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Sample records for pig ileum myenteric

  1. Electrical behavior of myenteric neurons induced by mesenteric nerve stimulation in the guinea pig ileum.

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    Takaki,Miyako

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of mesenteric nerve (MN stimulation on the electrophysiological behavior of myenteric neurons in the guinea pig ileum were investigated with intracellular recording techniques in the myenteric flaps innervated with mesenteric nerves. MN stimulation at 0.11-6 Hz evoked fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs in 6 myenteric neurons (2 Type 2/AH, 3 NS and 1 Type 1/S cells and rarely evoked antidromic soma spike potentials in 3 myenteric neurons. Fast EPSPs were abolished by hexamethonium. Slow EPSPs evoked by MN stimulation (Takaki and Nakayama (1988 Brain Res., 442, 351-353 were also obtained in 5 Type 2/AH neurons and were irreversibly abolished by superfusion with capsaicin 10 microM. It is, therefore, likely that fast EPSPs mediated by nicotinic cholinergic receptors are due to stimulation of the vagus nerve and slow EPSPs are mediated by a release of substance P at axosomatic synapses due to antidromic activation of the capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves.

  2. Excitatory synaptic inputs on myenteric Dogiel type II neurones of the pig ileum.

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    Cornelissen, W; de Laet, A; Kroese, A B; van Bogaert, P P; Scheuermann, D W; Timmermans, J P

    2001-04-01

    The synaptic input on myenteric Dogiel type II neurones (n = 63) obtained from the ileum of 17 pigs was studied by intracellular recording. In 77% of the neurones, electrical stimulation of a fibre tract evoked fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) with an amplitude of 6 +/- 5 mV (mean +/- S.D.) and lasting 49 +/- 29 ms. The nicotinic nature of the fEPSPs was demonstrated by superfusing hexamethonium (20 microM). High-frequency stimulation (up to 20 Hz, 3 seconds) did not result in a rundown of the fEPSPs, and did not evoke slow excitatory or inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. The effects of neurotransmitters, possibly involved in these excitatory responses, were investigated. Pressure microejection of acetylcholine (10 mM in pipette) resulted in a fast nicotinic depolarisation in 67%(18/27) of the neurones (13 +/- 9 mV, duration 7.0 +/- 7.2 seconds) as did 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP) application (10 mM; 14 +/- 10 mV, duration 4.1 +/- 2.8 seconds) in 76% of the cells. The fast nicotinic response to acetylcholine was sometimes (6/27) followed by a slow muscarinic depolarisation (8 +/- 4 mV; duration 38.7 +/- 10.8 seconds). Immunostaining revealed 5-hydroxytryptamine hydrochloride (5-HT)- and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-positive neuronal baskets distributed around and in close vicinity to Dogiel type II neuronal cell bodies. Microejection of 5-HT (10 mM) resulted in a fast nicotinic-like depolarisation (12 +/- 6 mV, duration 3.0 +/- 1.3 seconds) in 4 of 8 neurones tested, whereas microejection of CGRP (20 mM) gave rise to a slow muscarinic-like depolarisation (6 +/- 2 mV, duration 56.0 +/- 27.5 seconds) in 8 of 12 neurones tested. In conclusion, myenteric Dogiel type II neurones in the porcine ileum receive diverse synaptic input. Mainly with regard to the prominent presence of nicotinic responses, these neurones behave contrary to their guinea pig counterparts.

  3. Hexamethonium-induced augmentation of the electrical twitch response in the guinea-pig ileum longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus strip.

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    Donnerer, Josef; Liebmann, Ingrid; Holzer-Petsche, Ulrike

    2014-08-08

    Longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus strips of the guinea-pig ileum were used to investigate the nature of the hexamethonium-induced augmentation of the twitch response. All preparations were set up in Tyrode solution and intermittent longitudinal twitch contractions were evoked by single pulse electrical field stimulation. Hexamethonium, a blocker of nicotinic ganglionic transmission, at 300 μmol/l and 1 mmol/l augmented the twitch contractions by 21% and 35%, respectively. First we tested for a possible nicotinic drive onto an inhibitory neuronal component to the longitudinal smooth muscle cells. However, guanethidine (5 μmol/l), naloxone (1 μmol/l), or l-NAME (300 μmol/l) were without effect on the hexamethonium-induced augmentation. The P2 purinoceptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2'-4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS), 25-100 μmol/l, without altering the control twitch responses, dose-dependently reduced the hexamethonium-induced augmentation; at 100 μmol/l a statistically significantly inhibition was observed. Based on these functional experiments we found no evidence that blocking nicotinic transmission removed a tonic adrenergic, opioidergic or nitrergic inhibitory input to the longitudinal muscle. However, we provide evidence for a hexamethonium-induced augmentation of the P2 purinergic input to cholinergic motoneurons of the guinea-pig ileum longitudinal muscle. The P2-nicotinic receptor interaction presents a novel modulatory mechanism to cholinergic myenteric motor neurons.

  4. Histamine H2-receptors on guinea-pig ileum myenteric plexus neurons mediate the release of contractile agents

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    Barker, L.A.; Ebersole, B.J.

    1982-04-01

    Dimaprit, a highly selective H2-agonist, caused a multiphasic contraction of guinea-pig ileal segments and ileal myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle preparations. The initial phase was characterized by a twitch which reached a maximum in 15 to 30 sec and was followed by a partial relaxation. The later phase was variable and consisted of a series of twitch responses or of a slowly developing contracture which sometimes was accompanied by oscillatory changes in tension. dose-response curves were generated for the initial response; for isolated ileal segments the EC50 was 5.1 +/- 1.8 micrometers (mean +/- S.D., N . 7) and the Hill coefficient was 1.1 +/- 0.2 and for longitudinal muscle strips the EC50 was 5.8 +/- 1.2 micrometer and the Hill coefficient was 1.2 +/- 0.1 (N . 7). Both the initial and secondary components of the contractile responses to dimaprit were prevented by 0.2 micron tetrodotoxin or 10 microns mefenamic acid and by the production of tachphylaxis to either substance P or serotonin. Scopolamine, 0.001 to 0.1 micron, insurmountably antagonized only the initial component of the response. Mepyramine (1.0 micrometer), hexamethonium (100 microns), bromolysergic acid (0.25 microns) and p-(imidazol-1-yl)phenyl (10 microns) were without effect on the response to dimaprit. The histamine H2-receptor antagonist, tiotidine, produced parallel dextral shifts in the dose-response curve for dimaprit. The apparent pA2 value for tiotidine was 7.65. The results suggest that dimaprit acts on H2-receptors located on myenteric plexus neurons to cause the release of contractile substances. The mediators of the contractile response are tentatively identified as acetylcholine, substance P, serotonin and a product(s) of the arachadonic acid cascade.

  5. The slow calcium-dependent potassium current in a myenteric neurone of the guinea-pig ileum.

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    Hirst, G D; Johnson, S M; van Helden, D F

    1985-04-01

    Experiments were performed in current-clamped and voltage-clamped after-hyperpolarizing (AH) neurones of the guinea-pig myenteric plexus to examine the properties of the potassium conductance (gK, Ca) underlying the slow calcium-activated after-hyperpolarization (VK, Ca). The action potential plateau lengthened by the addition of tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) to the bathing medium was compared to VK, Ca. Results were consistent with enhanced calcium entry causing an increase of VK, Ca. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) directly reduced VK, Ca. Voltage-clamp data of gK, Ca were well fitted by a process with a delay (approximately equal to 60 ms) followed by exponential activation (time constant approximately equal to 300 ms) and inactivation (time constant approximately equal to 2 s). The presence of a small, much slower inactivating process was noted. Values for time constants were similar to those reported by Morita, North & Tokimasa (1982) and North & Tokimasa (1983) where gK, Ca was measured during VK, Ca subsequent to action potential stimulation. The relation between gK, Ca (or the calcium-activated potassium current IK, Ca) and estimated calcium influx resulting from short-duration calcium currents elicited at various voltages was compared. Both the integral of the calcium current and gK, Ca showed a similar dependence on the depolarizations used to elicit IK, Ca except there was a positive shift of about 4 mV for the gK, Ca curve. This shift was attributed to a requirement for calcium ions to prime the gK, Ca mechanism. An inward ion charge movement of about 8 pC was required before significant activation of gK, Ca occurred. After the 'priming' condition had been established, the sensitivity of gK, Ca to inward calcium current measured at the resting potential was about 500 pS/pC of inward charge. Large calcium entry obtained by prolonged calcium currents caused saturation of the peak amplitude of IK, Ca and initiated currents with slower time to peak amplitude and

  6. Glycine activates myenteric neurones in adult guinea-pigs.

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    Neunlist, M; Michel, K; Reiche, D; Dobreva, G; Huber, K; Schemann, M

    2001-11-01

    1. We studied the effects of glycine on myenteric neurones and muscle activity in the colon and stomach of adult guinea-pigs. 2. Intracellular recordings revealed that myenteric neurones responded to local microejection of glycine (1 mM) with a fast, transient membrane potential depolarisation (57 % of 191 colonic neurones and 26 % of 50 gastric neurones). Most glycine-sensitive neurones had ascending projections and were choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive. Glycine preferentially activated neurones with a late afterhyperpolarisation (AH-neurones) and tonic spiking neurones with fast synaptic inputs (tonic S-neurones) but less frequently phasic S-neurones and inexcitable (non-spiking) neurones. The depolarisation had a reversal potential at -19 +/- 13 mV, which was increased by 18 +/- 10 % upon lowering extracellular chloride concentration and decreased by 38 +/- 14 % in furosemide (frusemide, 2 mM). 3. Strychnine (300 nM) reversibly abolished the glycine-induced depolarisation and the Cl(-) channel blocker picrotoxin (100 microM) reduced the amplitude of the depolarisation by 55 +/- 5 %. The glycine effect was a postsynaptic response because it was not changed after nerve blockade with tetrodotoxin (1 microM) or blockade of synaptic transmission in reduced extracellular [Ca(2+)]. The effect was specific since the response was not changed by the nicotinic antagonists hexamethonium (200 microM) and mecamylamine (100 microM), the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (10 microM), the NMDA antagonist MK-801 (20 microM) or the 5-HT(3) antagonist ICS 205930 (1 microM). 4. Glycine (1 mM) induced a tetrodotoxin- and strychnine-sensitive contractile response in the colon; the contractile response in the stomach was tetrodotoxin insensitive. 5. Glycine activated myenteric neurones in the adult enteric nervous system through strychnine-sensitive mechanisms. The glycine-evoked depolarisation was caused by Cl(-) efflux and the maintenance of relatively high

  7. Effects of ascorbic acid supplementation in ileum myenteric neurons of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    SILVERIO, Sonia M.; Mari,Renata B.; Clebis,Naianne K.; SCOZ, Juliana R.; Germano,Ricardo de M.; Major,José A.A.; Pedro P. Bombonato; Sandra R. Stabille

    2009-01-01

    The exacerbation of the oxidative stress and of the polyol pathway which impair damage myenteric plexus are metabolic characteristics of diabetes. The ascorbic acid (AA) is an antioxidant and an aldose reductase inhibitor, which may act as neuroprotector. The effects of AA supplementation on the density and cellular body profile area (CP) of myenteric neurons in STZ-induced diabetes in rats were assessed. Four groups with five animals each were formed: normoglycemic (C); diabetic (D); AA-trea...

  8. Effect of l-glutamine on myenteric neuron and of the mucous of the ileum of diabetic rats

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    ELEANDRO A. TRONCHINI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of the L-glutamine supplementation to prevent - diabetes induced changes in myenteric neurons and also to verify the effect on the mucosa of the ileum of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in five groups (n = 5: untreated normoglycaemic (UN, normoglycaemic treated with L-glutamine (NG, untreated diabetics (UD, diabetics treated with L-glutamine, starting on the 4th (DG4 or 45th day following diabetes induction (DG45. The amino acid was added to the diet at 1%. The density and size of neurons, the metaphasic index in the crypt, the height of the villus, the depth of the crypt and the number of globet cells were determined. There was no difference in the neuronal density and in the cellular body area of the myosin-stained myenteric neurons of groups DG4 and DG45 when compared to group D. The metaphase index and the number of goblet cells showed no significant differences when all groups were compared (P > 0.05. The villi height of groups DG4 and DG45 were 45.5% (P 0.05 higher than those in group UD, respectively. The analyzed crypts showed similar depth for all studied groups.

  9. Antispasmodic effect of 4'-methylepigallocatechin on guinea pig ileum.

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    da Rocha, Marcelly Barbosa; Souza, Fábia Valéria Menezes; dos Santos Estevam, Charlez; Pizza, Cosimo; Sant'ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Marçal, Rosilene Moretti

    2012-10-01

    The antispasmodic effect of 4'-methylepigallocatechin (MEC), which was isolated from Maytenus rigida Mart (Celestraceae), was investigated in vitro in guinea pig intestinal segments. In the isolated ileum, MEC (1 nM-100 μM) did not modify the ileal spontaneous tonus or the electrically elicited contractions. MEC (8 μM) significantly (prigida stem bark.

  10. Nicotine-Induced Modulation of the Cholinergic Twitch Response in the Ileum of Guinea Pig.

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    Donnerer, Josef; Liebmann, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the direct drug effects of nicotine and its effects on the cholinergic twitch responses of the electrically stimulated longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus strip from the ileum of guinea pig were investigated. Nicotine dose-dependently (0.3-10 µmol/l) evoked the well-known contractile responses on its own. Whereas the interposed twitch responses remained present without a change in height at 1 µmol/l nicotine, a nicotine concentration of 3 µmol/l slightly and a concentration of 10 µmol/l markedly diminished the twitch during their presence. After the washout of 1-10 µmol/l nicotine, the height of the twitch response was also temporarily and significantly reduced by 30-77%. The P2X purinoceptor agonist αβ-methylene ATP (1-10 µmol/l) dose-dependently induced contractions on its own and reduced the twitch response during its presence in the organ bath; however, it did not diminish the twitch responses after washout of the drug as nicotine did. The P2X antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2'-4'-disulphonic acid, the NMDA channel blocker MK-801 and the inhibitor of small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels apamin reduced the contractile effect of 1 µmol/l nicotine. Apamin also significantly prevented the 'post-nicotine inhibition of the twitch' following the washout of 1-3 µmol/l nicotine. As a conclusion, we provide evidence for a functional interaction between nicotinic receptors and the P2X receptors in the ileum of the guinea pig. The 'post-nicotine inhibition of the twitch' is not due to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization or transmitter depletion, but most probably the secondary effects of nicotine on SK channels determine the reduced cholinergic motor neuron excitability.

  11. Antispasmodic Activity of Fractions and Cynaropicrin from Cynara scolymus on Guinea-Pig Ileum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emendörfer, Fernanda; Emendörfer, Fabiane; Bellato, Fernanda; Noldin, Vânia Floriani; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Monache, Franco Delle; Cardozo, Alcíbia Maia

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the antispasmodic activity of some fractions and cynaropicrin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Cynara scolymus, cultivated in Brazil, against guinea-pig ileum contracted by acetylcholine...

  12. Evidence for a non-opioid sigma binding site din the guinea-pig myenteric plexus

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    Roman, F.; Pascaud, X.; Vauche, D.; Junien, J.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of a binding site to (+)-(/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 was demonstrated in a guinea-pig myenteric plexus (MYP) membrane preparation. Specific binding to this receptor was saturable, reversible, linear with protein concentration and consisted of two components, a high affinity site and a low affinity site. Morphine and naloxone 10/sup -4/M were unable to displace (+)-(/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 binding. Haloperidol, imipramine, ethylketocyclazocine and propranolol were among the most potent compounds to inhibit this specific binding. These results suggest the presence of a non-opioid haloperidol sensitive sigma receptor in the MYP of the guinea-pig.

  13. Effects of Allyl Isothiocyanate, Acetaminophen, and Dipyrone in the Guinea-Pig Ileum.

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    Donnerer, Josef; Liebmann, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, mustard oil, 50-200 µmol/l), depending on specific dosages, inhibited the cholinergic twitch response in the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus (LMMP) strip of the guinea-pig ileum. AITC also induced short-lasting contractile responses, and decreases of the basal tone of the LMMP strip at low concentrations and increases at high concentrations. Hexamethonium, a blocker of nicotinic ganglionic transmission, was able to prevent the AITC-evoked inhibitory effect, an effect that was also observed with the opioid antagonist naloxone. The P2 purinoceptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2'-4'-disulphonic acid and guanethidine had no significant influence on the inhibitory effect of AITC. Since AITC also reduced the electrical stimulation-induced myogenic smooth muscle contractions in the LMMP preparation, its contractile and relaxant actions can be regarded as neurogenic and myogenic in nature. The analgesics, acetaminophen (paracetamol, 100-500 µmol/l) and dipyrone (metamizole, 100-500 µmol/l), reduced both the cholinergic twitch and the myogenic contractions in the LMMP strip to the same extent; therefore, their action in the intestinal smooth muscle can be regarded as myogenic spasmolytic in nature. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. An examination of the 5-HT3 receptor mediating contraction and evoked [3H]-acetylcholine release in the guinea-pig ileum.

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    Fox, A; Morton, I. K.

    1990-01-01

    1. The relative contributions of two classes of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor (5-HT2 and 5-HT3) to the contractile action of 5-HT, 2-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (2-methyl-5-HT) and alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (alpha-methyl-5-HT) were studied in the guinea-pig ileum longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus strip (LMMP) preparation. Contractility studies were combined with an analysis of the effects of the three agonists on [3H]-acetylcholine ([3H]-ACh) release from preparations preincuba...

  15. Spasmolytic effect of traditional herbal formulation on guinea pig ileum

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    Kumar, Dushyant; Ganguly, Kuntal; Hegde, H. V.; Patil, P. A.; Kholkute, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The herbal formulation consisting of Andrographis paniculata Nees., Cassia fistula L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Cuminum cyminum L. is widely used by the local traditional practitioners in rural Northern Karnataka for spasmodic abdominal pain. Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate safety and spasmolytic effect of poly-herbal formulation. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity studies were carried out in Swiss mice, as per the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. The spasmolytic activity of the formulation was studied in isolated guinea pig ileum model using histamine and acetylcholine as agonists. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Dunnetts post-hoc test and P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulation did not show any adverse toxic effects and found to be safe. It also showed significant (P < 0.05) relaxation in different agonist like histamine and acetylcholine-induced contractions in guinea pig ileum. Conclusion: Antispasmodic activity of the herbal formulation can be attributed to its atropine-like activity. The present findings, therefore, support its utility in spasmodic abdominal pain. PMID:26604555

  16. Spasmolytic effect of traditional herbal formulation on guinea pig ileum

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    Dushyant Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The herbal formulation consisting of Andrographis paniculata Nees., Cassia fistula L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Cuminum cyminum L. is widely used by the local traditional practitioners in rural Northern Karnataka for spasmodic abdominal pain. Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate safety and spasmolytic effect of poly-herbal formulation. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity studies were carried out in Swiss mice, as per the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD guidelines. The spasmolytic activity of the formulation was studied in isolated guinea pig ileum model using histamine and acetylcholine as agonists. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Dunnetts post-hoc test and P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulation did not show any adverse toxic effects and found to be safe. It also showed significant (P < 0.05 relaxation in different agonist like histamine and acetylcholine-induced contractions in guinea pig ileum. Conclusions: Antispasmodic activity of the herbal formulation can be attributed to its atropine-like activity. The present findings, therefore, support its utility in spasmodic abdominal pain.

  17. Targeted electrophysiological analysis of viscerofugal neurons in the myenteric plexus of guinea-pig colon.

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    Hibberd, T J; Spencer, N J; Zagorodnyuk, V P; Chen, B N; Brookes, S J H

    2014-09-05

    Enteric viscerofugal neurons are mechanosensory interneurons that form the afferent limb of intestino-intestinal reflexes involving prevertebral sympathetic neurons. Fast synaptic inputs to viscerofugal neurons arise from other enteric neurons, but their sources are unknown. We aimed to describe the origins of synaptic inputs to viscerofugal neurons by mapping the locations of their cell bodies within the myenteric plexus. Viscerofugal neuron somata were retrogradely traced with 1,1'-didodecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl indocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) from colonic nerve trunks and impaled with microelectrodes, in longitudinal muscle/myenteric plexus preparations of the guinea-pig distal colon (39 impalements, n=14). Thirty-eight viscerofugal neurons were uni-axonal and had the electrophysiological characteristics of myenteric S-neurons; one neuron was multipolar with AH-neuron electrophysiological characteristics. Depolarizing current pulses evoked either single- or multiple action potentials in viscerofugal neurons (range 1-25 spikes, 500 ms, 100-900 pA, 21 cells). Electrical stimulation of internodal strands circumferential to viscerofugal neurons evoked fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in 19/24 cells. Focal pressure-ejection of the nicotinic agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP, 10 μm) directly onto viscerofugal nerve cell bodies evoked large depolarizations and action potentials (23 ± 10 mV, latency 350 ± 230 ms, 21/22 cells). DMPP was then focally applied to multiple sites, up to 3mm from the recorded viscerofugal neuron, to activate other myenteric S-neurons. In a few sites in myenteric ganglia, DMPP evoked repeatable fast EPSPs in viscerofugal neurons (latency 300 ± 316 ms, 38/394 sites, 10 cells). The cellular sources of synaptic inputs to viscerofugal neurons were located both orally and aborally (19 oral, 19 aboral), but the amplitude of oral inputs was consistently greater than aboral inputs (13.1 ± 4.3 mV vs. 10.1

  18. Disodium cromoglycate prevents ileum hyperreactivity to histamine in Toxocara canis-infected guinea pigs.

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    Sá-Nunes, A; Corrado, A P; Baruffi, M D; Faccioli, L H

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Toxocara canis infection in guinea pigs provokes changes in ileum responsiveness to histamine. Ileum segments from control and T. canis-infected groups were placed at isometric conditions and submitted to various doses of histamine. No changes were observed between controls and T. canis-infected groups at days 3, 6 and 12 after infection. However, at days 18 and 24 after infection, there was a significant increase in ileum responsiveness to histamine in T. canis-infected group. Pre-incubation of ileum segments with 1mgml(-1) disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) prevented the increased responsiveness to histamine in T. canis-infected guinea pigs and did not affect ileum contractility in non-infected animals. These results indicate that T. canis-infected guinea pigs develop increased intestinal responsiveness to histamine and that DSCG prevents alterations in smooth-muscle contractility.

  19. Antispasmodic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Thymus vulgaris on the guinea-pig ileum.

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    Babaei, Mehdi; Abarghoei, Mitra Emmami; Ansari, Reza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Taherian, Abbas Ali; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Toussy, Gafar; Mousavi, Shahrokh

    2008-01-01

    The effects of Thymus vulgaris hydroalcoholic extract on the contractile responses of the isolated guinea-pig ileum were investigated. Contraction changes in the terminal ileum of guinea pigs were monitored using a force displacement transducer amplifier connected to a physiograph. Thymus vulgaris extract inhibited the contractile responses in a dose-dependent manner and also decreased the amplitude of peristaltic waves. It is concluded that T. vulgaris has an antispasmodic action on guinea pig ileum by decreasing the amplitudes of the muscle contractions during peristalsis. The EC50 was calculated as 1.7 mg mL(-1). In guinea-pig ileum the extract led to an antispasmodic effect, possibly by affecting the anticholinergic and serotoninergic pathways.

  20. Effect of aqueous fraction of Rosa damascena on ileum contractile response of guinea pigs

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    Karim Dolati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The use of drugs with herbal origin is increasing for treatment of gastrointestinal (GI disorders. Rosa damascena (R. damascena is a well-known plant suggested to have beneficial effect on GI system. In this study, the effect of aqueous fraction of R. damascena on the contractionsofisolated guinea pig ileum was investigated. Materials and Methods: Aqueous fraction of plant was obtained from ethanolic extract after ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were discarded. To evaluate effect of this fraction on ileum contraction, guinea pig ileum was removed and mounted on organ bath and its contraction was recorded. Effect of various concentrations (0.66, 0.83, and 1.3 mg/ml of aqueous fraction on ileum contraction in comparison with Ach in presence and absense of atropine, a muscarinic antagonist of cholinergic, was evaluated. The response of ileum to 1 µg/ml of acetylcholine was considered as 100% response. Results:Our results showed that aqueous fractions of R. damascena dose-dependently increased basal guinea pigs ileum contractions (pConclusion: It is concluded that aqueous fraction of R. damascena has mild excitatory effect on ileum contraction and this fraction may be beneficial as a mild laxative agent.

  1. Crotoxin, the major toxin from the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, inhibits ³H-choline uptake in guinea pig ileum

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    L.S. Kattah

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of crotoxin, the neurotoxic complex from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, on the uptake of ³H-choline in minces of smooth muscle myenteric plexus from guinea pig ileum. In the concentration range used (0.03-1 µM and up to 10 min of treatment, crotoxin decreased ³H-choline uptake by 50-75% compared to control. This inhibition was time dependent and did not seem to be associated with the disruption of the neuronal membrane, because at least for the first 20 min of tissue exposure to the toxin (up to 1 µM the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH released into the supernatant were similar to those of controls. Higher concentrations of crotoxin or more extensive incubation times with this toxin resulted in elevation of LDH activity detected in the assay supernatant. The inhibitory effect of crotoxin on ³H-choline uptake seems to be associated with its phospholipase activity since the equimolar substitution of Sr2+ for Ca2+ in the incubation medium or the modification of the toxin with p-bromophenacyl bromide substantially decreased this effect. Our results show that crotoxin inhibits ³H-choline uptake with high affinity (EC25 = 10 ± 5 nM. We suggest that this inhibition could explain, at least in part, the blocking effect of crotoxin on neurotransmission.

  2. Projections of specific morphological types of neurons within the myenteric plexus of the small intestine of the guinea-pig.

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    Song, Z M; Brookes, S J; Costa, M

    1996-07-01

    The projections of myenteric neurons within the myenteric plexus of the guinea-pig small intestine were established using retrograde tracing in organotypic culture. Three days after applying the fluorescent dye DiI to a single internodal strand in the myenteric plexus, 500-1000 nerve cell bodies were labelled. Of these, 77% were located oral to the application site, 15% were located anally and 7% were located within 1 mm of this site. Three major morphological types of neurons could be distinguished. Dogiel type I neurons had lamellar dendrites and single axons, Dogiel type II neurons had large smooth cell bodies and several long processes, and filamentous neurons had smooth ovoid cell bodies, single axons and several filamentous dendrites. Dogiel type I, II and filamentous neurons accounted for 54.6%, 38% and 7.4% of all filled cells, respectively. Labelled nerve cell bodies were present up to 13 mm aboral to the DiI application site; all neurons more than 2 mm aboral had Dogiel type I features. On the oral side, Dogiel type I neurons were found up to 110 mm, Dogiel type II neurons up to 100 mm and filamentous neurons up to 80 mm. Neurons with 2 mm oral or aboral to the DiI application site were located up to 7 mm circumferentially and were mainly Dogiel type II cells. This work revealed remarkable polarity within the myenteric plexus, with a significant prevalence of myenteric neurons projecting anally for longer distances than those projecting orally. These long pathways are probably involved in the coordination of intestinal motility.

  3. Muscarinic agonists and potassium currents in guinea-pig myenteric neurones.

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    Galligan, J J; North, R A; Tokimasa, T

    1989-01-01

    1. Intracellular electrophysiological recordings were obtained from single neurones of the guinea-pig myenteric plexus in vitro. Using single electrode voltage clamp techniques, four distinct potassium currents were described and the effects of muscarinic agonists on these currents were studied. 2. A calcium-dependent potassium current (gKCa) was present in AH neurones at rest, and was much increased following a brief depolarization (50 ms, to 0 mV). Muscarinic agonists reduced both the resting current and the current evoked by depolarization. Pirenzepine competitively antagonized the suppression by muscarine of the calcium-dependent potassium current (or after-hyperpolarization) following an action potential. The dissociation equilibrium constant for pirenzepine was about 10 nM. 3. The conductance of AH neurones increased two to three fold when they were hyperpolarized negative to -90 mV. This inward rectification was blocked by extracellular caesium (2 mM) or rubidium (2 mM), but not by tetraethylammonium (TEA, 40 mM), 4-aminopyridine (100 microM) or cobalt (2 mM). The inward rectification was unaffected by muscarinic agonists. 4. When AH neurones were depolarized from very negative holding potentials (less than -80 mV) a brief outward current was recorded with a duration of about 200 ms. This transient or A current was completely blocked by 4-aminopyridine (100 microM) but was not affected by tetrodotoxin (300 nM), TEA (40 mM) or cobalt (2 mM). Muscarinic agonists did not affect the A current. 5. In S neurones, and in AH neurones in calcium-free solutions, the potassium conductance (in TEA and caesium) behaved according to constant field assumptions. This background conductance was suppressed by muscarinic agonists. 6. It is concluded that the depolarization by muscarinic agonists of myenteric AH neurones is due to a suppression of both a calcium-dependent potassium conductance and a background potassium conductance. Muscarinic depolarization of S neurones

  4. Electrical behaviour of myenteric neurones in the gastric corpus of the guinea-pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, M; Wood, J D

    1989-10-01

    1. Electrical behaviour of ganglion cells in the myenteric plexus of the guinea-pig stomach was investigated using intracellular recording methods. 2. Three subpopulations were identified and classified for convenience of discussion as gastric I, II and III neurones. Gastric I neurones were characterized by repetitive spike discharge during depolarizing current pulses and by higher input resistance than the other types. Gastric II neurones discharged one or two spikes only at the onset of long-lasting depolarizing current pulses. Gastric III neurones did not discharge spikes to depolarizing current pulses and had higher membrane potentials and lower input resistances than the other types. Non-stimulus evoked discharge ('spontaneous' discharge) did not occur in any of the neurones. 3. Resting membrane potentials were generated primarily by resting K+ conductance, but were smaller than the estimated K+ equilibrium potential. Analysis based on the constant field equation predicted lower K+ conductance in gastric I than in gastric III neurones. 4. Action potentials in gastric I and II neurones were suppressed or blocked by tetrodotoxin. Spikes that were broadened by tetraethylammonium appeared to have an inward component of Ca2+ current. 5. Hyperpolarizing after-potentials were associated with the spikes of both kinds of neurones. These after-potentials had much shorter duration (less than 300 ms) than the post-spike hyperpolarization of AH/type 2 intestinal neurones and unlike intestinal neurones there was no latency between the positive after-potential of the spike and the onset of the hyperpolarization. After-hyperpolarization in the gastric neurones was enhanced when the spikes were broadened by tetraethylammonium and was suppressed by removal of Ca2+ from the bathing solution. 6. Treatment with either tetraethylammonium or 4-aminopyridine enhanced excitability and induced 'spontaneously' occurring repetitive spike discharge. 7. The electrophysiological behaviour

  5. GABA(A) receptors on calbindin-immunoreactive myenteric neurons of guinea pig intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Galligan, J J

    2000-01-14

    These studies were carried out to characterize the properties of gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABA(A)) receptors on guinea pig intestinal myenteric neurons maintained in primary culture. In addition, the type of neuron expressing GABA(A) receptors was identified using immunohistochemical methods. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of currents elicited by GABA and acetylcholine (ACh) were obtained using pipettes containing Neurobiotin. After electrophysiological studies, neurons were processed for localization of calbindin-D28K-immunoreactivity (calbindin-ir). GABA (1 mM) and ACh (3 mM) caused inward currents in most cells tested. GABA currents were mimicked by muscimol (1-300 microM) and were blocked by bicuculline (10 microM) indicating that GABA was acting at GABA(A) receptors. GABA currents were associated with a conductance increase and a linear current/voltage relationship with a reversal potential of 1 +/- 1 mV (n = 5). Pentobarbital (PB, 3-1000 microM) and diazepam (DZP, 0.01-10 microM) potentiated GABA-induced currents. A maximum concentration of DZP (1 microM) increased GABA-induced currents 3.1 +/- 0.3 times while PB (1000 microM) increased GABA currents by 11 +/- 2 times. In outside-out patches, the amplitude of GABA-activated single-channel currents was linearly related to membrane potential with a single-channel conductance of 28.5 + 0.5 pS (n = 10). PB and DZP increased the open probability of GABA-induced single-channel currents. Neurons containing calbindin-ir were large, were isolated from other neurons and had GABA current amplitudes of -3.4 +/- 0.3 nA (n = 48). Neurons with weak or absent calbindin-ir were smaller, were localized in clusters of cells and had GABA-induced current amplitudes of -0.6 +/- 0.1 nA (n = 20). ACh-induced currents were smaller in calbindin-ir neurons (-0.7 +/- 0.1 nA) compared to weakly calbindin-ir neurons (-1.4 +/- 0.1 nA). These results indicate that myenteric calbindin-ir neurons express a high density of GABA

  6. Genome sequence of Lactobacillus amylovorus GRL1118, isolated from pig ileum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, R.; Vos, de W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus amylovorus is a common member of the beneficial microbiota present in the pig gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the genome sequence of the surface layer (S-layer) protein-carrying and potentially probiotic strain L. amylovorus GRL1118, which was isolated from porcine ileum and wh

  7. Altered responsiveness of the guinea-pig isolated ileum to smooth muscle stimulants and to electrical stimulation after in situ ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rodolfo; Ventura-Martinez, Rosa; Santiago-Mejia, Jacinto; Avila-Costa, Maria R; Fortoul, Teresa I

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated changes in contractility of the guinea-pig isolated ileum, using intact segments and myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle (MPLM) preparations, after several times (5–160 min) of ischemia in situ. Intestinal ischemia was produced by clamping the superior mesenteric artery. Ischemic and nonischemic segments, obtained from the same guinea-pig, were mounted in organ baths containing Krebs-bicarbonate (K-B) solution, maintained at 37°C and gassed with 95% O2/5% CO2. The preparations were allowed to equilibrate for 60 min under continuous superfusion of warm K-B solution and then electrically stimulated at 40 V (0.3 Hz, 3.0 ms). Thereafter, complete noncumulative concentration–response curves were constructed for acetylcholine (ACh), histamine (HIS), potassium chloride (KCl), and barium chloride (BaCl2). Mean Emax (maximal response) values were calculated for each drug. Our study shows that alterations of chemically and electrically evoked contractions are dependent on ischemic periods. It also demonstrates that contractile responses of ischemic tissues to neurogenic stimulation decreases earlier and to a significantly greater extent than the non-nerve mediated responses of the intestinal smooth muscle. Contractile responses to smooth muscle stimulants were all similarly affected by ischemia. Electron microscopy images indicated necrotic neuronal death. The decrease in reactivity of ischemic tissues to electrical stimulation was ameliorated by dexrazoxane, an antioxidant agent. We consider the guinea-pig isolated ileum as a useful model system to study the processes involved in neuronal ischemia, and we propose that the reduction in maximal responses to electrical stimulation is a useful parameter to study neuroprotection. PMID:16341232

  8. Binding sites and actions of Tx1, a neurotoxin from the venom of the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, in guinea pig ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Santos

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Tx1, a neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the South American spider Phoneutria nigriventer, produces tail elevation, behavioral excitation and spastic paralysis of the hind limbs after intracerebroventricular injection in mice. Since Tx1 contracts isolated guinea pig ileum, we have investigated the effect of this toxin on acetylcholine release, as well as its binding to myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle membranes from the guinea pig ileum. [125I]-Tx1 binds specifically and with high affinity (Kd = 0.36 ± 0.02 nM to a single, non-interacting (nH = 1.1, low capacity (Bmax 1.1 pmol/mg protein binding site. In competition experiments using several compounds (including ion channel ligands, only PhTx2 and PhTx3 competed with [125I]-Tx1 for specific binding sites (K0.5 apparent = 7.50 x 10-4 g/l and 1.85 x 10-5 g/l, respectively. PhTx2 and PhTx3, fractions from P. nigriventer venom, contain toxins acting on sodium and calcium channels, respectively. However, the neurotoxin PhTx2-6, one of the isoforms found in the PhTx2 pool, did not affect [125I]-Tx1 binding. Tx1 reduced the [3H]-ACh release evoked by the PhTx2 pool by 33%, but did not affect basal or KCl-induced [3H]-ACh release. Based on these results, as well as on the homology of Tx1 with toxins acting on calcium channels (w-Aga IA and IB and its competition with [125I]-w-Cono GVIA in the central nervous system, we suggest that the target site for Tx1 may be calcium channels.

  9. Transmission to interneurons is via slow excitatory synaptic potentials mediated by P2Y(1 receptors during descending inhibition in guinea-pig ileum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D J Thornton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nature of synaptic transmission at functionally distinct synapses in intestinal reflex pathways has not been fully identified. In this study, we investigated whether transmission between interneurons in the descending inhibitory pathway is mediated by a purine acting at P2Y receptors to produce slow excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Myenteric neurons from guinea-pig ileum in vitro were impaled with intracellular microelectrodes. Responses to distension 15 mm oral to the recording site, in a separately perfused stimulation chamber and to electrical stimulation of local nerve trunks were recorded. A subset of neurons, previously identified as nitric oxide synthase immunoreactive descending interneurons, responded to both stimuli with slow EPSPs that were reversibly abolished by a high concentration of PPADS (30 μM, P2 receptor antagonist. When added to the central chamber of a three chambered organ bath, PPADS concentration-dependently depressed transmission through that chamber of descending inhibitory reflexes, measured as inhibitory junction potentials in the circular muscle of the anal chamber. Reflexes evoked by distension in the central chamber were unaffected. A similar depression of transmission was seen when the specific P2Y(1 receptor antagonist MRS 2179 (10 μM was in the central chamber. Blocking either nicotinic receptors (hexamethonium 200 μM or 5-HT(3 receptors (granisetron 1 μM together with P2 receptors had no greater effect than blocking P2 receptors alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Slow EPSPs mediated by P2Y(1 receptors, play a primary role in transmission between descending interneurons of the inhibitory reflexes in the guinea-pig ileum. This is the first demonstration for a primary role of excitatory metabotropic receptors in physiological transmission at a functionally identified synapse.

  10. Immunohistochemical localisation of pre-synaptic muscarinic receptor subtype-2 (M2r) in the enteric nervous system of guinea-pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, A M; Hutson, J M; Southwell, B R

    2008-04-01

    The cholinergic muscarinic 2 receptor (M2r) is known to be present on smooth muscle cells in the intestine. Pharmacological studies also suggest that M2rs regulate transmitter release from nerves in the enteric nervous system. This study localised M2rs in the guinea-pig ileum using different antibodies and fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Double labelling with antibodies against neurochemical markers was used to identify the type of nerves bearing M2r. Guinea-pig ileum were fixed, prepared for sections and wholemounts and incubated with antisera against the M2r sequence. Tissue was double labelled with antibodies against neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), common choline acetyltransferase (cChAT), substance P (SP), synaptophysin and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Immunofluorescence was viewed using confocal microscopy. Abundant M2r-immunoreactivity (IR) was present on the surface of circular and longitudinal smooth muscle cells. M2r-IR was present in many but not all nerve fibres in the circular muscle and ganglia. M2r-IR was present in VAChT-IR and cChAT-IR cholinergic nerve fibres and SP-IR nerve fibres in the myenteric ganglia and submucosal ganglia. M2r-IR was present on a few nNOS-IR nerve fibres and around nNOS-IR neurons in the myenteric ganglia. In the circular muscle and deep muscular plexus, M2r-IR was present in many VAChT-IR and SP-IR nerve fibres and in few nNOS-IR nerves. M2rs are not only present on muscle cells in the intestine, but also on nerve fibres. M2rs may mediate cholinergic reflexes via their location on muscle and also via neural transmission. The pre-synaptic location supports pharmacological studies suggesting M2rs mediate neurotransmitter release from nerve fibres. The presence of M2rs on VAChT-IR, SP-IR and nNOS-IR-containing nerve fibres suggests M2rs may regulate ACh, SP and nitric oxide release.

  11. The effects of some carbamate local anaesthetics on the guinea-pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezeková, M; Bauer, V

    1986-01-01

    The action of some carbamate local anaesthetics, pentacaine, BK-52 and heptacaine, was compared in the guinea-pig ileum with that of classic local anaesthetics, procaine and trimecaine. Contractions of the ileum were evoked by transmural stimulation, nicotine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline, histamine, K+ and Ba++. Although the evoked contractions were inhibited by all the local anaesthetics, there was a marked difference in their ability to influence the smooth muscle activation induced by different stimuli. The differences among the IC50 values were slight in the case of pentacaine, moderate in the case of trimecaine and BK-52 and large in the case of procaine and heptacaine. It is suggested that besides their effects on the unmyelinated autonomic nerves, the carbamate local anaesthetics studied can also affect the smooth muscle membrane, similarly to the classic agents. The mechanism of their direct effect is discussed.

  12. INFLUENCE OF ANTIBIOTICS ON THE MECHANICAL RESPONSES OF GUINEA-PIG ILEUM TO ACETYLCHOLINE AND HISTAMINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroianu Andy

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The side effects of antibiotics have been extensively described during the last decades, however, their role on digestive motility must be better investigated. Following a line of research, the influence of penicillin, chloranfenicol tetracycline and gentamicine on longitudinal smooth muscle responses to acetylcholine and histamine were studied on guinea-pig ileum. There were no differences between the responses before and after the addition of each antibiotic. Further investigations must be performed in order to find a possible influence of antibiotics on digestive motility.

  13. Downregulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR5 and glutamate transporter EAAC1 in the myenteric plexus of the diabetic rat ileum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhua Bai; Jun Zhang; Hongyang Shi; Fei Dai

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the morphologic abnormalities of the myenteric plexus in diabetic rats and to explore the mechanism of their effect on gastrointestinal motility. Methods: Forty rats were randomly divided into a diabetic group and a control group, Gastric emptying and small intestine transit rates were measured and histologic and molecular changes in glutamatergic nerves in the ileal myenteric plexus were observed, mGluR5 receptor and EAAC1 transporter changes in the diabetic rats were studied using fluorescence immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Results:Eighteen weeks after the establishment of the diabetic rats model, gastric emptying and small intestine transit rates were found to be significantly delayed in the diabetic group when compared with the control group. The density of glutamatergic ganglia and neurons in the ileal myenterie plexus were significantly decreased in the diabetic group when compared with control group(P<0.05) and the mGluR5 receptors and EAAC1 transporters were downregulated in the diabetic rats(P<0.05). Conclusion: Decreased glutamatergic enteric ganglia and neurons and decreased mGluR5 receptors and EAAC1 transporters in the intestinal myenteric plexus is one of the mechanisms of diabetic gastroenteropathy in rats.

  14. Loss of responsiveness of circular smooth muscle cells from the guinea pig ileum is associated with changes in gap junction coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Simona E; Wattchow, David A; Spencer, Nick J; Brookes, Simon J H

    2012-06-15

    Gap junction coupling and neuromuscular transmission to smooth muscle were studied in the first 4 h after preparations were set up in vitro. Intracellular recordings were made from smooth muscle cells of guinea pig ileum. Fast inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs) were small (1.3 ± 1.0 mV) in the first 30 min but increased significantly over the first 120 min to 15.8 ± 0.9 mV (n = 12, P potentials were also observed. During the same period, resting membrane potential depolarized from -58.8 ± 1.4 to -47.2 ± 0.4 mV (n = 12, P potentials, increased input resistance, and reduced dye coupling. Local application of ATP (10 mM) mimicked IJPs and showed comparable increases in amplitude over the first 120 min; carbenoxolone and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate significantly reduced ATP-evoked hyperpolarizations in coupled cells. In contrast, synaptic transmission between myenteric neurons was not suppressed during the first 30 min. Gap junction coupling between circular smooth muscle cells in isolated preparations was initially disrupted but recovered over the next 120 min to a steady level. This was associated with potent effects on neuromuscular transmission and responses to exogenous ATP.

