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Sample records for pig ligated intestinal

  1. Application of a pig ligated intestinal loop model for early Lawsonia intracellularis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boutrup, Torsten Snogdal; Schauser, Kirsten; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2010-01-01

    -enterocyte interactions. Methods A ligated small intestinal loop model using three different L. intracellularis inocula was applied to 10- 11-week-old pigs. The inocula were 1) wild type bacteria derived from overnight incubation of L. intracellularis bacteria from spontaneous disease, 2) crude vaccine bacteria...... of the initial in vivo interaction between porcine intestinal epithelium and the bacterium is limited. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the usefulness of a ligated small intestinal loop model to study L. intracellularis infections and to obtain information on the very early L. intracellularis...... border. Conclusions The ligated intestinal loop model was useful with respect to maintaining an intact intestinal morphology for up to 6 h. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that L. intracellularis interacts with villus enterocytes within 3 to 6 h after inoculation into intestinal loops...

  2. Application of a pig ligated intestinal loop model for early Lawsonia intracellularis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boutrup, Torsten Snogdal; Schauser, Kirsten Hallundbæk; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen

    2010-01-01

    -enterocyte interactions. METHODS: A ligated small intestinal loop model using three different L. intracellularis inocula was applied to 10-11-week-old pigs. The inocula were 1) wild type bacteria derived from overnight incubation of L. intracellularis bacteria from spontaneous disease, 2) crude vaccine bacteria...... of the initial in vivo interaction between porcine intestinal epithelium and the bacterium is limited. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the usefulness of a ligated small intestinal loop model to study L. intracellularis infections and to obtain information on the very early L. intracellularis...... border. CONCLUSIONS: The ligated intestinal loop model was useful with respect to maintaining an intact intestinal morphology for up to 6 h. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that L. intracellularis interacts with villus enterocytes within 3 to 6 h after inoculation into intestinal loops...

  3. Application of a pig ligated intestinal loop model for early Lawsonia intracellularis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agerholm Jørgen S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine proliferative enteropathy in pigs is caused by the obligate, intracellular bacterium Lawsonia intracellularis. In vitro studies have shown close bacterium-cell interaction followed by cellular uptake of the bacterium within 3 h post inoculation (PI. However, knowledge of the initial in vivo interaction between porcine intestinal epithelium and the bacterium is limited. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the usefulness of a ligated small intestinal loop model to study L. intracellularis infections and to obtain information on the very early L. intracellularis-enterocyte interactions. Methods A ligated small intestinal loop model using three different L. intracellularis inocula was applied to 10-11-week-old pigs. The inocula were 1 wild type bacteria derived from overnight incubation of L. intracellularis bacteria from spontaneous disease, 2 crude vaccine bacteria (Enterisol® Ileitis Vet, and 3 vaccine bacteria propagated in cell culture. The bacteria-enterocyte interaction was visualised using immunohistochemistry on specimens derived 1, 3 and 6 h PI respectively. Results Although at a low level, close contact between bacteria and the enterocyte brush border including intracellular uptake of bacteria in mature enterocytes was seen at 3 and 6 h PI for the vaccine and the propagated vaccine inocula. Interaction between the wild-type bacteria and villus enterocytes was scarce and only seen at 6 h PI, where a few bacteria were found in close contact with the brush border. Conclusions The ligated intestinal loop model was useful with respect to maintaining an intact intestinal morphology for up to 6 h. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that L. intracellularis interacts with villus enterocytes within 3 to 6 h after inoculation into intestinal loops and that the bacterium, as shown for the vaccine bacteria, propagated as well as non-propagated, was able to invade mature enterocytes. Thus, the study demonstrates

  4. Alteration of the Microbiota and Virulence Gene Expression in E. coli O157:H7 in Pig Ligated Intestine with and without AE Lesions.

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    Bianfang Liu

    Full Text Available Previously we found that E. coli O157:H7 inoculated into ligated pig intestine formed attaching and effacing (AE lesions in some pigs but not in others. The present study evaluated changes in the microbial community and in virulence gene expression in E. coli O157:H7 in ligated pig intestine in which the bacteria formed AE lesions or failed to form AE lesions.The intestinal microbiota was assessed by RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis. The DGGE banding patterns showed distinct differences involving two bands which had increased intensity specifically in AE-negative pigs (AE- bands and several bands which were more abundant in AE-positive pigs. Sequence analysis revealed that the two AE- bands belonged to Veillonella caviae, a species with probiotic properties, and Bacteroides sp. Concurrent with the differences in microbiota, gene expression analysis by quantitative PCR showed that, compared with AE negative pigs, E. coli O157:H7 in AE positive pigs had upregulated genes for putative adhesins, non-LEE encoded nleA and quorum sensing qseF, acid resistance gene ureD, and genes from the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE.The present study demonstrated that AE-positive pigs had reduced activities or populations of Veillonella caviae and Bacterioides sp. compared with AE-negative pigs. Further studies are required to understand how the microbiota was changed and the role of these organisms in the control of E. coli O157:H7.

  5. Fatty acids, inflammation and intestinal health in pigs.

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    Liu, Yulan

    2015-01-01

    The intestine is not only critical for nutrient digestion and absorption, but also is the largest immune organ in the body. However, in pig production, inflammation induced by numerous factors, such as pathogen infection and stresses (e.g., weaning), results in intestinal mucosal injury and dysfunction, and consequently results in poor growth of pigs. Dietary fatty acids not only play critical roles in energy homeostasis and cellular membrane composition, but also exert potent effects on intestinal development, immune function, and inflammatory response. Recent studies support potential therapeutic roles for specific fatty acids (short chain and medium chain fatty acids and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) in intestinal inflammation of pigs. Results of these new lines of work indicate trophic and cytoprotective effects of fatty acids on intestinal integrity in pigs. In this article, we review the effect of inflammation on intestinal structure and function, and the role of specific fatty acids on intestinal health of pigs, especially under inflammatory conditions.

  6. Experiments to optimize enzyme substitution therapy in pancreatic duct-ligated pigs.

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    Kammlott, E; Karthoff, J; Stemme, K; Gregory, P; Kamphues, J

    2005-01-01

    Ligation of the pancreatic duct in pigs leads to severe maldigestion and malabsorption of crude nutrients. Supplementation with 24 capsules of Creon (Solvay Pharmaceuticals GmbH, Hannover, Germany) per meal led to an increased digestibility of crude nutrients. With regard to optimization of the treatment of EPI no essential improvements can be achieved by adding omeprazol or lecithin to the diet. In pancreatic duct-ligated pigs the isolated addition of omeprazol led to an increase of the pre-caecal digestibility of crude fat and organic matter. With additional enzyme substitution, the application of omeprazol did not result in an improved fat digestibility. Isolated addition of lecithin to the diet resulted in a reduced total digestibility of crude fat. Offering the diet twice a day and using a higher frequency of enzyme applications (four or six instead of only two applications) had no effects on the digestibilty of crude fat or organic matter. According to the observations in pancreatic duct-ligated pigs, the addition of missing enzymes to the diet led to the best treatment results in EPI. Administration of omeprazol or a higher feeding frequency as well as the application of enzymes in small proportion of the whole meal or dosages given consecutively over the day showed no advantages. Furthermore, the present study suggests that the addition of lecithin cannot be recommended in EPI, when given diets with butter as the predominant fat source as in human dietetics.

  7. Nonsulfated cholecystokinins in the small intestine of pigs and rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersnap, Mikkel; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-01-01

    -step assay specific for nonsulfated CCK. For further characterization, the intestinal extracts were subjected to size- and ion exchange-chromatography. The intestinal concentrations of sulfated and nonsulfated CCK were highest in the duodenum and the proximal part of jejunum both in the pig and the rat...

  8. Blastocystis tropism in the pig intestine.

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    Fayer, R; Elsasser, T; Gould, R; Solano, G; Urban, J; Santin, M

    2014-04-01

    Blastocystis has been reported in pig feces but the sites of development in the gastrointestinal tract are unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine predilection sites of Blastocystis in 11 naturally infected pigs examined at 20 weeks of age. At necropsy, feces and contents of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and cecum were examined by immunofluorescence (IFA) microscopy and PCR and tissues from these sites as well as the proximal and distal colon were processed for histology from pigs 1 to 5. Feces were examined by IFA microscopy, and segments from the jejunum and ileum were processed for histology from pigs 6 to 11. Multiple sections were cut from each tissue segment, and each was stained with the following: hematoxylin and eosin, polyclonal rabbit antibody to Blastocystis, and ParaFlor B monoclonal antibody to Blastocystis. Blastocystis was detected in feces of all 11 pigs by IFA microscopy and determined by PCR and gene sequencing to be subtype 5 for pigs 1-5. Blastocystis was also detected in the lumen contents removed from the cecum of pigs 1-5 examined by IFA microscopy and in the cecum of pigs 4 and 5 by PCR. Blastocystis was also observed in tissue sections from the jejunum of 7 of the 11 pigs, in the proximal and distal colon of pigs 1-5, and in the cecum of 4 of these 5 pigs but was not detected in the duodenum or ileum of any pigs. In tissue sections, Blastocystis was found primarily in the lumen usually associated with digested food debris, sometimes in close proximity or appearing to adhere to the epithelium, but no stages were found to penetrate the epithelium or the lamina propria.

  9. Studies on different iron source absorption by in situ ligated intestinal loops of broilers.

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    Jia, Y F; Jiang, M M; Sun, J; Shi, R B; Liu, D S

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the iron source absorption in the small intestine of broiler. In situ ligated intestinal loops of 70 birds were poured into one of seven solutions, including inorganic iron (FeSO4, Fe2(SO4)3), organic Fe glycine chelate (Fe-Gly(II), Fe-Gly(III)), the mixtures (FeSO4 with glycine (Fe+Gly(II)), Fe2(SO4)3 with glycine (Fe+Gly(III)), and no Fe source (control). The total volume of 3-mL solution (containing 1 mg of elemental Fe) was injected into intestinal loops, and then 120-min incubation was performed. Compared with inorganic iron groups, in which higher FeSO4 absorption than Fe2(SO4)3 was observed, supplementation with organic Fe glycine chelate significantly increased the Fe concentration in the duodenum and jejunum (P small intestine. Those results indicated that the absorption of organic Fe glycine chelate was more effective than that of inorganic Fe, and the orders of iron absorption in the small intestine were: Fe-Gly(II), Fe-Gly(III) > FeSO4, Fe+Gly(II) > Fe2(SO4)3, Fe+Gly(III). Additionally, the simple mixture of inorganic iron and glycine could not increase Fe absorption, and the duodenum was the main site of Fe absorption in the intestines of broilers and the ileum absorbed iron rarely.

  10. Postnatal ontogeny of intestinal GCPII and the RFC in pig.

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    Shafizadeh, Tracy B; Halsted, Charles H

    2009-03-01

    In humans and pigs, hydrolysis of dietary polyglutamyl folates is carried out by intestinal brush border folate hydrolase [glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII)], whereas the transport of the monoglutamyl folate derivatives occurs via the intestinal brush border reduced folate carrier (RFC). The study objective was to measure the expression of intestinal GCPII and RFC during postnatal development of pigs and their effects on plasma and liver folate concentrations. Duodenum, jejunum, ileum, liver, and plasma samples were collected from female Yorkshire pigs at birth, 24 h, 1 wk, 3 wk, and 6 mo (n=6 at each time point). GCPII mRNA transcripts and protein (normalized using beta-actin), and enzyme activity (normalized per mg mucosal protein) were highest in all segments of small intestine at birth and were undetectable in ileum after 1 wk, whereas jejunal protein and activity predominated at 6 mo. RFC mRNA transcripts were present in all segments of small intestine at birth and declined significantly throughout development to 6 mo. Conversely, RFC protein increased twofold during the first 24 h and remained constant throughout development in all segments of small intestine. Liver RFC mRNA transcripts were detected at birth but were reduced by 6 mo. Liver folate concentration increased throughout postnatal development, whereas plasma folate levels increased during the first 24 h but decreased over time, reflecting the pattern of RFC expression in small intestine. These findings show that intestinal GCPII and intestinal and hepatic RFC all exhibit ontogenic changes in the pig that are reflected in postnatal folate status.

  11. Impact of Deoxynivalenol on the Intestinal Microflora of Pigs

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    Philippe Fravalo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, a mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species, is a frequent contaminant of cereal. In the present study, 24 weanling piglets received either control feed or feed naturally contaminated with DON (2.8 mg/kg for four weeks. Consumption of contaminated feed significantly reduced the animal weight gain during the first week of the experiment, but had a moderate effect on cultivable bacteria in the pig intestine. By contrast, changes in the intestinal microflora were observed by Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Stranded Conformation Polymorphism (CE-SSCP in DON-exposed animals, suggesting an impact of this toxin on the dynamics of intestinal bacteria communities.

  12. Intestinal translocation of Streptococcus suis type 2 EF+ in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swildens, B.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Meulen, van der J.; Wisselink, H.J.; Nielen, M.; Niewold, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Sepsis with subsequent multisystem organ failure after translocation of bacteria from the gut is a serious risk associated with stress situations. We showed that intestinal bacterial translocation could be one of the pathways for pathogenic Streptococcus suis infections in the pig. In 24 piglets wei

  13. Lawsonia intracellularis infection in the large intestines of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Boye, Mette

    2006-01-01

    In this study we examined the proliferative enteropathy, caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Lawsonia intracellularis, in colon of naturally infected pigs, using immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridisation and scanning confocal laser microscopy. When 396 pigs submitted for routine...... was only revealed in colon. Fifty-seven pigs were positive for L. intracellularis in the small intestines only. Thus, the overall prevalence of colonic infection in L. intracellularis-positive animals was as high as 69% (125 out of 182). In comparison, the large intestinal pathogens Brachyspira...... hyodysenteriae and Salmonella enterica were only isolated from 5 and 4 of the 93 cases, respectively. Morphologically, an unforeseen severe involvement of the subepithelial mucosa with multiple L. intracellularis found free and within large macrophages was observed in areas with acute infection. The distribution...

  14. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the pig pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the pig pancreas is localized to nerves, many of which travel along the pancreatic ducts. VIP stimulates pancreatic fluid and bicarbonate secretion like secretin. Electrical vagal stimulation in the pig causes an atropine-resistant profuse secretion...... of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice. In an isolated perfused preparation of the pig pancreas with intact vagal nerve supply, electrical vagal stimulation caused an atropine-resistant release of VIP, which accurately parallelled the exocrine secretion of juice and bicarbonate. Perfusion of the pancreas...... with a potent VIP-antiserum inhibited the effect of vagal stimulation on the exocrine secretion. It is concluded, that VIP is responsible for (at least part of) the neurally controlled fluid and bicarbonate secretion from the pig pancreas....

  15. Heat stress reduces intestinal barrier integrity and favors intestinal glucose transport in growing pigs.

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    Pearce, Sarah C; Mani, Venkatesh; Boddicker, Rebecca L; Johnson, Jay S; Weber, Thomas E; Ross, Jason W; Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H; Gabler, Nicholas K

    2013-01-01

    Excessive heat exposure reduces intestinal integrity and post-absorptive energetics that can inhibit wellbeing and be fatal. Therefore, our objectives were to examine how acute heat stress (HS) alters intestinal integrity and metabolism in growing pigs. Animals were exposed to either thermal neutral (TN, 21°C; 35-50% humidity; n=8) or HS conditions (35°C; 24-43% humidity; n=8) for 24 h. Compared to TN, rectal temperatures in HS pigs increased by 1.6°C and respiration rates by 2-fold (Pintestinal integrity was compromised in the HS pigs (ileum and colon TER decreased; PIntestinal permeability was accompanied by an increase in protein expression of myosin light chain kinase (PIntestinal glucose transport and blood glucose were elevated due to HS (Pintestinal integrity and increase intestinal stress and glucose transport.

  16. Proteomic approaches to study the pig intestinal system.

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    Soler, Laura; Niewold, Theo A; Moreno, Ángela; Garrido, Juan Jose

    2014-03-01

    One of the major challenges in pig production is managing digestive health to maximize feed conversion and growth rates, but also to minimize treatment costs and to warrant public health. There is a great interest in the development of useful tools for intestinal health monitoring and the investigation of possible prophylactic/ therapeutic intervention pathways. A great variety of in vivo and in vitro intestinal models of study have been developed in the recent years. The understanding of such a complex system as the intestinal system (IS), and the study of its physiology and pathology is not an easy task. Analysis of such a complex system requires the use of systems biology techniques, like proteomics. However, for a correct interpretation of results and to maximize analysis performance, a careful selection of the IS model of study and proteomic platform is required. The study of the IS system is especially important in the pig, a species whose farming requires a very careful management of husbandry procedures regarding feeding and nutrition. The incorrect management of the pig digestive system leads directly to economic losses related suboptimal growth and feed utilization and/or the appearance of intestinal infections, in particular diarrhea. Furthermore, this species is the most suitable experimental model for human IS studies. Proteomics has risen as one of the most promising approaches to study the pig IS. In this review, we describe the most useful models of IS research in porcine and the different proteomic platforms available. An overview of the recent findings in pig IS proteomics is also provided.

  17. Intestinal CFTR expression alleviates meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, David A; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Ernst, Sarah E; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Karp, Philip H; Samuel, Melissa S; Reznikov, Leah R; Rector, Michael V; Gansemer, Nicholas D; Bouzek, Drake C; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H; Hoegger, Mark J; Ludwig, Paula S; Taft, Peter J; Wallen, Tanner J; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine; McMenimen, James D; Chen, Jeng-Haur; Bogan, Katrina L; Adam, Ryan J; Hornick, Emma E; Nelson, George A; Hoffman, Eric A; Chang, Eugene H; Zabner, Joseph; McCray, Paul B; Prather, Randall S; Meyerholz, David K; Welsh, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) pigs develop disease with features remarkably similar to those in people with CF, including exocrine pancreatic destruction, focal biliary cirrhosis, micro-gallbladder, vas deferens loss, airway disease, and meconium ileus. Whereas meconium ileus occurs in 15% of babies with CF, the penetrance is 100% in newborn CF pigs. We hypothesized that transgenic expression of porcine CF transmembrane conductance regulator (pCFTR) cDNA under control of the intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (iFABP) promoter would alleviate the meconium ileus. We produced 5 CFTR-/-;TgFABP>pCFTR lines. In 3 lines, intestinal expression of CFTR at least partially restored CFTR-mediated anion transport and improved the intestinal phenotype. In contrast, these pigs still had pancreatic destruction, liver disease, and reduced weight gain, and within weeks of birth, they developed sinus and lung disease, the severity of which varied over time. These data indicate that expressing CFTR in intestine without pancreatic or hepatic correction is sufficient to rescue meconium ileus. Comparing CFTR expression in different lines revealed that approximately 20% of wild-type CFTR mRNA largely prevented meconium ileus. This model may be of value for understanding CF pathophysiology and testing new preventions and therapies.

  18. Precision machining of pig intestine using ultrafast laser pulses

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    Beck, Rainer J.; Góra, Wojciech S.; Carter, Richard M.; Gunadi, Sonny; Jayne, David; Hand, Duncan P.; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2015-07-01

    Endoluminal surgery for the treatment of early stage colorectal cancer is typically based on electrocautery tools which imply restrictions on precision and the risk of harm through collateral thermal damage to the healthy tissue. As a potential alternative to mitigate these drawbacks we present laser machining of pig intestine by means of picosecond laser pulses. The high intensities of an ultrafast laser enable nonlinear absorption processes and a predominantly nonthermal ablation regime. Laser ablation results of square cavities with comparable thickness to early stage colorectal cancers are presented for a wavelength of 1030 nm using an industrial picosecond laser. The corresponding histology sections exhibit only minimal collateral damage to the surrounding tissue. The depth of the ablation can be controlled precisely by means of the pulse energy. Overall, the application of ultrafast lasers to ablate pig intestine enables significantly improved precision and reduced thermal damage to the surrounding tissue compared to conventional techniques.

  19. Biomechanical remodeling of the chronically obstructed Guinea pig small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storkholm, Jan Henrik; Zhao, Jingbo; Villadsen, Gerda E; Hager, H; Jensen, Steen L; Gregersen, Hans

    2007-02-01

    Small intestinal obstruction is a frequently encountered clinical problem. To understand the mechanisms behind obstruction and the clinical consequences, data are needed on the relation between the morphologic and biomechanical remodeling that takes place in the intestinal wall during chronic obstruction. We sought to determine the effect of partial obstruction on mechanical and morphologic properties of the guinea pig small intestine. Partial obstruction was created surgically in 2 groups of animals living for 2 and 4 weeks. Controls were sham operated and lived for 4 weeks. A combined impedance planimetry-high-frequency ultrasound system was designed to measure the luminal cross-sectional area and wall thickness. These measures were used to compute the circumferential stress and strain of the excised intestinal segments. The incremental elastic modulus was obtained by using nonlinear fitting of the stress-strain curve. Histologic analysis and the measurements of total wall collagen were also performed. The luminal cross-sectional area, wall thickness, and elastic modulus in circumferential direction increased in a time-dependent manner proximal to the obstruction site (P 0.25). The circumferential stress-strain curves of the proximal segments in 2- and 4-week groups shifted to the left, indicating the intestinal wall became stiffer. Histologic examination revealed a massive increase in the thickness of the muscle layer especially the circular smooth muscle layer (P < 0.05). The collagen content proximal to the obstruction site was significantly larger in the partially obstructed animals compared to controls (P < 0.05). No difference was found distal to the obstruction site. Strong correlation was found between the collagen content and the elastic modulus at stress levels of 70 kPa stress (P < 0.01) and 10 kPa (P < 0.05) proximal to the obstruction site suggesting that the alteration of collagen has great impact on the mechanical remodeling. The morphologic and

  20. Interstitial cells of Cajal and Auerbach's plexus. A scanning electron microscopical study of guinea-pig small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Harry; Thuneberg, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy......Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy...

  1. Oxidative DNA damage after transplantation of the liver and small intestine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, S; Larsen, P N; Rasmussen, A

    1995-01-01

    Oxidative damage is thought to play an important role in ischemia/reperfusion injury, including the outcome of transplantation of the liver and intestine. We have investigated oxidative DNA damage after combined transplantation of the liver and small intestine in 5 pigs. DNA damage was estimated...... to DNA results from reperfusion of transplanted small intestine and liver in pigs, as estimated from the readily excreted repair product 8-oxodG....

  2. Oral Insulin Stimulates Intestinal Department and Enzyme Maturation in Newborn Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tian; XU Ruo-jun; HUO Yong-jiu

    2004-01-01

    The effects of oral insulin on intestinal tissue growth and brush border enzyme activities in newborn pigs were examined in this study. Newborn unsuckled pigs were bottle-fed for3 days with artificial milk(M),milk supplemented with 60mIUmL-1 of insulin(IH)or hydrolyzed milk(HM). Compared with newborn unsuckled pigs,piglets bottle-fed for 3 days all gained in intestinal weight and length significantly despite a mild loss in body weight during the experimental period. The activities of lactase and alkaline phosphatase(AKP)in the small intestinal mucosa declined markedly in pigs fed with M,but the activity of maltase increased significantly during the experimental period. Dietary protein pre-hydrolysis had no significant effect on intestinal tissue mass or length,but it moderated the decline of intestinal lactase and AKP activities. Dietary supplementation of insulin significantly increased mucosal protein content and brush border activities of lactase,maltase,AKP and aminopeptidase(AP)in the small intestine.The effect. of insulin treatment was particularly obvious at the distal region of the small intestine. These results demonstrate that oral insulin can stimulate intestinal digestive enzyme activities in newborn pigs. The finding supports the hypothesis that milk-borne insulin plays a role in regulating postnatal gut development in the suckling young.

  3. Flavanol-Enriched Cocoa Powder Alters the Intestinal Microbiota, Tissue and Fluid Metabolite Profiles, and Intestinal Gene Expression in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Saebyeol; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Lakshman, Sukla; Molokin, Aleksey; Harnly, James M; Vinyard, Bryan T; Urban, Joseph F; Davis, Cindy D; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria

    2016-04-01

    Consumption of cocoa-derived polyphenols has been associated with several health benefits; however, their effects on the intestinal microbiome and related features of host intestinal health are not adequately understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of eating flavanol-enriched cocoa powder on the composition of the gut microbiota, tissue metabolite profiles, and intestinal immune status. Male pigs (5 mo old, 28 kg mean body weight) were supplemented with 0, 2.5, 10, or 20 g flavanol-enriched cocoa powder/d for 27 d. Metabolites in serum, urine, the proximal colon contents, liver, and adipose tissue; bacterial abundance in the intestinal contents and feces; and intestinal tissue gene expression of inflammatory markers and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were then determined. O-methyl-epicatechin-glucuronide conjugates dose-dependently increased (Pcocoa powder. The concentration of 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid isomers in urine decreased as the dose of cocoa powder fed to pigs increased (75-85%,Pcocoa powder/d, respectively. Moreover, consumption of cocoa powder reducedTLR9gene expression in ileal Peyer's patches (67-80%,Pcocoa powder/d compared with pigs not supplemented with cocoa powder. This study demonstrates that consumption of cocoa powder by pigs can contribute to gut health by enhancing the abundance ofLactobacillusandBifidobacteriumspecies and modulating markers of localized intestinal immunity. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Effects of crystalloids and colloids on liver and intestine microcirculation and function in cecal ligation and puncture induced septic rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Septic acute liver and intestinal failure is associated with a high mortality. We therefore investigated the influence of volume resuscitation with different crystalloid or colloid solutions on liver and intestine injury and microcirculation in septic rodents. Methods Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in 77 male rats. Animals were treated with different crystalloids (NaCl 0.9% (NaCl), Ringer’s acetate (RA)) or colloids (Gelafundin 4% (Gel), 6% HES 130/0.4 (HES)). After 24 h animals were re-anesthetized and intestinal (n = 6/group) and liver microcirculation (n = 6/group) were obtained using intravital microscopy, as well as macrohemodynamic parameters were measured. Blood assays and organs were harvested to determine organ function and injury. Results HES improved liver microcirculation, cardiac index and DO2-I, but significantly increased IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels and resulted in a mortality rate of 33%. Gel infused animals revealed significant reduction of liver and intestine microcirculation with severe side effects on coagulation (significantly increased PTT and INR, decreased haemoglobin and platelet count). Furthermore Gel showed severe hypoglycemia, acidosis and significantly increased ALT and IL-6 with a lethality of 29%. RA exhibited no derangements in liver microcirculation when compared to sham and HES. RA showed no intestinal microcirculation disturbance compared to sham, but significantly improved the number of intestinal capillaries with flow compared to HES. All RA treated animals survided and showed no severe side effects on coagulation, liver, macrohemodynamic or metabolic state. Conclusions Gelatine 4% revealed devastated hepatic and intestinal microcirculation and severe side effects in CLP induced septic rats, whereas the balanced crystalloid solution showed stabilization of macro- and microhemodynamics with improved survival. HES improved liver microcirculation, but exhibited significantly

  5. Bovine colostrum improves intestinal function following formula-induced gut inflammation in preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Only few hours of formula feeding may induce proinflammatory responses and predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs. We hypothesized that bovine colostrum, rich in bioactive factors, would improve intestinal function in preterm pigs following an initial exposure to formula feedi...

  6. Lactulose as a marker of intestinal barrier function in pigs after weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijtten, P.J.A.; Verstijnen, J.J.; Kempen, van T.A.T.G.; Perdok, H.B.; Gort, G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal barrier function in pigs after weaning is almost exclusively determined in terminal experiments with Ussing chambers. Alternatively, the recovery in urine of orally administered lactulose can be used to assess intestinal permeability in living animals. This experiment was designed to

  7. Lactulose as a marker of intestinal barrier function in pigs after weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijtten, P.J.A.; Verstijnen, J.J.; Kempen, van T.A.T.G.; Perdok, H.B.; Gort, G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal barrier function in pigs after weaning is almost exclusively determined in terminal experiments with Ussing chambers. Alternatively, the recovery in urine of orally administered lactulose can be used to assess intestinal permeability in living animals. This experiment was designed to stud

  8. The intestinal-renal axis for arginine synthesis is present and functional in the neonatal pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Juan C; Agarwal, Umang; Robinson, Jason L; Yuan, Yang; Didelija, Inka C; Stoll, Barbara; Burrin, Douglas G

    2017-08-01

    The intestinal-renal axis for endogenous arginine synthesis is an interorgan process in which citrulline produced in the small intestine is utilized by the kidney for arginine synthesis. The function of this axis in neonates has been questioned because during this period the enzymes needed for arginine synthesis argininosuccinate synthase (ASS1) and lyase (ASL) are present in the gut. However, evidence of high plasma citrulline concentrations in neonates suggests otherwise. We quantified in vivo citrulline production in premature (10 days preterm), neonatal (7 days old), and young pigs (35 days old) using citrulline tracers. Neonatal pigs had higher fluxes (69 µmol·kg(-1)·h(-1), P synthesis and utilization of citrulline in neonatal and young pigs by measuring organ balances across the gut and the kidney. Citrulline was released from the gut and utilized by the kidney in both neonatal and young pigs. The abundance and localization of the enzymes involved in the synthesis and utilization were determined in intestinal and kidney tissue. Despite the presence of ASS1 and ASL in the neonatal small intestine, the lack of colocalization with the enzymes that produce citrulline results in the release of citrulline by the PDV and its utilization by the kidney to produce arginine. In conclusion, the intestinal-renal axis for arginine synthesis is present in the neonatal pig. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis, and function of the intestinal epithelial stem cell marker Bmi1 in pig intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C-M; Yan, H-C; Fu, H-L; Xu, G-F; Wang, X-Q

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we cloned the full-length cDNA of the pig Bmi1 gene (BMI1 polycomb ring finger oncogene), which has been indicated as an intestinal epithelial stem cell (IESC) marker in other mammals. This paper provides the first report of the function of Bmi1 in pig intestinal epithelial cells and a brief description of its underlying mechanism. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends technology was used to clone the complete pig Bmi1 sequence, and a Bmi1-pcDNA3.1 vector was constructed for transfection into an intestinal porcine epithelial cell line (IPEC-1). The proliferation ability of the cells was estimated using the MTT assay and the EdU incorporation method at different time points after seeding. Cell cycle information was detected by flow cytometry. The mRNA abundances of cell cycle-related genes were also measured. The results indicated that the pig Bmi1 cDNA is 3,193 bp in length and consists of a 981 bp open reading frame, a 256 bp 5´ untranslated region (UTR), and a 1,956 bp 3' UTR. The transcript contains no signal peptides, and there are no transmembrane regions in the pig Bmi1 coded protein, which has a total of 326 AA. The overexpression of the pig Bmi1 in the IPEC-1 cells led to increased cell proliferation and a lower percentage of cells in the G1 and S phases (P cells in the G2 phase (P 0.05). Our data suggested that pig Bmi1 can increase the proliferation of IPEC-1 cells by promoting the G1/S transition and the overall cell cycle process.

  10. Microbial production of volatile sulphur compounds in the large intestine of pigs fed two different diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Jensen, Bent Borg; Finster, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the production of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) in segments of the large intestine of pigs and to assess the impact of diet on this production. Methods and Results: Pigs were fed two diets based on either wheat and barley (STD) or wheat and dried distillers grains with sol......Aims: To investigate the production of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) in segments of the large intestine of pigs and to assess the impact of diet on this production. Methods and Results: Pigs were fed two diets based on either wheat and barley (STD) or wheat and dried distillers grains...... significantly higher in the STD group. Conversely, the net methanethiol production rate was significantly higher in the DDGS-group, while no difference was observed for dimethyl sulphide. The number of sulphate reducing bacteria and total bacteria were determined by quantitative PCR and showed a significant...

  11. Bovine colostrum improves intestinal function following formula-induced gut inflammation in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Thymann, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    , abundance and location of bacteria, and inflammation markers were investigated. Results NEC severity and interleukins (IL)-1β and -8 protein concentrations were lower, while villus height, galactose absorption, and brush-border enzyme activities were increased in the distal small intestine in COLOS......Background & aims Only few hours of formula feeding may induce proinflammatory responses and predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs. We hypothesized that bovine colostrum, rich in bioactive factors, would improve intestinal function in preterm pigs following an initial...... exposure to formula feeding after some days of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Methods After receiving TPN for 2 days, preterm pigs were fed formula (FORM, n = 14), bovine colostrum (COLOS, n = 6), or formula (6 h) followed by bovine colostrum (FCOLOS, n = 14). Intestinal lesions, function, and structure...

  12. E. coli O124 K72 alters the intestinal barrier and the tight junctions proteins of guinea pig intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaomeng; Zhu, Yanyan; Gamallat, Yaser; Ma, Shenhao; Chiwala, Gift; Meyiah, Abdo; Xin, Yi

    2017-10-01

    Our research group previously isolated and identified a strain of pathogenic Escherichia coli from clinical samples called E. coli O124 K72. The present study was aimed at determining the potential effects of E. coli O124 K72 on intestinal barrier functions and structural proteins integrity in guinea pig. Guinea pigs were grouped into three groups; control (CG); E. coli O124 K72 (E. coli); and probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG). Initially, we create intestinal dysbiosis by giving all animals Levofloxacin for 10days, but the control group (CG) received the same volume of saline. Then, the animals received either E. coli O124 K72 (E. coli) or Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) according to their assigned group. E. coli O124 K72 treatment significantly affected colon morphology and distorted intestinal barrier function by up-regulating Claudin2 and down-regulating Occludin. In addition, E. coli upregulated the mRNA expression of MUC1, MUC2, MUC13 and MUC15. Furthermore, suspected tumor was found in the E. coli treated animals. Our results suggested that E. coli O124 K72 strain has adverse effects on intestinal barrier functions and is capable of altering integrity of structural proteins in guinea pig model while at same time it may have a role in colon carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Large intestinal fermentation capacity of fattening pigs on organic farms as measured in vitro using contrasting substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sappok, M.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Bosch, G.; Sundrum, A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In accordance with the EU regulations, organic farms require pigs to be fed diets high in fibre, which may impact on the pigs' large intestinal fermentation capacity. The ability of pigs to ferment non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) depends on characteristics of the dietary NSP source and

  14. Investigation of intestinal parasites in pig feces that are also human pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Hayriye Kirkoyun; Boral, Ozden; Metiner, Kemal; Ilgaz, Atilla

    2009-01-01

    A total of 238 pig fecal specimens were collected from pig farms in Corlu (Tekirdağ), Ayazma, and Arnavutköy (Istanbul) during the summer. Out of the 238 pig specimens, 105 were from pigs younger than 6 months and 133 from pigs older than 6 months. These were investigated for intestine parasites in particular the ones that are human pathogens. Cryptosporidium spp. was detected In 21 fecal specimens (8.8%), Giardia spp. in 9 (3.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 4 (1.6%) and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (4.1%). Giardia lamblia were found in 8 (7.6%) of 105 pigs younger than 6 months, Cryptosporidium spp. in 12 (11.4%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). In the pigs older than 6 months Giardia lamblia were found in 1 (0.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. in 9 (6.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (6.7%). The difference in the rate of G. lamblia (p=0.01) in pigs less than 6 months and of A. suum in those over 6 months was found to be statistically significant (p=0.005). Our results revealed that pigs are important sources of these parasites.

  15. Rates of passage of digesta and water absorption along the larg intestines of sheep, cows and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, J F; Grovum, W L

    1975-04-01

    In 5 cows, the mean length of the large intestine was only slightly greater than that of 21 sheep and 3 pigs. At about one-fifth of the way along the large intestine of the sheep and cows, corresponding to the end of the proximal colon and start of the spiral colon, there were marked reductions in the amount of digesta present and in the lumen diameter. In pigs these parameters decreased gradually along the large intestine. In all parts of the large intestine, the cows had more water in the digesta than did the sheep or the pigs. Nevertheless, the decrease in water content between the caecum and the rectum was similar for the cows and the sheep but less in the pigs. The rate of passage of digesta increased gradually along the large intestine of the pigs, but in the cows and sheep the rate was least in the caecum and proximal colon and greatest in the spiral colon. The total retention time for digesta in the large intestine was approximately 30, 20, and 9 h in the pigs, sheep, and cows respectively. The rate of water absorption from the large intestine was most rapid in the cows and slowest in the pigs. Differences in faecal water content between the species were not due to differences in retention times in the large intestine.

  16. Co-and post-translational events in the biogenesis of pig small intestinal aminopeptidase N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Norén, O; Sjöström, H

    1982-01-01

    ,000. When translation was performed in the presence of dog pancreatic microsomes, a Mr 140,000 polypeptide was also observed. A polypeptide of Mr 115,000 was seen for the enzyme, purified from tunicamycin exposed explants. This result suggests that aminopeptidase N is co-translationally inserted......The biogenesis of pig small intestinal aminopeptidase N (EC 3. 4. 11. 2) was studied by cell-free translation of intestinal mRNA and by labelling of organ cultured intestinal explants. In cell-free translation, the primary mRNA translation product of aminopeptidase N was a polypeptide of Mr 115...

  17. Serine protease immunohistochemistry and lectin histochemistry in the small intestine of weaned and unweaned pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, P J; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Wells, M

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of goblet cells containing serine protease and of those binding the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1) in the pig small intestine is altered during the period after weaning. Goblet cells exhibiting binding of other lectins were not altered. These alterations and other...

  18. Increased Intestinal Inflammation and Digestive Dysfunction in Preterm Pigs with Severe Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    The risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are well known, but the factors involved in the different NEC presentations remain unclear. We hypothesized that digestive dysfunction and intestinal inflammation are mainly affected by severe NEC lesions. In 48 preterm pigs, the association be...

  19. Intestinal microbial affects of yeast products on weaned and transport stressed pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Study objectives were to determine effects of a commercially available yeast product (XPC, Diamond-V Mills) and stress of transportation on total Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, coliforms, and Lactobacilli populations in the intestine of weaning pigs. In a RCB design with a 2 x 2 factorial ar...

  20. Extensive gut metabolism limits the intestinal absorption of excessive supplemental dietary glutamate loads in infant pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glutamate (Glu) is a major intestinal oxidative fuel, key neurotransmitter, and may be a useful dietary supplement to augment health of the infant gut. We quantified the metabolic fate of various supplemental dietary Glu intakes in young pigs surgically implanted with vascular, intraduodenal (ID), o...

  1. Role of intestinal barrier in pathogenesis of pigment gallstone in a guinea pig model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Su; Shuo-Dong Wu; Jun-Zhe Jin; Zhen-Hai Zhang; Ying Fan

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The function of the intestinal barrier has drawn more and more attention from researchers in recent years for its important role in many diseases such as burns, wounds, and pancreatitis. In our experimental studies on pigment gallstone, we found potential relationships between the function of the intestinal barrier and pigment gallstone formation. This study was undertaken to investigate the possible action and mechanism of the function of the intestinal barrier in the pathogenesis of pigment gallstone. METHODS:Eighty guinea pigs were divided into a normal group (CON), a pigment gallstone group (PS) and an intestinal mucosa protection group (GLN). Normal forage, pigment gallstone-forming forage and pigment gallstone-forming forage with supplemental intestinal mucosa protector (glutamine) were given to each group. In the gallstone-forming rate, morphology of intestinal mucosa, intestinal permeability, serum endotoxin and biliaryβ-glucuronidase were assessed after 8 weeks. RESULTS: The rate of gallstone-formation was 73.9% in the PS group. Damage of intestinal mucosa, endotoxemia (from 77±43×10-6 EU/L to 1367±525×10-6 EU/L, P CONCLUSIONS: The function of the intestinal barrier is correlated with pigment gallstone formation. Dysfunction of the intestinal barrier function may promote pigment gallstone formation through bacterial translocation, endotoxemia, and biliaryβ-glucuronidase.

  2. Human milk oligosaccharide effects on intestinal function and inflammation after preterm birth in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine O.; Martin, Lena; Østergaard, Mette V.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) may mediate prebiotic and anti-inflammatory effects in newborns. This is particularly important for preterm infants who are highly susceptible to intestinal dysfunction and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We hypothesized that HMO supplementation of infant formula...... (IF) improves intestinal function, bacterial colonization and NEC resistance immediately after preterm birth, as tested in a preterm pig model. Mixtures of HMOs were investigated in intestinal epithelial cells and in preterm pigs (n=112) fed IF supplemented without (CON) or with a mixture of four HMOs...... (4-HMO) or >25 HMOs (25-HMO, 5-10 g/L given for 5 or 11 days). The 25-HMO blend decreased cell proliferation and both HMO blends decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-8 secretion in IPEC-J2 cells, relative to control (P

  3. Introducing enteral feeding induces intestinal subclinical inflammation and respective chromatin changes in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Rhea; Krych, Lukasz; Rybicki, Verena;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyze how enteral food introduction affects intestinal gene regulation and chromatin structure in preterm pigs. MATERIALS & METHODS: Preterm pigs were fed parenteral nutrition plus/minus slowly increasing volumes of enteral nutrition. Intestinal gene-expression and chromatin structure...... were analyzed 5 days after birth. RESULTS: Enteral feeding led to differential upregulation of inflammatory and pattern recognition receptor genes, including IL8 (median: 5.8, 95% CI: 3.9-7.8 for formula; median: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.3 for colostrum) and TLR4 (median: 3.7, 95% CI: 2.6-4.8 for formula...... stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (median: 7.0; interquartile range: 5.63-8.85) compared with naive cells (median 4.2; interquartile range: 2.45-6.33; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Enteral feeding, particular with formula, induces subclinical inflammation in the premature intestine and more open chromatin...

  4. Oregano Essential Oil Improves Intestinal Morphology and Expression of Tight Junction Proteins Associated with Modulation of Selected Intestinal Bacteria and Immune Status in a Pig Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oregano essential oil (OEO has long been used to improve the health of animals, particularly the health of intestine, which is generally attributed to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. However, how OEO acts in the intestine of pig is still unclear. This study was aimed at elucidating how OEO promotes the intestinal barrier integrity in a pig model. Pigs were fed a control diet alone or one supplemented with 25 mg/kg of OEO for 4 weeks. The OEO-treated pigs showed decreased (P<0.05 endotoxin level in serum and increased (P<0.05 villus height and expression of occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1 in the jejunum. These results demonstrated that the integrity of intestinal barrier was improved by OEO treatment. The OEO-treated pigs had a lower (P<0.05 population of Escherichia coli in the jejunum, ileum, and colon than the control. This is in accordance with the greater inactivation (P<0.05 of inflammation, which was reflected by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, protein kinase B (Akt, and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB signaling pathways and expression of inflammatory cytokines in the jejunum. Our results show that OEO promotes intestinal barrier integrity, probably through modulating intestinal bacteria and immune status in pigs.

  5. Cranberry extract inhibits in vitro adhesion of F4 and F18(+)Escherichia coli to pig intestinal epithelium and reduces in vivo excretion of pigs orally challenged with F18(+) verotoxigenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddens, Annelies; Loos, Michaela; Vanrompay, Daisy; Remon, Jean Paul; Cox, Eric

    2017-04-01

    F4(+)E. coli and F18(+)E. coli infections are an important threat for pig industry worldwide. Antibiotics are commonly used to treat infected piglets, but the emerging development of resistance against antibiotics raises major concerns. Hence, alternative therapies to prevent pigs from F4(+)E. coli and F18(+)E. coli infections need to be developed. Since cranberry previously showed anti-adhesive activity against uropathogenic E. coli, we aimed to investigate whether cranberry extract could also inhibit binding of F4(+)E. coli and F18(+)E. coli to pig intestinal epithelium. Using the in vitro villus adhesion assay, we found that low concentrations of cranberry extract (20μg or 100μg/ml) have strong inhibitory activity on F4(+)E. coli (75.3%, S.D.=9.31 or 95.8%, S.D.=2.56, respectively) and F18(+)E. coli adherence (100% inhibition). This effect was not due to antimicrobial activity. Moreover, cranberry extract (10mg or 100mg) could also abolish in vivo binding of F4 and F18 fimbriae to the pig intestinal epithelium in ligated loop experiments. Finally, two challenge experiments with F18(+)E. coli were performed to address the efficacy of in-feed or water supplemented cranberry extract. No effect could be observed in piglets that received cranberry extract only in feed (1g/kg or 10g/kg). However, supplementation of feed (10g/kg) and drinking water (1g/L) significantly decreased excretion and diarrhea. The decreased infection resulted in a decreased serum antibody response indicating reduced exposure to F18(+)E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of intestinal pathogens in Danish finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of the intestinal bacteria: Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Serpulina intermedia, Brachyspira innocens, Brachyspira pilosicoli, pathogenic Escherichia coli (serogroups 0138, 0139, 0141 and 0149) and Salmonella enterica in Danish...

  7. A defined intestinal colonization microbiota for gnotobiotic pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laycock, G.; Sait, L.; Inman, C.; Lewis, M.; Smidt, H.; Diemen, van P.; Jorgensen, F.; Stevens, M.; Bailey, M.

    2012-01-01

    Maximising the ability of piglets to survive exposure to pathogens is essential to reduce early piglet mortality, an important factor in efficient commercial pig production. Mortality rates can be influenced by many factors, including early colonization by microbial commensals. Here we describe the

  8. A defined intestinal colonization microbiota for gnotobiotic pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laycock, G.; Sait, L.; Inman, C.; Lewis, M.; Smidt, H.; Diemen, van P.; Jorgensen, F.; Stevens, M.; Bailey, M.

    2012-01-01

    Maximising the ability of piglets to survive exposure to pathogens is essential to reduce early piglet mortality, an important factor in efficient commercial pig production. Mortality rates can be influenced by many factors, including early colonization by microbial commensals. Here we describe the

  9. Effects of dietary seaweed extract supplementation in sows and post-weaned pigs on performance, intestinal morphology, intestinal microflora and immune status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, S G; Sweeney, T; Bahar, B; Lynch, B P; O'Doherty, J V

    2011-09-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of a seaweed extract (SWE) to sows and weaned pigs on post-weaning growth performance, intestinal morphology, intestinal microflora, volatile fatty acid concentrations and immune status of pigs at days 11 and 117 post-weaning. Gestating sows (n 20) were supplemented with a SWE (0 v. 10·0 g/d) from day 107 of gestation until weaning (day 26). At weaning, pigs (four pigs per sow) were divided into two groups based on sow diet during lactation and supplemented with a SWE (0 v. 2·8 g/kg diet), resulting in four treatment groups: (1) BB (basal sows-basal pigs); (2) BS (basal sows-treated pigs); (3) SB (treated sows-basal pigs); (4) SS (treated sows-treated pigs). Pigs weaned from SWE-supplemented sows had a higher average daily gain (ADG) between days 0 and 21 (P pigs weaned from non-SWE-supplemented sows. Pigs offered post-weaning diets (PW) containing SWE had decreased colonic Escherichia coli populations on day 11 (P Pigs offered PW containing SWE had a greater mRNA abundance of MUC2 in the colon at day 11 post-weaning (P pigs offered unsupplemented diets. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that SWE supplementation post-weaning provides a dietary means to improve gut health and to enhance growth performance in starter pigs. Dietary SWE supplementation increased ADG during the grower-finisher (GF) phases. However, there was no growth response to SWE inclusion in GF diets when pigs were weaned from SWE-supplemented sows.

  10. Acrylamide-induced prenatal programming of intestine structure in guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, E; Dobrowolski, P; Puzio, I; Prost, L; Kurlak, P; Sawczuk, P; Badzian, B; Hulas-Stasiak, M; Kostro, K

    2014-02-01

    Potential effects of prenatal administration of acrylamide (ACR) on postnatal development of the small intestine were not examined experimentally yet. The aim of this study was to establish changes of morphological parameters of the small intestine damaged by prenatal action of ACR in guinea pigs. The 3 mg/kg body weight of ACR was given in drinking water every day during the last 35 days of the pregnancy in guinea pigs. The histomorphometry of the duodenum and jejunum was determined. Immunohistochemical staining with anti cadherin antibody was performed. Maternal treatment with ACR led to the decrease of the expression of cadherin in the epithelium. Maternal ACR treatment increased the number of total, divided and inactive crypt, and the number of damaged villi in the duodenum and jejunum of newborn guinea pigs. The thickness of myenteron and submucosa, mucosa fractal dimension and the depth of crypts in the duodenum were increased by ACR. Additionally, in offspring born by mothers administered with ACR the decrease of villi epithelium thickness and active crypt number was observed. Moreover, ACR decreased goblet cells and inact villi number in the duodenum, mucosa thickness and crypts width in the jejunum. Intestine absorptive surface was affected by ACR in the jejunum as well. Results of measurements showed that maternal ACR treatment had negative influence on small intestine histomorphometry. ACR acting prenatally influenced small intestine nervous plexuses that became enlarged by 2.5 times compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results showed the negative impact of maternal ACR treatment on histological structure, integrity and innervation of small intestine wall as well as on absorptive function of small intestine mucosa.

  11. Growth and intestinal morphology of pigs from sows fed two zinc sources during gestation and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, R L; Bidner, T D; Fakler, T M; Southern, L L

    2006-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of organic (Zn AA complex, ZnAA) and inorganic Zn (ZnSO4) sources on sows and their progeny during gestation and lactation and on the pigs during the nursery period. The dietary treatments were 1) a corn-soybean meal diet with 100 ppm Zn from ZnSO4 (control); 2) diet 1 + 100 ppm additional Zn from ZnSO4; and 3) diet 1 + 100 ppm additional Zn from ZnAA. Dietary additions were on an as-fed basis. Thirty-one primaparous and multiparous sows were allotted to the treatment diet beginning on d 15 of gestation and continuing through lactation. At weaning (d 17 of age), 202 pigs (63, 55, and 84 pigs for treatments 1 to 3, respectively) were allotted to the same dietary treatment as their dam. The pigs were fed a 3-phase diet regimen during the nursery period: d 0 to 7 (phase I); d 7 to 21 (phase II); and d 21 to 28 (phase III). At weaning and at the end of phase III, 1 gilt per replicate was killed, and the left front foot, liver, pancreas, and entire small intestine were removed. Diet had no effect (P > 0.10) on any response during gestation. During lactation, there was an increase (P pigs (P pigs (P pigs from sows fed ZnSO4 was increased (P 0.10) by diet. Pigs fed ZnSO4 had greater duodenal villus width (P pigs fed ZnSO4 or the control diet had greater ileal villus width (P Pigs fed ZnSO4 or ZnAA had more (P pigs fed ZnSO4, followed by those fed ZnAA, and then by those fed the control diet (P pigs fed ZnSO4 compared with those fed the control diet. These results suggest that 100 ppm Zn in trace mineral premixes provides adequate Zn for optimal growth performance of nursery pigs, but that 100 ppm additional Zn from ZnAA in sow diets may increase pigs born and weaned per litter.

  12. Intestinal Colonization by Enterotoxigenic ’Escherichia Coli’

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    shown to be common among ETEC isolated from cattle ard sheep and to facilitate intestinal colonization in these species. In the study reported here it...123, and in intact pigs for strain 987. Ligated intestinal loops were created in hysterectomy-derived, colostrum -deprived (HDCD) pigs (20-30 h old) as...bacteria were inoculated into TSB and incubated at 37 C for 4-6 days until a definite pellicle was formed. From this pellicle, 5% sheep blood agar plates

  13. Coated fatty acids alter virulence properties of Salmonella Typhimurium and decrease intestinal colonization of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyen, F; Haesebrouck, F; Vanparys, A; Volf, J; Mahu, M; Van Immerseel, F; Rychlik, I; Dewulf, J; Ducatelle, R; Pasmans, F

    2008-12-10

    Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs are a major source of human foodborne salmonellosis. To reduce the number of infected pigs, acidification of feed or drinking water is a common practice. The aim of the present study was to determine whether some frequently used short- (SCFA) and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are able to alter virulence gene expression and to decrease Salmonella Typhimurium colonization and shedding in pigs using well established and controlled in vitro and in vivo assays. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 4 SCFA (formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) and 2 MCFA (caproic and caprylic acid) were determined using 54 porcine Salmonella Typhimurium field strains. MIC values increased at increasing pH-values and were two to eight times lower for MCFA than for SCFA. Expression of virulence gene fimA was significantly lower when bacteria were grown in LB-broth supplemented with sub-MIC concentrations of caproic or caprylic acid (2 mM). Expression of hilA and invasion in porcine intestinal epithelial cells was significantly lower when bacteria were grown in LB-broth containing sub-MIC concentrations of butyric acid or propionic acid (10 mM) and caproic or caprylic acid (2 mM). When given as feed supplement to pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium, coated butyric acid decreased the levels of faecal shedding and intestinal colonization, but had no influence on the colonization of tonsils, spleen and liver. Uncoated fatty acids, however, did not influence fecal shedding, intestinal or tonsillar colonization in pigs. In conclusion, supplementing feed with certain coated fatty acids, such as butyric acid, may help to reduce the Salmonella load in pigs.

  14. Intestinal morphology and enzymatic activity in newly weaned pigs fed contrasting fiber concentrations and fiber properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedemann, M S; Eskildsen, M; Laerke, H N; Pedersen, C; Lindberg, J E; Laurinen, P; Knudsen, K E Bach

    2006-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of fiber source and concentration on morphological characteristics, mucin staining pattern, and mucosal enzyme activities in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. The experiment included 50 pigs from 10 litters weaned at 4 wk of age (BW 8.6 +/- 1.4 kg) and divided into 5 treatment groups. Diets containing fiber of various physico-chemical properties and concentrations were formulated to contain 73, 104, or 145 g of dietary fiber/kg of DM. The diets were based on raw wheat and barley flours. Pectin and barley hulls, representing soluble and insoluble fiber sources, respectively, were used to increase the fiber concentration. The pigs were fed the experimental diets for 9 d, and then the pigs were euthanized and the entire gastrointestinal tract was removed. Tissue samples were taken from the mid and distal small intestine and from the mid colon. Inclusion of pectin in the diets significantly decreased (P fiber content, whereas sucrase activity was increased in pigs fed the pectin-containing diets. The activity of the peptidases, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidylpeptidase IV, was increased when feeding high fiber diets, whereas the activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase remained unaffected by the experimental diets. In conclusion, the reduced feed intake observed with the pectin-containing diets could explain the lower villous height and crypt depth observed in this study. However, direct effects of pectin also are possible, and thus further study is warranted. Feeding pigs high insoluble fiber diets improved gut morphology by increasing villi length and increased mucosal enzyme activity when compared with pigs fed pectin-containing diets. The mucin content as determined by staining characteristics suggests that pigs fed high insoluble fiber diets might be better protected against pathogenic bacteria than pigs fed diets high in soluble fiber.

  15. Milk with and without lactoferrin can influence intestinal damage in a pig model of malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garas, Lydia C; Feltrin, Cristiano; Hamilton, M Kristina; Hagey, Jill V; Murray, James D; Bertolini, Luciana R; Bertolini, Marcelo; Raybould, Helen E; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    Malnutrition remains a leading contributor to the morbidity and mortality of children under the age of five worldwide. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood necessitating an appropriate animal model to answer fundamental questions and conduct translational research into optimal interventions. One potential intervention is milk from livestock that more closely mimics human milk by increased levels of bioactive components that can promote a healthy intestinal epithelium. We tested the ability of cow milk and milk from transgenic cows expressing human lactoferrin at levels found in human milk (hLF milk) to mitigate the effects of malnutrition at the level of the intestine in a pig model of malnutrition. Weaned pigs (3 weeks old) were fed a protein and calorie restricted diet for five weeks, receiving cow, hLF or no milk supplementation daily from weeks 3-5. After three weeks, the restricted diet induced changes in growth, blood chemistry and intestinal structure including villous atrophy, increased ex vivo permeability and decreased expression of tight junction proteins. Addition of both cow and hLF milk to the diet increased growth rate and calcium and glucose levels while promoting growth of the intestinal epithelium. In the jejunum hLF milk restored intestinal morphology, reduced permeability and increased expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10. Overall, this pig model of malnutrition mimics salient aspects of the human condition and demonstrates that cow milk can stimulate the repair of damage to the intestinal epithelium caused by protein and calorie restriction with hLF milk improving this recovery to a greater extent.

  16. Extensive intestinal spirochaetosis in pigs challenged with Brachyspira pilosicoli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Boye, Mette; Møller, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    of the study). Mild mucosal reddening and flecks of pus characterized the gross lesions, while diffuse, catarrhal colitis was revealed microscopically in all animals. Intestinal spirochaetosis with moderate to densely packed end-attached B. pilosicoli organisms was revealed extensively on the mucosal surface...

  17. Flow of endogenous and exogenous nitrogen in different segments of the small intestine in pigs fed diets with soyabean concentrate, soyabean meal or rapeseed cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grala, W.; Buraczewska, L.; Wasilewko, J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Tamminga, S.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Huisman, J.; Korczynski, W.

    1998-01-01

    Six barrows of an average initial BW 27.5±1.2 kg were used. Each pig was fitted with two cannulas in different segments of the small intestine: pig 1 in the duodenum (C1) and upper jejunum (C2), pig 2 in C2 and the lower jejunum (C3), pig 3 in C2 and C3, pig 4 in C1 and the terminal ileum (C4), pig

  18. A comparative analysis of the intestinal metagenomes present in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and humans (Homo sapiens)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrand, Falk; Ebersbach, Tine; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an important model for human intestinal research. We have characterized the faecal microbiota of 60 guinea pigs using Illumina shotgun metagenomics, and used this data to compile a gene catalogue of its prevalent microbiota. Subsequently, we compared th...

  19. Estimating fermentative amino acid catabolism in the small intestine of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus, D A; Cant, J P; de Lange, C F M

    2015-11-01

    Fermentative catabolism (FAAC) of dietary and endogenous amino acids (AA) in the small intestine contributes to loss of AA available for protein synthesis and body maintenance functions in pigs. A continuous isotope infusion study was performed to determine whole body urea flux, urea recycling and FAAC in the small intestine of ileal-cannulated growing pigs fed a control diet (CON, 18.6% CP; n=6), a high fibre diet with 12% added pectin (HF, 17.7% CP; n = 4) or a low-protein diet (LP, 13.4% CP; n = 6). (15)N-ammonium chloride and (13)C-urea were infused intragastrically and intravenously, respectively, for 4 days. Recovery of ammonia at the distal ileum was increased by feeding additional fibre when compared with the CON (P > 0.05) but was not affected by dietary protein (0.24, 0.39 and 0.14 mmol nitrogen/kg BW/day for CON, HF and LP, respectively; P 0.05)compared with CON. The two-pool model developed in the present study allows for estimation of FAAC but still has limitations. Quantifying FAAC in the small intestine of pigs, as well as other non-ruminants and humans, offers a number of challenges but warrants further investigation.

  20. Effect of supplementary feeding during the sucking period on net absorption from the small intestine of weaned pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Hoogendoorn, A.; Zijderveld-van Bemmel, van A.

    1996-01-01

    An intestinal perfusion technique was used to measure the effects of supplementary feeding (experiment 1) and temporary weaning (experiment 2) during the sucking period on the net absorption of fluid, sodium, chloride and potassium from the small intestine of pigs after weaning. The technique was al

  1. Flavanol-Enriched Cocoa Powder Alters the Intestinal Microbiota, Tissue and Fluid Metabolite Profiles, and Intestinal Gene Expression in Pigs1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Saebyeol; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Lakshman, Sukla; Molokin, Aleksey; Harnly, James M; Vinyard, Bryan T; Urban, Joseph F; Davis, Cindy D; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Background: Consumption of cocoa-derived polyphenols has been associated with several health benefits; however, their effects on the intestinal microbiome and related features of host intestinal health are not adequately understood. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of eating flavanol-enriched cocoa powder on the composition of the gut microbiota, tissue metabolite profiles, and intestinal immune status. Methods: Male pigs (5 mo old, 28 kg mean body weight) were supplemented with 0, 2.5, 10, or 20 g flavanol-enriched cocoa powder/d for 27 d. Metabolites in serum, urine, the proximal colon contents, liver, and adipose tissue; bacterial abundance in the intestinal contents and feces; and intestinal tissue gene expression of inflammatory markers and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were then determined. Results: O-methyl-epicatechin-glucuronide conjugates dose-dependently increased (P cocoa powder. The concentration of 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid isomers in urine decreased as the dose of cocoa powder fed to pigs increased (75–85%, P cocoa powder/d, respectively. Moreover, consumption of cocoa powder reduced TLR9 gene expression in ileal Peyer’s patches (67–80%, P cocoa powder/d compared with pigs not supplemented with cocoa powder. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that consumption of cocoa powder by pigs can contribute to gut health by enhancing the abundance of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species and modulating markers of localized intestinal immunity. PMID:26936136

  2. Prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal parasites in pigs in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, M; Zhou, R Q; Huang, H C; Hu, S J

    2011-12-01

    From 2007 to 2009, the prevalence of intestinal parasites was investigated in intensive and extensive pig farms in Chongqing, China. A total of 2971 samples from both sexes and five age categories (breeding boars, breeding sows, fatteners, growers and weaners) were evaluated by standard methods for the presence of helminth ova and protozoan oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites. Of the 2971 pigs sampled, 362(12.18%) were infected with Ascaris suum, 301(10.13%) with Trichuris suis, 301(10.13%) with Oesophagostomum spp., 491(16.53%) with Eimeria spp., 149(5.02%) with Isopora suis, 677(22.79%) with Balantidium coli and 196(6.60%) with Cryptosporidium spp. Growers had the highest infection rate while breeding boars had the lowest among the five age categories. B. coli was the most common protozoan in all pig age groups. Pigs infected with multiple parasites were common. Risk factors such as management methods, seasons, ages, etc. can influence the infection rate to a certain degree. This investigation provides relevant data about risk factors for pig farmers, thus allowing them to make more appropriate antiparasitic treatments according to farm conditions and local climate in Chongqing.

  3. Does meatiness of pigs depend on the level of gastro-intestinal parasites infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Damian; Popiołek, Marcin; Zaleśny, Grzegorz

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present paper was to determine an influence of the presence and a level of intestine parasites infection on the quality of pork carcass expressed by the content of meat in carcass (meatiness) in pigs. The experimental part of the study was conducted on pigs farm produced in a closed cycle. The population in the study included 120 fattening pigs maintained in two keeping systems: group I--60 individuals kept on slatted floor, and group II--60 individuals kept on deep litter. All the experimental animals were treated in the same manner. The analysed fatteners were slaughtered in Meat Processing Plant when their body mass reached 110 kg, and the post-slaughter assessment was conducted according to the EUROP classification of pigs carcass using the Ultra-Fom 300 device. The study concerning the internal parasites were conducted basing on coproscopic quantitative McMaster method. As a results, the eggs of three nematode taxa were isolated and identified: Oesophagostomum spp., Ascaris suum and Strongyloides ransomi. Overall prevalence of infection of fatteners kept on litter was lower (25%±11.2) as compared to those kept on slatted floor (38.3%±12.6), however the differences were not statistically significant (χ(2)=2.465; df=1; P=0.116). The mean value of meatiness for pigs free from parasites was 53.68, while in the case of infected pigs the meatiness was statistically lower and was 52.12 (t=2.35; P=0.02). The analysed pigs were classified into three categories and conducted analysis of an influence of parasites on meatiness demonstrate the relationship that is statistically significant. The analysis of correlation between meatiness and an average number of helminth eggs also demonstrated the negative, statistically significant, relationship (F=5.52; P=0.020), i.e. in fatteners with higher EPG value the meatiness was lower.

  4. High dietary zinc supplementation increases the occurrence of tetracycline and sulfonamide resistance genes in the intestine of weaned pigs

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary zinc oxide is used in pig nutrition to combat post weaning diarrhoea. Recent data suggests that high doses (2.5 g/kg feed) increase the bacterial antibiotic resistance development in weaned pigs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the development of enterobacterial antibiotic resistance genes in the intestinal tract of weaned pigs. Findings Weaned pigs were fed diets for 4 weeks containing 57 (low), 164 (intermediate) or 2425 (high) mg kg−1 analytical grade...

  5. Mast cell expression of the serotonin1A receptor in guinea pig and human intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Zou, Fei; Qu, Meihua; Liu, Sumei; Fei, Guijun; Xia, Yun; Needleman, Bradley J; Mikami, Dean J; Wood, Jackie D

    2013-05-15

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is released from enterochromaffin cells in the mucosa of the small intestine. We tested a hypothesis that elevation of 5-HT in the environment of enteric mast cells might degranulate the mast cells and release mediators that become paracrine signals to the enteric nervous system, spinal afferents, and secretory glands. Western blotting, immunofluorescence, ELISA, and pharmacological analysis were used to study expression of 5-HT receptors by mast cells in the small intestine and action of 5-HT to degranulate the mast cells and release histamine in guinea pig small intestine and segments of human jejunum discarded during Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgeries. Mast cells in human and guinea pig preparations expressed the 5-HT1A receptor. ELISA detected spontaneous release of histamine in guinea pig and human preparations. The selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-PIPAT evoked release of histamine. A selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100135, suppressed stimulation of histamine release by 5-HT or 8-hydroxy-PIPAT. Mast cell-stabilizing drugs, doxantrazole and cromolyn sodium, suppressed the release of histamine evoked by 5-HT or 8-hydroxy-PIPAT in guinea pig and human preparations. Our results support the hypothesis that serotonergic degranulation of enteric mast cells and release of preformed mediators, including histamine, are mediated by the 5-HT1A serotonergic receptor. Association of 5-HT with the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders (e.g., irritable bowel syndrome) underlies a question of whether selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonists might have therapeutic application in disorders of this nature.

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Live Cells Decreased In vitro Methane Production in Intestinal Content of Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y L; Liao, X D; Liang, J B; Jahromi, M F; Wang, H; Cao, Z; Wu, Y B

    2013-06-01

    An in vitro gas production technique was used in this study to elucidate the effect of two strains of active live yeast on methane (CH4) production in the large intestinal content of pigs to provide an insight to whether active live yeast could suppress CH4 production in the hindgut of pigs. Treatments used in this study include blank (no substrate and no live yeast cells), control (no live yeast cells) and yeast (YST) supplementation groups (supplemented with live yeast cells, YST1 or YST2). The yeast cultures contained 1.8×10(10) cells per g, which were added at the rates of 0.2 mg and 0.4 mg per ml of the fermented inoculum. Large intestinal contents were collected from 2 Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire pigs, mixed with a phosphate buffer (1:2), and incubated anaerobically at 39°C for 24 h using 500 mg substrate (dry matter (DM) basis). Total gas and CH4 production decreased (pyeast. The methane production reduction potential (MRP) was calculated by assuming net methane concentration for the control as 100%. The MRP of yeast 2 was more than 25%. Compared with the control group, in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD) and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration increased (pyeast supplementation. Quantity of methanogenic archaea per milliliter of inoculum decreased (pyeast supplementation after 24 h of incubation. Our results suggest that live yeast cells suppressed in vitro CH4 production when inoculated into the large intestinal contents of pigs and shifted the fermentation pattern to favor propionate production together with an increased population of acetogenic bacteria, both of which serve as a competitive pathway for the available H2 resulting in the reduction of methanogenic archaea.

