collective biological treatment station. The study is based on a real case in the West of France, where a group of farmers is developing a collective plan for the disposal of almost 7000 m(3) of excess pig slurry. The evaluation is carried out by Life Cycle Assessment, where emissions and resource consumption are quantified and aggregated into four environmental impact categories: eutrophication, acidification, climate change, and non-renewable energy use. Ammonia emitted is the most important contributor to acidification and eutrophication, while methane contributes most to climate change. Both ammonia and methane are mostly emitted during the storage of slurry and, in the case of the treatment scenario, also during composting the solid fraction of the slurry. The two management strategies are similar with respect to climate change, whereas eutrophication and acidification are twice as large for treatment relative to transfer. Electricity needed for the treatment process is the main contributor to non-renewable energy use for the treatment scenario, while the transfer scenario represents a net energy saving, as energy saved by the reduction of mineral fertiliser use more than compensates for the energy needed for transport and injection of slurry. The overall environmental performance of transfer is better than that of treatment, as it involves less acidification, eutrophication and non-renewable energy use. The method employed and the results obtained in this study can provide elements for a transparent discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of contrasting

  17. Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luu, Huong Quynh; Madsen, Henry; Anh, Le Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers......) and to assess fecal contamination levels in biogas effluent. Results showed that 84% of the farmers in Hanoi and 42% in Hue used both pig slurry and human excreta for biogas production. Biogas digestion only reduced E. coli concentrations by 1 to 2 log units to 3.70±0.84 Escherichia coli (log) cfu/ml on average...... in effluent as compared with raw slurry. Biogas effluent was commonly used to fertilize vegetables or discharged directly into the garden or aquatic recipients. Reduced problems with bad smells and flies were reported as main reasons for establishing a biogas digester. Further studies are needed to assess...

  18. Clinoptilolite as an ammonia binder in pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, G P; Debal, V; Hesta, M; Millet, S; De Wilde, R O

    2001-01-01

    Six gilts and six barrows are used in a 2 x 2 experiment with two phase feeding versus multiphase feeding and celite addition versus clinoptilolite addition. Nitrogen and ammonia concentration in the slurry on dry matter basis was reduced by 30% and 35% respectively by multiphase feeding, together with a decreased ratio of ammonia over nitrogen. Ammonia fixation in pig slurry by clinoptilolite increased from 21% after 14 days of supplementation upto 35% at 8 weeks after the supplementation period.

  19. Effects of dirty housing and a Typhimurium DT104 challenge on pig growth performance, diet utilization efficiency, and gas emissions from stored manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M M; Seelenbinder, K M; Ponder, M A; Deng, L; Rhoads, R P; Pelzer, K D; Radcliffe, J S; Maxwell, C V; Ogejo, J A; White, R R; Hanigan, M D

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to elucidate the effects of a dirty environment and a challenge plus associated environmental contamination on pig growth performance, diet utilization efficiency, and gas emissions (CO, NH, CH, NO, and HS) from stored manure. Twenty-four weaned barrows, aged 31 d at initiation of the trial, were randomly allotted to 3 different treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments were: pigs housed in cages with manure removed and cages washed daily (Clean); pigs housed in cages sprayed daily with manure slurry mixtures (Dirty); or pigs challenged with Typhimurium DT104 and housed in cages that were not washed, but manure was removed daily ( challenge). Rectal temperature, body weight, daily feed intake, manure output, manure composition, and gas emissions from stored manure were measured throughout the 24-d animal phase. The Dirty and challenge treatments were statistically compared to the Clean treatment to evaluate individual effects. Dirty housing tended to decrease ADG from d 1 to 24 ( = 0.06) but there were no other effects on pig performance compared with the Clean treatment. In contrast, a challenge was associated with a marked reduction in each of the measured indicators of pig performance. challenge increased the carbon to nitrogen ratio, ether extract, and lignin concentrations in excreted manure ( = 0.02, 0.01, 0.003, respectively), and increased manure and head space temperatures in manure tanks ( challenge was associated with increased emissions of CO, and NO and decreased emissions of HS per kilogram manure VS compared to the Clean treatment ( = 0.06, 0.03, 0.04, respectively). Collectively, these results indicated that a challenge and associated housing contamination caused depressed growth rate and increased manure gas emissions, while exposure to a Dirty environment slightly reduced growth performance and clearly increased manure gas emissions per unit of BW gain as compared to Clean control.

  20. Methane oxidation in pig and cattle slurry storages, and effects of surface crust moisture and methane availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, S.O.; Ambus, P.

    2006-01-01

    Storages with liquid manure (slurry) may develop a surface crust of particulate organic matter, or an artificial crust can be established. Slurry storages are net sources of atmospheric methane (CH4), but a potential for bacterial oxidation of CH4 in surface crusts was recently suggested in a study......2 during incubation, while intact subsamples were used to characterize CH4 oxidation as a function of CH4 availability and moisture content. Methane oxidation was observed in all materials except for an expanded clay product (Leca) sampled from a pig slurry storage. Despite significant variation...... content, each time followed by determination of CH4 fluxes. Only one surface crust material showed a relationship between CH4 fluxes and moisture content that would implicate gas diffusivity in the regulation of CH4 oxidation. The occurrence of inducible CH4 oxidation activity in slurry storage surface...

  1. Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-09-01

    Small-scale biogas digesters are widely promoted worldwide as a sustainable technology to manage livestock manure. In Vietnam, pig slurry is commonly applied to biogas digesters for production of gas for electricity and cooking with the effluent being used to fertilize field crops, vegetables and fish ponds. Slurry may contain a variety of zoonotic pathogens, e.g. Salmonella spp., which are able to cause disease in humans either through direct contact with slurry or by fecal contamination of water and foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of Salmonella spp. and the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and spores of Clostridium perfringens in biogas digesters operated by small-scale Vietnamese pig farmers. The serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated were also established. The study was conducted in 12 farms (6 farms with and 6 farms without toilet connected) located in Hanam province, Vietnam. Sampling of pig slurry and biogas effluent was done during two seasons. Results showed that the concentration of enterococci, E. coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores was overall reduced by only 1-2 log10-units in the biogas digesters when comparing raw slurry and biogas effluent. Salmonella spp. was found in both raw slurry and biogas effluent. A total of 19 Salmonella serovars were identified, with the main serovars being Salmonella Typhimurium (55/138), Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (19/138), Salmonella Weltevreden (9/138) and Salmonella Rissen (9/138). The Salmonella serovars showed similar antimicrobial resistance patterns to those previously reported from Vietnam. When promoting biogas, farmers should be made aware that effluent should only be used as fertilizer for crops not consumed raw and that indiscriminate discharge of effluent are likely to contaminate water recipients, e.g. drinking water sources, with pathogens. Relevant authorities should promote safe animal manure management

  2. Reference life cycle assessment scenarios for manure management in the Baltic Sea Regions - An assessment covering six animal production, five BSR countries, and four manure types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    types (fattening pig slurry, dairy cow slurry, hens manure, bulls deep litter, fattening pig solid manure, dairy cow solid manure, horse manure & broilers manure) and five Baltic Sea Regions (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Poland), for a total of 15 reference systems. It presents, for each...... the manure is applied, specific legislations governing the manure management practices, etc.). Further, it presents a reference manure composition for each of these reference systems, including key parameters such as dry matter, nitrogen (inorganic and total), phosphorus, carbon and volatile solids content...

  3. Low frequency aeration of pig slurry affects slurry characteristics and emissions of greenhouse gases and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Salvador; Hunt, John; Misselbrook, Tom H

    2017-07-01

    Low frequency aeration of slurries may reduce ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4) emissions without increasing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The aim of this study was to quantify this potential reduction and to establish the underlying mechanisms. A batch experiment was designed with 6 tanks with 1 m(3) of pig slurry each. After an initial phase of 7 days when none of the tanks were aerated, a second phase of 4 weeks subjected three of the tanks to aeration (2 min every 6 h, airflow 10 m(3) h(-1)), whereas the other three tanks remained as a control. A final phase of 9 days was established with no aeration in any tank. Emissions of NH3, CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2) and N2O were measured. In the initial phase no differences in emissions were detected, but during the second phase aeration increased NH3 emissions by 20% with respect to the controls (8.48 vs. 7.07 g m(-3) [slurry] d(-1), P effect was detected for CO2, and no relevant N2O emissions were detected during the experiment. Our results demonstrate that low frequency aeration of stored pig slurry increases slurry pH and increases NH3 emissions.

  4. Nutrients and heavy metal distribution in thermally treated pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.; Stoholm, Peder

    2008-01-01

    Ash from pig manure treated by combustion and thermal gasification was characterized and compared in terms of nutrient, i.e., potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and heavy metal, i.e., cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) contents. Total nutrient and metal concentrations...

  5. Crop yield and nutrient balance influenced by shoot biomass management and pig slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M. Pandolfo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Crop systems that export large amounts of nutrients from the farm may require higher doses of animal manure than those needed for grain production. This study aimed to evaluate the yield of crops and to determine the simplified nutrient balance in three management systems of shoot biomass of crops (cover-grain, cover-silage and hay-silage associated with five fertilization treatments (control, soluble fertilizer and three doses of pig slurry. The experimental design was a split plot, arranged in randomized blocks with four replicates. The management systems of shoot biomass did not affect the yield of the winter pasture, but there was an increase in yield with the application of pig slurry. The summer crops responded differently to fertilization, depending on the purpose for which they were grown, whether for grain or silage. In the three management systems of shoot biomass, there was an excess of Zn and Cu from the application of 25 m3 ha-1; N from 50 m3ha-1; and P, K and Ca + Mg at the dose of 100 m3ha-1.

  6. Ammonia, volatile fatty acids, phenolics, and odor offensiveness in manure from growing pigs fed diets reduced in protein concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, E R; Yokoyama, M; Hengemuehle, S; von Bermuth, R D; van Kempen, T; Trottier, N L

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether reducing dietary CP concentration decreases fecal VFA, manure ammonia (NH3) emission and odor, and urinary phenolic metabolites. Six barrows were allotted to one of six dietary treatments in a Latin square design. Treatments consisted of four corn-soybean meal based diets containing 15, 12, 9, and 6% CP, a casein-based diet containing 15% CP, and a protein-free diet (0% protein). Crystalline AA were included in the 12, 9, and 6% CP diets. The casein-based and protein-free diets were used to determine basal endogenous contribution of VFA, phenolics, NH3, and manure odor. Pigs were housed individually in metabolism cages to allow total collection of feces and urine. Feces and urine were collected and pooled within pig and period. Feces and urine were analyzed for VFA and phenolic metabolite concentrations, respectively. Feces and urine were then mixed, stored, and fermented at room temperature for 30 d. For NH3 determination, headspace air was sampled from manure slurries at 24, 48, and 72 h after fermentation. Slurry samples were placed into vials, capped, and randomized before odor panel evaluation. Odor offensiveness was classified on severity: 1 = non-offensive; 2 = mildly offensive; 3 = moderately offensive; 4 = strongly offensive; and 5 = extremely offensive. Reducing dietary CP increased (P ranking of 2.58 (i.e., mild-moderately offensive). Compared with the 15% CP diet, manure from the 9 and 6% CP diets was found to be more offensive (P rankings of 2.92 and 3.10, respectively. Odor qualitative rank for the 12% CP, protein-free diet, and casein-based diet did not differ from that of the 15% CP diet. These results indicate that reduction in dietary CP concentrations decreases manure NH3 emission, but it does not diminish manure odor offensiveness and fecal VFA concentrations.

  7. BIO-ENERGY FROM PIG'S MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljanka Tomerlin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available After settling, in the sample of pig’s manure, before and after anaerobic fermentation different layers appear: foam, fine colloids, floating particle-colloids and sediment-rude particles. During the anaerobic treatment it being favourable for maintaining the anaerobic fermentation was examined. It was shown that the layer from the bottom, sediment-rude particles, achieved the best results. During the anaerobic fermentation pig’s manure was stabilized and its quality improved. Produced biogas contained more than 88 vol.% of methane. The degradation of organic matter was 50 % at pH value 6.5 and temperature 35 ºC during the anaerobic fermentation that lasted 7 days.

  8. Managing sulphur content of pig diet to control further sulphides production during pig slurry anaerobic storage

    OpenAIRE

    Peu, P.; Picard, S.; Dourmad, J.Y.; Dabert, P.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The mixing of different raw materials during formulation strategies of pig feeding influences sulphurs food intake and further sulphur excretion by the animals. Increased amount of sulphur in manure can result in toxicity and odour problems during storage as well as potential inhibition problems in case of anaerobic digestion treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the behaviour of different sulphur feed contents on pig excretion via faeces and urine, t...

  9. Carbon dynamics in an almond orchard soil amended with raw and treated pig slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Sara G.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel

    2010-05-01

    In SE Spain, intensive farming is very common which supposes the generation of great amounts of pig slurries. These residues cause many storage problems due to their pollution capacity. A good management of them is necessary to avoid damages to the environment. The use of this effluent as fertilizer is a usual practice that in the correct dose is a good amend and important for sustainable development, but in excess can be a risk of polluting and damaging soil, water and crop conditions. Pig slurry is a source of many nutrients and specially rich in organic matter. The main objective of this study is to determine changes in soil organic carbon dynamics resulting from raw and treated slurry amendments applied in different doses. The experimental area is an almond orchard located in Cartagena (SE Spain). The climate of the area is semiarid Mediterranean with mean annual temperature of 18°C and mean annual rainfall of 275 mm. A total of 10 plots (12 m x 30 m) were designed, one of them being the control without fertilizer. Surface soil samples (0-25 cm) were collected in September 2009. Three different treatments were applied, raw slurry, the effluent obtained after solid-liquid separation and solid manure, all of them in three doses being the first one of 170 kg N/ha, (maximum permitted in nitrates directive 91/676/CEE), and the others two and three times the first one. Soil biochemical parameters are rapid indicators of changes in soil quality. According to this, total organic carbon, soil microbial biomass carbon, soluble carbon, and β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and arylesterase activities were measured in order to assess some soil biochemical conditions and carbon dynamics in terms of the different treatments. As we expected, the use of these organic fertilizers rich in organic matter, had an effect on soil carbon and soil microbial activity resulting in an increase in most of the parameters; total organic carbon and β-galactosidase activity showed the

  10. Anaerobic digestion of pig manure and glycerol from biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakamas Chetpattananondh, Sumate Chaiprapat, Chaisri Suksaroj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing biodiesel production causes a surplus of glycerol. This work aims to investigate the crude glycerol pretreatment method and then apply the glycerol as a co-substrate with pig manure for anaerobic digestion. The optimum crude glycerol pretreatment method was acidification with 6% of H2SO4 that highest glycerol recovery was obtained with lowest cost. Co-digestions of glycerol and pig manure enhanced biogas and methane productions compared with mono-digestions. Biogas and methane productions in semi-continuous digestions were highly effected by OLR. The optimum OLR was 3.06 kg SCOD/m3 that biogas production was maintained at 3 L/d with methane composition of 72% and SCOD removal higher than 80%.

  11. Nutrient utilisation by black soldier flies fed with chicken, pig, or cow manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the suitability of chicken, pig, and cow manure as feed for larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (L.); Diptera: Stratiomyidae). Newly hatched larvae were inoculated on moistened manure (33% dry matter). Water and dried manure were added three time

  12. Gaseous nitrogen and carbon losses from pig manure derived from different diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Nelemans, J.A.; Oenema, O.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Received for publication July 23, 2004. Manipulation of the diets of pigs may alter the composition of the manure and thereby the environmental and agricultural qualities of the manure. Laboratory studies were performed to quantify the effect of manipulation of pig diets on the chemical composition

  13. Life Cycle Inventory & Assessment Report: Separation of Digested Fattening Pig Slurry for Optimal P Concentration, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

    The purpose of this Life Cycle Assessment report is to investigate the potential for separating the digested pig manure after the biogas plant in order to optimise the utilisation of the phosphorous content of the manure. By separating, the phosphorous rich solid fraction can be brought to fields...... far away from the farm with a need for phosphorus, as the fields close to the pig farm areas usually contain abundant amounts of P. The environmental consequences of the separation has been assessed. Furthermore, the Life Cycle Assessment highlights the environmental impacts along the “manure...... management chain” for a combination of techniques: Source-segregation of manure from fattening pigs, using the solid part from the source-segregation for biogas production, utilising the biogas for heat and electricity production, separating the digested pig manure after the biogas plant in order to optimize...

  14. Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Madsen, Henry; Anh, Le Xuan; Ngoc, Pham Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-02-01

    Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers) and to assess fecal contamination levels in biogas effluent. Results showed that 84% of the farmers in Hanoi and 42% in Hue used both pig slurry and human excreta for biogas production. Biogas digestion only reduced E. coli concentrations by 1 to 2 log units to 3.70 ± 0.84 Escherichia coli (log10) cfu/ml on average in effluent as compared with raw slurry. Biogas effluent was commonly used to fertilize vegetables or discharged directly into the garden or aquatic recipients. Reduced problems with bad smells and flies were reported as main reasons for establishing a biogas digester. Further studies are needed to assess human and animal health hazards associated with the discharge and use of biogas effluent from small-scale biogas systems.

  15. Life Cycle Assessments of Manure Management Techniques for the Baltic Sea Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    , fattening pig slurry, horse manure and solid manure from fattening pigs) and five BSR countries (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Poland and Sweden). Three main categories of techniques were investigated: i) separation technologies; ii) technologies involving energy production; and iii) other technologies......-substrates to manure were investigated). In-house slurry cooling as well as the possibility to produce highly available phosphorus mineral fertilizers from manure ashes (obtained from manure thermo-gasification) were also assessed. This report was prepared as part of Baltic Manure Work Package 5 - Assessing...

  16. Nitrogen dynamics in soils cultivated with maize and fertilized with pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emília Borges Alves

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The proper disposal of pig manure is of great importance because, when mishandled, it can contaminate water resources. This study aimed to evaluate the nitrogen dynamics in a Cerrado Oxisol and its absorption, over time, by a maize crop managed with pig slurry associated with mineral fertilization (N P K. The study was conducted at a private farm, in the region of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The maize crop was able to recover 62% of the mineral nitrogen that entered the soil-plant system, while 9% leached as nitrate and, to a lesser amount, as ammonium. The maximum average content of nitrate and ammonium of 92 kg ha-1 and 43 kg ha-1, respectively, was observed in the 0 to 0.3 m soil layer during the early crop development stage. A minimum content of 5.8 kg ha-1 of nitrate and 9.0 kg ha-1 of ammonium, respectively, was measured at the end of the cycle. In addition, the nitrate content at that soil layer, at the end of the maize cycle, remained below the values measured at the native Cerrado, indicating that the agricultural use of the land poses no additional risk to the nitrate accumulation and leaching into the soil profile.

  17. Emissions of CH4, N2O, NH3 and odorants from pig slurry during winter and summer storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Dorno, Nadia; Lindholst, Sabine;

    2013-01-01

    eq m−3 day−1 during a 45-day winter storage, and 1.1–1.3 kg CO2 eq m−3 day−1 during a 58-day summer storage period independent of storage conditions; the GHG balance was dominated by CH4 emissions. Nitrous oxide emissions occurred only during summer storage where, apparently, emissions were related....... Pig slurry was stored with or without a straw crust, and with or without interception of precipitation, i.e., four treatments, in two randomized blocks. Emissions of total reduced S (mainly H2S) and p-cresol, but not skatole, were reduced by the straw crust. Total GHG emissions were 0.01–0.02 kg CO2......Manure storage contributes significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG), NH3 and odour emissions from intensive livestock production. A pilot-scale facility with eight 6.5-m3 slurry storage units was used to quantify emissions of CH4, N2O, NH3, and odorants from pig slurry during winter and summer storage...

  18. The impact of fouling on the process performance of the thermal treatment of pig slurry using tubular heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunault, C; Burton, C H; Pourcher, A M

    2013-03-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the kinetics of fouling and their influence on the performance of a thermal treatment process used for sanitisation of pig slurry. Two temperatures (55 °C and 80 °C) were investigated. One trial was carried out at 55 °C and 80 °C in which the slurry was not re-circulated and one trial at 80 °C in which 100% or 50% of the slurry was re-circulated. Fouling of the heat exchangers was assessed by on-line monitoring of the drop in pressure, changes in treatment temperature, heat transfer coefficients, heat recycling rate, and energy consumption. Similar energy consumption of around 38 kWh m(-3) of effluent was observed at the two temperatures. The operating periods prior to excessive fouling or blockage were 18 days at 55 °C and four days at 80 °C. Recycling treated manure to obtain 50% dilution of the raw feed increased the viable operating period to 14 days at 80 °C but doubled energy consumption. At 55 °C, the significant drop in the target temperature (>7 °C) with fouling severely jeopardised the process. The nature of the decline in performance suggests that the main fouling mechanisms were bio-fouling at 55 °C and organic/mineral deposits at 80 °C. Recycling treated manure enabled the operating period to be extended but increased the total cost of heating. One hundred percent recycling showed that the fouling potential of the manure was largely eliminated after one thermal treatment, suggesting a pretreatment may be advantageous.

  19. Leaching of viruses and other microorganisms naturally occurring in pig slurry to tile drains on a well-structured loamy field in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krog, Jesper S.; Forslund, Anita; Larsen, Lars E.; Dalsgaard, Anders; Kjaer, Jeanne; Olsen, Preben; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2017-06-01

    The amount of animal manure used in modern agriculture is increasing due to the increase in global animal production. Pig slurry is known to contain zoonotic bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp., and viruses such as hepatitis E virus and group A rotavirus. Coliform bacteria, present in manure, have previously been shown to leach into tile drains. This poses a potential threat to aquatic environments and may also influence the quality of drinking water. As knowledge is especially scarce about the fate of viruses when applied to fields in natural settings, this project sets out to investigate the leaching potential of six different microorganisms: E. coli and Enterococcus spp. (detected by colony assay), somatic coliphages (using plaque assays), and hepatitis E virus, porcine circovirus type 2, and group A rotavirus (by real-time polymerase chain reaction). All six microorganisms leached through the soil entering the tile drains situated at 1-m depth the first day following pig slurry application. The leaching pattern of group A rotavirus differed substantially from the pattern for somatic coliphages, which are otherwise used as indicators for virus contamination. Furthermore, group A rotavirus was detected in monitoring wells at 3.5-m depth up to 2 months after pig slurry application. The detection of viral genomic material in drainage water and shallow groundwater signifies a potential hazard to human health that needs to be investigated further, as water reservoirs used for recreational use and drinking water are potentially contaminated with zoonotic pathogens.

  20. Leaching of viruses and other microorganisms naturally occurring in pig slurry to tile drains on a well-structured loamy field in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krog, Jesper S.; Forslund, Anita; Larsen, Lars E.; Dalsgaard, Anders; Kjaer, Jeanne; Olsen, Preben; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2017-02-01

    The amount of animal manure used in modern agriculture is increasing due to the increase in global animal production. Pig slurry is known to contain zoonotic bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp., and viruses such as hepatitis E virus and group A rotavirus. Coliform bacteria, present in manure, have previously been shown to leach into tile drains. This poses a potential threat to aquatic environments and may also influence the quality of drinking water. As knowledge is especially scarce about the fate of viruses when applied to fields in natural settings, this project sets out to investigate the leaching potential of six different microorganisms: E. coli and Enterococcus spp. (detected by colony assay), somatic coliphages (using plaque assays), and hepatitis E virus, porcine circovirus type 2, and group A rotavirus (by real-time polymerase chain reaction). All six microorganisms leached through the soil entering the tile drains situated at 1-m depth the first day following pig slurry application. The leaching pattern of group A rotavirus differed substantially from the pattern for somatic coliphages, which are otherwise used as indicators for virus contamination. Furthermore, group A rotavirus was detected in monitoring wells at 3.5-m depth up to 2 months after pig slurry application. The detection of viral genomic material in drainage water and shallow groundwater signifies a potential hazard to human health that needs to be investigated further, as water reservoirs used for recreational use and drinking water are potentially contaminated with zoonotic pathogens.

  1. Soil biological quality of grassland fertilized with adjusted cattle manure slurries in comparison with organic and inorganic fertilizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Boer, H.; Bloem, J.; Schouten, T.; Rutgers, M.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of five fertilizers (including two adjusted manure slurries) and an untreated control on soil biota and explored the effect on the ecosystem services they provided. Our results suggest that the available N (NO3- and NH4+) in the soil plays a central role in the effect of fertil

  2. Surface application of soybean peroxidase and calcium peroxide for reducing odorous VOC emissions from swine manure slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate and compare topical and fully mixed treatments of soybean peroxidase and calcium peroxide (SBP/CaO2) for reducing odorous volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from swine manure slurry. The five treatments consisted of a control, the fully mixed ...

  3. Reduction of odorous VOC in phenolics solutions and swine manure slurry using soybean peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    A research project was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of low-activity soybean peroxidase (SBP; 0.75 U/mg) and H2O2 for reducing emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) from standard solutions (phenol and 4-methylphenol; 1 mM each) and swine manure slurry. VOC emissions were measu...

  4. Soil biological quality of grassland fertilized with adjusted cattle manure slurries in comparison with organic and inorganic fertilizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Boer, de Herman; Bloem, J.; Schouten, T.; Rutgers, M.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of five fertilizers (including two adjusted manure slurries) and an untreated control on soil biota and explored the effect on the ecosystem services they provided. Our results suggest that the available N (NO3- and NH4+) in the soil plays a central role in the effect of

  5. Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Composition of Odorous Compounds and Bacterial Ecology in Pig Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sungback; Hwang, Okhwa; Park, Sungkwon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary crude protein (CP) on composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities in pig manure. A total of 48 male pigs (average initial body weight 45 kg) fed diets containing three levels of dietary CP (20%, 17.5%, and 15%) and their slurry samples were collected from the pits under the floor every week for one month. Changes in composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities were analyzed by gas chromatography and 454 FLX titanium pyrosequencing systems, respectively. Levels of phenols, indoles, short chain fatty acid and branched chain fatty acid were lowest (pacid, and iso-valeric acid with Atopostipes, p-cresol and skatole with Bacteroides, acetic acid and butyric acid with AM982595_g of Porphyromonadaceae family, and propionic acid with Tissierella. Taken together, administration of 15% CP showed less production of odorous compounds than 20% CP group and this result might be associated with the changes in bacterial communities especially whose roles in protein metabolism. PMID:26194219

  6. Thermal steam explosion pretreatment to enhance anaerobic biodegradability of the solid fraction of pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L C; Souza, T S O; Fdz-Polanco, F; Pérez-Elvira, S I

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of the biodegradability of thermal steam-exploded pig manure was performed compared to untreated samples. The pre-treatment was performed under different combinations of temperature and time, ranging 150-180 °C and 5-60 min, and used as substrate in a series of batch biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. Results were analyzed in terms of methane yield, kinetic parameters and severity factor. In all the pre-treatment conditions, methane yield and degradation rates increased when compared to untreated pig slurry. An ANOVA study determined that temperature was the main factor, and the optimum combination of temperature-time of pretreatment was 170 °C -30 min, doubling methane production from 159 to 329 mL CH4/gVSfed. These operation conditions correspond to a severity factor of 3.54, which was considered an upper limit for the pretreatment due to the possible formation of inhibitory compounds, hindering the process if this limit is exceeded.

  7. Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Composition of Odorous Compounds and Bacterial Ecology in Pig Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungback Cho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary crude protein (CP on composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities in pig manure. A total of 48 male pigs (average initial body weight 45 kg fed diets containing three levels of dietary CP (20%, 17.5%, and 15% and their slurry samples were collected from the pits under the floor every week for one month. Changes in composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities were analyzed by gas chromatography and 454 FLX titanium pyrosequencing systems, respectively. Levels of phenols, indoles, short chain fatty acid and branched chain fatty acid were lowest (p<0.05 in CP 15% group among three CP levels. Relative abundance of Bacteroidetes phylum and bacterial genera including Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Atopostipes, Peptonphilus, Ruminococcaceae_uc, Bacteroides, and Pseudomonas was lower (p<0.05 in CP 15% than in CP 20% group. There was a positive correlation (p<0.05 between odorous compounds and bacterial genera: phenol, indole, iso-butyric acid, and iso-valeric acid with Atopostipes, p-cresol and skatole with Bacteroides, acetic acid and butyric acid with AM982595_g of Porphyromonadaceae family, and propionic acid with Tissierella. Taken together, administration of 15% CP showed less production of odorous compounds than 20% CP group and this result might be associated with the changes in bacterial communities especially whose roles in protein metabolism.

  8. Classification of pig farms regarding environmental risk and internal use of pig manure

    OpenAIRE

    Emonet-Denand, Virginie; Porphyre, Vincent; Thi Hoa Ly, Nguyen; Hoang Bien, Dang; Paillat, Jean-Marie

    2006-01-01

    224p; This paper presents the practices of Vietnamese farmers in handling animal excreta, i.e., pig manure, and highlights the difference of farms in terms of their operation relative to waste management and utilization. The environmental risks associated with these practices, and the attempt to quantify the difference of pork production systems, are also explored. Finally, a typology constructed based on the difference of practices and the quantification of risks is also given.

  9. Straw- and slurry-associated prokaryotic communities differ during co-fermentation of straw and swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiabao; Rui, Junpeng; Pei, Zhaojun; Sun, Xiaori; Zhang, Shiheng; Yan, Zhiying; Wang, Yuanpeng; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Tao; Li, Xiangzhen

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic co-fermentation of straw and manure is widely used for waste treatment and biogas production. However, the differences between the straw- and slurry-associated prokaryotic communities, their dynamic changes throughout the co-fermentation process, and their correlations with bioreactor performance are not fully understood. To address these questions, we investigated the prokaryotic community compositions and the dynamics of prokaryotes attached to the straw and in the slurry during co-fermentation of wheat straw and swine manure using pyrosequencing technique. The results showed that straw- and slurry-associated prokaryotes were different in their structure and function. Straw-associated prokaryotic communities were overrepresented by the phyla Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteres, while Synergistetes and Euryarchaeota were more abundant in the slurry. The straw-associated candidate class TG3, genera Fibrobacter, Bacteroides, Acetivibrio, Clostridium III, Papillibacter, Treponema, Sedimentibacter, and Lutispora may specialize in substrate hydrolysis. Propionate was the most abundant volatile fatty acid in the slurry, and it was probably degraded through syntrophic oxidation by the genera Pelotomaculum, Methanoculleus, and Methanosaeta. The protein-fermenting bacteria Aminobacterium and Cloacibacillus were much abundant in the slurry, indicating that proteins are important substrates in the co-fermentation. This study provided a better understanding of the anaerobic co-fermentation process that is driven by spatially differentiated microbiota.

  10. Effects of pig slurry application on soils and soil humic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, César; Senesi, Nicola; García-Gil, Juan C; Brunetti, Gennaro; D'Orazio, Valeria; Polo, Alfredo

    2002-08-14

    The effect of three annually consecutive additions of pig slurry at two rates (90 and 150 m3 x ha(-1) x year(-1) on soils and soil humic acids (HAs) was investigated in a field experiment under semiarid conditions. Soils and pig slurries were analyzed by standard methods. The HAs were isolated from soils and pig slurry by a conventional procedure based on alkaline extraction, acidic precipitation to pH 1, purification by repeated alkaline dissolutions and acidic precipitations, water washing, dialysis, and final freeze-drying. The HAs obtained were analyzed for elemental (C, H, N, S, and O) and acidic functional group (carboxylic and phenolic) composition, and by UV-vis, FT-IR, fluorescence, and ESR spectroscopies. With respect to the control soil, the pig slurry amended soils had greater pH and electrical conductivity, slightly larger total N content, and smaller values of C/N ratio. A decrease of total organic C was observed only in soils amended for 2 and 3 years at the higher slurry rate. With respect to control soil HA, pig slurry HA was characterized by larger contents of S- and N-containing groups, smaller acidic functional group and organic free radical contents, a prevalent aliphatic character, extended molecular heterogeneity, and smaller aromatic polycondensation and humification degrees. Amendment with pig slurry HA determines a number of modifications in soil HAs, including increase of C, S, and COOH contents, C/N ratios, and aliphaticity and decrease of extraction yields and N, O, phenolic OH, and organic free radical contents. These effects are generally more evident after the first year of slurry application and tend to disappear with increasing number of treatments. Most probably, over the years the slightly humified slurry HA is mineralized through extended microbial oxidation, whereas only the most recalcitrant components, such as S-containing, phenolic, and aliphatic structures, are partially accumulated by incorporation into soil HA.

  11. Accumulation and mobility of zinc in soil amended with different levels of pig-manure compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Kei; Toyota, Koki; Nishimura, Taku; Ikeda, Jun-Ichi; Hori, Kaneaki

    2010-05-01

    Applying manure compost not only results in zinc accumulation in the soil but also causes an increase in zinc mobility and enhances zinc leaching. In this study, the physical and chemical characteristics of zinc, zinc profiles, and zinc balance were investigated to characterise the fate of zinc in fields where the quality and amount of pig manure compost applied have been known for 13 years. Moreover, we determined zinc fractionation in both 0.1 mol L(-1)HCl-soluble (mobile) and -insoluble (immobile) fractions. Adsorption of zinc in the soil was enhanced with increasing total carbon content following the application of pig manure compost. The 159.6 mg ha(-1) year(-1)manure applied plot (triplicate) exceeded the Japanese regulatory level after only 6 years of applying pig manure compost, whereas the 53.2 mg ha(-1) year(-1) manure applied plot (standard) reached the regulatory level after 13 years. The zinc loads in the plots were 17.0 and 5.6 kg ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. However, 5.9 % and 17.2 % of the zinc loaded in the standard and the triplicate pig manure compost applied plots, respectively, were estimated to be lost from the plough layer. Based on the vertical distribution of mobile and immobile zinc content, a higher rate of applied manure compost caused an increase in the mobile zinc fraction to a depth of 40 cm. Although the adsorption capacity of zinc was enhanced following the application of pig manure compost, a greater amount of mobile zinc could move downward through the manure amended soil than through non manure-amended soil.

  12. Innovative process scheme for removal of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrogen from pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Disposal of pig manure often requires treatment with respect to environmental legislations. In this study different processes for reduction of the organic matter (anaerobic digestion, effluent separation by decanter centrifugation, membrane microfiltration, post-digestion in upflow anaerobic sludge...

  13. Managing Manure from China’s Pigs and Poultry: The Influence of Ecological Rationality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, C.; Bluemling, B.; Liu, Y.; Mol, A.P.J.; Chen, J.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated manure management practices at three farm scales in Chinese pig and poultry production. The concept of ecological rationality was employed to explore empirically how environmental concerns drive adoption of environmental-friendly manure management technologies at different farm

  14. Life cycle assessment of segregating fattening pig urine and feces compared to conventional liquid manure management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous emissions from in-house storage of liquid animal manure remain a major contributor to the environmental impact of manure management. Our aim was to assess the life cycle environmental consequences and reduction potential of segregating fattening pig urine and feces with an innovative V-belt

  15. Concentration of pig slurry by evaporation: anaerobic digestion as the key process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmatí, A; Campos, E; Flotats, X

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient redistribution between areas with a structural pig slurry surplus and those with a shortage, is limited by the high cost of transportation and spreading, due to the high water content in slurry (more than 90%) and its relative low nutrient concentration. Water can be removed from slurry by evaporation, through the application of waste heat from a power plant or from other processes. Apart from obtaining a concentrate with an obviously higher nutrient concentration than the original slurry, another objective is to obtain clean water as condensate. The objective of this work was to study the batch vacuum evaporation of pig slurry liquid fraction, to evaluate the economic feasibility and to evaluate condensate quality as a function of both pH (4, 5 and 6) and pig slurry type (fresh slurry and anaerobically digested slurry). Results showed that condensate characteristics (ammonia nitrogen, VFA, COD) were strongly dependent on these variables. Previous anaerobic digestion presented clear advantages: it provided a fraction of the required energy and it removed organic matter, preventing its volatilisation in the evaporation process and providing higher quality condensates. These advantages make the combined treatment strategy economically more feasible than the evaporation process alone.

  16. Influence of Pig Slurry on Microbial and Biochemical Characteristics of Soil in Albacete Region, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halil Yanardaǧ, Ibrahim

    2013-04-01

    Soil quality is very important in terms of agricultural sustainability, ecosystem and terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. In turn, soil microbial and biochemical characteristics are indicative of nutrient cycling and soil organic matter dynamics. We investigated the effects of the pig slurries (raw pig slurry (RPS) and treated pig slurry (TPS) from liquid and solid feeding diets) on microbial and biochemical characteristics of soil under barley cropping system. Application doses of slurries are identified with legal doses of Castilla La Mancha Region, which is 210 kg N ha-1 year-1. Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C and three soil enzymes (β-Glucosidase, β-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzymes) are studied to determine effect slurry on soil biochemical characteristics, which are very important in terms of C cycle in soil. Black carbon content and β-Glucosidase enzyme activities are increased with all pig slurry applications from liquid and traditional feeding diet, as well as microbial biomass and organic carbon content and β-galactosidase enzyme activities are increased with slurry from liquid feeding diet doses. However, pig slurry application from liquid feeding diet doses have increased yield, quality, length and total biomass content of barley. Bioavailable metal contents are increased with all slurry application and with using high doses of slurry can be caused soil pollution. Pig slurries from liquid feeding diet had positive impacts on microbial and biochemical characteristics in terms of soil quality in comparison to the different feeding diets. PS addition to soil had a very significant stimulating effect on the enzyme activities, microbial biomass, soluble and black C compared with different kind of PS and control plots on Mediterranean soil in barley monoculture. This effect may originate from the organic C, N, P and S compounds added with PS. The highest enzyme activity and microbial biomass were observed on the soil samples from the RPS treatment

  17. The fate of sulfate in acidified pig slurry during storage and following application to cropped soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sørensen, Peter; Elsgaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid is a recent agricultural practice that may serve a double purpose: reducing ammonia emission and ensuring crop sulfur sufficiency. We investigated S transformations in untreated and acidified pig slurry stored for up to 11 mo at 2, 10, or 20 degrees C. Furthermore, the fertilizer efficiency of sulfuric acid in acidified slurry was investigated in a pot experiment with spring barley. The sulfate content from acidification with sulfuric acid was relatively stable and even after 11 mo of storage the majority was in the plant-available sulfate form. Microbial sulfate reduction during storage of acidified pig slurry was limited, presumably due to initial pH effects and a limitation in the availability of easily degradable organic matter. Sulfide accumulation was observed during storage but the sulfide levels in acidified slurry did not exceed those of the untreated slurry for several months after addition. The S fertilizer value of the acidified slurry was considerable as a result of the stable sulfate pool during storage. The high content of inorganic S in the acidified slurry may potentially lead to development of odorous volatile sulfur-containing compounds and investigations are needed into the relationship between odor development and the C and S composition of the slurry.

  18. A modelling approach for tropical pig manure nitrogen utilisation and evaluation at the landscape scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tee, T. P.; Hilger, T. H.; Lean, I. J.; Cadisch, G.

    2009-07-01

    Intensive pig production units in the humid tropics excrete large and excessive amounts of manure daily. This manure is poorly handled in pond systems and under-utilised as a fertiliser resource. This may result in becoming an environmental hazard that contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and waterway pollution. The application manure as an organic substitute for mineral fertiliser in neighbouring annual or perennial cropping systems may provide a viable alternative to the problem. Optimising application rate and distribution of manure in neighbouring cropping systems would minimise environmental pollution loading and contribute to improvement of farm economics. (Author)

  19. Pig slurry concentration by vacuum evaporation: influence of previous mesophilic anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmatí, August; Flotats, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Water can be removed from pig slurry by evaporation, through the application of wasted heat from a power plant or from other processes. Apart from obtaining a concentrate with an obviously higher nutrient concentration than the original slurry, another objective of water removal is to obtain water as condensate, which could be reused. The objective of this work was to study the vacuum evaporation of pig slurry liquid fraction and to evaluate condensate composition as a function of both pH (4, 5, and 6) and pig slurry type (fresh slurry and anaerobically digested slurry). Batch experiments showed that condensate characteristics, total ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acids (VFA), and chemical oxygen demand were strongly dependent on initial slurry pH. In addition to producing part of the required thermal energy, previous anaerobic digestion presented several other clear advantages. The consumption of VFA and other volatile organic compounds during anaerobic digestion reduced the volatilization of organic matter in the evaporation treatment and, consequently, provided a higher quality condensate.

  20. Leaching of viruses and other microorganisms naturally occurring in pig slurry to tile drains on a well-structured loamy field in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Forslund, Anita; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2017-01-01

    The amount of animal manure used in modern agriculture is increasing due to the increase in global animal production. Pig slurry is known to contain zoonotic bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp., and viruses such as hepatitis E virus and group A rotavirus. Coliform...... sets out to investigate the leaching potential of six different microorganisms: E. coli and Enterococcus spp. (detected by colony assay), somatic coliphages (using plaque assays), and hepatitis E virus, porcine circovirus type 2, and group A rotavirus (by real-time polymerase chain reaction). All six...

  1. Energy production, nutrient recovery and greenhouse gas emission Potentials from Integrated Pig Manure Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2010-01-01

    of waste materials were considered. Data for the analyses were obtained from existing waste treatment facilities, experimental plants, laboratory measurements and literature. The assessment reveals that incineration combined with liquid/solid separation and drying of the solids is a promising management......Improper management of pig manure has resulted in environmental problems such as surface water eutrophication, ground water pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. This study develops and compares 14 alternative manure management scenarios aiming at energy and nutrient extraction. The scenarios...... based on combinations of thermal pretreatment, anaerobic digestion, anaerobic co-digestion, liquid/solid separation, drying, incineration, and thermal gasification were compared with respect to their energy, nutrient and greenhouse gas balances. Both sole pig manure and pig manure mixed with other types...

  2. Nutrient Status and Contamination Risks from Digested Pig Slurry Applied on a Vegetable Crops Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of applied digested pig slurry on a vegetable crops field were studied. The study included a 3-year investigation on nutrient characteristics, heavy metals contamination and hygienic risks of a vegetable crops field in Wuhan, China. The results showed that, after anaerobic digestion, abundant N, P and K remained in the digested pig slurry while fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs and hookworm eggs were highly reduced. High Cr, Zn and Cu contents in the digested pig slurry were found in spring. Digested pig slurry application to the vegetable crops field led to improved soil fertility. Plant-available P in the fertilized soils increased due to considerable increase in total P content and decrease in low-availability P fraction. The As content in the fertilized soils increased slightly but significantly (p = 0.003 compared with control. The Hg, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Cu contents in the fertilized soils did not exceed the maximum permissible contents for vegetable crops soils in China. However, high Zn accumulation should be of concern due to repeated applications of digested pig slurry. No fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs or hookworm eggs were detected in the fertilized soils.

  3. Sewage sludge and liquid pig manure as possible sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Christina S; Schwaiger, Karin; Harms, Katrin; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Kunz, Anne; Meyer, Karsten; Müller, Christa; Bauer, Johann

    2010-05-01

    Within the last decades, the environmental spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria has become a topic of concern. In this study, liquid pig manure (n=305) and sewage sludge (n=111) - used as agricultural fertilizers between 2002 and 2005 - were investigated for the presence of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Bacteria were tested for their resistance against 40 chemotherapeutics including several "reserve drugs". E. coli (n=613) from pig manure were at a significantly higher degree resistant to streptomycin, doxycycline, spectinomycin, cotrimoxazole, and chloramphenicol than E. coli (n=116) from sewage sludge. Enterococci (Ent. faecalis, n=387, and Ent. faecium, n=183) from pig manure were significantly more often resistant to high levels of doxycycline, rifampicin, erythromycin, and streptomycin than Ent. faecalis (n=44) and Ent. faecium (n=125) from sewage sludge. Significant differences in enterococcal resistance were also seen for tylosin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin high level, fosfomycin, clindamicin, enrofloxacin, moxifloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. By contrast, aminopenicillins were more effective in enterococci from pig manure, and mean MIC-values of piperacillin+tazobactam and third generation cefalosporines were significantly lower in E. coli from pig manure than in E. coli from sewage sludge. 13.4% (E. coli) to 25.3% (Ent. faecium) of pig manure isolates were high-level multiresistant to substances from more than three different classes of antimicrobial agents. In sewage sludge, high-level-multiresistance reached from 0% (Ent. faecalis) to 16% (Ent. faecium). High rates of (multi-) resistant bacteria in pig manure emphasize the need for a prudent - cautious - use of antibiotics in farm animals.

  4. Pig feeding strategy coupled with effluent management - fresh or stored slurry, solid phase separation - on methane potential and methane conversion factors during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarret, Guillaume; Martinez, José; Dourmad, Jean-Yves

    2011-11-01

    In the guideline for the determination of methane (CH 4) emission from animal manure (IPCC) the amount of CH 4 emitted is generally calculated according to an equation combining the amount of organic matter (OM) or volatile solids excreted, the ultimate CH 4 potential ( B0) of excreta and a system-specific methane conversion factor (MCF, %) that reflects the portion of B0 that is really converted into CH 4. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the modification of dietary crude protein and fibre levels on B0 of pig slurry and on subsequent MCF according to different strategies of slurry management. Five experimental diets differing mainly in their crude protein and fibre content were compared. Two types of measurement of CH 4 emission were performed. The first was the measurement of B0 of slurry using biomethanogene potential (BMP) test. The second consisted in a storage simulation, which was performed on different kinds of effluents: fresh slurry (FSl), stored slurry (SSl), and faeces mixed with water (FaW). The type of diet and the type of effluent affected ( P dietary treatments whereas it differed for storage simulation studies with significant effects of dietary CP and fibre contents. The results from this study indicate that the type of diet has a significant but rather limited effect on B0 value of effluent. The effect of diet is much more marked on MCF, with lower values for high protein diets, and higher values for high fibre diets. MCF is also affected by manure management, the values measured on separated faeces from urine being much higher than for slurry.

  5. Physical properties and organic carbon content of a Rhodic Kandiudox fertilized with pig slurry and poultry litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo Rauber

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of pig slurry and poultry litter fertilization on soils depends on the conditions of use and the amounts applied. This study evaluated the effect of organic fertilizers after different application periods in different areas on the physical properties and organic carbon contents of a Rhodic Kandiudox, in Concordia, Santa Catarina, in Southern Brazil. The treatments consisted of different land uses and periods of pig and poultry litter fertilization: silage maize (M7 years, silage maize (M20 years, annual ryegrass pasture (P3 years, annual ryegrass pasture (P15 years, perennial pasture (PP20 years, yerba mate tea (Mt20 years, native forest (NF, and native pasture without manure application (P0. The 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm soil layers were sampled and analyzed for total organic carbon, total nitrogen and soil physical properties such as density, porosity, aggregation, degree of flocculation, and penetration resistance. The organic carbon levels in the cultivated areas treated with organic fertilizer were even lower than in native forest soil. The organic fertilizers and studied management systems reduced the flocculation degree of the clay particles, and low macroporosity was observed in some areas. Despite these changes, a good soil physical structure was maintained, e.g., soil density and resistance to penetration were below the critical limits, whereas aggregate stability was high, which is important to reduce water erosion in these areas with rugged terrain in western Santa Catarina, used for pig and poultry farming.

  6. Methanogenic community changes, and emissions of methane and other gases, during storage of acidified and untreated pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Højberg, Ole; Poulsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    and Results: Pig slurry from two farms, acidified by different techniques, and untreated slurry were stored for 83 d in a pilot-scale facility. Methanogens were characterized before and after storage by TRFLP and qPCR targeting mcrA. Emissions of NH3 and CH4 during storage were quantified. Acidified slurry p...

  7. Upgrading of the Solid Fraction of Pig Slurry as Phosphorus Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christel, Wibke

    biological or thermal treatment, the P concentration of the pig slurry-derived products is furthermore increased, but these processes are also expected to affect P availability from the respective products. Consequently it was the overall objective of this PhD project to identify options for upgrading...... the pig slurry solid fraction as well as investigating their impact on the applicability of the product as P fertilizer. Special attention was moreover given to the effect of the soil properties on the development of P availability over time. In conclusion, both biological and thermal processing of pig...... slurry solids reduced P availability in the initial phase after soil amendment. Only the solid fraction, had a high initial P availability, which was within the same range as mineral P fertilizer, but P availability decreased significantly within one growing season, whereas the thermally processed...

  8. Emissions of sulfur-containing odorants, ammonia, and methane from pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.; Nørgaard, Jan Værum

    2010-01-01

    Supplementation of benzoic acid to pig diets reduces the pH of urine and may thereby affect emissions of ammonia and other gases from slurry, including sulfur-containing compounds that are expected to play a role in odor emission. Over a period of 112 d, we investigated hydrogen sulfide (H2S...... from the slurry of the control treatment, which came from pigs fed according to Danish recommendations for amino acids and minerals. The emission patterns of volatile S compounds suggested an intense cycling between pools of organic S in the slurries, with urinary sulfate as the main source. Diet...... and benzoic acid treatments, which caused a significant increase in emissions of especially MT, but also of DMDS. In conclusion, addition of 2% benzoic acid to pig diets effectively reduced ammonia volatilization, but interactions with dietary S may increase odor problems....

  9. Upgrading of the Solid Fraction of Pig Slurry as Phosphorus Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christel, Wibke

    Improved recycling of the solid fraction of separated pig slurry, which is considerably enriched in the essential plant nutrient phosphorus (P), could balance the P input in differently used agricultural areas and reduce the unsustainable depletion of the limited P rock reserves. By subsequent...... the pig slurry solid fraction as well as investigating their impact on the applicability of the product as P fertilizer. Special attention was moreover given to the effect of the soil properties on the development of P availability over time. In conclusion, both biological and thermal processing of pig...... slurry solids reduced P availability in the initial phase after soil amendment. Only the solid fraction, had a high initial P availability, which was within the same range as mineral P fertilizer, but P availability decreased significantly within one growing season, whereas the thermally processed...

  10. Long-term Effect of Pig Slurry Application on Soil Carbon Storage, Quality and Yield Sustainability in Murcia Region, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükkılıç Yanardaǧ, Asuman

    2013-04-01

    Sustainability of agriculture is now a major global concern, especially since the 1980s. Soil organic matter is very important in the proper functions of the soil, which is also a good indicator of soil quality. This is due to its influence on many of the chemical, physical, and biological processes that control the capacity of a soil to perform properly. Understanding of nutrient supply through organic matter mineralization in agricultural systems is essential for maintaining long-term quality and productivity. The composition of pig manure will have a profound impact on soil properties, quality and crop yield when used in agriculture. We studied the effects of pig slurry (PS) application as an organic fertilizer, trying to determine the optimum amount that can be added to the soil, and the effect on soil properties, quality, and productivity. We applied 3 different doses on silty loam soils: Single (D1), Double (D2), Triple (D3) and unfertilized plots (C) served as controls. Samples were collected at two different levels, surface (0-30 cm) and subsurface (30-60 cm). D1 application dose, which is the agronomic rate of N-requirement (170 kg N/ha/yr) (European Directive 91/676/CEE), is very appropriate in term of sustainable agriculture and also can improve physical, chemical and biological soil properties. Therefore that the long-term use of PS with low dose may necessarily enhance soil quality in the long term. There are many factors to be considered when attempting to assess the overall net impact of a management practice on productivity. Additions of pig manure to soils at agronomic rates (170 kg N ha-1 yr-1) to match crop nutrient requirements are expected to have a positive impact on soil productivity. Therefore, the benefits from the use of application depend on the management of PS, carbon and environmental quality. However, PS have high micronutrient contents, and for this reason the application of high doses can pollute soils and damage human, animal and

  11. Carbon mineralization in mine tailing ponds amended with pig slurries and marble wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Zornoza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective application of organic residues to reclaim soils requires the optimization of the waste management to minimize CO2 emissions and optimize soil C sequestration efficiency. In this study, the short-term effects of pig slurry amendment alone and together with marble waste on organic matter mineralization in two tailing ponds from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain were investigated in a field remediation experiment. The treatments were: marble waste (MW, pig slurry (PS, marble waste + pig slurry (MW+PS, and control. Soil carbon mineralization was determined using a static chamber method with alkali absorption during 70 days. Soil respiration rates in all plots were higher the first days of the experiment owing to higher soil moisture and higher mean air temperature. MW plots followed the same pattern than control plots, with similar respiration rates. The addition of pig slurry caused a significant increase in the respiration rates, although in MW+PS plots, respiration rates were lower than in PS plots. The cumulative quantities of C-CO2 evolved from the pig slurry mineralization were fitted to a first-order kinetic model explaining 90% of the data. This model implies the presence of only one mineralisable pool (C0. The values of the index C0*constant rate/added C were similar for PS plots in both tailing ponds, but lower in the MW+PS treatment, suggesting that the application of marble reduces the degradability of the organic compounds present in the pig slurry. Thus, the application of marble wastes contributes to slow down the loss of organic matter by mineralization.

  12. Nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure with biochar prepared at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ronghua; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Zengqiang; Zhang, Guangjie; Li, Zhonghong; Wang, Li; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the corn stalk charred biomass (CB) prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures as additives on nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure were investigated. The results showed that the addition of CB carbonized at different temperatures to pig manure compost significantly influenced the compost temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter degradation, total nitrogen, [Formula: see text] and NH3 variations during composting. Compared with control and adding CB charred at lower temperature treatments, the addition of CB prepared over 700°C resulted in higher pH (over 9.2) and NH3 emission and lower potherb mustard seed germination index value during the thermophilic phase. Peak temperatures of composts appeared at 7 days for control and 11 days for CB added treatments. During 90 days composting, the organic matter degradation could be increased over 14.8-29.6% after adding of CB in the compost mixture. The introduction of CB in pig manure could prolong the thermophilic phase, inhibit moisture reduce, facilitate the organic matter decomposition, reduce diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable Zn and Cu contents in pig manure composts and increase ryegrass growth. The study indicated that the corn stalk CB prepared around 500°C was a suitable additive in pig manure composting.

  13. Effects of dietary crude protein level on odour from pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, P D; Aarnink, A J A; Jongbloed, A W; Peet-Schwering, C M C Van der; Ogink, N W M; Verstegen, M W A

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) level on odour emission, odour intensity, hedonic tone, and ammonia emission from pig manure and on manure composition (pH, total nitrogen, ammonium, volatile fatty acids, indolic, phenolic and sulphur-containing compounds). An experiment was conducted with growing pigs (n = 18) in a randomised complete-block design with three treatments in six blocks. Treatment groups were 12%, 15% and 18% CP diets. Barley was exchanged for soya-bean meal. Crystalline amino acids (AA) were included in the 12% CP diet up to the level of pigs' requirement; the same amount of AA was added to the 15% and 18% CP diets. Pigs with an initial body weight (BW) of 36.5 ± 3.4 kg (mean ± s.d.) were individually penned in partly slatted floor pens and offered a daily feed allowance of 2.8 × maintenance requirement for net energy (NE: 293 kJ/kg BW0.75). Feed was mixed with water, 1/2.5 (w/w). Faeces and urine of each pig were accumulated together in a separate manure pit under the slatted floor. After an adaptation period of 2 weeks, the manure pits were cleaned and manure was collected. In the 5th week of the collection period, air samples for odour and ammonia analyses, and manure samples were collected directly from each manure pit. Air samples were analysed for odour concentration and for hedonic value and intensity above odour detection threshold. Manure samples were analysed for volatile fatty acids, and indolic, phenolic and sulphurous compounds, ammonium and total nitrogen concentrations. Reducing dietary CP from 18% to 12% lowered odour emission ( P acids and cresols concentrations in the manure of pigs fed different dietary CP levels were similar. A reduction of dietary CP and at the same time providing essential AA is an option to reduce odour emission as well as ammonia emission from pig manure.

  14. Effects of pig slurry application on soil physical and chemical properties and glyphosate mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aparecida de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pig slurry applied to soil at different rates may affect soil properties and the mobility of chemical compounds within the soil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of rates of pig slurry application in agricultural areas on soil physical and chemical properties and on the mobility of glyphosate through the soil profile. The study was carried out in the 12th year of an experiment with pig slurry applied at rates of 0 (control, 50, 100 and 200 m³ ha-1 yr-1 on a Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (Hapludox soil. In the control, the quantities of P and K removed by harvested grains were replaced in the next crop cycle. Soil physical properties (bulk density, porosity, texture, and saturated hydraulic conductivity and chemical properties (organic matter, pH, extractable P, and exchangeable K were measured. Soil solution samples were collected at depths of 20, 40 and 80 cm using suction lysimeters, and glyphosate concentrations were measured over a 60-day period after slurry application. Soil physical and chemical properties were little affected by the pig slurry applications, but soil pH was reduced and P levels increased in the surface layers. In turn, K levels were increased in sub-surface layers. Glyphosate concentrations tended to decrease over time but were not affected by pig slurry application. The concentrations of glyphosate found in different depths show that the pratice of this application in agricultural soils has the potential for contamination of groundwater, especially when the water table is the surface and heavy rains occur immediately after application.

  15. Separation of phosphorus from pig slurry using chemical additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estevez Rodriguez, M.D.; Gomez del Puerto, A.M.; Montealegre Meléndez, M.L.;

    2005-01-01

    of water and therefore transport costs can be reduced by separating the P from a high volume of slurry into a small dry-matter- and P-rich solid fraction. This study tested different combinations of coagulants (ferric salts) and flocculants (polyacrylamide polymers) that can contribute to an efficient...... retention of P in a solid fraction. The laboratory studies showed that 98% of the P in slurry was retained in the solid fraction retained on the filter net (12% to 28% retained W:W) after the addition of coagulants and flocculants. Linear cationic polyacrylamide polymers proved to be more efficient at lower...... irrespective of the amounts added (12% to 18%). The cost of an efficient separation of slurry using coagulants and flocculants and including the cost of screw press separation was estimated to be $2.4 m(-3) slurry....

  16. 发酵条件对猪场粪肥肥效的影响%Effects of Fermentation Conditions on the Fertilizer Efficiency of Pig Manure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高其双; 徐利华; 彭霞; 卢顺; 夏瑜; 周华; 阮征; 陶利文; 吴建英; 温能生

    2016-01-01

    [目的]研究发酵条件对粪肥发酵的影响。[方法]研究发酵时间、发酵季节、复合菌剂添加量对猪场粪肥发酵效果的影响。通过作物种植试验,并与化肥和沼液进行比较,验证猪场粪肥的肥效。[结果]粪肥发酵时间以7d左右较好,肥效元素含量可达最大值;夏季发酵效果较好,粪肥中铵态氮和硝态氮含量增幅最大;向粪肥中添加复合菌剂有助于发酵。猪场粪肥与化肥具有相当的肥效。[结论]发酵时间、发酵季节及复合菌剂可影响猪场粪肥发酵的肥效,在生产中应予以重视。%Objective] To determine the effects of fermentation conditions on the pig manure fermentation.[Method] We researched the effects of fermentation time, fermentation season and compound bacteria additive dosage on the fermentation effects of pig manure.Crop planting test was carried out.It was compared with the fertilizer and biogas slurry so as to verify the fertilizer efficiency of pig farm.[ Result] The best manure fer-mentation time was around 7 days, and the fertilizer elements reached the maximum value;fermentation effect in summer was better, ammonium nitrogen and nitrate content in manure increased sharply;adding bacteria additive into the manure could contribute to fermentation.manure in pig farm and fertilizer had equal fertilizer efficiency.[Conclusion] Fermentation time, season and compound bacteria additive can affect the fertilizer effect of pig manure fermentation, so we should attach importance to them in production.

  17. Differential responses of soil nematode community to pig manure application levels in Ferric Acrisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Ru; Li, Xiao-Gang; Zhou, Zhi-Gao; Zhang, Tao-Lin; Wang, Xing-Xiang

    2016-10-01

    Excessive pig manure application probably degrades arable soil quality in some intensive pig farming areas. The responses of the nematode community to dosages of pig manure were investigated in Ferric Acrisols under 3-season peanut monoculture. Varying dosages of manure (1.75, 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 t·ha‑1·yr‑1) in combination with chemical fertilizer were applied to field plots, and chemical fertilizer alone was also applied as a control. With increasing manure application, the abundance of bacterivores and omnivores-predators increased, the abundance of plant parasites decreased, and fungivores abundance exhibited hump-shaped variation. Simpson diversity index and plant parasite index/maturity index of the nematode communities increased to a maximum level at a manure application rate of 3.5 t·ha‑1·yr‑1 and then sharply decreased. The changes in the soil nematode community were further determined to be correlated with chemical properties; available phosphorus had the strongest quadratic correlation with the two indices, implying that available phosphorus had a better indicative effect than other soil properties to nematode community. Available phosphorus in soil was deduced from 49 to 64 mg·kg‑1 with the best nematode communities. Our results emphasized the importance of regular applications of manure in agriculture field to balance nematode diversity and build healthy agro-ecosystems.