  15. Expression of the P2X2 receptor in different classes of ileum myenteric neurons in the female obese ob/ob mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Márcia Sanae Mizuno; Amanda Rabello Crisma; Primavera Borelli; Patricia Castelucci

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To examine whether the ob/ob mouse model of obesity is accompanied by enteric nervous system abnormalities such as altered motility.METHODS:The study examined the distribution of the P2X2 receptor (P2X2R) in myenteric neurons of female ob/ob mice.Specifically,we used immunohistochemistry to analyze the co-expression of the P2X2R with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS),choline acetyltransferase (ChAT),and calretinin (CalR) in neurons of the small intestine myenteric plexus in ob/ob and control female mice.In these sections,we used scanning confocal microscopy to analyze the co-localization of these markers as well as the neuronal density (cm2) and area profile (μm2) of P2X2R-positive neurons.In addition,enteric neurons were labeled using the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) diaphorase method and analyzed with light microscopy as an alternate means by which to analyze neuronal density and area.RESULTS:In the present study,we observed a 29.6% increase in the body weight of the ob/ob animals (OG)compared to the control group (CG).In addition,the average small intestine area was increased by approximately 29.6% in the OG compared to the CG.Immunoreactivity (IR) for the P2X2R,nNOS,ChAT and CalR was detectable in the myenteric plexus,as well as in the smooth muscle,in both groups.This IR appeared to be mainly cytoplasmic and was also associated with the cell membrane of the myenteric plexus neurons,where it outlined the neuronal cell bodies and their processes.P2X2R-IR was observed to co-localize 100% with that for nNOS,ChAT and CalR in neurons of both groups.In the ob/ob group,however,we observed that the neuronal density (neuron/cm2) of P2X2R-IR cells was increased by 62% compared to CG,while that of NOS-IR and ChAT-IR neurons was reduced by 49% and 57%,respectively,compared to control mice.The neuronal density of CalR-IR neurons was not different between the groups.Morphometric studies further demonstrated that the cell body profile area (

  16. Pretreatment with clonidine caused desensitization to WIN 55,212-2 in guinea pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, F; Mohaghegh Shalmani, L; Rahimian, R; Dehpour, A R; Ejtemaei Mehr, S

    2014-01-01

    Considering the existence of cross-tolerance between clonidine and morphine besides the same interaction between morphine and WIN 55,212-2 persuaded us to verify this fact between WIN 55,212-2 and clonidine in guinea pig ileum, which is a well-known model to examine the mode of action of cannabinoids and α2 -adenoceptor agonists The rectangular pulses were passed to the 0.5 g stretched ileum segments that were fixed in 20-ml organ bath. PowerLab system and Graphpad Prism were applied to record twitches and analyse the data. Electrically evoked contractions were dose-dependently inhibited by WIN 55,212-2 and clonidine (pD2 = 8.56 ± 0.41 and 7.65 ± 0.15, respectively). Tolerance to this effect could be induced by 4-h incubation with WIN 55,212-2 (3 × IC50 ) (pD2  = 6.36 ± 0.26, degree of tolerance: 159.32) (P systems interaction in the enteric nervous system as a simplified representative for central nervous system.

  17. Electrical coupling between the myenteric interstitial cells of Cajal and adjacent muscle layers in the guinea-pig gastric antrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, H M; Edwards, F R; Hickey, H; Hill, C E; Hirst, G D S

    2003-08-01

    Intracellular recordings were made from short segments of the muscular wall of the guinea-pig gastric antrum. Preparations were impaled using two independent microelectrodes, one positioned in the circular layer and the other either in the longitudinal layer, in the network of myenteric interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCMY) or in the circular layer. Cells in each layer displayed characteristic patterns of rhythmical activity, with the largest signals being generated by ICCMY. Current pulses injected into the circular muscle layer produced electrotonic potentials in each cell layer, indicating that the layers are electrically interconnected. The amplitudes of these electrotonic potentials were largest in the circular layer and smallest in the longitudinal layer. An analysis of electrical coupling between the three layers suggests that although the cells in each layer are well coupled to neighbouring cells, the coupling between either muscle layer and the network of ICCMY is relatively poor. The electrical connections between ICCMY and the circular layer did not rectify. In parallel immunohistochemical studies, the distribution of the connexins Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45 within the antral wall was determined. Only Cx43 was detected; it was widely distributed on ICCMY and throughout the circular smooth muscle layer, being concentrated around ICCIM, but was less abundant in the circular muscle layer immediately adjacent to ICCMY. Although the electrophysiological studies indicate that smooth muscle cells in the longitudinal muscle layer are electrically coupled to each other, none of the connexins examined were detected in this layer.

  18. P2X7 receptors contribute to the currents induced by ATP in guinea pig intestinal myenteric neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Morales, Eduardo; Guerrero-Alba, Raquel; Liñán-Rico, Andrómeda; Espinosa-Luna, Rosa; Zarazua-Guzman, Sergio; Miranda-Morales, Marcela; Montaño, Luis M; Barajas-López, Carlos

    2011-10-15

    The whole-cell configuration, several pharmacological tools, and single-cell RT-PCR were used to investigate the contribution of P2X7 subunits to the ATP-induced currents (I(ATP)) in guinea pig myenteric neurons. I(ATP) was recorded in the great majority of tested neurons. ATP concentration-response curve (0.01-10mM) showed two phases, the first mediated by high-sensitive P2X receptors (hsP2X receptors), observed between 0.01-0.3mM and the second mediated by low-sensitive P2X receptors (lsP2X receptors). The calculated EC(50) values of these phases were 38 and 1759 μM, respectively. 2'-3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) concentration-response curve was monophasic (0.01-1mM), and less potent (EC(50) 142 μM) than ATP to activate hsP2X receptors. A strong inward rectification was noticed when hsP2X receptors were activated with ATP (0.1mM) and for BzATP-induced currents (0.1mM; I(BzATP)) but a significant lower rectification was noticed when lsP2X receptors were activated (5mM). Brilliant blue G (BBG) at a concentration of 0.3 μM (known to inhibit only P2X7 receptors) reduced I(ATP) when lsP2X receptors contributed to it but neither affect hsP2X receptors nor I(BzATP). However, hsP2X receptors and I(BzATP) were both inhibited by concentrations ≥ 1 μM of this antagonist. BzATP inhibited hsP2X receptors and therefore, it behaves as partial agonist on these receptors. Using the single-cell RT-PCR technique P2X7 mRNA was detectable in 7 out of 13 myenteric neurons exhibiting P2X2 mRNA. Altogether, our results show that low-sensitive P2X receptors are likely P2X7, whereas, the high-sensitive P2X channels are probably constituted, at least in part, by P2X2 subunits.

  19. Enkephalin-immunoreactive subpopulations in the myenteric plexus of the guinea-pig fundus project primarily to the muscle and not to the mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuche, H; Reiche, D; Firzlaff, U; Sann, H; Schemann, M

    1998-10-01

    Enkephalin (ENK) immunoreactivity was localised in different neuronal subpopulations of the myenteric plexus in the guinea-pig gastric fundus using immunohistochemistry for neurone-specific enolase (NSE), ENK, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), substance P (SP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), calretinin (CALRET), and somatostatin (SOM). NADPH-diaphorase staining was used to label nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-containing neurones. ENK was observed in 44% of the myenteric neurones. The major ENK-positive subpopulations were ChAT/ENK (35% of ENK-positive neurones), ChAT/SP/ENK (26%), NOS/NPY/ENK (22%) and ChAT/SP/ENK/CALRET (9%). The projection pathways of these ENK-positive subpopulations to the circular muscle and the mucosa were determined using retrograde labelling with DiI in organ culture followed by immunohistochemistry. Of myenteric neurones retrogradely labelled from the mucosa and the circular muscle, 13% and 48% exhibited ENK immunoreactivity, respectively. Three major ENK-positive subpopulations innervating the mucosa or circular muscle were identified: ascending ChAT/SP/ENK (7% of all mucosa neurones; 24% of all circular muscle neurones), ascending ChAT/ENK (4%; 15%) and descending NOS/NPY/ENK (1%; 8%) neurones. Only very few CALRET- or SOM-positive neurones projected to the mucosa or circular muscle. ChAT/SP/ENK and ChAT/ENK neurones might function as ascending excitatory muscle motor neurones, whereas NOS/NPY/ENK neurones are most likely descending inhibitory muscle motor neurones. The relatively few ENK-positive mucosa neurones do not favour a major involvement of ENK-positive myenteric neurones in the control of gastric mucosa activity.

  20. Muscarinic receptor subtypes mediating the mucosal response to neural stimulation of guinea pig ileum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, H.V.; Tien, X.Y.; Wallace, L.J.; Cooke, H.J.

    1987-09-01

    Muscarinic receptors involved in the secretory response evoked by electrical stimulation of submucosal neutrons were investigated in muscle-stripped flat sheets of guinea pig ileum set up in flux chambers. Neural stimulation produced a biphasic increase in short-circuit current due to active chloride secretion. Atropine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperadine methiodide (4-DAMP) (10/sup -7/ M) were more potent inhibitors of the cholinergic phase of the response than was pirenzepine. Dose-dependent increases in base-line short-circuit current were evoked by carbachol and bethanechol; 4-hydroxy-2-butynyl trimethylammonium chloride (McN A343) produced a much smaller effect. Tetrodotoxin abolished the effects of McN A343 but did not alter the responses of carbachol and bethanechol. McN A343 significantly reduced the cholinergic phase of the neurally evoked response and caused a rightward shift of the carbachol dose-response curve. All muscarinic compounds inhibited (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate binding to membranes from muscosal scrapings, with a rank order of potency of 4-DAMP > pirenzepine > McN A343 > carbachol > bethanechol. These results suggest that acetylcholine released from submucosal neurons mediates chloride secretion by interacting with muscarinic cholinergic receptors that display a high binding affinity for 4-DAMP. Activation of neural muscarinic receptors makes a relatively small contribution to the overall secretory response.

  1. Different effects of reducing agents on ω-conotoxin GVIA inhibition of [3H]-acetylcholine release from rat cortical slices and guinea-pig myenteric plexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, T A A; Gomez, R S; Moraes-Santos, T; Romano-Silva, M A; Prado, M A M; Gomez, M V

    1996-01-01

    The effect of reducing reagents on ω-conotoxin GVIA (ω-CgTX) inhibition of the release of [3H]-acetylcholine ([3H]-ACh) induced by tityustoxin, K+ 50 mM and electrical stimulation was investigated in rat brain cortical slices.In cortical slices the inhibition of tityustoxin or electrically-stimulated [3H]-ACh release by ω-CgTX was dramatically increased by reducing reagents ascorbate or β-mercaptoethanol. Dehydroascorbic acid did not substitute for ascorbateDepolarization induced by K+ 50 mM caused [3H]-ACh release from cortical slices which was not inhibited by ω-CgTX, even in the presence of ascorbate.In the guinea-pig myenteric plexus, ω-CgTX inhibition of the tityustoxin induced release of [3H]-ACh was independent of ascorbate.It is suggested that N-type-like calcium channels in guinea-pig myenteric plexus may have pharmacological/biochemical diversity from similar channels of rat cerebral cortex. PMID:9117104

  2. Evidence for a role of CCK as neurotransmitter in the guinea-pig enteric nervous system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, I.W.M.; Hollestein, K.B.C.W.; Akkermans, L.M.A.; Kroese, A.B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Intracellular recordings were made of neurons in the myenteric plexus of the guinea-pig distal ileum. Slow excitatory post-synaptic potentials (sEPSPs) were evoked by electrical stimulation of an interganglionic fibre tract. The effect of cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor antagonists on the sEPSPs was

  3. ATP participates in three excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the submucous plexus of the guinea pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, R L; Bertrand, P P; Bornstein, J C

    2004-04-15

    Synaptic transmission between neurones intrinsic to the wall of the intestine involves multiple neurotransmitters. This study aimed to identify neurotransmitters responsible for non-cholinergic excitatory synaptic transmission in the submucous plexus of the guinea pig ileum. Intracellular recordings were made from secretomotor and vasodilator neurones. A single electrical stimulus to a fibre tract evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) with three different time courses - fast, slow and an EPSP with an intermediate time course (latency 96 ms, duration 1.2 s). In all neurones, blocking nicotinic receptors reduced fast EPSPs, but they were abolished in only 57 of 78 neurones. Fast EPSPs were also reduced by P2 purinoceptor blockade (5 of 27 neurones) or 5-HT(3) receptor blockade (3 of 20 neurones). The intermediate EPSP was abolished by P2 receptor blockade (13 of 13 neurones) or by the specific P2Y(1) receptor antagonist MRS 2179 (5 of 5 neurones) and was always preceded by a nicotinic or mixed nicotinic/purinergic fast EPSP. Intermediate EPSPs were observed in over half of all neurones including most non-cholinergic secretomotor neurones identified by immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal peptide. The slow EPSP evoked by a single pulse stimulus was also abolished by P2 receptor blockade (5 of 5 neurones) or by MRS 2179 (3 of 3 neurones). We conclude that fast EPSPs in submucous neurones are mediated by acetylcholine acting at nicotinic receptors, ATP acting at P2X receptors and 5-HT acting at 5-HT(3) receptors. Both the intermediate EPSP and the single stimulus slow EPSP are mediated by ATP acting at P2Y(1) receptors.

  4. Effect of atrial natriuretic factor and 8-bromo cyclic guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate on ( sup 3 H)acetylcholine outflow from myenteric-plexus longitudinal muscle of the guinea pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matusak, O.; Kuchel, O.; Hamet, P. (Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Quebec, (Canada))

    1991-04-01

    We report that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) inhibits electrically induced cholinergic twitches of longitudinal muscle in whole intestinal segments and myenteric-plexus longitudinal muscle (MPLM) strips from the guinea pig ileum. To elucidate the possible presynaptic mechanism of ANF's action, we studied spontaneous and stimulation-evoked radiolabeled acetylcholine (ACh) outflow from MPLM after incubation with ({sup 3}H)choline. We developed a method of mounting and treating MPLM preparations, which allowed us, at the same time, to record isometric contractions and to determine ({sup 3}H)ACh outflow upon electrical stimulation by a train of three pulses. ANF (5 x 10{sup {minus} 8}M), norepinephrine (2 x 10{sup {minus} 7}) M and 8-bromoguanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (10{sup {minus} 3} M) in nearly equieffective concentrations caused a similar inhibition of cholinergic twitches. However, ANF had no effect on ({sup 3}H)ACh outflow, whereas norepinephrine was found to suppress ({sup 3}H)ACh outflow and 8-bromoguanosine 3':5'-cGMP to enhanced ({sup 3}H)ACh outflow. ANF (5 x 10{sup {minus} 8} M) caused a 7.0-fold increase of cGMP over control values, predominantly in muscle layers, whereas Escherichia coli heat-stable toxin (12.5 U/ml) elicited a 35-fold increment of cGMP in the extramuscular layer. Thus, ANF is able to elevate cGMP in intestinal smooth muscle and to inhibit cholinergic contractions of MPLM. This inhibition is mimicked by exogenous cGMP and by endogenously generated cyclic nucleotides. We suggest that the depressive action of ANF on cholinergic contractions of MPLM is mediated via its postsynaptic impact implicating elevation of cGMP in smooth muscle.

  5. Bioconversion of C-6 Sulfidopeptide Leukotrienes by the Responding Guinea Pig Ileum Determines the Time Course of its Contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Krilis, Steven; Robert A Lewis; Corey, E J; Austen, K. Frank

    1983-01-01

    The naturally occurring sulfidopeptide leukotrienes, leukotriene (LT) C4 (LTC4) [5(S)-hydroxy - 6(R) - S - glutathionyl - 7,9 - trans, 11,14 - cis - eicosatetraenoic acid] and its cysteinylglycine (LTD4) and cysteinyl (LTE4) analogs, which are derived by peptide cleavage, differ in the concentrations required to elicit comparable contractions of the guinea pig ileum, with respective potencies of 1.2:5:1. The effect of the ongoing bioconversion of LTC4 and LTD4 on the contractile response of t...

  6. Jasmine absolute (Jasminum grandiflora L.) and its mode of action on guinea-pig ileum in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis-Balchin, M; Hart, S; Wan Hang Lo, B

    2002-08-01

    Jasmine (Jasminum grandiflorum L.) is used in aromatherapy as a holistic treatment for apathy, hysteria, uterine disorders and childbirth, muscle relaxation and coughs. Its stimulant nature, on inhalation, has been shown both in animals and man. Jasmine has a spasmolytic activity on guinea-pig ileum and rat uterus in vitro. The mechanism of action of the spasmolytic activity, studied in vitro using a guinea-pig ileum smooth muscle preparation, was postsynaptic and not atropine-like. The spasmolytic effect of jasmine absolute was most likely to be mediated through cAMP, and not through cGMP. The mode of action in vitro resembled that of geranium, lavender and peppermint oils. The contradictory effect in vitro and in vivo is probably due to the solely physiological effects of jasmine absolute in vitro (producing a relaxation) compared with that in vivo, where it has a strong psychological input, producing a stimulant effect in man and enhanced movement in animals. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Bioconversion of C-6 sulfidopeptide leukotrienes by the responding guinea pig ileum determines the time course of its contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krilis, S; Lewis, R A; Corey, E J; Austen, K F

    1983-04-01

    The naturally occurring sulfidopeptide leukotrienes, leukotriene (LT) C(4) (LTC(4)) [5(S)-hydroxy - 6(R) - S - glutathionyl - 7,9 - trans, 11,14 - cis - eicosatetraenoic acid] and its cysteinylglycine (LTD(4)) and cysteinyl (LTE(4)) analogs, which are derived by peptide cleavage, differ in the concentrations required to elicit comparable contractions of the guinea pig ileum, with respective potencies of 1.2:5:1. The effect of the ongoing bioconversion of LTC(4) and LTD(4) on the contractile response of the guinea pig ileum to each was determined by recording the pattern of the contraction and quantitating the initial agonist and its metabolic products. The contraction was elicited by radiolabeled agonist, and its conversion products were sampled at defined intervals and resolved by their retention times on reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. After a latent period of 60 s. LTC(4) initiated a linear response, followed by a slower, progressive response to a maximum level that was maintained without relaxation. The metabolic conversion of LTC(4) was contraction and complete inhibition of bioconversion of LTC(4) to LTD(4) by the presence of serine-borate complex did not alter the pattern of the spasmogenic response. As the maximum response in the presence of serine-borate complex was three-quarters of that obtained without the inhibitor of bioconversion, the predominant response was to LTC(4) itself. The spasmogenic response of the ileum to LTD(4) was immediate, linear to a maximum level, and immediately followed by a marked relaxation. That the failure of LTD(4) to sustain a contraction was due to its immediate, rapid, and quantitative conversion to the less potent LTE(4) was established by pharmacologically inhibiting and anatomically deleting the converting activity. In the presence of L-cysteine the conversion of LTD(4) to LTE(4) was largely inhibited and the maximum contractile response was well maintained. After anatomic removal of the mucosa

  8. Inhibition of native 5-HT3 receptor-evoked contractions in guinea pig and mouse ileum by antimalarial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Stephen P; Walsh, Jacqueline; Kelly, Mark C; Muhdar, Simerjyot; Adel-Aziz, Mohammed; Barrett, Iain D; Wildman, Scott S

    2014-09-05

    Quinine, chloroquine and mefloquine are commonly used to treat malaria, however, with associated gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects. These drugs act as antagonists at recombinant 5-HT3 receptors and modulate gut peristalsis. These gastrointestinal side effects may be the result of antagonism at intestinal 5-HT3 receptors. Ileum from male C57BL/6 mice and guinea pigs was mounted longitudinally in organ baths. The concentration-response curves for 5-HT and the selective 5-HT3 agonist 2-Me-5-HT were obtained with 5-HT (pEC50 = 7.57 ± 0.33, 12) more potent (P = 0.004) than 2-Me-5-HT (pEC50 = 5.45 ± 0.58, n = 5) in mouse ileum. There was no difference in potency of 5-HT (pEC50 = 5.42 ± 0.15, n = 8) and 2-Me-5-HT (pIC50 = 5.01 ± 0.55, n = 11) in guinea pig ileum (P > 0.05). Quinine, chloroquine or mefloquine was applied for 10 min and inhibitions prior to submaximal agonist application. In mouse ileum, quinine, chloroquine and mefloquine antagonised 5-HT-induced contractions (pIC50 = 4.9 ± 0.17, n = 7; 4.76 ± 0.14, n = 5; 6.21 ± 0.2, n = 4, correspondingly) with mefloquine most potent (P contractions (pIC50 = 6.35 ± 0.11, n = 8; 4.64 ± 0.2, n = 7; 5.11 ± 0.22, n = 6, correspondingly) with quinine most potent (P contractions (pIC50 = 5.02 ± 0.15, n = 6; 4.54 ± 0.1, n = 7; 5.32 ± 0.13, n = 5) and 2-me-5-HT-induced contractions (pIC50 = 4.62 ± 0.25, n = 5; 4.56 ± 0.14, n = 6; 5.67 ± 0.12, n = 4) with chloroquine least potent against 5-HT and mefloquine most potent against 2-me-5-HT (P < 0.05). These results support previous studies identifying anti-malarial drugs as antagonists at recombinant 5-HT3 receptors and may also demonstrate the ability of these drugs to influence native 5-HT3 receptor-evoked contractile responses which may account for their associated GI side-effects.

  9. Pacemaker role of pericytes in generating synchronized spontaneous Ca2+ transients in the myenteric microvasculature of the guinea-pig gastric antrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashitani, Hikaru; Mitsui, Retsu; Masaki, Shota; Van Helden, Dirk F

    2015-11-01

    Properties of spontaneous Ca(2+) transients in the myenteric microvasculature of the guinea-pig stomach were investigated. Specifically, we explored the spatio-temporal origin of Ca(2+) transients and the role of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs) in their intercellular synchrony using fluorescence Ca(2+) imaging and immunohistochemistry. The microvasculature generated spontaneous Ca(2+) transients that were independent of both Ca(2+) transients in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and neural activity. Spontaneous Ca(2+) transients were highly synchronous along the length of microvasculature, and appeared to be initiated in pericytes and spread to arteriolar smooth muscle cells (SMCs). In most cases, the generation or synchrony of Ca(2+) transients was not affected by blockers of L-type VDCCs. In nifedipine-treated preparations, synchronous spontaneous Ca(2+) transients were readily blocked by Ni(2+), mibefradil or ML216, blockers for T-type VDCCs. These blockers also suppressed the known T-type VDCC dependent component of ICC Ca(2+) transients or slow waves. Spontaneous Ca(2+) transients were also suppressed by caffeine, tetracaine or cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). After the blockade of both L- and T-type VDCCs, asynchronous Ca(2+) transients were generated in pericytes on precapillary arterioles and/or capillaries but not in arteriolar SMCs, and were abolished by CPA or nominally Ca(2+) free solution. Together these data indicate that pericytes in the myenteric microvasculature may act as the origin of synchronous spontaneous Ca(2+) transients. Pericyte Ca(2+) transients arise from Ca(2+) release from the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum and the opening of T-type Ca(2+) VDCCs is required for their synchrony and propagation to arteriolar SMCs.

  10. Antispasmodic and relaxant activity of chelidonine, protopine, coptisine, and Chelidonium majus extracts on isolated guinea-pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, K O; Ghorbani, M; Schilcher, H

    1998-12-01

    Two ethanolic dry extracts from the herb Chelidonium majus L. with a defined content of the main alkaloids (chelidonine, protopine, and coptisisine) and the alkaloids themselves were studied in three different antispasmodic test models on isolated ileum of guinea-pigs. In the BaCl2-stimulated ileum, chelidonine and protopine exhibited the known papaverine-like musculotropic action, whereas coptisine (up to 3.0 x 10(-5) g/ml) was ineffective in this model. Both extracts were active with 53.5% and 49.0% relaxation at 5 x 10(-4) g/ml. The carbachol and the electric field stimulated contractions were antagonized by all three alkaloids. Coptisine showed competitive antagonist behaviour with a pA2 value of 5.95. Chelidonine and protopine exhibited a certain degree of non-competitive antagonism. In the electric field the antagonist activities decreased in the order protopine > coptisine > chelidonine. The concentrations of the chelidonium herb extracts for 50% inhibition of the carbachol and electrical field induced spasms were in the range of 2.5 to 5 x 10(-4) g/ml.

  11. The effects of pH on the affinity of pirenzepine for muscarinic receptors in the guinea-pig ileum and rat fundus strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, R. B.; Chan, M.

    1982-01-01

    1 Dose-ratios obtained with pirenzepine on the guinea-pig ileum at 30 degrees C are indistinguishable from those obtained at 37 degrees C. 2. In 0.1 M NaCl at 37 degrees C the pKa of pirenzepine for the loss of its last ionizable proton is 8.2. The ionization of pirenzepine is therefore markedly affected by changes in pH in the physiological range. 3 In experiments with pirenzepine on guinea-pig ileum and rat fundus made over a range of pH, the dose-ratio increases with the proportion of the protonated form present. As expected, the slope of the graph of dose-ratio against proportion protonated depends on the concentration of antagonist. The changes in pH produce only small effects on dose-ratios obtained with pirenzepine monomethiodide. These effects of pH can account for some of the differences between estimates of the affinity of pirenzepine. 4 The logarithm of the affinity constant of the protonated form of pirenzepine for the receptors in guinea-pig ileum is estimated to be 6.93, compared with 6.94 for the receptors in rat fundus. However, for the non-protonated form the values appear to be below 5 for the ileum compared with about 6.4 for the rat fundus. PMID:6897199

  12. Atrofia de neurônios do plexo mientérico do íleo de ratos submetidos à intensa carência de proteínas=Atrophy of myenteric neurons in the ileum of rats submitted to severe protein deficiency

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    Débora de Mello Goncales Sant'Ana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da oferta de uma dieta contendo 4% de proteínas para ratos adultos, quanto aos aspectos morfométricos do plexo mientérico do íleo. Vinte animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: Controle (n = 10 que receberam ração comercial com 26% de proteína e Experimental (n = 10 alimentados com ração com teor proteico reduzido para 4%, durante 90 dias. Neurônios do plexo mientérico do íleo presentes em preparados totais foram evidenciados por intermédio da técnica de Giemsa e da NADH-diaforase. Tanto a população neuronal total, assim como a subpopulação NADH-diaforase positiva sofreram atrofia com redução da área do pericário, do núcleo e do citoplasma.The effects of a 4%-protein diet in adult rats with respect to the morphometric aspects of the myenteric plexus in the ileum were assessed. Twenty animals were randomly divided into two groups: Control Group (n = 10, which received 26%-protein chow, and Experimental Group (n = 10, which received 4%-protein chow for 90 days. Neurons in the myenteric plexus in the ileum in whole mount were evidenced through Giemsa and NADH-diaphorase techniques. The overall neuronal population as well as the subpopulation positive for NADH diaphorase presented atrophy, with a reduction of the perikaryon, nucleus and cytoplasm.

  13. Postnatal downregulation of inhibitory neuromuscular transmission to the longitudinal muscle of the guinea pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, X; Burda, J E; Carrasquillo, M; Galligan, J J

    2009-09-01

    Neuromuscular transmission is crucial for normal gut motility but little is known about its postnatal maturation. This study investigated excitatory/inhibitory neuromuscular transmission in vitro using ileal nerve-muscle preparations made from neonatal (nicotine (0.3-30 micromol L(-1)) contracted longitudinal muscle preparations in a tetrodotoxin (TTX) (0.3 micromol L(-1))-sensitive manner. The muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine (1 micromol L(-1)), reduced substantially nicotine-induced contractions in neonatal tissues but not adult tissues. In the presence of N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine (NLA, 100 micromol L(-1)) to block nitric oxide (NO) mediated inhibitory neuromuscular transmission, scopolamine-resistant nicotine-induced contractions were revealed in neonatal tissues. NLA enhanced the nicotine-induced contractions in neonatal but not in adult tissues. Electrical field stimulation (20 V; 0.3 ms; 5-25 Hz, scopolamine 1 micromol L(-1) present) caused NLA and TTX-sensitive longitudinal muscle relaxations. Frequency-response curves in neonatal tissues were left-shifted compared with those obtained in adult tissues. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that NO synthase (NOS)-immunoreactivity (ir) was present in nerve fibres supplying the longitudinal muscle in neonatal and adult tissues. However, quantitative studies demonstrated that fluorescence intensity of NOS-ir nerve fibres was higher in neonatal than adult tissues. Nerve fibres containing substance P were abundant in longitudinal muscle in adult but not in neonatal tissues. Inhibitory neuromuscular transmission is relatively more effective in the neonatal guinea pig small intestine. Delayed maturation of excitatory motor pathways might contribute to paediatric motility disturbances.

  14. The effects of chrysin and pinostrobin, two flavonoids isolated from Teloxys graveolens leaves, on isolated guinea-pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckes, M; Paz, D; Acosta, J; Mata, R

    1998-12-01

    The pharmacological effects of pinostrobin and chrysin obtained from the aerial parts of Teloxys graveolens (Chenopodiaceae) were evaluated using isolated in vitro guinea-pig ileal smooth muscle. Both flavonoids inhibited the contractions evoked by high concentrations of potassium. The potency of the relaxant effect was determined by measuring the capacity of each product in reducing the phasic and the slower sustained tonic contractile responses induced by depolarization with 60 mM K(+). Concentrations up to 5 × 10(-7) M of pinostrobin and 1 × 10(-7) M of chrysin induced a non-competitive depression of responses to Ca(2+) in ileum preparations bathed in a Ca(2+)-free, high K(+) medium. Both compounds produced a rightward displacement of the concentration-response curves to Ca(2+) with a concentration-dependant increase of EC(50) and a decrease of the maximal response. Examination of the inhibitory effect produced by these flavonoids on the phasic component of contractile response evoked with K(+) and on the contraction induced with caffeine, led to propose a different intracellular mechanism of action used by these compounds. The results obtained led us to conclude that the previously detected relaxant effect of Teloxys graveolens crude extract is due in part, to the presence of chrysin and pinostrobin, which inhibit intestinal smooth muscle contractions by means of a calcium-mediated mechanism. Since the modulation of calcium fluxes in the mucosal epithelium may play a role in antidiarrheal drug action, the observed effects in vitro could in the same way explain the popular use of the plant for the treatment of diarrhea. Copyright © 1998 Gustav Fischer Verlag. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  15. Shaker-type Kv1 channel blockers increase the peristaltic activity of guinea-pig ileum by stimulating acetylcholine and tachykinins release by the enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna-Jorge, Rosane; Oliveira, Cyntia F; Garcia, Maria L; Kaczorowski, Gregory J; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2003-01-01

    1 A constant intraluminal pressure system was used to evaluate the effects of Kv1 channel blockers on the peristaltic activity of guinea-pig ileum. 2 The nortriterpene correolide, a non-selective inhibitor of all Kv1 sub-types, causes progressive and sustained reduction of the pressure threshold for eliciting peristaltic contractions. 3 Margatoxin (MgTX), alpha-dendrotoxin (alpha-DTX) and dendrotoxin-K (DTX-K), highly selective peptidyl inhibitors of certain Kv1 sub-types, cause immediate reduction of the pressure threshold. This effect subsides with time, irrespective of the peptides' concentration in the bath. In preparations pretreated with saturating concentrations of MgTX, correolide further stimulates the peristaltic activity. 4 Iberiotoxin (IbTX), a selective inhibitor of the high-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels, and charybdotoxin (ChTX), which inhibits Kv1.2 and Kv1.3 as well as BK channels, fail to stimulate the peristaltic activity. 5 Blockade of muscarinic receptors by atropine reduces, and occasionally suppresses the peristaltic activity of guinea-pig ileum. In atropine-treated preparations, correolide and MgTX retain their abilities to reduce the pressure threshold and are able to restore the peristaltic reflex in the preparations where this reflex was suppressed by atropine. 6 The stimulatory effect of correolide and MgTX in atropine-treated preparations is abolished by subsequent addition of selective antagonists of both NK1 and NK2 receptors. 7 In conclusion, blockade of Kv1, particularly Kv1.1 channels, increases the peristaltic activity of guinea-pig ileum by enhancing the release of neurotransmitters at the enteric nervous system. In contrast, stimulation of the myogenic motility by blockade of BK channels does not affect the threshold for the peristaltic reflex.

  16. Antagonism of GABAB-receptor-mediated responses in the guinea-pig isolated ileum and vas deferens by phosphono-analogues of GABA.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, D. I.; Ong, J; Prager, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    1. The phosphono-analogues of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 4-amino-butylphosphonic acid (4-ABPA), 3-amino-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-propylphosphonic acid (phaclofen) and 3-amino-2-cyclohexylpropyl-phosphonic acid, each antagonized the GABA- and baclofen-induced GABAB-receptor-mediated depression of twitch responses to transmural stimulation in the guinea-pig isolated ileum, in a concentration-dependent, reversible and surmountable manner (apparent pA2 = 4.0 +/- 0.1, 4 +/- 0.2 and 3.7 +/- 0.2 resp...

  17. Alterations of the myenteric plexus of the ileum and the descending colon caused by Toxoplasma gondii (genotype III Alterações do plexo mientérico do íleo e cólon descendente causadas por Toxoplasma gondii (genótipo III

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    Elaine Yae Yamashita Sugauara

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Alterations caused by a genotype III strain of Toxoplasma gondii were assessed with respect to the number and the morphometry of the myenteric neurons in the terminal ileum and the descending colon. Eighteen rats were divided into four groups: Acute Control Group (ACG, n=4; Acute Experimental Group (AEG, n=4; Chronic Control Group (CCG, n=5 and Chronic Experimental Group (CEG, n=5. NaCl solution was administered through gavage to the animals in the ACG and CCG. Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites (10(4 from a genotype III strain were orally administered to the AEG and CEG. Acute Groups were died after 24 hours, and the Chronic Groups after 30 days. Neuronal loss was not observed in both organs. The neurons atrophied in the terminal ileum as the opposite occurred with the neurons at the descending colon during the chronic phase of infection. In the terminal ileum, the neurons atrophied during the chronic phase of the infection as no alteration was found during the acute phase. For the descending colon, the neurons became hypertrophic during the chronic infection in opposition to the atrophy found during the acute phase.Objetivou-se avaliar as alterações causadas por uma cepa genótipo III de Toxoplasma gondii, sobre o número e a morfometria de neurônios mientéricos, do íleo terminal e do cólon descendente. Dividiu-se dezoitos ratos em quatro grupos: controle agudo (GCA, n=4, experimental agudo (GEA, n=4, controle crônico (GCC, n=5 e experimental crônico (GEC, n=5. Os animais do GCA e GCC receberam solução de NaCl por gavagem, e os animais do GEA e GEC 10(4 taquizoítos de uma cepa genótipo III de T. gondii por via oral. Os grupos agudos após 24 horas foram mortos e os crônicos após 30 dias. Observou-se que não houve perda neuronal em ambos os órgãos. No íleo terminal, os neurônios atrofiaram-se na fase crônica da infecção, enquanto nenhuma alteração ocorreu na fase aguda. Já no cólon descendente, os neurônios tornaram

  18. Quantitative morphological analysis of the myenteric neurons of the ileum in rats under experimental desnutrition Análises morfológica e quantitativa dos neurônios mientéricos do íleo de ratos desnutridos

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    Maria Raquel Marçal Natali

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar os efeitos da desnutrição protéica sobre a morfologia, a morfometria e a densidade dos neurônios do plexo mientérico. Foi utilizado o íleo de 10 ratos. Para este estudo, cinco ratos com 90 dias receberam, durante 120 dias, ração hipoprotéica (grupo desnutrido e 5 ratos (grupo de controle receberam ração com teor protéico normal. Segmentos do íleo foram coletados e submetidos à elaboração de preparados de membrana, corados por Giemsa (Barbosa, 1978, e, para tratamento histológico de rotina, corados por HE. Os neurônios agrupavam-se formando gânglios localizados entre os estratos circular e longitudinal da túnica muscular. Com base nos comprimentos dos maiores eixos longitudinal e transversal, os neurônios foram classificados em três grupos: pequenos (14,44 a 22,32μm, médios (22,60 a 39,40 e grandes (40,70 a 63,02. A densidade neuronal no íleo de ratos em uma área de 7,08mm² foi em média 1.482 e 2.515 neurônios, respectivamente, nos grupos de controle e desnutrido. Os dados obttidos sugerem que a desnutrição protéica não provocou alteração na densidade neuronal.This paper deals with the effects of proteic desnutrition on the morphology, morphometry and density of the neurons of the myenteric plexus. The ileum of 10 rats was used. For this study five rats aging 90 days were fed during 120 days with hypoproteic ration (experimental group and five rats (control group received ration with normal proteic level. Segments of the ileum were obtained for the method of whole-mount preparation, stained with Giemsa (Barbosa, 1978 and for histological routine treatment stained with HE. The neurons were clustered in ganglia located between the circular and longitudinal layers of the muscular tunica. Based on the lengths of the major longitudinal and transverse axes, the neurons were selected in three groups: small, medium and large. The neuronal density on the ileum of rats corresponding

  19. The effect of Dopamine receptor agonists on twich response of Guinea-pig ileum longitudinal muscle and its relation to Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshavarz M

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effects of bromocriptine and apomorphine (dopamine receptor agonists on electrical field induced twitch response of longitudinal muscle of guinea-pig illeum was investigated. Bromocriptine and apomorphine dose dependently inhibited illeal contraction. IC50 for this inhibitory effects were 6.22±0.645×10^-7 M and 5.48±0.647×10^-6 M, respectively. sulpiride (a specific D2 dopamine receptor antagonist with concentration of 10^-5 M inhibited the effects of these agonists. Yohimbine (an ?2 adrenergic receptor antagonist only blocked the inhibitory effect of bromocriptine but failed to block apomorphine inhibitory effects. L-NAME (nitric oxide synthetase inhibitor with concentration of 10^-3 M blocked the effects of bromocriptine and apomorphine. These data suggest that there is inhibitory presynaptic dopamine receptors in cholinergic terminals of guinea-pig ileum and its function is related to formation of nitric oxide.

  20. Distribution and chemical coding of corticotropin-releasing factor-immunoreactive neurons in the guinea pig enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sumei; Gao, Na; Hu, Hong-Zhen; Wang, Xiyu; Wang, Guo-Du; Fang, Xiucai; Gao, Xiang; Xia, Yun; Wood, Jackie D

    2006-01-01

    Immunofluorescence was used to study immunoreactivity (IR) for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the guinea pig enteric nervous system. CRF-IR was expressed in both the myenteric and the submucosal plexuses of all regions of the large and small intestine and the myenteric plexus of the stomach. CRF-IR nerve fibers were present in the myenteric and submucosal plexuses, in the circular muscle coat, and surrounding submucosal arterioles. Most of the CRF-IR fibers persisted in the myenteric and submucosal plexuses after 7 days in organotypic culture. CRF-IR was not coexpressed with tyrosine hydroxylase-IR or calcitonin gene-related peptide-IR fibers. The proportions of CRF-IR cell bodies in the myenteric plexus increased progressively from the stomach (0.6%) to the distal colon (2.8%). Most of the CRF-IR myenteric neurons (95%) had uniaxonal morphology; the remainder had Dogiel type II multipolar morphology. CRF-IR cell bodies in the myenteric plexus of the ileum expressed IR for choline acetyltransferase (56.9%), substance P (55.0%), and nitric oxide synthase (37.9%). CRF-IR never colocalized with IR for calbindin, calretinin, neuropeptide Y, serotonin, or somatostatin in the myenteric plexus. CRF-IR cell bodies were more abundant in the submucosal plexus (29.9-38.0%) than in the myenteric plexus. All CRF-IR neurons in submucosal ganglia expressed vasoactive intestinal peptide-IR and were likely to be secretomotor/vasodilator neurons. CRF-IR neurons did not express IR for the CRF(1) receptor. CRF(1)-IR was expressed in neuronal neighbors of those with CRF-IR. Collective evidence suggests that VIPergic secretomotor neurons might provide synaptic input to neighboring cholinergic neurons.

  1. Time course of altered sensitivity to inhibitory and excitatory agonist responses in the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus and analgesia in the guinea pig after chronic morphine treatment

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Tolerance that develops after chronic morphine exposure has been proposed to be an adaptive response that develops and decays over a defined time course. The present study examined the development of tolerance to the acute hypothermic and analgesic effects of morphine and correlated the time course for the desensitization in vivo with the reduced responsiveness to DAMGO and 2-CADO and increased responsiveness to nicotine of the longitudinal muscle/myenteric plexus (LM/MP) preparation in vitr...

  2. Oxytocin is expressed by both intrinsic sensory and secretomotor neurons in the enteric nervous system of guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiang; Ji, Ruihua; Gao, Xiaofei; Fu, Jiqiang; Guo, Wei; Song, Xianmin; Zhao, Xiaolin; Burnstock, Geoffrey; Shi, Xueyin; He, Cheng; Xiang, Zhenghua

    2011-05-01

    Single- and double-immunostaining techniques were used systematically to study the distribution pattern and neurochemical density of oxytocin-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons in the digestive tract of the guinea pig. Oxytocin immunoreactivity was distributed widely in the guinea pig gastrointestinal tract; 3%, 13%, 17%, 15%, and 10% of ganglion neurons were immunoreactive for oxytocin in the myenteric plexuses of the gastric corpus, jejunum, ileum, proximal colon, and distal colon, respectively, and 36%, 40%, 52%, and 56% of ganglion neurons were immunoreactive for oxytocin in the submucosal plexuses of the jejunum, ileum, proximal colon, and distal colon, respectively. In the myenteric plexus, oxytocin was expressed exclusively in the intrinsic enteric afferent neurons, as identified by calbindin 28 K. In the submucosal plexuses, oxytocin was expressed in non-cholinergic secretomotor neurons, as identified by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Oxytocin-ir nerve fibers in the inner circular muscle layer possibly arose from the myenteric oxytocin-ir neurons, and oxytocin-ir nerve fibers in the mucosa possibly arose from both the myenteric and submucosal oxytocin-ir neurons. Thus, oxytocin in the digestive tract might be involved in gastrointestinal tract motility mainly via the regulation of the inner circular muscle and the balance of the absorption and secretion of water and electrolytes.

  3. Potencies of antagonists chemically related to iodoproxyfan at histamine H3 receptors in mouse brain cortex and guinea-pig ileum: evidence for H3 receptor heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicker, E; Kathmann, M; Bitschnau, H; Marr, I; Reidemeister, S; Stark, H; Schunack, W

    1996-04-01

    We determined the affinities of 16 newly synthesized H3 receptor antagonists in an H3 receptor binding assay and the potencies of 12 of these compounds at functional H3 receptors in the mouse brain cortex and guinea-pig ileum. The compounds differ from histamine in that the C-C-N side chain is replaced by a chain of the structure C-C-C-O. The two major aims of the study were (1) to investigate whether the two functional H3 receptors are pharmacologically different and (2) to derive structure-activity relationships. The specific binding of 3H-Na-methylhistamine to rat brain cortex membranes was monophasically displaced by each of the 16 compounds at pKi values ranging from 7.30 to 9.48. In superfused mouse brain cortex slices preincubated with 3H-noradrenaline, the electrically evoked tritium overflow was slightly decreased by iodoproxyfan and its deiodo analogue; this effect was counteracted by the H3 receptor antagonist clobenpropit. The other compounds did not affect the evoked tritium overflow by themselves. The concentration-response curve of histamine for its inhibitory effect on the electrically evoked tritium overflow was shifted to the right by the 12 compounds with apparent pA2 values ranging from 7.02 to 9.00. The 12 compounds also shifted to the right the concentration-response curve of R-a-methylhistamine for its inhibitory effect on the electrically induced contraction in guinea-pig ileum strips; the apparent pA2 values ranged from 5.97 to 9.00. Iodoproxyfan decreased the electrically induced contraction by itself and this effect was counteracted by the H3 receptor antagonist thioperamide. The apparent pA2 values in the two functional H3 receptor models showed a highly significant correlation (r = 0.882; P H3 receptor antagonist potency. The two functional H3 receptors in the mouse brain cortex and the guinea-pig ileum may be slightly different; further studies are necessary to clarify whether this difference is due to H3 receptor heterogeneity

  4. Dried chicory root has minor effects on the digestibility of nutrients and the composition of the microflora at the terminal ileum and in faeces of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to study digestibility of nutrient at the terminal ileum and the total tract, and the impact on microbial composition at the two sites. Four experimental diets based on wheat with increasing amounts of dried chicory root (0, 8.6, 17.2 or 25.8%) were formulated...... of SCFA in faeces was unaffected by the dietary composition and it was only the molar proportion of the iso-acids that was influenced by diet. The proportion of iso-acids decreased with increasing amount of fructan in the diets. The composition of the microflora in ileal digesta and faeces...... was not influenced by the diets as shown by T-RFLP. In conclusion, diets containing high amount of fructan only induced minor changes in nutrient digestibility whereas no alterations of the composition of microflora could be detected. This indicates that growing pigs are well adapted for consumption of high amounts...