  7. Safety assessment of sFat-1 transgenic pigs by detecting their co-habitant microbe in intestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Maoxue; Zheng, Xinmin; Cheng, Wenke; Jin, Erhui; Chen, Hongxing; Yang, Shulin; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui

    2011-08-01

    Transgenic pigs containing sFat-1 (synthesized fatty acid desaturase-1) gene were produced by DNA microinjection. The meat of these pigs contain ω-3 unsaturated fatty acid which is beneficial to the health of human being. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of expression of sFat-1 in pig on the health of animal themselves and on the safety of environment from the angle of the changes in microbe population of pig intestinal tract. Four F1 male semi-sibling of sFat-1 transgenic pigs and four F1 female semi-sibling of sFat-1 transgenic pigs were used as experimental animals, together with their none transgenic siblings as control animals. For inspection of any change in populations of microbial flora in various parts of intestinal tract and feces of sFat-1 transgenic pigs total aerobe, total anaerobe, main beneficial bacteria and main harmful bacteria were cultured and analyzed. At the same time foreign gene drift was assessed by PCR amplifying foreign fragment in samples of total aerobe and total anaerobe. Results indicated that in comparison with control pig microbe population of various species in different parts of intestinal tract and feces of sFat-1 transgenic pig remained unchanged and foreign gene sequence could not be detected in DNA of total aerobe and total anaerobe. In conclusion, the data of this study suggest that microbe population in intestinal tract and feces of transgenic pig was not influenced by the expression of transferred foreign gene sFat-1 and also foreign gene drifting from animal genome to microbial genome must be a rare incident.

  8. Establishment of heterotopic intestinal xenotransplantation model from pig to cynomolgus%猪到食蟹猴异位小肠移植模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚丹华; 李幼生; 王剑; 毛琦; 郭明晓; 张少一; 孔文成; 任乐乐; 黎介寿

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the procedures for establishing a stable model of intestinal xenotransplantation from pig to cynomolgus, with the purpose of providing a good experimental tool for the xenograft rejection study in intestinal xenotransplantation. Methods White wild-type pigs were used as donor and cynomolguses used as recipients. The procedure of segmental heterotopic intestinal xenotransplantation in recipients was performed as following: the donor`s anterior mesenteric artery was anastomosed end-to-side to the recipient`s infrarenal abdominal aorta, and the donor`s tributary of anterior mesenteric venous was anastomosed end-to-side to the recipient`s infrarenal inferior vena cave. Subsequently, both the proximal and distant ends of the graft intestine were stayed ligated. Results Segmental intestinal xenotransplantation was performed in 5 cynomolguses, with an average graft intestine length of (52.0 ± 5.7) cm. The success rate of vascular anastomosis was 100%, and the intestinal xenograft survival was 152±72(55~245) minutes. Conclusions A stable, repeatable model of segmental intestinal xenotransplantation from pig to cynomolgus was established, which would provide an ideal tool for further research on intestinal xenotransplantation from transgenic pig to cynomolgus.%目的:探讨稳定的猪到食蟹猴异位小肠移植模型建立方法,为异种小肠移植排斥反应的研究提供良好的实验工具。方法分别以白色杂种猪和食蟹猴做供、受体,采用供体小肠的肠系膜前动、静脉分别与受体肾下腹主动脉和肾下下腔静脉行端侧吻合,供体远、近端肠管结扎的方式建立异种节段性小肠移植模型。结果共行猪到食蟹猴异种节段小肠移植5例,移植肠肠长度为(52.0±5.7) cm,血管吻合成功率为100%,移植肠存活时间为(152±72) min(55~245 min)。结论本研究建立了猪到食蟹猴的异位小肠移植模型,模型稳定,可复性强,为进一步

  9. Risk factors for intestinal pathogens in Danish finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian;

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to identify risk factors for infection with the intestinal bacteria: Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Serpulina intermedia, Brachyspira innocens, Brachyspira pilosicoli and swine-pathogenic Escherichia coli (serogroups O138, O139, O141......) or culture (all other agents). Information on feed and management procedures was collected by filling in questionnaires at the herd visits. The questionnaire, included information on 29 dichotomous variables and three continuous variables. Variables with P ...-test) were selected for the statistical modelling. Our conclusions, based on the results of multifactorial logistic regression (out-off: P = 0.05), were the following: 1. Consistent batch production was associated with reduced prevalences of L. intracellularis and weakly beta -haemolytic spirochetes (S...

  10. Monosodium L-glutamate and dietary fat exert opposite effects on the proximal and distal intestinal health in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zemeng; Li, Tiejun; Wu, Chunli; Tao, Lihua; Blachier, Francois; Yin, Yulong

    2015-04-01

    The Chinese population has undergone rapid transition to a high-fat diet. Furthermore, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) is widely used as a flavour enhancer in China. Previous studies have reported that high-fat diet modifies intestinal metabolism and physiology. However, little information is available on the effects of oral MSG on intestine, and no study focus on the interaction of dietary fat and MSG for intestinal health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of MSG and dietary fat on intestinal health in growing pigs, and to try to identify possible interactions between these 2 nutrients for such effects. A total of 32 growing pigs were used and fed with 4 isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets (basal diet, high-fat diet, basal diet with 3% MSG and high fat diet with 3% MSG). Parameters related to reactive oxygen species metabolism, epithelial morphology, pro-inflammation factors and tight junction protein expression and several species of intestinal microbe were measured. Overall, dietary fat and MSG had detrimental effects on several of the physiological and inflammatory parameters measured in the proximal intestine, while exerting beneficial effects on the distal intestine in growing pigs, with generally antagonistic effects. These results may be of particular relevance for nutritional concerns in patients with intestinal diseases.

  11. Supplemental dietary inulin of variable chain lengths alters intestinal bacterial populations in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jannine K; Yasuda, Koji; Welch, Ross M; Miller, Dennis D; Lei, Xin Gen

    2010-12-01

    Previously, we showed that supplementation of diets with short-chain inulin (P95), long-chain inulin (HP), and a 50:50 mixture of both (Synergy 1) improved body iron status and altered expression of the genes involved in iron homeostasis and inflammation in young pigs. However, the effects of these 3 types of inulin on intestinal bacteria remain unknown. Applying terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, we determined the abundances of luminal and adherent bacterial populations from 6 segments of the small and large intestines of pigs (n = 4 for each group) fed an iron-deficient basal diet (BD) or the BD supplemented with 4% of P95, Synergy 1, or HP for 5 wk. Compared with BD, all 3 types of inulin enhanced (P inulin on bacterial populations in the lumen contents were found. Meanwhile, all 3 types of inulin suppressed the less desirable bacteria Clostridium spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae in the lumen and mucosa of various gut segments. Our findings suggest that the ability of dietary inulin to alter intestinal bacterial populations may partially account for its iron bioavailability-promoting effect and possibly other health benefits.

  12. Plasma GLP-2 levels and intestinal markers in the juvenile pig during intestinal adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paris, Monique C; Fuller, Peter J; Carstensen, Bendix

    2004-01-01

    , villus height, lactase, sucrase, maltase, crypt depth, or villus/crypt ratio. Plasma GLP-2 levels increase in the first weeks following massive small intestinal resection. The increase in plasma GLP-2 levels was enhanced by supplementation of the diet with CPC. The changes in GLP-2 levels observed...

  13. Modulation of intestinal inflammation by minimal enteral nutrition with amniotic fluid in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mette V; Bering, Stine Brandt; Jensen, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe inflammatory disorder, associated with the difficult transition from parenteral to enteral feeding after preterm birth. We hypothesized that minimal enteral nutrition (MEN) with amniotic fluid (AF), prior to enteral formula feeding, would...... improve resistance to NEC in preterm pigs. Methods: Experiment 1: IEC-6 cells were incubated with porcine (pAF) and human AF (hAF) to test AF-stimulated enterocyte proliferation and migration in vitro. Experiment 2: Cesarean-delivered, preterm pigs were fed parenteral nutrition and MEN with pAF, h...... fed AF as MEN, but NEC incidences were similar (NEC-pAF) or increased (NEC-hAF) compared with controls. Conclusions: Intake of pAF or hAF improved body growth and modulated intestinal inflammatory cytokines during a period of parenteral nutrition, but did not protect against later formula-induced NEC...

  14. Effect of Lactobacillus salivarius bacteriocin Abp118 on the mouse and pig intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliette Riboulet-Bisson

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli are gram-positive bacteria that are a subdominant element in the human gastrointestinal microbiota, and which are commonly used in the food industry. Some lactobacilli are considered probiotic, and have been associated with health benefits. However, there is very little culture-independent information on how consumed probiotic microorganisms might affect the entire intestinal microbiota. We therefore studied the impact of the administration of Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118, a microorganism well characterized for its probiotic properties, on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in two model animals. UCC118 has anti-infective activity due to production of the bacteriocin Abp118, a broad-spectrum class IIb bacteriocin, which we hypothesized could impact the microbiota. Mice and pigs were administered wild-type (WT L. salivarius UCC118 cells, or a mutant lacking bacteriocin production. The microbiota composition was determined by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from faeces. The data show that L. salivarius UCC118 administration had no significant effect on proportions of major phyla comprising the mouse microbiota, whether the strain was producing bacteriocin or not. However, L. salivarius UCC118 WT administration led to a significant decrease in Spirochaetes levels, the third major phylum in the untreated pig microbiota. In both pigs and mice, L. salivarius UCC118 administration had an effect on Firmicutes genus members. This effect was not observed when the mutant strain was administered, and was thus associated with bacteriocin production. Surprisingly, in both models, L. salivarius UCC118 administration and production of Abp118 had an effect on gram-negative microorganisms, even though Abp118 is normally not active in vitro against this group of microorganisms. Thus L. salivarius UCC118 administration has a significant but subtle impact on mouse and pig microbiota, by a mechanism that seems at least partially

  15. Intestinal absorption and postabsorptive metabolism of linoleic acid in rats with short-term bile duct ligation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minich, DM; Havinga, R; Stellaard, F; Vonk, RJ; Kuipers, F; Verkade, HJ

    2000-01-01

    We investigated in bile duct-ligated (BDL) and sham-operated control rats whether the frequent presence of essential fatty acid deficiency in cholestatic liver disease could be related to linoleic acid malabsorption, altered linoleic acid metabolism, or both. In plasma of BDL rats, the triene-to-tet

  16. Perinatal upregulation of intestinal transport of carnitine (C) in newborn pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, B.U.K.; Murray, R.D.; Heitlinger, L.A.; McClung, H.J.; Hughes, A.M.; O' Dorisio, T.M.; Sloan, H.R. (Columbus Children' s Hospital, OH (United States) Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Since C facilitates the perinatal transition from carbohydrate to lipid-derived energy, the authors examined the contribution of intestinal transport of dietary C to this process by determining (C)'s in sow's milk, pig jejunum and liver, and C flux across the jejunum (J{sub m-s}) as a function of postnatal age. The authors measured portal venous glucagon (G) and insulin (l) as potential regulatory signals and attempted to alter intestinal transport of C by infusing G. Pigs at days 1-7 (NB-newborn), 14-16 (SU-suckling) and 33-35 (WN-weanling) were studied. (C)'s in sow milk, piglet jejunum, and liver were determined. Fluxes were measured in an Ussing chamber and in an in situ recirculating jejunal perfusion. The effect of an IV infusion of G on ({sup 3}H)C absorption was evaluated in a single animal; an adjacent jejunal segment received saline. Sow's milk and liver (C)'s, and jejunal C transport were highest following birth and declined towards weaning. Plasma (G) and the G:I ratio demonstrated a parallel temporal pattern. The G-stimulated jejunal segment removed 53% of the C and the non-stimulated control segment, 8%. It was concluded that during the perinatal metabolic transition, enhanced intestinal nutrient assimilation promotes the transfer of dietary C to the liver where it could facilitate fatty acid oxidation. This pattern of upregulated intestinal transport immediately after birth may be mediated by pancreatic G and I secretion.

  17. Bovine Pericardium Patch Wrapping Intestinal Anastomosis Improves Healing Process and Prevents Leakage in a Pig Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testini, Mario; Gurrado, Angela; Portincasa, Piero; Scacco, Salvatore; Marzullo, Andrea; Piccinni, Giuseppe; Lissidini, Germana; Greco, Luigi; De Salvia, Maria Antonietta; Bonfrate, Leonilde; Debellis, Lucantonio; Sardaro, Nicola; Staffieri, Francesco; Carratù, Maria Rosaria; Crovace, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Failure of intestinal anastomosis is a major complication following abdominal surgery. Biological materials have been introduced as reinforcement of abdominal wall hernia in contaminated setting. An innovative application of biological patch is its use as reinforcement of gastrointestinal anastomosis. The aim of study was to verify whether the bovine pericardium patch improves the healing of anastomosis, when in vivo wrapping the suture line of pig intestinal anastomosis, avoiding leakage in the event of deliberately incomplete suture. Forty-three pigs were randomly divided: Group 1 (control, n = 14): hand-sewn ileo-ileal and colo-colic anastomosis; Group 2 (n = 14): standard anastomosis wrapped by pericardium bovine patch; Group 3 (n = 1) and 4 (n = 14): one suture was deliberately incomplete and also wrapped by patch in the last one. Intraoperative evaluation, histological, biochemical, tensiometric and electrophysiological studies of intestinal specimens were performed at 48 h, 7 and 90 days after. In groups 2 and 4, no leak, stenosis, abscess, peritonitis, mesh displacement or shrinkage were found and adhesion rate decreased compared to control. Biochemical studies showed mitochondrial function improvement in colic wrapped anastomosis. Tensiometric evaluations suggested that the patch preserves the colic contractility similar to the controls. Electrophysiological results demonstrated that the patch also improves the mucosal function restoring almost normal transport properties. Use of pericardium bovine patch as reinforcement of intestinal anastomosis is safe and effective, significantly improving the healing process. Data of prevention of acute peritonitis and leakage in cases of iatrogenic perforation of anastomoses, covered with patch, is unpublished. PMID:24489752

  18. Effect of dietary copper sulfate, Aureo SP250, or clinoptilolite on ureolytic bacteria found in the pig large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Robinson, I M; Pond, W G

    1987-09-01

    The predominant ureolytic bacteria in the pig large intestine were determined while growing pigs were fed a basal diet or basal diet plus copper sulfate, Aureo SP250, or clinoptilolite. Fecal samples were collected from four pigs fed each diet at 3, 9, and 14 weeks and analyzed for total colony counts and percent ureolytic bacteria. Fecal urease activity, ammonia nitrogen, and identity of the ureolytic bacteria were determined at 14 weeks. Copper sulfate and Aureo SP250 reduced the number of ureolytic organisms, with a marked decrease occurring in the Streptococcus spp., which made up 74% of the ureolytic isolates from the pigs on the basal diet. Other ureolytic species detected at lower concentrations were Staphylococcus spp., Selenomonas ruminantium, Bacteroides multiacidus, and Eubacterium limosum. Copper sulfate also reduced fecal urease activity (P less than 0.10). Fecal ammonia concentrations were not different between pigs fed the various diets. These data suggest that the streptococci are the most numerous ureolytic species in the pig intestinal tract and are significantly reduced by copper sulfate and Aureo SP250; however, only copper sulfate reduced intestinal urease activity.

  19. Effect of dietary laminarin and fucoidan on selected microbiota, intestinal morphology and immune status of the newly weaned pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, A M; Sweeney, T; O'Shea, C J; Doyle, D N; O'Doherty, J V

    2013-11-14

    A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the interactions between laminarin (LAM; 0 and 300 parts per million (ppm)) and fucoidan (FUC; 0 and 240 ppm) levels on intestinal morphology, selected microbiota and inflammatory cytokine gene expression in the weaned pig. There was an interaction between LAM and FUC supplementation on the Enterobacteriaceae population (Pintestinal morphology. Pigs offered the LAM-supplemented diets had a lower IL-6 (Pintestinal morphology and selected intestinal microbiota, but these effects were lost when offered in combination.

  20. Analyses of intestinal commensal Escherichia coli strains from wild boars suggest adaptation to conventional pig production conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Antje; Wieler, Lothar H; Schierack, Peter

    2012-12-28

    To test the hypothesis that Escherichia coli populations have adapted to conventional pig production practices, we comparatively tested intestinal commensal E. coli from wild boars versus isolates from domestic pigs by analyzing virulence-associated factors, adhesion, and metabolic activities. Virulence-associated genes typical for intestinal pathogenic E. coli (inVAGs) were sporadically detected among E. coli from wild boars except the adhesion-related gene paa and the enterotoxin-encoding gene astA. In contrast, several VAGs typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (exVAGs) were common in E. coli from wild boars. The exVAG chuA occurred more often in E. coli from wild boars compared to E. coli from domestic pigs. 23.5% of E. coli from wild boars belonged to EcoR group B2 which is higher than observed for E. coli from clinically healthy domestic pigs. Furthermore, E. coli from wild boars were more efficient in fermentation of carbohydrate sources (dulcitol, inositol, d-sucrose, d-tagatose), and adhered better to the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line IPEC-J2. In conclusion, our findings point towards an adaptation of porcine intestinal E. coli to a specific intestinal milieu caused by different animal living conditions.

  1. A surface energy analysis of mucoadhesion: contact angle measurements on polycarbophil and pig intestinal mucosa in physiologically relevant fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, C M; Bouwstra, J A; Boddé, H E; Junginger, H E

    1992-01-01

    The possible role of surface energy thermodynamics in mucoadhesion was investigated with Polycarbophil and pig intestinal mucosa. In separate experiments, the surface energy parameters of the substrate (mucosa) and the adhesive (polymer film) were determined by contact angle measurements on captive air/octane bubbles in three physiologically relevant test fluids (isotonic saline, artificial gastric fluid, and artificial intestinal fluid). Whereas the swollen Polycarbophil films were relatively hydrophilic as indicated by small water contact angles (22, 23, and 16 degrees), the water contact angles measured on mucosal tissue were significantly larger (61, 48, and 57 degrees). Hence, mucus was found to possess an appreciable hydrophobicity. The measured adhesive performance (force of detachment) between Polycarbophil and pig small intestinal mucosa was highest in nonbuffered saline medium, intermediate in gastric fluid, and minimal in intestinal fluid. In agreement with this trend, the mismatch in surface polarities between substrate and adhesive, calculated from the contact angle data, increased in the same order.

  2. THE EFFECT OF HOUSING SYSTEM ON THE INCIDENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITE INFESTATION IN PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna BARTOSIK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the intestinal parasite fauna occurring in pigs kept in different rearing conditions (group A – extremely extensive, B – extensive and C – intensive. In the period between March and July 2010, 345 samples of faeces from piglets (125, weaners (60, fatteners (94 and sows (66 were collected and tested, using standard coproscopic methods. Six parasitic species, belonging to phylum Nematoda (Strongyloides ransomi, Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum dentatum, Trichuris suum and to phylum Apicomplexa (Isospora suis and Eimeria debliecki were diagnosed. Eggs of Toxascaris leonina, a parasitic roundworm mostly affecting the members of the Canidae and Felidae families, not encountered in pigs until now, were found in the faeces of fatteners. The highest level of parasite invasion was recorded in pigs from group A and B; they were multi-species invasions. Parasitic species found in faeces not only bring economic losses, but they may also be dangerous for human health and life, which indicates the necessity to implement parasitological screening protocols, especially in the extensive rearing conditions.

  3. Enzymatically Modified Starch Favorably Modulated Intestinal Transit Time and Hindgut Fermentation in Growing Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M. A.; Zebeli, Q.; Velde, K.; Grüll, D.; Molnar, T.; Kandler, W.; Metzler-Zebeli, B. U.

    2016-01-01

    Aside from being used as stabilizing agents in many processed foods, chemically modified starches may act as functional dietary ingredients. Therefore, development of chemically modified starches that are less digestible in the upper intestinal segments and promote fermentation in the hindgut receives considerable attention. This study aimed to investigate the impact of an enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on nutrient flow, passage rate, and bacterial activity at ileal and post-ileal level. Eight ileal-cannulated growing pigs were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy cornstarch as control) in a cross-over design for 10 d, followed by a 4-d collection of feces and 2-d collection of ileal digesta. On d 17, solid and liquid phase markers were added to the diet to determine ileal digesta flow for 8 h after feeding. Reduced small intestinal digestion after the consumption of the EMS diet was indicated by a 10%-increase in ileal flow and fecal excretion of dry matter and energy compared to the control diet (Pfeeding reduced ileal transit time of both liquid and solid fractions compared to the control diet (P<0.05). The greater substrate flow to the large intestine with the EMS diet increased the concentrations of total and individual short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in feces (P<0.05). Total bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance was not affected by diet, whereas the relative abundance of the Lactobacillus group decreased (P<0.01) by 50% and of Enterobacteriaceae tended (P<0.1) to increase by 20% in ileal digesta with the EMS diet compared to the control diet. In conclusion, EMS appears to resemble a slowly digestible starch by reducing intestinal transit and increasing SCFA in the distal large intestine. PMID:27936165

  4. Peroxidised dietary lipids impair intestinal function and morphology of the small intestine villi of nursery pigs in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero, David S; Odle, Jack; Moeser, Adam J; Boyd, R Dean; van Heugten, Eric

    2015-12-28

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of increasing degrees of lipid peroxidation on structure and function of the small intestine of nursery pigs. A total of 216 pigs (mean body weight was 6·5 kg) were randomly allotted within weight blocks and sex and fed one of five experimental diets for 35 d (eleven pens per treatment with three to four pigs per pen). Treatments included a control diet without added lipid, and diets supplemented with 6 % soyabean oil that was exposed to heat (80°C) and constant oxygen flow (1 litre/min) for 0, 6, 9 and 12 d. Increasing lipid peroxidation linearly reduced feed intake (Pdigestibility of gross energy (P=0·001) and fat (PAbsorption of mannitol (linear, P=0·097) and d-xylose (linear, P=0·089), measured in serum 2 h post gavage with a solution containing 0·2 g/ml of d-xylose and 0·3 g/ml of mannitol, tended to decrease progressively as the peroxidation level increased. Increasing peroxidation also resulted in increased villi height (linear, Plipid peroxidation progressively diminished animal performance and modified the function and morphology of the small intestine of nursery pigs. Detrimental effects were related with the disruption of redox environment of the intestinal mucosa.

  5. Sacral nerve stimulation enhances early intestinal mucosal repair following mucosal injury in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brégeon, Jérémy; Coron, Emmanuel; Da Silva, Anna Christina Cordeiro; Jaulin, Julie; Aubert, Philippe; Chevalier, Julien; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Meurette, Guillaume; Neunlist, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Reducing intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) dysfunctions is recognized as being of major therapeutic interest for various intestinal disorders. Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is known to reduce IEB permeability. Here, we report in a pig model that SNS enhances morphological and functional recovery of IEB following mucosal injury induced via 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid. These effects are associated with an increased expression of tight junction proteins such as ZO-1 and FAK. These results establish that SNS enhances intestinal barrier repair in acute mucosal injury. They further set the scientific basis for future use of SNS as a complementary or alternative therapeutic option for the treatment of gut disorders with IEB dysfunctions such as inflammatory bowel diseases or irritable bowel syndrome. Intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) dysfunctions, such as increased permeability or altered healing, are central to intestinal disorders. Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is known to reduce IEB permeability, but its ability to modulate IEB repair remains unknown. This study aimed to characterize the impact of SNS on mucosal repair following 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced lesions. Six pigs were stimulated by SNS 3 h prior to and 3 h after TNBS enema, while sham animals (n = 8) were not stimulated. The impact of SNS on mucosal changes was evaluated by combining in vivo imaging, histological and functional methods. Biochemical and transcriptomic approaches were used to analyse the IEB and mucosal inflammatory response. We observed that SNS enhanced the recovery from TNBS-induced increase in transcellular permeability. At 24 h, TNBS-induced alterations of mucosal morphology were significantly less in SNS compared with sham animals. SNS reduced TNBS-induced changes in ZO-1 expression and its epithelial pericellular distribution, and also increased pFAK/FAK expression compared with sham. Interestingly, SNS increased the mucosal density of neutrophils

  6. α1,2-Fucosyllactose Does Not Improve Intestinal Function or Prevent Escherichia coli F18 Diarrhea in Newborn Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Sangild, Per Torp; Jensen, Michael Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    of mucosa and activities of some brush border enzymes in the proximal small intestine. In situ abundance of α-1,2-fucose and E. coli was similar between groups, whereas sequencing showed higher abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in F18, Enterococcus in Control and Lachnospiraceae in 2FL-F18 pigs. CONCLUSIONS...

  7. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in the pig: protective memory response after three immunizations and effect of intestinal adult worm population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lis; Roepstorff, Allan

    1999-01-01

    unreported 10 kDa band, specific to the L2 larval stage and egg hatch fluid, emerged in all pigs after challenge, while the major adult body fluid constituent, ABA-1, remained unrecognized. No significant effect of an intestinal adult worm burden on the larval recovery after a challenge inoculation...

  8. Diet-Dependent Effects of Minimal Enteral Nutrition on Intestinal Function and Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Boye, Mette; Thymann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    characterized. It was hypothesized that a commonly used MEN feeding volume (16-24 mL/kg/d) prevents NEC and improves intestinal structure, function, and microbiology in preterm pigs. Methods: After preterm birth pigs were stratified into 4 nutrition intervention groups that received the following treatments: (1......Background: A rapid advance in enteral feeding is associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. Therefore, minimal enteral nutrition (MEN) combined with parenteral nutrition (PN) is common clinical practice, but the effects on NEC and intestinal function remain poorly......: NEC was absent in the CC group but frequent in the other groups (50%-67%). Compared with other groups, CC pigs showed improved mucosal structures, brush border enzyme activities, and hexose absorption (all P prevent...

  9. The effect of bovine colostrum products on intestinal dysfunction and inflammation in a preterm pig model of necrotizing enterocolitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal

    was used to investigate the effect of BC products on intestinal structure, digestive and absorptive functions, microbiota, plasma and tissue proteins and tissue gene expression levels of inflammatory markers. In Study I, the aim was to investigate if BC could correct intestinal dysfunction and reduce...... formula. All three BC products maintained trophic and anti-inflammatory effects on the immature pig intestine. A simple and standardized system was required to investigate the effects of milk formula versus BC on intestinal epithelial cells. In Study III, the IPEC-J2 cell line was evaluated as an in vitro...... formula or colostrum were included for comparison. This study showed that careful considerations must be made prior to gene expression analysis of diet-induced responses in IPEC-J2 cells as a system for the premature intestine, since no dietinduced effects in the IPEC-J2 cells were detected. C...

  10. Mucosal/submucosal blood flow in the small intestine in pigs determined by local washout of 133Xe and microsphere techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter; Olsen, J; Sejrsen, P

    1990-01-01

    In 11 anaesthetized pigs a laparotomy was performed and the mucosal and submucosal blood flow rate in the small intestine of the pig was determined by a local application of 133Xe and by 6.5-microns radioactive microspheres. The 133Xe washout plotted in a semilogarithmic diagram showed a multiexp......In 11 anaesthetized pigs a laparotomy was performed and the mucosal and submucosal blood flow rate in the small intestine of the pig was determined by a local application of 133Xe and by 6.5-microns radioactive microspheres. The 133Xe washout plotted in a semilogarithmic diagram showed...

  11. Electrical coupling between smooth muscle and endothelium in arterioles of the guinea-pig small intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, G. J.; Kotecha, N.; Luff, S. E.; Neild, T. O.

    2001-09-01

    Equations describing the steady-state passive electrical properties of arterioles have been derived. The arteriole was modelled as having two thin layers of cells (muscle and endothelium) with strong electrical coupling between cells within a layer and variable coupling between the layers. The model indicated that spread of membrane potential changes was highly dependent on the thickness of cells within the layers. The model was also used to identify the optimal experimental strategy for detecting coupling between the two layers, and experiments were carried out on arterioles from the guinea-pig small intestine. Thickness of the endothelial layer was measured using electron microscopy and was found to be around 0.5 μm. Electrical input resistance was measured in intact arterioles and compared to input resistance of arterioles from which the endothelium had been removed. The experiments confirmed that there was a strong electrical coupling between the muscle and endothelium in these vessels.

  12. Identification of intestinal bacteria responsible for fermentation of gum arabic in pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Akio; Ushida, Kazunari; Phillips, Glyn O; Ogasawara, Takashi; Sasaki, Yasushi

    2006-09-01

    Acacia spp. produce gum exudates, traditionally called gum arabic or gum acacia, which are widely used in the food industry such as emulsifiers, adhesives, and stabilizers. The traditional gum arabic is highly variable with average molecular weights varying from 300,000-800,000. For this reason a standardized sample was used for the present experiments, based on a specific species of gum arabic (Acacia(sen)SUPER GUMEM2). The literature indicates that gum arabic can be fermented by the intestinal bacteria to short chain fatty acid, particularly propionate. However, the bacteria responsible for the fermentation have not been determined. In this study, we used enrichment culture of pig cecal bacteria from the selected high molecular weight specific gum arabic of (M(W )1.77 x 10(6)). We found Prevotella ruminicola-like bacterium as a predominant bacterium that is most likely to be responsible for fermentation of the gum arabic used to propionate.

  13. Effects of piperitenone oxide on the intestinal smooth muscle of the guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.C. Sousa

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of piperitenone oxide (PO, a major constituent of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa, on the guinea pig ileum. PO (30 to 740 µg/ml relaxed basal tonus without significantly altering the resting membrane potential. In addition, PO relaxed preparations precontracted with either 60 mM K+ or 5 mM tetraethylammonium in a concentration-dependent manner. At concentrations from 0.1 to 10 µg/ml PO potentiated acetylcholine-induced contractions, while higher concentrations (>30 µg/ml blocked this response. These higher PO concentrations also inhibited contractions induced by 60 mM K+. PO also blocked the components of acetylcholine contraction which are not sensitive to nifedipine or to solutions with nominal zero Ca2+ and EGTA. These results show that PO is a relaxant of intestinal smooth muscle and suggest that this activity may be mediated at least in part by an intracellular effect

  14. Yeast culture supplement during nursing and transport affects immunity and intestinal microbial ecology of weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedman, S M; Rostagno, M H; Patterson, J A; Yoon, I; Fitzner, G; Eicher, S D

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on innate immunity and intestinal microbial ecology after weaning and transport stress. In a randomized complete block design, before weaning and in a split-plot analysis of a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of yeast culture (YY) and transport (TT) after weaning, 3-d-old pigs (n = 108) were randomly assigned within litter (block) to either a control (NY, milk only) or yeast culture diet (YY; delivered in milk to provide 0.1 g of yeast culture product/kg of BW) from d 4 to 21. At weaning (d 21), randomly, one-half of the NY and YY pigs were assigned to a 6-h transport (NY-TT and YY-TT) before being moved to nursery housing, and the other one-half were moved directly to nursery housing (NY-NT and YY-NT, where NT is no transport). The yeast treatment was a 0.2% S. cerevisiae fermentation product and the control treatment was a 0.2% grain blank in feed for 2 wk. On d 1 before transport and on d 1, 4, 7, and 14 after transport, blood was collected for leukocyte assays, and mesenteric lymph node, jejunal, and ileal tissue, and jejunal, ileal, and cecal contents were collected for Toll-like receptor expression (TLR); enumeration of Escherichia coli, total coliforms, and lactobacilli; detection of Salmonella; and microbial analysis. After weaning, a yeast × transport interaction for ADG was seen (P = 0.05). Transport affected (P = 0.09) ADFI after weaning. Yeast treatment decreased hematocrit (P = 0.04). A yeast × transport interaction was found for counts of white blood cells (P = 0.01) and neutrophils (P = 0.02) and for the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.02). Monocyte counts revealed a transport (P = 0.01) effect. Interactions of yeast × transport (P = 0.001) and yeast × transport × day (P = 0.09) for TLR2 and yeast × transport (P = 0.08) for TLR4 expression in the mesenteric lymph node were detected. Day affected lactobacilli, total coliform, and E

  15. Innervation of enteric mast cells by primary spinal afferents in guinea pig and human small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Liu, Sumei; Qu, Meihua; Xia, Yun; Needleman, Bradley J; Mikami, Dean J; Wood, Jackie D

    2014-10-01

    Mast cells express the substance P (SP) neurokinin 1 receptor and the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor in guinea pig and human small intestine. Enzyme-linked immunoassay showed that activation of intramural afferents by antidromic electrical stimulation or by capsaicin released SP and CGRP from human and guinea pig intestinal segments. Electrical stimulation of the afferents evoked slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in the enteric nervous system. The slow EPSPs were mediated by tachykinin neurokinin 1 and CGRP receptors. Capsaicin evoked slow EPSP-like responses that were suppressed by antagonists for protease-activated receptor 2. Afferent stimulation evoked slow EPSP-like excitation that was suppressed by mast cell-stabilizing drugs. Histamine and mast cell protease II were released by 1) exposure to SP or CGRP, 2) capsaicin, 3) compound 48/80, 4) elevation of mast cell Ca²⁺ by ionophore A23187, and 5) antidromic electrical stimulation of afferents. The mast cell stabilizers cromolyn and doxantrazole suppressed release of protease II and histamine when evoked by SP, CGRP, capsaicin, A23187, electrical stimulation of afferents, or compound 48/80. Neural blockade by tetrodotoxin prevented mast cell protease II release in response to antidromic electrical stimulation of mesenteric afferents. The results support a hypothesis that afferent innervation of enteric mast cells releases histamine and mast cell protease II, both of which are known to act in a diffuse paracrine manner to influence the behavior of enteric nervous system neurons and to elevate the sensitivity of spinal afferent terminals.

  16. Neurophysiological mechanisms of bradykinin-evokedmucosal chloride secretion in guinea pig small intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the mechanism for bradykinin(BK) to stimulate intestinal secretomotor neurons andintestinal chloride secretion.METHODS: Muscle-stripped guinea pig ileal preparationswere mounted in Ussing flux chambers for therecording of short-circuit current (Isc ). Basal Isc andIsc stimulated by BK when preincubated with the BKreceptors antagonist and other chemicals were recordedusing the Ussing chamber system. Prostaglandin E2(PGE2) production in the intestine was determined byenzyme immunologic assay (EIA).RESULTS: Application of BK or B2 receptor (B2R) agonistsignificantly increased the baseline Isc compared to thecontrol. B2R antagonist, tetrodotoxin and scopolamine(blockade of muscarinic receptors) significantly suppressedthe increase in Isc evoked by BK. The BK-evokedIsc was suppressed by cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 or COX-2specific inhibitor as well as nonselective COX inhibitors.Preincubation of submucosa/mucosa preparations withBK for 10 min significantly increased PGE2 production andthis was abolished by the COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors.The BK-evoked Isc was suppressed by nonselective EPreceptors and EP4 receptor antagonists, but selective EP1receptor antagonist did not have a significant effect onthe BK-evoked Isc . Inhibitors of PLC, PKC, calmodulin orCaMKⅡ failed to suppress BK-induced PGE2 production.CONCLUSION: The results suggest that BK stimulatesneurogenic chloride secretion in the guinea pig ileumby activating B2R, through COX increasing PGE2 production.The post-receptor transduction cascade includesactivation of PLC, PKC, CaMK, IP3 and MAPK.

  17. Minimal short-term effect of dietary 2'-fucosyllactose on bacterial colonisation, intestinal function and necrotising enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Bering, Stine B.; Østergaard, Mette V.

    2016-01-01

    Human milk decreases the risk of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), a severe gastrointestinal disease that occurs in 5–10 % of preterm infants. The prebiotic and immune-modulatory effects of milk oligosaccharides may contribute to this protection. Preterm pigs were used to test whether infant formula......, digestive function or NEC sensitivity in pigs within the first few days after preterm birth. Milk 2'-FL may not be critical in the immediate postnatal period of preterm neonates when gut colonisation and intestinal immunity are still immature....

  18. The reactions of specific neuron types to intestinal ischemia in the guinea pig enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Leni R; Thacker, Michelle; Castelucci, Patricia; Bron, Romke; Furness, John B

    2009-08-01

    Damage following ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) is common in the intestine and can be caused during abdominal surgery, in several disease states and following intestinal transplantation. Most studies have concentrated on damage to the mucosa, although published evidence also points to effects on neurons. Moreover, alterations of neuronally controlled functions of the intestine persist after I/R. The present study was designed to investigate the time course of damage to neurons and the selectivity of the effect of I/R damage for specific types of enteric neurons. A branch of the superior mesenteric artery supplying the distal ileum of anesthetised guinea pigs was occluded for 1 h and the animals were allowed to recover for 2 h to 4 weeks before tissue was taken for the immunohistochemical localization of markers of specific neuron types in tissues from sham and I/R animals. The dendrites of neurons with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactivity, which are inhibitory motor neurons and interneurons, were distorted and swollen by 24 h after I/R and remained enlarged up to 28 days. The total neuron profile areas (cell body plus dendrites) increased by 25%, but the sizes of cell bodies did not change significantly. Neurons of type II morphology (intrinsic primary afferent neurons), revealed by NeuN immunoreactivity, were transiently reduced in cell size, at 24 h and 7 days. These neurons also showed signs of minor cell surface blebbing. Calretinin neurons, many of which are excitatory motor neurons, were unaffected. Thus, this study revealed a selective damage to NOS neurons that was observed at 24 h and persisted up to 4 weeks, without a significant change in the relative numbers of NOS neurons.

  19. Stimulation of mucosal secretion by lubiprostone (SPI-0211) in guinea pig small intestine and colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Guijun; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Liu, Sumei; Hu, Hong-Zhen; Wang, Guo-Du; Qu, Mei-Hua; Wang, Xi-Yu; Xia, Yun; Sun, Xiaohong; Bohn, Laura M; Cooke, Helen J; Wood, Jackie D

    2009-04-01

    Actions of lubiprostone, a selective type-2 chloride channel activator, on mucosal secretion were investigated in guinea pig small intestine and colon. Flat-sheet preparations were mounted in Ussing flux chambers for recording short-circuit current (Isc) as a marker for electrogenic chloride secretion. Lubiprostone, applied to the small intestinal mucosa in eight concentrations ranging from 1-3000 nM, evoked increases in Isc in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 of 42.5 nM. Lubiprostone applied to the mucosa of the colon in eight concentrations ranging from 1-3000 nM evoked increases in Isc in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 of 31.7 nM. Blockade of enteric nerves by tetrodotoxin did not influence stimulation of Isc by lubiprostone. Antagonists acting at prostaglandin (PG)E2, EP1-3, or EP4 receptors did not suppress stimulation of Isc by lubiprostone but suppressed or abolished PGE2-evoked responses. Substitution of gluconate for chloride abolished all responses to lubiprostone. The selective CFTR channel blocker, CFTR(inh)-172, did not suppress lubiprostone-evoked Isc. The broadly acting blocker, glibenclamide, suppressed (Plubiprostone-evoked Isc. Lubiprostone, in the presence of tetrodotoxin, enhanced carbachol-evoked Isc. The cholinergic component, but not the putative vasoactive intestinal peptide component, of neural responses to electrical field stimulation was enhanced by lubiprostone. Application of any of the prostaglandins, E2, F2, or I2, evoked depolarization of the resting membrane potential in enteric neurons. Unlike the prostaglandins, lubiprostone did not alter the electrical behavior of enteric neurons. Exposure to the histamine H2 receptor agonists increased basal Isc followed by persistent cyclical increases in Isc. Lubiprostone increased the peak amplitude of the dimaprit-evoked cycles.

  20. PCO(2) in the large intestine of mice, rats, guinea pigs, and dogs and effects of the dietary substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Mirtaheri, Peyman; Dirven, Hubert; Johnsen, Helge; Kvarstein, Gunnvald; Tønnessen, Tor Inge; Midtvedt, Tore

    2002-01-01

    PCO(2) in the lumen and serosa of cecum and colon was measured in rats, guinea pigs, and dogs to examine the relationship between serosal PCO(2) and the incidence of intestinal necrotic lesions after administration of gas-carrier contrast agents in rodents. The effects of the dietary substrate were tested in a group of mice maintained on a diet based on glucose as the only carbohydrate source. The anesthetic used was a fentanyl-fluanison-midazolam mixture (rodents) and pentobarbital (dogs). PCO(2) was measured in vivo and postmortem, and the kinetics of the postmortem serosal PCO(2) [transmural CO(2) flux (J(CO(2)))] was calculated. PCO(2) in the cecal serosa and lumen, respectively, was 64 +/- 4 and 392 +/- 18 Torr in rats, 67 +/- 3 and 276 +/- 17 Torr in guinea pigs, and 73 +/- 6 and 137 +/- 7 Torr in mice on glucose-based diet. In the colon serosa and lumen of dogs, PCO(2) was 30 +/- 6 and 523 +/- 67 Torr, respectively. Serosal PCO(2) increased rapidly after death in rats and slower in guinea pigs and mice, and the slowest change was observed in dogs. Compared with dogs, serosal PCO(2) and J(CO(2)) of rats and guinea pigs were significantly higher. Serosal PCO(2) of guinea pigs was similar to that of rats, whereas the J(CO(2)) of guinea pigs was significantly lower. These data suggest a causal relationship between the ability of the cecal and colonic wall to act as a barrier to CO(2) diffusion and the presence of characteristic gas-carrier contrast agent-induced intestinal lesions in mice and rats and their absence in guinea pigs, dogs, and other species.

  1. Zinc oxide-montmorillonite hybrid influences diarrhea, intestinal mucosal integrity, and digestive enzyme activity in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Caihong; Song, Juan; You, Zhaotong; Luan, Zhaoshuang; Li, Weifen

    2012-11-01

    One hundred-eighty piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire), with an average initial weight of 7.4 kg weaned at 27 ± 1 days of age, were used to evaluate the effects of dietary zinc oxide-montmorillonite hybrid (ZnO-MMT) on growth performance, diarrhea, intestinal mucosal integrity, and digestive enzyme activity. All pigs were allotted to five treatments and fed with the basal diets supplemented with 0, 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO-MMT or 2,000 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO. The results showed that supplementation with 500 or 750 mg/kg of Zn from ZnO-MMT and 2,000 mg/kg of Zn from ZnO improved average daily gain, enhanced average daily feed intake, decreased fecal scores at 4, 8, and 14 days postweaning, reduced intestinal permeability which was evident from the reduced lactulose recovery and urinary lactulose/mannitol ratio, and improved the activities of protease, amylase, lipase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin both in pancreas and small intestinal contents of pigs as compared with the control. Supplemental 250 mg/kg of Zn from ZnO-MMT also decreased fecal scores at 8 and 14 days postweaning, decreased urinary lactulose/mannitol ratio, and improved chymotrypsin activity in pancreas and small intestinal contents as well as protease activity in small intestinal contents compared with control. Moreover, the above indexes of weanling pigs fed with 500 or 750 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO-MMT did not differ from those fed with 2,000 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO. The results demonstrated that supplementation with 500 or 750 mg/kg of Zn from ZnO-MMT was as efficacious as 2,000 mg/kg of Zn from ZnO in improving growth performance, alleviating postweaning diarrhea, and enhancing intestinal mucosal integrity and the digestive enzyme activities in pancreas and small intestinal contents of pigs. The results that feeding lower concentrations of ZnO-MMT to weanling pigs maintained performance will be beneficial for the environment and for sustaining swine production.

  2. Glucagon-like peptides GLP-1 and GLP-2, predicted products of the glucagon gene, are secreted separately from pig small intestine but not pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1986-01-01

    identified in glucagon-producing cells of the pancreatic islets, and in glicentin-producing cells of the small intestine. Immunoreactive GLP-1 and 2 in intestinal extracts corresponded in molecular size to peptides synthesized according to the predicted structure. By reverse phase HPLC, intestinal......We developed specific antibodies and RIAs for glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2), two predicted products of the glucagon gene, and studied the occurrence, nature, and secretion of immunoreactive GLP-1 and GLP-2 in pig pancreas and small intestine. Immunoreactive GLP-1 and GLP-2 were...... and synthetic GLP-1 behaved similarly, whereas synthetic and intestinal GLP-2 differed. Pancreatic extracts contained a large peptide with both GLP-1 and GLP-2 immunoreactivity. Secretion was studied using isolated perfused pig pancreas during arginine stimulation, and isolated perfused pig ileum during either...

  3. Controlling Salmonella infection in weanling pigs through water delivery of direct-fed microbials or organic acids: Part II. Effects on intestinal histology and active nutrient transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of water-delivered direct-fed microbials (DFM) or organic acids on intestinal morphology and active nutrient absorption in weanling pigs following deliberate Salmonella infection. Pigs (n = 88) were weaned at 19 ± 2 d of age and assigned to one...

  4. Influence of a diet rich in resistant starch on the degradation of non-starch polysaccharides in the large intestine of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonathan, M.C.; Haenen, D.; Souza Da Silva, C.; Bosch, G.; Schols, H.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of resistant starch to the degradation of other non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) in the large intestine of pigs, two groups of pigs were fed either a diet containing digestible starch (DS) or a diet containing resistant starch (RS). Both diets contained NSPs from wheat and

  5. Influence of a diet rich in resistant starch on the degradation of non-starch polysaccharides in the large intestine of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonathan, M.C.; Haenen, D.; Souza Da Silva, C.; Bosch, G.; Schols, H.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of resistant starch to the degradation of other non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) in the large intestine of pigs, two groups of pigs were fed either a diet containing digestible starch (DS) or a diet containing resistant starch (RS). Both diets contained NSPs from wheat and

  6. Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Pigs Is Associated with Increased Density of Intestinal Mucosa-Associated Bacteria Including Clostridium perfringens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Mølbak, Lars; Delègue, Camilla Lindholm;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with changes in the luminal gut microbiota. It is not known whether the mucosa-associated microbiota is affected by NEC and stimulates inflammatory lesions. Objective: We hypothesized that the density of the mucosa-associated microbiota...... correlates with NEC severity in preterm pigs and that in vitro infection with increasing densities of Clostridium perfringens, which has been associated with NEC in preterm infants, would lead to a transcriptional response related to the inflammatory conditions of NEC. Methods: First, we determined...... the density of total bacteria and C. perfringens in the distal small intestinal mucosa of 58 NEC and healthy preterm pigs using quantitative PCR. Next, we analyzed in IPEC-J2 cells the effect of different infection densities of C. perfringens type A on the expression of genes related to intestinal function...

  7. 1,2-Fucosyllactose Does Not Improve Intestinal Function or Prevent Escherichia coli F18 Diarrhea in Newborn Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Sangild, Per Torp; Jensen, Michael Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

     = 24) without (control) or with inoculation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F18 (7.5 × 1010/day for 8 days) fed either no (F18) or 10 g/L 2′-FL (2FL-F18). Results: In vitro studies revealed decreased pathogen adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells with 2′-FL (5 g/L; P ... of mucosa and activities of some brush border enzymes in the proximal small intestine. In situ abundance of α-1,2-fucose and E coli was similar between groups, whereas sequencing showed higher abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in F18, Enterococcus in control and Lachnospiraceae in 2FL-F18 pigs. Conclusions: 2......′-FL inhibited in vitro adhesion of E coli F18 to epithelial cells, but had limited effects on diarrhea and mucosal health in newborn pigs challenged with E coli F18...

  8. Modeling the growth dynamics of multiple Escherichia coli strains in the pig intestine following intramuscular ampicillin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Zachariasen, Camilla; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;

    2016-01-01

    after the treatment ended. When the duration of high excretion was set to be limited to the treatment time (i.e. the treatment was assumed to result in a cure of diarrhea) resistant strains required longer time to reach the previous level. Conclusion : No fitness cost was found to be associated......, and could be used for prediction of the effect of treatment with other drugs and other administration routes for effect on resistance development in the intestine of pigs....

  9. Esophageal variceal ligation in the secondary prevention of variceal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-05-03

    May 3, 2013 ... Key words: Variceal hemorrhage, endoscopic band ligation, liver cirrhosis, complication of band ligation, ... patients with upper gastro intestinal bleeding. .... hemorrhage. Gastroenterology. 1981;80(4):800-809. PubMed.

  10. Regulatory role for L-arginine in the utilization of amino acids by pig small-intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhao-Lai; Li, Xi-Long; Xi, Peng-Bin; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Guoyao; Zhu, Wei-Yun

    2012-07-01

    We recently reported that bacteria from the pig small intestine rapidly utilize and metabolize amino acids (AA). This study investigated the effect of L-arginine on the utilization of AA by pure bacterial strains (Streptococcus sp., Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp.) and mixed bacterial cultures derived from the pig small intestine. Bacteria were incubated at 37°C for 3 h in anaerobic AA media containing 0-5 mmol/L of arginine to determine the effect of arginine on the bacterial utilization of AA. Amino acids in the medium plus cell extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results indicated concentration-dependent increases in the bacterial utilization of arginine and altered fluxes of arginine into ornithine and citrulline in the bacteria. Net glutamine utilization increased in pure bacterial strains with increased concentrations of arginine. With the addition of arginine, net utilization of threonine, glycine, phenylalanine and branched-chain AA increased (P<0.05) in Streptococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp., but decreased in E. coli. Net utilization of lysine, threonine, isoleucine, leucine, glycine and alanine by jejunal or ileal mixed bacteria decreased (P<0.05) with the addition of arginine. Complete utilization of asparagine, aspartate and serine were observed in pig small-intestinal bacteria after 3 h of incubation. Overall, the addition of arginine affected the metabolism of the arginine-family of AA and the serine- and aspartate-family of AA in small-intestinal bacteria and reduced the utilization of most AA in ileal mixed bacteria. These novel findings indicate that arginine exerts its beneficial effects on swine nutrition partially by regulating AA utilization and metabolism in the small-intestinal microbiota.

  11. Serotonin and cholecystokinin mediate nutrient-induced segmentation in guinea pig small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Melina; Chambers, Jordan D; Gwynne, Rachel M; Bornstein, Joel C

    2013-04-15

    Segmentation is an important process in nutrient mixing and absorption; however, the mechanisms underlying this motility pattern are poorly understood. Segmentation can be induced by luminal perfusion of fatty acid in guinea pig small intestine in vitro and mimicked by the serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (300 nM) and by cholecystokinin (CCK). Serotonergic and CCK-related mechanisms underlying nutrient-induced segmentation were investigated using selective 5-HT and CCK receptor antagonists on isolated segments of small intestine luminally perfused with 1 mM decanoic acid. Motility patterns were analyzed using video imaging and spatiotemporal maps. Segmenting activity mediated by decanoic acid was depressed following luminal application of the 5-HT receptor antagonists granisetron (5-HT(3), 1 μM) and SB-207266 (5-HT(4), 10 nM) and the CCK receptor antagonists devazepide (CCK-1, 300 nM) and L-365260 (CCK-2, 300 nM), but these antagonists did not further depress segmentation when combined. The P2 receptor antagonist pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonate (10 μM) had no effect on activity. Serosal application of 5-HT antagonists had little effect on segmentation in the duodenum but reduced activity in the jejunum when granisetron and SB-207266 were applied together. These results reveal that 5-HT(3) and 5-HT(4) receptors, as well as CCK-1 and CCK-2 receptors, are critical in regulating decanoic acid-induced segmentation. Computational simulation indicated that these data are consistent with decanoic acid activating two pathways in the mucosa that converge within the enteric neural circuitry, while contraction-induced release of 5-HT from the mucosa provides feedback into the neural circuit to set the time course of the overall contractile activity.

  12. Effects of pig genotype (Iberian v. Landrace × Large White) on nutrient digestibility, relative organ weight and small intestine structure at two stages of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barea, R; Nieto, R; Vitari, F; Domeneghini, C; Aguilera, J F

    2011-02-01

    Although the effects of pig genotype on total-tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) have been widely reported in the literature, there is controversial information on the digestive capacity of indigenous breeds compared with lean-type pigs. The strategy of this study was to test the effects of pig genotype and crude protein (CP) supply on performance, digestive utilization of nutrients, relative organ weight and morphometric analysis of the small intestine. Thirty-eight Iberian (IB) and Landrace × Large White (LD) pigs were used. Three pigs per genotype were slaughtered at approximately 15 kg BW. The remaining pigs were fed one of two diets differing in CP content (13% or 17% as fed) using a pair-fed procedure. Feeding level was restricted at 0.8 × ad libitum of IB pigs. Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance trials were performed at 30 and 80 kg BW. Four pigs per dietary treatment and genotype were slaughtered at approximately 50 and 115 kg BW. The gastrointestinal tract and the rest of the visceral organs were weighed and samples of the small intestine were taken to carry out histological and histometrical studies. Daily gain and gain-to-feed ratio were higher in LD than in IB pigs during the fattening and growing-fattening periods (P small intestine was greater in LD than in IB pigs at 50 and 115 kg BW. Histometry showed that IB presented a lower muscle layer thickness than LD pigs in ileum, irrespective of the BW (P small intestine, the main differences between the two genotypes should be attributed to a larger extent to protein and energy utilization in tissues with consequences for the overall efficiency of energy use.

  13. The effect of dietary carbohydrates and Trichuris suis infection on pig large intestine tissue structure, epithelial cell proliferation and mucin characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, L E; Knudsen, K E Bach; Hedemann, M S; Roepstorff, A

    2006-11-30

    Two experiments (Exps. 1 and 2) were performed to study the influence of Trichuris suis infection and type of dietary carbohydrates on large intestine morphology, epithelial cell proliferation and mucin characteristics. Two experimental diets based on barley flour were used; Diet 1 was supplemented with resistant carbohydrates from oat hull meal, while Diet 2 was supplemented with fermentable carbohydrates from sugar beet fibre and inulin. In Experiment 1, 32 pigs were allocated randomly into four groups. Two groups were fed Diet 1 and two groups Diet 2. Pigs from one of each diet group were inoculated with a single dose of 2000 infective T. suis eggs and the other two groups remained uninfected controls. In Experiment 2, 12 pigs were allocated randomly into two groups and fed Diet 1 or Diet 2, respectively, and inoculated with a single dose of 2000 infective T. suis eggs. All the pigs were slaughtered 8 weeks post inoculation (p.i.). The worm counts were lower in pigs fed Diet 2 in both experiments, but not significantly so. Both diet and infection status significantly influenced the tissue weight of the large intestine. In both experiments, pigs fed Diet 2 had heavier large intestines than pigs fed Diet 1 and in Experiment1 the infected pigs of both diets had heavier large intestines than their respective control groups. Diet and infection also significantly affected the morphological architecture and mucin production in both experiments. Pigs fed Diet 1 had larger crypts both in terms of area and height than pigs fed Diet 2 and T. suis infected pigs on both diets in Experiment 1 had larger crypts than their respective control groups. The area of the mucin granules in the crypts constituted 22-53% of the total crypt area and was greatest in the T. suis infected pigs fed Diet 1. Epithelial cell proliferation was affected neither by diet nor infection in any of the experiments. The study showed that both T. suis infection and dietary carbohydrates significantly

  14. Effect of Dietary Administration of Lathyrus sativus Pulse on Intestinal Biochemical Parameters in Normal and Scorbutic Guinea Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective In order to investigate that ascorbic acid deficiency is responcible for lathyrus toxicity, the effect of dietary feeding of lathyrus pulse in normal and scorbutic guinea pigs for 3 months, on intestinal biochemical parameters was undertaken. Methods The intestinal brush border membrane (BBM) marker and xenobiotic metabolising enzymes (XME) were assayed. Results Exposure to 80% lathyrus alone and in scorbutic conditions showed significant inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (28%-30%), sucrase (19%) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidasc (GGT) (15%-27%)enzymes, while Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase was significantly inhibited (38%) in scorbutic plus lathyrus treated group. The phase Ⅰ XME (AHH) remained unchanged while the phase Ⅱ enzyme glutathioneS-tranferase (GST) was significantly decreased (20%-22%) in lathyrus and scorbutic plus lathyrus treated groups. Quinone reductase (QR) activity was found to be significantly decreased in lathyrus exposed group (20%). The intestinal biomarker contents including hexose (25%-34%) and phospholipids (20%-40%) were significantly reduced in lathyrus and scorbutic plus lathyrus exposed animals, while sialic acid showed a significant decrease (28%) in scorbutic plus lathyrus treated group. However, cholesterol levels were signifcantly enhanced (15%-28%) in lathyrus and scorbutic plus lathyrus treated animals. Conclusion The results indicate that oral feeding of lathyrus pulse to guinea pigs can alter BBM parameters as well as XME, which may result in the intestinal toxicity.Further, ascorbic acid deficiency could be one of the pre-disposing factors of lathyrus toxicity.

  15. Protein Malnutrition Modifies Innate Immunity and Gene Expression by Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Human Rotavirus Infection in Neonatal Gnotobiotic Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paim, Francine C.; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Alhamo, Moyasar A.; Fischer, David D.; Langel, Stephanie N.; Deblais, Loic; Kumar, Anand; Chepngeno, Juliet; Shao, Lulu; Huang, Huang-Chi; Candelero-Rueda, Rosario A.; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Malnutrition affects millions of children in developing countries, compromising immunity and contributing to increased rates of death from infectious diseases. Rotavirus is a major etiological agent of childhood diarrhea in developing countries, where malnutrition is prevalent. However, the interactions between the two and their combined effects on immune and intestinal functions are poorly understood. In this study, we used neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs transplanted with the fecal microbiota of a healthy 2-month-old infant (HIFM) and fed protein-deficient or -sufficient bovine milk diets. Protein deficiency induced hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypoglycemia, stunting, and generalized edema in Gn pigs, as observed in protein-malnourished children. Irrespective of the diet, human rotavirus (HRV) infection early, at HIFM posttransplantation day 3 (PTD3), resulted in adverse health effects and higher mortality rates (45 to 75%) than later HRV infection (PTD10). Protein malnutrition exacerbated HRV infection and affected the morphology and function of the small intestinal epithelial barrier. In pigs infected with HRV at PTD10, there was a uniform decrease in the function and/or frequencies of natural killer cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and CD103+ and apoptotic mononuclear cells and altered gene expression profiles of intestinal epithelial cells (chromogranin A, mucin 2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, SRY-Box 9, and villin). Thus, we have established the first HIFM-transplanted neonatal pig model that recapitulates major aspects of protein malnutrition in children and can be used to evaluate physiologically relevant interventions. Our findings provide an explanation of why nutrient-rich diets alone may lack efficacy in malnourished children. IMPORTANCE Malnutrition and rotavirus infection, prevalent in developing countries, individually and in combination, affect the health of millions of children, compromising their immunity and increasing

  16. Effects of lowering dietary fiber before marketing on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, M D; Derouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Houser, T A; Nelssen, J L; Goodband, R D

    2014-01-01

    A total of 264 pigs (initially 41.0 kg BW) were used in a 90-d study to determine the effects of lowering dietary fiber before market on pigs fed high dietary fiber [provided by wheat middlings (midds) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)] on growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights of growing-finishing pigs. Pens of pigs were randomly allotted by initial BW and sex to 1 of 6 treatments with 6 replications per treatment and 7 or 8 pigs per pen. A positive control (corn-soybean meal-based) diet containing no DDGS or midds (9.3% NDF) and a negative control diet with 30% DDGS and 19% midds (19% NDF) were fed throughout the entire trial (d 0 to 90). The other 4 treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with the main effects of length of fiber reduction (23 or 47 d before marketing) and fiber level fed during the reduction period (low or medium). Pigs on these treatments were fed the negative control before the reduction treatment. The medium-fiber diet contained 15% DDGS and 9.5% midds (14.2% NDF) with the low-fiber diet was the positive control diet. Increasing the feeding duration of the low-fiber diets lowered overall ADFI (linear, P = 0.03) and improved G:F (linear, P fiber level for the last 23 d did not influence growth performance; however, lowering the fiber level improved carcass yield (P = 0.002), with a greater response (P fiber diet was fed for 23 d. Jowl fat iodine value (IV) decreased when the longer lower fiber diets were fed (linear, P fiber diet during the fiber reduction period than pigs fed the medium-fiber diet during the same time period; however, increasing the time lower fiber diets were fed from 23 to 47 d further reduced (P fiber level decreased full large intestine weight (linear, P = 0.005) with a greater response (P = 0.04) when the low-fiber diet was fed during the reduction period instead of the medium-fiber diet. In summary, lowering the fiber level before marketing can

  17. Metabolism of stevioside in pigs and intestinal absorption characteristics of stevioside, rebaudioside A and steviol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuns, Jan M C; Augustijns, Patrick; Mols, Raf; Buyse, Johan G; Driessen, Bert

    2003-11-01

    Stevioside orally administered to pigs was completely converted into steviol by the bacteria of the colon. However, no stevioside or steviol could be detected in the blood of the animals, even not after converting steviol into the (7-methoxycoumarin-4-yl)methyl ester of steviol, a very sensitive fluorescent derivative with a detection limit of about 50 pg. The intestinal transport characteristics of stevioside, rebaudioside A and steviol were also studied in the Caco-2 system. Only a minor fraction of stevioside and rebaudioside A was transported through the Caco-2 cell layer giving a Papp value of 0.16x10(-6) and 0.11x10(-6) cm/s, respectively. The Papp value for the absorptive transport of steviol was about 38.6x10(-6) cm/s while the Papp value for the secretory transport of steviol was only about 5.32x10(-6) cm/s suggesting carrier-mediated transport. The discrepancy between the relatively high absorptive transport of steviol and the lack of steviol in the blood may be explained by the fact that in the Caco-2 study, steviol is applied as a solution facilitating the uptake, whereas in the colon steviol probably is adsorbed to the compounds present in the colon of which the contents is being concentrated by withdrawal of water.

  18. Clostridium herbivorans sp. nov., a cellulolytic anaerobe from the pig intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Tanner, R S; Woese, C R

    1995-07-01

    A new cellulolytic anaerobic clostridium was isolated from the intestinal tract of pigs. The single isolate was a gram-positive, motile rod, formed terminal to subterminal swollen sporangia, and required a fermentable carbohydrate for growth. Cellulose, cellobiose, maltose, starch, and glycogen supported growth, but glucose and fructose did not. The major end products from the fermentation of cellobiose were butyrate and formate; minor amounts of hydrogen and ethanol were also formed. Ruminal fluid (15%) or yeast extract (1%) was required for good growth. The optimum temperature for growth was 39 to 42 degrees C, and the optimum pH was 6.8 to 7.2. Cell lysis occurred rapidly once stationary growth was reached. A 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that the strain was related to a group of gram-positive anaerobes that includes Clostridium oroticum and the cellulolytic species Clostridium polysaccharolyticum and Clostridium populeti. The DNA base composition of the isolate is 38 mol% G + C. We propose the name Clostridium herbivorans for this organism; strain 54408 (= ATCC 49925) is the type strain.

  19. Excitatory and inhibitory cholinergic effects of yohimbine on isolated guinea-pig small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Tacca, M; Tadini, P; Blandizzi, C; Bernardini, M C

    1988-08-01

    The interaction of yohimbine with the cholinergic intestinal system was investigated in the isolated guinea-pig ileum using a wide range of drug concentrations from 3 x 10(-13) to 2 x 10(-4) g/ml. Low concentrations of yohimbine (3 x 10(-13) to 3 x 10(-11) g/ml) caused dose-dependent contractions of the ileal longitudinal muscle, which were potentiated by eserine 1 x 10(-8) g/ml and prevented by tetrodotoxin 1 x 10(-6) g/ml or by atropine 1 x 10(-12) g/ml; methysergide and diphenydramine were ineffective up to 3 x 10(-7) g/ml dose. Submaximal stimulatory responses evoked by twitch stimulation or by acetylcholine were significantly potentiated by the same concentrations of yohimbine (3 x 10(-13) to 3 x 10(-11) g/ml) and blocked by atropine 1 x 10(-12) g/ml. By contrast, high concentrations of yohimbine (1 x 10(-6) to 2 x 10(-4) g/ml) displayed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on cholinergic responses. The stimulant effect of yohimbine seems to be indirect and mediated by the increase in the release of acetylcholine, while the inhibitory action may be due to a molecular interaction with the muscarinic receptors allowing non-specific receptor blockade.