  18. Differential responses of soil nematode community to pig manure application levels in Ferric Acrisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Ru; Li, Xiao-Gang; Zhou, Zhi-Gao; Zhang, Tao-Lin; Wang, Xing-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Excessive pig manure application probably degrades arable soil quality in some intensive pig farming areas. The responses of the nematode community to dosages of pig manure were investigated in Ferric Acrisols under 3-season peanut monoculture. Varying dosages of manure (1.75, 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 t·ha−1·yr−1) in combination with chemical fertilizer were applied to field plots, and chemical fertilizer alone was also applied as a control. With increasing manure application, the abundance of bacterivores and omnivores-predators increased, the abundance of plant parasites decreased, and fungivores abundance exhibited hump-shaped variation. Simpson diversity index and plant parasite index/maturity index of the nematode communities increased to a maximum level at a manure application rate of 3.5 t·ha−1·yr−1 and then sharply decreased. The changes in the soil nematode community were further determined to be correlated with chemical properties; available phosphorus had the strongest quadratic correlation with the two indices, implying that available phosphorus had a better indicative effect than other soil properties to nematode community. Available phosphorus in soil was deduced from 49 to 64 mg·kg−1 with the best nematode communities. Our results emphasized the importance of regular applications of manure in agriculture field to balance nematode diversity and build healthy agro-ecosystems. PMID:27734955

  19. Effect of C/N on composting of pig manure with sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, G F; Wong, J W C; Wu, Q T; Nagar, B B

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this composting trial was to evaluate the effect of C/N on the composting process of pig manure with the purpose of reducing the amount of sawdust normally used as co-composting materials. Two aerobic static piles were prepared consisting of pig manure mixed with sawdust at an initial C/N of 30 (pile A) and 15 (pile B), respectively. Pile B containing larger amount of pig manure showed a slower rise in temperature, lower maximum temperature, and shorter thermophilic phase than pile A. It also resulted in higher pH and electrical conductivity (EC) values, and even higher contents of soluble NH4-N and volatile solids throughout the composting period. Chemical and biological parameters including dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (4932 mg kg(-1)), soluble NH4-N (371 mg kg(-1)), C/Nsolid (18.3), C/Naquoeus (5.8) and seed germination index (GI) (66.5%) indicated that pile A achieved maturity after 49 days of composting. After 63 days of composting, pile B contained 5352 and 912 mg kg(-1) of DOC and soluble NH4-N content, respectively, which was much higher than the criterion of 5% and 400 mg kg(-1), indicating its immature nature. Pile B showed a relatively low GI value of 46%, which may be due to its high indigenous EC value as a result of larger amount of pig manure. Therefore, co-composting of pig manure with sawdust at a low initial C/N would require a composting longer than 63 days, and, the high salinity due to the large amount of pig manure would pose a potential inhibition on plant growth.

  20. Degradation of Tetracyclines in Pig Manure by Composting with Rice Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Rushan; Huang, Lidong; Li, Lingling; Gielen, Gerty; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Yongsong

    2016-02-24

    A holistic approach was followed for utilizing tetracyclines (TCs)-contaminated pig manure, by composting this with rice straw in a greenhouse for CO₂ fertilization and composted residue application. After composting, the composted residues can be applied to cropland as a supplemental source of synthetic fertilizers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pig manure-rice straw composting on the degradation of TCs in pig manure. The results showed that greenhouse composting significantly accelerated the degradation of TCs. Contents (150 mg·kg(-1)) of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) in the composting feedstock could be completely removed within 42 days for OTC and TC, and 14 days for CTC. However, in the control samples incubated at 25 °C in the dark, concentrations of OTC, TC and CTC only decreased 64.7%, 66.7% and 73.3%, respectively, after 49 days. The degradation rates of TCs in the composting feedstock were in the order of CTC > TC > OTC. During the composting process, CTC dissipated rapidly with the time required for 50% degradation (DT50) and 90% degradation (DT90) of 2.4 and 7.9 days, but OTC was more persistent with DT50 and DT90 values of 5.5 and 18.4 days. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, it could be concluded that pig manure-rice straw composting in a greenhouse can help to accelerate the degradation of TCs in pig manure and make composted residues safer for field application. This technology could be an acceptable practice for greenhouse farmers to utilize TCs-contaminated pig manure.

  1. Preliminary study of the impact of pig or goat manure fertilization of a meadow on oribatid mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seniczak Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of pig or goat manure fertilization of a meadow with doses of 80 kg N ha−1, 140 kg N ha−1, and 200 kg N ha−1 (plots 1-6 on oribatid mites. A control plot (0 was left unfertilized. The manure was applied to the meadow in the early spring of 2012, and soil samples were collected in the spring of 2012 and 2013. In total, 6053 oribatid mites were examined, including 1163 juveniles. The effect of fertilizing on the Oribatida depended on the dose of manure, but not on its type. A low dose of pig or goat manure did not affect the density of Oribatida, whereas the other doses decreased it, but only the highest doses decreased it significantly, compared to the control. Species diversity decreased with the dose of manure. In total, 24 species of Oribatida were found and some species reacted differently to both types of manure. For example, a low dose of pig manure significantly increased the density of Eupelops occultus, whereas the density of other species significantly decreased under the influence of the highest dose of pig manure (Achipteria coleoptrata, highest doses of pig and goat manure (Galumna obvia, Liebstadia similis, and medium and highest doses of goat manure (Scheloribates laevigatus.

  2. Copper(II) complexation by humic and fulvic acids from pig slurry and amended and non-amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, C; Senesi, N; García-Gil, J C; Polo, A

    2005-11-01

    The effect of the consecutive annual additions of pig slurry at rates of 0 (control), 90 and 150 m3 ha(-1) y(-1) over a 4-year period on the binding affinity for Cu(II) of soil humic acids (HAs) and fulvic acids (FAs) was investigated in a field plot experiment under semiarid conditions. A ligand potentiometric titration method and a single site model were used for determining the Cu(II) complexing capacities and the stability constants of Cu(II) complexes of HAs and FAs isolated from pig slurry and control and amended soils. The HAs complexing capacities and stability constants were larger than those of the corresponding FA fractions. With respect to the control soil HA, pig-slurry HA was characterized by a much smaller binding capacity and stability constant. Amendment with pig slurry decreased the binding affinity of soil HAs. Similar to the corresponding HAs, the binding affinity of pig-slurry FA was much smaller while that of amended-soil FAs were slightly smaller when compared to the control soil FA. The latter effect was, however, more evident with increasing the amount of pig slurry applied to soil per year and the number of years of pig slurry application.

  3. Effects of Acidifying Pig Diets on Emissions of Ammonia, Methane, and Sulfur from Slurry during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Nørgaard, Jan V; Poulsen, Hanne D; Poulsen, Henrik V; Jensen, Bent B; Petersen, Søren O

    2014-11-01

    Ammonia (NH) volatilization from intensive livestock production is a threat to natural ecosystems. This study investigated pig diet manipulation by 1% (w/w) benzoic acid (BA) amendment and lowering of dietary electrolyte balance through substituting 1.4% (w/w) CaCO with 2.0% (w/w) CaCl. Urine and feces were collected separately from 24 pigs fed one of four diets (Control, +BA, +CaCl, +BA+CaCl) in metabolic cages and mixed as slurry. During 103 d of storage, all acidifying diets consistently reduced pH in the slurry by 0.4 to 0.6 units. There was a strong relationship between slurry pH and NH emissions, which were considerably reduced by the three acidifying diets. The +BA diet decreased NH emission by 28%, the +CaCl diet by 37%, and the combined +BA and +CaCl diet by 40%. Acidifying diets had no effect on S cycling or emission of volatile S compounds under the prevailing conditions of restricted S feeding. Methane (CH) emissions were increased by 73% in diets with CaCl. An initial delay in CH emissions was investigated in a separate experiment with manipulation of pH (5.4, 6.7, or 8.8) and inoculation with adapted pig slurry (0, 4, 11, or 19%), which showed that methanogenic potential, rather than inhibitory effects of the chemical environment, caused the delay. In conclusion, NH emissions from slurry could be reduced by addition of BA to pig diets or by controlling the dietary electrolyte balance, but there was no additive effect of combining the two strategies. However, CH emissions from slurry may increase with acidifying diets. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Proton binding by humic and fulvic acids from pig slurry and amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, César; García-Gil, Juan C; Polo, Alfredo; Senesi, Nicola; Brunetti, Gennaro

    2005-01-01

    The knowledge of acid-base characteristics of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) fractions of organic amendments and amended soils is of considerable importance for assessing their agronomic efficacy and environmental impact. In this work, the acid-base properties of HAs and FAs isolated from pig slurry, soils amended with either 90 or 150 m(3) ha(-1) yr(-1) of pig slurry for 3 yr, and the corresponding nonamended control soil were investigated by using a current potentiometric titration method. The nonideal competitive adsorption (NICA) model that describes proton binding by two classes of binding sites (carboxylic- and phenolic-type groups) was successfully fit to titration data. With respect to the control soil HA and FA, pig-slurry HA and FA were generally characterized by smaller carboxylic-type group contents, slightly smaller phenolic-type group contents, larger affinities for proton binding by the carboxylic-type groups, and much smaller, in the case of the HA fraction, or similar, in the case of the FA fraction, affinities for proton binding by the phenolic-type groups. Amendment with pig slurry determined a number of modifications in soil HAs and FAs, including decrease of acidic functional group contents, and slight increase of the proton affinity of the carboxylic-type groups. Further, a slight decrease of the affinities for proton binding by the phenolic-type groups of HAs was observed. These effects can have a large impact on the biological availability, mobilization, and transport of macro- and micronutrients, toxic metal ions, and xenobiotic organic cations in pig slurry-amended soils.

  5. Intensive pig production and manure management in Beijing, North China Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Huaitalla, Roxana

    2014-01-01

    China, at the forefront of the livestock revolution, has experienced a more industrialized change, with an increment of the large livestock farms and of the decoupling between the livestock and arable land. Meat production in China is dominated by pork, which comprises approximately 50% of worldwide pig production. The description of the pig husbandry and manure management systems in the large animal operations of the NCP is not widely available. In order to describe the status quo o...

  6. Benefits and limitations of pig slurry to reclaim bare mine soils under Mediterranean semiarid conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Acosta, Jose A.; Kabas, Sebla; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the effects of pig slurry application on reclamation of mine soils from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain) were investigated in a field experiment. Exchangeable metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, soluble carbon, microbial biomass and three enzyme activities were periodically monitored during 67 days. In addition, one year after the application of the pig slurry, soil and developed vegetation was sampled. Results showed that only exchangeable Cd and Zn significantly decreased in the amended plots, mainly for Cd, with decreases of 98%. The rest of metals and chemical properties did not change with time after application of amendments, showing values not significantly different than those present before pig slurry application. Soluble carbon, microbial biomass carbon and the enzyme activities increased after the application of pig slurry. However, after various days these parameters started a decreasing trend until reaching values similar to the control from approximately day 25. Thus, mainly precipitation as phosphate from the waste was very effective for Cd immobilization. No increments were observed in soil organic carbon because the organic carbon applied with the slurry was too low to be significantly detected. Nonetheless, pig slurry is a good fertilizer owing to the high quantity of nutrients provided, needed to promote the development of vegetation. One year after application, a native vegetation cover (25-30%) was reached by spontaneous colonization. Triggered plant growth by the effect of amendment improved soil conditions, particularly by the help of the medium created by their rhizosphere systems. Increments in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, and decreases in the exchangeable metals fraction concentration were observed in rhizospheric soils when compared to the bare soils. This improvement in soil quality mediated by vegetation was more efficient than the direct effect of the amendment. In

  7. Biological nutrient transformation during composting of pig manure and paper waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jonathan W C; Karthikeyan, Obulisamy P; Selvam, Ammaiyappan

    2017-03-01

    Composting of pig manure is a challenging task that requires appropriate co-substrate and bulking agent to provide optimum composting conditions and reduce nitrogen loss. In this study, paper waste is co-composted with pig manure as well as wood chips as the bulking agents. These raw materials were mixed at three different ratios of paper: pig manure: wood chips = 1:1:0 (pile 1), 3:2:1 (pile 2) and 3:1:1(pile 3), respectively. Each composting pile was about 11 m(3) in size equipped with negative-pressure forced aeration. The temperature of all the three piles ranged between 43 and 76°C and therefore produced pathogen-free compost. The overall total carbon reduction of 39%, 36% and 36% were achieved from pile 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The [Formula: see text] increased with the composting period, indicating the transformation of ammoniacal-N into nitrate by nitrification activity. However, all three piles showed significant variations in soluble [Formula: see text] at different stages of composting, which could be due to the microbial assimilation and mineralization. The results revealed that the co-composting of pig manure, paper along with wood chips was optimum under the mixing ratio of 3:2:1 (pile 2).

  8. Influence of pig manure biochar mineral content on Cr(III) sorption capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wnetrzak, Renata; Leahy, J.J.; Chojnacka, Katarzyna W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The adsorption of Cr(III) ions on various pig manure biochar (BC) samples was investigated to determine the effect of operating conditions (initial pH, sorbate and sorbent concentrations) on sorptive capacity. The BC samples with higher sorption capacity showed high surface area...

  9. Characterization of manure from conventional and phytase transgenic pigs by advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-point phosphorus (P) pollution from animal manure is becoming a serious global problem. The current solution for the swine industry is including the enzyme phytase as a component of the cereal grain diet. A very real possibility in the future is the production of transgenic pigs that express phy...

  10. Passively Aerated Composting of Straw-Rich Pig Manure : Effect of Compost Bed Porosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Wilde, de V.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2002-01-01

    Straw-rich manure from organic pig farming systems can be composted in passively aerated systems as the high application of straw results in a compost bed with good structure and porosity. The passively aerated composting process was simulated in one-dimensional reactors of 2 m3 for straw-rich

  11. Managing manure from China's pigs and poultry: the influence of ecological rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaohui; Bluemling, Bettina; Liu, Yi; Mol, Arthur P J; Chen, Jining

    2014-09-01

    We have investigated manure management practices at three farm scales in Chinese pig and poultry production. The concept of ecological rationality was employed to explore empirically how environmental concerns drive adoption of environmental-friendly manure management technologies at different farm scales. The more developed Rudong County in Jiangsu Province and the less developed Zhongjiang County in Sichuan Province were chosen as cases for study of 258 animal breeders. On the contrary to our hypothesis, medium-scale farmers were not always found to be laggards in adoption of manure management technologies. Government ecological rationality played a key role to induce environmental-friendly technology adoption on its own, but also in cooperation with ecologically rational individual or network drivers. Authorities no longer applied their efforts in a conventional command-and-control way, but more in the form of incentives, stimulation, and information to farmers. Individual farmers in general showed low environmental responsibility in relation to manure handling.

  12. Soil fertility status and nutrients provided to spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. by pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Gómez-Garrido

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient recycling using pig slurry is a common agricultural practice to manage the ever-increasing amounts of wastes from the pig industry. This study was conducted in the southeast of Spain to quantify the enrichments in major (N, P, K, Mg and minor (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn nutrients in soils amended with D1-170 kg N ha-1 (European Union legislated dose or D2-340 kg N ha-1, and understand the influence of pig slurry on yield and nutrient uptake in two crop seasons of spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. Compared to control, D2 increased NO3--N by 11.4X to 109 mg kg-1, Olsen-P by 6.9X to 423 mg kg-1, exchange K (2.5X to 1.6 cmol+ kg-1, Mg (1.7X to 1.8 cmol+ kg-1, diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA-Zn (94X to 18.2 mg kg-1, and Fe (2X to 11.3 mg kg-1. Available NO3--N, Olsen-P, and DTPA-Zn have the best correlations with crop yield and nutrient uptake. These results indicate that the assessment of soil fertility status at 1-mo after pig slurry addition provides a good indicator for potential yield and uptake of barley. However, it is suggested that leachates should be monitored to effectively manage potential releases of nitrate and phosphate into the environment.

  13. Relationships among slurry characteristics and gaseous emissions at different types of commercial Spanish pig farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Beccaccia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse several factors of variation of slurry composition and to establish prediction equations for potential methane (CH4 and ammonia (NH3 emissions. Seventy-nine feed and slurry samples were collected at two seasons (summer and winter from commercial pig farms sited at two Spanish regions (Centre and Mediterranean. Nursery, growing-fattening, gestating and lactating facilities were sampled. Feed and slurry composition were determined, and potential CH4 and NH3 emissions measured at laboratory. Feed nutrient contents were used as covariates in the analysis. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS was evaluated as a predicting tool for slurry composition and potential gaseous emissions. A wide variability was found both in feed and slurry composition. Mediterranean farms had a higher pH (p0.90 and similar accuracy of prediction of potential NH3 and CH4 emissions (R2=0.84 and 0.68, respectively to models using slurry characteristics, which can be of interest to estimate emissions from commercial farms and establish mitigation strategies or optimize biogas production.

  14. N-Removal from the liquid fraction of Pig slurry in a labscale sequencing batch reactor considering different operational strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magri, A.; Guivernau, M.; Prenafeta-Boldu, F. X.; Flotats, X.

    2009-07-01

    Nitrogen is one of the main limiting factors to be considered when treatment of livestock manure is required. Biological N-removal is an alternative applicable in those situations in which arable lands availability, or transportation cots, do not enable recycling manure as fertilizer. Specifically, when dealing with slurries processing, an initial solid-liquid separation allows obtaining a liquid fraction which could be subsequently treated through nitrification-denitrification (NDN). (Author)

  15. Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Lei, Hong

    2014-11-01

    With magnetic heads operating closer to hard disks, the hard disks must be ultra-smooth. The abrasive-free polishing (AFP) performance of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) as the initiator in H2O2-based slurry for hard disk substrate was investigated in our work, and the results showed that the slurry including CHP could improve the material removal rate (MRR) and also reduce surface roughness. Electron spin-resonance spectroscopy (EPR), electrochemical measurement and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were conducted to investigate the acting mechanism with CHP during the polishing process. Compared with the H2O2 slurry, the EPR analysis shows that the CHP-H2O2 slurry provides a higher concentration of the HOO free radical. In addition, the AES analysis shows the oxidization reaction occurs in the external layer of the substrate surface. Furthermore, electrochemical measurements reveal that CHP can promote the electrochemical effect in AFP and lead to the increase of MRR.

  16. Influence of different fibre sources in diets for growing pigs on chemical composition of faeces and slurry and ammonia emission from slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate how three different fibre sources, sugar beet pulp, soya bean hulls and pectin residue, in diets for growing pigs influenced the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in faeces, pH-value in faeces and slurry, excretion of nitrogen in urine...... pulp, soya bean hulls and pectin residue in diets for growing pigs may alter the chemical composition of faeces and slurry, whereas, the effect on ammonia emission under dynamic conditions requires further investigations....

  17. The problem of pig slurry generation in Spain: its agricultural use; Problematica de los purines de cerdo en Espana: su aprovechamiento agricola como solucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaza, C.; Garcia-Gil, J. C.; Soler-Rovira, P.; Polo, A.

    1999-11-01

    This paper approaches the issue of pig slurry generation in Spain, including the environmental and health impact caused by this residue. It studies possible uses of slurry, focusing mainly on its agricultural application. (Author) 18 refs.

  18. Dicyandiamide as nitrification inhibitor of pig slurry ammonium nitrogen in soil

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Inhibition of nitrification of ammoniacal nitrogen pig slurry after its application to the soil can mitigate nitrogen (N) losses by nitrate (NO3 -) denitrification and leaching, with economical and environmental benefits. However, the use of this strategy is incipient in Brazil and, therefore, requires further assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of dicyandiamide (DCD) nitrification inhibitor in slowing the nitrification of ammoniacal N applied to the soi...

  19. Optimization of anaerobic digestion of a mixture of Zea mays and Miscanthus sacchariflorus silages with various pig manure dosages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bułkowska, K; Pokój, T; Klimiuk, E; Gusiatin, Z M

    2012-12-01

    Digestion of crop silage (Zea mays L. and Miscanthus sacchariflorus) with 0%, 7.5%, 12.5% and 25% pig manure as co-substrate was performed in continuous stirred-tank reactors, for a constant hydraulic retention time of 45 d and organic load rate of 2.1 g L(-1)d(-1). A matrix of correlations between biogas/methane production and parameters of anaerobic digestion was created in order to estimate process stability. The values of the correlation coefficients indicated that the most stable anaerobic digestion was achieved using 7.5% and 12.5% pig manure. In contrast, the positive correlation between ammonium and volatile fatty acids (r=0.8698, psilage alone, pig manure favored the production of biogas and methane; the highest production rates were obtained with 12.5% pig manure.

  20. A simplified approach to calculate slurry production of growing pigs at farm level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Tagliapietra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified approach to predict the amount of slurry produced by growing pigs at farm level is proposed. The inputs are initial (LWi and final (LWf live weights, production (t and empty (empty periods, feed consumption (FC, dry matter (DMD, N digestibilities and farm water consumption per pig (FWC. Estimates of the amount of water required (or arisen per kg of feed for the various physiological functions were estimated by running a published mathematical model using data representing the ordinary conditions of rearing. Water excretion was estimated in two ways depending on: 1 free access (ad lib to water; 2 restricted access (forced. In the first case, the proportion of water consumed (wiad lib and those excreted with the urine (wuad lib and the faeces (wfec were quantified to be 2.9, 1.72 and 0.33 kg per kg of feed, respectively. From the urinary excretions of N and minerals, obtained as the difference between the digestible nutrient intakes and the retentions, the model predicted a urinary DM content of 2.1% (by weight. In the second case, for pigs receiving drinking water in forced ratio with the feed (wiforced, the urinary production was calculated as wuforced=(wiforced+wf+wo-(wd+ws+wg+wfec+we, where wf=water content in feed (0.12 kg/kg, wo=water arising from nutrient oxidation (0.25 kg/kg, wd=water required for digestion (0.08 kg/kg, ws=water demand for protein and lipid synthesis (0.06 kg/kg, wg=water retained in body tissues (0.14 kg/kg and we=water lost through evaporation (0.96 kg/kg. Estimates of fresh slurry production (faeces+urine were regressed against the values resulting from empirical literature equations and referred to pigs fed water:feed ratios of 2.5:1, 2.9:1 and 4:1. The resulting regression (R2=0.97, with a slope close to unity (1.05, indicated that the approach can be extended to predict the farm fresh slurry production with pigs having free access to water or kept on different water:feed ratios. In agreement with

  1. Chemical attributes of a Hapludox soil after nine years of pig slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton da Veiga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the pig slurry application effects on chemical attributes of a Hapludox soil managed under no-tillage system. Treatments consisted of 50, 100 and 200 m³ ha-1 per year of pig slurry application, and a control with replacement of P and K exported through harvested grains. Attributes related to soil chemical reaction, exchange complex, and nutrient contents were determined in soil samples collected in the ninth year of experimentation from 0 - 0.025, 0.025 - 0.05, 0.05 - 0.10, 0.10 - 0.20, 0.20 - 0.40 and 0.40 - 0.60 m soil depths. The continuous application of high doses of pig slurry on the Oxisol surface under no-tillage acidifies the soil and increases Al, P, Cu, and Zn contents down to 0.2-m depth, and K levels down to 0.6-m depth.

  2. Copper and zinc forms in soil fertilized with pig slurry in the bean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Grohskopf

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of pig slurry may have different influence on copper (Cu and zinc (Zn dynamics in the soil compared with mineral fertilization. The aim of this research was to determine the different forms of Cu and Zn in soil and their uptake by bean plants in response to the application of mineral fertilizer and pig slurry (PS. The treatments were: mineral fertilizer (Cu and Zn oxides and liquid pig slurry, at increasing rates (0/0, 1.7/6.0, 3.4/12.0 and 6.8/24.0 kg ha-1 Cu/Zn, respectively applied in a Rhodic Kandiudox. PS increased the Cu content in soil in the exchangeable form, Fe oxides and residual, while the mineral fertilizer increased Cu contents in the fraction associated with soil organic matter. Soil Zn contents in the fractions available, exchangeable and SOM were highest under mineral fertilization, while in the soluble fraction the contents were highest under PS. The fertilizers had not impact on Cu and Zn contents associated with Al oxides, and these elements were mostly associated with Fe oxides in the soil. PS promoted the highest biomass production in shoots and roots of the bean plants, reflecting in the highest accumulation of Cu and Zn.

  3. Microbial community dynamics in continuous microbial fuel cells fed with synthetic wastewater and pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotres, Ana; Tey, Laura; Bonmatí, August; Viñas, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Two-chambered microbial fuel cells (MFCs) operating with synthetic wastewater and pig slurry were assessed. Additionally, the use of 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES-Inh) was studied. The synthetic wastewater-fed MFC (MFCSW) showed a maximum power density (PDmax) of 2138mWm(-3), and the addition of BES-Inh (10mM) did not show any improvement in its performance (PDmax=2078mWm(-3)). When pig slurry was used as feed (MFCPS), PDmax increased up to 5623mWm(-3). The microbial community composition was affected by the type of substrate used. While, Pseudomonadaceae and Clostridiaceae were the most representative families within the acetate-based medium, Flavobacteriaceae, Chitinophagaceae, Comamonadaceae and Nitrosomonadaceae were predominant when pig slurry was used as feed. Otherwise, only the Eubacterial microbial community composition was strongly modified when adding BES-Inh, thus leading to an enrichment of the Bacteroidetes phylum. Oppositely, the Archaeal community was less affected by the addition of BES-Inh, and Methanosarcina sp., arose as the predominant family in both situations. Despite all the differences in microbial communities, 6 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to Bacteroidetes (Porphyromonadaceae and Marinilabiaceae) and Firmicutes (Clostridiales) were found to be common to both MFCs, also for different contents of COD and N-NH4(+), and therefore could be considered as the bioanode core microbiome.

  4. Plant-availability to barley of phosphorus in ash from thermally treated animal manure in comparison to other manure based materials and commercial fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2010-01-01

    P 488 mg kg-1 soil DM, pH 6.6). The first-year effect of P application was tested in a spring barley crop (Hordeum vulgare L.) and residual P effects were tested in a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) crop the following year. Untreated ash from thermally gasified animal manure biogas residue...... (GA) and a corresponding neutralized acid extract of the ash (ExL) in liquid form were the products in focus. Other products in use were: pelletized pig manure biogas residue (PEL), incinerated PEL (IA), anaerobically digested pig slurry (DS), dried ExL, dried fraction of separated pig slurry (SS...

  5. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil via anaerobic composting with pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Du, Yao; Tao, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Kun; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Long, Yu-Yang

    2013-10-15

    Anaerobic dechlorination is an effective degradation pathway of higher chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The efficiency of anaerobic composting remediation of PCB-contaminated soil using pig manure was determined. The results show that the dechlorination of PCB-contaminated soil via anaerobic composting with pig manure is feasible. PCB concentration is the most critical factor. Elevated PCB concentrations can inhibit dechlorination but does not disrupt the anaerobic fermentation process. At 1 mg kg(-1) PCBs, the degradation rate of five or more chlorinated biphenyls is 43.8%. The highest dechlorination performance in this experiment was obtained when the soil-to-organic waste ratio, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, moisture content, and PCB concentration were 2:3, 20, 60%, and 1 mg kg(-1), respectively.

  6. Microbial population dynamics and changes in main nutrients during the acidification process of pig manures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongdong Zhang; Xufeng Yuan; Peng Guo; Yali Suo; Xiaofen Wang; Weidong Wang; Zongjun Cui

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of pig manure acidification on anaerobic treatment and composition of the fecal microbial community.According to the different chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the anaerobic treatment processes, pig manure was diluted 4 times (×4), 16 times (×l6), or 64 times (×64) and subjected to acidification.During the acidification process, pH, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were determined along with microbial population dynamics.The pH of the three dilutions first declined, and then slowly increased.The total VFAs of ×4 and ×l6 dilutions peaked on day 15 and 20, respectively.The content of acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid and valeric acid of the × 4 dilution were 23.6, 11.4, 8.8 and 0.6 g/L respectively, and that of the ×l6 dilution was 5.6, 2.3, 0.9 and 0.2 g/L respectively.Only acetic acid was detected in the ×64 dilution, and its level peaked on day 10.The results showed that the liquid pig manure was more suitable to enter the anaerobic methanogenic bioreactors after two weeks of acidification.During the acidification process, total P concentration increased during the first ten days, then dropped sharply, and rose again to a relatively high final concentration, while total N concentration rose initially and then declined.Based on the analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rRNA gene clone library, we concluded that the acidification process reduced the number of pathogenic bacteria species in pig manure.

  7. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Jingqing [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Guohui [School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Yuan, Zhenhong, E-mail: yuanzh@ms.giec.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. • The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. • The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. • VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. • The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9–70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others.

  8. Thermophilic co-digestion of pig manure and crude glycerol: process performance and digestate stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astals, S; Nolla-Ardèvol, V; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2013-07-10

    Anaerobic co-digestion has been widely used to enhance biogas production of digesters and, therefore, to improve the anaerobic plants economic feasibility. In the present study, glycerol, a by-product of the biodiesel industry, was used as a co-substrate for pig manure. The results showed that the thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure supplemented with 3% of glycerol, on weight basis, was satisfactory. The specific biogas production of the co-digester was 180% higher than the one obtained by the reference digester, which was only fed with pig manure. The improvement was related to the double of the organic loading rate, the high biodegradability of the crude glycerol, the slight reduction of the free ammonia concentration and the optimisation of the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. Moreover, the analysis of the organic matter (protein, lipids, carbohydrates and fibers) of the influent and the effluent of both digesters together with their biogas flow rates indicated that the microorganisms in the co-digester obtained large amounts of nutrients from the glycerol, whereas the microorganisms of the reference digester mainly produced biogas from the particulate matter. However, the digestate obtained from the co-digester cannot be directly applied as soil fertiliser or conditioner due to the presence of high levels of biodegradable matter, which may exert negative impacts on the plant-soil system. Thus, a longer hydraulic retention time, a reduction of the glycerol concentration and/or a post-treatment is required if the digestate is to be used as soil fertiliser or conditioner. In contrast, pig manure digestate can be directly applied on land.

  9. Delineating Effects of Ionic Strength and Suspended Solids on Ammonia Volatilization from Dairy Manure Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, K.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia emission is a major concern due to its adverse effects on animal and human health. Ionic strength and suspended solids play key roles in the ammonia volatilization process. These two parameters, however, are usually lumped together in form of total solids. The objective of this study was to separate the contribution of suspended solids (SS) from that of ionic strength (IS) on ammonia volatilization in liquid dairy manure. A two-way factorial experiment was conducted to simultaneously test the effects of IS and SS on ammonium dissociation: a key element of the ammonia volatilization process. The fraction of ammonia (β) in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was experimentally determined in a convective emission chamber, for each level of SS and IS, at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1, and air and liquid temperature of 25°C. The two way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of SS concentration (p = 0.04) on fraction of ammonia in the liquid dairy manure, while the effect of ionic strength was marginal (p = 0.05). The highest dissociation of ammonium was observed in manure with the lowest SS concentration (0%) and the lowest ionic strength (0.10 mol L-1). Significant increases in suspended solids concentration and ionic strength were necessary to influence the ammonium dissociation in dairy manure. Results revealed that substantially high content of suspended solids (> 3.0%) or relatively high dilution of manure with water (30%) were necessary for these two parameters to play significant roles in the ammonia volatilization mechanism in liquid dairy manure. Results also showed that the β was more sensitive to the changes in suspended solids concentration than in the changes in ionic strength within the ranges of SS and IS examined in this study. Overall, the SS and IS effects on ammonium dissociation (and by extension on ammonia volatilization process) were thus found negligible within the normal ranges of liquid dairy manure characteristics.

  10. Properties of the filtrate from treatment of pig manure by filtration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makara Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents properties of filtrate obtained from pig manure using the AMAK treatment process, which includes the mineralization of macro- and microfertilizer components by the hydrolyzing of organic matter into forms that are bioavailable to plants. Filtration produced two products, sediment and filtrate. The quality of the filtrate allowed for its use as a substitute of water to irrigate crops. Concentrations of heavy metals are very low and therefore the quality of the filtrate fully complies with European standard concerning fertilizers. The used mineralization process practically eliminated odors from the filtrate. The reduction of specific odor emission by 99.1-99.5% in samples taken from above the filtrate, respectively compared to the odor concentration found in samples taken from above raw pig manure. Sediment could be used as raw material for production of mineral-organic fertilizer. Filtrate and filtration sediments analyses show that the majority of nitrogen and other fertilizing compounds included in raw pig manure remains in sediment.

  11. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jingqing; Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming; Wang, Guohui; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao

    2013-12-01

    In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37±1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9-70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others.

  12. Microbiological activity and N transformations in a soil subjected to aggregate extraction amended with pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelaine Quiroz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pig slurry as a fertilizer source has been extensively used in agriculture; however, in order to reduce the risks of contaminating the water supplies given its high level of N sources, it is important to understand the N transformations occurring in the soil where it is applied. In this study, incubations were performed at 25 °C for a period of 63 to 73 d to evaluate the effect of different doses of pig slurry on the global microbiological activity and the N dynamics in time, with an emphasis on N mineralization and nitrification in a soil subject to aggregate extraction. The slurry was applied in doses equivalent to: 0, 162, 244, and 325 m³ ha-1, constituting four treatments: T0, T50, T75, and T100, respectively. The microbiological activity and the contents of NH4+-N and NO3-- N were measured. Increasing doses of slurry produced an increase in the evolution of the accumulated CO2, with 63.5, 115.0, 112.7, and 125.7 mg 100 g-1 soil for T0, T50, T75, and T100 respectively. A similar situation was observed in the initial contents of NH4+-N, which were 22.4, 30.3, 44.3, and 60.7 mg kg-1 in each treatment, respectively. On the other hand, the increase in NO3-- N contents were only noticed by the end of the incubation period and corresponded to 28.6, 69.0, 95.3, and 109.8 mg kg-1. In addition, the net N mineralization was predominant in all treatments with slurry during the measurement period, being 9.1, 45.4, 58.1, and 52.7 mg kg-1 for T0, T50, T75 and T100, respectively, at the end of the trial. The mineralization rate of the organic C decreased when increasing the dose of slurry and the mineralization rate of the organic N resulted to be low, which would indicate a high contribution of material resistant to degradation by the slurry, which could have a long term effect in the soil.

  13. Structural and functional response of the soil bacterial community to application of manure from difloxacin-treated pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jechalke, S.; Focks, A.; Rosendahl, I.; Groeneweg, J.; Siemens, J.; Heuer, H.; Smalla, K.

    2014-01-01

    Difloxacin (DIF) belongs to the class of fluoroquinolone antibiotics that have been intensively used for the treatment of bacterial infections in veterinary and human medicine. The aim of this field study was to compare the effect of manure from DIF-treated pigs and untreated pigs on the bacterial c

  14. Structural and functional response of the soil bacterial community to application of manure from difloxacin-treated pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jechalke, S.; Focks, A.; Rosendahl, I.; Groeneweg, J.; Siemens, J.; Heuer, H.; Smalla, K.

    2014-01-01

    Difloxacin (DIF) belongs to the class of fluoroquinolone antibiotics that have been intensively used for the treatment of bacterial infections in veterinary and human medicine. The aim of this field study was to compare the effect of manure from DIF-treated pigs and untreated pigs on the bacterial c

  15. N Transformation of Green Manure Incorporated Directly of Returned into Soil After Feeding Pig and Its Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEDIAN-YUAN; LIAOXIAN-LIN; 等

    1994-01-01

    15N-labelled green manure was used to feed pigs.Its nitrogen recovery by pig body,feces and uring was 23.5%,23.8%and 28.8% respectively,totalling 76.1%.Feces and green manure coordinated respectively with equal amount of CO(NH2)2-N as well as urine alone were applied as basic fertilizer in microplot experiments,The 15N recovery from feces and urine was equivalent to 2.51%and 4.82%by rice grain,and 0.98% and 1.94% by straw respectively,and soil residual 15N from them took 13.3% and 4.90% of the 15N in green manure,After feeding pigs with green manure and returning their feces and uringe into soil,the 15N recovery by pig body and rice grain was 30.8%,and that by pig body,and rice plant as well as soil residual took 52.7% of the 15N in feed.15N loss was 23.9% in pig feeding and 23.4% in rice planting.When green manure was incorporated directly into soil,its 15N recovery by grain was 26.65%,that by rice plant plus soil residual was 65.2%,and the loss was 34.8%.

  16. The effect of floating covers on gas emissions from liquid pig manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundas Matulaitis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock manure is the source of different pollutant gases that can generate soil acidification, eutrophication, and contribute to global warming, or have a negative impact on health. Covers can control gas emissions from manure, but their impact is still under discussion. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of different covers on methane (CH4, nitric oxide (NO, hydrogen sulfide (H2S, ammonia (NH3, carbon monoxide (CO, and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from liquid pig manure. Six types of floating covers were tested: light expanded clay aggregate (leca, peat, sunflower oil, sawdust, straw, and plastic film. Manure was stored at 5, 15, and 25 °C for 37 d. Gas emissions were measured from the headspaces of the dynamic chambers. The results of our study showed that both cover and temperature have a noticeable impact on gas emissions from liquid pig manure. The plastic film cover was the most efficient at all tested temperatures because it reduced emissions of all the measured gases. In this case, mean emission reductions were: CH4 91.5% (P < 0.01, NO 92.0% (P < 0.05, H2S 78.1% (P < 0.05, NH3 54.7% (P < 0.01, CO 98.4% (P < 0.01, and CO2 67.1% (P < 0.01. Other covers had an inconsistent impact on separate gas emissions. However, covers generally helped to decrease NH3, H2S, and CO2 emissions.

  17. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of swine manure slurry in sequencing batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, D.I. [Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Food Research Branch; Droste, R.L. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    This work presents preliminary results of an ongoing laboratory study to evaluate the feasibility of psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) for stabilizing, deodorizing and adding value to swine manure. Preliminary results show that the process is feasible. (author). 14 refs., 7 tabs.

  18. Electricity generation from cattle manure slurry by cassette-electrode microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kengo; Ito, Toshihiro; Kawano, Yoshihiro; Iguchi, Atsushi; Miyahara, Morio; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2013-11-01

    Cassette-electrode microbial fuel cells (CE-MFCs) are efficient and scalable devices for electricity production from organic waste. Previous studies have demonstrated that CE-MFCs are capable of generating electricity from artificial wastewater at relatively high efficiencies. In this study, a single-cassette CE-MFC was constructed, and its capacity for electricity generation from cattle manure suspended in water (solid to water ratio of 1:50) was examined. The CE-MFC reactor was operated in batch mode for 49 days; electricity generation became stable 2 weeks after initiating the operation. The maximum power density was measured at 16.3 W m⁻³ on day 26. Sequencing analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments obtained from the original manure and from anode biofilms suggested that Chloroflexi and Geobacteraceae were abundant in the anode biofilm (29% and 18%, respectively), whereas no Geobacteraceae sequences were detected in the original manure sample. The results of this study suggest that CE-MFCs can be used to generate electricity from water-suspended cattle manure in a scalable MFC system. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pig slurry and mineral fertilization strategies' effects on soil quality: macroaggregate stability and organic matter fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagüe, María R; Bosch-Serra, Àngela D; Antúnez, Montserrat; Boixadera, Jaume

    2012-11-01

    Applying pig slurry to the land as fertilizer at appropriate agronomic rates is important to close nutrient cycles and optimize the value of organic matter. However a long-term discussion has taken place about its effects on soil quality. In the north-east of Spain, eight fertilization strategies were evaluated on the soil quality parameters' aggregate stability, soil organic matter (SOM) physical fractions and soil microbial biomass (SMB). Six strategies used different pig slurries (PS) which provided organic matter from 1.7 to 2.6 t ha(-1)yr(-1), the rest (mineral N fertilization and a control) did not. Pig slurries were applied at sowing and/or at cereal tillering, as sidedressing. Field experiments were maintained for an 8-year period, in a silty loam soil devoted to a rainfed winter cereal. Soil samples were taken once, before the last sidedressing in 2011. Aggregate stability was quantified using the standard water-stable aggregate method but including a modification which meant that pre-wetting was avoided (WSA(MOD)). When using the WSA(MOD) method, we found a tendency for the percentage of water-stable aggregates to increase due to PS application (differences of up to 74% in the increment) and it was more marked the nearer they were measured to the application time (3 months vs. 12 months). The strategies which include PS show a positive effect on the SOM amount, mainly in the 0.05-0.2 mm light fraction, which increased by up to 34% with every 10 t ha(-1) organic C applied, and on SMB (up to 53% increment). There is a positive and significant linear relationship (p fertilization strategies improves soil quality parameters. However, the soil quality benefits need to be balanced with any other potential environmental impact.

  20. Environmental assessment of nutrient recycling from biological pig slurry treatment--impact of fertilizer substitution and field emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Doris; Hanhoun, Mary; Négri, Ophélie; Hélias, Arnaud

    2014-07-01

    Pig slurry treatment is an important means in reducing nitrogen loads applied to farmland. Solid phase separation prior to biological treatment further allows for recovering phosphorus with the solid phase. The organic residues from the pig slurry treatment can be applied as organic fertilizers to farmland replacing mineral fertilizers. The environmental impacts of nutrient recycling from aerobic, biological pig slurry treatment were evaluated applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. LCA results revealed that direct field emissions from organic fertilizer application and the amount of avoided mineral fertilizers dominated the environmental impacts. A modified plant available nitrogen calculation (PAN) was introduced taking into account calculated nitrogen emissions from organic fertilizer application. Additionally, an equation for calculating the quantity of avoided mineral fertilizers based on the modified PAN calculation was proposed, which accounted for nitrogen emissions from mineral fertilizer application.

  1. Emissions of sulfur-containing odorants, ammonia, and methane from pig slurry: effects of dietary methionine and benzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Nørgaard, Jan V; Poulsen, Hanne D; Jensen, Bent Borg; Petersen, Søren O

    2010-01-01

    Supplementation of benzoic acid to pig diets reduces the pH of urine and may thereby affect emissions of ammonia and other gases from slurry, including sulfur-containing compounds that are expected to play a role in odor emission. Over a period of 112 d, we investigated hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), methanethiol (MT), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), as well as ammonia and methane emissions from stored pig slurry. The slurry was derived from a feeding experiment with four pig diets in a factorial design with 2% (w/w) benzoic acid and 1% (w/w) methionine supplementation as treatments. Benzoic acid reduced slurry pH by 1 to 1.5 units and ammonia emissions by 60 to 70% for up to 2 mo of storage, and a considerable, but transitory reduction of methane emissions was also observed after 4 to 5 wk. All five volatile sulfur (S) compounds were identified in gas emitted from the slurry of the control treatment, which came from pigs fed according to Danish recommendations for amino acids and minerals. The emission patterns of volatile S compounds suggested an intense cycling between pools of organic S in the slurries, with urinary sulfate as the main source. Diet supplementation with methionine significantly increased all S emissions. Diet supplementation with benzoic acid reduced emissions of H(2)S and DMTS compared with the control slurry and moderately increased the concentrations of MT. Sulfur gas emissions were influenced by a strong interaction between methionine and benzoic acid treatments, which caused a significant increase in emissions of especially MT, but also of DMDS. In conclusion, addition of 2% benzoic acid to pig diets effectively reduced ammonia volatilization, but interactions with dietary S may increase odor problems.

  2. Methanogenic community changes, and emissions of methane and other gases, during storage of acidified and untreated pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, S O; Højberg, O; Poulsen, M; Schwab, C; Eriksen, J

    2014-07-01

    Acidification with concentrated H(2)SO(4) is a novel strategy to reduce NH(3) emissions from livestock slurry. It was recently found that also CH(4) emissions from acidified slurry are reduced. This study investigated the microbiological basis and temporal stability of these effects. Pig slurry from two farms, acidified by different techniques or untreated, was stored for 83 days in a pilot-scale facility. Methanogens were characterized before and after storage by T-RFLP and qPCR targeting mcrA. Emissions of NH(3) and CH(4) during storage were quantified. Acidified slurry pH was nearly constant at values of 5·5 and 6·5. Ammonia losses were reduced by 84 and 49%, respectively, while CH(4) emission with both acidification techniques was reduced by >90%. T-RFLP fingerprints showed little effect of acidification or storage time. A major T-RF of 105 bp could represent methanogens related to Thermoplasmata (Tp). No treatment effects on gene copy numbers were seen with universal methanogen primers, whereas effects were found with Tp-specific primers. Methane emissions were reduced >90% during storage. Thermoplasmata-related methanogens could be involved in CH(4) emissions from pig slurry. The effect of acidification on CH(4) emissions during storage of pig slurry was quantified for the first time. Acidification with sulphuric acid holds promise as a novel greenhouse gas mitigation strategy for confined livestock production. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Effect of passivator on Cu form transformation in pig manure aerobic composting and application in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Chen, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    A sequential extraction approach was used to evaluate the effects of various combinations of passivators (sepiolite, phosphate rock, and coal fly ash) on the concentration and speciation of Cu in swine manure aerobic compost along with soil to which the compost had been applied. The results indicate that the various passivators altered the bound forms of Cu in pig manure and soil; the concentrations of exchangeable and Fe-Mn-bound Cu decreased, whereas the residual Cu concentration increased, indicating that Cu transformed to low-availability forms after the passivator treatments. The concentrations of the carbonate-bound and organic-bound Cu varied widely. Among all treatments, the treatment of the control + straw + sepiolite + coal fly ash (2.5 %) + phosphate rock (5.0 %) resulted in the most efficient passivation of Cu; the percentage of residual Cu reached 3.91-21.14 %, obviously surpassing the percentage for the control without passivation. The treatment of the control + straw + sepiolite + phosphate rock (2.5 %) resulted in the lowest residual Cu fraction (0.85 %) among passivator treatments. These results show that the addition of suitable combinations of passivators to the composting process reduced the availability of Cu and the risk of Cu pollution during the application of composted pig manure to soil. Passivation also decreased the Cu content of Apium graveolens.

  4. Effects of acidifying pig diets on emissions of ammonia, methane and sulfur from slurry during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization from intensive livestock production is a threat to natural ecosystems. This study investigated pig diet manipulation by 1% (w/w) benzoic acid (BA) amendment and lowering of dietary electrolyte balance through substituting 1.4% (w/w) CaCO3 with 2.0% (w/w) CaCl2. Urine...... conditions of restricted S feeding. Methane emissions were increased by 73% in diets with CaCl2. An initial delay in methane (CH4) emissions was investigated in a separate experiment with manipulation of pH (5.4, 6.7 or 8.8) and inoculation with adapted pig slurry (0, 4, 11, or 19%), which showed...

  5. Physical properties, fuel characteristics and P-fertilizer production related to animal slurry and products from separation of animal slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Johnsen, Tina; Triolo, Jin Mi

    of cattle slurry, contained too little P to be suitable for fertilizer production, as did pig slurry, to which sulphuric acid had been added prior to separation. Low solubility of P means the ashes should be treated before being used as a fertilizer. The acid consumption in a simple fertilizer production......The purpose of this study was twofold: firstly to examine the relationship between dry matter content (DM) and specific gravity (SG) and viscosity in slurry and the liquid fraction from slurry separation, and secondly to investigate the potential of energy production from combustion of manure fibre...... from slurry separation and phosphorus (P) fertilizer production from recycling of the ash. Manure fibre has a positive calorific value and may be used as a CO2-neutral fuel for combustion. The ashes from combustion are rich in P, an essential fertilizer compound. The study is based on samples of animal...

  6. Big business for constructors of equipment. Successful pig manure processing in six phases; Big business voor apparatenbouwers. Succes met varkensmestverwerking in zes stappen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, A. [ed.

    1999-12-16

    As a consequence of the new law for manure materials in the Netherlands there is a need for manure processing equipment. A plan is presented for constructors how to succeed in the busy market for pig manure processing equipment by following six steps.

  7. Biogas and Power Generation Potential. Part I: Bovine and Pig Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera-Romero Iván

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential energy through biogas obtained directly from the dung of bovine and pigs is reported in this paper, in the Cienega region of Michoacan, Mexico. The last INEGI Agricultural Census was used to determine the livestock population, and then the amount of manure by type of animal was established according to an average size. The total amount of manure was calculated and the amount of biogas and electricity produced. Representing a saving of electrical energy corresponding to 4.23% in 2013 to an amount of $18,300,00 Mexican pesos approximately, with an average cost of 2.326 pesos per kWh at a rate 5A Federal Electricity Commission (CFE.

  8. Housefly maggot-treated composting as sustainable option for pig manure management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Xiang; Yao, Yan-Lai; Wang, Su-Juan; Du, Rong-Guang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Yang; Hong, Chun-Lai; Qi, Bing; Xue, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Hong-Quan

    2015-01-01

    In traditional composting, large amounts of bulking agents must be added to reduce the moisture of pig manure, which increases the cost of composting and dilutes the N, P and K content in organic fertilizers. In this study, maggot treatment was used in composting instead of bulking agents. In experiment of selecting an optimal inoculum level for composting, the treatment of 0.5% maggot inoculum resulted in the maximum yield of late instar maggots, 11.6% (maggots weight/manure weight). The manure residue became noticeably granular by day 6 and its moisture content was below 60%, which was suitable for further composting without bulking agents. Moreover, in composting experiment with a natural compost without maggot inoculum and maggot-treated compost at 0.5% inoculum level, there were no significant differences in nutrient content between the two organic fertilizers from the two treatments (paired Student's t15=1.0032, P=0.3317). Therefore, maggot culturing did not affect the characteristics of the organic fertilizer. The content of TNPK (total nitrogen+total phosphorus+total potassium) in organic fertilizer from maggot treatment was 10.72% (dry weight), which was far more than that of organic fertilizer made by conventional composting with bulking agents (about 8.0%). Dried maggots as feed meet the national standard (GB/T19164-2003) for commercial fish meal in China, which contained 55.32 ± 1.09% protein; 1.34 ± 0.02% methionine; 4.15 ± 0.10% lysine. This study highlights housefly maggot-treated composting can be considered sustainable alternatives for pig manure management to achieve high-quality organic fertilizer and maggots as feed without bulking agents.

  9. Dicyandiamide as nitrification inhibitor of pig slurry ammonium nitrogen in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Gonzatto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Inhibition of nitrification of ammoniacal nitrogen pig slurry after its application to the soil can mitigate nitrogen (N losses by nitrate (NO3 - denitrification and leaching, with economical and environmental benefits. However, the use of this strategy is incipient in Brazil and, therefore, requires further assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of dicyandiamide (DCD nitrification inhibitor in slowing the nitrification of ammoniacal N applied to the soil with pig slurry (PS. For this, incubation was performed in laboratory, where nitrification was assessed by NO3 - accumulation in the soil. Rates of 2.8, 5.7 and 11.3kg DCD ha-1 were compared, being applied to the soil during PS addition. Nitrification was inhibited by DCD, and inhibition magnitude and duration depended on DCD applied rate. At a dose of 11.3kg ha-1 DCD, nitrification was completely inhibited in the first 12 days. During the first month after PS application, each 2.8kg of DCD increase applied per hectare promoted NO3 --N reduction in the soil of 13.3kg ha-1, allowing longer ammoniacal N maintenance in the soil.

  10. Pig manure vermicompost as a component of a horticultural bedding plant medium: effects on physicochemical properties and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, R M; Edwards, C A; Subler, S; Metzger, J D

    2001-05-01

    This experiment was designed to characterize the physical, chemical and microbial properties of a standard commercial horticultural, greenhouse container, bedding plant medium (Metro-Mix 360), that had been substituted with a range of increasing concentrations (0%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100% by volume) of pig manure vermicompost and to relate these properties to plant growth responses. The growth trials used tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), grown in the substituted media for 31 days under glasshouse conditions, with seedling growth recorded in 20 pots for each treatment. Half of the tomato seedlings (10 pots per treatment) were watered daily with liquid inorganic fertilizer while the other half received water only. The percentage total porosity, percentage air space, pH and ammonium concentrations of the container medium all decreased significantly, after substitution of Metro-Mix 360 with equivalent amounts of pig manure vermicompost; whereas bulk density, container capacity, electrical conductivity, overall microbial activity and nitrate concentrations, all increased with increasing substitutions of vermicompost. The growth of tomato seedlings in the potting mixtures containing 100% pig manure vermicompost was reduced, possibly as a result of high soluble salt concentrations in the vermicompost and poorer porosity and aeration. The growth of tomato seedlings was greatest after substitution of Metro-Mix 360 with between 25% and 50% pig manure vermicompost, with more growth occurring in combinations of pig manure vermicompost treated regularly with a liquid fertilizer solution than in those with no fertilizer applied. Some of the growth enhancement in these mixtures seemed to be related to the combined effects of improved porosity, aeration and water retention in the medium and the high nitrate content of the substrate, which produced an increased uptake of nitrogen by the plant tissues, resulting in increased plant growth. When the tomato seedlings were

  11. Replacement of mineral fertilizers with anaerobically digested pig slurry in paddy fields: assessment of plant growth and grain quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Wang, Minyan; Cao, Yucheng; Liang, Peng; Wu, Shengchun; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Christie, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Rice cultivation requires large quantities of irrigation water and mineral fertilizers. This provides an opportunity for the recycling of the plant nutrients in anaerobically digested pig slurry, large amounts of which are generated in Chinese pig farms. Hence, to promote the sustainable development of livestock and poultry breeding and rice production, a micro-plot field experiment was carried out to assess whether or not slurry can replace mineral fertilizers in rice paddy production in terms of plant tillering, grain quality, and yields. The results indicate that the total N content of the slurry can serve as an alternative source of N when compared to the control (450 kg ha(-1) commercial compound fertilizer (N/P2O5/K2O = 15:15:15) as basal fertilizer, 300 kg ha(-1) urea (N% = 46), and 150 kg ha(-1) commercial compound fertilizer as top-dressed fertilizer). No negative effects on plant growth or grain yield were observed, although there may be a potential risk due to an increase in grain Cu concentration. The amylose content and gel consistency of the rice grains were enhanced significantly by the use of slurry as a basal fertilizer, but the grain protein and total amino acid contents decreased. The results suggest that anaerobically digested pig slurry can replace mineral fertilizers in rice production when applied as a basal dressing together with urea and commercial compound fertilizer as top-dressed fertilizers.

  12. Modelling the potential of slurry management technologies to reduce the constraints of environmental legislation on pig production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Nicholas J; ten Hoeve, Marieke; Jensen, Rikke; Bruun, Sander; Søtoft, Lene F

    2013-11-30

    Limits on land applications of slurry nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are used to restrict losses of nutrients caused by livestock production. Here, we used a model to assess technologies that enable a more even geographic distribution of slurry nutrients to land. Technologies included were screw press slurry separation, with or without solid fraction composting, centrifuge separation with or without liquid fraction ammonia (NH3) stripping, and anaerobic digestion. Regulatory constraints were placed first on the application in slurry of N, then P, then N and P both on the producing (donor) and receiving (recipient) farms. Finally, a constraint preventing an increase in donor farm NH3 emissions was imposed. Separation had little effect on N losses per unit mass of slurry, but NH3 stripping led to a reduction. Centrifuge separation allowed a greater increase in pig production than a screw press, especially with P regulation. NH3 stripping was only advantageous with N regulation or when combined with NH3 scrubbing of pig housing ventilation air, when donor farm NH3 emissions were a constraint. There was a production penalty for using composting or anaerobic digestion. The choice of appropriate slurry management option therefore depends on the focus of the regulation. Nuanced and therefore complex regulations are necessary to take advantage of synergies and avoid cross-policy conflicts and incongruencies.

  13. Anaerobic Slurry Co-Digestion of Poultry Manure and Straw: Effect of Organic Loading and Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Babaee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain basic design criteria for anaerobic digestion of a mixture of poultry manure and wheat straw, the effects of different temperatures and organic loading rates on the biogas yield and methane contents were evaluated. Since poultry manure is a poor substrate, in term of the availability of the nutrients, external supplementation of carbon has to be regularly performed, in order to achieve a stable and efficient process. The complete-mix, pilot-scale digester with working volume of 70 L was used. The digestion operated at 25[degree sign]C, 30[degree sign]C and 35[degree sign]C with organic loading rates of 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 kg Volatile solid/m3d and a HRT of 15 days. At a temperature of 35[degree sign]C, the methane yield was increased by 43% compared to 25[degree sign]C. Anaerobic co-digestion appeared feasible with a loading rate of 3.0 kg VS/m3d at 35[degree sign]C. At this state, the specific methane yield was calculated about 0.12 m3/kg VS with a methane content of 53--70.2% in the biogas. The volatile solid (VS removal was 72%. As a result of volatile fatty acid accumulation and decrease in pH, when the loading rate was less than 1 or greater than 4 kg VS/m3d, the process was inhibited or overloaded, respectively. Both the lower and higher loading rates resulted in a decline in the methane yield.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of pig and dairy manure under photo-dark fermentation condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dongxue; Liu, Wei; Zhai, Ningning; Yang, Gaihe; Wang, Xiaojiao; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin

    2014-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) with livestock manure is a promising way for biogas production. This work presents the influence of photo-dark fermentation on biogas production of pig manure (PM) and dairy manure (DM). All sets were conducted with temperature 35 ± 2 °C and total solid concentrations 8%: PM₁ and DM₁ in transparent reactor under sunlight for photo-dark fermentation, and PM₂ and DM₂ in non-transparent reactor for dark fermentation. DM₂ had the best cumulative biogas production (CBP) of 15,447.5 mL, followed by PM₁ (15,020 mL) with stable pH and low total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentration (1384.99 mg/L), and DM₁ and PM₂. The CBP of DM₂ was 5.77 times as much as PM₂. The relationship between CBP and four factors including volatile fatty acid (VFA), TAN, total alkalinity and pH was analyzed. pH gained the maximum determination coefficient with the CBP among all sets and total alkalinity showed negative correlation with CBP of PM₁ and DM₁.

  15. Comparative nitrogen use efficiency of urea and pig slurry for regrowth yield and nutritive value in perennial ryegrass sward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Lee, Bok Rye; Cho, Won Mo; Kim, Tae Hwan

    2017-04-01

    The study aimed to assess the N use efficiency (NUE) of pig slurry (in comparison with chemical fertilizer) for each regrowth yield and annual herbage production and their nutritive value. Consecutive field experiments were separately performed using a single application with a full dose of N (200 kg N/ha) in 2014 and by four split applications in 2015 in different sites. The experiment consisted of three treatments: i) control plots that received no additional N, ii) chemical fertilizer-N as urea, and iii) pig-slurry-N with five replicates. The effect of N fertilization on herbage yield, N recovery in herbage, residual inorganic N in soil, and crude protein were significantly positive. When comparing the NUE between the two N sources (urea and pig slurry), pig slurry was significantly less effective for the earlier two regrowth periods, as shown by lower regrowth dry matter (DM) yield, N amount recovered in herbage, and inorganic N availability in soil at the 1st and 2nd cut compared to those of urea-applied plots. However, the effect of split application of the two N sources was significantly positive at the last two regrowth periods (at the 3rd and 4th cut). The two N sources and/or split application had little or no influence on neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content, acid detergent fiber (ADF) content, and in vitro DM digestibility, whereas cutting date was a large source of variation for these variables, resulting in a significant increase in in vitro DM digestibility for the last two regrowth periods when an increase in NDF and ADF content occurred. Split application of N reduced the N loss via nitrate leaching by 36% on average for the two N sources compared to a single application. The pig slurry-N was utilized as efficiently as urea-N for annual herbage yield, with a significant increase in NUE especially for the latter regrowth periods.

  16. Comparative nitrogen use efficiency of urea and pig slurry for regrowth yield and nutritive value in perennial ryegrass sward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyun Park

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study aimed to assess the N use efficiency (NUE of pig slurry (in comparison with chemical fertilizer for each regrowth yield and annual herbage production and their nutritive value. Methods Consecutive field experiments were separately performed using a single application with a full dose of N (200 kg N/ha in 2014 and by four split applications in 2015 in different sites. The experiment consisted of three treatments: i control plots that received no additional N, ii chemical fertilizer-N as urea, and iii pig-slurry-N with five replicates. Results The effect of N fertilization on herbage yield, N recovery in herbage, residual inorganic N in soil, and crude protein were significantly positive. When comparing the NUE between the two N sources (urea and pig slurry, pig slurry was significantly less effective for the earlier two regrowth periods, as shown by lower regrowth dry matter (DM yield, N amount recovered in herbage, and inorganic N availability in soil at the 1st and 2nd cut compared to those of urea-applied plots. However, the effect of split application of the two N sources was significantly positive at the last two regrowth periods (at the 3rd and 4th cut. The two N sources and/or split application had little or no influence on neutral detergent fiber (NDF content, acid detergent fiber (ADF content, and in vitro DM digestibility, whereas cutting date was a large source of variation for these variables, resulting in a significant increase in in vitro DM digestibility for the last two regrowth periods when an increase in NDF and ADF content occurred. Split application of N reduced the N loss via nitrate leaching by 36% on average for the two N sources compared to a single application. Conclusion The pig slurry-N was utilized as efficiently as urea-N for annual herbage yield, with a significant increase in NUE especially for the latter regrowth periods.