  5. Guinea-pig ileum as ex vivo model useful to characterize ligands displaying Imidazoline I2 and Adrenergic alpha2 mixed activity: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialessandra Contino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of an effective analgesic treatment makes pain a clinical challenge and the need of a novel approach to identify new agents is urgent. In this scenario I2-ligands can be considered an alternative strategy in pain therapy. The development of an ex vivo model useful for the evaluation of functional activities at both a2 and I2-IBs (imidazoline binding sites is an important task in pharmacological sciences since several I2 ligands display activity also towards a receptors. The present study aims to develop an ex vivo model for estimating the activity of I2-IBs ligands in a biological sample where a1 and a2 adrenergic receptors are present. For this purpose the imidalzoline endogenous ligand, harmane, reference compounds, 2BFI and BU224, and imidazoline derivatives 1-3 have been selected taking into account their in vitro activity towards IBs and adrenergic receptors. All compounds have been tested ex vivo in guinea pig-ileum where a2A-ARs are prejunctionally and I2-IBS postjunctionally localized. Adrenergic component has been identified by the studying the interference of compounds on the electrically-evoked contraction while I2-IBs activity by testing the ability of compounds to inhibit the carbachol-evoked contractions in the presence of prazosin to mask the a1 adrenoceptors. Compounds 1 and 2 were found I2-IBs antago nists (pIC50=4.2 and 4.0, respectively whereas compound 3 was I2-IBs agonist (EC50=0.38 mM; All ligands were a2 adrenergic agonists. This paper suggests guinea-pig ileum as the first ex vivo approach for establishing both the intrinsic activity of I2-IBs ligands and the physiological correlation between IBs and adrenergic system.

  6. Interstitial cells of Cajal and Auerbach's plexus. A scanning electron microscopical study of guinea-pig small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Harry; Thuneberg, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy......Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy...

  7. The hallucinogenic herb Salvia divinorum and its active ingredient salvinorin A inhibit enteric cholinergic transmission in the guinea-pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, R; Borrelli, F; Capasso, F; Siebert, D J; Stewart, D J; Zjawiony, J K; Izzo, A A

    2006-01-01

    Salvia divinorum is a widespread hallucinogenic herb traditionally employed for divination, as well as a medicament for several disorders including disturbances of gastrointestinal motility. In the present study we evaluated the effect of a standardized extract from the leaves of S. divinorum (SDE) on enteric cholinergic transmission in the guinea-pig ileum. SDE reduced electrically evoked contractions without modifying the contractions elicited by exogenous acetylcholine, thus suggesting a prejunctional site of action. The inhibitory effect of SDE on twitch response was abolished by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and by the kappa-opioid antagonist nor-binaltorphimine, but not by naltrindole (a delta-opioid receptor antagonist), CTOP (a mu-opioid receptor antagonist), thioperamide (a H(3) receptor antagonist), yohimbine (an alpha(2)-receptor antagonist), methysergide (a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (an inhibitor of NO synthase) or apamin (a blocker of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels). Salvinorin A, the main active ingredient of S. divinorum, inhibited in a nor-binaltorphimine- and naloxone-sensitive manner electrically induced contractions. It is concluded that SDE depressed enteric cholinergic transmission likely through activation of kappa-opioid receptors and this may provide the pharmacological basis underlying its traditional antidiarrhoeal use. Salvinorin A might be the chemical ingredient responsible for this activity.

  8. Time course of altered sensitivity to inhibitory and excitatory agonist responses in the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus and analgesia in the guinea pig after chronic morphine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dane M Barrett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance that develops after chronic morphine exposure has been proposed to be an adaptive response that develops and decays over a defined time course. The present study examined the development of tolerance to the acute hypothermic and analgesic effects of morphine and correlated the time course for the desensitization in vivo with the reduced responsiveness to DAMGO and 2-CADO and increased responsiveness to nicotine of the longitudinal muscle/myenteric plexus (LM/MP preparation in vitro. Assessment was performed at various times after morphine or placebo pellet implantation. Morphine produced a modest hypothermic response to which no tolerance developed. However, the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine, the inhibitory effect of DAMGO and CADO on neurogenic twitches of the LM/MP and hypersensitivity to the contractile response to nicotine was observed to occur in a time-dependent manner. The alterations in sensitivity to DAMGO, nicotine and responsiveness to morphine analgesia occurred between days 4 and 10 and returned to normal by day 14 post-implantation. In contrast, sensitivity of LM/MP preparations to 2-CADO displayed a similar time-dependent onset but the tolerance persisted beyond 14 days after implantation. These data suggest that the heterologous tolerance that develops after chronic morphine treatment is time-dependent and persistent but, ultimately returns to normal in the absence of any intervention. Furthermore, the data suggest that the basis of the adaptive phenomenon may involve multiple cellular mechanisms including the modulation of cell excitability and normal physiology but the consequences of the adaptation extend to all effects of the agonist.

  9. Biphasic regulation of the acute μ-withdrawal and CCk-8 contracture responses by the ORL-1 system in guinea pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Pietro; Romanelli, Luca; Valeri, Daniela; Cascio, Maria Grazia; Tucci, Paolo; Valeri, Pacifico; Palmery, Maura

    2012-01-01

    The cloning of the opioid-receptor-like receptor (ORL-1) and the identification of the orphaninFQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N) as its endogenous agonist has revealed a new G-protein-coupled receptor signalling system. The structural and functional homology of ORL-1 to the opioid receptor systems has posed a number of challenges in the understanding the often competing physiological responses elicited by these G-protein-coupled receptors. We had previously shown that in guinea pig ileum (GPI), the acute μ-withdrawal response is under the inhibitory control of several systems. Specifically, we found that the exposure to a μ-opioid receptor agonist activates indirectly the κ-opioid, the A(1)-adenosine and the cannabinoid CB(1) systems, that in turn inhibit the withdrawal response. The indirect activation of these systems is prevented by the peptide cholecystokinin-8 (CCk-8). In the present study, we have investigated whether the ORL-1 system is also involved in the regulation of the acute μ-withdrawal response. Interestingly, we found that in GPI preparation, the ORL-1 system is not indirectly activated by the μ-opioid receptor stimulation, but instead the system is able by itself to directly regulate the acute μ-withdrawal response. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the ORL-1 system behaves both as anti-opioid or opioid-like system based on the level of activation. The same behaviour has also been observed in presence of CCk-8. Furthermore, in GPI, the existence of an endogenous tone of the ORL-1 system has been demonstrated. We concluded that the ORL-1 system acts as a neuromodulatory system, whose action is strictly related to the modulation of excitatory neurotrasmitters released in GPI enteric nervous system.

  10. Activity of protease-activated receptors in primary cultured human myenteric neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Kugler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Activity of the four known protease-activated receptors (PARs has been well studied in rodent enteric nervous system and results in animal models established an important role for neuronal PAR2. We recently demonstrated that, unlike in rodents, PAR1 is the dominant neuronal protease receptor in the human submucous plexus. With this study we investigated whether this also applies to the human myenteric plexus. We used voltage sensitive dye recordings to detect action potential discharge in primary cultures of human myenteric neurons in response to PAR activating peptides (AP. Application of the PAR1-AP (TFLLR or PAR4-AP (GYPGQV evoked spike discharge in 79% or 23% of myenteric neurons, respectively. The PAR1-AP response was mimicked by the endogenous PAR1 activator thrombin and blocked by the PAR1 antagonists SCH79797. Human myenteric neurons did not respond to PAR2-AP. This was not due to culture conditions because all three PAR-APs evoked action potentials in cultured guinea pig myenteric neurons. Consecutive application of PAR-APs revealed coexpression (relative to the population responding to PAR-APs of PAR1/PAR2 in 51%, PAR1/PAR4 in 43% and of PAR2/PAR4 in 29% of guinea pig myenteric neurons. Our study provided further evidence for the prominent role of neuronal PAR1 in the human enteric nervous system.

  11. Histamine H1 receptors mediate vasodilation in guinea-pig ileum resistance vessels: characterization with computer-assisted videomicroscopy and new selective agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungardt, E; Buschauer, A; Moser, U; Schunack, W; Lambrecht, G; Mutschler, E

    1992-10-06

    Histamine receptors on guinea-pig ileum submucosal arterioles (outside diameter 40-80 microns) were studied in vitro using a computer-assisted videomicroscopy system (Diamtrak). Histamine receptor agonists investigated in this study were histamine, the H1 receptor-selective compound, 2-[2-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-imidazolyl]ethanamine (VZ 20), the H2 receptor-selective compounds, dimaprit, impromidine, (+/-)-N1-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(pyridin-2-yl)propyl]- N2-[3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl]guanidine (arpromidine) and (+/-)-N1-[3-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(pyridin-2-yl)propyl]- N2-[3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl]guanidine (BU-E-75), as well as the H3 receptor-selective drug, (R)-alpha-methylhistamine ((R)-alpha-MeHA). Applied to vessels at resting tone, the agonists (1 nM-300 microM) did not change arteriolar diameter. Vessels preconstricted by 10 microM noradrenaline showed similar concentration-dependent vasodilations with histamine and VZ 20 (pD2 = 5.38 and 5.36, respectively). This histamine-induced vasodilation was not affected by tetrodotoxin (0.5 microM) or indomethacin (1 microM), but was completely abolished in the presence of 1 microM of the H1 receptor antagonist, mepyramine. Calculation of the antagonist affinity of mepyramine for the histamine receptors in submucosal arterioles yielded a pA2 of 9.46. In contrast to histamine and VZ 20, the H2 receptor agonist, dimaprit, and the H3 receptor agonist, (R)-alpha-MeHA, were ineffective at preconstricted arterioles. The guanidine-type H2 receptor agonists, impromidine, apromidine and BU-E-75, produced vasodilation at noradrenaline-preconstricted arterioles (-log EC50 = 4.47, 5.30 and 5.39, respectively) but, in contrast to histamine, were ineffective at arterioles preconstricted by U-46619 (300 nM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Lack of effect of Z-butylidenephthalide on presynaptic N-type Ca²⁺ channels in isolated guinea-pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Marcelo; Ko, Wun-Chang

    2016-02-01

    Z-Butylidenephthalide (Bdph) was reported to more potently inhibit electrically induced twitch responses than acetylcholine-induced tonic contraction in isolated guinea-pig ileum (GPI). The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of Z-Bdph on Ca2+ and K+ channels on GPI. In Locke-Ringer’s solution, both responses were isometrically recorded on a polygraph. Incubation of ω-conotoxin MVIIC, but not Z-Bdph, in the electrically stimulated GPI prior to adding ω-conotoxin GVIA, an irreversible blocker of N-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs), protected the binding sites and resulted in the twitch responses reversible by washing, suggesting that Z-Bdph did not bind to the N-type VDCCs. Interestingly, we found Z-Bdph concentration dependently delayed the onsets of K+-induced twitch responses, suggesting that Z-Bdph may be a blocker of K+ channels to interfere extracellular K+ across through the pre-junctional membrane of nerve ending in K+-free medium. Z-Bdph similar to nifedipine non-competitively inhibited cumulative ACh-induced phasic contractions, suggesting that Z-Bdph may bind to L-type of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive Ca2+ channels on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. In the presence of verapamil, a L-type Ca2+ channel blocker or Z-Bdph, the twitch inhibitions by either were effectively reversed by exogenous Ca2+, suggesting that they may freely pass through pre-junctional N-type, but not L-type which was blocked at least a part by either, of VDDCs open when each electrical coaxial stimulation (ECS) into intracellular space of cholinergic nerve terminal and trigger release of transmitters. In conclusion, results confirm that Z-Bdph more potently inhibits ECS-induced twitch responses than ACh-induced PCs in GPI and suggest that this effect is not mediated by interaction with presynaptic N-type VDCCs.

  13. Mechanical stress activates neurites and somata of myenteric neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Kugler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The particular location of myenteric neurons, sandwiched between the 2 muscle layers of the gut, implies that their somata and neurites undergo mechanical stress during gastrointestinal motility. Existence of mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN is undoubted but many of their basic features remain to be studied. In this study, we used ultra-fast neuroimaging to record activity of primary cultured myenteric neurons of guinea pig and human intestine after von Frey hair evoked deformation of neurites and somata. Independent component analysis was applied to reconstruct neuronal morphology and follow neuronal signals. Of the cultured neurons 45% (114 out of 256, 30 guinea pigs responded to neurite probing with a burst spike frequency of 13.4 Hz. Action potentials generated at the stimulation site invaded the soma and other neurites. Mechanosensitive sites were expressed across large areas of neurites. Many mechanosensitive neurites appeared to have afferent and efferent functions as those that responded to deformation also conducted spikes coming from the soma. Mechanosensitive neurites were also activated by nicotine application. This supported the concept of multifunctional MEN. 14% of the neurons (13 out of 96, 18 guinea pigs responded to soma deformation with burst spike discharge of 17.9 Hz. Firing of MEN adapted rapidly (RAMEN, slowly (SAMEN or ultra-slowly (USAMEN. The majority of MEN showed SAMEN behavior although significantly more RAMEN occurred after neurite probing. Cultured myenteric neurons from human intestine had similar properties. Compared to MEN, dorsal root ganglion neurons were activated by neurite but not by soma deformation with slow adaptation of firing. We demonstrated that MEN exhibit specific features very likely reflecting adaptation to their specialized functions in the gut.

  14. Regional differences in the number and type of myenteric neurons of the ileum of rats: a comparison of techniques of the neuronal evidentiation Diferenças regionais no número e tipo de neurônios mientéricos do íleo de ratos: comparação entre técnicas de evidenciação neuronal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio Hubner Miranda-Neto

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We carried out this study with the purpose of analyzing the density of neurons of the myenteric plexus in the mesenteric, intermediate and antimesenteric regions of the ileum of rats. Whole-mounts stained with four different techniques were employed. Through countings under optic microscope in an area of 8.96 mm² we found the following neuronal means with the techniques of Giemsa, NADH-diaphorase histochemistry, NADPH-diaphorase and acetylcholinesterase, respectively: mesenteric region 2144.40±161.05, 1657.80±88.23, 473.80±19.62, 905.25±22.40; intermediate region 1790.60±128.24, 1265.20±141.17, 371.30±27.84, 770.25±33.12; antimesenteric region 1647.0±76.67, 981.80±68.04, 298.50±22.75, 704.50±69.38. We conclude that there is a variation of neuronal density around the intestinal circumference and this fact independs on the technique used to stain the neurons, and that in a single region the neuronal density varies with the technique employed. We also call attention for the identification of the site were countings were carried out, so that the results of research in this area are not compromised.Realizamos este estudo com o objetivo de analisar a densidade de neurônios do plexo mientérico nas regiões mesentérica, intermediária e antimesentérica do íleo de ratos. Empregamos preparados de membrana corados por 4 diferentes técnicas. Através de contagens sob microscópio óptico em uma área de 8,96 mm² encontramos com as técnicas de Giemsa, histoquímica da NADH-diaforase, NADPH-diaforase e acetilcolinesterase, respectivamente as seguintes médias neuronais: região mesentérica 2144,40±161,05, 1657,80±88,23, 473,80±19,62, 905,25±22,40; região intermediaria 1790,60±128,24, 1265,20±141,17, 371,30±27,84, 770,25±33,12; região antimesentérica 1647,0±76,67, 981,80±68,04, 298,50±22,75, 704,50±69,38. Concluimos que há uma variação na densidade neuronal ao redor da circunferência intestinal, e este fato independe da

  15. Effects of cell wall degrading enzymes on carbohydrate fractions and metabolites in stomach and ileum of pigs fed wheat bran based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Inborr, J.; Bakker, J.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Pigs were fed diets containing 40 heat bran incubated with a water:acetic acid mixture (control, C) and a cellulase (Cel-i) or xylanase (Xyl-i) preparation or with addition of the cellulase (Cel-a) or xylanase (Xyl-a) preparation immediately before feeding. Stomach and ileal samples were analysed fo

  16. Chemical constituents from Bakeridesia pickelii Monteiro (Malvaceae) and the relaxant activity of kaempferol-3-O-{beta}-D-(6''-E-p -coumaroyl) glucopyranoside on guinea-pig ileum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Danielly Albuquerque da; Silva, Davi Antas e; Cavalcanti, Aline Coutinho; Medeiros, Marcos Antonio Alves de; Lima, Julianeli Tolentino de; Cavalcante, Jose Marcilio Sobral; Silva, Bagnolia Araujo da; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: mfvanderlei@ltf.ufpb.br

    2007-07-15

    The phytochemical investigation of Bakeridesia pickelii Monteiro led to the isolation of seven compounds: {beta}-sitosterol, a mixture of sitosteryl-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside and stigmasteryl-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (isoquercitrin) and kaempferol-3-O-{beta}-D-(6{sup -}E-p -coumaroyl) glucopyranoside (tiliroside), which was isolated as the major component. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data such as IR, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, including two-dimensional techniques. Tiliroside relaxed the guinea-pig ileum pre-contracted with KCl 40 mM (EC{sub 50} = 9.5 {+-} 1.0 x 10{sup -5} M), acetylcholine 10{sup -6} M (EC{sub 50} = 2.3 {+-} 0.9 x 10{sup -5} M) or histamine 10{sup -6} M (EC{sub 50} = 4.1 {+-} 1.0 x 10{sup -5} M) in a concentration-dependent manner. (author)

  17. Chemical constituents from Bakeridesia pickelii Monteiro (Malvaceae and the relaxant activity of kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-(6"-E-p -coumaroyl glucopyranoside on guinea-pig ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielly Albuquerque da Costa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of Bakeridesia pickelii Monteiro led to the isolation of seven compounds: beta-sitosterol, a mixture of sitosteryl-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and stigmasteryl-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (isoquercitrin and kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-(6"-E-p -coumaroyl glucopyranoside (tiliroside, which was isolated as the major component. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data such as IR, ¹H and 13C NMR, including two-dimensional techniques. Tiliroside relaxed the guinea-pig ileum pre-contracted with KCl 40 mM (EC50 = 9.5 ± 1.0 x 10-5 M, acetylcholine 10-6 M (EC50 = 2.3 ± 0.9 x 10-5 M or histamine 10-6 M (EC50 = 4.1 ± 1.0 x 10-5 M in a concentration-dependent manner.

  18. Distribution of P2Y6 and P2Y12 receptor: their colocalization with calbindin, calretinin and nitric oxide synthase in the guinea pig enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zhenghua; Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2006-04-01

    The distribution of P2Y(6) and P2Y(12) receptor-immunoreactive (ir) neurons and fibers and their coexistence with calbindin, calretinin and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been investigated with single and double labeling immunostaining methods. The results showed that 30-36% of the ganglion cells in the myenteric plexus are strongly P2Y(6) receptor-ir neurons; they are distributed widely in the myenteric plexus of stomach, jejunum, ileum and colon, but not in the submucosal plexus, with a typical morphology of multipolar neurons with a long axon-like process. About 42-46% of ganglion cells in both the myenteric and submucosal plexuses show P2Y(12) receptor-ir. About 28-35% of P2Y(6) receptor-ir neurons were found to coexist with NOS and 41-47% of them coexist with calretinin, but there was no coexistence of P2Y(6) receptor-ir with calbindin. In contrast, all P2Y(12) receptor-ir neurons were immunopositive for calbindin, although occasionally P2Y(12) receptor-ir neurons without calbindin immunoreactivity were found, while none of the P2Y(12) receptor-ir neurons were found to coexist with calretinin or NOS in the gastrointestinal system of guinea pig. The P2Y(12) receptor-ir neurons coexpressing calbindin-ir in the small intestine are Dogiel type II/AH, intrinsic primary afferent neurons.

  19. Analysis of myosin-V immunoreactive myenteric neurons from arthritic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Domicio da Silva Souza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The inflammatory response itself and the consequent oxidative stress are able to promote neurodegeneration. So, it is possible that enteric nervous system is affected by inflammatory diseases threatening quality of life of patients. However, gastrointestinal symptoms of arthritis are usually attributed to anti-inflammatory drugs rather than neural damage. OBJECTIVE: To confirm if the general population of myenteric neurons from the ileum and jejunum of rats is affected by arthritis. METHODS: Twenty Holtzmann rats, 58-day-old male, were used and divided in four groups: control group (C30, arthritic group (Art30, older control group (C60 and older arthritic group (Art60. At 58 days old, the animals in groups Art30 and Art60 received an injection of the complete Freund's adjuvant in order to induce arthritis. The whole-mount preparations of ileum and jejunum were processed for myosin-V immunohistochemistry. Quantitative and morphometric analyses were performed. RESULTS: Groups Art30 and Art60 presented, respectively, a reduction of 2% and 6% in intestinal area when compared to their control groups. No significant differences were observed in general neuronal density among the four groups (P>0.05. Group C60 presented a reduction of 14.4% and 10.9% in mean neuronal cell body area when compared to group C30 (P0.05. CONCLUSION: Arthritis does not promote quantitative or morphological damages in general myenteric population. However, studies in progress have revealed some significant alterations in myenteric neurons subpopulations (nitrergic and VIP-ergic neurons.

  20. Distribution of P2Y2 receptors in the guinea pig enteric nervous system and its coexistence with P2X2 and P2X3 receptors, neuropeptide Y, nitric oxide synthase and calretinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zhenghua; Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2005-11-01

    The distribution of P2Y2 receptor-immunoreactive (ir) neurons and fibers and coexistence of P2Y2 with P2X2 and P2X3 receptors, neuropeptide Y (NPY), calretinin (CR), calbindin (CB) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was investigated with immunostaining methods. The results showed that P2Y2-ir neurons and fibers were distributed widely in myenteric and submucous plexuses of the guinea pig stomach corpus, jejunum, ileum and colon. The typical morphology of P2Y2-ir neurons was a long process with strong positive staining on the same side of the cell body. The P2Y2-ir neurons could be Dogiel type 1. About 40-60% P2X3-ir neurons were immunoreactive for P2Y2 in the myenteric plexus and all the P2X3-ir neurons expressed the P2Y2 receptor in the submucosal plexus; almost all the NPY-ir neurons and the majority of CR-ir neurons were also immunoreactive for P2Y2, especially in the myenteric plexus of the small intestine; no P2Y2-ir neurons were immunoreactive for P2X2 receptors, CB and NOS. It is shown for the first time that S type/Dogiel type 1 neurons with fast P2X and slow P2Y receptor-mediated depolarizations could be those neurons expressing both P2Y2-ir and P2X3-ir and that they are widely distributed in myenteric and submucosal plexuses of guinea pig gut.

  1. Quantitative morphometric analysis of the myenteric nervous plexus ganglion structures along the human digestive tract

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    Mandić Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. All the functions of the digestive system are controlled, guided and initiated by the autonomic nervous system. A special part of this system placed in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract is known as the enteric or metasympathetic nervous system. The aim of this study was to analyse myenteric nervous plexus in different parts of the digestive tract. Methods. We examined the myenteric nervous plexus of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, transverse colon and rectum in tissue samples taken from 30 cadavers of persons aged 20-84 years. After standard histological processing sections were stained with hematoxylineosin, cresyl violet (CV and AgNO3 method. Multipurpose test system M42 was used in morphometric analysis. The results were analyzed by t-test and analysis of variance. Results. The number of neurons per cm2 surface was the lowest in the esophagus (2.045 ± 310.30 and the largest in the duodenum (65,511 ± 5,639. The statistical processing showed significant differences (p < 0.001 in the number of neurons between the esophagus and all other parts of the digestive tract. The maximal value of the average surface of the myenteric nervous plexus neurons was observed in the esophagus (588.93 ± 30.45 μm2 and the lowest in the stomach (296.46 ± 22.53 μm2. Conclusion. There are differences in the number of ganglion cells among different parts of the human digestive tract. The differences range from a few to several tens of thousands of neuron/cm2. The myenteric nervous plexus of the esophagus was characterized by a significantly smaller number of neurons but their bodies and nuclei are significantly larger compared to other parts of the digestive tract.

  2. Quantitative assessment of glial cells in the human and guinea pig enteric nervous system with an anti-Sox8/9/10 antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Sebastian; Zeller, Florian; von Weyhern, Claus Werner Hann; Wegner, Michael; Schemann, Michael; Michel, Klaus; Rühl, Anne

    2008-08-01

    Quantitative changes of enteric glia (EGC) have been implicated in gastrointestinal disorders. To facilitate future studies of EGC in human pathology, we aimed to characterize thoroughly glial markers in the human enteric nervous system (ENS) and to compare EGC in man and guinea pig. Whole-mount preparations of the enteric nerve plexuses from human and guinea pig ileum and colon were labeled with antibodies against S100b, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and p75NGFR and the transcription factors Sox8/9/10 and neuronally counterstained. Abundant immunoreactivity (IR) for S100b, GFAP, p75NGFR, and Sox8/9/10 was detected in EGC of all studied regions. Although the cytoplasmatic staining pattern of most markers did not permit glial quantification, the nuclear localization of Sox8/9/10-IR allowed to identify and count all EGC individually. In both man and guinea pig, myenteric ganglia were larger and contained more EGC and neurons than submucous ganglia. Furthermore, there were more EGC in the human than in the guinea pig myenteric plexus (MP), glial density was consistently higher in the human ENS, and the glia index (glia:neuron ratio) ranged from 1.3 to 1.9 and from 5.9 to 7.0 in the human submucous plexus (SMP) and MP, respectively, whereas, in guinea pig, the glia index was 0.8-1.0 in the SMP and 1.7 in the MP. The glia index was the most robust quantitative descriptor within one species. This is a comprehensive set of quantitative EGC measures in man and guinea pig that provides a basis for pathological assessment of glial proliferation and/or degeneration in the diseased gut.

  3. Efeito de Hypericum caprifoliatum Cham. & Schltdl. (Guttiferae sobre contrações em íleo isolado de cobaio induzidas por diferentes agonistas Effect of Hypericum caprifoliatum Cham & Schltdl (Guttiferae on isolated guinea pig ileum serotonin response

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    Alice F. Viana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Na última década, o gênero Hypericum ganhou repercussão mundial devido à utilização de Hypericum perforatum para obtenção de medicamentos antidepressivos. Por esta razão, a maioria dos estudos com outras espécies do gênero centra-se nesta atividade. Porém, um dos usos populares de espécies de Hypericum nativas do sul do Brasil é no tratamento de problemas gastrintestinais, inclusive como antiespasmódico. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito de uma das espécies de Hypericum nativas do Rio Grande do Sul, H. caprifoliatum, sobre as contrações induzidas por agonistas em íleo isolado de cobaio. Foi investigado o efeito de um extrato ciclo-hexano purificado (isento de clorofila e ceras, nas concentrações de 1, 3, 10 e 30 mg/mL, sobre curvas cumulativas de acetilcolina, histamina, potássio e serotonina (10-7 a 10-4 M. Na concentração de 30 mg/mL o extrato inibiu totalmente as contrações induzidas por todos os agonistas. Na concentração de 10 mg/mL, o extrato apresentou efeito antagonista não-competitivo de serotonina, reduzindo a contração máxima induzida por serotonina em cerca de 50 %. A resposta contrátil aos outros mediadores não foi alterada. Estes resultados indicam que espécies de Hypericum do sul do Brasil podem ser uma perspectiva interessante na busca de moléculas com atividade sobre a motilidade gastrintestinal.In the last decade the genus Hypericum has achieved worldwide recognition due to the therapeutic value of H. perforatum as an antidepressant drug. Consequently this activity is the most investigated one. However, species native to Brazil have other folk uses such as for the treatment of digestive disorders, including cramps. In this study we evaluated the effect of a purified cyclohexane extract (chlorophyll and waxes free (1,3,10 and 30 mg/mL of H. caprifoliatum, a specie native to South Brazil, on isolated guinea pig ileum contractions induced by different mediators: serotonin, histamine

  4. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide provokes acetylcholine release from the myenteric plexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, M.; Tsai, L.H.; Taniyama, K.; Tanaka, C.

    1986-07-01

    Effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) on the release of acetylcholine (ACh) from longitudinal muscle strips with myenteric plexus (LM) preparations were examined in the guinea pig small intestine. VIP (10 to 10 W M) induced a concentration-dependent contraction of LM preparation. The VIP-induced contractions seem to be related to three components, the scopolamine-sensitive, the scopolamine-insensitive, the tetrodotoxin-sensitive, and the tetrodotoxin-insensitive contractions. VIP (10 to 10 W M) induced a concentration-dependent increase in the release of (TH)ACh from LM preparations preloaded with (TH)choline. The VIP-evoked (TH)ACh release was inhibited by removal of CaS from the perfusion medium and by treatment with tetrodotoxin but not by scopolamine and hexamethonium. The spontaneous and VIP-evoked (TH)ACh release was not affected by phentolamine, propranolol, methysergide, diphenhydramine, cimetidine, bicuculline, or (D-ProS, D-Trp/sup 7,9/)substance P. The result demonstrates that VIP induces contractions of longitudinal smooth muscle directly and indirectly by the stimulation of both cholinergic neurons and noncholinergic excitatory neurons.

  5. Immunohistochemical localisation of cholinergic muscarinic receptor subtype 1 (M1r) in the guinea pig and human enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, A M; Hutson, J M; Southwell, B R

    2007-07-01

    Little is known regarding the location of cholinergic muscarinic receptor 1 (M1r) in the ENS, even though physiological data suggest that M1rs are central to cholinergic neurotransmission. This study localised M1rs in the ENS of the guinea pig ileum and human colon using fluorescence immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR in human colon. Double labelling using antibodies against neurochemical markers was used to identify neuron subytpes bearing M1r. M1r immunoreactivity (IR) was present on neurons in the myenteric and submucosal ganglia. The two antibodies gave similar M1r-IR patterns and M1r-IR was abolished upon antibody preabsorption. M1r-IR was present on cholinergic and nNOS-IR nerve cell bodies in both guinea pig and human myenteric neurons. Presynaptic M1r-IR was present on NOS-IR and VAChT-IR nerve fibres in the circular muscle in the human colon. In the submucosal ganglia, M1r-IR was present on a population of neurons that contained cChAT-IR, but did not contain NPY-IR or calretinin-IR. M1r-IR was present on endothelial cells of blood vessels in the submucosal plexus. The localisation of M1r-IR in the guinea pig and human ENS shown in this study agrees with physiological studies. M1r-IR in cholinergic and nitrergic neurons and nerve fibres indicate that M1rs have a role in both cholinergic and nitrergic transmission. M1r-IR present in submucosal neurons suggests a role in mediating acetylcholine's effect on submucosal sensory and secretomotor/vasodilator neurons. M1r-IR present on blood vessel endothelial cells suggests that M1rs may also mediate acetylcholine's direct effect on vasoactivation.

  6. Distribution of adrenergic receptors in the enteric nervous system of the guinea pig, mouse, and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Yasmin; Ho, Winnie; Sharkey, Keith A

    2006-04-10

    Adrenergic receptors in the enteric nervous system (ENS) are important in control of the gastrointestinal tract. Here we describe the distribution of adrenergic receptors in the ENS of the ileum and colon of the guinea pig, rat, and mouse by using single- and double-labelling immunohistochemistry. In the myenteric plexus (MP) of the rat and mouse, alpha2a-adrenergic receptors (alpha2a-AR) were widely distributed on neurons and enteric glial cells. alpha2a-AR mainly colocalized with calretinin in the MP, whereas submucosal alpha2a-AR neurons colocalized with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), neuropeptide Y, and calretinin in both species. In the guinea pig ileum, we observed widespread alpha2a-AR immunoreactivity on nerve fibers in the MP and on VIP neurons in the submucosal plexus (SMP). We observed extensive beta1-adrenergic receptor (beta1-AR) expression on neurons and nerve fibers in both the MP and the SMP of all species. Similarly, the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) was expressed on neurons and nerve fibers in the SMP of all species, as well as in the MP of the mouse. In the MP, beta1- and beta2-AR immunoreactivity was localized to several neuronal populations, including calretinin and nitrergic neurons. In the SMP of the guinea pig, beta1- and beta2-AR mainly colocalized with VIP, whereas, in the rat and mouse, beta1- and beta2-AR were distributed among the VIP and calretinin populations. Adrenergic receptors were widely localized on specific neuronal populations in all species studied. The role of glial alpha2a-AR is unknown. These results suggest that sympathetic innervation of the ENS is directed toward both enteric neurons and enteric glia.

  7. 野菊花水提液对豚鼠离体回肠收缩的影响及抑菌作用观察%Effects of Flos chrysanthemum indicum on the bacterial pathogens and the muscular tension of the isolated ileum of guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白银亮; 田新慧; 毕跃峰; 王盼; 张旗

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the antibacterial effects of water extract of Flos chrysanthemum indicum and its effects on muscular tension of the isolated ileum of guinea pigs. Methods: The isolated guinea pig ileum in the organ-bath was used to measure the contractive tension of smooth muscle before and after administration of drug. Double dilution method was used to observe the antibacterial effect of water extract of Flos chrysanthemum indicum. Results: Water extract of Flos chrysanthemum indicum inhibited dose-dependently the contraction of normal guinea pig ileum( F = 11. 088, P <0. 001 ) and that induced by acetyl choline and diphenhydramine( F = 13. 881 and 19. 305 ,P < 0. 001 ). It also had antibacterial effects on Escherichia coli ,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and especially on Staphylococcus aureus with a lowest antibacterial dosage of 125 g/L. Conclusion: Water extract of Flos chrysanthemum indicum relaxes the smooth muscle of ileum of guinea pigs, and can effectively inhibit the growth of bacteria in vitro.%目的:观察野菊花水提液对豚鼠离体回肠收缩的影响及其抑菌作用.方法:将豚鼠离体回肠标本悬吊于麦氏浴槽中,测量并记录给药前后离体回肠张力,计算张力变化百分率.采用二倍体积连续稀释法考察野菊花水提液的抗菌效果.结果:野菊花水提液对豚鼠离体回肠收缩有明显的抑制作用(F=11.088,P<0.001),并剂量依赖性地抑制乙酰胆碱及组胺引起的豚鼠回肠收缩(F=13.881、19.305,P均<0.001).野菊花水提液对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、绿脓假单胞菌和枯草芽孢菌均具有相对较好的抑菌效果,其中对金黄色葡萄球菌的抑菌效果最好,最小抑菌质量浓度为125 g/L.结论:野菊花水提液对豚鼠离体回肠具有直接的舒张作用,能够拮抗乙酰胆碱及组胺引起的豚鼠回肠收缩,同时具有体外抑菌作用.

  8. Dietary sodium intake induced myenteric neuron hypertrophy in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Souza R.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the effect of salt intake on myenteric neuron size of the colon of adult male Wistar rats. The animals were placed on either a high-salt (HS; 8%; 12 animals or a low-salt diet (LS; 0.15%; 12 animals for 15 or 52 weeks and blood pressure was measured. The sizes of myenteric neurons of the distal colon from both groups were measured. No difference in neuron size was observed between the HS and LS groups after 15 weeks. After 52 weeks on HS, neuron size was increased (P<0.005 when compared with the LS group. The rats also presented hypertension, which was significantly different at 52 weeks (142 ± 11 vs 119 ± 7 mmHg. These results suggest that a long time on an HS diet can significantly increase myenteric nerve cell size.

  9. Morphological effects of autoclaved diet on the myenteric neurons of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrícia O Gon(c)alez; Naianne K Clebis; Renata B Mari; Karina M Gagliardo; Sandra R Stabille; Haroldo G Faria; Edson A Liberti; José Roberto Kfoury Jr

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of autoclaved diet on the jejunum neurons of the myenteric plexus of rats during their growth.METHODS: The experimental groups were made up of rats going through weaning whose mothers Received either an autoclaved or a non-autoclaved diet during gestation and lactation, and rats that were fed the same diet as their mothers during the post-weaning period. In order to measure the neurons' body pro-file and to quantify the number of neurons per area, preparations were stained by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-diaphorase method.RESULTS: No significant changes were observed in rats' body weight or in the number of neurons regard-less of the diet used (P > 0.05). There was a decrease in the jejunum-ileum length in rats treated with an autoclaved diet (P < 0.05). An increase in the neuronal cross-sectional area was seen in rats that had Received the autoclaved diet, an effect that was significant for animals undergoing weaning. In addition, all observed factors showed significant differences when related to the age of the animals.CONCLUSION: The autoclaved diet did not alter the quantity of neurons, but increased their cell body area, suggesting changes similar to those observed in pro-tein deficiency.

  10. Ulcerative colitis: ultrastructure of interstitial cells in myenteric plexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Vanderwinden, J-M; Horn, T

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are key regulatory cells in the gut. In the colon of patients with severe ulcerative colitis (UC), myenteric ICC had myoid ultrastructural features and were in close contact with nerve terminals. In all patients as opposed to controls, some ICC profiles showed...

  11. Extratos metanólico e acetato de etila de Solanum megalonyx Sendtn. (Solanaceae apresentam atividade espasmolítica em íleo isolado de cobaia: um estudo comparativo Methanol and ethyl acetate extracts from Solanum megalonyx Sendtn. (Solanaceae present spasmolytic activity in guinea-pig ileum: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia M. Oliveira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Solanum megalonyx Sendtn. (Solanaceae é conhecida popularmente por "jurubeba" no Nordeste do Brasil e se apresenta na forma de arbusto. Várias espécies de Solanum apresentam efeito espasmolítico em órgãos isolados. Assim, objetivou-se investigar e comparar o efeito dos extratos metanólico (SM-MeOH e acetato de etila (SM-AcOEt, obtidos das partes aéreas de S. megalonyx, em íleo isolado de cobaia. SM-MeOH e SM-AcOEt antagonizaram (n = 5 as contrações fásicas induzidas por 1 mM de acetilcolina (logCI50 = 3,2 ± 0,1 e 1,8 ± 0,6 mg/mL, respectivamente ou de histamina (logCI50 = 2,8 ± 0,5 e 1,7 ± 0,3 mg/mL, respectivamente. SM-MeOH e SM-AcOEt também relaxaram (n = 5 o íleo pré-contraído por 40 mM de KCl (logCE50 = 1,9 ± 0,09 e 1,9 ± 0,1 mg/mL, respectivamente, por 1 mM de histamina (logCE50 = 1,9 ± 0,07 e 1,7 ± 0,08 mg/mL, respectivamente ou de acetilcolina (logCE50 = 1,9 ± 0,02 e 1,7 ± 0,09 mg/mL, respectivamente de maneira dependente de concentração e equipotente. Demonstra-se pela primeira vez que S. megalonyx apresenta efeito espasmolítico não seletivo em íleo isolado de cobaia, sugerindo que os extratos podem estar agindo em um passo comum da via de sinalização dos agentes contráteis testados.Solanum megalonyx Sendtn. (Solanaceae is known popularly as "jurubeba" in Northeastern Brazil where it can be found as a shrub. Several species of Solanum present spasmolytic effect in several tissues, thus this study was aimed to investigate and compare the effect of the methanol extract (SMMeOH and ethyl acetate extract (SM-AcOEt, obtained from aerial parts of Solanum megalonyx Sendtn., in guinea-pig ileum. In this work, both SM-MeOH and SM-AcOEt antagonized the phasic contraction induced by acetylcholine 1 mM (logIC50 = 3.2 ± 0.1 and 1.8 ± 0.6 mg/mL and histamine 1 mM (logIC50 = 2.8 ± 0.5 and 1.7 ± 0.3 mg/mL, respectively (n = 5, without statistical differences between these values. In another set of experiments, SM

  12. Modulatory effect of adenosine receptors on the ascending and descending neural reflex responses of rat ileum

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    Schusdziarra Volker

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adenosine is known to act as a neuromodulator by suppressing synaptic transmission in the central and peripheral nervous system. Both the release of adenosine within the small intestine and the presence of adenosine receptors on enteric neurons have been demonstrated. The aim of the present study was to characterize a possible involvement of adenosine receptors in the modulation of the myenteric reflex. The experiments were carried out on ileum segments 10 cm in length incubated in an single chambered organ bath, and the reflex response was initiated by electrical stimulation (ES. Results ES caused an ascending contraction and a descending relaxation followed by a contraction. All motility responses to ES were completely blocked by tetrodotoxin, indicating that they are mediated by neural mechanisms. Atropine blocked the contractile effects, whereas the descending relaxation was significantly increased. The A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine increased the ascending contraction, whereas the ascending contraction was reduced by the A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine. Activation of the A1 receptor further reduced the descending relaxation and the latency of the peristaltic reflex. The A2B receptor antagonist alloxazine increased ascending contraction, whereas descending relaxation remained unchanged. For A2A and A3 receptors, we found contradictory effects of the agonists and antagonists, thus there is no clear physiological role for these receptors at this time. Conclusions This study suggests that the myenteric ascending and descending reflex response of the rat small intestine is modulated by release of endogenous adenosine via A1 receptors.

  13. Gastrointestinal transit is not impaired by regional loss of myenteric neurons in rat jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, M S; White, J C; Bass, P

    1993-10-01

    Chronic absence of myenteric neurons from a 5-cm segment of rat jejunum causes alterations in myoelectric activity. Spike potentials characteristic of phase III activity of the migrating motor complex (MMC) are present; however, the number of propagating spike potentials through the myenterically denervated region is reduced. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the regional loss of myenteric neurons on gastrointestinal transit of a solid marker in the fasted rat. The rate of gastric emptying was not affected by the absence of the myenteric plexus in a 5-cm segment of the jejunum. However, 15 days after either myenteric denervation or vehicle treatment of a segment of jejunum, a more cephalad distribution and decreased rate of intestinal propulsion of the solid marker was observed in the small intestine. This delay in small intestinal transit observed at 15 days was not seen at 48 and 120 days. The decrease in transit at 15 days can be attributed to the handling of the bowel during the surgical procedure. The mouth-to-cecum transit time (MCT) was also not affected by chronic absence of the myenteric plexus. Furthermore, the MCT indicated that bacterial overgrowth, a common manifestation when gut motility is disrupted, did not occur in the small intestine after the experimental destruction of the myenteric plexus. The results of this study indicate that the regional loss of the myenteric plexus does not impair gastrointestinal transit in the fasted rat.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Differential effects in CGRPergic, nitrergic, and VIPergic myenteric innervation in diabetic rats supplemented with 2% L-glutamine

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    RENATA V.F. PEREIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 2% L-glutamine supplementation on myenteric innervation in the ileum of diabetic rats, grouped as follows: normoglycemic (N; normoglycemic supplemented with L-glutamine (NG; diabetic (D; and diabetic supplemented with L-glutamine (DG. The ileums were subjected to immunohistochemical techniques to localize neurons immunoreactive to HuC/D protein (HuC/D-IR and neuronal nitric oxide synthase enzyme (nNOS-IR and to analyze varicosities immunoreactive to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP-IR and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP-IR. L-Glutamine in the DG group (i prevented the increase in the cell body area of nNOS-IR neurons, (ii prevented the increase in the area of VIP-IR varicosities, (iii did not prevent the loss of HuC/D-IR and nNOS-IR neurons per ganglion, and (iv reduced the size of CGRP-IR varicosities. L-Glutamine in the NG group reduced (i the number of HuC/D-IR and nNOS-IR neurons per ganglion, (ii the cell body area of nNOS-IR neurons, and (iii the size of VIP-IR and CGRP-IR varicosities. 2% L-glutamine supplementation exerted differential neuroprotective effects in experimental diabetes neuropathy that depended on the type of neurotransmitter analyzed. However, the effects of this dose of L-glutamine on normoglycemic animals suggests there are additional actions of this beyond its antioxidant capacity.

  15. Crohn's disease: ultrastructure of interstitial cells in colonic myenteric plexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Horn, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The role of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in chronic inflammatory bowel disease, i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), remains unclear. Ultrastructural alterations in ICC in the colonic myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) have been reported previously in UC, but descriptions of ICC...... were dilated and appeared to be empty. Lipid droplets and lipofuscin-bodies were prominent in glial cells and neurons. ICC-MP were scanty but, as in controls, had caveolae, prominent intermediate filaments, cytoplasmic dense bodies, and membrane-associated dense bands with a patchy basal lamina. ICC...

  16. Lymphoplasmacytic myenteric, subepicardial, and pulmonary ganglioneuritis in four nonpsittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpiñán, David; Fernández-Bellon, Hugo; López, Carlos; Ramis, Antoni

    2007-09-01

    A disease condition with clinical and pathologic findings compatible with psittacine proventricular dilatation disease was diagnosed in a canary (Serinus canaria), a greenfinch (Carduelis chloris), a long-wattled umbrellabird (Cephalopterus penduliger), and a bearded barbet (Lybius dubius). The canary and the greenfinch were kept as pets by different owners, whereas the bearded barbet and the long-wattled umbrellabird were kept in separate mixed species enclosures at the Barcelona Zoo. Clinical signs were variable in all 4 birds and included polyphagia, weight loss, weakness, and ataxia. Postmortem examination findings were also variable and included emaciation, hepatic and renal atrophy or enlargement, gallbladder dilatation, and intestinal and ventricular dilatation. Histopathologic lesions in all birds consisted of multifocal lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of myenteric and cardiac nerves and ganglia. These lesions are characteristic of proventricular dilatation disease of psittacine birds.