  20. Important impacts of intestinal bacteria on utilization of dietary amino acids in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Xiang; Dai, Zhao-Lai; Zhu, Wei-Yun

    2014-11-01

    Bacteria in pig intestine can actively metabolize amino acids (AA). However, little research has focused on the variation in AA metabolism by bacteria from different niches. This study compared the metabolism of AA by microorganisms derived from the lumen and epithelial wall of the pig small intestine, aiming to test the hypothesis that the metabolic profile of AA by gut microbes was niche specific. Samples from the digesta, gut wall washes and gut wall of the jejunum and ileum were used as inocula. Anaerobic media containing single AA were used and cultured for 24 h. The 24-h culture served as inocula for the subsequent 30 times of subcultures. Results showed that for the luminal bacteria, all AA concentrations except phenylalanine in the ileum decreased during the 24-h in vitro incubation with a increase of ammonia concentration, while 4 AA (glutamate, glutamine, arginine and lysine) in the jejunum decreased, with the disappearance rate at 60-95 %. For tightly attached bacteria, all AA concentrations were generally increased during the first 12 h and then decreased coupled with first a decrease and then an increase of ammonia concentration, suggesting a synthesis first and then a catabolism pattern. Among them, glutamate in both segments, histidine in the jejunum and lysine in the ileum increased significantly during the first 12 h and then decreased at 24 h. The concentrations of glutamine and arginine did not change during the first 12 h, but significantly decreased at 24 h. Jejunal lysine and ileal threonine were increased for the first 6 or 12 h. For the loosely attached bacteria, there was no clear pattern for the entire AA metabolism. However, glutamate, methionine and lysine in the jejunum decreased after 24 h of cultivation, while glutamine and threonine in the jejunum and glutamine and lysine in the ileum increased in the first 12 h. During subculture, AA metabolism, either utilization or synthesis, was generally decreased with disappearance

  1. In vitro digestion and fermentation characteristics of canola co-products simulate their digestion in the pig intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyengo, T A; Jha, R; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2016-06-01

    Canola co-products are sources of amino acid and energy in pig feeds, but their fermentation characteristics in the pig intestine are unknown. Thus, we determined the in vitro fermentation characteristics of the canola co-products Brassica juncea solvent-extracted canola meal (JSECM), Brassica napus solvent-extracted canola meal (NSECM), B. napus expeller-pressed canola meal (NEPCM) and B. napus cold-pressed canola cake (NCPCC) in comparison with soybean meal (SBM). Samples were hydrolysed in two steps using pepsin and pancreatin. Subsequently, residues were incubated in a buffer solution with fresh pig faeces as inocula for 72 h to measure gas production. Concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) per gram of dry matter (DM) of feedstuff was measured in fermented solutions. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent hindgut fermentation (AHF) of gross energy (GE) for feedstuffs were obtained from pigs fed the same feedstuffs. On DM basis, SBM, JSECM, NSECM, NEPCM and NCPCC contained 15, 19, 22, 117 and 231 g/kg ether extract; and 85, 223, 306, 208 and 176 g/kg NDF, respectively. In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDDM) of SBM (82.3%) was greater (Pfermentation characteristics of canola co-products and SBM simulated their fermentation in the small and large intestine of pigs, respectively. The 30% greater VFA production for JSECM than NSECM due to lower lignified fibre of JSECM indicates that fermentation characteristics differ between canola species. The NSECM had the highest fermentability followed by NEPCM and then NCPCC, indicating that fat in canola co-products can limit their fermentability in the hindgut.

  2. Premature delivery reduces intestinal cytoskeleton, metabolism, and stress response proteins in newborn formula-fed pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Pingping; Wan, Jennifer Man-Fan; Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted

    2013-01-01

    were compared with the corresponding values in pigs delivered spontaneously at term. RESULTS:: For both preterm and term pigs, mucosal mass and maltase activity increased (+50-100%), while lactase decreased (-50%), relative to values at birth. Only preterm pigs were highly NEC-sensitive (30 vs. 0...

  3. Bacterial fermentation affects net mineral flux in the large intestine of pigs fed diets with viscous and fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Hooda, S; Mosenthin, R; Gänzle, M G; Zijlstra, R T

    2010-10-01

    The impact of colonic fermentation on postileal absorption of Ca, Mg, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn was investigated in 8 ileally cannulated grower pigs (initial BW = 29.1 ± 1.6 kg) according to a double 4 × 4 Latin square. A semi-purified diet was supplemented with 5.20% low viscous, low fermentable cellulose (CEL), 6.25% high viscous, low fermentable carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), 8.95% low viscous, high fermentable oat beta-glucan (LG), or 9.25% high viscous, high fermentable oat beta-glucan (HG), resulting in 5% actual added nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in the diets. Because of the intrinsic mineral content in LG and HG, pigs receiving the LG and HG diets had a greater (P minerals reached the large intestine for the 4 diets as indicated by the 60 to 86% less (P mineral retention was generally less (P mineral flux in the large intestine that, in turn, can influence mineral excretion in feces. Additionally, negative effects of CEL on apparent retention may increase the daily requirement for minerals of grower pigs.

  4. Pasteurization Procedures for Donor Human Milk Affect Body Growth, Intestinal Structure, and Resistance against Bacterial Infections in Preterm Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqi; Nguyen, Duc Ninh; de Waard, Marita; Christensen, Lars; Zhou, Ping; Jiang, Pingping; Sun, Jing; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; Bering, Stine Brandt; Sangild, Per Torp

    2017-06-01

    Background: Holder pasteurization (HP) destroys multiple bioactive factors in donor human milk (DM), and UV-C irradiation (UVC) is potentially a gentler method for pasteurizing DM for preterm infants.Objective: We investigated whether UVC-treated DM improves gut maturation and resistance toward bacterial infections relative to HP-treated DM.Methods: Bacteria, selected bioactive components, and markers of antioxidant capacity were measured in unpasteurized donor milk (UP), HP-treated milk, and UVC-treated milk (all from the same DM pool). Fifty-seven cesarean-delivered preterm pigs (91% gestation; ratio of males to females, 30:27) received decreasing volumes of parental nutrition (average 69 mL · kg(-1) · d(-1)) and increasing volumes of the 3 DM diets (n = 19 each, average 89 mL · kg(-1) · d(-1)) for 8-9 d. Body growth, gut structure and function, and systemic bacterial infection were evaluated.Results: A high bacterial load in the UP (6×10(5) colony forming units/mL) was eliminated similarly by HP and UVC treatments. Relative to HP-treated milk, both UVC-treated milk and UP showed greater activities of lipase and alkaline phosphatase and concentrations of lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, xanthine dehydrogenase, and some antioxidant markers (all P milk and pigs fed UP showed higher relative weight gain than pigs fed HP-treated milk (5.4% and 3.5%), and fewer pigs fed UVC-treated milk had positive bacterial cultures in the bone marrow (28%) than pigs fed HP-treated milk (68%) (P milk compared with those fed HP-treated milk as indicated by a higher plasma citrulline concentration (36%) and villus height (38%) (P milk than in pigs fed UP and those fed HP-treated milk in both cecum contents (20% and 10%) and distal intestinal mucosa (24% and 20%) (all P milk may induce better weight gain, intestinal health, and resistance against bacterial infections as shown in preterm pigs as a model for DM-fed preterm infants. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Spontaneous and bolus-induced motility in the chronically obstructed guinea-pig small intestine in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storkholm, Jan Henrik; Zhao, Jingbo; Villadsen, Gerda E; Gregersen, Hans

    2008-02-01

    Partial obstruction of the small intestine results in dysmotility and morphometric changes proximal to the site of obstruction. However, our understanding of the relation between the morphometric remodeling and change in the motility pattern during chronic obstruction is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of partial chronic intestinal obstruction on motility, morphology, and collagen content proximal and distal to the site of obstruction. Twenty guinea-pigs with partial intestinal obstruction and eight sham-operated controls lived for four weeks. Spontaneous and bolus-induced motility was recorded in isolated intestinal segments proximal and distal to the site of obstruction using a perfused low-compliance pressure-measuring system in vitro. After the motility experiments, the specimens were fixed at 2 kPa luminal distension pressure and sampled for histomorphometric determination of luminal radius, layer thickness, and wall thickness. Total wall collagen was also determined. The area under the curve (AUC) of spontaneous contractions and the amplitude, frequency, and AUC for the bolus-induced motility were higher in the proximal segments of the banded animals compared to distal segments and to the intestinal segments in the control animals (P thickness ratio was lowest in the proximal segments of the obstructed animals (P thickness ratio showed a strong association (r = 0.97 for control, and r = 0.99 for obstruction, P thickness ratio and bolus-induced motility.

  6. Platelet-activating factor in the enteric nervous system of the guinea pig small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Hu, Hong-Zhen; Fang, Xiu-Cai; Liu, Sumei; Gao, Na; Xia, Yun

    2006-11-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a proinflammatory mediator that may influence neuronal activity in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Electrophysiology, immunofluorescence, Western blot analysis, and RT-PCR were used to study the action of PAF and the expression of PAF receptor (PAFR) in the ENS. PAFR immunoreactivity (IR) was expressed by 6.9% of the neurons in the myenteric plexus and 14.5% of the neurons in the submucosal plexus in all segments of the guinea pig intestinal tract as determined by double staining with anti-human neuronal protein antibody. PAFR IR was found in 6.1% of the neurons with IR for calbindin, 35.8% of the neurons with IR for neuropeptide Y (NPY), 30.6% of the neurons with IR for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and 1.96% of the neurons with IR for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the submucosal plexus. PAFR IR was also found in 1.5% of the neurons with IR for calbindin, 51.1% of the neurons with IR for NPY, and 32.9% of the neurons with IR for ChAT in the myenteric plexus. In the submucosal plexus, exposure to PAF (200-600 nM) evoked depolarizing responses (8.2 +/- 3.8 mV) in 12.4% of the neurons with S-type electrophysiological behavior and uniaxonal morphology and in 12.5% of the neurons with AH-type electrophysiological behavior and Dogiel II morphology, whereas in the myenteric preparations, depolarizing responses were elicited by a similar concentration of PAF in 9.5% of the neurons with S-type electrophysiological behavior and uniaxonal morphology and in 12.0% of the neurons with AH-type electrophysiological behavior and Dogiel II morphology. The results suggest that subgroups of secreto- and musculomotor neurons in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses express PAFR. Coexpression of PAFR IR with ChAT IR in the myenteric plexus and ChAT IR and VIP IR in the submucosal plexus suggests that PAF, after release in the inflamed bowel, might act to elevate the excitability of submucosal secretomotor and myenteric musculomotor

  7. Prevalence of extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections and assessment of sanitary conditions of pig slaughter slabs in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel

    2011-02-01

    A study was carried out to establish the prevalence of extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections and to assess the pig slaughter slab sanitary conditions in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania. A total of 24 privately owned pig slaughter slabs were assessed. All slaughter slabs were sub-standard; wrongly located, poorly designed and constructed and lacked most basic requirements for a slaughter house. Because of inadequate slaughtering, disposal and cleaning facilities, the slaughter slabs were under unhygienic condition with questionable safety, soundness and wholesomeness of the pork produced. Routine meat inspection procedures were used to detect extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections. Of the 731 examined pigs; 8.1%, 5.9% and 0.4% were infected with ascariosis, porcine cysticercosis and hydatidosis, respectively. It was noted that almost all slaughter pigs in Dar es Salaam originated from different regions. Based on the region of origin, the status of porcine cysticercosis was 8.2% for Dodoma (n = 98), 8.2% for Manyara (n = 260) and 6.9% for Mbeya (n = 116). This study disclosed the unhygienic sanitary condition prevailing in Dar es Salaam pig slaughter slabs and recommends that strategies should be devised to improve the situation. Porcine ascariosis and cysticercosis were widely prevalent and caused economic losses due to condemnations. Because of their zoonotic nature, the observed extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections in pig pose a public health risk among consumers. Thus, there is a need to introduce appropriate control measures of parasitic infections in pigs.

  8. Evaluation of intestinal sampling sites in pigs at slaughter for assessing antibiotic resistance level in swine herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Thanou, Olga; Axelsdottir, Aslaug

    2012-01-01

    In the EU project SafeOrganic, the objective is to compare the level of antibiotic resistance in conventional pig herds with the level in organic pig herds, where a restricted use of antimicrobials is expected to result in less resistant bacteria. For such survey, sampling at the abattoir opposed....... To assess this, we examined the gastrointestinal passage velocity via the oral route. In addition, we compared the proportion of resistant Escherichia coli in rectal swabs sampled at the farm with the proportion in different segments of the large intestine at slaughter, as a measure of any induced change...... and the numbers of E. coli in rectal swabs (farm) and faecal content from caecum, mid-colon and end-colon was enumerated on 3M Select E. coli Count plates (SEC) with or without tetracycline (TET) to determine the proportion of TET resistant E. coli. Four hours after feeding, the particles was located in the mid...

  9. Naturally Occurring Deletion Mutants of the Pig-Specific, Intestinal Crypt Epithelial Cell Protein CLCA4b without Apparent Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Plog

    Full Text Available The human CLCA4 (chloride channel regulator, calcium-activated modulates the intestinal phenotype of cystic fibrosis (CF patients via an as yet unknown pathway. With the generation of new porcine CF models, species-specific differences between human modifiers of CF and their porcine orthologs are considered critical for the translation of experimental data. Specifically, the porcine ortholog to the human CF modulator gene CLCA4 has recently been shown to be duplicated into two separate genes, CLCA4a and CLCA4b. Here, we characterize the duplication product, CLCA4b, in terms of its genomic structure, tissue and cellular expression patterns as well as its in vitro electrophysiological properties. The CLCA4b gene is a pig-specific duplication product of the CLCA4 ancestor and its protein is exclusively expressed in small and large intestinal crypt epithelial cells, a niche specifically occupied by no other porcine CLCA family member. Surprisingly, a unique deleterious mutation of the CLCA4b gene is spread among modern and ancient breeds in the pig population, but this mutation did not result in an apparent phenotype in homozygously affected animals. Electrophysiologically, neither the products of the wild type nor of the mutated CLCA4b genes were able to evoke a calcium-activated anion conductance, a consensus feature of other CLCA proteins. The apparently pig-specific duplication of the CLCA4 gene with unique expression of the CLCA4b protein variant in intestinal crypt epithelial cells where the porcine CFTR is also present raises the question of whether it may modulate the porcine CF phenotype. Moreover, the naturally occurring null variant of CLCA4b will be valuable for the understanding of CLCA protein function and their relevance in modulating the CF phenotype.

  10. Lairage during transport of eighteen-kilogram pigs has an impact on innate immunity and commensal bacteria diversity in the intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J L; Minton, J E; Patterson, J A; Marchant Forde, J; Eicher, S D

    2008-05-01

    Long distance transportation may affect the health of pigs; thus, adding a rest stop (lairage) during long journeys may improve their well-being. The objective of this study was to determine whether a mid-journey lairage influenced swine innate immunity and intestinal microbial populations after a 16-h transport. Four replications were conducted, 1 in each of 4 seasons. Eighteen-kilogram pigs were housed in 16 pens (13 to 16 pigs/pen) with 8 pens/treatment. Lairage pigs were transported for 8 h, given a rest with food and water for 8 h, then transported for an additional 8 h. Continuous pigs were continuously transported for 16 h. Jugular blood samples and intestinal tissue and contents were collected from 16 pigs (8/treatment) on d 1, 3, 7, and 14 posttransport. Hematocrit and white blood cell counts were determined and neutrophil cell functions, including phagocytosis/oxidative burst and phagocytosis of latex beads and leukocyte phenotypic cell markers (CD14 and CD18), were analyzed using flow cytometry. Expression of toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 5; IL-8 (a cytokine that is a chemoattractant for neutrophils); CCL20 (a chemokine that is a chemoattractant for dendritic cells); and the antimicrobial peptide PR39 were determined from ileal and jejunal total RNA. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to determine shifts in intestinal microbial populations. Total white blood cell and granulocyte counts in continuous pigs were greater (P < 0.01) on d 1 than in lairage pigs. Phagocytosis of microbeads was greater in continuous (P < 0.05) than in lairage pigs on d 7. Expression of IL-8 in jejunum was greater (P < 0.05) for continuous than for lairage pigs on d 1. Expression of CCL20 in the ileum was greater (P < 0.05) on d 14 for the continuous pigs. Expression of PR39 was greatest (P < 0.05) in the jejunum of lairage pigs on d 3. Lairage pigs had a greater (P < 0.05) variation in microbial populations (lower similarity coefficient) in the jejunum contents on

  11. Rapid cooling after acute hyperthermia alters intestinal morphology and negatively impacts pig welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat stress (HS) reduces livestock welfare and productivity and can negatively impact pig health. The study objective was to determine the effects of two HS recovery methods (rapid vs. gradual cooling) on pig welfare after acute hyperthermia. In four repetitions, 36 barrows (88.7 ± 1.6 kg BW) were e...

  12. Oral Supplementation with a Special Additive of Retinyl Palmitate and Alpha Tocopherol Reduces Growth Retardation in Young Pancreatic Duct Ligated Pigs Used as a Model for Children Suffering from Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mößeler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI is a disease of diverse aetiology—e.g., majority of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF show PEI congenitally. Malnutrition and malabsorption of nutrients impair growth and nutritional status. As reduced fat digestion leads to a deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins the supplementation is standard, but absorption is a critical point in PEI-patients. The pancreatic duct ligated (PL pig is an established model for PEI in humans and has been proven to be a suitable model to compare different vitamin additives for supplementation. In a former study, PEI caused distinct growth retardation in young piglets, but did not affect growth in older ones. Our study hypothesised that this age-dependent effect is caused by exhausted body reserves of fat-soluble vitamins and, therefore, extra supply reduces growth retardation. PEI was induced by PL at the age of seven (PL-7 or 16 weeks (PL-16. Controls (C underwent a sham surgery. Some PL-7 pigs (PL-7 + Vit were fed a special vitamin additive. PEI reduced the mean final body weight (kg at 26 weeks of age significantly with lower effect in PL-16-pigs (C:117; PL-7:49.5; PL-7 + Vit:77.1; PL-16:96.4. Extra vitamin supply resulted in an increased growth and normalised serum concentration of alpha-tocopherol, underlining the importance of special supplementation in PEI-patients.

  13. GABA(A) receptors on calbindin-immunoreactive myenteric neurons of guinea pig intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Galligan, J J

    2000-01-14

    These studies were carried out to characterize the properties of gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABA(A)) receptors on guinea pig intestinal myenteric neurons maintained in primary culture. In addition, the type of neuron expressing GABA(A) receptors was identified using immunohistochemical methods. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of currents elicited by GABA and acetylcholine (ACh) were obtained using pipettes containing Neurobiotin. After electrophysiological studies, neurons were processed for localization of calbindin-D28K-immunoreactivity (calbindin-ir). GABA (1 mM) and ACh (3 mM) caused inward currents in most cells tested. GABA currents were mimicked by muscimol (1-300 microM) and were blocked by bicuculline (10 microM) indicating that GABA was acting at GABA(A) receptors. GABA currents were associated with a conductance increase and a linear current/voltage relationship with a reversal potential of 1 +/- 1 mV (n = 5). Pentobarbital (PB, 3-1000 microM) and diazepam (DZP, 0.01-10 microM) potentiated GABA-induced currents. A maximum concentration of DZP (1 microM) increased GABA-induced currents 3.1 +/- 0.3 times while PB (1000 microM) increased GABA currents by 11 +/- 2 times. In outside-out patches, the amplitude of GABA-activated single-channel currents was linearly related to membrane potential with a single-channel conductance of 28.5 + 0.5 pS (n = 10). PB and DZP increased the open probability of GABA-induced single-channel currents. Neurons containing calbindin-ir were large, were isolated from other neurons and had GABA current amplitudes of -3.4 +/- 0.3 nA (n = 48). Neurons with weak or absent calbindin-ir were smaller, were localized in clusters of cells and had GABA-induced current amplitudes of -0.6 +/- 0.1 nA (n = 20). ACh-induced currents were smaller in calbindin-ir neurons (-0.7 +/- 0.1 nA) compared to weakly calbindin-ir neurons (-1.4 +/- 0.1 nA). These results indicate that myenteric calbindin-ir neurons express a high density of GABA

  14. Insights into mechanisms of intestinal segmentation in guinea pigs: a combined computational modeling and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jordan D; Bornstein, Joel C; Thomas, Evan A

    2008-09-01

    Segmentation in the guinea pig small intestine consists of a number of discrete motor patterns including rhythmic stationary contractions that occur episodically at specific locations along the intestine. The enteric nervous system regulates segmentation, but the exact circuit is unknown. Using simple computer models, we investigated possible circuits. Our computational model simulated the mean neuron firing rate in the feedforward ascending and descending reflex pathways. A stimulus-evoked pacemaker was located in the afferent pathway or in a feedforward pathway. Output of the feedforward pathways was fed into a simple model to determine the response of the muscle. Predictions were verified in vitro by using guinea pig jejunum, in which segmentation was induced with luminal fatty acid. In the computational model, local stimuli produced an oral contraction and anal dilation, similar to in vitro responses to local distension, but did not produce segmentation. When the stimulus was distributed, representing a nutrient load, the result was either a tonic response or globally synchronized oscillations. However, when we introduced local variations in synaptic coupling, stationary contractions occurred around these locations. This predicts that severing the ascending and descending pathways will induce stationary contractions. An acute lesion in our in vitro model significantly increased the number of stationary contractions immediately oral and anal to the lesion. Our results suggest that spatially localized rhythmic contractions arise from a local imbalance between ascending excitatory and descending inhibitory muscle inputs and require a distributed stimulus and a rhythm generator in the afferent pathway.

  15. Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase and aminopeptidase N are differentially regulated in the small intestine of the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Niels; Rossi, M; Troelsen, J T

    1993-01-01

    moderately from the duodenum to the terminal ileum, the amount of lactase-phlorizin hydrolase mRNA exhibited a sharp maximum in the proximal jejunum. For both enzymes, the level of protein synthesis, studied in cultured mucosal explants, correlated well with the level of mRNA, and no major variation in post......The longitudinal expression of two brush-border enzymes, lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.23/62) and aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), was studied in the small intestine of the post-weaned pig. Whereas the level of mRNA, encoding aminopeptidase N (relative to that of beta-actin), only varied...... in the gut lumen of pancreatic proteases. In neonatal animals, the level of mRNA for lactase-phlorizin hydrolase in both proximal and distal regions of the intestine was of the same magnitude as in the proximal jejunum of the post-weaned pigs. Our results point to two mechanisms that affect the expression...

  16. Differential peristaltic motor effects of prostanoid (DP, EP, IP, TP) and leukotriene receptor agonists in the guinea-pig isolated small intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbazian, Anaid; Heinemann, Akos; Peskar, Bernhard A; Holzer, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Since the role of prostanoid receptors in intestinal peristalsis is largely unknown, the peristaltic motor effects of some prostaglandin (DP, EP, IP), thromboxane (TP) and leukotriene (LT) receptor agonists and antagonists were investigated.Propulsive peristalsis in fluid-perfused segments from the guinea-pig small intestine was triggered by a rise of the intraluminal pressure and recorded via the intraluminal pressure changes associated with the peristaltic waves. Alterations of distension s...

  17. Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Horslen, S P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    Intestine and intestine-liver transplant plays an important role in the treatment of intestinal failure, despite decreased morbidity associated with parenteral nutrition. In 2014, 210 new patients were added to the intestine transplant waiting list. Among prevalent patients on the list at the end of 2014, 65% were waiting for an intestine transplant and 35% were waiting for an intestine-liver transplant. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups. Pretransplant mortality was highest for adult candidates, at 22.1 per 100 waitlist years compared with less than 3 per 100 waitlist years for pediatric candidates, and notably higher for candidates for intestine-liver transplant than for candidates for intestine transplant without a liver. Numbers of intestine transplants without a liver increased from a low of 51 in 2013 to 67 in 2014. Intestine-liver transplants increased from a low of 44 in 2012 to 72 in 2014. Short-gut syndrome (congenital and other) was the main cause of disease leading to both intestine and intestine-liver transplant. Graft survival improved over the past decade. Patient survival was lowest for adult intestine-liver recipients and highest for pediatric intestine recipients.

  18. Effect of growth promoters for pigs on live performance, quality intestinal and the efficiency of biodigestion of wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fernandes Gavioli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of growth promoters in growing and finishing pigs on performance and carcass characteristics, intestinal histological profile, organs weight of the digestive tract, and the consequences of these treatments on the effluent through the process of biodigestion. We used 80 pigs with an average initial weight of 40.00 ± 1.90 kg, submitted to four treatments, during 61 days, until to reach 100.00 ± 4.50 kg of livewight, corresponding to diets with the following additives: Control (diet without growth promoters; Symbiotic; Colistin (10ppm and Tylosin (40ppm. Difference was observed to the daily feed intake during the growing phase with a greater consumption for the treatment Tylosin regarding treatment Colistin. There was no difference for carcass traits, for the weight of the organs and to the parameters evaluated in the process of digestion of manure (pH, total solids, chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand. Regarding the intestinal morphology, animals treated with Tylosin had higher crypt depth (P ? 0.05 in the duodenum compared to animals fed with Control and Symbiotic diets, as well as larger crypt depth in the jejunum (P ? 0.05. There were differences in the rate villi / crypt with the Control treatment showing higher value compared to other treatments. For the ileum, there was a difference to crypt depth treatment of the animals compared to Control and Tylosin treatments. Despite observed differences in the characteristics of intestinal morphology, there was no advantage in the use of additives for the parameters of zootechnical interest. The effects on the fermentation process did not indicate any advantages for the additives evaluated.

  19. Nonprotein nitrogen is absorbed from the large intestine and increases nitrogen balance in growing pigs fed a valine-limiting diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus, Daniel A; Lapierre, Hélène; Htoo, John K; de Lange, Cornelis F M

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen absorption from the large intestine, largely as ammonia and possibly as amino acids (AAs), is generally thought to be of little nutritional value to nonruminant animals and humans. Ammonia-nitrogen absorbed from the large intestine, however, may be recycled into the small intestine as urea and incorporated into microbial AAs, which may then be used by the host. A cecal infusion study was performed to determine the form in which nitrogen is absorbed from the large intestine and the impact of large intestine nitrogen supply on nitrogen balance in growing pigs. Eighteen cecally cannulated barrows (initial body weight: 22.4 ± 1.2 kg) were used to determine the effect of supplying nitrogen into the large intestine from either casein or urea on whole-body nitrogen retention and urea kinetics. Treatments were cecal infusions of saline (control), casein, or urea with nitrogen infused at a rate of 40% of nitrogen intake. In a subsample of 9 pigs, (15)N(15)N-urea was infused via i.v. during the nitrogen-balance period to determine urea kinetics. All pigs were fed a valine-limiting cornstarch-soybean meal-based diet. More than 80% of infused nitrogen was apparently absorbed. Urea flux and urinary nitrogen excretion increased (P ≤ 0.05) by the same amount for both nitrogen sources, but this increase did not fully account for the increase in nitrogen absorption from the large intestine. Whole-body nitrogen retention improved with nitrogen infusions (129 vs. 114 g/d; P 0.05) between nitrogen sources. Absorption of nitrogen from the large intestine appears to be in the form of nonprotein nitrogen, which appears to be returned to the small intestine via urea and used there for microbial AA production and should therefore be considered when determining nitrogen and AA supply and requirements.

  20. Studies on the interaction between Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium and intestinal helminths in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenhard, N.R.; Roepstorff, A.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2006-01-01

    Concomitant infections with helminths and bacteria may affect the course and the resulting disease outcome of the individual infections. Salmonella, Oesophagostomum, Trichuris and Ascaris coexist naturally in pig herds in Denmark, and possible interactions were studied. Pigs in one experiment were...... was not demonstrated in either experiment. The helminth effect on the pigs was modest and may explain the lack of influence on the Salmonella infection. A previous experiment with a larger Oesophagostomum infection level resulted in enhancement of the S. Typhimurium infection. A dose dependency of the interaction...... is therefore suggested. However, the relatively high worm burdens in the present study suggest that infection with these common pig helminths does generally not influence the course of concurrent S. Typhimurium infections under natural conditions....

  1. Influence of a diet rich in resistant starch on the degradation of non-starch polysaccharides in the large intestine of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan, Melliana C; Haenen, Daniëlle; Souza da Silva, Carol; Bosch, Guido; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the effect of resistant starch to the degradation of other non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) in the large intestine of pigs, two groups of pigs were fed either a diet containing digestible starch (DS) or a diet containing resistant starch (RS). Both diets contained NSPs from wheat and barley. Digesta from different parts of the large intestine were collected and analysed for sugar composition and carbohydrate-degrading-enzyme activities. Resistant starch, as well as β-glucans and soluble arabinoxylan, was utilised mainly in the caecum. The utilisation of β-glucans and soluble arabinoxylan in the caecum was higher in DS-fed pigs than in RS-fed pigs. Analyses on carbohydrate-degrading-enzyme activities demonstrated that microbial enzyme production was stimulated according to the diet composition, and the enzyme profile throughout the large intestine of RS-fed pigs indicated that the presence of resistant starch shifted the utilisation of NSPs to more distal parts of the colon.

  2. Effects of Resistant Starch and Arabinoxylan on Parameters Related to Large Intestinal and Metabolic Health in Pigs Fed Fat-Rich Diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Theil, Peter Kappel; Purup, Stig;

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effects of a resistant starch (RS)-rich, arabinoxylan (AX)-rich, or low-DF Western-style control diet (all high-fat) on large intestinal gene expression, adiposity, and glycemic response parameters in pigs. Animals were slaughtered after 3 weeks of treatment. Plasma butyra...

  3. Carboxypeptidase-B-like processing of the C-terminus of glucagon-like peptide-2 in pig and human small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orskov, C; Buhl, T; Rabenhøj, L

    1989-01-01

    no mutual cross-reactivity. By gel filtration of extracts of pig and human small intestine, the immunoreactivity eluting at the position of GLP-2 was identified by the radioimmunoassays for glucagon-like peptide-2 (PG 126-159) and for PG 151-158, whereas the assay for PG 151-160 was completely negative. We...

  4. A comparison of the effects of dietary spray-dried bovine colostrum and animal plasma on growth and intestinal histology in weaner pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, M.R.; Morel, P.C.H.; Pluske, J.R.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary spray-dried bovine and porcine plasma and spray-dried bovine colostrum on growth performance and intestinal histology in weaner pigs. Thirty-two 21-day-old piglets (6.65 ± 0.14 kg) were allocated to receive one of four dietary treatments

  5. Impact of a High-Fat or High-Fiber Diet on Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolic Markers in a Pig Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja N. Heinritz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To further elaborate interactions between nutrition, gut microbiota and host health, an animal model to simulate changes in microbial composition and activity due to dietary changes similar to those in humans is needed. Therefore, the impact of two different diets on cecal and colonic microbial gene copies and metabolic activity, organ development and biochemical parameters in blood serum was investigated using a pig model. Four pigs were either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF, or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF diet for seven weeks, with both diets being isocaloric. A hypotrophic effect of the HF diet on digestive organs could be observed compared to the LF diet (p < 0.05. Higher gene copy numbers of Bacteroides (p < 0.05 and Enterobacteriaceae (p < 0.001 were present in intestinal contents of HF pigs, bifidobacteria were more abundant in LF pigs (p < 0.05. Concentrations of acetate and butyrate were higher in LF pigs (p < 0.05. Glucose was higher in HF pigs, while glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT showed higher concentrations upon feeding the LF diet (p < 0.001. However, C-reactive protein (CRP decreased with time in LF pigs (p < 0.05. In part, these findings correspond to those in humans, and are in support of the concept of using the pig as human model.

  6. Chemoselective ligation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn

    2006-10-17

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  7. Chemoselective ligation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxon, Eliana (Albany, CA); Bertozzi, Carolyn (Berkeley, CA)

    2003-05-27

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  8. Chemoselective ligation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxon, Eliana (Albany, CA); Bertozzi, Carolyn R. (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-02-23

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g. on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  9. Chemoselective ligation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxon, Eliana (Albany, CA); Bertozzi, Carolyn Ruth (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-12-13

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  10. Chemoselective ligation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxon, Eliana (Albany, CA); Bertozzi, Carolyn Ruth (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-11-23

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  11. Chemoselective ligation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxon, Eliana (Albany, CA); Bertozzi, Carolyn R. (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-05-10

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  12. Chemoselective ligation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxon, Eliana (Albany, CA); Bertozzi, Carolyn R. (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-04-12

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  13. Apramycin treatment affects selection and spread of a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain able to colonize the human gut in the intestinal microbiota of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Zachariasen, Camilla; Hansen, Monica Hegstad;

    2016-01-01

    The effect of apramycin treatment on transfer and selection of an Escherichia coli strain (E. coli 912) in the intestine of pigs was analyzed through an in vivo experiment. The strain was sequenced and assigned to the sequence type ST101 and serotype O11. It carried resistance genes to apramycin...... of treatment, and apramycin treatment resulted in significantly higher counts compared to the non-treated group. This represents the first demonstration of how antimicrobial treatment affects spread of resistant bacteria in pig production. The use of apramycin may lead to enhanced spread of gentamicin-resistant......-treated (pen 3), along with a non-inoculated control group (pen 1). Two pigs of pen 2 and 3 were inoculated intragastrically with a rifampicin resistant variant of the strain. Apramycin treatment in pen 2 was initiated immediately after inoculation. Strain colonization was assessed in the feces from all pigs...

  14. Histomorphometric characteristics of immune cells in small intestine of pigs perorally immunized with vaccine candidate F18ac+ nonenterotoxigenic E. coli strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Valpotic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Colidiarrhea and colienterotoxemia caused by F4+ and/or F18+ enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC strains are the most prevalent infections of suckling and weaned pigs. Here we tested the immunogenicity and protective effectiveness of attenuated F18ac+ non-ETEC vaccine candidate strain against challenge infection with F4ac+ ETEC strain by quantitative phenotypic analysis of small intestinal leukocyte subsets in weaned pigs. We also evaluated levamisole as an immune response modifier (IRM and its adjuvanticity when given in the combination with the experimental vaccine. The pigs were parenterally immunized with either levamisole (at days -2, -1 and 0 or with levamisole and perorally given F18ac+ non-ETEC strain (at day 0, and challenged with F4ac+ ETEC strain 7 days later. At day 13 the pigs were euthanatized and sampled for immunohistological/histomorphometrical analyses. Lymphoid CD3+, CD45RA+, CD45RC+, CD21+, IgA+ and myeloid SWC3+ cell subsets were identified in jejunal and ileal epithelium, lamina propria and Peyer’s patches using the avidin-biotin complex method, and their numbers were determined by computer-assisted histomorphometry. Quantitative immunophenotypic analyses showed that levamisole treated pigs had highly increased numbers of jejunal CD3+, CD45RC+ and SWC3+ cells (p<0.05 as compared to those recorded in nontreated control pigs. In the ileum of these pigs we have recorded that only CD21+ cells were significantly increased (p<0.01. The pigs that were treated with levamisole adjuvanted experimental vaccine had significantly increased numbers of all tested cell subsets in both segments of the small intestine. It was concluded that levamisole adjuvanted F18ac+ non-ETEC vaccine was a requirement for the elicitation of protective gut immunity in this model; nonspecific immunization with levamisole was less effective, but confirmed its potential as an IRM.

  15. Comparison of two pig intestinal brush border peptidases with the corresponding renal enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norén, O; Sjöström, H; Danielsen, Erik Michael;

    1979-01-01

    -glutamyl-transferase was found to be identical to that of the kidney enzyme. The electrophoretic mobilities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV from the two organs differed greatly. The difference was almost abolished by treatment with neuraminidase, suggesting that the variation in mobility was due to different contents of sialic acid......Intestinal dipeptidyl peptidase IV and gamma-glutamyltransferase were compared to the corresponding kidney enzymes with respect to immunological and electrophoretic properties. The influences of selected effectors on the two enzymes were also studied. The two kidney peptidases exhibited...... the reaction of total identity with the corresponding intestinal enzymes in immunodiffusion. Furthermore, the intestinal dipeptidyl peptidase IV and gamma-glutamyl transferase showed the same inhibition patterns as the corresponding kidney enzymes and the acceptor specificity of the intestinal gamma...

  16. VapB type 8 plasmids in Rhodococcus equi isolated from the small intestine of pigs and comparison of selective culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, G H B; Takai, S; Sasaki, Y; Kakuda, T; Listoni, F J P; Risseti, R M; de Morais, A B C; Ribeiro, M G

    2015-09-01

    The virulence-plasmid profile of Rhodococcus equi strains isolated from Suidae and humans is similar. Recent evidence suggests that the consumption of pork products contaminated with faeces might be a potential source of R. equi infections in humans, mainly to patients with rhodococcosis without history of contact with pigs or pig farms. This study investigated the virulence-associated genes (vapA and vapB) and plasmid profiles of R. equi among the 150 samples of small intestinal content obtained from slaughtered pigs. In addition, all samples were subjected to microbiological culture in conventional sheep blood agar and CAZ-NB, TCP and TVP selective media. A total of 40 (26·7%) of the samples recovered R. equi, with two samples recovering isolates harbouring the VapB type 8 plasmid. Among the 150 pigs sampled herein, CAZ-NB was considered the best selective medium for the isolation of R. equi from faeces. Our results provide evidence that the contamination of slaughtered pig carcasses with pathogenic R. equi might occur through faeces, representing a public health concern. Furthermore, this study is the first description of R. equi strains carrying the VapB plasmid in the gut of pigs. Intermediately virulent (VapB) is a common plasmid-type harboured by R. equi isolated from pigs and humans with AIDS. Curiously, humans with rhodococcosis usually have no history of contact with pigs or pig farms. Virulence-plasmid profile of 40 R. equi isolated among 150 small intestine content samples from pigs revelled two carrying isolates with the VapB type-8 plasmids. Moreover, comparison of three selective culture media shows that CAZ-NB was the best. Our results provide evidence that contamination of slaughtered pig carcasses with pathogenic R. equi might occur through faeces, representing a public health concern. Furthermore, R. equi carrying VapB type-8 plasmids types are described for the first time in the gut of the pig. © 2015 The Society for Applied

  17. Effect of hydrolysable tannins on intestinal morphology, proliferation and apoptosis in entire male pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić-Šobot, Diana; Kubale, Valentina; Škrlep, Martin; Čandek-Potokar, Marjeta; Prevolnik Povše, Maja; Fazarinc, Gregor; Škorjanc, Dejan

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hydrolysable tannin supplementation on morphology, cell proliferation and apoptosis in the intestine and liver of fattening boars. A total of 24 boars (Landrace × Large white) were assigned to four treatment groups: Control (fed commercial feed mixture) and three experimental groups fed the same diet supplemented with 1%, 2% and 3% of hydrolysable tannin-rich extract. Animals were housed individually with ad libitum access to feed and then slaughtered at 193 d of age and 122 ± 10 kg body weight. Diets supplemented with hydrolysable tannin affected the morphometric traits of the duodenum mucosa as reflected in increased villus height, villus perimeter and mucosal thickness. No effect was observed on other parts of the small intestine. In the large intestine, tannin supplementation reduced mitosis (in the caecum and descending colon) and apoptosis (in the caecum, ascending and descending colon). No detrimental effect of tannin supplementation on liver tissue was observed. The present findings suggest that supplementing boars with hydrolysable tannins at concentrations tested in this experiment has no unfavourable effects on intestinal morphology. On the contrary, it may alter cell debris production in the large intestine and thus reduce intestinal skatole production.

  18. Diets high in resistent starch and arabinoxylan modulate digestion processes and SCFA pool size in the large intestine and faecal microbial composition in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of a high level of dietary fibre (DF) either as arabinoxylan (AX) or resistant starch (RS) on digestion processes, SCFA concentration and pool size in various intestinal segments and on the microbial composition in the faeces were studied in a model experiment with pigs. A total...... of thirty female pigs (body weight 63·1 (sem 4·4) kg) were fed a low-DF, high-fat Western-style control diet (WSD), an AX-rich diet (AXD) or a RS-rich diet (RSD) for 3 weeks. Diet significantly affected the digestibility of DM, protein, fat, NSP and NSP components, and the arabinose:xylose ratio, as well...... as the disappearance of NSP and AX in the large intestine. RS was mainly digested in the caecum. AX was digested at a slower rate than RS. The digesta from AXD-fed pigs passed from the ileum to the distal colon more than twice as fast as those from WSD-fed pigs, with those from RSD-fed pigs being intermediate (P

  19. Cereal β-glucan alters nutrient digestibility and microbial activity in the intestinal tract of pigs, and lower manure ammonia emission: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Zebeli, Q

    2013-07-01

    Cereal β-glucan may be detrimental in pig production because of negative effects on nutrient digestibility, but they may act as functional ingredients by stimulating the intestinal microbiota. This study primarily aimed to investigate relations between dietary β-glucan and nutrient digestibility, intestinal fermentation, and manure NH3 emission in weaned, growing, and finishing pigs. Effects of dietary xylose, NDF, and CP, and pig BW on animal responses were also evaluated. A meta-analytical approach, accounting for inter- and intraexperiment variations, was used to compute prediction models. Data from 26 studies including 107 different dietary treatments with appropriate dietary and physiological measurements were used to parameterize these models. Dietary β-glucan inclusion ranged from 0 to 6.7%. Increasing dietary β-glucan reduced apparent ileal (AID) and total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP and energy (R(2) = 0.12 to 0.29; P pigs counteracted (P Pig BW also enhanced effects of β-glucan on cecal total VFA, colonic iso-butyrate, ileal butyrate, and NH3 emission (P < 0.05). Dietary CP potentiated (P < 0.01) the β-glucan effects on cecal total VFA, cecal butyrate, and colonic iso-butyrate. In conclusion, this study indicates that β-glucan can stimulate cecal butyrate and ameliorate manure NH3 emission, thereby decreasing nutrient digestibility. Because greater BW ameliorates β-glucan effects, finishing diets may be formulated to contain more β-glucan than weaner diets.

  20. Use of Fluorescence Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the Detection of Escherichia coli Adhesion to Pig Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, C H; Gan, L N; Qin, W U; Zi, C; Zhu, G Q; Wu, S L; Bao, W B

    2016-09-01

    An efficient and accurate method to test Escherichia coli (E. coli) adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells will contribute to the study of bacterial pathogenesis and the function of genes that encode receptors related to adhesion. This study used the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. qPCR primers were designed from the PILIN gene of E. coli F18ab, F18ac, and K88ac, and the pig β-ACTIN gene. Total deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from E. coli and intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2 cells) were used as templates for qPCR. The 2-ΔΔCt formula was used to calculate the relative number of bacteria in cultures of different areas. We found that the relative numbers of F18ab, F18ac, and K88ac that adhered to IPEC-J2 cells did not differ significantly in 6-, 12-, and 24-well culture plates. This finding indicated that there was no relationship between the relative adhesion number of E. coli and the area of cells, so the method of qPCR could accurately test the relative number of E. coli. This study provided a convenient and reliable testing method for experiments involving E. coli adhesion, and also provided innovative ideas for similar detection methods.

  1. Intestinal proteomics in pig models of necrotising enterocolitis, short bowel syndrome and intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Pingping; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-10-01

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), short bowel syndrome (SBS) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are three conditions associated with intestinal dysfunction in newborn infants, particularly those born preterm. Piglet (Sus scrofa) models have recently been developed for NEC, SBS and IUGR, and tissue proteomic analyses have identified unknown pathways and new prognostic disease markers. Intestinal HSPs, iron metabolism proteins and proteins related to amino acid (e.g. arginine) and glucose metabolism are consistently affected by NEC progression and some of these proteins are also affected by SBS and IUGR. Parallel changes in some plasma and urinary proteins (e.g. haptoglobin, globulins, complement proteins, fatty acid binding proteins) may mirror the intestinal responses and pave the way to biomarker discovery. Explorative non-targeted proteomics provides ideas about the cellular pathways involved in intestinal adaptation during the critical neonatal period. Proteomics, combined with other -omic techniques, helps to get a more holistic picture of intestinal adaptation during NEC, SBS and IUGR. Explorative -omic research methods also have limitations and cannot replace, but only supplement, classical hypothesis-driven research that investigate disease mechanisms using a single or few endpoints.

  2. Detection of Lawsonia intracellularis, Serpulina hyodysenteriae, weakly beta-haemolytic intestinal spirochaetes, Salmonella enterica, and haemolytic Escherichia coli from swine herds with and without diarrhoea among growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kristian; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind;

    1998-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was optimized to detect Lawsonia intracellularis in faeces from naturally infected pigs. By combining a boiling procedure to extract DNA and a nested PCR procedure, a detection limit at 2x10(2) bacterial cells per gram of faeces was achieved. The optimized PCR...... was used together with conventional culture techniques to detect Serpulina hyodysenteriae, weakly beta-haemolytic intestinal spirochaetes (WBHIS), Salmonella enterica, and haemolytic Escherichia coli, in a case control study to examine selected risk factors for the development of diarrhoea in growing pigs...

  3. Glucagon-like peptide-1 modulates neurally evoked mucosal chloride secretion in guinea pig small intestine in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassano, Sara; Wang, Guo-Du; Mulè, Flavia; Wood, Jackie D

    2012-02-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) acts at the G protein-coupled receptor, GLP-1R, to stimulate secretion of insulin and to inhibit secretion of glucagon and gastric acid. Involvement in mucosal secretory physiology has received negligible attention. We aimed to study involvement of GLP-1 in mucosal chloride secretion in the small intestine. Ussing chamber methods, in concert with transmural electrical field stimulation (EFS), were used to study actions on neurogenic chloride secretion. ELISA was used to study GLP-1R effects on neural release of acetylcholine (ACh). Intramural localization of GLP-1R was assessed with immunohistochemistry. Application of GLP-1 to serosal or mucosal sides of flat-sheet preparations in Ussing chambers did not change baseline short-circuit current (I(sc)), which served as a marker for chloride secretion. Transmural EFS evoked neurally mediated biphasic increases in I(sc) that had an initial spike-like rising phase followed by a sustained plateau-like phase. Blockade of the EFS-evoked responses by tetrodotoxin indicated that the responses were neurally mediated. Application of GLP-1 reduced the EFS-evoked biphasic responses in a concentration-dependent manner. The GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-(9-39) suppressed this action of GLP-1. The GLP-1 inhibitory action on EFS-evoked responses persisted in the presence of nicotinic or vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor antagonists but not in the presence of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. GLP-1 significantly reduced EFS-evoked ACh release. In the submucosal plexus, GLP-1R immunoreactivity (IR) was expressed by choline acetyltransferase-IR neurons, neuropeptide Y-IR neurons, somatostatin-IR neurons, and vasoactive intestinal peptide-IR neurons. Our results suggest that GLP-1R is expressed in guinea pig submucosal neurons and that its activation leads to a decrease in neurally evoked chloride secretion by suppressing release of ACh at neuroepithelial junctions in the enteric neural networks

  4. Controlling Salmonella infection in weanling pigs through water delivery of direct-fed microbials or organic acids: Part II. Effects on intestinal histology and active nutrient transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, M C; Rostagno, M H; Gardiner, G E; Sutton, A L; Richert, B T; Radcliffe, J S

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of water-delivered, direct-fed microbials (DFM) or organic acids on intestinal morphology and active nutrient absorption in weanling pigs after deliberate Salmonella infection. Pigs (n = 88) were weaned at 19 ± 2 d of age and assigned to 1 of the following treatments, which were administered for 14 d: 1) control diet; 2) control diet + DFM (Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus licheniformis) in drinking water at 10(9) cfu/L for each strain of bacteria; 3) control diet + organic acid-based blend (predominantly propionic, acetic, and benzoic acids) in drinking water at 2.58 mL/L; and 4) control diet + 55 mg/kg carbadox. Pigs were challenged with 10(10) cfu Salmonella enterica var Typhimurium 6 d after commencement of treatments. Pigs (n = 22/d) were harvested before Salmonella challenge and on d 2, 4, and 8 after challenge. Duodenal, jejunal, and ileal mucosal tissues were sampled for measurement of villus height and crypt depth. Jejunal tissue was sampled for determination of active nutrient absorption in modified Ussing chambers. Duodenal villus height was greater in pigs fed in-feed antibiotic before infection (P Salmonella infection resulted in a linear decrease in phosphorus (P Salmonella infection reduced basal short-circuit current (I(sc)); however, water-delivered DFM or organic acid treatments caused greater basal I(sc) on d 2 after challenge than did carbadox. Carbachol-induced chloride ion secretion was greatest in negative control pigs before infection (P < 0.01) and DFM-treated pigs (P < 0.05) after infection. In conclusion, both the DFM and acidification treatments induced increases in basal active ion movement and jejunal crypt depth, which could be interpreted as responses consistent with increased Salmonella pathology, but none of the additives markedly affected intestinal absorptive and secretory function in response to Salmonella challenge.

  5. Validation of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography (PET) for the measurement of intestinal metabolism in pigs, and evidence of intestinal insulin resistance in patients with morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honka, H; Mäkinen, J; Hannukainen, J C; Tarkia, M; Oikonen, V; Teräs, M; Fagerholm, V; Ishizu, T; Saraste, A; Stark, C; Vähäsilta, T; Salminen, P; Kirjavainen, A; Soinio, M; Gastaldelli, A; Knuuti, J; Iozzo, P; Nuutila, P

    2013-04-01

    The role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases is gaining much attention. We therefore sought to validate, using an animal model, the use of positron emission tomography (PET) in the estimation of intestinal glucose uptake (GU), and thereafter to test whether intestinal insulin-stimulated GU is altered in morbidly obese compared with healthy human participants. In the validation study, pigs were imaged using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) and the image-derived data were compared with corresponding ex vivo measurements in tissue samples and with arterial-venous differences in glucose and [(18)F]FDG levels. In the clinical study, GU was measured in different regions of the intestine in lean (n = 8) and morbidly obese (n = 8) humans at baseline and during euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemia. PET- and ex vivo-derived intestinal values were strongly correlated and most of the fluorine-18-derived radioactivity was accumulated in the mucosal layer of the gut wall. In the gut wall of pigs, insulin promoted GU as determined by PET, the arterial-venous balance or autoradiography. In lean human participants, insulin increased GU from the circulation in the duodenum (from 1.3 ± 0.6 to 3.1 ± 1.1 μmol [100 g](-1) min(-1), p resistance occurs in obesity before the deterioration of systemic glucose tolerance.

  6. Natural Pig Plasma Immunoglobulins Have Anti-Bacterial Effects: Potential for Use as Feed Supplement for Treatment of Intestinal Infections in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Hansen, Marie B.;

    2016-01-01

    % pure pig IgG (ppIgG). The ppIgG thus comprised natural pig immunoglobulins and was subsequently shown to contain activity towards four pig-relevant bacterial strains (three different types of Escherichia coli and one type of Salmonella enterica) but not towards a fish pathogen (Yersinia ruckeri...

  7. Enteral obeticholic acid promotes intestinal growth in total parenteral nutrition fed neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intestinal atrophy is an adverse outcome associated with prolonged total parenteral nutrition (PN) partly due to disruption of normal enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. Previously we showed that enteral treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a dual agonist for the nuclear receptor, farne...

  8. Diet- and colonization-dependent intestinal dysfunction predisposes to necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangild, Per T.; Siggers, Richard H.; Schmidt, Mette;

    2006-01-01

    Background & Aims: Preterm birth and formula feeding are key risk factors associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in infants, but little is known about intestinal conditions that predispose to disease. Thus, structural, functional, and microbiologic indices were used to investigate the et...

  9. High-level recombinant human lysozyme expressed in milk of transgenic pigs can inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli in the duodenum and influence intestinal morphology of sucking pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dan; Li, Qiuyan; Wu, Zhibin; Shang, Shengzhe; Liu, Shen; Wen, Xiao; Li, Zhiyuan; Wu, Fangfang; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Lysozyme is often used as a feed additive and acts as an antimicrobial protein that enhances immune function and defends against pathogenic bacteria in pigs. In this study, we genetically added recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) to sow milk by somatic cell nuclear transfer and investigated whether the presence of recombinant human lysozyme can influence intestinal microbiota and morphology in sucking pigs. We generated transgenic cloned pigs and the first-generation hybrids (F1) produced high levels of rhLZ in milk. The average concentration of rhLZ was 116.34 ± 24.46 mg/L in the milk of F1 sows, which was 1500-fold higher than that of the native pig lysozyme. In vitro, it was demonstrated that rhLZ in milk of transgenic pigs had enzyme levels at 92,272 ± 26,413 U/mL. In a feeding experiment, a total of 40 newborn piglets were nursed by four transgenic sows and four sibling non-transgenic sows (F1), with five piglets per gilt. The piglets were allowed to nurse for 21 days and the sow milk was the only source of nutrition for the piglets. All piglets were slaughtered on postnatal day 22. Six types of bacteria were cultured and analyzed to detect the impact of rhLZ on gut microbiota. The number of Escherichia coli in the duodenum of piglets reared by transgenic sows was significantly decreased (ptransgenic cloned pigs and elevated lysozyme level in nuring piglets. The results of the feeding experiments demonstrated that rhLZ-enhanced milk can inhibit the growth of E. coli in the duodenum and positively influence intestinal morphology without adversely affecting weight gain or piglet growth.

  10. The Contribution of Intestinal Gluconeogenesis to Glucose Homeostasis Is Low in 2-Day-Old Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherbuy, Claire; Vaugelade, Pierre; Labarthe, Simon; Honvo-Houeto, Edith; Darcy-Vrillon, Béatrice; Watford, Malcolm; Duée, Pierre-Henri

    2017-03-01

    Background: Active gluconeogenesis is essential to maintain blood glucose concentrations in neonatal piglets because of the high glucose requirements after birth. In several adult mammals, the liver, kidney, and possibly the gut may exhibit gluconeogenesis during fasting and insulinopenic conditions. During the postnatal period, the intestine expresses all of the gluconeogenic enzymes, suggesting the potential for gluconeogenesis. Galactose in milk is a potential gluconeogenic precursor for newborns.Objective: Our aim was to quantify the rate of intestinal glucose production from galactose in piglets compared with the overall rate of glucose production.Methods: A single bolus of [U-(14)C]-galactose was injected into 2-d-old piglets (females and males; mean ± SEM weight: 1.64 ± 0.07 kg) through a gastric catheter. Galactosemia, glycemia, and glucose turnover rate (assessed by monitoring d-[6-(3)H]-glucose) were monitored. Intestinal glucose production from [U-(14)C]-galactose was calculated from [U-(14)C]-glucose appearance in the blood and isotopic dilution. Galactose metabolism was also investigated in vitro in enterocytes isolated from 2-d-old piglets that were incubated with increasing concentrations of galactose.Results: In piglet enterocytes, galactose metabolism was active (mean ± SEM maximum rate of reaction: 2.26 ± 0.45 nmol · min(-1) · 10(6) cells(-1)) and predominantly oriented toward lactate and pyruvate production (74.0% ± 14.5%) rather than glucose production (26.0% ± 14.5%). In conscious piglets, gastric galactose administration led to an increase in arterial galactosemia (from 0 to 1.0 ± 0.8 mmol/L) and glycemia (35% ± 12%). The initial increase in arterial glycemia after galactose administration was linked to an increase in glucose production rate (33% ± 15%) rather than to a decrease in glucose utilization rate (3% ± 6%). The contribution of intestinal glucose production from galactose was <10% of total glucose production in 2-d

  11. Projections of specific morphological types of neurons within the myenteric plexus of the small intestine of the guinea-pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z M; Brookes, S J; Costa, M

    1996-07-01

    The projections of myenteric neurons within the myenteric plexus of the guinea-pig small intestine were established using retrograde tracing in organotypic culture. Three days after applying the fluorescent dye DiI to a single internodal strand in the myenteric plexus, 500-1000 nerve cell bodies were labelled. Of these, 77% were located oral to the application site, 15% were located anally and 7% were located within 1 mm of this site. Three major morphological types of neurons could be distinguished. Dogiel type I neurons had lamellar dendrites and single axons, Dogiel type II neurons had large smooth cell bodies and several long processes, and filamentous neurons had smooth ovoid cell bodies, single axons and several filamentous dendrites. Dogiel type I, II and filamentous neurons accounted for 54.6%, 38% and 7.4% of all filled cells, respectively. Labelled nerve cell bodies were present up to 13 mm aboral to the DiI application site; all neurons more than 2 mm aboral had Dogiel type I features. On the oral side, Dogiel type I neurons were found up to 110 mm, Dogiel type II neurons up to 100 mm and filamentous neurons up to 80 mm. Neurons with 2 mm oral or aboral to the DiI application site were located up to 7 mm circumferentially and were mainly Dogiel type II cells. This work revealed remarkable polarity within the myenteric plexus, with a significant prevalence of myenteric neurons projecting anally for longer distances than those projecting orally. These long pathways are probably involved in the coordination of intestinal motility.

  12. The digestion process of the sugar alcohol isomalt in the intestinal tract of the pig. 1. Studies with administration of isomalt in the feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weerden, E J; Huisman, J

    1993-03-01

    In a study with twelve pigs of 60-70 kg live weight provided with a re-entrant cannula at the end of the ileum, and twelve intact, non-cannulated pigs, the fate of dietary doses of 100 and 200 g isomalt/kg during gastrointestinal passage was examined. From sugar analyses in ileal chyme it was calculated that 0.43 and 0.30 of the isomalt consumed was digested in the small intestine with the 100 and 200 g/kg doses of isomalt respectively. From findings on ileal energy digestibility it was calculated that, because of a secondary effect of isomalt on the digestion of the basal diet, isomalt digestibility in the small intestine was distinctly lower. In faeces no sugars were found, so faecal digestibility of isomalt was 1.00 for both doses. The bacterial fermentation in the large intestine of the isomalt not digested in the small intestine caused an increase in the faecal excretion of nitrogen and energy. This increased faecal excretion was hardly (nitrogen) or not (energy) compensated by a decreased urinary excretion.

  13. Increased number of intestinal villous M cells in levamisole -pretreated weaned pigs experimentally infected with F4ac+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valpotić, H.; Kovšca Janjatović, A.; Lacković, G.; Božić, F.; Dobranić, V.; Svoboda, D.; Valpotić, I.; Popović, M.

    2010-01-01

    Immunoprophylaxis of porcine postweaning colibacillosis (PWC) caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing F4 fimbriae is an unsolved problem. Just as ETEC strains can exploit intestinal microfold (M) cells as the entry portal for infection, their high transcytotic ability make them an attractive target for mucosally delivered vaccines, adjuvants and therapeutics. We have developed a model of parenteral/oral immunization of 4-weeks-old pigs with either levamisole or vaccine candidate F4ac+ non-ETEC strain to study their effects on de novo differentiation of antigen-sampling M cells. Identification, localization and morphometric quantification of cytokeratin 18 positive M cells in the ileal mucosa of 6-weeks-old pigs revealed that they were: 1) exclusively located within villous epithelial layer, 2) significantly numerous (P< 0.01) in levamisole pretreated/challenged pigs, and 3) only slightly, but not significantly numerous in vaccinated/challenged pigs compared with non-pretreated/challenged control pigs. The fact that levamisole may affect the M cells frequency by increasing their numbers, makes it an interesting adjuvant to study development of an effective M cell-targeted vaccine against porcine PWC. PMID:22073366

  14. Increased number of intestinal villous M cells in levamisole - pretreated weaned pigs experimentally infected with F4ac+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Valpotić

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Immunoprophylaxis of porcine postweaning colibacillosis (PWC caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC expressing F4 fimbriae is an unsolved problem. Just as ETEC strains can exploit intestinal microfold (M cells as the entry portal for infection, their high transcytotic ability make them an attractive target for mucosally delivered vaccines, adjuvants and therapeutics. We have developed a model of parenteral/oral immunization of 4-weeks-old pigs with either levamisole or vaccine candidate F4ac+ non-ETEC strain to study their effects on de novo differentiation of antigen-sampling M cells. Identification, localization and morphometric quantification of cytokeratin 18 positive M cells in the ileal mucosa of 6-weeks-old pigs revealed that they were: 1 exclusively located within villous epithelial layer, 2 significantly numerous (P< 0.01 in levamisole pretreated/challenged pigs, and 3 only slightly, but not significantly numerous in vaccinated/challenged pigs compared with non-pretreated/challenged control pigs. The fact that levamisole may affect the M cells frequency by increasing their numbers, makes it an interesting adjuvant to study development of an effective M cell-targeted vaccine against porcine PWC.

  15. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of heparan sulphate binding proteins of Entamoeba histolytica in a guinea pig model of intestinal amoebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Upninder; Khurana, Sumeeta; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Dubey, M L

    2013-11-01

    Entamoeba histolytica infection is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in the form of intestinal and extraintestinal amoebiasis. No vaccine is yet available for amoebiasis. Heparan Sulphate Binding Proteins (HSBPs) from E. histolytica were evaluated for immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a Guinea pig model. Animals were immunized subcutaneously with 30μg of HSBP by three weekly inoculations. The immunogenicity of HSBP was determined by antibody response (IgG, IgM and IgA), splenocyte proliferation assay and in vitro direct amoebicidal assay with splenic lymphocytes and monocytes from vaccinated and control animals. The efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated by challenge infection to vaccinated and control animals by intra-caecal inoculation of E. histolytica trophozoites and comparing gross and histopathological findings in caeca of these animals. HSBP was found to induce specific anti-amoebic response as seen by specific antibody production and direct amoebicidal activity of splenocytes. The vaccine also showed partial protection against challenge infection in vaccinated animals as shown by mild/absent lesions and histopathological findings.

  16. Relationship between stimulated phosphatidic acid production and inositol lipid hydrolysis in intestinal longitudinal smooth muscle from guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallows, R S; Bolton, T B

    1987-06-15

    Accumulation of [32P]phosphatidic acid (PA) and total [3H]inositol phosphates (IPs) was measured in the longitudinal smooth-muscle layer from guinea-pig small intestine. Stimulation with carbachol, histamine and substance P produced increases in accumulation of both [3H]IPs and [32P]PA over the same concentration range. The increase in [32P]PA accumulation in response to carbachol (1 microM-0.1 mM) was inhibited in the presence of atropine (0.5 microM). Buffering the external free [Ca2+] to 10 nM did not prevent the carbachol-stimulated increase in [32P]PA accumulation. Carbachol and Ca2+ appear to act synergistically to increase accumulation of [32P]PA. In contrast, although incubation with noradrenaline also increased accumulation of [3H]IPs, no increase in accumulation of [32P]PA could be detected. These results suggest that an increase in formation of IPs is not necessarily accompanied by an increase in PA formation, and imply the existence of receptor-modulated pathways regulating PA concentrations other than by phospholipase-C-catalysed inositol phospholipid hydrolysis.

  17. Endothelial binding of beta toxin to small intestinal mucosal endothelial cells in early stages of experimentally induced Clostridium perfringens type C enteritis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, V L; Martel, A; Pasmans, F; Van Immerseel, F; Posthaus, H

    2013-07-01

    Beta toxin (CPB) is known to be an essential virulence factor in the development of lesions of Clostridium perfringens type C enteritis in different animal species. Its target cells and exact mechanism of toxicity have not yet been clearly defined. Here, we evaluate the suitability of a neonatal piglet jejunal loop model to investigate early lesions of C. perfringens type C enteritis. Immunohistochemically, CPB was detected at microvascular endothelial cells in intestinal villi during early and advanced stages of lesions induced by C. perfringens type C. This was first associated with capillary dilatation and subsequently with widespread hemorrhage in affected intestinal segments. CPB was, however, not demonstrated on intestinal epithelial cells. This indicates a tropism of CPB toward endothelial cells and suggests that CPB-induced endothelial damage plays an important role in the early stages of C. perfringens type C enteritis in pigs.

  18. High-level recombinant human lysozyme expressed in milk of transgenic pigs can inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli in the duodenum and influence intestinal morphology of sucking pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Lu

    Full Text Available Lysozyme is often used as a feed additive and acts as an antimicrobial protein that enhances immune function and defends against pathogenic bacteria in pigs. In this study, we genetically added recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ to sow milk by somatic cell nuclear transfer and investigated whether the presence of recombinant human lysozyme can influence intestinal microbiota and morphology in sucking pigs. We generated transgenic cloned pigs and the first-generation hybrids (F1 produced high levels of rhLZ in milk. The average concentration of rhLZ was 116.34 ± 24.46 mg/L in the milk of F1 sows, which was 1500-fold higher than that of the native pig lysozyme. In vitro, it was demonstrated that rhLZ in milk of transgenic pigs had enzyme levels at 92,272 ± 26,413 U/mL. In a feeding experiment, a total of 40 newborn piglets were nursed by four transgenic sows and four sibling non-transgenic sows (F1, with five piglets per gilt. The piglets were allowed to nurse for 21 days and the sow milk was the only source of nutrition for the piglets. All piglets were slaughtered on postnatal day 22. Six types of bacteria were cultured and analyzed to detect the impact of rhLZ on gut microbiota. The number of Escherichia coli in the duodenum of piglets reared by transgenic sows was significantly decreased (p<0.001 and their villus height to crypt depth ratio in the intestine were increased due to the significant decrease of crypt depth in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (p<0.001. Together, we successfully generated rhLZ transgenic cloned pigs and elevated lysozyme level in nuring piglets. The results of the feeding experiments demonstrated that rhLZ-enhanced milk can inhibit the growth of E. coli in the duodenum and positively influence intestinal morphology without adversely affecting weight gain or piglet growth.

  19. Effect of immune system stimulation and divergent selection for residual feed intake on digestive capacity of the small intestine in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshandeh, A; Dekkers, J C M; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; English, J; Gabler, N K

    2012-12-01

    Little is known of the consequences of divergent selection for residual feed intake (RFI) on intestinal digestion capacity, particularly during immune system stimulation (ISS). Our objective was to evaluate the impact of ISS and divergent selection for RFI on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent fecal digestibility (AFD) of nutrients and intestinal nutrient active transport and barrier function. Twenty-eight gilts (63 ± 4 kg BW) from low RFI (LRFI; n = 14) and high RFI (HRFI; n = 14) Yorkshire lines were randomly selected from the Iowa State University RFI herd. Following adaptation, 8 pigs in each line were injected intramuscularly and every 48 h for 7 d with increasing amounts of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ISS+). Remaining pigs were injected with saline (ISS-). Pigs were then euthanized and ileal digesta was collected for measuring AID of nutrients. Fecal samples were collected on a daily basis and pooled for measuring AFD of nutrients. A segment of ileum was used to measure nutrient transport and transepithelial resistance (TER) and/or barrier integrity by Ussing chambers. No effects of line or its interaction with ISS on AID of CP (N × 6.25) and OM, TER, and active nutrients transport were observed. However, ISS decreased (P < 0.05) and tended to (P < 0.1) decrease AID of CP and OM, respectively. Decrease in AFD of CP as result of ISS was greater in the LRFI line compared to the HRFI line (P < 0.05). Relative to ISS-, active glucose and P transport was greater in ISS+ pigs (P < 0.05). Genetic selection for LRFI increases the AFD but has no effect on AID of nutrients. It also reduces the total tract digestive capacity of growing pigs during ISS. Immune system stimulation affects both AID and AFD of dietary CP.

  20. Introducing enteral feeding induces intestinal subclinical inflammation and respective chromatin changes in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Rhea; Krych, Lukasz; Rybicki, Verena

    2015-01-01

    stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (median: 7.0; interquartile range: 5.63-8.85) compared with naive cells (median 4.2; interquartile range: 2.45-6.33; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Enteral feeding, particular with formula, induces subclinical inflammation in the premature intestine and more open chromatin...... were analyzed 5 days after birth. RESULTS: Enteral feeding led to differential upregulation of inflammatory and pattern recognition receptor genes, including IL8 (median: 5.8, 95% CI: 3.9-7.8 for formula; median: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.3 for colostrum) and TLR4 (median: 3.7, 95% CI: 2.6-4.8 for formula...