  17. Heavy metals in liquid pig manure in light of bacterial antimicrobial resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelzel, Christina S., E-mail: Christina.Hoelzel@wzw.tum.de [Chair of Animal Hygiene, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, 85354 Freising (Germany); Mueller, Christa [Institute for Agroecology, Organic Farming and Soil Protection, Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture (LfL), Lange Point 12, 85354 Freising (Germany); Harms, Katrin S. [Chair of Animal Hygiene, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, 85354 Freising (Germany); Mikolajewski, Sabine [Department for Quality Assurance and Analytics, Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture (LfL), Lange Point 4, 85354 Freising (Germany); Schaefer, Stefanie; Schwaiger, Karin; Bauer, Johann [Chair of Animal Hygiene, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, 85354 Freising (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Heavy metals are regularly found in liquid pig manure, and might interact with bacterial antimicrobial resistance. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined by atomic spectroscopic methods in 305 pig manure samples and were connected to the phenotypic resistance of Escherichia coli (n=613) against 29 antimicrobial drugs. Concentrations of heavy metals (/kg dry matter) were 0.08-5.30 mg cadmium, 1.1-32.0 mg chrome, 22.4-3387.6 mg copper, <2.0-26.7 mg lead, <0.01-0.11 mg mercury, 3.1-97.3 mg nickel and 93.0-8239.0 mg zinc. Associated with the detection of copper and zinc, resistance rates against {beta}-lactams were significantly elevated. By contrast, the presence of mercury was significantly associated with low antimicrobial resistance rates of Escherichia coli against {beta}-lactams, aminoglycosides and other antibiotics. Effects of subinhibitory concentrations of mercury on bacterial resistance against penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and doxycycline were also demonstrated in a laboratory trial. Antimicrobial resistance in the porcine microflora might be increased by copper and zinc. By contrast, the occurrence of mercury in the environment might, due to co-toxicity, act counter-selective against antimicrobial resistant strains.

  18. Heavy metals in liquid pig manure in light of bacterial antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Christina S; Müller, Christa; Harms, Katrin S; Mikolajewski, Sabine; Schäfer, Stefanie; Schwaiger, Karin; Bauer, Johann

    2012-02-01

    Heavy metals are regularly found in liquid pig manure, and might interact with bacterial antimicrobial resistance. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined by atomic spectroscopic methods in 305 pig manure samples and were connected to the phenotypic resistance of Escherichia coli (n=613) against 29 antimicrobial drugs. Concentrations of heavy metals (/kg dry matter) were 0.08-5.30 mg cadmium, 1.1-32.0 mg chrome, 22.4-3387.6 mg copper, nickel and 93.0-8239.0 mg zinc. Associated with the detection of copper and zinc, resistance rates against β-lactams were significantly elevated. By contrast, the presence of mercury was significantly associated with low antimicrobial resistance rates of Escherichia coli against β-lactams, aminoglycosides and other antibiotics. Effects of subinhibitory concentrations of mercury on bacterial resistance against penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and doxycycline were also demonstrated in a laboratory trial. Antimicrobial resistance in the porcine microflora might be increased by copper and zinc. By contrast, the occurrence of mercury in the environment might, due to co-toxicity, act counter-selective against antimicrobial resistant strains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anaerobic co-digestion of cyanide containing cassava pulp with pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanpracha, Naraporn; Annachhatre, Ajit P

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of cyanide-containing cassava pulp with pig manure was evaluated using laboratory scale mesophilic digester. The digester was operated in a semi-continuous mode with the mixed feedstock having C/N ratio of 35:1. Digester startup was accomplished in 60days with loading of 0.5-1kgVS/m(3)d. Subsequently, the loading to digester was increased step-wise from 2 to 9kgVS/m(3)d. Digester performance was stable at loading between 2 and 6kgVS/m(3)d with an average volatile solid removal and methane yield of 82% and 0.38m(3)/kgVSadded, respectively. However, beyond loading of 7kgVS/m(3)d, solubilization of particulate matter did not take place efficiently. Cyanide present in cassava pulp was successfully degraded indicating that anaerobic sludge in the digester was well acclimatized to cyanide. The results show that cassava pulp can be successfully digested anaerobically with pig manure as co-substrate without any inhibitory effect of cyanide present in the cassava pulp.

  20. Changes in Phosphorus Fractions and Nitrogen Forms During Composting of Pig Manure with Rice Straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LÜ Dui-an; YAN Bai-xing; WANG Li-xia; DENG Zhi-qiang; ZHANG Yu-bin

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to reveal P fractions and N forms changing characters during composting of pig manure with rice straw. During composting, the NH4+-N concentration decreased and reached at a relatively low value (<400 mg kg-1) in the ifnal compost, while the NO3--N concentration increased. Total N losses mainly occurred during thermophilic phase due to the high temperature, the high NH4+-N concentration and the increase of pH value. Labile inorganic P was dominated in the pig manure and initial compost mixture. During composting, the proportion of labile inorganic P of total extracted P decreased, while the proportion of Fe+Al-bound P, Ca+Mg-bound P and residual P increased. The evolutions of the proportion of labile inorganic P, Fe+Al-bound P and Ca+Mg-bound P were well correlated with the changes of pH value, organic matter and C/N ratio. Therefore, composting could increase the concentration of N and P and decrease the presence of NH4+-N and labile P fractions which might cause environmental issues following land application.

  1. Nutrient removal from separated pig manure digestate liquid using hybrid biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingchuan; Lawlor, Peadar G; Hu, Zhenhu; Zhan, Xinmin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, laboratory-scale hybrid biofilters were set up to treat the separated pig manure digestate liquid at two loading rates of 0.12 and 0.07 kg N m(-3) per day. The hybrid biofilters were operated with a sequencing batch reactor mode. Over the operation of 136 days, 84% and 88% of total nitrogen was removed on average in addition with complete nitrification at the high loading rate and low loading rate, respectively. In the anoxic phase, the nitrate reduction rates were 0.31 and 0.24 mg L(-1) min(-1); and in the aerobic phase, nitrification rates were 0.29 and 0.18 mg L(-1) min(-1) at the high loading rate and low loading rate, respectively. It was found that in the hybrid biofilters, biofilm biomass had much higher nitrification and denitrification activities than suspended growth biomass. Phosphorus removals achieved were up to 88%. The results show the hybrid biofilter technology is valid for high nutrient pig manure digestate liquid treatment.

  2. Speciation of Cu and Zn during composting of pig manure amended with rock phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Duian; Wang, Lixia; Yan, Baixing; Ou, Yang; Guan, Jiunian; Bian, Yu; Zhang, Yubin

    2014-08-01

    Pig manure usually contains a large amount of metals, especially Cu and Zn, which may limit its land application. Rock phosphate has been shown to be effective for immobilizing toxic metals in toxic metals contaminated soils. The aim of this study work was to investigate the effect of rock phosphate on the speciation of Cu and Zn during co-composting of pig manure with rice straw. The results showed that composting process and rock phosphate addition significantly affected the changes of metal species. During co-composting, the exchangeable and reducible fractions of Cu were transformed to organic and residue fractions, thus the bioavailable Cu fractions were decreased. The rock phosphate addition enhanced the metal transformation depending on the level of rock phosphate amendment. Zinc was found in the exchangeable and reducible fractions in the compost. The bioavailable Zn fraction changed a little during the composting process. The composting process converted the exchangeable Zn fraction into reducible fraction. Addition of an appropriate amount (5.0%) of rock phosphate could advance the conversion. Rock phosphate could reduce metal availability through adsorption and complexation of the metal ions on inorganic components. The increase in pH and organic matter degradation could be responsible for the reduction in exchangeable and bioavailable Cu fractions and exchangeable Zn fraction in rock phosphate amended compost.

  3. Particle-Scale Modeling of Methane Emission during Pig Manure/Wheat Straw Aerobic Composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jinyi; Huang, Guangqun; Huang, Jing; Zeng, Jianfei; Han, Lujia

    2016-04-19

    Inefficient aerobic composting techniques significantly contribute to the atmospheric methane (CH4) levels. Macro-scale models assuming completely aerobic conditions cannot be used to analyze CH4 generation in strictly anaerobic environments. This study presents a particle-scale model for aerobic pig manure/wheat straw composting that incorporates CH4 generation and oxidation kinetics. Parameter estimation revealed that pig manure is characterized by high CH4 yield coefficient (0.6414 mol CH4 mol(-1) Cman) and maximum CH4 oxidation rate (0.0205 mol CH4 kg(-1) VS(aero) h(-1)). The model accurately predicted CH4 emissions (R(2) = 0.94, RMSE = 2888 ppmv, peak time deviation = 0 h), particularly in the self-heating and cooling phases. During mesophilic and thermophilic stages, a rapid increase of CH4 generation (0.0130 mol CH4 kg(-1) VS h(-1)) and methanotroph inactivation were simulated, implying that additional measures should be performed during these phases to mitigate CH4 emissions. Furthermore, CH4 oxidation efficiency was related to oxygen permeation through the composting particles. Reducing the ambient temperature and extending the aeration duration can decrease CH4 emission, but the threshold temperature is required to trigger the self-heating phase. These findings provide insights into CH4 emission during composting and may inform responsible strategies to counteract climate change.

  4. Laboratory testing on the removal of the veterinary antibiotic doxycycline during long-term liquid pig manure and digestate storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyasari-Mehta, Arum; Suwito, Hanna Resti Kartika Ayu; Kreuzig, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The veterinary antibiotic doxycycline (DOXY) is today frequently applied in conventional pig husbandry for the control of respiratory diseases. After the treatment, pigs excrete major amounts of DOXY as the unchanged active substance. Thus, DOXY residues were found in liquid manures and digestates of biogas plants at concentrations of mg kg(-1) dry weight. In order to assess the impact of field applications of contaminated manures and digestates on the entry of DOXY residues into arable and grassland soils, thorough information about the removal of DOXY during long-term storage of farm fertilizers is required. Since this aspect has been only less investigated for manures but not for digestates, first long-term storage simulation tests were performed at laboratory scale. Within the 170-d incubation periods under strictly anaerobic conditions, doxycycline was removed in liquid pig manure by 61% and in digestate by 76%. The calculated half-lives of 120 d and 91 d thus emphasized the persistence of doxycycline in both matrices. Due to the substance specific properties of DOXY, this removal was caused neither by mineralization, epimerization nor biotransformation. According to the high affinity of DOXY to manure and digestate solids, however, the formation of non-extractable residues has to be taken into account as the predominant concentration determining process. This was indicated by the sequential extraction procedure applied. Hence, these results confirmed that a full removal capacity for doxycycline cannot be reached through the long-term storage of farm fertilizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sustainable Treatment and Reuse of Diluted Pig Manure Streams in Russia: From Laboratory Trials to Full-Scale Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.; Sklyar, V.; Epov, A.; Arkhipchenko, I.; Barboulina, I.; Orlova, O.; Kovalev, A.; Nozhevnikova, A.; Klapwijk, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained during the laboratory and pilot development of integrated biologic and physicochemical treatment and reuse of diluted pig manure streams. The application of a straw filter was an effective means to separate the solid and liquid fractions of raw wastewater

  6. Responses of the biogas process to pulses of oleate in reactors treating mixtures of cattle and pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2006-01-01

    The effect of oleate on the anaerobic digestion process was investigated. Two thermophilic continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were fed with mixtures of cattle and pig manure with different total solid (TS) and volatile solid (VS) content. The reactors were subjected to increasing pulses...

  7. NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions during passively aerated composting of straw-rich pig manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szanto, G.L.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Veeken, A.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Straw-rich manure from organic pig farming systems was composted in passively aerated static piles to estimate the effect of monthly turning on organic matter degradation and NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions. Turning enhanced the rate of drying and degradation. The four-month treatment degraded 57 ± 3% of

  8. The Impact of Dry Mass Content in Pig Liquid Manure on its Treatment with a Filtration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Zygmunt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the impacts of dry mass content in pig liquid manure on its treatment with a filtration method. Samples of liquid manure with variable dry mass content were subjected to treatment using phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, lime milk and superphosphate, as well as to thermal treatment, while in the last phase of pressure filtration. Increased dilution of the manure resulted in a reduced raw materials consumption ratio and improved filtration process efficiency, which ranged from 408 to 3765 kg/m2/h. The highest filtration efficiency was achieved using manure containing 3% dry mass, while the lowest efficiency was observed in manure at 10% dry mass. The increase in liquid manure dilution also reduced chemical oxygen demand in the filtrate, which ranged from 15 062 to 3656 mg/l. An appropriate manure dilution level, under the constant parameters of the treatment process, reduced phosphorus content in the filtrate to < 10 mg/kg while simultaneously enriching the post-filtration sediment with this precious fertilizing component.

  9. Effects of slurry from sulfadiazine- (SDZ) and difloxacin- (DIF) medicated pigs on the structural diversity of microorganisms in bulk and rhizosphere soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichel, R.; Rosendahl, I.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Focks, A.; Groeneweg, K.J.I.; Bierl, R.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional farming still consumes considerable amounts of antibiotics such as sulfadiazine (SDZ) or difloxacin (DIF) to protect livestock from infectious diseases. Consequently, slurries from medicated animals are applied to arable soils. Antibiotics, co-applied with pig slurry, are increasingly r

  10. Ammonia from manure slurry and measures for its reduction - in particular in connection with fermentation; Ammoniakemissionen aus Guelle und deren Minderungsmassnahmen unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Vergaerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersener, J.-L.; Meier, U.; Dinkel, F.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to demonstrate the potential of reducing ammonia emissions from manure slurries in connection with anaerobic digestion. The various methods of treatment that were assessed, including digestion, aeration, separation of the liquid phase, additives, acidification, flocculation, precipitation and stripping are discussed. The findings on the effectiveness of the different treatment methods are compared with normal slurry storage and distribution methods (open pits for storage, distribution by splash plate). Recommendations on convenient methods for reducing ammonia losses are made, whereby the authors state their opinion that digestion is not to be recommended and that separation is practical and can be realised rapidly.

  11. Triggered antioxidant defense mechanism in maize grown in soil with accumulation of Cu and Zn due to intensive application of pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Eduardo; Ceretta, Carlos A; Rossato, Liana V; Farias, Julia G; Tiecher, Tadeu L; De Conti, Lessandro; Schmatz, Roberta; Brunetto, Gustavo; Schetinger, Maria R C; Nicoloso, Fernando T

    2013-07-01

    The present study investigated changes in both the growth parameters and the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems of maize (Zea may L.) plants grown in Typic Hapludalf soil containing an accumulation of Cu and Zn. This accumulation developed because the soil received nineteen applications of pig slurry in no-tillage system over seven years. In this study, the maize plants were grown for fifteen and 25 days after emergence (DAE) in pots containing undisturbed and disturbed soil samples collected from a field experiment that received the rates 0, 20, 40 and 80m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry, which totalized the amount of 0, 380, 760 and 1520m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry in seven years, respectively, and phosphorus (P)+potassium (K) treatment (in disturbed soil samples). The maize plants grown in the undisturbed soil samples with an accumulation of Cu and Zn did not indicate an apparent decrease in growth. However, when compared to the treatment with PK fertilization, the maize plants grown in the disturbed soil with pig slurry treatments indicated higher lipid peroxidation and a number of senescent leaves, as well as a significant decrease in plant height. Additionally, when compared to the PK treatment, the leaf superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased and increased, respectively, with the addition of pig slurry treatments in the disturbed soil at 25 DAE. In general, when compared to the treatments with 20m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry and PK at fifteen and 25 DAE, the leaf ascorbic acid and non-protein thiol groups concentrations decreased with the addition of 40 and 80m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry. This result suggests that the excess of Cu and Zn in the pig slurry significantly changed the antioxidant system of the maize plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An assessment tool applied to manure management systems using innovative technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus G.; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2003-01-01

    of operational and cost-effective animal manure handling technologies. An assessment tool covering the whole chain of the manure handling system from the animal houses to the field has been developed. The tool enables a system-oriented evaluation of labour demand, machinery capacity and costs related...... to the handling of manure. By applying the tool to a pig farm and a dairy farm scenario, the competitiveness of new technologies was compared with traditional manure handling. The concept of a continuous flow of transport and application of slurry using umbilical transportation systems rather than traditional...

  13. Effect of Pig Manure Application on Structural Characteristics of Humic Acids in Brown Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOUSEN; TANSHI-WEN; 等

    1991-01-01

    The effect of application of pig manure (PM) on the structural characteristics of humic acids (HAs) of brown soil was studied in field and incubation experiments.The results showed that the number-average molecular weights (Mn),the ratios of C/H,C/H and O/C,the contents of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups,the content of aromatic C,the values of E2,E4 and λExmax of HAs all decreased;whereas,the contents of alkyl C and O--alkyl C,the ratio of carboxyl to phenolic hydroxyl groups,the degree of oxidation stability,te absorption intensity at 285mμ (UV),and 2920cm-1 of HAs increased after the application of PM.The above results indicated that the molecular structure of HAs tended to be more aliphatic and simpler after the application of PM.

  14. Anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and crude glycerol at mesophilic conditions: biogas and digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astals, S; Nolla-Ardèvol, V; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2012-04-01

    Crude glycerol derived from biodiesel production is characterized by its high concentration of organic carbon and its solubility in water; properties that make it a suitable co-substrate to improve the efficiency of a manure digester. An increase of about 400% in biogas production was obtained under mesophilic conditions when pig manure was co-digested with 4% of glycerol, on a wet-basis, compared to mono-digestion. The increase in biogas production was mainly a consequence of the increase in organic loading rate. However, the differences could also be related to the synergy between both substrates and the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. Moreover, the analysis of the macro-compounds, protein, lipids, carbohydrates and fibers, showed lower removal efficiencies in the co-digester as the microorganisms obtained nutrients from the soluble carbohydrates provided by the glycerol. The digestate stability, evaluated through a respirometric assay, showed that co-substrate addition does not exert a negative impact on digestate quality.

  15. Impact of pig slurry amendments on phosphorus, suspended sediment and metal losses in laboratory runoff boxes under simulated rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, C J; Fenton, O; Wilson, P; Healy, M G

    2012-12-30

    Losses of phosphorus (P) when pig slurry applications to land are followed by a rainfall event or losses from soils with high P contents can contribute to eutrophication of receiving waters. The addition of amendments to pig slurry spread on high P Index soils may reduce P and suspended sediment (SS) losses. This hypothesis was tested at laboratory-scale using runoff boxes under simulated rainfall conditions. Intact grassed soil samples, 100 cm-long, 22.5 cm-wide and 5 cm-deep, were placed in runoff boxes and pig slurry or amended pig slurry was applied to the soil surface. The amendments examined were: (1) commercial grade liquid alum (8% Al(2)O(3)) applied at a rate of 0.88:1 [Al:total phosphorus (TP)] (2) commercial-grade liquid ferric chloride (38% FeCl(3)) applied at a rate of 0.89:1 [Fe:TP] and (3) commercial-grade liquid poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) (10% Al(2)O(3)) applied at a rate of 0.72:1 [Al:TP]. The grassed soil was then subjected to three rainfall events (10.3 ± 0.15 mm h(-1)) at time intervals of 48, 72, and 96 h following slurry application. Each sod received rainfall on 3 occasions. Results across three rainfall events showed that for the control treatment, the average flow weighted mean concentration (FWMC) of TP was 0.61 mg L(-1), of which 31% was particulate phosphorus (PP), and the average FWMC of SS was 38.1 mg L(-1). For the slurry treatment, there was an average FWMC of 2.2 mg TP L(-1), 47% of which was PP, and the average FWMC of SS was 71.5 mg L(-1). Ranked in order of effectiveness from best to worst, PAC reduced the average FWMC of TP to 0.64 mg L(-1) (42% PP), FeCl(3) reduced TP to 0.91 mg L(-1) (52% PP) and alum reduced TP to 1.08 mg L(-1) (56% PP). The amendments were in the same order when ranked for effectiveness at reducing SS: PAC (74%), FeCl(3) (66%) and alum (39%). Total phosphorus levels in runoff plots receiving amended slurry remained above those from soil only, indicating that, although incidental losses could be mitigated

  16. Environmental impacts of combining pig slurry acidification and separation under different regulatory regimes - a life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke; Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    -house acidification and separation on marine eutrophication potential compared to these technologies individually. The model was sensitive to the chosen ammonia emission coefficients and to the choice of inclusion of indirect nitrous oxide emissions, since scenarios changed ranking for certain impact categories.......Global livestock production is increasing rapidly, leading to larger amounts of manure and environmental impacts. Technologies that can be applied to treat manure in order to decrease certain environmental impacts include separation and acidification. In this study, a life cycle assessment was used...... to investigate the environmental effects of slurry acidification and separation, and whether there were synergetic environmental benefits to combining these technologies. Furthermore, an analysis was undertaken into the effect of implementing regulations restricting the P application rate to soils...

  17. Dissolution of particulate phosphorus in pig slurry through biological acidification: A critical step for maximum phosphorus recovery as struvite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piveteau, Simon; Picard, Sylvie; Dabert, Patrick; Daumer, Marie-Line

    2017-08-08

    Recycling phosphorus as struvite from pig slurry requires an acidification step to dissolve the inorganic solids containing most of the phosphorus. This study focused on the biological acidification of several pig slurries using sucrose as a model organic co-substrate. Lactic acid fermentation occurred systematically, dissolving 60-90% of TP (total phosphorus) and T-Mg (total magnesium) at pH 6 or lower. Optimal pH range for maximum P dissolution aimed at struvite recovery was 5.5-6. A simple model was developed correlating pH, sucrose and buffer capacity to optimize P dissolution and future recovery using real organic waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution of Pb and its chemical fractions in liquid and solid phases of digested pig and dairy slurries%猪、奶牛粪厌氧发酵中Pb的形态转化及其分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳红梅; 付广青; 常志州; 叶小梅

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion treatment effectively degrades the organic matter and causes obvious variations in physical and chemical properties of digested slurries, such as water content, pH, oxidation reduction potential and microbial activities. These changes may influence the chemical fraction of Pb, which is a critical factor in predicting its toxicity, environmental mobility, bioavailability and optimum removal methods. The speciation and phytotoxic effects of lead from sewage sludge and composted manure have been widely studied. There has been no study about the transfer and distribution of Pb during anaerobic digestion of manure slurries. The aim of the present work was to analyze the distribution of Pb in both liquid and solid phase after anaerobic digestion of pig slurries and dairy slurries, and their chemical speciation in solid fraction of digested residuals. The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at condition of medium temperature [(37 ± 2)℃] was operated for 130 d. Lead in liquid and solid phases of raw materials and digested slurries was analyzed by first passing through a 0.45 µm filter paper. The chemical fractions in digested slurry solids were extracted by BCR method. Results showed that total amount of Pb was decreased 70% and 19% in digested pig slurries (DPS) and dairy slurries (DDS), respectively, , compared with raw slurries. The percentages of Pb in liquid fractions of DPS and DDS were 29%and 17%, which decreased by 17%and 58%. The decrease of Pb in DDS was significantly lower than that in DPS. One reason is that 90%of solids in DDS were discharged during the anaerobic digestion. Another reason is that Pb in digested slurries mainly exists as the solid form. Thus the amount of Pb left in the reactor for dairy manure digestion was significantly lower than that for pig manure digest. Due to the high removal efficiency, easy operation and low treatment cost of heavy metals in solid phase, transformation of liquid phase of heavy metals to the

  19. Effects of long term raw pig slurry inputs on nutrient and metal contamination of tropical volcanogenic soils, Uvéa Island (South Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunkel-Grillon, P; Roth, E; Laporte-Magoni, C; Le Mestre, M

    2015-11-15

    In small Polynesian islands, family pig breeding is usually conducted without recovery of pig slurry. Raw pig slurry is spread onto the soil without any treatment. So far, most of the studies were carried out in temperate climate and for industrial digested pig slurry applications on agricultural lands. In the present case study, conducted in Uvéa Island, the aim is to determine if long term application of raw pig slurry on tropical soils, naturally rich in heavy metals has a significant influence on elements concentrations and mobility. Two types of tropical soils and two pig breeding systems, pig enclosure on small concrete pens or pig enclosure in large land pens, were investigated. Here we demonstrate that raw pig slurry inputs on soils can lead to an increase of total nitrogen and phosphorus content with high Contamination Factors. The Pollution Load Index values (1.3; 5.3; 2.5; 2.3) were indicative of multi-heavy metals pollution (Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni) in mixed calcareous soils of the coastal area and they are exchangeable while they are immobilized or less mobile in inland pure ferralitic soils. For mixed calcareous soils of the coastal area, family pig breeding represents a drainage risk of soluble species (phosphorus, inorganic nitrogen, Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni). For inland ferralitic soils, family pig breeding is more compatible with a sustainable management of the environment in Uvéa Island and by extension in volcanic tropical islands with respect to the investigated chemical elements.

  20. Temperature response of methane production in liquid manures and co-digestates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olsen, Anna Berg; Petersen, Søren O.

    2016-01-01

    of CH4 emissions fromliquid manure. Here, we describe the temperature response of CH4 production in liquid cattle slurry, pig slurry, and fresh and stored co-digested slurry from a thermophilic biogas plant. Subsamples of slurry were anoxically incubated at 20 temperatures from 5–52 °C in a temperature...... gradient incubator and CH4 production was measured by gas chromatographic analysis of headspace gas after a 17-h incubation period. Methane production potentials at 5–37 °C were described by the Arrhenius equation (modelling efficiencies, 79.2–98.1%), and the four materials showed a consistent activation...... of the manure affect this parameter. The Ea estimate, based on individual slurry materials,was intermediate when compared to published values of 63 and 112.7 kJ mol−1 derived from composite data, but was similar to Ea estimated for CH4 production at microbial community level across aquatic ecosystems, wetlands...

  1. Effects of Pig Slurry Application and Crops on Phosphorus Content in Soil and the Chemical Species in Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessandro De Conti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of pig slurry rates and plant cultivation can modify the soil phosphorus (P content and distribution of chemical species in solution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total P, available P and P in solution, and the distribution of chemical P species in solution, in a soil under longstanding pig slurry applications and crop cultivation. The study was carried out in soil columns with undisturbed structure, collected in an experiment conducted for eight years in the experimental unit of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, Santa Maria (RS. The soil was an Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico (Typic Hapludalf, subjected to applications of 0, 20, 40, and 80 m3 ha-1 pig slurry. Soil samples were collected from the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-60 cm, before and after black oat and maize grown in a greenhouse, for the determination of available P, total P and P in the soil solution. In the solution, the concentration of the major cations, anions, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and pH were determined. The distribution of chemical P species was determined by software Visual Minteq. The 21 pig slurry applications increased the total P content in the soil to a depth of 40 cm, and the P extracted by Mehlich-1 and from the solution to a depth of 30 cm. Successive applications of pig slurry changed the balance between the solid and liquid phases in the surface soil layers, increasing the proportion of the total amount of P present in the soil solution, aside from changing the chemical species in the solution, reducing the percentage complexed with Al and increasing the one complexed with Ca and Mg in the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm. Black oat and maize cultivation increased pH in the solution, thereby increasing the proportion of HPO42- and reducing H2PO4- species.

  2. Short-Term Effects of Biogas Digestates and Pig Slurry Application on Soil Microbial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abubaker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four biogas digestates (BD-A, BD-B, BD-C, and BD-D and pig slurry (PS on soil microbial functions was assessed at application rates corresponding to 0–1120 kg NH4+-N ha−1. At dose corresponding to 140 kg NH4+-N ha−1, 30.9–32.5% of the carbon applied in BD-A, BD-C, and PS was utilized during 12 days, while for BD-B and BD-D corresponding utilization was 19.0 and 16.9%, respectively. All BDs resulted in net nitrogen assimilation at low rates (17.5–140 kg NH4+-N ha−1 but net mineralization dominated at higher rates. PS resulted in net mineralization at all application rates. All residues inhibited potential ammonium oxidation (PAO, with EC50-values ranging between 45 and 302 kg NH4+-N ha−1. Low rates of BDs appeared to weakly stimulate potential denitrification activity (PDA, while higher rates resulted in logarithmic decrease. The EC50-values for PDA were between 238 and 347 kg NH4+-N ha−1. No inhibition of PDA was observed after amendment with PS. In conclusion, biogas digestates inhibited ammonia oxidation and denitrification, which could be an early warning of potential hazardous substances in the digestates. However, this effect can also be regarded as positive, since it may reduce nitrogen losses.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of a New KOR-1 from an Anaerobic Digester Using Pig Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urantulkhuur Battumur

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A new methanogen was isolated from an anaerobic digester using pig slurry in South Korea. Only one strain, designated KOR-1, was characterized in detail. Cells of KOR-1 were straight or crooked rods, non-motile, 5 to 15 μm long and 0.7 μm wide. They stained Gram-positive and produced methane from H2+CO2 and formate. Strain KOR-1 grew optimally at 38°C. The optimum pH for growth was 7.0. The strain grew at 0.5% to 3.0% NaCl, with optimum growth at 2.5% NaCl. The G+C content of genomic DNA of strain KOR-1 was 41 mol%. The strain tolerated ampicillin, penicillin G, kanamycin and streptomycin but tetracycline inhibited cell growth. A large fragment of the 16S rRNA gene (~1,350 bp was obtained from the isolate and sequenced. Comparison of 16S rRNA genes revealed that strain KOR–1 is related to Methanobacterium formicicum (98%, sequence similarity, Methanobacterium bryantii (95% and Methanobacterium ivanovii (93%. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced mcrA gene sequences confirmed the closest relative as based on mcrA gene sequence analysis was Methanobacterium formicicum strain (97% nucleic acid sequence identity. On the basis of physiological and phylogenetic characteristics, strain KOR-1 is proposed as a new strain within the genus Methanobacterium, Methanobacterium formicicum KOR-1.

  4. Pig slurry and nutrient accumulation and dry matter and grain yield in various crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cledimar Rogério Lourenzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig slurry (PS represents an important nutrient source for plants and using it as fertilizer makes greater nutrient cycling in the environment possible. The aim of this study was to assess how PS application over a period of years can affect grain yield, dry matter production and nutrient accumulation in commercial grain and cover crops. The experiment was carried out in an experimental area of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, from May 2000 to January 2008. In this period, 19 grain and cover crops were grown with PS application before sowing, at rates of 0, 20, 40 and 80 m³ ha-1. The highest PS rate led to an increase in nutrient availability over the years, notably of P, but also of nutrients that are potentially toxic to plants, especially Cu and Zn. The apparent recovery of nutrients by commercial grain and cover crops decreased with the increasing number of PS applications to the soil. Accumulated dry matter production of the crops and maize grain yield were highest at an annual application rate of 80 m³ ha-1 PS. However, common bean yield increased up to 20 m³ ha-1 PS, showing that the crop to be grown should be considered to define the application rate.

  5. ORGANIC MATTER AND HUMIC FRACTIONS OF A HAPLIC ACRISOL AS AFFECTED BY COMPOSTED PIG SLURRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Lüdtke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of composted pig slurry (PS on the organic matter concentration and distribution of humic acid (HA, fulvic acid (FA and humin (HU fractions. The fractions were quantified following the addition of composted PS to the soil, which was produced with no acidification (T2 or with acidification with H3PO4 (T3; and in soil without compost addition (T1. The HA chemical composition was analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. The addition of the two composts did not change the soil carbon concentration but affected the distribution of the humic fractions. For the three treatments, the carbon concentration of humic substances increased until 52 days following compost addition, with more pronounced increases with the addition of non-acidified PS compost (14.5 g kg-1 and acidified PS compost (15.1 g kg-1. This increase was reflected in both the FA and HA concentrations. The addition of compost with PS acidification resulted in the formation of larger humic micelles (HA with higher aromatic content and fewer functional groups than the non-acidified PS compost. These findings, together with a lower proportion of carbohydrate-type structures, indicated the presence of more stable humic micelles in the soil treated with acidified PS compost.

  6. Implications from distinct sulfate-reducing bacteria populations between cattle manure and digestate in the elucidation of H2S production during anaerobic digestion of animal slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G

    2017-07-01

    Biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion of animal slurry consists mainly of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), but also includes other minor gases, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Since it can act as a potent corrosive agent and presents a health hazard even at low concentrations, H2S is considered an undesirable by-product of anaerobic digestion. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) have been identified as the main biological source of H2S in a number of natural, biological, and human-made habitats, and thus represent likely candidate microorganisms responsible for the production of H2S in anaerobic manure digesters. Phylogenetically, SRBs form a divergent group of bacteria that share a common anaerobic respiration pathway that allows them to use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor. While the composition and activity of SRBs have been well documented in other environments, their metabolic potential remains largely uncharacterized and their populations poorly defined in anaerobic manure digesters. In this context, a combination of in vitro culture-based studies and DNA-based approaches, respectively, were used to gain further insight. Unexpectedly, only low to nondetectable levels of H2S were produced by digestate collected from a manure biogas plant documented to have persistently high concentrations of H2S in its biogas (2000-3000 ppm). In contrast, combining digestate with untreated manure (a substrate with comparatively lower sulfate and SRB cell densities than digestate) was found to produce elevated H2S levels in culture. While a 16S rRNA gene-based community composition approach did not reveal likely candidate SRBs in digestate or untreated manure, the use of the dsrAB gene as a phylogenetic marker provided more insight. In digestate, the predominant SRBs were found to be uncharacterized species likely belonging to the genus Desulfosporosinus (Peptococcaceae, Clostridiales, Firmicutes), while Desulfovibrio-related SRBs (Desulfovibrionaceae

  7. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions following application of animal manures to grassland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, D.R.; Pain, B.F.; Brookman, S.K.E.

    2000-02-01

    Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions were measured from grassland following manure applications at three times of the year. Pig (Sus scrofa) slurry and dairy cow (Bos taurus) slurry were applied in April, at equal rates of ammoniacal-N (NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N), and in July, at equal volumetric rates (50 m{sup 3}ha{sup {minus}1}). In October, five manure types were applied to grassland plots at typical application rates: pig slurry, dilute diary cow effluent, pig farm yard manure (FYM), beef FYM and layer manure. Emissions were measured for 20, 22, and 24 d, respectively. In April, greater cumulative emissions of N{sub 2}O-N were measured following application of dairy cow slurry (1.51 kg ha{sup {minus}1}) than pig slurry (90.77 kg ha{sup {minus}1}). Cumulative CH{sub 4} emissions following application in April were significantly greater from the dairy cow slurry treatment (0.58 kg ha{sup {minus}1}) than the pig slurry treatment (0.13 kg ha{sup {minus}1}) (P < 0.05). In July, significantly greater N{sub 2}O-N emissions resulted from pig slurry-treated plots (0.57 kg ha{sup {minus}1}) than dairy cow slurry-treated plots (0.34 kg ha{sup {minus}1}). Cumulative net CH{sub 4} emissions were very low following July applications (<10 g ha{sup {minus}1}). In October, the lowest N{sub 2}O-N emission resulted from application of dilute dairy effluent, 0.15 kg ha{sup {minus}1}, with the greatest net emission from the application of pig slurry, 0.74 kg ha{sup {minus}1}. Methane emissions were greatest from the plots that received pig FYM, resulting in a mean cumulative net emission of 2.39 kg ha{sup {minus}1}.

  8. Survival of model bacterial strains and helminth eggs in the course of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juris, P; Tóth, F; Lauková, A; Plachý, P; Dubinský, P; Sokol, J

    1996-05-01

    The effect of methanogenesis on the survival of model bacterial strains (Escherichia coli EC 5, Staphylococcus aureus SA 11, Enterococcus faecium CCM 4231) and non-embryonated helminth eggs (Ascaris suum) was investigated in pig slurry. Two pilot-plant experiments were carried out in two anaerobic digesters (800 and 1,000 litre) in a mesophilic thermal range (35-37 degrees C). The mean hydraulic retention time of the digesters was 20 days. The methanogenesis process was monitored by determining the following chemical parameters: pH, N-NH3, total dry matter (kg/day), organic matter (kg/day) production of methane by supplied and degraded organic matter (m3/kg). The results obtained allow us to state that the anaerobic stabilization of pig slurry in the mesophilic temperature range resulted in total devitalization of model bacterial strains E. coli EC 5 and Ent. faecium CCM 4231. St. aureus SA 11 cells, exposed to the above mentioned conditions, were also reduced in their number from 10.04 to 3.27 and from 8.69 to 2.77 log cfu/ml. It is assumed that the longer retention time of excrements in the digester could also result in total devitalization of St. aureus SA 11 cells. From the microbiological point of view, the above mentioned facts indicate a sufficient hygienization effect of the anaerobic fermentation on the contaminated pig excrements. The survival of A. suum eggs was little affected by the 20-day anaerobic mesophilic digestion of pig slurry. Only 17 or 18% (F1, F2) of the non-embryonated A. suum eggs were damaged after the 20-day exposure.

  9. Influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on survival of Escherichia coli O157 : H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in Luria-Bertani broth, farm-yard manure and slurry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, Alexander V.; van Overbeek, Leo; Termorshuizen, Aad J.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on the survival of the enteropathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was investigated in microcosms with broth, cattle manure or slurry. These substrates were inoculated with a green fluorescent protein transformed strai

  10. Influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in Luria-Bertani broth, farm-yard manure and slurry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, Alexander V.; van Overbeek, Leo; Termorshuizen, Aad J.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on the survival of the enteropathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was investigated in microcosms with broth, cattle manure or slurry. These substrates were inoculated with a green fluorescent protein transformed strai

  11. Influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in Luria-Bertani broth, farm-yard manure and slurry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, A.V.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on the survival of the enteropathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was investigated in microcosms with broth, cattle manure or slurry. These substrates were inoculated with a green fluorescent protein transformed strai

  12. Microbial and nutrient stabilization of two animal manures after the transit through the gut of the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

    2009-01-30

    Here we studied how the transit through the gut of the earthworm Eisenia fetida affects the microbial and nutrient stabilization of pig and cow manure, by analyzing fresh casts. Earthworms reduced the pools of dissolved organic C and N in casts from both types of manure, as wells as mineral N. Microbial biomass was enhanced only in casts from pig manure and did not change in casts from cow manure, and fungal populations only raised in casts from cow manure. Earthworms reduced microbial activity in casts from cow manure and did not modify in casts from pig slurry. Enzyme activities in casts also depended on the manure ingested; there were no changes in dehydrogenase and beta-glucosidase activities, whereas acid and alkaline phosphatases increased. The results indicate that the first stage in vermicomposting of pig and cow manure by E. fetida, i.e. casting, produced a microbial stabilization decreasing the activity of microorganisms; this stabilization occurred despite of the increase in microbial biomass. The strong reduction in nutrient pools of manures may be the responsible of this contradiction. These changes will influence the dynamics of the organic matter degradation by reducing forms of C and N available to microorganisms and hence restricting their growth and multiplication. Nevertheless, casts were also characterized by an increased enzyme potential that might lead to a further thorough degradation of pig and cow manure.

  13. Detection of copper(II) and zinc(II) binding to humic acids from pig slurry and amended soils by fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Diana; Plaza, César; Senesi, Nicola; Polo, Alfredo

    2006-09-01

    The effect of the consecutive annual additions of pig slurry at rates of 0 (control), 90 and 150 m3 ha(-1) yr(-1) after a 7-year period on the Cu(II) and Zn(II) binding behavior of soil HAs was investigated in a field experiment. A fluorescence titration method and a single site model were used for determining metal ion complexing capacities and stability constants of metal ion complexes of HAs isolated from pig slurry and unamended and amended soils. With respect to control soil HA, pig-slurry HA featured much smaller Cu(II) and Zn(II) binding capacities and stability constants. Pig-slurry application to soil decreased Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexing capacities and binding affinities of soil HA. These effects increased with increasing the rate per year of PS application to soil, and are expected to have a large impact on bioavailability, mobilization, and transport of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions in pig slurry-amended soils.

  14. Integrating animal manure-based bioenergy production with invasive species control: A case study at Tongren Pig Farm in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianbo; Zhu, Lei [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hu, Guoliang [Rural Energy Section, Agricultural Bureau of Haining City, Zhejiang Province 314400 (China); Wu, Jianguo [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); School of Life Sciences and Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Integrated approach and bioresource engineering are often required to deal with multiple and interactive environmental problems for sustainable development at local and regional scales. Pig farming has flourished with fast growing economy and increasing human demands for meat in China. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a noxious invasive species, has encroached into most of the local rivers and lakes. Both the wastes from the booming pig farms as well as the massive plant materials of water hyacinth have caused a range of serious ecological and environmental problems. Here we present an integrated sustainable, ecological and experimental study that was designed to deal with these two problems simultaneously. Our experimental results showed that the mixtures of water hyacinth with pig manure consistently had much higher biogas production than pig manure alone, and that the highest biogas production was achieved when 15% of the fermentation substrates were water hyacinth. Our analysis further revealed that the changing C/N ratio and the lignin content in the fermentation feedstock due to the addition of water hyacinth might be two important factors affecting the biogas production. We also found that the solar-powered water-heating unit significantly increased the biogas production (especially in winter time). Overall, the project proved to be successful ecologically and socially. Through such an integrated approach and bioresource engineering, wastes are treated, energy is harvested, and the environment is protected. (author)

  15. Comparison of oxytetracycline degradation behavior in pig manure with different antibiotic addition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Guixiu; Liang, Juanboo; Zou, Yongde; Wen, Xin; Liao, Xindi; Wu, Yinbao

    2015-12-01

    Using manure collected from swine fed with diet containing antibiotics and antibiotic-free swine manure spiked with antibiotics are the two common methods of studying the degradation behavior of veterinary antibiotic in manure in the environment. However, few studies had been conducted to co-compare these two different antibiotic addition methods. This study used oxytetracycline (OTC) as a model antibiotic to study antibiotic degradation behavior in manure under the above two OTC addition methods. In addition, the role of microorganisms present in the manure on degradation behavior was also examined. The results showed that degradation half-life of OTC in manure from swine fed OTC (9.04 days) was significantly shorter than that of the manure directly treated with OTC (9.65 days). Concentration of 4-epi-OTC in manure from swine fed OTC peaked earlier than that in manure spiked with OTC, and the degradation rates of 4-epi-OTC and α-apo-OTC in the manure from swine fed OTC were faster, but the peak concentrations were lower, than those in manure spiked with OTC. Bacterial diversity and relative abundance of Bacillus cereus data demonstrated that sterilization of the manure before experiment significantly decreased OTC degradation rate in both of the addition methods. Results of the present study demonstrated that the presence of the metabolites (especially 4-epi-OTC) and microorganisms had significant influence on OTC degradation.

  16. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambone, Fulvia, E-mail: fulvia.tambone@unimi.it; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  17. Adapted Bailenger method improves the rate of Ascaris suum eggs recovery from liquid pig manure compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Facco de Sá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Liquid pig manure (LPM is widely used as a compost fertilizer for vegetable crops destined for human consumption. However, these wastes may contain parasites eggs, such as the nematode Ascaris suum, that pose serious health risks to humans. We attempted to determine the most appropriate technique for recovering A. suum eggs from LPM compost. Samples were collected from two waste sources during composting, including 23 samples containing LPM, sawdust, and wood shavings, and 14 samples of LPM alone-both in triplicate. Samples were analyzed using several different recovery methods. Recovery of eggs by the modified Bailenger method with adaptations was significantly more effective and recovered 57% more eggs than by the modified Bailenger method alone. Willis-Mollay method, modified Faust method, and the simple sedimentation technique only recovered 4.4%, 13.9%, and 26% of eggs, respectively, compared with the modified Bailenger method with adaptations, indicating that the adjustments made to the Bailenger method were key to improving the recovery of A. suum eggs from compost and LPM.

  18. Microbial community structure and performance of an anaerobic reactor digesting cassava pulp and pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichnumsin, P; Ahring, B; Nopharatana, A; Chaiprasert, P

    2012-01-01

    Microbial community dynamics in response to changes in substrate types (i.e. pig manure (PM), cassava pulp (CP) and mixtures of PM and CP) were investigated in an anaerobic continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Molecular identification of bacterial and archaeal domains were performed, using a 16S rDNA clone library with polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) screening and phylogenetic analysis. Analysis of bacterial clone libraries revealed that the differences in the community structure corresponded to the substrate types. However, the Bacteroidetes were the most abundant group in all substrates, followed by the Clostridia. With pure PM, the dominant bacterial groups were Bacteroidales, Clostridia and Paludibacter. With a co-substrate, at CP to PM (CP:PM) ratio of 50:50, the sequences analysis revealed the greatest diversity of bacterial communities at class level, and the sequences affiliated with Cytophaga sp. became an exclusive predominant. With CP alone, Bacteroides sp. was the dominant species and this reactor had the lowest diversity of bacteria. Archaea observed in the CSTR fed with all substrate types were Methanosaeta sp., Methanosaeta concilii and Methanospirillum hungatei. Among the Archaea, Methanosaeta sp. was the exclusive predominant. The relative distribution of Archaea also changed regarding to the substrate types.

  19. Microbiological and molecular characterization of denitrification in biofilters treating pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Yan; Le Bihan, Yann; Aubry, Geneviève; Veillette, Marc; Duchaine, Caroline; Lessard, Paul

    2008-07-01

    Aerated organic biofilters treating pig manure exhibit partial nitrogen removal. In order to optimize this process, a better comprehension of its colonization by denitrifiers was needed. Three pilot aerated biofilters, fed with variable Biological Oxygen Demand after five days: Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (BOD(5):TKN) ratios, were constructed and monitored during 180 days. Nitrogen was analyzed in the gaseous and liquid flows, at different depths in the systems. Denitrifying biomass was characterized by evaluating its observed (nitrogen mass balances) and potential (adapted acetylene inhibition technique) activities and its quantity (real-time PCR on nirS), at different heights inside the biofilters. Denitrification was observed as soon as nitrate was produced by nitrifiers, after approximately 40 days of operation, but the potential to denitrify increased from the beginning of the monitoring period. Biofilter fed with the highest BOD(5):TKN ratio showed significant differences with the others, particularly after 80 days of operation, as its potential activity was lower with a higher observed nitrate removal. Data showed that denitrifiers were mainly localized near the surface of the filter and that a microbiological gradient was present from top to bottom. The potential denitrifying activities were always higher than what was being observed inside the sections studied, suggesting that the biomass could have reduced more nitrate and that conditions found inside the filter did not allow denitrification to completely occur.

  20. Chemical and Biological Evaluation of Maturity of Pig Manure Compost at Different C/N Ratios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Aerobic static pile composting (mechanical turning every 3 days) of pig manure was prepared at 8 m3 windrow heaps. Sawdust was used as the bulking agent to provide additional carbon and to increase the porosity of the substrate. Two treatments at initial C/N ratios of 30 and 15, respectively, were designed in the study. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soluble NH4+-N, C/N ratios in solid and aqueous phases, E4/E6 ratios, and seed germination index (GI) were determined to evaluate the maturity of the co-composts. Seed germination index, a biological parameter, was suggested as one of the most reliable maturity indicators for organic compost. The results showed that the treatment at the initial C/N ratio of 30 reached maturity after 49 days of composting; however, the treatment at the initial C/N ratio of 15 should require composting time of longer than 63 days to obtain maturation. Chemical multi-indicator evaluation was necessary, and the GI measurement was the recommended approach for maturity evaluation in the study.

  1. Chemical and biological Evaluation of Maturity of Pig Manure Compost at Different C/N Ratios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGGUOFENG; J.W.C.WONG; 等

    2001-01-01

    Aerobic static pile composting(Mechanical turning every 3 days) of pig manure was prepared at 8 m3 windrow heaps .Sawdust was used as the bulking aagent to provide additional carbon and to increase the porosity of the substrate Two treatments at initial C/N ratios of 30 and 15,respectively,were designed in the study,Dissolved organic carbon(DOC),soluble NH4+-N,C/N ratios in solid and aqueous phases,E4/E6 ratios,and seed germination index(GI) were determined to evaluate the maturity of the co-composts.Seed germination index,a biological parameter,was suggested as one of the most reliable maturity indicators for organic compost.The results showed that the treatment at the initial C/N ratio of 30 reached maturity after 49 days of composting ;however,the treatment at the initial C/N ration of 15 should require composting time of longer than 63 days to obtain maturation.Chemical multi-indicator evaluation was necessary,and the GI measurement was the recommended approach for maturity evaluation in the study.

  2. The fate of sulfate in acidified pig slurry during storage and following application to cropped soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sørensen, Peter; Elsgaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    to 11 mo at 2, 10, or 20°C. Furthermore, the fertilizer efficiency of sulfuric acid in acidified slurry was investigated in a pot experiment with spring barley. The sulfate content from acidification with sulfuric acid was relatively stable and even after 11 mo of storage the majority was in the plant...... not exceed those of the untreated slurry for several months after addition. The S fertilizer value of the acidified slurry was considerable as a result of the stable sulfate pool during storage. The high content of inorganic S in the acidified slurry may potentially lead to development of odorous volatile...

  3. Simulation with models of increasing complexity of CO2 emissions and nitrogen mineralisation, after soil application of labelled pig slurry and maize stalks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechini, Luca; Marino Gallina, Pietro; Geromel, Gabriele; Corti, Martina; Cavalli, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    High amounts of nitrogen are available per unit area in regions with intensive livestock operations. In swine farms, pig slurries are frequently incorporated in the soil together with maize stalks. Simulation models may help to understand nitrogen dynamics associated with animal manure and crop residue decomposition in the soil, and to support the definition of best management practices. The objective of this work was to test the ability of different models to simulate CO2 emissions and nitrogen mineralisation during a laboratory incubation (under optimal soil water content and constant temperature) of maize stalks (ST) and pig slurry (PS). A loam soil was amended with labelled (15N) or unlabelled maize stalks and pig slurries, in the presence of ammonium sulphate (AS). These treatments were established: unfertilised soil; ST15 + AS + PS; ST + AS15 + PS; and ST + AS + PS15. During 180 days, we measured CO2 emissions; microbial biomass C, N, and 15N; and soil mineral N (SMN and SM-15N). Three models of increasing complexity were calibrated using measured data. The models were two modifications of ICBM 2B/N (Kätterer and Andrén, 2001) and CN-SIM (Petersen et al., 2005). The three models simulated rather accurately the emissions of CO2 throughout the incubation period (Relative Root Mean Squared Error, RRMSE = 8-25). The simplest model (with one pool for ST and one for PS) strongly overestimated SMN immobilisation from day 3 to day 21, both in the treatments with AS15 and PS15 (RRMSE = 27-30%). The other two models represented rather well the dynamics of SMN in the soil (RRMSE = 21-25%), simulating a fast increase of nitrate concentration in the first days, and slower rates of nitrification thereafter. Worse performances were obtained with all models for the simulation of SM-15N in the treatment with ST15 (RRMSE = 64-104%): experimental data showed positive mineralization of stalk-derived N from the beginning of the incubation, while models strongly underestimated

  4. Interactions between phosphorus feeding strategies for pigs and dairy cows and separation efficiency of slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S G; Maahn, M; Poulsen, H D;

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) in manure is a nutrient source for plants, but surplus P amended to fields represents a risk to the environment.......Phosphorus (P) in manure is a nutrient source for plants, but surplus P amended to fields represents a risk to the environment....

  5. Effect of aeration rate, moisture content and composting period on availability of copper and lead during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yujun; Zhao, Lixin; Meng, Haibo; Hou, Yueqing; Zhou, Haibin; Wang, Fei; Cheng, Hongsheng; Liu, Hongbin

    2016-06-01

    Pollution by heavy metals, such as copper and lead, has become a limiting factor for the land application of faecal manures, such as pig manure. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of composting process parameters, including aeration rate, moisture content and composting period, on the distribution of heavy metal species during composting, and to select an optimal parameter for copper and lead inactivation. Results showed that the distribution ratios of exchangeable fractions of copper and lead had a bigger decrease under conditions of aeration rate, 0.1 m(3) min(-1) m(-3), an initial moisture content of 65% and composting period of 50 days. Suboptimal composting process conditions could lead to increased availability of heavy metals. Statistical analysis indicated that the aeration rate was the main factor affecting copper and lead inactivation, while the effects of moisture content and composting period were not significant. The rates of reduction of copper-exchangeable fractions and lead-exchangeable fractions were positively correlated with increased pH. The optimal parameters for reducing heavy metal bioavailability during pig manure composting were aeration rate, 0.1 m(3) min(-1) m(-3), initial moisture content, 65%, and composting period, 20 days.

  6. Effect of Storage Period on the Changes of Odorous Compound Concentrations and Bacterial Ecology for Identifying the Cause of Odor Production from Pig Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ok Hwa; Cho, Sung Back; Han, Deug Woo; Lee, Sang Ryoung; Kwag, Jeong Hoon; Park, Sung Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Odor from buildings where pigs are housed is generated by anaerobic fermentation of undigested materials in pig slurry stored for several weeks in pit. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of storage period on the level of odorous compounds in pig slurry and on its bacterial community. A slurry sample (15 L) was taken from the pit of a finisher pig building and incubated in acryl chambers for six- weeks. Slurry for analysis was sampled every two-week. Levels of odorous compounds in the slurry sample were drastically changed after two weeks of storage period; levels of phenols and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were decreased (P<0.05), whereas indoles and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) were increased (P<0.05). Among dominant bacteria, Bacteroides and Porphyromonadacese_uc_g revealed a strong positive correlation with the levels of phenols and SCFAs. Populations of AC160630_g, Acholeplasmatales_uc_g, Mollicutes_uc_g and Cloacamonas_f_uc_g positively correlated with indole and BCFAs content. Taken together, levels of odorous compounds were increased after two weeks of storage, possibly because of changes in the predominant bacterial groups to those that use protein as a carbon source in the hypo-carbohydrate conditions. PMID:27642752

  7. Solid separation and sbr biological process for pig slurry treatment; Depuracion de purines por separacion de solidos y tratamiento biologico en SBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekuona, A.; Alberdi, M.; Lekue, I.; Lasuen, M.

    2009-07-01

    Egiluze treatment plant in Renteria (Gipuzkoa, spain), has treated around 45 m{sup 3}/day of pig slurry since 2006. During this two years, the plant has been running in order to get a suitable effluent, which fulfills the corresponding parameters to be discharged to municipal drain. The treatment process consists basically of a first solid separation and subsequent nitrification-de-nitrificacion biological process using a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The technical and economic results showed in this article, prove that the process used in Egiluze treatment plant is an effective solution which allows the treatment of pig slurry in an economical and automated way. (Author)

  8. [Bioconcentration and translocation of Cu and Zn by Brassica sinensis L. planted in high Cu and Zn contaminated pig manure-applied soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Cui, Xiao-yong; Luo, Wei; Shi, Peng; Lü, Yong-long

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, Cu and Zn have been widely used in pig fodders in large-scale animal feeding, causing Cu and Zn contamination in soils and effecting plants in land application of pig manure. It is of great concern to the world that pig manure is used in the dose greater than the organic fertilizer criterion. It is very important to clarify bioconcentration and translocation of Cu and Zn in vegetables in order to assess human health risk of these heavy metals accumulated in soil and to safely produce vegetables. Bioconcentration and translocation of Cu and Zn by Brassica sinensis L. planted in pig manure-applied soils were studied using pot experiments. Pig manure with great concentrations of Cu and Zn (Cu = 1114.7 mg x kg(-1), Zn = 1496.8 mg x kg(-1)) were applied to soils at six rates, i.e., 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 500 t x hm(-2). The results indicate that the concentration of Zn was greater than that of Cu in both aboveground and underground parts of B. sinensis. Both Cu and Zn concentrations in the underground part were greater than those in upper-ground for every treatment. There were significant differences for both Cu and Zn concentrations in shoots between CK and the treatment with application rate above 50 t x hm(-2). Bioconcentration factor of Cu in B. sinensis increased with pig manure application rate from 0.11 to 0.17, while that of Zn decreased from 0.47 to 0.11. The proportion of Cu and Zn transported from roots to shoots decreased 25% and 38% with the increase of pig manure application, respectively. It indicates that pig manure application can reduce bioconcentration of Zn in B. sinensis, and build up Cu accumulation which leads to human health risk. The ratio of Zn:Cu in every part of B. sinensis decreased with manure application rate increment. This result prompted that uptake and translocation capacity discrepancy of Cu and Zn decreased with manure application rate increment in B. sinensis.

  9. Biological degradation and greenhouse gas emissions during pre-storage of liquid animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Sommer, S.G.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    Storage of manure makes a significant contribution to global methane (CH4) emissions. Anaerobic digestion of pig and cattle manure in biogas reactors before outside storage might reduce the potential for CH4 emissions. However, manure pre-stored at 15 to 20degreesC in buildings before anaerobic...... digestion may be a significant source of CH4 and could reduce the potential CH4 production in the biogas reactor. Degradation of energy-rich organic components in slurry and emissions of CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) from aerobic and anaerobic degradation processes during pre-storage were examined...

  10. Comparison of bacterial community structure and dynamics during the thermophilic composting of different types of solid wastes: anaerobic digestion residue, pig manure and chicken manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Caihong; Li, Mingxiao; Jia, Xuan; Wei, Zimin; Zhao, Yue; Xi, Beidou; Zhu, Chaowei; Liu, Dongming

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the impact of composting substrate types on the bacterial community structure and dynamics during composting processes. To this end, pig manure (PM), chicken manure (CM), a mixture of PM and CM (PM + CM), and a mixture of PM, CM and anaerobic digestion residue (ADR) (PM + CM + ADR) were selected for thermophilic composting. The bacterial community structure and dynamics during the composting process were detected and analysed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) coupled with a statistic analysis. The physical-chemical analyses indicated that compared to single-material composting (PM, CM), co-composting (PM + CM, PM + CM + ADR) could promote the degradation of organic matter and strengthen the ability of conserving nitrogen. A DGGE profile and statistical analysis demonstrated that co-composting, especially PM + CM + ADR, could improve the bacterial community structure and functional diversity, even in the thermophilic stage. Therefore, co-composting could weaken the screening effect of high temperature on bacterial communities. Dominant sequencing analyses indicated a dramatic shift in the dominant bacterial communities from single-material composting to co-composting. Notably, compared with PM, PM + CM increased the quantity of xylan-degrading bacteria and reduced the quantity of human pathogens.

  11. On-farm measurement of electrical conductivity for the estimation of ammonium nitrogen concentration in pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagüe, M R; Quílez, D

    2012-01-01

    Pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) slurry (PS) is commonly applied as fertilizer to agricultural fields. Knowledge of PS nitrogen content is essential for good management, but PS nitrogen content is highly variable, not only between farms but also within a farm. Laboratory analysis of animal slurries is often expensive and impractical for routine farmer use. Therefore, when slurry is spread on land, its fertilizer value is generally unknown, resulting in the risk of pollution. In this work, two rapid and suitable for field use methods for determining PS ammonium N (NH(4)+-N) concentration (Quantofix and conductimetry) are evaluated. The electrical conductivity of a dilution 1 PS:9 distilled water had better results than Quantofix, did not need reagents, and gave a direct value of NH(4)+-N concentrations (range, 1.0-7.6 kg NH(4)+-N m(-3)). The conductimetry method allows the use of alternative waters with EC method is being introduced to farmers in northeast Spain to improve PS management and has been well received due to its low cost and ease of use.

  12. Evaluation of aerobic co-composting of penicillin fermentation fungi residue with pig manure on penicillin degradation, microbial population dynamics and composting maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Juan; Yu, Cigang; Dong, Shanshan; Zhang, Dini; Yu, Ran; Wang, Changyong; Liu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Improper treatment of penicillin fermentation fungi residue (PFFR), one of the by-products of penicillin production process, may result in environmental pollution due to the high concentration of penicillin. Aerobic co-composting of PFFR with pig manure was determined to degrade penicillin in PFFR. Results showed that co-composting of PFFR with pig manure can significantly reduce the concentration of penicillin in PFFR, make the PFFR-compost safer as organic fertilizer for soil application. More than 99% of penicillin in PFFR were removed after 7-day composting. PFFR did not affect the composting process and even promote the activity of the microorganisms in the compost. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that the bacteria and actinomycetes number in the AC samples were 40-80% higher than that in the pig-manure compost (CK) samples in the same composting phases. This research indicated that the aerobic co-composting was a feasible PFFR treatment method.

  13. Leaf tissues proportion and chemical composition of Axonopus jesuiticus x A. scoparius as a function of pig slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Reschke Lajús

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the chemical and anatomical attributes of leaves of giant missionary grass to application of 0, 62, 124, 186, 248 and 310m³ ha-1 of pig slurry. At 83 days after the last application of fertilizer, the leaf blades were collected, fixed in FAA 70%, sectioned, stained, photographed and digitalized. The transversal section of leaf blades were evaluated for proportion of epidermis, lignified vascular tissue + sclerenchyma, non-lignified vascular tissue and parenchyma with an image-processing system calibrated to 1mm pixel-1. Leaf samples were analyzed for crude protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber and hemicellulose content by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The pig slurry application up to 310m³ ha-1 significantly increased the percentage of crude protein, parenchyma, epidermis, non-lignified vascular tissue and hemicellulose, while decreasing the percentage of acid detergent fiber and lignified vascular tissue + sclerenchyma. The Pearson's correlation was positive between crude protein and non-lignified vascular tissue, and between acid detergent fiber and lignified vascular tissue + sclerenchyma. The percentage of hemicellulose was positively correlated with epidermis, parenchyma and non-lignified vascular tissue. A negative correlation between acid detergent fiber and epidermis, parenchyma and non-lignified vascular tissue was observed.