  17. Primary mucinous cystadenoma of the ileum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Guo-biao; LU Yi-ping; HUANG Xiao-ke; SHI Ming

    2009-01-01

    @@ Mucinous cystadenoma is a rare benign tumor. Because it has no specific clinical manifestations or imaging features, preoperative clinical and radiologic diagnoses are difficult to make.~(1-3) We report here a case of primary mucinous cystadenoma of the terminal ileum wall. In this report, the characteristics of the disease will be discussed and the previous reports in literature on mucinous cystadenoma in other organs will be reviewed.

  18. Ultrastructure of interstitial cells of Cajal in myenteric plexus of human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri Johannes; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Rasmussen, Helle

    2009-01-01

    The role of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) as regulators of the motility of the colonic external muscle remains unclear. Ultrastructural studies of myenteric interstitial cells are lacking in human colon. We therefore characterized the distinct......The role of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) as regulators of the motility of the colonic external muscle remains unclear. Ultrastructural studies of myenteric interstitial cells are lacking in human colon. We therefore characterized...... and had myoid features such as scattered caveolae, prominent intermediate filaments, and cytoplasmic dense bodies. We found characteristic dense membrane-associated bands with a patchy basal lamina, invaginating cellular protrusions (peg and socket junctions) between ICC and between ICC and muscle cells...

  19. Nicotinic receptor mediates nitric oxide synthase expression in the rat gastric myenteric plexus.

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism that regulates the synthesis of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), a key enzyme responsible for NO production in the myenteric plexus, remains unknown. We investigated the roles of the vagal nerve and nicotinic synapses in the mediation of NOS synthesis in the gastric myenteric plexus in rats. Truncal vagotomy and administration of hexamethonium significantly reduced nonadrenergic, noncholinergic relaxation, the catalytic activity of NOS, the number of NOS-immunoreactive cells, and th...

  20. Effects of perinatal protein deprivation and recovery on esophageal myenteric plexus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flavio; M; Greggio; Ricardo; BV; Fontes; Laura; B; Maifrino; Patricia; Castelucci; Romeu; Rodrigues; de; Souza; Edson; A; Liberti

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate effects of preand postnatal protein deprivation and postnatal recovery on the myenteric plexus of the rat esophagus. METHODS: Three groups of young Wistar rats (aged 42 d) were studied: normalfed (N42), proteindeprived (D42), and proteinrecovered (R42). The myenteric neurons of their esophagi were evaluated by histochemical reactions for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), nitrergic neurons (NADPH)diaphorase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), immunohistochemical reaction for vasoactive i...

  1. Nicotinic receptor mediates nitric oxide synthase expression in the rat gastric myenteric plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Takahashi, T; Taniuchi, M; Hsu, C X; Owyang, C

    1998-04-01

    The mechanism that regulates the synthesis of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), a key enzyme responsible for NO production in the myenteric plexus, remains unknown. We investigated the roles of the vagal nerve and nicotinic synapses in the mediation of NOS synthesis in the gastric myenteric plexus in rats. Truncal vagotomy and administration of hexamethonium significantly reduced nonadrenergic, noncholinergic relaxation, the catalytic activity of NOS, the number of NOS-immunoreactive cells, and the density of NOS-immunoreactive bands and NOS mRNA bands obtained from gastric tissue. These results suggest that NOS expression in the gastric myenteric plexus is controlled by the vagal nerve and nicotinic synapses. We also investigated if stimulation of the nicotinic receptor increases neuronal NOS (nNOS) expression in cultured gastric myenteric ganglia. Incubation of cultured gastric myenteric ganglia with the nicotinic receptor agonist, 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperizinium (DMPP, 10(-10)-10(-7) M), for 24 h significantly increased the number of nNOS-immunoreactive cells and the density of immunoreactive nNOS bands and nNOS mRNA bands. nNOS mRNA expression stimulated by DMPP was antagonized by a protein kinase C antagonist, a phospholipase C inhibitor, and an intracellular Ca2+ chelator. We concluded that activation of the nicotinic receptor stimulates a Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C pathway, which in turn, upregulates nNOS mRNA expression and nNOS synthesis in the gastric myenteric plexus.

  2. Blastocystis tropism in the pig intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayer, R; Elsasser, T; Gould, R; Solano, G; Urban, J; Santin, M

    2014-04-01

    Blastocystis has been reported in pig feces but the sites of development in the gastrointestinal tract are unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine predilection sites of Blastocystis in 11 naturally infected pigs examined at 20 weeks of age. At necropsy, feces and contents of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and cecum were examined by immunofluorescence (IFA) microscopy and PCR and tissues from these sites as well as the proximal and distal colon were processed for histology from pigs 1 to 5. Feces were examined by IFA microscopy, and segments from the jejunum and ileum were processed for histology from pigs 6 to 11. Multiple sections were cut from each tissue segment, and each was stained with the following: hematoxylin and eosin, polyclonal rabbit antibody to Blastocystis, and ParaFlor B monoclonal antibody to Blastocystis. Blastocystis was detected in feces of all 11 pigs by IFA microscopy and determined by PCR and gene sequencing to be subtype 5 for pigs 1-5. Blastocystis was also detected in the lumen contents removed from the cecum of pigs 1-5 examined by IFA microscopy and in the cecum of pigs 4 and 5 by PCR. Blastocystis was also observed in tissue sections from the jejunum of 7 of the 11 pigs, in the proximal and distal colon of pigs 1-5, and in the cecum of 4 of these 5 pigs but was not detected in the duodenum or ileum of any pigs. In tissue sections, Blastocystis was found primarily in the lumen usually associated with digested food debris, sometimes in close proximity or appearing to adhere to the epithelium, but no stages were found to penetrate the epithelium or the lamina propria.

  3. [Primary adenocarcinoma of the terminal ileum, synchronous].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia-de la Rosa, René Francisco; Sampayo-Candia, Raúl; Bretón-Toral, José Christian; Candia-Archundia, Francisco; Candia-García, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    Among the rarest types of cancer found are the small intestine malignancies, representing only 2% of all gastrointestinal cancer and 0.1-0.3% of all malignancies. The most common subtype of this tumour is the adenocarcinoma, which is located mainly in the duodenum, jejunum and, rarely, in ileum. A 75 year-old male, with no any surgical history, who in the previous three months, referred to two clinical episodes of partial bowel obstruction and unquantified weight loss. When admitted into the surgical service, the patient referred to a partial bowel obstruction of more than one week onset. A laparotomy was performed, finding 3 stenosis rings at the ileum end portion, carrying out an intestinal resection and enteral-enteral anastomosis. On the seventh day there was dehiscence of the anastomosis and abdominal sepsis. New surgery was performed with the resection of the intestinal anastomosis and an ileostomy. The pathologist report indicated a small bowel adenocarcinoma moderately differentiated, ulcerated, and multifocal. It was classified as stage III or T3N1M0. The patient progress was satisfactorily, managed as outpatient with postoperative chemotherapy with 5 fluorouracil and cisplatin. The patient died a year later due to liver metastases. Due to the extreme rarity of the case, is very likely that general surgeons may find one or two cases of adenocarcinoma of the ileum in their professional career. Thus, they must suspect this pathology when faced with an episode of intestinal obstruction in the adult. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Flow of endogenous and exogenous nitrogen in different segments of the small intestine in pigs fed diets with soyabean concentrate, soyabean meal or rapeseed cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grala, W.; Buraczewska, L.; Wasilewko, J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Tamminga, S.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Huisman, J.; Korczynski, W.

    1998-01-01

    Six barrows of an average initial BW 27.5±1.2 kg were used. Each pig was fitted with two cannulas in different segments of the small intestine: pig 1 in the duodenum (C1) and upper jejunum (C2), pig 2 in C2 and the lower jejunum (C3), pig 3 in C2 and C3, pig 4 in C1 and the terminal ileum (C4), pig

  5. Histochemical study of the myenteric plexus following gastric resection on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolova, I; Atanassova, E

    1982-01-01

    Enzyme histochemical methods were used to follow up to changes within the myenteric plexus from 1 week to 7 months following subtotal Billroth I gastric resection in dogs. Different regions of the resected stomach were examined. The changes affected the neurons and the neuropil of the myenteric ganglia, the connecting strands and the nerve bundles and fibers within the muscle layers. The changes in size, from and enzyme activity of some myenteric neurons correspond to those observed during axon regeneration. The 2nd week showed a significant reduction of the nerve cell number in most of the examined regions of the resected stomach. Along with, the amitotic forms of cell division and immature nerve cells became more numerous. The enzyme activity of the latter increased with the time elapsed after resection, 7 months afterwards, the size of the myenteric ganglia in the resected stomach did not differ from those in the control dogs. There were some hypertrophic nerve cells with higher enzyme activity. Some changes presume the formation of new intramural ganglia. The changes in the myenteric neurons were accompanied by reactive changes in the non-neuronal elements. Hyperinnervation was observed in the gastric muscles.

  6. Trypanosomiasis-induced megacolon illustrates how myenteric neurons modulate the risk for colon cancer in rats and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Kannen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomiasis induces a remarkable myenteric neuronal degeneration leading to megacolon. Very little is known about the risk for colon cancer in chagasic megacolon patients. To clarify whether chagasic megacolon impacts on colon carcinogenesis, we investigated the risk for colon cancer in Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi infected patients and rats.Colon samples from T. cruzi-infected and uninfected patients and rats were histopathologically investigated with colon cancer biomarkers. An experimental model for chemical myenteric denervation was also performed to verify the myenteric neuronal effects on colon carcinogenesis. All experiments complied the guidelines and approval of ethical institutional review boards.No colon tumors were found in chagasic megacolon samples. A significant myenteric neuronal denervation was observed. Epithelial cell proliferation and hyperplasia were found increased in chagasic megacolon. Analyzing the argyrophilic nucleolar organiser regions within the cryptal bottom revealed reduced risk for colon cancer in Chagas' megacolon patients. T. cruzi-infected rats showed a significant myenteric neuronal denervation and decreased numbers of colon preneoplastic lesions. In chemical myenteric denervated rats preneoplastic lesions were reduced from the 2nd wk onward, which ensued having the colon myenteric denervation significantly induced.Our data suggest that the trypanosomiasis-related myenteric neuronal degeneration protects the colon tissue from carcinogenic events. Current findings highlight potential mechanisms in tropical diseases and cancer research.

  7. Activity of boldine on rat ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speisky, H; Squella, J A; Núñez-Vergara, L J

    1991-12-01

    Boldine shows a concentration-dependent relaxation effect on the rat ileum preparation with a pD2 of 3.77 +/- 0.12. The alkaloid also produces a concentration-dependent parallel shift of the curve-response to acetylcholine, therefore it directly interferes with the cholinergic mechanism associated with the contraction, behaving as a competitive antagonist with a pA2 of 4.78 +/- 0.19. On the other hand, boldine produces a nonparallel shift of the contraction response induced by barium, revealing the occurrence of a non-competitive antagonism. This effect could be the result of interference with intracellular events associated with the barium-induced changes in calcium pools.

  8. Technical feasibility of visualizing myenteric plexus using confocal laser endomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masakuni; Sumiyama, Kazuki; Shimojima, Naoki; Ieiri, Satoshi; Okano, Hideyuki; Kamba, Shunsuke; Fujimura, Takumi; Hirobe, Seiichi; Kuroda, Tatsuo; Takahashi-Fujigasaki, Junko

    2017-09-01

    In preceding studies, we identified that the myenteric plexus (MP) could be visualized with confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) by applying neural fluorescent probes lacking clinical safety profiling data from the submucosal side. In this study, we evaluated the technical feasibility of MP visualization using probe-based CLE (pCLE) from the serosal side with cresyl violet (CV), which has been used clinically for chromoendoscopy. The dye affinity of CV for MP was first explored in an in vivo transgenic mouse model using neural crest derivatives labeled with green fluorescent protein. We also tested the feasibility of CV-assisted visualization of MP in human surgical specimens, wherein the tissue dying and pCLE observation were performed from the serosal side. In the human study, rate of MP visualization by pCLE was evaluated as the primary outcome. We also evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of MP visualization by pCLE, using pathological presence/absence of MP as the gold standard. We confirmed the dye affinity of CV to MP in all tested models. The MP appeared as brightly stained ladder-like structures with pCLE, and in the human study, MP was visualized in 12/14 (85.7%) samples, with 92.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In positive cases showing the ladder-like structure of MP by pCLE, the mean maximum and minimum widths of nerve strands were 54.3 (± 23.6) and 19.7 (± 6.0) μm, respectively. A ganglion was detected by pCLE in 10 cases (10/12, 83.3%). This study demonstrated the technical feasibility of visualizing the MP in real time by CV-assisted pCLE (UMIN-CTR number, UMIN000015056). © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. The microbiota of pigs influenced by diet texture and severity of Lawsonia intracellularis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Lars; Johnsen, Kaare; Boye, Mette

    2008-01-01

    . intracellularis. In this study a mechanistic approach was taken for explaining and testing this observation by studying the microbiota and the occurrence of L. intracellularis in the distal ileum of 54 pigs by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, Real-Time PCR and in situ...... hybridization. The texture of the diet influenced the microbiota, and from a quantitative discriminative analysis of the terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) of ileum samples it was deduced that Clostridium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were associated with the non-pelleted diet and Streptococcus spp....... with the pelleted diet. In experimentally infected pigs it was verified that 89 bp and 90 bp sized T-RFs (HhaI) from ileum represented L. intracellularis. The non-pelleted diet seemed to reduce the relative amount of L. intracellularis in the total microbiota of the ileum, but the number of pigs detected positive...

  10. NK1 receptor expression in the interstitial cells of Cajal and neurons and tachykinins distribution in rat ileum during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, M G; De Giorgio, R; Faussone-Pellegrini, M S

    1997-06-30

    The origin and function of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) that are located at the level of the deep muscular plexus (DMP) have not been completely identified. It has been recently reported that these cells express neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptors to which substance P (SP) shows the highest affinity. Studies during pre- and postnatal life have demonstrated that ICCs are identifiable in the rat ileum soon after birth and already show adult features at 7 days of postnatal life. Several neurotransmitters have been identified at the DMP which appear at specific times during development. We have studied the expression of NK1 receptors by ICCs and enteric neurons and the timing of the appearance of SP in the DMP, myenteric plexus (MP) and submucous plexus (SMP) of rat ileum during development. Rats, aged from 18 days of fetal life to adulthood, were used. NK1 receptors and SP were identified by using NK1 polyclonal antibodies and tachykinin (SP/TK) polyclonal antibodies, respectively. NK1-immunoreactivity (IR) was detected in the ICCs immediately after birth and reached maximal intensity at 7 days. From birth, SP/TK-IR fibers originated from short excitatory neurons at the MP and reached the DMP at 1 week of postnatal life. NK1- and SP/TK-IR appeared in the MP neurons in the fetus and in the SMP neurons at weaning. The present study demonstrates that by the first days of postnatal life, the NK1-IR might be used as a marker of the ICCs at the DMP and suggests that these cells may participate in the actions exerted by tachykinins on muscle cells.

  11. Ca2+ involvement in the action potential generation of myenteric neurones in the rat oesophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laet, A; Cornelissen, W; Adriaensen, D; Van Bogaert, P-P; Scheuermann, D W; Timmermans, J-P

    2002-04-01

    Intracellular recordings were used to study the physiological behaviour of rat oesophageal myenteric neurones, which are embedded in striated muscle. Injection of depolarizing pulses evoked action potentials with a clear 'shoulder' in all neurones. This shoulder disappeared under low Ca2+/high Mg2+ conditions. Tetrodotoxin (TTX; 1 micromol L-1) did not impede spike firing, whereas under combined TTX and low Ca2+/high Mg2+ conditions the action potentials were completely abolished, indicating that TTX- resistant action potentials are mediated by a Ca2+ current. Further experiments with omega-conotoxin GVIA (100 nmol L-1) revealed that these Ca2+ currents enter the cell via N-type voltage-activated Ca2+ channels (see also accompanying paper). Tetraethylammonium (10 mmol L-1) caused broadening of the action potentials, which probably resulted from prolonged Ca2+ influx due to blockade of the delayed rectifier K+ channel. Although Ca2+ appears to be involved in the spike generation of all rat oesophageal myenteric neurones, only a minority (14%) shows a slow afterhyperpolarization. Thus, no strict correlation exists between the presence of a shoulder and a slow afterhyperpolarization. Furthermore, morphological identification of 25 of the impaled neurones revealed that there was no strict correlation between morphology and electrophysiological behaviour. Consequently, rat oesophageal myenteric neurones appear to differ in several aspects from myenteric neurones in smooth muscle regions of the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Morphological alterations in small intestine of rats with myenteric plexus denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, M; Kilinç, M; Hatipoğlu, E S

    2004-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of myenteric denervation by benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on small intestine morphology in the rat, and whether segmental myenteric denervation alters morphology elsewhere in the small intestine. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into 4 groups: control (0.9% NaCl); denervation (0.062% BAC); chemical inflammation (5% acetic acid), and intraluminal stasis produced by partial obstruction. 28 days after operation tissue samples were taken from the treated segment, 10 cm distal to the treated segment, and 20 cm proximal to the treated segment. Morphological changes and the number of ganglion cells were examined under the light microscope. BAC application reduced the number of myenteric neurons by 85% in the treated segment. Denervation increased villus height and crypt depth in the treated and proximal segments. But changes in muscle thickness were seen throughout the intestine. As a result, although myenteric plexus denervation caused mucosa morphology in the treated and proximal segments, it caused smooth muscle changes throughout the small intestine.

  13. Brain-gut interactions between central vagal activation and abdominal surgery to influence gastric myenteric ganglia Fos expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miampamba, Marcel; Million, Mulugeta; Taché, Yvette

    2011-05-01

    We previously showed that medullary thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) or the stable TRH agonist, RX-77368 administered intracisternally induces vagal-dependent activation of gastric myenteric neurons and prevents post surgery-induced delayed gastric emptying in rats. We investigated whether abdominal surgery alters intracisternal (ic) RX-77368 (50 ng)-induced gastric myenteric neuron activation. Under 10 min enflurane anesthesia, rats underwent an ic injection of saline or RX-77368 followed by a laparotomy and a 1-min cecal palpation, or no surgery and were euthanized 90 min later. Longitudinal muscle/myenteric plexus whole-mount preparations of gastric corpus and antrum were processed for immunohistochemical detection of Fos alone or double labeled with protein gene-product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). In the non surgery groups, ic RX-77368 induced a 17 fold increase in Fos-expression in both gastric antrum and corpus myenteric neurons compared to saline injected rats. PGP 9.5 ascertained the neuronal identity of myenteric cells expressing Fos. In the abdominal surgery groups, ic RX-77368 induced a significant increase in Fos-expression in both the corpus and antrum myenteric ganglia compared with ic saline injected rats which has no Fos in the gastric myenteric ganglia. However, the response was reduced by 73-78% compared with that induced by ic RX 77368 without surgery. Abundant VAChT positive nerve fibers were present around Fos positive neurons. These results indicate a bidirectional interaction between central vagal stimulation of gastric myenteric neurons and abdominal surgery. The modulation of gastric vagus-myenteric neuron activity could play an important role in the recovery phase of postoperative gastric ileus.

  14. Cholecystokinin-8 activates myenteric neurons in 21- and 35-day old but not 4- and 14-day old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Martha C; Murry, Candace R; Raboin, Shannon J; Roberson, Allison E; Mansour, Mahmoud M; Williams, Carol S; Sayegh, Ayman I

    2011-02-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) activates the myenteric neurons of adult rats. The goal of this work is to determine the ontogeny of this activation by CCK-8 in the myenteric plexus of the duodenum (2cm immediately following the pyloric sphincter aborally) and compare it with that of the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) - which occurs in 1-day old pups. Despite the existence of both of the CCK receptors, CCK(1) and CCK(2), in 4, 14, 21 and 35 day old rats, CCK-8 (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40μg/kg, i.p.) increased Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI, a marker for neuronal activation) in the myenteric neurons of 21- and 35-day old rats but in the DVC of all age groups. As such, this belated activation of myenteric neurons by CCK-8 compared to the DVC may reflect a delayed role for these neurons in CCK-related functions.

  15. Antagonism of ionotropic glutamate receptors attenuates chemical ischemia-induced injury in rat primary cultured myenteric ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Carpanese

    Full Text Available Alterations of the enteric glutamatergic transmission may underlay changes in the function of myenteric neurons following intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R contributing to impairment of gastrointestinal motility occurring in these pathological conditions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether glutamate receptors of the NMDA and AMPA/kainate type are involved in myenteric neuron cell damage induced by I/R. Primary cultured rat myenteric ganglia were exposed to sodium azide and glucose deprivation (in vitro chemical ischemia. After 6 days of culture, immunoreactivity for NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptors subunits, GluN(1 and GluA(1-3, GluK(1-3 respectively, was found in myenteric neurons. In myenteric cultured ganglia, in normal metabolic conditions, -AP5, an NMDA antagonist, decreased myenteric neuron number and viability, determined by calcein AM/ethidium homodimer-1 assay, and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, measured with hydroxyphenyl fluorescein. CNQX, an AMPA/kainate antagonist exerted an opposite action on the same parameters. The total number and viability of myenteric neurons significantly decreased after I/R. In these conditions, the number of neurons staining for GluN1 and GluA(1-3 subunits remained unchanged, while, the number of GluK(1-3-immunopositive neurons increased. After I/R, -AP5 and CNQX, concentration-dependently increased myenteric neuron number and significantly increased the number of living neurons. Both -AP5 and CNQX (100-500 µM decreased I/R-induced increase of ROS levels in myenteric ganglia. On the whole, the present data provide evidence that, under normal metabolic conditions, the enteric glutamatergic system exerts a dualistic effect on cultured myenteric ganglia, either by improving or reducing neuron survival via NMDA or AMPA/kainate receptor activation, respectively. However, blockade of both receptor pathways may exert a protective role on myenteric neurons following and I

  16. Brain-gut interactions between central vagal activation and abdominal surgery to influence gastric myenteric ganglia Fos expression in rats

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    We previously showed that medullary thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) or the stable TRH agonist, RX-77368 administered intracisternally induces vagal-dependent activation of gastric myenteric neurons and prevents post surgery-induced delayed gastric emptying in rats. We investigated whether abdominal surgery alters intracisternal (ic) RX-77368 (50 ng)-induced gastric myenteric neuron activation. Under 10 min enflurane anesthesia, rats underwent an ic injection of saline or RX-77368 followed...

  17. Interaction of myenteric neurons and extrinsic nerves in the intestinal inhibitory response induced by mesenteric nerve stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamasato,Teruhiro

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the mesenteric nerve stimulation (MNS on the twitch contraction induced by field stimulation were investigated regarding the relationship between myenteric neurons and extrinsic cholinergic nerves in the guinea-pig mesenteric nerve-ileal preparation. The twitch contraction was inhibited after MNS. The inhibition of the twitch contraction after MNS was induced twice, just after MNS (1st inhibition and 2-3 min later (2nd inhibition (type I, or once, just after MNS (1st inhibition (type II, in recovery course of twitch contraction for 6-8 min. The 1st inhibition was slightly decreased by guanethidine and hexamethonium. The inhibitory response (1st inhibition in both types I and II was recovered to the control level by pretreatment with naloxone (recovered twitch contraction, but the late inhibitory response (2nd inhibition was markedly observed after 2-3 min in types I and II. Either the 1st or the 2nd inhibition was not altered by capsaicin, desensitization to calcitonin gene-related polypeptide (CGRP, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, somatostatin, or galanin. The recovered twitch contraction in types I and II was decreased by CGRP-desensitization, or capsaicin. These results suggest that the first inhibitory response was induced by enteric opioid neurons connected with extrinsic cholinergic nerves, but the 2nd inhibition was induced by unknown substances other than CGRP, VIP, somatostatin, and galanin. The twitch contraction may partly be induced by endogenous neurokinin-like substances. And, some CGRP containing neurons, which connect with extrinsic cholinergic nerves, probably activate the intrinsic excitatory neurons.

  18. Reversal effect of Achillea millefolium extract on ileum contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighi Mehrnoosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditionally Achillea millefolium L. has been used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. In this study the hydroalcoholic extract of A. millefolium was evaluated on ileum contractions of Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 32 male Wistar rats were designated into 4 equal groups, including: acetyl choline, KCl, extract plus acetyl choline and the group which received extract plus KCl. The isotonic contractions of ileum (induced by 60 mM KCl or 1 μM acetyl choline in tyrode solution were recorded, under 1 gr tension. Then, the effects of normal saline or extract (1% were evaluated. The percentage changes were calculated and compared in different groups using ANOWA and Tukey tests. Results: The mean of ileum contractions in acetyl choline and KCl groups were 18.83±4.91 and 18.31±11.12 (p=0.5. The percentage of contraction relieve in extract plus acetyl choline group was 53.16±12.06 and in extract plus KCl group was 62.96±11.08 (p=0.4. The contractions in extract groups were significantly less than acetyl choline or KCl groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: The results indicate that Achillea millefolium extract inhibits ileum contractions. Therefore, it might be used in patients to reduce ileum spasms.

  19. Birthdating of myenteric neuron subtypes in the small intestine of the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Annette J.; Stamp, Lincon A.; Gonsalvez, David G.; Allison, Margaret B.; Olson, David P.; Myers, Martin G; Anderson, Colin R.; Young, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    There are many different types of enteric neurons. Previous studies have identified the time at which some enteric neuron subtypes are born (exit the cell cycle) in the mouse, but the birthdates of some major enteric neuron subtypes are still incompletely characterized or unknown. We combined 5-ethynynl-2’-deoxyuridine (EdU) labeling with antibody markers that identify myenteric neuron subtypes to determine when neuron subtypes are born in the mouse small intestine. We found that different neurochemical classes of enteric neuron differed in their birthdates; serotonin neurons were born first with peak cell cycle exit at E11.5, followed by neurofilament-M neurons, calcitonin gene-related peptide neurons (peak cell cycle exit for both at E12.5-E13.5), tyrosine hydroxylase neurons (E15.5), nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) neurons (E15.5) and calretinin neurons (P0). The vast majority of myenteric neurons had exited the cell cycle by P10. We did not observe any EdU+/NOS1+ myenteric neurons in the small intestine of adult mice following EdU injection at E10.5 or E11.5, which was unexpected as previous studies have shown that NOS1 neurons are present in E11.5 mice. Studies using the proliferation marker, Ki67, revealed that very few NOS1 neurons in the E11.5 and E12.5 gut were proliferating. However, Cre-lox-based genetic fate-mapping revealed a small sub-population of myenteric neurons that appears to express NOS1 only transiently. Together, our results confirm a relationship between enteric neuron subtype and birthdate, and suggest that some enteric neurons exhibit neurochemical phenotypes during development that are different from their mature phenotype. PMID:23861145

  20. Equine myenteric ganglionitis: a case of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G A; Karcher, L F; Cummings, J F

    1990-01-01

    A 4-year-old Standardbred mare was referred to the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine for colic evaluation. Physical examination revealed a small colon impaction which initially responded to conservative medical management. Her signs soon recurred, however, and an exploratory celiotomy was recommended. At surgery the small colon impaction was confirmed. The impaction was evacuated and a surgical biopsy was submitted for histopathologic evaluation. Microscopic examination of H&E and Trichrome sections revealed a massive mononuclear cell infiltration of the myenteric plexus. In addition, there was remarkable fibrosis within the neuropil of the myenteric ganglia and interganglionic fascicles. Postoperatively, the mares's colic signs recurred within two weeks and she was euthanatized. Samples of the proximal and distal small colon as well as the original biopsy site were obtained. Over the intervening two weeks, the inflammatory infiltrate within the myenteric ganglia had subsided, while the previous intraganglionic and fascicular fibrosis had increased substantially. The number of myenteric neurons appeared diminished when compared to age-matched controls. There was evidence of neuronal degeneration among the surviving neurons including central chromatolysis and cytoplasmic vacuolization. Furthermore, many degenerate axons were observed with the electron microscope. This scenario represents an equine example of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIIP) which has been extensively described in the human literature. In this case, the syndrome arose as a consequence of recurrent inflammatory injury to the mare's enteric nervous system, thereby altering normal gastrointestinal motility. The ensuing neurogenic functional obstruction manifested as frequent bouts of small colon impactions. Equine CIIP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of colic.

  1. EFFECT OF POSTNATAL EXPOSURE TO N-NITROSODIETHYLAMINE ON THE MYENTERIC PLEXUS OF RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Shreevastava

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Humans are continuously exposed to the different types of nitrosamines found in the diet, drinking water, tobacco smoking, and work place. These are the potential source of exposure in the present population. Nitrosamines are found mainly in cured meat products, smoked preserved foods, beer, whiskey, pickled and salty preserved food materials. Nitrosamines have cytotoxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Nitrosamines exert toxic or mutagenic effects by promoting DNA damage, oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species formation that causes increased lipid peroxidation, adduct formation, and pro-inflammatory cytokine activation. Increased chronic exposure of low doses of nitrosamines is unavoidable in current environmental conditions. Important nitrosamines are N-Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA, N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, N-Nitrosomorpholine (NMOR, N-Nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR etc. The nitrosamine explored in this study is N-Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA, representing environmentally significant nitrosamine. Aim: To study the effect of postnatal exposure to N- Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA on the myenteric plexus of wistar rat. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on pups of wistar rats, (Rattus norvergicus. Six pregnant wistar rats having same pregnancy time were taken. After delivery sixteen pups were chosen randomly. The control and the experimental groups had eight pups each. Sterile water and NDEA were given as 0.2mg/kg intraperitonea daily to the control and the experimental groups of rat pups respectively, from postnatal day 1 to postnatal day 20. All the rat pups were sacrificed on postnatal day 21 to obtain the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract. Results: A significant reduction of morphometric parameters such as the area, the perimeter and the ferret diameter of the perikaryon of the myenteric neurons of the experimental group found .The number of the myenteric neurons per unit area of muscularis externa was

  2. Birthdating of myenteric neuron subtypes in the small intestine of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Annette J; Stamp, Lincon A; Gonsalvez, David G; Allison, Margaret B; Olson, David P; Myers, Martin G; Anderson, Colin R; Young, Heather M

    2014-02-15

    There are many different types of enteric neurons. Previous studies have identified the time at which some enteric neuron subtypes are born (exit the cell cycle) in the mouse, but the birthdates of some major enteric neuron subtypes are still incompletely characterized or unknown. We combined 5-ethynynl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) labeling with antibody markers that identify myenteric neuron subtypes to determine when neuron subtypes are born in the mouse small intestine. We found that different neurochemical classes of enteric neuron differed in their birthdates; serotonin neurons were born first with peak cell cycle exit at E11.5, followed by neurofilament-M neurons, calcitonin gene-related peptide neurons (peak cell cycle exit for both at embryonic day [E]12.5-E13.5), tyrosine hydroxylase neurons (E15.5), nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) neurons (E15.5), and calretinin neurons (postnatal day [P]0). The vast majority of myenteric neurons had exited the cell cycle by P10. We did not observe any EdU+/NOS1+ myenteric neurons in the small intestine of adult mice following EdU injection at E10.5 or E11.5, which was unexpected, as previous studies have shown that NOS1 neurons are present in E11.5 mice. Studies using the proliferation marker Ki67 revealed that very few NOS1 neurons in the E11.5 and E12.5 gut were proliferating. However, Cre-lox-based genetic fate-mapping revealed a small subpopulation of myenteric neurons that appears to express NOS1 only transiently. Together, our results confirm a relationship between enteric neuron subtype and birthdate, and suggest that some enteric neurons exhibit neurochemical phenotypes during development that are different from their mature phenotype.

  3. Neurotoxin-Induced Catecholaminergic Loss in the Colonic Myenteric Plexus of Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Jeanette M; Resnikoff, Henry; Bondarenko, Viktorya; Joers, Valerie; Mejia, Andres; Simmons, Heather; Emborg, Marina E

    2017-01-01

    Objective Constipation is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although pathology of the enteric nervous system (ENS) has been associated with constipation in PD, the contribution of catecholaminergic neurodegeneration to this symptom is currently debated. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) on the colonic myenteric plexus and shed light on the role of catecholaminergic innervation in gastrointestinal (GI) function. Methods Proximal colon tissue from 6-OHDA-treated (n=5) and age-matched control (n=5) rhesus monkeys was immunostained and quantified using ImageJ software. All animals underwent routine daily feces monitoring to assess for constipation or other GI dysfunction. Results Quantification of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC)-immunoreactivity (-ir) revealed significant reduction in myenteric ganglia of 6-OHDA-treated animals compared to controls (TH-ir: 87.8%, P30% days) soft stool or diarrhea in 2 of the 5 6-OHDA-treated animals and 0 of the 5 control animals during the 2 months prior to necropsy, with no animals exhibiting signs of constipation. Conclusion Systemic administration of 6-OHDA to rhesus monkeys significantly reduced catecholaminergic expression in the colonic myenteric plexus without inducing constipation. These findings support the concept that ENS catecholaminergic loss is not responsible for constipation in PD. PMID:28090391

  4. Morphometry and acetylcholinesterase activity of the myenteric plexus of the wild mouse Calomys callosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B.M. Maifrino

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available The myenteric plexus of the digestive tract of the wild mouse Calomys callosus was examined using a histochemical method that selectively stains nerve cells, and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE histochemical technique in whole-mount preparations. Neuronal density was 1,500 ± 116 neurons/cm2 (mean ± SEM in the esophagus, 8,900 ± 1,518 in the stomach, 9,000 ± 711 in the jejunum and 13,100 ± 2,089 in the colon. The difference in neuronal density between the esophagus and other regions was statistically significant. The neuron profile area ranged from 45 to 1,100 µm2. The difference in nerve cell size between the jejunum and other regions was statistically significant. AChE-positive nerve fibers were distributed within the myenteric plexus which is formed by a primary meshwork of large nerve bundles and a secondary meshwork of finer nerve bundles. Most of the nerve cells displayed AChE activity in the cytoplasm of different reaction intensities. These results are important in order to understand the changes occurring in the myenteric plexus in experimental Chagas' disease

  5. Distribution of nitric oxide synthase in stomach myenteric plexus of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Peng; Jin-Bin Feng; Hong Yon; Yun Zhao; Shi-Liang Wang

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the distribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in rat stomach myenteric plexus. METHODS: The distribution of NOS in gastric wall was studied in quantity and location by the NADPH-diaphorase (NDP) histochemical staining method and whole mount preparation technique. RESULTS: NOS was distributed in whole stomach wall, most of them were located in myenteric plexus, and distributed in submucosal plexus. The shape of NOS positive neurons was basically similar, most of them being round and oval in shape. But their density, size and staining intensity varied greatly in the different parts of stomach. The density was 62 -± 38 cells/mm2(antrum), 43 ± 32 cells/mm2(body), and 32 ± 28 cells/mm2 (fundus), respectively. The size and staining intensity of NOS positive neurons in the fundus were basically the same, the neurons being large and dark stained, while they were obviously different in antrum. In the body of the stomach, the NOS positive neurons were in an intermediate state from fundus to antrum. There were some beadlike structures which were strung together by NOS positive varicosities in nerve fibers, some were closely adherent to the outer walls of blood vessels. CONCLUSION: Nitric oxide might he involved in the modulation of motility, secretion and blood ciroulation of the stomach, and the significant difference of NOS positive neurons in different parts of stomach myenteric plexus may be related to the physiologic function of stomach.

  6. Effect of denervation of the myenteric plexus on gastroduodenal motility in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, S B; Duke, G E

    1990-09-01

    The effect of denervation of portions of the myenteric plexus on initiation and coordination of gastric and duodenal contractions was examined in domestic turkeys. Three areas of the muscular stomach (MS), the isthmus between the glandular stomach (GS) and MS, and the pylorus were denervated by application of 1% benzalkonium chloride. Motor activity of the gastroduodenal organs was monitored for 1 h every other day for 13 days using strain gauge transducers implanted at selected sites. Denervation of the isthmus reduced the frequency of MS and duodenal contractions by 50% and abolished GS contractions. Pyloric denervation did not affect the frequency of GS or MS contractions but abolished duodenal contractions. These results suggest that 1) a driving pacemaker for the gastroduodenal cycle is located in the isthmus, and 2) the myenteric plexus is essential for conduction from the pacemaker to the GS and to the duodenum. Denervation of the medial commissure of the myenteric plexus of the MS significantly impaired the function of the ventral half of the MS. It caused atrophy of the underlying medial thick muscle and significantly decreased contraction amplitude. Denervation at this site also caused an enlargement and impaction of the adjacent caudal thin muscle with food and a significant decrease in contraction amplitude. In contrast, denervation of the lateral commissure enlarged the underlying lateral thick muscle and significantly increased its contraction amplitude. Denervation of the cranial thin muscle delayed contractions of that muscle, causing an asynchronization of thin muscle pair.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Effect of Fibre Level and Fibre Source on Gut Morphology and Micro-environment in Local (Mong Cai and Exotic (Landrace×Yorkshire Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. B. Ngoc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of genotype, fibre level and fibre source on gut morphology, environment and microflora was studied using 18 Mong Cai (MC and 18 Landrace×Yorkshire (LY pigs, aged around 60 d. The diets were based on maize, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal and soybean oil, and cassava residue (CR or brewer’s grain (BG as fibrous ingredient sources in the high-fibre diets (HF. A low-fibre diet (LF, containing around 200 g NDF/kg dry matter (DM, was formulated without CR and BG as feed ingredients. The HF diets (HF-CR and HF-BG were formulated to contain around 270 g NDF/kg DM. The experiment was arranged according to a 2×3 factorial completely randomized design with six replications, and lasted 30 d. Crypt density in ileum was lowest (p<0.05 and villus height in jejunum and ileum were the greatest (p<0.05 in pigs fed diet HF-BG. Villus width in ileum was greatest in pigs fed diets HF-CR and HF-BG (p<0.05. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB counts in stomach were greatest (p<0.05 and E. coli counts in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05 in pigs fed diet HF-CR. The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05, and pH in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05 in pigs fed diet HF-CR. Crypt density in ileum was lowest, and villus height in ileum and villus width in jejunum and ileum was greatest in LY pigs (p<0.05. LAB counts in stomach and ileum were greatest, and E. coli counts in ileum were lowest in MC pigs (p<0.05. The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05 and pH lowest (p<0.05 in MC pigs.

  8. Intramucosal adenocarcinoma of the ileum originated 40 years after ileosigmoidostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameshima Shinichi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small bowel adenocarcinomas (SBAs are rare carcinomas. They are asymptomatic and usually neither endoscopy nor contrast studies are performed for screening Case presentation A 72-year-old Japanese male had a positive fecal occult blood test at a regular check-up in 2006. He suffered appendicitis and received an ileosigmoidostomy in 1966. A colonoscopy revealed an irregular mucosal lesion with an unclear margin at the ileum side of the anastomosis. A mucosal biopsy specimen showed adenocarcinoma histopathologically. Excision of the anastomosis was performed for this patient. The resected specimen showed a flat mucosal lesion with a slight depression at the ileum adjacent to the anastomosis. Histological examination revealed a well differentiated intramucosal adenocarcinoma (adenocarcinoma in situ. Immunohistological staining demonstrated the overexpression of p53 protein in the adenocarcinoma. Conclusion Adenocarcinoma of the ileum at such an early stage is a very rare event. In this case, there is a possibility that the ileosigmoidostomy resulted in a back flow of colonic stool to the ileum that caused the carcinogenesis of the small intestine.

  9. Diverticulitis of multiple diverticulosis of the terminal ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Diverticulosis of the terminal ileum is very rare. We report a case of diverticulitis of multiple diverticula of the terminal ileum. A 67-year-old Japanese woman consulted to our hospital because of abdominal pain and melena. A blood laboratory revealed severe anemia increased CRP (11.21 mg/dl). The upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopic examination revealed no significant changes. The colon was free from diverticulum. CT demonstrated two tumors in the small intestine. PET identified a few shadows identical to the tumors detected by CT. The clinical diagnosis was small intestinal tumors, particularly malignant lymphoma. Operation was performed, and it revealed multiple tumor-like masses in the terminal ileum. The ulcers are deep and appeared diverticula. Microscopically, the diverticula were located in the proper muscle and subserosa. The walls of the diverticula were composed of granulation tissue with heavy lymphocytic and neutrophilic infiltration. Diverticular mucosal walls were recognized in some areas. The lymphocytes were free from atypia, and no features of malignant lymphoma were recognized. The pathological diagnosis was severe diverticulitis of multiple diverticula in the terminal ileum.

  10. Effect of isoorientin isolated from Arum palaestinum on uterine smooth muscle of rats and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, F U; Khalil, E; Abdalla, S

    1999-05-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Arum palaestinum resulted in the isolation of two flavone C-glucosides, namely isoorientin (luteolin 6-C-glucoside) and vitexin (apigenin 8-C glucoside). The effects of isoorientin on rat isolated aorta, ileum, trachea and uterus and on guinea-pig uterus were studied. Isoorientin (10(-7)M-6 x 10(-4)M) caused concentration-dependent inhibition of the amplitude and the frequency of the phasic contractions of the rat and guinea-pig uterus but did not affect the isolated aorta, ileum or trachea. The results were discussed in relation to the effects of its aglycone luteolin reported in the literature.

  11. Extensive projections of myenteric serotonergic neurons suggest they comprise the central processing unit in the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, T; Barton, M J; Hennig, G W; Birch, G C; Grainger, N; Corrigan, R D; Koh, S D; Sanders, K M; Smith, T K

    2014-04-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) is an important regulator of colonic motility and secretion; yet the role of serotonergic neurons in the colon is controversial. We used immunohistochemical techniques to examine their projections throughout the enteric nervous system and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) networks in the murine proximal to mid colon. Serotonergic neurons, which were mainly calbindin positive, occurred only in myenteric ganglia (1 per 3 ganglia). They were larger than nNOS neurons but similar in size to Dogiel Type II (AH) neurons. 5-HT neurons, appeared to make numerous varicose contacts with each other, most nNOS neurons, Dogiel Type II/AH neurons and glial cells. 5-HT, calbindin and nNOS nerve fibers also formed a thin perimuscular nerve plexus that was associated with ganglia, which contained both nNOS positive and negative neurons, which lay directly upon the submucosal pacemaker ICC network. Neurons in perimuscular ganglia were surrounded by 5-HT varicosities. Submucous ganglia contained nNOS positive and negative neurons, and calbindin positive neurons, which also appeared richly supplied by serotonergic nerve varicosities. Serotonergic nerve fibers ran along submucosal arterioles, but not veins. Varicosities of serotonergic nerve fibers were closely associated with pacemaker ICC networks and with intramuscular ICC (ICC-IM). 5-HT2B receptors were found on a subpopulation of non-5-HT containing myenteric neurons and their varicosities, pacemaker ICC-MY and ICC-IM. Myenteric serotonergic neurons, whose axons exhibit considerable divergence, regulate the entire enteric nervous system and are important in coordinating motility with secretion. They are not just interneurons, as regularly assumed, but possibly also motor neurons to ICC and blood vessels, and some may even be sensory neurons. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. ChAT and NOS in human myenteric neurons: co-existence and co-absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Martin; Schlabrakowski, Anne; Schrödl, Falk; Neuhuber, Winfried; Brehmer, Axel

    2009-10-01

    Most myenteric neurons contain one of the two generating enzymes for major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters: choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Two minor groups of myenteric neurons contain either both enzymes or neither. Our study had two aims: (1) to compare the proportions of neurons stained for ChAT and/or NOS in human small and large intestinal whole-mounts by co-staining with an antibody against the human neuronal protein Hu C/D (HU); (2) to characterize these neurons morphologically by co-staining with a neurofilament (NF) antibody. In small intestinal whole-mounts co-stained with HU, we counted more ChAT-positive (ChAT+) than NOS+ neurons (52% vs. 38%), whereas the large intestine exhibited fewer ChAT+ than NOS+ neurons (38% vs. 50%). Neurons co-reactive for both ChAT and NOS accounted for about 3% in both regions, whereas neurons negative for both enzymes accounted for 7% in the small intestine and 8% in the large intestine. Co-staining with NF revealed that, in both small and large intestine, ChAT+/NOS+ neurons were either spiny (type I) neurons or displayed smaller perikarya that were weakly or not NF-stained. Of all spiny neurons, almost one third was co-reactive for ChAT and NOS, whereas nearly two thirds were positive only for NOS. Neurons negative for both ChAT and NOS were heterogeneous in size and NF reactivity. Thus, neither the co-existence nor the co-absence of ChAT and NOS in human myenteric neurons is indicative for particular neuron types, with several qualitative and quantitative parameters showing a wide range of interindividual variability.