  1. Growth of and valine production by a Bacillus subtilis mutant in the small intestine of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Nørgaard, Jan Værum;

    2016-01-01

    :Lys of 0.63:1 (Neg), 2) the Neg diet with added Bacillus subtilis-valine (1.28 × 108 cfu/g feed) (+Bac), and 3) the Neg diet with added L-Val to a Val:Lys of 0.69:1 (+Val). Eighteen gilts (6 on each treatment) with initial weights of ∼15 kg were fed the diets for 23 d before the animals were euthanized...... and samples from the small intestine were obtained. The number of B. subtilis cfu in digesta was higher in the +Bac group than in the Neg group (P ... concentrations were measured in the +Bac group. Short-term in vitro incubations of digesta showed a decrease (P ≤ 0.03) in the number of B. subtilis cfu over time for the +Bac group and no difference in the rate of Val production compared to that in the Neg group. In conclusion, more B. subtilis cfu were present...

  2. Localization and biosynthesis of aminopeptidase N in pig fetal small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Niels-Christiansen, L L; Hansen, Gert Helge

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the expression of brush border enzymes in fetal enterocytes. The aim of this study was to describe the localization and biosynthesis of porcine fetal aminopeptidase N. METHODS: This study was performed using histochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy...... and [35S]methionine labeling of cultured mucosal explants. RESULTS: Enzyme activity was present in the brush border membrane and extended into the apical cytoplasm. The protein was colocalized with cationized ferritin at the surface of endocytic structures including coated pits, vesicles, tubules......, and large vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm. The transient high mannose-glycosylated form of fetal aminopeptidase N was processed to the mature complex-glycosylated form at a markedly slower rate than the enzyme in adult intestine. Likewise, dimerization occurred slowly compared with the adult form...

  3. Flavanol-Enriched Cocoa Powder Alters the Intestinal Microbiota, Tissue and Fluid Metabolite Profiles, and Intestinal Gene Expression in Pigs1234

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Saebyeol; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Lakshman, Sukla; Molokin, Aleksey; HARNLY, JAMES M.; Vinyard, Bryan T.; Urban, Joseph F.; Davis, Cindy D.; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Background: Consumption of cocoa-derived polyphenols has been associated with several health benefits; however, their effects on the intestinal microbiome and related features of host intestinal health are not adequately understood.

  4. Effects of post-conditioning with sevoflurane on the expressions of intestinal AQP8 and I-FABP in pigs with hemorrhagic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-hong CHEN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effects of sevoflurane post-conditioning on the expression of Aquaporin 8 (AQP8 and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP, in order to investigate the protective role of sevoflurane post-conditioning on intestinal injury and its underlying mechanism. Methods Eighteen bama miniature pigs were randomly divided into three groups (6 each using a random number table: control group (S group, hemorrhagic shock group (HS group, and sevoflurane post-coditioning group (Post/ Sev group. Experimental animals were fasted for 8 hours before surgery, and propofol 3mg/kg was given viathe ear vein. Endotracheal intubation was done when the animal fell asleep. Bloodletting from the femoral artery after anesthesia was done to reproduce hemorrhagic shock. In Post/Sev group, 2% sevoflurane was given by inhalation for 30min (post-conditioning after successful reproduction of the model. Blood samples were collected prior to anesthesia (T0 and 30min (T1, 1h (T2, 1.5h (T3, 2h (T4, 3h (T5, 4h (T6 after hemorrhagic shock. The quantity of blood I-FABP and intestinal AQP8 levels were determined with ELISA. Water content in the intestinal tissue was determined by wet and dry weight method. Histopathological changes in the intestinal tissue were observed with HE staining. Results Compared with the control group, the serum I-FABP content, the expressions of intestinal AQP8, and water content in the intestinal tissue were significantly increased in HS group and Post/Sev (P<0.05 group. Compared with HS group, the above indices in Post/Sev group were significantly lower (P<0.05. These results were confirmed by pathological examination. Conclusion Postconditioning with sevoflurane could improve, to some extent, pig's intestinal barrier function in hemorrhagic shock, and this effect is likely related with lowering of intestinal AQP8 and I-FABP expression and mucosal edema. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.11.11

  5. Atropine-resistant depolarization in the guinea-pig small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywater, R A; Holman, M E; Taylor, G S

    1981-07-01

    1. Junction potentials were recorded from the circular muscle cells of the guinea-pig ileum following transmural stimulation in the presence of atropine at 30 degrees C.2. Single stimuli produced a transient hyperpolarization, the inhibitory junction potential (i.j.p.). At high stimulus strengths the i.j.p. was followed by a post-stimulus depolarization (PSD).3. During repetitive stimulation the magnitude of the hyperpolarization decreased; however, at the end of the stimulus period the PSD was enhanced and often reached threshold for the generation of action potentials. Thus, the size of the PSD was not directly related to the degree of the preceding hyperpolarization.4. Hyperpolarization of the circular muscle cells was produced by the application of anodal current using large external electrodes. Rapid cessation of the applied current produced a transient after-depolarization which was shorter in time course than the PSD following the i.j.p. If the applied anodal current was reduced slowly (at a rate which mimicked the decrease in the hyperpolarization during repetitive nerve stimulation) no after-depolarization was observed.5. Conditioning hyperpolarization of the circular muscle cells reduced the amplitude of the i.j.p. The i.j.p. was reversed at membrane potentials greater than approximately -90 mV.6. The PSD did not appear to be due to the extracellular accumulation of potassium ions following the i.j.p. since the PSD persisted even when the i.j.p. was reversed.7. The neurotoxin apamin reversibly abolished the i.j.p. and unmasked a transient excitatory junction potential (e.j.p.) with a variable latency (350-900 ms).

  6. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine or N-carbamylglutamate enhances intestinal growth and heat shock protein-70 expression in weanling pigs fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Ruan, Zheng; Gao, Yunling; Yin, Yulong; Zhou, Xihong; Wang, Lei; Geng, Meimei; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao

    2010-08-01

    This study determined effects of dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) or N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) on intestinal health and growth in early-weaned pigs. Eighty-four Landrace x Yorkshire pigs (average body weight of 5.56+/-0.07 kg; weaned at 21 days of age) were fed for 7 days one of the three isonitrogenous diets: (1) a corn- and soybean meal-based diet (CSM), (2) CSM+0.08% NCG (0.08%), and (3) CSM+0.6% Arg. There were four pens of pigs per diet (7 pigs/pen). At the end of a 7-day feeding period, six piglets were randomly selected from each treatment for tissue collections. Compared with the control group, Arg or NCG supplementation increased (P<0.05): (1) Arg concentrations in plasma, (2) small-intestinal growth, (3) villus height in duodenum, jejunum and ileum, (4) crypt depth in jejunum and ileum, (5) goblet cell counts in intestinal mucosae, and (6) whole-body weight gain in pigs. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses revealed that both mRNA and protein levels for heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) were higher (P<0.05) in the intestinal mucosae of Arg- or NCG-supplemented pigs than in the control group. Furthermore, the incidence of diarrhea in the NCG group was 18% lower (P<0.01) than that in the control group. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with 0.6% Arg or 0.08% NCG enhances intestinal HSP70 gene expression, intestinal growth and integrity, and the availability of dietary nutrients for whole-body weight gain in postweaning pigs fed a CSM-based diet. Thus, Arg or NCG is a functional ingredient in the weaning diet to improve nutrition, health, and growth performance of these neonates.

  7. Growth of and valine production by a Bacillus subtilis mutant in the small intestine of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Nørgaard, Jan Værum;

    2016-01-01

    :Lys of 0.63:1 (Neg), 2) the Neg diet with added Bacillus subtilis-valine (1.28 × 108 cfu/g feed) (+Bac), and 3) the Neg diet with added L-Val to a Val:Lys of 0.69:1 (+Val). Eighteen gilts (6 on each treatment) with initial weights of ∼15 kg were fed the diets for 23 d before the animals were euthanized...... and samples from the small intestine were obtained. The number of B. subtilis cfu in digesta was higher in the +Bac group than in the Neg group (P cfu were detected in the Neg group, whereas numbers between 3.4 and 4.4 log cfu/g and numerically higher Val and Lys...... concentrations were measured in the +Bac group. Short-term in vitro incubations of digesta showed a decrease (P ≤ 0.03) in the number of B. subtilis cfu over time for the +Bac group and no difference in the rate of Val production compared to that in the Neg group. In conclusion, more B. subtilis cfu were present...

  8. Dietary supplementation with N-carbamylglutamate increases the expression of intestinal amino acid transporters in weaned Huanjiang mini-pig piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H S; Fu, D Z; Kong, X F; Wang, W C; Yang, X J; Nyachoti, C M; Yin, Y L

    2013-06-01

    Weaning is associated with reduced intestinal absorptive capacity in piglets. Our previous study indicated that dietary supplementation with N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) enhanced growth performance and improved intestinal function in weaned piglets. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with NCG may increase the growth performance of weaned piglets by regulating the expression of intestinal nutrient transporters, thus enhancing nutrient absorption. Twenty-four Huanjiang mini-pig piglets weaned at 21 d of age (3.17 ± 0.21 kg average BW) were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments consisting of a basal diet and the basal diet with 0.1% NCG supplementation for a 14-d period with 6 pens per treatment and 1 male and 1 female per pen. On d 14, 1 piglet was randomly selected from each pen for blood and tissue sampling. Dietary NCG supplementation enhanced (P < 0.05) growth rate and the efficiency of feed use in weaned Huanjiang mini-pig piglets. The NCG-supplemented diet increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression levels of Slc6a19, Slc7a9, and Slc1a1 and the protein abundance of ASCT2, B(0)AT1, b(0,+)AT, y(+)LAT1, and EAAC1 in the jejunum. Furthermore, the contents of low density lipoprotein, ammonia, urea nitrogen, and AA as well as the activity of alkaline phosphatase in plasma were all altered (P < 0.05) by supplementation with NCG. These findings indicate that dietary supplementation with NCG may improve intestinal absorptive function in weaned piglets by increasing the expression of AA transporters in the intestine.

  9. The digestion process of the sugar alcohol isomalt in the intestinal tract of the pig. 2. Studies with administration of isomalt as a sweet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weerden, E J; Huisman, J

    1993-03-01

    In a study with ten pigs of 60-70 kg live weight, provided with a re-entrant cannula at the end of the ileum, and sixteen intact, non-cannulated pigs, the digestion and absorption of a dietary dose of 100 g isomalt/kg, and isomalt given between the meals as a 'sweet' on the basis of 50 and 100 g/kg feed consumption, were examined. In all three isomalt treatments slightly less than 0.40 of the isomalt consumed was digested in the small intestine when the calculations were based on ileal sugar passage. However, when basing the calculations on energy contents of ileal chyme, only approximately 0.10 was digested in the small intestine. The bacterial fermentation of the isomalt flowing into the large intestine was indicated by a decreased faecal energy digestibility and a slight reduction in faecal dry matter and nitrogen digestibility. The retention of the minerals sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus was not influenced to any measurable extent when isomalt was fed.

  10. Nutritional value of dried fermentation biomass, hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulabo, R C; Mathai, J K; Usry, J L; Ratliff, B W; McKilligan, D M; Moline, J D; Xu, G; Stein, H H

    2013-06-01

    Dried fermentation biomass (DFB) and hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa are co-products of L-Lys • HCl production and heparin extraction, respectively. Three experiments were conducted to determine standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA (Exp. 1), concentration of DE and ME (Exp. 2), and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P (Exp. 3) in DFB and 2 hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products (PEP50 and PEP2+), and compare these values with values for fish meal. In Exp. 1, 12 ileal cannulated barrows (BW = 11.5 ± 1.1 kg) were allotted to a replicated 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods. A N-free diet, diet based on soybean meal (SBM), and 4 diets based on a combination of SBM and DFB, PEP50, PEP2+, or fish meal were formulated. With the exception of Lys, there were no differences in SID of indispensable AA between DFB and fish meal. Except for Thr, no differences in SID of indispensable AA between PEP50 and fish meal were observed, but SID of all indispensable AA, except Lys and Trp, was less (P < 0.05) in PEP2+ than in the other ingredients. In Exp. 2, 40 barrows (BW = 12.8 ± 1.4 kg) were allotted to 5 diets with 8 pigs/diet. A basal diet containing 96.4% corn and 4 diets containing corn and DFB, PEP50, PEP2+, or fish meal were formulated. The DE (5,445 kcal/kg DM) and ME (5,236 kcal/kg DM) in DFB were greater (P < 0.01) than in PEP50 (4,758 and 4,512 kcal/kg DM for DE and ME, respectively) and fish meal (4,227 and 3,960 kcal/kg DM for DE and ME, respectively). Also, DE in DFB was greater (P < 0.01) than in PEP2+ (4,935 kcal/kg DM), but ME in DFB was not different from that in PEP2+ (4,617 kcal/kg DM). Furthermore, DE in PEP50 and PEP2+ were greater (P < 0.01) than in fish meal, but ME did not differ from that in fish meal. In Exp. 3, 40 barrows (BW = 12.4 ± 1.3 kg) were randomly allotted to 5 diets with 8 pigs/diet. A P-free diet and 4 diets in which the sole source of P was from DFB, PEP50, PEP2+, or fish meal were

  11. Effect of xylanases on ileal viscosity, intestinal fiber modification, and apparent ileal fiber and nutrient digestibility of rye and wheat in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Arent, Susan; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to study the effect of xylanase on ileal extract viscosity, in vivo fiber solubilization and degradation, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of fiber constituents, OM, CP, starch, and crude fat in rye and wheat in ileal-cannulated pigs. In Exp. 1, coarse rye...... AID of arabinoxylan by 91% to 107% (P starch and crude fat digestibility of fine wheat with enzyme addition (P ... marker. Ileal effluent was collected for 8 h on d 5 and 7 and pooled for analysis. In Exp. 1, TR reduced intestinal viscosity of pigs fed rye from 9.3 mPa·s in the control diet (NX) to 6.0 mPa·s (P effect. None of the enzymes changed the concentration of total...

  12. Transfer of the pheromone-inducible plasmid pCF10 among Enterococcus faecalis microorganisms colonizing the intestine of mini-pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Laugesen, D.; Jensen, Lars Bogø;

    2002-01-01

    A new animal model, the streptomycin-treated mini-pig, was developed in order to allow colonization of defined strains of Enterococcus faecalis in numbers sufficient to study plasmid transfer. Transfer of the pheromone-inducible pCF10 plasmid between streptomycin-resistant strains of E. faecalis OG...... until the end of the experiment. These observations showed that even in the absence of selective tetracycline pressure, plasmid pCF10 was transferred from ingested E. faecalis cells to other E. faecalis organisms already present in the intestinal environment and that the plasmid subsequently persisted...

  13. Cooking Has Variable Effects on the Fermentability in the Large Intestine of the Fraction of Meats, Grain Legumes, and Insects That Is Resistant to Digestion in the Small Intestine in an in Vitro Model of the Pig's Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelaert, Christine; Despret, Xavier; Sindic, Marianne; Beckers, Yves; Francis, Frédéric; Portetelle, Daniel; Soyeurt, Hélène; Théwis, André; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2017-01-18

    This study aimed to evaluate the fermentation in the large intestine of indigestible dietary protein sources from animal, insect, and plant origin using an in vitro model of the pig's gastrointestinal tract. Protein sources were used raw and after a cooking treatment. Results showed that the category of the ingredient (meats, insects, or grain legumes) exerts a stronger impact on enzymatic digestibility, fermentation patterns, and bacterial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) than the cooking treatment. The digestibility and the fermentation characteristics of insects were more affected by the cooking procedure than the other categories. Per gram of consumed food, ingredients from animal origin, namely, meats and insects, were associated with fewer fermentation end-products (gas, H2S, SCFA) than ingredients from plant origin, which is related to their higher small intestinal digestibility.

  14. Bacteriophage cocktail and multi-strain probiotics in the feed for weanling pigs: effects on intestine morphology and targeted intestinal coliforms and Clostridium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J S; Hosseindoust, A; Lee, S H; Choi, Y H; Kim, M J; Lee, J H; Kwon, I K; Chae, B J

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of bacteriophage cocktail, probiotics and a combination of these two supplements on performance and gut health of weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, 150 weaned piglets were randomly allotted to three treatments on the basis of BW. The dietary treatments included a basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg bacteriophage cocktail. Pigs fed 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg bacteriophage product had greater (Pprobiotic product (P), 1.0 g/kg bacteriophage cocktail (B) and combination of 1.0 g/kg bacteriophage cocktail and 3.0 g/kg fermented probiotic product. Pigs fed bacteriophage cocktail diets had greater (PProbiotics significantly increased G : F, colonization of Lactobacillus spp. in ileum. At day 35, bacteriophage treatment group showed greater (Pgut health of weanling pigs, however their combination with probiotics did not show an interaction.

  15. Aluminium uptake from some foods by guinea pigs and the characterization of aluminium in in vivo intestinal digesta by SEC-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, L M; Crews, H M; Bishop, N J; Massey, R C

    1994-08-01

    The uptake of ingested aluminium (Al) from food items commonly consumed in a normal human diet was investigated by feeding five test diets to guinea pigs. Al concentrations were measured in the femur, brain, kidney and upper intestinal contents. Consumption of these diets did not lead to elevated Al levels in brain. Levels of Al in the bone were elevated in animals fed sponge cake with a permitted Al-containing additive, and the presence of citrate as orange juice enhanced bone deposition and increased kidney Al levels. Less than 1% of Al in the upper intestinal contents was found in the soluble fraction, and characterization by SEC-ICP-MS indicated that this Al was not present as Al-citrate.

  16. Antimicrobial treatment reduces intestinal microflora and improves protein digestive capacity without changes in villous structure in weanling pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thymann, Thomas; Sørensen, Kristina U.; Hedemann, Mette S.;

    2007-01-01

    -old controls In 8; P amylase, trypsin and small intestinal...... that the beneficial effects of antimicrobials are mediated not only through reduction in intestinal bacteria] load, but also through a stimulation of protein digestive function and goblet cell density....

  17. Rapid cooling after acute hyperthermia alters intestinal tissue morphology and increases the systemic inflammatory response in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute hyperthermia can result in mortality if recovery is not appropriately managed. The study objective was to determine the effects of heatstroke recovery methods on the physiological response in pigs. In four repetitions, 36 male pigs (88.7 ± 1.6 kg BW) were exposed to thermoneutral conditions (T...

  18. In vivo study on selection of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in the intestinal tract of pigs treated with extended-spectrum cephalosporins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Concalves Cavaco, Lina Maria; Aarestrup, Frank; Abatih Nji, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    In vivo study on selection of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in the intestinal tract of pigs treated with extended-spectrum cephalosporins   Cavaco, LM1,2, Aarestrup FM2, Abatih, E1, Guardabassi, L1 1- Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C; Denmark 2- National...... Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark; DK-1790 Copenhagen V, Denmark   B-lactams including penicillins and extended-spectrum cephalosporins such as ceftiofur and cefquinome are widely used in pig production. In this study, pig experiments were used to compare the in vivo effects of different...

  19. Effects of Single Cell Protein Replacing Fish Meal in Diet on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Intestinal Morphology in Weaned Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the ME value, standardized ileal digestibility (SID of amino acids (AA of fish meal, and the effects of single cell protein (Prosin and Protide replacing fish meal in diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology in weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, twenty-four barrows with initial BW of 30.8±2.6 kg were allotted to one of four dietary treatments. Diet 1 contained corn as the only energy source. The other three diets replaced 20% of the corn in diet 1 with one of the three protein feeds (fish meal, Prosin and Protide, and the DE and ME contents were determined by difference. In Exp. 2, eight barrows (initial BW of 25.6±3.2 kg were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Three cornstarch-based diets were formulated using each of the protein feeds as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. In Exp. 3, one hundred and eighty piglets (initial BW of 7.95±1.59 kg weaned at 28±2 d were blocked by weight and assigned to one of five treatments for a 28-d growth performance study, each treatment was fed to six pens with six pigs (three barrows and three gilts per pen. The five treatments consisted of the control group (CON, which was a corn-soybean meal diet containing 5% fish meal, and the other four treatments, which replaced a set amount of fish meal with either Prosin (2.5% or 5% or Protide (2.5% or 5%. The diets were formulated to provide same nutrient levels. The results showed that on a DM basis, both of the DE and ME contents were lower in Prosin and Protide than that of fish meal (p<0.05. The SID of CP and all essential AA were greater in fish meal than in Prosin and Protide (p<0.05. The pigs fed CON diet had greater weight gain and lower feed conversion rate (FCR than pigs fed 5% Prosin and 5% Protide diets (p<0.05. The digestibility of CP was greater in pigs fed CON, 2

  20. The effects of inulin, dried Jerusalem artichoke tuber and a multispecies probiotic preparation on microbiota ecology and immune status of the large intestine in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barszcz, Marcin; Taciak, Marcin; Skomiał, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    The study aimed at determining the effect of two types of prebiotics and a multispecies probiotic on microbiota activity and composition, as well as mucosal immunity in the large intestine of young pigs. In total 48 piglets were divided into 6 groups (n = 8), which received from day 10 of life probiotic-unsupplemented (PU) or probiotic-supplemented (PS) diets. Probiotics were added at 0.5 g/kg diet and contained: Lactococcus lactis, Carnobacterium divergens, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The PU and PS diets were formulated without prebiotic addition (control) or with addition of 2% of inulin from chicory root (IN) or 4% of dried Jerusalem artichoke tubers (DJA). After 40 days of feeding, digesta and tissue samples were taken from the caecum and three sections of the colon for analyses of microbiota activity and composition, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). IN diets decreased the caecal digesta pH and β-glucosidase activity but increased propionic, valeric and total short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations compared to control diets. Feeding DJA diets increased caecal valeric acid level, decreased the concentration of isoacids in the colon, reduced β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase activity in the middle colon and increased Bifidobacterium spp. populations in the proximal and distal colon. PS diets increased the caecal acetic acid and total SCFA level, and Clostridium spp. populations in the distal colon. Neither probiotic nor prebiotics affected sIgA level or IEL number in the large intestine. In conclusion, DJA modified the microbiota ecology in the large intestine of young pigs to a greater extent than IN and the applied probiotic did not enhance effects of prebiotics.

  1. 荣昌县生猪肠道寄生虫感染情况调查%SURVEY OF INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PIGS IN RONGCHANG COUNTY, PEOPLE'S REPUBLICOFCHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋庆; 尧蒙; 张丽君; 范才良; 胡吉利; 林瑞庆; 朱兴全

    2008-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of intestinal parasites was investigated in pigs in Rongchang County of China between April 2007 and November 2007.Methods Faecal samples from 832 pigs from intensive pig farms,1133 faecal samples from pigs raised using traditional indoor/outdoor stystems(both sexes and two age groups),and 200 slaughtered pigs in an abattoir were examined for the presence of helminths,helminth ova and protozoan oocysts,cysts and/or trophozoites using standard techniques.Results Of the 832 pig faecal samples from intensive pig farms,109(13.1%)were infected with Ascaris suum,45(5.4%)with Trichuris suis,121(14.6%)with Oesophagostomum spp.,123(14.8%)with coccidia(Eimeria spp.and/or Isospora suis),and 30(3.6%)with Balantidium coli.Of the 1133 faecal samples from pigs raised using traditional extensive stystem,the infection rates were 6.7%(76/1133),4.8%(54/1133),23.2%(263/1133),13.8%(156/1133),and 4.9%(56/1133),respectively.Of the 200 slaughtered pigs,4%(8/200)were infected with A.suum,3.5%(7/200)with T.suis,and 52.0%(104/200)with Oesophagostomum spp..Concurrent infection of multiple parasites was common,and these infected pigs were mainly from farms without a strategic anti-parasite treatment regime.Conclusion The results of the present investigation indicated that the prevalence of intestinal parasites in pigs in Rongchang is quite severe.It is imperative that appropriate strategies and measures be implemented to control the severe infection of intestinal parasites in pigs.%目的 摸清重庆市荣昌县生猪的肠道寄生虫感染情况,从而为有效防控猪的肠道寄生虫感染提供依据.方法 荣昌是我国著名地方猪"荣昌猪"的故乡,我国养猪大县之一,作者于2007年4月至2007年11月,在该县20个镇选择具有代表性的规模化猪场、散养户和屠宰场,对种公猪、母猪、仔猪及肥育猪肠道寄生虫感染情况和屠宰场宰杀的肥猪肠道寄生虫虫体感染情况进行了调查.共检查了832份

  2. The site of net absorption of Ca from the intestinal tract of growing pigs and effect of phytic acid, Ca level and Ca source on Ca digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J Caroline; Walk, Carrie L; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardised digestibility of Ca in calcium carbonate and Lithothamnium calcareum Ca is not different regardless of the level of dietary Ca, and that phytic acid affects the digestibility of Ca in these two ingredients to the same degree. The objectives were to determine where in the intestinal tract Ca absorption takes place and if there are measurable quantities of basal endogenous Ca fluxes in the stomach, small intestine or large intestine. Diets contained calcium carbonate or L. calcareum Ca as the sole source of Ca, 0% or 1% phytic acid and 0.4% or 0.8% Ca. A Ca-free diet was also formulated and used to measure endogenous fluxes and losses of Ca. Nine growing pigs (initial body weight 23.8 ± 1.3 kg) were cannulated in the duodenum and in the distal ileum, and faecal, ileal and duodenal samples were collected. Duodenal endogenous fluxes of Ca were greater (p phytic acid, but decreased (p phytic acid, but may be affected by dietary Ca level depending on the Ca source. Calcium from calcium carbonate is mostly absorbed before the duodenum, but Ca from L. calcareum Ca is mostly absorbed in the jejunum and ileum.

  3. Intestinal physiology and peptidase activity in male pigs are modulated by consumption of corn culture extracts containing fumonisins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lessard, Martin; Boudry, Gaëlle; Sève, Bernard; Oswald, Isabelle P; Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    .... Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that repeated intake of a corn culture extract rich in fumonisins, mainly in FB1, alters indices of intestinal absorptive and secretory physiology and barrier function in vivo...

  4. Effect of xylanases on ileal viscosity, intestinal fiber modification, and apparent ileal fiber and nutrient digestibility of rye and wheat in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lærke, H N; Arent, S; Dalsgaard, S; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2015-09-01

    Two experiments were performed to study the effect of xylanase on ileal extract viscosity, in vivo fiber solubilization and degradation, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of fiber constituents, OM, CP, starch, and crude fat in rye and wheat in ileal-cannulated pigs. In Exp. 1, coarse rye without (NX) or with addition of xylanase from Aspergillus niger (AN), (BS), or (TR) was fed to 8 ileal-cannulated barrows (initial BW 30.9 ± 0.3 kg) for 1 wk each according to a double 4 × 4 Latin square design. In Exp. 2, fine rye, fine wheat, and coarse wheat with or without a combination of xylanase from and were fed to 6 ileal-cannulated barrows (initial BW 33.6 ± 0.5 kg) for 1 wk according to a 6 × 6 Latin square design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of enzyme and cereal matrix. Chromic oxide (0.2%) was used as an inert marker. Ileal effluent was collected for 8 h on d 5 and 7 and pooled for analysis. In Exp. 1, TR reduced intestinal viscosity of pigs fed rye from 9.3 mPa·s in the control diet (NX) to 6.0 mPa·s ( fat digestibility of fine wheat with enzyme addition ( < 0.012) in Exp. 2. Collectively, the results suggest that xylanase is more efficient in degrading arabinoxylan from wheat than from rye.

  5. GLP-1 amidation efficiency along the length of the intestine in mice, rats and pigs and in GLP-1 secreting cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Albrechtsen, Nicolai Wewer; Windeløv, Johanne Agerlin; Svendsen, Berit; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-05-01

    XXX: Measurements of plasma concentrations of the incretin hormone GLP-1 are complex because of extensive molecular heterogeneity. This is partly due to a varying and incompletely known degree of C-terminal amidation. Given that virtually all GLP-1 assays rely on a C-terminal antibody, it is essential to know whether or not the molecule one wants to measure is amidated. We performed a detailed analysis of extractable GLP-1 from duodenum, proximal jejunum, distal ileum, caecum, proximal colon and distal colon of mice (n=9), rats (n=9) and pigs (n=8) and determined the degree of amidation and whether this varied with the six different locations. We also analyzed the amidation in 3 GLP-1 secreting cell lines (GLUTag, NCI-H716 and STC-1). To our surprise there were marked differences between the 3 species with respect to the concentration of GLP-1 in gut. In the mouse, concentrations increased continuously along the intestine all the way to the rectum, but were highest in the distal ileum and proximal colon of the rat. In the pig, very little or no GLP-1 was present before the distal ileum with similar levels from ileum to distal colon. In the mouse, GLP-1 was extensively amidated at all sampling sites, whereas rats and pigs on average had around 2.5 and 4 times higher levels of amidated compared to non-amidated GLP-1, although the ratio varied depending upon the location. GLUTag, NCI-H716 and STC-1 cells all exhibited partial amidation with 2-4 times higher levels of amidated compared to non-amidated GLP-1.

  6. Bovine colostrum is superior to enriched formulas in stimulating intestinal function and necrotising enterocolitis resistance in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Hanne Kristine; Thymann, Thomas; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen;

    2011-01-01

    ), gangliosides (Gang) or osteopontin (OPN) would improve gastrointestinal function and NEC resistance in preterm neonates. Forty-seven caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were given total parenteral nutrition for 2 d followed by 1.5 d of enteral feeding. In Expt 1, a control formula was compared with an OPN...

  7. Effect of Low Dose of Fumonisins on Pig Health: Immune Status, Intestinal Microbiota and Sensitivity to Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Fravalo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the effects of chronic exposure to fumonisins via the ingestion of feed containing naturally contaminated corn in growing pigs infected or not with Salmonella spp. This exposure to a moderate dietary concentration of fumonisins (11.8 ppm was sufficient to induce a biological effect in pigs (Sa/So ratio, but no mortality or pathology was observed over 63 days of exposure. No mortality or related clinical signs, even in cases of inoculation with Salmonella (5 × 104 CFU, were observed either. Fumonisins, at these concentrations, did not affect the ability of lymphocytes to proliferate in the presence of mitogens, but after seven days post-inoculation they led to inhibition of the ability of specific Salmonella lymphocytes to proliferate following exposure to a specific Salmonella antigen. However, the ingestion of fumonisins had no impact on Salmonella translocation or seroconversion in inoculated pigs. The inoculation of Salmonella did not affect faecal microbiota profiles, but exposure to moderate concentrations of fumonisins transiently affected the digestive microbiota balance. In cases of co-infection with fumonisins and Salmonella, the microbiota profiles were rapidly and clearly modified as early as 48 h post-Salmonella inoculation. Therefore under these experimental conditions, exposure to an average concentration of fumonisins in naturally contaminated feed had no effect on pig health but did affect the digestive microbiota balance, with Salmonella exposure amplifying this phenomenon.

  8. Maltodextrina em rações de leitões desmamados com diferentes pesos: desempenho e morfometria intestinal = Maltodextrin in diets for weaning pigs of different weights: performance and intestinal morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria Nascimento Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos: no primeiro utilizaram-se 96 leitões desmamados com idade média de 21 dias, num delineamento em blocos com arranjo fatorial dos tratamentos 2 x 2 ( duas fontes de carboidratos x duas classes de peso ao desmame. No segundo foram utilizados 48 leitões, num delineamento em blocos com arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 (duas classes de peso ao desmame x duas fontes de carboidratos x duas porções do intestino delgado x três épocas de abate. Foram avaliados os efeitos da substituição da lactose pela maltodextrina nas rações de leitões desmamados, com diferentes pesos, sobre o consumo diário de ração, ganho diário de peso, conversão alimentar, altura das vilosidades, profundidade das criptas e espessura de mucosa. No primeiro experimento, nos períodos de 0 a 17 e 0 a 29 dias após o desmame constatou-se efeito de classes de peso,no ganho diário de peso e no consumo diário de ração dos leitões. No segundo experimento, a maltodextrina determinou aumentos na espessura média da mucosa intestinal e na profundidade média das criptas, apenas nos animais leves. A maltodextrina pode ser usada como alternativa para substituir a lactose nas rações de leitões desmamados.Two trials were conducted: in the first trial, 96 weaning pigs at the age of 21 days were used, in a block design, with a 2 x 2 factorialarrangement (two sources of carbohydrate and two weaning weight classes. In the second trial, 48 pigs were used, in a block design, with 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 factorial arrangement (two weaning weight classes x two sources of carbohydrate x two portions of the small intestine xthree slaughter periods. The effects of the replacement of lactose by maltodextrin in diets of weaning pigs, with different weights, were evaluated on daily feed intake, daily weight gain, feed:gain ratio, villus height, crypt depth and thickness of the mucosa. In the first trial, from 0 to 17 days and from 0 to 29 days after weaning

  9. Dietary Nucleotides Supplementation Improves the Intestinal Development and Immune Function of Neonates with Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction in a Pig Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianqiang Che

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to determine whether dietary nucleotides supplementation could improve growth performance, intestinal development and immune function of intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR neonate using pig as animal model. A total of 14 pairs of normal birth weight (NBW and IUGR piglets (7 days old were randomly assigned to receive a milk-based control diet (CON diet or diet supplemented with nucleotides (NT diet for a period of 21 days. Blood samples, intestinal tissues and digesta were collected at necropsy and analyzed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, microbial populations, peripheral immune cells, expression of intestinal innate immunity and barrier-related genes and proteins. Compared with NBW piglets, IUGR piglets had significantly lower average daily dry matter intake and body weight gain (P<0.05. Moreover, IUGR markedly decreased the villous height and villi: crypt ratio in duodenum (P<0.05, as well as the maltase activity in jejunum (P<0.05. In addition, IUGR significantly decreased the serum concentrations of IgA, IL-1βand IL-10 (P<0.05, as well as the percentage of peripheral lymphocytes (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the down-regulation of innate immunity-related genes such as TOLLIP (P<0.05, TLR-9 (P = 0.08 and TLR-2 (P = 0.07 was observed in the ileum of IUGR relative to NBW piglets. Regardless of birth weight, however, feeding NT diet markedly decreased (P<0.05 feed conversion ratio, increased the villous height in duodenum (P<0.05, activities of lactase and maltase in jejunum (P<0.05, count of peripheral leukocytes (P<0.05, serum concentrations of IgA and IL-1β as well as gene expressions of TLR-9, TLR-4 and TOLLIP in ileum (P<0.05. In addition, expressions of tight junction proteins (Claudin-1 and ZO-1 in ileum were markedly increased by feeding NT diet relative to CON diet (P<0.05. These results indicated that IUGR impaired growth performance, intestinal and immune function, but dietary nucleotides supplementation

  10. Diarrhea-like condition and intestinal muscosal responses in susceptible homozygous and heterozygous F4R+ pigs challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Jensen, Bent Borg;

    2012-01-01

    with E. coli F4 or not as the 2 factors. Within genotype, 4 pigs were inoculated with E. coli F4 and the other 4 pigs received saline buffer on days 7 and 8 after weaning. Fecal score and DM and bacterial counts were conducted from days 7 to 12 after weaning. Blood was obtained on days 3 and 10 after...... cytometry. Escherichia coli reduced (P = 0.05) total percentage of intestinal mucosa (on a dry basis) and had an impact on metabolomics profile of the plasma. No effect of genotype was seen on fecal score and DM, fecal shedding of hemolytic E. coli, mucosal responses, metabolomics profile, antibody...

  11. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids to a low-protein diet regulates intestinal expression of amino acid and peptide transporters in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shihai; Qiao, Shiyan; Ren, Man; Zeng, Xiangfang; Ma, Xi; Wu, Zhenlong; Thacker, Philip; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-11-01

    This study determined the effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) on growth performance, expression of jejunal AA and peptide transporters, and the colonic microflora of weanling piglets fed a low-protein (LP) diet. One hundred and eight Large White × Landrace × Duroc piglets (weaned at 28 days of age) were fed a normal protein diet (NP, 20.9 % crude protein), an LP diet (LP, 17.1 % crude protein), or an LP diet supplemented with BCAA (LP + BCAA, 17.9 % crude protein) for 14 days. Dietary protein restriction reduced piglet growth performance and small-intestinal villous height, which were restored by BCAA supplementation to the LP diet to values for the NP diet. Serum concentrations of BCAA were reduced in piglets fed the LP diet while those in piglets fed the LP + BCAA diet were similar to values for the NP group. mRNA levels for Na(+)-neutral AA exchanger-2, cationic AA transporter-1, b(0,+) AA transporter, and 4F2 heavy chain were more abundant in piglets fed the LP + BCAA diet than the LP diet. However, mRNA and protein levels for peptide transporter-1 were lower in piglets fed the LP + BCAA diet as compared to the LP diet. The colonic microflora did not differ among the three groups of pigs. In conclusion, growth performance, intestinal development, and intestinal expression of AA transporters in weanling piglets are enhanced by BCAA supplementation to LP diets. Our findings provide a new molecular basis for further understanding of BCAA as functional AA in animal nutrition.

  12. Bile acids induce glucagon-like peptide 2 secretion with limited effects on intestinal adaptation in early weaned pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipharraguerre, Ignacio R; Tedó, Gemma; Menoyo, David

    2013-01-01

    Early weaning is a stressful event characterized by a transient period of intestinal atrophy that may be mediated by reduced secretion of glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 2. We tested whether enterally fed bile acids or plant sterols could increase nutrient-dependent GLP-2 secretion and improve.......05) but did not affect plasma GLP-1 and feed intake. The intestinal expression of glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor, sodium-dependent bile acid transporter, farnesoid X receptor, and guanosine protein-coupled bile acid receptor genes were not affected by CDC treatment. The intragastric administration of CDC...... did not alter the weight and length of the intestine, yet increased the activation of caspase-3 in ileal villi (P affect any of the variables that were measured. Our results show that the enteral...

  13. Feeding Jerusalem artichoke reduced skatole level and changed intestinal microbiota in the gut of entire male pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vhile, S G; Kjos, N P; Sørum, H; Overland, M

    2012-05-01

    Different levels of dried Jerusalem artichoke were fed to entire male pigs 1 week before slaughter. The objective was to investigate the effect on skatole level in the hindgut and in adipose tissue, as well as the effect on microflora and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the hindgut. Five experimental groups (n = 11) were given different dietary treatments 7 days before slaughtering: negative control (basal diet), positive control (basal diet + 9% chicory-inulin), basal diet + 4.1% Jerusalem artichoke, basal diet + 8.1% Jerusalem artichoke and basal diet + 12.2% Jerusalem artichoke. Samples from colon, rectum, faeces and adipose tissue were collected. Effect of dietary treatment on skatole, indole and androstenone levels in adipose tissue and on skatole, indole, pH, dry matter (DM), microbiota and SCFA in the hindgut was evaluated. Feeding increasing levels of Jerusalem artichoke to entire male pigs reduced skatole in digesta from colon and in faeces (linear, P Jerusalem artichoke decreased DM content in colon and faeces and pH in colon (linear, P Jerusalem artichoke resulted in a reduced level of Clostridium perfringens in both colon and rectum (linear, P Jerusalem artichoke to diets for entire male pigs 1 week before slaughter resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in skatole levels in the hindgut and adipose tissue. The reduced skatole levels might be related to the decrease in C. perfringens and the increase in SCFA with subsequent reduction in pH.

  14. Enteral bile acid treatment improves parenteral nutrition-related liver disease and intestinal mucosal atrophy in neonatal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Ajay Kumar; Stoll, Barbara; Burrin, Douglas G

    2012-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is essential for patients with impaired gut function but leads to parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). TPN disrupts the normal enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, and we hypothesized that it would decrease intestinal expression of the newly...

  15. Enteral bile acid treatment improves parenteral nutrition-related liver disease and intestinal mucosal atrophy in neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is essential for patients with impaired gut function but leads to parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). TPN disrupts the normal enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, and we hypothesized that it would decrease intestinal expression of the newly des...

  16. Size of Ascaris suum larvae is affected by parental genotype and location in the intestine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher

    , respectively were positive for Ascaris and a total 1908, 1616 and 675 larvae were analysed for each day, respectively. Random effect models with pig included as a random variable were used to analyse the response variable length on each day. Section (1-8) and type (A, B, C and D) were included as explanatory.......001). At day 28 pi. the interaction between section and type was significant at P=0.03. In conclusion we have found preliminary evidence for a parental effect on the outcome of the size of the offspring in addition to a location-size effect, both possibly with a consequence on larvae fitness and therefore...

  17. Effect of supplementing a fibrous diet with a xylanase and β-glucanase blend on growth performance, intestinal glucose uptake, and transport-associated gene expression in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyekum, A K; Sands, J S; Regassa, A; Kiarie, E; Weihrauch, D; Kim, W K; Nyachoti, C M

    2015-07-01

    The present study evaluated supplemental carbohydrase effect on performance, intestinal nutrient uptake, and transporter mRNA expressions in growing pigs offered a high-fiber diet manufactured with distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Twenty-four pigs (22.4 ± 0.7 kg BW) were randomly assigned to 1of 3 nutritionally adequate diets (8 pigs per diet) based on corn and soybean meal (SBM) with either 0 (control) or 30% DDGS (high fiber [HF]). The third diet was supplemented with a xylanase and β-glucanase blend (XB) in addition to the 30% DDGS (HF+XB). Parameters determined were ADFI, ADG, G:F, plasma glucose and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) concentrations, jejunal tissue electrophysiological properties, and mRNA expressions of the sodium-dependent glucose transport 1 (SGLT1) and cationic AA transporter, bo,+AT, in the jejunal and ileal tissues. In addition, mRNA expressions of the short-chain fatty acid transporters, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) and sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter, and mucin genes were quantified in the ileum. Feed intake, plasma glucose, and jejunal tissue electrophysiological properties were not affected (P > 0.05) by diet. However, control-fed pigs had superior growth rate and feed efficiency and higher PUN (P < 0.05) than HF- and HF+XB-fed pigs. The HF diet increased (P < 0.05) SGLT1 mRNA expression in the jejunum and decreased (P < 0.05) bo,+ mRNA expression in the ileum. The XB supplementation also increased bo,+ mRNA expression in the ileum relative to HF-fed pigs. Additionally, MCT1 mRNA expression was greater (P < 0.05) in the ileum of the HF- and HF+XB-fed pigs. In the present study, XB supplementation influenced nutrient transporter mRNA expression, although it was not accompanied by improved pig performance.

  18. Intestinal proteomics in pig models of necrotising enterocolitis, short bowel syndrome and intra-uterine growth restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Pingping; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-01-01

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), short bowel syndrome (SBS) and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) are three conditions associated with intestinal dysfunction in newborn infants, particularly those born preterm. Piglet (Sus scrofa) models have recently been developed for NEC, SBS and IUGR, a......, but only supplement, classical hypothesis-driven research that investigate disease mechanisms using a single or few endpoints. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  19. Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase and aminopeptidase N are differentially regulated in the small intestine of the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Niels; Rossi, M; Troelsen, J T

    1993-01-01

    moderately from the duodenum to the terminal ileum, the amount of lactase-phlorizin hydrolase mRNA exhibited a sharp maximum in the proximal jejunum. For both enzymes, the level of protein synthesis, studied in cultured mucosal explants, correlated well with the level of mRNA, and no major variation in post......-translational processing or intracellular transport was observed along the intestine. The mRNA/specific-activity ratio for both enzymes was markedly (3-5-fold) higher in the duodenum and proximal jejunum, compared with the ileum. This indicates an increased proximal turnover rate, most likely caused by the presence...

  20. Maternal Methyl Donor Supplementation during Gestation Counteracts the Bisphenol A-Induced Impairment of Intestinal Morphology, Disaccharidase Activity, and Nutrient Transporters Gene Expression in Newborn and Weaning Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore whether exposure to bisphenol A (BPA during pregnancy could change intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring using pigs as a model, and whether methyl donor (MET could counteract the BPA-induced impacts. Fifty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were divided into four dietary groups throughout gestation: control diet (CON; control diet supplemented with BPA (50 mg/kg; control diet supplemented with MET (3 g/kg betaine, 400 mg/kg choline, 150 μg/kg vitamin B12, and 15 mg/kg folic acid; and control diet with BPA and MET supplementation (BPA + MET. Intestine samples were collected from pigs’ offspring at birth and weaning. Maternal BPA exposure during pregnancy significantly reduced the ratio of jejunum villus height to crypt depth, decreased the jejunum sucrase activity, down-regulated the mRNA expression of jejunum peptide transporter 1 (Pept1 and DNA methyl transferase 3a (DNMT3a, and decreased the DNA methylation level of jejunum Pept1 in offspring (p < 0.05. Maternal MET supplementation significantly raised the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in jejunum and ileum, improved the jejunum lactase activity, up-regulated the mRNA expression of jejunum Pept1, lactase (LCT, DNMT1, DNMT3a, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, and increased the DNA methylation level of jejunum Pept1 in offspring (p < 0.05. However, the ratio of jejunum villus height to crypt depth was higher in BPA + MET treatment compared with CON and BPA treatment (p < 0.05. Meanwhile, there was no difference in the jejunum sucrase activity, the mRNA expression of jejunum Pept1 and DNMT3a, and the DNA methylation level of jejunum Pept1 between CON and BPA + MET treatment. These results indicated that maternal exposure to BPA during gestation might suppress offspring’s intestinal digestion and absorption function, whereas supplementation of MET could counteract these damages, which might be associated with DNA methylation.

  1. Dose-Dependent Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on Serum Interleukin-17 Production and Intestinal T-Cell Responses in Pigs Challenged with Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yao-Hong; Li, Xiao-Qiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Dong; Liu, Hao-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the dose effect of probiotics on ameliorating diarrhea has not been fully elucidated. Here, low (1 × 109 CFU/ml) or high (1 × 1011 CFU/ml) doses of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 were administered orally to piglets for 1 week before F4 (K88)-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (F4+ ETEC) challenge. Administration of a low, but not a high, dose of L. rhamnosus decreased the percentage of CD3+ CD4+ CD8− T cells in the peripheral blood. Notably, transiently increased serum concentrations of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) were observed after F4+ ETEC challenge in pigs pretreated with a high dose of L. rhamnosus. Administration of L. rhamnosus increased the percentage of the small intestinal lamina propria CD3+ CD4+ CD8− cells and Peyer's patch CD3+ CD4− CD8− and CD3− CD4− CD8+ cells. The percentage of ileal intraepithelial CD3+ CD4− CD8+ cells increased only in the high-dose piglets. Administration of L. rhamnosus downregulated expression of ileal IL-17A after F4+ ETEC challenge but had no effect on expression of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-12, IL-4, and FOXP3 mRNA in the small intestine. Expression of jejunal IL-2, ileal transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), and ileal IL-10 was upregulated in the low-dose piglets after F4+ ETEC challenge. Our findings suggest that amelioration of infectious diarrhea in piglets by L. rhamnosus is associated with the generation of lamina propria CD3+ CD4+ CD8− T cells, the expansion of Peyer's patch CD3+ CD4− CD8− and CD3− CD4− CD8+ cells, and the attenuation of F4+ ETEC-induced increase in CD3+ CD4+ CD8+ T cells in the small intestine. However, consumption of high doses of L. rhamnosus may increase levels of serum IL-17A after F4+ ETEC challenge, thus eliciting a strong proinflammatory response. PMID:24389928

  2. Short-term effect of dietary yeast nucleotide supplementation on small intestinal enzyme activities, bacterial populations and metabolites and ileal nutrient digestibilities in newly weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, N; Eklund, M; Roth, S; Rink, F; Jezierny, D; Bauer, E; Mosenthin, R

    2012-08-01

    In previous studies, dietary nucleotides have been shown to improve performance in single-stomached animals by promoting the renewal of small intestine epithelial cells and by influencing the activity and composition of the microbial community in the digestive tract. The present experiment was carried out with 12 barrows weaned at the age of 18 days and fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. To determine short-term effects of dietary yeast nucleotides, the piglets received a grain-soybean meal-based basal diet with or without supplementation of 1 g/kg of a dried yeast product containing free nucleotides. Dietary supplementation with yeast did not affect bacterial numbers in the ileum as well as ileal concentrations of individual short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), total SCFA and total lactic acid (p > 0.05). Moreover, there was no effect of supplemental yeast nucleotides on ileal α-amylase, leucine amino peptidase, maltase and lactase activities (p > 0.05), as well as on ileal dry matter, crude protein and crude fibre digestibilities (p > 0.05). In conclusion, short-term supplementation with dietary yeast nucleotides did not affect microbial metabolite concentrations, bacterial numbers and enzyme activities in the ileal digesta as well as ileal nutrient digestibilities of newly weaned pigs.

  3. The effects of amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses, growth and ampicillin resistance of intestinal coliform bacteria in weaned pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jinhyeon; Olkkola, Satu; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Oliviero, Claudio; Heinonen, Mari

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a single amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses until the age of nine weeks. We also studied whether the treatment was associated with growth and mortality, the need for treatment of other diseases, the proportions of ampicillin resistant coliforms and antimicrobial resistance patterns of intestinal Escherichia coli (E. coli). A total of 7156 piglets, from approximately 480 litters, were divided into two treatment groups: ANT (N = 3661) and CON (N = 3495), where piglets were treated with or without a single intramuscular injection of 75 mg amoxicillin one day after birth, respectively. The umbilical and inguinal areas of weaned pigs were palpated at four and nine weeks of age. At the same time, altogether 124 pigs with hernias or abscesses and 820 non-defective pigs from three pens per batch were weighed individually. Mortality and the need to treat piglets for other diseases were recorded. Piglet faecal samples were collected from three areas of the floors of each pen at four weeks of age. The prevalence of umbilical hernias or abscesses did not differ between the groups at four weeks of age, but it was higher in the CON group than in the ANT group at nine weeks of age (2.3% vs. 0.7%, P < 0.05). Numbers of inguinal hernias and abscesses did not differ between the groups at four or nine weeks of age. The ANT group, when it compared with the CON group, increased the weight gain between four and nine weeks of age (LS means ± SE; 497.5 g/d ± 5.0 vs. 475.3 g/d ± 4.9, P < 0.01), and decreased piglet mortality (19.5% ± 1.0 vs. 6.9% ± 1.0, P < 0.05) and the need to treat the piglets for leg problems (3.4% ± 0.3 vs. 1.9% ± 0.3%, P < 0.01) but not for other diseases by the age of four weeks. The proportion of ampicillin resistant intestinal coliform bacteria and the resistance patterns of the E. coli isolates were not different between the ANT and CON groups. In conclusion, our

  4. Effects of the Probiotic Enterococcus faecium and Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains in a Pig and Human Epithelial Intestinal Cell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Lodemann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study has been to elucidate the effect of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on epithelial integrity in intestinal epithelial cells and whether pre- and coincubation with this strain can reproducibly prevent damage induced by enterotoxigenic (ETEC and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC. Porcine (IPEC-J2 and human (Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with bacterial strains and epithelial integrity was assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER and mannitol flux rates. E. faecium alone increased TEER of Caco-2 cells without affecting mannitol fluxes whereas the E. coli strains decreased TEER and concomitantly increased mannitol flux rates in both cell lines. Preincubation with E. faecium had no effect on the TEER decrease induced by E. coli in preliminary experiments. However, in a second set of experiments using a slightly different protocol, E. faecium ameliorated the TEER decrease induced by ETEC at 4 h in IPEC-J2 and at 2, 4, and 6 h in Caco-2 cells. We conclude that E. faecium positively affected epithelial integrity in monoinfected Caco-2 cells and could ameliorate the damage on TEER induced by an ETEC strain. Reproducibility of the results is, however, limited when experiments are performed with living bacteria over longer periods.

  5. Post-operative changes in hepatic, intestinal, splenic and muscle fluxes of amino acids and ammonia in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutz, N E; Reijven, P L; Athanasas, G; Soeters, P B

    1992-11-01

    1. After operation, changes in nitrogen metabolism occur. Although increased flux of amino acids from peripheral to splanchnic organs after operation has been described, substrate utilization by the individual organs in the splanchnic area is less well characterized. We were specifically interested in substrate flux across the spleen as it is an organ with important immunological functions. 2. Therefore, hindquarter, gut, spleen and liver fluxes of amino acids, ammonia, glucose, lactate and blood gases were measured for 4 days after a standard operation in pigs. In a separate control group, fluxes were measured 2-3 weeks after this operation and these values were assumed to represent the normal situation. 3. One day after operation, the hindquarter effluxes of glutamine, alanine and several essential amino acids were increased (P > 0.001), but these normalized at the end of the observation period. In the same period, liver glutamine uptake increased (P ammonia production decreased, concomitant with decreased glutamine uptake (P ammonia increased sevenfold (P < 0.05) and that of lactate increased from -158 +/- 544 to 3294 +/- 642 nmol min-1 kg-1 body weight (P < 0.001). Glucose uptake increased from -964 +/- 632 to -3933 +/- 1524 nmol min-1 kg-1 body weight and glutamine efflux (391 +/- 143) reversed to uptake (-752 +/- 169 nmol min-1 kg-1 body weight) (P < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Lactobacillus amylovorus Inhibits the TLR4 Inflammatory Signaling Triggered by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli via Modulation of the Negative Regulators and Involvement of TLR2 in Intestinal Caco-2 Cells and Pig Explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finamore, Alberto; Roselli, Marianna; Imbinto, Ambra; Seeboth, Julie; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Mengheri, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation derived from pathogen infection involves the activation of toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. Despite the established immunomodulatory activities of probiotics, studies relating the ability of such bacteria to inhibit the TLR signaling pathways are limited or controversial. In a previous study we showed that Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 16698T, a novel lactobacillus isolated from unweaned pigs, protects the intestinal cells from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 infection through cytokine regulation. In the present study we investigated whether the ability of L. amylovorus to counteract the inflammatory status triggered by ETEC in intestine is elicited through inhibition of the TLR4 signaling pathway. We used the human intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells and intestinal explants isolated from 5 week-old crossbreed Pietrain/Duroc/Large-White piglets, treated with ETEC, L. amylovorus or L. amylovorus cell free supernatant, either alone or simultaneously with ETEC. Western blot analysis showed that L. amylovorus and its cell free supernatant suppress the activation of the different steps of TLR4 signaling in Caco-2/TC7 cells and pig explants, by inhibiting the ETEC induced increase in the level of TLR4 and MyD88, the phosphorylation of the IKKα, IKKβ, IκBα and NF-κB subunit p65, as well as the over-production of inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1β. The immunofluorescence analysis confirms the lack of phospho-p65 translocation into the nucleus. These anti-inflammatory effects are achieved through modulation of the negative regulators Tollip and IRAK-M. We also found that L. amylovorus blocks the up-regulation of the extracellular heat shock protein (Hsp)72 and Hsp90, that are critical for TLR4 function. By using anti-TLR2 antibody, we demonstrate that TLR2 is required for the suppression of TLR4 signaling activation. These results may contribute to develop therapeutic interventions using L. amylovorus in intestinal disorders of piglets and humans

  7. Interleukin-10 is differentially expressed in the small intestine and the colon experiencing chronic inflammation and ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackeyram, D; Young, D; Kim, C J; Yang, C; Archbold, T L; Mine, Y; Fan, M Z

    2017-03-31

    Intestinal inflammation induced with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is used to study acute or chronic ulcerative colitis in animal models. Decreased gut tissue anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 concentration and mRNA abundance are associated with the development of chronic bowel inflammation. Twelve piglets of 3 days old were fitted with an intragastric catheter and randomly allocated into control and DSS groups by administrating either sterile saline or 1.25 g of DSS/kg body weight (BW) in saline per day, respectively, for 10 days. Growth rate and food conversion efficiency were reduced (p<0.05) in the DSS piglets compared with the control group. Quantitative histopathological grading of inflammation in the jejunum and colon collectively showed that the DSS treatment resulted in 12 fold greater (p<0.05) inflammation severity scoring in the colon than in the jejunum, indicative of chronic ulcerative colitis in the colon. Upper gut permeability endpoint was 27.4 fold higher (p<0.05) in the DSS group compared with the control group. The DSS group had higher concentrations and mRNA abundances (p<0.05) of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in the jejunal and colonic tissues compared with the control group. Colonic concentration and mRNA abundance of IL-10 were reduced (p<0.05), however, jejunal IL-10 mRNA abundance was increased (p<0.05) in the DSS group compared with the control group. In conclusion, administration of DSS at 1.25 g/kg BW for 10 days respectively induced acute inflammation in the jejunum and chronic inflammation and ulcerative colitis in the colon with substantially decreased colonic concentration and mRNA abundance of IL-10 in the young pigs, mimicking the IL-10 expression pattern in humans Associated with chronic bowel inflammation.

  8. P2X7 receptors contribute to the currents induced by ATP in guinea pig intestinal myenteric neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Morales, Eduardo; Guerrero-Alba, Raquel; Liñán-Rico, Andrómeda; Espinosa-Luna, Rosa; Zarazua-Guzman, Sergio; Miranda-Morales, Marcela; Montaño, Luis M; Barajas-López, Carlos

    2011-10-15

    The whole-cell configuration, several pharmacological tools, and single-cell RT-PCR were used to investigate the contribution of P2X7 subunits to the ATP-induced currents (I(ATP)) in guinea pig myenteric neurons. I(ATP) was recorded in the great majority of tested neurons. ATP concentration-response curve (0.01-10mM) showed two phases, the first mediated by high-sensitive P2X receptors (hsP2X receptors), observed between 0.01-0.3mM and the second mediated by low-sensitive P2X receptors (lsP2X receptors). The calculated EC(50) values of these phases were 38 and 1759 μM, respectively. 2'-3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) concentration-response curve was monophasic (0.01-1mM), and less potent (EC(50) 142 μM) than ATP to activate hsP2X receptors. A strong inward rectification was noticed when hsP2X receptors were activated with ATP (0.1mM) and for BzATP-induced currents (0.1mM; I(BzATP)) but a significant lower rectification was noticed when lsP2X receptors were activated (5mM). Brilliant blue G (BBG) at a concentration of 0.3 μM (known to inhibit only P2X7 receptors) reduced I(ATP) when lsP2X receptors contributed to it but neither affect hsP2X receptors nor I(BzATP). However, hsP2X receptors and I(BzATP) were both inhibited by concentrations ≥ 1 μM of this antagonist. BzATP inhibited hsP2X receptors and therefore, it behaves as partial agonist on these receptors. Using the single-cell RT-PCR technique P2X7 mRNA was detectable in 7 out of 13 myenteric neurons exhibiting P2X2 mRNA. Altogether, our results show that low-sensitive P2X receptors are likely P2X7, whereas, the high-sensitive P2X channels are probably constituted, at least in part, by P2X2 subunits.

  9. 小肠结节灌注与尤斯灌流技术在猪肠道功能研究方面的应用%Application of Small Intestinal Segment Perfusion and Ussing Chamber Technique in Pig Intestinal Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宇龙; 何流琴; C.M. NYACHOTI; 印遇龙

    2012-01-01

    Small Intestinal Segment Perfusion has been developed to investigate different probiotics products effects on the net absorption of fluid and electrolytes in the small intestine of piglets under bacterial infection. The Ussing chamber provides a physiological system, where microelectrodes are used to detect current changes in intestinal cell membrane ion channels, and in studies of the absorption, permeability and secretion drugs in the intestine. In this paper, we detailed review the invention of Small Intestinal Segment Perfusion and Ussing chamber technology and its application in the pig health breeding research.%小肠灌注(Small Intestinal Segment Perfusion)技术是通过建立仔猪的原位模型,在病原菌的感染下,检测小肠的净流量和电解质浓度,从而鉴定不同益生物质在腹泻上的作用;尤斯灌流(Ussing chamber)技术通过微电极检测整个肠道细胞膜离子通道变化的电流信号,研究其药物吸收、通透性和分泌情况的变化.本文就这两种技术的发明,主要步骤和在肠道上的应用进行详细的介绍.

  10. The mechanism of gentisic acid-induced relaxation of the guinea pig isolated trachea: the role of potassium channels and vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Cunha

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined some of the mechanisms by which the aspirin metabolite and the naturally occurring metabolite gentisic acid induced relaxation of the guinea pig trachea in vitro. In preparations with or without epithelium and contracted by histamine, gentisic acid caused concentration-dependent and reproducible relaxation, with mean EC50 values of 18 µM and Emax of 100% (N = 10 or 20 µM and Emax of 92% (N = 10, respectively. The relaxation caused by gentisic acid was of slow onset in comparison to that caused by norepinephrine, theophylline or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP. The relative rank order of potency was: salbutamol 7.9 > VIP 7.0 > gentisic acid 4.7 > theophylline 3.7. Gentisic acid-induced relaxation was markedly reduced (24 ± 7.0, 43 ± 3.9 and 78 ± 5.6% in preparations with elevated potassium concentration in the medium (20, 40 or 80 mM, respectively. Tetraethylammonium (100 µM, a nonselective blocker of the potassium channels, partially inhibited the relaxation response to gentisic acid, while 4-AP (10 µM, a blocker of the voltage potassium channel, inhibited gentisic acid-induced relaxation by 41 ± 12%. Glibenclamide (1 or 3 µM, at a concentration which markedly inhibited the relaxation induced by the opener of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, levcromakalim, had no effect on the relaxation induced by gentisic acid. Charybdotoxin (0.1 or 0.3 µM, a selective blocker of the large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, caused rightward shifts (6- and 7-fold of the gentisic acid concentration-relaxation curve. L-N G-nitroarginine (100 µM, a NO synthase inhibitor, had no effect on the relaxant effect of gentisic acid, and caused a slight displacement to the right in the relaxant effect of the gentisic acid curve at 300 µM, while methylene blue (10 or 30 µM or ODQ (1 µM, the inhibitors of soluble guanylate cyclase, all failed to affect gentisic acid-induced relaxation. D-P-Cl-Phe6,Leu17[VIP] (0.1 µM, a VIP receptor antagonist

  11. Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of amino acids in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, a spent hen-soybean meal mixture, and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, O J; Stein, H H

    2013-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the concentration of DE and ME and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, a spent hen-soybean meal (SBM) mixture, and conventional SBM fed to weanling pigs. In Exp. 1, 48 barrows (initial BW: 14.6 ± 2.2 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and allotted to 6 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. Six corn-based diets were formulated. The basal diet contained 98.1% corn (as-fed basis) and 5 diets contained corn and 11 to 16% chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, spent hen-SBM mixture, or SBM. All test ingredients were included in their respective diets at levels that were expected to result in similar concentrations of CP among diets. Feces and urine were collected for 5 d. The ME was 3,957, 3,816, 4,586, 4,298, 4,255, and 4,091 kcal/kg DM for corn, chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, the spent hen-SBM mixture, and SBM, respectively. The ME in poultry byproduct meal was greater (P poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, or the spent hen-SBM mixture. The SID of CP and all AA, except Trp and Pro, was greater (P poultry byproduct meal. However, with the exception of Val and Lys, there were no differences between chicken meal and poultry byproduct meal. In conclusion, the ME in hydrolyzed porcine intestines and the spent hen-SBM mixture is greater than in chicken meal, but not different from the ME of SBM. Poultry by product meal provides more ME than SBM, chicken meal, and the spent hen-SBM mixture, and the SID of most indispensable AA is greater in the spent hen-SBM mixture than in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, and hydrolyzed porcine intestines, but less than in SBM.

  12. Intestinal lesions in pigs affected with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome Lesões entéricas em suínos afetados por síndrome multissistêmica do definhamento dos suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Zlotowski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples of mesenteric lymph nodes and intestines from 79 unthrifty 3- to 5-month-old postweaning pigs, confirmed as naturally affected with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, were studied. Pigs originated from 12 farms in southern Brazil and were selected on the basis of clinical signs and/or gross lesions suggestive of enteric disorder. Lymphohistiocytic infiltrates of varying intensity were associated with anti-porcine circovirus type 2 (anti-PCV2 immunostaining (IS in samples of intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes from all pigs. Although most findings were similar to those described in PCV2-associated enteritis, anti-PCV2 IS in association with depletion of the goblet cell mucin stores (24 pigs, diffuse ileal villous atrophy and fusion (18 pigs, and dilatation of the lymphatic vessels (11 pigs combined or not with lymphangitis were also observed. PCV2 antigen was immunohistochemically demonstrated in the cytoplasm and nuclei from intralesional epithelial cells, histiocytes, and endothelial-like cells in intestinal tissues. Together these findings imply an association with PCV2. The presence of co-infections by Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira spp., Mycobacterium spp., Salmonella spp., rotavirus, parvovirus, coronavirus and enteric calicivirus with PCV2 in the intestinal lesions was investigated.Amostras de linfonodos mesentéricos e intestinos de 79 leitões desmamados refugos, entre 3 e 5 meses de idade e confirmados como naturalmente afetados pela síndrome multissistêmica do definhamento foram estudadas. Os suínos eram oriundos de 12 criações no sul do país e foram selecionados em função dos sinais clínicos e/ou lesões macroscópicas sugestivos de doença entérica. Infiltrados linfoistiocíticos de intensidades variáveis foram associados com marcação positiva anti-circovirus suíno tipo 2 (anti-PCV2 em amostras de intestinos e linfonodos mesentéricos de todos os 79 animais. Embora a maioria dos achados

  13. Apramycin treatment affects selection and spread of a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain able to colonize the human gut in the intestinal microbiota of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Zachariasen, Camilla; Hansen, Monica Hegstad

    2016-01-01

    . E. coli 912 was shown to spread to non-inoculated pigs in both groups. The selective effect did not persist beyond 3 days post-treatment, and the strain was not detected from this time point in pen 2. We demonstrated that E. coli 912 was able to spread between pigs in the same pen irrespective...... of treatment, and apramycin treatment resulted in significantly higher counts compared to the non-treated group. This represents the first demonstration of how antimicrobial treatment affects spread of resistant bacteria in pig production. The use of apramycin may lead to enhanced spread of gentamicin...