  14. ORGANIC CARBON CONTENTS AND STOCKS IN PARTICLE SIZE FRACTIONS OF A TYPIC HAPLUDOX FERTILIZED WITH PIG SLURRY AND SOLUBLE FERTILIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sueli Heberle Mafra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of pig slurry (PS as fertilizer can affect the soil quality and increase total stocks of soil organic carbon (TOC. However, the effects of PS on TOC amount and forms in the soil are not fully understood, particularly in areas under no-tillage (NT. The purpose of this study was to determine TOC contents and stocks in the particulate (POC and mineral-associated C fractions (MAC of an Oxisol after nine years of maize-oat rotation under NT, with annual applications of PS, soluble fertilizer and combined fertilization (pig slurry + soluble fertilizer. The experiment was initiated in 2001 in Campos Novos, Santa Catarina, with the following treatments: PS at rates of 0 (without fertilization - PS0; 25 (PS25; 50 (PS50; 100 (PS100; and 200 m3 ha-1yr-1 (PS200; fertilization with soluble fertilizer (SF; and mixed fertilization (PS + SF. The TOC content was determined in samples of six soil layers to a depth of 40 cm, and the POC and MAC contents in four layers to a depth of 20 cm. From the rate of 50 m3 ha-1yr-1 and upwards, the soil TOC content and stock increased according to the PS rates in the layers to a depth of 10 cm. The POC and MAC contents and stocks were higher in the surface layers, with a clear predominance of the second fraction, but a greater relative amplitude in the contents of the first fraction.

  15. Fate of viable but non-culturable Listeria monocytogenes in pig manure microcosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eDesneux

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fate of two strains of L. monocytogenes and their ability to become viable but non-culturable (VBNC was investigated in microcosms containing piggery effluents (two raw manures and two biologically treated manures stored for two months at 8°C and 20°C. Levels of L. monocytogenes were estimated using the culture method, qPCR, and propidium monoazide treatment combined with qPCR (qPCRPMA. The chemical composition and the microbial community structure of the manures were also analysed. The strains showed similar decline rates and persisted up to 63 days. At day zero, the percentage of VBNC cells among viable cells was higher in raw manures (81.5-94.8% than in treated manures (67.8-79.2%. The changes in their proportion over time depended on the temperature and on the type of effluent: the biggest increase was observed in treated manures at 20°C and the smallest increase in raw manures at 8°C. The chemical parameters had no influence on the behaviour of the strains, but decrease of the persistence of viable cells was associated with an increase in the microbial richness of the manures. This study demonstrated that storing manure altered the culturability of L. monocytogenes, which rapidly entered the VBNC state, and underlines the importance of including VBNC cells when estimating the persistence of the pathogens in farm effluents.

  16. Marble waste and pig manure amendments decrease metal availability, increase soil quality and facilitate vegetation development in bare mine soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Acosta, José A.; Gómez, M. Dolores; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

    2013-04-01

    In order to bring out a functional and sustainable land use in a highly contaminated mine tailing, firstly environmental risks have to be reduced or eliminated by suitable reclamation activities. Tailing ponds pose environmental hazards, such as acidity and toxic metals reaching to waters through wind and water erosions and leaching. As a consequence, soils have no vegetation and low soil organic matter and nutrients. Various physicochemical and biochemical properties, together with exchangeable metals were measured before, 6 months and 12 months after the application of marble waste and pigs manure as reclamation strategy in a tailing pond from SE Spain to reduce hazards for environment and human health. Three months after the last addition of amendments, eight different native shrub species where planted for phytostabilization. Results showed the pH increased up to neutrality. Aggregates stability, organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, bioavailable phosphorus and potassium, microbial biomass and microbial activity increased with the application of the amendments, while exchangeable metals drastically decreased (~90%). After one year of plantation, only 20% planted species died, with a high growth of survivals reaching flowering and fructification. This study confirms the high effectiveness of initial applications of marble wastes together with pig manure and plantation of shrub species to initialize the recovery of the ecosystem in bare mine soils under Mediterranean semiarid conditions. Key Words: pig manure, marble waste, heavy metals, mine soil. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project MIPOLARE (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000439). J.A. Acosta acknowledges a "Saavedra Fajardo" contract from Comunidad Autónoma de Murcia (Spain)

  17. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panichnumsin, Pornpan [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Excellent Center of Waste Utilization and Management, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Nopharatana, Annop [Pilot Plant Development and Training Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Ahring, Birgitte [AAU, Copenhagen Institute of Technology, Lautrupvang 15, 2750 Ballerup (Denmark); Chaiprasert, Pawinee [School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 C) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m{sup -3} d{sup -1} and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g{sup -1} VS{sub added} and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity. (author)

  18. Impact of struvite crystallization on nitrogen losses during composting of pig manure and cornstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Limei; Schuchardt, Frank; Shen, Yujun; Li, Guoxue; Li, Chunping

    2010-05-01

    An absorbent mixture of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)(2)) and phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) was added to compost mixtures of pig manure with cornstalk in different molar ratios (T1, 1:1; T2, 1:2; T3, 1:3) in order to examine its effect on controlling ammonia losses during composting. Based on the principle of struvite precipitation, and with an unamended trial as control (CK), an in-vessel composting experiment was conducted in fermenters (60L with forced aeration) in which the absorbent mixture was added with proportions of 3.8%, 7.3% and 8.9% of dry weight for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The results showed that the total nitrogen loss was reduced from 35% to 12%, 5% and 1% of initial N mass, respectively. In the final compost, the total nitrogen content in T1, T2 and T3 was improved by 10, 14, 12gkg(-1), and NH(4)(+)-N in T1, T2 and T3 was improved by 8, 9, and 10gkg(-1), respectively, compared with the unamended trial. The results of the germination index test showed that the maturity of treatment T2 was best among the four treatments in the final compost, followed by T1, CK and T3. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MgNH(4)PO(4).6H(2)O:MAP) in the T1, T2 and T3 compost. Based on these results, the adsorbent mixture of Mg(OH)(2)+H(3)PO(4) could control nitrogen loss effectively during composting via struvite crystallization. However, an excess of phosphoric acid (1:3) had a negative influence on composting properties. The pH value decreased which led to reduced microorganism activity, and which finally resulted in reduced biodegradation of the organic matter.

  19. Arcobacter lanthieri sp. nov., isolated from pig and dairy cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteduck-Léveillée, Kerri; Whiteduck-Léveillée, Jenni; Cloutier, Michel; Tambong, James T; Xu, Renlin; Topp, Edward; Arts, Michael T; Chao, Jerry; Adam, Zaky; André Lévesque, C; Lapen, David R; Villemur, Richard; Talbot, Guylaine; Khan, Izhar U H

    2015-08-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and diversity of species of the genus Arcobacter in pig and dairy cattle manure, which led to the identification of strains AF1440T, AF1430 and AF1581. Initially identified as Arcobacter butzleri based on colony morphology and initial PCR-confirmation tests, analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences of these strains confirmed that they belonged to the genus Arcobacter and were different from all known species of the genus. The isolates formed a distinct group within the genus Arcobacter based on their 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB, cpn60, gyrA and atpA gene sequences and fatty acid profiles. Their unique species status was further supported by physiological properties and DNA-DNA hybridization that allowed phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of the strains from other species of the genus Arcobacter. The isolates were found to be oxidase, catalase and esterase positive and urease negative; they grew well at 30 °C under microaerophilic conditions and produced nitrite and acetoin. Based on their common origin and various physiological properties, it is proposed that the isolates are classified as members of a novel species with the name Arcobacter lanthieri sp. nov. The type strain is AF1440T ( = LMG 28516T = CCUG 66485T); strains AF1430 ( = LMG 28515 = CCUG 66486) and AF1581 ( = LMG 28517 = CCUG 66487) are reference strains.

  20. Anaerobic co-digestion of kitchen waste and pig manure with different mixing ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hailin; Duan, Na; Lin, Cong; Li, Xue; Zhong, Mingzhu

    2015-07-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of kitchen waste (KW) and pig manure (PM) with seven different PM to KW total solids (TS) ratios of 1:0, 5:1, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, 1:5 and 0:1 was conducted at mesophilic temperature (35 ± 1 °C) to investigate the feasibility and process performance. The co-digestion of PM and KW was found to be an available way to enhance methane production compared with solo-digestion of PM or KW. The ratio of PM to KW of 1:1 got the highest biodegradability (BDA) of 85.03% and a methane yield of 409.5 mL/gVS. For the co-digestion of KW and PM, there was no obvious inhibition of ammonia nitrogen because it was in an acceptable range from 1380 mg/L to 2020 mg/L in the whole process. However, severe methane inhibition and long lag phase due to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was observed while the KW content was over 50%, and in the lag phase, propionic acid and butyric acid made up the major constituents of the total VFAs. The technical digestion time (T80: the time it takes to produce 80% of the digester's maximum gas production) of the above 7 ratios was 15, 21, 22, 27, 49, 62 and 61 days, respectively. In this study, a mixing ratio of 1:1 for PM and KW was found to maximize BDA and methane yield, provided a short digestion time and stable digestion performance and was therefore recommended for further study and engineering application.

  1. Composting of pig manure and forest green waste amended with industrial sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, O; Viña, S; Uzal, M; Soto, M

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this research was to study the composting of chestnut forest green waste (FGW) from short rotation chestnut stands amended with sludge resulting from the manufacture of Medium Density Fibreboard (MDFS) and pig manure (PM). Both FGW and MDFS presented low biodegradation potential but different characteristics in granulometry and bulk density that make its mixture of interest to achieve high composting temperatures. PM decreased the C/N ratio of the mixture and increased its moisture content (MC). Three mixtures of MDFS:FGW at volume ratios of 1:1.3 (M2), 1:2.4 (M3) and 0:1 (M4) were composted after increasing its MC to about 70% with PM. A control with food waste (OFW) and FGW (1:2.4 in volume) (M1) was run in parallel. Watering ratios reached 0.25 (M1), 1.08 (M2) 1.56 (M3) and 4.35 (M4) L PM/kg TS of added solids wastes. Treatments M2 and M3 reached a thermophilic phase shorter than M1, whilst M4 remained in the mesophilic range. After 48days of composting, temperature gradients in respect to ambient temperature were reduced, but the mineralization process continued for around 8months. Final reduction in total organic carbon reached 35-56%, depending mainly on the content in MDFS. MDFS addition to composting matrices largely reduced nitrogen losses, which range from 22% (M2) to 37% (M3) and 53% (M4). Final products had high nutrient content, low electrical conductivity and low heavy metal content which make it a valuable product for soil fertilization, right to amend in the chestnut forests and as a pillar of their sustainable management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutrient utilization and manure P excretion in growing pigs fed corn-barley-soybean based diets supplemented with microbial phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiola, Adewale; Akinremi, Oluwole; Slominski, Bogdan; Nyachoti, C Martin

    2009-02-01

    The effect of high levels of microbial phytase supplementation in diets for growing pigs was studied in a 2-week performance and nutrient digestibility trial involving 28 growing pigs weighing 16.4 +/- 1.06 (mean +/- SD) kg. Seven corn-barley-soybean meal-based diets consisting of a positive control (PC) formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements; a negative control (NC) with non-phytate P reduced by 0.1% unit from NRC requirement and fed without or with 500 or 1000 U/kg; a doubled negative control (DNC) with no added inorganic P and fed without or with 2000 or 4000 U/kg. Chromic oxide was added as an indigestible marker and all diets were fed as mash. Pigs fed the PC diet had a higher P digestibility compared with those fed the NC (P DNC (P DNC diet resulted in linear (P DNC diets. Apparent total tract digestibility of N, OM and DM were higher (P DNC diet, but not the NC diet (P DNC diet resulted in a linear increase (P DNC diets linearly decreased fecal P (P DNC diets (P < 0.05). The results of this study show that complete removal of inorganic P from growing pig diets coupled with phytase supplementation improves digestibility and retention of P and N, thus reducing manure P excretion without any negative effect on pig performance.

  3. Emissão de dióxido de carbono após aplicação de dejetos líquidos e cama sobreposta de suínos Carbon dioxide emission after application of pig slurry and pig deep-litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro José Giacomini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a emissão de dióxido de carbono, após a aplicação ao solo de dejetos líquidos e cama sobreposta de suínos, na presença de palha de aveia, com e sem incorporação ao solo. O experimento foi conduzido em Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram da aplicação ou não de dejetos líquidos e cama sobreposta de suínos sobre palha de aveia, com e sem incorporação ao solo. Após a aplicação dos tratamentos, iniciou-se a medida da emissão de CO2, continuamente, pelo período de 120 dias. A incorporação dos dejetos de suínos e da palha ao solo aumenta a emissão de CO2 para a atmosfera, em comparação à distribuição desses materiais orgânicos na superfície do solo. A aplicação conjunta dos dejetos líquidos e da cama sobreposta de suínos com a palha não aumenta a emissão de CO2 para a atmosfera, o que indica que esses materiais orgânicos não favorecem a mineralização do carbono presente na palha de aveia.The objective of this work was to evaluate the carbon dioxide emission to atmosphere after pig slurry and deep-litter application to the soil, along with oat straw with and without soil incorporation. The experiment was carried out on a Hapludalf. The experimental design was a completely randomized one with three replicates. The treatments consisted of application, or not, of pig slurry and pig deep-litter on oat straw, with and without soil incorporation. The measurement of the CO2 emission began after treatment applications and lasted 120 days. Pig manure and oat straw incorporation to the soil increase C-CO2 emission to the atmosphere, compared to the distribution of those organic materials on soil surface. Pig slurry and pig deep-litter application on the straw do not increase CO2 emission to the atmosphere, which indicates that these organic materials do not influence C

  4. Evolution of temperature and chemical parameters during composting of the pig slurry solid fraction amended with natural zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venglovsky, J; Sasakova, N; Vargova, M; Pacajova, Z; Placha, I; Petrovsky, M; Harichova, D

    2005-01-01

    A 3-month experiment was conducted at a 300 kg scale to observe decomposition processes in pig slurry solids amended with two different doses of natural Slovak zeolite-clinoptilolite (substrates S1 and S2, 1% and 2% of zeolite by weight, respectively) in comparison with the control (unamended solids). The experimental and control substrates were stored outdoors in sheltered static piles at ambient temperatures ranging from 8.0 to 34.7 degrees C. The solid fraction (SF) of pig slurry was obtained by separation on vibration sieves prior to slurry treatment with activated sludge. The initial water content of the SF was 77.1% and no water was added to the piles during the storage. The temperature in the core of the piles was recorded throughout the experiment. By day 3 and 5 of storage (1% and 2% zeolite, resp.), the temperature in the substrates S1 and S2 exceeded 55 degrees C and remained above this level for 15 days while the highest temperature recorded in the control during the experiment was 29.8 degrees C. Samples from the core of the piles were taken periodically to determine pH, dry matter at 105 degrees C (DM), ash (550 degrees C/4 h), ammonia nitrogen (N-NH(4)(+)), nitrate nitrogen (N-NO(3)(-)), total nitrogen (N(t)), total phosphorus (P(t)); total organic carbon (TOC) was computed. The results showed that pH levels in S1 and S2 remained below that in the control for most of the thermophilic stage. This may be related to water-soluble ammonia and the affinity of zeolites to ammonium ions. A significant decrease in the level of ammonia nitrogen in water extracts from S1 and S2 was observed between days 5 and 35 in comparison with the control. The values of ash also differed and corresponded to the intensity of the decomposition processes in the respective substrates.

  5. Methane content and potential of biogas' production by manure of pigs fed with corn or sorghum-based diets in different phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Adelia Pereira; Lucas Junior, Jorge de; Thomaz, Maria Cristina; Fukayama, Ellen Hatsumi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this trial was to value the methane content and potential of biogas' production by manure of pigs fed with corn or sorghum-based diets (energy's source) in different phases. The manures were daily collected, diluted in water and homogeneous. Were used 267 mL of influent with 6% total solids concentration for supply of continuous-flow laboratory anaerobic digesters, with 30 days of detention time (DT) and temperature of 35 deg C. The experiment was completely randomized design with 2 treatments (corn or sorghum) and 3 phases of growth (initial x growing x finishing) in 10 replications (anaerobic digesters). The methane contents by manure of pigs fed with corn were greater (p<0.01) than pigs fed with sorghum (65.19 and 67.32%) on the phases of growing and finishing, respectively. The most potential of biogas' production (0.181, 0.138 and 0.162 m{sup 3}/kg of manure) was with manure of pigs fed with corn on the phases of initial, growing and finishing, respectively (p<0.01). Considering all the phases, the most potential of biogas' production (p<0.01) was observed in the initial phase, in both treatments. (author)

  6. Algorithms determining ammonia emission from buildings housing cattle and pigs and from manure stores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, S.G.; Zhang, G.Q.; Bannink, A.; Chadwick, D.; Misselbrook, T.; Harrison, R.; Hutchings, N.J.; Menzi, H.; Monteny, G.J.; Oenema, O.; Webb, J.

    2006-01-01

    Livestock excreta and manure stored in housing, in manure stores, in beef feedlots, or cattle hardstandings are the most important sources of ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere. There is a need to quantify the emission, to assess the effect of emission on NH3 and ammonium (NH4+) deposition to ecosystem

  7. Performance evaluation of chicken, cow and pig manure in the production of natural fish food in aquadams stocked with Oreochromis mossambicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapatsa, M. M.; Moyo, N. A. G.

    The main objective of this study was to characterize the ecological conditions that prevail after the application of chicken, cow and pig manure. Three treatments, chicken, cow, pig manure and a control were assigned to aquadams in a completely randomized design and each treatment was replicated three times. The aquadams were fertilized 2 weeks before the fish were stocked. One hundred Oreochromis mossambicus (mean weight ±40 g) were stocked in each aquadam. Water physico-chemical parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, salinity, turbidity, ammonia, nitrite, total alkalinity as calcium carbonate, and phosphorus) were determined once a week for the duration of the experiment. Zooplankton and phytoplankton in the different treatments were enumerated once every 2 weeks. The relationship between phytoplankton communities and the water physico-chemical parameters were evaluated using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The CCA indicated that the physico-chemical variables which best explain the distribution of phytoplankton were carbonate alkalinity, pH, phosphate, potassium, nitrogen and dissolved oxygen. Phytoplankton abundance was highest in chicken manure because the optimum nutrient conditions for the growth of phytoplankton were found in this treatment. Zooplankton abundance was also highest in the chicken manure treatment. The control was associated with one phytoplankton taxa, Chlorella. The numerical contribution of the different food items in the stomachs of O. mossambicus was determined. The diet of O. mossambicus was dominated by phytoplankton particularly Microcystis species. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli were used to assess the microbiological quality of the water in the different manure treatments. Chicken manure had the lowest total coliform and E. coli count. However, chicken manure had the highest Bacillus count. The implications of the microbial load in the chicken, cow and pig manure are discussed.

  8. Mechanism and kinetics of organic matter degradation based on particle structure variation during pig manure aerobic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jinyi; Huang, Guangqun; Huang, Jing; Zeng, Jianfei; Han, Lujia

    2015-07-15

    Characterization of the dynamic structure of composting particles may facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms of organic matter degradation during pig manure-wheat straw aerobic composting. In this study, changes in the size, shape, pores, chemical compositions, and crystal structures of pig manure particles during composting were investigated. The results showed that the median diameter (D50) decreased exponentially, while the particle aspect ratio and sphericity were unchanged, suggesting that particles were degraded uniformly along different radial directions. Pores had a mean diameter of 15-30 μm and were elliptical. The particle porosity increased linearly mainly because of hemicellulose degradation. Furthermore, the influence of particle structure variation on the first order rate constant (k) of organic matter degradation was corrected, which may facilitate the optimization of operation conditions. The k value was proportional to the reciprocal of D50 according to the specific surface area of particles, and it decreased with increased porosity due to the stabilized chemical compositions and crystal structures of particles. However, the applicability of these data to other composting materials should be verified.

  9. Perspectives for manure digestion in Dutch dairy cow and pig farms; Perspectieven mestvergisting op Nederlandse melkvee- en varkensbedrijven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dooren, H.J.C.; Van Lent, A.J.H.

    2001-01-01

    At the Research Institute for Animal Husbandry (PV) a desk study has been conducted on the feasibility of anaerobic manure digestion for individual Dutch dairy and pig farms, based on data from the literature, from internet and from contacting experts in the Netherlands and abroad. PV carried out a preliminary study back in 1997, during which a model was developed for calculating the economic impact of manure digestion for various farm scenarios. In the latest study new information was incorporated into the model. The improved model can do calculations for pig farms and can calculate environmental impacts. The calculations assume the total energy from biogas produced by the digestion is used to generate electricity. The investment in the unit must be recouped from the savings made on purchasing electricity and natural gas, and by supplying electricity to the grid. [Dutch] Een bureaustudie is uitgevoerd naar de haalbaarheid van mestvergisting voor Nederlandse melkvee- en varkensbedrijven op basis van gegevens uit literatuur, van internet en via diverse contacten met experts in binnen- en buitenland. In 1997 is reeds een eerste studie uitgevoerd waarin een rekenmodel is ontwikkeld waarmee het economisch effect van mestvergisting voor verschillende bedrijfssituaties berekend kan worden. In deze studie is dit model verder uitgebouwd. Nieuwe kennis is ingebracht, de berekeningen zijn uitgebreid naar varkensbedrijven en berekeningen t.a.v. milieueffecten zijn toegevoegd.

  10. Determinants of Biogas Adoption in Manure Management of Vietnamese Household Pig Production : A Case Study in Tien Lu District, Hung Yen Province

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Nguyen Thi; Nanseki, Teruaki; Chomei, Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    Although biogas technology is one of the useful ways managing the animal manure to reduce environmental problems in rural area, many Vietnamese households that produce pigs still do not apply biogas digesters. This study aim to investigate the main factors contributing to biogas adoption in household pig production based on primary data collected in Tien Lu district, Hung Yen province in Vietnam and the use of Logit regression. The empirical results highlighted that socioeconomic characterist...

  11. Effect of Bacillus spp. direct-fed microbial on slurry characteristics and gaseous emissions in growing pigs fed with high fibre-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenafeta-Boldú, F X; Fernández, B; Viñas, M; Lizardo, R; Brufau, J; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Walsh, M C; Awati, A

    2017-02-01

    A 26-day trial with 18 Pietrain×(Landrace×Duroc) pigs was conducted to investigate the effect of two dose levels of a specifically selected Bacillus spp. direct-fed microbial (DFM) product, on the emission of environmentally harmful gasses (methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulphide) from manure. Pigs were assigned to one of three treatments in a randomized complete block design according to their sex and initial BW. Each treatment contained three replications with two pigs per pen. The test treatments included a Bacillus spp. DFM containing 3×108 colony-forming unit/g, added at a low (250 mg/kg) and high (500 mg/kg) dose to an antibiotic free high fibre-based diet, and a non-supplemented control diet. Manure from pigs fed with the supplemented diets emitted lower amounts of atmospheric contaminants. The most significant reduction was observed with low DFM supplementation, in which methane and ammonia volatilization decreased (P40% and 50%, respectively, on fresh weight basis in relation to the control. Microbiome analysis of manure by high through put sequencing techniques on eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes highlighted the complex interactions between indigenous gut microflora and inoculated Bacillus spp. The tested Bacillus DFM could be considered as a best available technique in reducing the environmental impacts of growing pigs fed with high fibre-based diets.

  12. Effects of Pig Manure Organic Fertilizer Application on Available Nutrient Content and Soil Aggregate Distribution in Fluvo-aquic Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHI Wen-xuan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on environmental risk caused by livestock manure disorderly discharged from integrated livestock and poultry industry. 2-year pot experiment was carried out to study the effects of pig manure organic fertilizer on fluvo-aquic soil organic carbon, available nutrient content and soil aggregate distribution, which designed in 5 levels of organic fertilizer application(0, 6.7, 13.3, 26.7, 40.0 g·kg-1 soil. The results showed that the organic carbon, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, available P and available K contents in soil were enhanced with organic fertilizer application increasing, and the indicators of soil were increased significantly in second year, such as organic carbon content was 2.7%~54.0% higher than that of the first year, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content was higher 6.7%~34.6%, available P content was higher 36.8%~159.5% and available K content was higher 20.3%~35.7%. There was a significant linear relationship between soil organic carbon content and external organic carbon input. Organic fertilizer application could significantly improve lettuce yield, and it had a significant effect. The soil micro-aggregate contents for 0.053~0.25 mm and 0.5 mm soil macro-aggregates were increased with organic fertilizer application increasing. Organic fertilizer application could promote soil macro-aggregates formation, when the pig manure organic fertilizer applied 40.0 g·kg-1 soil, the contents of >0.25 mm soil aggregates reached maximum, and also the mean weight diameter(MWD and geometric average diameter(GWD of soil aggregates were higher than that of other treatments, the soil agglomeration became more stronger and the soil structure became more stable.

  13. Persistence and Leaching Potential of Microorganisms and Mineral N in Animal Manure Applied to Intact Soil Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostofa Amin, M. G.; Forslund, Anita; Bui, Thanh Xuan

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens...... in the soil. A study was conducted to investigate the leaching potentials of a phage (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B) and two bacteria, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus species, in a liquid fraction of raw pig slurry obtained by solid-liquid separation of this slurry...... and in this liquid fraction after ozonation, when applied to intact soil columns by subsurface injection. We also compared leaching potentials of surface-applied and subsurface-injected raw slurry. The columns were exposed to irrigation events (3.5-h period at 10 mm h−1) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of incubation...

  14. Chemical amendment of pig slurry: control of runoff related risks due to episodic rainfall events up to 48 h after application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Flynn, Cornelius J; Healy, Mark G; Wilson, Paul; Hoekstra, Nyncke J; Troy, Shane M; Fenton, Owen

    2013-09-01

    Losses of phosphorus (P) from soil and slurry during episodic rainfall events can contribute to eutrophication of surface water. However, chemical amendments have the potential to decrease P and suspended solids (SS) losses from land application of slurry. Current legislation attempts to avoid losses to a water body by prohibiting slurry spreading when heavy rainfall is forecast within 48 h. Therefore, in some climatic regions, slurry spreading opportunities may be limited. The current study examined the impact of three time intervals (TIs; 12, 24 and 48 h) between pig slurry application and simulated rainfall with an intensity of 11.0 ± 0.59 mm h(-1). Intact grassed soil samples, 1 m long, 0.225 m wide and 0.05 m deep, were placed in runoff boxes and pig slurry or amended pig slurry was applied to the soil surface. The amendments examined were: (1) commercial-grade liquid alum (8 % Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.88:1 [Al/ total phosphorus (TP)], (2) commercial-grade liquid ferric chloride (38 % FeCl3) applied at a rate of 0.89:1 [Fe/TP] and (3) commercial-grade liquid poly-aluminium chloride (10 % Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.72:1 [Al/TP]. Results showed that an increased TI between slurry application and rainfall led to decreased P and SS losses in runoff, confirming that the prohibition of land-spreading slurry if heavy rain is forecast in the next 48 h is justified. Averaged over the three TIs, the addition of amendment reduced all types of P losses to concentrations significantly different (p runoff than current TI-based legislation. Due to the high cost of amendments, their incorporation into existing management practices can only be justified on a targeted basis where inherent soil characteristics deem their usage suitable to receive amended slurry.

  15. From the application of antibiotics to antibiotic residues in liquid manures and digestates: A screening study in one European center of conventional pig husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyasari-Mehta, Arum; Hartung, Susen; Kreuzig, Robert

    2016-07-15

    In conventional pig husbandry, antibiotics are frequently applied. Together with excreta, antibiotic residues enter liquid manures finally used as organic soil fertilizers or input materials for biogas plants. Therefore, this first screening study was performed to survey the application patterns of antibiotics from fall 2011 until spring 2013. Manures and digestates were then analyzed for selected antibiotic residues from spring 2012 to 2013. The data analysis of veterinary drug application documents revealed the use of 34 different antibiotics belonging to 11 substance classes at 21 farms under study. Antibiotics, particularly tetracyclines, frequently administered to larger pig groups were detected in manure samples up to higher mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) concentrations. Antibiotic residues in digestates, furthermore, show that a full removal capacity cannot be guaranteed through the anaerobic digestion process in biogas plants.

  16. Comparative performance and microbial community of single-phase and two-phase anaerobic systems co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panichnumsin, P.; Ahring, B.K.; Nopharatana, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we illustrated the performance and microbial community of single- and two-phase systems anaerobically co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure. The results showed that the volatile solid reduction and biogas productivity of two-phase CSTR were 66 ± 4% and 2000 ± 210 ml l-1 d-1, whi...

  17. Comparing environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy – A life cycle perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Vinken, T.M.W.J.; Hamelin, L.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy, from a life cycle perspective. This included assessing environmental impacts and land use change emissions (LUC) required to replace used co-substrates for anaer

  18. Comparing environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy – A life cycle perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Vinken, T.M.W.J.; Hamelin, L.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy, from a life cycle perspective. This included assessing environmental impacts and land use change emissions (LUC) required to replace used co-substrates for

  19. Pig slurry characteristics, nutrient balance and biogas production as affected by separation and acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S G; Hjorth, Maibritt; Leahy, J J

    2015-01-01

    and separation fraction applied to fields and crop need. Total biogas production was not affected by separation, whereas acidification reduced biogas production because the process was inhibited by a low pH and a high sulphur concentration. The amount of copper applied per hectare in the liquid manure...

  20. Growth and slaughter performance, nitrogen balance and ammonia emission from slurry in pigs fed high fibre diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Matteo Crovetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to determine digestibility, nitrogen balance and ammonia emission from excreta, in the typical Italian heavy pig during the last phase of growth, when fed diets with a high fibre content. In comparison with a traditional control diet (C, two diets with 12 and 24% wheat bran (WB12 and WB24 and two other diets with 12 and 24% dried beet pulp (BP12 and BP24 were tested. Totally 76 Landrace x Large White fattening barrows, from 45 to 170 kg live weight distributed in 16 pens, were utilized in the trial. Thirty pigs were allocated to 6 metabolic cages in 5 consecutive periods in order to have 6 observations per treatment. For diets C, WB12 and WB24 daily weight gain (DWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR and slaughtering performances were also registered, on 20 pigs per dietary treatment. Growing and slaughter performances were similar for pigs fed C and WB12 diets, whilst diet WB24 determined a significant (P<0.05 decrease in performances (growth and feed conversion in the first period of fattening and a lower dressing percentage at slaughter (85.5, 84.4 and 82.5% for C, WB12 and WB24, respectively. Comparing the diets with the same level of inclusion of the fibrous feeds, WB diets had a lower OM and energy digestibility, while BP diets registered a lower protein but a higher fibre digestibility. Consistently with other experiments, BP diets determined an increase of faecal and a reduction of urinary N, as a percentage of the intake N, as well as a decrease of ammonia emission from the slurries (- 16.6 and -25.3% for BP12 and BP24, in comparison with C diet. For the WB diets the reduction of urinary N and the increase in faecal N were less marked and a reduction of ammonia emissions was not registered.

  1. Effects of benzoic acid on nitrogen, phosphorus and energy balance and on ammonia emission from slurries in the heavy pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Matteo Crovetto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of two dietary levels of benzoic acid on nitrogen, phosphorus and energy balance were evaluated in the typical Italian heavy pig during the last phase of growth. Six Landrace x Large White barrows of 125 kg body weight (BW on average were used in a repeated 3x3 Latin Square design and housed in metabolic cages to collect faeces and urine separately, in 3 collection periods of 7 days, after 14 days of adaptation. The animals were individually housed in open circuit respiration chambers to determine the energy metabolism. The dietary treatments were as follows [% on dry matter (DM]: i diet C (control: 14.2 crude protein (CP, 3.7 EE, 13.8 NDF; ii diet B05: diet C plus 0.5% benzoic acid; iii diet B10: diet C plus 1.0% benzoic acid. DM fed was fixed at 6.8% BW0.75. Apparent digestibility was similar among treatments for all the parameters studied. Nitrogen (N retention was 35.8, 37.4, 41.6% of intake N for C, B05 and B10, respectively, with no significant difference. Energy and phosphorus balances were not influenced by dietary treatments. Ammonia nitrogen emission from the slurry, expressed as a proportion of the initial slurry nitrogen, was decreased (P=0.049 by the inclusion of benzoic acid in the diet: 35.2, 28.1, 26.2% for C, B05, B10, respectively. The addition of benzoic acid to the diet determined a numerically decrease of the urinary pH. In conclusion, the inclusion of benzoic acid in the diet of the heavy pig is beneficial to the environment without effects on N, phosphorus (P and energy balances.

  2. Gaseous emissions from the storage of untreated slurries and the fractions obtained after mechanical separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinuccio, E.; Berg, W.; Balsari, P.

    A laboratory-scale study was set up to investigate ammonia (NH 3), nitrous oxide (N 2O), carbon dioxide (CO 2) and methane (CH 4) emissions during storage of untreated pig and cattle slurry and the fractions (solid and liquid) obtained by mechanical separation. The solid and liquid fractions were obtained from the same untreated slurry by means of a lab-scale mechanical separator. The manures were stored for a period of 30 days in open vessels (1500 cm 3 capacity) in two temperature-controlled rooms, which were kept at 5±0.5 and 25±0.2 °C. Gaseous emissions were determined using a dynamic chamber method and infrared photoacoustic detection (IPD). Over the storage period, gaseous emissions from pig manures were significantly ( Pcattle manures. N 2O fluxes of up to 232 mg m -2 h -1 were measured, but from pig solid fraction only. Between 40.8% (from pig liquid fraction stored at 25 °C) and 3.60% (from untreated cattle slurry stored at 25 °C) of the initial nitrogen content of the manures was lost as NH 3. Over the 30-day-storage period, the predominant emission of carbon was in the CO 2 form. Total C-CH 4 losses, expressed as a percent of the carbon initially present in the volatile solids (C-VS), ranged from 0.60% to 12.8% for pig manures and from 0.23% to 1.56% for cattle manures. The mechanical separation of cattle slurry increased by up to 30% the emissions of CO 2 equivalents to the atmosphere, during the storage of the separated fractions, when compared with the slurries. Results indicated that NH 3, N 2O, CO 2 and CH 4 emissions were affected by the interaction between a number of variables, including storage temperature, chemical characteristics and type of manure. Results also indicated that mechanical separation does not reduce emissions, but has the potential to increase the emissions of CO 2 equivalents to the atmosphere during the storage of the separated fractions.

  3. THE IMPACT OF FRESH SAWDUST AND DRY PIG MANURE PRODUCED ON SAWDUST BEDDING APPLICATION ON THE NUTRIENTS MOBILITY IN SOIL AND SUGAR BEET YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kováčik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the pot trial carried out at the area of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra was to determine the impact of dry pig manure produced on the sawdust bedding and sawdust litter on the level of nutrients’ mobility in the soil and sugar beet yield. The achieved results showed that one month after the sawdust and manure application to the soil, the contents of mobile nutrients (Nan, P, K, Ca, Mg in soil were lower than in the control unfertilized treatment. The sawdust litter immobilized nutrients more considerably than manure. Four months after the manure application into soil, its immobilization effect was not evident. On the contrary, the manure increased the mobile nutrients content in soil. In the second year of experiment the immobilization effect of sawdust litter was proved even four months after its application into soil. The application of manure increased considerably the beet root yield. The maximum root yield was determined in the treatment where the highest dose of manure was applied. The minimum root yield was detected in the treatment where the highest dose of sawdust litter was applied.

  4. Optimisation and inhibition of anaerobic digestion of livestock manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutaryo, S.

    2012-11-15

    The optimisation process during this PhD study focused on mixed enzyme (ME) addition, thermal pre-treatment and co-digestion of raw manure with solid fractions of acidified manure, while for inhibition processes, ammonia and sulphide inhibition were studied. ME addition increased methane yield of both dairy cow manure (DCM) and solid fractions of DCM (by 4.44% and 4.15% respectively, compared to the control) when ME was added to manure and incubated prior to anaerobic digestion (AD). However, no positive effect was found when ME was added to manure and fed immediately to either mesophilic (35 deg. C) or thermophilic (50 deg. C) digesters. Low-temperature pre-treatment (65 deg. C to 80 deg. C for 20 h) followed by batch assays increased the methane yield of pig manure in the range from 9.5% to 26.4% at 11 d incubation. These treatments also increased the methane yield of solid-fractions pig manure in the range from 6.1% to 25.3% at 11 d of the digestion test. However, at 90 d the increase in methane yield of pig manure was only significant at the 65 deg. C treatment, thus low-temperature thermal pre-treatment increased the rate of gas production, but did not increase the ultimate yield (B{sub o}). High-temperature pre-treatment (100 deg. C to 225 deg. C for 15 min.) increased the methane yield of DCM by 13% and 21% for treatments at 175 deg. C and 200 deg. C, respectively, at 27 d of batch assays. For pig manure, methane yield was increased by 29% following 200 deg. C treatment and 27 d of a batch digestion test. No positive effect was found of high-temperature pre-treatment on the methane yield of chicken manure. At the end of the experiment (90 d), high-temperature thermal pre-treatment was significantly increasing the B{sub 0} of pig manure and DCM. Acidification of animal manure using sulphuric acid is a well-known technology to reduce ammonia emission of animal manure. AD of acidified manure showed sulphide inhibition and consequently methane production was 45

  5. Evolution of temperature and chemical parameters during composting of the pig slurry solid fraction amended with natural zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venglovsky, J.; Sasakova, N.; Vargova, M.; Pacajova, Z.; Placha, I.; Pretrovsky, M.; Harichova, D. [University of Veterinary Medicine, Kosice (Slovakia). Research Institute of Veterinary Medicine

    2005-01-01

    A 3-month experiment was conducted at a 300 kg scale to observe decomposition processes in pig slurry solids amended with two different doses of natural Slovak zeolite-clinoptilolite (substrates S1 and S2, 1% and 2% of zeolite by weight, respectively) in comparison with the control (unamended solids). The experimental and control substrates were stored outdoors in sheltered static piles at ambient temperatures ranging from 8.0 to 34.7{sup o}C. The solid fraction (SF) of pig slurry was obtained by separation on vibration sieves prior to slurry treatment with activated sludge. The initial water content of the SF was 77.1% and no water was added to the piles during the storage. The temperature in the core of the piles was recorded throughout the experiment. By day 3 and 5 of storage (1% and 2% zeolite, resp.), the temperature in the substrates S1 and S2 exceeded 55{sup o}C and remained above this level for 15 days while the highest temperature recorded in the control during the experiment was 29.8{sup o}C. Samples from the core of the piles were taken periodically to determine pH, dry matter at 105{sup o}C (DM), ash (550{sup o} C/4 h), ammonia nitrogen (N-NH{sub 4}{sup +}), nitrate nitrogen (N-NO{sub 3}{sup -}), total nitrogen (N{sub t}), total phosphorus (P{sub t}); total organic carbon (TOC) was computed. The results showed that pH levels in S1 and S2 remained below that in the control for most of the thermophilic stage. This may be related to water-soluble ammonia and the affinity of zeolites to ammonium ions. A significant decrease in the level of ammonia nitrogen in water extracts from S1 and S2 was observed between days 5 and 35 in comparison with the control. The values of ash also differed and corresponded to the intensity of the decomposition processes in the respective substrates. (author)

  6. Ammonia emission from excreta of growing-finishing pigs as affected by dietary composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canh, T.T.

    1998-01-01

    Ammonia, volatilised from pig slurry decreases manure's fertiliser value. Furthermore, the deposition of ammonia emitted into the atmosphere may cause undesirable changes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. At present, there is increasing interest in nutritional means to reduce ammonia

  7. Pelleted organo-mineral fertilisers from composted pig slurry solids, animal wastes and spent mushroom compost for amenity grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Juluri R; Watabe, Miyuki; Stewart, T Andrew; Millar, B Cherie; Moore, John E

    2007-01-01

    In Ireland, conversion of biodegradable farm wastes such as pig manure spent mushroom compost and poultry litter wastes to pelletised fertilisers is a desirable option for farmers. In this paper, results obtained from the composting of pig waste solids (20% w/w) blended with other locally available biodegradable wastes comprising poultry litter (26% w/w), spent mushroom compost (26% w/w), cocoa husks (18% w/w) and moistened shredded paper (10% w/w) are presented. The resulting 6-mo old 'mature' composts had a nutrient content of 2.3% total N, 1.6% P and 3.1% K, too 'low' for direct use as an agricultural fertiliser. Formulations incorporating dried blood or feather meal amendments enriched the organic N-content, reduced the moisture in mature compost mixtures and aided the granulation process. Inclusion of mineral supplements viz., sulphate of ammonia, rock phosphate and sulphate of potash, yielded slow release fertilisers with nutrient N:P:K ratios of 10:3:6 and 3:5:10 that were suited for amenity grasslands such as golf courses for spring or summer application and autumn dressing, respectively. Rigorous microbiological tests carried out throughout the composting, processing and pelletising phases indicated that the formulated organo-mineral fertilisers were free of vegetative bacterial pathogens.

  8. Thermal and spectroscopic analysis of organic matter degradation and humification during composting of pig slurry in different scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Mata, J; Lahoz-Ramos, C; Bustamante, M A; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Moral, R; Santos, A; Sáez, J A; Bernal, M P

    2016-09-01

    In this work, different analytical techniques (thermal analysis, (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy) have been used to study the organic matter changes during the co-composting of pig slurry with cotton gin waste. To ensure the validity of the findings, the composting process was developed in different scenarios: under experimental pilot plant conditions, using the static pile system, and under real conditions on a pig farm, using the turning pile system. Also, the thermal stability index (R1) was determined before and after an extraction with water, to evaluate the effect of eliminating water-soluble inorganic salts on the thermal analysis. The results of the thermal methods showed the degradation of the most labile organic matter during composting; R1 increased during composting in all piles, without any influence of the presence of water-soluble inorganic ions in the sample. The NMR showed a decrease in the abundance of the carbohydrate molecules and an increase in the aliphatic materials during composting, due to a concentration effect. Also, FT-IR spectroscopy was a useful technique to study the trends of polysaccharides and nitrate, as indicators of organic matter transformations during composting.

  9. Using /sup 15/N tracer technique to determine the nitrogen effect of slurry fractions in pot experiments with Festuca pratensis. 1. Nitrogen effect of slurry fractions in comparison with raw slurry in different soil substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, P. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig-Potsdam. Inst. fuer Duengungsforschung)

    1983-08-01

    Rising amounts of cattle and pig slurry dimensioned on the basis of its nitrogen content, and liquid and solid slurry fractions obtained after mechanical fractionation were tested on sandy, loess and low-bog soils. The dry matter yields and nitrogen utilization rates determined in a 2-years test show clear correlations with the soil class and the nitrogen amount, but also with the form of slurry nitrogen bond, the carbon/nitrogen ratio of the organic manures and their content of mineral substances. The nitrogen utilization rates are influenced and vary considerably in the variants under review. On the average of the variants 'soil' and 'nitrogen increase' more than 50% of the mineral nitrogen were utilized by the plants. About 30 to 40% of the raw slurry and liquid slurry nitrogen were taken up by the plants. About 18% of the nitrogen from the solid cattle slurry fraction was utilized on the average, the figure for solid pig slurry fraction was 32%.

  10. Effects of Residual Hypochlorite Ion on Methane Production during the Initial Anaerobic Digestion Stage of Pig Slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young-Man; Kim, Hyun-Cheol; So, Kyu-Ho; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The hypochlorite ion (OCl(-)) is a widely used disinfecting agent in pig rearing in Korea, but its residual effect on CH4 production from pig slurry is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the inhibition effects of residual OCl(-) on CH4 production during the initial anaerobic digestion stage of pig slurry. Three organic concentrations (9.9, 26.2 and 43.7 g/L) of volatile solids (VS) were tested with the addition of 52.3 mg/L OCl(-), ten times of the typical concentration used in Korea, or without OCl(-) (Control) in anaerobic batch culture. The culture was run under mesophilic (38°C) conditions for 20 d. At the lowest organic concentration with OCl(-), the VS degradation was 10.3% lower (pOCl(-), it did not differ from Control. CH4 yields were higher in the control treatments than their OCl(-) counterpart cultures, and CH4 yields of Control and OCl(-) treatments at the organic concentrations of 9.9, 26.2 and 43.7 g/L differed in the probability level (p) of 0.31, 0.04, and 0.06, respectively. Additionally, CH4 concentration increased steeply and reached 70.0% within 4 d in the absence OCl(-), but a gradual increase up to 60.0% was observed in 6 d in the OCl(-) treated cultures. The Rm (the maximum specific CH4 production rate) and λ (lag phase time) of 9.9 g/L with OCl(-) were 8.1 ml/d and 25.6 d, while the Rm was increased to 15.1 ml/d, and λ was reduced to 11.4 d in PS-III (higher organic concentration) with OCl(-). The results suggest that a prolonged fermentation time was necessary for the methanogens to overcome the initial OCl(-) inhibitory effect, and an anaerobic reactor operated with high organic loadings was more advantageous to mitigate the inhibitory effect of residual hypochlorite ion.

  11. Nitrato no solo com a aplicação de dejetos líquidos de suínos no milho em plantio direto Soil nitrate as affected by pig slurry application under no-till corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Aita

    2008-10-01

    de perdas de N-NO3- por lixiviação com a aplicação dos dejetos, principalmente na dose de 80 m³ ha-1, em que a quantidade média de N total aplicada nos três anos foi de 244 kg ha-1 ano-1.The application of animal manure to the soil, particularly those generated in pig farms, has become an increasingly common practice in southern Brazil. However, depending on the dose applied, there is a risk of nutrient losses, mainly nitrate (NO3-, to the water courses through leaching and runoff, and to the atmosphere as N-oxide emissions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the accumulation and displacement of N-NO3- in the soil after pig slurry application in no-tillage corn. The doses of 0, 40 and 80 m³ ha-1 pig slurry were applied annually, for three years, on the mulch of cover crop of black oats and of winter spontaneous vegetation, preceding corn sowing. The N-NO3- concentration was evaluated in different soil layers to a depth of 60 cm and on six dates, from the slurry application until corn tasseling. The amount of N-NO3- increased quickly in the soil surface layer with the pig slurry application, evidencing the high nitrification rates of ammoniacal N in the slurry. N-NO3- produced in the surface layers moved down quickly in the soil profile. At a dose of 80 m³ ha-1 slurry the amounts of N-NO3- in the 30-60 cm soil layer on the 30th day of the first year, 29 th day in the second and 36 th day in the third year were higher than the average of the treatments without slurry in 9, 21 and 32 kg ha-1 N-NO3-, respectively. In the first two years the amount of soil N-NO3- in the surface layer did not differ with slurry application on mulch of oats or spontaneous vegetation, indicating the low potential of grass mulch in promoting microbial N immobilization. The high rate of nitrification of ammoniacal N in the slurry and the fast displacement of N-NO3- in the soil profile when the corn N demand was still small indicate a greater susceptibility of N-NO3- losses by

  12. A determination and comparison of urease activity in feces and fresh manure from pig and cattle in relation to ammonia production and pH changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Dai

    Full Text Available Ammonia emission from animal production is a major environmental problem and has impacts on the animal health and working environment inside production houses. Ammonia is formed in manure by the enzymatic degradation of urinary urea and catalyzed by urease that is present in feces. We have determined and compared the urease activity in feces and manure (a urine and feces mixture from pigs and cattle at 25°C by using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. To obtain accurate estimates of kinetic parameters Vmax and K'm, we used a 5 min reaction time to determine the initial reaction velocities based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN concentrations. The resulting Vmax value (mmol urea hydrolyzed per kg wet feces per min was 2.06±0.08 mmol urea/kg/min and 0.80±0.04 mmol urea/kg/min for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. The K'm values were 32.59±5.65 mmol urea/l and 15.43±2.94 mmol urea/l for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. Thus, our results reveal that both the Vmax and K'm values of the urease activity for pig feces are more than 2-fold higher than those for cattle feces. The difference in urea hydrolysis rates between animal species is even more significant in fresh manure. The initial velocities of TAN formation are 1.53 mM/min and 0.33 mM/min for pig and cattle manure, respectively. Furthermore, our investigation shows that the maximum urease activity for pig feces occurs at approximately pH 7, and in cattle feces it is closer to pH 8, indicating that the predominant fecal ureolytic bacteria species differ between animal species. We believe that our study contributes to a better understanding of the urea hydrolysis process in manure and provides a basis for more accurate and animal-specific prediction models for urea hydrolysis rates and ammonia concentration in manures and thus can be used to predict ammonia volatilization rates from animal production.

  13. CONVERSION OF ORGANIC MANURE INTO BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Brdarić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of biogas with anaerobic degradation from organic waste is one of the pledge alternative energetic solutions, especially from organic manure made from animal farming and other residuals of agricultural production. According to 2005 livestock manufacture data daily quantity of animal excrements in Croatia, based on LSU number, is 784 015.26 m3. The aim of this paper is to determine the possibility of production of biogas from the most common types of domestic animals in Croatia. Anaerobic fermentation period of 40 days in mesophilic conditions produced from 1 kg of beef, 31 litres of biogas slurry and from pig slurry 14.83 litres of biogas. From our study it follows that the Republic of Croatia (based on the number of UG could produce 426,995,250.00 Nm3 biogas annually. Exploitation of biogas can decrease import of the referred energents, especially electric energy.

  14. Interactions between Soil Texture and Placement of Dairy Slurry Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2011-01-01

    Land application of manure can exacerbate nutrient and contaminant transfers to the aquatic environment. This study examined the effect of injecting a dairy cattle (Bos taurus L.) manure slurry on mobilization and leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components across a range of agricultural...... texture as an important factor influencing leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components in soils amended with manure slurry.......Land application of manure can exacerbate nutrient and contaminant transfers to the aquatic environment. This study examined the effect of injecting a dairy cattle (Bos taurus L.) manure slurry on mobilization and leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components across a range of agricultural...... soils. We compared leaching of slurry-applied bromide through intact soil columns (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) of differing textures following surface application or injection of slurry. The volumetric fraction of soil pores >30 μm ranged from 43% in a loamy sand to 28% in a sandy loam and 15% in a loam...

  15. Spread of Hepatitis E virus from pig slurry to the water environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Forslund, Anita; Breum, Solvej Østergaard

    is known to be excreted in faeces from pigs, will be transported through the soil and into the drainage system of a field due to precipitation or will be retained in the soil matrix. Water from the drainage system is not treated before it is discharged into larger water reservoirs (lake, fjords, streams...... a Danish pig farm was spread on a tile-drained field of loamy soil. Water that arrived at the drainage system located 1 m below surface was collected over a time period of 4 month. Samples were collected on a weekly basis and when water flow in the drainage system exceeded a certain threshold (an event......). In addition, samples of water collected from wells located along the field and groundwater. Archived mussels from different regions in Denmark were included in the study. Virus was concentrated from water using Poly Ethylene Glycol precipitation and virus from the digestive tissue of the mussels was extracted...

  16. Using /sup 15/N tracer technique to determine the nitrogen effect of slurry fractions in pot experiments with Festuca pratensis. 2. Nitrogen effect of slurry solid matter at rising mineral fertilizer rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, P. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig-Potsdam. Inst. fuer Duengungsforschung)

    1983-01-01

    A combination of organic manuring and mineral fertilization had positive effects on crop yields, first of all on sandy soils, particularly after high nitrogen applications (up to a maximum of 4 g N/pot). These effects correlate with a higher utilization of the mineral nitrogen. Rising mineral fertilizer rates, soil substrate, and parameters of slurry solid matter, especially their C:N ratio, influence the mobility of soil nitrogen as well as the uptake of organic manure nitrogen. The solid matter nitrogen of pig slurry was more easily available to plants on sandy and loess soils. Slurry solid matter applied in addition to mineral nitrogen had positive effects on the quality of the harvested products.

  17. Cereal β-glucan alters nutrient digestibility and microbial activity in the intestinal tract of pigs, and lower manure ammonia emission: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Zebeli, Q

    2013-07-01

    Cereal β-glucan may be detrimental in pig production because of negative effects on nutrient digestibility, but they may act as functional ingredients by stimulating the intestinal microbiota. This study primarily aimed to investigate relations between dietary β-glucan and nutrient digestibility, intestinal fermentation, and manure NH3 emission in weaned, growing, and finishing pigs. Effects of dietary xylose, NDF, and CP, and pig BW on animal responses were also evaluated. A meta-analytical approach, accounting for inter- and intraexperiment variations, was used to compute prediction models. Data from 26 studies including 107 different dietary treatments with appropriate dietary and physiological measurements were used to parameterize these models. Dietary β-glucan inclusion ranged from 0 to 6.7%. Increasing dietary β-glucan reduced apparent ileal (AID) and total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP and energy (R(2) = 0.12 to 0.29; P pigs counteracted (P Pig BW also enhanced effects of β-glucan on cecal total VFA, colonic iso-butyrate, ileal butyrate, and NH3 emission (P < 0.05). Dietary CP potentiated (P < 0.01) the β-glucan effects on cecal total VFA, cecal butyrate, and colonic iso-butyrate. In conclusion, this study indicates that β-glucan can stimulate cecal butyrate and ameliorate manure NH3 emission, thereby decreasing nutrient digestibility. Because greater BW ameliorates β-glucan effects, finishing diets may be formulated to contain more β-glucan than weaner diets.

  18. Growth and lead accumulation by the grasses Vetiveria zizanioides and Thysanolaena maxima in lead-contaminated soil amended with pig manure and fertilizer: a glasshouse study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotkittikhun, P; Chaiyarat, R; Kruatrachue, M; Pokethitiyook, P; Baker, A J M

    2007-01-01

    Bo Ngam lead mine soils contain high concentrations of lead (up 1% total Pb) and low amounts of organic matter and major nutrients (N, P, K). A glasshouse study was conducted to compare growth performance, metal tolerance and metal uptake by two grasses, Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) O. Kuntze and four ecotypes of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash, syn. Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty (three from Thailand: Surat Thani, Songkhla and Kamphaeng Phet, and one from Sri Lanka) and to study the effects of pig manure (20% and 40% w/w) and inorganic fertilizer (75 and 150 mg kg(-1)) amendments to this lead mine soil. The results showed that both T. maxima and V. zizanioides (Surat Thani and Songkhla) could tolerate high Pb concentrations in soil (10750 mg kg(-1)) and had very good growth performance. Application of pig manure increased electrical conductivity (EC) and reduced DTPA-extractable Pb concentration in the soils. Pig manure application improved the growth of vetiver, especially at 20%, application dosage. Vetiver had the highest biomass. T. maxima could not tolerate high EC values. The uptake by roots and transport of Pb to shoots of both species was reduced when soils were amended with pig manure. Application of inorganic fertilizer did not improve growth of vetiver but did improve that of T. maxima. Fertilizer application did not have any great influence on the Pb uptake in vetiver while T. maxima took up more Pb as a result of the fertilizer enhancing its biomass yield. Both species transported low Pb concentrations to shoots (8.3-179 mg kg(-1)) and accumulated higher concentrations in roots (107-911 mg kg(-1)). In summary, both species may be species well suited for phytostabilization in tropical lead mine areas.

  19. Temperature response of methane production in liquid manures and co-digestates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olsen, Anne B; Petersen, Søren O

    2016-01-01

    Intensification of livestock production makes correct estimation of methanogenesis in liquid manure increasingly important for inventories of CH4 emissions. Such inventories currently rely on fixed methane conversion factors as knowledge gaps remain with respect to detailed temperature responses of CH4 emissions from liquid manure. Here, we describe the temperature response of CH4 production in liquid cattle slurry, pig slurry, and fresh and stored co-digested slurry from a thermophilic biogas plant. Subsamples of slurry were anoxically incubated at 20 temperatures from 5-52°C in a temperature gradient incubator and CH4 production was measured by gas chromatographic analysis of headspace gas after a 17-h incubation period. Methane production potentials at 5-37°C were described by the Arrhenius equation (modelling efficiencies, 79.2-98.1%), and the four materials showed a consistent activation energy (Ea) which averaged 81.0kJmol(-1) (95% confidence interval, 74.9-87.1kJmol(-1)) corresponding to a temperature sensitivity (Q10) of 3.4. In contrast, the frequency factor (A) differed among the slurry materials (30.1emissions from livestock manure.

  20. Characteristics and composition of fouling caused by pig slurry in a tubular heat exchanger--recommended cleaning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunault, C; Coquinot, Y; Burton, C H; Picard, S; Pourcher, A M

    2013-03-15

    The structure and composition of the fouling deposits caused by pig slurry heated in a tubular heat exchanger were characterized to understand their formation and thus be able to minimize fouling and define effective routine cleaning methods. Two temperatures (55 °C and 80 °C) were investigated. Two types of fouling were identified: organic/mineral and biofilm. The first only formed at temperatures above 50 °C, often during the heating phase, and was the main problem encountered in treatments at 80 °C. Organic/mineral deposits formed a thin compact sub-layer and a thick porous top layer composed of 67-76% minerals, 9-15% proteins, 8-20% carbohydrates and 0-5% fats. Biofilms formed at temperatures between 25 °C and 70 °C in both the cooling and heating sections of the exchanger. This type of fouling predominated at temperatures below 55 °C. The biofilm covered a thin mineral base layer. Strongly acidic or alkaline washing cycle are recommended to clean Type I deposits, while in-line gas-rumbling is recommended for Type II fouling.

  1. Combination of batch experiments with continuous reactor data for ADM1 calibration: application to anaerobic digestion of pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, R; Rousseau, P; Steyer, J P; Bernet, N; Béline, F

    2011-01-01

    Modelling anaerobic digestion processes is a key aspect of studying and optimizing digesters and related waste streams. However, for the satisfactory prediction of biogas production and effluent characteristics, some parameters have to be calibrated according to the characteristics of the substrates. This article describes a calibration procedure for the IWA 'Anaerobic Digestion Model no. 1' applied to the modelling of a digester for treatment of pig slurry. The most sensitive parameters were selected and calibrated combining results from a continuous digester and from batch trials run with the sludge sampled from the digester and the addition of specific substrates. According to the sensitivity analysis, acetoclastic methanogenesis, acetogenesis of propionate and acidogenesis of sugars were identified as the main sensitive steps in our case. The calibration procedure led us to modify slightly acetogenesis of propionate kinetic. However, acetoclastic methanogenesis and acidogenesis of sugars kinetics were significantly reduced by decreasing km and increasing Ks. Indeed, for instance, a decrease of km_ac from 8 to 7 day(-1) combined with an increase of Ks_ac from 0.15 to 1.5 kgCOD/m3 was necessary. After calibration, ADM1 provides an accurate simulation of the continuous reactor results.

  2. Modeling field-scale vertical movement of zinc and copper in a pig slurry-amended soil in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, Fábio Joel Kochem; dos Santos, Danilo Rheinheimer; Ceretta, Carlos Alberto; Cella, Cesar; Simůnek, Jirka; van Oort, Folkert

    2012-12-01

    Organic amendments often represent a source of trace metals (TMs) in soils, which may partly leach into the groundwater. The objectives of this study were (1) to validate Hydrus-2D for modeling the transport of Zn and Cu in an Alfisol amended with pig slurry (PS) by comparing numerical simulations and experimental field data, and (2) to model the next 50 years of TM movements under scenarios of suspended or continued PS amendments. First, between 2000 and 2008, we collected detailed Zn and Cu data from a soil profile in Santa Maria, Brazil. Two hypotheses about Zn and Cu reactivity with the solid phase were tested, considering physical, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics of six soil layers. Using a two-site sorption model with a sorption kinetic rate adjusted based on laboratory EDTA extractions, Hydrus simulations of the vertical TM transport were found to satisfactorily describe the soil Zn and Cu concentration profiles. Second, the long-term fate of Zn and Cu in the soil was assessed using the validated parameterized model. Numerical simulations showed that Zn and Cu did not present risks for groundwater pollution. However, future Cu accumulation in the surface soil layer would exceed the Brazilian threshold for agricultural soils.

  3. Changes in physical properties and organic carbon of a Kandiudox fertilized with manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Patricia Andrade

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Successive applications of pig slurry and poultry manure can improve the soil structure, according to the land use conditions and amounts applied. This study evaluated the effect of manure fertilization on the physical properties and organic carbon of a Rhodic Kandiudox. Treatments included land use and management and time of pig slurry and poultry litter application, namely: native forest (NF; yerba mate after 20 years of animal waste application (YM20; pasture after 15 years of application (P15; grassland after 20 years of manuring (PP20; grassland after 3 years of manuring (P3; pasture without application (P0, maize after 20 years of application (M20; and maize after 7 years of application (M7. Soil samples were collected in the 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20cm layers, in which density, porosity, aggregate stability, flocculation, penetration resistance, available water, and total clay content, total and particulate organic carbon, and C:N ratio were analyzed. The total organic carbon is sensitive to management and was not related to waste application, except in the 10-20cm layer of ryegrass pasture after three years of manuring. Reponses to waste application and land use and management systems were observed in the variables soil density and penetration resistance.