  13. Activation of Myenteric Glia during Acute Inflammation In Vitro and In Vivo.

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    Corinna Rosenbaum

    Full Text Available Enteric glial cells (EGCs are the main constituent of the enteric nervous system and share similarities with astrocytes from the central nervous system including their reactivity to an inflammatory microenvironment. Previous studies on EGC pathophysiology have specifically focused on mucosal glia activation and its contribution to mucosal inflammatory processes observed in the gut of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients. In contrast knowledge is scarce on intestinal inflammation not locally restricted to the mucosa but systemically affecting the intestine and its effect on the overall EGC network.In this study, we analyzed the biological effects of a systemic LPS-induced hyperinflammatory insult on overall EGCs in a rat model in vivo, mimicking the clinical situation of systemic inflammation response syndrome (SIRS. Tissues from small and large intestine were removed 4 hours after systemic LPS-injection and analyzed on transcript and protein level. Laser capture microdissection was performed to study plexus-specific gene expression alterations. Upon systemic LPS-injection in vivo we observed a rapid and dramatic activation of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP-expressing glia on mRNA level, locally restricted to the myenteric plexus. To study the specific role of the GFAP subpopulation, we established flow cytometry-purified primary glial cell cultures from GFAP promotor-driven EGFP reporter mice. After LPS stimulation, we analyzed cytokine secretion and global gene expression profiles, which were finally implemented in a bioinformatic comparative transcriptome analysis. Enriched GFAP+ glial cells cultured as gliospheres secreted increased levels of prominent inflammatory cytokines upon LPS stimulation. Additionally, a shift in myenteric glial gene expression profile was induced that predominantly affected genes associated with immune response.Our findings identify the myenteric GFAP-expressing glial subpopulation as particularly

  14. Effect of caloric restriction on myenteric neuroplasticity in the rat duodenum during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Porto, Gisele; Bertaglia Pereira, Joice Naiara; Tibúrcio, Vanessa Graciele; Stabille, Sandra Regina; Garcia de Faria, Haroldo; de Melo Germano, Ricardo; de Britto Mari, Renata

    2012-05-21

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of caloric restriction (CR) on myenteric neurons in the duodenum of Wistar rats during aging. Thirty rats were divided into three groups: the C group (six-month-old animals that were fed a normal diet from weaning until six months of age), the SR group (18-month-old animals that were fed a normal diet from weaning until 18 months of age) and the CR group (18-month-old animals that were fed a 30% CR diet after six months of age). After 12 months, the animals were euthanized. Whole-mount preparations of the duodenums were either stained with Giemsa or underwent NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry to determine the general myenteric neuron population and the nitrergic neuron subpopulation (NADPH-d+), respectively. The NADPH-d-negative (NADPH-d-) neuron population was estimated based on the difference between the Giemsa-stained and NADPH-d+ neurons. The neurons were counted, and the cell body areas were measured. Aging was associated with neuronal loss in the SR group, which was minimized by caloric restriction in the CR group. The density (mm(2)) of the Giemsa-stained neurons was higher in the SR group (79.09 ± 6.25) than in the CR (92.37 ± 11.6) and C (111.68 ± 15.26) groups. The density of the NADPH-d+ neurons was higher in the SR group (44.90 ± 5.88) than in the C (35.75 ± 1.6) and RC (39.14 ± 7.02) groups. The density of NADPH-d- neurons was higher in the CR (49.73 ± 12.08) and C (75.64 ± 17.05) groups than in the SR group (33.82 ± 4.5). In the C group, 32% and 68% of the Giemsa-stained myenteric neurons were NADPH-d+ or NADPH-d-, respectively. With aging (SR group), the percentage of nitrergic neurons (56.77%) increased, whereas the percentage of NADPH-d- neurons (43.22%) decreased. In the CR group, the change in the percentage of nitrergic (42.37%) and NADPH-d- (57.62%) neurons was lower. As NADPH-d- neurons will be mostly cholinergic neurons, CR appears to reduce the loss of cholinergic neurons during

  15. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and nitric oxide promote survival of adult rat myenteric neurons in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandgren, Katarina; Lin, Zhong; Svenningsen, Åsa Fex;

    2003-01-01

    of VIP, NO donor, VIP antiserum, or NOS inhibitor. A marked loss of neurons was noted during culturing. VIP and NO significantly promoted neuronal survival. Corroborating this was the finding of an enhanced neuronal cell loss when cultures were grown in the presence of VIP antiserum or NOS inhibitor....... adaptation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether VIP and nitric oxide (NO) influence survival of cultured, dissociated myenteric neurons. Neuronal survival was evaluated after 0, 4, and 8 days in culture. Influence of VIP and NO on neuronal survival was examined after culturing in the presence...

  16. Myenteric denervation in gastric carcinogenesis: differential modulation of nitric oxide and annexin-A1

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the properties of endogenous nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and annexin-A1 (ANXA1) and determined how they can be exploited in the N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric carcinogenesis and myenteric denervation model. Male Wistar rats were treated with MNNG and/or aminoguanidine (AG) for 20 weeks. In another set of experiments, rats with nondenervated and denervated stomachs were treated with MNNG or water for 28 weeks. Fragments of the pyloric region we...

  17. Quantitative study of the myenteric plexus of the stomach of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fregonesi Cristina Elena Prado Teles

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the morphological and quantitative alterations of the myenteric plexus neurons of the stomach of rats with streptozotocin-induced chronic diabetes and compare them to those of non-diabetic animals. Samples from the body of the stomach were used for whole-mount preparations stained with NADH-diaphorase and for histological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin. It was observed that diabetes cause a significant decrease on the number of neurons.

  18. STRUKTUR HISTOLOGI DUODENUM, JEJENUM, DAN ILEUM SAPI BALI

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    Ni Nyoman Werdi Susari

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A study to find out the histological structures of small intestine (ie. duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of bali cattle have been carried out. A total of 20 small intestines were collected from the abattoir at Pesanggaran, Denpasar Bali. Histological examinations were performed on Haematoxyline Eosin stained small intestines slides. The duodenum, jejunum and ileum of the small intestines have four mucosa membranes: i mucosa membrane, ii sub mucosa membrane, iii muscular membrane and, iv serous membrane. The average thickness of mucosa membrane of duodenum, jejunum and ileum was 36,3±13,5 mm; 29,9±3,1 mm; and 38,8±11,9 mm, respectively. Each part has villi with an average length of 27,5±8,3 mm; 20,1±3,7 mm; and 18,5±4,3 mm, respectively. This mucosa membranes consist of single columnar epithelium, muscularis mucosa, and lamina propria. The average thickness of sub mucosa membrane was 47,3±15,3 mm; 10,4±2,6 mm; and 16,9±5,6 mm, respectively. Sub mucosa membrane consisted of connective tissue. The average thickness of muscular membrane was 46,9±8,8 mm; 28,1±5,1 mm; and 62,4±11,3 mm, respectively, which consisted of circular and longitudinal smooth muscle. The average thickness of serous membrane was 19,9±3,1 mm; 11,9 ±3,0 mm; and 12,1±3,6 mm, respectively, which consisted of mainly connective tissue. Goblet cells were seen through all the epithel of small intestines with the highest number seen in the ileum. Specific structure of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum which is Brunner’s glands in the sub mucosa membranes of duodenum, circular plicae in the jejunum and mesenteric gland in the ileum were also observed.

  19. Programming Pig

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  20. Acute diverticulitis of the terminal ileum: ultrasonography and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jewon; Hong, Seong Sook; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Hyun Joo; Chang, Yun Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    We describe a rare case of terminal ileal diverticulitis in a 68-year-old female with a day of history Epub ahead of print of right lower quadrant pain and tenderness, mimicking acute appendicitis. Ultrasonography revealed small sac-like out-pouching lesions with increased echogenicity of surrounding fat in thickened terminal ileum, suggesting inflamed diverticula. We diagnosed terminal ileal diverticulitis primarily by ultrasonography. The diagnosis was confirmed by subsequent computed tomography.

  1. Acute diverticulitis of the terminal ileum: ultrasonography and CT findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewon Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a rare case of terminal ileal diverticulitis in a 68-year-old female with a day of history Epub ahead of print of right lower quadrant pain and tenderness, mimicking acute appendicitis. Ultrasonography revealed small sac-like out-pouching lesions with increased echogenicity of surrounding fat in thickened terminal ileum, suggesting inflamed diverticula. We diagnosed terminal ileal diverticulitis primarily by ultrasonography. The diagnosis was confirmed by subsequent computed tomography.

  2. Myenteric denervation in gastric carcinogenesis: differential modulation of nitric oxide and annexin-A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polli-Lopes, Ana Cláudia; Estofolete, Cássia F; Oliani, Sonia M; Zucoloto, Sérgio; Cunha, Fernando Q; Gil, Cristiane D

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the properties of endogenous nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and annexin-A1 (ANXA1) and determined how they can be exploited in the N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric carcinogenesis and myenteric denervation model. Male Wistar rats were treated with MNNG and/or aminoguanidine (AG) for 20 weeks. In another set of experiments, rats with nondenervated and denervated stomachs were treated with MNNG or water for 28 weeks. Fragments of the pyloric region were processed for histopathology, NOS activity, and immunohistochemistry to explore the activity and expression of constitutive (cNOS) and inducible (iNOS) NO synthase and their relationship with annexin-A1 (ANXA1) expression. NO inhibition by AG increased the percentage of animals with adenocarcinomas (~29%) compared with the untreated MNNG group (~4%). Myenteric denervation did not alter NOS activity. cNOS activity was significantly greater in nondernervated and denervated stomachs with or without lesions (Pactivity (Pactivity in normal stomachs and outside the lesion area was considerably higher than inside it (Pmyenteric denervation. In conclusion, NO protects against the development of gastric adenocarcinomas. The pattern of ANXA1 expression was not associated with NOS activity or expression, suggesting that NO and ANXA1 act in gastric tumors in disparate pathways.

  3. Impaired acetylcholine release from the myenteric plexus of Trichinella-infected rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, S.M.; Blennerhassett, P.A.; Blennerhassett, M.G.; Vermillion, D.L. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-12-01

    We examined the release of acetylcholine (ACh) from jejunal longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus preparations in noninfected control rats and in rats infected 6, 23, or 40 days previously with Trichinella spiralis. ACh release was assessed by preincubating the tissue with ({sup 3}H)choline and measuring the evoked release of tritium. The uptake of {sup 3}H was significantly less in tissue from T. spiralis-infected rats compared with control. In tissues from either infected or control animals, electrical field stimulation (30 V, 0.5 ms, 10 Hz for 1 min), or veratridine (6-30 microM) induced {sup 3}H release that was tetrodotoxin sensitive. Depolarization by KCl (25-75 mM) also caused {sup 3}H release, but this was only partially reduced by tetrodotoxin. Radiochromatographic analysis indicated evoked release of {sup 3}H to be almost entirely ({sup 3}H)ACh. In rats infected 6 days previously with T. spiralis, ({sup 3}H)ACh release induced by KCl, veratridine, and field stimulation were decreased at least 80%. The suppression of ({sup 3}H)ACh release induced by veratridine or KCl was fully reversible after 40 days postinfection, but field-stimulated responses remained approximately 50% of control values. These results indicate that T. spiralis infection in the rat is accompanied by a reversible suppression of ACh release from the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus of the jejunum.

  4. Expression and significance of neuroligins in myenteric cells of Cajal in Hirschsprung's disease.

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    Jian Wang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and significance of neuroligins in myenteric cells of Cajal (ICC-MY in Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR. METHODS: Longitudinal muscle with adherent myenteric plexus (LMMP from surgical excision waste colon of HSCR children were prepared by peeling off the mucous layer, sub-mucosal layer and circular muscle. Neuroligins, c-Kit (c-Kit-immunoreactivity representing ICC and their relationship were assessed by double labeling immunofluorescence staining. ICC-MY were dissociated and cultured from LMMP by enzymolysis method, and were purified and analyzed using a combination of magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS and flow cytometry (FCM. Western-blot analysis was applied to compare and evaluate the expression levels of neuroligins in ICC-MY which were dissociated from different segments of HSCR (ganglionic colonic segment, transitional colonic segment and aganglionic colonic segment. RESULTS: Neuroligins and c-Kit were expressed on the same cells (ICC-MY; ICC-MY were dissociated, cultured and purified. For HSCR, neuroligins were expressed significantly in ICC-MY from ganglionic colonic segments, moderately in those from transitional colonic segments and down-regulated significantly in those from aganglionic colonic segments. CONCLUSIONS: Neuroligins were expressed in ICC-MY of human beings, and the expression varies from different segments of HSCR. This abnormal expression might play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease through affecting the synaptic function of ICC-MY.

  5. Age-dependent variation in innate immune responses to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection in suckling versus weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Thavamathi; Saif, Linda J; Lu, Zhongyan; Jung, Kwonil

    2015-12-15

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an enteric coronaviral infection that causes severe morbidity and mortality in suckling pigs, but less severe disease in older pigs. Consequently, it causes significant economic losses to the pork industry. There are limited studies on the innate immune responses to PED virus (PEDV) in pigs. The aims of our study were to investigate differences in innate immune responses to PEDV infection in suckling and weaned pigs and to examine if disease severity coincides with reduced innate immune responses. Weaned 26-day-old pigs (n=20) and 9-day-old nursing pigs (n=20) were assigned to PEDV inoculated or uninoculated control groups. The pigs were observed daily for clinical signs, virus shedding and were euthanized at post-inoculation days (PIDs) 1 and 5 to assay immune responses. Blood samples were collected at PIDs 1, 3 and 5. The natural killer (NK) cell frequencies, NK cell activities (lysis of target K562 tumor cells in vitro), CD3+CD4+ T cell and CD3+CD8+ T cell frequencies were measured in blood and ileum at PIDs 1 and 5. The PEDV infected suckling pigs showed severe diarrhea and vomiting at PID 1, whereas the PEDV infected weaned pigs showed milder clinical signs starting at PID 3. PEDV infected suckling pigs had significantly higher diarrhea scores, earlier fecal PEDV RNA shedding and significantly higher viremia (viral RNA in serum) compared to weaned pigs. There was no mortality in either infected suckling or infected weaned pigs. The control pigs not inoculated with PEDV did not show any clinical signs and no detectable fecal or serum PEDV RNA. Strikingly, PEDV infected suckling pigs had significantly lower NK cell frequencies, undetectable NK cell activity and lower IFNγ producing NK cells in blood and ileum compared to PEDV infected weaned pigs. Pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles of PEDV infected suckling pigs differed from those of PEDV infected weaned pigs and coincided with onset of fecal PEDV RNA shedding and serum PEDV

  6. Hypertrophy of the neurons in the ileum of rats infected with cysts of Toxoplasma gondii (genotype II = Hipertrofia de neurônios do íleo de ratos infectados com cistos de Toxoplasma gondii (genótipo II

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    Elaine Yae Yamashita Sugauara

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper verified possible alterations caused by a genotype II Toxoplasma gondii strain with respect to the total number and morphometry of the myenteric neurons in the terminal ileum and descending colon of rats. Eight rats were divided into two groups:control (n = 4 and experimental (n = 4. This group was inoculated orally with 20 tissue cysts of T. gondii from a genotype II strain (ME-49. Whole mounted from the terminal ileum and the descending colon were stained with Giemsa. There was not any neuronal losson both organs. The neurons became hypertrophied in the terminal ileum, whereas morphometric alterations were not observed for the neurons in the descending colon.Objetivou-se verificar as possíveis alterações causadas poruma cepa genótipo II de Toxoplasma gondii, sobre o número total e a morfometria de neurônios do plexo mientérico, do íleo terminal e do cólon descendente de ratos. Oito ratos foram divididos em dois grupos: controle (n = 4 e experimental (n = 4, sendo este inoculado, por via oral, com 20 cistos teciduais de T. gondii de uma cepa genótipo II (ME-49. Preparados totais do íleo terminal e cólon descendente foram corados com Giemsa. Não houve perda neuronal em ambos os órgãos. Os neurônios se tornaram hipertróficos no íleo terminal, enquanto nenhuma alteração morfométrica foi observada nos neurônios do cólon descendente.

  7. Aqueous Extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill Prevents Age-Related Changes in the Myenteric Plexus of the Jejunum in Rats

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    Ana Paula de Santi-Rampazzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of the supplementation with aqueous extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM on biometric and blood parameters and quantitative morphology of the myenteric plexus and jejunal wall in aging Wistar rats. The animals were euthanized at 7 (C7, 12 (C12 and CA12, and 23 months of age (C23 and CA23. The CA12 and CA23 groups received a daily dose of ABM extract (26 mg/animal via gavage, beginning at 7 months of age. A reduction in food intake was observed with aging, with increases in the Lee index, retroperitoneal fat, intestinal length, and levels of total cholesterol and total proteins. Aging led to a reduction of the total wall thickness, mucosa tunic, villus height, crypt depth, and number of goblet cells. In the myenteric plexus, aging quantitatively decreased the population of HuC/D+ neuronal and S100+ glial cells, with maintenance of the nNOS+ nitrergic subpopulation and increase in the cell body area of these populations. Supplementation with the ABM extract preserved the myenteric plexus in old animals, in which no differences were detected in the density and cell body profile of neurons and glial cells in the CA12 and CA23 groups, compared with C7 group. The supplementation with the aqueous extract of ABM efficiently maintained myenteric plexus homeostasis, which positively influenced the physiology and prevented the death of the neurons and glial cells.

  8. Immunoreactivity to cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in the enteric nervous system of the pig and wild boar stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharko-Siembida, A; Arciszewski, M B

    2014-02-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a recently discovered peptide inducing strong anxiogenic-like effect. CART distribution and its role(s) at periphery are not well understood. Immunohistochemisty was utilized to investigate the distribution patterns of CART in the stomach of the pig and wild boar. Double immunohistochemisty was applied to elucidate whether CART-immunoreactive (IR) neuronal elements coexpress galanin, substance P (SP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY). In the pig stomach, different proportions of CART-IR myenteric neurons were found in the antrum (42.3 ± 3.5%), corpus (18.0 ± 1.9%) and pylorus (33.2 ± 3.0%). CART-IR myeneric neurons were also found in the antrum, corpus and pylorus of the wild boar stomach (41.7 ± 3.2, 36.0 ± 2.2 and 35.8 ± 3.5%; respectively). In both species, none of gastric submucous neurons were CART-IR; however, CART-IR nerve fibres encircled submucous perikarya. In all portions of the pig and wild boar stomach, CART-IR nerve fibres were frequently found in the smooth muscle layer as well as in the lamina muscularis mucosae. In all regions of the pig and wild boar stomach, the expression of galanin and SP was found in CART-IR myenteric neurons and smooth muscle-supplying nerve fibres. CART/NPY coexpression was not found in the porcine stomach; however, in different regions of the wild boar stomach, subpopulations of CART-IR/NPY-IR myenteric neurons were noted. In conclusion, in this study, the existence and distribution patterns of CART in discrete regions of the pig and wild boar stomach were described in details. Colocalization studies revealed that in both animal species, a functional cooperation of CART with several neuropeptides is likely.

  9. Transumbilical laparoscopic treatment of Congenital Infantile Fibrosarcoma of the Ileum

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    G. Scirè

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Congenital-Infantile Fibrosarcoma (CIF is a malignant mesenchymal tumor representing 10-20% of soft-tissue tumors. Complete surgical resection is generally the treatment of choice. The most recurrent cytogenetic abnormality was identified as the traslocation t(12;15(p13:q25, which bears the fusion of Tel gene EVT6 with TrkC gene. This study describes a case of infantile fibrosarcoma of the ileum in a female newborn examined for intestinal occlusion and its laparoscopic treatment.

  10. Gastrointestinal motility, prokinetic benzamides and serotonin : a study on the guinea-pig colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briejer, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    The prokinetic substituted benzamides stimulate gastrointestinal motility in animal models and in man. Studies done on the isolated guinea-pig ileum have led to the hypothesis that the benzamides act through facilitation of cholinergic transmission due to stimulation of serotonin4 (5-HT

  11. Gastrointestinal motility, prokinetic benzamides and serotonin - a study on the guinea pig colon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briejer, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    The prokinetic substituted benzamides stimulate gastrointestinal motility in animal models and in man. Studies done on the isolated guinea-pig ileum have led to the hypothesis that the benzamides act through facilitation of cholinergic transmission due to stimulation of serotonin4 (5-HT 4

  12. Myenteric neurons and intestinal mucosa of diabetic rats after ascorbic acid supplementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Priscila de Freitas; Maria Raquel Martal Natali; Renata Virginia Fernandes Pereira; Marcilio Hubner Miranda Nero; Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) dietary supplementation on myenteric neurons and epithelial cell proliferation of the jejunum of adult rats with chronic diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Thirty rats at 90 d of age were divided into three groups: Non-diabetic, diabetic and diabetic treated with AA (DA) (1 g/L). After 120 d of treatment with AA the animals were killed. The myenteric neurons were stained for myosin-V and analyzed quantitatively in an area of 11.2 mm2/animal. We further measured the cellular area of 500 neurons per group. We also determined the metaphasic index (MI) of the jejunum mucosa layer of about 2500 cells in the intestinal crypts, as well as the dimensions of 30 villi and 30 crypts/animal. The data area was analyzed using the Olympus BX40 microscope. RESULTS: There was an increase of 14% in the neuronal density (792.6±46.52 vs 680.6±30.27) and 4.4% in the cellular area (303.4±5.19 vs 291.1 ±6.0) respectively of the diabetic group treated with AA when compared to control diabetic animals. There were no significant differences in MI parameters, villi height or crypt depths among the groups. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with AA in the diabetic animal promoted moderate neuroprotection. There was no observation of alteration of the cellular proliferation of the jejunum mucosa layer of rats with chronic diabetes meilitus with or without supplementation with AA.

  13. Protective effect of melatonin on myenteric neuron damage in experimental colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Boxin; Shi, Haitao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Guo, Xiaoyan; Wang, Nan; Wang, Yan; Dong, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation of the colon in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) causes pain and altered motility, at least in part through the damage of the myenteric neurons (MNs). Thus, it is important to evaluate new drugs for UC treatment that could also protect myenteric neurons efficiently. As a well-known neural protective and anti-inflammatory agent, melatonin could protect neurons from damage through the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and antioxidant responsive element (Nrf2-ARE) signaling pathway. Therefore, we investigated the potential protective effect of melatonin against MN damage during colitis induced by 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) in rats. Colitis was induced by intracolonic (i.c.) instillation of DNBS and treated with melatonin at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg for 4 days. The damage of MN in the left colon was immunohistochemically evaluated in different groups. Ulcerations and inflammation in the colon were semiquantitatively observed. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were detected to evaluate the inflammatory and oxidative stress status. The protein and mRNA expressions of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the colon were detected by Western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), respectively. Melatonin partially prevented the loss of MN and alleviated the inflammation and oxidative stress induced by DNBS. In addition, melatonin markedly increased the Nrf2 and HO-1 level in the colitis. These results indicate that melatonin protects MN from damage by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress, effects that are partly mediated by the Nrf2-ARE pathway. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  14. Ektopiske varicer i den distale ileum som årsag til gastrointestinal blødning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Tine Juhl; Beier-Holgersen, Randi; Bruun, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Varices of the terminal ileum are not a common complication to portal hypertension but we describe a case where a 60-year-old male patient had massive, recurrent intestinal bleeding due to collateral blood supply from umbilical veins to varicose veins of the terminal ileum.......Varices of the terminal ileum are not a common complication to portal hypertension but we describe a case where a 60-year-old male patient had massive, recurrent intestinal bleeding due to collateral blood supply from umbilical veins to varicose veins of the terminal ileum....

  15. Terminal ileum gangrene secondary to a type IV paraesophageal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching Tsai; Hsiao, Po Jen; Chiu, Chih Chien; Chan, Jenq Shyong; Lin, Yee Fung; Lo, Yuan Hung; Hsiao, Chia Jen

    2016-02-28

    Type IV paraesophageal hernia (PEH) is very rare, and is characterized by the intrathoracic herniation of the abdominal viscera other than the stomach into the chest. We describe a 78-year-old woman who presented at our emergency department because of epigastric pain that she had experienced over the past 24 h. On the day after admission, her pain became severe and was accompanied by right chest pain and dyspnea. Chest radiography revealed an intrathoracic intestinal gas bubble occupying the right lower lung field. Emergency explorative laparotomy identified a type IV PEH with herniation of only the terminal ileum through a hiatal defect into the right thoracic cavity. In this report, we also present a review of similar cases in the literature published between 1980 and 2015 in PubMed. There were four published cases of small bowel herniation into the thoracic cavity during this period. Our patient represents a rare case of an individual diagnosed with type IV PEH with incarceration of only the terminal ileum.

  16. Platelet-activating factor in the enteric nervous system of the guinea pig small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Hu, Hong-Zhen; Fang, Xiu-Cai; Liu, Sumei; Gao, Na; Xia, Yun

    2006-11-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a proinflammatory mediator that may influence neuronal activity in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Electrophysiology, immunofluorescence, Western blot analysis, and RT-PCR were used to study the action of PAF and the expression of PAF receptor (PAFR) in the ENS. PAFR immunoreactivity (IR) was expressed by 6.9% of the neurons in the myenteric plexus and 14.5% of the neurons in the submucosal plexus in all segments of the guinea pig intestinal tract as determined by double staining with anti-human neuronal protein antibody. PAFR IR was found in 6.1% of the neurons with IR for calbindin, 35.8% of the neurons with IR for neuropeptide Y (NPY), 30.6% of the neurons with IR for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and 1.96% of the neurons with IR for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the submucosal plexus. PAFR IR was also found in 1.5% of the neurons with IR for calbindin, 51.1% of the neurons with IR for NPY, and 32.9% of the neurons with IR for ChAT in the myenteric plexus. In the submucosal plexus, exposure to PAF (200-600 nM) evoked depolarizing responses (8.2 +/- 3.8 mV) in 12.4% of the neurons with S-type electrophysiological behavior and uniaxonal morphology and in 12.5% of the neurons with AH-type electrophysiological behavior and Dogiel II morphology, whereas in the myenteric preparations, depolarizing responses were elicited by a similar concentration of PAF in 9.5% of the neurons with S-type electrophysiological behavior and uniaxonal morphology and in 12.0% of the neurons with AH-type electrophysiological behavior and Dogiel II morphology. The results suggest that subgroups of secreto- and musculomotor neurons in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses express PAFR. Coexpression of PAFR IR with ChAT IR in the myenteric plexus and ChAT IR and VIP IR in the submucosal plexus suggests that PAF, after release in the inflamed bowel, might act to elevate the excitability of submucosal secretomotor and myenteric musculomotor

  17. Expression of type 1 corticotropin-releasing factor receptor in the guinea pig enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sumei; Gao, Xiang; Gao, Na; Wang, Xiyu; Fang, Xiucai; Hu, Hong-Zhen; Wang, Guo-Du; Xia, Yun; Wood, Jackie D

    2005-01-17

    Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, electrophysiological recording, and intraneuronal injection of the neuronal tracer biocytin were integrated in a study of the functional expression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors in the guinea pig enteric nervous system. RT-PCR revealed expression of CRF1 receptor mRNA, but not CRF2, in both myenteric and submucosal plexuses. Immunoreactivity for the CRF1 receptor was distributed widely in the myenteric plexus of the stomach and small and large intestine and in the submucosal plexus of the small and large intestine. CRF1 receptor immunoreactivity was coexpressed with calbindin, choline acetyltransferase, and substance P in the myenteric plexus. In the submucosal plexus, CRF1 receptor immunoreactivity was found in neurons that expressed calbindin, substance P, choline acetyltransferase, or neuropeptide Y. Application of CRF evoked slowly activating depolarizing responses associated with elevated excitability in both myenteric and submucosal neurons. Histological analysis of biocytin-filled neurons revealed that both uniaxonal neurons with S-type electrophysiological behavior and neurons with AH-type electrophysiological behavior and Dogiel II morphology responded to CRF. The CRF-evoked depolarizing responses were suppressed by the CRF1/CRF2 receptor antagonist astressin and the selective CRF1 receptor antagonist NBI27914 and were unaffected by the selective CRF2 receptor antagonist antisauvagine-30. The findings support the hypothesis that the CRF1 receptor mediates the excitatory actions of CRF on neurons in the enteric nervous system. Actions on enteric neurons might underlie the neural mechanisms by which stress-related release of CRF in the periphery alters intestinal propulsive motor function, mucosal secretion, and barrier functions.

  18. Differential expression of canonical (classical) transient receptor potential channels in guinea pig enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sumei; Qu, Mei-Hua; Ren, Wei; Hu, Hong-Zhen; Gao, Na; Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Fei, Guijun; Zuo, Fei; Xia, Yun; Wood, Jackie D

    2008-12-20

    The canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) family of ion channels is implicated in many neuronal processes including calcium homeostasis, membrane excitability, synaptic transmission, and axon guidance. TRPC channels are postulated to be important in the functional neurobiology of the enteric nervous system (ENS); nevertheless, details for expression in the ENS are lacking. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were used to study the expression and localization of TRPC channels. We found mRNA transcripts, protein on Western blots, and immunoreactivity (IR) for TRPC1/3/4/6 expressed in the small intestinal ENS of adult guinea pigs. TRPC1/3/4/6-IR was localized to distinct subpopulations of enteric neurons and was differentially distributed between the myenteric and submucosal divisions of the ENS. TRPC1-IR was widely distributed and localized to neurons with cholinergic, calretinin, and nitrergic neuronal immunochemical codes in the myenteric plexus. It was localized to both cholinergic and noncholinergic secretomotor neurons in the submucosal plexus. TRPC3-IR was found only in the submucosal plexus and was expressed exclusively by neuropeptide Y-IR neurons. TRPC4/6-IR was expressed in only a small population of myenteric neurons, but was abundantly expressed in the submucosal plexus. TRPC4/6-IR was coexpressed with both cholinergic and nitrergic neurochemical codes in the myenteric plexus. In the submucosal plexus, TRPC4/6-IR was expressed exclusively in noncholinergic secretomotor neurons. No TRPC1/3/4/6-IR was found in calbindin-IR neurons. TRPC3/4/6-IR was widely expressed along varicose nerve fibers and colocalized with synaptophysin-IR at putative neurotransmitter release sites. Our results suggest important roles for TRPC channels in ENS physiology and neuronal regulation of gut function.

  19. Oral Glutamine Supplementation Benefits Jejunum but Not Ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Hardy

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutamine is the primary metabolic fuel of the small intestine. The ability of enteral glutamine to support jejunal architecture and metabolism is well established, but its effect on intestinal absorptive function, especially in the terminal ileum, remains undetermined. The purpose of this study was to develop a functional ileal fluid absorption surgical injury model and to determine if oral glutamine supplementation would be beneficial in accelerating healing and restoring function. The effects of either 1 cm resection and ileal end-to-end anastomosis or sham laparotomy on rat in vivo fluid absorption at study start (day 0, one and two days was investigated. In sham-operated rats, fluid absorption was not altered. In contrast, ileal fluid absorption was significantly reduced at days 0 (17.2±4.8 μL/cm/h and 1 (31.4±13.6 μL/cm/h, but returned to normal by day 2 (71.0±6.2 μL/cm/h in anastomosed rats. To examine the effects of glutamine in this model, rats were fed either glutamine (2.4 g/kg/day or an isonitrogenous glycine-supplemented elemental oral diet for five days before their randomization to sham or anastomotic groups. This dose of glutamine reached the ileum and was completely absorbed along the small intestine. Glutamine-fed rats demonstrated no difference in recovery of in vivo ileal fluid absorption, ileal villus morphometric measurements, mg DNA:mg protein ratio, degree of inflammation or glutaminase activity. In contrast, jejunal, but not ileal, villus morphometry, mg DNA:mg protein ratio and glutaminase activity were increased in glutamine-fed ‘not operated’ rats (P<0.01, indicating that the jejunum, but not the ileum, responded to the glutamine-supplemented diet. These studies demonstrate that ileal resection and anastomosis causes transient impairments in in vivo fluid absorption, and oral glutamine supplementation offers a beneficial effect to jejunal, but not ileal, intestinal mucosa. These results suggest

  20. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on the myenteric neurons from the duodenum and cecum of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Peripheral neuropathy is one of the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus and is directly related to gastrointestinal consequences of the disease. Myenteric neurons are affected in some pathological conditions such as diabetic neuropathy. The imbalance between cellular antioxidants and free radicals, leading to an increase in oxidative stress, is considered one of the main factors responsible for neuronal damages in diabetes. Drugs that reduce the oxidative stress may play a significant role in the treatment of neurological complications of diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of L-glutamine supplementation on the myenteric neurons from the cecum and duodenum of Wistar rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. METHODS: The animals were divided in four groups (n = 5: non-treated normoglycemics, normoglycemics treated with L-glutamine, non-treated diabetics and diabetics treated with L-glutamine from the 4th day of diabetes induction on. The amino acid L-glutamine was added to their diet at 1%. Giemsa's technique was employed to stain the myenteric neurons. We determined the cell body area of 500 neurons in each group studied. The quantitative analysis was performed by sampling in an area of 16.6 mm² in the cecum and 3.6 mm² in the duodenum of each animal. RESULTS: After the supplementation with L-glutamine in the duodenum, we observed a preservation of neuronal density in groups normoglycemic and diabetic (P<0.05. We also observed a preservation of the cell bodies area in diabetic animals (group treated with L-glutamine (P<0.05. In the cecum, that preservation was not evident. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with L-glutamine (1% promoted a neuroprotective effect on the myenteric neurons from the duodenum of rats, both in terms of natural aging and of diabetes mellitus.

  1. Segmental dilatation of the ileum in a healthy adolescent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Akash D.; Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Brill, Paula W. [New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Cornell Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Beneck, Debra [New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Cornell Medical Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Spigland, Nitsana [New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Cornell Medical Center, Department of Surgery, New York, NY (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Segmental intestinal dilatation is a rare entity presenting overwhelmingly in infants and young children with congenital malformations, anemia, or history of gastrointestinal pathology, characterized by a focally distended segment of bowel with abrupt transition points without an obstructing barrier. We present a 16-year-old girl with no significant medical history who presented with bowel obstruction clinically. Segmental dilatation of the ileum was evident on a CT scan and small bowel series. Following surgical resection, pathologic examination of the segment revealed the presence of heterotopic gastric mucosa. The girl's symptoms resolved after surgery. Awareness of the imaging presentation of this entity can inform the evaluation of older children with nonspecific symptoms mimicking bowel obstruction. (orig.)

  2. Endoscopic Skipping of the Terminal Ileum in Pediatric Crohn Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuri, Ishrat; Fletcher, Joel G; Bruining, David H; Kolbe, Amy B; Fidler, Jeff L; Samuel, Sunil; Tung, Jeanne

    2017-06-01

    Pediatric small-bowel (SB) Crohn disease (CD) may be missed if the terminal ileum (TI) appears normal at endoscopy and SB imaging is not performed. We sought to estimate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of pediatric patients with CD and endoscopic skipping of the TI-that is, pediatric patients with active SB or upper gut inflammation and an endoscopically normal TI. This retrospective study included pediatric patients with CD who underwent both CT enterography (CTE) or MR enterography (MRE) and ileocolonoscopy within a 30-day period between July 2004 and April 2014. The physician global assessment was used as the reference standard for SB CD activity. Radiologists reviewed the CTE and MRE studies for inflammatory parameters; severity, length, and multifocality of SB inflammation; and the presence of penetrating complications. Of 170 patients who underwent ileal intubation, the TI was macroscopically normal or showed nonspecific inflammation in 73 patients (43%). Nearly half (36/73, 49%) of the patients with normal or nonspecific findings at ileocolonoscopy had radiologically active disease with a median length of SB involvement of 20 cm (range, 1 to > 100 cm). Seventeen (47%) of these patients had multifocal SB involvement and five (14%) had penetrating complications. Overall, endoscopic TI skipping was present in 43 (59%) patients with normal or nonspecific ileocolonoscopic findings: 20 with histologic inflammation (17 with positive imaging findings), 14 with inflammation at imaging only, and nine with proximal disease (upper gut, jejunum, or proximal ileum). There were no significant differences in the clinical parameters of the patients with and those without endoscopic TI skipping. Ileocolonoscopy may miss SB CD in pediatric patients that is due to isolated histologic, intramural, or proximal inflammation. Enterography is complementary to ileocolonoscopy in the evaluation of pediatric CD.

  3. Effects of hispidulin, a flavone isolated from Inula viscosa, on isolated guinea-pig smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, S; Abu-Zarga, M; Afifi, F; Al-Khalil, S; Sabri, S

    1988-01-01

    1. In small concentrations (10(-7)-3 X 10(-6) M), hispidulin caused concentration-dependent contraction of isolated guinea-pig ileum and only mild relaxation of guinea-pig tracheal rings. 2. Larger concentrations (up to 3 X 10(-4) M) caused concentration-dependent relaxation of the ileum and the trachea. All the effects on the ileum and the trachea are reversible upon removal of the compound. 3. In concentrations from 10(-7) to 3 X 10(-4) M, hispidulin had no effect on the tone of the epinephrine-contracted rings of the guinea-pig main pulmonary artery. 4. Hispidulin caused a shift to the right of the acetylcholine concentration-effect curves on ileum and trachea and significantly inhibited the maximum contractions induced by acetylcholine. 5. In Ca2+-free, depolarizing solution, hispidulin caused both a shift to the right, and an inhibition of the maximum contractions, of the CaCl2 concentration-effect curves on ileum, trachea and pulmonary artery. 6. In Ca2+-free, EGTA-containing solution, hispidulin caused concentration-dependent inhibition of the contractions induced in the pulmonary artery by epinephrine and in the ileum by histamine. 7. These observations suggest that hispidulin may interfere with Ca2+ binding to the Ca2+-receptor protein(s) in the smooth muscle cell and/or with the agonist-induced Ca2+-release from intracellular stores. Less likely, hispidulin may interfere with Ca2+ influx through smooth muscle cell membrane.

  4. Myenteric neuronal plasticity induced by Toxoplasma gondii (genotype III on the duodenum of rats

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    Rodrigo M. Papazian-Cabanas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acute and chronic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii on duodenal myenteric neurons were analyzed. Eighteen rats were assigned into four groups: Acute Control Group (ACG, n=4; Acute Experimental Group (AEG, n=4; Chronic Control Group (CCG, n=5; and Chronic Experimental Group (CEG, n=5. Rats from the AEG and CEG were inoculated orally with 105 genotype III (BTU-II strain tachyzoites of T. gondii isolated from a dog with neurological signs. Acute groups were killed after 24 hours after the inoculation and the chronic groups after 30 days. Whole-mount from the duodenum were stained with Giemsa. The population density of myenteric neurons, as well the body cell, nuclear and cytoplasmic area were analyzed. Both acute and chronic toxoplasmic infection did not provoke neuronal loss. On the other hand, plastic alterations were observed: decreasing of the nuclear and cytoplasmic area during the acute phase and neuronal hypertrophy during the chronic phase.Foram analisados os efeitos da infecção aguda e crônica provocada pelo Toxoplasma gondii sobre os neurônios mientéricos do duodeno. Dezoito ratos foram divididos em quatro grupos: Grupo Controle Agudo (GCA, n= 4, Grupo Experimental Agudo (GEA, n=4, Grupo Controle Crônico (GCC, n=5 e Grupo Experimental Crônico (GEC, n=5. Os animais do GEA e GEC receberam por via oral 10 5 taquizoítos de Toxoplasma gondii da cepa BTUII (genótipo III isolada de um cão com sintomatologia neurológica. Os grupos agudos foram submetidos à eutanásia após 24 horas e os crônicos após 30 dias da inoculação. Preparados totais do duodeno foram corados com Giemsa. A densidade populacional dos neurônios mientéricos, bem como a área do corpo celular, núcleo e citoplasma foram analisados. Ambas, as infecções toxoplásmicas aguda e crônica não provocaram a perda neuronal. Por outro lado, alterações plásticas foram observadas: diminuição da área nuclear e citoplasmática durante a fase

  5. Zinc Transporter 3 (ZnT3) in the Enteric Nervous System of the Porcine Ileum in Physiological Conditions and during Experimental Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonkowski, Sławomir; Rowniak, Maciej; Wojtkiewicz, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) is a member of the solute-linked carrier 30 (SLC 30) zinc transporter family. It is closely linked to the nervous system, where it takes part in the transport of zinc ions from the cytoplasm to the synaptic vesicles. ZnT3 has also been observed in the enteric nervous system (ENS), but its reactions in response to pathological factors remain unknown. This study, based on the triple immunofluorescence technique, describes changes in ZnT3-like immunoreactive (ZnT3-LI) enteric neurons in the porcine ileum, caused by chemically-induced inflammation. The inflammatory process led to a clear increase in the percentage of neurons immunoreactive to ZnT3 in all “kinds” of intramural enteric plexuses, i.e., myenteric (MP), outer submucous (OSP) and inner submucous (ISP) plexuses. Moreover, a wide range of other active substances was noted in ZnT3-LI neurons under physiological and pathological conditions, and changes in neurochemical characterisation of ZnT3+ cells in response to inflammation depended on the “kind” of enteric plexus. The obtained results show that ZnT3 is present in the ENS in a relatively numerous and diversified neuronal population, not only in physiological conditions, but also during inflammation. The reasons for the observed changes are not clear; they may be connected with the functions of zinc ions and their homeostasis disturbances in pathological processes. On the other hand, they may be due to adaptive and/or neuroprotective processes within the pathologically altered gastrointestinal tract. PMID:28178198

  6. Zinc Transporter 3 (ZnT3 in the Enteric Nervous System of the Porcine Ileum in Physiological Conditions and during Experimental Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Gonkowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3 is a member of the solute-linked carrier 30 (SLC 30 zinc transporter family. It is closely linked to the nervous system, where it takes part in the transport of zinc ions from the cytoplasm to the synaptic vesicles. ZnT3 has also been observed in the enteric nervous system (ENS, but its reactions in response to pathological factors remain unknown. This study, based on the triple immunofluorescence technique, describes changes in ZnT3-like immunoreactive (ZnT3-LI enteric neurons in the porcine ileum, caused by chemically-induced inflammation. The inflammatory process led to a clear increase in the percentage of neurons immunoreactive to ZnT3 in all “kinds” of intramural enteric plexuses, i.e., myenteric (MP, outer submucous (OSP and inner submucous (ISP plexuses. Moreover, a wide range of other active substances was noted in ZnT3-LI neurons under physiological and pathological conditions, and changes in neurochemical characterisation of ZnT3+ cells in response to inflammation depended on the “kind” of enteric plexus. The obtained results show that ZnT3 is present in the ENS in a relatively numerous and diversified neuronal population, not only in physiological conditions, but also during inflammation. The reasons for the observed changes are not clear; they may be connected with the functions of zinc ions and their homeostasis disturbances in pathological processes. On the other hand, they may be due to adaptive and/or neuroprotective processes within the pathologically altered gastrointestinal tract.