  14. Medium-chain triglyceride as an alternative of in-feed colistin sulfate to improve growth performance and intestinal microbial environment in newly weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hung-Che; Lai, Wei-Kang; Lin, Chuan-Shun; Chiang, Shu-Hsing

    2015-01-01

    Five hundred and twenty-eight newly weaned pigs were given four treatments, with eight replicates per treatment. Sixteen to 18 pigs were assigned per replicate and were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 3% medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and 0 or 40 ppm colistin sulfate (CS) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement for 2 weeks. The results showed that dietary supplementation with MCT improved the gain-to-feed ratio during days 3-7 and in the overall period (P environment and the feed utilization efficiency of newly weaned pigs.

  15. The digestion process of the sugar alcohol isomalt in the intestinal tract of the pig: 2 Studies with administration of isomalt as a sweet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerden, E.J. van; Huisman, J.

    1993-01-01

    In a study with ten pigs of 60-70 kg live weight, provided with a re-entrant cannula at the end of the ileum, and sixteen intact, non-cannulated pigs, the digestion and absorption of a dietary dose of 100 g isomalt/kg, and isomalt given between the meals as a 'sweet' on the basis of 50 and 100 g/kg

  16. Effect of dietary addition of free or fat-protected calcium formate on growth, intestinal morphology and health of Escherichia coli k88 challenged weaning pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Merialdi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of adding organic acid to diets for weaning pigs is quite established. An improvement of growth after weaning has been averagely demonstrated with a meta-analysis of feeding trials (Partanen and Mroz, 1999. However data showing that organic acids can positively counteract the presence of post-weaning diarrhoea and of enterotoxigenic E. coli k88 (ETEC (Tsiloyiannis et al., 2001 contrast with the absence of positive results in ETEC challenged pigs (Risley et al., 1993.

  17. [Post-tubal ligation syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, K; Osada, H

    1993-01-01

    Post-tubal ligation syndrome includes pain during intercourse, aching lower back, premenstrual tension syndrome, difficulty in menstruating, uterine hemorrhage, and absence of menstruation. The syndrome is caused by blood circulation problems in and around the Fallopian tubes and ovaries, pressure on nerves, and intrapelvic adhesion. Differentiating between this syndrome and endometritis during diagnosis and differentiating between functional hemorrhage due to hormonal abnormality and anatomical hemorrhage due to polyp or tumor is very important. Since the symptoms of this syndrome are mild, simple symptomatic treatment is sufficient in most cases. In some cases, however, desquamation surgery or reversal of tubal ligation may be necessary. Endoscopic surgery is also available. In Japan, because of widespread use of condoms and IUDs, tubal ligation is not very common.

  18. Investigation of the Direct Effects of the Alcoholic Extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (Elaeagnaceae) on Dispersed Intestinal Smooth Muscle Cells of Guinea Pig

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Faysal; Al-Essa, Mohammed; Shafagoj, Yanal; Afifi, Fatma

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the ethanolic extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia was tested on dispersed smooth muscle cells (SMC) of the guinea pigs. A slight contractile response was observed when SMC were treated with low concentrations of the extract. Pre-treatment of the SMC with ethanolic extract of E. angustifolia caused concentration dependent inhibition of acetylcholine-induced contractions of the SMC.

  19. The olfactory receptor OR51E1 is present along the gastrointestinal tract of pigs and is modulated by intestinal microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priori, D.; Clavenzani, P.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Lalles, J.P.; Trivisil, P.; Bosi, P.

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of the butyrate-sensing olfactory receptor OR51E1 for gastrointestinal (GIT) functioning has not been considered so far. We investigated in young pigs the distribution of OR51E1 along the GIT, its relation with some endocrine markers, its variation with age and after interventions affe

  20. Identification of a novel, invasive, not-yet-cultivated Treponema sp in the large intestine of pigs by PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Lars; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Jensen, Tim Kåre;

    2006-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection in combination with fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to identify an unknown species of spirochetes from the pig colonic mucosa. The 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified, and the closest related type strain was Treponema bryantii(T) (90.1%). The spirochete, here...

  1. Preliminary Measurement of Internal Organs of Congjiang Fragrance Pig and Huanjiang Fragrance Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Xuelin; Duan; Yongbang; Zhang; Yi; Liu; Peiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Fragrance pig is a famous miniature local breed in China,which is similar to human on the aspects of physical structure,anatomy,nutrition,metabolism and blood biochemical indicators. The internal organs of Congjiang fragrance pig and Huanjiang fragrance pig with different month ages were weighed. The results showed that the proportion of stomach in body weight in Congjiang fragrance pig was higher than that in Min pig,Harbin white and Landrace,and the proportion of large intestine in body weight in Congjiang fragrance pig was also higher than that in ordinary pigs; the weights of heart,liver and kidney in 8- 10 months old Congjiang fragrance pig were similar to that in Chinese adults. This provided reference data for future in-depth development and utilization of fragrance pig.

  2. 应激和某些疾病状态下猪肠道差异蛋白质表达的研究进展%Research Advances on Intestinal Differential Protein Expression of Pigs under Stress and Some Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕定红; 熊霞; 王小城; 杨焕胜; 李建中; 印遇龙

    2016-01-01

    Gut is the major organ of nutrient digestion and absorption and also the body’ s largest immune or⁃gan. Proteins are main executors in the life processes, and the change of the intestinal functions is usually ac⁃companied by the change of protein expression, modification or stability. In recent years, with the rapid devel⁃opment of proteomics technology, proteomics has been widely used in the field of animal science. This paper mainly focused on the research advances on intestinal differential protein expression of pigs under stress and some diseases.%肠道不仅是营养物质消化吸收的主要器官,也是机体最大的免疫器官。蛋白质是生命活动的执行者,肠道功能的改变通常伴随着蛋白质表达、修饰或稳定性的改变。近年来,随着蛋白质组学技术的蓬勃发展,蛋白质组学在动物科学领域被广泛应用。本文主要围绕应激和某些疾病状态下猪肠道差异蛋白质表达的研究进展进行简要阐述。

  3. Efeitos de extratos vegetais e antimicrobianos sobre a digestibilidade aparente, o desempenho, a morfometria dos órgãos e a histologia intestinal de leitões recém-desmamados Effects of herbal extracts and antimicrobials on apparent digestibility, performance, organs morphometry and intestinal histology of weanling pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Lotufo Oetting

    2006-08-01

    digestibility, performance, morphology and histology of weanling pigs. One hundred and twenty weaned pigs were used to compare five treatments: control - basal diet; antimicrobial - basal diet plus Zn bacitracina, olaquindox, and colistin (50 ppm of each; herbal extract A, B and C - basal diet plus 700 ppm, 1,400 ppm and 2,100 ppm of herbal extract, respectively, with 12 replications (pens of two pigs each per treatment in a 35-d randomized complete block design experiment. The herbal extract consisted of mixture of equal amounts of essential oils of thyme, clove, oregano, eugenol and carvacrol. In digestibility assay, 40 pigs (four replications per treatment were fed a diet with chromium oxide (marker method. On 35th day of experimental period, one animal of each experimental unit was slaughtered and samples were collected for analysis. The herbal extracts increased dietary DM apparent digestibility compared to control and antimicrobial treatments. The antimicrobial agents improved performance of weanling pigs during all phases of the experimental period compared to the other treatments. Pigs fed high dietary level of herbal extract showed better results for pig performance and other variables. The antimicrobial treatment improved the relative weights of intestinal tract and empty small intestine and improved ileum villus height and ileum villus height:crypt depth ratio of animals. However, more studies are necessary to evaluate which type of essential oil should be used and the best combination and inclusion level of herbal extract in the diet.

  4. Ligation-Independent Mechanism of Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Uno, Naoki; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2014-01-01

    Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a widely used technique for detecting genomic structural variants. The technique is based on hybridization and ligation, followed by amplification of the ligation products. Therefore, ligation is considered a fundamental process that determines the feasibility and fidelity of MLPA. However, despite the widespread use of this technique, its reaction mechanism has not been fully analyzed. Herein, we describe a ligation-independent pathw...

  5. The postal tubal ligation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, E; Rocko, J M; Timmes, J J; Zolli, A F

    1981-01-01

    The frequency of symptoms following tubal ligation calls for an examination of the basic problem with the methods now used. This discussion recommends a modification of tubal ligation which as performed during the past 2-1/2 years has been symptom free, post operatively. What is meant by symptom free is those symptoms which can be directly related to tubal ligation. Symptomatology is complex and insidious. Characteristically, there is a latent period of no symptoms. This asymptomatic period may be totally subjective and may last several years during which time the correlation between surgery and symptoms is obscured. This is particularly the case if purely symptomatic therapeusis has had some degree of success. The latest period is followed by the gradual development of the following: menstrual disorders; abdominal pain which is usually located in the lower abdomen and is of 2 varieties, i.e., dysmenorrhea and nonmenstrual pain; and infection. Physical examination demonstrates little. This set of symptoms, which has been documented also by Poma et al., and when taken as a whole, constitutes a syndrome which should be termed the posttubal ligation syndrome. These patients give a history of repeat X-rays, biopsies, endoscopies, and surgical exploration. Some of these patients have had 4 or 5 celiotomies. A modification of the traditional method of tubal ligation definitely requires consideration. The characteristics of the oviducts which need mention and emphasis are reviewed. On the basis of the reviewed considerations, it becomes obvious that smooth transport of the ovum is a necessity and that obstruction in the tubes will cause a reaction similar to obstruction anywhere in the body. Tubal ligation should be performed in such a manner so as not to obstruct the ova from passing down the tube. The tubes should be cut fairly close to the uterus and be tied. The rest of the tube from fimbria to the isthmus should be left open. In this manner, the ovum passes into the

  6. Net replication of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Choleraesuis in porcine intestinal mucosa and nodes is associated with their differential virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, Susan M; Jagannathan, Aparna; Campbell, June; Wallis, Timothy S; Stevens, Mark P

    2007-08-01

    Salmonella enterica is a facultative intracellular pathogen of worldwide importance and causes a spectrum of diseases depending on serovar- and host-specific factors. Oral infection of pigs with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 4/74 produces acute enteritis but is rarely fatal, whereas serovar Choleraesuis strain A50 causes systemic disease with a high mortality rate. With a porcine ligated ileal loop model, we observed that systemic virulence of serovar Choleraesuis A50 is not associated with enhanced intestinal invasion, secretory responses, or neutrophil recruitment compared to serovar Typhimurium 4/74. The net growth in vivo of serovar Choleraesuis A50 and serovar Typhimurium 4/74 was monitored following oral inoculation of pigs with strains harboring pHSG422, which exhibits temperature-sensitive replication. Analysis of plasmid partitioning revealed that the enteric virulence of serovar Typhimurium 4/74 relative to that of serovar Choleraesuis A50 is associated with rapid replication in the intestinal wall, whereas systemic virulence of serovar Choleraesuis A50 is associated with enhanced persistence in intestinal mesenteric lymph nodes. Faster replication of serovar Typhimurium, compared to that of serovar Choleraesuis, in the intestinal mucosa was associated with greater induction of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-8 (IL-8), and IL-18 as detected by reverse transcriptase PCR analysis of transcripts from infected mucosa. During replication in batch culture and porcine alveolar macrophages, transcription of genes encoding components of type III secretion systems 1 (sipC) and 2 (sseC) was observed to be significantly higher in serovar Typhimurium 4/74 than in serovar Choleraesuis A50, and this may contribute to the differences in epithelial invasion and intracellular proliferation. The rapid induction of proinflammatory responses by strain 4/74 may explain why pigs confine serovar Typhimurium infection to the

  7. [Latex ligation in treatment of chronic hemorrhoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ektov, V N; Somov, K A

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the results of treatment of 432 patients with chronic hemorrhoids using different variants of latex ligation. New technique including ligation of mucosa and submucosa of low-ampullar rectum providing ligation of hemorrhoidalvessels, lifting and recto-anal repair is developed and suggested. This method is advisable to use in case of chronic internal hemorrhoids stages I and II. The authors recommend simultaneous combined ligation of mucosa of low-ampullar rectum and internal hemorrhoids for stages III and IV. Different variants of latex ligation with external hemorrhoids excision were used in 103 patients. Pointed variants of latex ligation preserve important advantages including mini-invasiveness, simplicity and wide availability, low cost. Good remote results were obtained after these procedures in 87.3% of observations. Suggested tactics extends use of latex ligation and increases its effectiveness in treatment of different stages and forms of chronic hemorrhoids.

  8. Lactose in diet influences the degradation of mixed linked β(1-3;1-4)-D-glucan in the small intestine of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    The objective of the current study was to investigate if lactose in diet would influence the degradation of mixed linked β(1–3;1–4)-D-glucan (β-glucan) in the small intestine. Β-glucan is an important cell wall (dietary fiber, DF) component of the endosperm of barley and oats. The digestibility...... of β-glucan in the small intestine from both cereals is among the highest of all DF components, but in one particular study with oat-based diets it was significantly lower than what was found in other studies. In this study whey protein containing lactose was used as protein supplement. Lactose...... is slowly digestible in the small intestine. To investigate if lactose could be causative for the lower digestibility of β-glucan in the study with whey protein, it was decided to quantify the content of lactose in the diets and to analyze for lactose in digesta samples from the small intestine (the small...

  9. Dietary effects of faba-bean (Vicia faba L.) tannins on the morphology and function of the small-intestinal mucosa of weaned pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, P. van; Jansman, A.J.M.; Wiebenga, J.; Koninkx, J.F.J.G.; Mouwen, J.M.V.M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of condensed tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) on morphological and functional variables of the small-intestinal mucosa of piglets. In an experiment with young piglets (8-17 kg body weight), fed on either a control diet or a diet contain

  10. Evaluation of monochromatic imaging spectal CT for intestinal bleeding using an experimental pig intestine model%能谱CT单能量成像诊断活动性小肠出血的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文冬; 吴兴旺; 刘斌; 李红文; 王斌

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the diagnostic value of monochromatic energy image spectral CT in active small bowel bleeding and to screen the optimal energy level that indicates active bleeding of the gastrointestinal tract.Methods The bleeding model was established using the small intestines of pigs in vitro.Seven blood flow rates were simulated:0.500,0.400,0.300,0.200,0.100,0.050,0.025 ml/min,respectively.For each rate,a GE Discovery HD750 CT scanner was used in GSI scan mode and 64 slice CT was performed,with a delay of 15 s and 40 s simulated the arterial phase and portal venous phase,respectively.Each out of the blood flow rate in the 2 modes was respectively scanned 5 times.The GSI reconstruction platform was employed to obtain 7 monochromatic energy images(40,50,60,70,80,90,100 keV).A set of polychromatic energy images was obtained from an ordinary scan.The detection rates of the contrast agent exudation regions using the two scanning methods were compared.The contrast to noise ratios(CNR) for the contrast agent exudation regions were measured.Randomized block analysis of Variance was performed to compare the differences in CNR between energy levels.The x2 test was used to compare the detection rates obtained from the 2 scanning methods.Results The detection rates for energy spectral CT and 64 slice CT in the arterial phase were 31/35 and 23/35,respectively; there was significant difference(x2=5.185,P=0.023).The total detection rates of portal venous phase were 35/35 and 32/35,respectively,there was no significant difference(x2=l.393,P=0.238).On the ordinary scan mode,the detection rates of arterial and portal venous phase difference was statistically significant(x2 =6.873,P =0.009);but on the GSI scan mode,there was no significant difference(x2=2.386,P=0.122). The CNR values at 8 group energy levels for arterial phase and portal venous phase were statistically different(respectively P< 0.05),the CNR value of the contrast agent exudation regions at 50 keV and 60 ke

  11. Intestinal Coccidia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Ggaravi

    2007-06-01

    intestinal parasite is in most parts of the world. Sometimes it is noun traveller diarrhea Syndrom. The egg shapes of Oocyst are disporic tetrazoic. It is transmitted by vegetables and fruits. Trophozoite pass through schizogony step and repeats it several times. In the end of the cycle gametogony is done and the sexual forms will be repelled the human intestine. Symptoms are persistent diarrhoea, epigastric pain, headache, fever, vomitting and leanness, especially when physiologic disorder condition is seen in patient or they are in traveling. Misdiagnosis is a problem in laboratories but floatation method with zinc sulfate or sugar syrup is recommended. Sarcocystis: Sporocyst of S.hominis and S. suihominis is in the human feces, and the cyst form is in pig and cow muscles. It founds in tha tongue, pharynx and oesophagus muscles of habitant buffalo in Iran. Because of the large size of the cyst (1cm, it is seen with naked eyes and the risk of human infection is rare. If human eats raw or uncooked cow and pig meat, he will be infected with it. Sexual cycle is in the human body and sporocyst is repelled by the intestine. The disease may or may not have any symptoms. The symptoms are diarrhoea, stomach cramp, jejenuom and ileum necrosis. Diagnosis is based on concentrated floatation. The prevalence rate is too much in domestic animals.

  12. Ensiled citrus pulp as a by-product feedstuff for finishing pigs: nutritional value and effects on intestinal microflora and carcass quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moset, V.; Piquer, O.; Cervera, C.; Fernández, J.; Hernández, P.; Cerisuelo, A.

    2015-07-01

    Forty pigs of 76.8 ± 4.2 kg body weight were fed four different diets varying in ensiled citrus pulp (ECP) inclusion level (0, 50, 100, and 150 g of ECP/kg of diet on dry matter base). The trial lasted 5 weeks. During the last week, faecal samples were obtained to calculate apparent nutrient digestibility; also volatile fatty acids (VFA) content in faeces was determined. The digestible energy and protein of ECP was estimated by regression analysis. During the trial faecal samples were collected to determine enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts. At slaughter, carcass characteristics were registered. The inclusion of ECP in the diets decreased energy digestibility but increased neutral and acid detergent fibre digestibility linearly (p<0.05). The estimated digestible energy and protein of ECP were lower than expected (7.0 MJ/kg dry matter (DM) and 33.8 g/kg DM, respectively). Total VFA production in faeces was not affected by the diet. Both enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts were lower (p<0.01) with than without ECP inclusion at the end of the study. Carcass yield decreased linearly (p<0.05) and backfat at gluteus medius increased quadratically (p<0.05) with the inclusion of ECP in the diet. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the internal subcutaneous fat layer decreased quadratically (p<0.05) with the inclusion of ECP. Thus, the nutritive value of ECP for finishing pigs is low and levels of 150g/kg can negatively affect carcass yield. However, including up to 100 g of ECP/kg in finishing pig diets did not affect nutrient digestibility, carcass yield and subcutaneous fat FA profile. Additionally, increasing ECP levels in diets decreases faecal enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts in faeces. (Author)

  13. Ensiled citrus pulp as a by-product feedstuff for finishing pigs: nutritional value and effects on intestinal microflora and carcass quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Moset

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Forty pigs of 76.8 ± 4.2 kg body weight were fed four different diets varying in ensiled citrus pulp (ECP inclusion level (0, 50, 100, and 150 g of ECP/kg of diet on dry matter base. The trial lasted 5 weeks. During the last week, faecal samples were obtained to calculate apparent nutrient digestibility; also volatile fatty acids (VFA content in faeces was determined. The digestible energy and protein of ECP was estimated by regression analysis. During the trial faecal samples were collected to determine enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts. At slaughter, carcass characteristics were registered. The inclusion of ECP in the diets decreased energy digestibility but increased neutral and acid detergent fibre digestibility linearly (p<0.05. The estimated digestible energy and protein of ECP were lower than expected (7.0 MJ/kg dry matter (DM and 33.8 g/kg DM, respectively. Total VFA production in faeces was not affected by the diet. Both enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts were lower (p<0.01 with than without ECP inclusion at the end of the study. Carcass yield decreased linearly (p<0.05 and backfat at gluteus medius increased quadratically (p<0.05 with the inclusion of ECP in the diet. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the internal subcutaneous fat layer decreased quadratically (p<0.05 with the inclusion of ECP. Thus, the nutritive value of ECP for finishing pigs is low and levels of 150g/kg can negatively affect carcass yield. However, including up to 100 g of ECP/kg in finishing pig diets did not affect nutrient digestibility, carcass yield and subcutaneous fat FA profile. Additionally, increasing ECP levels in diets decreases faecal enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts in faeces.

  14. Programming Pig

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  15. Intestinal Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some generally recognized patterns. Symptoms of acute intestinal ischemia Signs and symptoms of acute intestinal ischemia typically ... confusion in older adults Symptoms of chronic intestinal ischemia Signs and symptoms of chronic intestinal ischemia can ...

  16. Maltodextrina em rações de leitões desmamados com diferentes pesos: desempenho e morfometria intestinal - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i1.9948 Maltodextrin in diets for weaning pigs of different weights: performance and intestinal morphometry - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i1.9948

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Lo Tierzo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos: no primeiro utilizaram-se 96 leitões desmamados com idade média de 21 dias, num delineamento em blocos com arranjo fatorial dos tratamentos 2 x 2 ( duas fontes de carboidratos x duas classes de peso ao desmame. No segundo foram utilizados 48 leitões, num delineamento em blocos com arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 (duas classes de peso ao desmame x duas fontes de carboidratos x duas porções do intestino delgado x três épocas de abate. Foram avaliados os efeitos da substituição da lactose pela maltodextrina nas rações de leitões desmamados, com diferentes pesos, sobre o consumo diário de ração, ganho diário de peso, conversão alimentar, altura das vilosidades, profundidade das criptas e espessura de mucosa. No primeiro experimento, nos períodos de 0 a 17 e 0 a 29 dias após o desmame constatou-se efeito de classes de peso, no ganho diário de peso e no consumo diário de ração dos leitões. No segundo experimento, a maltodextrina determinou aumentos na espessura média da mucosa intestinal e na profundidade média das criptas, apenas nos animais leves. A maltodextrina pode ser usada como alternativa para substituir a lactose nas rações de leitões desmamados.Two trials were conducted: in the first trial, 96 weaning pigs at the age of 21 days were used, in a block design, with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (two sources of carbohydrate and two weaning weight classes. In the second trial, 48 pigs were used, in a block design, with 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 factorial arrangement (two weaning weight classes x two sources of carbohydrate x two portions of the small intestine x three slaughter periods. The effects of the replacement of lactose by maltodextrin in diets of weaning pigs, with different weights, were evaluated on daily feed intake, daily weight gain, feed:gain ratio, villus height, crypt depth and thickness of the mucosa. In the first trial, from 0 to 17 days and from 0 to 29 days after weaning

  17. Efeitos de antimicrobianos e extratos vegetais sobre a microbiota intestinal e a freqüência de diarréia em leitões recém-desmamados Effects of antimicrobials and herbal extracts on intestinal microbiology and diarrhea incidence in weanling pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Lotufo Oetting

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados três experimentos envolvendo 120 leitões (21 aos 56 dias de idade para avaliar os efeitos de antimicrobianos e extratos vegetais sobre a microbiota intestinal (experimento 1 e a freqüência de diarréia em leitões (experimentos 1, 2 e 3. Os animais foram distribuídos em pares (um macho castrado e uma fêmea em 20 baias (unidade experimental, em um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, composto pelos tratamentos: controle - ração basal; antimicrobiano ração basal com bacitracina de zinco, olaquindox e colistina (50 ppm de cada; extrato vegetal A, B e C - ração basal com 700, 1.400 e 2.100 ppm de extrato vegetal, respectivamente. O extrato vegetal continha óleo essencial de cravo, tomilho, orégano, eugenol e carvacrol. Ao final do experimento 1, foi sacrificado um animal por unidade experimental e coletadas amostras do raspado do intestino delgado para a análise microbiológica. Não foram encontradas diferenças na análise microbiológica. A frequência de diarréia dos animais que receberam antimicrobianos foi inferior à observada nos tratamentos controle e com extratos vegetais no período de 1 a 35 dias de experimentação. Portanto, apesar de não terem sido detectadas diferenças na microbiota, os antimicrobianos foram efetivos no controle da diarréia.Two experiments with a total of 120 weanling pigs (21 to 56 d of age were conducted to evaluate the effects of antimicrobials and herbal extracts on intestinal microbiota (experiment 1 and on fecal score (experiments 1, 2 and 3. Pigs were allotted in pairs (pens with a barrow and a female to a randomized complete block design 12 replications of five treatments. Treatments consisted of: control - basal diet; antimicrobial - basal diet plus Zn bacitracin, olaquindox, and colistin (50 ppm of each; herbal extract A, B and C - basal diet plus 700 ppm, 1,400 ppm and 2,100 ppm of herbal extract, respectively. The herbal extract consisted of a mixture of

  18. Starch with high amylose content and low in vitro digestibility increases intestinal nutrient flow and microbial fermentation and selectively promotes bifidobacteria in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Prajwal R; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Gänzle, Michael G; van Kempen, Theo A T G; Zijlstra, Ruurd T

    2011-07-01

    Diets containing different starch types can affect enzymatic digestion of starch and thereby starch availability for microbial fermentation in the gut. However, the role of starch chemistry in nutrient digestion and flow and microbial profile has been poorly explained. Eight ileal-cannulated pigs (29.4 ± 0.9 kg body weight) were fed 4 diets containing 70% purified starch (amylose content, starch output, postileal crude protein yield, fecal total SCFA and total butyrate content, and gene copies of Bifidobacterium spp. in feces were higher (P starch diet than the remaining 3 starch diets. The in vitro starch digestion rate had a negative, nonlinear relationship with ileal starch flow (R(2) = 0.98; P starch flow was positively related to Bifidobacterium spp. (R(2) = 0.27; P starch with high amylose content and low in vitro digestibility increased postileal nutrient flow and microbial fermentation and selectively promoted Bifidobacterium spp. in the distal gut.

  19. GLP-1 Amidation Efficiency Along the Length of the Intestine in Mice, Rats and Pigs and in GLP-1 Secreting Cell Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Windeløv, Johanne Agerlin

    2014-01-01

    XXX: Measurements of plasma concentrations of the incretin hormone GLP-1 are complex because of extensive molecular heterogeneity. This is partly due to a varying and incompletely known degree of C-terminal amidation. Given that virtually all GLP-1 assays rely on a C-terminal antibody, it is esse......XXX: Measurements of plasma concentrations of the incretin hormone GLP-1 are complex because of extensive molecular heterogeneity. This is partly due to a varying and incompletely known degree of C-terminal amidation. Given that virtually all GLP-1 assays rely on a C-terminal antibody......, it is essential to know whether or not the molecule one wants to measure is amidated. We performed a detailed analysis of extractable GLP-1 from duodenum, proximal jejunum, distal ileum, caecum, proximal colon and distal colon of mice (n=9), rats (n=9) and pigs (n=8) and determined the degree of amidation...

  20. Brachyspira murdochii colitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Christensen, A. S.; Boye, Mette

    2010-01-01

    The weakly beta-hemolytic porcine spirochete Brachyspira murdochii is considered a normal intestinal commensal. In the present study, however, a field case of B murdochii–associated catarrhal colitis was identified in a pig, as characterized by extensive spirochetal colonization of the surface...... epithelium. Experimentally, 8 weaned pigs were challenged with the B murdochii isolate, reproducing catarrhal colitis in 2 animals. By applying fluorescent in situ hybridization using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting 23S rRNA, B murdochii organisms were found in high numbers and were...... closely associated with the surface epithelium in the pigs with catarrhal colitis. The results indicate that, when present in high numbers, B murdochii is low pathogenic for pigs....

  1. Determinants of tubal ligation in Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzik, Alanna E F; Leonard, Susan H; Sievert, Lynnette L

    2011-06-21

    Tubal ligation provides an effective and reliable method by which women can choose to limit the number of children they will bear. However, because of the irreversibility of the procedure and other potential disadvantages, it is important to understand factors associated with women's choice of this method of birth control. Between May 1999 and August 2000, data were collected from 755 women aged 40 to 60 years from a cross-section of neighborhoods of varying socio-economic make-up in Puebla, Mexico, finding a tubal ligation rate of 42.2%. Multiple logistic regression models were utilized to examine demographic, socio-economic, and reproductive history characteristics in relation to women's choice of tubal ligation. Regression analyses were repeated with participants grouped by age to determine how the timing of availability of tubal ligation related to the decision to undergo the procedure. The results of this study suggest that younger age, more education, use of some forms of birth control, and increased parity were associated with women's decisions to undergo tubal ligation. The statistically significant difference of greater tubal ligation and lower hysterectomy rates across age groups reflect increased access to tubal ligation in Mexico from the early 1970s, supporting the idea that women's choice of tubal ligation was related to access.

  2. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  3. Intestinal obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paralytic ileus; Intestinal volvulus; Bowel obstruction; Ileus; Pseudo-obstruction - intestinal; Colonic ileus ... objects that are swallowed and block the intestines) Gallstones (rare) Hernias Impacted stool Intussusception (telescoping of 1 ...

  4. Cloning of DNA fragments: ligation reactions in agarose gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Agnelo

    2014-01-01

    Ligation reactions to ligate a desired DNA fragment into a vector can be challenging to beginners and especially if the amount of the insert is limiting. Although additives known as crowding agents, such as PEG 8000, added to the ligation mixes can increase the success one has with ligation reactions, in practice the amount of insert used in the ligation can determine the success or the failure of the ligation reaction. The method described here, which uses insert DNA in gel slice added directly into the ligation reaction, has two benefits: (a) using agarose as the crowding agent and (b) reducing steps of insert purification. The use of rapid ligation buffer and incubation of the ligation reaction at room temperature greatly increase the efficiency of the ligation reaction even for blunt-ended ligation.

  5. In vivo multiphoton imaging of bile duct ligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Li, Feng-Chieh; Chen, Hsiao-Chin; Chang, Po-shou; Yang, Shu-Mei; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2008-02-01

    Bile is the exocrine secretion of liver and synthesized by hepatocytes. It is drained into duodenum for the function of digestion or drained into gallbladder for of storage. Bile duct obstruction is a blockage in the tubes that carry bile to the gallbladder and small intestine. However, Bile duct ligation results in the changes of bile acids in serum, liver, urine, and feces1, 2. In this work, we demonstrate a novel technique to image this pathological condition by using a newly developed in vivo imaging system, which includes multiphoton microscopy and intravital hepatic imaging chamber. The images we acquired demonstrate the uptake, processing of 6-CFDA in hepatocytes and excretion of CF in the bile canaliculi. In addition to imaging, we can also measure kinetics of the green fluorescence intensity.

  6. Orchidopexy san ligation technique of orchidopexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Vishal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric hernia surgery is the most common operation done by pediatric general surgeons and it is a core competency for general surgeons in the developing world. Herniotomy is performed for the surgical repair of hernia and along with orchiopexy for the closure of associated patent processus vaginalis. Traditionally, ligation of hernial sac during orchiopexy is considered mandatory to prevent postoperative development of hernia. The present report was designed to study the results of non-ligation of the hernial sac during orchiopexy. It was found that non-ligation has no untoward effect on early complications and recurrence rate on long-term follow-up. It is suggested that it is not necessary to ligate the hernial sac during orchiopexy in children.

  7. Digestion of carbohydrates in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drochner, W

    1993-01-01

    A review of carbohydrate digestion in the pig is given. The cascade of digestion in the mouth, stomach, small and large intestine is described. Principles of enzymatic and fermentative digestion according to new results with fistulated animals are discussed. The efficacy and quality of fermentation in the large intestine depending on level and quality of carbohydrates in the diet are demonstrated. Some aspects of energetical efficacy of hindgut digestion are discussed. Dietetic effects of carbohydrates are described.

  8. The effects of L-arabinose on intestinal sucrase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog-Mikkelsen, Inger; Hels, Ole; Tetens, Inge;

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of results in cell cultures, rodents, and pigs, l-arabinose may inhibit intestinal sucrase activity and thereby delay sucrose digestion.......On the basis of results in cell cultures, rodents, and pigs, l-arabinose may inhibit intestinal sucrase activity and thereby delay sucrose digestion....

  9. Location and pathogenic potential of Blastocystis in the porcine intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqi; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Traub, Rebecca J; Cuttell, Leigh; Owen, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Blastocystis is an ubiquitous, enteric protozoan of humans and many other species. Human infection has been associated with gastrointestinal disease such as irritable bowel syndrome, however, this remains unproven. A relevant animal model is needed to investigate the pathogenesis/pathogenicity of Blastocystis. We concluded previously that pigs are likely natural hosts of Blastocystis with a potentially zoonotic, host-adapted subtype (ST), ST5, and may make suitable animal models. In this study, we aimed to characterise the host-agent interaction of Blastocystis and the pig, including localising Blastocystis in porcine intestine using microscopy, PCR and histopathological examination of tissues. Intestines from pigs in three different management systems, i.e., a commercial piggery, a small family farm and a research herd (where the animals were immunosuppressed) were examined. This design was used to determine if environment or immune status influences intestinal colonisation of Blastocystis as immunocompromised individuals may potentially be more susceptible to blastocystosis and development of associated clinical signs. Intestines from all 28 pigs were positive for Blastocystis with all pigs harbouring ST5. In addition, the farm pigs had mixed infections with STs 1 and/or 3. Blastocystis organisms/DNA were predominantly found in the large intestine but were also detected in the small intestine of the immunosuppressed and some of the farm pigs, suggesting that immunosuppression and/or husbandry factors may influence Blastocystis colonisation of the small intestine. No obvious pathology was observed in the histological sections. Blastocystis was present as vacuolar/granular forms and these were found within luminal material or in close proximity to epithelial cells, with no evidence of attachment or invasion. These results concur with most human studies, in which Blastocystis is predominantly found in the large intestine in the absence of significant organic

  10. Location and pathogenic potential of Blastocystis in the porcine intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqi Wang

    Full Text Available Blastocystis is an ubiquitous, enteric protozoan of humans and many other species. Human infection has been associated with gastrointestinal disease such as irritable bowel syndrome, however, this remains unproven. A relevant animal model is needed to investigate the pathogenesis/pathogenicity of Blastocystis. We concluded previously that pigs are likely natural hosts of Blastocystis with a potentially zoonotic, host-adapted subtype (ST, ST5, and may make suitable animal models. In this study, we aimed to characterise the host-agent interaction of Blastocystis and the pig, including localising Blastocystis in porcine intestine using microscopy, PCR and histopathological examination of tissues. Intestines from pigs in three different management systems, i.e., a commercial piggery, a small family farm and a research herd (where the animals were immunosuppressed were examined. This design was used to determine if environment or immune status influences intestinal colonisation of Blastocystis as immunocompromised individuals may potentially be more susceptible to blastocystosis and development of associated clinical signs. Intestines from all 28 pigs were positive for Blastocystis with all pigs harbouring ST5. In addition, the farm pigs had mixed infections with STs 1 and/or 3. Blastocystis organisms/DNA were predominantly found in the large intestine but were also detected in the small intestine of the immunosuppressed and some of the farm pigs, suggesting that immunosuppression and/or husbandry factors may influence Blastocystis colonisation of the small intestine. No obvious pathology was observed in the histological sections. Blastocystis was present as vacuolar/granular forms and these were found within luminal material or in close proximity to epithelial cells, with no evidence of attachment or invasion. These results concur with most human studies, in which Blastocystis is predominantly found in the large intestine in the absence of

  11. Molecular studies on pig cryptosporidiosis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeżutka, A; Kaupke, A; Kozyra, I; Pejsak, Z

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium intestinal parasites have been detected in farmed pigs worldwide. Infections are usually asymptomatic with a low number of oocysts shed in pig feces. This makes the recognition of infection difficult or unsuccessful when microscopic methods are used. The aim of this study was molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species in pig herds raised in Poland with regard to the occurrence of zoonotic species. In total, 166 pig fecal samples were tested. The examined pigs were aged 1 to 20 weeks. Overall, 39 pig farms were monitored for parasite presence. The detection and identification of Cryptosporidium DNA was performed on the basis of PCR-RFLP and nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplified 18 SSU rRNA and COWP gene fragments. Infected animals were housed in 21 (53.8%) of the pig farms monitored. The presence of Cryptosporidum was confirmed in 46 (27.7%) samples of pig feces. Among positive fecal samples, 34 (29.3%) were collected from healthy animals, and 12 (24%) from diarrheic pigs. Most infected animals (42.1%) were 2 to 3 months old. The following parasite species were detected: C. scrofarum, C. suis and C. parvum. Indeed, asymptomatic infections caused by C. scrofarum were observed in the majority of the herds. Mixed infections caused by C. suis and C. scrofarum were not common; however, they were observed in 8.6% of the positive animals. C. parvum DNA was found only in one sample collected from a diarrheic pig. The application of molecular diagnostic tools allowed for detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species in pigs. The sporadic findings of C. parvum are subsequent evidence for the contribution of pigs in the transmission of cryptosporidiosis from animals to humans.

  12. Torque expression in self-ligating orthodontic brackets and conventionally ligated brackets: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thomali, Yousef; Mohamed, Roshan-Noor; Basha, Sakeenabi

    2017-01-01

    Background To evaluate the torque expression of self ligating (SL) orthodontic brackets and conventionally ligated brackets and the torque expression in active and passive SL brackets. Material and Methods Our systematic search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus, and key journals and review articles; the date of the last search was April 4th 2016. We graded the methodological quality of the studies by means of the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, developed for the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). Results In total, 87 studies were identified for screening, and 9 studies were eligible. The quality assessment rated one of the study as being of strong quality, 7 (77.78%) of these studies as being of moderate quality. Three out of 7 studies which compared SL and conventionally ligated brackets showed, conventionally ligated brackets with highest torque expression compared to SL brackets. Badawi showed active SL brackets with highest torque expression compared to passive SL brackets. Major and Brauchli showed no significant differences in torque expression of active and passive SL brackets. Conclusions Conventionally ligated brackets presented with highest torque expression compared to SL brackets. Minor difference was recorded in a torque expression of active and passive SL brackets. Key words:Systematic review, self ligation, torque expression, conventional ligation. PMID:28149476

  13. Increasing the efficiency of SAGE adaptor ligation by directed ligation chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Austin P.; Turner, Robin F. B.; Haynes, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    The ability of Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) to provide a quantitative picture of global gene expression relies not only on the depth and accuracy of sequencing into the SAGE library, but also on the efficiency of each step required to generate the SAGE library from the starting mRNA material. The first critical step is the ligation of adaptors containing a Type IIS recognition sequence to the anchored 3′ end cDNA population that permits the release of short sequence tags (SSTs) from defined sites within the 3′ end of each transcript. Using an in vitro transcript as a template, we observed that only a small fraction of anchored 3′ end cDNA are successfully ligated with added SAGE adaptors under typical reaction conditions currently used in the SAGE protocol. Although the introduction of ∼500-fold molar excess of adaptor or the inclusion of 15% (w/v) PEG-8000 increased the yield of the adaptor-modified product, complete conversion to the desired adaptor:cDNA hetero-ligation product is not achieved. An alternative method of ligation, termed as directed ligation, is described which exploits a favourable mass-action condition created by the presence of NlaIII during ligation in combination with a novel SAGE adaptor containing a methylated base within the ligation site. Using this strategy, we were able to achieve near complete conversion of the anchored 3′ end cDNA into the desired adaptor-modified product. This new protocol therefore greatly increases the probability that a SST will be generated from every transcript, greatly enhancing the fidelity of SAGE. Directed ligation also provides a powerful means to achieve near-complete ligation of any appropriately designed adaptor to its respective target. PMID:15247329

  14. Endometriosis intestinal Intestinal endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. González

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available La endometriosis es un trastorno ginecológico crónico, benigno y frecuente entre las mujeres en edad fértil, estimándose que existe algún grado de endometriosis hasta en el 15% de las mujeres premenopáusicas, asociándose a historia de infertilidad, antecedente de cesárea, dismenorrea y anormalidad en el sangrado uterino. Se cree que es debida al ascenso por las trompas de Falopio de contenido menstrual (menstruación retrógrada. En la afectación intestinal, el colon es el segmento más frecuentemente afectado, sobre todo a nivel rectosigmodeo. La clínica de presentación es inespecífica, siendo lo más frecuente el dolor abdominal y/o pélvico de tipo cólico que coincide o se exacerba con la menstruación. El diagnóstico diferencial incluye la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, diverticulitis, colitis isquémica y procesos neoplásicos, siendo el diagnóstico definitivo anatomopatológico. En cuanto al tratamiento, éste dependerá de la clínica y de la edad de la paciente, así como de sus deseos de embarazo.Endometriosis is a chronic, benign gynaecological disorder that is frequent in women of a child-bearing age. It is estimated that there is some degree of endometriosis in as many as 15% of pre-menopausal women, associated with a history of infertility, caesarean antecedents, dysmenorrhoea and abnormality in uterine bleeding. It is believed to be due to the rise of menstrual contents through the Fallopian tubes (retrograde menstruation. In the intestinal affectation, the colon is the segment most frequently affected, above all at the rectosigmoidal level. The clinical features are unspecific, with abdominal pain the most frequent and/or pelvic pain of a cholic type that coincides with, or is exacerbated by, menstruation. Differential diagnosis includes intestinal inflammatory disease, diverticulitis, ischemic colitis and neoplastic processes, with the definitive diagnosis being anatomopathological. With respect to treatment

  15. Excretion in feces and mucosal persistence of Salmonella ser. Typhimurium in pigs subclinically infected with Oesophagostomum spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenhard, N.R.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2002-01-01

    Objective-To determine interactions between Oesophagostomum spp and Salmonella ser. Typhimurium in pigs. Animals-30 healthy 5- to 6-week-old pigs. Procedure-Pigs were allotted to 3 groups (n = 10 pigs/group) and treated as follows: group A was given Oesophagostomum dentatum and 0 quadrispinulatum...... Typhimurium in feces, compared with nematode-free pigs (group C). In addition, group-B pigs excreted STyphimurium on more days than pigs in group C. SalmonellaTyphimurium was detected in the cecum and colon in the majority of pigs in group B, whereas STyphimurium was only detected in the colon in pigs...... in group C. Immunohistochemical examination detected STyphimurium in 7 of 9 pigs in group B but only 2 of 9 pigs in group C. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Interactions between intestinal nematodes and bacteria may play an important role in the dynamics of STyphimurium infections....

  16. Rectal stenosis in pigs associated with Salmonella Typhimurium and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Terumi Negrão Watanabe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rectal stricture is an acquired annular fibrous constriction of the rectum that results from a variety of chronic necrotizing enteric diseases. In pigs, it is in most cases a sequel of Salmonella infection. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 is a known pathogen causing immunosuppression in pigs worldwide. PCV2 infected pigs may be predisposed to salmonellosis. In this report, rectal stenosis was observed in 160 pigs from a herd that experienced an outbreak of enteric salmonellosis over a 4-month period. Distension of the abdominal wall and diarrhea were the main clinical signs observed. Five animals were analyzed showing annular cicatrization of the rectal wall 5.0-7.0 cm anterior to the anorectal junction and Salmonella-positive immunostaining in the large intestine. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from fragments of the large intestine. Porcine circovirus type 2 antigen was observed in the mesenteric lymph-node in 4 pigs and in the large intestine in 3 pigs.

  17. Post tubal ligation syndrome or iatrogenic hydrosalpinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, M G

    1981-10-01

    The purpose of this case report is as follows: to attempt to establish an association between the observed increase in hydrosalpinx and the phenomenal increase in surgical sterilization; to present a credible etiology for iatrogenic hydrosalpinx; and to discuss the pathogenesis of a disease process henceforth referred to as post tubal ligation syndrome. A 36-year-old white woman was admitted to Park View Hospital in Nashville, Tennessee on January 7, 1981 for evaluation of continuous lower abdominal pain, abdominal pressure, and dyspareunia for several months. The woman had 2 children who were delivered vaginally. An abdominal tubal ligation was performed for sterilization when she was 27, and vaginal hysterectomy, with anterior and posterior colporrhaphy, was done for symptomatic pelvic relaxation at age 33. Physical examination showed tenderness without palpable masses in the pelvic adnexal areas. Laboratory studies were within normal limits. On January 9, 1981, the patient underwent exploratory laparotomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. She was found to have bilateral hydrosalpinx. Historically, hydrosalpinx has been considered an intermediary step in pelvic inflammatory disease. Iatrogenic hydrosalpinx is, in essence, initiated by an initial insult, e.g., tubal ligation, fulguration, or application of a mechanical clip or band. Theoretically, single point interruption of a fallopian tube should produce no ill effects. The popularity and success of tubal ligation attest to single point interruption of an otherwise normal fallopian tube as an innocuous procedure. A schematic drawing is provided of the same tube insulted a 2nd time and consequently the situation is prefactory to development of hydrosalpinx, i.e., a tube lined with secretory epithelium is closed at both ends. Secretion within this closed system will produce dilatation. This "2nd" insult to the normal fallopian tube, post tubal ligation, may take 1 of several forms. The symptoms of iatrogenic

  18. Hidrolisados protéicos de mucosa intestinal, levedura e proteína isolada de soja em dietas com leite em pó integral para leitões desmamados Hydrolyzed proteins of intestinal mucosa membrane, yeast and isolated soybean protein in diets with dried whole milk to wealing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio João Scandolera

    2008-04-01

    leitões.The effect of partial replacement of soybean meal (SM by hydrolyzed protein of the cellular content of yeast (HPCCY, isolated protein of soy (IPS, hydrolyzed protein of intestinal mucosa membrane of swine (HPIMS in diets with dried whole milk (DWM on performance, serum urea and diarrhea incidence of weaned pigs. Fourteen piglets weaned at 21 days old (20 barrows and 20 females, were allotted to a completely randomized experimental block design with five treatments (diets and 8 replications each. The diets were fed in three phases according to the animal age. In the pre-initial phase 1 (21 to 35 days of age: corn-soy diet, diet with 15% DWM, diet with 15% DWM + 3,5% HPIMS, diet with 15% DWM + 5% IPS, diet with 15% DWM + 5% HPCCY. In the phase pre-initial 2 (36 to 49 days of age a corn-soy diet was maintained and DWM was reduced to 7.5% in all diets, HPIMS to 1.5%; IPS to 4% and HPCCY was maintained in 5%. In the phase initial (50 a 70 days of age was maintained the corn-soybean based diet, DWM was removed of all the diets and the animals that received the treatments with DWM and DWM + HPIMS in the phases pre-initial 1 and 2, they were fed corn-soy diet, IPS was reduced to 3% and HPCCY to 2.5%. In the period from 21 to 35 days, the diet DWM + IPS provided the highest daily weight gain and better feed conversion. In the following phases, there was not difference in the performance among diets. Up to five days post weaning, pigs fed SM and DWM + IPS showed the lowest diarrhea incidence. The levels of serum urea were not influenced by the diets. The use of IPS, HPIMI and HPCCY in complex diets containing dried whole milk represents a viable biologically alternatives in diets for pigs.

  19. Prevalence of Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in Finnish Slaughter Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahikainen Ibañez, T; Laukkanen-Ninios, R; Hakkinen, M; Johansson, T; Vilar, M; Korkeala, H

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was determined in tonsil and intestinal content samples from 388 healthy fattening pigs at the four biggest Finnish slaughterhouses. These slaughterhouses process 73% of pigs in Finland. Tonsil samples were tested by PCR targeted for yadA, and intestinal samples were cultured. All pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates represented bioserotype 4/O:3. The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsil samples was 60% (95% confidence limit, 55.4 to 65.1%), and its prevalence in intestinal samples was 26% (95% confidence limit, 22.1 to 31.2%). The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsil and intestinal samples varied between the four slaughterhouses. The tonsil prevalence of Y. enterocolitica was higher in slaughterhouse B, and the prevalence in intestinal content was higher in slaughterhouse C. There were more positive results in both tonsil and intestinal samples in pigs coming from fattening farms than in pigs coming from farrowing-and-fattening farms. A seasonal variation was observed in the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in intestinal samples, with the highest prevalence during July and August, but no seasonal variation was detected in tonsil samples.

  20. A comparative study of Barron's rubber band ligation with Kshar Sutra ligation in hemorrhoids

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Despite a long medical history of identification and treatment, hemorrhoids still pose a challenge to the medical fraternity in terms of finding satisfactory cure of the disease. In this study, Kshar Sutra Ligation (KSL), a modality of treatment described in Ayurveda, was compared with Barron's Rubber Band Ligation (RBL) for grade II and grade III hemorrhoids. This study was conducted in 20 adult patients of either sex with grade II and grade III hemorrhoids at two different hospitals. Patien...

  1. Intestinal morphology and enzymatic activity in newly weaned piglets fed contrasting fiber levels and fiber properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Maria

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The main objective of this study was to determinetheeffectoffibersourceandconcentrationon morphological characteristics, mucin staining pattern, and mucosal enzyme activities in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. The experiment included 50 pigs from 10 litters weaned at 4 wk of age (BW ...... the small intestine, indicating that the pigs fed the pectinKey words: digestive enzyme, fiber, gut morphology, mucin, pig ......ABSTRACT: The main objective of this study was to determinetheeffectoffibersourceandconcentrationon morphological characteristics, mucin staining pattern, and mucosal enzyme activities in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. The experiment included 50 pigs from 10 litters weaned at 4 wk of age (BW 8...

  2. Ecophysiology of the developing total bacterial and Lactobacillus communities in the terminal small intestine of weaning piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieper, R.; Janzcyk, P.; Zeyner, A.; Smidt, H.; Guiard, V.; Souffrant, W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Weaning of the pig is generally regarded as a stressful event which could lead to clinical implications because of the changes in the intestinal ecosystem. The functional properties of microbiota inhabiting the pig's small intestine (SI), including lactobacilli which are assumed to exert health-prom

  3. Ecophysiology of the developing total bacterial and Lactobacillus communities in the terminal small intestine of weaning piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieper, R.; Janzcyk, P.; Zeyner, A.; Smidt, H.; Guiard, V.; Souffrant, W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Weaning of the pig is generally regarded as a stressful event which could lead to clinical implications because of the changes in the intestinal ecosystem. The functional properties of microbiota inhabiting the pig's small intestine (SI), including lactobacilli which are assumed to exert health-prom

  4. Effect of sevoflurane on expression of aquaporin 8 in intestinal mucosa in a pig model of hemorrhagic shock%七氟醚对失血性休克猪肠黏膜水通道蛋白8表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽晶; 王丽斯; 孙莹杰; 宋丹丹; 刁玉刚; 张铁铮

    2015-01-01

    目的 评价七氟醚对失血性休克猪肠黏膜水通道蛋白8(AQP8)表达的影响.方法 健康成年巴马小型猪24头,雌雄不拘,体重22~ 25 kg,采用随机数字表法分为假手术组(S组)、失血性休克组(HS组)和七氟醚组(PS组),每组8头.S组麻醉后经股动脉和颈内静脉置管;HS组麻醉置管后制备大鼠失血性休克模型;PS组于制备失血性休克模型成功后吸入2%七氟醚30 min.于麻醉前(T0)、失血性休克后0.5、1、1.5、2、3和4h(T1-6)时取颈内静脉血样,采用ELISA法检测血清D-乳酸、肠脂肪酸结合蛋白(I-FABP)的浓度;失血性休克4h后放血处死动物取肠组织制作病理切片,观察病理学结果;称湿重和干重,计算肠水含量,采用ELISA法检测肠黏膜AQP8的表达.结果 与S组比较,HS组和PS组血清D-乳酸、I-FABP浓度、肠黏膜AQP8表达水平及肠水含量升高(P<0.05);与HS组比较,PS组上述指标降低(P<0.05).PS组肠组织病理学损伤较HS组明显减轻.结论 七氟醚可通过抑制AQP8表达降低肠黏膜水肿,从而减轻失血性休克猪肠黏膜损伤.%Objective To evaluate the effect of sevoflurane on the expression of aquaporin 8 (AQP8) in the intestinal mucosa in a pig model of hemorrhagic shock.Methods Twenty-four Bama miniature pigs of both sexes, weighing 22-25 kg, were randomly divided into 3 equal groups using a random number table: sham operation group (group S), hemorrhagic shock group (group HS) and sevoflurane group (group PS).The femoral artery and jugular vein were cannulated for blood pressure monitoring, blood-letting, and blood sampling in anesthetized pigs.Hemorrhagic shock was induced by withdrawing blood from the right femoral artery.Hemorrhagic shock was induced after cannulation in group HS.In group PS, 2% sevoflurane was inhaled for 30 min after the model of hemorrhagic shock was successfully established.Before anesthesia, and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 and 4 h after hemorrhagic shock, blood

  5. Effects of Low Protein Diets Balanced with Amino Acids on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristic and Intestinal Health of Growing Pigs%低蛋白质平衡氨基酸饲粮对生长猪生长性能、胴体品质及肠道健康的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂杰; 鲁宁; 谯仕彦

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the growth performance, carcass characteristic, meat quality and intestinal health of growing pigs fed low protein diets balanced with amino acids. Sixteen growing pigs were all randomly allocated to 2 groups of a normal protein diet (dietary crude protein content was 18% , and standardized ileal digestible lysine was 0. 93% ) and a low protein diet ( dietary crude protein content was 14% , and standardized ileal digestible lysine was 1. 03% ) , and each group has 8 replicates and 1 pig per rep-licate. The experiment lasted for 39 d. The results showed that compared with the normal protein diet, light-ness and yellowness of longissimus muscle of growing pigs received the low protein diet balanced with amino acids were significantly increased (P 0. 05). In conclusion, compared with the normal protein diet, growing pigs fed the low protein diet (dietary standardized ileal digestible lysine is 1.03 % ) bal-anced with amino acids obtain similar growth performance. Moreover, reducing dietary protein content shows an improve trend for intestinal health status of growing pigs.%本文旨在研究低蛋白质平衡氨基酸饲粮对生长猪生长性能、胴体品质、肌肉品质和肠道健康的影响.试验采用单因素完全随机设计,选择初始体重为(17.02±1.40) kg的健康“杜×长×大”三元杂交去势公猪16头,随机分为正常蛋白质组(饲粮粗蛋白质水平为18%,标准回肠可消化赖氨酸含量为0.93%)和低蛋白质组(饲粮粗蛋白质水平为14%,标准回肠可消化赖氨酸含量为1.03%)2个组,每组8个重复,每个重复1头猪.试验期共39d.在试验结束当天对生长猪进行称重、结料和采血,并屠宰所有生长猪用于测定胴体品质、肌肉品质、肠道形态及消化酶活性.结果表明:与正常蛋白质饲粮相比,低蛋白质平衡氨基酸饲粮显著提高了生长猪背最长肌的亮度值(P<0.01)和黄度值(P<0.05);对小肠各

  6. Cost saving by reloading the multiband ligator in endoscopic esophageal variceal ligation: A proposal for developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaigham Abbas; Lubna Rizvi; Umair Syed Ahmed; Khalid Mumtaz; Wasim Jafri

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To assess the cost savings of reloading the multiband ligator in endoscopic esophageal variceal ligation (EVL) used on the same patient for subsequent sessions,METHODS: This single centre retrospective descriptive study analysed patients undergoing variceal ligation at a tertiary care centre between 1st January, 2003 and 30th June, 2006. The multiband ligator was reloaded with six hemorrhoidal bands using hemorrhoidal ligator for the second and subsequent sessions. Analysis of cost saving was done for the number of follow-up sessions for the variceal eradication.RESULTS: A total of 261 patients underwent at least one session of endoscopic esophageal variceal ligation between January 2003 and June 2006. Out of 261, 108 patients (males 67) agreed to follow the eradication program and underwent repeated sessions. A total of 304 sessions was performed with 2.81 sessions per patient on average. Thirty-two patients could not complete the programm. In 76 patients (70%), variceal obliteration was achieved. The ratio of the costs for the session with reloaded ligator versus a session with a new ligator was 1:2.37. Among the patients who completed esophageal varices eradication, cost saving with reloaded ligator was 58%.CONCLUSION: EVL using reloaded multiband ligators for the follow-up sessions on patients undergoing variceal eradication is a cost saving procedure. Reloading the ligator thus is recommended especially for developing countries where most of the patients are not health insured.

  7. Limited fat absorption in the large intestine of mice. A morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, R L

    1977-01-01

    A limited fat-absorbing ability of the epithelial cells in the cecum and colon of mice was demonstrated light- and electron-microscopically. After injection of predigested donor fat into ligated segments of the large intestine and after massive gastric intubation of fat, fat droplets, predominantly of extremely large diameter, were visible in the cecum and colon. Comparison with fat absorption in the proximal and distal small intestine was undertaken. The large intestine, similar to the distal small intestine, is capable of absorbing lipids; however, the subsequent processing of fat appears considerably less effcient than in the proximal segments of the small intestine.

  8. Is it safe to perform endoscopic band ligation for the duodenum? A pilot study in ex vivo porcine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakutani, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Shigemasa; Ueda, Kaoru; Takakura, Kazuki; Sumiyama, Kazuki; Imazu, Hiroo; Hino, Syoryoku; Kawamura, Muneo; Tajiri, Hisao

    2013-04-01

    In the digestive tract, endoscopic band ligation (EBL) has been routinely used for the treatment of variceal bleeding and superficial malignancies. In recent years, endoscopic treatments for duodenal varices, adenoma, and cancer have also actively incorporated EBL. Although there have been a number of reports on the risks associated with the use of EBL in the esophagus, stomach, and colon, few studies have focused on EBL in the duodenum. We performed EBL procedures to evaluate the risks associated with the use of EBL in the duodenum. Overall, EBLs were performed at nine sites in duodenum sampled from a pig immediately after sacrifice. Submucosal saline injections were placed in three of the nine studied sites. Regardless of saline injection, the full thickness of the duodenal wall was ligated in all attempts. Routine EBL is not recommended in the duodenum because the risk of perforation is unacceptably high.

  9. Critical review evaluating the pig as a model for human nutritional physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roura, Eugeni; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Huerou-Luron, Le Isabelle; Jager, de Nadia; Schuurman, Teun; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-01-01

    The present review examines the pig as a model for physiological studies in human subjects related to nutrient sensing, appetite regulation, gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota and nutritional neuroscience. The nutrient-sensing mechanisms regarding acids (sour), carbohydrates (sweet), glutam

  10. Critical review evaluating the pig as a model for human nutritional physiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roura, Eugeni; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Le Huerou-Luron, Isabelle; de Jager, Nadia; Schuurman, Teun; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-01-01

    The present review examines the pig as a model for physiological studies in human subjects related to nutrient sensing, appetite regulation, gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota and nutritional neuroscience...

  11. Critical review evaluating the pig as a model for human nutritional physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roura, Eugeni; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Huerou-Luron, Le Isabelle; Jager, de Nadia; Schuurman, Teun; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-01-01

    The present review examines the pig as a model for physiological studies in human subjects related to nutrient sensing, appetite regulation, gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota and nutritional neuroscience. The nutrient-sensing mechanisms regarding acids (sour), carbohydrates (sweet),

  12. Modulation effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on target organ function as well as immune and inflammatory response of cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dian-Xun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the modulation effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on target organ function as well as immune and inflammatory reaction of cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic rats.Methods:Adult SD rats were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into control group, model group and PUFA group. Septic rat models were made by cecal ligation and puncture method and given n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid for parenteral nutrition. Then number of apoptosis cells in intestinal mucosa, contents of intestinal flora, intestinal mucosal barrier function and immune function were detected.Results: (1) Intestinal mucosa function: the number of apoptosis cells in intestinal mucosa, intestinal E. coli contents, serum D-lactose and DAO contents as well as L/M ratio in urine of model group were higher than those of control group, and contents of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were lower than those of control group; the number of apoptosis cells in intestinal mucosa, intestinal E. coli contents, serum D-lactose and DAO contents as well as L/M ratio in urine of PUFA group were lower than those of model group, and contents of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were higher than those of model group; (2) Immune and inflammatory response: the number of PP nodes and PP node cells as well as contents of B cells and T cells in intestinal mucosa of model group were lower than those of control group; the number of PP nodes and PP node cells as well as contents of B cells and T cells in intestinal mucosa of PUFA group were higher than those of model group.Conclusion: n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) are helpful to protect intestinal mucosal barrier function of cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic rats, regulate intestinal flora balance and improve immune and inflammatory response.

  13. Staudinger Ligation of Peptides at Non-Glycyl Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Soellner, Matthew B.; Tam, Annie; Raines, Ronald T.

    2006-01-01

    The Staudinger ligation provides a means to form an amide bond between a phosphinothioester and azide. This reaction holds promise for the ligation of peptides en route to the total chemical synthesis of proteins. (Diphenylphosphino)methanethiol is the most efficacious of known reagents for mediating the Staudinger ligation of peptides, providing high (>90%) isolated yields for equimolar couplings in which a glycine residue is at the nascent junction. Surprisingly, the yields are lower (80%) ...

  14. Intestinal leiomyoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most often found when a person has an upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy or colonoscopy for another reason. Rarely, these tumors can cause bleeding, blockage or rupture of the intestines If this ...

  15. Intestinal Lymphangiectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... source and a camera through which a small clipper can be inserted). The tissue that is removed ... can help. Malabsorption Overview of Malabsorption Bacterial Overgrowth Syndrome Celiac Disease Intestinal Lymphangiectasia Lactose Intolerance Short Bowel ...

  16. Detachable endoloop vs. elastic band ligation for bleeding esophageal varices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga, Mazen Ibrahim; Okasha, Hussein Hassan; Foda, Ayman Ragaei; Gomaa, Mohamed Saeed; Fouad, Ayman Mohamed; Masoud, Amgad Gerges; El-din, Hazem Hossam

    2004-06-01

    Variceal bleeding is a serious complication with a mortality rate that ranges from 20% to 50%. Patients who have variceal hemorrhage usually are treated by endoscopic injection sclerotherapy or elastic band ligation to eradicate the varices. Endoloop ligation is a newly developed technique for achieving hemostasis and variceal eradication. This study compared endoloop ligation with elastic band ligation in patients with acute esophageal variceal bleeding. Fifty patients with acute esophageal variceal bleeding were recruited: 25 were treated by elastic band ligation and 25 by endoloop ligation. Although the number of patients in whom bleeding recurred during a follow-up period of 6 months was smaller in the endoloop group (12%) vs. the band group (28%), this difference was not statistically significant. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference was found between the two groups with respect to the number of patients in whom variceal eradication was achieved, the number of treatment sessions required for variceal eradication, or the frequency of variceal recurrence. The total cost for variceal obliteration by endoloop ligation was 342 dollars per patient, whereas, the total cost of variceal eradication by elastic band ligation was 356 dollars per patient. The endoloop had certain technical advantages over band application: a better field of vision, tighter application, good results with junctional varices, and a lack of strain exerted by the device on the endoscope. Endoloop ligation is a promising new technique for management of patients with bleeding esophageal varices.

  17. The HubBLe trial: haemorrhoidal artery ligation (HAL versus rubber band ligation (RBL for haemorrhoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiernan Jim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemorrhoids (piles are a very common condition seen in surgical clinics. After exclusion of more sinister causes of haemorrhoidal symptoms (rectal bleeding, perianal irritation and prolapse, the best option for treatment depends upon persistence and severity of the symptoms. Minor symptoms often respond to conservative treatment such as dietary fibre and reassurance. For more severe symptoms treatment such as rubber band ligation may be therapeutic and is a very commonly performed procedure in the surgical outpatient setting. Surgery is usually reserved for those who have more severe symptoms, as well as those who do not respond to non-operative therapy; surgical techniques include haemorrhoidectomy and haemorrhoidopexy. More recently, haemorrhoidal artery ligation has been introduced as a minimally invasive, non destructive surgical option. There are substantial data in the literature concerning efficacy and safety of 'rubber band ligation including multiple comparisons with other interventions, though there are no studies comparing it to haemorrhoidal artery ligation. A recent overview has been carried out by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence which concludes that current evidence shows haemorrhoidal artery ligation to be a safe alternative to haemorrhoidectomy and haemorrhoidopexy though it also highlights the lack of good quality data as evidence for the advantages of the technique. Methods/design The aim of this study is to establish the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of haemorrhoidal artery ligation compared with conventional rubber band ligation in the treatment of people with symptomatic second or third degree (Grade II or Grade III haemorrhoids. Design: A multi-centre, parallel group randomised controlled trial. Outcomes: The primary outcome is patient-reported symptom recurrence twelve months following the intervention. Secondary outcome measures relate to symptoms

  18. The HubBLe trial: haemorrhoidal artery ligation (HAL) versus rubber band ligation (RBL) for haemorrhoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiernan, Jim; Hind, Daniel; Watson, Angus; Wailoo, Allan J; Bradburn, Michael; Shephard, Neil; Biggs, Katie; Brown, Steven

    2012-10-25

    Haemorrhoids (piles) are a very common condition seen in surgical clinics. After exclusion of more sinister causes of haemorrhoidal symptoms (rectal bleeding, perianal irritation and prolapse), the best option for treatment depends upon persistence and severity of the symptoms. Minor symptoms often respond to conservative treatment such as dietary fibre and reassurance. For more severe symptoms treatment such as rubber band ligation may be therapeutic and is a very commonly performed procedure in the surgical outpatient setting. Surgery is usually reserved for those who have more severe symptoms, as well as those who do not respond to non-operative therapy; surgical techniques include haemorrhoidectomy and haemorrhoidopexy. More recently, haemorrhoidal artery ligation has been introduced as a minimally invasive, non destructive surgical option.There are substantial data in the literature concerning efficacy and safety of 'rubber band ligation including multiple comparisons with other interventions, though there are no studies comparing it to haemorrhoidal artery ligation. A recent overview has been carried out by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence which concludes that current evidence shows haemorrhoidal artery ligation to be a safe alternative to haemorrhoidectomy and haemorrhoidopexy though it also highlights the lack of good quality data as evidence for the advantages of the technique. The aim of this study is to establish the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of haemorrhoidal artery ligation compared with conventional rubber band ligation in the treatment of people with symptomatic second or third degree (Grade II or Grade III) haemorrhoids. A multi-centre, parallel group randomised controlled trial. The primary outcome is patient-reported symptom recurrence twelve months following the intervention. Secondary outcome measures relate to symptoms, complications, health resource use, health related quality of life and cost

  19. Culture-independent analysis of gut bacteria: the pig gastrointestinal tract microbiota revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leser, Thomas D.; Amenuvor, Joanna Zeitman; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2002-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of the intestinal bacterial community in pigs was studied by comparative 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis. Samples were collected from a total of 24 pigs representing a variety of diets, ages, and herd health status. A library comprising 4,270 cloned 16S r...