  4. Survival and leaching of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicators from manure in field scale experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Tina; Amin, Mostofa; Lægdsmand, Mette

    occurring indicator bacteria around a manure slurry slit in the soil was followed. During a period of two months, sections of soils with different distance to the manure string were assayed to obtain information on survival and spread of bacteriophage, faecal indicators (Enterococci, Bacterioides, E. coli......) and Tetracycline resistant bacteria. The die-off of the different organisms was quantified showing an extended survival close to the manure string. Genomic DNA from 400 Tetracycline resistant bacteria was isolated and their phylogenetic relationship was established using BOX PCR showing that the main Tetracycline...... organisms show that the upper soil and drainage water are impacted by the microorganisms natural originating from pig manure under natural conditions....

  5. Fouling mitigation in membrane distillation processes during ammonia stripping from pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarebska, Agata; Amor, Angel Cid; Ciurkot, Klaudia

    2015-01-01

    . This study investigates preliminary fouling of polypropylene (PP) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes. A model manure solution was used as feed. In addition cleaning efficiencies with deionized water, NaOH/citric acid, and Novadan agents were studied. Further microfiltration and ultrafiltration were...... additionally contained carboxylates, free fatty acids and lignin. Among the tested cleaning strategies, Novadan agents were the most successful in removing proteins and carbohydrates from the PTFE membrane while it only removed proteins from the PP membrane. Using microfiltration or ultrafiltration...... as a pretreatment prior to MD doubled the ammonia mass transfer coefficient for the PTFE membrane, while for the PP membrane, the ammonia mass transfer coefficient was increased 4-fold....

  6. Life cycle assessment of pig slurry treatment technologies for nutrient redistribution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Peters, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    redistribution before land application: (a) separation by mechanical screw press, (b) screw press separation with composting of the solid fraction, (c) separation by decanter centrifuge, and (d) decanter centrifuge separation with ammonia stripping of the liquid fraction. Emissions were determined based...... carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus storage. In all separation scenarios, the liquid fraction was applied to land on the pig-producing (donor) farm and the solid fraction transported to a recipient farm and utilised for crop production. Separation, especially by centrifuge, was found to result in a lower...... a sensitivity analysis in which coefficients for field emissions of nitrous oxide, ammonia and phosphorus were varied within the range cited in the literature. Therefore, the best technology to implement in a given situation depends on the environmental problem in question, local policy, cost and practicality....

  7. Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emission from Animal Manure Using the Closed Chamber Method for Gas Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Călin VAC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal manure is an important source of anthropogenic GHG (greenhouse gas: methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2. The livestock contributes with 37% of global CH4 emission. The sources of GHG (CO2 and CH4 are the liquid manure or slurry storage and the compact solid manure. Measurement systems of GHG emission are important for the selection of the appropriate technology. By using the closed chamber method for soil, landfills, volcanoes etc., the present study evaluates the estimation of total emissions of methane and carbon dioxide from an experimental farm in Cluj County, Romania. The investigated area covered with sheep solid manure was about 579 m2 and ~5 cm thick, for cattle was about 12 m2 and 5 m thick and for swine was about 1.5 m5 and 0.5 m thick. The total methane emission measured for sheep manure was 0.83 t CH4/year and for cattle manure was 0.185 t CH4/year. The total carbon dioxide emission measured for sheep manure was 61.3 t CO2/year and for cattle manure was 4.7 t CO2/year. The measurement for pigs manure was high and this could be due to the freshness of the manure. The estimated emissions showed that a considerable amount of CH4 and CO2 is produced also by an experimental farm and an appropriate management of manure is important for reducing greenhouse gas. In this respect, we believe that the future solution for a green economy is to use manure in biogas plants.

  8. Biogas production and microbial community shift through neutral pH control during the anaerobic digestion of pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Fenwu; Yong, Xiaoyu; Wu, Xiayuan; Zheng, Tao; Jiang, Min; Jia, Honghua

    2016-10-01

    Laboratory-scale reactors, in which the pH could be auto-adjusted, were employed to investigate the mesophilic methane fermentation with pig manure (7.8% total solids) at pH 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0. Results showed that the performance of anaerobic digestion was strongly dependent on pH value. Biogas production and methane content at neutral pH 7.0 were significantly higher (16,607mL, 51.81%) than those at pH 6.0 (6916mL, 42.9%) and 8.0 (9739mL, 35.6%). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting and Shannon's index indicated that the samples contained highly diverse microbial communities. The major genus at pH 7.0 was Methanocorpusculum, compared with that was Methanosarcina at both pH 6.0 and 8.0. Our research revealed that cultures maintained at pH 7.0 could support increased biogas production, which has significant implications for the scale-up biogas engineering.

  9. Turnover of manure 15N-labelled ammonium during composting and soil application as affected by lime and superphosphate addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Tien Minh; Luxhøi, Jesper; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2012-01-01

    To determine N turnover and losses during aerobic composting of animal manure, a 41-d laboratory study was performed on pig manure composting with three additive treatments (Straw: pig manure + straw only; Lime: pig manure + straw + quick lime; and SSP: pig manure + straw + single superphosphate)...... superphosphate increased the NH4-N content in both. Therefore, superphosphate addition increased the potential fertilizer value of composted pig manure....

  10. 高效微生物菌剂在猪粪堆肥中的应用%Composting of Pig Manure with Highly Efficient Microbial Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锐; 方亚曼; 罗金飞; 王根荣; 陈吕军

    2011-01-01

    [目的]针对嘉兴市猪粪堆肥菌剂成本高的问题,研制一种低成本、本地化的菌剂,并将其与市售菌剂同时应用于猪粪堆肥中.[方法]试验组和时照组分别接种了自制微生物菌剂和商用菌剂,堆肥共进行38d,对比研究堆肥物理性状、温度、pH、含水率、有机质、水溶性氮、碳氮比及种子发芽率.[结果]试验组含水率在第33天已降至26.10%,达到30%的腐熟标准,而对照组到第38天仍略高于30%;试验组种子发芽率在第28天达到腐熟标准,而对照组到第35天才达标;堆肥结束时试验组和时照组的碳氮比分别为14.64和16.43,有机质含量均为45%左右,二者均满足有机肥料成品标准.[结论]自制微生物菌剂满足堆肥要求,较商用菌剂使堆肥腐熟时间缩短5~8d,其肥料成品含水率较低,更适于保存.%[Objective] The aim of this study was to develop a low - cost and localized microbial agent so as to solve high cost of microbial agent for pig manure composting in Jiaxing City. [Method ] Pig manure in the experimental group and control group was inoculated with the self - developed microbial agent and commercial microbial agent, respectively. The manure was composted for 38 d. The indicators of compost including physical behavior,temperature,pH value,water content,organic matter,dissolved nitrogen,carbon nitrogen ratio and germination rate were compared. [ Result] The water content of the experimental pig manure compost declined to 26. 10% after 33 d of composting .which met the standard of maturity, while the water content of the control was still slightly higher than 30% after 38 d. The germination rate of seeds fertilized with the experimental pig manure compost reached the standard of maturity on Day 28,while that of the control reached the standard of maturity on Day 35. When the composting was finished,the carbon nitrogen ratio of the experimental and control pig manure was 14. 64 and 16.43,respectively

  11. EFFECT OF TOPDRESSING WITH DIGESTED PIG SLURRY ON AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION IN VEGETABLE FIELDS%追施猪粪沼液对菜地氨挥发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳红梅; 常志州; 郭德杰; 吴华山

    2012-01-01

    氨挥发是肥料氮素损失的主要途径之一.以厌氧发酵后的猪粪沼液为研究对象,通过蔬菜大棚小区试验,分析其作为追肥表施于冬季菜地(水芹(Oenanthe clecumbens L.)和扬花萝卜(Raphanus sativus L.Var.Radiculus pets.);追施氮量分别为72 kg hm-2和54 kg hm-2)及夏季菜地(小白菜(Brassica chinensis L.)和大叶茼蒿(Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.);追施氮量分别为42 kg hm-2和63 kg hm-2)后的氨排放特征及其影响因子.研究结果表明:(1)施用猪粪沼液后菜地氨挥发激增,沼液中氮素以氨挥发形态损失较快,通常发生在施入后48 h内;(2)冬季芹菜地和萝卜地施用沼液后的累积氨排放量分别为8.68 kghm-2和9.90 kg hm-2,显著高于化肥处理(4.06 kg hm-2和5.59 kg hm-2);而夏季白菜地和茼蒿地则分别为10.40kg hm-2和11.61 kg hm-2,与化肥处理间差异不显著(9.81 kg hm-2和10.09 kg hm-2);(3)冬季菜地施用沼液后氨挥发损失率分别达到11.7%和17.7%,显著低于夏季菜地(23.3%和26.8%);(4)0 ~10 cm土层土壤温度、水分含量、可溶性有机碳含量、氮素水平及形态、微生物生物量及活性,均与菜地氨挥发有较高的关联度.沼液作为追肥施入农田后会因其自身氨挥发和激发效应而使氨排放增加,在施用过程中应特别注意温度的影响,同时应选择合适的施用方式.%Ammonia ( NH3) volatilization is a major pathway for gaseous nitrogen loss from fields applied with manure. To explore effects of topdressing of bio-digested manure slurry on ammonia volatilization, a field experiment was carried out in a vegetable greenhouse, applying bio-digested pig manure slurry ( DPS) on winter vegetable, cress ( Oenanthe clecumbens L. ) and radish ( Raphanus sativus L. Var. Radiculus pers. ) , and summer vegetable, pak choi ( Brassica chinensis L. ) and crown daisy ( Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb. ). The topdressing rates of nitrogen were 72 kg hm ~ , 54 kg

  12. Comparing environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy – A life cycle perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vries, J.W.; Vinken, T.M.W.J; Hamelin, Lorie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy, from a life cycle perspective. This included assessing environmental impacts and land use change emissions (LUC) required to replace used co-substrates for an......The aim of this work was to assess the environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy, from a life cycle perspective. This included assessing environmental impacts and land use change emissions (LUC) required to replace used co......-substrates for anaerobic digestion. Environmental impact categories considered were climate change, terrestrial acidification, marine and freshwater eutrophication, particulate matter formation, land use, and fossil fuel depletion. Six scenarios were evaluated: mono-digestion of manure, co-digestion with: maize silage......, maize silage and glycerin, beet tails, wheat yeast concentrate (WYC), and roadside grass. Mono-digestion reduced most impacts, but represented a limited source for bio-energy. Co-digestion with maize silage, beet tails, and WYC (competing with animal feed), and glycerin increased bio-energy production...

  13. Simultaneous degradation of waste phosphogypsum and liquid manure from industrial pig farm by a mixed community of sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeczycka, Marzenna; Miernik, Antoni; Markiewicz, Zdzislaw

    2010-01-01

    The utilization of pig manure as a source of nutrients for the dissimilatory reduction of sulfates present in phosphogypsum was investigated. In both types of media used (synthetic medium and raw pig manure) increased utilization of sulfates with growing COD/SO4(2-)ratio in the medium was observed. The percent of sulfate reduction obtained in synthetic medium was from 18 to 99%, whereas the value for cultures set up in raw liquid manure was from 12% (at COD/SO4(2-) of 0.3) up to as high as 98% (at COD/SO4(2-) equal 3.80). Even with almost complete reduction of sulfates the percent of COD reduction did not exceed 55%. Based on the results obtained it was concluded that the effectiveness of removal of sulfates and organic matter by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) depends to a considerable degree on the proportion between organic matter and sulfates in the purified wastewaters. The optimal COD/SO4(2-)ratio for the removal oforganic matter was between 0.6 and 1.2 whereas the optimal ratio for the removal of sulfates was between 2.4 and 4.8.

  14. Leaching of viruses and other microorganisms naturally occurring in pig slurry to tile drains on a well-structured loamy field in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Forslund, Anita; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2017-01-01

    microorganisms leached through the soil entering the tile drains situated at 1-m depth the first day following pig slurry application. The leaching pattern of group A rotavirus differed substantially from the pattern for somatic coliphages, which are otherwise used as indicators for virus contamination...... sets out to investigate the leaching potential of six different microorganisms: E. coli and Enterococcus spp. (detected by colony assay), somatic coliphages (using plaque assays), and hepatitis E virus, porcine circovirus type 2, and group A rotavirus (by real-time polymerase chain reaction). All six...

  15. Plasmid with Colistin Resistance Gene mcr-1 in Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Pig Slurry in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Age; Telling, Kaidi; Laht, Mailis; Kalmus, Piret; Lutsar, Irja; Remm, Maido; Kisand, Veljo; Tenson, Tanel

    2016-11-01

    A plasmid carrying the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was isolated from a pig slurry sample in Estonia. The gene was present on a 33,311-bp plasmid of the IncX4 group. mcr-1 is the only antibiotic resistance gene on the plasmid, with the other genes mainly coding for proteins involved in conjugative DNA transfer (taxA, taxB, taxC, trbM, and the pilX operon). The plasmid pESTMCR was present in three phylogenetically very different Escherichia coli strains, suggesting that it has high potential for horizontal transfer. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Effects of Psychrophilic Storage on Manures as Substrate for Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Bergland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea that storage can enhance manure quality as substrate for anaerobic digestion (AD to recover more methane is evaluated by studying storage time and temperature effects on manure composition. Volatile fatty acids (VFA and total dissolved organics (CODs were measured in full scale pig manure storage for a year and in multiple flasks at fixed temperatures, mainly relevant for colder climates. The CODs generation, influenced by the source of the pig manure, was highest initially (0.3 g COD L−1d−1 gradually dropping for 3 months towards a level of COD loss by methane production at 15°C. Methane emission was low ( 10°C in the full scale storage and almost no generation at lower temperatures (4–6°C. CODs consisted mainly of VFA, especially acetate. All VFAs were present at almost constant ratios. The naturally separated manure middle layer without sediment and coarser particles is suitable for sludge bed AD and improved further during an optimal storage time of 1–3 month(s. This implies that high rate AD can be integrated with regular manure slurry handling systems to obtain efficient biogas generation.

  17. Nutrients in soil layers under no-tillage after successive pig slurry applications Nutrientes em camadas de solo submetido a sucessivas aplicações de dejeto líquido de suínos e sob plantio direto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cledimar Rogério Lourenzi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Successive applications of pig slurry to soils under no-tillage can increase the nutrient levels in the uppermost soil layers and part of the nutrients may be transferred to deeper layers. The objective was to evaluate the distribution of nutrients in the profile of a soil after 19 pig slurry applications under no-tillage for 93 months. The experiment was conducted from May 2000 to January 2008 in an experimental area of the Federal University of Santa Maria, southern Brazil, on a Typic Hapludalf. The treatments consisted of pig slurry applications (0, 20, 40 and 80 m³ ha-1 and at the end of the experiment, soil samples were collected (layers 0-2, 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, 8-10, 10-12, 12-14, 14-16, 16-18, 18-20, 20-25, 25-30, 30-35, 35-40, 40-50 and 50-60 cm. The levels of mineral N, available P and K and total N, P and K were evaluated. The 19 pig slurry applications in 93 months promoted migration of total N and P down to 30 cm and available P and K to the deepest layer analyzed. At the end of the experiment, no increase was observed in mineral N content in the deeper layers, but increased levels of available P and K, showing a transfer of N, P and K to layers below the sampled. This evidences undesirable environmental and economic consequences of the use of pig slurry and reinforces the need for a more rational use, i.e., applications of lower manure doses, combined with mineral fertilizers.Aplicações sucessivas de dejeto de suínos em solos sob plantio direto podem aumentar os teores de nutrientes em suas camadas superficiais, bem como parte desses podem ser transferidos para as mais profundas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição de nutrientes no perfil de um solo com 19 aplicações de dejeto líquido de suínos em sistema de plantio direto, durante 93 meses. O experimento foi conduzido em área experimental da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, no período de maio de 2000 a janeiro 2008, em um Argissolo Vermelho distr

  18. Effects of air-dry pretreatment on maturity and odors during composting of pig manure and corn stalks%风干预处理对堆肥腐熟度及臭气排放量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧冰; 李恕艳; 李国学

    2016-01-01

    Under the guiding thought of closed loop agriculture, the agriculture industry is becoming more intensified and specialized in China. Large scaled pig farms increased dramatically in China recently, which led to an enormous increase in pig manure. However, unlike in the US, the lagoon is not widely used to store swine manure in China because of the lack of land. Moreover, for some pig farms, it is hard to find enough land to consume all the manure nearby. Therefore, in some area, manure need to be transported to a specialized composting plant for treatment. Air-dry is a good process to decrease the volume of fresh manure for transporting. Meanwhile composting is a good way to treat pig manure as well as produce high-quality fertilizer. So it is meaningful to compare air-dried manure and fresh manure composting. In this study, composting reactors were used to conduct continuous aerated composting of air-dried pig manure and fresh pig manure. The dry matter of dry manure and fresh manure was controlled equally in each reactor. Same amount of 1~3cm corn stalks was used as a bulking agent for different treatments. Water was added into the feedstocks for the same initial moisture. Temperature, CO2, pH, electrical conductivity and germination index were measured to compare the maturity of two treatments. NH3 and eight kinds of sulfur odors were measured to compare the odor emissions of treatments. Specialized gas chromatograph was used for the measurement of sulfur odors. The result showed that mature compost product could be obtained from both of dry manure composting and fresh manure composting according to the result of temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and germination index. The electrical conductivity of dry manure composting product was significantly lower than fresh manure. It took less time for dry manure composting to start the curing phase. NH3, dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide emissions of dry manure composting were 71.09%, 66.11% and 9.66% less

  19. Alterations in soil microbial activity and N-transformation processes due to sulfadiazine loads in pig-manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotzerke, Anja [Berlin University of Technology, Institute of Ecology, Franklinstrasse 29, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: anja.kotzerke@tu-berlin.de; Sharma, Shilpi [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)], E-mail: shilpi.sharma@gsf.de; Schauss, Kristina [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)], E-mail: kristina.schauss@gsf.de; Heuer, Holger [Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry (BBA), Messeweg 11-12, 38104 Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: h.heuer@bba.de; Thiele-Bruhn, Soeren [Trier University, Soil Science, Behringstrasse 21, 54286 Trier (Germany)], E-mail: thiele@uni-trier.de; Smalla, Kornelia [Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry (BBA), Messeweg 11-12, 38104 Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: k.smalla@bba.de; Wilke, Berndt-Michael [Berlin University of Technology, Institute of Ecology, Franklinstrasse 29, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: bmwilke@tu-berlin.de; Schloter, Michael [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)], E-mail: michael.schloter@gsf.de

    2008-05-15

    Most veterinary drugs enter the environment via manure application. However, it is unclear how these substances interact with soil biota. Therefore, it was the aim of the present study to investigate the effects of manure containing different concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) on the soil microbial communities. It was shown that manure alone has a stimulating effect on microbial activity. Only potential nitrification was negatively influenced by manure application. The addition of SDZ to the manure reduced microbial activity. Depending on the SDZ concentration, levels of activity were in the range of the control soil without manure application. Also, selected processes in nitrogen turnover were negatively influenced by the addition of SDZ to the manure, with nitrification being the only exception. The effects were visible for up to 4 days after application of the manure with or without SDZ and were correlated with the bioavailability of the antibiotic. - This study gives first insights into the effects of manure containing the antibiotic sulfadiazine on microbial activity and nitrogen transformation potentials in soil.

  20. Utilization of wasted sardine oil as co-substrate with pig slurry for biogas production--a pilot experience of decentralized industrial organic waste management in a Portuguese pig farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L; Duarte, E; Figueiredo, D

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed to demonstrate in a pig farm and in real conditions, the possibilities to co-digest wasted sardine oil (WSO) and pig slurry (PS) at farm scale. A biogas mobile pilot plant, was set up in the farm and operated in real conditions during 4 months. Dynamic mesophilic (35-37 °C) continuous pilot trials were performed during four different periods of time. In each period a different organic loading rate (OLR) based on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was operated sequentially, with pig slurry (PS) (OLR = 1.6 kg COD/m(3) d(-1)) and with mixtures of WSO:PS with a volumetric composition (% v/v) of 2:98 (OLR = 3.0 kg COD/m(3) d(-1)), 3:97 (OLR = 3.7 kg COD/m(3) d(-1)) and 5:95 (OLR = 5.2 kg COD/m(3) d(-1)). Biomass adapted very fast in metabolise the WSO and biogas productivity was raised substantially for different compositions of WSO:PS. Process stability indicators pH and Total volatile fatty acids/bicarbonate alkalinity (T-VFA/BA) ratio, suggests that the co-digestion process was robust. It was concluded that WSO could be easily co-digested in farm scale biogas plants. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Assessing anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure with agroindustrial wastes: the link between environmental impacts and operational parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Verde, Ivan; Regueiro, Leticia; Carballa, Marta; Hospido, Almudena; Lema, Juan M

    2014-11-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) is established as a techno-economic profitable process by incrementing biogas yield (increased cost-efficiency) and improving the nutrient balance (better quality digestate) in comparison to mono-digestion of livestock wastes. However, few data are available on the environmental consequences of AcoD and most of them are mainly related to the use of energy crops as co-substrates. This work analysed the environmental impact of the AcoD of pig manure (PM) with several agroindustrial wastes (molasses, fish, biodiesel and vinasses residues) using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. For comparative purposes, mono digestion of PM has also been evaluated. Four out of six selected categories (acidification, eutrophication, global warming and photochemical oxidation potentials) showed environmental impacts in all the scenarios assessed, whereas the other two (abiotic depletion and ozone layer depletion potentials) showed environmental credits, remarking the benefit of replacing fossil fuels by biogas. This was also confirmed by the sensitivity analysis applied to the PM quality (i.e. organic matter content) and the avoided energy source demonstrating the importance of the energy recovery step. The influence of the type of co-substrate could not be discerned; however, a link between the environmental performance and the hydraulic retention time, the organic loading rate and the nutrient content in the digestate could be established. Therefore, LCA results were successfully correlated to process variables involved in AcoD, going a step further in the combination of techno-economic and environmental feasibilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sustainable treatment and reuse of diluted pig manure streams in Russia: from laboratory trials to full-scale implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyuzhnyi, Sergey; Sklyar, Vladimir; Epov, Andrey; Arkhipchenko, Irina; Barboulina, Irina; Orlova, Olga; Kovalev, Alexander; Nozhevnikova, Alla; Klapwijk, Abraham

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained during the laboratory and pilot development of integrated biologic and physicochemical treatment and reuse of diluted pig manure streams. The application of a straw filter was an effective means to separate the solid and liquid fractions of raw wastewater and resulted in the removal of a significant part of the dry matter, total nitrogen, and phosphorus (65, 27, and 32%, respectively). From the filtrate generated, 60-80% of the total chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor operating at 15-30 degrees C. Ammonia was efficiently eliminated (>99%) from the anaerobic effluents using Ural laumantite as an ion exchanger. However, the nitrogen-content of the zeolite was too low to consider this method of ammonia removal economically feasible. The phosphate precipitation block, consisting of stripper of CO2 and fluidized-bed crystallizator, was able to decrease the concentration of soluble phosphate in the anaerobic effluents up to 7-15 mg of phosphate/L. The application of aerobic/anoxic biofilter as a sole polishing step was acceptable from an aesthetic point of view (the effluents were transparent and almost colorless and odorless) and elimination of biochemical oxygen demand (the resting COD was hardly biodegradable). However, the effluent nutrient concentrations (especially nitrogen) were far from the current standards for direct discharge of treated wastewater. We discuss the approaches for further improvement of effluent quality. Finally, we provide an outline of a full-scale system that partially implements the laboratory- and pilotscale results obtained.

  3. Performance evaluation of a completely stirred anaerobic reactor treating pig manure at a low range of mesophilic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jianbin, E-mail: jianbinguo@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Dong, Renjie [College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, P.O. Box 184, Beijing 100083 (China); Clemens, Joachim [Institute of Crop Science and Resource Reservation (INRES), University of Bonn, Karlrobert-Kreiten-Strasse 13, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Wang, Wei [Department of Environmental Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • The biogas process can run stably at 20 °C at extremely low OLR after long-term acclimation of bacteria. • A biogas plant running at 28 °C seems as efficient as that operated at 38 °C at low OLR of 1.3 g ODM L{sup −1} d{sup −1}. • Lower temperature operation is inadvisable for the commercial biogas plant running at rather high OLR. • The estimated sludge yield at 28 °C is higher than that at 38 °C. - Abstract: Many Chinese biogas plants run in the lower range of mesophilic conditions. This study evaluated the performance of a completely stirred anaerobic reactor treating pig manure at different temperatures (20, 28 and 38 °C). The start-up phase of the reactor at 20 °C was very long and extremely poor performance was observed with increasing organic loading rate (OLR). At an OLR of 4.3 g ODM L{sup −1} d{sup −1}, methane production at 28 °C was comparable (3% less) with that at 38 °C, but the risk of acidification was high at 28 °C. At low OLR (1.3 g ODM L{sup −1} d{sup −1}), the biogas process appeared stable at 28 °C and gave same methane yields as compared to the reactor operating at 38 °C. The estimated sludge yield at 28 °C was 0.065 g VSS g{sup −1} COD{sub removed,} which was higher than that at 38 °C (0.016 g VSS g{sup −1} COD{sub removed})

  4. Adsorption and catalytic hydrolysis of carbaryl and atrazine on pig manure-derived biochars: Impact of structural properties of biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Peng, E-mail: phevos1983@yahoo.com.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Sun, Hongwen, E-mail: sunhongwen@nankai.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Yu, Li [MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Sun, Tieheng [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► High ash content biochar can increase solution pH and released metal ions. ► Ash in biochar can combine pesticide through specific interactions. ► Composition and structure of biochar is favor for the hydrolysis of pesticides. -- Abstract: Biochars were produced from pig manure to elucidate the influence of biochars with high ash contents on the fate of pesticides. Adsorption and catalytic hydrolysis of carbaryl and atrazine on original biochars and deashed biochars were investigated. The two pesticides were substantially adsorbed by the biochars, with organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient (K{sub oc}) values of 10{sup 2.65}–10{sup 3.66} L/kg for carbaryl and 10{sup 1.90}–10{sup 3.57} L/kg for atrazine at C{sub e} of 0.5 mg/L. Hydrophobic effect alone could not explain the sorption, and several other processes including pore-filling and π–π electron donor–acceptor interactions were involved in pesticide adsorption. Adsorption increased greatly on the deashed biochar, indicating that some organic sorption sites in the original biochars were blocked or difficult to access due to their interactions with inorganic moiety. The pesticides were found to hydrolyze faster in the presence of biochars, and in the presence of biochar pyrolyzed at 700 °C, carbaryl and atrazine were decomposed by 71.8% and 27.9% in 12 h, respectively. The elevated solution pH was the main reason for the enhanced hydrolysis; however both the mineral surface and dissolved metal ions released from the biochars were confirmed to catalyze the hydrolysis.

  5. A dynamic growth model for prediction of nutrient partitioning and manure production in growing–finishing pigs: Model development and evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danfær, Allan Christian; Jørgensen, Henry; Kebreab, E;

    2015-01-01

    minor mean bias. Root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) was used in evaluation of the model for its predictive power. The overall RMSPE was 2.2 and 4.1 g/d for protein and lipid deposition, respectively. The excretion database used for evaluation of the model was constructed from 150 digestibility...... trials using growing–finishing pig diets that had a wide range of nutrient chemical composition. Nutrient and water excretion were quantified using the principle of mass conservation. The average daily observed and predicted manure production was 3.79 and 3.99 kg/d, respectively, with a RMSPE of 0.49 kg...

  6. Persistence and leaching potential of microorganisms and mineral N in animal manure applied to intact soil columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M G Mostofa; Forslund, Anita; Bui, Xuan Thanh; Juhler, René K; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens in the soil. A study was conducted to investigate the leaching potentials of a phage (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B) and two bacteria, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus species, in a liquid fraction of raw pig slurry obtained by solid-liquid separation of this slurry and in this liquid fraction after ozonation, when applied to intact soil columns by subsurface injection. We also compared leaching potentials of surface-applied and subsurface-injected raw slurry. The columns were exposed to irrigation events (3.5-h period at 10 mm h(-1)) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of incubation with collection of leachate. By the end of incubation, the distribution and survival of microorganisms in the soil of each treatment and in nonirrigated columns with injected raw slurry or liquid fraction were determined. E. coli in the leachates was quantified by both plate counts and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess the proportions of culturable and nonculturable (viable and nonviable) cells. Solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution in soil of contaminants in the liquid fraction compared to raw slurry, and the percent recovery of E. coli and Enterococcus species was higher for the liquid fraction than for raw slurry after the four leaching events. The liquid fraction also resulted in more leaching of all contaminants except Enterococcus species than did raw slurry. Ozonation reduced E. coli leaching only. Injection enhanced the leaching potential of the microorganisms investigated compared to surface application, probably because of a better survival with subsurface injection and a shorter leaching path.

  7. Modelling the Potential of Slurry Management Technologies to Reduce the Constraints of Environmental Legislation on Pig Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Nicholas John; ten Hoeve, Marieke; Jensen, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    press slurry separation, with or without solid fraction composting, centrifuge separation with or without liquid fraction ammonia (NH3) stripping, and anaerobic digestion. Regulatory constraints were placed first on the application in slurry of N, then P, then N and P both on the producing (donor...... management option therefore depends on the focus of the regulation. Nuanced and therefore complex regulations are necessary to take advantage of synergies and avoid cross-policy conflicts and incongruencies....

  8. Impact of raw pig slurry and pig farming practices on physicochemical parameters and on atmospheric N2O and CH 4 emissions of tropical soils, Uvéa Island (South Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, E; Gunkel-Grillon, P; Joly, L; Thomas, X; Decarpenterie, T; Mappe-Fogaing, I; Laporte-Magoni, C; Dumelié, N; Durry, G

    2014-09-01

    Emissions of CH4 and N2O related to private pig farming under a tropical climate in Uvéa Island were studied in this paper. Physicochemical soil parameters such as nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, Kjeldahl nitrogen, total organic carbon, pH and moisture were measured. Gaseous soil emissions as well as physicochemical parameters were compared in two private pig farming strategies encountered on this island on two different soils (calcareous and ferralitic) in order to determine the best pig farming management: in small concrete pens or in large land pens. Ammonium levels were higher in control areas while nitrate and nitrite levels were higher in soils with pig slurry inputs, indicating that nitrification was the predominant process related to N2O emissions. Nitrate contents in soils near concrete pens were important (≥ 55 μg N/g) and can thus be a threat for the groundwater. For both pig farming strategies, N2O and CH4 fluxes can reach high levels up to 1 mg N/m(2)/h and 1 mg C/m(2)/h, respectively. CH4 emissions near concrete pens were very high (≥ 10.4 mg C/m(2)/h). Former land pens converted into agricultural land recover low N2O emission rates (≤ 0.03 mg N/m(2)/h), and methane uptake dominates. N2O emissions were related to nitrate content whereas CH4 emissions were found to be moisture dependent. As a result relating to the physicochemical parameters as well as to the gaseous emissions, we demonstrate that pig farming in large land pens is the best strategy for sustainable family pig breeding in Uvéa Islands and therefore in similar small tropical islands.

  9. Enteric and manure-derived methane emissions and biogas yield of slurry from dairy cows fed grass silage or maize silage with and without supplementation of rapeseed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different dietary strategies on milk production and composition, enteric CH4 emissions, slurry storage losses of CH4 and total emissions of CH4 with and without biogas production. Fifty-four cows were allocated to three diets according...... to parity and days in milk. Two diets were based on maize silage with (MS+) or without (MS−) supplementation of crushed rapeseed, and the third diet was based on late cut grass silage without supplementation of crushed rapeseed (GS−). Dry matter intake, milk yield and composition were measured. Enteric...... methane emissions were measured on 24 cows by means of indirect calorimetry. Slurry was collected the last 10 days of the experiment. Ultimate biogas yield, CH4 emissions at different storage temperatures and yield in a thermophilic biogas digester were determined for the three slurries. Dry matter intake...

  10. Effects of oxytetracycline on archaeal community, and tetracycline resistance genes in anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Pan, Hongjia; Gu, Jie; Qian, Xun; Gao, Hua; Qin, Qingjun

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the effects of different concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC) on biogas production, archaeal community structure, and the levels of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) were investigated in the anaerobic co-digestion products of pig manure and wheat straw. PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) (PCR) were used to detect the archaeal community structure and the levels of four TRGs: tet(M), tet(Q), tet(W), and tet(C). The results showed that anaerobic co-digestion with OTC at concentrations of 60, 100, and 140 mg/kg (dry weight of pig manure) reduced the cumulative biogas production levels by 9.9%, 10.4%, and 14.1%, respectively, compared with that produced by the control, which lacked the antibiotic. The addition of OTC substantially modified the structure of the archaeal community. Two orders were identified by phylogenetic analysis, that is, Pseudomonadales and Methanomicrobiales, and the methanogen present during anaerobic co-digestion with OTC may have been resistant to OTC. The abundances of tet(Q) and tet(W) genes increased as the OTC concentration increased, whereas the abundances of tet(M) and tet(C) genes decreased as the OTC concentration increased.

  11. 小球藻处理养猪业沼液研究%Treatment of biogas slurry from pig industry by Chlorella vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮榕生; 简恩光; 巫小丹; 刘伟; 史晓杰; 徐畅; 陈香元; 刘玉环

    2013-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris is domesticated with different concentration of biogas slurry in this experiment.The obtained superiority algae in high concentration biogas slurry is used for treating biogas slurry from pig industry.The results show that in the condition of aeration,Chlorella vulgaris can efficiently utilize the nutrients of biogas slurry and make it highly purified.After treated by Chlorella vulgaris for ten days,the mainly organics indexes:COD,suspended solids,NH4+-N and TP are down to 162.3,52,14.66 mg/L and 7.57 mg/L,respectively.The removal rates are 77.61%,91%,94.76% and 80.03% respectively.The results are much lower than national standard regulation of water pollutants maximum permission daily discharge concentration of 400,200,80 mg/L and 8 mg/L in intensive pig industry.%利用不同浓度的沼液驯化小球藻(Chlorella vulgaris)得到耐高浓度沼液的优势藻株,然后用于处理养猪业沼液.结果表明:在曝气条件下培养小球藻能够高效利用沼液中的养分并使沼液得到高度净化.小球藻处理10 d后沼液中主要有机物指标:化学需氧量(COD)、悬浮物、氨氮(NH4+-N)、总磷(TP)分别下降到162.3、52、14.66 mg/L和7.57 mg/L,对应去除率分别为77.61%、91%、94.76%和80.03%.处理结果低于国标规定的集约化养猪业水污染物最高允许日排放质量浓度400、200、80 mg/L和8 mg/L.

  12. Impacts of supplementing chemical fertilizers with organic fertilizers manufactured using pig manure as a substrate on the spread of tetracycline resistance genes in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Hao, Yangyang; Shen, Min; Zhao, Qingxin; Li, Qing; Hu, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Using pig manure (PM) compost as a partial substitute for the conventional chemical fertilizers (CFs) is considered an effective approach in sustainable agricultural systems. This study aimed to analyze the impacts of supplementing CF with organic fertilizers (OFs) manufactured using pig manure as a substrate on the spread of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) as well as the community structures and diversities of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRB) in bulk and cucumber rhizosphere soils. In this study, three organic fertilizers manufactured using the PM as a substrate, namely fresh PM, common OF, and bio-organic fertilizer (BF), were supplemented with a CF. Composted manures combined with a CF did not significantly increase TRB compared with the CF alone, but PM treatment resulted in the long-term survival of TRB in soil. The use of CF+PM also increased the risk of spreading TRGs in soil. As beneficial microorganisms in BF may function as reservoirs for the spread of antibiotic resistance genes, care should be taken when adding them to the OF matrix. The PM treatment significantly altered the community structures and increased the species diversity of TRB, especially in the rhizosphere soil. BF treatment caused insignificant changes in the community structure of TRB compared with CF treatment, yet it reduced the species diversities of TRB in soil. Thus, the partial use of fresh PM as a substitute for CF could increase the risk of spread of TRGs. Apart from plant growth promotion, BF was a promising fertilizer owing to its potential ability to control TRGs.

  13. Measurement of ion speciation in animal slurries using the Donnan Membrane Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2005-01-01

    The availability of nutrients in animal slurry for plant uptake depends on the total content as well as on the forms in which these nutrients are present in slurry manure. A DMT-manure cell was developed which can help to determine the speciation of nutrients in animal slurries. The cell consists of

  14. Measurement of ion speciation in animal slurries using the Donnan Membrane Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2005-01-01

    The availability of nutrients in animal slurry for plant uptake depends on the total content as well as on the forms in which these nutrients are present in slurry manure. A DMT-manure cell was developed which can help to determine the speciation of nutrients in animal slurries. The cell consists of

  15. Pig manure vermicompost (PMVC) can improve phytoremediation of Cd and PAHs co-contaminated soil by Sedum alfredii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Huagang; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiaoe [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health; Zhu, Zhiqiang [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health; Hainan Univ., Haikou (China). College of Agriculture; He, Zehnli [Florida Univ., Fort Pierce (United States). Indian River Research and Education Center; Alva, Ashok [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Prosser, WA (United States). Agricultural Research Service

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: A major challenge to phytoremediation of co-contaminated soils is developing strategies for efficient and simultaneous removal of multiple pollutants. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the potential for enhanced phytoextraction of cadmium (Cd) by Sedum alfredii and dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in co-contaminated soil by application of pig manure vermicompost (PMVC). Materials and methods: Soil contaminated by Cd (5.53 mg kg{sup -1} DW) was spiked with phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene together (250 mg kg{sup -1} DW for each PAH). A pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with four treatments: (1) soil without plants and PMVC (Control), (2) soil planted with S. alfredii (Plant), (3) soil amended with PMVC at 5 % (w/w) (PMVC), and (4) treatment 2 + 3 (Plant + PMVC). After 90 days, shoot and root biomass of plants, Cd concentrations in plant and soil, and PAH concentrations in soil were determined. Abundance of PAH degraders in soil, soil bacterial community structure and diversity, and soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass carbon were measured. Results and discussion: Application of PMVC to co-contaminated soil increased the shoot and root dry biomass of S. alfredii by 2.27- and 3.93-fold, respectively, and simultaneously increased Cd phytoextraction without inhibiting soil microbial population and enzyme activities. The highest dissipation rate of PAHs was observed in Plant + PMVC treatment. However, neither S. alfredii nor PMVC enhanced PAH dissipation when applied separately. Abundance of PAH degraders in soil was not significantly related to PAH dissipation rate. Plant + PMVC treatment significantly influenced the bacterial community structure. Enhanced PAH dissipation in the Plant + PMVC treatment could be due to the improvement of plant root growth, which may result in increased root exudates, and subsequently change bacterial community structure to be favorable for PAH dissipation. Conclusions: This

  16. An investigation into the removal of Salmonella and enteric indicator bacteria from the separated liquid fraction of raw or anaerobically digested pig manure using novel on-farm woodchip biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, G; Lawlor, P G; Carney, K N; Zhan, X; Gutierrez, M; Gardiner, G E

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the removal of Salmonella and enteric indicator bacteria from the liquid fraction of raw and anaerobically digested (AD) pig manure in woodchip biofilters over a 14 week (98 day) period. Antibiotic susceptible Salmonella Infantis was detected in one influent material (liquid fraction of raw manure) on two occasions but was not found in the effluent at any time point. Furthermore, mean coliform reductions of 56% were observed in the biofilters treating the liquid fraction of raw manure. However, a mean increase of 228% was found in those treating the liquid from AD manure, despite the fact that the microbial challenge to these biofilters was lower. In addition, relatively high coliform counts were still present in the effluent from both biofilter treatments, especially in the systems treating the liquid fraction of AD manure. However, findings for Escherichia coli and Enterococcus were more promising, with reductions observed for both treatments (10 and 18.5% for E. coli and 71 and 87% for Enterococcus). Moreover, E. coli and Enterococcus were at, or just above, the limit of detection in the final effluents. Overall, although, there are no microbial limits for discharge or washwaters, the woodchip filter effluent would appear safe for discharge to waterways or use on-farm as regards Salmonella, E. coli and Enterococcus but not coliform. In conclusion, woodchip biofilters offer potential as a low-cost sustainable novel treatment option for the removal of pathogens from the liquid fraction of pig manure.

  17. FOULING CHARACTERIZATION OF MEMBRANE CONTACTORS USED FOR THE RECOVERY AND CONCENTRATION OF AMMONIA FROM UNDIGESTED PIG SLURRY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarebska, Agata; Norddahl, Birgir; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2012-01-01

    The main obstacle impeding implementation of membrane contactors for the recovery and concentration of ammonia from swine manure is the phenomena of membrane fouling. Fouling is defined as the accumulation of suspended or dissolved substances on the membrane surface and/or within its pores. Due...

  18. Treatment of liquid fraction of pig slurry by sequencing batch reactor; Tratamiento de la fraccion liquida de purines de cerdo mediante un reactor discontinuo secuencial (SBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magri, A. [Universidad de Lleida (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    A laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used for the treatment of the liquid fraction of pig slurry (FLPC). Alternating aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic conditions were used for the biological removal of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus. Although the low COD/TKN ratio of the FLPC, around 7, removal as high as 89% TS 98% COD, 98% N and 89% P were reached. The obtained effluent didn't reach Spanish water quality limits for discharge on natural watercourses. Therefore, improvements on cycle design and/or further tertiary treatment would be needed. However, results show that the SBR system is a promising technology for full scale implementation. (Author) 10 refs.

  19. Injection of Dicyandiamide-Treated Pig Slurry Reduced Ammonia Volatilization without Enhancing Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions from No-Till Corn in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aita, Celso; Gonzatto, Rogério; Miola, Ezequiel C C; B, Daniela; Santos, Dos; Rochette, Philippe; Angers, Denis A; Chantigny, Martin H; Pujol, Stefen B; Giacomini, Diego A; Giacomini, Sandro J

    2014-05-01

    There is a lack of information on how placement in soil and nitrification inhibitors affects nitrous oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH) emissions from pig slurry (PS) applied under no-till (NT) conditions. Our objective was to determine the impact of injecting PS and treating it with the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on NH and NO emissions from soils under NT in subtropical southern Brazil. The emissions of these gases were compared for shallow (∼ 10 cm) injection and surface broadcasting of PS with and without DCD (8.1-10.0 kg ha; 6.5-8.4% of applied NH-N). Measurements were made at two sites during two summer growing seasons under NT corn crops. Injection reduced NH volatilization by 70% but increased NO emissions 2.4-fold (from 2628 to 6198 g NO N ha) compared with surface broadcast application. Adding DCD to PS inhibited nitrification and reduced NO emissions by an average of 28% (730 g NO-N ha) for surface broadcast and 66% (4105 g NO-N ha) for injection but did not increase NH volatilization. Consequently, NO emission factors were much higher for injection (3.6%) than for surface broadcast (1.3%) application and were reduced (0.9%) when DCD was added to injected PS. In conclusion, the injection of DCD-treated slurry is a recommendable practice for reducing NH and NO emissions when applying PS on NT corn in southern Brazil.

  20. Effects of compost, pig slurry and lime on trace element solubility and toxicity in two soils differently affected by mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Tania; Clemente, Rafael; Bernal, M Pilar

    2011-07-01

    The use of organic wastes as amendments in heavy metal-polluted soils is an ecological integrated option for their recycling. The potential use of alperujo (solid olive-mill waste) compost and pig slurry in phytoremediation strategies has been studied, evaluating their short-term effects on soil health. An aerobic incubation experiment was carried out using an acid mine spoil based soil and a low OM soil from the mining area of La Unión (Murcia, Spain). Arsenic and heavy metal solubility in amended and non-amended soils, and microbial parameters were evaluated and related to a phytotoxicity test. The organic amendments provoked an enlargement of the microbial community (compost increased biomass-C from non detected values to 35 μg g(-1) in the mine spoil soil, and doubled control values in the low OM soil) and an intensification of its activity (including a twofold increase in nitrification), and significantly enhanced seed germination (increased cress germination by 25% in the mine spoil soil). Organic amendments increased Zn and Pb EDTA-extractable concentrations, and raised As solubility due to the influence of factors such as pH changes, phosphate concentration, and the nature of the organic matter of the amendments. Compost, thanks to the greater persistence of its organic matter in soil, could be recommended for its use in (phyto)stabilisation strategies. However, pig slurry boosted inorganic N content and did not significantly enhance As extractability in soil, so its use could be specifically recommended in As polluted soils. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbiological and chemical attributes of a Hapludalf soil with swine manure fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael da Rosa Couto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical attributes of a soil with a seven‑year history of urea and swine manure application. In the period from October 2008 to October 2009, soil samples were collected in the 0-10 cm layer and were subjected to the treatments: control, without application of urea or manure; and with the application of urea, pig slurry, and deep pig litter in two doses, in order to supply one or two times the recommended N doses for the maize (Zea mays/black oat (Avena strigosa crop succession. The carbon of the microbial biomass (MB‑C and the basal respiration (C‑CO2 were analyzed, and the metabolic (qCO2 and microbial quotient (qmic were calculated with the obtained data. Organic matter, pH in water, available P and K, and exchangeable Ca and Mg were also determined. The application of twice the dose of deep pig litter increases the MB‑C and C‑CO2 values. The qmic and qCO2 are little affected by the application of swine manure. The application of twice the dose of deep pig litter increases the values of pH in water and the contents of available P and of exchangeable Ca and Mg in the soil.

  2. Comparative performance and microbial community of single-phase and two-phase anaerobic systems co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panichnumsin, P.; Ahring, B.K.; Nopharatana, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we illustrated the performance and microbial community of single- and two-phase systems anaerobically co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure. The results showed that the volatile solid reduction and biogas productivity of two-phase CSTR were 66 ± 4% and 2000 ± 210 ml l-1 d-1, while...... predominant in both digesters while the relative abundance of Methanosaeta sp. and Methanospirillum hungatei differed between the two systems......., followed by the Clostridia in singlephase CSTR. In hydrolysis/acidification reactor of two-phase system, the bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes, especially Clostridium, Eubacteriaceae and Lactobacillus were the dominant phylogenetic groups. Among the Archaea, Methanosaeta sp. was the exclusive...

  3. Manure Use

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Renee Raiden

    2006-01-01

    Explains the proper use of manure in the garden, including the appropriate temperature of compost to kill pathogens, reducing the contact of produce with feces, and prevention of cross-contamination of raw manure and composted manure.

  4. Influence of Applying Pig Manure on Arsenic Content of Soil and Brassica campestris%施用猪粪对土壤和菜心砷含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭来真; 刘琳琳; 吕清瑶; 李延

    2011-01-01

    采用盆栽试验的方法,研究施用猪粪对土壤和菜心砷含量的影响.结果表明,随猪粪施用量的增加,土壤全砷、有效态砷和菜心砷含量均提高,且均与猪粪施用量呈极显著的正相关.施用猪粪的同一处理相比较,第2茬土壤全砷、有效态砷和菜心砷含量均高于第1茬.相关分析表明,施用猪粪导致土壤有效态砷含量提高是菜心砷含量增加的主要原因,土壤有效态砷含量可以作为衡量猪粪安全施用的指标.%Pot experiment was conducted to study the influence of applying pig manure on arsenic content of soil and Brassica campestris. The results showed that the content of total, available arsenic in soil and in Brassica campestris increased with pig manure dose raised from 5 g/kg to 60 g/kg. There existed positively significant correlation between the content of total, available arsenic in soil, arsenic in Brassica campestris and pig manure dose. The content of total, available arsenic in soil and in Brassica campestris of second harvest were higher than those of the previous harvest. Statistics analysis showed the uptake coefficient of extractable arsenic content in soil was higher than that of soil total arsenic content, indicating that the increasing of extractable arsenic content in soil coursed by application of pig dung made the increasing of the arsenic content in Brassica campestris. Soil extractable arsenic content could be used as safety index of pig manure application.

  5. Redox Potential as a Means to Control the Treatment of Slurry to Lower H2S Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Feilberg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Slurry can be oxidized to eliminate undesirable emissions, including malodorous hydrogen sulfide (H2S. However, it is difficult to assess the optimal amount of oxidizing agent required. In this study, one cow and one pig manure, each in three particle size ranges were oxidized with 0–350 mg ozone/L manure. Redox and H2S concentration were measured continuously. During ozonation the manures gave equivalent redox potential curves. A relatively rapid rise in redox potential was observed within a range of −275 mV to −10 mV, with all manures changing as a minimum from −200 mV to −80 mV. The gaseous H2S emissions were decreased by 99.5% during the redox increase (−200 mV to −80 mV. This is attributed to H2S oxidation by ozone and oxygen, and is not due to H2S deprotonation or gas flushing. By identifying the initiation of the final redox level following the rise, the amount of ozone required to remove H2S from the manure samples was estimated to be in the range of 6–24 mg O3/L manure, depending on the type of manure. Hence, continuous monitoring of redox potential (termination of the redox rise during the oxidation treatment is a simple method of achieving cost-effective minimization of H2S emissions from slurry.

  6. Decomposição de palha de aveia preta e dejetos de suínos em solo sob plantio direto Decomposition of black oat straw and pig slurry in a soil under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Aita

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação dos dejetos de suínos em sistema plantio direto é uma prática relativamente recente no Sul do Brasil. É necessário avaliar, nesse sistema, a decomposição dos dejetos, bem como seus efeitos sobre a decomposição dos resíduos culturais das plantas de cobertura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a decomposição de dejetos de suínos e sua influência sobre a velocidade de decomposição da palha de aveia preta, em solo sob plantio direto. Para isso, foram realizados dois experimentos em condições de campo na UFSM, em um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico. Imediatamente após aplicar as doses de 0 e 40 m³ ha-1 de dejetos no interior de câmaras estáticas, em solo descoberto e em solo com palha de aveia na superfície, iniciou-se a medida da liberação de C-CO2, a qual foi monitorada, durante 62 dias, no experimento 1, e durante 97 dias, no experimento 2. A cinética de decomposição diferiu entre os dejetos de suínos e a palha de aveia. Nos dejetos de suínos, houve uma fase inicial de rápida liberação de C-CO2, seguida de outra mais lenta, enquanto, na palha de aveia, a liberação de C-CO2 foi mais constante. Aproximadamente, um terço do C adicionado com os dejetos de suínos e com palha de aveia foi liberado à atmosfera na forma de C-CO2. Os resultados deste estudo mostraram que a velocidade de decomposição da palha de aveia preta não foi alterada pela aplicação de dejetos de suínos, em sistema plantio direto.The use of pig slurry in no-tillage systems is relatively recent in South Brazil, so it is important to evaluate the decomposition of pig slurry as well as its effects on the cover crop residue decomposition in this system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pig slurry decomposition and its influence on the decomposition rate of black oat straw in a soil under no-tillage. Two experiments were carried out under field conditions in an experimental area of the Federal University of

  7. Dinâmica do nitrogênio no solo e produção de fitomassa por plantas de cobertura no outono/inverno com o uso de dejetos de suínos Dynamics of soil nitrogen and cover crops dry matter production in the fall/winter as affected by pig slurry use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Aita

    2006-10-01

    favoreceu o crescimento da aveia em detrimento da ervilhaca, ocorrendo o melhor equilíbrio entre a produção de fitomassa e a adição de N na dose de 20 m³ ha-1 de dejetos. Os resultados deste estudo evidenciam a eficiência das plantas de cobertura no outono/inverno em ciclar nutrientes fornecidos pelos dejetos de suínos e a importância da utilização de espécies com elevado potencial de produção de matéria seca e que sejam exigentes em N.The use of pig slurry before implanting cover crops in the fall/winter is becoming a common practice in southern Brazil, although its effects on crops and soil are still poorly investigated. The objective of the present study was to analyze the dynamics of soil N as well as to study the cover crop yields under use of pig slurry in the fall/winter. The study was developed in the growing season 2000 on an experimental area of the Soils Department of UFSM, RS. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design with split-plots and three replications. The main plots had black oat, black oat (30 % + common vetch (70 % mixture and spontaneous vegetation of the area (fallow. Four pig slurry rates (0, 20, 40 and 80 m³ ha-1 were applied on the split-plots. The mineral N contents (N-NH4+ and N-NO2- + N-NO3- were evaluated at seven dates in the layers of 0-5, 5-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm depth. The dry matter production and N, P and K concentration of cover crops and spontaneous vegetation were evaluated. Mineral soil N increased with liquid manure application, with similar N dynamics when applied on residues of oat/corn or on weeds/corn residues. After application of 80 m³ ha-1 there was evidence of N-NO3- leaching to depths below 60 cm, higher in weeds/corn system than oat/corn crop system. Dry matter production as well as the content of N, P and K in cover crops increased with the use of slurry. For single oat the increase of dry matter production with a slurry dose of 40 was 2.7 mg ha-1 compared to no-slurry treatment. In

  8. 添加腐熟猪粪对猪粪好氧堆肥效果的影响%Effect of compost inoculation on pig manure composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹云; 常志州; 黄红英; 徐跃定; 李彩凤; 吴华山

    2015-01-01

    为明确添加腐熟猪粪对猪粪好氧堆肥启动期和高温期微生物数量及酶活性变化规律,探讨微生物影响堆肥温度的机制,揭示影响畜禽粪便堆肥持续高温的主要微生物,该研究比较了猪粪自然堆肥与添加腐熟猪粪(质量分数3%)堆肥过程中有机质降解及嗜温、嗜热微生物数量和脱氢酶、蛋白酶、纤维素酶活性变化特征。结果表明,24 h内添加腐熟猪粪堆肥温度比自然堆肥高出5℃,但高温期平均温度较自然堆肥低8℃,高温(>50℃)期比自然堆肥短4 d。自然堆肥和添加腐熟猪粪堆肥嗜温菌数量先高后低,嗜热菌数量随着温度的升高而上升。添加腐熟猪粪堆肥升温期嗜温、嗜热细菌和纤维素降解菌增殖速度较快,且数量分别比自然堆肥高出12.2%、152.6%、60.3%。添加腐熟猪粪堆肥脱氢酶、纤维素酶活性高峰提前,并使蛋白酶活性增加4.9%。但高温期后,嗜热纤维素降解菌数量比自然堆肥少22.5%,纤维素酶活性及有机质损失率也分别比对照低25.8%、6.1%。以上结果表明,在猪粪高温好氧堆肥中添加腐熟猪粪可以加快堆肥初期升温速度,但由于高温期嗜热纤维素降解菌数量减少,纤维素酶活性降低,不能促进猪粪堆肥持续高温。该研究为猪粪堆肥菌剂的筛选及适宜的接种时间提供依据。%Microbial inoculation is often performed to accelerate the process of composting and improve the quality of the compost, but its effect is controversial. The effectiveness of inoculants in composting mainly depends on the properties of the raw material and microorganisms applied. It is therefore important to propose a strategy of inoculation based on the evolution of biochemical and microbiological characteristics at different composting stages. In this study, two composting piles with pig manure (CK) and pig manure inoculated with 3% (w/w) matured compost (T) were

  9. Inhibitory Effect of Biogas Slurry of Cattle Manure on Vegetable Pathogens%牛场沼液对几种蔬菜病原菌抑制作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚斌; 陶秀萍; 陈永杏; 董红敏; 黄宏坤

    2011-01-01

    实验室条件下,用不同贮存时间的牛场沼液原液和滤液对7种蔬菜病原菌(番茄叶霉病菌、番茄灰霉病菌、番茄早疫病菌、辣椒疫病病菌、辣椒绵腐病菌、黄瓜炭疽病菌、茄子灰霉病菌)的抑菌效果进行试验研究,为沼液应用于蔬菜病害农田防治的进一步研究提供基础数据.结果表明,新鲜沼液原液对番茄灰霉病菌、番茄早疫病菌、辣椒疫病病菌、辣椒绵腐病菌、黄瓜炭疽病菌和茄子灰霉病菌均有较强的抑制作用;随着贮存时间的增加,沼液原液对番茄灰霉病菌、番茄早疫病菌、黄瓜炭疽病菌和茄子灰霉病菌的抑菌率没有显著变化,对辣椒疫病病菌和辣椒绵腐病菌的抑菌率显著下降;新鲜沼液滤液对番茄灰霉病菌和茄子灰霉病菌有较好的抑制作用,但对其他5种病原菌的抑制效果不明显;随着贮存时间的增加,滤液对番茄灰霉病菌的抑菌率没有显著变化,对茄子灰霉病的抑制率表现出先显著下降而后升高的趋势.%The inhibitive effects of cattle manure biogas slurry storaged for certain time on 7 vegetable pathogens,named Fulviafulva,Botrytis cinerea pers ,A letnaria solani , Phytophthora capsici Le n , Pythium aphanidermatum , Glomerella cingulalta Var, orb icularis Jenkins, W.et Mc Combs ,Botrytis cinerea, were studied in vitro using plate diffusion method.Results showed that,the fresh original biogas slurry could strongly inhibit the growth of Botrytis cinerea pers, A letnaria solani, Phytophthora capsici Len ,Pythium aphanidermatum, Glomerella cingulata Var, orbicularis Jenkins, Winstead et Mc Combs ,Botrytis cinerea, and all the average inhibitory rates were more than 44.1%.With the storage time prolonged, the inhibitory rates on Botrytis cinerea pers, A letnaria solani, Glomerella cingulata Var, orb icularis Jenkins, Winstead et Mc Combs and Botrytis cinerea had no significant changes, while the inhibitory rates on Phytophthora

  10. 猪粪对露地黄瓜产量及土壤培肥效果的影响%Effects of Pig Manure on the Yield and Fertilization in Soil of Cucumis sativus Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建军; 高婷; 刘希财

    2012-01-01

    Taking pig manure as variable factors, adopting random district design, the effect of pig manure on the yield and soil nutrients of Cucumis sativus Linn were studied to provide reference for production of Cucumber in open and fertilization in soil. The results showed that the production of Cucumis sativus Linn in open, the best amount of pig manure was 1 500 kg per 1 000 m2 ,and should not be too excessive,besides,applying pig manure could increase the content of available nitrogen,available phosphorus, available potassium and organic matter in soil, moreover, with the application rate increased, the soil fertility enhanced.%为给露地黄瓜生产及土壤培肥提供参考,以猪粪为变量因素,采用随机区组设计,对露地黄瓜产量和土壤养分的影响进行研究。结果表明:在露地黄瓜的生产中,1.50kg·m-2的猪粪施用量为最佳施用量,不宜过多,另通过施入猪粪还可以增加土壤中速效氮、速效磷、速效钾和有机质的含量,且随着施用量的增加而增加,增强土壤肥力。

  11. Manure management practices on biogas and non-biogas pig farms in developing countries - using livestock farms in Vietnam as an example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cu, T. T. T.; Cuong, P. H.; Hang, L. T.

    2012-01-01

    This survey was carried out to study animal manure management on livestock farms with biogas technology (biogas farms) and without (non-biogas farms) in the areas surrounding the Vietnamese cities Hanoi and Hue. The objective of the study was to assess the contribution of biogas production...... to a better environment as well as to recognize the problems with livestock manure management on small-scale farms. On all the farms included in the study more than one manure management technology was used, i.e. composting, separation of manure, biogas production and discharge of liquid manure to recipients...... the manure to the field, as transportation is the main barrier to recycling the liquid manure fraction. Farmers in developing countries need financial and technical support to install biogas digesters and to overcome the problems involved in utilizing the manure. Information about how to pre-treat manure...

  12. [Effects of combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers on CH4 and N2O emissions and their global warming potentials in paddy fields with double-rice cropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Shen, Jian-Lin; Zheng, Liang; Liu, Jie-Yun; Qin, Hong-Ling; Li, Yong; Wu, Jin-Shui

    2014-08-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effects of combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers on CH4 and N2O emissions, which were measured using the static chamber/gas chromatography method, and their global warming potentials in typical paddy fields with double-rice cropping in Hunan province. The results showed that the combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers did not change the seasonal patterns of CH4 and N2O emissions from paddy soils, but significantly changed the magnitudes of CH4 and N2O fluxes in rice growing seasons as compared with sole application of chemical fertilizers. During the two rice growing seasons, the cumulative CH4 emissions for the pig manure and chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer each contributing to 50% of the total applied N (1/2N + PM) treatment were higher than those for the treatments of no N fertilizer (ON), half amount of chemical N fertilizer (1/2N) and 100% chemical N fertilizer (N) by 54.83%, 33.85% and 43.30%, respectively (P fertilizers in paddy fields would increase the GWP of CH4 and N2O emissions during rice growing seasons and this effect should be considered in regional greenhouse gases emissions inventory.

  13. Effects of Pig Slurry as Basal and Panicle Fertilizer on Trace Element Content and Grain Quality in Direct-Seeding Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifen Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct-seeding rice has grown in popularity in recent years and is widespread in China. This study focused on the effects of pig slurry (PS on grain quality and safety in direct-seeding rice. Application of more than 210 m3·hm−2 increased rice yield and dry matter accumulation, compared with conventional chemical fertilizer treatment (CK2. At the heading and maturing stage, a high dosage of PS (T6, T8 and T9 treatments promoted uptake of Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn by rice plants and grain, but retarded uptake of Cr, Co and Ni, indicating an ability to alleviate toxicity of some heavy metals. Compared with CK2, PS alleviated the transfer of Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and Cu from straw to grain, but enhanced the transport of Zn, Fe and Mn. Although PS application slightly diminished the processing quality, including brown rice, milled rice and head milled rice, it significantly decreased the amylose content, optimized the starch profile, and improved the overall quality. The results confirmed the feasibility and safety of PS application to direct-seeding rice, and determined that PS basal and panicle fertilizer could increase yield and improve the rice quality when applied between 210 and 240 m3·hm−2.