  7. EFFECTS OF METHYLNALTREXONE ON GUINEA PIG GASTROINTESTINAL MOTILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Laura; Huynh, Jennifer; Vegezzi, Gaia; Sternini, Catia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of methylnaltrexone (MNTX), a peripherally acting μ opioid receptor (μOR) antagonist, on gastrointestinal (GI) motility in naïve vs. opiate-chronically treated guinea pigs in vitro and in vivo. We have used the electrically stimulated muscle twitch contractions of longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus (LMMP) preparations and total GI transit as measure of GI motility. In LMMP preparations of naïve guinea pigs, MNTX (1–30 μM) induced a significant, dose-response reduction of morphine-induced inhibition of electrically stimulated muscle twitch contractions, with an IC50 of 9.4 10−8M. By contrast, MNTX abolished the inhibitory effect of acute morphine at any concentration tested (1–30 μM) in the guinea pigs chronically treated with opiates. In vivo, MNTX (10–50 mg s.c.) did not affect GI transit in naïve guinea pigs when administered acutely or for 5 consecutive days, but reversed the GI transit delay induced by chronic morphine treatment. These findings show that MNTX is effective in reversing opiate-induced inhibition of GI motility acting at peripheral μORs, but does not exert a pharmacologic effect on GI transit in the absence of opiate stimulation. PMID:23361094

  8. Ligand and electrically induced acitivation patterns in myenteric neuronal networks. Confocal calcium imaging as a bridge between basic and human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschops, R

    2008-01-01

    Confocal imaging in combination with fluorescent calcium indicators provides the possibility to study neuronal activation in entire neuronal networks. The experiments presented in this essay aimed at applying confocal calcium imaging to study activation patterns in neuronal networks of myenteric ganglia in situ. First we studied the response to electrical train stimulation (ETS). ETS induced Ca2+ transients in 52.2% and 65.4% of the neurons when applied orally and aborally respectively. We observed more responses during aboral ETS which is not in line with the hypothesis of neuronal polarity, suggesting complex neuronal activation patterns and neuronal interaction in ETS-induced activation in myenteric ganglia. We demonstrated that ghrelin has a direct excitatory effect on myenteric neurons in situ via ghrelin receptor activation. Ghrelin induced Ca2+ transients in one third of the myenteric neurons, involving release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and direct GHS-receptor activation. We found that CRF activates one fifth of the myenteric neurons, via CRF1 receptor activation. These CRF induced Ca2+ signals involved somatic influx through (mainly R-type) voltage operated Ca2+ channels. Finally we set up human studies in healthy volunteers and dyspeptic patients to test the effect of ghrelin on gastrointestinal motility. Intravenous administration of ghrelin induced a premature phase 3 activity front that originated in the stomach and an increase in gastric tone. Ghrelin decreased gastric emptying time for fluids and reduced symptom scores for fullness and pain. These studies provide further evidence for a role of ghrelin in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, and possibly provide new therapeutic approaches. Our studies show that confocal calcium imaging allows to assess neuronal activation of myenteric neurons. The influence of new hormones or new pharmaceutical compounds on the myenteric plexus can hereby be easily assessed.

  9. Chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids from blue mussel, starfish, and fish silage in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jens Vinther; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf; Tørring, Ditte Bruunshøj

    2015-01-01

    fish silage from farmed salmon was also included in theexperiment. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids(AA) was evaluated in a Latin square design with pigs (initial weight 39.3 kg) fitted with asimple T-cannula in the terminal ileum. Diets contained 131...

  10. Myenteric plexus is differentially affected by infection with distinct Trypanosoma cruzi strains in Beagle dogs

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    Nívia Carolina Nogueira-Paiva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chagasic megaoesophagus and megacolon are characterised by motor abnormalities related to enteric nervous system lesions and their development seems to be related to geographic distribution of distinct Trypanosoma cruzi subpopulations. Beagle dogs were infected with Y or Berenice-78 (Be-78 T. cruzi strains and necropsied during the acute or chronic phase of experimental disease for post mortem histopathological evaluation of the oesophagus and colon. Both strains infected the oesophagus and colon and caused an inflammatory response during the acute phase. In the chronic phase, inflammatory process was observed exclusively in the Be-78 infected animals, possibly due to a parasitism persistent only in this group. Myenteric denervation occurred during the acute phase of infection for both strains, but persisted chronically only in Be-78 infected animals. Glial cell involvement occurred earlier in animals infected with the Y strain, while animals infected with the Be-78 strain showed reduced glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive area of enteric glial cells in the chronic phase. These results suggest that although both strains cause lesions in the digestive tract, the Y strain is associated with early control of the lesion, while the Be-78 strain results in progressive gut lesions in this model.

  11. Gut region-dependent alterations of nitrergic myenteric neurons after chronic alcohol consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mária; Bagyánszki; Nikolett; Bódi

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse damages nearly every organ in the body. The harmful effects of ethanol on thebrain, the liver and the pancreas are well documented. Although chronic alcohol consumption causes serious impairments also in the gastrointestinal tract like altered motility, mucosal damage, impaired absorption of nu-trients and inflammation, the effects of chronically consumed ethanol on the enteric nervous system are less detailed. While the nitrergic myenteric neurons play an essential role in the regulation of gastrointestinal peristalsis, it was hypothesised, that these neurons are the first targets of consumed ethanol or its metabolites generated in the different gastrointestinal segments. To reinforce this hypothesis the effects of ethanol on the gastrointestinal tract was investigated in different rodent models with quantitative immunohistochemistry, in vivo and in vitro motility measurements, western blot analysis, evaluation of nitric oxide synthase enzyme activity and bio-imaging of nitric oxide synthesis. These results suggest that chronic alcohol consumption did not result significant neural loss, but primarily impaired the nitrergic pathways in gut region-dependent way leading to disturbed gastrointestinal motility. The gut segment-specific differences in the effects of chronic alcohol consumption highlight the significance the ethanol-induced neuronal microenvironment involving oxidative stress and intestinal microbiota.

  12. Intravenous AAV9 efficiently transduces myenteric neurons in neonate and juvenile mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombash, Sara E; Cowley, Christopher J; Fitzgerald, Julie A; Hall, Jodie C E; Mueller, Christian; Christofi, Fedias L; Foust, Kevin D

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapies for neurological diseases with autonomic or gastrointestinal involvement may require global gene expression. Gastrointestinal complications are often associated with Parkinson's disease and autism. Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's brains, are routinely identified in the neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS) following colon biopsies from patients. The ENS is the intrinsic nervous system of the gut, and is responsible for coordinating the secretory and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract. ENS dysfunction can cause severe patient discomfort, malnourishment, or even death as in intestinal pseudo-obstruction (Ogilvie syndrome). Importantly, ENS transduction following systemic vector administration has not been thoroughly evaluated. Here we show that systemic injection of AAV9 into neonate or juvenile mice results in transduction of 25-57% of ENS myenteric neurons. Transgene expression was prominent in choline acetyltransferase positive cells, but not within vasoactive intestinal peptide or neuronal nitric oxide synthase cells, suggesting a bias for cells involved in excitatory signaling. AAV9 transduction in enteric glia is very low compared to CNS astrocytes. Enteric glial transduction was enhanced by using a glial specific promoter. Furthermore, we show that AAV8 results in comparable transduction in neonatal mice to AAV9 though AAV1, 5, and 6 are less efficient. These data demonstrate that systemic AAV9 has high affinity for peripheral neural tissue and is useful for future therapeutic development and basic studies of the ENS.

  13. The investigation of radiation enteritis, especially ileum injuries treated surgically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Masanari; Watanabe, Satoshi; Honda, Ichiro; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yano, Yoshimasa; Hatano, Kazuo [Chiba Cancer Center Hospital (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been widely used as one of several therapies for malignant disease of the lower abdomen. However, radiation enteritis was a severe side effect, and it was very difficult to treat and care. We report the cases of radiation enteritis that we encountered, especially ileum injuries. There were 27 regions in 23 patients: 10 obstipation, 8 fistula 6 perforation, 2 obstipation and perforation, 1 obstipation and fistula to urinary tract, and 1 perforation and bleeding of sigmoid colon. We treated these by combined bypass, resection of the bowels, external fistula, and others. Radiation enteritis is considered a progressive and irreversible disease, and many patients would experience recurrences over their lifetime, and in some cases would need multiple operations. The leakage and the short bowel after resection were severe problems, and in addition, we found that the abdominal wall was one of the difficult problems to treat and care, such as many external fistula and hardening of abdominal wall after polysurgery and radiation therapy. (author)

  14. Neuroprotective Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy in Acute Stages of TNBS-Induced Colitis in Guinea-Pigs.

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    Ainsley M Robinson

    Full Text Available The therapeutic benefits of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, such as homing ability, multipotent differentiation capacity and secretion of soluble bioactive factors which exert neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, have been attributed to attenuation of autoimmune, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we aimed to determine the earliest time point at which locally administered MSC-based therapies avert enteric neuronal loss and damage associated with intestinal inflammation in the guinea-pig model of colitis.At 3 hours after induction of colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonate (TNBS, guinea-pigs received either human bone marrow-derived MSCs, conditioned medium (CM, or unconditioned medium by enema into the colon. Colon tissues were collected 6, 24 and 72 hours after administration of TNBS. Effects on body weight, gross morphological damage, immune cell infiltration and myenteric neurons were evaluated. RT-PCR, flow cytometry and antibody array kit were used to identify neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors released by MSCs.MSC and CM treatments prevented body weight loss, reduced infiltration of leukocytes into the colon wall and the myenteric plexus, facilitated repair of damaged tissue and nerve fibers, averted myenteric neuronal loss, as well as changes in neuronal subpopulations. The neuroprotective effects of MSC and CM treatments were observed as early as 24 hours after induction of inflammation even though the inflammatory reaction at the level of the myenteric ganglia had not completely subsided. Substantial number of neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors released by MSCs was identified in their secretome.MSC-based therapies applied at the acute stages of TNBS-induced colitis start exerting their neuroprotective effects towards enteric neurons by 24 hours post treatment. The neuroprotective efficacy of MSC-based therapies can be exerted independently to their anti

  15. Temporal relationships exist between cecum, ileum and litter bacterial microbiomes in a commercial turkey flock, and subtherapeutic penicillin treatment impacts ileum bacterial community establishment

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    Jessica L Danzeisen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gut health is paramount for commercial poultry production, and improved methods to assess gut health are critically needed to better understand how the avian gastrointestinal tract matures over time. One important aspect of gut health is the totality of bacterial populations inhabiting different sites of the avian gastrointestinal tract, and associations of these populations with the poultry farm environment, since these bacteria are thought to drive metabolism and prime the developing host immune system. In this study, a single flock of commercial turkeys was followed over the course of twelve weeks to examine bacterial microbiome inhabiting the ceca, ileum, and corresponding poultry litter. Furthermore, the effects of low-dose, growth-promoting penicillin treatment (50 g/ton in feed on the ileum bacterial microbiome were also examined during the early brood period. The cecum and ileum bacterial communities of turkeys were distinct, yet shifted in parallel to one another over time during bird maturation. Corresponding poultry litter was also distinct yet more closely represented the ileal bacterial populations than cecal bacterial populations, and also changed parallel to ileum bacterial populations over time. Penicillin applied at low dose in feed significantly enhanced early weight gain in commercial poults, and this correlated with predictable shifts in the ileum bacterial populations in control versus treatment groups. Overall, this study identified the dynamics of the turkey gastrointestinal microbiome during development, correlations between bacterial populations in the gastrointestinal tract and the litter environment, and the impact of low-dose penicillin on modulation of bacterial communities in the ileum. Such modulations provide a target for alternatives to low-dose antibiotics.

  16. Effects of electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST 36) on neurons in the colonic myenteric plexus in rats with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liting Zhu; Zhonghan Li; Bin Xu; Chen Xia; Jie Cheng; Xiaoren Xiang; Yi Zhu

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST 36) on neurons in the colonic myenteric plexus and on defecation in rats with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). We also used intragastric administration of pinaverium bromide as a positive control treatment to reveal the pathway mediating the onset of IBS-C. Both electroacupuncture and pinaverium bromide greatly improved defecation in rats with IBS-C. Immunohistochemical staining of the enteric nervous system neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 in the colonic myenteric plexus showed that electroacupuncture by itself, or in combination with pinaverium bromide, increased the number of neurons and the staining intensity of protein gene product 9.5 in the colonic myenteric plexus. We conclude that visceral hypersensitivity is likely to be a primary cause of constipation in IBS-C rats.

  17. Selective up-regulation of NMDA-NR1 receptor expression in myenteric plexus after TNBS induced colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Donald D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA spinal cord receptors play an important role in the development of hyperalgesia following inflammation. It is unclear, however, if changes in NMDA subunit receptor gene expression in the colonic myenteric plexus are associated with colonic inflammation. We investigated regulation of NMDA-NR1 receptor gene expression in TNBS induced colitis in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (150 g–250 g were treated with 20 mg trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS diluted in 50% ethanol. The agents were delivered with a 24 gauge catheter inserted into the lumen of the colon. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after induction of the colitis, their descending colon was retrieved for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; a subset of animals' distal colon was used for two-dimensional (2-D western analysis and immunocytochemistry. Results NR1-exon 5 (N1 and NR1-exon 21 (C1 appeared 14, 21 and 28 days after TNBS treatment. NR1 pan mRNA was up-regulated at 14, 21, and 28 days. The NR1-exon 22 (C2 mRNA did not show significant changes. Using 2-D western analysis, untreated control rats were found to express only NR1001 whereas TNBS treated rats expressed NR1001, NR1011, and NR1111. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated NR1-N1 and NR1-C1 to be present in the myenteric plexus of TNBS treated rats. Conclusion These results suggest a role for colonic myenteric plexus NMDA receptors in the development of neuronal plasticity and visceral hypersensitivity in the colon. Up-regulation of NMDA receptor subunits may reflect part of the basis for chronic visceral hypersensitivity in conditions such as post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome.

  18. Characterization of slow waves generated by myenteric interstitial cells of Cajal of the rabbit small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kito, Yoshihiko; Mitsui, Retsu; Ward, Sean M; Sanders, Kenton M

    2015-03-01

    Slow waves (slow wavesICC) were recorded from myenteric interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-MY) in situ in the rabbit small intestine, and their properties were compared with those of mouse small intestine. Rabbit slow wavesICC consisted of an upstroke depolarization followed by a distinct plateau component. Ni(2+) and nominally Ca(2+)-free solutions reduced the rate-of-rise and amplitude of the upstroke depolarization. Replacement of Ca(2+) with Sr(2+) enhanced the upstroke component but decreased the plateau component of rabbit slow wavesICC. In contrast, replacing Ca(2+) with Sr(2+) decreased both components of mouse slow wavesICC. The plateau component of rabbit slow wavesICC was inhibited in low-extracellular-Cl(-)-concentration (low-[Cl(-)]o) solutions and by 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), an inhibitor of Cl(-) channels, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), an inhibitor of internal Ca(2+) pumps, or bumetanide, an inhibitor of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1). Bumetanide also inhibited the plateau component of mouse slow wavesICC. NKCC1-like immunoreactivity was observed mainly in ICC-MY in the rabbit small intestine. Membrane depolarization with a high-K(+) solution reduced the upstroke component of rabbit slow wavesICC. In cells depolarized with elevated external K(+), DIDS, CPA, and bumetanide blocked slow wavesICC. These results suggest that the upstroke component of rabbit slow wavesICC is partially mediated by voltage-dependent Ca(2+) influx, whereas the plateau component is dependent on Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) efflux. NKCC1 is likely to be responsible for Cl(-) accumulation in ICC-MY. The results also suggest that the mechanism of the upstroke component differs in rabbit and mouse slow wavesICC in the small intestine.

  19. Measurements of the contact force from myenteric contractions on a solid bolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Benjamin S; Schoen, Jonathan A; Rentschler, Mark E

    2013-03-01

    The development of robotic capsule endoscopes (RCEs) is one avenue presently investigated by multiple research groups to minimize invasiveness and enhance outcomes of enteroscopic procedures. Understanding the biomechanical response of the small bowel to RCEs is needed for design optimization of these devices. In previous work, the authors developed, characterized, and tested the migrating motor complex force sensor (MFS), a novel sensor for quantifying the contact forces per unit of axial length exerted by the myenteron on a solid bolus. This work is a continuation, in which the MFS is used to quantify the contractile strength in the small intestine proximal, middle, and distal regions of five live porcine models. The MFSs are surgically implanted in a generally anesthetized animal, and force data from 5 min of dwell time are analyzed. The mean myenteric contact force from all porcine models and locations within the bowel is 1.9 ± 1.0 N cm(-1). Examining the results based on the small bowel region shows a statistically significant strengthening trend in the contractile force from proximal to middle to distal with mean forces of 1.2 ± 0.5, 1.9 ± 0.9, and 2.3 ± 1.0 N cm(-1), respectively (mean ± one standard deviation). Quantification of the contact force against a solid bolus provides developers of RCEs with a valuable, experimentally derived parameter of the intraluminal environment.

  20. Intravenous AAV9 Efficiently Transduces Myenteric Neurons in Neonate and Juvenile Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Elizabeth Gombash

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Our recent discovery that adeno-associated virus type 9 (AAV9 can cross the blood brain barrier holds promise for the treatment of global neurological disease. Early studies with AAV9 gene therapy focused on transduction within the brain and spinal cord, but intravenous infusion results in widespread vector dissemination. Therapies for neurological diseases with autonomic or gastrointestinal involvement may require global gene expression. Gastrointestinal complications are often associated with Parkinson’s disease and autism. Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s brains, are routinely identified in the neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS following colon biopsies from patients. The ENS is the intrinsic nervous system of the gut, and is responsible for coordinating the secretory and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract. ENS dysfunction can cause severe patient discomfort, malnourishment, or even death as in intestinal pseudo-obstruction (Ogilvie syndrome. Importantly, ENS transduction following systemic vector administration has not been thoroughly evaluated. Here we show that systemic injection of AAV9 into neonate or juvenile mice results in transduction of 25-57% of ENS myenteric neurons. Transgene expression was prominent in choline acetyltransferase positive cells, but not within vasoactive intestinal peptide or neuronal nitric oxide synthase cells, suggesting a bias for cells involved in excitatory signaling. AAV9 transduction in enteric glia is very low compared to CNS astrocytes. Enteric glial transduction was enhanced by using a glial specific promoter. Furthermore, we show that AAV8 results in comparable transduction to AAV9 though AAV1, 5 and 6 are less efficient. These data demonstrate that systemic AAV9 has high affinity for peripheral neural tissue and is useful for future therapeutic development and basic studies of the ENS. Transduction patterns for neurons and glia may differ between ENS and CNS.

  1. Assessment of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of Rosa persica Mich. flower on rat ileum spasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Jalali, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that Rosa damascena hydroalcoholic extract has inhibitory effect at higher concentration but stimulatory action at lower concentrations on ileum. This could be due to the presence of stimulatory components in the extract. R. persica Mich. is another species which belongs to Rose family but so far there is no report about pharmacological action of its extract. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate inhibitory effect of hydroalcoholic and hexane extract of this plant on ileum contraction to see which type of extract would be more appropriate as antispasmodic agents. Hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts were prepared by percolation method. A section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. Effects of R. persica extracts or vehicle were studied on ileum contractions induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl or acetylcholine (ACh) and compared with that of atropine. Hydroalcoholic extracts of R. persica (10-640 μg/ml) concentration dependently inhibited ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50 = 244 ± 35 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 129 ± 7.4 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 172 ± 18.7 μg/ml). Hexane extract of R. persica (10-320 μg/ml) concentration dependently inhibited ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50 = 117 ± 12.4 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 78 ± 9.1 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 67 ± 10.5 μg/ml). Atropine only inhibited the responses to ACh and EFS. The vehicle had no significant effect on ileum contractions. From this experiment it was concluded that R. persica extract have inhibitory effect on rat isolated ileum. Therefore, separation and identification of active component is recommended.

  2. [Repeated plasty of the esophagus in children with the application of transplant from the ileum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A P; Nabokov, V V; Miroshnikov, B I; Galkina, N V

    2012-01-01

    The authors give topographic-anatomical substantiation of a possibility to employ the ileum for esophageal replacement and describe a technique of forming such transplant. Their clinical experience includes 9 operated children. Earlier they had endured from 1 to 4 attempts of esophageal replacements by different traditional methods. In all children operated upon good results were obtained. It allows the ileum to be included in the arsenal of possible methods of esophageal replacement and considering it as an alternate variant in nonstandard situations.

  3. Immunohistochemical localization of galanin receptors (GAL-R1, GAL-R2, and GAL-R3) on myenteric neurons from the sheep and dog stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciszewski, Marcin Bartłomiej; Barabasz, Sylwester; Całka, Jarosław

    2008-01-01

    Galanin exerts its biological activities (inhibitory or excitatory) via three different G protein-coupled receptors. In the present study, double immunocytochemical labeling was used to localize GAL-R1, GAL-R2 and GAL-R3 on PGP 9.5-positive myenteric neurons from the dog and sheep stomach/forestomachs. In both species, the occurrence of galanin in neurons and nerve fibers of gastric ganglia was also studied. Myenteric ganglia of the dog stomach were supplied with numerous, mainly varicose, galanin-immunoreactive (IR) nerve terminals whereas the frequency of galanin-positive nerve fibers in myenteric ganglia of the ovine stomach and forestomachs was moderate. The number of PGP 9.5-IR/galanin-IR myenteric neurons was significantly lower in the dog stomach (12.3+/-1.3%) as compared to the sheep rumen (20.1+/-0.7%), omasum (19.5+/-2.9%), abomasum (23.8+/-1.2%) but not reticulum (8.1+/-0.8%). In the canine stomach the frequencies of GAL-R1, GAL-R2 and GAL-R3 expressing myenteric neurons were statistically equivalent (4.4+/-0.9%, 3.5+/-0.7% and 3.1+/-0.5%, respectively). Immunoreactivity to GAL-R1 was absent in myenteric ganglia from the ovine rumen, reticulum as well as omasum. GAL-R1 was localized on 0.5+/-0.3% of myenteric perikarya from the abomasum. GAL-R2 bearing myenteric neurons were localized in the ovine rumen (0.6+/-0.3%), reticulum (0.5+/-0.3%), omasum (1.0+/-0.2%) and abomasum (1.1+/-0.3%). The percentages of PGP 9.5-IR/GAL-R3-IR neurons were 0.8+/-0.2% in the rumen, 0.6+/-0.3% in the reticulum, 0.7+/-0.2% in the omasum and 0.9+/-0.3% in the abomasum. In all compartments of the sheep stomach, the proportions of GAL-R1, GAL-R2 and GAL-R3 expressing neurons were significantly lower when compared to analogous neuronal subpopulations present in the dog. It is suggested that, although endogenous galanin may potentially inhibit or stimulate the activity of sparse gastric enteric neurons, its general role in indirect mediation of gastric motility and/or secretion

  4. Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors and H2 Receptor Antagonists on the Ileum Motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs and H2 receptor antagonists on ileum motility in rats with peritonitis and compare changes with control group rats. Methods. Peritonitis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture in 8 rats. Another of 8 rats underwent a sham operation and were accepted as controls. Twenty-four hours later after the operation, the rats were killed, and their ileum smooth muscle was excised and placed in circular muscle direction in a 10 mL organ bath. Changes in amplitude and frequency of contractions were analyzed before and after PPIs and H2 receptor blockers. Results. PPI agents decreased the motility in a dose-dependent manner in ileum in both control and intraabdominal sepsis groups. While famotidine had no significant effect on ileum motility, ranitidine and nizatidine enhanced motility in ileum in both control and intraabdominal sepsis groups. This excitatory effect of H2 receptor antagonists and inhibitor effects of PPIs were significantly high in control group when compared to the peritonitis group. The inhibitor effect of pantoprazole on ileum motility was significantly higher than the other two PPI agents. Conclusions. It was concluded that H2 receptor antagonists may be more effective than PPIs for recovering the bowel motility in the intraabdominal sepsis situation.

  5. Altered spontaneous contractions of the ileum by anesthetic agents in rats exposed to peritonitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cengiz Aydin; Ihsan Bagcivan; Sinan Gursoy; Ahmet Altun; Omer Topcu; Ayhan Koyuncu

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate in vitro effects of propofol, midazolam and dexmedetomidine, which are commonly used anaesthesic or sedatives, on spontaneous contractions of the ileum both in normal rats and those exposed to hyperdynamic peritonitis. METHODS: Spontaneous contractions of isolated ileum muscle segments from sham operated rats and those exposed to peritonitis, were studied in vitro. The amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous contractions of ileum muscle segments were studied after adding dexmetetomidine, propofol, and midazolam to the organ bath in a cumulative manner. Spontaneous contractions in ileum smooth muscle segments were decreased significantly in the peritonitis group compared to the control group ( P<0.05). Dexmedetomidine significantly increased the amplitude and peritonitis groups. The frequency of spontaneous contractions were significantly decreased by propofol Dexmedetomidine and midazolam did not cause significant changes in the number of spontaneous contractions in both control and the peritonitis groups ( P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Propofol, midazolam and dexmedetomidine have various in vitro effects on spontaneous contractions of the rat ileum. While dexmedetomidine augments the spontaneous contraction of the rat ileum, propofol attenuates it. However, the effects of these compounds were parallel in both control and peritonitis groups.

  6. The ileum as a determinant organ of the functional liver cell mass in rats

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    Aldo Cunha Medeiros

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate if the ileum resection changes the functioning liver cell mass, the hepatic metabolism and the biodistribution of radiopharmaceutical in rats. METHODS: Twelve Wistar rats weighing 285g±34g were randomly divided into the ileum resection group (n = 6 and sham group rats (n = 6. After 30 days, they were anesthetized and 0.1mL of 99m-Tc-phytate (0.66MBq was injected via femoral vein. After 30 minutes, blood samples were collected for red blood cells radioactive labeling and serum ALT, AST and gammaGT. Liver samples were used for 99m-Tc-phytate percentage of radioactivity/gram of tissue and histopathology. Student 's t test was used with significance 0.05. RESULTS: There was a higher uptake of 99m-Tc-phytate in the liver of sham rats, compared to the ileum resection group (p<0.05. GammaGT, ALT and AST were increased in ileum resection rats compared to sham (p<0.05. The he patocytes count was significantly lower in ileum resection group than in sham (p<0.05. Liver: body mass ratio was lower in experimental animals than in sham group (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: These data support that the ileum has important role in liver function and liver mass regulation, and they have potential clinical implications regarding the pathogenesis of liver injury following lower bowel resection.

  7. The Influence of Low Doses of Zearalenone on Distribution of Selected Active Substances in Nerve Fibers Within the Circular Muscle Layer of Porcine Ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonkowski, Sławomir; Obremski, Kazimierz; Calka, Jaroslaw

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, whether low doses (25 % of no observable adverse effect levels values) of zearalenone (ZEN) can affect the expression of active substances in nerve fibers in the muscular layer of porcine ileum. The study was performed on ten immature pigs divided into two groups: experimental group (n = 5), where zearalenone (10 μg/kg body weight) was given for 42 days, and control animals (n = 5), where placebo was administered. Fragments of ileum of all animals were processed for single-labelling immunofluorescence technique using the antibodies against vasoactive intestinal peptide, neuronal form of nitric oxide synthase, cocaine and amphetamine regulatory peptide, galanin, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide-27 and substance P. The number of nerve fibers immunoreactive to particular substances was evaluated by the counting of nerves per observation field (0.1 mm(2)). Low doses of zearalenone caused the clear changes in the expression of substances studied. The number of nerve fibers immunoreactive to the majority of substances increased in experimental animals. The exception was only galanin, the expression of which was less after administration of zearalenone. The obtained results for the first time show that even low doses of zearalenone can affect the nerve fibers in the digestive tract.

  8. The digestion process of the sugar alcohol isomalt in the intestinal tract of the pig: 2 Studies with administration of isomalt as a sweet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerden, E.J. van; Huisman, J.

    1993-01-01

    In a study with ten pigs of 60-70 kg live weight, provided with a re-entrant cannula at the end of the ileum, and sixteen intact, non-cannulated pigs, the digestion and absorption of a dietary dose of 100 g isomalt/kg, and isomalt given between the meals as a 'sweet' on the basis of 50 and 100 g/kg

  9. The effect of high-fat diet on the composition of the gut microbiota in cloned and non-cloned pigs of lean and obese phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rebecca; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Hermann-Bank, Marie Louise

    2013-01-01

    overall composition of their gut microbiota. The colon of lean cloned pigs contained relatively more bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and less from the phylum Bacteroidetes than obese cloned pigs as estimated by qPCR. Fluidigm qPCR results revealed differences in specific bacterial groups......The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-far-high-energy diet on cloned and non-cloned domestic pigs of both lean and obese phenotype and to evaluate if the lean cloned pigs had a lower inter-individual variation as compared with non-cloned pigs. The microbiota of colon...... and terminal ileum was investigated in cloned and non-cloned pigs that received a high-far-high-energy diet with either restricted or ad libitum access to feed, resulting in lean and obese phenotypes, respectively. The fecal microbiota of lean pigs was investigated by terminal restriction fragment length...

  10. Food restriction beginning at lactation interferes with the cellular dynamics of the mucosa and colonic myenteric innervation in adult rats

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    JOÃO PAULO F. SCHOFFEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of food restriction (FR on the morphoquantitative aspects of the wall and myenteric neurons of the proximal colon in adult rats were analysed. FR was imposed by duplication of the experimental brood size in relation to the control brood during lactation. The FR group received a 50% reduction of food from weaning until 90 days of age. Samples of the colon underwent histological processing to morphometrically analyze the crypts, muscularis mucosae, tunica mucosa, and muscularis externa. We determined the number of goblet cells and serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells, and morphoquantitatively studied the myenteric neuronal population. FR caused hypertrophy in the tunica mucosa, increase in crypt depth and in the muscular layer of the mucosa, a decrease in the thickness of the tunica muscularis and in the number of goblet cells and an increase in serotoninergic cells. A higher neuronal density in the ganglia and a reduction of the cell profile area were observed in the FR group. FR imposed since lactation led to hypertrophy of the tunica mucosa, a reduction of neutral mucin production, atrophy of the tunica muscularis, and an increase in the survival neuronal in adult rats, attributable to an increase in the number of serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells in mucosa.

  11. Neurochemical phenotype and function of endomorphin 2-immunopositive neurons in the myenteric plexus of the rat colon

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    Yun-Qing eLi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and activity of endomorphins (EMs, which are endogenous m-opioid receptor (MOR ligands in the gastrointestinal tract (GI, have yet to be elucidated. The current study aimed to shed light on this topic. EM2 was expressed in the enteric neurons in the myenteric plexus of the mid-colon. Of the EM2-immunoreactive (EM2-IR neurons, 53 ± 4.6%, 26 ± 4.5%, 26 ± 2.8% and 49 ± 4.2% displayed immunopositive staining for choline acetyl transferase (ChAT, substance P (SP, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP and nitric oxide synthetase (NOS, respectively. A bath application of EM2 (2 mM enhanced spontaneous contractile amplitude and tension, which were reversed by β-FNA (an antagonist of MOR but not NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ether (L-NAME, a non-selective inhibitor of NOS or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP6-28 (an antagonist of the VIP receptor in the colonic strips. EM2 significantly suppressed inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs in 14 of the 17 examined circular muscle cells, and this effect was not antagonized by preincubation in L-NAME. EM2 was widely expressed in interneurons and motor neurons in the myenteric plexus and presynaptically inhibited fast IJPs, thereby enhancing spontaneous contraction and tension in the colonic smooth muscle.

  12. Neurochemical phenotype and function of endomorphin 2-immunopositive neurons in the myenteric plexus of the rat colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Ping; Wang, Xi-Yu; Gao, Chang-Jun; Liao, Yong-Hui; Qu, Juan; He, Zhong-Yi; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Guo-Du; Li, Yun-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and activity of endomorphins (EMs), which are endogenous μ-opioid receptor (MOR) ligands in the gastrointestinal tract (GI), are yet to be elucidated. The current study aimed to shed light on this topic. EM2 was expressed in the enteric neurons in the myenteric plexus of the mid-colon. Of the EM2-immunoreactive (EM2-IR) neurons, 53 ± 4.6%, 26 ± 4.5%, 26 ± 2.8% and 49 ± 4.2% displayed immunopositive staining for choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and nitric oxide synthetase (NOS), respectively. A bath application of EM2 (2 μM) enhanced spontaneous contractile amplitude and tension, which were reversed by β-FNA (an antagonist of MOR) but not NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ether (L-NAME, a non-selective inhibitor of NOS) or VIP6-28 (an antagonist of the VIP receptor) in the colonic strips. EM2 significantly suppressed inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs) in 14 of the 17 examined circular muscle cells, and this effect was not antagonized by preincubation in L-NAME. EM2 was widely expressed in interneurons and motor neurons in the myenteric plexus and presynaptically inhibited fast IJPs, thereby enhancing spontaneous contraction and tension in the colonic smooth muscle. PMID:25565974

  13. Synthesis of nitric oxide in postganglionic myenteric neurons during endotoxemia: implications for gastric motor function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Elsa; Hernández, Carlos; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Esplugues, Juan V; Barrachina, María D

    2004-03-01

    We have investigated the mechanisms underlying acute changes in gastric motor function triggered by endotoxemia. In fundal strips from rats pre-treated with endotoxin (40 microg/kg, i.p. 30 min), mechanical activity was analyzed and the source of nitric oxide (NO) was visualized by confocal microscopy of tissue loaded with the fluorescent dye DAF-FM. NOS expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot, and enzyme activity by the citrulline assay. Strips from endotoxin-treated rats were hypo-contractile. This was prevented by pre-incubation with the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin, the gangliar blocker hexamethonium, or non-selective and neuronal-specific NOS inhibitors (L-NOARG and TRIM, respectively). The soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor ODQ and the inhibitor of small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels apamin prevented relaxation induced by endotoxin, nicotine, exogenous NO (DETA-NONOate), and the NO-independent sGC activator BAY 41-2272. NO synthesis was observed in neuronal soma, axons, and nerve endings of the myenteric plexus in the fundus of endotoxin-treated rats and was prevented by L-NAME, tetrodotoxin, and hexamethonium. nNOS and iNOS mRNA and protein contents were unchanged. Our findings demonstrate synthesis of NO in post-ganglionic myenteric neurons during early endotoxemia that mediates gastric hypo-contractility. The effect of NO is mediated via sGC and small conductance Ca2+-activated K+channels.

  14. The use of 15N-labeled dietary proteins for determining true ileal amino acid digestibilities is limited by their rapid recycling in the endogenous secretions of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leterme, P.; Théwis, A.; François, E.; Leeuwen, P. van; Wathelet, B.; Huisman, J.

    1996-01-01

    We assessed the use of 15N-labeled dietary proteins as a possible tool for the determination of the true ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility in pigs. The first experiment was designed to study the dietary N excretion pattern at the ileum subsequent to the ingestion of a single 15N-labeled meal. In a

  15. Naturally acquired Lawsonia intracellularis infection in pigs studied from weaning to slaughter by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test and polymerase chain reaction on faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Vigre, Håkan; Sørensen, Vibeke;

    2005-01-01

    The course of naturally acquired Lawsonia intracellularis infection was studied in 41 pigs by testing blood and faeces samples collected four to seven times from before weaning to slaughter 5 months old. At slaughter, a sample of ileum was taken for histopathology. In the first sampling when the ...

  16. Comparison of antispasmodic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. in rat uterus and ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sadraei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. is a traditional medicine with antispasmodic activities. The objective of this research was to study antispasmodic activities of hydroalcoholic extract of D. kotschyi on rat isolated uterus contractions for comparison with isolated ileum. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained from aerial part of D. kotschyi using percolation method. A portion of rat ileum or uterus was suspended in Tyrode′s solution at 37 °C and gassed with O 2 . Effect of D. kotschyi extract was assessed on ileum or uterus contractions induced by KCl (80 mM, acetylcholine (ACh, 500 nM, electrical field stimulation (EFS or oxytocin (0.0005 IU/mL. The extract of D. kotschyi concentration-dependently inhibited ileum responses to KCl (IC 50 = 65 ± 18 μg/mL, ACh (IC 50 = 102 ± 18 μg/mL and EFS (IC 50 = 117 ± 29 μg/mL. The extract of D. kotschyi also concentration-dependently inhibited uterus responses to KCl (IC 50 = 453 ± 64μg/mL, ACh (IC 50 = 58 ± 9 μg/mL, EFS (IC 50 = 22 ± 3 μg/mL as well as oxytocin (IC 50 = 70 ± 11 μg/mL. From this experiment it was concluded that D. kotschyi extract possesses antispasmodic activities on both smooth muscle of ileum and uterus. In comparison, the extract was more effective inhibitor of ACh and EFS responses in rat uterus than on the ileum. On the other hand, the extract was a more potent inhibitor of KCl response on rat ileum. However, the extract was found to be a potent inhibitor of oxytocin-induced contraction of rat uterus. These results indicate that D. kotschyi extract may contain components that might be useful lead compounds for prevention of uterus spasm.

  17. Comparison of antispasmodic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. in rat uterus and ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alinejad, Mahla

    2016-07-01

    Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. is a traditional medicine with antispasmodic activities. The objective of this research was to study antispasmodic activities of hydroalcoholic extract of D. kotschyi on rat isolated uterus contractions for comparison with isolated ileum. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained from aerial part of D. kotschyi using percolation method. A portion of rat ileum or uterus was suspended in Tyrode's solution at 37°C and gassed with O2. Effect of D. kotschyi extract was assessed on ileum or uterus contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 500 nM), electrical field stimulation (EFS) or oxytocin (0.0005 IU/mL). The extract of D. kotschyi concentration-dependently inhibited ileum responses to KCl (IC50 = 65 ± 18 μg/mL), ACh (IC50 = 102 ± 18 μg/mL) and EFS (IC50 = 117 ± 29 μg/mL). The extract of D. kotschyi also concentration-dependently inhibited uterus responses to KCl (IC50 = 453 ± 64μg/mL), ACh (IC50 = 58 ± 9 μg/mL), EFS (IC50 = 22 ± 3 μg/mL) as well as oxytocin (IC50 = 70 ± 11 μg/mL). From this experiment it was concluded that D. kotschyi extract possesses antispasmodic activities on both smooth muscle of ileum and uterus. In comparison, the extract was more effective inhibitor of ACh and EFS responses in rat uterus than on the ileum. On the other hand, the extract was a more potent inhibitor of KCl response on rat ileum. However, the extract was found to be a potent inhibitor of oxytocin-induced contraction of rat uterus. These results indicate that D. kotschyi extract may contain components that might be useful lead compounds for prevention of uterus spasm.

  18. Relationship between chronic diarrhea with normal colonoscopy findings and terminal ileum lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongling; WANG Changcheng; LIU Shuqing; XU Dongsheng; ZHANG Ju; CHEN hongmei

    2014-01-01

    Background The causes and mechanisms of chronic diarrhea are complex.This study aimed to explore the relationship between chronic diarrhea with normal colonoscopy findings and terminal ileum lesions.Methods All cases were collected from January 2009 to June 2010.The 40 patients in the patient group had chronic diarrhea with normal colonoscopy findings.Those who had hyperthyroidism,diabetes,chronic pancreatitis,cirrhosis,atrophic gastritis,short bowel syndrome and connective tissue diseases had been excluded.The control group contained 40 healthy individuals without diarrhea.Endoscopy of the terminal ileum was applied in both groups,with the endoscope inserted into terminal ileum for more than 20 cm.The patients diagnosed of chronic diarrhea with terminal ileum lesions were treated with metronidazole and probiotics for 10-14 days.Results Before treatment there were significant differences in endoscopy findings of the terminal ileum between the two groups (P <0.05).In the patient group,endoscopy showed congestion,edema,erosion and ulcers in 29 cases,hyperplasia and enlargement of lymphoid follicles in 10 cases with a maximal diameter of 7-8 mm,and 1 case showed normal endoscopy results.After treatment,35 patients recovered from diarrhea,and terminal ileum lesions disappeared in 30 cases as determined by endoscopy.In the control group,endoscopy showed scattered hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles in 5 cases,and the follicles were small with the maximal diameter being 3 mm.There was no hyperemia,edema,erosion or ulcers.Conclusions Chronic diarrhea patients with normal colonoscopy findings may have lesions in the terminal ileum that can be detected by endoscopy; including hyperemia,erosion,ulcers and lymphoid follicle hyperplasia.Therapeutic effect is good with metronidazole and probiotics.

  19. The effect of feeding level and physiological status on total flow and amino acid composition of endogenous protein at the distal ileum in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H H; Trottier, N L; Bellaver, C; Easter, R A

    1999-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of BW, feed intake, and the physiological condition of the animal on the loss and amino acid composition of endogenous protein in swine. Ten growing barrows and five multiparous sows were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum for digesta collection. A protein-free diet was fed to all animals. The barrows were given free access to the experimental diet. The sows also were allowed to consume the diet on an ad libitum basis, and digesta were collected during lactation and in the following gestation period. In addition, digesta from the gravid sows were collected after restricting the sows to 2 kg of feed per day. For each animal group, the endogenous losses of protein and amino acids were calculated in relation to DMI, and the amino acid composition of endogenous protein was calculated. The total endogenous gut protein loss at the distal ileum of growing pigs, lactating sows, and gestating sows, given free access to feed, was 12.4, 9.4, and 11.2 g/kg DMI, respectively. These values were not different (P > .10). However, when gestating sows were fed only 2 kg/d, 17.8 g of endogenous protein was lost per kilogram of DMI, which was higher (P .05) in amino acid composition of endogenous protein between growing pigs, lactating sows, and gestating sows given free access to feed, but restricted-fed gestating sows had an amino acid composition of endogenous protein that was significantly different from that of the other groups. The results from the experiment showed that age, BW, and the physiological condition of the animal have little or no effect on the amount of endogenous protein and amino acids lost at the distal ileum of hogs if calculated in relation to DMI. Likewise, the amino acid composition was not affected by the BW or physiological condition of the animal. However, DMI had a significant effect on endogenous protein losses in sows as well as on amino acid composition of endogenous protein.

  20. Evaluation of elevated dietary corn fiber from corn germ meal in growing female pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T E; Trabue, S L; Ziemer, C J; Kerr, B J

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of dietary hemicellulose from corn on growth and metabolic measures, female pigs (n = 48; initial BW 30.8 kg) were fed diets containing 0 to 38.6% solvent-extracted corn germ meal for 28 d. Increasing the hemicellulose level had no impact on ADG or ADFI, but resulted in a quadratic response (P dietary hemicellulose, blood, colon contents, and tissue samples from the liver and intestine were obtained from a subset (n = 16; 8 pigs/treatment) of pigs fed the least and greatest hemicellulose levels. The abundance of phospho-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the mitochondrial respiratory protein, cytochrome C oxidase II (COXII) were determined in liver, jejunum, ileum, and colon by Western blotting. The mRNA expression levels of AMPKalpha1, AMPKalpha2, PPAR coactivator 1alpha (PGC1-alpha), PPARgamma2, and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) were determined in liver and intestinal tissues. When compared with pigs fed the control diet, pigs fed the high hemicellulose diet had increased (P pigs consuming the high hemicellulose diet. The high-fiber diet led to a tendency (P pigs fed the high hemicellulose diet, ileal mucosal alkaline phosphatase activity was increased (P pigs consuming the high fiber diet there was a greater (P dietary fiber in liver, jejunum, or ileum tissue. In colon tissue from pigs fed the high fiber diet there was an increase (P < 0.09) in Sirt1 mRNA and a trend (P < 0.12) toward increased of PGC1-alpha mRNA. These data suggest that alterations in metabolism involved in adaptation to a diet high in hemicellulose are associated with increased colonic Sirt1 mRNA and COXII expression, indicating an increased propensity for oxidative metabolism by the intestine.

  1. Surgical techniques for quantitative nutrient digestion and absorbtion studies in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Serena, Anja; Theil, Peter Kappel;

    2010-01-01

    Surgical techniques allow quantitative measurement of nutrient digestion and absorption in pigs. The present paper presents our updated techniques for anaesthesia and surgery. The surgery technique of catheterization of the portal vein, mesenteric vein and mesenteric artery, as well as the fittin...... of a flow probe for continuous portal blood flow measurements in sows is described. Further, the cannulation of the terminal ileum with a dirigible bi-directional T-cannula for the total collection of ileal digesta is described...

  2. THE EFFECT OF BODY WEIGHT OF PIGS ON TRUE AND APPARENT ILEAL AMINO ACIDS DIGESTIBILITY OF RYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitrayová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the ability of pigs to digest protein increases with age. However, it has been shown that small pigs excreted more endogenous nitrogen (N than large pigs. Consequently, the apparent amino acids (AA digestibility may be lower in young pigs while true digestibility, which is corrected for endogenous losses, may be comparable with that found in older pigs. To test this hypothesis, six cannulated piglets (mean body weight 20.6 kg fitted with a simple T-cannula at terminal ileum were used to estimate apparent and true digestibilities of AA and of total N in a rye-based diet (96 % rye. The digestibility study was repeated on the same pigs fed the same diet when they reached mean body weight 61.7 kg. The apparent ileal digestibilities of total AA and total N were significantly higher in heavier pigs than in piglets. Except for methionine and phenylalanine, the apparent digestibilities of individual AA showed a similar pattern. In contrast, there was no significant difference between piglets and heavier pigs for the true ileal digestibility of total N. True digestibility of most AA was lower in heavier pigs than in piglets, the differences for total and some individual AA being significant. The present results suggest that the higher apparent digestibility values found in heavier pigs as compared to piglets are due to the confounding effect of endogenous N losses rather than the better ability of older pigs to digest protein.