  20. Characterization of the Blastocystis-specific faecal IgA immune response in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Cuttell, L; Traub, R J; Owen, H; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H

    2014-10-01

    Blastocystis is an intestinal protist found in many species including humans and pigs. It has a controversial pathogenesis and has been implicated as a potential cause of irritable bowel syndrome. Our previous studies identified pigs as potential animal models for blastocystosis by demonstrating that they were likely natural hosts of Blastocystis and can harbour subtypes (ST) in common with humans. Furthermore, our finding of a lack of intestinal histopathology associated with Blastocystis infection in pigs is also a consistent finding in examined infected humans. In this study, we aimed to identify and characterize the Blastocystis-specific mucosal IgA response in pigs by immunoblotting, using pig faecal antibodies and Blastocystis antigen. Faeces from 233 pigs representing three age groups (sows/boars, growers/weaners and piglets) and including five dexamethasone-immunosuppressed research pigs were tested. The majority (81·5%) of the pigs had faecal IgA reactivity against Blastocystis proteins of molecular weights of 17·5-120 kDa. Reactivity to a >250 kDa protein was found in 18·5% of pigs. Notably, immunosuppressed pigs and piglets were statistically more likely to have reactivity to this protein compared to growers/weaners and sows/boars, respectively. These results corroborate other findings suggesting that compromised immunity may predispose to blastocystosis and support our contention that pigs are potentially good models for pathogenesis studies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Streamlined expressed protein ligation using split inteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Perelló, Miquel; Liu, Zhihua; Shah, Neel H; Willis, John A; Idoyaga, Juliana; Muir, Tom W

    2013-01-09

    Chemically modified proteins are invaluable tools for studying the molecular details of biological processes, and they also hold great potential as new therapeutic agents. Several methods have been developed for the site-specific modification of proteins, one of the most widely used being expressed protein ligation (EPL) in which a recombinant α-thioester is ligated to an N-terminal Cys-containing peptide. Despite the widespread use of EPL, the generation and isolation of the required recombinant protein α-thioesters remain challenging. We describe here a new method for the preparation and purification of recombinant protein α-thioesters using engineered versions of naturally split DnaE inteins. This family of autoprocessing enzymes is closely related to the inteins currently used for protein α-thioester generation, but they feature faster kinetics and are split into two inactive polypeptides that need to associate to become active. Taking advantage of the strong affinity between the two split intein fragments, we devised a streamlined procedure for the purification and generation of protein α-thioesters from cell lysates and applied this strategy for the semisynthesis of a variety of proteins including an acetylated histone and a site-specifically modified monoclonal antibody.

  2. Effects of prefermented cereals or the end products of fermentation on growth and metabolism of enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells and on intestinal health of restrictedly fed weanling pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruininx, E.M.A.M.; Koninkx, J.F.J.G.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Zandstra, T.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    To unravel the underlying mechanisms that explain the positive effects of prefermented cereals on in vivo gastrointestinal (GI) architecture and function, an in vitro experiment using a human small intestinal epithelial cell model (Caco-2) was performed. A range of dilutions (0% to 10%) of the super

  3. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  4. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measuring ileal symbiont intracellularis-specific immunoglobulin G response in sera of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoake, P K; Cutler, R S; Caple, I W; Monckton, R P

    1994-01-01

    Proliferative enteritis (PE) is a common intestinal disease on pig farms. The disease is caused by ileal symbiont (IS) intracellularis (Campylobacter-like organisms) bacteria. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure IS intracellularis-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) response in the sera of pigs. The antigen used in the ELISA was filtered, percoll gradient-purified IS intracellularis extracted from the intestines of pigs affected with proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy. The antibody responses of pigs challenged with intestinal homogenates from pigs affected with proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy containing IS intracellularis or percoll-gradient purified IS intracellularis were low and variable. The low IgG titers measured in challenged pigs support previous findings that IgG plays a minor role in the immune response of pigs to IS intracellularis. On a farm in which infection was endemic, pigs seroconverted at between 7 and 24 weeks of age. High IgG titers, indicative of maternally acquired antibody, were present in 3-week-old pigs. The IgG titers in piglets were lowest at 6 weeks of age, which approximates the age of onset of clinical disease. These results suggest that IgG plays a role in determining the susceptibilities of pigs to natural infection. Measurements of seroconversion by the ELISA might aid in epidemiological investigations of PE in naturally infected herds. However, the variable antibody responses in experimentally challenged pigs would seem to limit its usefulness as an antemortem diagnostic test for PE. PMID:7989553

  5. Assessment of gastrointestinal pH, fluid and lymphoid tissue in the guinea pig, rabbit and pig, and implications for their use in drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Hamid A; McConnell, Emma L; Liu, Fang; Ramaswamy, Chandrasekaran; Kulkarni, Rucha P; Basit, Abdul W; Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2011-01-18

    Laboratory animals are often used in drug delivery and research. However, basic information about their gastrointestinal pH, fluid volume, and lymphoid tissue is not completely known. We have investigated these post-mortem in healthy guinea pigs, rabbits and pigs, to assess their suitability for pre-clinical studies by comparing the results with reported human literature. The mean gastric pH (fed ad libitum) was 2.9 and 4.4 in guinea pig and pig, respectively. In contrast, a very low pH (1.6) was recorded in the rabbits. The small intestinal pH was found in the range of 6.4-7.4 in the guinea pigs and rabbits, whereas lower pH (6.1-6.7) was recorded in the pig, which may have consequences for ionisable or pH responsive systems when tested in pig. A relatively lower pH than in the small intestine was found in the caecum (6.0-6.4) and colon (6.1-6.6) of the guinea pig, rabbit and the pig. The water content in the gastrointestinal tract of guinea pig, rabbit and pig was 51g, 153g and 1546g, respectively. When normalized to the body weight, the guinea pig, had larger amounts of water compared to the rabbit and the pig (guinea pig>rabbit>pig); in contrast, a reverse order was found when normalized to per unit length of the gut (guinea pigpig). The lymphoid tissue distribution (lymphoid follicles, Peyer's patches and long strips) along the length of the gut in these animals is presented; in particular, an abundance of lymphoid tissue was found in pig's stomach, small intestine and caecum, and rabbit's appendix. Their ample presence indicated the potential utility of these animal species in oral and colonic vaccination. These differences in the gastrointestinal parameters of the guinea pig, rabbit and pig reiterates the crucial importance of correctly selecting animal models for pre-clinical studies.

  6. Tubal ligation and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieh, Weiva; Salvador, Shannon; McGuire, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Tubal ligation is a protective factor for ovarian cancer, but it is unknown whether this protection extends to all invasive histological subtypes or borderline tumors. We undertook an international collaborative study to examine the association between tubal ligation and ovarian cancer subtypes....

  7. A novel role of intestine epithelial GABAergic signaling in regulating intestinal fluid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Xiang, Yun-Yan; Lu, Wei-Yang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2012-08-15

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and it is produced via the enzymatic activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). GABA generates fast biological signaling through type A receptors (GABA(A)R), an anionic channel. Intriguingly, GABA is found in the jejunum epithelium of rats. The present study intended to determine whether a functional GABA signaling system exists in the intestinal epithelium and if so whether the GABA signaling regulates intestinal epithelial functions. RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemical assays of small intestinal tissues of various species were performed to determine the expression of GABA-signaling proteins in intestinal epithelial cells. Perforated patch-clamp recording was used to measure GABA-induced transmembrane current in the small intestine epithelial cell line IEC-18. The fluid weight-to-intestine length ratio was measured in mice that were treated with GABA(A)R agonist and antagonist. The effect of GABA(A)R antagonist on allergic diarrhea was examined using a mouse model. GABA, GAD, and GABA(A)R subunits were identified in small intestine epithelial cells of mice, rats, pigs, and humans. GABA(A)R agonist induced an inward current and depolarized IEC-18. Both GABA and the GABA(A)R agonist muscimol increased intestinal fluid secretion of rats. The increased intestinal secretion was largely decreased by the GABA(A)R antagonist picrotoxin or gabazine, but not by tetrodotoxin. The expression levels of GABA-signaling proteins were increased in the intestinal epithelium of mice that were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). The OVA-treated mice exhibited diarrhea, which was alleviated by oral administration of gabazine or picrotoxin. An endogenous autocrine GABAergic signaling exists in the mammalian intestinal epithelium, which upregulates intestinal fluid secretion. The intestinal GABAergic signaling becomes intensified in allergic diarrhea, and

  8. A new 10-min ligation method using a modified buffer system with a very low amount of T4 DNA ligase: the "Coffee Break Ligation" technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Yuki; Ishida, Masaharu; Horii, Akira

    2007-10-01

    The ligation reaction is widely used in molecular biology. There are several kits available that complete the ligation reaction very rapidly but they are rather expensive. In this study, we successfully modified the ligation buffer with much lower cost than existing kits. The ligation reaction can be completed in 10 min using very low activities such as 0.01 U T4 DNA ligase, and costs only $1 for 100 reactions of 20 microl scale. We name this ligation system the "Coffee Break Ligation" system; one can complete ligation reaction while drinking a cup of coffee, and perform 100 reactions by spending money equivalent to a cup of coffee.

  9. Irreversible sortase A-mediated ligation driven by diketopiperazine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fa; Luo, Ethan Y; Flora, David B; Mezo, Adam R

    2014-01-17

    Sortase A (SrtA)-mediated ligation has emerged as an attractive tool in bioorganic chemistry attributing to the remarkable specificity of the ligation reaction and the physiological reaction conditions. However, the reversible nature of this reaction limits the efficiency of the ligation reaction and has become a significant constraint to its more widespread use. We report herein a novel set of SrtA substrates (LPETGG-isoacyl-Ser and LPETGG-isoacyl-Hse) that can be irreversibly ligated to N-terminal Gly-containing moieties via the deactivation of the SrtA-excised peptide fragment through diketopiperazine (DKP) formation. The convenience of the synthetic procedure and the stability of the substrates in the ligation buffer suggest that both LPETGG-isoacyl-Ser and LPETGG-isoacyl-Hse are valuable alternatives to existing irreversible SrtA substrate sequences.

  10. The Incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis Is Increased Following Probiotic Administration to Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Thymann, Thomas; Siggers, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Preterm birth and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with inappropriate gut colonization and immunity, which may be improved by probiotic bacteria. Using a preterm pig model of NEC, we investigated the effects of probiotics on intestinal structure, function, microbiology, and immunology...... with controls (n = 14). All pigs received parenteral nutrition for 2 d followed by enteral formula feeding until tissue collection on d 5. Compared with control pigs, intestinal weight was lower and NEC incidence was higher in both groups given probiotics (64–67 vs. 14%; P...

  11. Endoscopic band ligation for colonic diverticular hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Naoki; Setoyama, Takeshi; Deshpande, Gautam A; Omata, Fumio; Matsuda, Michitaka; Suzuki, Shoko; Uemura, Masayo; Iizuka, Yusuke; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Suzuki, Koyu; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    The number of sample cases of colonic diverticular hemorrhage treated with endoscopic band ligation (EBL) has been small to date. To elucidate the safety and efficacy of EBL for colonic diverticular hemorrhage. Retrospective study. General hospital. A total of 29 patients with 31 colonic diverticula with stigmata of recent hemorrhage (SRH). Urgent colonoscopy was performed after bowel preparation. When diverticula with SRH were identified, marking with hemoclips was done near the diverticula. The endoscope was removed and reinserted after a band-ligator device was attached to the tip of endoscope. At first, EBL was attempted. In patients who could not be treated with EBL, epinephrine injection or endoscopic clipping was performed. Procedure time, rate of hemostasis and rebleeding, complications. The mean procedure time was 47 ± 19 minutes. EBL was successfully completed in 27 colonic diverticula (87%); except in 3 diverticula with a small orifice and large dome and 1 diverticula in which the orifice was too large. Early rebleeding after EBL occurred in 3 of 27 cases (11%). Although 2 cases of sigmoid rebleeding could be managed by repeat EBL or conservatively, right hemicolectomy was performed in 1 ascending diverticulum, in which the bleeding source was not identified on repeat colonoscopy. Scar formation at previously banded diverticula was identified in 7 of 11 patients who underwent follow-up colonoscopy. There were no complications after EBL in any of the patients. Retrospective study. EBL is a safe and effective treatment for colonic diverticular hemorrhage, and colonic diverticula resolve after EBL. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Translational control of an intestinal microvillar enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Cowell, G M; Sjöström, H

    1986-01-01

    The rates of biosynthesis of adult and foetal pig small-intestinal aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) were compared to determine at which level the expression of the microvillar enzyme is developmentally controlled. In organ-cultured explants, the rate of biosynthesis of foetal aminopeptidase N is only...... about 3% of the adult rate. The small amount synthesized occurs in a high-mannose-glycosylated, membrane-bound, form that is processed to the mature, complex-glycosylated, form at a markedly slower rate than that of the adult enzyme. Extracts of total RNA from adult and foetal intestine contained...

  13. 乌金猪基因组文库的构建%Construction of Genomic Library of Wujin Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永云; 李卫真; 赵素梅; 黄英; 高士争

    2011-01-01

    为探究与我国优良地方猪种乌金猪特性相关的基因机制,拟构建其基因组文库.取乌金猪肝脏组织,提取大小50 kb以上的基因组DNA,利用限制性内切酶Bcl I对基因组DNA进行随机酶切和低熔点琼脂糖电泳方法回收10~23 kb的DNA片段.以EMBL3作为载体,经BamH I酶切和去磷酸化处理后,与上述纯化的目的DNA片段连接,在体外包装成重组噬菌体,重组噬菌体转染宿主菌KW251,构建成乌金猪基因组文库.文库的效价为2.4 x 109 pfu/mL.乌金猪基因组文库的成功构建,为进行其相关功能基因和基因组区域的识别,基因组DNA和调控元件的克隆与功能分析等后续研究奠定了良好的基础.%To identify the genomic mechanisms for specific traits of Wujin pig, a domestic Chinese swine breed, we constructed its genomic library. The genomic DNA larger than 50 kb was extracted from Wujin pig liver tissue and was digested randomly by restriction enzyme Bel I. DNA fragments ranging from 10 to 23 kb were recovered by agarose gel electrophoresis. EMBL3 vector was digested by BamH I, treated with calf intestine alkaline phosphatase, and then liga-ted with purified DNA fragments forementioned. The genomic library of Wujin pig was constructed by packing recombinant DNA in vitro with phage package protein and transecting KW251 host cells. The result showed that the titer of the library was 2. 4 × 109 pfu/mL. The genomic library of Wujin pig could be used for identification of genes and genomic regions of interest, and provide valuable data for further study such as cloning of genomic DNA and functional analysis of regulatory element.

  14. Hexamine cobalt chloride promotes intermolecular ligation of blunt end DNA fragments by T4 DNA ligase.

    OpenAIRE

    Rusche, J R; Howard-Flanders, P

    1985-01-01

    Hexamine cobalt chloride (HCC) increases the efficiency of blunt end ligation by T4 DNA ligase about 50 fold. Maximum stimulation occurs when standard buffers for ligation are supplemented with 1 mM HCC. All the ligation events are intermolecular regardless of the initial DNA concentration. In the presence of monovalent cations (eg. 25 mM KCl) HCC still increases the extent of T4 catalyzed ligation but intramolecular ligation products are also formed. Therefore, intermolecular ligation can be...

  15. Insulin modulates energy and substrate sensing and protein catabolism induced by chronic peritonitis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute infection promotes skeletal muscle wasting and insulin resistance, but the effect of insulin on energy and substrate sensing in skeletal muscle of chronically infected neonates has not been studied. Eighteen 2-d-old pigs underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham surgery (CON) to ind...

  16. Antispasmodic effect of 4'-methylepigallocatechin on guinea pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Marcelly Barbosa; Souza, Fábia Valéria Menezes; dos Santos Estevam, Charlez; Pizza, Cosimo; Sant'ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Marçal, Rosilene Moretti

    2012-10-01

    The antispasmodic effect of 4'-methylepigallocatechin (MEC), which was isolated from Maytenus rigida Mart (Celestraceae), was investigated in vitro in guinea pig intestinal segments. In the isolated ileum, MEC (1 nM-100 μM) did not modify the ileal spontaneous tonus or the electrically elicited contractions. MEC (8 μM) significantly (prigida stem bark.

  17. Injuries caused by pigs in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barss, P; Ennis, S

    Pigs are intelligent animals that can be formidable adversaries to humans because of their sharp tusks and their ability to attack swiftly. Domestic and feral pigs have an important role in the ecology of village life in Melanesia. A six-year review of all injuries that were caused by pigs that were referred from the villages in Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea, to the Provincial Hospital was completed. Some of the injuries that were seen among the 20 patients who were studied included: three penetrating abdominal injuries with prolapse and strangulation of the intestine; a "sucking" chest wound; bilateral pneumothoraces; two infected open fractures of the radius and the ulna; a perforating injury of the knee with septic arthritis; a hand injury with laceration of multiple tendons; an arterial injury of the wrist; injury of a tibial nerve with foot drop; and a severe scrotal injury with exposure of the testicles. Most injuries resulted from the hunting of feral pigs. Adult male hunters who used dogs and carried only one spear were injured most frequently. Wounds from injuries by pigs are deep, often involve multiple critical structures, and are grossly contaminated. Resuscitation requires the administration of fluid and often blood. Treatment includes irrigation, debridement and closure of the wound. The principles of managing such injuries, the prevention of injuries, the ecology of pigs and humans, human infections originating from pigs, and safer methods of hunting pigs are discussed.

  18. The potential effects of antioxidant feed additives in mitigating the adverse effects of corn naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on antioxidant systems in the intestinal mucosa, plasma, and liver in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Le Thanh, Bich; Lemay, Michel; Bastien, Alexandre; Lapointe, Jérôme; Lessard, Martin; Chorfi, Younès; Guay, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    Seventy-two piglets (6.0 kg BW) were randomly distributed within six different dietary treatments to evaluate the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) and the potential of four antioxidant feed additives in mitigating the adverse effects of DON on growth performances and oxidative status. Dietary treatments were as follows: control diet 0.8 mg/kg DON; contaminated diet (DON-contaminated diet) 3.1 mg/kg DON; and four contaminated diets, each supplemented with a different antioxidant feed additive, DON + vitamins, DON + organic selenium (Se)/glutathione (GSH), DON + quercetin, and DON + COMB (vitamins + Se/GSH + quercetin from the other treatments). Although DON was the main mycotoxin in the contaminated diet, this diet also contained 1.8 mg/kg of zearalenone (ZEN). The "mycotoxin" effects therefore included the combined effect of these two mycotoxins, DON, and ZEN. The DON-ZEN ingestion did not affect growth performances, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed efficiency (G:F ratio), but partially induced oxidative stress in weaned pigs as shown by increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the plasma and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver (P  0.05). Supplementation with individual antioxidant feed additive had a limited effect in weaned pigs fed DON-ZEN-contaminated diets. Combination of antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E, quercetin, and organic Se/GSH) reduced plasma and liver MDA content and SOD activity in liver (P < 0.05) of piglets fed DON-ZEN-contaminated diets. Furthermore, this combination also reduced MDA content in the ileum (P < 0.05), although activity of glutathione peroxidases (GPx), SOD or catalase (CAT) in the ileum was not affected by DON-ZEN contamination or antioxidant supplements. In conclusion, DON-ZEN contamination induced oxidative stress in weaned pigs and combination of antioxidant feed additives restored partially the oxidative status. Further studies will be necessary to assess whether the

  19. Increased secretion of insulin and proliferation of islet {beta}-cells in rats with mesenteric lymph duct ligation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagino, Ko; Yokozawa, Junji; Sasaki, Yu; Matsuda, Akiko; Takeda, Hiroaki [Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Kawata, Sumio, E-mail: Sumio_Kawata@pref.hyogo.lg.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Hyogo Prefectural Nishinomiya Hospital, 13-9 Rokutanji-cho, Nishinomiya 662-0918 (Japan)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion was increased during the OGTT or IVGTT in mesenteric lymph duct-ligated rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferation of islet {beta}-cells was upregulated in lymph duct-ligated rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesenteric lymph duct flow has a role in glucose metabolism. -- Abstract: Background and aims: It has been suggested that intestinal lymph flow plays an important role in insulin secretion and glucose metabolism after meals. In this study, we investigated the influence of ligation of the mesenteric lymph duct on glucose metabolism and islet {beta}-cells in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (10 weeks old) were divided into two groups: one underwent ligation of the mesenteric lymph duct above the cistern (ligation group), and the other underwent a sham operation (sham group). After 1 and 2 weeks, fasting plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and the active form of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured. At 2 weeks after the operation, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) were performed. After the rats had been sacrificed, the insulin content of the pancreas was measured and the proliferation of {beta}-cells was assessed immunohistochemically using antibodies against insulin and Ki-67. Results: During the OGTT, the ligation group showed a significant decrease in the plasma glucose concentration at 120 min (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in the plasma insulin concentration by more than 2-fold at 15 min (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the plasma GIP concentration was significantly decreased at 60 min (p < 0.01) in the ligated group, while the active form of GLP-1 showed a significantly higher level at 90 min (1.7-fold; p < 0.05) and 120 min (2.5-fold; p < 0.01). During the IVGTT, the plasma insulin concentration in the ligation group was significantly higher at 2

  20. Probiotic Modulates the Intestinal Microflora and its Effects on the Production Performance of Pigs%益生菌对猪肠道微生物的调节及其对生产性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱娜; 冯雪云

    2011-01-01

    Probiotic can prevent and cure diseases, promote health and improve the production performance in animal husbandry production. This paper summarized intestinal microflora, regulation mechanism of probiotic in the microecological balance and its application in the swine production.%在畜牧生产中,益生菌可以防治疾病、促进健康和提高生产性能。文章就猪肠道的微生物区系、益生菌对肠道微生态平衡的调控机制及其在养猪生产上的应用效果作一综述。

  1. The influence of diet on Lawsonia intracellularis colonization in pigs upon experimental challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Henriette T.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Schmidt, Anja S.

    2004-01-01

    and furthermore, pigs fed the standard diet supplemented with lactic acid had limited pathological lesions when the intestines were examined 4 weeks after inoculation. The growth performance was reduced in pigs experimentally challenged with L. intracellularis, however the prevalence and severity of diarrhea...... and a diet similar to the standard diet (made from the same ingredients), but fed coarse ground. Twenty-four pigs on each diet were orally inoculated with L. intracellularis and growth performance and faecal excretion of bacteria were monitored. Twenty-four pigs fed the standard diet were included...

  2. Smallholder pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    -ranging of pigs and presence of neighbouring pigs were also identified as risk factors for the presence of lice. Three species of fleas were identified; Tunga penetrans, Echidnophaga gallinacea and Ctenocephalides canis. The prevalence of fleas was 5% and 13% within confined and free-range, respectively. Two pigs...

  3. A new resorbable device for ligation of blood vessels - A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borg Niklas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During surgery, controlled haemostasis to prevent blood loss is vital for a successful outcome. It can be difficult to ligate vessels located deep in the abdomen. A device that is easy to use and enables secure ligatures could be beneficial. Cable ties made of nylon have been used for ligation but the non-resorbable material caused tissue reactions. The objective of this study was to use a resorbable material to construct a device with a self-locking mechanism and to test its mechanical strength and ligation efficiency. Methods The device was manufactured by injection moulding of polydioxanone, a resorbable polymer used for suture materials. Polydioxanone with inherent viscosities of 1.9 dL/g and 1.3 dL/g were tested. The device consisted of a perforated flexible band which could be pulled through a case with a locking mechanism. After a first version of the device had been tested, some improvements were made. The locking case was downsized, corners were rounded off, the band was made thicker and the mould was redesigned to produce longer devices. Tensile tests were performed with the second version. The first version of the device was used to ligate the ovarian pedicle in a euthanized dog and to test echogenicity of the device with ultrasound. Compression of vessels of the ovarian pedicle was examined by histology. Both versions of the device were tested for haemostasis of and tissue grip on renal arteries in six anaesthetised pigs. Results The tensile strength of the flexible band of the devices with inherent viscosity of 1.9 dL/g was 50.1 ± 5.5 N (range 35.2-62.9 N, n = 11 and the devices with inherent viscosity of 1.3 dL/g had a tensile strength of 39.8 ± 8.1 N (range 18.6-54.2 N, n = 11. Injection moulding of the polymer with lower inherent viscosity resulted in a longer flow distance. Both versions of the device had an effective tissue grip and complete haemostasis of renal arteries was verified. The device attached

  4. Convergent synthesis of proteins by kinetically controlled ligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Stephen; Pentelute, Brad; Bang, Duhee; Johnson, Erik; Durek, Thomas

    2010-03-09

    The present invention concerns methods and compositions for synthesizing a polypeptide using kinetically controlled reactions involving fragments of the polypeptide for a fully convergent process. In more specific embodiments, a ligation involves reacting a first peptide having a protected cysteyl group at its N-terminal and a phenylthioester at its C-terminal with a second peptide having a cysteine residue at its N-termini and a thioester at its C-termini to form a ligation product. Subsequent reactions may involve deprotecting the cysteyl group of the resulting ligation product and/or converting the thioester into a thiophenylester.

  5. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Rene L; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models......), and higher intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P Early feeding with formula induces intestinal dysfunction whereas bovine colostrum supports gut maturation when mother's milk is absent during the first week after...

  6. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, René L.; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V.

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother’s milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models...... intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P Early feeding with formula induces intestinal dysfunction whereas bovine colostrum supports gut maturation when mother’s milk is absent during the first week after preterm birth...

  7. Bile duct ligation in mice: induction of inflammatory liver injury and fibrosis by obstructive cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tag, Carmen G; Sauer-Lehnen, Sibille; Weiskirchen, Sabine; Borkham-Kamphorst, Erawan; Tolba, René H; Tacke, Frank; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2015-02-10

    In most vertebrates, the liver produces bile that is necessary to emulsify absorbed fats and enable the digestion of lipids in the small intestine as well as to excrete bilirubin and other metabolic products. In the liver, the experimental obstruction of the extrahepatic biliary system initiates a complex cascade of pathological events that leads to cholestasis and inflammation resulting in a strong fibrotic reaction originating from the periportal fields. Therefore, surgical ligation of the common bile duct has become the most commonly used model to induce obstructive cholestatic injury in rodents and to study the molecular and cellular events that underlie these pathophysiological mechanisms induced by inappropriate bile flow. In recent years, different surgical techniques have been described that either allow reconnection or reanastomosis after bile duct ligation (BDL), e.g., partial BDL, or other microsurgical methods for specific research questions. However, the most frequently used model is the complete obstruction of the common bile duct that induces a strong fibrotic response after 21 to 28 days. The mortality rate can be high due to infectious complications or technical inaccuracies. Here we provide a detailed surgical procedure for the BDL model in mice that induce a highly reproducible fibrotic response in accordance to the 3R rule for animal welfare postulated by Russel and Burch in 1959.

  8. SHORT-TERM PERORAL TOXICITY OF UNDEGRADED CARRAGEENAN IN PIGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, E.

    1973-01-01

    or organ weights. The treatment resulted, however, in changes in the intestinal flora: the total counts of aerobic bacteria were decreased in the colon and rectum and the number of Lactobacilli was reduced in the rectum. No ulcerative colitis or erosions of the mucous membrane of caecum and colon were...... observed. A few focal areas with an irregular surface were observed in the colonic mucosa of some of the pigs given 200 or 500 mg carrageenan/kg. A shift was seen in the cellular infiltration pattern of the mucosa of the large intestine of pigs from all the groups given carrageenan. The slight changes...... in the intestinal mucosa are not considered to be a significant toxic effect....

  9. Formatting and ligating biopolymers using adjustable nanoconfinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Daniel J.; Shayegan, Marjan; Michaud, Francois; Henkin, Gil; Scott, Shane; Leslie, Sabrina

    2016-07-01

    Sensitive visualization and conformational control of long, delicate biopolymers present critical challenges to emerging biotechnologies and biophysical studies. Next-generation nanofluidic manipulation platforms strive to maintain the structural integrity of genomic DNA prior to analysis but can face challenges in device clogging, molecular breakage, and single-label detection. We address these challenges by integrating the Convex Lens-induced Confinement (CLiC) technique with a suite of nanotopographies embedded within thin-glass nanofluidic chambers. We gently load DNA polymers into open-face nanogrooves in linear, concentric circular, and ring array formats and perform imaging with single-fluorophore sensitivity. We use ring-shaped nanogrooves to access and visualize confinement-enhanced self-ligation of long DNA polymers. We use concentric circular nanogrooves to enable hour-long observations of polymers at constant confinement in a geometry which eliminates the confinement gradient which causes drift and can alter molecular conformations and interactions. Taken together, this work opens doors to myriad biophysical studies and biotechnologies which operate on the nanoscale.

  10. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with 25-OH-D3 on Antibody and Cytokine Levels in Serum and Intestinal Contents of Weanling Pigs with or without Rotavirus Challenge%饲粮添加25-羟基维生素D3对轮状病毒攻毒和未攻毒断奶仔猪血清和肠内容物抗体和细胞因子水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖波; 张克英; 丁雪梅; 徐志文; 白世平

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮中添加25-羟基维生素D3(25-OH-D3)对轮状病毒攻毒和未攻毒断奶仔猪血清和肠内容物抗体和细胞因子水平的影响.选取48头28日龄断奶的平均体重为(7.35±0.75)kg的杜长大三元杂交仔猪,按体重随机分配到4个组,每组12个重复,每个重复1头猪,试验期21 d.C-、C+分别为未攻毒和攻毒对照组,饲粮添加25-OH-D3220 IU/kg;T-、T+分别为未攻毒和攻毒试验组,饲粮添加25-OH-D32 200 IU/吨.C+、T+组仔猪试验开始时灌服人轮状病毒1 mL(轮状病毒浓度为1×106TCID50/mL).结果表明,饲粮添加2 200 IU/kg25-OH-D3提高了攻毒仔猪试验第5、21天血清和肠内容物轮状病毒抗体(RV-Ab)水平(P<0.05);降低了未攻毒仔猪第5天血清免疫球蛋白G(IgG)、免疫球蛋白M(IgM)、免疫球蛋白A(IgA)含量(P<0.05)以及攻毒仔猪第5、15天血清IgA含量和第15天血清IgM含量(P<0.01);对未攻毒和攻毒仔猪血清和肠内容物白介素-2(IL-2)、白介素-6(IL-6)水平以及肠内容物干扰素-γ(IFN-γ)水平有降低趋势(P>0.05);提高了未攻毒仔猪血清和肠内容物白介素-4(IL-4)水平(P>0.05)以及攻毒仔猪第5天血清IL-4水平和第15天肠内容物IL-4水平(P<0.01).由结果可知,饲粮添加2 200 IU/kg的25-OH-D3可以提高轮状病毒攻毒和未攻毒断奶仔猪血清及肠内容物RV-Ab水平,降低促炎症细胞因子的分泌及其参与的炎症反应,促进抗炎症细胞因子的生成及其参与的免疫应答,进而表现出提高断奶仔猪抗病力的作用.%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary supplementation with 25-OH-D3 on the antibody and cytokines in serum and intestinal contents of weanling pigs with or without rotavirus challenge.Forty-eight 28-day-old three-way cross ( Duroc×Landrace × Yorkshine) weanling pigs with an average body weight of 7. 35 kg were randomly assigned into 4 treatments with 12 replicates and 1 pig in each replicate

  11. A comparative study of Barron's rubber band ligation with Kshar Sutra ligation in hemorrhoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rakhi; Arya, Ramesh C.; Minhas, Satinder S.; Dutt, Anil

    2010-01-01

    Despite a long medical history of identification and treatment, hemorrhoids still pose a challenge to the medical fraternity in terms of finding satisfactory cure of the disease. In this study, Kshar Sutra Ligation (KSL), a modality of treatment described in Ayurveda, was compared with Barron's Rubber Band Ligation (RBL) for grade II and grade III hemorrhoids. This study was conducted in 20 adult patients of either sex with grade II and grade III hemorrhoids at two different hospitals. Patients were randomly allotted to two groups of 10 patients each. Group I patients underwent RBL, whereas patients of group II underwent KSL. Guggul-based Apamarga Kshar Sutra was prepared according to the principles laid down in ancient Ayurvedic texts and methodology standardized by IIIM, Jammu and CDRI, Lucknow. Comparative assessment of RBL and KSL was done according to 16 criteria. Although the two procedures were compared on 15 criteria, treatment outcome of grade II and grade III hemorrhoids was decided chiefly on the basis of patient satisfaction index (subjective criterion) and ability of each procedure to deal with prolapse of internal hemorrhoidal masses (objective criterion): Findings in each case were recorded over a follow-up of four weeks (postoperative days 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30). Statistical analysis was done using Student's t test for parametric data and Chi square test & Mann-Whitney test for non-parametric data. P 0.05). Both the groups were comparable statistically on all other grounds. Kshar Sutra Ligation is a useful form of treatment for Grades II and III internal hemorrhoids. PMID:20814519

  12. Transgenesis for pig models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Soo-Young; Yoon, Ki-Young; Lee, Choong-Il; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Animal models, particularly pigs, have come to play an important role in translational biomedical research. There have been many pig models with genetically modifications via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, because most transgenic pigs have been produced by random integration to date, the necessity for more exact gene-mutated models using recombinase based conditional gene expression like mice has been raised. Currently, advanced genome-editing technologies enable us to generate specific gene-deleted and -inserted pig models. In the future, the development of pig models with gene editing technologies could be a valuable resource for biomedical research. PMID:27030199

  13. Glucagon-like peptide-2 induces rapid digestive adaptation following intestinal resection in preterm neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Andreas; Thymann, Thomas; Lund, Pernille;

    2013-01-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a frequent complication after intestinal resection in infants suffering from intestinal disease. We tested whether treatment with the intestinotrophic hormone glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases intestinal volume and function in the period immediately following...... and protein contents and increased total protein synthesis rate in SBS+GLP-2 vs. SBS pigs (+100%, P fluid and macronutrients. GLP-2 treatment may...... be a promising therapy to enhance intestinal adaptation and improve digestive function in preterm infants with jejunostomy following intestinal resection....

  14. A Photo-Triggered Traceless Staudinger-Bertozzi Ligation Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Feng, Tianshi; Yeung, Chi-Chung; Koo, Chi-Kin; Lau, Kai-Chung; Lam, Michael H W

    2016-08-08

    The use of light to control the course of a chemical/biochemical reaction is an attractive idea because of its ease of administration with high precision and fine spatial resolution. Staudinger ligation is one of the commonly adopted conjugation processes that involve a spontaneous reaction between azides and arylphosphines to form iminophosphoranes, which further hydrolyze to give stable amides. We designed an anthracenylmethyl diphenylphosphinothioester (1) that showed promising Staudinger ligation reactivity upon photo-excitation. Broadband photolysis at 360-400 nm in aqueous organic solvents induced heterolytic cleavage of its anthracenylmethyl-phosphorus bond, releasing a diphenylphosphinothioester (2) as an efficient traceless Staudinger-Bertozzi ligation reagent. The quantum yield of such a photo-induced heterolytic bond-cleavage at the optimal wavelength of photolysis (376 nm) at room temperature is ≥0.07. This work demonstrated the feasibility of photocaging arylphosphines to realize the photo-triggering of the Staudinger ligation reaction.

  15. AN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY ON DISTRIBUTION OF ENTEROTOXINS OF ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI IN THE INTESTINE OF GUINEA-PIG%产毒性大肠杆菌毒素在豚鼠肠道定位的免疫组织化学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈清; 申洪; 王雅贤; 俞守义

    2001-01-01

    研究利用免疫组织化学方法对产毒性大肠杆菌(ETEC)感染豚鼠小肠组织中ETEC肠毒素的定位进行了研究。本研究结果表明,发病豚鼠从空肠到回肠明显充血、肿胀,但盲肠、结肠和直肠外观与对照组差别不明显。光镜下见到发病动物肠组织病变主要出现在空肠和回肠,以回肠最为严重。主要病理改变为水肿、炎症细胞浸润和充血。病变部位可以出现在粘膜层、粘膜下层、肌层和浆膜层。取回肠组织切片作免疫组织化学显示ETEC不耐热肠毒素(LT)和耐热肠毒素(ST),可见回肠粘膜表层、粘膜肌层、肌层及浆膜层均呈LT和ST阳性反应,分布弥漫。空白对照和正常豚鼠回肠组织均呈阴性结果。本研究表明,ETEC主要作用于空肠和回肠,尤其是回肠;回肠组织各层都有病变,且与肠毒素的分布一致,证明毒素的作用并不仅限于肠粘膜细胞。%Using immunohistochemical method, distribution of enterotoxins ofenterotoxigenic Escherichia coli( ETEC) in small intestine of the guinea pig infected with ETEC. The results showed t hat the jejunum and ileum of guinea pig infected were obviously hyperemia and ed ema. But no obvious changes were found in the cecum, colon and rectum between i nfecting animals and controls. Under light microscope, pathogenic changes were s een mainly in the jejunum and ileum. The changes mainly were edema, hyperemia an d inflammatory cell infiltration. The sections of ileum were detected by labi le heat enterotoxin(LT) and stable heat enterotoxin(ST) of ETEC. LT and ST were positive on the surface of mucous membrane, muscularis mucosa, tunica muscula ris and fibrosa in infecting guinea pig. The distribution of enterotoxins wer e diffuse and consistent with the histological lesions. No positive reaction was found in normal guinea pig and controls. The present results indicate that the locations of ETEC action were mainly in

  16. Different macro- and micro-rheological properties of native porcine respiratory and intestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokkasam, Harish; Ernst, Matthias; Guenther, Marco; Wagner, Christian; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2016-08-20

    Aim of this study was to investigate the similarities and differences at macro- and microscale in the viscoelastic properties of mucus that covers the epithelia of the intestinal and respiratory tract. Natural mucus was collected from pulmonary and intestinal regions of healthy pigs. Macro-rheological investigations were carried out through conventional plate-plate rheometry. Microrheology was investigated using optical tweezers. Our data revealed significant differences both in macro- and micro-rheological properties between respiratory and intestinal mucus.

  17. RNA-templated DNA ligation for transcript analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Mats; Antson, Dan-Oscar; Barbany, Gisela; Landegren, Ulf

    2001-01-01

    Ligase-mediated gene detection has proven valuable for detection and precise distinction of DNA sequence variants. We have recently shown that T4 DNA ligase can also be used to distinguish single nucleotide variants of RNA sequences. Here we describe parameters that influence RNA-templated DNA ligation by T4 DNA ligase. The reaction proceeds much more slowly, requiring more enzyme, compared to ligation of the same oligonucleotides hybridized to the corresponding DNA se...

  18. Lactoferrin targets T cells in the small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Mie; Hansen, Gert Helge; Danielsen, E Michael

    2010-01-01

    pathogens, and Lf receptors have been identified at the surfaces of a number of different cells. In the small intestine Lf binds to the luminal surface, but its further interaction with the epithelial cells is controversial. METHODS: In the present work, we studied the uptake of Lf in cultured mucosal...... explants of pig small intestine by immunofluorescence and immunogold microscopy. RESULTS: Lf rapidly bound to the brush border and subsequently appeared in punctae in the apical cytoplasm, indicating internalization into an endosomal compartment. Essentially, no labeling was detected elsewhere...... defense of the small intestinal mucosa by targeting the population of T cells in the lamina propria....

  19. Mechanism of Imidazole-Promoted Ligation of Peptide Phenyl Esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晨; 刘磊

    2012-01-01

    Imidazole-promoted ligation of peptide phenyl esters was recently found to be a complementary method for protein chemical synthesis. Theoretical calculations have been carried out to understand the detailed mechanism of this particular ligation process. It is found that both the reaction of the phenyl ester with imidazole and the reaction of the acyl imidazole intermediate with cysteine proceed through an addition-elimination mechanism. The cleavage of the C--O bond in the reaction between the phenyl ester and imidazole is the rate-limiting step of the overall liga- tion process. Interestingly, although the imidazole-promoted phenyl ester ligation has a higher free energy barrier than the conventional thiophenol-promoted native chemical ligation for a sterically less hindered C-terminal amino acid (e.g. gylcine), for a sterically hindered C-terminal amino acid (e.g. proline) the imidazole-promoted phenyl ester ligation is calculated to be more favorable than the conventional thiophenol-promoted native chemical ligation.

  20. Rubber band ligation of hemorrhoids: A guide for complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Andreia

    2016-01-01

    Rubber band ligation is one of the most important, cost-effective and commonly used treatments for internal hemorrhoids. Different technical approaches were developed mainly to improve efficacy and safety. The technique can be employed using an endoscope with forward-view or retroflexion or without an endoscope, using a suction elastic band ligator or a forceps ligator. Single or multiple ligations can be performed in a single session. Local anaesthetic after ligation can also be used to reduce the post-procedure pain. Mild bleeding, pain, vaso-vagal symptoms, slippage of bands, priapism, difficulty in urination, anal fissure, and chronic longitudinal ulcers are normally considered minor complications, more frequently encountered. Massive bleeding, thrombosed hemorrhoids, severe pain, urinary retention needing catheterization, pelvic sepsis and death are uncommon major complications. Mild pain after rubber band ligation is the most common complication with a high frequency in some studies. Secondary bleeding normally occurs 10 to 14 d after banding and patients taking anti-platelet and/or anti-coagulant medication have a higher risk, with some reports of massive life-threatening haemorrhage. Several infectious complications have also been reported including pelvic sepsis, Fournier’s gangrene, liver abscesses, tetanus and bacterial endocarditis. To date, seven deaths due to these infectious complications were described. Early recognition and immediate treatment of complications are fundamental for a favourable prognosis. PMID:27721924

  1. Intramyocardial activation in early ventricular arrhythmias following coronary artery ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplinsky, E; Ogawa, S; Kmetzo, J; Balke, C W; Dreifus, L S

    1980-01-01

    Subendocardial, subepicardial and intramyocardial activation in the ischemic zone was investigated in 20 anesthetized open chest dogs 0-30 minutes after the ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Single and composite electrograms and lead 2 of the ECG were recorded. Coronary artery ligation produced marked delay, fragmentation, and reduction in amplitude in the electrical activity of the subepicardial and intramyocardial muscle layers. The activation remained synchronous in the subendocardial muscle layers. Extension of electrical activity in the ischemic subepicardium and intramyocardium beyond the T wave of the surface ECG preceded the onset of immediate ventricular arrhythmias (IVA) during the initial ten minute period after coronary artery ligation. However, a second surge of delayed ventricular arrhythmias (DVA), 10-30 minutes after ligation, was not associated with the appearance of diastolic electrical activity in any of the subepicardial or myocardial layers. It appears that subepicardial as well as intramyocardial reentry could play an important role in the genesis of the immediate ventricular arrhythmias (1-10 minutes after ligation). In contrast, no obvious reentrant activity as evidenced by delayed and fragmented electrical activity could be observed in the electrogram from any of the myocardial electrical activity could be observed in the electrogram from any of the myocardial layers with the appearance of delayed ventricular ectopic activity 10-30 minutes after ligation.

  2. Effects of supplemental L-tryptophan on serotonin, cortisol, intestinal integrity, and behavior in weanling piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Koopmans, S.J.; Guzik, A.C.; Meulen, van der, J.; Dekker, R. A.; Kogut, J.; Kerr, B. J.; Southern, L.L.

    2006-01-01

    Stress occurs in intensive pig farming when piglets are weaned and mixed. In this study, we investigated whether this stress might be reduced with elevated dietary levels of Trp. The effects of supplemental dietary Trp (5 g/kg of feed, as-fed basis) were tested on the neuroendocrine system, intestinal integrity, behavior, and growth performance in nursery pigs, both before and after mixing. Mixing occurred 5 d after weaning and diet introduction. On d 4, 5, and 6, Trp-fed pigs vs. control pig...

  3. 豚鼠胆囊胆固醇结石形成过程中肠道传输功能下降的细胞及分子机制探讨%Cellular and molecular mechanism of slow intestinal transit during formation of cholesterol gallstones in guinea pig model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范莹; 吴硕东; 殷振华; 付倍蓓

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨豚鼠胆囊胆固醇结石形成过程中肠道传输功能下降的细胞和分子机制及其与胆石形成的关系.方法 健康雄性豚鼠40只,4周龄,体质量120~ 125 g.将其随机分为实验组与对照组,每组20只.实验组给予致石饲料(胆固醇含量2%),对照组给予正常颗粒饲料.8周造模结束后,用逆转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)检测小肠组织中c-kit及scf的mRNA的表达情况,利用末端回肠全层铺片免疫荧光化学染色及激光共聚焦显微镜观察各组Cajal样间质细胞(ICCs)数量的变化.结果 RT-PCR结果显示,与对照组相比,实验组豚鼠小肠c-kit(0.316±0.056 vs 0.912±0.103;t=6.582,P<0.01)和scf(0.499±0.012 vs 0.899±0.124;t=6.163,P<0.01)的mRNA水平的表达量下降;对照组豚鼠回肠ICCs平均阳性面积为(56.24±2.68)%,实验组为(22.26±1.14)%,较对照组明显降低(t=15.256,P<0.01).结论 饮食诱导的豚鼠胆囊胆固醇结石形成过程中,小肠c-kit和scf基因mRNA表达水平下降,ICCs数量明显减少.c-kit/scf通路抑制可能参与胆囊胆固醇结石的形成过程中肠道传输功能下降的发生.%Objective To investigate the cellular and molecular mechanism of slow intestinal transit during the formation of cholesterol gallstones in guinea pig model, and study its relationship with gallstone formation. Methods Forty healthy male guinea pigs of 4-week old and 120 - 150 g body weight were randomly divided into 2 groups, namely experimental group and control group(n= 20). The experimental group was fed high cholesterol diet (cholesterol 2 %), and control group fed normal diet. The guinea pigs were sacrificed after 8 weeks. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) was used to determine the expression of c-kit and scf mRNA. Change in the numbers of interstitial Cajal cells(ICCs) in terminal ileum was observed by immunohistochemical method. Results Compared with the control group, the mRNA expression of c-kit(0

  4. ALTERACIONES EN LA PRODUCCIÓN mRNA DE ENZIMAS INTESTINALES DE CERDOS DURANTE VARIOS PERÍODOS POSDESTETE ALTERAÇÕES NA PRODUÇÃO DE mRNA DE ENZIMAS INTESTINAIS DOS SUINOS DURANTE DIVERSOS PERÍODOS APOS O DESMAME ALTERATIONS IN THE PRODUCTION mRNA OF INTESTINAL ENZYMES IN PIGS DURING SEVERAL POSTWEANING PERIODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA MONTOYA R.

    2012-12-01

    enzimas ao nível do enterocito, causando a diminuição da absorção intestinal dos nutrientes, e provavelmente a apresentação do síndrome da diarreia apos o desmame.The aim of this study was to determine the gene expression of enzymes to enterocyte level of pigs during post-weaning periods.The experiment was conducted in San PabloProductionCenter of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Medellín with 16 weaned pigs at 21 days of age.The animals were fed for 10 days with a basal diet with milk and some of its derivatives, and that also fulfilled all the nutritionals minimums. Pigs were sequentially slaughtered on days one, five, seven, and 10 days after weaning.Complete extraction of small intestine was realized, which was divided into three sections (duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The gene expression of digestive enzymes by RT-PCR was evaluated.The statistical design used was completely at random. For intestinal enzymes significant decreases were showed, where on fifth day post-weaning presented the lowest values (P<0.01. Between one and 10 days post-weaning there were differences (P<0.01. The duodenum showed the highest values of gene expression (P<0.01. Early weaning alters molecular expression of enzymes to enterocyte level, causing the decrease of intestinal absorption of nutrients, and probably the presentation of post-weaning diarrhea syndrome.

  5. Precise sequential DNA ligation on a solid substrate: solid-based rapid sequential ligation of multiple DNA molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takita, Eiji; Kohda, Katsunori; Tomatsu, Hajime; Hanano, Shigeru; Moriya, Kanami; Hosouchi, Tsutomu; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shinmyo, Atsuhiko; Shibata, Daisuke

    2013-12-01

    Ligation, the joining of DNA fragments, is a fundamental procedure in molecular cloning and is indispensable to the production of genetically modified organisms that can be used for basic research, the applied biosciences, or both. Given that many genes cooperate in various pathways, incorporating multiple gene cassettes in tandem in a transgenic DNA construct for the purpose of genetic modification is often necessary when generating organisms that produce multiple foreign gene products. Here, we describe a novel method, designated PRESSO (precise sequential DNA ligation on a solid substrate), for the tandem ligation of multiple DNA fragments. We amplified donor DNA fragments with non-palindromic ends, and ligated the fragment to acceptor DNA fragments on solid beads. After the final donor DNA fragments, which included vector sequences, were joined to the construct that contained the array of fragments, the ligation product (the construct) was thereby released from the beads via digestion with a rare-cut meganuclease; the freed linear construct was circularized via an intra-molecular ligation. PRESSO allowed us to rapidly and efficiently join multiple genes in an optimized order and orientation. This method can overcome many technical challenges in functional genomics during the post-sequencing generation.

  6. PHYSIOLOGICAL MENSTRUAL RHYTHM AND FERTILITY AFTER INTERNAL ILIAC ARTERY LIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVE Bilateral internal iliac artery ligation is a useful skill for the management of life-threatening post-partum hemorrhage. The procedure is not without risks and long-term complications. This study was conducted to ensure documentation and reporting of pregnancies following bilateral hypogastric artery ligation in cases of post-partum hemorrhage. We also aimed to compare the menstrual function and reproductive outcome after bilateral internal iliac artery ligation done for atonic post-partum haemorrhage. DESIGN Prospective Case Study. SETTING Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Madras Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Jan 2013 to March 2015. PARTICIPANTS Ten cases of bilateral internal iliac artery ligation were done for atonic post-partum hemorrhage. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was assessed as the resumption of menstruation, regular cycles, and ability to conceive after surgery. Secondary outcome was incidence of intrauterine growth retardation and recurrent post-partum hemorrhage in subsequent pregnancies. RESULTS The mean duration of resumption of menstruation following internal iliac artery ligation was 3 months. Bilateral internal iliac artery ligation is preferred over unilateral ligation as the extensive collaterals from the contralateral side immediately fill the circulation. The cases of atonic post-partum hemorrhage may require B-Lynch sutures in addition to bilateral internal iliac artery ligation to regain tone. Successful pregnancy after bilateral internal iliac artery ligation occurred in three out of seven cases. In one case, there was intrauterine growth retardation in eighth month. The patient was admitted and closely monitored with Doppler scan. At 35 weeks of gestation, emergency lower segment caesarean section was done for absent diastolic flow. The preterm neonate was 2 kilograms. There was no post-partum hemorrhage in the subsequent

  7. Intestinal myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U S Udgaonkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. Materials and Methods: We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar. This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Results: Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. Conclusions: S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.

  8. Time-dependent viscoelastic properties along rat small intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James B Smith; Jing-Bo Zhao; Yan-Ling Dou; Hans Gregersen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To measure the time-dependent (viscoelastic)behavior in the change of the small intestinal opening angle and to test how well the behavior could be described by the Kelvin model for a standard linear solid.METHODS: Segments from the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were harvested from 10 female Wistar rats and the luminal diameter, wall thickness, and opening angleover time (θ(t)) were measured from rings cut from thesesegments.RESULTS: Morphometric variations were found along thesmall intestine with an increase in luminal area and adecrease in wall thickness from the duodenum to theileum. The opening angle obtained after 60 min washighest in the duodenum (220.8±12.9°) and decreasedalong the length of the intestine to 143.9±8.9° in the jejunum and 151.4±9.4° in the ileum. The change ofopening angle as a function of time, fitted well to theKelvin model using the equation θ(t)/θo = [1-ηexp (-λt)]after the ring was cut. The computed creep rate λ did notdiffer between the segments. Compared to constantcalculated from pig aorta and coronary artery, it showedthat α agreed well (within 5%), η was three times largerthan that for vascular tissue, and λ ranged ±40% from the value of the pig coronary artery and was a third of the value of pig aorta.CONCLUSION: The change of opening angle over timefor all the small intestine segments fits well to the standardlinear spring-dashpot model. This viscoelastic constantof the rat small intestine is fairly homogenous along itslength. The data obtained from this study add to a baseset of biomechanical data on the small intestine andprovide a reference state for comparison to other tissues,diseased intestinal tissue or intestinal tissue exposed todrugs or chemicals.

  9. Fiber-related digestive processes in three different breeds of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Heimendahl, E; Breves, G; Abel, H J

    2010-03-01

    The hypothesis examined in this experiment was that, because of intensive selection for greater daily BW gains and efficient utilization of concentrated low-fiber diets, modern pig breeds differ from old local breeds in their physiological ability to respond to soluble dietary fiber. Thus, the old local breeds, Schwaebisch Haellisches Schwein (SH) and Bunte Bentheimer (BB), and a modern crossbred pig (CB) were used in metabolism trials to study fiber-related digestion, including microbial hindgut fermentation, by applying a colon simulation technique (Cositec) and measuring intestinal glucose transport in Ussing chambers. A basal diet or basal plus 20% dried sugar beet pulp (SBP) as a soluble fiber source was fed to 6 pigs/breed in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Four pigs of each breed per treatment were used for intestinal anatomical measurements at the end of the metabolism trials. The pigs had an initial average BW of 33.9 +/- 3.7 kg. The basal diet was formulated to meet 80% of energy and 100% of nutrient requirements for pigs with 700 g of ADG. Feeding the SBP diet reduced total intestinal tract, but it increased colon length, water-holding capacity of the digesta, and fecal bulk (P SBP (P = 0.001). Pigs receiving SBP excreted less urinary N and retained more N (P = 0.001). The fecal proportions of undigested dietary and water soluble N increased and those of bacterial and endogenous debris N decreased (P SBP-fed pigs. The SH pigs had lighter empty cecum weight, shorter colons, and less NDF digestibility than BB and CB pigs (P SBP-fed pigs increased (P SBP-fed BB pigs produced more VFA with a smaller proportion of propionate and a larger acetate to propionate ratio than chyme of SBP-fed SH and CB pigs. The intestinal epithelial glucose transport was greater for ileal than for jejunal tissues (P SBP fiber as efficiently as the old pig breeds under the present experimental conditions.

  10. Clinical application of a ligation-independent pathway of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for the determination of quinolone susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Naoki; Araki, Nobuko; Kaku, Norihito; Kosai, Kosuke; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2016-09-01

    We previously uncovered a ligation-independent pathway of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) through which products of MLPA could be amplified without both hybridization and ligation reactions. Here, we utilized this pathway to detect an antibiotic resistance mutation of quinolones in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

  11. Pig model for diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a transgenic pig comprising a mutated IAPP gene and displaying a phenotype associated with diabetes. The invention also relates to a transgenic blastocyst, embryo, fetus, donor cell and/or cell nucleusderived from said transgenic pig. The invention further relates...... to use of the transgenic pig as a model system for studying therapy, treatment and/or prevention of diabetes....

  12. 丝线法制备豚鼠不完全性小肠梗阻模型及对c-kit表达的影响研究%Observe the expression of c-kit gene in intestinal cells of Cajal by establishing incomplete small intestinal obstruction models of guinea pig with silk method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨拯; 李欣芮; 王强; 刘双; 黄倩; 计震华

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨丝线法建立豚鼠不完全性小肠梗阻模型对ICC细胞表达c-kit的影响。方法选取43只成年健康豚鼠随机分成正常A组、假手术B组、模型组(C、D、E)。对模型组豚鼠通过丝线法造成不完全性肠梗阻,3 d后取出丝线并关闭腹腔,分别于术后第1d(C组),第3d(D组),第7d(E组)对小肠收缩力、肠黏膜损伤程度及小肠c-kit含量变化进行测定。结果模型组各项指标的测定与正常组比较均有统计学差异(P0.05)。E组小肠收缩力较D组高(P0.05). The contractility of intestinal tissue of E group was higher than D group (P<0.05), and the degree of intestinal mucosal membrane injury was less serious than D group (P<0.01). Besides, the expression of c-kit in E group wass significantly higher than D group (P<0.01). Conclusion Incomplete intestinal obstruction with down-regulated c-kit could be established by the silk method.

  13. Physiological mechanisms of acute intestinal radiation death. Technical report, 1 June 1983-1 June 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.L.; Geraci, J.P.

    1986-06-01

    The overall objective was to clarify the role of fluid and electrolyte loss, bile-duct ligation, radiation-damaged intestinal mucosa, bacterial toxemia and their interrelationships on radiation-induced gastrointestinal death. Using specific pathogen-free CD-1 male rats, this study found that endogenous enteric bacteria did not play a significant role in pure intestinal radiation death. Bile acids, per se, were shown to play little role in intestinal radiation death, but the inability of the denuded mucosa to absorb fluid and electrolytes, thereby producing hypovolemic shock, was the major mechanism.

  14. Lesiones macro y microscópicas de intestino delgado de cerdos neonatos sin calostrar inoculados experimentalmente con cepas de E. coli fimbriadas Histopatholocial lesions in the small intestine of calostrum deprived pigs inoculated with strains of E. Coli bearing F4, F5, F6 y F41 fimbriaes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M CANAL

    1999-01-01

    hours p.i. The macroscopic lesions were characterized by congestion and abundant liquid content; only the intensity of the lesions among the different innoculated groups was different. Microscopically, the íleon was the most affected segment, presenting congestion, bacteria adhesion, epitelial vacuolization of the intestinal villus, athrophy, neutrophilic infiltration and linfoid necrosis in the Payer plaques, being E. coli F4 that caused the most severe lesions. These results confirm the importance of antigens fimbrial as adhesion factors on enteropathogenic E. coli in the small intestine of pigs and the actions of another pathogenic factors. Thus, it opens projections for future methologies which, using the antigenic properties of the fimbriae in the elaboration of immunogenes will contribute to control colibacillosis, avoiding the adhesion of enteropathogenic E. coli

  15. Gene Expression Analysis of the IPEC-J2 Cell Line: A Simple Model for the Inflammation-Sensitive Preterm Intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Sangild, Per T.

    2013-01-01

    -related genes in IPEC-J2 cells stimulated for 2 h with milk formula (CELL-FORM), colostrum (CELL-COLOS), or growth medium (CELL-CONTR) and in distal small intestinal tissue samples from preterm pigs fed milk formula (PIG-FORM) or colostrum (PIG-COLOS). High throughput quantitative PCR analysis of 48 genes......The IPEC-J2 cell line was studied as a simple model for investigating responses of the newborn intestinal epithelium to diets. Especially, the small intestine of immature newborns is sensitive to diet-induced inflammation. We investigated gene expression of epithelial- and immune response...... revealed the expression of 22 genes in IPEC-J2 cells and 31 genes in intestinal samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) discriminated the gene expression profile of IPEC-J2 cells from that of intestinal samples. The expression profile of intestinal tissue was separated by PCA into 2 groups according...

  16. Introduction of enteral food increases plasma GLP-2 and decreases GLP-2 receptor mRNA abundance during pig development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Yvette M; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    transcription polymerase chain reaction) during pre- and postnatal development and the relationship between these variables and small intestinal growth in enterally and parenterally fed fetal and newborn pigs (premature and term-delivered, 92 and 100% gestation, respectively). Plasma GLP-2 concentrations...... of colostrum in fetal pigs at 92% gestation compared with untreated controls (59 +/- 11 vs. 7 +/- 2 pmol/L, P parenteral infusion of elemental nutrients, but the time course...... in these pigs. We conclude that the introduction of enteral feeding transiently increases plasma GLP-2 concentrations and decreases small intestinal GLP-2R mRNA levels during pig development. GLP-2 may play a role in the growth of the small intestine around birth and weaning via a response to enteral nutrition....

  17. Glucagon-like peptide 2 has limited efficacy to increase nutrient absorption in fetal and preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangild, Per Torp; Malo, Christiane; Schmidt, Mette;

    2007-01-01

    to exogenous GLP-2. This was accomplished using catheterized fetal pigs infused for 6 days (87-91% of gestation) with GLP-2 (25 nmol.kg(-1).day(-1) iv; n = 7) or saline (n = 7), and cesarean-delivered preterm pigs (92% of gestation) that received TPN with GLP-2 (25 nmol.kg(-1).day(-1) iv; n = 8) or saline (n......Exogenous glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) prevents intestinal atrophy and increases nutrient absorption in term newborn pigs receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). We tested the hypothesis that the immature intestine of fetuses and preterm neonates has a diminished nutrient absorption response...... circulating GLP-2 levels in fetuses, but did not increase intestinal mass or absorption of nutrients by intact tissues and brush border membrane vesicles, except for lysine. Administration of exogenous GLP-2 to preterm TPN-fed pigs similarly did not increase rates of nutrient absorption, yet nutrient...

  18. Exogenous pancreatic-like enzymes are recovered in the gut and improve growth of exocrine pancreatic insufficient pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzynowski, S; Szwiec, K; Valverde Piedra, J L; Gruijc, D; Szymanczyk, S; Swieboda, P; Prykhodko, O; Fedkiv, O; Kruszewska, D; Filip, R; Botermans, J; Svendsen, J; Ushakova, G; Kovalenko, T; Osadchenko, I; Goncharova, K; Skibo, G; Weström, B

    2012-12-01

    The exocrine pancreatic insufficient (EPI) pigs grow less due to different disturbances in feed digestion, absorption, and retention. Use of pancreatic-like enzymes of microbial origin in pigs may improve feed use and performance in slow-growing pigs. The aim was to study gut recovery and effectiveness of pancreatic-like enzymes of microbial origin supplementation on pig performance. Six male pigs 10 to 12 kg BW underwent pancreatic duct ligation surgery to induce total exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). Three cannulas to access the gastrointestinal tract content were installed in stomach, duodenum, and ileum in EPI pigs and in 3 control (healthy) pigs. One month after surgery, enzymes were given before feeding and digesta samples were collected for analyses. The BW of EPI pigs did not increase during 1 mo following surgery (11.7 vs. 11.6 kg BW); however, BW increased after 1 wk of enzyme supplementation (12.1 kg BW). Coefficient of fat and N absorption increased (P amylase, lipase, and protease in chyme samples of EPI pigs was very low compared to controls. In EPI pigs after enzyme supplementation, amylase activity increased from 5.32 to 72.9 units/mL but remained lower than that of healthy pigs (162.7 units/mL). Lipase activity increased from 79.1 to 421.6 units/mL, which was similar to that of controls (507.3 units/mL). Proteolytic activity increased from 7.8 to 69.7 units/mL but still did not reach control pigs (164.3 units/mL). In conclusion, exogenous microbial enzymes mimic endogenous pancreatic enzymes being recovered along the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. These enzymes might be a useful tool to stimulate growth of slower-growing pigs after the weaning period.

  19. The microbial fermentation characteristics depend on both carbohydrate source and heat processing: a model experiment with ileo-cannulated pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2017-01-01

    The effects of carbohydrate (CHO) source and processing (extrusion cooking) on large intestinal fermentation products were studied in ileo-cannulated pigs as a model for humans. Pigs were fed diets containing barley, pea or a mixture of potato starch:wheat bran (PSWB) either raw or extrusion cooked....... Extrusion cooking reduced the amount of starch fermented in the large intestine by 52–96% depending on the CHO source and the total pool of butyrate in the distal small intestine + large intestine by on average 60% across diets. Overall, extrusion cooking caused a shift in the composition of short...

  20. The role of adrenergic receptors in the motility of duodenum and choledochoduodenal junction in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blichowski, A; Andrzejewski, W; Gaszyński, W; Kozulski, W

    1977-01-01

    The role of adenergic receptors in the motility of duodenum and choledochoduodenal junction in the pig. Acta Physiol. Pol., 1977, 28 (6): 521-528. The choldeochoduodenal junction in the Vietnamese pig is functionally and anatomically a part of duodenal wall. In view of this, investigations were carried out for establishing the role of adrenergic receptors in the development of motor function of this part of the intestinal tract. The experiments were performed on domestic Vietnamese pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and they showed that after stimulation of alpha and beta adrenergic receptors the motor activity of the duodenal muscular coat and the choledochoduodenal junction is inhibited. The obtained results suggest similar reactions of the adrenergic receptors in both examined parts of the intestinal tract in the pig.

  1. Template-Directed Ligation of Peptides to Oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruick, Richard K.; Dawson, Philip E.; Kent, Stephen BH; Usman, Nassim; Joyce, Gerald F.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic oligonucleotides and peptides have enjoyed a wide range of applications in both biology and chemistry. As a consequence, oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates have received considerable attention, most notably in the development of antisense constructs with improved pharmacological properties. In addition, oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates have been used as molecular tags, in the assembly of supramolecular arrays and in the construction of encoded combinatorial libraries. To make these chimeric molecules more accessible for a broad range of investigations, we sought to develop a facile method for joining fully deprotected oligonucleotides and peptides through a stable amide bond linkage. Furthermore, we wished to make this ligation reaction addressable, enabling one to direct the ligation of specific oligonucleotide and peptide components.To confer specificity and accelerate the rate of the reaction, the ligation process was designed to be dependent on the presence of a complementary oligonucleotide template.

  2. A Generic Polymer-Protein Ligation Strategy for Vaccine Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybaert, Lien; Vanparijs, Nane; Fierens, Kaat; Schuijs, Martijn; Nuhn, Lutz; Lambrecht, Bart N; De Geest, Bruno G

    2016-03-14

    Although the field of cancer immunotherapy is intensively investigated, there is still a need for generic strategies that allow easy, mild and efficient formulation of vaccine antigens. Here we report on a generic polymer-protein ligation strategy to formulate protein antigens into reversible polymeric conjugates for enhanced uptake by dendritic cells and presentation to CD8 T-cells. A N-hydroxypropylmethacrylamide (HPMA)-based copolymer was synthesized via RAFT polymerization followed by introduction of pyridyldisulfide moieties. To enhance ligation efficiency to ovalbumin, which is used as a model protein antigen, protected thiols were introduced onto lysine residues and deprotected in situ in the presence of the polymer. The ligation efficiency was compared for both the thiol-modified versus unmodified ovalbumin, and the reversibility was confirmed. Furthermore, the obtained nanoconjugates were tested in vitro for their interaction and association with dendritic cells, showing enhanced cellular uptake and antigen cross-presentation to CD8 T-cells.