  14. Effect of Free Ammonia, Free Nitrous Acid, and Alkalinity on the Partial Nitrification of Pretreated Pig Slurry, Using an Alternating Oxic/Anoxic SBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Belmonte

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of free ammonia (NH3 or FA, free nitrous acid (HNO2 or FNA, and total alkalinity (TA on the performance of a partial nitrification (PN sequencing batch reactor (SBR treating anaerobically pretreated pig slurry was studied. The SBR was operated under alternating oxic/anoxic (O/A conditions and was fed during anoxic phases. This strategy allowed using organic matter to partially remove nitrite (NO2- and nitrate (NO3- generated during oxic phases. The desired NH4+ to NO2- ratio of 1.3 g N/g N was obtained when an Ammonium Loading Rate (ALR of 0.09 g NH4+-N/L·d was applied. The system was operated at a solid retention time (SRT of 15–20 d and dissolved oxygen (DO levels higher than 3 mg O2/L during the whole operational period. PN mainly occurred caused by the inhibitory effect of FNA on nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB. Once HNO2 concentration was negligible, NH4+ was fully oxidized to NO3- in spite of the presence of FA. The use of biomass acclimated to ammonium as inoculum avoided a possible effect of FA on NOB activity.

  15. Methane productivity of manure, straw and solid fractions of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H.B.; Sommer, S.G.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    The methane productivity of manure in terms of volatile solids (VS), volume and livestock production was determined. The theoretical methane productivity is higher in pig (516 1 kg(-1) VS) and sow (530 1 kg(-1) VS) manure than in dairy cattle manure (469 1 kg(-1) VS), while the ultimate methane...... yield in terms of VS is considerably higher in pig (356 1 kg(-1) VS) and sow manure (275 1 kg(-1) VS) than in dairy cattle manure (148 1 kg(-1) VS). Methane productivity based on livestock units (LU) shows the lowest methane productivity for sows (165 m(3) CH4 LU-1), while the other animal categories...... are in the same range (282-301 m(3) CH4 LU-1). Pre-treatment of manure by separation is a way of making fractions of the manure that have a higher gas potential per volume. Theoretical methane potential and biodegradability of three types of fractions deriving from manure separation were tested. The volumetric...

  16. A dynamic growth model for prediction of nutrient partitioning and manure production in growing-finishing pigs: Model development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathe, A B; Danfær, A; Jørgensen, H; Kebreab, E

    2015-03-01

    Nutrient loading and air emissions from swine operations raise environmental concerns. The objective of the study was to describe and evaluate a mathematical model (Davis Swine Model) of nutrient partitioning and predict manure excretion and composition on a daily basis. State variables of the model were AA, fatty acids, and a central pool of metabolites that supplied substrate for lipid synthesis and oxidation. The model traced the fate of ingested nutrients and water through digestion and intermediary metabolism into body protein, fat, water, and ash, where body protein and fat represented the body constituent pools. It was assumed that fluxes of metabolites follow saturation kinetics, depending on metabolite concentrations. The main inputs to the model were diet nutrient composition, feed intake, water-to-feed ratio, and initial BW. First, the model was challenged with nutrient partitioning data and then with excretion data. The data had 48 different feeding regimes with contrasting energy and lysine intakes at 2 different stages of growth. The overall observed and predicted mean were 109 and 112 g/d for protein deposition and 132 and 136 g/d for lipid deposition respectively, suggesting minor mean bias. Root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) was used in evaluation of the model for its predictive power. The overall RMSPE was 2.2 and 4.1 g/d for protein and lipid deposition, respectively. The excretion database used for evaluation of the model was constructed from 150 digestibility trials using growing-finishing pig diets that had a wide range of nutrient chemical composition. Nutrient and water excretion were quantified using the principle of mass conservation. The average daily observed and predicted manure production was 3.79 and 3.99 kg/d, respectively, with a RMSPE of 0.49 kg/d. There was a good agreement between observed and predicted mean fecal N output (9.9 and 9.8 g/d, respectively). Similarly, the overall observed and predicted mean urine N output

  17. Agriculture, trade and environment linkages in the pig sector: A comparative study of manure regulations and their significance for the competitiveness of the pig sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the possible effects of differences in pollution control on the competitiveness of intensive livestock producers of pork, and hence to what extent environmental regulations might distort free trade in this market. We understand environmental regulations somewhat...... would affect producer costs per baconer or pig (monetary values are in Euro - EUR)....

  18. Predicting nitrous oxide emissions from manure properties and soil moisture: An incubation experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Arthur, Emmanuel; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    Field-applied manure is a source of essential plant nutrients, but benefits may be partly offset by high rates of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, as modified by manure characteristics and soil properties. In a 28-d incubation experiment we quantified short-term emissions of N2O from a sandy loam...... soil amended with digestate (DI), pig slurry (PS) or cattle slurry (CS), and unamended soil (Ctrl), when incubated at 60, 70 and 80% water-filled pore space (WFPS). The soil was amended with 15N-labelled nitrate to distinguish sources of N2O. Emissions of N2O were not related to N input...... and corresponded to between 0.04 and 2.42% of manure N, decreasing in the order CS > DI > PS > Ctrl within each WFPS level. Recovery of 15N in N2O indicated that heterotrophic denitrification constituted at least 64–77% of total emissions at 70 and 80% WFPS, while nitrification was more important for the low...

  19. 典型粪污处理模式下规模养猪场农牧结合规模配置研究*Ⅱ粪污直接厌氧发酵处理模式%Pig farm-cropland configuration under typical waste treatment mode- A case study of direct anaerobic fermentation of manure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛婧; 孙国峰; 郑建初

    2015-01-01

    anaerobic fermentation of manure are important for reducing pollution from livestock excrement and for promoting sustainable development of animal husbandry. The purpose of this study was to determine optimal farmland area needed for large-scale pig farming so as to provide scientific basis and reference for the establishment of ecological modes for agriculture and animal husbandry. Based on data of proportion of pig population and discharges of nitrogen and phosphorus for different types of swine, rate of nutrient loss during waste treatment and nutrient demands by different crops, the study estimated areas of farmlands matching waste consumption and waste carrying capacities of farmlands with different planting patterns under the typical mode of direct anaerobic fermentation of manure in farm with 10 000 pigs. The results showed that under waste treatment mode of direct anaerobic fermentation of manure, the configuration with 10 000 pig farm needed an farm area of 272.5285.4 hm2 grain/oilcrop field, 149.4188.2 hm2 solanaceous vegetable field or 599.41 248.8 hm2 orchard/seedling field for safe disposal of biogas residue and slurry. One hectare of grain/oil crop field, solanaceous vegetable field and orchard/seedlings field were enough for the disposal of biogas residue and slurry produced respectively by 3537 heads, 5367 heads, 817 heads of pig. From the above results, waste treatment patterns and crop types should be rationally determined based on the number of swine bred on a farm and the surrounding farmland area. To ensure the crop nutrient demand was met, there was the need to supplement all crop planting patterns with certain amount of chemical fertilizers after biogas residue and slurry application. Nine patterns of cropping tested in the study needed the application of potassium fertilizer. Among the nine patterns, the potassium supplement for pepper-cucumber pattern was the highest, accounting for 48.0% of potassium demand. Cucumber

  20. 规模化养猪场处理废水对水稻中微量及重金属元素含量的影响%Effects of Pig Slurry from Large-scale Pig Farm on Medium, Micro-and Heavy Elements Contents of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高威; 王远玲; 陶晓婷; 施金琦; 徐杏; 陆建飞; 庄恒扬

    2013-01-01

    以迟熟中粳“淮稻5号”和经过无害化处理的规模化养猪场处理废水为供试材料,在减施N肥和不施入P、K肥的条件下,研究施入不同量废水对常规粳稻植株及籽粒中5种重金属元素和6种主要中微量元素含量的影响.结果表明:Pb、As、Ca、Mg和Fe元素含量均以基肥施入处理废水90 m3·hm-2、穗期施入处理废水120 m3·hm-2配施187.5 kg·hm-2 N肥处理为最高;Cd、Hg、Cr和Mn元素含量均以常规施肥处理为最高;Cu除籽粒外,以纯废水处理(基肥施入处理废水90 m3·hm-2、穗期施入处理废水120 m3·hm-2,不施入肥料)为最高;Zn除拔节期外,基肥施入处理废水90 m3·hm-2,穗期施入处理废水120 m3·hm-2配施187.5 kg·hm-2处理最高.As、Pb、Mg、Ca、Zn、Fe、Mn和Cu于各生育期在基施处理废水量相同的情况下,均随着穗期处理废水施用量的增加而增加,但是Hg、Cd和Cr与此相反.各处理中水稻籽粒Pb、Cd、Cr、As和Hg的含量均低于相应的污染物限量标准,而水稻植株和籽粒中Zn、Fe、Mn、Ca和Mg营养得到提高,特别是Fe和Ca的含量得到了强化.因此,与常规施肥处理相比,处理废水替代化肥能够提高水稻籽粒中的有益元素含量,同时并未引起重金属元素含量的显著上升,且使Hg、Cd和Cr含量下降.%With the rapid development of China's large-scale pig farms,increasing pig slurry is causing serious environmental pollution that in turn threatens the sustainable development of large-scale pig farming.The utilization of pig slurry,a kind source of nutrients,combined by pig farming with cropping is one of the best solutions to this problem.As the utilization of pig slurry in farmlands lacked systematic research,a field experiment was conducted to study the effect of pig slurry on the contents of medium,micro elements and heavy metals elements in rice.The results of the study could provide the scientific basis for efficient rice production

  1. Dynamics and Diversity of Escherichia coli in Animals and System Management of the Manure on a Commercial Farrow-to-Finish Pig Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the dynamics and diversity of Escherichia coli populations in animal and environmental lines of a commercial farrow-to-finish pig farm in Spain along a full production cycle (July 2008 to July 2009), with special attention to antimicrobial resistance and the presence of integrons. In the animal line, a total of 256 isolates were collected from pregnant sows (10 samples and 20 isolates), 1-week-old piglets (20 samples and 40 isolates), unweaned piglets (20 samples and 38 isolates), growers (20 samples and 40 isolates), and the finishers' floor pen (6 samples and 118 isolates); from the underfloor pits and farm slurry tank environmental lines, 100 and 119 isolates, respectively, were collected. Our results showed that E. coli populations in the pig fecal microbiota and in the farm environment are highly dynamic and show high levels of diversity. These issues have been proven through DNA-based typing data (repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR [REP-PCR]) and phenotypic typing data (antimicrobial resistance profile comprising 19 antimicrobials). Clustering of the sampling groups based on their REP-PCR typing results showed that the spatial features (the line) had a stronger weight than the temporal features (sampling week) for the clustering of E. coli populations; this weight was less significant when clustering was performed based on resistotypes. Among animals, finishers harbored an E. coli population different from those of the remaining animal populations studied, considering REP-PCR fingerprints and resistotypes. This population, the most important from a public health perspective, demonstrated the lowest levels of antimicrobial resistance and integron presence. PMID:23160136

  2. [Analysis on the impact of composting with different proportions of corn stalks and pig manure on humic acid fractions and IR spectral feature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang-Ping; Li, Guo-Xue; Xiao, Ai-Ping; Shi, Hong; Wang, Yi-Ming; Li, Yang-Yang

    2014-09-01

    Using pig manure and corn straw as raw materials for high-temperature composting, setting three different treat- ments: C/N 15, C/N 25, and C/N 35. Composting period is 120 days, which contains 30 days for ventilation cycle by forced continuous ventilation. Sampled on 0, 22, 30, 60, 90, 120th days, they were analyzed by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy to study effect of different lignin content on compost humic acid (HA) composition and molecular structure. The results showed that the change in composting humic acid C focused on the first 30 days, while after composting, the O/C of compost HA increased, H/C decreased, and N content increased. Low C/N (15) and higher C/N ratio (35) had higher degree of oxidation than the C/N 25 in compost HA. FTIR indicated that the infrared spectrum shapes with different lignin content treatment are similar during the composting process, but the peak intensity is obviously different. Research results proved that the composting stage is more conducive to enhanced aromatic in compost HA. After composting, C/N 15 had less polysaccharide and fat ingredients and more aromatic structural components in compost HA, compared with C/N 25 and 35. In addition, compost HA of C/N 15 had higher degree of humification and its structure was more stable.

  3. Performance and microbial community dynamics in a two-phase anaerobic co-digestion system using cassava dregs and pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiwei; Yuan, Xufeng; Li, Jie; Ma, Xuguang; Zhao, Ye; Zhu, Wanbing; Wang, Xiaofen; Cui, Zongjun

    2014-03-01

    The two-phase anaerobic co-digestion of cassava dregs (CD) with pig manure (PM) was evaluated using four sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The effect of seven different PM to CD volatile solid ratios (10:0, 8:2, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6, 2:8 and 0:10) on the acidification phase was investigated. Results indicated the concentrations of soluble chemical oxygen demand, NH4-N and volatile fatty acids increased substantially at seven ratios. Co-acidification of PM and CD performed well. Methanogenic fermentation of the acidification products at seven ratios was steady in CSTR. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 0.352m(3)/kg VSadded and 68.5% were achieved at PM:CD (4:6). The microbial population in CSTR was analyzed using molecular methods. Findings revealed that bacteria such as Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, archaea such as Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales were advantageous populations. Co-digestion of PM and CD supported higher quantity and diversity of methanogens.

  4. Effects of pig manure compost and nonionic-surfactant Tween 80 on phenanthrene and pyrene removal from soil vegetated with Agropyron elongatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K Y; Lai, K M; Wong, J W C

    2008-10-01

    This paper evaluates the effects of pig manure compost (PMC) and Tween 80 on the removal of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) from soil cultivated with Agropyron elongatum. Soils spiked with about 300 mg kg(-1) of PHE and PYR were individually amended with 0%, 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% (dry wt) of PMC or 0, 20 and 100 mg kg(-1) of Tween 80. Unplanted and sterile microcosms were prepared as the controls. PAH concentration, total organic matter (TOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total heterotrophic and PAH degrading microbial populations in soil were quantified before and after 60d period. The results indicated that A. elongatum could significantly enhance PYR removal (from 46% to 61%) but had less impact on PHE removal (from 96% to 97%). Plant uptake of the PAHs was insignificant. Biodegradation was the key mechanism of PAH removals (Tween 80 levels increased the removal of PYR but not of PHE. Maximal PYR removal of 79% and 92% were observed in vegetated soil receiving 100 mg kg(-1) Tween 80 and 7.5% PMC, respectively. Enhanced PYR removal in soil receiving PMC could be explained by the elevated levels of DOC, TOM and microbial populations as suggested by Pearson correlation test. While the positive effect of Tween 80 on PYR removal could probably due to its capacities to enhance PYR bioavailability in soil. This paper suggests that the addition of either PMC or nonionic-surfactant Tween 80 could facilitate phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soil.

  5. Production of Bio-Energy from Pig Manure: A Focus on the Dynamics Change of Four Parameters under Sunlight-Dark Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxue Yin

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of sunlight-dark conditions on volatile fatty acids (VFAs, total ammonium nitrogen (TAN, total alkalinity (TA and pH during pig manure (PM digestion and then the subsequent influence on biogas yield of PM. PM1 and PM2 were performed in a transparent reactor and a non-transparent reactor, respectively. Two sets of experiments were conducted with a temperature of 35.0±2.0 °C and a total solid concentration of 8.0% to the digestion material. The dynamic change of the four parameters in response to sunlight-dark conditions resulted in variations of the physiological properties in the digester and affected the cumulative biogas production (CBP. PM1 obtained higher CBP (15020.0 mL with a more stable pH and a lower TAN concentration (1414.5 mg/L compared to PM2 (2675.0 mL and 1670.0 mg/L, respectively. The direct path coefficients and indirect path coefficients between the four parameters and CBP were also analyzed.

  6. Production of Bio-Energy from Pig Manure: A Focus on the Dynamics Change of Four Parameters under Sunlight-Dark Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dongxue; Liu, Wei; Zhai, Ningning; Feng, Yongzhong; Yang, Gaihe; Wang, Xiaojiao; Han, Xinhui

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of sunlight-dark conditions on volatile fatty acids (VFAs), total ammonium nitrogen (TAN), total alkalinity (TA) and pH during pig manure (PM) digestion and then the subsequent influence on biogas yield of PM. PM1 and PM2 were performed in a transparent reactor and a non-transparent reactor, respectively. Two sets of experiments were conducted with a temperature of 35.0±2.0 °C and a total solid concentration of 8.0% to the digestion material. The dynamic change of the four parameters in response to sunlight-dark conditions resulted in variations of the physiological properties in the digester and affected the cumulative biogas production (CBP). PM1 obtained higher CBP (15020.0 mL) with a more stable pH and a lower TAN concentration (1414.5 mg/L) compared to PM2 (2675.0 mL and 1670.0 mg/L, respectively). The direct path coefficients and indirect path coefficients between the four parameters and CBP were also analyzed. PMID:25970266

  7. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of sugar beet byproduct and pig manure: Effect of the organic loading rate (OLR) on process performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboudi, Kaoutar; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Romero-García, Luis Isidoro

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of dried pellet of exhausted sugar beet cossettes (ESBC-DP) with pig manure (PM) was investigated in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor (SSTR) under mesophilic conditions. Seven hydraulic retention times (HRT) from 20 to 5 days were tested with the aim to evaluate the methane productivities and volatile solids (VS) removal. The corresponding organic loading rates (OLR) ranged from 4.2 to 12.8 gVS/L(reactor) d. The findings revealed that highest system efficiency was achieved at an OLR of 11.2 gVS/L(reactor) d (6 days-HRT) with a methane production rate (MPR) and volatile solids (VS) reduction of 2.91 LCH4/L(reactor) d and 57.5%, respectively. The HRT of 5 days was found critical for the studied process, which leads to volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulation and sharp drop in pH. However, the increase of HRT permits the recovery of system.

  8. Alterações no teor de fósforo no solo com aplicação de dejetos líquidos de suínos Soil phosphorus alteration by pig slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Léo Berwanger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os dejetos líquidos de suínos servem como fonte de nutrientes às plantas, porém, quando o seu uso é inadequado, podem causar o acúmulo de P no solo, que posteriormente pode ser transferido para o meio aquático, causando eutrofização. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o potencial de risco de contaminação ambiental com o uso de dejeto líquido de suíno, mensurando as alterações ocorridas no teor de P no solo e nas isotermas de sorção. O trabalho foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, em um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arenico. Foram utilizadas as doses de 0, 40 e 80 m³ ha-1 de dejetos líquidos de suínos, distribuídos a lanço sobre a superfície antes da semeadura de cada espécie numa rotação de culturas. A aplicação de dejeto líquido de suínos na superfície do solo sob sistema plantio direto, aportando quantidades de P superiores àquelas exportadas pelas culturas, aumentou o P disponível do solo até 15 cm de profundidade. A saturação dos sítios de adsorção de fosfato do solo, avaliada pelos parâmetros de equação de Langmuir, é proporcional à dose de dejetos líquidos de suínos. A concentração de P na solução de equilíbrio P, a quantidade de P dessorvida com água e a constante que pode dar informação sobre a afinidade do fosfato com o solo da superfície foram alteradas pela aplicação de dejetos líquidos de suínos, indicando um favorecimento à dessorção de P caso estes sejam erodidos para mananciais de águas superficiais.Pig slurry serves as plant nutrient source, but may cause phosphorus accumulation in the soil when used improperly, which later can be transferred to the aquatic environment causing eutrophication. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential risk of environmental contamination by continuous use of pig slurry, measuring alterations in phosphorus content in the soil and in the sorption isotherms. The study was carried out at the

  9. An Assessment of the Variation of Manure Nitrogen Efficiency Throughout Europe and an Appraisal of Means to Increase Manure N Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, J.; Sørensen, Peter; Velthof, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Using the nitrogen (N) in organic manures more effectively reduces losses to the environment. A requirement to take allowance of the N conserved by reduced ammonia (NH3)-emission techniques would increase manure-N efficiency by up to 15%. Covering manure stores and land application of slurry by i...

  10. An assessment of the variation of manure nitrogen efficiency throughout Europe and an appraisal of means to increase manure-N efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, J.; Sorensen, P.; Velthof, G.L.; Amon, B.; Pinto, M.; Rodhe, L.; Salomon, E.; Hutchings, N.; Burczyk, J.; Reid, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Using the nitrogen (N) in organic manures more effectively reduces losses to the environment. A requirement to take allowance of the N conserved by reduced ammonia (NH3)-emission techniques would increase manure-N efficiency by up to 15%. Covering manure stores and land application of slurry by

  11. Why is acidification of slurry a success only in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    . Several technologies have been used in the buildings, in the storage and when applying manure. One technology now used widely in Denmark (20% of all slurry) is acidification of slurry where the application of sulphuric acid reduces the ammonia emission. However, the technology has hardly been used...

  12. Matrix parameters and storage conditions of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinfurtner, Karlheinz [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The literature study presents an overview of storage conditions for manure and information about important matrix parameters of manure such as dry matter content, pH value, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen. The presented results show that for matrix parameters a dissimilarity of cattle and pig manure can be observed but no difference within the species for different production types occurred with exception of calves. A scenario for western and central European countries is derived. (orig.)

  13. Mesophylic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERALIn this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).For this purpose were researched:1. Anaerobic digestion of cow manure. Optimization of the digestio

  14. Physical properties, fuel characteristics and P-fertilizer production related to animal slurry and products from separation of animal slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Johnsen, Tina; Triolo, Jin Mi

    The purpose of this study was twofold: firstly to examine the relationship between dry matter content (DM) and specific gravity (SG) and viscosity in slurry and the liquid fraction from slurry separation, and secondly to investigate the potential of energy production from combustion of manure fibre...

  15. Dejeto líquido de suínos: I - perdas de nitrogênio e fósforo na solução escoada na superfície do solo, sob plantio direto Pig slurry: I - nitrogen and phosphorus losses by surface run off in a soil cropped under no tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Ceretta

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de dejeto líquido de suínos em áreas de lavoura e/ou pastagem representa a adição de nutrientes às plantas e também uma alternativa de reciclagem. Contudo, as perdas de nitrogênio e fósforo por escoamento superficial no plantio direto podem diminuir sua eficiência à nutrição de plantas e representar um poluente potencial, comprometendo a qualidade da água no ambiente. Esse trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a importância do escoamento superficial às perdas de nitrogênio e fósforo aplicados via dejeto líquido de suínos. O trabalho foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, no período de maio de 2000 a maio de 2002 em Argissolo Vermelho Arênico distrófico. Numa rotação aveia preta/milho/nabo forrageiro, foram estudadas as doses de 0, 20, 40 e 80 m³ ha-1 de dejetos líquidos de suínos, distribuídas a lanço sobre a superfície antes da semeadura de cada espécie da rotação. As concentrações de fósforo disponível e nitrogênio mineral na solução escoada na superfície do solo foram diretamente relacionados com as doses de dejeto aplicadas. As concentrações de nitrogênio e fósforo na solução escoada na superfície do solo, bem como a predominância de amônio ou nitrato, estão diretamente relacionadas ao intervalo entre a aplicação do dejeto e o primeiro escoamento superficial. As perdas de nitrogênio e fósforo por escoamento superficial, expressas em kg ha-1, são pequenas, porém as maiores concentrações observadas nos picos de perdas preocupam com relação à possibilidade de eutroficação de mananciais de água.The application of pig slurry in crop land and/or pasture areas, besides being an additional source of nutrients to plants is also an alternative for manure disposal. However, nitrogen and phosphorus losses by surface run off in no tillage can decrease the efficiency of organic fertilizers and also be a potential pollutant, threatening the quality of water

  16. Gaseous emissions during the fattening of pigs kept either on fully slatted floors or on straw flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, F-X; Laitat, M; Canart, B; Vandenheede, M; Nicks, B

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the environmental impact of the straw-flow system for fattening pigs with the slatted-floor system by measuring pollutant gas emissions such as ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), manure nitrogen (N) content and emissions of water vapour (H2O). Three successive batches of 32 pigs were fattened. For each batch, pigs were allotted to two groups raised in separated rooms fitted either with a concrete totally slatted-floor system (0.75 m2 per pig) or with a straw-flow system (0.79 m2 per pig). With this last system, pigs were kept on a sloped floor, straw being provided daily at the top of the pen. Throughout the fattening period, about 34.4 kg of straw were supplied per pig. The straw, mixed with dung, travelled down the slope by pig motion and went out of the pen to a scraped passage. The solid fraction was scraped every day, stored in a heap in the room and removed every month, 1 week before each period of gaseous emission measurement. The liquid fraction was automatically pumped from the scraped passage into a hermetic tank, which was emptied at the end of each fattening period. Rooms were ventilated mechanically in order to maintain a constant ambient temperature. Once a month, the emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4, CO2 and H2O were measured hourly for 6 consecutive days via infrared photoacoustic detection. Mean daily emissions per pig fattened on the slatted floor or on the sloped floor were, respectively, 4.98 and 13.31 g NH3, 0.67 and 0.68 g N2O, 15.2 and 8.88 g CH4, 548 g and 406 g CO2 equivalents, 1.61 and 1.77 kg CO2 and 2.33 and 2.95 kg H2O. Except for N2O emissions, all the differences were statistically significant (P straw-flow system, solid manure amounted on average to 209 kg per pig and liquid manure to 53 kg per pig. The total N-content of the manure was 2.23 kg N per pig with the straw-flow system (solid and liquid manure) v. 3.26 kg N per pig for slurry from the slatted

  17. 不同功能物质对猪粪发酵液产硫化氢的影响%Effects of Different Functional Materials on Hydrogen Sulfide Production from Pig Manure Fermentation Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利民; 刘玉民; 马常俊; 武英; 盛清凯

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different dose of exogenous tryptophan,fructan and casein on hydrogen sulfide production from different manure fermentation liquid were studied in this paper.The Bacillus Natto was added into the tested group of pig manure,but not in control group.All liquid manures were anaerobic fermented in vitro.The results showed Clostridium and Lactobacillus contents in tested group were significantly higher (P <0.01)and lower (P <0.05)respectively than that in control group.The hydrogen sulfide content of fermentation liquid in tested group was significantly lower than that in control group (P < 0.05).The effects of fructan on hydrogen sulfide production of fermentation liquid were the most,while that of tryptophan were the least.In conclusion,the supplementation of Bacillus Natto in diet and the adjustment of fructan content in pig manure could reduce the hydrogen sulfide production from pig manure fermentation liquid.%研究不同剂量的外源色氨酸、果聚糖和酪蛋白对不同猪粪发酵液产硫化氢的影响.试验组日粮中添加纳豆芽孢杆菌,对照组不添加.猪粪液全部体外厌氧发酵.结果表明:试验组猪粪乳酸杆菌和梭菌含量分别高于(P<0.01)和低于(P<0.05)对照组,发酵液硫化氢含量低于对照组(P<0.05);果聚糖对两组猪粪发酵液产硫化氢影响最大,色氨酸对两组猪粪发酵液产硫化氢影响最小.建议猪日粮中添加纳豆芽孢杆菌及调整猪粪中果聚糖含量以减少猪粪发酵液中硫化氢的产生.

  18. Fate of 14C-Pyrene in soil-plant system amended with pig manure compost and Tween 80: a growth chamber study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ka Yu; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2008-11-01

    This paper evaluated the effects of a pig manure compost (PMC) and a nonionic surfactant Tween 80 on the fate of 14C-Pyrene (Pyr) in a soil-plant system (Agropyron elongatum). Soils spiked with 14C-4, 5, 9, 10-Pyr were amended with 7.5% (w/w) PMC together with or without 100mgkg(-1) of Tween 80. Unplanted soil without amendments was set as the control. Gas phases of the systems were monitored for 14CO2 over a 60 days period. The impact of PMC and Tween 80 on the apparent loss of the PAH and the distribution of 14C-activity in the systems was studied. 14C-activity associated with different soil fractions was further examined by using methyl-isobutyl-ketone (MIBK) fractionation method. The results showed that the addition of PMC could increase the dissipation of Pyr in vegetated soil from 12.1% to 58.7%, while the co-addition of Tween 80 and PMC could further enhance the dissipation to 90.3%. Pyr dissipation in soil was correlated with the mineralization of 14C-Pyr, indicating that Pyr dissipation was mainly due to mineralization. A higher formation of water-extractable metabolites was observed in soil amended with PMC and Tween 80, and this was correlated with a higher biomass accumulation of 14C-activity and higher bound residue formation in the soil. Overall, this study suggested that the co-application of PMC and Tween 80 could improve phytoremediation of Pyr-contaminated soil.

  19. Autoclave treatment of pig manure does not reduce the risk of transmission and transfer of tetracycline resistance genes in soil: successive determinations with soil column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Gu, Xian; Hao, Yangyang; Hu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of antibiotics, especially tetracycline, in livestock feed adversely affects animal health and ecological integrity. Therefore, approaches to decrease this risk are urgently needed. High temperatures facilitate antibiotic degradation; whether this reduces transmission risk and transfer of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRBs) and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in soil remains unknown. Successive experiments with soil columns evaluated the effects of autoclaving pig manure (APM) on soil TRB populations and TRGs over time at different soil depths. The data showed sharp increases in TRB populations and TRGs in each subsoil layer of PM (non-APM) and APM treatments within 30 days, indicating that TRBs and TRGs transferred rapidly. The level of TRBs in the upper soil layers was approximately 15-fold higher than in subsoils. TRBs were not dependent on PM and APM levels, especially in the late phase. Nevertheless, higher levels of APM led to rapid expansion of TRBs as compared to PM. Moreover, temporal changes in TRB frequencies in total culturable bacteria (TCBs) were similar to TRBs, indicating that the impact of PM or APM on TRBs was more obvious than for TCBs. TRBs were hypothesized to depend on the numbers of TRGs and indigenous recipient bacteria. In the plough layer, five TRGs (tetB, tetG, tetM, tetW, and tetB/P) existed in each treatment within 150 days. Selective pressure of TC may not be a necessary condition for the transfer and persistence of TRGs in soil. High temperatures might reduce TRBs in PM, which had minimal impact on the transmission and transfer of TRGs in soil. Identifying alternatives to decrease TRG transmission remains a major challenge.

  20. Reagent use efficiency with removal of nitrogen from pig slurry via struvite: A study on magnesium oxide and related by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Güiza, M S; Tait, S; Astals, S; Del Valle-Zermeño, R; Martínez, M; Mata-Alvarez, J; Chimenos, J M

    2015-11-01

    Controlled struvite formation has been attracting increasing attention as a near mature technology to recover nutrients from wastewater. However, struvite feasibility is generally limited by the high cost of chemical reagents. With the aim to understand and control reagent use efficiency, experiments and equilibrium model simulations examined inorganic nitrogen (TAN) removal from pig manure via struvite with added magnesium and phosphate reagents. Four industrial magnesium oxide (MgO), a commercial product and three by-products from magnesite calcination, were tested with phosphate added as a highly soluble potassium salt. TAN removal extents with the MgOs ranged from 47 to 72%, with the highest grade MgO providing the greatest extent of TAN removal. However, model analysis showed that all the MgO reagents were poorly soluble (only about 40% of added magnesium actually dissolved). The model results suggested that this poor dissolution was due to kinetic limitations, not solubility constraints. A further set of additional reagents (termed stabilization agents) were prepared by pre-treating the MgO reagents with phosphoric acid, and were tested separately as a source of both magnesium and phosphate. Results showed that acid pre-treatment of moderate to highly reactive MgOs (soft to medium-burnt) primarily formed bobierrite as the stabilizing agent, whereas the pre-treatment of very low reactivity MgOs (dead-burnt) mostly formed newberyite. The newberyite stabilizing agents achieved very high TAN removal extents of about 80%, which is significant, considering that these were formed from dead-burnt/low-grade MgOs. However, the bobierrite stabilizing agents achieved a substantially lower TAN removal extent than their medium-to-high reactivity precursor MgOs. Again, model analysis showed that the bobierrite stabilizing agents were poorly soluble, due to kinetic limitations, not solubility constraints. In contrast, the model suggested that the newberyite stabilizing

  1. Data sets to assess methane emissions from untreated cattle and pig slurry and solid manure storage systems in the German and Austrian emission inventories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammgen, U; Amon, B; Hutchings, Nicholas John;

    2012-01-01

    Methane emissions have to be reported within the Framework Convention on Climate Change. They are assessed according to the guidelines provided by IPCC. However, the methane conversion factors provided in the guidance documents published in 1996, 2000 and 2006 differ considerably. The literature ...

  2. Data sets to assess methane emissions from untreated cattle and pig slurry and solid manure storage systems in the German and Austrian emission inventories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammgen, U; Amon, B; Hutchings, Nicholas John

    2012-01-01

    Methane emissions have to be reported within the Framework Convention on Climate Change. They are assessed according to the guidelines provided by IPCC. However, the methane conversion factors provided in the guidance documents published in 1996, 2000 and 2006 differ considerably. The literature...

  3. Effect of C/N Ratio Adjusted by Wheat Straw on Biogas Production from Pig Manure%小麦秸秆调节猪粪碳氮比对产沼气的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 马忠明; 王文丽; 卢秉林; 赵旭

    2012-01-01

    通过模拟沼气发酵试验,笔者研究利用小麦秸秆调节猪粪碳氮比对沼气产气量的影响.结果表明:低温条件下,碳氮比为22(CK)的纯猪粪处理,产气速率最快,产气量最大,说明碳氮比为22的猪粪直接作为沼气的发酵原料最好;高温条件下,利用秸秆调节猪粪碳氮比为25的处理总产气量大,产气速率适中,有利于沼气稳定产气,避免高温条件下产气过量污染环境.%Through the simulation fermentation test, the author studied the biogas production of pig manure with adjusting of C/N ratio by adding of wheat straw. The result showed that, at low temperature (20℃ ) , the sole pig manure with C/N ratio of 22 produced the fastest biogas production speed and highest biogas production. At the higher temperature ( 30℃ ) , the C/N ratio of 25 adjusted by wheat straw had the highest total biogas production with the moderate gas production speed, which was in favour of the stability of biogas production.

  4. Comparison of sampling methods for animal manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derikx, P.J.L.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Hoeksma, P.

    1997-01-01

    Currently available and recently developed sampling methods for slurry and solid manure were tested for bias and reproducibility in the determination of total phosphorus and nitrogen content of samples. Sampling methods were based on techniques in which samples were taken either during loading from

  5. Comparison of sampling methods for animal manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derikx, P.J.L.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Hoeksma, P.

    1997-01-01

    Currently available and recently developed sampling methods for slurry and solid manure were tested for bias and reproducibility in the determination of total phosphorus and nitrogen content of samples. Sampling methods were based on techniques in which samples were taken either during loading from

  6. Continuous in-house acidification affecting animal slurry composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Maibritt; Cocolo, Giorgia; Jonassen, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    . A full-scale study was therefore performed, comparing pig slurry from normal in-house slurry management with pig slurry from housing with daily in-house acidification to pH 5.5. The effect on organic, inorganic and particles was evaluated. Increasing dissolved P, Mg and Ca contents indicated mineral...... dissolution in acidified slurry. Acceleration of carbohydrate hydrolysis was indicated, while deceleration of microbial acidogenesis, acetogenesis, methanogenesis and sulphate reduction was indicated. The particles were larger following acidification treatment causing a lower viscosity, likely due...

  7. 蚯蚓与EM菌协同作用处理猪粪的研究%Svnergistic Effects of Eisenia foetida and Effective Microorganisms on Vermicomposting of Pig Manure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许第发; 刘广深; 余取民; 李荣喜

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To explore the synergistic effects of Eisenia foetida and effective microorganisms (EM) on vermicomposting of pig manure and provide a new idea for rational and effective utilization and treatment of animal manure. [ Method] Use pig manure as medium, the experiment contained four groups which were CK group (blank control), EM group (inoculation with EM bacteria), EAM group (inoculation with earth-worm), and EAM and EM group (inoculation with EM bacteria and earth-worm), respectively. The experiment lasted for 60 d. On Day 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60, the pig manure was collected, and the content of total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN),ammonium nitrogen ( NH4 + -N), nitrite nitrogen ( NO3 - -N ) and water soluble carbon ( WSC ) was determined, respectively. [ Result ] On Day 60, in the EAM and EM treatment group, the TOC content and the WSC content was respectively decreased by 42.8% and 58.9%; the TKN content was increased by 13.6%, the C/N ratio was reduced by 49.5%; and the nitrite nitrogen content was 96 times as high as that on Day 0. [ Conclusion] The synergy of earthworms and EM bacteria can accelerate the pig manure composting and improve the mineralization and stability of products.%[目的]研究蚯蚓与EM菌协同作用处理猪粪的效果,为合理有效地利用和处理畜禽粪便提供新思路.[方法]以猪粪为培养基,将试验分为4组,分别为空白(CK)组、接种EM菌(EM)组、接种蚯蚓(EAM)组以及同时接种蚯蚓和EM菌(EAM+EM)组,试验时间为60 d.分剐在0、15、30、45和60 d时收集猪粪样品,测定总有机碳(TOC)、全氮(TKN)、铵态氮和硝态氮含量.[结果]与对照组相比,60d后EAM+EM组产物中总有机碳降低了42.8%,全氮提高了13.6%,碳氮比下降了49.5%;铵态氮的转化率达98.1%,硝态氮增加了96倍,硝态氮与铵态氮的比值达到61;水溶性碳下降了58.9%.[结论]蚯蚓和EM菌的协同作用能够加快猪粪的腐熟,提高产物的矿化程度和稳定程度.

  8. Response of soil microbiota to nine-year application of swine manure and urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Manure fertilization is a common practice, but little is known about its impacts on soil microbial activity and organic matter. Aiming to evaluate soil microbial response to nine years of successive applications of swine manure, organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (TN, pH, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, basal respiration (BR, metabolic quotient (qCO2, and enzyme (ß-glucosidase, phosphatase, arylsulphatase, and FDA activities were measured in the 0-10cm soil layer, in a no-tillage system. Treatments were: control soil without fertilization (C, and application of two doses (104 and 209kg of N ha-1year-1 of urea (U1 and U2, pig slurry (PS1 and PS2 and deep litter (DL1 and DL2. TOC, TN, soil pH, MBC, and BR increased in soil fertilized with DL, and were lower in U treatments. Soils with U and DL application had higher qCO2, related to different sources of stressors like nutrient imbalance. Phosphatase and ß-glucosidase activities were not affected by treatments, increased with time, and had a strong correlation with MBC. We conclude that long-term swine manure applications increase microbial activity and soil organic matter, mainly in DL form; while urea applications have negative impacts on these indicators.

  9. 饲料发酵对饲料、猪粪中微量元素形态及粪臭素的影响%Effects of Feed Fermentation on Speciations of Trace Elements in Feed and Pig Manure and Skatole in Manure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛清凯; 战余铭; 李会荣; 孟宪利; 赵红波

    2016-01-01

    To promote the combination of cropping and livestock farming,the compound feed for sow was anaerobically fermented by lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus subtilis to investigate the effects of feed fermenta-tion on chemical speciations of copper,iron,zinc and manganese in feed and pig manure and skatole in ma-nure.The results showed that compared with unfermented feed,in fermented feed and pig manure,the con-tents of acetic acid extracted -state copper,iron,zinc and manganese,and the contents of reduced -state copper and iron significantly or very significantly increased,while the contents of oxidized -state copper and i-ron significantly or very significantly decreased,and the content of residual -state copper had no obvious change.Fermentation significantly reduced feed pH value while improved the manure pH value.The lactic acid bacteria content,amylase and cellulase activities of fermentation treatment were significantly or very sig-nificantly increased in feed and manure.And the skatole concentration was highly significantly decreased in manure.It indicated that feed fermentation changed the chemical speciations of copper,iron,zinc and manga-nese in feed and manure and reduced the manure odor.%为促进种养结合,在母猪全价配合饲料中添加乳酸菌及枯草芽孢杆菌厌氧发酵,研究饲料发酵对饲料、猪粪中铜、铁、锌、锰的化学形态及粪中粪臭素含量的影响。结果表明:和未发酵饲料相比,发酵饲料和猪粪中醋酸提取态的铜、铁、锌、锰含量均显著或极显著增加,还原态的铜、铁含量显著增加,氧化态的铜、铁含量显著或极显著减少,残渣态的铜含量无明显变化;饲料 pH 值显著降低,猪粪 pH 值显著升高;猪粪粪臭素浓度极显著降低;乳酸菌含量和淀粉酶、纤维素酶活性极显著或显著增加。表明饲料发酵改变了饲料和猪粪中铜、铁、锌、锰的化学形态,减少了猪粪臭味。

  10. Nitrogen Mineralization from Animal Manures and Its Relation to Organic N Fractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ling-ling; LI Shu-tian

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory aerobic incubation was conducted for 161 d to study N mineralization and the changes of organic N fractions of nine different manures (3 chicken manures, 3 pig manures and 3 cattle manures) from different farms/locations. Results indicated that signiifcant (P<0.01 orP<0.001) difference existed in N mineralization between manures. The rapid N mineralization in manures occurred during 56 to 84 d of incubation. First order exponential model can be used to describe N mineralization from chicken manures and pig manures, while quadratic equation can predict mineralization of organic N from cattle manures. An average of 21, 19 and 13% added organic N from chicken manure, pig manure and cattle manure was mineralized during 161 d of incubation. Amino acid-N was the main source of N mineralization. The changes of amino acid-N together with ammonium N could explain signiifcantly 97 and 96% of the variation in mineralized N from manured soils and manures. Amino acid-N and ammonium N are two main N fractions in determining N mineralization potential from manures. Amino acid-N contributed more to the mineralized N than ammonium N.

  11. Ammonia abatement by slurry acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Hafner, Sasha

    2016-01-01

    Livestock production systems can be major sources of trace gases including ammonia (NH3), the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and odorous compounds such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Short-term campaigns have indicated that acidification of livestock slurry during in......-house storage can reduce NH3 emissions, and also may influence other emissions. In this study, emissions of NH3 were quantified by measuring continuously during three complete finishing pig production periods of about 10 weeks each, and emissions of CH4 and H2S less frequently. Emissions were determined from...... sections with 30-32 pigs with or without daily adjustment of slurry pH to below 6. Ammonia losses from reference sections with untreated slurry were between 9.5 and 12.4% of N excreted, and from sections with acidified slurry between 3.1 and 6.2%. Acidification reduced total emissions of NH3 by 66 and 71...

  12. The influences of adding lees and plant ash on anaerobic fermentation of pig manure%添加酒糟、草木灰对猪粪厌氧发酵的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟娟; 季艳敏; 尹冬雪; 李轶冰; 任广鑫

    2012-01-01

    Take the pig manure as fermentation materials,the effect of, by adding varying amounts of lees and plant ash on the anaerobic fermentation biogas production at 25 ℃, the aerogenesis rate、 accumulated gas production, pH, NH3-N content and CH4 content in the anaerobic fermentation process was analyzed. The results show that the accumulated gas production get the highest as well as the CH4 content when adding lg plant ash;the same as adding 5 g lees into the pig manure. Adding 1,3 g and 5 g lees in the anaerobic fermentation process respectively, the tendency of pH , present drop-increase-drop, and NH3-N increase-drop-increase. But Adding 1, 3 g and 5 g plant ash respectively in the anaerobic fermentation process, the tendency of pH and the NH3-N are similar, increases at first then reduces and finally becomes stable. In a conclusion, reasonable lees and plant ash addition is the premise to improve the amount of gas production and CH4 content in the pig manure anaerobic fermentation process.%以猪粪为发酵原料,研究在25℃条件下分别添加不同量的酒糟、草木灰对厌氧发酵产沼气的影响,分析了厌氧发酵过程中产气速率、累积产气量、pH值、氨态氮质量浓度及甲烷含量的变化.结果表明,在猪粪中添加草木灰1 g,累积产气量大且甲烷含量高;添加酒糟5 g,累积产气量大且甲烷含量高.添加1,3,5 g草木灰,pH值呈现降低—升高—稳定的趋势,氨态氮呈现升高—降低—稳定的趋势;添加1,3,5 g酒糟后,发酵过程中的pH值和氨态氮变化规律相似,均呈现升高—降低—升高—稳定的趋势.因此,合理的酒糟、草木灰添加量是提高猪粪厌氧发酵产气量及甲烷含量的前提.

  13. Complete genome sequence of Peptoniphilus sp. strain ING2-D1G isolated from a mesophilic lab-scale completely stirred tank reactor utilizing maize silage in co-digestion with pig and cattle manure for biomethanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazetto, Geizecler; Hahnke, Sarah; Maus, Irena; Wibberg, Daniel; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas; Klocke, Michael

    2014-12-20

    The bacterium Peptoniphilus sp. strain ING2-D1G (DSM 28672), a mesophilic and obligate anaerobic bacterium belonging to the order Clostridiales was isolated from a biogas-producing lab-scale completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) optimized for anaerobic digestion of maize silage in co-fermentation with pig and cattle manure. In this study, the whole genome sequence of Peptoniphilus sp. strain ING2-D1G, a new isolate potentially involved in protein breakdown and acidogenesis during biomass degradation, is reported. The chromosome of this strain is 1.6Mb in size and encodes genes predicted to be involved in the production of acetate, lactate and butyrate specifying the acidogenic metabolism of the isolate.

  14. Inibidor de nitrificação e aplicação parcelada de dejetos de suínos nas culturas do milho e trigo Nitrification inhibitor and split applications of pig slurry to corn and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janquieli Schirmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nas áreas com produção intensiva de suínos, os dejetos líquidos dos animais constituem importante fonte de nitrogênio (N às culturas; entretanto, esses dejetos são uma das principais causas de poluição do solo, do ar e da água. É preciso buscar estratégias que reduzam as perdas de N desse resíduo orgânico para o ambiente e que melhorem a sua eficiência agronômica, relativa ao fornecimento de N às culturas comerciais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do uso de inibidor de nitrificação (IN e da aplicação parcelada de dejetos líquidos de suínos (Dls sobre o acúmulo de N e a produtividade de milho e trigo em plantio direto. Os tratamentos avaliados constaram da aplicação da dose recomendada de Dls em aplicação única e parcelada (1/3 em pré-semeadura e 2/3 em cobertura, com e sem IN. Além desses quatro tratamentos, foi avaliado um tratamento com adubação mineral (NPK recomendada ao milho e ao trigo e outro sem IN e sem fertilizantes (testemunha. O IN, à base de dicianodiamida (DCD, foi misturado aos dejetos na dose de 7 kg ha-1. A aplicação de Dls, em dose única ou parcelada, aumentou o acúmulo de N e a produtividade de milho e trigo, proporcionando resultados similares aos observados com a adubação mineral recomendada às duas culturas. As estratégias de parcelar a dose recomendada de Dls ao milho e ao trigo e de usar a DCD para inibir a nitrificação não influenciaram o acúmulo de N e a produtividade do milho e trigo em plantio direto.In areas of intensive pig production, pig slurry is used as an important nitrogen (N source of crops, but is also a major cause of soil, air and water pollution. Strategies are required to reduce N losses from this organic material to the environment and to improve the agronomic efficiency as plant N source. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of a nitrification inhibitor (NI and the split application of pig slurry (PS on N

  15. Study on Application of Biogas Slurry Combined wi th Straw in Rice Organic Cultivat ion%沼液与秸秆配施在水稻有机栽培中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵理; 卢绪奎; 王新娟; 史春余

    2016-01-01

    以日本优质粳稻‘越光’( Koshihikari)为材料,通过田间小区试验和生产对比试验,进行了沼液与秸秆配施在水稻有机栽培中的应用研究。试验结果表明:在总施 N量相同的条件下,处理T1(基肥为猪粪+沼液,追肥为沼液)的水稻产量最高,比CK2(常规施肥,基肥为猪粪,追肥为饼肥)增产14.7%~20.6%;处理T3(基肥为猪粪+麦秸+沼液,追肥为沼液)的水稻产量次之;处理T3的麦秸腐解最快,在插秧后30 d内的腐解进程比处理T2(基肥为猪粪+麦秸,追肥为饼肥)快6 d左右;处理T3的除草效果最好,相对除草率达87.2%~91.8%。因此,在水稻有机栽培、秸秆还田条件下,施用沼液能加快秸秆腐解进程,有效补充水稻前期生长 N素供应的不足,并对病虫草害具有一定的防控效果,从而可以提高水稻单产。%Abs rt act:Taking Japanese quality japno ica rice‘Koshihikari’ as the material, using field plot test and production test,pro -ceed the research of biogas slurry with straw combined application in rice organic cultivation.The results showed that the rice yield of applying biogas slurry ( pig manure and biogas slurry as basal fertilizer, biogas slurry as top dressing, T1 ) was the highest, in-creasing from 14.7%to 20.6%compared with the normally fertilizing ( pig manure as basal fertilizer, cake fertilizer as top dress-ing, CK2 ) .The rice yield of straw returning and applying biogas slurry ( pig manure, straws and biogas slurry as basal fertilizer, biogas slurry as top dressing, T3 ) was followed.The rate of straw decomposition of T3 was the highest,ahead of about 6 d com-pared with straw returning ( pig manure and straws as basal fertilizer, cake fertilizer as top dressing,T 2 ) within the first 30 days after transplanting.And the weeding effect of T3 was the best too, the relative rate of killing was from 87.2%to 91.8%.This re

  16. Phosphorus distribution in a soil fertilized with recovered manure phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus (P) can be recovered in a concentrated form from livestock manure and poultry litter. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the short-term leaching potential and plant availability of P from recovered P materials from liquid pig manure (SRP) and broiler litter (LRP) in a characteri...

  17. Molecular detection of hepatitis E virus in feces and slurry from swine farms, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vasconcelos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is highly disseminated among swine herds worldwide. HEV is also a threat to public health, since particularly genotypes 3 and 4 may cause acute hepatitis in human beings. No previous studies were done on the occurrence of HEV in environmental samples in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In the present study, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was employed to detect the presence of HEV in swine feces and in effluents from slurry lagoons in farms located in the municipality of Teutônia, inside the area of swine husbandry in the state. Pooled fecal samples from the floor of pig barns from 9 wean-to-finish farms and liquid manure samples were collected from the slurry lagoons from 8 of these farms. From the pooled fecal samples, 8/9 were positive for the HEV ORF1 gene by RT-PCR; all the slurry lagoon samples were positive for HEV RNA (100%. The identity of the HEV ORF1 amplicons was confirmed by sequencing belonging to HEV genotype 3, which was previously shown to be circulating in South America.

  18. Biological degradation and greenhouse gas emissions during pre-storage of liquid animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Sommer, S.G.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    Storage of manure makes a significant contribution to global methane (CH4) emissions. Anaerobic digestion of pig and cattle manure in biogas reactors before outside storage might reduce the potential for CH4 emissions. However, manure pre-stored at 15 to 20degreesC in buildings before anaerobic d...

  19. Methane conversion factors from cattle manure in México

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Methane emission factors from different cattle manure management systems including simulated slurry system fermentation were experimentally determined in this and a previous study (González-Avalos and Ruiz-Suárez, 2001). Combining results from both studies, we report values for maximum CH4 yield, called B0, for manure produced by cattle under different production systems and climates, which also implies different quality of feeds and associated methane conversion factors (MCF) for distinct ma...

  20. Response of Plant Parasitic and Free Living Soil Nematodes to Composted Animal Manure Soil Amendments

    OpenAIRE

    Renčo, M.; Kováčik, P.

    2012-01-01

    In an outside pot experiment, dry pig manure processed on pine sawdust litter and fermented for seven days by house fly larvae (fermented manure), and pine sawdust applied alone, and in combination with a spring application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer were used to determine their effects on plant parasitic and free-living soil nematodes on sugar beets (cv. Antek). Non amended soil was used as a control. All treatments with fermented pig manure and sawdust with nitrogen fertilizer decreas...

  1. 添加木炭改善猪粪稻壳好氧堆肥工艺及质量%Improving pig manure and rice husk compost technology and quality by wood charcoal addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣华; 张广杰; 张增强; 王权; 孙西宁

    2014-01-01

    In order to promote waste recycling and investigate the effect of hardwood-based biochar additives in the process of pig manure composting, the pig manure was mixed with rice husk and further amended with oak wood charcoal at 0, 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, and 10.0%in dry weight before being aerobically composted for 60 days. The parameters, such as temperature, water content, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon, C/N ratio, total nitrogen, NH4+-N, NO3--N, NH3, etc., were detected through chemical analysis. The organic matter degradation process was evaluated by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) methods. The FTIR analysis showed that the contents of the compounds with-OH,-CH3, and-CH2 groups decreased with time, while the contents of the compounds with-C=O, C-O-C,-COO, and aromatic groups increased with time during the 60 days of composting. The compost sample SEM analysis proved that the mixture particle size decreased with the progress of time and the amount of wood charcoal. During the 60 days composting, as the wood charcoal addition amount increased, the organic carbon contents in all the treatments decreased 12.23%, 13.77%, 14.88%, 15.36%, and 15.86%, respectively; the C/N ratio decreased 47.80%, 54.98%, 56.97%, 60.03%, and 65.73%, respectively. Compared to the control, the addition of wood charcoal had no significant effect on pH variation, and the final compost pH kept the balance at 8.0. Wood charcoal addition extended high-temperature processing times by 2-5 days, increased the water contents, and decreased the EC value during composting. During the 60 days composting, as the wood charcoal addition amount increased, the moisture content decreased 15.9%, 13.0%, 11.1%, 10.1%, and 7.8%, respectively; while the EC value in the wood charcoal added treatment were decreased 0.07, 0.15, 0.23, and 0.28 mS/cm than that of the control, respectively. Addition of oak wood charcoal additives could enhance the

  2. Effects of Pig Manure Type of Organic Fertilizer on Soil Fertility of Spring Maize Planting Land and Yield of Spring Maize%猪粪型有机肥对春玉米地土壤养分含量及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴巍; 荣湘民; 张玉平; 郭春铭; 向秀媛; 韩永亮; 司婷; 杨兰

    2011-01-01

    The effects of combined application of pig manure type of organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer on soil fertility and yield of spring maize were studied by using field plot experiment.The results showed that in comparison with inorganic fertilizer with the same amount of nutrition, combined application of pig manure type of organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer can increase the contents of soil available N and soil available P but no significant affection on soil available K during the growing time of spring maize; pig manure type organic fertilizer can increase the 100-seeds weight, the yield and the dry matters in plant aerial part of spring maize; among all of the treatments, the combined application of chemical fertilizer and pig manure composting (chemical N fertilizer account for 90% and organic N fertilizer account for l0%) had the best effect.%采用田间小区试验,研究了猪粪型有机肥配施无机肥对春玉米地土壤养分含量和春玉米产量的影响.结果表明:与等养分含量的无机肥相比,猪粪型有机肥配施无机肥可以提高春玉米生长期土壤速效氮、速效磷的含量,但对速效K含量影响不明显;猪粪型有机肥可以提高春玉米百粒重、产量和植株地上部干物质量.其中以化肥和猪粪堆肥配合施用(化肥N占90%,有机肥N占10%)处理效果最好.

  3. Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.

    2003-07-01

    The efficient recovery of energy and improvements in the handling of nutrients from manure have attracted increased research focus during recent decades. Anaerobic digestion is a key process in any strategy for the recovery of energy, while slurry separation is an important component in an improved nutrient-handling strategy. This thesis is divided into two parts: the first deals mainly with nutrient recovery strategies and the second examines biological degradation processes, including controlled anaerobic digestion. (au)

  4. Produção de matéria seca de forragem e acúmulo de nutrientes em pastagem anual de inverno tratada com esterco líquido de suínos Forage dry matter production and nutrient uptake of a hibernal pasture under application of pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Mari Assmann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O Esterco líquido de suínos (ELS pode ser usado como fertilizante orgânico, mas seu uso incorreto pode contaminar o solo e os mananciais de água. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de nutrientes ao solo, através do ELS, sobre a produção de matéria seca (MS e o acúmulo de nutrientes de uma pastagem de aveia branca+azevém (Avena sativa + Lolium multiflorum. Um experimento foi realizado de 2004 a 2006, no campo experimental da UTFPR, em Pato Branco, Paraná, Brasil. O solo era um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico. Diferentes doses (0, 20, 40, 80 e 120m³ ha-1 de ELS foram aplicadas na pastagem, aos 20 e 61 dias após a emergência (DAE da pastagem, em 2004, e aos 30 e 67DAE, em 2005. Outras duas aplicações foram realizadas nas culturas de verão, milho em 2004 e soja em 2005, respectivamente. A maior produção de MS foi obtida com a dose de 120m³ ha-1 de ELS, tanto no primeiro, quanto no segundo ano. A absorção de nutrientes pelas plantas respondeu de forma linear à aplicação de esterco líquido de suínos.The pig slurry can be used as an organic fertilizer but its improper use can contaminate water and soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of nutrient addition to the soil on pasture oat + ryegrass (Avena sativa + Lolium multiflorum dry matter production and nutrient uptake. One experiment was carried out from 2004 to 2006, installed in the experimental farm of UTFPR in Pato Branco, Paraná State, Brazil. The soil was an Oxisol (Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, Brazil systems. Different rates (0, 20, 40, 80 and 120m³ ha-1 of pig slurry were applied in the pasture. The pig slurry applications were performed 20 and 61 days after emergence (DAE of pasture, in 2004, and 30 and 67DAE of pasture in 2005. Another two applications were performed in summer crops, corn in 2004 and soybean in 2005. In both years the rate 120m³ ha-1 of pig slurry resulted in the highest dry matter production

  5. Mesophilic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERAL

    In this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).
    For this purpose were researched:
    1. Anaerobic digestion

  6. Effects of Water Extraction Ratio of Pig Manure and Its Compost on Seed Germinative Indicators%猪粪及其堆肥不同水浸提比对种子发芽特性指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王定美; 武丹; 李季; 张陇利

    2011-01-01

    以猪粪及其堆肥为供试样品,在水浸提比(W/V)1:10、1:20、1:30、1:40、1:50、1:60的条件下,采用浸提液室内培养法,研究不同水浸提比对黄瓜、樱桃萝卜及大白菜种子发芽特性指标(相对发芽率、相对根长、发芽指数)的影响.结果表明,黄瓜种子的相对发芽率在不同水浸提比下均大于80%;其他种子发芽特性指标随水含量的增多,均经历了明显的增大趋势.同一种子,相对根长受水浸提比的影响比相对发芽率显著,发芽指数与相对根长随水浸提比的变化规律一致.新鲜猪粪经堆肥处理对种子的植物毒性减轻,大白菜种子对猪粪及其堆肥的植物毒性较黄瓜种子与樱桃萝卜种子敏感.%Seed germination test is one of common methods to evaluate compost maturity for further land application.In this paper, we studied the effect of pig manure and its compost on seed germinative indicators of different vegetable seeds(cucumber, cherry radish and Chinese cabbage) at a series of water extractive ratios( 1:10, 1:20, 1:30, 1:40, 1:50, 1:60, W/V).The results showed that the seed germinative indicators experienced a rapid increasing stage during the water extractive ratios of 1:10~1:60.However, the relative germination percentage of cucumber seeds, more than 80% at all experiments, was slightly affected by the water extractive ratios.The changes of germination index with water extractive ratios were in agreement with that of relative root elongation, meanwhile the relative seed germination was less obviously affected by water extractive ratios than relative root elongation.By comparison, the composting of pig manure could reduce its phytotoxicity, and Chinese cabbage was most sensitive to phytotoxicity.

  7. The Orthogonal Optimization Experimental Study of Mixed Aerobic Composting Using Sludge/Pig Manure with PAAS%污泥/猪粪添加PAAS混合好氧堆肥的正交优化试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文卿; 孔飞; 林继辉; 卓倩; 许丽洪; 戴玉梅

    2016-01-01

    This paper applies the own-designed hal f static forced ventilation composting reactor to study the optimal technological parameter of the mixed aerobic composting by sludge/pig manure with PAAS. The result of orthogonal optimization composting experiment L8(41 × 23) showed that the quantity of PAAS makes the most obvious difference before and after composting volatile content; carbon nitrogen ratio makes a marked difference; forced draft and turning frequency also makes some differences. And this technological parameters of the orthogonal experiment's mixed aerobic composting using sludge/pig manure with PAAS are that the adding rate of PAAS is 2.0%; the turning frequency is once every two days; the forced draft frequency is twice every day;the initial carbon nitrogen ratio is 20.%利用自行设计的半静态强制通风堆肥反应器,探讨利用该反应器进行污泥/猪粪添加聚丙烯酸钠(PAAS)混合好氧堆肥的最优工艺参数。正交优化堆肥实验L8(41×23)结果表明:PAAS量对堆肥前后可挥发性固体含量影响最为显著,碳氮比对堆肥前后可挥发性固体含量影响较为显著,鼓风频率和翻堆频率对堆肥过程可挥发性固体含量都有一定影响,此次正交试验的污泥/猪粪添加PAAS混合好氧堆肥优选工艺参数组合为:PAAS添加比例为2.0%、翻堆频率为每2 d翻堆1次、鼓风频率为2次/d、初始ρ(C)/ρ(N)为20。

  8. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF ANIMAL MANURE – IMPLICATIONS FOR CROP YIELDS AND SOIL BIOTA IN ORGANIC FARMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun; Riely, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of farmyard manures may help farmers to produce bioenergy instead of using fossil fuels, support cycling of nutrients and reduce greenhouse gas emission. However, compared to pristine slurry, digested slurry has a reduced content of organic carbon which may impact the soil biota...... organic matter levels over the first 2 years. Application of high levels of manure increased the mortality of both surface-dwelling and soil-living earthworms just after application, but the long-term effect of manure application seemed more positive, especially at low application levels. Springtails...