  3. Spasmolytic effect of Petroselinum crispum (Parsley) on rat's ileum at different calcium chloride concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazedi, A A; Mirzaie, D N; Seyyednejad, S M; Zadkarami, M R; Amirzargar, A

    2007-11-15

    Traditional herbal medicines such as Petroselinum crispum (Parsley) have been used for treatment of intestinal disorders in Iran. To date no pharmacological evidence for their effectiveness has been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Petroselinum crispum on isolated adult male Wistar rat's ileum contraction by KCl 60 (mM). The extract was prepared from parsley seed with 80% ethanol. A portion of ileum was removed and placed in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution (37 degrees C, pH = 7.4) bubbled with air. From a resting tension of 1 g, isotonic Transducer and Harvard Universal Oscillograph were used for recording contraction of ileum after administration of 60 mM KCl. Various concentration of extract were added to the bath. This experiment showed that, the extract in a dose-dependent manner decreased the induced-KCl ileums contraction (n = 7, p < 0.001). Also adding extract before influence of KCl, cause reduced effect of KCl (n = 7, p < 0.001). In addition, the Tyrode solution without CaCl2 and high concentration of K+, various concentration of extract significantly (n = 7, p < 0.001) decreased the CaCl2-induced contraction. Therefore, it seems that the relaxation effect of extract alcoholic parsley seed on the contraction of ileum is performed by blocking of voltage-gated calcium channels.

  4. Relaxant effect of essential oil of Melissa officinalis and citral on rat ileum contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H; Ghannadi, A; Malekshahi, K

    2003-07-01

    The relaxant effect of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis and its main component, citral, on rat isolated ileum contractions was evaluated. M. officinalis essential oil (MOEO) inhibited the response to KCl (80 mM), ACh (320 nM) and 5-HT (1.28 microM) in a concentration-dependent manner with a IC(50) of approximately 20 ng/ml. Citral also had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on contraction of rat ileum with IC(50)s comparable to that of MOEO.

  5. Endoscopic identification of Peyer's patches of the terminal ileum in a patient with Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Ishimoto; Hajime Isomoto; Saburo Shikuwa; Chun Yang Wen; Takashi Suematu; Masahiro Ito; Ikuo Murata; Hiromi Ishibashi; Shigeru Kohno

    2004-01-01

    We presented a 20-year-old patient with Crohn′s disease (CD). Colonoscopy revealed longitudinal ulceration in the terminal ileum and rectal aphtoid ulcers. After treatment with mesalamine and total parenteral nutrition, repeat colonoscopy revealed a granular elevated area in the terminal ileum, which appeared as an irregular dome-like elevation with irregularly arranged villi on magnifying endoscopy. Biopsy specimens taken from the region showed microgranulomas and lymphoid hyperplasia. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of M cells, confirming that the area corresponded to Peyer′s patches. Peyer′s patches by magnifying endoscopy and electron microscopy may provide insights into the pathogenesis of CD.

  6. Effects of myenteric denervation on extracellular matrix fibers and mast cell distribution in normal stomach and gastric lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estofolete Cássia F

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study the effect of myenteric denervation induced by benzalconium chloride (BAC on distribution of fibrillar components of extracellular matrix (ECM and inflammatory cells was investigated in gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG. Rats were divided in four experimental groups: non-denervated (I and denervated stomach (II without MNNG treatment; non-denervated (III and denervated stomachs (IV treated with MNNG. For histopathological, histochemical and stereological analysis, sections of gastric fragments were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin, Picrosirius-Hematoxylin, Gomori reticulin, Weigert's Resorcin-Fuchsin, Toluidine Blue and Alcian-Blue/Safranin (AB-SAF. Results BAC denervation causes an increase in the frequency of reticular and elastic fibers in the denervated (group II compared to the non-denervated stomachs (group I. The treatment of the animals with MNNG induced the development of adenocarcinomas in non-denervated and denervated stomachs (groups III and IV, respectively with a notable increase in the relative volume of the stroma, the frequency of reticular fibers and the inflammatory infiltrate that was more intense in group IV. An increase in the frequency of elastic fibers was observed in adenocarcinomas of denervated (group IV compared to the non-denervated stomachs (group III that showed degradation of these fibers. The development of lesions (groups III and IV was also associated with an increase in the mast cell population, especially AB and AB-SAF positives, the latter mainly in the denervated group IV. Conclusions The results show a strong association in the morphological alteration of the ECM fibrillar components, the increased density of mast cells and the development of tumors induced by MNNG in the non-denervated rat stomach or denervated by BAC. This suggests that the study of extracellular and intracellular components of tumor microenvironment contributes

  7. Effect of the ascorbic acid treatment on the NADHd-positive myenteric neurons of diabetic rats proximal colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of the ascorbic acid on the myenteric neurons of diabetic rats proximal colon. Fifteen rats (90 days old were divided into three groups: control, untreated diabetic and treated diabetic with ascorbic acid (DA. After 120 days of daily treatment with ascorbic acid, the intestinal segments were submitted to the NADH-diaphorase (NADHd histochemistry technique to expose the myenteric neurons. The group DA showed a higher neuronal density (33.4 % when compared to the untreated diabetic animals (p O efeito do ácido ascórbico sobre neurônios mioentéricos do colo proximal de ratos diabéticos foi avaliado. Quinze ratos com 90 dias foram divididos nos grupos: controle, diabéticos e diabéticos tratados com ácido ascórbico (DA. Após 120 dias de tratamento diário com ácido ascórbico os segmentos intestinais foram submetidos à técnica histoquímica NADH-diaforase (NADHd. A densidade neuronal, em uma área de 14,11 mm² para cada segmento, e o perfil do corpo celular de neurônios (500 neurônios/grupo foram avaliados. O grupo DA apresentou maior densidade neuronal (33.4 % em relação aos animais diabéticos (p < 0.05. Da mesma forma, a área do corpo celular dos neurônios foi significativamente maior no grupo DA (17.3 % quando comparado com o grupo diabético (p < 0.05. Concluímos que o acido ascórbico apresentou um efeito neuroprotetor sobre os neurônios mioentéricos NADHd do colo proximal de ratos diabéticos.

  8. Effect of supplementing a fibrous diet with a xylanase and β-glucanase blend on growth performance, intestinal glucose uptake, and transport-associated gene expression in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyekum, A K; Sands, J S; Regassa, A; Kiarie, E; Weihrauch, D; Kim, W K; Nyachoti, C M

    2015-07-01

    The present study evaluated supplemental carbohydrase effect on performance, intestinal nutrient uptake, and transporter mRNA expressions in growing pigs offered a high-fiber diet manufactured with distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Twenty-four pigs (22.4 ± 0.7 kg BW) were randomly assigned to 1of 3 nutritionally adequate diets (8 pigs per diet) based on corn and soybean meal (SBM) with either 0 (control) or 30% DDGS (high fiber [HF]). The third diet was supplemented with a xylanase and β-glucanase blend (XB) in addition to the 30% DDGS (HF+XB). Parameters determined were ADFI, ADG, G:F, plasma glucose and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) concentrations, jejunal tissue electrophysiological properties, and mRNA expressions of the sodium-dependent glucose transport 1 (SGLT1) and cationic AA transporter, bo,+AT, in the jejunal and ileal tissues. In addition, mRNA expressions of the short-chain fatty acid transporters, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) and sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter, and mucin genes were quantified in the ileum. Feed intake, plasma glucose, and jejunal tissue electrophysiological properties were not affected (P > 0.05) by diet. However, control-fed pigs had superior growth rate and feed efficiency and higher PUN (P < 0.05) than HF- and HF+XB-fed pigs. The HF diet increased (P < 0.05) SGLT1 mRNA expression in the jejunum and decreased (P < 0.05) bo,+ mRNA expression in the ileum. The XB supplementation also increased bo,+ mRNA expression in the ileum relative to HF-fed pigs. Additionally, MCT1 mRNA expression was greater (P < 0.05) in the ileum of the HF- and HF+XB-fed pigs. In the present study, XB supplementation influenced nutrient transporter mRNA expression, although it was not accompanied by improved pig performance.

  9. Mechanical small bowel obstruction due to an inflamed appendix wrapping around the last loop of ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenza, M; Ricci, G; Bartolucci, P; Modini, C

    2005-01-01

    Acute apendicitis rarely presents with a clinical picture of mechanical small-bowel obstruction. The Authors report a case of this inusual clinical occurrence, arised like a complication of a common disease, characterized by a chronically inflamed appendix (mucocele) wrapping around the last loop of ileum that produced volvolus and strangulation. The few similar cases reported in the literature are moreover reviewed.

  10. BSE infectivity in jejunum, ileum and ileocaecal junction of incubating cattle

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    Hoffmann Christine

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To establish bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE public health protection measures it is important to precisely define the cattle tissues considered as specified risk materials (SRM. To date, in pre-clinical BSE infected cattle, no evidence of the BSE agent had been found in the gut outside of the ileal Peyer's Patches. This study was undertaken to determine when and where the pathological prion protein (PrPSc and/or BSE infectivity can be found in the small intestine of cattle 4 to 6 months of age, orally challenged with BSE. Samples of the jejunum, the ileum and the ileocaecal junction from 46 BSE infected cattle, culled from 1 up to 44 months post infection (mpi were examined by immunohistochemistry. Samples from cattle 8 mpi to 20 mpi were additionally studied by PTA Western blot, rapid tests, and by mouse (TgbovXV bioassay. In doing so nearly all of the cattle, from 4 up to 44 mpi, had detectable amounts of PrPSc and/or infectivity in the distal ileum. In the distal ileum clear time-dependent variations were visible concerning the amount of PrPSc, the tissue structures affected, and the cells involved. BSE infectivity was found not only in the ileum and ileocaecal junction but also in the jejunum. The systematic approach of this study provides new data for qualitative and quantitative risk assessments and allows defining bovine SRM more precisely.

  11. Biomechanical properties of ileum after systemic treatment with epithelial growth factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Yang; Jing-Bo Zhao; Yan-Jun Zeng; Hans Gregersen

    2003-01-01

    AIM:Systemic treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF)leads to growth of all parts of the small intestine in normal functioning rats. In this study, we investigated the effect of this growth process on morphometric and biomechanical parameters of ileum.METHODS: Rats were treated with EGF (150 μg@kg-1day-1)or placebo via osmotic minipumps for 2, 4, 7, and 14 days.A segment of ileum was removed. The morphology at noload state and zero-stress state was measured and passive biomechanical properties were assessed using a biaxial test machine (combined inflation and axial stretching).RESULTS: The ileum weight increased after EGF administration. After 4 days' EGF treatment, the wall thickness was increased. Significantly smaller inner perimeters were seen in 4 day and 7 day EGF treatment groups. The opening angle and residual strain began to increase after 7 days' EGF treatment. Wall stiffness, evaluated from the stress-strain curves, showed a continuous decrease in circumferential direction during the first 7 days' EGF treatment. The longitudinal stiffness increased during the first 7 days. The stress-strain curves for both circumferential and longitudinal direction tended to shift back to normal 14days after starting EGF administration.CONCLUSION: EGF can cause significant changes both in the morphology and in the passive mechanical properties of the rat ileum.

  12. delta-Lactone from Oedogonium capillare and their effects on rat ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Gutierrez, Rosa Martha; Rosario Vargas, Solis; Martinez Martinez, Francisco; Garcia Baez, Efren; Figueroa Torres, Guadalupe

    2006-03-01

    Antispasmodic activity-guided fractionation together with chemical analysis led to the isolation of one novel delta-lactone named oedogonolide from Oedogonium capillare. Identification was based on spectroscopic methods. The oedogonolide produces a significant antispasmodic effect on the contractions of the rat ileum induced by acetylcholine, histamine and barium chloride.

  13. Electron microscopic study of ileum of mice infected experimentally with Salmonella hadar

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    A. A. Yousif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Salmonella hadar has been isolated and identified from goat in Iraq. The purpose of the present study was to examine ultrastructural changes in the ileum epithelial cells of BALB/c mice experimentally infected with S. hadar. Mice were used as follows: Group A: 20 mice inoculated orally with phosphate buffer saline and considered as a control group. Group B: 20 mice inoculated orally with (100ID by drenching the mice about 1 ml of the bacterial suspension which contain (1.5×109 cells of Salmonella hadar and the ileum epithelial cells were examined by transmission electron microscopy at 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after infection. The ultra structural changes seen in the ileum of infected mouse at 24 hours were disorganization of the microvilli with severe cytoplasmic vacuolization, enlargement of the mitochondria and presence of intracellular Salmonella. Changes at 48 hours post infection, were detachments of many microvilli especially at the site of bacterial entry. Similar changes were observed after 72 hours but more severe; there was marked dilatation and proliferation of the endoplasmic reticulum with cytoplasmic vacuolization of the infected enterocytes. After 96 hours there were severe cytoplasmic vacuolization with accumulation of the bacteria within phagosomes and there was marked damage to the microvilli of the ileum. After 120 hours there was hypertrophy of goblet cell and thickening of the nuclear membrane and there was several Salmonella containing vacuoles.

  14. Malignant lymphoma in the ileum diagnosed by double-balloon enteroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuko Beppu; Nobuhiro Sato; Toshiki Kamano; Yasuo Hayashida; Sumio Watanabe; Taro Osada; Akihito Nagahara; Naoto Sakamoto; Tomoyoshi Shibuya; Masato Kawabe; Takeshi Terai; Toshifumi Ohkusa; Tatsuo Ogihara

    2007-01-01

    A 73-year old man presented with abdominal pain. A tumor with central ulceration was observed in the ileum using double-balloon enteroscopy. Histological findings of the biopsy specimens were consistent with malignant lymphoma. Double-balloon enteroscopy confirmed the diagnosis of a malignant lymphoma tumor which was surgically resected. The patient is still in complete remission now.

  15. Human mast cell mediator cocktail excites neurons in human and guinea-pig enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, M; Michel, K; Ceregrzyn, M; Zeller, F; Seidl, S; Bischoff, S C

    2005-04-01

    Neuroimmune interactions are an integral part of gut physiology and involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and functional bowel disorders. Mast cells and their mediators are important conveyors in the communication from the innate enteric immune system to the enteric nervous system (ENS). However, it is not known whether a mediator cocktail released from activated human mast cells affects neural activity in the ENS. We used the Multi-Site Optical Recording Technique to image single cell activity in guinea-pig and human ENS after application of a mast cell mediator cocktail (MCMC) that was released from isolated human intestinal mucosa mast cells stimulated by IgE-receptor cross-linking. Local application of MCMC onto individual ganglia evoked an excitatory response consisting of action potential discharge. This excitatory response occurred in 31%, 38% or 11% neurons of guinea-pig submucous plexus, human submucous plexus, or guinea-pig myenteric plexus, respectively. Compound action potentials from nerve fibres or fast excitatory synaptic inputs were not affected by MCMC. This study demonstrates immunoneural signalling in the human gut and revealed for the first time that an MCMC released from stimulated human intestinal mast cells induces excitatory actions in the human and guinea-pig ENS.

  16. Postnatal ontogeny of intestinal GCPII and the RFC in pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafizadeh, Tracy B; Halsted, Charles H

    2009-03-01

    In humans and pigs, hydrolysis of dietary polyglutamyl folates is carried out by intestinal brush border folate hydrolase [glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII)], whereas the transport of the monoglutamyl folate derivatives occurs via the intestinal brush border reduced folate carrier (RFC). The study objective was to measure the expression of intestinal GCPII and RFC during postnatal development of pigs and their effects on plasma and liver folate concentrations. Duodenum, jejunum, ileum, liver, and plasma samples were collected from female Yorkshire pigs at birth, 24 h, 1 wk, 3 wk, and 6 mo (n=6 at each time point). GCPII mRNA transcripts and protein (normalized using beta-actin), and enzyme activity (normalized per mg mucosal protein) were highest in all segments of small intestine at birth and were undetectable in ileum after 1 wk, whereas jejunal protein and activity predominated at 6 mo. RFC mRNA transcripts were present in all segments of small intestine at birth and declined significantly throughout development to 6 mo. Conversely, RFC protein increased twofold during the first 24 h and remained constant throughout development in all segments of small intestine. Liver RFC mRNA transcripts were detected at birth but were reduced by 6 mo. Liver folate concentration increased throughout postnatal development, whereas plasma folate levels increased during the first 24 h but decreased over time, reflecting the pattern of RFC expression in small intestine. These findings show that intestinal GCPII and intestinal and hepatic RFC all exhibit ontogenic changes in the pig that are reflected in postnatal folate status.

  17. Assessment of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds and leaves of Moringa peregrina on ileum spasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G; Farahnaki, F

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (Moringaceae) is widely used in south east of Iran for gastrointestinal disorders. However, so far there is no pharmacological evidence for antispasmodic activity of this plant extract. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate antispasmodic activity of M. peregrina on rat isolated ileum contraction. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by percolation method from seeds and leaves of M. peregrina collected from Baluchestan province of Iran. A portion of isolated rat ileum was suspended under 1 g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37 °C and gassed with O2. Effects of seeds and leaves extracts of M. peregrina were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 250 μM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The seed extract of M. peregrina concentration dependently inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=87 ± 18 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=118 ± 18 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50=230 ± 51 μg/ml). The extract of M. peregrina leaves also had inhibitory effect of ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50=439 ± 108 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=365 ± 61 μg/ml) or EFS (IC50=314 ± 92 μg/ml). From these experiments it was concluded that M. peregrina extract mainly had an inhibitory effect on ileum contractions but the seed extract was more potent than the leave extract in inhibiting KCl and ACh contractile responses.

  18. Ultrastructural Changes in the Ileum of White BALB/C Mice Experimentally Infected with Salmonella hadar

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    Afaf A. Yousif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently, Salmonella hadar has been isolated and identified from goat in Iraq. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ultrastructural changes in the ileum epithelial cells of mice experimentally infected with Salmonella hadar. Approach: The white BALB/c mice inoculated orally with Salmonella enterica serovar hadar strain and their ileums were examined by transmission electron microscopy at 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h after inoculation. Results: The challenge organism appeared adhered to the mucosal microvilli of the ileum from 24 h postinoculation. The early ultrastructural changes characterized by local derangement with slight swelling of the proximal ends of the microvilli. In addition, there was ruffling of the apical cell surfaces of the microvilli with cytoplasmic vacuolization of enterocytes due to invading by the organisms. The Challenge organism was usually intact and enclosed by a membrane. The damage of the epithelial cells started as a minor lesion at 24 h and became severe after 48, 72 and 96 h post infection. The more severe ultrastructural changes in the ileum occurred at 120 h post infection, which revealed hypertrophy of goblet cell, dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum, severe cytoplasmic vacuolization, thickening of the nuclear membrane and several Salmonella Containing Vacuoles (SCV. Conclusion: Our results revealed that the cellular invasion by Salmonella hadar may occurred early than 24 h because of the obvious alterations seen in the cells of the ileum at this time of infection. In addition, the continuation of cellular pathological changes for 120 h post infection may refers that S. hadar has some mechanisms which aid it to survive and replicate within intestinal cells. We recommend further studies with early observation periods in order to determine the invasion time.

  19. Structural abnormalities of the myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus in familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome) as demonstrated by flat-mount preparation of the esophagus and stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, I; Wells, T R

    1985-01-01

    The esophageal and gastric myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus were studied by a flat-mount preparation in 3 patients with familial dysautonomia. In 1 patient a typical esophageal network was found in the stomach. In another patient both esophageal and gastric plexus patterns were significantly different from normal. These changes, by producing abnormal nervous stimulation, may explain disturbed motility of the esophagus and stomach in familial dysautonomia.

  20. Development of a human rotavirus induced diarrhea model in Chinese mini-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Tao; Wei, Jing; Guo, Hong-Xia; Han, Jiang-Bo; Ye, Nan; He, Hai-Yang; Yu, Tian-Tian; Wu, Yu-Zhang

    2016-08-21

    To establish a new animal model for the research of human rotavirus (HRV) infection, its pathogenesis and immunity and evaluation of potential vaccines. 5-d, 30-d and 60-d-old Chinese mini-pigs, Guizhou and Bamma, were inoculated with a single oral dose of attenuated strain Wa, G1, G3 of HRV, and PBS (control), respectively, and fecal samples of pigs from 0 to 7 d post infection (DPI) were collected individually. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect HRV antigen in feces. The HRV was tested by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The sections of the intestinal tissue were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to observe the morphologic variation by microscopy. Immunofluorescence was used to determine the HRV in intestinal tissue. HRV particles in cells of the ileum were observed by electron micrography. When inoculated with HRV, mini-pigs younger than 30 d developed diarrhea in an age-dependent manner and shed HRV antigen of the same inoculum, as demonstrated by RT-PCR. Histopathological changes were observed in HRV inoculated mini-pigs including small intestinal cell tumefaction and necrosis. HRV that was distributed in the small intestine was restricted to the top part of the villi on the internal wall of the ileum, which was observed by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Virus particles were observed in Golgi like follicles in HRV-infected neonatal mini-pigs. Guizhou mini-pigs were more sensitive to HRV than Bamma with respect to RV antigen shedding and clinical diarrhea. These results indicate that we have established a mini-pig model of HRV induced diarrhea. Our findings are useful for the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of HRV infection.

  1. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Farlen José Bebber; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; Oliveira, Fábio Conceição de; Melo, João Cardoso de; Mariano, Carlos Magno Anselmo; Albernaz, Antonio Peixoto; Carvalho, Eulógio Carlos Queiróz de; Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues de; Souza, Wanderley de; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2015-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain) or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain). Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis.

  2. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farlen José Bebber Miranda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain. Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis.

  3. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Farlen José Bebber; de Souza, Diogo Benchimol; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; de Oliveira, Fábio Conceição; de Melo, João Cardoso; Mariano, Carlos Magno Anselmo; Albernaz, Antonio Peixoto; de Carvalho, Eulógio Carlos Queiróz; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; de Souza, Wanderley; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain) or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain). Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis. PMID:25742268

  4. Spasmolytic activity of essential oil and various extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss. on ileum contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G R; Hajhashemi, V; Kolagar, A; Ebrahimi, M

    2001-09-01

    Traditional herbal medicines such as Ferula gummosa Boiss. have been used for treatment of intestinal disorders in Iran. To date no pharmacological evidence for their effectiveness has been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the relaxant effect of essential oil, hydro-alcoholic, etheric, petrolic and methanolic extracts of Ferula gummosa and two of its components, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, on isolated rat ileum contractions induced by KCl and acetylcholine (ACh). Ferula gummosa essential oil (FGEO) and hydro-alcoholic, etheric, petrolic and methanolic extracts all inhibited the response to 80 mM KCl in a concentration-dependent manner and attenuated the maximum attainable response of the ACh concentration-response curve. Although the effect of etheric extract on ACh contractions was less than that of petrolic extract, the overall order of effectiveness on the weight basis was the etheric, petrolic, methanolic, and hydro-alcoholic extracts, and the essential oil, respectively. A mixture of etheric and petrolic extracts together had a similar effect on KCl response to etheric extract was used alone. Alpha-pinene and beta-pinene both exhibited inhibitory effect on the contraction of rat ileum, but the inhibitory effect of beta-pinene on KCl contraction was more pronounced. The inhibitory effect of a mixture of these two compounds was, however, less than the sum of their separate effects. When a mixture of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene together were examined on the ileum, without presence of the spasmogen, they initially caused contraction of the tissue, while neither of them used alone caused a noticeable contraction of the ileum. This study shows that Ferula gummosa essential oil and its various extracts are relaxant of rat isolated ileum and that at least part of their inhibitory effect is due to alpha-pinene and beta-pinene components. As the inhibition of contractile over-activity of the ileum is the basis of the treatment of some gastero

  5. Dose-dependent effects of dietary zinc oxide on bacterial communities and metabolic profiles in the ileum of weaned pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieper, R.; Vahjen, W.; Neumann, K.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.; Zentek, J.

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological levels of zinc oxide (ZnO) can improve the health of weaning piglets and influence the intestinal microbiota. This experiment aimed at studying the dose-response effect of five dietary concentrations of ZnO on small intestinal bacteria and metabolite profiles. Fifteen piglets, weaned

  6. Dose-dependent effects of dietary zinc oxide on bacterial communities and metabolic profiles in the ileum of weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, R; Vahjen, W; Neumann, K; Van Kessel, A G; Zentek, J

    2012-10-01

    Pharmacological levels of zinc oxide (ZnO) can improve the health of weaning piglets and influence the intestinal microbiota. This experiment aimed at studying the dose-response effect of five dietary concentrations of ZnO on small intestinal bacteria and metabolite profiles. Fifteen piglets, weaned at 25 ± 1 days of age, were allocated into five groups according to body weight and litter. Diets were formulated to contain 50 (basal diet), 150, 250, 1000 and 2500 mg zinc/kg by adding analytical-grade (>98% purity) ZnO to the basal diet and fed ad libitum for 14 days after a 7-day adaptation period on the basal diet. Ileal bacterial community profiles were analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and selected bacterial groups quantified by real-time PCR. Concentrations of ileal volatile fatty acids (VFA), D- and L-lactate and ammonia were determined. Species richness, Shannon diversity and evenness were significantly higher at high ZnO levels. Quantitative PCR revealed lowest total bacterial counts in the 50 mg/kg group. Increasing ZnO levels led to an increase (p = 0.017) in enterobacteria from log 4.0 cfu/g digesta (50 mg/kg) to log 6.7 cfu/g digesta (2500 mg/kg). Lactic acid bacteria were not influenced (p = 0.687) and clostridial cluster XIVa declined (p = 0.035) at highest ZnO level. Concentration of total, D- and L-lactate and propionate was not affected (p = 0.736, p = 0.290 and p = 0.630), but concentrations of ileal total VFA, acetate and butyrate increased markedly from 50 to 150 mg/kg and decreased with further increasing zinc levels and reached low levels again at 2500 mg/kg (p = 0.048, p = 0.048 and p = 0.097). Ammonia decreased (p < 0.006) with increasing dietary ZnO level. In conclusion, increasing levels of dietary ZnO had strong and dose-dependent effects on ileal bacterial community composition and activity, suggesting taxonomic variation in metabolic response to ZnO.

  7. Interaction of trimebutine and Jo-1196 (fedotozine) with opioid receptors in the canine ileum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allescher, H.D.; Ahmad, S.; Classen, M.; Daniel, E.E. (Technical Univ., Munich, (West Germany))

    1991-05-01

    Receptor binding of the opioid receptor antagonist, ({sup 3}H)diprenorphine, which has a similar affinity to the various opioid receptor subtypes, was characterized in subcellular fractions derived from either longitudinal or circular smooth muscle of the canine small intestine with their plexuses (myenteric plexus and deep muscular plexus, respectively) attached. The distribution of opioid binding activity showed a good correlation in the different fractions with the binding of the neuronal marker ({sup 3}H)saxitoxin but no correlation to the smooth muscle plasma membrane marker 5'-nucleotidase. The saturation data (Kd = 0.12 +/- 0.04 nM and maximum binding = 400 +/- 20 fmol/mg) and the data from kinetic experiments (Kd = 0.08 nmol) in the myenteric plexus were in good agreement with results obtained previously from the circular muscle/deep muscular plexus preparation. Competition experiments using selective drugs for mu (morphiceptin-analog (N-MePhe3-D-Pro4)-morphiceptin), delta (D-Pen2,5-enkephalin) and kappa (dynorphin 1-13, U50488-H) ligands showed the existence of all three receptor subtypes. The existence of kappa receptors was confirmed in saturation experiments using ({sup 3}H) ethylketocycloazocine as labeled ligand. Two putative opioid agonists, with effects on gastrointestinal motility, trimebutine and JO-1196 (fedotozin), were also examined. Trimebutine (Ki = 0.18 microM), Des-Met-trimebutine (Ki = 0.72 microM) and Jo-1196 (Ki = 0.19 microM) displaced specific opiate binding. The relative affinity for the opioid receptor subtypes was mu = 0.44, delta = 0.30 and kappa = 0.26 for trimebutine and mu = 0.25, delta = 0.22 and kappa = 0.52 for Jo-1196.

  8. Exogenous pancreatic-like enzymes are recovered in the gut and improve growth of exocrine pancreatic insufficient pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzynowski, S; Szwiec, K; Valverde Piedra, J L; Gruijc, D; Szymanczyk, S; Swieboda, P; Prykhodko, O; Fedkiv, O; Kruszewska, D; Filip, R; Botermans, J; Svendsen, J; Ushakova, G; Kovalenko, T; Osadchenko, I; Goncharova, K; Skibo, G; Weström, B

    2012-12-01

    The exocrine pancreatic insufficient (EPI) pigs grow less due to different disturbances in feed digestion, absorption, and retention. Use of pancreatic-like enzymes of microbial origin in pigs may improve feed use and performance in slow-growing pigs. The aim was to study gut recovery and effectiveness of pancreatic-like enzymes of microbial origin supplementation on pig performance. Six male pigs 10 to 12 kg BW underwent pancreatic duct ligation surgery to induce total exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). Three cannulas to access the gastrointestinal tract content were installed in stomach, duodenum, and ileum in EPI pigs and in 3 control (healthy) pigs. One month after surgery, enzymes were given before feeding and digesta samples were collected for analyses. The BW of EPI pigs did not increase during 1 mo following surgery (11.7 vs. 11.6 kg BW); however, BW increased after 1 wk of enzyme supplementation (12.1 kg BW). Coefficient of fat and N absorption increased (P amylase, lipase, and protease in chyme samples of EPI pigs was very low compared to controls. In EPI pigs after enzyme supplementation, amylase activity increased from 5.32 to 72.9 units/mL but remained lower than that of healthy pigs (162.7 units/mL). Lipase activity increased from 79.1 to 421.6 units/mL, which was similar to that of controls (507.3 units/mL). Proteolytic activity increased from 7.8 to 69.7 units/mL but still did not reach control pigs (164.3 units/mL). In conclusion, exogenous microbial enzymes mimic endogenous pancreatic enzymes being recovered along the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. These enzymes might be a useful tool to stimulate growth of slower-growing pigs after the weaning period.

  9. The influence of ileitis on the neurochemistry of the caudal mesenteric ganglion in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidsudko, Z; Wasowicz, K; Kaleczyc, J; Klimczuk, M; Bossowska, A; Majewski, M; Adriaensen, D; Timmermans, J-P

    2011-06-01

    Some literature data suggest that there is a regulatory neuronal circuit between the small and the large bowel. To verify this hypothesis the present study investigated: (i) the distribution, chemical coding and routing of caudal mesenteric ganglion (CaMG) neurons participating in an intestinointestinal reflex pathway involving ileal descending neurons and viscerofugal colonic neurons and (ii) possible changes in the neuroarchitecture of this pathway evoked by chemically induced ileitis in juvenile pigs (n=16). Combined retrograde tract tracing and transections of the intermesenteric or caudal colonic nerves were applied. In addition, double immunostainings was used to investigate the chemical coding of retrogradely labeled CaMG neurons and intraganglionic nerve terminals apposed to them, under normal and inflammatory conditions. The majority of the ileum-projecting neurons were found in the caudal part of CaMG. Disruption of particular nerve pathways resulted in diminished number of retrogradely labeled neurons, ipsilateral to the side of manipulation. In normal pigs, ileum-projecting CaMG neurons stained for tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine-β-hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin and galanin (GAL). The number and chemical coding of the neurons in the inflamed animals were similar to those observed in the normal pigs. However, in the inflamed pigs, the number of NPY-, GAL- or substance P-positive nerve terminals supplying retrogradely labeled neurons was increased. The present results suggest that inflammatory processes of the porcine ileum are able to induce changes in the intraganglionic architecture of a sympathetic ganglion located at discrete distance from the affected bowel segment. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Circadian variation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity in swine liver and ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D H; Kim, D N; Lee, K T; Reiner, J M; Thomas, W A

    1981-07-01

    The temporal variation of HMG-CoA reductase activity in the liver and intestine of swine was investigated. The thin-layer chromatographic method widely used in the assay of the reductase was successfully applied to the porcine enzymes. Parallel circadian rhythms were demonstrated in both hepatic and ileal reductases from mash-fed animals. Peak activity occurred approximately 6 hr after feeding, 2.7-fold over the basal level in the liver, and 1.6-fold in the ileum. A milk-cholesterol diet caused a marked depression of both rhythms (90% in liver, 50% in ileum); however, the hourly variation in activity persisted in both organs. Cholestyramine was found to elevate hepatic activity (2.7-fold throughout the rhythm) without affecting that of the intestine. Clofibrate had no effect on either enzyme at any time during the cycle despite a 34% reduction in serum cholesterol concentrations.

  11. Na(v)1.7 and Na(v)1.3 are the only tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels expressed by the adult guinea pig enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, D; Salin, P; Alcaraz, G; Castets, F; Giraud, P; Crest, M; Mazet, B; Clerc, N

    2007-10-01

    The types of sodium channels that are expressed by neurons shape the rising phase of action potentials and influence patterns of action potential discharge. With regard to the enteric nervous system (ENS), there is uncertainty about which channels are expressed, and in particular it is unknown whether Na(v)1.7 is present. We designed specific probes for the guinea pig Na(v)1.7 alpha subunit as well as for the other tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive alpha subunits (Na(v)1.1, Na(v)1.2, Na(v)1.3, and Na(v)1.6) in order to perform in situ hybridization (ISH) histochemistry on guinea pig myenteric ganglia. We established that only Na(v)1.7 mRNA and Na(v)1.3 mRNA are expressed in these ganglia. The ISH signal for Na(v)1.7 transcripts was found in seemingly all the myenteric neurons. The expression of the Na(v)1.3 alpha subunit was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in a large proportion (62%) of the myenteric neuron population. This population included enteric sensory neurons. Na(v)1.6 immunoreactivity, absent from myenteric neurons, was detected in glial cells only when a high anti-Na(v)1.6 antibody concentration was used. This suggests that the Na(v)1.6 alpha subunit and mRNA are present only at low levels, which is consistent with the fact that no Na(v)1.6 mRNA could be detected in the ENS by ISH. The fact that adult myenteric neurons are endowed with only two TTX-sensitive alpha subunits, namely, Na(v)1.3 and Na(v)1.7, emphasizes the singularity of the ENS. Both these subunits, known to have slow-inactivation kinetics, are well adapted for generating action potentials from slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials, a mode of synaptic transmission that applies to all ENS neuron types.

  12. Heat stress reduces intestinal barrier integrity and favors intestinal glucose transport in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Sarah C; Mani, Venkatesh; Boddicker, Rebecca L; Johnson, Jay S; Weber, Thomas E; Ross, Jason W; Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H; Gabler, Nicholas K

    2013-01-01

    Excessive heat exposure reduces intestinal integrity and post-absorptive energetics that can inhibit wellbeing and be fatal. Therefore, our objectives were to examine how acute heat stress (HS) alters intestinal integrity and metabolism in growing pigs. Animals were exposed to either thermal neutral (TN, 21°C; 35-50% humidity; n=8) or HS conditions (35°C; 24-43% humidity; n=8) for 24 h. Compared to TN, rectal temperatures in HS pigs increased by 1.6°C and respiration rates by 2-fold (Pintestinal integrity was compromised in the HS pigs (ileum and colon TER decreased; PIntestinal permeability was accompanied by an increase in protein expression of myosin light chain kinase (PIntestinal glucose transport and blood glucose were elevated due to HS (Pintestinal integrity and increase intestinal stress and glucose transport.

  13. Rare cause of ileus in the mesenteric cavity of terminal ileum: A report of three cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Tekin; F Aksoy; C Vatansev; T Kücükkartallar

    2006-01-01

    Internal herniation is one of the rare reasons of intestine clog, which is hard to diagnose and usually needs an urgent surgical treatment. We report 3 patients with internal herniation in the mesenteric cavity of the terminal ileum. Besides intestinal congestion, they also had peritoneal irritation. Laparotomy revealed that herniation caused disorder in nutrition of the intestine and necrosis. The patients underwent subtotal small intestine resection and were discharged 10, 12 and 14 d after operation.

  14. Variceal bleeding from ileum identified and treated by single balloon enteroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mario Traina; Ilaria Tarantino; Luca Barresi; Filippo Mocciaro

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of acute uncontrolled gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient with liver cirrhosis. The upper and lower endoscopy were negative for bleeding lesions. We decided to perform the examination of the small bowel using single-balloon enteroscopy. The lower enteroscopy revealed signs of bleeding from varices of the ileum. In this report, we showed that the injection of a sclerosant solution can be accomplished using a freehand technique via the single balloon enteroscopy.

  15. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for large laterally spreading tumors involving the ileocecal valve and terminal ileum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gustavo Kishimoto; Yutaka Saito; Hajime Takisawa; Haruhisa Suzuki; Taku Sakamoto; Takeshi Nakajima; Takahisa Matsuda

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection is a challenging technique that enables en-bloc resection for large colorectal tumors, as laterally spreading tumors, particularly difficult, if the ileocecal valve and terminal ileum is involved. Herein, we report on one of 4 cases. The procedures, using a bipolar needle knife (B-Knife) to reduce the perforation risk and carbon dioxide instead of conventional air insufflation for patient comfort, achieved curative resections without any complications.

  16. Evaluation of the areas of neuronal cell bodies and nuclei in the myenteric plexus of the duodenum of adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRANDA-NETO MARCILÍO H.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the areas of cell body and nucleus profiles of the myenteric neurons in the antimesenteric and intermediate regions of the duodenum of adult rats. Five male rats were used. The duodenum was removed and dissected to whole-mount preparations, which were stained by the Giemsa technique. The areas of cell body and nucleus profiles of 100 neurons, 50 from each region, of each animal, were assessed with image analyser. Based on the global mean±SD of the areas of cell body profiles, neurons were labelled as small, medium or large. It was observed that the neurons did not differ significantly in size or incidence between the antimesenteric and intermediate regions. However, the nuclei of the small and medium neurons were significantly smaller in the latter region. It is discussed that the smaller nuclear size could be related to the cell bodies being slightly smaller on this region and to a possible smaller biosynthetic activity which would influence nuclear size.

  17. Suppression of c-Kit signaling induces adult neurogenesis in the mouse intestine after myenteric plexus ablation with benzalkonium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, Hiromi; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis rarely occurs in the enteric nervous system (ENS). In this study, we demonstrated that, after intestinal myenteric plexus (MP) ablation with benzalkonium chloride (BAC), adult neurogenesis in the ENS was significantly induced in c-kit loss-of-function mutant mice (W/Wv). Almost all neurons and fibers in the MP disappeared after BAC treatment. However, 1 week after ablation, substantial penetration of nerve fibers from the non-damaged area was observed in the MP, longitudinal muscle and subserosal layers in both wildtype and W/Wv mice. Two weeks after BAC treatment, in addition to the penetrating fibers, a substantial number of ectopic neurons appeared in the subserosal and longitudinal muscle layers of W/Wv mice, whereas only a few ectopic neurons appeared in wildtype mice. Such ectopic neurons expressed either excitatory or inhibitory intrinsic motor neuron markers and formed ganglion-like structures, including glial cells, synaptic vesicles and basal lamina. Furthermore, oral administration of imatinib, an inhibitor of c-Kit and an anticancer agent for gastrointestinal stromal tumors, markedly induced appearance of ectopic neurons after BAC treatment, even in wildtype mice. These results suggest that adult neurogenesis in the ENS is negatively regulated by c-Kit signaling in vivo. PMID:27572504

  18. Suppression of c-Kit signaling induces adult neurogenesis in the mouse intestine after myenteric plexus ablation with benzalkonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, Hiromi; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-08-30

    Adult neurogenesis rarely occurs in the enteric nervous system (ENS). In this study, we demonstrated that, after intestinal myenteric plexus (MP) ablation with benzalkonium chloride (BAC), adult neurogenesis in the ENS was significantly induced in c-kit loss-of-function mutant mice (W/W(v)). Almost all neurons and fibers in the MP disappeared after BAC treatment. However, 1 week after ablation, substantial penetration of nerve fibers from the non-damaged area was observed in the MP, longitudinal muscle and subserosal layers in both wildtype and W/W(v) mice. Two weeks after BAC treatment, in addition to the penetrating fibers, a substantial number of ectopic neurons appeared in the subserosal and longitudinal muscle layers of W/W(v) mice, whereas only a few ectopic neurons appeared in wildtype mice. Such ectopic neurons expressed either excitatory or inhibitory intrinsic motor neuron markers and formed ganglion-like structures, including glial cells, synaptic vesicles and basal lamina. Furthermore, oral administration of imatinib, an inhibitor of c-Kit and an anticancer agent for gastrointestinal stromal tumors, markedly induced appearance of ectopic neurons after BAC treatment, even in wildtype mice. These results suggest that adult neurogenesis in the ENS is negatively regulated by c-Kit signaling in vivo.

  19. Antispasmodic Effects and Action Mechanism of Essential Oil of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray on Rabbit Ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zavala-Mendoza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (C. mexicana plant is used in folk medicine to treat fever and rheumatism; it is used as a diuretic, antispasmodic; and it is used for its aphrodisiac properties. This study investigates the effects of the essential oil of C. mexicana (EOCM on the contractility of rabbit ileum and the mechanisms of action involved. Muscle contractility studies in vitro in an organ bath to evaluate the response to EOCM were performed in the rabbit ileum. EOCM (1–100 µg·mL−1 reduced the amplitude and area under the curve of spontaneous contractions of the ileum. The contractions induced by carbachol 1 µM, potassium chloride (KCl 60 mM or Bay K8644 1 µM were reduced by EOCM (30 µg·mL−1. Apamin 1 µM and charybdotoxin 0.01 µM decreased the inhibition induced by EOCM. The d-cAMP 1 µM decreased the inhibition induced by EOCM. l-NNA 10 µM, Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS 1 µM, d,l-propargylglycine 2 mM, or aminooxyacetic acid hemihydrochloride 2 mM did not modify the EOCM effect. In conclusion, EOCM induces an antispasmodic effect and could be used in the treatment of intestinal spasms or diarrhea processes. This effect would be mediated by Ca2+, Ca2+-activated K+ channels and cAMP.

  20. Intervention of ginger or propolis ameliorates methotrexate-induced ileum toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Salah, Marwa

    2016-02-01

    The long-term clinical use of methotrexate (MTX) is restricted due to its severe intestinal toxicity. The protective effect of ginger or propolis on the toxicity induced by MTX is relatively less understood, so the possible protective effect of ginger or propolis, used separately, was investigated. A total of 60 male albino rats were divided into six groups as follows: (1) control group; (2) ginger group; (3) propolis group; (4) MTX group; (5) ginger + MTX group; and (6) propolis + MTX group. The present results show that MTX caused ileum injury, including shortening and fusion of the villi, inflammatory cell infiltration and goblet cell depletion. Administration of ginger or propolis ameliorated the MTX-induced ileum injury as shown by histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural investigations and statistical analysis. This is revealed by intact villi, which shows marked increase in brown colouration of proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive nuclei in the crypts region, improvement in the number of goblet cells and brush border length of ileum. The current results conclude the efficacy and safety of ginger and propolis, which may be due to their antioxidant properties.

  1. Effect of Daidzein on Ileum Microlfora Biodiversity in Hy-Line Variety Brown Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Guo-zhen; Wang Li

    2014-01-01

    Daidzein is always added into poultry feed to make the production performance and immunity of poultry better. In this study, a total of 600 40-week-old Hy-Line variety brown layers were randomized into five groups and fed with a corn-soybean-mixed basal diet supplement with 0, 10, 50, 100, and 500 mg• kg-1 daidzein, respectively. Then, two PCR-based typing methods (RAPD-PCR and ERIC-PCR) were combined to analyze the ileum content and explore the changes of ileum microflora biodiversity. The results of RAPD-PCR and ERIC-PCR showed that bands under 10 mg• kg-1 and 50 mg• kg-1 were the most, and their similarity was the largest. Bands under 500 mg• kg-1 were the least and similarity with other groups was the minimum. Ileum microflora biodiversity under 10 mg• kg-1 or 50 mg• kg-1 was richer than that under 500 mg• kg-1. A corn-soybean-mixed basal diet supplement with 10 mg• kg-1 to 50 mg• kg-1 of daidzein might be beneficial to Hy-Line variety brown layers intestinal bacteria.