  3. Ligation-assisted endoscopic mucosal resection of gastric heterotopic pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mouen A Khashab; Oscar W Cummings; John M DeWitt

    2009-01-01

    Heterotopic pancreas is a congenital anomaly characterized by ectopic pancreatic tissue.Treatment of heterotopic pancreas may include expectant observation,endoscopic resection or surgery.The aim of this report was to describe the technique of ligation-assisted endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) for resection of heterotopic pancreas of the stomach.Two patients (both female,mean age 32 years) were referred for management of gastric subepithelial tumors.Endoscopic ultrasound in both disclosed small hypoechoic masses in the mucosa and submucosa.Band ligation-assisted EMR was performed in both cases without complications.Pathology from the resected tumors revealed heterotopic pancreas arising from the submucosa.Margins were free of pancreatic tissue.Ligation-assisted EMR is technically feasible and may be considered for the endoscopic management of heterotopic pancreas.

  4. Acute Effects of the Glucagon-Like Peptide 2 Analogue, Teduglutide, on Intestinal Adaptation in Short Bowel Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thymann, Thomas; Stoll, B.; Mecklenburg, L.;

    2014-01-01

    objective was to test the efficacy of the long-acting synthetic human GLP-2 analogue, teduglutide (ALX-0600), in a neonatal piglet jejunostomy model. Two-day-old pigs were subjected to resection of 50% of the small intestine (distal part), and the remnant intestine was exteriorized on the abdominal wall...

  5. Brachial artery aneurysms following brachio-cephalic AV fistula ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Usman; Parkinson, Frances; Mohiuddin, Kamran; Davies, Paula; Woolgar, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral artery aneurysms proximal to a long-standing arteriovenous (AV) fistula can be a serious complication. It is important to be aware of this and manage it appropriately. Vascular access nurses input all data regarding patients undergoing dialysis access procedures into a securely held database prospectively. This was retrospectively reviewed to identify cases of brachial artery aneurysms over the last 3 years. In Morriston Hospital, around 200 forearm and arm AV fistulas are performed annually for vascular access in renal dialysis patients. Of these, approximately 15 (7.5%) are ligated. Three patients who had developed brachial artery aneurysms following AV fistula ligation were identified. All 3 patients had developed brachial artery aneurysms following ligation of a long-standing brachio-cephalic AV fistula. Two patients presented with pain and a pulsatile mass in the arm, and one presented with pins and needles and discoloration of fingertips. Two were managed with resection of the aneurysm and reconstruction with a reversed long saphenous vein interposition graft, the third simply required ligation of a feeding arterial branch. True aneurysm formation proximal to an AV fistula that has been ligated is a rare complication. There are several reasons for why these aneurysms develop in such patients, the most plausible one being the increase in blood flow and resistance following ligation of the AV fistula. Of note, all the patients in this study were on immunosuppressive therapy following successful renal transplantation. Vigilance by the vascular access team and nephrologists is paramount to identify those patients who may warrant further evaluation and investigation by the vascular surgeon.

  6. Results of rubber band ligation of esophageal varices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczyszyn, J; Łebski, I; Massopust, R; Skoczylas, M; Janus, W

    2001-05-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyze the results of endoscopic rubber band ligation of esophageal varices performed between 1 January 1998 and 1 November 2000 at the Department of GI Surgery of 4th Military University Hospital. Cases of 50 patients with massive upper GI variceal bleeding present on admission or with the history of such a bleeding were reviewed. A total of 85 endoscopic procedures of rubber band ligation were performed. In 9 (18%) cases ligation was performed due to massive variceal bleeding, in 1 case the complementary obliteration of stomach fundus varices with Aethoxysclerol was performed. In 10 (20%) cases in grade C of Child-Pough scale of liver failure, 3 endoscopic procedures were performed, in 15 (30%) in grade B--2 procedures, in the remaining 25 (50%) cases, also in grade B--1 procedure was performed. Procedures were conducted with Wilson-Cook Multi-Band Ligator SAEED SixShooter. In all cases with non-bleeding esophageal varices the overall good result of treatment was achieved, with collapsing of variceal columns. In 8 (88.8%) of 9 cases treated due to variceal bleeding, good hemostasis was achieved and no reintervention was necessary. In 1 case of massive variceal bleeding endoscopic treatment failed and patient eventually died. In 25 (50%) cases the complementary (1 or 2) rubber band ligations were performed. Follow-up period has ranged from 1 to 34 months. No cases of severe complications after the procedure were noted. In early period after the procedure 43 (86%) patients complained of transient, mild retrosternal pain and mild to moderate dysphagia. Endoscopic rubber band ligation is a safe and effective treatment for esophageal varices both in cases of variceal bleeding and as elective procedure.

  7. Alternative Okazaki Fragment Ligation Pathway by DNA Ligase III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Arakawa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher eukaryotes have three types of DNA ligases: DNA ligase 1 (Lig1, DNA ligase 3 (Lig3 and DNA ligase 4 (Lig4. While Lig1 and Lig4 are present in all eukaryotes from yeast to human, Lig3 appears sporadically in evolution and is uniformly present only in vertebrates. In the classical, textbook view, Lig1 catalyzes Okazaki-fragment ligation at the DNA replication fork and the ligation steps of long-patch base-excision repair (BER, homologous recombination repair (HRR and nucleotide excision repair (NER. Lig4 is responsible for DNA ligation at DNA double strand breaks (DSBs by the classical, DNA-PKcs-dependent pathway of non-homologous end joining (C-NHEJ. Lig3 is implicated in a short-patch base excision repair (BER pathway, in single strand break repair in the nucleus, and in all ligation requirements of the DNA metabolism in mitochondria. In this scenario, Lig1 and Lig4 feature as the major DNA ligases serving the most essential ligation needs of the cell, while Lig3 serves in the cell nucleus only minor repair roles. Notably, recent systematic studies in the chicken B cell line, DT40, involving constitutive and conditional knockouts of all three DNA ligases individually, as well as of combinations thereof, demonstrate that the current view must be revised. Results demonstrate that Lig1 deficient cells proliferate efficiently. Even Lig1/Lig4 double knockout cells show long-term viability and proliferate actively, demonstrating that, at least in DT40, Lig3 can perform all ligation reactions of the cellular DNA metabolism as sole DNA ligase. Indeed, in the absence of Lig1, Lig3 can efficiently support semi-conservative DNA replication via an alternative Okazaki-fragment ligation pathway. In addition, Lig3 can back up NHEJ in the absence of Lig4, and can support NER and HRR in the absence of Lig1. Supporting observations are available in less elaborate genetic models in mouse cells. Collectively, these observations raise Lig3 from a niche

  8. Alternative Okazaki Fragment Ligation Pathway by DNA Ligase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Hiroshi; Iliakis, George

    2015-06-23

    Higher eukaryotes have three types of DNA ligases: DNA ligase 1 (Lig1), DNA ligase 3 (Lig3) and DNA ligase 4 (Lig4). While Lig1 and Lig4 are present in all eukaryotes from yeast to human, Lig3 appears sporadically in evolution and is uniformly present only in vertebrates. In the classical, textbook view, Lig1 catalyzes Okazaki-fragment ligation at the DNA replication fork and the ligation steps of long-patch base-excision repair (BER), homologous recombination repair (HRR) and nucleotide excision repair (NER). Lig4 is responsible for DNA ligation at DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) by the classical, DNA-PKcs-dependent pathway of non-homologous end joining (C-NHEJ). Lig3 is implicated in a short-patch base excision repair (BER) pathway, in single strand break repair in the nucleus, and in all ligation requirements of the DNA metabolism in mitochondria. In this scenario, Lig1 and Lig4 feature as the major DNA ligases serving the most essential ligation needs of the cell, while Lig3 serves in the cell nucleus only minor repair roles. Notably, recent systematic studies in the chicken B cell line, DT40, involving constitutive and conditional knockouts of all three DNA ligases individually, as well as of combinations thereof, demonstrate that the current view must be revised. Results demonstrate that Lig1 deficient cells proliferate efficiently. Even Lig1/Lig4 double knockout cells show long-term viability and proliferate actively, demonstrating that, at least in DT40, Lig3 can perform all ligation reactions of the cellular DNA metabolism as sole DNA ligase. Indeed, in the absence of Lig1, Lig3 can efficiently support semi-conservative DNA replication via an alternative Okazaki-fragment ligation pathway. In addition, Lig3 can back up NHEJ in the absence of Lig4, and can support NER and HRR in the absence of Lig1. Supporting observations are available in less elaborate genetic models in mouse cells. Collectively, these observations raise Lig3 from a niche-ligase to a

  9. Endocrine profile of patients with post-tubal-ligation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, J T; Abraham, G E

    1981-07-01

    The endocrine profile of the midluteal phase was assessed in 29 patients with the post-tubal-ligation syndrome, consisting of pain, bleeding and premenstrual tension. Compared to normal controls, the patients had a high serum estradiol and a low serum progesterone level. This abnormal luteal function may be responsible for the symptoms observed and may also explain the failure to conceive following successful reversal of tubal ligation. It is recommended that patients seeking sterilization reversal be screened for abnormal luteal function preoperatively. Selection of sterilization procedures that minimize alteration in luteal function should be given high priority.

  10. Sequelae of tubal ligation: an analysis of 75 consecutive hysterectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, R J

    1984-10-01

    Seventy-five consecutive patients undergoing hysterectomy subsequent to elective sterilization were studied regarding the occurrence of the post-tubal-ligation syndrome of pelvic pain and/or menorrhagia. Twenty patients were clinically considered to have the syndrome. In none of the patients operated on specifically for menstrual abnormalities could the findings be remotely attributed to the sterilization procedure. Five of the 20 patients had pelvic varicosities and one had pelvic adhesions that may have been a consequence of previous sterilization and conceivably the cause for the pelvic pain for which the patients were undergoing hysterectomy. I question the legitimacy of the post-tubal-ligation syndrome as a reason for hysterectomy.

  11. 超微粉中药对保育猪腹泻及肠黏膜免疫细胞的影响%Effect of Superfine Chinese Herbal Medicine on Diarrhea and Intestinal Mucosal Immune Cells in Nursery Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟冬霞; 马政禹; 曹日亮; 胡广英; 闫益波; 武果桃; 王红妍; 任杰; 车向荣; 赵娟

    2014-01-01

    为研制安全、高效环保型保育猪中药添加剂,将72头体重相近的28日龄杜长大断奶仔猪随机分为4组,每组3个重复,每个重复6头猪,分别饲喂基础饲粮、基础饲粮+抗生素、基础饲粮+1%中草药组方Ⅰ、基础饲粮+1%中草药组方Ⅱ,进行为期28 d的饲养试验,统计腹泻频率及腹泻指数、测定肠黏膜免疫细胞。结果显示,中药Ⅱ组效果优于中药Ⅰ组和抗生素组。中药Ⅱ组腹泻持续时间最短、腹泻频率及腹泻指数最低;与对照组相比,对回肠段杯状细胞数量影响最大的是抗生素组,提高14.29%(P>0.05)。对其它肠黏膜免疫细胞数量影响最大的是中药Ⅱ组,提高十二指肠、空肠及回肠段上皮内淋巴细胞数量分别达23.37%(P<0.01)、16.33%(P<0.01)、14.52%(P<0.01);提高十二指肠及空肠段杯状细胞数量分别达31.82%(P<0.01)、26.92%(P<0.01);提高十二指肠、空肠及回肠段肥大细胞数量分别达17.99%(P<0.01)、23.87%(P<0.01)、18.71%(P<0.01)。%For the development of a safe,efficient and environmentally friendly Chinese herb additive in weaned piglets,72 Duroc-Landrace-Yorkshire weaned piglets which were randomly divided into four groups,each treatment had 3 replicates and each consisting of 6 piglets.The control group was fed the basal diet.Antibiotic group was fed the basal diet plus antibiotics.Chinese herbsⅠgroup was added 1% Chinese herbs formulaⅠ,Chinese herbsⅡgroup was added 1% Chinese herbs formulaⅡ.Feeding trial lasted 28 days.Diarrhea frequency,diarrhea index and the number of immune cells in the intestinal mucosa were measured.The results were as followed:Chinese herbsⅡgroup are better than Chinese herbsⅠgroup and antibiotic group.Chinese herbsⅡgroup showed shortest duration of diarrhea,lowest diarrhea frequency and diarrhea index.Compared with the control group,the antibiotic group

  12. Pros and cons of patent ductus arteriosus ligation: hemodynamic changes and other morbidities after patent ductus arteriosus ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Shahab

    2012-04-01

    Although surgical ligation of a persistent patent ductus arteriosus resolves the adverse hemodynamic consequences of the systemic-to-pulmonary shunt and may confer some long-term benefits, it is also associated with both immediate and long-term negative effects. The population that benefits from or is harmed by the procedure is not clearly defined. Although indiscriminate ligation of the patent ductus arteriosus in all patients is not supported by the available information, the recent suggestion declaring the ductus harmless is not supported either. As we await the results of appropriately designed randomized control studies to define the indications for ligation, we must use clinical and echocardiographic indicators of a hemodynamically significant ductus arteriosus and thoughtful assessment of each individual patient to help guide us in addressing this complex problem.

  13. Further characterization of intestinal lactase/phlorizin hydrolase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, H; Norén, O; Sjöström, H

    1982-01-01

    Pig intestinal lactase/phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.23/62) was purified in its amphiphilic form by immunoadsorbent chromatography. The purified enzyme was free of other known brush border enzymes and appeared homogeneous in immunoelectrophoresis and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the pres......Pig intestinal lactase/phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.23/62) was purified in its amphiphilic form by immunoadsorbent chromatography. The purified enzyme was free of other known brush border enzymes and appeared homogeneous in immunoelectrophoresis and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...... in the presence of SDS. Pig lactase/phlorizin hydrolase was shown to have the same quaternary structure as the human enzyme, i.e., built up of two polypeptides of the same molecular weight (160000). In addition to hydrolyzing lactose, phlorizin and a number of synthetic substrates, both the human and the pig...... enzyme were shown to have a considerable activity against cellotriose and cellotetraose, and a low but significant activity against cellulose. The lactase/phlorizin hydrolase isolated from pigs in which the pancreatic ducts had been disconnected 3 days before death and from Ca2+-precipitated enterocyte...

  14. Malacoplaquia intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto José Frem Aun

    Full Text Available Malacoplakia is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown origin. However immunodeficiency states (immunossuppressive medication, old people, renal transplantation, leukaemia, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition and others have been associated with patients with malacoplakia. An infectious cause of malakoplakia is suggested by the finding of coliform bacteria in the phagolysosomes of macrophages. The histologic study is characterized by a infiltrate of large macrophages (Hansenmann cells with pathognomonic inclusions containing siderocalcific structures (Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Most of the cases reported in literature, involve the genitourinary tract, but other structures can be affected (brain, bone, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, intestine, and others. A 66-year-old man whith a abdominal mass, went to our hospital with a colonic tumour diagnosis. The patient was submitted to a surgery, with resection of the rigth colon. The disease was invading a portion of the retroperitoneal tissue that was removed. The histopatologic study showed the pathognomonic sign of malakoplakia (Hansenmann cells and Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Norfloxacin have been used to the complementar treatment with total cure of the patient.

  15. Evaluation of elevated dietary corn fiber from corn germ meal in growing female pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T E; Trabue, S L; Ziemer, C J; Kerr, B J

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of dietary hemicellulose from corn on growth and metabolic measures, female pigs (n = 48; initial BW 30.8 kg) were fed diets containing 0 to 38.6% solvent-extracted corn germ meal for 28 d. Increasing the hemicellulose level had no impact on ADG or ADFI, but resulted in a quadratic response (P dietary hemicellulose, blood, colon contents, and tissue samples from the liver and intestine were obtained from a subset (n = 16; 8 pigs/treatment) of pigs fed the least and greatest hemicellulose levels. The abundance of phospho-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the mitochondrial respiratory protein, cytochrome C oxidase II (COXII) were determined in liver, jejunum, ileum, and colon by Western blotting. The mRNA expression levels of AMPKalpha1, AMPKalpha2, PPAR coactivator 1alpha (PGC1-alpha), PPARgamma2, and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) were determined in liver and intestinal tissues. When compared with pigs fed the control diet, pigs fed the high hemicellulose diet had increased (P pigs consuming the high hemicellulose diet. The high-fiber diet led to a tendency (P pigs fed the high hemicellulose diet, ileal mucosal alkaline phosphatase activity was increased (P pigs consuming the high fiber diet there was a greater (P dietary fiber in liver, jejunum, or ileum tissue. In colon tissue from pigs fed the high fiber diet there was an increase (P < 0.09) in Sirt1 mRNA and a trend (P < 0.12) toward increased of PGC1-alpha mRNA. These data suggest that alterations in metabolism involved in adaptation to a diet high in hemicellulose are associated with increased colonic Sirt1 mRNA and COXII expression, indicating an increased propensity for oxidative metabolism by the intestine.

  16. Mesenteric lymph duct ligation improves survival in a lethal shock model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badami, Chirag D; Senthil, Maheswari; Caputo, Francis J; Rupani, Bobby J; Doucet, Danielle; Pisarenko, Vadim; Xu, Da-Zhong; Lu, Qi; Feinman, Rena; Deitch, Edwin A

    2008-12-01

    The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that factors released from the gut and carried in the mesenteric lymph contribute to mortality in a lethal gut I/R model. To test this hypothesis, a lethal splanchnic artery occlusion (SAO) shock model was used in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In the first set of experiments, ligation of the mesenteric lymph duct (LDL), which prevents gut-derived factors carried in the intestinal lymphatics from reaching the systemic circulation, significantly improved 24-h survival after a 20-min SAO insult (0% vs. 60% survival; P < 0.05). This increase in survival in the LDL-treated rats was associated with a blunted hypotensive response. Because increased iNOS-induced NO levels have been implicated in SAO-induced shock, we measured plasma nitrite/nitrate levels and liver iNOS protein levels in a second group of animals. Ligation of the mesenteric lymph duct significantly abrogated the SAO-induced increase in plasma nitrite/nitrate levels and the induction of hepatic iNOS (P < 0.05). In an additional series of studies, we documented that LDL increased not only 24-h but also long-term 7-day survival. During the course of these studies, we made the unexpected finding that Sprague-Dawley rats from different animal vendors had differential resistance to SAO, and that the time of the year that the experiments were carried out also influenced the results. Nonetheless, in conclusion, these studies support the hypothesis that factors carried in the mesenteric lymph significantly contribute to the development of irreversible shock after SAO.

  17. Presence of Clostridium difficile in pig faecal samples and wild animal species associated with pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Lasheras, S; Bolea, R; Mainar-Jaime, R C; Kuijper, E; Sevilla, E; Martín-Burriel, I; Chirino-Trejo, M

    2017-02-01

    To determine the presence of Clostridium difficile on fattening pig farms in north-eastern Spain. Twenty-seven farms were sampled. Pools of pig faecal samples (n = 210), samples of intestinal content from common farm pest species (n = 95) and environment-related samples (n = 93) were collected. Isolates were tested for toxin genes of C. difficile, and typed by PCR-ribotyping and toxinotyping. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of six antimicrobial agents were determined using Etest. Thirty-four isolates were obtained from 12 farms, and 30 (88·2%) had toxin genes. Seven ribotypes were identified. Ribotype 078 and its variant 126 were predominant (52·9%). The same ribotypes were isolated from different animal species on the same farm. None of the isolates were resistant to metronidazole or vancomycin. Clostridium difficile was common within the pig farm environment. Most of the positive samples came from pest species or were pest-related environmental samples. Pest species were colonized with toxigenic and antimicrobial-resistant C. difficile strains of the same ribotypes that are found in humans and pigs. Rodents and pigeons may transmit toxigenic and antimicrobial-resistant C. difficile strains that are of the same ribotypes as those occuring in humans. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Antibacterial Resistance in the Muscles of Chicken, Pig and Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Raj Solomon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Though antibiotic drugs are known to improve the health and welfare of food animals , there is parallel risk due to the development of resistant microorganisms in the body of target animals. Seven meat samples were procured from wet market in Old Town,Petaling Jaya, Malaysia and assessed for the presence of antibiotic residues. The samples chosen were chicken parts (skin, muscle and liver , pig parts (liver, muscle and intestine and beef muscle. The results indicated that chicken skin had high level of antibioticresidues which positively resisted the presence of gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidisand B. cereus as known by the zone of inhibition.The beef muscle also held residue which resisted S. aureusChosenbacteriaalong with the extracts of chicken skin, pig intestine and beef muscle were observed to be resistant totetracycline hydrochloride, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate and their combinations when tested at a concentration of 1 percent

  19. Controlling Salmonella infection in weanling pigs through water delivery of direct-fed microbials or organic acids; Part I. Effects on growth performance, microbial populations and immune status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigs (n=88) weaned at 19 ± 2 d of age were used in a 14 d study to evaluate the effects of water-delivered direct-fed microbials (DFM) or organic acids on immune status, Salmonella infection and shedding, and intestinal microbial populations following a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge. Pigs were ch...

  20. The effects of oral and intramuscular administration and dose escalation of enrofloxacin on the selection of quinolone resistance among Salmonella and coliforms in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiuff, C.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Svendsen, O.;

    2003-01-01

    The effect of route of administration and dose of enrofloxacin (Baytril(R)) on the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella and Escherichia coli in the intestinal tract of pigs was investigated. Healthy pigs at the age of 8-10 weeks were infected with a mixture of susceptible wild-...

  1. Reduced use of antibiotic growth promoters in diets fed to weanling pigs: dietary tools, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Hans H; Kil, Dong Y

    2006-01-01

    Diets formulated to maximize performance of weanling pigs need to support the development of intestinal tissue, support intestinal colonization with beneficial, mainly lactic acid-producing bacteria, and support development of the intestinal and overall immune system. This objective is not likely to be achieved using one single strategy, but there is strong evidence that diets formulated with cereal grains other than corn, with a low concentration of crude protein and with the use of direct-fed microbials, will improve intestinal health and performance of weanling pigs. Further improvements may be observed if the grain part of the diet is fermented prior to feeding or if the diet is fed in a liquid form, but the need for specialized equipment limit the implementation of this strategy. Dietary supplements such as essential oils and nucleosides or nucleotides may also be useful, but more research is needed to verify the effects of these substances.

  2. Rapid gut growth but persistent delay in digestive function in the postnatal period of preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carl Frederik; Thymann, Thomas; Andersen, Anders Daniel;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm infants often tolerate full enteral nutrition few weeks after birth but it is not known how this is related to gut maturation. Using pigs as models, we hypothesized that intestinal structure and digestive function are similar in preterm and term individuals at 3-4 weeks after...... volume remained reduced in preterm pigs until 26 d although plasma glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) and glucose-dependent insulin-trophic peptide (GIP) levels were increased. Preterm pigs also showed reduced hexose absorptive capacity and brush-border enzyme (sucrase, maltase) activities at 26 d, relative...

  3. Effects of Lawsonia intracellularis on Average Daily Gain in finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, M.; Nielsen, M.; Dahl, J.;

    Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) is the causative agent of porcine proliferative enteropathy1, a disease that is found with high prevalence in all countries with industrial pig production. The infection is known to cause disease in different age groups. In pigs between 6 to 20 weeks of age the endem...... form called Porcine Intestinal Andenomatosis (PIA) is predominant. The clinical signs are diarrhoea, ill-thriftiness and wasting. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of LI detected in faeces on Average Daily Gain (ADG) in grower-finisher pigs....

  4. PUNICA GRANATUM ATTENUATES SCIATIC NERVE LIGATION INDUCED-NEUROPATHIC PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramica Sharma et al.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study has been designed to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of rind of Punica granatum in sciatic nerve ligation induced-neuropathic pain in rats. Surgical procedure was performed with sciatic nerve ligation to develop neuropathic pain in rats. The development of neuropathic pain was assessed by employing behaviour parameters such as hyperalgesia and allodynia. Further, the functionality of sciatic nerve was assessed using the histopathological study of myelinated and unmyelinated fibers in sciatic nerve. Moreover, the oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, catalase, glutathione and tissue TBARS and Superoxide dismutase (SOD. Rats exposed to sciatic nerve ligation produced marked increase in oxidative stress, which was assessed in terms of TBARS and SOD along with decrease in the level of catalase and glutathione. Moreover, it develops neuropathic pain by impairing the normal functions of myelinated and unmyelinated fibers in sciatic nerve. Treatment with aqueous extract of Punica granatum extract (100mg/kg, p.o markedly prevented sciatic nerve ligation-induced neuropathy and oxidative stress by increasing the pain threshold, by improving the functionality of sciatic nerve, by decreasing serum and tissue TBARS and tissue SOD, by increasing levels of serum glutathione and catalase. It may be concluded that Punica granatum extract reduced the oxidative stress via inhibiting p38MAPK and alleviates neuropathic symptoms and consequently improved the functionality of sciatic nerve and prevents sciatic nerve ligation–induced neuropathic pain.

  5. Subfascial endoscopic ligation in the treatment of incompetent perforating veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G.J.M. Pierik; C.H. Wittens; H. van Urk (Hero)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To assess the technique of subfascial endoscopic ligation of incompetent perforatory veins by use of a mediastinoscope. Design: Prospective open clinic study. Setting: Two Departments of Surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirty-eight consecutive patients (40 legs) with recu

  6. Optimization of ligation reaction conditions in gene synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriault, N Y; Carter, J B; Pulaski, S P

    1988-05-01

    Several phosphorylation, annealing and ligation reaction conditions have been investigated for the enzymatic assembly of genes of interest. The use of longer oligodeoxyribonucleotides (40-60 bases long) also improved the enzymatic reaction. Furthermore, the use of longer oligonucleotides and the elimination of long stretches of G's or C's lowered the mutation rate.

  7. Endoscopic banding ligation can effectively resect hyperplastic Polyps of stomach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Chu Lo; Wen-Chi Chen; E-Ming Wang; Kwok-Hung Lai; Ping-I Hsu; Gin-Ho Lo; Hui-Hwa Tseng; Hui-Chun Chen; Ping-Ning Hsu; Chiun-Ku Lin; Hoi-Hung Chan; Wei-Lun Tsai

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Bleeding and perforation are the major and serious complications associated with endoscopic polypectomy. To develop a safe and effective method to resect hyperplastic polyps of the stomach, we employed rubber bands to strangulate hyperplastic polyps and to determine the possibility of inducing avascular necrosis in these lesions.METHODS: Forty-seven patients with 72 hyperplastic polyps were treated with endoscopic banding ligation (EBL). On 14 days after endoscopic ligation, follow-up endoscopies were performed to assess the outcomes of the strangulated polyps.RESULTS: After being strangulated by the rubber bands,all of the polyps immediately became congested (100 %),and then developed cyanotic changes (100 %) approximately 4 minutes later. On follow-up endoscopy 2 weeks later, all the polyps except one had dropped off. The only one residual polyp shrank with a rubber band in its base, and it also dropped off spontaneously during subsequent follow-up.No complications occurred during or following the ligation procedures.CONCLUSION: Gastric polyps develop avascular necrosis following ligation by rubber bands. Employing suction equipment, EBL can easily capture sessile polyps. It is an easy, safe and effective method to eradicate hyperplastic polyps of the stomach.

  8. Adrenal function in preterm infants undergoing patent ductus arteriosus ligation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    El-Khuffash, Afif

    2013-01-01

    Targeted milrinone treatment for low left ventricular output (LVO) reduces the incidence of acute cardiorespiratory instability following ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants. Despite this, some infants continue to experience postoperative deterioration. Adrenal insufficiency related to prematurity has been postulated as a possible mechanism.

  9. Assessment and treatment of post patent ductus arteriosus ligation syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    El-Khuffash, Afif F

    2014-07-01

    To compare differences in tissue Doppler imaging, global longitudinal strain (GLS), and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) between infants with low (<200 mL\\/kg\\/min) and high (>200 mL\\/kg\\/min) left ventricular (LV) output 1 hour after duct ligation and assess the impact of milrinone treatment on cardiac output and myocardial performance.

  10. Synthesis of coumarin or ferrocene labeled nucleosides via Staudinger ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kois Pavol

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reaction of azides with triaryl phosphines under mild conditions gives iminophosphoranes which can react with almost any kind of electrophilic reagent, e.g. aldehydes/ketones to form imines or esters to form amides. This so-called Staudinger ligation has been employed in a wide range of applications as a general tool for bioconjugation including specific labeling of nucleic acids. Results A new approach for the preparation of labeled nucleosides via intermolecular Staudinger ligation is described. Reaction of azidonucleosides with triphenylphosphine lead to iminophosphorane intermediates, which react subsequently with derivatives of coumarin or ferrocene to form coumarin or ferrocene labeled nucleosides. Fluorescent properties of coumarin labeled nucleosides are determined. Conclusion New coumarin and ferrocene labeled nucleosides were prepared via intermolecular Staudinger ligation. This reaction joins the fluorescent coumarin and biospecific nucleoside to the new molecule with promising fluorescent and electrochemical properties. The isolated yields of products depend on the structure of azidonucleoside and carboxylic acids. A detailed study of the kinetics of the Staudinger ligation with nucleoside substrates is in progress.

  11. Ectopic pregnancy after two times tubal ligation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Keypour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tubal sterilization is the permanent and effective contraception method. This can be performed at any time, but at least half are performed in conjunction with cesarean or vaginal delivery and are termed puerperal. The most complication after tubal ligation is ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy is the leading cause of maternal death in first trimester.Case presentation: We present a 33 years old woman gravida5, para4, all normal vaginal delivery, presented with complaints of delayed menstrual period, pelvic pain and spotting. She underwent tubal ligation for two times. For the first time she had puerperal Pomeroy tubal sterilization after third child delivery. Intra uterine pregnancy occurred three years later. One day after vaginal delivery of fourth child, she underwent post partum tubal ligation with the Parkland method. Tubal pregnancy occurred nine months later. Physical examination identified acute abdomen. Pelvic ultrasound showed no gestational sac in uterine cavity. The sac with fetal pole was in right adnexa. Beta-HCG was 2840mIU/ml. She underwent laparotomy. Surgical management included salpingectomy with cornual resection in both sides. The surgery identified Ectopic pregnancy.Conclusion: Any symptoms of pregnancy in a woman after tubal ligation must be investigated; an ectopic pregnancy should be excluded. Ectopic pregnancy must be considered, in any woman with lower abdominal pain, missed period and vaginal bleed-ing. Conception after tubal sterilization can be explained by fistula formation and re-canalization of fallopian tube.

  12. Sequence fidelity of a template-directed PNA-ligation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, A; Seitz, O

    2001-10-21

    The ligation method and an appended duplex-stabilizing dye affect both yield and sequence selectivity of a template-controlled PNA-ligation. The highest selectivity was obtained with a peptide condensation that formed an abasic site.

  13. Endocrine regulation of gut maturation in early life in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thymann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    After birth, the newborn must adapt to the acute challenges of circulatory changes, active respiration, thermoregulation, microbial colonization, and enteral nutrition. Whereas these processes normally occur without clinical complications in neonates born at term, birth at a preterm state...... of gestation is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In commercial pig production, perinatal mortality is higher than in any other mammalian species. Asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, sepsis, and gut dysmotility, represent some of the most common findings. The intestine is a particularly sensitive...

  14. A dynamic model of digestion and absorption in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Danfær, Allan Christian; Chwalibog, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes and evaluates the construction of a mathematical model to study the kinetics of digestion and absorption in growing pigs. The core of the model is based on a compartmental structure, which divides the gastro-intestinal tract into four anatomical segments: the stomach, two part......, starch, sugars and dietary fibre. Besides a chemical description of the feed, the model further requires information about daily dry matter intake and feeding frequency....

  15. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thymann, Thomas; Møller, Hanne; Stoll, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    , and aminopeptidase; reduced villus height; transiently reduced in vivo aldohexose uptake; and reduced ex vivo aldohexose uptake capacity in the middle region of the small intestine. Bacterial diversity was low for both diets, but alterations in bacterial composition and luminal concentrations of short-chain fatty...... that a formula containing maltodextrin vs. a formula containing lactose as the principal source of carbohydrate would predispose preterm pigs to a higher NEC incidence. Cesarean-derived preterm pigs were given total parenteral nutrition for 48 h followed by total enteral nutrition with a lactose-based (n = 11...... acids were observed in the maltodextrin group. In a second study, we quantified net portal absorption of aldohexoses (glucose and galactose) during acute jejunal infusion of a maltodextrin-or a lactose-based formula (n = 8) into preterm pigs. We found lower net portal aldohexose absorption (4% vs. 42...

  16. Characterization of the fecal microbiota of pigs before and after inoculation with "Brachyspira hampsonii".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus O Costa

    Full Text Available "Brachyspira hampsonii" causes disease indistinguishable from swine dysentery, and the structure of the intestinal microbiome likely plays a role in determining susceptibility of individual pigs to infection and development of clinical disease. The objectives of the current study were to determine if the pre-inoculation fecal microbiota differed between inoculated pigs that did (INOC MH or did not (INOC non-MH develop mucohaemorrhagic diarrhea following challenge with "B. hampsonii", and to quantify changes in the structure of the microbiome following development of clinical disease. Fecal microbiota profiles were generated based on amplification and sequencing of the cpn60 universal target sequence from 89 samples from 18 pigs collected at -8, -5, -3 and 0 days post-inoculation, and at termination. No significant differences in richness, diversity or taxonomic composition distinguished the pre-inoculation microbiomes of INOC MH and INOC non-MH pigs. However, the development of bloody diarrhea in inoculated pigs was associated with perturbation of the microbiota relative to INOC non-MH or sham-inoculated control pigs. Specifically, the fecal microbiota of INOC MH pigs was less dense (fewer total 16S rRNA copies per gram of feces, and had a lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio. Further investigation of the potential long-term effects of Brachyspira disease on intestinal health and performance is warranted.

  17. Corrosion behavior of self-ligating and conventional metal brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Henrique Esmeraldo Gurgel Maia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the null hypothesis that the aging process in self-ligating brackets is not higher than in conventional brackets. Methods: Twenty-five conventional (GN-3M/Unitek; GE-GAC; VE-Aditek and 25 self-ligating (SCs-3M/Unitek; INs-GAC; ECs-Aditek metal brackets from three manufacturers (n = 150 were submitted to aging process in 0.9% NaCl solution at a constant temperature of 37 ± 1ºC for 21 days. The content of nickel, chromium and iron ions in the solution collected at intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days was quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. After the aging process, the brackets were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM under 22X and 1,000X magnifications. Results: Comparison of metal release in self-ligating and conventional brackets from the same manufacturer proved that the SCs group released more nickel (p < 0.05 than the GN group after 7 and 14 days, but less chromium (p < 0.05 after 14 days and less iron (p < 0.05 at the three experimental time intervals. The INs group released less iron (p < 0.05 than the GE group after 7 days and less nickel, chromium and iron (p < 0.05 after 14 and 21 days. The ECs group released more nickel, chromium and iron (p < 0.05 than the VE group after 14 days, but released less nickel and chromium (p < 0.05 after 7 days and less chromium and iron (p < 0.05 after 21 days. The SEM analysis revealed alterations on surface topography of conventional and self-ligating brackets. Conclusions: The aging process in self-ligating brackets was not greater than in conventional brackets from the same manufacturer. The null hypothesis was accepted.

  18. Infrared coagulation versus rubber band ligation in early stage hemorrhoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Gupta

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The ideal therapy for early stages of hemorrhoids is always debated. Some are more effective but are more painful, others are less painful but their efficacy is also lower. Thus, comfort or efficacy is a major concern. In the present randomized study, a comparison is made between infrared coagulation and rubber band ligation in terms of effectiveness and discomfort. One hundred patients with second degree bleeding piles were randomized prospectively to either rubber band ligation (N = 54 or infrared coagulation (N = 46. Parameters measured included postoperative discomfort and pain, time to return to work, relief in incidence of bleeding, and recurrence rate. The mean age was 38 years (range 19-68 years. The mean duration of disease was 17.5 months (range 12 to 34 months. The number of male patients was double that of females. Postoperative pain during the first week was more intense in the band ligation group (2-5 vs 0-3 on a visual analogue scale. Post-defecation pain was more intense with band ligation and so was rectal tenesmus (P = 0.0059. The patients in the infrared coagulation group resumed their duties earlier (2 vs 4 days, P = 0.03, but also had a higher recurrence or failure rate (P = 0.03. Thus, we conclude that band ligation, although more effective in controlling symptoms and obliterating hemorrhoids, is associated with more pain and discomfort to the patient. As infrared coagulation can be conveniently repeated in case of recurrence, it could be considered to be a suitable alternative office procedure for the treatment of early stage hemorrhoids.

  19. Effects of prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics in the diet of young pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: prebiotics, piglets, gut healthPrebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates that are not metabolized in the small intestine and fermented in the large intestine. Oligofructose are non-digestible oligosaccharides which may stimulate beneficial bacteria in the gut and may affect the gut ecosystem. Prebiotic effects will depend largely on their chemical structure (degree of polymerization). Dietary inclusion of probiotics in young pig diets may beneficially affect gut microbiota. Synbio...

  20. GLP-2 Delays But Does Not Prevent the Onset of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benight, Nancy M; Stoll, Barbara; Olutoye, Oluyinka O;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is complex disease thought to occur due to an immaturity of gastrointestinal tract of preterm infants. Intestinal dysfunction induced by total parental nutrition (TPN) may increase the risk for NEC upon introduction of enteral feeding. We hypothesized ...... cells. Inflammatory markers of intestinal myeloperoxidase were unchanged and serum amyloid A levels were higher in GLP-2-treated pigs. CONCLUSION:: GLP-2 did not prevent NEC and a proinflammatory response despite some reduction in mucosal injury and increased trophic effect....

  1. Localization of a new serine protease, ingobsin, in goblet cells in rat, pig and man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1985-01-01

    A serine protease, ingobsin, that cleaves Lys-x and Arg-x, has been purified from rat duodenal tissue. By immunohistochemical methods, the enzyme was localized in goblet cells in the small intestine of rat, pig, and man. The immunoreactive cells were most numerous in the proximal part...... of the intestine. In the electron microscope, the immunoreaction was localized mainly to the rough endoplasmic reticulum of the goblet cells and to the secretion being extruded from the cells....

  2. Survey of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Noviello, Emilio; Ianniello, Davide; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Little information is available on the occurrence of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in cavies kept as pets in southern Italy. Fresh fecal samples were randomly collected from 60 guinea pigs housed in pet shops or privately owned. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to identify and count helminthic eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts/oocysts. In addition, the specimens were analyzed also by the Remel Xpect® Giardia/Cryptosporidium immunoassay. Intestinal parasites were detected in 19 out of 60 guinea pigs (31.7 %). Paraspidodera uncinata eggs were found in 13.3 % (8/60) of the rodents examined, Nippostrongylus-like eggs in 10 % (6/60), and finally Eimeria caviae oocysts were found in 10 % (6/60) of the animals. In one case, both E. caviae oocysts and P. uncinata eggs were found. None of the samples was positive for Cryptosporidium or Giardia. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first survey of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs in Italy.

  3. Internal gallbladder drainage prevents development of acute cholecystitis in a pig model: a randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Daniel W; Mortensen, Frank V; Møller, Jens K;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute cholecystitis can be the result of retention of bile in the gallbladder with possible secondary infection and ischaemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether internal drainage of the gallbladder could protect against the development of acute cholecystitis...... in a pig model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty pigs were randomized to either internal drainage (drained) or not (undrained). Day 0 acute cholecystitis was induced by ligation of the cystic artery and duct together with inoculation of bacteria. Four days later the pigs were killed and the gallbladders were...... removed and histologically scored for the presence of cholecystitis. Bile and blood samples were collected for bacterial culturing and biochemical analyses. RESULTS: The histological examination demonstrated statistical significant differences in acute cholecystitis development between groups, the degree...

  4. Application of an omonasteine ligation strategy for the total chemical synthesis of the BRD7 bromodomain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vijver, Pieter; Scheer, Liesbeth; van Beijnum, Judy; Griffioen, Arjan; Hackeng, Tilman M

    2012-09-28

    The use of omonasteine (Omo) in sequential peptide ligation strategies extends the scope of homocysteine (Hcy) ligation to longer, methionine-rich proteins. Hcy-to-Omo conversion can be performed on-resin, while the Omo-to-Hcy deprotection can be performed in situ after peptide ligation. This strategy was successfully applied in the synthesis of the BRD7 bromodomain.

  5. Level of arterial ligation in rectal cancer surgery: Low tie preferred over high tie. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Lange (Marilyne); M. Buunen (Mark); C.J.H. van de Velde (Cornelis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractConsensus does not exist on the level of arterial ligation in rectal cancer surgery. From oncologic considerations, many surgeons apply high tie arterial ligation (level of inferior mesenteric artery). Other strategies include ligation at the level of the superior rectal artery, just cau

  6. Oral uricase eliminates blood uric acid in the hyperuricemic pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurek, Paulina; Mosiichuk, Nadia; Woliński, Jarosław; Yatsenko, Tetiana; Grujic, Danica; Lozinska, Liudmyla; Pieszka, Marek; Święch, Ewa; Pierzynowski, Stefan Grzegorz; Goncharova, Kateryna

    2017-01-01

    An elevated level of serum uric acid-hyperuricemia, is strongly associated with the development of gout and chronic kidney disease (CKD) which is often accompanied by a significantly reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In the present study, we investigated the extra-renal elimination of uric acid via the intestine in a healthy pig model and the effect of oral uricase therapy on plasma uric acid concentrations in pigs with induced hyperuricemia and CKD. The experiment was conducted on eleven, ten-week-old pigs (n = 11). The porcine model of CKD was developed by performing 9/10 nephrectomy surgery on eight pigs. A stable model of hyperuricemia was established in only five of the eight nephrectomized pigs by frequent injections of uric acid (UA) into the jugular vein. All pigs (three healthy pigs and five CKD pigs) were operated for implantation of jugular vein catheters and the three healthy pigs also had portal vein catheters inserted. Blood uric acid concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically, using the Uric Acid Assay Kit (BioAssay Systems, Hayward, USA). The piglets with CKD received orally administered uricase (treatment) and served as their own controls (without uricase supplementation). Oral uricase therapy significantly decreased plasma uric acid concentrations in pigs with CKD, whereas hyperuricemia was observed in the pigs whilst not being treated with uricase. Urinary uric acid excretion was similar during both the treatment and control periods during the first 8 h and 24 h after UA infusions in the CKD pigs. To demonstrate the elimination of UA via the intestine, the healthy pigs were infused with UA into the jugular vein. The blood collected from the jugular vein represents circulating UA concentrations and the blood collected from the portal vein represents the concentration of UA leaving the intestine. The final (after 2 h) concentration of UA was significantly lower in blood collected from the portal vein compared to that collected from

  7. THE EFFECT OF THE SOMATOSTATIN ANALOGUE OCTREOTIDE ON EXPERIMENTAL INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paran Haim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Somatostatin has an inhibitory effect on the endocrine and exocrine secretions of the gut. It may have a beneficial effect in the conservative treatment of intestinal obstruction. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of octreotide in mechanical intestinal obstruction in rats. Method: Intestinal obstruction was induced in rats by ligation of a segment of the distal ileum. Animals were treated with the somatostatin analogue octreotide (n=16, or saline (n=16. Eight rats were operated but their intestine was not ligated (n=8 serving as sham controls. Forty eight hours after the operation, the animals were operated upon again and blood samples from the femoral vein were tested for electrolytes, urea, glucose, lactic acid, amylase, ph and bicarbonate. Portal vein blood samples were also obtained and tested for lactic acid and amylase. Results: Intestinal obstruction resulted, after 48 hours, in severe dilatation of bowel loops. A significant increase in plasma levels of urea, amylase and lactic acid was observed. Plasma pH decreased. In blood samples from the portal vein, a significant increase in lactic acid was observed, indicating metabolic acidosis, probably secondary to bowel ischemia. Octreotide treatment, resulted in less acidosis, with concomitant lower urea and lactic acid levels in the plasma and especially in the portal vein. Conclusion: Octreotide treatment may have a beneficial effect in the conservative treatment of selected cases of intestinal obstruction.

  8. Influence of the Gut Microflora and of Biliary Constituents on Morphological Changes in the Small Intestine in Obstructive Jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saeed Quraishy

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased amounts of intestinal endotoxin are absorbed in obstructive jaundice. The precise mechanism is not known but the increased absorption may arise from alterations in the luminal contents, in the intestinal flora, in the gut wall or in interactions between all three. To examine the effects of the intestinal flora we have compared the morphological changes in the small intestine in obstructive jaundice in germ free and conventional rats while the effects of bile constituents have been examined by addition of bile constituents to the diet of bile duct ligated rats. Changes in the intestine were examined, histologically, by enzyme histochemistry, and by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed no differences in response between germ free and conventional rats. Feeding of diets containing bile salts exacerbated the lesion. Feeding of diets containing cholesterol, however, reduced the degree of intestinal changes produced by cholestasis and completely antagonised the increase in damage caused by feeding of bile salts.

  9. Development of a human rotavirus induced diarrhea model in Chinese mini-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Tao; Wei, Jing; Guo, Hong-Xia; Han, Jiang-Bo; Ye, Nan; He, Hai-Yang; Yu, Tian-Tian; Wu, Yu-Zhang

    2016-08-21

    To establish a new animal model for the research of human rotavirus (HRV) infection, its pathogenesis and immunity and evaluation of potential vaccines. 5-d, 30-d and 60-d-old Chinese mini-pigs, Guizhou and Bamma, were inoculated with a single oral dose of attenuated strain Wa, G1, G3 of HRV, and PBS (control), respectively, and fecal samples of pigs from 0 to 7 d post infection (DPI) were collected individually. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect HRV antigen in feces. The HRV was tested by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The sections of the intestinal tissue were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to observe the morphologic variation by microscopy. Immunofluorescence was used to determine the HRV in intestinal tissue. HRV particles in cells of the ileum were observed by electron micrography. When inoculated with HRV, mini-pigs younger than 30 d developed diarrhea in an age-dependent manner and shed HRV antigen of the same inoculum, as demonstrated by RT-PCR. Histopathological changes were observed in HRV inoculated mini-pigs including small intestinal cell tumefaction and necrosis. HRV that was distributed in the small intestine was restricted to the top part of the villi on the internal wall of the ileum, which was observed by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Virus particles were observed in Golgi like follicles in HRV-infected neonatal mini-pigs. Guizhou mini-pigs were more sensitive to HRV than Bamma with respect to RV antigen shedding and clinical diarrhea. These results indicate that we have established a mini-pig model of HRV induced diarrhea. Our findings are useful for the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of HRV infection.

  10. Balloon-augmented Onyx endovascular ligation: initial human experience and comparison with coil ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osanai, Toshiya; Bain, Mark D; Toth, Gabor; Hussain, M Shazam; Hui, Ferdinand K

    2015-08-01

    Carotid artery sacrifice remains an important procedure for cerebral vascular disorders despite the development of new endovascular devices. Conventional carotid artery sacrifice with detachable coils alone often requires numerous coils to complete occlusion. To describe the initial human experience with balloon-augmented Onyx and coil vessel sacrifice based on our previous experience with animals. We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent carotid artery sacrifice between 2008 and 2012 in accordance with local investigational review board approval. Two methods were used to occlude carotid arteries-namely, combined Onyx and coil embolization and traditional coil embolization. We compared the two methods for the cost of embolizate, time to occlude the vessels, and the number of coils. Eight consecutive patients (combined group n=3, traditional group n=5) were assessed. The median cost of embolic material was $6321 in the combined Onyx and coil embolization group and $29 996 in the traditional coil embolization group. The median time from first coil placement to achievement of vessel occlusion was 52 min in the Onyx group and 113 min in the coil embolization group. The median number of coils used was 4 in the Onyx group and 35 in the coil embolization group (p<0.05). No symptomatic complications or recurrences were seen in the combined group. Balloon-augmented Onyx endovascular ligation may reduce costs and fluoroscopy times during vessel sacrifice. Further studies in a larger number of patients are needed to confirm these findings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Intestinal obstruction repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repair of volvulus; Intestinal volvulus - repair; Bowel obstruction - repair ... Intestinal obstruction repair is done while you are under general anesthesia . This means you are asleep and DO NOT feel pain. ...

  12. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intestine . The digestive system removes and processes nutrients ( vitamins , minerals , carbohydrates , fats, proteins , and water) from foods ... a microscope to see whether they contain cancer. Bypass : Surgery to allow food in the small intestine ...

  13. Large intestine (colon) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... portion of the digestive system most responsible for absorption of water from the indigestible residue of food. The ileocecal valve of the ileum (small intestine) passes material into the large intestine at the ...

  14. Intestinal ischemia and infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001151.htm Small intestinal ischemia and infarction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Intestinal ischemia and infarction occurs when there is a narrowing ...

  15. Effect of susceptibility to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 and of dietary tryptophan on gut microbiota diversity observed in healthy young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messori, Stefano; Trevisi, Paolo; Simongiovanni, Aude; Priori, Davide; Bosi, Paolo

    2013-02-22

    Healthy weaned pigs susceptible to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC) require more tryptophan (Trp) to maximize their performance. This may be related to an effect on intestinal microbiota. We studied the intestinal bacterial diversity of healthy pigs with different susceptibility to ETEC and fed different Trp levels. Thirty-six littermate weaned pigs were selected to obtain a set potentially formed of 50% ETEC-susceptible and 50% non-susceptible pigs, based on a Mucin 4 gene polymorphism. Pigs were fed a diet with 0.17 (TrpL) or 0.22 (TrpH) standardized ileal digestible Trp:Lys ratio for 21 days. Slaughtered pigs were classified into non-susceptible, mildly susceptible, and susceptible, by testing ETEC adhesion to intestinal villi. Bacterial diversity in jejunum content was assessed by the 16S rRNA gene-targeted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting analysis and expressed by the Shannon index. Susceptible pigs had a reduced bacterial diversity, particularly with TrpL diet (p=0.003). The ETEC adhesion class affected the quantification of enterobacteria DNA (p=0.027). One DGGE band, which referred to Clostridium bartlettii, was not evidenced in all the susceptible pigs; less DNA from this microbe was quantified by RT-PCR in the jejunum from TrpH susceptible pigs (p=0.025) compared to TrpL. The gene expression for β-galactoside α-2,3-sialyltransferase 1 was higher in jejunal tissue of ETEC-susceptible pigs (p=0.019). In studies on pig gut microbiota, the presence of intestinal receptors for ETEC should be considered because of their contribution to a reduced bacterial diversity. This effect could be partially reversed by dietary Trp addition.

  16. Addition of HOBt improves the conversion of thioester-Amine chemical ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovski, Toni; Suñol, David; Riera, Antoni; Macias, Maria J

    2015-11-01

    The syntheses of large peptides and of those containing non-natural amino acids can be facilitated by the application of convergent approaches, dissecting the native sequence into segments connected through a ligation reaction. We describe an improvement of the ligation protocol used to prepare peptides and proteins without cysteine residues at the ligation junction. We have found that the addition of HOBt to the ligation, improves the conversion of the ligation reaction without affecting the epimerization rate or chemoselectivity, and it can be efficiently used with peptides containing phosphorylated amino acids.

  17. Ligation-free ribosome profiling of cell type-specific translation in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstein, Nicholas; Torres, Daniela; Das Sharma, Sohani; Tang, Guomei; Canoll, Peter; Sims, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome profiling has emerged as a powerful tool for genome-wide measurements of translation, but library construction requires multiple ligation steps and remains cumbersome relative to more conventional deep-sequencing experiments. We report a new, ligation-free approach to ribosome profiling that does not require ligation. Library construction for ligation-free ribosome profiling can be completed in one day with as little as 1 ng of purified RNA footprints. We apply ligation-free ribosome profiling to mouse brain tissue to identify new patterns of cell type-specific translation and test its ability to identify translational targets of mTOR signaling in the brain.

  18. En bloc ligation of renal vessels is safe and reduces duration of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azawi, Nessn Htum; Hult, Mariam Annalisa Skibsted; Dahl, Claus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Conventionally, individual ligation of the renal vessels with clips is performed during laparoscopic nephrectomy (LN). Concomitant ligation of the vessels is not a standard procedure due to an expected risk of stapler dysfunction and the development of arteriovenous fistulas (AVF...... in the en bloc group compared to 109 minutes in the conventional group (p = 0.0001). The difference remained significant with multivariate analysis. In the LNU group, seven patients underwent en bloc ligation. There was no significant difference between conventional ligation and en bloc ligation...

  19. Mechanical Intestinal Obstruction in a Porcine Model: Effects of Intra-Abdominal Hypertension. A Preliminary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Correa-Martín

    Full Text Available Mechanical intestinal obstruction is a disorder associated with intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. As the large intestine intraluminal and intra-abdominal pressures are increased, so the patient's risk for intestinal ischaemia. Previous studies have focused on hypoperfusion and bacterial translocation without considering the concomitant effect of intra-abdominal hypertension. The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a mechanical intestinal obstruction model in pigs similar to the human pathophysiology.Fifteen pigs were divided into three groups: a control group (n = 5 and two groups of 5 pigs with intra-abdominal hypertension induced by mechanical intestinal obstruction. The intra-abdominal pressures of 20 mmHg were maintained for 2 and 5 hours respectively. Hemodynamic, respiratory and gastric intramucosal pH values, as well as blood tests were recorded every 30 min.Significant differences between the control and mechanical intestinal obstruction groups were noted. The mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, dynamic pulmonary compliance and abdominal perfusion pressure decreased. The systemic vascular resistance index, central venous pressure, pulse pressure variation, airway resistance and lactate increased within 2 hours from starting intra-abdominal hypertension (p<0.05. In addition, we observed increased values for the peak and plateau airway pressures, and low values of gastric intramucosal pH in the mechanical intestinal obstruction groups that were significant after 3 hours.The mechanical intestinal obstruction model appears to adequately simulate the pathophysiology of intestinal obstruction that occurs in humans. Monitoring abdominal perfusion pressure, dynamic pulmonary compliance, gastric intramucosal pH and lactate values may provide insight in predicting the effects on endorgan function in patients with mechanical intestinal obstruction.

  20. Model-guided ligation strategy for optimal assembly of DNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daphne T W; Sarkar, Casim A

    2012-10-01

    DNA ligation is essential to many molecular biology manipulations, but this reaction is often carried out by following generic guidelines or by trial and error. Maximizing the desired ligation product is especially important in DNA library construction for directed evolution experiments since library diversity is directly affected by ligation efficiency. Here, we suggest that display vectors that rely on Type IIP restriction sites for cloning should be redesigned to utilize Type IIS restriction sites instead because ligation yield is significantly improved: we observed up to 15- and 2.6-fold increases in desired products for circular and linear ligation reactions, respectively. To guide ligation optimization more rationally, we developed an easily parameterized thermodynamic model that predicts product distributions based on input DNA concentrations and free energies of the ligation events. We applied this model to study ligation reactions using a ribosome display vector redesigned with Type IIS restriction sites (pRDV2). We computationally predicted and experimentally validated the relative abundance of various products in three-piece linear ligations as well as the extent of transformation from vector-insert circular ligations. Based on our results, we provide general insights into ligation and we outline guidelines for optimizing this reaction for both in vivo and in vitro display methodologies.

  1. THE PROBIOTIC Enterococcus faecium MODIFIES THE INTESTINAL MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS IN WEANING PIGLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Johana Andrea Ciro Galeano; Albeiro López Herrera; Jaime Parra Suescún

    2016-01-01

    Global trends for animal production have seen a decrease in the use of antimicrobial compounds in feed, generating the need to implement new nutritional strategies that stimulate growth and promote intestinal health. This study aimed to determine whether the addition of E. faecium in drinking water improves intestinal morphometric parameters in post- weaning pigs compared with the probiotics strains L. acidophilus and L. casei on days 1 (21 days of age), 15 and 30 postweaning. The small intes...

  2. Critical evaluation and rate constants of chemoselective ligation reactions for stoichiometric conjugations in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Fumito; Noda, Hidetoshi; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2015-04-17

    Chemoselective ligation reactions have contributed immensely to the development of organic synthesis and chemical biology. However, the ligation of stoichiometric amounts of large molecules for applications such as protein-protein conjugates is still challenging. Conjugation reactions need to be fast enough to proceed under dilute conditions and chemoselective in the presence of unprotected functional groups; the starting materials and products must be stable under the reaction conditions. To compare known ligation reactions for their suitability under these conditions, we determined the second-order rate constants of ligation reactions using peptide substrates with unprotected functional groups. The reaction conditions, the chemoselectivity of the reactions, and the stability of the starting materials and products were carefully evaluated. In some cases, the stability could be improved by modifying the substrate structure. These data obtained under the ligation conditions provide a useful guide to choose an appropriate ligation reaction for synthesis of large molecules by covalent ligation reactions of unprotected substrates in water.

  3. Ligation Bias in Illumina Next-Generation DNA Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Schubert, Mikkel; Clary, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Ancient DNA extracts consist of a mixture of endogenous molecules and contaminant DNA templates, often originating from environmental microbes. These two populations of templates exhibit different chemical characteristics, with the former showing depurination and cytosine deamination by......-products, resulting from post-mortem DNA damage. Such chemical modifications can interfere with the molecular tools used for building second-generation DNA libraries, and limit our ability to fully characterize the true complexity of ancient DNA extracts. In this study, we first use fresh DNA extracts to demonstrate...... that library preparation based on adapter ligation at AT-overhangs are biased against DNA templates starting with thymine residues, contrarily to blunt-end adapter ligation. We observe the same bias on fresh DNA extracts sheared on Bioruptor, Covaris and nebulizers. This contradicts previous reports suggesting...

  4. Click chemistry for rapid labeling and ligation of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Eduardo; Das, Subha R

    2011-01-03

    The copper(I)-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction (click chemistry) is shown to be compatible with RNA (with free 2'-hydroxyl groups) in spite of the intrinsic lability of RNA. RNA degradation is minimized through stabilization of the Cu(I) in aqueous buffer with acetonitrile as cosolvent and no other ligand; this suggests the general possibility of "ligandless" click chemistry. With the viability of click chemistry validated on synthetic RNA bearing "click"-reactive alkynes, the scope of the reaction is extended to in-vitro-transcribed or, indeed, any RNA, as a click-reactive azide is incorporated enzymatically. Once clickable groups are installed on RNA, they can be rapidly click labeled or conjugated together in click ligations, which may be either templated or nontemplated. In click ligations the resultant unnatural triazole-linked RNA backbone is not detrimental to RNA function, thus suggesting a broad applicability of click chemistry in RNA biological studies.

  5. Endoscopic band ligation: beyond prevention and management of gastroesophageal varices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jeong-Seon; Cho, Young-Seok

    2013-07-21

    Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) is the preferred endoscopic technique for the endoscopic treatment of acute esophageal variceal bleeding. EBL has also been used to treat nonvariceal bleeding. Recently, Han et al demonstrated that EBL can be a feasible and safe alternate technique for the management of iatrogenic gastric perforation especially in cases in which closure with endoclips is difficult. EBL is technically simpler to perform than other methods and provides a good view of the lesions under direct pressure and suction from the transparent ligation cap. EBL can be used even if the diameter of the perforation is greater than 10 mm or if there is a severe tangential angle. In this commentary, we discuss the efficacy and safety of EBL for the closure of iatrogenic gastrointestinal perforation. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of EBL for the treatment of nonvariceal bleeding.

  6. Elastic band ligation of hemorrhoids: Flexible gastroscope or rigid proctoscope?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Cazemier; RJF Felt-Bersma; MA Cuesta; CJJ Mulder

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To compare rigid proctoscope and flexible endoscope for elastic band ligation of internal hemorrhoids.METHODS: Patients between 18 and 80 years old, with chronic complaints (blood loss, pain, itching or prolapse)of internal hemorrhoids of grade Ⅰ-Ⅲ, were randomized to elastic band ligation by rigid proctoscope or flexible endoscope (preloaded with 7 bands). Patients were retreated every 6 wk until the cessation of complaints.Evaluation by three-dimensional anal endosonography was performed.RESULTS: Forty-one patients were included (median age 52.0, range 27-79 years, 20 men). Nineteen patients were treated with a rigid proctoscope and twenty two with a flexible endoscope. Twenty-nine patients had grade Ⅰ hemorrhoids, 9 patients had grade Ⅱ hemorrhoids and 3 patients had grade Ⅲ hemorrhoids.All patients needed a minimum of 1 treatment and a maximum of 3 treatments. A median of 4.0 bands was used in the rigid proctoscope group and a median of 6.0 bands was used in the flexible endoscope group (P < 0.05). Pain after ligation tended to be more frequent in patients treated with the flexible endoscope (first treatment: 3 vs 10 patients, P < 0.05). Threedimensional endosonography showed no sphincter defects or alterations in submucosal thickness.CONCLUSION: Both techniques are easy to perform,well tolerated and have a good and fast effect. It is easier to perform more ligations with the flexible endoscope. Additional advantages of the flexible scope are the maneuverability and photographic documentation.However, treatment with the flexible endoscope might be more painful and is more expensive.

  7. Endoscopic band ligation for colonic diverticular bleeding: possibility of standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Shimamura, Yuto; Ishii, Naoki; Omata, Fumio; Imamura, Noriatsu; Okamoto, Takeshi; Ego, Mai; Nakano, Kaoru; Ikeya, Takashi; Nakamura, Kenji; TAKAGI, KOICHI; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) has been used to achieve hemostasis in patients with colonic diverticular bleeding. The safety and effectiveness of EBL when performed by non-expert endoscopists have not been sufficiently verified. This study aimed to elucidate the feasibility of the EBL technique when performed by non-expert endoscopists and of considering EBL as a standard treatment for colonic diverticular bleeding. Patients and methods: A retrospective cohort study was ...

  8. Vertebrate intestinal endoderm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Jason R; Lauf, Ryan; Shroyer, Noah F

    2011-03-01

    The endoderm gives rise to the lining of the esophagus, stomach and intestines, as well as associated organs. To generate a functional intestine, a series of highly orchestrated developmental processes must occur. In this review, we attempt to cover major events during intestinal development from gastrulation to birth, including endoderm formation, gut tube growth and patterning, intestinal morphogenesis, epithelial reorganization, villus emergence, as well as proliferation and cytodifferentiation. Our discussion includes morphological and anatomical changes during intestinal development as well as molecular mechanisms regulating these processes. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Comparison of Hi-C results using in-solution versus in-nucleus ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Takashi; Várnai, Csilla; Schoenfelder, Stefan; Javierre, Biola-Maria; Wingett, Steven W; Fraser, Peter

    2015-08-26

    Chromosome conformation capture and various derivative methods such as 4C, 5C and Hi-C have emerged as standard tools to analyze the three-dimensional organization of the genome in the nucleus. These methods employ ligation of diluted cross-linked chromatin complexes, intended to favor proximity-dependent, intra-complex ligation. During development of single-cell Hi-C, we devised an alternative Hi-C protocol with ligation in preserved nuclei rather than in solution. Here we directly compare Hi-C methods employing in-nucleus ligation with the standard in-solution ligation. We show in-nucleus ligation results in consistently lower levels of inter-chromosomal contacts. Through chromatin mixing experiments we show that a significantly large fraction of inter-chromosomal contacts are the result of spurious ligation events formed during in-solution ligation. In-nucleus ligation significantly reduces this source of experimental noise, and results in improved reproducibility between replicates. We also find that in-nucleus ligation eliminates restriction fragment length bias found with in-solution ligation. These improvements result in greater reproducibility of long-range intra-chromosomal and inter-chromosomal contacts, as well as enhanced detection of structural features such as topologically associated domain boundaries. We conclude that in-nucleus ligation captures chromatin interactions more consistently over a wider range of distances, and significantly reduces both experimental noise and bias. In-nucleus ligation creates higher quality Hi-C libraries while simplifying the experimental procedure. We suggest that the entire range of 3C applications are likely to show similar benefits from in-nucleus ligation.

  10. DNA hybridization and ligation for directed colloidal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyr, Margaret

    Colloidal assembly using DNA hybridization has been pursued as a means assemble non-conventional ordered colloidal structures. However, to date it is undetermined whether DNA hybridization can be used to achieve non-FCC colloidal crystals. Using microcontact printing techniques, we have fabricated covalently bound single stranded DNA (ssDNA) two-dimensional arrays on glass surfaces, which were used to direct the assembly of complementary DNA functionalized polystyrene colloids. Two of the hallmarks of DNA hybridization, sequence specificity and thermal reversibility, were demonstrated. Due to the periodicity of these arrays, laser diffraction was used to directly monitor these structures during assembly. To demonstrate the versatility of the 2D colloidal array assembled via DNA hybridization, a catalytic DNA sequence or DNAzyme was incorporated into the colloidal array system. By tethering the enzymatic strand to the patterned glass surface and the substrate strand to polystyrene colloids, we showed that the DNAzyme could prevent the assembly of the arrays when the required Pb2+ cofactor was provided. Attempts to assemble the colloid arrays and disassemble via the Pb2+-DNAzyme induced cleavage were unsuccessful, likely due to the incomplete cleavage of the multitude of hybridized linkages between each colloid and the surface. Since DNA is not only capable of catalyzing reactions, but also capable of being reacted upon by a variety of biological enzymes, we examined the use of DNA ligase as a means to control the assembly of DNA-functionalized colloids. A three-sequence linker system was used for the hybridization mediated assembly of colloids: one sequence was tethered to the surface of the glass slide or colloids, one was tethered to another colloid surface, and the linker sequence hybridizes simultaneously to both tethered sequences. Once hybridized, the two tethered fragments can be ligated using DNA ligase, resulting in a continuous sequence tethered on one end

  11. Phylogenetic diversity of cultivalble butyrate-producing bacteria from pig gut content and feces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoqiong; Højberg, Ole; Canibe, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate is a preferred energy source for colonocytes and is considered crucial for maintaining colonic health in humans and animals. To investigate the diversity of cultivable butyrate-producing bacteria in pig gut, bacteria were isolated from intestinal digesta (Exp. 1) and feces (Exp. 2...

  12. Development of patent Ascaris suum infections in pigs following intravenous administration of larvae hatched in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Fagerholm, H.P.; Nansen, P.;

    1999-01-01

    The normal tissue migration of Ascaris suum in the pig host involves larval development in the liver accompanied by considerable pathological changes. The vast majority of larvae that reach the small intestine are later expelled by unknown mechanisms. We show that when migration through the liver...