  9. Emissão de óxido nitroso com a aplicação de dejetos líquidos de suínos em solo sob plantio direto Nitrous oxide emissions following pig slurry application in soil under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro José Giacomini

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar as emissões de óxido nitroso (N2O para a atmosfera depois da aplicação de dejetos líquidos de suínos, em plantio direto (PD e preparo reduzido (PR do solo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados com cinco repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram na aplicação (40 m³ ha-1, ou não, de dejetos líquidos em PD e PR. As emissões de N2O foram medidas in situ depois da aplicação dos dejetos, por 28 dias. Os fluxos de N2O aumentaram com a aplicação dos dejetos e, em apenas 20% das avaliações realizadas, foram superiores no PD. As emissões de N2O relacionaram-se com o aumento do espaço poroso ocupado pela água. Quantidades acumuladas de N na forma de N2O, emitidas em 28 dias, representaram 0,20 e 0,25% do N total aplicado com os dejetos no PD e PR, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstram que a aplicação de dejetos líquidos de suínos em PD não aumenta a emissão acumulada de N2O em relação à aplicação em PR.The objective of this work was to compare nitrous oxide (N2O emissions to the atmosphere with pig slurry application on soil under no-tillage (NT and minimum tillage (MT. The experimental design was set as a completely randomized design with five replications. The treatments consisted of the application (40 m³ ha-1, or not, of pig slurry in NT and MT. The N2O emissions were measured in situ, after the slurry application, for 28 days. The N2O flux increased with the application of slurry and, only in 20% of the evaluations, they were greater in NT. Nitrous oxide emissions were related to the increase of the water-filled pore space. Amounts of N-N2O emitted in 28 days represented 0.20 and 0.25% of total N applied with slurry for NT and MT, respectively. Results work show that pig slurry application in NT does not increase the accumulated N2O emission in relation to application in MT.

  10. Resistência a antimicrobianos de Escherichia coli isolada de dejetos suínos em esterqueiras Antibiotic-resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from stored pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F.P. Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial resistance of 96 Escherichia coli strains isolated from a stabilization pond system on a pig-breeding farm was evaluated. Strains were tested for their resistance against 14 antimicrobial using the agar diffusion method. E. coli strains showed resistance to tetracycline (82.3%, nalidixic acid (64%, ampicilin (41%, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprin (36%, sulfonamide (34%, cloranphenicol (274%, ciprofloxacin (19%, cefaclor (16%, streptomicyn (7.3%, neomicyn (1%, amoxacilin/ clavulanic acid (1%, and amikacin (1%. No resistance was observed to gentamicin and tobramycin, and 37.5% of E. coli strains were resistant to four or more antimicrobials. The multiresistance pattern was found in strains isolated during all sampled period. Strains showed a high variability in the antimicrobial resistance pattern.

  11. Continuous Dry Fermentation of Pig Manure Using Up Plug-Flow Type Anaerobic Reactor%上推流厌氧反应器连续干发酵猪粪产沼气试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈闯; 邓良伟; 信欣; 郑丹; 刘刈; 孔垂雪

    2012-01-01

    为解决猪粪连续干发酵存在的氨抑制和出料难等难题,在温度(25±2)℃、有机负荷为干物质(TS)4.44 g.(L.d)-1的条件下,采用上推流式厌氧反应器(UPAR)对猪粪进行连续干式发酵试验,研究了猪粪干发酵过程的产气情况、氨抑制现象和出料流动性,并考察了上推流厌氧反应器进行猪粪干发酵的可行性.试验采用4种不同TS质量分数(20%、25%、30%、35%)的猪粪作为原料,经160 d的运行.结果表明,进料TS质量分数对发酵过程有很大的影响,4种不同进料TS质量分数稳定的池容产气率分别为2.40、1.73、0.89、0.62 L.(L.d)-1,进料TS质量分数为20%、25%和30%的产气效率明显优于进料TS=35%的产气效率.随着进料TS质量分数从20%增加到35%,氨氮质量浓度〉2 300 mg.L-1会出现明显的产气抑制.在进料TS=35%时,氨氮质量浓度能达到3 800 mg.L-1,产气速率相对于进料TS=20%递减74.1%.当进料TS达到35%、出料TS质量分数达到17.1%、流速〈0.002 m.s-1时,UPAR不能顺利出料.%To solve the problems of ammonia inhibition and discharging difficulty in continuous dry fermentation of pig manure,under the experimental conditions of temperature of(25±2)℃ and organic loading rate(TS) of 4.44 g·(L·d)-1,a lab-scale up plug-flow type anaerobic reactor(UPAR) was setup to investigate biogas production,ammonia inhibition,effluent liquidity,and the feasibility of continuous dry fermentation of pig manure using up plug-flow type anaerobic reactor.The experiment was operated for 160 days using the pig manure with four different TS mass fractions(20%,25%,30%,35%) as feeding.Results showed that the feeding TS mass fraction exerted a significant influence on the dry fermentation of pig manure;the stable volumetric biogas production rates of four different feeding TS mass fractions were 2.40,1.73,0.89,and 0.62 L·(L·d)-1,respectively;the biogas producing efficiencies of

  12. Intensive Ammonia and Methane Oxidation in Organic Liquid Manure Crusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Daniel Aagren; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    of the crusts. PCR targeting the unique methane and ammonia monooxygenases were applied together with FISH to detect the presence of the two bacterial groups. Potential activity was assessed by short term slurry incubations of crust samples while monitoring NO2- production or CH4 consumption. Crusts were......Intensive agricultural practice leads to periodic accumulation of enormous amounts of liquid manure (slurry) from animal husbandry, and large quantities of environmentally hazardous ammonia and methane are emitted from the manure storages. Floating surface crusts have been suggested to harbour...... methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and are known to accumulate nitrite and nitrate, indicating the presence of ammonia oxidizers (AOB). We have surveyed six manure tanks with organic covers to investigate the prevalence of MOB and AOB and to link the potential activity with physical and chemical aspects...

  13. Technical Protocol. Transformation of biocides in liquid manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzig, Robert; Schlag, Patrick; Teigeler, Jennifer; Hartmann, Constanze; Cvetkovi, Benjamin [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik

    2010-07-15

    The Reference Manure Concept, already developed for laboratory tests on fate and behavior of veterinary medicinal products in liquid manures and manured soils, was successfully applied for biocides used for disinfection purposes and control of insects in animal houses. Since the representative and reproducible sampling of manures from high-volume tanks has been considered impossible, excrement samples of cattle and pigs individually kept at an experimental animal house were taken. These samples were thoroughly matrix characterized. Then, tap water was added to prepare reference manures of definite dry substance contents. Subsequently, the long-term transformation of the biocides imazalil and cyanamide applied as {sup 14}C-labeled radiotracers was investigated in these manure samples. On the basis of the transformation tests, test manures with 7-day aged biocide residues were prepared and applied in laboratory tests on transformation and sorption in manured soil. By means of this experimental approach, the impacts of aging processes during manure storage and of the manure matrix on the fate of biocides in soils can be assessed already under laboratory conditions. These laboratory tests have been directed as closely as possible to agricultural practice as well as to analytical practicability and quality assurance. Finally, the methodological aspects have been compiled in a Technical Protocol (Draft version). (orig.)

  14. Process performance and comparative metagenomic analysis during co-digestion of manure and lignocellulosic biomass for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Treu, Laura

    2017-01-01

    -digestion of the silages with pig manure in continuously fed biogas reactors was examined. Metagenomic analysis for determining the microbial communities in the pig manure digestion system was performed by analysing unassembled shotgun genomic sequences. A comparative analysis allowed to identify the microbial species...

  15. Nitrificação do nitrogênio amoniacal de dejetos líquidos de suínos em solo sob sistema de plantio direto Nitrification of ammoniacal nitrogen from pig slurry in soil under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Aita

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a taxa de nitrificação do N amoniacal dos dejetos líquidos de suínos, aplicados ao solo em sistema de plantio direto. O experimento foi realizado durante três anos agrícolas, em um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. As parcelas principais foram compostas por dois sistemas de cultura (aveia preta/milho e pousio/milho e as subparcelas, por doses de dejetos (0, 40 e 80 m³ ha-1 por ano. A nitrificação foi estimada a partir da determinação dos teores de N mineral em diferentes camadas do solo, em diversas épocas, após a aplicação dos dejetos. Na média dos três anos, a taxa líquida de nitrificação no sistema aveia/milho atingiu 4,8 kg ha-1 dia-1 de N na forma de nitrato e superou aquela do sistema pousio/milho em 43%. A aplicação dos dejetos na dose 80 m³ ha-1 resultou em uma taxa de nitrificação superior à verificada na dose de 40 m³ ha-1 em 188%. O N amoniacal dos dejetos líquidos de suínos é rapidamente nitrificado no solo em plantio direto e completamente oxidado a N nítrico entre 15 e 20 dias após a aplicação dos dejetos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the nitrification rate in no-tillaged soil treated with pig slurry. The experiment was carried out during three years in an Arenic Hapludult soil, in a complete randomized block design, with split plots and three replications. The main plots were composed of two crop systems (black oat/maize and fallow/maize and the split plots were composed of three rates of pig slurry (0, 40 and 80 m³ ha-1. The nitrification was evaluated based on concentrations of mineral N, in different soil layers, in several periods after pig slurry application. On the average of the three years, the nitrification rate in the black oat/maize system reached 4.8 kg ha-1 of NO3--N per day, overcoming that of the fallow/maize system in 43

  16. Odor from pig production: its relation to diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinh Phung, Le P.D.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords.Odor, Pigs, Diet, Manure, Protein, Amino Acids, Fermentable carbohydratesOdor from pig manure creates a serious nuisance for people li

  17. Three-phase foam analysis and development of a lab-scale foaming capacity and stability test for swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foam accumulation on the manure slurry at deep pit swine facilities has been linked to flash fire incidents, making it a serious safety concern for pork producers. In order to investigate this phenomenon, samples of swine manure were collected from over 50 swine production facilities in Iowa with va...

  18. Environmental consequences of processing manure to produce mineral fertilizer and bio-energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, J W; Groenestein, C M; De Boer, I J M

    2012-07-15

    Liquid animal manure and its management contributes to environmental problems such as, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication. To address these environmental issues and their related costs manure processing technologies were developed. The objective here was to assess the environmental consequences of a new manure processing technology that separates manure into a solid and liquid fraction and de-waters the liquid fraction by means of reverse osmosis. This results in a liquid mineral concentrate used as mineral nitrogen and potassium fertilizer and a solid fraction used for bio-energy production or as phosphorus fertilizer. Five environmental impact categories were quantified using life cycle assessment: climate change (CC), terrestrial acidification (TA), marine eutrophication (ME), particulate matter formation (PMF), and fossil fuel depletion (FFD). For pig as well as dairy cattle manure, we compared a scenario with the processing method and a scenario with additional anaerobic digestion of the solid fraction to a reference situation applying only liquid manure. Comparisons were based on a functional unit of 1 ton liquid manure. System boundaries were set from the manure storage under the animal house to the field application of all end products. Scenarios with only manure processing increased the environmental impact for most impact categories compared to the reference: ME did not change, whereas, TA and PMF increased up to 44% as a result of NH3 and NO(x) emissions from processing and storage of solid fraction. Including digestion reduced CC by 117% for pig manure and 104% for dairy cattle manure, mainly because of substituted electricity and avoided N2O emission from storage of solid fraction. FFD decreased by 59% for pig manure and increased 19% for dairy cattle manure. TA and PMF remained higher compared to the reference. Sensitivity analysis showed that CH4 emission from manure storage, NH3 emission from processing, and the replaced nitrogen

  19. Interactions between Soil Texture and Placement of Dairy Slurry Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2011-01-01

    Managing phosphorus (P) losses in soil leachate following land application of manure is key to curbing eutrophication in many regions. We compared P leaching from columns of variably textured, intact soils (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) subjected to surface application or injection of dairy cattle (Bos...... retention of particulate P and dissolved organic P, caused by placing slurry away from active flow paths in the fine-textured soil columns, as well as to chemical retention of dissolved inorganic P, caused by better contact between slurry P and soil adsorption sites. Dissolved organic P was less retained...

  20. Commercial Manure Applicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This layer represents the office location for Commercial Manure Services (CMS). They transport, handle, store or apply manure for a fee. The company must be licensed...

  1. Side-band injection of acidified cattle slurry as starter P-fertilization for maize seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Lemming, Camilla; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    that the use of the additional mineral P could be excluded by increased availability of the P applied by animal manures. In a growth chamber experiment we investigated the effect of acidified slurry on the growth and nutrient uptake in maize seedlings. In special designed pot the slurries and mineral reference...... treatments were banded next to the seed row. Plants were harvested on nine dates with 4-6 days interval and an exponential growth function was fitted to the recordings. The P-uptake from acidified cattle slurry was clearly increased compared to raw slurry, and comparable to the mineral P-reference treatment......Accumulation of phosphorus (P) in agricultural soils has caused increasing environmental concerns. Maize cropped for fodder implies return of animal manures rich in nutrients. In addition, starter fertilization with mineral P is used in cold conditions for maize cropping. It was hypothesized...

  2. Side-band injection of acidified cattle slurry as starter P-fertilization for maize seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Lemming, Camilla; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    Accumulation of phosphorus (P) in agricultural soils has caused increasing environmental concerns. Maize cropped for fodder implies return of animal manures rich in nutrients. In addition, starter fertilization with mineral P is used in cold conditions for maize cropping. It was hypothesized...... that the use of the additional mineral P could be excluded by increased availability of the P applied by animal manures. In a growth chamber experiment we investigated the effect of acidified slurry on the growth and nutrient uptake in maize seedlings. In special designed pot the slurries and mineral reference...

  3. Survival and leaching of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicators from manure in field scale experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Tina; Amin, Mostofa; Lægdsmand, Mette

    The spreading of manure on agricultural land is an economic and practical solution for improving soil quality; however, animal manure frequently contains zoonotic pathogenic bacteria, such as certain Eschericia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. The present experiment was conducted...... as a large multidisciplinary project. Pig manure with a natural content of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicator organisms was followed in soil columns and a field scale experiment. In the field experiment pig manure was injected into agricultural soil. The distribution and survival of natural...... resistant bacterial species is E. coli. Drainage water from the field sites were collected weekly from one year prior to manure application, where no Tetracycline resistant bacteria were detected. For a period of 11 months following the first manure application, drainage water was sampled proportional...

  4. The effect of manure management regulations on competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2003-01-01

    Significant differences in the competitiveness of pig production along with growing international competition in the pigmeat market have raised concerns about the cost impact of environmental regulations on producers, particularly those regarding the management of manure. There appears to be a U......-shaped relationship between farm size and the costs imposed by manure management regulations. This results from the additional application and transport costs for large-scale producers, and the lack of scale advantages for smaller farms in meeting regulations. Costs imposed on producers by manure management...

  5. 猪粪好氧堆肥过程有机质降解和热量平衡模型%Modeling of Organic Matter Degradation and Thermal Balance during Pig Slurry Aerobic Composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永江; 黄光群; 韩鲁佳

    2011-01-01

    Modeling of organic matter degradation and thermal balance were built based on the first order assumption with respect to the quantity of biodegradable volatile solid ( BVS) and the law of thermal conservation during composting. Different kinds of organic matter were mainly degraded in different composting stages. For the organic matter degradation model,temperature,moisture content,oxygen content and free air space were considered as key influence factors to degeneration rate. For the model of thermal balance,forced convention and conduction were considered as the main heat removal form. In order to verify the constructed models,an aerobic composting process of pig slurry was conducted. Temperature,oxygen content,moisture content and organic matter concentration were all monitored in the process of composting. The results could be helpful for guiding composting process operation.%依据有机质降解一级动力学方程和系统热量平衡方程,充分考虑猪粪好氧堆肥有机质降解的梯次性对数学建模的影响,建立了反应器好氧堆肥过程有机质降解Monod模型和热量平衡模型.有机质降解Monod模型考虑了温度、含水率、氧体积分数和自由空域4种因素对降解系数的影响,其中温度作为最主要影响因素;热量平衡模型中主要考虑了对流、传导的热量传递方式.利用实验室好氧堆肥反应器进行的模型验证试验结果表明:堆肥试验实测值与模型模拟值表现出较好的一致性,有机质降解的实测值与模型模拟值的相对标准误差为13.02%,温度变化的实测值与模型模拟值的相对标准误差为9.9%.

  6. 猪粪麦秸反应器好氧堆肥水分平衡模型研究%Modeling of Moisture Balance during Pig Slurry Reactor Composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永江; 黄光群; 韩鲁佳

    2012-01-01

    分别建立了基于质量守恒方程和水分蒸发一级动力学方程的猪粪麦秸好氧堆肥水分平衡模型.水分平衡质量守恒模型考虑进口气体水分含量、出口气体携水量和堆肥微生物产水量对水分质量平衡的影响,并将堆肥过程有机质降解的梯次性作为影响生物产水量的重要因素.水分蒸发一级动力学模型考虑堆体自身含水率和通风速率对水分蒸发速率的影响,且堆体自身含水率在堆肥过程中呈动态变化.实验室好氧堆肥反应器验证试验结果表明,2种水分平衡模型的模拟结果与实际测量结果一致性良好,水分平衡质量守恒模型水分含量变化的实际结果与模拟结果的相对标准偏差为8.01%,水分蒸发一级动力学模型水分含量变化的实际结果与模拟结果的相对标准偏差为8.86%.%Simulation models regarding moisture content were developed respectively by law of conversation of mass and first order assumption with respect to the quality of moisture content. Approaches by law of conversation of mass to moisture content prediction was based on an analysis of biologically produced water, exit gas content and inlet air content, with the biological water estimated from yield factors based on biodegradable volatile solid degradation. The other approach to moisture content prediction based on first order moisture evaporation kinetics was developed by an analysis of composting pile moisture content and aeration rate. An aerobic composting process of pig slurry and wheat straw was conducted in order to verify the models constructed. The experimental results showed that modeling results gave good accuracy, and the relative standard error of law of conservation of mass model and first order assumption model were respectively 8. 01% and 8. 86% .

  7. Biogas production from llama and cow manure at high altitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Rene; Villca, Saul [IIDEPROQ, UMSA, Plaza del Obelisco 1175, La Paz (Bolivia); Liden, Gunnar [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    Methane production from llama and cow manures from the Bolivian high plateau (The 'Altiplano') was studied using a parallel reactor set-up consisting of 10 lab-scale biogasifiers. The effects of pressure (495 and 760mmHg), temperature (11 and 35 deg C), hydraulic retention time (20 and 50 days), and manure content in the slurry (10%, 20% and 50%) were evaluated with respect to productivity and methane yields based on two {sup 4-1} fractional factorial designs with 8 treatments for each kind of manure. The reactors were operated semi-continuously with daily manure feeding for periods between 50 and 100 days. Temperature was the main factor effect found, and the hydraulic retention time and the manure content in feed were also found significant whereas the effect of pressure was not significant in the range studied. The methane yield obtained with cow manure at 11 deg C was between 6.4 and 33.61 CH{sub 4} kg{sup -1} VS (volatile solids added) whereas at 35 deg C the methane yield was between 49.6 and 131.31 CH{sub 4} kg{sup -1} VS. The methane yield from llama manure was somewhat lower than for cow manure (between 3.3 and 19.31 CH{sub 4} kg{sup -1} VS at 11 deg C and between 35.6 and 84.11 CH{sub 4} kg{sup -1} VS at 35 deg C, respectively). However, overall llama manure was found to be the best raw material of the two for biogas production, due to its high content of volatile solid - higher than has been previously reported for most manures - and also its high nitrogen and phosphorous content. (author)

  8. Soil enzyme activities under pig slurry addition and different tillage systems=Atividade enzimática sob solo submetido à adição de dejetos líquidos de suínos em diferentes preparos do solo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Viviane Truber

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the changes in soil enzyme activities due to application of pig slurry under different soil tillage systems. The experiment was conducted in a clayey Oxisol in Palotina, PR, using different quantities of pig slurry (0, 30, 60 and 120 m3 ha-1 year-1 applied to the soil prior to the summer and winter crop season under conventional tillage (CT and no tillage (NT, with three replicates. The areas were cultivated with soybean (Glycine max L. and maize (Zea mays L. in the summers of 1998 and 1999, respectively, and with wheat (Triticum sativum Lam. in the winters of both years. The soil samples were collected in March and October of 1998 and 1999 at depths of 0-5 , 5-10 and 10-20 cm. The pig slurry application and the soil tillage systems influenced enzyme activities in the soil. The increase of pig slurry application decreased the ratio of soil enzyme activities to microbial biomass carbon. The phosphatase activity had a negative relationship with soil-available phosphorus. The acid phosphatase activity decreased both under CT and NT systems at all depth studied due to pig slurry application.No presente estudo foi avaliado as alterações na atividade de enzimas do solo devido à aplicação de doses crescentes de dejetos líquidos de suínos (DLS em diferentes sistemas de preparos de solo. O experimento foi conduzido em um Latossolo Vermelho eutrófico textura argilosa em Palotina, PR. Foi estudada a aplicação de diferentes doses de DLS (0, 30, 60 e 120 m3 ha-1 ano-1 em sistema de preparo do solo convencional (PC e sistema de plantio direto (PD, em três repetições. As dosagens de DLS foram subdivididas, metade aplicada antes do preparo do solo da cultura de verão (soja em 1998 ou milho em 1999 e a outra metade antes do preparo do solo da cultura de inverno (trigo. As amostras de solos foram coletadas em março e outubro de 1998 e 1999 nas profundidades de 0-5, 5-10 e 10-20 cm. O preparo do solo e as

  9. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF ANIMAL MANURE – IMPLICATIONS FOR CROP YIELDS AND SOIL BIOTA IN ORGANIC FARMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun; Riely, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of farmyard manures may help farmers to produce bioenergy instead of using fossil fuels, support cycling of nutrients and reduce greenhouse gas emission. However, compared to pristine slurry, digested slurry has a reduced content of organic carbon which may impact the soil biota...... negatively due to substrate shortage. Our knowledge on these processes and their influence on soil quality is scarce. Hence, a field experiment with two organic cropping systems (grass-clover ley and arable system; at two slurry-application levels) was established in 2011, to study how application...... of digestates affects crop yields, soil characteristics and soil biota (earthworms, springtails, microbiota). The grass-clover system showed comparable yield levels over 3 years when digested slurry was compared to untreated slurry. Digested slurries had no influence on soil nutrient concentrations or on soil...

  10. Distribution of phosphorus in an Ultisol fertilized with recovered manure phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus (P) can be recovered in concentrated form from livestock manure and poultry litter. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the the short-term leaching potential and plant availability of P from recovered P materials from liquid pig manure (SRP) and broiler litter (LRP) in a characte...

  11. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffeld, M; Wang, M J; Goldstein, V; Kasza, K E

    2010-12-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology.

  12. Fate of steroid hormones and endocrine activities in swine manure disposal and treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combalbert, Sarah; Bellet, Virginie; Dabert, Patrick; Bernet, Nicolas; Balaguer, Patrick; Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina

    2012-03-01

    Manure may contain high concern endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) such as steroid hormones, naturally produced by pigs, which are present at μgL(-1) levels. Manure may also contain other EDCs such as nonylphenols (NP), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins. Thus, once manure is applied to the land as soil fertilizer these compounds may reach aquifers and consequently living organisms, inducing abnormal endocrine responses. In France, manure is generally stored in anaerobic tanks prior spreading on land; when nitrogen removal is requested, manure is treated by aerobic processes before spreading. However, little is known about the fate of hormones and multiple endocrine-disrupting activities in such manure disposal and treatment systems. Here, we determined the fate of hormones and diverse endocrine activities during manure storage and treatment by combining chemical analysis and in vitro quantification of estrogen (ER), aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), androgen (AR), pregnane-X (PXR) and peroxysome proliferator-activated γ (PPARγ) receptor-mediated activities. Our results show that manure contains large quantities of hormones and activates ER and AhR, two of the nuclear receptors studied. Most of these endocrine activities were found in the solid fraction of manure and appeared to be induced mainly by hormones and other unidentified pollutants. Hormones, ER and AhR activities found in manure were poorly removed during manure storage but were efficiently removed by aerobic treatment of manure.

  13. 蘑菇废弃菌棒及其与猪粪混合发酵对沼气产量及质量的影响%Influence of Anaerobic Co-digestion of Mushroom Cultivation Wastes and Pig Manure on the Biogas Production and Its Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓媛方; 邱凌; 孙全平; 井良霄; Hassanein A.AM

    2012-01-01

    为了研究厌氧消化过程中日产气量、累计产气量和甲烷含量随厌氧消化时间的变化规律,在中温35℃±1℃条件下,采用批式单相厌氧消化工艺,分别用香菇、杏鲍菇和平菇废弃菌棒与猪粪混合发酵.结果表明,蘑菇菌棒具有很好的产气潜力,其中香菇菌棒TS产气量最高,为142.9 mL·g-1,平均产气量664.1 mL·d-1,杏鲍菇菌棒所产气体甲烷含量最高,平均63.8%;添加猪粪调节蘑菇菌棒C/N至25/1,对香菇菌棒前期严重酸化现象起到了很好的缓冲作用,使香菇菌棒、杏鲍菇菌棒和平菇菌棒累计产气量较单一物料分别提高了131.5%、97.9%和79.9%.研究结论为:香菇、杏鲍菇和平菇废弃菌棒均具有良好的产气潜力;添加猪粪能显著提高蘑菇菌棒累计产气量,同时提高香菇菌棒甲烷含量,降低杏鲍菇菌棒甲烷含量,对平菇菌棒甲烷含量影响不大.%In this research, the variations with time of daily biogas production, cumulative gas production and the fraction volume of methane during the anaerobic digestion have been investigated. The anaerobic batch digestion experiments were carried out at mesophilic condition 35 °C±l°C with three different kinds of mushrooms cultivation wastes alone, and mixed feedstock of mushroom cultivation waste and pig manure, separately. The results showed that the TS gas production rate of Shiitake cultivation waste had the highest production of 142. 9 mL·g-1, with daily biogas production of 664.1 mL. Plelmtus eqngiu cultivation waste had the highest CH4 content, the averages methane content was 63.8%; Mixing the mushrooms cultivation wastes with pig manure and adjusting the C/N to 25/1, the acidification phenomenon in the early stage of Shiitake cultivation waste had been well improved. Compared with the single mushroom cultivation wastes, the cumulative gas production of Shiitake cultivation waste, Plelmtus eqngiu cultivation waste and oyster mushroom

  14. Environmental Consequences of Future Biogas Technologies based on Separated Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involvi...

  15. Simulation and validation of the evaporation of water from liquid manure using ventilation exhaust air: linking of two simulation models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van A.V.; Vranken, E.; Berckmans, D.

    2003-01-01

    The pig production needs to be modified into a sustainable system. Handling of the manure and reducing emissions have to be taken into account in the design of pig facilities, so the called integrated pig facilities are being developed in which the energy in the exhaust air can be used to evaporate

  16. Environmental Consequences of Future Biogas Technologies based on Separated Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    the volatile solids in the solid fraction. The biogas scenario involving the most efficient separation technology resulted in a dry matter separation efficiency of 87% and allowed a net reduction of the global warming potential of 40%, compared to the reference slurry management. This figure comprises......This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involving...... different slurry separation technologies have been assessed and compared to a business-as-usual reference slurry management scenario. The results show that the environmental benefits of such biogas production are highly dependent upon the efficiency of the separation technology used to concentrate...

  17. Formas de perdas de cobre e fósforo em água de escoamento superficial e percolação em solo sob aplicações sucessivas de dejeto líquido de suínos Forms of losses of copper and phosphorus in water of runoff and percolation in soil with successive pig slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Girotto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As aplicações sucessivas de dejeto líquido de suínos podem aumentar os teores de cobre e fósforo na camada superficial do solo, aumentando as perdas de suas formas por escoamento superficial e percolação. O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar as perdas e as formas de cobre e de fósforo na solução escoada, na superfície e percolada em solo submetido a aplicações sucessivas de dejeto líquido de suínos, em sistema plantio direto. O experimento utilizado neste estudo foi instalado no ano de 2000, sobre um solo Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico. Os tratamentos foram aplicações sucessivas de 0, 40 e 80m³ ha-1 de dejeto líquido de suínos a lanço e na superfície do solo, em sistema plantio direto. Para este trabalho, foram coletadas soluções escoadas e percoladas, durante o ciclo da aveia preta (Avena strigosa, no inverno de 2006, quando o solo apresentava um histórico de 16 aplicações de dejeto. Nas soluções, foi quantificado o sedimento e determinados os teores de Cu, P, cátions e ânions, pH, carbono orgânico dissolvido (COD e condutividade elétrica (CE. Usando o programa Visual MINTEQ, versão 2.15, se realizou a especiação iônica de Cu e P nas soluções. As maiores perdas de cobre e fósforo do solo ocorrem por escoamento superficial, em áreas submetidas a aplicações sucessivas de dejeto líquido de suínos em sistema plantio direto. O potencial contaminante desses elementos ficou evidenciado pela presença do cobre na forma predominante orgânica (CuCOD e do fósforo nas formas livres (HPO4(2- e H2PO4-, na solução escoada.Successive pig slurry application can increase the copper and phosphorus levels in the soil and the losses of these elements by surface runoff and percolation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the losses and the forms of both copper and phosphorus in the surface runoff and also in/on the percolation solution, on soils with successive pig slurry application under no tillage

  18. GHG emissions from slurry and digestates during storage and after field application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Nguyen, Quan Van; Petersen, Søren O.

    are determined in a pilot-scale study with digested materials from Maabjerg Bioenergy and Fredericia Wastewater Treatment Facility, using untreated cattle and pig slurry as reference. These and other results will be used to model the effect of temperature and pre-treatment on CH4 emissions. The composition...... slurry/digestates when incubated in soil under aerobic conditions. The experimental treatments included untreated pig slurry, sugarbeet root pulp, or pig slurry co-digested with 0%, 12.5%, 25% or 90% sugarbeet pulp. Proportions of VSd ranged from 25 to 67%. Methane emissions during storage...... of volatile solids (VS) is critical for predicting GHG emissions and the effect of biogas treatment. Volatile solids may be considered to have an easily degradable VS (VSd) and a slowly degradable VS (VSnd) fraction. A new approach to estimate VSd was investigated using the short-term evolution of CO2-C from...

  19. GHG emissions from slurry and digestates during storage and after field application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Nguyen, Quan Van; Petersen, Søren O.;

    , but environmental impacts, such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, during storage and after field application should take into account. Mainly, methane (CH4) is produced during storage and nitrous oxide (N2O) after field application. Currently, direct (CH4, N2O) and indirect (NH3) GHG emissions during storage...... are determined in a pilot-scale study with digested materials from Maabjerg Bioenergy and Fredericia Wastewater Treatment Facility, using untreated cattle and pig slurry as reference. These and other results will be used to model the effect of temperature and pre-treatment on CH4 emissions. The composition...... slurry/digestates when incubated in soil under aerobic conditions. The experimental treatments included untreated pig slurry, sugarbeet root pulp, or pig slurry co-digested with 0%, 12.5%, 25% or 90% sugarbeet pulp. Proportions of VSd ranged from 25 to 67%. Methane emissions during storage...

  20. Chemical attributes of a Hapludox soil after nine years of pig slurry application Atributos químicos de um Latossolo Vermelho após nove anos de aplicação de dejeto líquido de suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton da Veiga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the pig slurry application effects on chemical attributes of a Hapludox soil managed under no-tillage system. Treatments consisted of 50, 100 and 200 m³ ha-1 per year of pig slurry application, and a control with replacement of P and K exported through harvested grains. Attributes related to soil chemical reaction, exchange complex, and nutrient contents were determined in soil samples collected in the ninth year of experimentation from 0 - 0.025, 0.025 - 0.05, 0.05 - 0.10, 0.10 - 0.20, 0.20 - 0.40 and 0.40 - 0.60 m soil depths. The continuous application of high doses of pig slurry on the Oxisol surface under no-tillage acidifies the soil and increases Al, P, Cu, and Zn contents down to 0.2-m depth, and K levels down to 0.6-m depth.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de dejeto líquido de suínos sobre os atributos químicos de um Latossolo Vermelho, sob sistema de plantio direto. Os tratamentos consistiram da aplicação de 50, 100 e 200 m³ ha-1 por ano de dejeto líquido de suínos, e de um controle, com reposição das quantidades de P e K exportadas nos grãos colhidos. Os atributos relacionados à reação química do solo, ao complexo de troca do solo e aos teores de nutrientes foram determinados em amostras de solo coletadas no nono ano de experimentação, a 0 - 0,025 e 0,025 - 0,05; 0,05 - 0,10, 0,10 - 0,20, 0,20 - 0,40 e 0,40 - 0,60 m de profundidade do solo. A aplicação contínua de altas doses de dejeto líquido de suínos na superfície de Latossolo Vermelho em sistema plantio direto acidifica o solo e aumenta os teores de Al, P, Cu e Zn, a 0,20 m de profundidade, e os de K a 0,60 m de profundidade.

  1. 鸡粪与猪粪所含土霉素在土壤中降解的动态变化及原因分析%Dynamics of Degradation of Oxytetracycline of Pig and Chicken Manures in Soil and Mechanism Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 关连珠; 颜丽

    2012-01-01

    Simulated indoor incubation experiment was carried out to explore the degradation dynamics of oxytetracycline(OTC) from different manures and the mechanisms were investigated as well. The results suggested that manures accelerated OTC entering soil and degrading period,and resembled the L-type curves.Both degradation rate and degradation percentage were significantly different for different antibiotics with different concentration(P〈0.05). At day 180, the OTC degradation percentage of chicken feces was higher than that of pig feces, and the highest degradation percentage reached to 85.4% and 92.3% respectively. The half-lives of chicken and pig manures were 26.98 d, 31.32 d respectively. Degradation percentage was negatively correlated with the amount of manures used and positively correlated with incubation time (v=A+Blnt, r〉0.96). At day 50,the photo-degradation and micro-degradation accounted for 20.03% and 3.16% of total reduction. 25.05% decreased in photo degradation and 2.50% increased in microbiological degradation.It is indicated that the degradation effects to OTC from pig manures was superior to chicken manures, photo decomposing played an important role in the process of degradation and indigenous soil microorganisms only had a little effect on it. With the extension of incubation time, microbiological decomposing became better,but photo decomposing became weaker.%采用室内模拟培养实验,研究不同用量鸡粪与猪粪所含土霉素在土壤中降解的动态变化规律及消解途径.结果表明,畜禽粪便中土霉素在土壤中能迅速进入降解期,含量变化呈"L"型,但不同粪肥种类和用量处理的降解率和变化幅度有显著差异(P〈0.05).180 d时,鸡粪处理土壤中OTC的降解率高于猪粪处理,半衰期分别为26.98 d和31.32 d.低用量鸡粪和猪粪处理土壤中OTC降解率最大,对应分别可达84.06%和80.47%.降解率与畜禽粪便用量呈负相关,与时间呈正相

  2. Sustainable use of pig slurry, with and without treatment, as an amendment organic in almond crop; Utilizacion sostenible de purines de cerdo, con y sin tratamiento, como enmienda organica en cultivos de almendro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Oliver, S. G.; Faz Cano, A.

    2009-07-01

    This study consists in the use of different forms of slurry, as an organic fertilizer, on almond trees located in La Aljorra (Cartegena, Murcia). The slurry used comes from a farm near the area of study, which has a treatment system composed by tree parts: a phase separator, a bioreactor and 5 constructed wetlands of vertical flow. Different phases of slurry are obtained from each part of the system. The results show the reduction of most of the parameters lime salinity, BOD{sub 5} QOD, nitrate, etc. The use of these effluents as an organic amend in different doses, supposes a sustainable way of management of these residues; at the same time it improves the soil properties and the agronomic quality of the almond tree crop. (Author) 4 refs.

  3. Transformation of Swine Manure and Algal Consortia to Value-added Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharara, Mahmoud A.

    The swine production sector is projected to grow globally. In the past, this growth manifested itself in increased herd sizes and geographically concentrated production. Although economically sound, these trends had negative consequences on surrounding ecosystems. Over-application of manure resulted in water quality degradation, while long-term storage of manure slurries was found to promote release of potent GHG emissions. There is a need for innovative approaches for swine manure management that are compatible with current scales of production, and increasingly strict environmental regulations. This study aims to investigate the potential for incorporating gasification as part of a novel swine manure management system which utilizes liquid-solid separation and periphytic algal consortia as a phycoremediation vector for the liquid slurry. The gasification of swine manure solids, and algal biomass solids generate both a gaseous fuel product (producer gas) in addition to a biochar co-product. First, the decomposition kinetics for both feedstock, i.e., swine manure solids, and algal solids, were quantified using thermogravimetry at different heating rates (1 ~ 40°C min-1) under different atmospheres (nitrogen, and air). Pyrolysis kinetics were determined for manure solids from two farms with different manure management systems. Similarly, the pyrolysis kinetics were determined for phycoremediation algae grown on swine manure slurries. Modeling algal solids pyrolysis as first-order independent parallel reactions was sufficient to describe sample devolatilization. Combustion of swine manure solids blended with algal solids, at different ratios, showed no synergistic effects. Gasification of phycoremediation algal biomass was studied using a bench-scale auger gasification system at temperatures between 760 and 960°C. The temperature profile suggested a stratification of reaction zones common to fixed-bed reactors. The producer gas heating value ranged between 2.2 MJ m

  4. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2009-01-01

    left on the soil as mulch. Animal manure was applied as slurry to the cereal crops in the rotation in rates corresponding to 40% of the N demand of the cereal crops. Application of 50 kg NH4-N ha-' in manure increased average wheatgrain yield by 0.4-0.9 Mg DM ha-1, whereas the use of catch crops did...... not significantly affect yield. The use of catch crops interacts with other management factors, including row spacing and weed control, and this may have contributed to the negligible effects of catch crops. There was considerable variation in the amount of N (100-600 kg N ha-1 year-1) accumulated in the mulched...

  5. Rotary cup slurry atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, H. T.; Marnicio, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The theory of a two-phase flow in a rotating cup atomizer is described. The analysis considers the separation of the solid and liquid media thus realistically modeling the flow of two layers along the inner cup wall: a slurry of increasing solids concentration and a supernatent liquid layer. The analysis is based on the earlier work of Hinze and Milborn (1950) which addressed the flow within a rotary cup for a homogeneous liquid. The superimposition of a settling velocity under conditions of high centrifugal acceleration permits the extended analysis of the separation of the two phases. Appropriate boundary conditions have been applied to the film's free surface and the cup wall and to match the flow characteristics at the liquid-slurry interface. The changing slurry viscosity, increasing nonlinearly with growing solid loading, was also considered. A parameter study illustrates the potential for a cup design to provide optimal slurry and liquid film thicknesses for effective atomization.

  6. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  7. Empirical model for mineralisation of manure nitrogen in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Schröder, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    A simple empirical model was developed for estimation of net mineralisation of pig and cattle slurry nitrogen (N) in arable soils under cool and moist climate conditions during the initial 5 years after spring application. The model is based on a Danish 3-year field experiment with measurements...

  8. Why Danish pig farms have far more land and pigs than Dutch farms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Jaap; van Grinsven, H.J.M.; Jacobsen, Brian H

    2016-01-01

    for land, resulting in higher land prices, and stimulation of intensive animal husbandry in the Netherlands, while in Denmark environmental policies more strongly coupled manure production to land area. As a result the Dutch pig farmers have focused on intensification of livestock production on small...... holdings using external sources of feed supply, and Danish farmers on efficient production of feed cereals on large holdings. Due to a gradual lowering of manure and fertiliser application standards, Dutch farmers increasingly have to process manure and export manure, further increasing the total costs...

  9. 猪粪农田施用下的水稻生产生命周期碳排放%Life cycle greenhouse gases emission of rice production with pig manure application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娟; 王昌全; 蔡艳; 白根川; 游来勇; 易云亮; 黄帆; 李喜喜

    2015-01-01

    Environmental problems due to livestock and poultry waste releases have worsened with increasing scale of breeding industries. Utilization of livestock and poultry wastes in farmlands could limit the production and application of chemical fertilizers and the corresponding pollution. However, this could as well lead to greenhouse gases emissions in the agro-ecological systems. Studies on greenhouse gases emissions from farmland with partial replacements of chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizers by livestock and poultry manure are critical for exploring farmland environmental carrying capacity of livestock and poultry wastes. This study aimed to assess greenhouse gases emission per ton of produced rice with different fertilization practices. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate greenhouse gases emission of a rice production system under different substitution ratios of chemical N fertilizer with pig manure. The life cycle of one ton of produced rice was divided into three phases — raw material mining, agricultural materials production and crop planting. Inventory analysis and calculation were performed for the three stages. Pure chemical fertilizer (N1), half manure N plus half inorganic fertilizer N (NM1) and manure N (NM2) treatments were set up in field plots. Greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) from paddy fields were collected and measured by the static chamber-gas chromatography method, while CO2 emissions from other sources were calculated using the amount and emission factors of input materials as documented in relevant literatures. The results showed that gross greenhouse gases emissions under N1, MN1 and NM2 treatments were 1.760 t(CO2-eq)·t-1, 1.997 t(CO2-eq)·t-1 and 2.550 t(CO2-eq)·t-1, of which 0.145 t(CO2-eq)·t-1, 0.085 t(CO2-eq)·t-1 and 0.047 t(CO2-eq)·t-1 were for raw material mining, 0.032 t(CO2-eq)·t-1, 0.014 t(CO2-eq)·t-1 and 0 t(CO2-eq)·t-1 for agricultural materials production, and 1.583 t(CO2-eq)·t-1

  10. Fate of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in simulated swine manure storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The behavior of three antibiotics (bacitracin, chlortetracycline, and tylosin) and two classes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), tet and erm, were monitored in swine manure slurry under anaerobic conditions. First-order decay rates were determined for each antibiotic with half-lives ranging fr...

  11. 猪粪与马铃薯皮渣混合厌氧发酵产氢特性%Characteristics of hydrogen production from anaerobic co-fermentation of pig manure and potato pulp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爽; 李文哲

    2012-01-01

    为了提高厌氧产氢菌利用复杂物料的产氢能力和稳定性,该文研究了猪粪与马铃薯皮渣混合质量比对厌氧发酵产氢的比产氢率、挥发性固体去除率、液相末端产物组成等发酵特性的影响.试验结果表明,底物组成显著影响产氢发酵的发酵类型.以单纯马铃薯皮渣为底物时,体系的比产氢率最高达31.55 mL/g,挥发性固体去除率为29.43%,发酵类型为丁酸型;当猪粪在发酵底物中的质量比从10∶70提高至40∶40后,体系的发酵类型由丁酸型转变为乙酸型,同时维持了较高的比产氢率(22.48~24.18 mL/g)和挥发性固体去除率(28.31%~32.93%).但是当猪粪逐渐变为主要发酵底物(猪粪与马铃薯皮渣质量比为50∶30、60∶20、70∶10、80∶0)时,发酵逐渐受到抑制,系统的比产氢率和挥发性固体去除率都明显下降.采用Modified Gompertz模型可以很好地拟合累积产氢量随时间的变化,其动力学参数最大产氢量、最大产氢速率和停滞时间可以作为混合物料产氢发酵代谢过程的重要评价指标.该研究为优化混合物料厌氧产氢发酵过程提供参考和依据.%In order to increase anaerobic hydrogen production capacity and stability using complex materials, effects of pig manure (PM)/potato pulp (PP) mass ratio on specific hydrogen production rate (SHPR), VS degradation rate (VDR), and composition of dissolved fermentation products were investigated. Results showed that substrate composite affected the metabolism pathway of anaerobic hydrogen fermentation significantly. With sole PP as substrate, SHPR peaked at 31.55mL/g, at the same time VDR was 29.43%, and butyrate-type fermentation was formed. When PM/PP ratio ranged from 10:70 to 40:40, acetate-type fermentation replaced butyrate-type fermentation, and higher SHPR (22.48-24.18 mL/g) and VDR (28.31%-32.93%) levels were maintained. When further increased PM/PP ratio from 50:30 to 80:0, limitation of

  12. Effect of covering on nitrogen transformation and the quality of pig manure-straw compost%覆盖处理对猪粪秸秆堆肥中氮素转化和堆肥质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄华; 黄懿梅; 刘学玲; 姜继韶

    2013-01-01

    The aerated static pile method was used to investigate the effect of covering on nitrogen transformation and the quality of a pig manure-straw compost during the composting process. Nitrogen forms and other indexes were determined in the different layers, i. e. , the bottom layer and top layer, in the composts covered with and without matured compost. The results showed that; the covered composts had lower moisture, germination index ( GI) of the end of composting, and pH value in heating and thermophilic phases; however, it increased EC value of the composts in cooling phase. The temperature in the composts had no significant difference. The covering delayed ammonia emission in the bottom layer at the beginning of composting period, while the percentage of accumulated ammonia in total nitrogen did not change. During composting, the increase rates of NO3~ -N , organic-N , total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the bottom of the covered compost were 66. 7% , 33. 8% , 32.1% and 138. 6% higher than the corresponding control, respectively. However, the degradation rate of organic carbon and contents of NH4+ -N and humus decreased by 1. 1 % , 8.0% and 3.7% , respectively. The changes of pH, NH4+ -N and NO3- -N contents in top layer of the covered composts indicated that the released ammonia in the bottom layer can be absorbed and nitrified. The top layer of compost was mineralized, and influenced the process of nitrogen transformation and quality of composts in the bottom layer.%为了探讨覆盖措施对堆肥化中氮素转化与堆肥质量的影响,在自制的强制通风静态堆肥箱中,模拟研究了覆盖腐熟堆肥后,下层猪粪秸秆堆肥及覆盖层中氮素形态和其他腐熟度指标的变化.结果表明:覆盖处理降低了下层堆肥中的含水率、种子发芽指数(GI值)、升温期和高温期的pH值,增大了降温期后的堆肥电导率EC值,而对堆温影响不大.覆盖处理未改变堆制初期下层

  13. Sorption and Catalytic Hydrolysis of Carbaryl on Pig-Manure-Derived Biochars%猪粪制备的生物炭对西维因的吸附与催化水解作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 武健羽; 李力; 刘娅; 孙红文; 孙铁珩

    2012-01-01

    以猪粪为原料,在不同温度下制备生物炭,并对其进行除灰处理,研究了不同处理温度和灰分含量的生物炭与西维因的相互作用.猪粪制备的生物炭含有无机矿物、不定型有机质和结晶态芳香碳,且随处理温度升高,灰分含量增加,BET比表面积增加.生物炭对西维因的吸附表现为非线性,等温线符合Freundlich方程,且随生物炭制备温度的升高,非线性增强.生物炭除灰后,吸附作用大大增强,表明有机碳与无机成分复合造成其一部分吸附点位的损失.生物炭对西维因的吸附由亲脂性分配与特殊作用力构成,随着生物炭不同以及西维因浓度的变化,吸附机制发生变化.生物炭可提高溶液pH,pH随生物炭添加量和处理温度而升高,生物炭含有的矿物对西维因水解具有催化作用,其水解速率及程度与生物炭灰分含量呈正相关.%Biochars are residue elemental carbonaceous products of incomplete combustion of biomass. Due to their huge surface area and active composition, biochars exert great impacts on the transfer and fate of exotic chemicals. Till now, majority of research has been concentrated on biochars with plant origin, and seldom studies used biochars derived from animal wastes that usually contain more mineral. In the present study, biochars were prepared from pig manure under different temperatures, and ash was removed from biochars to make a comparison. The interactions between biochar samples and carbaryl were studied. Biochars are composed of mineral, amorphous carbon and aromatic carbon crystallites. Ash content and BET surface area increased with biochar generation temperature. Adsorption of carbaryl on biochars was nonlinear and adsorption curve was fitted to Freundlich model. The nonlinearity of sorption isotherm increased with biochar generation temperature. The sorption increased after mineral was removed from biochars, indicating that some sorption sites of organic carbon

  14. Microbial and Oligosaccharides Treatments of Feces and Slurry in Reducing Ammonia of the Poultry Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yusrizal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of Lactobacillus sp and fructooligosaccaride (FOS to reduce the volatile ammonia formation from chicken excreta and layer slurry. For each treatment-replication, 150 g of fecal material were collected from the poultry farm and placed in 500 ml beaker glass. The fecal sample was then treated with 2% Lactobacillus sp (2.6x106 cfu/g and 2% FOS and covered with plastic wraps. The volatile ammonia contents and pH were measured after one hour of standing (0 d and repeated at 48 h intervals for 6 d. For the dropping slurry study, 300 g of each layer dropping slurry sample were used. Results indicated that 2% Lactobacillus sp or FOS supplementations in the feces and dropping slurry after 1 h up to 6 d reduced the ammonia odor formation, fecal pH, and moisture content. The Lactobacillus sp and FOS treated manure resulted in increasing Lactobacillus sp count and reducing in E. coli, Salmonella, and Campylobacter in 6 days for both feces and layer dropping slurry. In addition, reducing moisture content was observed in treated manure. It is concluded that Lactobacillus sp and FOS reduced the volatile ammonia formation and pathogenic bacteria from chicken excreta and layer slurry.

  15. Ice slurry accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, K.G.; Kauffeld, M.

    1998-06-01

    More and more refrigeration systems are designed with secondary loops, thus reducing the refrigerant charge of the primary refrigeration plant. In order not to increase energy consumption by introducing a secondary refrigerant, alternatives to the well established single phase coolants (brines) and different concepts of the cooling plant have to be evaluated. Combining the use of ice-slurry - mixture of water, a freezing point depressing agent (antifreeze) and ice particles - as melting secondary refrigerant and the use of a cool storage makes it possible to build plants with secondary loops without increasing the energy consumption and investment. At the same time the operating costs can be kept at a lower level. The accumulation of ice-slurry is compared with other and more traditional storage systems. The method is evaluated and the potential in different applications is estimated. Aspects of practically use of ice-slurry has been examined in the laboratory at the Danish Technological Institute (DTI). This paper will include the final conclusions from this work concerning tank construction, agitator system, inlet, outlet and control. The work at DTI indicates that in some applications systems with ice-slurry and accumulation tanks have a great future. These applications are described by a varying load profile and a process temperature suiting the temperature of ice-slurry (-3 - -8/deg. C). (au)

  16. Nutrient losses from cattle co-digestate slurry during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Perazzolo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among environmental issues related to intensive livestock activity, emissions to air from manure management are of increasing concern. Thus the knowledge of the effect of treatment application on subsequent emissions from manure is required to assess the environment impact of management solutions. This work addresses the effect of anaerobic digestion and phase separation on emissions during storage by studying nitrogen losses from lab-scale stores and field pilot-scale stores of a co-digestate cattle slurry and its respective separated fractions. Lab-scale experiment was carried in temperature-controlled room where each fraction (untreated, separated liquid and separated solid was stored in duplicate for a period of 32 days in 30 L vessel. Pilot-scale experiment was carried out both during the cold season and during warm season for 90 days of storage. In both experimentations samples of the manure were analysed periodically for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, total ammonia nitrogen, dry matter and volatile solids and pH. These analyses allow estimating nitrogen losses in different storage conditions. Effects of mechanical separation and season were assessed by ANOVA (Wilcoxon test, P<0.05. In temperature controlled conditions nitrogen losses measured account for 13% and 26% of TKN for unseparated and separated slurries respectively. In field conditions during cold season nutrient losses were limited. On average unseparated and separated slurries lost respectively 6.8% and 12.6% of their initial TKN content. Much higher were the TKN losses from the slurries examined in warm season where losses raised up to 40% of the initial TKN content. Generally mechanical separation increases nutrient losses, but the differences were not significant in field conditions. The results highlighted that nutrient losses, in particular the nitrogen ones, can be considerable especially during summer storage. The latter, in case of separated slurries, are mainly related

  17. Using rare earth elements to control phosphorus and track manure in runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, Anthony R; Church, Clinton; Kleinman, Peter J A; Saporito, Lou S; Moyer, Barton G; Tao, Liang

    2010-01-01

    Concern over the enrichment of agricultural runoff with phosphorus (P) from land applied livestock manures has prompted the development of manure amendments that minimize P solubility. In this study, we amended poultry, dairy, and swine manures with two rare earth chlorides, lanthanum chloride (LaCl(3).7H(2)O) and ytterbium chloride (YbCl(3).6H(2)O), to evaluate their effects on P solubility in the manure following incubation in the laboratory as well as on the fate of P and rare earth elements (REEs) when manures were surface-applied to packed soil boxes and subjected to simulated rainfall. In terms of manure P solubility, La:water-extractable P (WEP) ratios close to 1:1 resulted in maximum WEP reduction of 95% in dairy manure and 98% in dry poultry litter. Results from the runoff study showed that REE applications to dry manures such as poultry litter were less effective in reducing dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in runoff than in liquid manures and slurries, which was likely due to mixing limitations. The most effective reductions of DRP in runoff by REEs were observed in the alkaline pH soil, although reductions of DRP in runoff from the acidic soil were still >50%. Particulate REEs were strongly associated with particulate P in runoff, suggesting a potentially useful role in tracking the fate of P and other manure constituents from manure-amended soils. Finally, REEs that remained in soil following runoff had a tendency to precipitate WEP, especially in soils receiving manure amendments. The findings have valuable applications in water quality protection and the evaluation of P site assessment indices.

  18. Two phase continuous digestion of solid manure on-farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, W.; Lehto, M. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Vihti (Finland). Animal Production Research; Evers, L.; Granstedt, A. [Biodynamic Research Inst., Jaerna (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    Present commercially available biogas plants are mainly suitable for slurry and co-substrates. Cattle, horse and poultry farms using a solid manure chain experience a crucial competitive disadvantage, because conversion to slurry technology requires additional investments. Based on the technological progress of anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste, so called 'dry fermentation' prototype plants were developed for anaerobic digestion of organic material containing 15-50% total solids (Hoffman, 2001). These plants show added advantages compared to slurry digestion plants: Less reactor volume, less process energy, less transport capacity, less odour emissions. On-farm research (Gronauer and Aschmann, 2004; Kusch and Oechsner, 2004) and prototype research (Linke, 2004) on dry fermentation in batch reactors show that loading and discharging of batch reactors remains difficult and/or time-consuming compared to slurry reactors. Additionally a constant level of gas generation requires offset operation of several batch reactors. Baserga et al. (1994) developed a pilot plant of 9.6 m{sup 3} capacity for continuous digestion of solid beef cattle manure on-farm. However, on-farm dry fermentation plants are not common and rarely commercially available. We assume that lack of tested technical solutions and scarceness of on-farm research results are the main reason for low acceptance of dry fermentation technology on-farm. We report about an innovative two phase farm-scale biogas plant. The plant continuously digests dairy cattle manure and organic residues of the farm and the surrounding food processing units. The two phase reactor technology was chosen for two reasons: first it offers the separation of a liquid fraction and a solid fraction for composting after hydrolysis and secondly the methanation of the liquid fraction using fixed film technology results in a very short hydraulic retention time, reduction in reactor volume, and higher methane content of the

  19. Environmental monitoring study of selected veterinary antibiotics in animal manure and soils in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Carballo, Elena [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gonzalez-Barreiro, Carmen [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Scharf, Sigrid [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gans, Oliver [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: oliver.gans@umweltbundesamt.at

    2007-07-15

    LC-MS/MS was used for determination of selected tetracyclines, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and fluoroquinolones in manure samples of pig, chicken and turkey, as well as arable soils fertilized with manure. Recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 61 to 105%. Method quantification limits were set to 100 {mu}g/kg for all substances. Analysis of 30 pig manure, 20 chicken and turkey dung, and 30 lyophilized soil samples taken in Austria revealed that in pig manure up to 46 mg/kg chlortetracycline, 29 mg/kg oxytetracycline and 23 mg/kg tetracycline could be detected. As representatives of the group of sulfonamides, sulfadimidine in pig manure and sulfadiazine in chicken and turkey dung were detected in significant amounts (maximum concentration, 20 and 91 mg/kg, respectively). Enrofloxacin was particularly observed in chicken and turkey samples. Positive detection of chlortetracycline, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, in soil samples should be outlined as most important results of this study. - Specific exposure data of selected veterinarian antibiotics in manure and samples of agriculturally used soils are reported for the first time in Austria.

  20. Slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rados, Novica

    Slurry bubble column reactors are presently used for a wide range of reactions in both chemical and biochemical industry. The successful design and scale up of slurry bubble column reactors require a complete understanding of multiphase fluid dynamics, i.e. phase mixing, heat and mass transport characteristics. The primary objective of this thesis is to improve presently limited understanding of the gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. The effect of superficial gas velocity (8 to 45 cm/s), pressure (0.1 to 1.0 MPa) and solids loading (20 and 35 wt.%) on the time-averaged solids velocity and turbulent parameter profiles has been studied using Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT). To accomplish this, CARPT technique has been significantly improved for the measurements in highly attenuating systems, such as high pressure, high solids loading stainless steel slurry bubble column. At a similar set of operational conditions time-averaged gas and solids holdup profiles have been evaluated using the developed Computed Tomography (CT)/Overall gas holdup procedure. This procedure is based on the combination of the CT scans and the overall gas holdup measurements. The procedure assumes constant solids loading in the radial direction and axially invariant cross-sectionally averaged gas holdup. The obtained experimental holdup, velocity and turbulent parameters data are correlated and compared with the existing low superficial gas velocities and atmospheric pressure CARPT/CT gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid slurry data. The obtained solids axial velocity radial profiles are compared with the predictions of the one dimensional (1-D) liquid/slurry recirculation phenomenological model. The obtained solids loading axial profiles are compared with the predictions of the Sedimentation and Dispersion Model (SDM). The overall gas holdup values, gas holdup radial profiles, solids loading axial profiles, solids axial velocity radial profiles and solids

  1. RESEARCHING AND CREATION OF A DEVICE FOR DRYING CHICKEN MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchenko A. Y.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors have proposed a process and arrangement for recycling in the poultry farms of the Krasnodar region of chicken manure and release of mineral fertilizers, аs well as the analysis of existing Russian technologies and devices for drying chicken manure. The study proposed a technology and apparatus for drying chicken manure to not only provide a significant deal of capital investments, but also cut energy costs by the proposed method and apparatus, as well as improving the quality of the finished product (chicken manure. In the method of drying chicken droppings produced removing mechanical impurities, mixing, drying and grinding of the hot gases, wherein the starting slurry is transported in a horizontal direction opposite to the flow direction of the hot gases while performing a gradual heating it with simultaneous comminution and mixing, and then after reaching the zone of maximum temperatures for each of the size fractions of the suspension is achieved by turning its direction on 180ºС and then transported in a direction coinciding with the direction of flow of the hot gases by carrying out the gradual cooling of the heat transfer starting product. We have also presented norms of dry chicken manure application under agricultural crops in the Krasnodar region

  2. Flashing Slurry Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Bruce E.; Young, Jonathan

    2007-03-14

    The Hanford K Basin Closure Project involves the retrieval, transfer and processing of radioactive contaminated slurries containing partially corroded spent nuclear fuel from the K Basin spent fuel pools. The spent fuel is primarily metallic fuel from the operation of the Hanford reactors. The Sludge Treatment Project is being designed to treat and package this material in preparation for ultimate disposal. The processing of the contaminated slurries includes further corrosion of the remaining uncorroded uranium metal in a large heated vessel to form a more stable metal oxide for packaging and storage.