  13. Deciphering the porcine intestinal microRNA transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While more than 700 microRNAs (miRNAs are known in human, a comparably low number has been identified in swine. Because of the close phylogenetic distance to humans, pigs serve as a suitable model for studying e.g. intestinal development or disease. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are key regulators of intestinal development and their aberrant expression leads to intestinal malignancy. Results Here, we present the identification of hundreds of apparently novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine. MiRNAs were first identified by means of deep sequencing followed by miRNA precursor prediction using the miRDeep algorithm as well as searching for conserved miRNAs. Second, the porcine miRNAome along the entire intestine (duodenum, proximal and distal jejunum, ileum, ascending and transverse colon was unraveled using customized miRNA microarrays based on the identified sequences as well as known porcine and human ones. In total, the expression of 332 intestinal miRNAs was discovered, of which 201 represented assumed novel porcine miRNAs. The identified hairpin forming precursors were in part organized in genomic clusters, and most of the precursors were located on chromosomes 3 and 1, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of the expression data revealed subsets of miRNAs that are specific to distinct parts of the intestine pointing to their impact on cellular signaling networks. Conclusions In this study, we have applied a straight forward approach to decipher the porcine intestinal miRNAome for the first time in mammals using a piglet model. The high number of identified novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine points out their crucial role in intestinal function as shown by pathway analysis. On the other hand, the reported miRNAs may share orthologs in other mammals such as human still to be discovered.

  14. The influence of diet on Lawsonia intracellularis colonization in pigs upon experimental challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, Henriette T; Jensen, Tim K; Schmidt, Anja S; Jensen, Bent B; Jensen, Søren M; Møller, Kristian

    2004-10-05

    The objective of this investigation was to study if different feeding strategies influence experimental infections of pigs with Lawsonia intracellularis, the causative agent of proliferative enteropathy. In three sequential trials, a total of 144 weaned pigs were fed five different diets all made from a standard diet based on wheat and barley as carbohydrate source and soybean as protein source. The five diets were: a standard diet (fine ground and pelleted), the standard diet fed as fermented liquid feed, the standard diet added 1.8% formic acid, the standard diet added 2.4% lactic acid and a diet similar to the standard diet (made from the same ingredients), but fed coarse ground. Twenty-four pigs on each diet were orally inoculated with L. intracellularis and growth performance and faecal excretion of bacteria were monitored. Twenty-four pigs fed the standard diet were included as not experimentally infected controls. Pigs in the first two trials were sacrificed 4 weeks post-inoculation, whereas animals in the third trial were sacrificed after 5 weeks. Pigs in all experimentally infected groups excreted L. intracellularis. The fermented liquid diet delayed the excretion of L. intracellularis and furthermore, pigs fed the standard diet supplemented with lactic acid had limited pathological lesions when the intestines were examined 4 weeks after inoculation. The growth performance was reduced in pigs experimentally challenged with L. intracellularis, however the prevalence and severity of diarrhea was limited.

  15. A genome-wide association analysis for susceptibility of pigs to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, H Y; Yang, B; Zhang, Z Y; Ouyang, J; Yang, M; Zhang, X F; Zhang, W C; Su, Y; Zhao, K W; Xiao, S J; Yan, X M; Ren, J; Huang, L S

    2016-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a type of pathogenic bacteria that cause diarrhea in piglets through colonizing pig small intestine epithelial cells by their surface fimbriae. Different fimbriae type of ETEC including F4, F18, K99 and F41 have been isolated from diarrheal pigs. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study to map the loci associated with the susceptibility of pigs to ETEC F41 using 39454 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 667 F2 pigs from a White Duroc×Erhualian F2 cross. The most significant SNP (ALGA0022658, P=5.59×10-13) located at 6.95 Mb on chromosome 4. ALGA0022658 was in high linkage disequilibrium (r 2>0.5) with surrounding SNPs that span a 1.21 Mb interval. Within this 1.21 Mb region, we investigated ZFAT as a positional candidate gene. We re-sequenced cDNA of ZFAT in four pigs with different susceptibility phenotypes, and identified seven coding variants. We genotyped these seven variants in 287 unrelated pigs from 15 diverse breeds that were measured with ETEC F41 susceptibility phenotype. Five variants showed nominal significant association (P<0.05) with ETEC F41 susceptibility phenotype in International commercial pigs. This study provided refined region associated with susceptibility of pigs to ETEC F41 than that reported previously. Further works are needed to uncover the underlying causal mutation(s).

  16. Mild heat treatment does not reduce the colitis-protective effects of bovine colostrum in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Sangild, Per Torp; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    dried and pasteurized BC. Methods: Preterm pigs were fed total parenteral nutrition for 2 d, followed by two boluses of milk formula (15 mL/kg/3h) and continued enteral feeding with milk formula (FORM, n = 14), fresh BC (COLOS, n = 14), spray dried, powdered BC (POW, n = 8), or spray dried, pasteurized...... BC (POWPAS, n = 9). Pigs were euthanized after two days of enteral feeding and NEC lesions, intestinal structure, digestive and absorptive functions, microbiota, and tissue protein and mRNA levels of immune factors were analyzed. Finally, we determined the concentrations of some bioactive proteins...... in the colostrum products and studied treatment-related aggregation of proteins. Results: POW and POWPAS pigs showed lowered gut NEC severity, IL-1β and IL-8 levels and lactic acid levels, and higher intestinal villus heights, hexose absorption, hydrolase activities (lactase, maltase, peptidases) than FORM pigs...

  17. Preterm Birth Reduces Nutrient Absorption With Limited Effect on Immune Gene Expression and Gut Colonization in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mette V; Cilieborg, Malene S.; Skovgaard, Kerstin;

    2015-01-01

    The primary risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are preterm birth, enteral feeding, and gut colonization. It is unclear whether feeding and colonization induce excessive expression of immune genes that lead to NEC. Using a pig model, we hypothesized that reduced gestational age would...... upregulate immune-related genes and cause bacterial imbalance after birth. Preterm (85%-92% gestation, n = 53) and near-term (95%-99% gestation, n = 69) pigs were delivered by cesarean section and euthanized at birth or after 2 days of infant formula or bovine colostrum feeding. At birth, preterm delivery...... reduced 5 of 30 intestinal genes related to nutrient absorption and innate immunity, relative to near-term pigs, whereas 2 genes were upregulated. Preterm birth also reduced ex vivo intestinal glucose and leucine uptake (40%-50%), but failed to increase cytokine secretions from intestinal explants...

  18. The Incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis Is Increased Following Probiotic Administration to Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Thymann, Thomas; Boye, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Preterm birth and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with inappropriate gut colonization and immunity, which may be improved by probiotic bacteria. Using a preterm pig model of NEC, we investigated the effects of probiotics on intestinal structure, function, microbiology, and immunology...... with controls (n = 14). All pigs received parenteral nutrition for 2 d followed by enteral formula feeding until tissue collection on d 5. Compared with control pigs, intestinal weight was lower and NEC incidence was higher in both groups given probiotics (64–67 vs. 14%; P... enzyme activities, and gut barrier function were lower in the ProDead group compared with the other groups (P probiotics induced higher expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1α and IL-6 (P Probiotics minimally affected gut colonization, except that live probiotics...

  19. Heat stress in growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy

    2005-01-01

    Compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are more sensitive to high environmental temperatures, because they cannot sweat and do not pant so well. Furthermore, fast-growing lean pigs generate more heat than their congeners living in the wild. This, in combination with confined housing, makes it difficult for these pigs to regulate their heat balance. Heat stressed pigs have low performance, poor welfare, and, by pen fouling, they give higher emissions of odour and ammonia.Above certain...

  20. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  1. Critical review evaluating the pig as a model for human nutritional physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Eugeni; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Le Huerou-Luron, Isabelle; de Jager, Nadia; Schuurman, Teun; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-06-01

    The present review examines the pig as a model for physiological studies in human subjects related to nutrient sensing, appetite regulation, gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota and nutritional neuroscience. The nutrient-sensing mechanisms regarding acids (sour), carbohydrates (sweet), glutamic acid (umami) and fatty acids are conserved between humans and pigs. In contrast, pigs show limited perception of high-intensity sweeteners and NaCl and sense a wider array of amino acids than humans. Differences on bitter taste may reflect the adaptation to ecosystems. In relation to appetite regulation, plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide-1 are similar in pigs and humans, while peptide YY in pigs is ten to twenty times higher and ghrelin two to five times lower than in humans. Pigs are an excellent model for human studies for vagal nerve function related to the hormonal regulation of food intake. Similarly, the study of gut barrier functions reveals conserved defence mechanisms between the two species particularly in functional permeability. However, human data are scant for some of the defence systems and nutritional programming. The pig model has been valuable for studying the changes in human microbiota following nutritional interventions. In particular, the use of human flora-associated pigs is a useful model for infants, but the long-term stability of the implanted human microbiota in pigs remains to be investigated. The similarity of the pig and human brain anatomy and development is paradigmatic. Brain explorations and therapies described in pig, when compared with available human data, highlight their value in nutritional neuroscience, particularly regarding functional neuroimaging techniques.

  2. Immunoelectrophoretic studies on pig intestinal brush border proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Sjöström, H; Norén, O

    1977-01-01

    aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11.2), aspartate aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11.7), dipeptidyl peptidase IV (EC 3.4.14.X), lactase (EC 3.2.1.23), glucoamylase (EC 3.2.1.3), sucrase (EC 3.2.1.48), isomaltase (EC 3.2.1.10) and alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1). In addition, at least four faint immunoprecipitates were formed...

  3. Neither hippurate-negative Brachyspira pilosicoli nor Brachyspira pilosicoli type strain caused diarrhoea in early-weaned pigs by experimental infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fossi, M.; Ahlsten, K.; Pohjanvirta, T.

    2005-01-01

    and strain Br1622 was negative. However, in situ detection for members of the genus Leptospira was positive for spirochaete-like bacteria in the colonic epithelium of several pigs in both infected groups as well as in the control group. L. intracellularis, Salmonella spp., Yersinia spp. and intestinal...... of spirochaetal diarrhoea were detected; only one pig, inoculated with P43/6/78, had soft faeces from day 9 to 10 post inoculation. The pigs were necropsied between days 7 and 23 after inoculation. Live pigs were culture-negative for Brachyspira spp., but B. pilosicoli(hipp-) was reisolated from necropsy samples...

  4. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thymann, Thomas; Møller, Hanne K; Stoll, Barbara; Støy, Ann Cathrine F; Buddington, Randal K; Bering, Stine B; Jensen, Bent B; Olutoye, Oluyinka O; Siggers, Richard H; Mølbak, Lars; Sangild, Per T; Burrin, Douglas G

    2009-12-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the most severe gastrointestinal disorder in preterm infants. It is associated with the initiation of enteral nutrition and may be related to immature carbohydrate digestive capacity. We tested the hypothesis that a formula containing maltodextrin vs. a formula containing lactose as the principal source of carbohydrate would predispose preterm pigs to a higher NEC incidence. Cesarean-derived preterm pigs were given total parenteral nutrition for 48 h followed by total enteral nutrition with a lactose-based (n = 11) or maltodextrin-based (n = 11) formula for 36 h. A higher incidence (91% vs. 27%) and severity (score of 3.3 vs. 1.8) of NEC were observed in the maltodextrin than in the lactose group. This higher incidence of NEC in the maltodextrin group was associated with significantly lower activities of lactase, maltase, and aminopeptidase; reduced villus height; transiently reduced in vivo aldohexose uptake; and reduced ex vivo aldohexose uptake capacity in the middle region of the small intestine. Bacterial diversity was low for both diets, but alterations in bacterial composition and luminal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids were observed in the maltodextrin group. In a second study, we quantified net portal absorption of aldohexoses (glucose and galactose) during acute jejunal infusion of a maltodextrin- or a lactose-based formula (n = 8) into preterm pigs. We found lower net portal aldohexose absorption (4% vs. 42%) and greater intestinal recovery of undigested carbohydrate (68% vs. 27%) in pigs acutely perfused with the maltodextrin-based formula than those perfused with the lactose-based formula. The higher digestibility of the lactose than the maltodextrin in the formulas can be attributed to a 5- to 20-fold higher hydrolytic activity of tissue-specific lactase than maltases. We conclude that carbohydrate maldigestion is sufficient to increase the incidence and severity of NEC in preterm pigs.

  5. Oral Administration of Escin Inhibits Acute Inflammation and Reduces Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minmin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of escin on acute inflammation and intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. The effects of escin on carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model of acute inflammation, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP induced intestinal mucosal injury in a mouse model, were observed. It was shown that oral administration of escin inhibits carrageenan-induced paw edema and decreases the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and cyclooxygenase- (COX- 2. In CLP model, low dose of escin ameliorates endotoxin induced liver injury and intestinal mucosal injury and increases the expression of tight junction protein claudin-5 in mice. These findings suggest that escin effectively inhibits acute inflammation and reduces intestinal mucosal injury in animal models.

  6. Effect of acute mesenteric ischemia on rat small intestinal contractility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    bath containing physiological Krebs solution. Luminal pressure and intestinal diameter changes were obtained for (i) basic contractions, (ii) flow-induced contractions with different outlet resistance pressures, and (iii) contractions induced by ramp distension. Contraction frequency and amplitude were......Objective: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) accounts for 1–2% of gastrointestinal illnesses. This study investigated changes of intestinal motility in relation to time-dependent exposure to AMI. Methods: After anesthesia with Hypnorm and Dormicum, a midline laparotomy incision was made in 40 male...... Wistar rats. A segment of middle jejunum was made ischemic by ligating five mesenteric arterial branches to the segment. The ischemic period lasted for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min with 10 rats in each group. Another 10 rats were used as normal controls. The motility experiments were carried out in an organ...

  7. BHA study in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtzen, G; Olsen, P

    1986-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was given to pregnant SPF pigs (Danish Landrace) in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day from mating to day 110 of the gestation period. The BHA was mixed in the diet (pelleted). Caesarean section was performed on gestation day 110. BHA affected neither the reproduction data nor the incidence of defects in the foetuses. Significantly lower weight gain was observed in the group of dams on the highest dose. Absolute and relative organ weights for the liver and thyroid gland showed a dose-related increase. Proliferative and parakeratotic proliferative changes of the stratified epithelium of the stomach were found in both control and treated pigs. In addition, proliferative and parakeratotic changes of the oesophageal epithelium were observed in a few pigs in the two groups on the highest doses. Papillomas were not found, and no changes of the glandular part of the stomach were observed.

  8. Regulation of inter- and intramolecular ligation with T4 DNA ligase in the presence of polyethylene glycol.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, K.; NAKAZAWA, M.; Ishizaki, Y; Hiraoka, N.; Obayashi, A

    1986-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) stimulates ligation with T4 DNA ligase. In 10% (w/v) PEG 6,000 solutions, only intermolecular ligation is enhanced by monovalent cations, while both inter- and intramolecular ligation occur without their presence. Similar stimulation was also caused by divalent cations or polyamines in the PEG 6,000 solutions. Such properties of the ligase could be applied to control the extent of inter- and intramolecular ligation. Ligation with cations or polyamines in 10% PEG 6,00...

  9. Pig design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pasupuleti, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Pig makes Hadoop programming simple, intuitive, and fun to work with. It removes the complexity from Map Reduce programming by giving the programmer immense power through its flexibility. What used to be extremely lengthy and intricate code written in other high level languages can now be written in almost one tenth of the size using its easy to understand constructs. Pig has proven to be the easiest way to learn how to program Hadoop clusters, as evidenced by its widespread adoption. This comprehensive guide enables readers to readily use design patterns to simplify the creation of complex da

  10. Chito-oligosaccharide reduces diarrhea incidence and attenuates the immune response of weaned pigs challenged with Escherichia coli K88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P; Piao, X S; Thacker, P A; Zeng, Z K; Li, P F; Wang, D; Kim, S W

    2010-12-01

    Seventy-two barrows (Landrace × Large White, initial BW of 4.9 ± 0.3 kg and 17 ± 3 d old) were used to determine if dietary chito-oligosaccharides can replace antibiotics as a means to reduce signs associated with infection in weaned pigs challenged with Escherichia coli. Pigs were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design using 6 pens per treatment with 3 pigs per pen. The treatments consisted of pigs fed the unsupplemented corn-soybean meal diet challenged or unchallenged with E. coli K88 and pigs fed the same diet supplemented with 160 mg of chito-oligosaccharides or 100 mg of cyadox/kg and challenged with E. coli K88. On d 7, 1 group of pigs fed the unsupplemented diet, as well as all pigs fed diets containing chito-oligosaccharides or cyadox, were orally dosed with 30 mL of an alkaline broth containing E. coli K88. Another group of pigs fed the unsupplemented diet was orally dosed with 30 mL of sterilized alkaline broth. Fecal consistency was visually assessed each morning from d 7 to 14. Blood samples were collected at 0, 24, 48, and 168 h postinfection. On d 14 postchallenge, all pigs were killed to evaluate intestinal morphology and determine E. coli concentrations in the intestine. During the postchallenge period (wk 2), unsupplemented pigs challenged with E. coli had decreased (P diarrhea incidence, E. coli counts in the intestine, plasma interleukin-1β, plasma IL-10, and IGA-positive cells in the jejunal and ileal lamina propria, compared with unchallenged pigs. Supplementation with cyadox largely mitigated these effects. Although chito-oligosaccharide reduced the incidence of diarrhea, the growth performance of E. coli-challenged pigs supplemented with chito-oligosaccharide was not better than that of unsupplemented pigs challenged with E. coli. Therefore, chito-oligosaccharide, at the amount used in this experiment, does not seem to be an effective substitute for antibiotics as a growth promoter for newly weaned pigs

  11. The Ability of Bile to Scavenge Superoxide Radicals and Pigment Gallstone Formation in Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Lin

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available After partial ligation of the common bile duct (CBD of guinea pigs, 14 of 16 animals developed pigment gallstones within one week (S group. Intraperitoneal injection of Vit. E and C, each 10 mg/kg daily from 3 days before CBD ligation to one week after the operation (S+V group, decreased the gallstone incidence to 5/14 (exact probability0.05, but Vit. E and C normalized the SR, and the difference between S group and S+V group was significant (p<0.05. These results suggested that Vit. E and C, known as antioxidants, enhanced the ability to scavenge oxygen radical in S+V group; and that in addition to the increases of UCB and Ca2+ concentrations, the participation of oxygen radicals might be of importance for pigment gallstone formation induced by bile duct obstruction.

  12. GPS Tracking of Free-Ranging Pigs to Evaluate Ring Strategies for the Control of Cysticercosis/Taeniasis in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian W Pray

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium, a parasitic cestode that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. T. solium eggs are released into the environment through the stool of humans infected with an adult intestinal tapeworm (a condition called taeniasis, and cause cysticercosis when ingested by pigs or other humans. A control strategy to intervene within high-risk foci in endemic communities has been proposed as an alternative to mass antihelminthic treatment. In this ring strategy, antihelminthic treatment is targeted to humans and pigs residing within a 100 meter radius of a pig heavily-infected with cysticercosis. Our aim was to describe the roaming ranges of pigs in this region, and to evaluate whether the 100 meter radius rings encompass areas where risk factors for T. solium transmission, such as open human defecation and dense pig activity, are concentrated.In this study, we used Global Positioning System (GPS devices to track pig roaming ranges in two rural villages of northern Peru. We selected 41 pigs from two villages to participate in a 48-hour tracking period. Additionally, we surveyed all households to record the locations of open human defecation areas. We found that pigs spent a median of 82.8% (IQR: 73.5, 94.4 of their time roaming within 100 meters of their homes. The size of home ranges varied significantly by pig age, and 93% of the total time spent interacting with open human defecation areas occurred within 100 meters of pig residences.These results indicate that 100 meter radius rings around heavily-infected pigs adequately capture the average pig's roaming area (i.e., home range and represent an area where the great majority of exposure to human feces occurs.

  13. Jejunum ileal intestinal atresia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio J. Puente Fonseca

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal atresia is one of the most important causes of intestinal obstruction in newborn. They constitute aorund 95% of total intestinal obstructions in this age group. Most of intestinal atresias are jejunoieal atresia. Although it is not frequent their relationship with other congenital anomalies, has been described the association in some cases with defects of intestine rotation, meconium peritonitis, with meconium ileus and rarely with the Hirschsprung diseases. The hereditary character has also been described in certain multiple intestinal atresias. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Jejunoileal atresia, approved by consensus in the 1st National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Cienfuegos, Cuba, March 7 – 9, 2002.

  14. Intestinal M cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    We have an enormous number of commensal bacteria in our intestine, moreover, the foods that we ingest and the water we drink is sometimes contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms. The intestinal epithelium is always exposed to such microbes, friend or foe, so to contain them our gut is equipped with specialized gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), literally the largest peripheral lymphoid tissue in the body. GALT is the intestinal immune inductive site composed of lymphoid follicles such as Peyer's patches. M cells are a subset of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) residing in the region of the epithelium covering GALT lymphoid follicles. Although the vast majority of IEC function to absorb nutrients from the intestine, M cells are highly specialized to take up intestinal microbial antigens and deliver them to GALT for efficient mucosal as well as systemic immune responses. I will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of M-cell differentiation and functions.

  15. Heparanase Mediates Intestinal Inflammation and Injury in a Mouse Model of Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; He, Ying; Hu, Ziwei; Lu, Siyu; Yin, Xiaohan; Ma, Xiaochun; Lv, Chuanzhu; Jin, Guiyun

    2017-04-01

    Heparanase, a heparan sulfate (HS)-specific endoglycosidase, plays an important role in inflammation and mediates acute pulmonary and renal injuries during sepsis. To explore its role in septic intestinal injury, a non-anticoagulant heparanase inhibitor, N-desulfated/re- N-acetylated heparin (NAH), was administrated to a mouse sepsis model induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Immunohistochemical staining revealed massive shedding of HS from the intestinal mucosal surfaces after CLP, and effective inhibition of heparanase by NAH was confirmed by markedly reduced HS shedding. Following CLP, intestinal expression of heparanase was increased, whereas pretreatment with NAH reduced the sepsis-induced upregulation of heparanase expression. Meanwhile, CLP led to shedding of syndecan-1 and upregulated expression of proteases such as matrix metalloprotease-9 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator in the intestine, whereas NAH markedly suppressed syndecan-1 shedding and protease upregulation following CLP. In addition, pretreatment with NAH attenuated intestinal injury, inhibited neutrophil infiltration and suppressed the production of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6) in the intestine during sepsis, and it also significantly reduced the elevation of inflammatory cytokines in the serum 24 hr after CLP. Our findings demonstrate that the activation of intestinal heparanase contributes to intestinal injury during early sepsis by facilitating the destruction of mucosal epithelial glycocalyx and promoting inflammatory responses.

  16. Marked methylation changes in intestinal genes during the perinatal period of preterm neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Fei; Zhang, Juyong; Jiang, Pingping

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The serious feeding- and microbiota-associated intestinal disease, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), occurs mainly in infants born prematurely (5-10% of all newborns) and most frequently after formula-feeding. We hypothesized that changes in gene methylation is involved in the prenatal...... maturation of the intestine and its response to the first days of formula feeding, potentially leading to NEC in preterm pigs used as models for preterm infants. RESULTS: Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS) was used to assess if changes in intestinal DNA methylation are associated with formula...

  17. Marked methylation changes in intestinal genes during the perinatal period of preterm neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Fei; Zhang, Juyong; Jiang, Pingping;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The serious feeding- and microbiota-associated intestinal disease, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), occurs mainly in infants born prematurely (5-10% of all newborns) and most frequently after formula-feeding. We hypothesized that changes in gene methylation is involved in the prenatal...... maturation of the intestine and its response to the first days of formula feeding, potentially leading to NEC in preterm pigs used as models for preterm infants. RESULTS: Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS) was used to assess if changes in intestinal DNA methylation are associated with formula...

  18. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Effect of castanospermine on cell-free synthesis of aminopeptidase N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Olsen, Jørgen

    1988-01-01

    Pig small intestinal mRNA was translated in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system supplemented with microsomal membranes. Castanospermine, an inhibitor of glucosidase I, induced a high mannose-glycosylated form of microvillar aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) of increased molecular mass, indicating...

  19. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Low temperature arrests both processing and intracellular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Hansen, Gert Helge; Cowell, G M

    1989-01-01

    The effect of culture at 20 degrees C on biosynthesis of microvillar enzymes was studied in pig small intestinal mucosal explants. At this temperature, aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) and sucrase-isomaltase (EC 3.2.1.48-10) both accumulated intracellularly, predominantly in their transient, high m...

  20. Effects of bovine lactoferrin on the immature porcine intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Li, Yanqi; Sangild, Per T; Bering, Stine B; Chatterton, Dereck E W

    2014-01-28

    Bioactive milk proteins may be important in protecting preterm infants from developing inflammation and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). A preterm pig model was used to investigate the protective effects of enteral bovine lactoferrin (bLF) against NEC development and inflammation. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were fed parenteral and minimal enteral nutrition for the first 2 d followed by 2 d of total enteral nutrition before euthanasia. Pigs were stratified into two groups and fed with either a control formula (CON, n 15) or a 10 g/l of bLF-enriched formula (LF, n 13). NEC incidence, gut functions and inflammatory cytokines were analysed. NEC incidence and nutrient absorption were similar between the two groups. In pigs that developed NEC, disease outcome was more severe in the colon accompanied by increased intestinal permeability in LF pigs. In contrary, the LF pigs had a lowered IL-1β level in the proximal small intestine. Dose-dependent effects of bLF on cell proliferation, intracellular signalling and cytokine secretion were tested in porcine intestinal epithelial cells (PsIc1) in vitro. Low doses (0·1-1 g/l) increased cell proliferation via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), limited IL-8 secretion and prevented NF-κB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) activation, suggesting anti-inflammatory effects. In contrast, at a higher dose (10 g/l), bLF exerted adverse effects by reducing cell proliferation, stimulating IL-8 release, inhibiting ERK activation and up-regulating NF-κB and HIF-1α activation. Overall, at a dose of 10 g/l, bLF exacerbated disease severity in pigs that developed NEC, while the in vitro studies indicated the positive effects of bLF at low doses (0·1-1 g/l). Supplementation of infant formulas with bLF should therefore be optimised carefully.

  1. Characterisation of the gastrointestinal bacterial community in pigs fed fermented liquid feed and dry feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Ole; Knudsen, B.; Canibe, N.;

    2001-01-01

    Feeding pigs with fermented liquid feed (FLF) has been shown to reduce the number of enteropathogens such as Salmonella and Brachyospira hyodysenteriae as well as coliform bacteria in general in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Also the commensal bacterial populations have been shown to respond...... feed. This reduction could be due to the fact that these substrates are partially depleted by fermentation in the liquid feed prior to entering the animal. Therefore nutrient availability may be limited in the large intestine of pigs fed FLF, which may again affect bacterial enzyme synthesis and growth...... to the use of FLF, e.g. the total counts of anaerobes, including lactic acid bacteria are reduced. In the present work we demonstrate that the capacity to ferment a series of substrates (mainly low-molecular weight carbohydrates) is reduced in caecum, colon and faeces of pigs fed FLF compared to pigs fed dry...

  2. Microbial phytase and liquid feeding increase phytate degradation in the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2010-01-01

    with microbial phytase (750 FTU/kg) fed dry; diet 3, diet 2 fed in liquid form (fermented 17.5 h, 20 °C, 50% residual in the tank). InsP6-P was not present in gastric or ileal digesta in pigs fed diet 3 due to complete InsP6 degradation before feeding. In pigs fed diet 2 the amount of gastric InsP6-P...... was considerably smaller compared with pigs fed diet 1 due to phytase addition (P ≤ 0.001). On the other hand, the amount of ileal InsP6-P was only slightly less in pigs fed diet 2 compared with diet 1 indicating that InsP6 is greatly degraded in the small intestine. Furthermore, the amounts of gastric or ileal...

  3. Early pathogenesis of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Uttenthal, Åse

    2012-01-01

    Host–virus interactions play an important role for the clinical outcome of classicalswinefevervirus (CSFV) infections in pigs. Strain virulence, host characteristics and environment are all factors that markedly influence disease severity. We tested CSFV strains of varying virulence in an experim......Host–virus interactions play an important role for the clinical outcome of classicalswinefevervirus (CSFV) infections in pigs. Strain virulence, host characteristics and environment are all factors that markedly influence disease severity. We tested CSFV strains of varying virulence...... tested in Danish outbred pigs before. Clinical observations grouped the infected pigs into two different categories reflecting either non-specific, mainly gastro-intestinal, problems, or severe disease including high fever within the first week after inoculation. Gross-pathological findings varied...

  4. Ascariasis in people and pigs: new inferences from DNA analysis of worm populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Weidong; Criscione, Charles D

    2012-03-01

    Ascaris is a large parasitic roundworm (nematode) of the small intestine of humans and pigs. These roundworms cause the socioeconomically important disease, ascariasis. For the past 20 years, molecular markers have been used in studies on Ascaris and ascariasis, and added valuable information to the understanding of these roundworms. Here, we provide a review of these studies on human and pig roundworms. We begin with a summary of studies using molecular phenotypic markers to compare Ascaris from humans and pigs, followed by a synopsis of comparisons using genetic markers. We then draw forth inferences in the aspects of host affiliation and infection success, transmission between and among humans and pigs, evolutionary history of Ascaris. We also highlight additional topics such as mating dynamics, diagnostics, and paleoparasitology where molecular epidemiological approaches have been utilized.

  5. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model To Evaluate Intramuscular Tetracycline Treatment Protocols To Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Græsbøll, Kaare; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;

    2015-01-01

    to which resistant strains outcompete susceptible strains under antimicrobial pressure may depend not only on the antimicrobial treatment strategies but also on the epidemiological parameters, such as the composition of the bacterial strains in a pig. This study evaluated how variation in the dosing...... protocol for intramuscular administration of tetracycline and the composition of bacterial strains in a pig affect the level of resistance in the intestine of a pig. Predictions were generated by a mathematical model of competitive growth of Escherichia coli strains in pigs under specified plasma......High instances of antimicrobial resistance are linked to both routine and excessive antimicrobial use, but excessive or inappropriate use represents an unnecessary risk. The competitive growth advantages of resistant bacteria may be amplified by the strain dynamics; in particular, the extent...

  6. Pathogenesis of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T M; Bunton, T E; Shaia, C I; Raymond, J W; Honnold, S P; Donnelly, G C; Shamblin, J D; Wilkinson, E R; Cashman, K A

    2016-01-01

    Machupo virus, the cause of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, is a highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever with no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapeutics. This study evaluated the guinea pig as a model using the Machupo virus-Chicava strain administered via aerosol challenge. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and sequential changes in serum chemistry and hematology. The incubation period was 5 to 12 days, and complete blood counts revealed leukopenia with lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Gross pathologic findings included congestion and hemorrhage of the gastrointestinal mucosa and serosa, noncollapsing lungs with fluid exudation, enlarged lymph nodes, and progressive pallor and friability of the liver. Histologic lesions consisted of foci of degeneration and cell death in the haired skin, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, tongue, esophagus, salivary glands, renal pelvis, small intestine, and large intestine. Lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia was also present. Inflammation within the central nervous system, interpreted as nonsuppurative encephalitis, was histologically apparent approximately 16 days postexposure and was generally progressive. Macrophages in the tracheobronchial lymph node, on day 5 postexposure, were the first cells to demonstrate visible viral antigen. Viral antigen was detected throughout the lymphoid system by day 9 postexposure, followed by prominent spread within epithelial tissues and then brain. This study provides insight into the course of Machupo virus infection and supports the utility of guinea pigs as an additional animal model for vaccine and therapeutic development.

  7. Productivity and parasitic infections of pigs kept under different management systems by smallholder farmers in Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipendele, Calvin Paul; Lekule, Faustine Paul; Mushi, Daniel Elias

    2015-01-01

    ). The anthelmintic treatment (piperazine citrate) was administered at 1 g per kg body weight. Faecal and blood samples were collected at month three of the experiment to assess the burden of intestinal helminths and sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis, respectively. Sows kept under free range system were...... and heart girth size with the feed to gain ratio of 8.5. Free range pigs tended to have lower faecal egg counts for most worm species compared to permanently confined pigs. Sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis was 26%, with village prevalence ranging from 8 to 52%. Although pigs kept in M3...

  8. In Vitro Selection of Optimal DNA Substrates for Ligation by a Water-Soluble Carbodiimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuo; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1994-01-01

    We have used in vitro selection to investigate the sequence requirements for efficient template-directed ligation of oligonucleotides at 0 deg C using a water-soluble carbodiimide as condensing agent. We find that only 2 bp at each side of the ligation junction are needed. We also studied chemical ligation of substrate ensembles that we have previously selected as optimal by RNA ligase or by DNA ligase. As anticipated, we find that substrates selected with DNA ligase ligate efficiently with a chemical ligating agent, and vice versa. Substrates selected using RNA ligase are not ligated by the chemical condensing agent and vice versa. The implications of these results for prebiotic chemistry are discussed.

  9. Intestinal mucosal adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2006-01-01

    Intestinal failure is a condition characterized by malnutrition and/or dehydration as a result of the inadequate digestion and absorption of nutrients. The most common cause of intestinal failure is short bowel syndrome, which occurs when the functional gut mass is reduced below the level necessary for adequate nutrient and water absorption. This condition may be congenital, or may be acquired as a result of a massive resection of the small bowel. Following resection, the intestine is capable of adaptation in response to enteral nutrients as well as other trophic stimuli. Identifying factors that may enhance the process of intestinal adaptation is an exciting area of research with important potential clinical applications.

  10. Telmisartan attenuates hepatic fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-tong YI; Rui-xia LIU; Yan WEN; Cheng-hong YIN

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the antifibrotic effect of telmisartan,an angiotensin Ⅱ receptor blocker,in bile duct-ligated rats.Methods: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 3 groups: sham-operated rats,model rats underwent common bile duct ligation (BDL),and BDL rats treated with telmisartan (8 mg/kg,po,for 4 weeks).The animals were sacrificed on d 29,and liver histology was examined,the Knodell and Ishak scores were assigned,and the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 was evaluated with immunohistochemical staining.The mRNAs and proteins associated with liver fibrosis were evaluated using RTQ-PCR and Western blot,respectively.Results: The mean fibrosis score of BDL rats treated with telmisartan was significantly lower than that of the model rats (1.66±0.87 vs 2.13±0.35,P=0.015).However,there was no significant difference in inflammation between the two groups,both of which showed moderate inflammation.Histologically,treatment with telmisartan significantly ameliorated BDL-caused the hepatic fibrosis.Treatment with telmisartan significantly upregulated the mRNA levels of ACE2 and MAS,and decreased the mRNA levels of ACE,angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor (AT1-R),collagen type Ⅲ,and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1).Moreover,treatment with telmisartan significantly increased the expression levels of ACE2 and MAS proteins,and inhibited the expression levels of ACE and AT1-R protein.Conclusion: Telmisartan attenuates liver fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats via increasing ACE2 expression level.

  11. Anal function after ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Akira; Sada, Haruki; Sugimoto, Takuya; Nagata, Hiroshi; Kano, Nobuyasu

    2013-07-01

    Although the ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract is a promising anal sphincter-saving procedure for fistula-in-ano, the objective assessment of the sphincter preservation remains unknown. The primary end point was to measure the anal function before and after this procedure. The secondary end point measured was cure of the disease. This study is a prospective observational study. This study was conducted at the Department of Surgery, Kameda Medical Center, Japan, from March 2010 to August 2012. Twenty patients with transsphincteric or complex fistulas were evaluated. All patients underwent the ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract with a loose seton for anal fistulas. Anal manometric study was performed before and 3 months after the procedure. Fecal incontinence was evaluated by using the fecal incontinence severity index. Failure was defined as nonhealing of the surgical wound or fistula. The median operation time was 42 minutes. No intraoperative complications were documented. The median follow-up duration was 18 (3-32) months. No patients reported any incontinence postoperatively. The median score of the fecal incontinence severity index before and 3 months after the procedure was 0. The median maximum resting pressure measured before and after operation were 125 (71-175) cm H2O and 133 (95-169) cm H2O. The median maximum squeeze pressure measured before and after operation were 390 (170-815) cm H2O and 432 (200-902) cm H2O. There were no significant postoperative changes in either the resting pressure or the squeeze pressure. Primary healing was observed in 19 (95%) patients, and the median healing time was 7 weeks; 1 wound remained incompletely healed. Short-term follow-up may not justify the use of the term definitive cure. The ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract with a loose seton showed no postoperative deterioration on anal sphincter function with favorable healing rates.

  12. Kinins as mediators of intestinal secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaginella, T S; Kachur, J F

    1989-01-01

    Kinins are small peptides that have diverse biological actions. Concentrations of kinins in the nanomolar or subnanomolar range induce intestinal smooth muscle contraction and evoke mucosal electrolyte secretion. Hyperkininemia is associated with effects on gastrointestinal motility and intestinal mucosal inflammation. Bradykinin and kallidin are the predominant kinins with effects on the gastrointestinal tract of mammals. Bradykinin stimulates chloride ion secretion by the guinea pig and rabbit ileum, rabbit colon, rat colon and monolayers of human HCA-7 cells. Kinins directly or indirectly stimulate phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C. Cells in the lamina propria of the mucosa (e.g., fibroblasts, mast cells, leukocytes), by liberating cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid, are involved in the kinin response; direct effects on epithelial cells cannot be ruled out, however. Antagonists now exist for kinin receptors. Based on studies with these antagonists in smooth muscle preparations, two subgroups of kinin receptor have been identified. The B2-type receptor appears to be responsible for both the contraction of ileal muscle and ileal secretion. Kinins are probably more important as pathophysiological rather than as physiological mediators. They may amplify the effect of inflammatory products that induce intestinal secretion. The precise involvement of kinins in clinical mucosal secretory states and diarrhea will require quantitative assessment of their levels during each phase of mucosal inflammation. Additional studies on the mechanism of action of kinins will be essential in designing therapy to mitigate the symptoms associated with mucosal inflammation.

  13. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in pigs following primary and challenge-exposure to Lawsonia intracellularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Henriette Cordes; Riber, Ulla; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2012-01-01

    not boosted by the re-inoculation, since identical intestinal IgA responses developed in response to the inoculation in both the susceptible CC pigs and the protected RE pigs. A memory recall cell-mediated immune response developed in RE pigs which was significantly stronger compared to the primary response...... responses are likely mediators of protective immunity against L. intracellularis, with CD8+ effector cells and CD4+CD8+ double positive memory T cells as main contributors to the antigen-specific IFN-γ production.......To investigate immune responses upon re-infection with Lawsonia intracellularis, local and peripheral humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to primary and challenge inoculations were studied in 22 pigs. Pigs were orally inoculated with virulent L. intracellularis at the age of 5-6 weeks...

  14. Comparative distribution of human and avian type sialic acid influenza receptors in the pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major determinant of influenza infection is the presence of virus receptors on susceptible host cells to which the viral haemagglutinin is able to bind. Avian viruses preferentially bind to sialic acid α2,3-galactose (SAα2,3-Gal linked receptors, whereas human strains bind to sialic acid α2,6-galactose (SAα2,6-Gal linked receptors. To date, there has been no detailed account published on the distribution of SA receptors in the pig, a model host that is susceptible to avian and human influenza subtypes, thus with potential for virus reassortment. We examined the relative expression and spatial distribution of SAα2,3-GalG(1-3GalNAc and SAα2,6-Gal receptors in the major organs from normal post-weaned pigs by binding with lectins Maackia amurensis agglutinins (MAA II and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA respectively. Results Both SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors were extensively detected in the major porcine organs examined (trachea, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, skeletal muscle, cerebrum, small intestine and colon. Furthermore, distribution of both SA receptors in the pig respiratory tract closely resembled the published data of the human tract. Similar expression patterns of SA receptors between pig and human in other major organs were found, with exception of the intestinal tract. Unlike the limited reports on the scarcity of influenza receptors in human intestines, we found increasing presence of SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors from duodenum to colon in the pig. Conclusions The extensive presence of SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors in the major organs examined suggests that each major organ may be permissive to influenza virus entry or infection. The high similarity of SA expression patterns between pig and human, in particular in the respiratory tract, suggests that pigs are not more likely to be potential hosts for virus reassortment than humans. Our finding of relative abundance of SA receptors

  15. Synthesis of heteroglycoclusters by using orthogonal chemoselective ligations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic heteroglycoclusters are being subjected to increasing interest due to their potential to serve as selective ligands for carbohydrate-binding proteins. In this paper, we describe an expedient strategy to prepare cyclopeptides displaying well-defined distributions and combinations of carbohydrates. By using both oxime ligation and copper(I-catalyzed alkyne–azide cycloaddition, two series of compounds bearing binary combinations of αMan, αFuc or βLac in an overall tetravalent presentation, and either 2:2 or 3:1 relative proportions, have been prepared.

  16. Successful Thoracic Duct Ligation for Plastic Bronchitis in an Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Nicholas R; Piercecchi, Christopher; Desai, Nikita; Fisher, Micah R; Lee, Eun-Hyung; Force, Seth D

    2017-06-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare and potentially life-threatening disease characterized by the development of obstructive fibrinous tracheobronchial casts and hypoxic respiratory failure. With its poorly understood cause and rare occurrence in the adult population, few treatment strategies have been described in adults with this condition. In this report, we present a case of successful treatment of an adult with plastic bronchitis, using thoracic duct ligation and resulting in full resolution of airway cast development. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Post-functionalization of polymers via orthogonal ligation chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Anja S; Glassner, Mathias; Inglis, Andrew J; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2013-05-27

    The establishment of advanced living/controlled polymerization protocols allows for engineering synthetic polymers in a precise fashion. Combining advanced living/controlled polymerization techniques with highly efficient coupling chemistries facilitates quantitative, modular, and orthogonal functionalization of synthetic polymer strands at their chain termini as well as side-chain functionalization. The review highlights the current status of selected post-functionalization techniques of polymers via orthogonal ligation chemistries, major characteristics of the specific transformation chemistry, as well as the characterization of the products.

  18. Expressed protein ligation for metalloprotein design and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin M; van der Donk, Wilfred A; Lu, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Metalloproteins contain highly specialized metal-binding sites that are designed to accept specific metal ions to maintain correct function. Although many of the sites have been modified with success, the relative paucity of functional group availability within proteinogenic amino acids can sometimes leave open questions about specific functions of the metal binding ligands. Attaining a more thorough analysis of individual amino acid function within metalloproteins has been realized using expressed protein ligation (EPL). Here we describe our recent efforts using EPL to incorporate nonproteinogenic cysteine and methionine analogues into the type 1 copper site found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of Blastocystis in pigs and their in-contact humans in Southeast Queensland, Australia, and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqi; Owen, Helen; Traub, Rebecca J; Cuttell, Leigh; Inpankaew, Tawin; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2014-07-14

    Blastocystis, an intestinal protist commonly found in humans and animals worldwide, has been implicated by some as a causative agent in irritable bowel syndrome in humans. In pigs, infection with Blastocystis is commonly reported, with most pigs shown to harbour subtypes (ST) 1 or 5, suggesting that these animals are potentially natural hosts for Blastocystis. Although ST5 is considered rare in humans, it has been reported to be a potential zoonosis from pigs in rural China. To test these hypotheses, we conducted molecular analysis of faecal samples from pigs and in-contact humans from commercial intensive piggeries in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia, and a village in rural Cambodia. The prevalence of Blastocystis in SEQ and Cambodian pigs was 76.7% and 45.2%, respectively, with all positive pigs harbouring ST5. It appears likely that pigs are natural hosts of Blastocystis with a high prevalence of ST5 that is presumably the pig-adapted ST in these regions. Amongst the SEQ piggery staff, 83.3% were Blastocystis carriers in contrast to only 55.2% of Cambodian villagers. The predominant STs found in humans were STs 1, 2 (Cambodia only) and 3. Interestingly, ST5 which is usually rare in humans was present in the SEQ piggery staff but not in the Cambodian villagers. We conclude that in intensive piggeries, close contact between pigs and their handlers may increase the risks of zoonotic transmission of Blastocystis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. BHA STUDY IN PIGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, G.; Olsen, P.

    1986-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was given to pregnant SPF pigs (Danish Landrace) in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day from mating to day 110 of the gestation period. The BHA was mixed in the diet (pelleted). Caesarean section was performed on gestation day 110. BHA affected neither...

  1. Measuring emotions in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimert, I.

    2014-01-01

    Inonge Reimert monitored pig behaviors in positive and negative emotional states and compared the results. For her research, she used The Observer XT for behavioral annotation. She found very different behaviors to be associated with the two situations, such as play and tail wagging in the positive

  2. A Simple "Pig" Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  3. Selection of appropriate reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in Berkshire, Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Je; Kwon, Seul Gi; Hwang, Jung Hye; Park, Da Hye; Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Chul Wook

    2015-03-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the most reliable molecular biology technique for assessment of mRNA expression levels. However, to obtain the accurate RT-qPCR results, the expression levels of genes of interest should be normalized with appropriate reference genes and optimal numbers of reference genes. In this study, we assessed the expression stability of 15 well-known candidate reference genes (ACTB, ALDOA, B2M, GAPDH, HPAR1, HSPCB, PGK1, POLR2G, PPIA, RPL4, RPS18, SDHA, TBP, TOP2B, and YWHAZ) in seven body tissues (liver, lung, kidney, spleen, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine) of Berkshire, Landrace, Duroc, and Yorkshire pigs using three excel-based programs, geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Combination analysis of these three programs showed that the stable and appropriate reference genes are PPIA, TBP, and HSPCB in Berkshire pigs; PPIA, TBP, RPL4, and RPS18 in Landrace pigs; PPIA and TBP in Duroc pigs; and PPIA, TOP2B, RPL4, and RPS18 in Yorkshire pigs. Because the four pig breeds had different suitable reference genes, the selection of appropriate reference genes is essential in RT-qPCR analyses. Taken together, our data could help to select reliable reference genes for the normalization of expression levels of various target genes in pigs.

  4. Diets containing inulin but not lupins help to prevent swine dysentery in experimentally challenged pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C F; Phillips, N D; La, T; Hernandez, A; Mansfield, J; Kim, J C; Mullan, B P; Hampson, D J; Pluske, J R

    2010-10-01

    Swine dysentery is a contagious mucohemorrhagic diarrheal disease caused by the intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae that colonizes and induces inflammation of the cecum and colon. It has been reported that a diet containing chicory root and sweet lupin can prevent swine dysentery. This experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inulin in the chicory root rather than galactans in lupins was responsible for protective effects. An experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was undertaken using pigs fed barley- and triticale-based diets, with the main effects being protein source [185 g/kg of canola meal (decreased galactans) or 220 g/kg of lupins (greater galactans)] and inulin supplementation (0 or 80 g/kg). Forty Large White × Landrace pigs weighing 21 ± 3 kg, with 10 pigs per diet, were allowed to adapt to the diets for 2 wk, and then each pig was challenged orally 4 times with a broth culture containing B. hyodysenteriae on consecutive days. Pigs were killed when they showed clinical signs of dysentery or 6 wk postchallenge. Pigs fed diets without inulin had 8.3 times greater risk (P = 0.017) of developing swine dysentery and were 16 times more likely (P = 0.004) to have colon contents that were culture-positive for B. hyodysenteriae, compared with the pigs fed a diet with 80 g/kg of inulin. Diets containing lupins did not prevent pigs from developing clinical swine dysentery; however, inclusion of lupins or inulin or both in the diets delayed the onset of disease compared with the diet based mainly on canola meal (P 0.05) by diet. However the pH values of the ileal digesta were decreased in pigs fed the diet with both lupins and inulin compared with the diet containing only lupins (P pigs against developing swine dysentery.

  5. Evaluation of cerebral electrical activity and cardiac output after patent ductus arteriosus ligation in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leslie, A T F S

    2013-11-01

    To characterize and investigate the relationship between systemic blood flow and pre- and postoperative cerebral electrical activity in preterm neonates undergoing patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation.

  6. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; Borgsteede, F H M; Gaasenbeek, C P H

    2010-03-25

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharmaceutical approach to worm control. Therefore, phytotherapy could be an appropriate alternative. In the first experiment, a commercial available organic starter diet was supplemented with 3% of a herb mixture, adding 1% Thymus vulgaris, 1% Melissa officinalis and 1% Echinacea purpurea to the diet, or with 4% of a herb mixture, thereby adding the mentioned herbs plus 1% Camellia sinensis (black tea). A negative control group (no treatment) and a positive control group (treatment with conventional synthetic drug flubendazole) were included. In the second experiment, the anthelmintic properties against A. suum of three individual herbs, Carica papaya, Peumus boldus and Artemisia vulgaris, each in a dose of 1%, were tested. Pigs were infected with 1000 infective worm eggs each. Each experiment was performed with 32 individually housed growing pigs (8 replicates/treatment), which were monitored for 67 days. It was hypothesized that the herbs would block the cycles of the larvae, thereby preventing the development of adult worms. Therefore, phytogenic feed additives were not supplied during the whole experimental period, but only from the start until D39. Pigs were inoculated with infective worm eggs during five consecutive days (D17-D21). At D67 all pigs were dissected, whereafter livers were checked for the presence of white spots. Also numbers of worms in the small intestine were counted. In experiment 1, the numbers of worm-infected pigs were similar for both the herb supplemented (groups 3 and 4) and the unsupplemented (group 1) treatments (5-6 pigs of 8), while the treatment with flubendazole (group 2) resulted in 0 infected pigs. In experiment 2, herb addition (groups 2

  7. Influence of fasting period, ligation time, sex, age and bodyweight on the gastric secretory response of pylorus-ligated Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiantarelli, P; Toson, G; Guelfi, M; Murmann, W

    1978-01-01

    A study on variables influencing the gastric secretory response of pylorus-ligated Wistar rat, shows that: 1. 24 h is a sufficient fasting period for satisfactory emptying of the stomach, periods of up to 48 h yielding no advantage; 2. between 2 and 4 h is the most appropriate pyloric ligation time because in this range there are no variations in volume of gastric secretion, concentration and output of acid per unit of ligation time; 3. sex has no influence on any of the parameters; 4. animals should be age-selected because only above a given age threshold the gastric secretory response per unit of bodyweight is constant.

  8. Proteomic changes of the porcine small intestine in response to chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanjun; Gu, Xianhong

    2015-12-01

    Acute heat stress (HS) negatively affects intestinal integrity and barrier function. In contrast, chronic mild HS poses a distinct challenge to animals. Therefore, this study integrates biochemical, histological and proteomic approaches to investigate the effects of chronic HS on the intestine in finishing pigs. Castrated male crossbreeds (79.00 ± 1.50 kg BW) were subjected to either thermal neutral (TN, 21 °C; 55% ± 5% humidity; n=8) or HS conditions (30 °C; 55% ± 5% humidity; n=8) for 3 weeks. The pigs were sacrificed after 3 weeks of high environmental exposure and the plasma hormones, the intestinal morphology, integrity, and protein profiles of the jejunum mucosa were determined. Chronic HS reduced the free triiodothyronine (FT3) and GH levels. HS damaged intestinal morphology, increased plasma d-lactate concentrations and decreased alkaline phosphatase activity of intestinal mucosa. Proteome analysis of the jejunum mucosa was conducted by 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Fifty-three intestinal proteins were found to be differentially abundant, 18 of which were related to cell structure and motility, and their changes in abundance could comprise intestinal integrity and function. The down-regulation of proteins involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), electron transport chain (ETC), and oxidative phosphorylation suggested that chronic HS impaired energy metabolism and thus induced oxidative stress. Moreover, the changes of ten proteins in abundance related to stress response and defense indicated pigs mediated long-term heat exposure and counteracted its negative effects of heat exposure. These findings have important implications for understanding the effect of chronic HS on intestines.

  9. Development of hepatorenal syndrome in bile duct ligated rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Regina M Pereira; Ana Cristina Sim(o)es e Silva; Robson AS dos Santos; Eduardo A Oliveira; Virg(i)nia HR Leite; Filipi LC Dias; Alysson S Rezende; Lincoln P Costa; Luciola S Barcelos; Mauro M Teixeira

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate in bile duct ligated rats whether there were progressive alterations of renal function without changes in histopathology.METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted to sham-surgery or bile duct ligation (BDL) and divided according to the post-procedure time (2, 4 and 6-wk).To determine renal function parameters, rats were placed in metabolic cages and, at the end of the experiment, blood and urine samples were obtained.Histology and hydroxyproline content were analyzed in liver and renal tissue.RESULTS: Rats with 2 wk of BDL increased free water clearance (P = 0.02), reduced urinary osmolality (P =0.03) and serum creatinine (P = 0.01) in comparison to the sham group. In contrast, rats at 6 wk of BDL showed features of HRS, including significant increase in serum creatinine and reductions in creatinine clearance,water excretion and urinary sodium concentration. Rats with 4 wk of BDL exhibited an intermediate stage of renal dysfunction. Progressive hepatic fibrosis according to post-procedure time was confirmed by histology.The increased levels of liver hydroxyproline contrasted with the absence of structural changes in the kidney, as assessed by histology and unchanged hydroxyproline content in renal tissue.CONCLUSION: Our data show that BDL produced progressive renal dysfunction without structural changes in the kidney, characterizing HRS. The present model will be useful to understand the pathophysiology of HRS.

  10. TLR9 ligation in pancreatic stellate cells promotes tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambirinis, Constantinos P; Levie, Elliot; Nguy, Susanna; Avanzi, Antonina; Barilla, Rocky; Xu, Yijie; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Greco, Stephanie H; Deutsch, Michael; Jonnadula, Saikiran; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Tippens, Daniel; Pushalkar, Smruti; Eisenthal, Andrew; Saxena, Deepak; Ahn, Jiyoung; Hajdu, Cristina; Engle, Dannielle D; Tuveson, David; Miller, George

    2015-11-16

    Modulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling can have protective or protumorigenic effects on oncogenesis depending on the cancer subtype and on specific inflammatory elements within the tumor milieu. We found that TLR9 is widely expressed early during the course of pancreatic transformation and that TLR9 ligands are ubiquitous within the tumor microenvironment. TLR9 ligation markedly accelerates oncogenesis, whereas TLR9 deletion is protective. We show that TLR9 activation has distinct effects on the epithelial, inflammatory, and fibrogenic cellular subsets in pancreatic carcinoma and plays a central role in cross talk between these compartments. Specifically, TLR9 activation can induce proinflammatory signaling in transformed epithelial cells, but does not elicit oncogene expression or cancer cell proliferation. Conversely, TLR9 ligation induces pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) to become fibrogenic and secrete chemokines that promote epithelial cell proliferation. TLR9-activated PSCs mediate their protumorigenic effects on the epithelial compartment via CCL11. Additionally, TLR9 has immune-suppressive effects in the tumor microenvironment (TME) via induction of regulatory T cell recruitment and myeloid-derived suppressor cell proliferation. Collectively, our work shows that TLR9 has protumorigenic effects in pancreatic carcinoma which are distinct from its influence in extrapancreatic malignancies and from the mechanistic effects of other TLRs on pancreatic oncogenesis. © 2015 Zambirinis et al.

  11. Binding-regulated click ligation for selective detection of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ya; Han, Peng; Wang, Zhuxin; Chen, Weiwei; Shu, Yongqian; Xiang, Yang

    2016-04-15

    Herein, a binding-regulated click ligation (BRCL) strategy for endowing selective detection of proteins is developed with the incorporation of small-molecule ligand and clickable DNA probes. The fundamental principle underlying the strategy is the regulating capability of specific protein-ligand binding against the ligation between clickable DNA probes, which could efficiently combine the detection of particular protein with enormous DNA-based sensing technologies. In this work, the feasibly of the BRCL strategy is first verified through agarose gel electrophoresis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, and then confirmed by transferring it to a nanomaterial-assisted fluorescence assay. Significantly, the BRCL strategy-based assay is able to respond to target protein with desirable selectivity, attributing to the specific recognition between small-molecule ligand and its target. Further experiments validate the general applicability of the sensing method by tailoring the ligand toward different proteins (i.e., avidin and folate receptor), and demonstrate its usability in complex biological samples. To our knowledge, this work pioneers the practice of click chemistry in probing specific small-molecule ligand-protein binding, and therefore may pave a new way for selective detection of proteins.

  12. Vascular Z-shaped ligation technique in surgical treatmentof haemorrhoid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KazIm Gemici; Ahmet Okus; Serden Ay

    2015-01-01

    AIM To present the effectiveness of minimal invasivevascular zet ligation in the surgical treatment ofhaemorrhoidal disease (HD).METHODS: Among 138 patients with 2nd-4th gradeinternal HD having several complaints and operatedat our hospital between 2003-2013; 116 patients whoregularly attended 1-year control were included in thestudy. Operation times, postoperative early period pain,satisfaction score, complications and relapse detailswere obtained from computer records retrospectively.Visual Analogous Scale (VAS) scores were used forpatient satisfaction on the 3rd, 7th and 21st days.Technique; fixed suture which is constituted by thefirst leg of the Z-shaped suture (to pass by the mucosaand muscular layer) was put in the pile root in order toensure vascular ligation and fixation. The second legof the Z-shaped suture is constituted by mobile sutureand it passes by the pile mucosa and submucosa whichprolapses 5-10 mm below the first suture.RESULTS: Seventy-five of the patients (65%) weremale, 41 of them (35%) were female and their ageaverage was 41. The mean operation time was 12 ±4.8 min. VAS/satisfaction score was found as 2.2/4.3,1.8/4.0, 1.2/4.4 respectively on the 3rd, 7th, and 21stdays. Four of the patient (3.5%) had relapse.CONCLUSION: This technique is an easily applicable,cost efficient way of operation which increases patientsatisfaction.

  13. CD45 ligation expands Tregs by promoting interactions with DCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camirand, Geoffrey; Wang, Ying; Lu, Yuning; Wan, Yisong Y; Lin, Yan; Deng, Songyan; Guz, Galip; Perkins, David L; Finn, Patricia W; Farber, Donna L; Flavell, Richard A; Shlomchik, Warren D; Lakkis, Fadi G; Rudd, Christopher E; Rothstein, David M

    2014-10-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs), which express CD4 and FOXP3, are critical for modulating the immune response and promoting immune tolerance. Consequently, methods to expand Tregs for therapeutic use are of great interest. While transfer of Tregs after massive ex vivo expansion can be achieved, in vivo expansion of Tregs would be more practical. Here, we demonstrate that targeting the CD45 tyrosine phosphatase with a tolerogenic anti-CD45RB mAb acutely increases Treg numbers in WT mice, even in absence of exogenous antigen. Treg expansion occurred through substantial augmentation of homeostatic proliferation in the preexisting Treg population. Moreover, anti-CD45RB specifically increased Treg proliferation in response to cognate antigen. Compared with conventional T cells, Tregs differentially regulate their conjugation with DCs. Therefore, we determined whether CD45 ligation could alter interactions between Tregs and DCs. Live imaging showed that CD45 ligation specifically reduced Treg motility in an integrin-dependent manner, resulting in enhanced interactions between Tregs and DCs in vivo. Increased conjugate formation, in turn, augmented nuclear translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and Treg proliferation. Together, these results demonstrate that Treg peripheral homeostasis can be specifically modulated in vivo to promote Treg expansion and tolerance by increasing conjugation between Tregs and DCs.

  14. Semisynthesis of Ribonuclease A using Intein-Mediated Protein Ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Arnold

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of non-natural amino acid residues or modules into proteins provides a new means to explore the basis for conformational stability, folding/unfolding behavior, or biological function. We exploited intein-mediated protein ligation to produce a semisynthetic ribonuclease A. Of the 124 residues of RNase A, residues 1–94 were linked to an intein. After expression of the fusion protein and thiol-induced cleavage, the RNase A(1–94 fragment possessed a C-terminal thioester. A peptide identical to the C-terminal residues 95–124 of RNase A (with residue 95 being cysteine was successfully ligated to that thioester thereby reconstituting full-length wild-type RNase A. In mass spectrometry, this semisynthetic RNase A proved to be undistinguishable from the control protein, namely recombinant wild-type RNase A. Recombinant wild-type RNase A was obtained by expression of RNase A(1–124–intein fusion protein followed by thiol-induced cleavage and hydrolysis of the thioester. Both proteins showed thermal stabilities (Tm and catalytic activities comparable to the wild-type enzyme, indicating that both proteins folded properly. These results might serve as basis for the semisynthesis of RNase A variants containing non-natural modules in the aforementioned peptide.

  15. Neuromodulation of intestinal inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costes, L.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between the central nervous system and the immune system have been shown to exert a crucial role in the tight regulation of the immune response in the intestine. In particular, the vagus nerve was recently unraveled as an important player in this neuromodulation of intestinal inflammati

  16. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2004-01-01

    A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and/or pro...

  17. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Dušan Đ.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disease which leads to protein losing enteropathy. Tortous, dilated lymphatic vessels in the intestinal wall and mesenterium are typical features of the disease. Clinical manifestations include malabsorption, diarrhea, steatorrhea, edema and effusions. Specific diet and medication are required for disease control. Case report. A 19-year old male patient was hospitalized due to diarrhea, abdominal swelling, weariness and fatigue. Physical examination revealed growth impairment, ascites, and lymphedema of the right hand and forearm. Laboratory assessment indicated iron deficiency anaemia, lymphopenia, malabsorption, inflammatory syndrome, and urinary infection. Enteroscopy and video capsule endoscopy demonstrated dilated lymphatic vessels in the small intestine. The diagnosis was confirmed by intestinal biopsy. The patient was put on high-protein diet containing medium-chain fatty acids, somatotropin and suportive therapy. Conclusion. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease, usually diagnosed in childhood. Early recognition of the disease and adequate treatment can prevent development of various complications.

  18. Constitutive expression and activity of cytochrome P450 in conventional pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Søren Drud; Bauhaus, Yvonne; Zamaratskaia, Galia; Junqueira, Matheus Antunes; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Petrat-Melin, Bjørn; Young, Jette Feveile; Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer

    2017-04-01

    Pigs have often been suggested to be a useful model for humans, when investigating CYP dependent events, like drug metabolism. However, comprehensive knowledge about the constitutive expression of the major CYP and corresponding transcription factors is limited. We compared the constitutive mRNA expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor, constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor and CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A, CYP2E1 and CYP3A in liver, adipose tissue, muscle and small intestine in pigs, as well as the expression along the length of the small intestine and colon. Tissue samples were taken from female pigs, and analyzed for gene expression, as well as CYP dependent activity using qPCR and specific probe substrates, respectively. For all investigated transcription factors and CYPs the mRNA expression and activity was highest in the liver. CYP1A1 and CYP3A mRNA expression and activity was shown in all investigated tissues. Along the small intestine and colon the mRNA expression and activity of CYP1A1 and CYP3A was gradually decreased. The results demonstrated, similarity to that reported for humans, and hence adds to the use of pigs as a model for humans.

  19. Productivity and parasitic infections of pigs kept under different management systems by smallholder farmers in Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipendele, Calvin Paul; Lekule, Faustine Paul; Mushi, Daniel Elias; Ngowi, Helena; Kimbi, Eliakunda Casmir; Mejer, Helena; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-08-01

    An on farm experiment was carried out to assess the effects of production systems on the performance of local pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Six villages from Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania were purposely selected based on the prominent pig production systems: free range, semi-confinement and total confinement. Fifteen pig keeping households were randomly selected from each village to participate in the study. A participatory rural appraisal and structured questionnaire were used for collecting information from the households on pig production and reproduction performance. In addition, a total of 180 weaner pigs, 2-3 months old, were purchased and randomly allocated to the 90 participating households. The pigs were subjected to three production systems: free range (M1), confinement with local diet (M2) and confinement with a compounded diet and anthelmintic treatment (M3). The anthelmintic treatment (piperazine citrate) was administered at 1 g per kg body weight. Faecal and blood samples were collected at month three of the experiment to assess the burden of intestinal helminths and sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis, respectively. Sows kept under free range system were reported to have smaller litter size both at farrowing and at weaning compared to those kept under confinement. The experiment showed pigs under M3 had higher (P pigs in M2 (73 g/day) and M1 (68 g/day). In addition, pigs in M3 had higher body length and heart girth size with the feed to gain ratio of 8.5. Free range pigs tended to have lower faecal egg counts for most worm species compared to permanently confined pigs. Sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis was 26%, with village prevalence ranging from 8 to 52%. Although pigs kept in M3 performed better than the rest, the compounded feed was too expensive for the farmers to afford. Locally available feed types combined with vitamin and mineral supplements may be a more sustainable option.

  20. GPS Tracking of Free-Ranging Pigs to Evaluate Ring Strategies for the Control of Cysticercosis/Taeniasis in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pray, Ian W.; Swanson, Dallas J.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Muro, Claudio; Moyano, Luz M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Hector H.; O’Neal, Seth E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a parasitic cestode that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. T. solium eggs are released into the environment through the stool of humans infected with an adult intestinal tapeworm (a condition called taeniasis), and cause cysticercosis when ingested by pigs or other humans. A control strategy to intervene within high-risk foci in endemic communities has been proposed as an alternative to mass antihelminthic treatment. In this ring strategy, antihelminthic treatment is targeted to humans and pigs residing within a 100 meter radius of a pig heavily-infected with cysticercosis. Our aim was to describe the roaming ranges of pigs in this region, and to evaluate whether the 100 meter radius rings encompass areas where risk factors for T. solium transmission, such as open human defecation and dense pig activity, are concentrated. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we used Global Positioning System (GPS) devices to track pig roaming ranges in two rural villages of northern Peru. We selected 41 pigs from two villages to participate in a 48-hour tracking period. Additionally, we surveyed all households to record the locations of open human defecation areas. We found that pigs spent a median of 82.8% (IQR: 73.5, 94.4) of their time roaming within 100 meters of their homes. The size of home ranges varied significantly by pig age, and 93% of the total time spent interacting with open human defecation areas occurred within 100 meters of pig residences. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that 100 meter radius rings around heavily-infected pigs adequately capture the average pig’s roaming area (i.e., home range) and represent an area where the great majority of exposure to human feces occurs. PMID:27035825