  3. Effect of biochar pyrolyzed from wheat straws at different temperatures on biogas production characteristics of pig manure during mesophilic digestion%麦秸生物炭添加对猪粪中温厌氧发酵产气特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许彩云; 靳红梅; 常志州; 杜静; 黄红英; 艾玉春; 周立祥

    2016-01-01

    During anaerobic digestion(AD), microbial intermediate metabolites often inhabit biogas production. Biochars may adsorb these metabolites and improve biogas production when co-existing with manure during anaerobic digestion because of their large surface. In this study, the effects of different biochars on biogas production characteristics of pig manure during mesophilic digestion were examined. Biochars were obtained from wheat straws by pyrolysis at 400, 500℃and 600℃(i.e., BC400, BC500 and BC600)and added to the AD re-actor at mesophilic condition(37±1)℃. Biogas and methane productivity were measured in the bench-scale batch AD experiment. Results showed that the biogas and methane production was significantly(PBC500>BC400. During 49 d AD, the biogas and methane production was 260.7~288.7 mL·g-1 VS and 163.7~185.5 mL·g-1 VS, for biochar addi-tions, increments by 77.1%~96.1%and 78.1%~101.8%, respectively, compared with pig manure alone. Biochar additions also significantly enhanced the digestion efficiency(T90)of pig manure and reduced the ignition time of AD system. The biogas production was obviously dif-ferent among different biochar treatments, which was ascribed to the different characteristics of biochars, such as surface area and porosity. These findings indicate that optimal biochar material and digestion condition should be considered during the operation of biogas plants.%为探明不同热解温度生物炭添加对猪粪中温厌氧消化产气的影响,以400、500、600℃热解制成的麦秸生物炭(BC400、BC500、BC600)为研究对象,采用批次发酵试验,探讨了生物炭添加对猪粪中温(37±1)℃厌氧发酵产气特性的影响。研究结果表明:麦秸热解生物炭可显著(PBC500>BC400。厌氧发酵49 d期间,添加生物炭处理的产气量和产甲烷量分别为260.7~288.7 mL·g-1 VS和163.7~185.5 mL·g-1 VS,较纯猪粪处理提高了77.1%~96.1%和78.1%~101.8%。同时,添加生物炭可

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Stored Dairy Slurry from Multiple Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Riche, Etienne L; VanderZaag, Andrew C; Wood, Jeffrey D; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia; Dunfield, Kari; Ngwabie, N Martin; McCabe, John; Gordon, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    A significant need exists to improve our understanding of the extent of greenhouse gas emissions from the storage of livestock manure to both improve the reliability of inventory assessments and the impact of beneficial management practice adoption. Factors affecting the extent and variability of greenhouse gas emissions from stored dairy manure were investigated. Emissions from six slurries stored in clean concrete tanks under identical "warm-season" conditions were monitored consecutively over 173 d (18°C average air temperature). Methane (CH) emissions varied considerably among the manures from 6.3 to 25.9 g m d and accounted for ∼96% of the total CO equivalent greenhouse gas emissions. The duration of the lag period, when methane emissions were near baseline levels, varied from 30 to 90 d from the beginning of storage. As a result, CH emissions were poorly correlated with air temperature prior to the time of peak emissions (i.e., the initial 48 to 108 d of storage) but improved afterward. The air temperature following the time of the peak CH flux and the length of the active methanogenesis period (i.e., when the daily CH emissions ≥ 7.6 g m d) were highly correlated with CH emissions ( = 0.98, < 0.01). Methane conversion factors (MCFs) ranged from 0.08 to 0.52 for the different manures. The MCFs generated from existing CH emission models were correlated ( = 0.68, = 0.02) to MCFs calculated for the active methanogenesis period for manure containing wood bedding. A temperature component was added that improved the accuracy ( = 0.82, < 0.01). This demonstrated that an improved understanding of lag period dynamics will enhance stored dairy manure greenhouse gas emission inventory calculations.

  5. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  6. Thinning of kaolin slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasák, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    After mixing kaolin with water attractive and repulsive forces between kaolin particles initiate process of coagulation and peptisation, respectively. The coagulation process in the kaolin slurry gives rise to voluminous aggregates of kaolin particles, where a great deal of water is fixed.

  7. Slurry transport medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, W.; Schiffman, L.

    1980-06-03

    This invention provides for an improvement in slurry transport systems, especially coal slurry lines. Instead of the usual use of fresh water resources which, in some geographic areas, are scarce for slurry transport, concentrated brine is used which is prepared from abundant salt water resources. Because of the higher density of this concentrated brine, it is a superior carrier of pulverized material. It diminishes the separation and settling tendency of slurry components during transport and particularly during shutdown. Other advantages in the use of concentrated brine include: freezing point depression which permits ease of transport during winter and at lower temperatures; dust suppression of stored coal; avoidance of spontaneous combustion of stored coal; inhibit freeze packing of dewatered pipeline coal; and diminished extent of corrosion in ferrous metal pipelines as compared to that which might occur with lower concentration brines. Important in the economy of the process is that the concentrated brine can be recycled. An inexpensive method for producing the concentrated brine is given.

  8. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  9. Treatment pf pig slurry in Spain to minimize soil degradation and environmental impact; Tratamiento de purines de ganado porcino en Espana para minimizar la contaminacion de suelos y su impacto ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espejo Marin, C.; Garcia Marin, R.

    2009-07-01

    The pig farms in Spain have experimented on the last years a great development, giving place to a new productive, sanitary, economic and environmental reality. His intensification has generated the presence of farms of great capacity, which generate high quantities of excrements and residues. Due to the dynamism of the sector, the legislative existing frame until ends of the nineties of the past 20th century remains obsolete. For such motive, the Government of Spain established basic standards of management of pig farms (RD 324/2000); regulatory rules for awarding grants to projects that seek to improve environmental management of pig farms (RD 987/2008); and, in December 2008, is approved, in Ministers council, a plan of bio-digestion of excrements, which has as aim decrease the greenhouse gases and reduce the risk of pollution of soils, fluvial riverbeds and underground aquifers. (Author) 9 refs.

  10. Improving enzyme activity by compound microbial agents in compost with mixed fruit tree branches and pig manure during composting%复合菌剂提高果树枝条堆肥过程中酶活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史龙翔; 谷洁; 潘洪加; 张凯煜; 殷亚楠; 赵听; 王小娟; 高华

    2015-01-01

    The effects of compound microbial agents in compost with mixed fruit tree branches and pig manure during composting in a thermophilic aerobic state were examined .The research used the inoculants compound microbial agents and control compost. The changes of temperature, enzyme activity, and the microbial community functional diversity in compost materials during composting were determined. The results showed the temperature during the composting period was increased and the high temperature (above 55℃) maintaining period was three days longer. Besides, inoculation treatment and control treatment are all carried out to achieve compost maturity, what was more, when added to the compound microbial agents composting process, we can easily find that the number of the seed germination in inoculants treatment is obviously higher than it is in the control treatment (P<0.05), so we can find that this process caused the decrease of the pH value and the C/N ratio. Of course, they promoted the compost maturity. The activities of the enzymes were improved by adding compound microbial agents. The tested enzymes Cellulose, laccase (Lac), Manganese peroxidase (MnP), and lignin peroxidase (LiP) activities were higher in the treatment with microorganism agent than those in the control treatment by 15.0%-19.8%, 1.0%-11.0%, 4.1%-26.8%, and 4.0%-22.2%, respectively. The research showed that the activity of Cellulose, Laccase (Lac), and the lignin peroxidase (LiP) rose at the beginning of the experiment and then dropped gradually under the inoculants agent processing, and reached the peak value in the seventh day. Their numerical values were 0.96 mg/(g·d) and 72.6 U/g respectively. However, the Manganese peroxidase (MnP) and Lignin peroxidase (LiP) reached their peak in the second day. Their numerical peak values were 927.2 and 726.4 U/g respectively. In addition, the activity of Manganese peroxidase (MnP) which was dealt with the inoculation treatment and control treatment was

  11. Renewable energy and reduction of methane emission. Emission-low manure storage; Duurzame energie en vermindering methaanemissies. Emissiearme mestopslag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilhorst, M.A.; Monteny, G.J.; De Gijsel, P. [IMAG Wageningen-UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Van Dooren, H.J.C.; Van Lent, A.J.H. [Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden PR, Lelystad (Netherlands)

    2001-03-01

    It is the target of the Dutch government to reduce the emissions of all non-CO2 greenhouse gases in The Netherlands by 8 Mton CO2-eq in 2010. Livestock contributes for about 40% (10 Mton CO2-eq) to the emissions of methane. Enteric fermentation is responsible for 32% (8 Mton CO2-eq) and slurry for 8% (2 Mton CO2-eq). In the Netherlands, slurry is the most common manure system. Low-cost and effective options to reduce methane emissions, without increasing emissions of ammonia and nitrous oxide, are covering the outdoor slurry storage, shortening the indoor storage time, lowering the storage temperature and filtration of the air from the livestock house and storage facility. Other less favourable options are aeration, acidification, feed adjustments and controlled anaerobic digestion. Covering of outdoor storages is mandatory in the Netherlands to reduce ammonia emissions. The methane emission reduction of a well covered outdoor storage with the slurry at rest is around 60%. In The Netherlands the average temperature of outdoor storage is less than 10.2C. Methane emissions will decrease by 66% if the slurry temperature is decreased from 20C to 10C. For pig farms the main source of methane is the slurry stored under the slatted floor. The slurry surface is nearly at indoor temperature (20C). It is most effective for pig slurry to reduce the indoor storage time. Also for ruminants some reduction may be expected from shortening the indoor storage time of slurry. In addition measurements showed a reduction of more than 50% methane emission for well covered storages with slurry at rest. Therefore, the methane emission from an outdoor storage may be neglected. Reduction of the indoor storage time can result in methane emission reduction from slurry by 50% or 1 Mton CO2-eq. Since most of the methane is produced in the livestock house, i.e. methane from enteric fermentation and from slurry, it is evident that filtering the methane from the ventilation air can be an effective

  12. Technical protocol for laboratory tests of transformation of veterinary medicinal products and biocides in liquid manures. Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzig, Robert [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik

    2010-07-15

    The technical protocol under consideration describes a laboratory test method to evaluate the transformation of chemicals in liquid bovine and pig manures under anaerobic conditions and primarily is designed for veterinary medicinal products and biocides. The environmentally relevant entry routes into liquid manures occur via urine and feces of cattle and pigs in stable housings after excretion of veterinary medicinal products as parent compounds or metabolites and after the application of biocides in animal housings. Further entry routes such as solid dung application and direct dung pat deposition by production animals on pasture are not considered by this technical protocol. Thus, this technical protocol focused on the sampling of excrements from cattles and pigs kept in stables and fed under standard nutrition conditions. This approach additionally ensures that excrement samples are operationally free of any contamination by veterinary medicinal products and biocides. After the matrix characterization, reference-manure samples are prepared from the excrement samples by adding tap water to adjust defined dry substance contents typical for bovine or pig manures. This technical protocol comprehends a tiered experimental design in two parts: (a) Sampling of excrements and preparation of reference bovine and pig manures; (b) Testing of anaerobic transformation of chemicals in reference manures.

  13. Emissions of greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) from cattle slurry storage in Northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhe, L.; Ascue, J.; Nordberg, Å.

    2009-11-01

    Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stored manure corresponded to 14% of overall GHG emissions from Swedish agriculture in 2006 according to calculations using standard values for a cool climate. The present study identified storage conditions for cattle slurry in different regions of Sweden, developed methodology for measuring GHGs from slurry stored under similar conditions to full-scale storage, and determined annual GHG emissions (methane and nitrous oxide) from stored cattle slurry under Swedish conditions. Temperature measurements in full-scale storage of cattle slurry on farms showed a mean annual slurry temperature of 9.7°C in south-west Sweden and 5.6°C in the north. The closed chamber methodology and equipment developed for measuring GHG emissions were implemented for one year in a pilot-scale plant with similar conditions to full-scale storage as regards slurry temperature, climate and filling/emptying routines. During winter (Oct-April), methane emissions from stored cattle slurry were 3.6 g CH4-C per kg VS, while during summer (May-Sept) they were 6.5 g CH4-C per kg VS. This corresponded to an annual methane conversion factor (MCF) of 2.7%. Losses of nitrous oxide were close to zero.

  14. Evaluating slurry broadcasting and injection to ley for phosphorus losses and fecal microorganisms in surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusi-Kämppä, Jaana; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2008-01-01

    The recent growth in the size of dairy cattle farms and the concentration of farms into smaller areas in Finland may increase local water pollution due to increased manure production and slurry application to grass. Therefore, a field study was conducted to monitor losses of total phosphorus (TP), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), and fecal microorganisms in surface runoff from a perennial ley. Cattle slurry was added once a year in June 1996-1997 (Study I) and biannually in June and October 1998-2000 (Study II). The slurry was surface broadcast or injected into the clay soil. The field had a slope of 0.9 to 1.7%. Mineral fertilizer was applied on control plots. Biannual slurry broadcasting increased DRP (p broadcasting slurry to wet soil followed by rainfall in fall 1998. Injection reduced the TP and DRP losses in surface runoff by 79 and 86%, respectively, compared with broadcasting (17 Oct. 1998-27 Oct. 1999). Corresponding numbers for fecal coliforms were 350 CFU (100 mL)(-1) and for somatic coliphages were 110 PFU (100 mL)(-1) in surface runoff after injection in October 1998. Slurry injection should be favored when spreading slurry amendments to grassland to avoid losses of P and fecal microorganisms in runoff to surface waters.

  15. Pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics in livestock manure and manure-amended soils in Jiangsu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin Y; Hao, Li J; Qiu, Pan Z; Chen, Rong; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiang J; Shan, Zheng J; Wang, Na

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil of livestock farms in Jiangsu province. This investigation employed solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A total of 53 manure and 50 amended soil samples from 16 livestock farms in Jiangsu province were collected for analysis. In the manure samples, the highest detected frequencies and concentrations were those of tetracyclines (TCs, 54.1 ± 5775.6 μgkg(-1)), followed by fluoroquinolones (FQs, 8.4 ± 435.6 μgkg(-1)), sulphonamides (SAs, 3.2 ± 5.2 μgkg(-1)) and macrolides (MACs, 0.4 ± 110.5 μgkg(-1)). Statistical analysis was used to illuminate the pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics for various animal types and different regions in Jiangsu province. The results showed that the pollution level in cow manure was relatively lower compared with pig and chicken manure due to the relative restriction of medication. Furthermore, contamination was serious in amended soil from chicken farms. The pollution level in manure among different regions was higher to the south and north compared with the centre of the region. The same outcome was found for soil. Antibiotic residues in organic fertilizer were also investigated in this study. We found that although the detected concentration was lower in organic fertilizer than in fresh manure, detection frequencies (10-90%) were high, especially for roxithromycin (90%) in MACs (30-90%). This finding suggests attention should be paid to the pollution levels in organic fertilizer. This study is the first extensive investigation of the occurrence and distribution of many kinds of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil from livestock farms of Jiangsu province. This investigation systematically assesses veterinary antibiotics usage and related emissions in southeast China.

  16. Characteristics and Availability of Different Forms of Phosphorus in Animal Manures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Zheng-juan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of intensive livestock industry has greatly increased the discharge of animal manure. Reasonable utilization of large amounts of phosphorus(Pin animal manure can not only save the fertilizer resource, but also avoid water pollution from manure due to direct discharge or excess application in farmland. In this study, P contents and fractionation in 76 animal manures were analyzed using Hedley P fractionation method based on the survey for 52 livestock farms, and P mobility and environmental risks in different manures were evaluated as the reference for manure P management. The results showed that there were significant differences in total P content of animal manures. The mean P contents were 22.5, 13.7, 12.9, 9.6 g P·kg-1 and 7.5 g P·kg-1, in which the proportion of organic P in total P were 33.1%, 41.5%, 66.4%, 28.1%and 36.8%in pig, chicken, duck, cattle and sheep manures, respectively. The contents of total and organic P in non-ruminant animal manure(pig, chicken and duck manureswere 1.7~3.0 times and 2.1~3.0 times greater than that in ruminant manure (cattle and sheep manuresand the proportion of organic P in total P in poultry manure was higher than that in other manures. P mineraliza-tion was easier in non-ruminant animal manure with lower C/P ratio(19~29, compared with that in ruminant manure with C/P ratio of 38~45. Manure P was sequentially extracted by deionized water(H2O-P, NaHCO3(NaHCO3-P, NaOH(NaOH-Pand HCl(HCl-P. The pro-portion of H2O-P, NaHCO3-P, NaOH-P, HCl-P and residual-P in total P in ruminant animal manure were 27.8%, 32.8%, 18.1%, 15.2%and 6.1%, respectively, while that were 24.6%, 19.4%, 12.7%, 34.4% and 8.9% in non-ruminant animal manure. The significant differences were in NaHCO3-P and HCl-P between ruminant and non-ruminant animal manures. Ruminant manure had greater proportion of liable P (H2O-P and NaHCO3-Pin total P(>60%, but the characteristics of higher mineralization rate might result in

  17. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Kauffeld, M.; Wang, M. J.; Goldstein, V.; Kasza, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers ...

  18. Environmental chemistry of animal manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure is traditionally regarded as a valuable resource of plant nutrients. However, there is an increasing environmental concern associated with animal manure utilization due to high and locally concentrated volumes of manure produced in modern intensified animal production. Although conside...

  19. Impact of manure-related DOM on sulfonamide transport in arable soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Arenz-Leufen, Martina Gesine; Jacques, Diederik; Lichtner, Peter; Engelhardt, Irina

    2016-09-01

    Field application of livestock manure introduces colloids and veterinary antibiotics, e.g. sulfonamides (SAs), into farmland. The presence of manure colloids may potentially intensify the SAs-pollution to soils and groundwater by colloid-facilitated transport. Transport of three SAs, sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMPD), and sulfamoxole (SMOX), was investigated in saturated soil columns with and without manure colloids from sows and farrows, weaners, and fattening pigs. Experimental results showed that colloid-facilitated transport of SMOX was significant in the presence of manure colloids from fattening pigs with low C/N ratio, high SUVA280 nm and protein C, while manure colloids from sows and farrows and weaners had little effect on SMOX transport. In contrast, only retardation was observed for SDZ and SMPD when manure colloids were present. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of colloids and SAs were replicated well by a newly developed numerical model that considers colloid-filtration theory, competitive kinetic sorption, and co-transport processes. Model results demonstrate that mobile colloids act as carriers for SMOX, while immobile colloids block SMOX from sorbing onto the soil. The low affinity of SMOX to sorb on immobile colloids prevents aggregation and also promotes SMOX's colloid-facilitated transport. Conversely, the high affinity of SDZ and SMPD to sorb on all types of immobile colloids retarded their transport. Thus, manure properties play a fundamental role in increasing the leaching risk of hydrophobic sulfonamides.

  20. 猪粪好氧发酵过程中挥发性有机物组分分析及致臭因子的确定%Component analysis of volatile organic compounds and determination of key odor in pig manure aerobic fermentation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈玉君; 张朋月; 赵立欣; 孟海波; 程红胜

    2016-01-01

    为了控制猪粪好氧发酵中产生的挥发性有机物(volatile organic compounds)及主要致臭物质,开展了猪粪好氧发酵试验,通过连续监测猪粪好氧发酵过程中所排放的挥发性气体,研究猪粪好氧发酵中产生的 VOCs 组分及其致臭因子。研究表明,在猪粪好氧发酵过程中共产生33种挥发性物质,除氨气和硫化氢外,共有31种VOCs,包括芳香烃12种,醛类8种,硫醇硫醚类4种,卤代烃4种,酮类2种,胺类1种;猪粪好氧发酵中主要致臭物质为:二甲二硫、甲硫醚、二甲三硫、乙醛和硫化氢,并建议将甲硫醚作为猪粪好氧发酵中产生的恶臭污染指示物。该研究可为猪粪堆肥过程中恶臭物质的监测、制定控制策略提供参考。%Pig manure aerobic fermentation will produce a trace of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), although the VOCs content is less, but the effect on human health cannot be neglected. VOCs are not a single substance, but a class of compounds. In order to control VOCs, investigation of odor-causing matters of pig manures in aerobic fermentation was carried out in August, 2014 at the Key Laboratory of Energy Resource Utilization From Agriculture Waste,Ministry of Agriculture,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering, Beijing, China. We set up the aerobic fermentation of pig manure and straw mix with water content of 65%, and the ratio of carbon to nitrogen 25:1. In the aerobic fermentation process, in every 30 minutes, there was a five-minutes ventilation, and the ventilation rate was 1.0 m3/(min·m3). Aerobic fermentation period was one month. We conducted an experiment to monitor volatile gas emission from the aerobic fermentation process, and determined the pig aerobic fermentation of VOCs components and their emission patterns. Research results showed that high temperature aerobic fermentation period lasted more than 10 days. It produced 33 kinds of volatile substances. Most of

  1. The effect of manure management regulations on competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2003-01-01

    Significant differences in the competitiveness of pig production along with growing international competition in the pigmeat market have raised concerns about the cost impact of environmental regulations on producers, particularly those regarding the management of manure. There appears to be a U...... regulations in different countries do not appear to be of a scale that could explain the general difference in pigmeat competitiveness between countries....

  2. “干清粪”系统猪粪快速堆肥过程中添加剂对甲烷、氧化亚氮和氨气排放的影响%Influence of bulking agents on CH4, N2O, and NH3 emissions during rapid composting of pig manure from the Chinese Ganqinfen system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-ping SUN; Peng LU; Tao JIANG; Frank SCHUCHARDT; Guo-xue LI

    2014-01-01

    研究目的:在“干清粪”系统猪粪堆肥过程中,不同添加剂(玉米秸秆、锯末和蘑菇渣)处理对甲烷、氧化亚氮和氨气排放的影响。  创新要点:将不同的添加剂(玉米秸秆、锯末和蘑菇渣)应用到快速堆肥系统中进行堆肥,测定了猪粪堆肥过程中甲烷、氧化亚氮和氨气的排放规律,为国内猪粪堆肥的应用提供理论指导。  重要结论:玉米秸秆作为添加剂能增加猪粪堆肥过程中氧化亚氮的排放;蘑菇渣添加剂增加了堆肥过程中甲烷的排放,然而减少了氧化亚氮及氨气的排放;锯末处理能增加堆肥过程中氨气的排放。添加剂能显著影响堆肥过程中氮素的损失。%Mismanagement of the composting process can result in emissions of CH4, N2O, and NH3, which have caused severe environmental problems. This study was aimed at determining whether CH4, N2O, and NH3 emissions from composting are affected by bulking agents during rapid composting of pig manure from the Chinese Ganqinfen system. Three bulking agents, corn stalks, spent mushroom compost, and sawdust, were used in composting with pig manure in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for more than a month. Gas emissions were measured continuously, and detailed gas emission patterns were obtained. Concentrations of NH3 and N2O from the composting pig manure mixed with corn stalks or sawdust were higher than those from the spent mushroom compost treatment, especial y the sawdust treatment, which had the highest total nitrogen loss among the three runs. Most of the nitrogen was lost in the form of NH3, which accounts for 11.16% to 35.69% of the initial nitrogen. One-way analysis of variance for NH3 emission showed no significant differences between the corn stalk and sawdust treatments, but a significant difference was noted between the spent mushroom compost and sawdust treatments. The introduction of sawdust reduced CH4 emission more than

  3. Chlortetracycline and tylosin runoff from soils treated with antimicrobial containing manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoese, A; Clay, S A; Clay, D E; Oswald, J; Trooien, T; Thaler, R; Carlson, C G

    2009-05-01

    This study assessed the runoff potential of tylosin and chlortetracycline (CTC) from soils treated with manure from swine fed rations containing the highest labeled rate of each chemical. Slurry manures from the swine contained either CTC at 108 microg/g or tylosin at 0.3 microg/g. These manures were surface applied to clay loam, silty clay loam, and silt loam soils at a rate of 0.22 Mg/ha. In one trial, tylosin was applied directly to the soil surface to examine runoff potential of water and chemical when manure was not present. Water was applied using a sprinkler infiltrometer 24-hr after manure application with runoff collected incrementally every 5 min for about 45 min. A biofilm crust formed on all manure-treated surfaces and infiltration was impeded with > 70% of the applied water collected as runoff. The total amount of CTC collected ranged from 0.9 to 3.5% of the amount applied whereas tylosin ranged from 8.4 to 12%. These data indicate that if surface-applied manure contains antimicrobials, runoff could lead to offsite contamination.

  4. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures US livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: Slurry, plug flow, complete mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations.

  5. Influence of Organic Manure on Organic Phosphorus Fraction in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYONG-SONG; NIWU-ZHONG; 等

    1993-01-01

    The transformation of organic P(Po) from organic manures in two types of soils (ultisol and entisol) and the influences of external addition of organic substance or inorganic P(Pi) on Po under the condition of the 60% maximum water capacity were investigated.The results obtained from Po fractionation experiments indicated that all the Po fractions except for the highly resistant Po fraction decreased during incubation.Application of pig feces and cow feces could largely increase each fraction of Po in the soils.Immediately after application of organic manure into the soils a large part of labile and moderately labile Po from organic manure was transferred into moderately resistant Po,which might be due to the fact that Ca-or Mg-inositol P was precipitated into Fe-inositol P.However,the availability of Po from organic manure in the soils would increase again after incubation because of the transformation of moderately labile and resistant Po fractions into labile Po fractions.Addition of cellulose or Pi into the soils showed a good effect on increasing all the Po fractions except for the highly resistant Po,and this effect was much more pronounced when cellulose was applied in combination with Pi.Therefore,in view of the effect of organic manure on improving P nutrition to plant,attention should be paid to both the Po and the organic substances from organic manure,It is suggested that application of Pi fertilizer combined with organic manure may be referred to as an effective means of protecting Pi from chemical fixation in soil.

  6. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M G Mostofa; Pedersen, Christina Østerballe; Forslund, Anita; Veith, Tamie L; Laegdsmand, Mette

    2016-12-15

    Animal manure application to agricultural land provides beneficial organic matter and nutrients but can spread harmful contaminants to the environment. Contamination of fresh produce, surface water and shallow groundwater with the manure-borne pollutants can be a critical concern. Leaching and persistence of nitrogen, microorganisms (bacteriophage, E. coli, and Enterococcus) and a group of steroid hormone (estrogens) were investigated after injection of swine slurry into either intact (structured) or disturbed (homogeneous repacked) soil. The slurry was injected into hexaplicate soil columns at a rate of 50 t ha(-1) and followed with four irrigation events: 3.5-h period at 10 mm h(-1) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The disturbed columns delayed the leaching of a conservative tracer and microorganisms in the first irrigation event compared to the intact columns due to the effect of disturbed macropore flow paths. The slurry constituents that ended up in or near the macropore flow paths of the intact soil were presumably washed out relatively quickly in the first event. For the last three events the intact soil leached fewer microorganisms than the disturbed soil due to the bypassing effect of water through the macropore flow path in the intact soil. Estrogen leached from the intact soil in the first event only, but for the disturbed soil it was detected in the leachates of last two events also. Leaching from the later events was attributed to higher colloid transport from the disturbed soils. In contrast, NO3-N leaching from the intact soil was higher for all events except the first event, probably due to a lower nitrification rate in the disturbed soil. A week after the last irrigation event, the redistribution of all slurry constituents except NO3-N in most of the sections of the soil column was higher for the disturbed soil. Total recovery of E. coli was significantly higher from the disturbed soil and total leaching of mineral nitrogen was significantly lower

  7. Seasonal persistence of faecal indicator organisms in soil following dairy slurry application to land by surface broadcasting and shallow injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Christopher J; Oliver, David M; Fish, Robert D; Bulmer, Nicholas M; Heathwaite, A Louise; Winter, Michael; Chadwick, David R

    2016-12-01

    Dairy farming generates large volumes of liquid manure (slurry), which is ultimately recycled to agricultural land as a valuable source of plant nutrients. Different methods of slurry application to land exist; some spread the slurry to the sward surface whereas others deliver the slurry under the sward and into the soil, thus helping to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of two slurry application methods (surface broadcast versus shallow injection) on the survival of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) delivered via dairy slurry to replicated grassland plots across contrasting seasons. A significant increase in FIO persistence (measured by the half-life of E. coli and intestinal enterococci) was observed when slurry was applied to grassland via shallow injection, and FIO decay rates were significantly higher for FIOs applied to grassland in spring relative to summer and autumn. Significant differences in the behaviour of E. coli and intestinal enterococci over time were also observed, with E. coli half-lives influenced more strongly by season of application relative to the intestinal enterococci population. While shallow injection of slurry can reduce agricultural GHG emissions to air it can also prolong the persistence of FIOs in soil, potentially increasing the risk of their subsequent transfer to water. Awareness of (and evidence for) the potential for 'pollution-swapping' is critical in order to guard against unintended environmental impacts of agricultural management decisions.

  8. Utilisation of cattle manure and inorganic fertiliser for food production in central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Muhereza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertiliser use in small-holder peri-urban crop-livestock farms in Uganda was investigated by conducting a socio-economic survey of 40 farms in the central districts of Wakiso and Kampala where cattle manure is commonly applied to address the issue of declining crop yields. The major benefits obtained from cattle manure application were increased yields and low cost, while negative effects were poor hygienic conditions and bad odour. The challenges associated with the use of cattle manure included its weight and bulkiness, lack of labour, insufficient quantities, high transportation and application costs, lack of storage facilities to maintain quality attributes of manure and the incidence of chaffer grubs and worms; a nuisance during application which affected crop growth. The survey indicated that of the farmers using cattle manure, only 5% also supplemented with inorganic fertilisers. Other animal manures applied included poultry, pig, goat and rabbit where available. The nutrient content of cattle manure was generally low, as a result of livestock diet and storage. There was little education available to farmers as to optimum strategies and rates of fertiliser (including both inorganic and organic fertilisers to improve crop yield and this needed addressing to improve food security and economic development in Uganda. Keywords: cattle manure; fertiliser; urea

  9. Availability of P and K after application of ashes and biochars from thermally-treated solid manures to soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    In areas with high livestock density it can be advantageous to export a solid manure fraction after slurry separation to avoid overload of P. By combustion or gasification of solid manure energy is produced and nutrients are concentrated and therefore less expensive to transport. However, some st...... compared to a KCl reference. The heavy metal content of the tested ashes was below the Danish threshold value for wastes like ash, except for Ni in the poultry ash....... studies have indicated that the plant availability of P and K is decreased by combustion. The dynamics of extractable P and K in soil was compared during 16 weeks after application of equal amounts of P in ashes, solid slurry fractions and superphosphate to a sandy soil. Concentrations of water......- , bicarbonate- and resin-extractable P and exchangeable K were measured after incubation. The ashes/biochars studied derived from gasification (ca 730°C) of poultry manure, gasification of solid manure, co-combustion of solid manure with straw (ca 700 and 900°C) and pyrolysis of solid manure (250, 400 or 500°C...

  10. Cow, sheep and llama manure at psychrophilic anaerobic co-digestion with low cost tubular digesters in cold climate and high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Herrero, J; Alvarez, R; Cespedes, R; Rojas, M R; Conde, V; Aliaga, L; Balboa, M; Danov, S

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the co-digestion of cow and llama manure combined with sheep manure, in psychrophilic conditions and real field low cost tubular digesters adapted to cold climate. Four digesters were monitored in cold climate conditions; one fed with cow manure, a second one with llama manure, the third one with co-digestion of cow-sheep manure and the fourth one was fed with llama-sheep manure. The slurry had a mean temperature of 16.6 °C, the organic load rate was 0.44 kgvs m(-3) d(-1) and the hydraulic retention time was 80 days. After one hundred days biogas production was stable, as was the methane content and the pH of the effluent. The co-digestion of cow-sheep manure results in a biogas production increase of 100% compared to the mono-digestion of cow manure, while co-digestion of llama-sheep manure results in a decrease of 50% in biogas production with respect to mono-digestion of llama manure.

  11. Life cycle assessment of biogas from separated slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, L.; Wesnaes, M.; Wenzel, H. (Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)); Molt Petersen, B. (Aarhus Univ.. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The environmental aspects of biogas production based on pre-treated slurry from fattening pigs and dairy cows have been investigated in a life cycle perspective. The pre-treatment consists of concentrating the slurry using a separation technology. Significant environmental benefits, compared to the status quo slurry management, can be obtained for both pig and cow slurry, especially regarding reductions of the contributions to global warming, but the results depend to a large extent on the efficiency of the separation technology. Adding separation after the biogas plant can contribute to a more efficient management of the phosphorus, and this has also been investigated. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that: 1) The environmental benefits of biogas from separated slurry are very dependent upon the separation efficiency (for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous). This particularly applies for carbon, as the separation efficiency defines the extent to which the degradable carbon contained in the slurry is transferred to the biogas plant. Efficient separation can be obtained by using polymer, but also by using a suitable separation technology. It could be mentioned that the decanter centrifuge used has a rather high efficiency of transferring volatile solids (VS) to the fibre fraction also without the use of polymer. 2) Biogas production from separated slurry can lead to significant reductions in the contributions to global warming, provided that the 'best available technologies' described in the report are used. That includes, among others: - a covered and short time storage of the fibre fraction before entering the biogas plant, - a 2-step biogas production where the post-digestion tank is covered with air-tight cover, - a covered storage of the degassed fibre fraction The benefits are also highly dependent upon the source of energy substituted by the biogas. 3) Based on evidences from reviewed studies, the cationic polyacrylamide polymer

  12. Oxygen Distribution and Potential Ammonia Oxidation in Floating, Liquid Manure Crusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Daniel Aagren; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas;

    2010-01-01

    Floating, organic crusts on liquid manure, stored as a result of animal production, reduce emission of ammonia (NH3) and other volatile compounds during storage. The occurrence of NO2- and NO3- in the crusts indicate the presence of actively metabolizing NH3 oxidizing bacteria (AOB) which may...... microorganisms, including AOB. The microbial activity may thus contribute to a considerable reduction of ammonia emissions from slurry tanks with well-developed crusts....

  13. Oxygen Distribution and Potential Ammonia Oxidation in Floating, Liquid Manure Crusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Daniel Aagren; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Floating, organic crusts on liquid manure, stored as a result of animal production, reduce emission of ammonia (NH3) and other volatile compounds during storage. The occurrence of NO2- and NO3- in the crusts indicate the presence of actively metabolizing NH3 oxidizing bacteria (AOB) which may...... microorganisms, including AOB. The microbial activity may thus contribute to a considerable reduction of ammonia emissions from slurry tanks with well-developed crusts....

  14. Management strategy impacts on ammonia volatilization from swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Diane M; Powers, Wendy J; Lorimor, Jeffery C

    2005-01-01

    Ammonia emitted from manure can have detrimental effects on health, environmental quality, and fertilizer value. The objective of this study was to measure the potential for reduction in ammonia volatilization from swine (Sus scrofa domestica) manure by temperature control, stirring, addition of nitrogen binder (Mohave yucca, Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies) or urease inhibitor [N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT)], segregation of urine from feces, and pH modification. Swine manure [total solids (TS) = 7.6-11.2%, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) = 3.3-6.2 g/L, ammonium nitrogen NH(+)(4)-N = 1.0-3.3 g/L] was stored for 24, 48, 72, or 96 h in 2-L polyvinyl chloride vessels. The manure was analyzed to determine pre- and post-storage concentrations of TS and volatile solids (VS), TKN, and NH(+)(4)-N. The concentration of accumulated ammonia N in the vessel headspace (HSAN), post-storage, was measured using grab sample tubes. Headspace NH(3) concentrations were reduced 99.3% by segregation of urine from feces (P < 0.0001). Stirring and NBPT (152 microL/L) increased HSAN concentration (119 and 140%, respectively). Headspace NH(3) concentration increased by 2.7 mg/m(3) for every 1 degree C increase in temperature over 35 degrees C. Slurry NH(+)(4)-N concentrations were reduced by segregation (78.3%) and acidification to pH 5.3 (9.4%), and increased with stirring (4.8%) and increasing temperature (0.06 g/L per 1 degree C increase in temperature over 35 degrees C). Temperature control, urine-feces segregation, and acidification of swine manure are strategies with potential to reduce or slow NH(+)(4)-N formation and NH(3) volatilization.

  15. Effect of Composting on Dissolved Organic Matter in Animal Manure and Its Binding with Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengsong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural application of raw animal manure introduces large amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM into soil and would increase transport of heavy metals such as Cu which are widely present in animal manure. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the evolution of DOM from pig and cattle manures during composting through excitation-emission matrix (EEM fluorescence spectroscopy and the binding ability of DOM toward copper (Cu ions with the aid of fluorescence quenching titration. The excitation-emission matrix spectra indicated that tyrosine-like, tryptophan-like, and soluble microbial byproduct-like fluorescence decreased significantly, while humic-like and fulvic-like fluorescence increased and became the main peaks in composted manure DOM. Fluorescence quenching titration showed that the complexing capacities of pig and cattle manure DOM decreased after composting. Correlation analysis confirmed that complexing capacity of DOM positively and significantly correlates with tyrosine-like and soluble microbial byproduct-like materials which mostly degraded after composting. These results would suggest that the ability of manure DOM to complex with Cu is inhibited as a result of reduced protein-like materials after composting.

  16. Dietary crude protein and tannin impact dairy manure chemistry and ammonia emissions from incubated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

    2011-01-01

    Excess crude protein (CP) in dairy cow diets is excreted mostly as urea nitrogen (N), which increases ammonia (NH) emissions from dairy farms and heightens human health and environmental concerns. Feeding less CP and more tannin to dairy cows may enhance feed N use and milk production, abate NH emissions, and conserve the fertilizer N value of manure. Lab-scale ventilated chambers were used to evaluate the impacts of CP and tannin feeding on slurry chemistry, NH emissions, and soil inorganic N levels after slurry application to a sandy loam soil and a silt loam soil. Slurry from lactating Holstein dairy cows (Bos taurus) fed two levels of dietary CP (low CP [LCP], 155 g kg; high CP [HCP], 168 g kg) each fed at four levels of dietary tannin extract, a mixture from red quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii) and chestnut (Castanea sativa) trees (0 tannin [0T]; low tannin [LT], 4.5 g kg; medium tannin [MT], 9.0 g kg; and high tannin [HT], 18.0 g kg) were applied to soil-containing lab-scale chambers, and NH emissions were measured 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after slurry application. Emissions from the HCP slurry were 1.53 to 2.57 times greater ( soils were greater ( soils than in LCP slurry-amended soils. Emissions from HT slurry were 28 to 49% lower ( soil inorganic N levels. Emissions from the sandy loam soil were 1.07 to 1.15 times greater ( soil, a result that decreased soil inorganic N in the sandy loam compared with the silt loam soil. Larger-scale and longer-term field trails are needed to ascertain the effectiveness of feeding tannin extracts to dairy cows in abating NH loss from land-applied slurry and the impact of tannin-containing slurry on soil N cycles.

  17. Pyrolysis kinetics of algal consortia grown using swine manure wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharara, Mahmoud A; Holeman, Nathan; Sadaka, Sammy S; Costello, Thomas A

    2014-10-01

    In this study, pyrolysis kinetics of periphytic microalgae consortia grown using swine manure slurry in two seasonal climatic patterns in northwest Arkansas were investigated. Four heating rates (5, 10, 20 and 40 °C min(-1)) were used to determine the pyrolysis kinetics. Differences in proximate, ultimate, and heating value analyses reflected variability in growing substrate conditions, i.e., flocculant use, manure slurry dilution, and differences in diurnal solar radiation and air temperature regimes. Peak decomposition temperature in algal harvests varied with changing the heating rate. Analyzing pyrolysis kinetics using differential and integral isoconversional methods (Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose) showed strong dependency of apparent activation energy on the degree of conversion suggesting parallel reaction scheme. Consequently, the weight loss data in each thermogravimetric test was modeled using independent parallel reactions (IPR). The quality of fit (QOF) for the model ranged between 2.09% and 3.31% indicating a good agreement with the experimental data.

  18. A survey of straw use and tail biting in Swedish pig farms rearing undocked pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Wallgren, Torun; Westin, Rebecka; Gunnarsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background Tail biting is a common problem in intensive pig farming, affecting both welfare and production. Although routine tail docking is banned within the EU, it remains a common practice to prevent tail biting. Straw as environmental enrichment has been proposed as an alternative to tail docking, but its effectiveness against tail biting and function in manure handling systems have to be considered. The aim of the study was to survey how pigs with intact tails are raised and how tail bit...

  19. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, M.S. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Van Essen, D.C. [Advanced Integrated Management Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes stored in underground tanks. These wastes must be retrieved, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed for disposal. Before removal from the storage tanks, the sludge and liquid wastes will typically be combined to create a mixture of suspended solids, generally referred to as a slurry; the slurry is then pumped from the tank to the treatment facilities by pipelines. Since the wastes are radioactive, it is critically important that the slurries are transported safely and successfully. The consequences of pipeline plugging are unacceptable from the perspectives of schedule, cost, and safety. The baseline method of ensuring that the transport properties of the slurries are correct is to sample the slurry in the tank and analyze the sample in the laboratory. This method has some problems. First, there is a delay between the time that the sample is taken and the time that the analytical results are reported. For some types of analysis, this delay could be from 24 to 48 hours. Second, although the tank is being mixed to keep tile solids in suspension during this period, there is no way to determine whether the contents of the tank are homogenous unless multiple samples are collected at various depths and locations. Therefore, an on-line system that monitors slurry transport properties in real time is needed to evaluate the slurry prior to and during transfer.

  20. Balancing phosphine in manure fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eismann, F; Glindemann, D; Bergmann, A; Kuschk, P

    1997-11-01

    The evolution of phosphine gas during the anaerobic batch fermentation of fresh swine manure was detected and correlated to the production of methane and hydrogen sulphide. A close temporal relationship between phosphine liberation and methane formation was found. However, the gaseous phosphine released from manure during fermentation only represents a tiny fraction of the overall phosphine balance. The majority of phosphine is captured in solid manure constituents. This matrix-bound phosphine is eliminated by more than 50% during anaerobic batch-fermentation. Seasonally determined phosphine concentrations in biogas and manure from two large-scale manure treatment plants also revealed net losses of phosphine in fermentation. Consequently, manure has to be considered more as a sink of phosphine rather than a phosphine-generating medium. Furthermore, a close relationship between phosphine in the feed of swine and manure of these swine was observed, implying that phosphine residues in the feed (possibly as a result of grain fumigation) represent an important source of phosphine in manure technologies that is relevant before the faecals of swine enter manure treatment plants.

  1. The effect of cattle slurry electroflotation products as fertilizers on gaseous emissions and grassland yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, S; Merino, P; Lekuona, A; Pinto, M; González-Murua, C; Estavillo, J M

    2008-01-01

    The climatic conditions of the Basque Country (northern Spain) provide the favorable conditions for the growth of grasslands and the development of livestock enterprises. The intensification of the farms is leading to serious environmental risks due to the great generation of manures and slurries and their subsequent inefficient management. Their application involves N losses that can be pollutant. The environmental company ADE BIOTEC S.L. is developing the process called "electroflotation" with the aim of reducing the volume of slurries from intensive livestock farms. The process consists basically of an electrolysis of the slurry catalyzed by iron which leads to the flocculation of the solid particles, giving as a final result a solid and a liquid fraction. The objective of this work was to assess the usefulness of these two fractions as fertilizers. With this aim, the environmental risk of their application was determined regarding gaseous emissions to the atmosphere (i.e., of NO, NH(3), N(2)O, and CO(2)) and their fertilizer capacity was investigated by determining their effects on grassland yield and N uptake in comparison to the untreated slurry. The untreated slurry and the solid and the liquid fractions were all applied at a rate of 70 kg NH(4)(+)-N ha(-1). The application of the products of electroflotation did not affect N(2)O and CO(2) losses, being of the same magnitude as those caused by the application of the original slurry. However, after their application, a reduction in NH(3) volatilization losses was induced in the short term and a reduction in NO losses was caused in the long term. The solid and liquid fractions both increased biomass yield with respect to the untreated slurry. The solid fraction even induced a higher N uptake than the liquid fraction and the untreated slurry.

  2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Manure Management Chains on Smallholder Livestock Farms with and without Biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duong, Quynh Vu

    or crop residue with digestate showed significantly lower CH4 and N2O emissions compared with traditional composting of pig manure. The combined application of digestate and rice straw biochar (D+B) for paddy rice also reduced CH4 emissions from paddy rice field and increased grain yield, contributing...

  3. Slurry flow principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shook, C A; Brenner, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Slurry Flow: Principles and Practice describes the basic concepts and methods for understanding and designing slurry flow systems, in-plan installations, and long-distance transportation systems. The goal of this book is to enable the design or plant engineer to derive the maximum benefit from a limited amount of test data and to generalize operating experience to new situations. Design procedures are described in detail and are accompanied by illustrative examples needed by engineers with little or no previous experience in slurry transport.The technical literature in this field is extensive:

  4. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  5. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from composting of animal manure and other organic waste products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune

    on human health and ecosystem health. Thus, alternative technologies for recycling manure and utilising it as a nutrient source for crop production, while minimising the environmental costs, are important for the sustainability of the livestock and poultry sectors. Composting of animal manure and other......, but information on its effect on GHG emissions, especially nitrous oxide (N2O), is still limited. This thesis investigated the main processes and factors affecting the physicochemical composition of the compost and emissions of GHG and NH3 during composting of animal manure and other organic waste products....... Laboratory studies showed that differences in the initial physical properties (moisture, bulk density, particle density and air-filled porosity) of separated animal slurry solid fractions (SSF) had a considerable impact on the development of compost maximum temperatures (40-70 o C) and the time required (2...

  6. Animal manure application and soil organic carbon stocks: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Émilie; Angers, Denis A

    2014-02-01

    The impact of animal manure application on soil organic carbon (SOC) stock changes is of interest for both agronomic and environmental purposes. There is a specific need to quantify SOC change for use in national greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories. We quantified the response of SOC stocks to manure application from a large worldwide pool of individual studies and determined the impact of explanatory factors such as climate, soil properties, land use and manure characteristics. Our study is based on a meta-analysis of 42 research articles totaling 49 sites and 130 observations in the world. A dominant effect of cumulative manure-C input on SOC response was observed as this factor explained at least 53% of the variability in SOC stock differences compared to mineral fertilized or unfertilized reference treatments. However, the effects of other determining factors were not evident from our data set. From the linear regression relating cumulative C inputs and SOC stock difference, a global manure-C retention coefficient of 12% ± 4 (95% Confidence Interval, CI) could be estimated for an average study duration of 18 years. Following an approach comparable to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, we estimated a relative SOC change factor of 1.26 ± 0.14 (95% CI) which was also related to cumulative manure-C input. Our results offer some scope for the refinement of manure retention coefficients used in crop management guidelines and for the improvement of SOC change factors for national GHG inventories by taking into account manure-C input. Finally, this study emphasizes the need to further document the long-term impact of manure characteristics such as animal species, especially pig and poultry, and manure management systems, in particular liquid vs. solid storage.

  7. Sobrevivência e perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos de Salmonella sp. isoladas em um sistema de tratamento de dejetos de suínos Survival and resistance patterns of Salmonella sp. isolated in a pig slurry treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Schmidt

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, foi avaliada a sobrevivência de Salmonella sp., presente em dejetos suínos, durante tratamento em um sistema de separação física e lagoas de estabilização ligadas em série. Nas amostras de Salmonella sp. isoladas foi determinado o perfil de resistência pelo método de difusão em ágar, usando 14 antimicrobianos. Das 20 coletas realizadas, foi possível isolar Salmonella sp. em 13 coletas no ponto correspondente ao início do sistema de tratamento e em apenas uma no ponto final do mesmo. Amostras de Salmonella sp. isoladas (161/163 pertenciam ao sorotipo Typhimurium e demonstraram resistência contra sulfonamida (100%, tetraciclina (99,4%, estreptomicina (90,1%, sulfa/trimetoprima (84,5%, ácido nalidíxico (77,6%, ampicilina (76,4%, cloranfenicol (29,2%, cefaclor (25,5%, tobramicina (13,7%, gentamicina (6,2%, amoxacilina/ácido clavulânico (5%, neomicina (5% e amicacina (3,7%. A maioria (94,5% das amostras isoladas foram resistente a 4 ou mais antimicrobianos e apresentaram grande variabilidade nos perfis de resistência. O nível de resistência e a variabilidade dos perfis mantiveram-se em nível semelhante ao longo do sistema.The survival of Salmonella sp. in pig slurry submitted to treatment in successive stabilization ponds on a pig-breeding farm was investigated. Furthermore, the isolated Salmonella strains were tested for their resistance against 14 antibiotics, using the agar diffusion method. Of a total of 20 samples taken from different points in the stabilization ponds system, 13 were positive for Salmonella sp. in the beginning and only one at the end of the system. Most of the isolated Salmonella strains (161/163 belonged to sorovar Typhimurium. These strains were resistant to sulfonamide (100%, tetracycline (9.4%, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprin (84.5%, ampicillin (76.4%, cloramphenicol (29.2%, streptomycin (90.1%, nalidixic acid (77.6%, tobramycin (13.7%, neomycin (5%, amikacin (3.7%, cefaclor (25

  8. Kinetics of Methane Production from Swine Manure and Buffalo Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Liu, Ronghou

    2015-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of swine and buffalo manure for methane production was investigated. Six kinetic models were employed to describe the corresponding experimental data. These models were evaluated by two statistical measurements, which were root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The results showed that the logistic and Fitzhugh models could predict the experimental data very well for the digestion of swine and buffalo manure, respectively. The predicted methane yield potential for swine and buffalo manure was 487.9 and 340.4 mL CH4/g volatile solid (VS), respectively, which was close to experimental values, when the digestion temperature was 36 ± 1 °C in the biochemical methane potential assays. Besides, the rate constant revealed that swine manure had a much faster methane production rate than buffalo manure.

  9. Concentrations of Trace Elements in Organic Fertilizers and Animal Manures and Feeds and Cadmium Contamination in Herbal Tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Prachoom, Norratouch; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2016-04-27

    Thailand is predominantly an agriculture-based country. Organic farming is enlisted as an important national agenda to promote food safety and international export. The present study aimed to determine the concentrations of trace elements in commercial organic fertilizers (fermented and nonfermented) composed of pig and cattle manures available in Thailand. Pig and cattle manures as well as animal feeds were also collected from either animal farms or markets. The results were compared to the literature data from other countries. Fermented fertilizer composed of pig manure contained higher concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) than fertilizer composed of cattle manure. High concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were also found in fertilizers and manures. Some organic fertilizers had high concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). The range of As concentration in these fertilizers was 0.50-24.4 mg/kg, whereas the ranges of Cd and Pb were 0.10-11.4 and 1.13-126 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, pig manure contained As and Cd (15.7 and 4.59 mg/kg, respectively), higher than their levels in cattle manure (1.95 and 0.16 mg/kg, respectively). The use of pig manure as soil supplement also resulted in high Cd contamination in herbal tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino; GP). The Cd concentration in GP plants positively correlated with the Cd concentration in the soil. Therefore, the application of some organic fertilizers or animal manures to agricultural soil could increase some potentially toxic elements in soil, which may be absorbed by plants and, thus, increase the risk of contamination in agricultural products.

  10. Effects of digestate from anaerobically digested cattle slurry and plant materials on soil microbial community and emission of CO2 and N2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Carter, Mette Sustmann; Jensen, Erik S.

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure and crop residues may be employed to produce biogas as a climate-neutral source of energy and to recycle plant nutrients as fertilizers. However, especially organic farmers are concerned that fertilizing with the digestates may impact the soil microbiota...... and fertility because they contain more mineral nitrogen (N) and less organic carbon (C) than the non-digested input materials (e.g. raw animal slurry or fresh plant residues). Hence, an incubation study was performed where (1) water, (2) raw cattle slurry, (3) anaerobically digested cattle slurry/maize, (4...... of the other treatments during the 9 days. Regarding microbial community composition, grass-clover induced the largest changes in microbial diversity measures compared to the controls, where raw cattle slurry and the two anaerobically digested materials (cattle slurry/maize, cattle slurry/grass-clover) only...

  11. Agronomic effects of bovine manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavattaro, Laura; Bechini, Luca; Grignani, Carlo; Evert, van Frits K.; Mallast, Janine; Spiegel, Heide; Sandén, Taru; Pecio, Alicja; Giráldez Cervera, Juan Vicente; Guzmán, Gema; Vanderlinden, Karl; Hose, D' Tommy; Ruysschaert, Greet; Berge, ten Hein F.M.

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the agronomic value of animal manure, we quantified the effects of pedo-climatic, crop and management factors on crop productivity, N use efficiency, and soil organic matter, described with simple indicators that compare manures with mineral fertilizers. We selected 80 European

  12. Biogas Production from Cow Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Artanti Putri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of biogas from livestock waste manure in particular is one of the alternative utilization of organic wastes that can be implemented in Indonesia since there is a huge potential of bio-energy in Indonesia. This study utilizes cow manure as the raw material for making biogas and it is coupled with a cow rumen fluid and water. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of manure, rumen, and water composition in biogas production. The research was conducted in anaerobic for 60 days. The composition of manure, water, and the rumen were vary following the variable and ratio; variable A (manure and water; variable B (manure and rumen. The results indicate that the variable A (manure and water with a 1:3 ratio, and the variable B (manure and rumen with a 1:2 ratio produced the highest volume of biogas compared to other ratios. The highest biogas production occurred on average at day 23.

  13. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, M.S. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Van Essen, D.C. [Advanced Integrated Management Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes that must be retrieved from underground storage tanks, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed to a final waste form. The wastes will be removed from the current storage tanks by mobilizing the sludge wastes and mixing them with the liquid wastes to create slurries. Each slurry would then be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. To reduce the risk of plugging a pipeline, the transport properties (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, particle size range) of the slurry should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be monitored and controlled within specified limits while the slurry transfer is in progress. The DOE issued a call for proposals for developing on-line instrumentation to measure the transport properties of slurries. In response to the call for proposals, several researchers submitted proposals and were funded to develop slurry monitoring instruments. These newly developed DOE instruments are currently in the prototype stage. Before the instruments were installed in a radioactive application, the DOE wanted to evaluate them under nonradioactive conditions to determine if they were accurate, reliable, and dependable. The goal of this project was to test the performance of the newly developed DOE instruments along with several commercially available instruments. The baseline method for comparison utilized the results from grab-sample analyses.

  14. Medical ice slurry production device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Kenneth E.; Oras, John; Son, HyunJin

    2008-06-24

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

  15. Slurry Injection Schemes on the Extent of Slurry Mixing and Availability during Chemical Mechanical Planarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Bahr

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, slurry availability and the extent of the slurry mixing (i.e., among fresh slurry, spent slurry, and residual rinse-water were varied via three different injection schemes. An ultraviolet enhanced fluorescence technique was employed to qualitatively indicate slurry availability and its flow on the pad during polishing. This study investigated standard pad center area slurry application and a slurry injection system (SIS that covered only the outer half of the wafer track. Results indicated that the radial position of slurry injection and the alteration of fluid mechanics by the SIS played important roles in slurry mixing characteristics and availability atop the pad. Removal rates were found to decrease with slurry availability, while a higher degree of slurry mixing decreased the fraction of fresh slurry and consequently lowered the removal rate. By using a hybrid system (i.e., a combination of slurry injection via SIS and standard pad center slurry application, the polishing process benefited from higher slurry availability and higher fraction of fresh slurry than the conventional pad center slurry application and the shorter SIS, individually. This work underscores the importance of optimum slurry injection geometry and flow for obtaining a more cost-effective and environmentally benign chemical mechanical planarization process.

  16. Mitigation of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane emissions from manure management chains: a meta-analysis and integrated assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yong; Velthof, Gerard L; Oenema, Oene

    2015-03-01

    Livestock manure contributes considerably to global emissions of ammonia (NH3 ) and greenhouse gases (GHG), especially methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O). Various measures have been developed to mitigate these emissions, but most of these focus on one specific gas and/or emission source. Here, we present a meta-analysis and integrated assessment of the effects of mitigation measures on NH3 , CH4 and (direct and indirect) N2 O emissions from the whole manure management chain. We analysed the effects of mitigation technologies on NH3 , CH4 and N2 O emissions from individual sources statistically using results of 126 published studies. Whole-chain effects on NH3 and GHG emissions were assessed through scenario analysis. Significant NH3 reduction efficiencies were observed for (i) housing via lowering the dietary crude protein (CP) content (24-65%, compared to the reference situation), for (ii) external slurry storages via acidification (83%) and covers of straw (78%) or artificial films (98%), for (iii) solid manure storages via compaction and covering (61%, compared to composting), and for (iv) manure application through band spreading (55%, compared to surface application), incorporation (70%) and injection (80%). Acidification decreased CH4 emissions from stored slurry by 87%. Significant increases in N2 O emissions were found for straw-covered slurry storages (by two orders of magnitude) and manure injection (by 26-199%). These side-effects of straw covers and slurry injection on N2 O emission were relatively small when considering the total GHG emissions from the manure chain. Lowering the CP content of feed and acidifying slurry are strategies that consistently reduce NH3 and GHG emissions in the whole chain. Other strategies may reduce emissions of a specific gas or emissions source, by which there is a risk of unwanted trade-offs in the manure management chain. Proper farm-scale combinations of mitigation measures are important to minimize impacts of

  17. Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Robert E.; Basic, Steven L.; Smith, Russel M.

    1994-01-01

    A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

  18. Experiences in construction of liquid manure regeneration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichler, D.

    1981-08-01

    We have to divide the main problems of the development of the liquid manure regeneration into three steps of procedure, especially the regeneration in pig production units up to 200,000 animal places: 1. solid-liquid-separation, 2. microbiological processing, 3. bio-sludge processing. The aim of the processing method is the production: of a chargeable solid matter with 30% dried matter especially for fertilization; of a cleaned waste water for the using in sprinkling irrigation systems or ponds or usual sewage treatment plants of a proteinaceous dried bio-matter with about 50% raw protein, that will be used after an elucidation of the conditions as a special compost in the champignon production, as aggregates for fish food, as primary material for other feed. The arrangement and structure of such a liquid manure regeneration plant will be illustrated by some pictures and tables.

  19. 蚓粪与猪粪堆肥配合对腐殖质组成变化和产量的影响%Influence of the Assorted Usage of Wormcast and Pig Manure Compost on the Composition Change of Humus and Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈毛华; 徐阳春

    2014-01-01

    通过盆栽试验研究蚓粪与猪粪堆肥配合栽培苋菜腐殖质组成成分变化特征以及腐殖质对苋菜产量的影响。结果表明:蚓粪与猪粪堆肥配合处理栽培苋菜过程中,各处理的可提取腐殖物质、胡敏酸、富里酸数量均表现出增加趋势,增幅随着蚓粪比例的增加而增加;胡敏素、胡敏素/可提取腐殖物质数量呈现下降趋势,降幅随着蚓粪比例的增加而减小;胡敏酸/富里酸呈现先降后升,总体上升趋势,并且随着蚓粪比例的增加上升幅度减小。栽培初期40%蚓粪添加比例苋菜产量最高,纯蚓粪处理产量最低;栽培后期60%蚓粪添加比例苋菜产量最低,纯猪粪产量最高。在养分不足条件下,腐殖质含量与苋菜产量没有相关性。%The research focuses on the influence of the assorted usage of wormcast and pig manure compost on the composition change of humus and amaranth′s yield through pot experiment. Results showed that humus,humic acid,fulvic acid showed a trend of increase as a whole,and the increasing degree enlarged when treated with in-creased proportion of wormcast;humin,humin/humus showed a trend of decrease as a whole,and the decreasing de-gree reduced when treated with increased proportion of wormcast;humic acid/fulvic acid increased first and then decreased,while it showed a trend of increase as a whole,and the increasing degree reduced when treated with in-creased proportion of wormcast. At the beginning period of cultivation amaranth′s yield reached the highest when treated with 40% wormcast,and the lowest when treated with pure wormcast;at the later period of cultivation ama-ranth′s yield reached the lowest when treated with 60% wormcast,and the highest when treated with pure pig ma-nure compost. Results showed that under the condition of insufficient nutrients,there was no relevance between hu-mus content and yield of amaranth.

  20. Methane conversion factors from cattle manure in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Avalos, E. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E:mail: egavalos@imp.mx; Ruiz-Suarez, L.G. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-01-15

    Methane emission factors from different cattle manure management systems including simulated slurry system fermentation were experimentally determined in this and a previous study (Gonzalez-Avalos and Ruiz-Suarez, 2001). Combining results from both studies, we report values for maximum CH4 yield, called B0, for manure produced by cattle under different production systems and climates, which also implies different quality of feeds and associated methane conversion factors (MCF) for distinct manure management systems. This set of data has the same functionality than that of the current IPCC methodology, but offer a wider set of key parameters to estimate methane emissions from manure, which may be of interest in other countries. In this work, we report MCF can be up to 17.3 times smaller than those suggested in the 1996 Revised IPCC Methodology Guidelines (IPCC, 1997) and Good Practice Guidance (IPCC, 2000). [Spanish] Los factores de emision de metano de diferentes sistemas de manejo de excretas, incluyendo la simulacion de la fermentacion en un sistema de lechada, fueron determinados experimentalmente en este trabajo y en otro anterior (Gonzalez-Avalos y Ruiz-Suarez, 2001). Al combinar ambos, se obtuvieron valores para la produccion maxima de metano (B0) provenientes de excretas producidas por ganado bovino de diferentes sistemas de produccion y climas, lo cual implica diversas calidades de alimento y factores de conversion de metano (MCF) dependiendo de los sistemas de manejo de excretas. Este conjunto de datos tiene la misma funcionalidad que los de la metodologia actual del IPCC, pero ofrece un conjunto de parametros mas amplio para estimar las emisiones de metano por excretas, lo cual puede ser de interes en otros paises. En este trabajo se reporta que los MCF pueden ser hasta 17.3 veces mas pequenos que los sugeridos en las Directrices de la Metodologia Revisada del IPCC de 1996 (IPCC, 1997) y en la Guia de Buenas Practicas (IPCC, 2000).