  2. Effects of feeding finisher pigs with chicory or lupine feed for one week or two weeks before slaughter with respect to levels of Bifidobacteria and Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A N; Hansen, L L; Baggesen, D L; Mølbak, L

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether inclusion of chicory or lupine (prebiotics) in the diet of pre-slaughter pigs for just 1 or 2 weeks could change the composition of their intestinal microbiota, stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria and help to lower the amount of thermoplilic Campylobacter spp. (mainly Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli), which are a major cause of food-borne infections in humans. A total of 48 pigs that had an initial live weight of 90 kg were fed with either a lupine (organic concentrate with 25% blue lupine seeds), chicory (organic concentrate with 10% dried chicory roots) or control (100% organic concentrate) diet for 1 week (24 pigs) or 2 weeks (24 pigs) before slaughter. The Campylobacter spp. level in rectal faecal samples after 0, 1 and 2 weeks of feeding and in the luminal content from ileum, caecum and colon at slaughter was determined by direct plating on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar plates. DNA extracted from the luminal content of distal ileum and caecum was used for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the composition of intestinal microbiota and for measuring the amount of bifidobacterial and total bacterial DNA by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Campylobacter spp. were excreted by all pigs and present in the luminal content from distal ileum to midway colon with particularly high numbers in the caecum, but the excretion was reduced by 10-fold in pigs fed lupines for 1 week as compared with control- and chicory-fed pigs (mean log(10) 2.9 v. 4.1 CFU/g; P lupines resulted in higher levels of bifidobacteria in caecum as compared with the other diets (P 5% relative to the intensity of total abundance differed between the feed treatments (P lupine increased the level of bifidobacteria in caecum and reduced the Campylobacter spp. excretion level after 1 week.

  3. Smallholder pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    -ranging of pigs and presence of neighbouring pigs were also identified as risk factors for the presence of lice. Three species of fleas were identified; Tunga penetrans, Echidnophaga gallinacea and Ctenocephalides canis. The prevalence of fleas was 5% and 13% within confined and free-range, respectively. Two pigs...

  4. In-vitro Antispasmodic Activity Analysis of Methanolic Leaves Extract of Lantana camara Linn. on Excised Rat Ileum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna P. Ghodake

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to provide the pharmacological basis for medicinal use of Lantana camara Linn. as an antispasmodic agent using in-vitro pharmacological assay. Lantana camara Linn. (Verbenaceae, is a widely growing shrub which found to be toxic to some animal species, has been used in the traditional medicine for treating many ailments. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antispasmodic effects of Lantana camara leaf constituents on rat ileum. Antispasmodic activity was assessed by the interpolation method on isolated rat ileum. Effects of acetylcholine, methanolic extract of Lantana camara leaves and acetylcholine along with methanolic leaves extract were studied on isolated rat ileum; which later compared with atropine as standard anti-spasmodic agent. The present study results revealed that methanolic leaves extract of Lantana camara Linn. showed promising antispasmodic action on excised rat ileum.

  5. Neuronal release of endogenous dopamine from corpus of guinea pig stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shichijo, K; Sakurai-Yamashita, Y; Sekine, I; Taniyama, K

    1997-11-01

    Neuronal release of endogenous dopamine was identified in mucosa-free preparations (muscle layer including intramural plexus) from guinea pig stomach corpus by measuring tissue dopamine content and dopamine release and by immunohistochemical methods using a dopamine antiserum. Dopamine content in mucosa-free preparations of guinea pig gastric corpus was one-tenth of norepinephrine content. Electrical transmural stimulation of mucosa-free preparations of gastric corpus increased the release of endogenous dopamine in a frequency-dependent (3-20 Hz) manner. The stimulated release of dopamine was prevented by either removal of external Ca2+ or treatment with tetrodotoxin. Dopamine-immunopositive nerve fibers surrounding choline acetyltransferase-immunopositive ganglion cells were seen in the myenteric plexus of whole mount preparations of gastric corpus even after bilateral transection of the splanchnic nerve proximal to the junction with the vagal nerve (section of nerves between the celiac ganglion and stomach). Domperidone and sulpiride potentiated the stimulated release of acetylcholine and reversed the dopamine-induced inhibition of acetylcholine release from mucosa-free preparations. These results indicate that dopamine is physiologically released from neurons and from possible dopaminergic nerve terminals and regulates cholinergic neuronal activity in the corpus of guinea pig stomach.

  6. Flare-Up Diverticulitis in the Terminal Ileum in Short Interval after Conservative Therapy: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Nakatani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diverticulitis in the terminal ileum is uncommon. Past reports suggested that conservative therapy may be feasible to treat terminal ileum diverticulitis without perforation; however, there is no consensus on the therapeutic strategy for small bowel diverticulitis. We present a 37-year-old man who was referred to our hospital for sudden onset of abdominal pain and nausea. He was diagnosed with diverticulitis in the terminal ileum by computed tomography (CT. Tazobactam/piperacillin hydrate (18 g/day was administered. The antibiotic treatment was maintained for 7 days, and the symptoms disappeared after the treatment. Thirty-eight days after antibiotic therapy, he noticed severe abdominal pain again. He was diagnosed with diverticulitis in terminal ileum which was flare-up of inflammation. He was given antibiotic therapy again. Nine days after antibiotic therapy, laparoscopy assisted right hemicolectomy and resection of 20 cm of terminal ileum were performed. Histopathology report confirmed multiple ileal diverticulitis. He was discharged from our hospital 12 days after the surgery. Colonoscopy was performed two months after the surgery and it revealed no finding suggesting inflammatory bowel disease. Surgical treatment should be taken into account as a potential treatment option to manage the diverticulitis in the terminal ileum even though it is not perforated.

  7. Effects of astaxanthin-enriched yeast on mucosal IgA induction in the jejunum and ileum of weanling mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Tatsuhiko; Sugimoto, Miki; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Kume, Shinichi

    2014-04-01

    The present study was conducted to clarify the effects of astaxanthin-enriched yeast on the concentration of immunoglobulin A (IgA), the numbers of IgA antibody-secreting cells (ASC) and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of IgA C-region in the jejunum and ileum of weanling mice. Weanling mice were fed rodent feed or astaxanthin-enriched yeast-supplemented rodent feed for 7, 14 or 21 days. Supplemental astaxanthin-enriched yeast increased the numbers of IgA ASC in the jejunum and ileum after 7, 14 and 21 days of treatment. Supplemental astaxanthin-enriched yeast increased IgA concentrations in the jejunum after 21 days of treatment, but IgA concentrations in the ileum were not affected by the treatment. The mRNA expressions of IgA C-region in the jejunum after 14 and 21 days of treatment and the ileum after 14 days of treatment were enhanced by supplementation of astaxanthin-enriched yeast. These results indicate that supplementation of astaxanthin-enriched yeast is effective to enhance the numbers of IgA ASC in the jejunum and ileum and IgA concentrations in the ileum of weanling mice.

  8. Flare-Up Diverticulitis in the Terminal Ileum in Short Interval after Conservative Therapy: Report of a Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Kensuke; Okada, Shinichiro; Matsumoto, Risa; Komuro, Hiroyasu; Iida, Maki; Tsujimoto, Shiro; Suganuma, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Diverticulitis in the terminal ileum is uncommon. Past reports suggested that conservative therapy may be feasible to treat terminal ileum diverticulitis without perforation; however, there is no consensus on the therapeutic strategy for small bowel diverticulitis. We present a 37-year-old man who was referred to our hospital for sudden onset of abdominal pain and nausea. He was diagnosed with diverticulitis in the terminal ileum by computed tomography (CT). Tazobactam/piperacillin hydrate (18 g/day) was administered. The antibiotic treatment was maintained for 7 days, and the symptoms disappeared after the treatment. Thirty-eight days after antibiotic therapy, he noticed severe abdominal pain again. He was diagnosed with diverticulitis in terminal ileum which was flare-up of inflammation. He was given antibiotic therapy again. Nine days after antibiotic therapy, laparoscopy assisted right hemicolectomy and resection of 20 cm of terminal ileum were performed. Histopathology report confirmed multiple ileal diverticulitis. He was discharged from our hospital 12 days after the surgery. Colonoscopy was performed two months after the surgery and it revealed no finding suggesting inflammatory bowel disease. Surgical treatment should be taken into account as a potential treatment option to manage the diverticulitis in the terminal ileum even though it is not perforated. PMID:28097035

  9. Transgenesis for pig models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Soo-Young; Yoon, Ki-Young; Lee, Choong-Il; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Animal models, particularly pigs, have come to play an important role in translational biomedical research. There have been many pig models with genetically modifications via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, because most transgenic pigs have been produced by random integration to date, the necessity for more exact gene-mutated models using recombinase based conditional gene expression like mice has been raised. Currently, advanced genome-editing technologies enable us to generate specific gene-deleted and -inserted pig models. In the future, the development of pig models with gene editing technologies could be a valuable resource for biomedical research. PMID:27030199

  10. Characterization of the myenteric neuronal population and subpopulation of the duodenum of adult wistar rat fed with hypoproteic chow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora M.G. Sant'Ana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of severe protein malnutrition (4% on myenteric neurons of Wistar rat duodenum, in relation to a standard 22%-protein diet for rodents, were assessed in this study. Segments of the duodenum from 10 rats from each nutritional group were submitted to the elaboration of whole mounts - 5 stained with Giemsa to determine the total population of myenteric neurons and the others stained by a histochemical method to detect nervous cells through the NADPH-diaphorase enzyme activity for studying the subpopulation of nitrergic neurons. The area of 100 neurons per animal, totalizing 2,000 neurons, were randomly measured by using the Image Pro-Plus®software. Malnourished rats presented 34.38% lower body weight and 10.60% duodenum length reduction when compared to the control group. Quantitative analysis demonstrated no significant differences between control and malnourished group by using Giemsa; however, as the organ reduction was not followed by an increase inversely proportional to the density of neurons, the condition imposed suggests the loss of neurons from the total population. Nevertheless, through NADPH-d histochemistry, there was a neuronal density increase for the malnourished group. There was no significant difference between the groups for both techniques with respect to the morphometric analysis of the body cell.Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da desnutrição protéica severa (4% sobre os neurônios mientéricos do duodeno de ratos Wistar, comparando-se a uma dieta padrão para roedores de 22% de proteína. Para este estudo, segmentos do duodeno de 10 ratos de cada grupo nutricional foram submetidos à elaboração de preparados de membrana, sendo cinco corados pelo método de Giemsa, para estimar a população mientérica total e os demais corados pelo método histoquímico de evidenciação de células nervosas, por meio da atividade da enzima NADPH-diaforase para estudo da subpopulação de neurônios nitr

  11. Effects of combined pre-and post-natal protein deprivation on the myenteric plexus of the esophagus of weanling rats:A histochemical, quantitative and ultrastructural study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edson A Liberti; Ricardo BV Fontes; Verginia M Fuggi; Laura BM Maifrino; Romeu R Souza

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of protein deprivation on the myenteric plexus of the esophagus of weanling rats.METHODS: Pregnant female Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: nourished (N), receiving normal diet,and undernourished (D), receiving a protein-deprived diet, which continued after birth. At twenty-one days of age, 13 esophagi from each group were submitted to light microscopy and morphometrical analysis employing the NADH diaphorase, NADPH diaphorase and acetylcholinesterase techniques. Three other esophagi from each group were evaluated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM).RESULTS: In both the NADH- and the NADPH-reactive mounts, the neurons of the N mounts were more intensely stained, while in the D esophagi only the larger neurons were reactive. Many myenteric neurons of N were intensely reactive for AChE activity but only a few neurons of D exhibited these aspects. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that the granular reticulum of N showed large numbers of ribosomes aligned on the outer surface of its regularly arranged membrane while the ribosomes of D were disposed in clusters. The chromatin was more homogeneously scattered inside the neuron nucleus of N as well as the granular component of the nucleolus was evidently more developed in this group.Statistically significant differences between N and D groups were detected in the total estimated number of neurons stained by the NADPH technique.CONCLUSION: The morphological and quantitative data shows that feeding with protein-deprived diet in 21-d old rats induces a delay in the development of the myenteric neurons of the esophagus.

  12. Irinotecan-Induced Gastrointestinal Dysfunction Is Associated with Enteric Neuropathy, but Increased Numbers of Cholinergic Myenteric Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. McQuade

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal dysfunction is a common side-effect of chemotherapy leading to dose reductions and treatment delays. These side-effects may persist up to 10 years post-treatment. A topoisomerase I inhibitor, irinotecan (IRI, commonly used for the treatment of colorectal cancer, is associated with severe acute and delayed-onset diarrhea. The long-term effects of IRI may be due to damage to enteric neurons innervating the gastrointestinal tract and controlling its functions. Balb/c mice received intraperitoneal injections of IRI (30 mg/kg−1 3 times a week for 14 days, sham-treated mice received sterile water (vehicle injections. In vivo analysis of gastrointestinal transit via serial x-ray imaging, facal water content, assessment of gross morphological damage and immunohistochemical analysis of myenteric neurons were performed at 3, 7 and 14 days following the first injection and at 7 days post-treatment. Ex vivo colonic motility was analyzed at 14 days following the first injection and 7 days post-treatment. Mucosal damage and inflammation were found following both short and long-term treatment with IRI. IRI-induced neuronal loss and increases in the number and proportion of ChAT-IR neurons and the density of VAChT-IR fibers were associated with changes in colonic motility, gastrointestinal transit and fecal water content. These changes persisted in post-treatment mice. Taken together this work has demonstrated for the first time that IRI-induced inflammation, neuronal loss and altered cholinergic expression is associated with the development of IRI-induced long-term gastrointestinal dysfunction and diarrhea.

  13. Congenital fibrosarcoma of the ileum: case report with molecular confirmation and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rizkalla, Hala

    2012-02-01

    Congenital fibrosarcoma is a rare, soft tissue malignancy of infancy, most commonly involving the distal extremities. We report a case of congenital fibrosarcoma of the ileum in a 5-day-old boy who presented with an acute abdomen due to ileal perforation. Partial ileal resection was carried out with successful anastomosis. Grossly, the resected small bowel showed focal luminal stenosis with a thickened, indurated wall. Histology showed a transmural primitive spindle cell proliferation with a morphology consistent with congenital fibrosarcoma. The associated hallmark chromosomal translocation t(12;15)(q13;q25) was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.

  14. Pig model for diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a transgenic pig comprising a mutated IAPP gene and displaying a phenotype associated with diabetes. The invention also relates to a transgenic blastocyst, embryo, fetus, donor cell and/or cell nucleusderived from said transgenic pig. The invention further relates...... to use of the transgenic pig as a model system for studying therapy, treatment and/or prevention of diabetes....

  15. The effect of high-fat diet on the composition of the gut microbiota in cloned and non-cloned pigs of lean and obese phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Rebecca; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Hermann-Bank, Marie Louise; Stagsted, Jan; Boye, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-far-high-energy diet on cloned and non-cloned domestic pigs of both lean and obese phenotype and to evaluate if the lean cloned pigs had a lower inter-individual variation as compared with non-cloned pigs. The microbiota of colon and terminal ileum was investigated in cloned and non-cloned pigs that received a high-far-high-energy diet with either restricted or ad libitum access to feed, resulting in lean and obese phenotypes, respectively. The fecal microbiota of lean pigs was investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). The intestinal microbiota of lean and obese cloned and non-cloned pigs was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR and a novel high-throughput qPCR platform (Fluidigm). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the T-RFLP profiles revealed that lean cloned and non-cloned pigs had a different overall composition of their gut microbiota. The colon of lean cloned pigs contained relatively more bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and less from the phylum Bacteroidetes than obese cloned pigs as estimated by qPCR. Fluidigm qPCR results revealed differences in specific bacterial groups in the gut microbiota of both lean and obese pigs. Our results suggest that high-far-high-energy diet is associated with changes in the gut microbiota even in the absence of obesity. Overall, the cloned pigs had a different gut microbiota from that of non-cloned pigs. To our knowledge this is the first study to investigate the gut microbiota of cloned domestic pigs of lean and obese phenotype.

  16. Morphometric and quantitative evaluation of the NADH-diaphorase positive myenteric neurons of the jejunum of streptozotocin-diabetic rats supplemented with acetyl-L-carnitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miranda Neto, M H; Defani, M A; Fregonesi, C E P T; Natali, M R M; Pereira, A

    2005-06-01

    Summary In this study we investigated the effect of the acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) supplementation on the myenteric neurons of the jejunum of rats made diabetic at the age of 105 days by streptozotocin (35 mg/kg body weight). Four groups were used: non-diabetic (C), non-diabetic supplemented with ALC (CC), diabetic (D), diabetic supplemented with ALC (DC). After 15 weeks of diabetes induction the blood was collected by cardiac puncture to evaluate glycaemia and glycated haemoglobin. Next the animals were killed and the jejunum was collected and subjected to whole-mount preparation to evidence the myenteric neurons through the histochemical technique of the NADH-diaphorase. The neuronal counts were made in 80 microscopic fields, in tissue samples of five animals of each group. The profiles of the cell bodies of 1000 neurons per group were analysed. Diabetes induced a significant increase in the area of the cell body and decrease in the number of NADH-diaphorase positive myoenteric neurons. ALC suplementation to the diabetic group promoted smaller hypertrophic effects and less neuronal loss than in the myoenteric neurons of the diabetic rats, and in addition diminished the body weight decrease and reduced the fasting glycaemia.

  17. Functional and structural alterations of epithelial barrier properties of rat ileum following X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dublineau, I. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Direction de la RadioProtection de l' Homme, Service de Radiobiologie et d' Epidemiologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses, CEDEX (France)]. E-mail: isabelle.dublineau@irsn.fr; Lebrun, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Dept. de Radiopathologie et de Radiobiologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses, CEDEX (France); Grison, S.; Griffiths, N.M. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Direction de la RadioProtection de l' Homme, Service de Radiobiologie et d' Epidemiologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses, CEDEX (France)

    2004-02-01

    Irradiation of the digestive system leads to alterations of the small intestine. We have characterized the disruption of the barrier integrity in rat ileum from 1 to 14 days following irradiation ranging from 6 to 12 Gy. The intestinal permeability to {sup 14}C-mannitol and {sup 3}H-dextran 70,000 was measured in vitro in Ussing chambers. In parallel to these functional studies, immunohistochemical analyses of junctional proteins (ZO-1 and {beta}-catenin) of ileal epithelium were performed by confocal microscopy. Irradiation with 10 Gy induced a marked decrease in epithelial tissue resistance at three days and a fivefold increase in mannitol permeability, without modifications of dextran permeability. A disorganization of the localization for ZO-1 and {beta}-catenin was also observed. At 7 days after irradiation, we observed a recovery of the organization of junctional proteins in parallel to a return of intestinal permeability to control value. In addition to these time-dependent effects, a gradual effect on epithelial integrity of the radiation doses was observed 3 days after irradiation. This study shows a disruption of the integrity of the intestinal barrier in rat ileum following abdominal X-irradiation, depending on the time postirradiation and on the delivered dose. The loss of barrier integrity was characterized by a disorganization of proteins of tight and adherent junctions, leading to increased intestinal permeability to mannitol. (author)

  18. Claudin-2 expression is upregulated in the ileum of diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimoto, Haruka; Oshima, Tadayuki; Sei, Hiroo; Yamasaki, Takahisa; Kondo, Takashi; Tozawa, Katsuyuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Ohda, Yoshio; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial barrier function is impaired in irritable bowel syndrome patients. Claudins are highly expressed in cells with tight junctions and are involved in the intestinal epithelial barrier function. The expression pattern of tight junction proteins in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome have not been fully elucidated. We therefore recruited 17 diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients and 20 healthy controls. The expression of the tight junction-related proteins was examined in the ileal, cecal, and rectal mucosa of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients using real-time PCR and immunofluorescence. Claudin-2 expression was high in the ileum of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients. Claudin-2 expression was the same in cecum and rectal mucosa of control and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients. Similarly, the expression of clauidn-1, claudin-7, JAM-A, occludin, and ZO-1 in the ileal, cecal, and rectal mucosa did not change between control and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome samples. Infiltration of eosinophil and mast cells in the mucosa of ileum, cecum and rectum was evaluated using immunohistochemical staining and was not affected by diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Claudin-2 was expressed on the apical side of villi and crypts of ileal mucosal epithelial cells. Clauidn-2 expression is upregulated in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients and may contribute to the pathogenesis of this condition. PMID:28366996

  19. Ileum perforation due to accidental chicken bone ingestion a rare cause of the acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doklestić Krstina S.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of foreign bodies is not an uncommon occurrence, but most of them will pass through the gastrointestinal tract without consequences. Complication such as perforation is rare. We present a case of small bowel perforation secondary to the accidental ingestion of a chicken bone. The patient presented with abdominal pain, constipation and vomiting. Clinical examination confirmed generalized abdominal tenderness and rebound tenderness. Abdominal radiography showed multiple dilated loops of small bowel, and abdominal ultrasound (US showed inflammatory changes on small bowel loops, with free fluid and fluid collection around intestinal loops. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy. Intra operative findings revealed diffuse fibro purulent peritonitis with abscess between central small bowels loops. At about 60 cm from Bauchini valve we found a perforation of ileum at the anti-mesenteric site caused by a sharp chicken wishbone. The patient was treated with resection of the ileum segment (10 cm and primary end-to-end anastomosis. Even that intestinal perforation by a foreign body is rare, physicians should consider possibility of intestinal perforation by a foreign body in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in patients presenting with abdominal pain.

  20. Neuromuscular alterations in the dilated ileum of an adult patient with segmental lymphangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggi, Silvia; Ferrero, Stefano; Braidotti, Paola; de Rai, Paolo; Conte, Dario; Basilisco, Guido

    2008-09-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare condition, which is characterized by the dilation of small bowel lymphatics and presents with signs and symptoms of protein-losing enteropathy. Some patients have complained of occlusive symptoms attributable to the mechanical obstruction caused by the considerable mucosal edema associated with the lymphatic dilation. On the basis of the hypothesis that alterations in the neuromuscular structures controlling clearance function or gut tone may play a role in ileal dilation, we examined the resected ileum of a 48-year-old male patient with segmental lymphangiectasia histologically, immunohistochemically (for S100 protein, PGP 9.5, Bcl-2, neuron-specific enolase, neurofilaments, synaptophysin, and CD117/C-kit), and by means of electron microscopy. Histology showed pseudocystic dilation of the mucosal, submucosal, and muscular lymphatics with fragmentation of the circular and longitudinal muscle layers. Hardly any neural expression of synaptophysin was observed, but the neural structures were otherwise morphologically normal and reacted normally to the other neural markers. This case shows that neuromuscular alterations can be found in the dilated ileum of patients with segmental lymphangiectasia.

  1. A fibrolytic potential in the human ileum mucosal microbiota revealed by functional metagenomic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrascu, Orlane; Béguet-Crespel, Fabienne; Marinelli, Ludovica; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Abraham, Anne-Laure; Leclerc, Marion; Klopp, Christophe; Terrapon, Nicolas; Henrissat, Bernard; Blottière, Hervé M.; Doré, Joël; Béra-Maillet, Christel

    2017-01-01

    The digestion of dietary fibers is a major function of the human intestinal microbiota. So far this function has been attributed to the microorganisms inhabiting the colon, and many studies have focused on this distal part of the gastrointestinal tract using easily accessible fecal material. However, microbial fermentations, supported by the presence of short-chain fatty acids, are suspected to occur in the upper small intestine, particularly in the ileum. Using a fosmid library from the human ileal mucosa, we screened 20,000 clones for their activities against carboxymethylcellulose and xylans chosen as models of the major plant cell wall (PCW) polysaccharides from dietary fibres. Eleven positive clones revealed a broad range of CAZyme encoding genes from Bacteroides and Clostridiales species, as well as Polysaccharide Utilization Loci (PULs). The functional glycoside hydrolase genes were identified, and oligosaccharide break-down products examined from different polysaccharides including mixed-linkage β-glucans. CAZymes and PULs were also examined for their prevalence in human gut microbiome. Several clusters of genes of low prevalence in fecal microbiome suggested they belong to unidentified strains rather specifically established upstream the colon, in the ileum. Thus, the ileal mucosa-associated microbiota encompasses the enzymatic potential for PCW polysaccharide degradation in the small intestine. PMID:28091525

  2. Bacteriophage cocktail and multi-strain probiotics in the feed for weanling pigs: effects on intestine morphology and targeted intestinal coliforms and Clostridium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J S; Hosseindoust, A; Lee, S H; Choi, Y H; Kim, M J; Lee, J H; Kwon, I K; Chae, B J

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of bacteriophage cocktail, probiotics and a combination of these two supplements on performance and gut health of weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, 150 weaned piglets were randomly allotted to three treatments on the basis of BW. The dietary treatments included a basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg bacteriophage cocktail. Pigs fed 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg bacteriophage product had greater (Pprobiotic product (P), 1.0 g/kg bacteriophage cocktail (B) and combination of 1.0 g/kg bacteriophage cocktail and 3.0 g/kg fermented probiotic product. Pigs fed bacteriophage cocktail diets had greater (PProbiotics significantly increased G : F, colonization of Lactobacillus spp. in ileum. At day 35, bacteriophage treatment group showed greater (Pgut health of weanling pigs, however their combination with probiotics did not show an interaction.

  3. Effects of feeding finisher pigs with chicory or lupine feed for one week or two weeks before slaughter with respect to levels of Bifidobacteria and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Hansen, L. L.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether inclusion of chicory or lupine (prebiotics) in the diet of pre-slaughter pigs for just 1 or 2 weeks could change the composition of their intestinal microbiota, stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria and help to lower the amount of thermoplilic Campylobacter spp....... (mainly Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli), which are a major cause of food-borne infections in humans. A total of 48 pigs that had an initial live weight of 90 kg were fed with either a lupine (organic concentrate with 25% blue lupine seeds), chicory (organic concentrate with 10% dried chicory...... bacterial DNA by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Campylobacter spp. were excreted by all pigs and present in the luminal content from distal ileum to midway colon with particularly high numbers in the caecum, but the excretion was reduced by 10-fold in pigs fed lupines for 1 week as compared with control...

  4. Effect of dietary copper amount and source on copper metabolism and oxidative stress of weanling pigs in short-term feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y L; Ashwell, M S; Fry, R S; Lloyd, K E; Flowers, W L; Spears, J W

    2015-06-01

    Forty-eight weanling barrows were used to determine the effects of amount and source of dietary Cu on Cu metabolism, oxidative stress in the duodenum, and VFA ratios in the cecum of weanling pigs in short-term feeding. At 21 d of age, newly weaned pigs were stratified by BW (7.03 ± 1.20 kg) and equally assigned to 1 of the following dietary treatments: 1) control (5 mg supplemental Cu/kg diet from CuSO4), 2) 225 mg supplemental Cu/kg diet from CuSO4, or 3) 225 mg supplemental Cu/kg diet from tribasic Cu chloride (TBCC). Pigs were housed 2 pigs per pen and were fed a complex diet until harvest on d 11 and 12. During harvest, bile and liver were obtained for mineral analysis, and liver samples were obtained for analysis of mRNA expression of Cu regulatory proteins. Digesta of duodenum, proximal jejunum, and ileum were collected for soluble Cu analysis. Mucosal scrapings of duodenum, proximal jejunum, and ileum were obtained for analysis of mucosal Cu concentration and mRNA expression of Cu regulatory proteins. Duodenal mucosal scrapings were also collected for analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA). Pigs fed high Cu had markedly greater (P pigs. Duodenal MDA concentrations were greater (P = 0.003) in CuSO4 vs. control pigs and tended (P = 0.06) to be greater than in TBCC pigs. Duodenal antioxidant 1 (Atox1) mRNA was downregulated (P pigs fed high Cu compared to controls and was not affected by Cu source. Compared with control pigs, those fed CuSO4 and TBCC had greater (P pigs. Hepatic Cu transporting β-polypeptide ATPase (Atp7b) was upregulated (P = 0.02) in the Cu-supplemented pigs compared with controls and did not differ among Cu sources. The acetate:propionate ratio in cecal contents was much greater in pigs supplemented with 225 mg Cu/kg diet than in controls. When fed at 225 mg Cu/kg diet, TBCC may cause less oxidative stress in the duodenum than CuSO4. Feeding weanling pigs increased Cu resulted in modulation of duodenal and liver at the transcription level.

  5. New Outbreaks of Salmonellosis in Pig Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULO KOTORRI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is an infection wideley spread in both intensive management and back yard pig farms in Albania. The pathogen agent of this infection is S. cholerasuisi var. Kunzerdof. This patogen was isolated from untreated piglets with antibacterial drugs during septicemic form of infection from several organs and tissues of aborted fetuses, such as: spleen, lungs, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and from jejunum, ileum and stomach content. Biochemical confirmation was conducted by using the commercial kit test API 20E, while biovar typisation was realised using the agglutination test with specific sera of S. cholerasuis var. Kunzendorf. Despite the level of the serum titer in aborted sows and survival piglets was at low levels, it represents a determinative diagnostic test. Use of antibacterial prophylaxis in feed or drinking water may reduce the incidence of the disease, but does not prevent infection and/or elimination of S.choleraesuis. This practice is expensive, increases the antimicrobial resistance, and generally is the less acceptable option for the prevention and control of disease. Using specific preventative vaccine produced with the S.cholerasuis var. Kunzerdof C-500 strains, showed effectiveness in both farms. Thus today, we can still say that farms are free from Salmonella infection.

  6. Spasmolytic effect of Mentha pulegium L. involves ionic flux regulation in rat ileum strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Soto, Samuel; González-Maldonado, Dalia; Castillo-España, Patricia; Aguirre-Crespo, Francisco; Sánchez-Salgado, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Mentha pulegium is common known as "poleo" and used for the treatment of diarrhea, headache and cough in Mexican traditional medicine. Organic extracts from aerial parts were evaluated to determine their spasmolytic action on rat isolated ileum test. Hexanic (HEMp), dichloromethanic (DEMp) and methanolic (MEMp) extracts induced a concentration-dependent (0.97 to 1000 microg/mL) antispasmodic effect on spontaneous contractions. DEMp was the most active extract; therefore, spasmolytic mechanism was investigated. This extract (200 microg/mL) induced a significant depression on cumulative concentration-response curve for carbachol and serotonin (Ppulegium induced its spasmolytic effect through Ca2+-influx blockade, which may explain its traditional use against diarrhea.

  7. GLP-1 amidation efficiency along the length of the intestine in mice, rats and pigs and in GLP-1 secreting cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Albrechtsen, Nicolai Wewer; Windeløv, Johanne Agerlin; Svendsen, Berit; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-05-01

    XXX: Measurements of plasma concentrations of the incretin hormone GLP-1 are complex because of extensive molecular heterogeneity. This is partly due to a varying and incompletely known degree of C-terminal amidation. Given that virtually all GLP-1 assays rely on a C-terminal antibody, it is essential to know whether or not the molecule one wants to measure is amidated. We performed a detailed analysis of extractable GLP-1 from duodenum, proximal jejunum, distal ileum, caecum, proximal colon and distal colon of mice (n=9), rats (n=9) and pigs (n=8) and determined the degree of amidation and whether this varied with the six different locations. We also analyzed the amidation in 3 GLP-1 secreting cell lines (GLUTag, NCI-H716 and STC-1). To our surprise there were marked differences between the 3 species with respect to the concentration of GLP-1 in gut. In the mouse, concentrations increased continuously along the intestine all the way to the rectum, but were highest in the distal ileum and proximal colon of the rat. In the pig, very little or no GLP-1 was present before the distal ileum with similar levels from ileum to distal colon. In the mouse, GLP-1 was extensively amidated at all sampling sites, whereas rats and pigs on average had around 2.5 and 4 times higher levels of amidated compared to non-amidated GLP-1, although the ratio varied depending upon the location. GLUTag, NCI-H716 and STC-1 cells all exhibited partial amidation with 2-4 times higher levels of amidated compared to non-amidated GLP-1.

  8. Spasmolytic effect of citral and extracts of Cymbopogon citratus on isolated rabbit ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Ramachandran Chitra; Sim, Si Mui; Ismail, Rosnah

    2011-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus, commonly known as lemongrass, has been shown to have antioxidant, antimicrobial and chemo-protective properties. Citral, a monoterpenoid, is the major constituent of C. citratus that gives off a lemony scent and is postulated to be responsible for most of its actions. In addition, C. citratus has been traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal discomforts, however, the scientific evidence for this is still lacking. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the extracts of various parts of C. citratus (leaves, stems and roots) and citral on the visceral smooth muscle activity of rabbit ileum. The effect of the test substances were tested on the spontaneous contraction, acetylcholine (ACh)- and KCl-induced contractions. Citral at doses between 0.061 mM to 15.6 mM and the extract of leaves at doses between 0.001 mg/mL to 1 mg/mL significantly reduced the spontaneous, ACh- and KCl-induced ileal contractions. When the ileum was incubated in K(+)-rich-Ca(2+)-free Tyrode's solution, it showed only minute contractions. However, the strength of contraction was increased with the addition of increasing concentrations of CaCl(2). The presence of citral almost abolished the effect of adding CaCl(2), while the leaf extract shifted the calcium concentration-response curve to the right, suggesting a calcium antagonistic effect. These results were similar to that elicited by verapamil, a known calcium channel blocker. In addition, the spasmolytic effect of citral was observed to be reduced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME. In conclusion, citral and the leaf extract of C. citratus exhibited spasmolytic activity and it appeared that they may act as calcium antagonists. Furthermore, the relaxant effect of citral, but not that of the leaf extract may be mediated by nitric oxide suggesting the presence of other chemical components in the leaf extract other than citral.

  9. Spasmolytic and anti-spasmodic action of Trachyspermum ammi essence on rat′s ileum contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan Hejazian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trachyspermum ammi is a plant of umbelliferae family and has been traditionally used in the treatment of many gastrointestinal disorders such as indigestion, colic, and diarrhea. Our previous study demonstrated that aqueous extract of Trachyspermum ammi reduced the contractile activity of rat′s ileum. Aims: This study was designed to examine the effect of Trachyspermum ammi essence on acetylcholine-induced contraction in isolated rat′s ileum. Materials and Methods: In this experimental procedure, the tissue samples were suspended from the transducer lever and mounted on the organ bath containing Tyrode′s solution. Isotonic responses were recorded by using an isotonic transducer and the amplitude of contractions. This process was induced by cumulative logarithmic concentrations of acetylcholine before and after exposing tissue by saline and different concentrations of essence. Results: The chemical constituents of the essence from distillate extract of Trachyspermum ammi seeds were studied by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS and the chemical analysis showed many components in which thymol was the main constituent. Our findings showed that the essence derived from the extract in all concentrations used in this study (0.002, 0.005, and 0.01% V/V significantly reduced acetylcholine-induced contractions (47.34, 60.46, and 86%, respectively, P < 0.05. The same concentrations of the essence also exhibit a significant anti-spasmodic action on acetylcholine-induced contractions (0.1,88.3, and 90.7%, respectively, P < 0.05. Conclusion: Since thymol was the major constituent of our samples of Trachyspermum ammi, the relaxant effect observed in this study is probably due to this agent which can exert an anti-cholinergic property.

  10. In Vitro Impact of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Rosa damascena Mill. on Rat Ileum Contractions and the Mechanisms Involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Sedighi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The results indicate that R. damascena Mill. dose-dependently (100, 500, and 1000 mg/L decreases ileum movements of the rat probably through stimulating the β-adrenergic and opioid receptors and voltage-dependent calcium channels, and it may be used to treat digestive disorders.

  11. A case of multiple metastatic malignant melanoma with the largest lesion in the ileum and no skin lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Suzuki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 72-year-old woman with malignant melanoma and multiple metastases; the largest tumor was in the ileum. The patient experienced general fatigue and bloody feces for 1 month before consulting a nearby clinic. Blood tests revealed anemia, and fecal occult blood was positive, but no abnormalities were detected using gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy or the skin of the entire body. Computed tomography images of the chest, abdomen, and pelvic region, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography images of the entire body revealed multiple nodules in the ileum, left mammary gland, left thyroid, right inguinal lymph node, and on the fascia of the right thoracic area and right buttocks. The tumor in the left mammary gland was excised and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the excised tissue was positive for HMB45, melan-A, and MITF, but negative for S-100 protein. Diagnosed with melanoma with multiple metastases, the patient underwent four cycles of dacarbazine, nimustine hydrochloride, and vincristine (DAV plus interferon beta chemotherapy and one cycle of dacarbazine, nimustine hydrochloride, cisplatin, and tamoxifen (DAC-Tam chemotherapy. Two series of embolizations of the artery feeding the ileum tumors, as well as a series of plasma and red blood cell transfusions, were performed for ileum tumor hemorrhage. The patient was hospitalized eight times, for a total of 204 days during the 1-year survival period before her death from respiratory failure.

  12. High- and medium-molecular-weight neurofilament proteins define specific neuron types in the guinea-pig enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Leni R; Thacker, Michelle; Furness, John B

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that neurofilament proteins are expressed by type II neurons in the enteric plexuses of a range of species from mouse to human. However, two previous studies have failed to reveal this association in the guinea-pig. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry for neurofilaments has revealed neurons with a single axon and spiny dendrites in human and pig but this morphology has not been described in the guinea-pig or other species. We have used antibodies against high- and medium-weight neurofilament proteins (NF-H and NF-M) to re-examine enteric neurons in the guinea-pig. NF-H immunoreactivity occurred in all type II neurons (identified by their IB4 binding) but these neurons were never NF-M-immunoreactive. On the other hand, 17% of myenteric neurons expressed NF-M. Many of these were uni-axonal neurons with spiny dendrites and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactivity. NOS immunoreactivity occurred in surface expansions of the cytoplasm that did not contain neurofilament immunoreactivity. Thus, because of their NOS immunoreactivity, spiny neurons had the appearance of type I neurons. This indicates that the apparent morphologies and the morphological classifications of these neurons are dependent on the methods used to reveal them. We conclude that spiny type I NOS-immunoreactive neurons have similar morphologies in human and guinea-pig and that many of these are inhibitory motor neurons. Both type II and neuropeptide-Y-immunoreactive neurons in the submucosal ganglia exhibit NF-H immunoreactivity. NF-M has been observed in nerve fibres, but not in nerve cell bodies, in the submucosa.

  13. Effect of amount of straw provided to growing/finishing pigs on gastric ulceration at slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S; Jensen, Henrik E.; Jespersen, A.;

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a current commercial xylanase (DAN) and experimental xylanase (EX), and EX in combination with protease (EXP), on the degradation and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in wheat Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS), was studied in 8 ileum-...... enzymes increase the degradation of NSP and arabinoxylan in wheat DDGS, with ranking of DAN > EXP > EX. Keywords: DDGS, non-starch polysaccharide digestibility, xylanase......The effect of a current commercial xylanase (DAN) and experimental xylanase (EX), and EX in combination with protease (EXP), on the degradation and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in wheat Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS), was studied in 8 ileum......-cannulated pigs (initial BW 36.6±2.8 kg) following a double 4x4 Latin Square design. The control and three enzyme diets, each containing 96% DDGS, were supplemented with vitamins, minerals, L-lysine, 500 FTU phytase/kg feed, dust-binder and chromic oxide (3 g/kg). The pigs were fed 3 times daily for 1 week...

  14. Antispasmodic effects of Pycnocycla spinosa seed and aerial part extracts on rat ileum and uterus smooth muscle contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of study: Hydroalcoholic extract of Pycnocycla spinosa has a relaxant effect on ileum and inhibits castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice. However, effects of P. spinosa seed extracts on ileum and uterus hasn't been investigated.  The aim of this study was to investigate effect of P. spinosa seed and extracts of the aerial part on rat ileum and uterus smooth muscle contraction. Methods: A 70% ethanol extract of seed and aerial parts of P. spinosa was prepared by a percolation method. Uterine horns or ileum were dissected from non-pregnant female Wistar rats (200-230g and cut into longitudinal strips and mounted for isotonic recording under 1g tension in Tyrode's solution. Effects of the extracts were examined on tonic contractions induced by KCl (80mM on both tissues and on phasic spasm induced by oxytocin (0.002iu/ml on the uterus. Results: The aerial part extract inhibited rat ileum contractions induced by 80mM KCl (IC50=42±3.4mg/ml in a concentration dependent manner and it also inhibited rat uterus contraction induced by 80 mM KCl. However, its inhibitory effects were observed with higher concentration of the extract (IC50=420±90mg/ml and at concentration of 1.28mg/ml of the extract in the bath the response was 19±7%.  The aerial part extract (40-640mg/ml also reduced the evoked phasic response of uterus by oxytocin (IC50=71±17.3mg/ml. The seed extract reduced the uterus response to oxytocin in a concentration-dependent manner, and inhibited tissue response completely at 160mg/ml (IC50=27±4mg/ml.  Major conclusion: From this study it was concluded that the seed extract of P. spinosa have similar inhibitory properties on rat isolated uterus and ileum contractions, while the extract of the aerial part of P. spinosa is more selective inhibitor of ileum contraction, and at higher concentrations it also inhibits uterus spasm.

  15. Effects of pig genotype (Iberian v. Landrace × Large White) on nutrient digestibility, relative organ weight and small intestine structure at two stages of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barea, R; Nieto, R; Vitari, F; Domeneghini, C; Aguilera, J F

    2011-02-01

    Although the effects of pig genotype on total-tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) have been widely reported in the literature, there is controversial information on the digestive capacity of indigenous breeds compared with lean-type pigs. The strategy of this study was to test the effects of pig genotype and crude protein (CP) supply on performance, digestive utilization of nutrients, relative organ weight and morphometric analysis of the small intestine. Thirty-eight Iberian (IB) and Landrace × Large White (LD) pigs were used. Three pigs per genotype were slaughtered at approximately 15 kg BW. The remaining pigs were fed one of two diets differing in CP content (13% or 17% as fed) using a pair-fed procedure. Feeding level was restricted at 0.8 × ad libitum of IB pigs. Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance trials were performed at 30 and 80 kg BW. Four pigs per dietary treatment and genotype were slaughtered at approximately 50 and 115 kg BW. The gastrointestinal tract and the rest of the visceral organs were weighed and samples of the small intestine were taken to carry out histological and histometrical studies. Daily gain and gain-to-feed ratio were higher in LD than in IB pigs during the fattening and growing-fattening periods (P small intestine was greater in LD than in IB pigs at 50 and 115 kg BW. Histometry showed that IB presented a lower muscle layer thickness than LD pigs in ileum, irrespective of the BW (P small intestine, the main differences between the two genotypes should be attributed to a larger extent to protein and energy utilization in tissues with consequences for the overall efficiency of energy use.

  16. Effect of motilin on the contractility of gastric smooth muscle via NO pathway in guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo XU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the gastroprokinetic effects of motilin and erythromycin A (EM-A and its potential mechanism in guinea pigs Cavia porcellus in vitro. Guinea pig stomach strips were mounted under organ baths containing Krebs solution. Motilin, EM-A, Nω- Nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, L-arginine (L-AA were added to the bathing solution in a non-cumulative way. Then the effects of motilin and EM-A was studied during electrical field stimulation (EFS in the absence and presence of L-NNA and L-AA in the gastric anturm and fundus of guinea pigs. In addition, we observed the co-expression of motilin receptors and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS in the gastric myenteric plexus of guinea pigs by fluo-immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the Circular muscle tissues of the gastric fundus generated on-relaxations and off-contractions with the frequency of 1–16 Hz. The on-responses induced a relaxation, partially mediated by the release of nitric oxide (NO because addition of L-NNA turned the relaxations into cholinergically mediated contractions. The off-contractions were also cholinergically mediated as they disappeared under non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC conditions using atropine and guanethidine. In fundic strips, motilin and EM-A induced on-relaxation and off-contraction and both motilin (1 µmol/L and EM-A (100 µmol/L may significantly increased on-response and reduced off-response (P<0.05–0.001. And the effects of motilin on strip responses were significantly enhanced compared with EM-A. The on-responses could be reversed into a cholinergically mediated contraction by addition of NOS inhibitors L-NNA. In contrast, administration of substrate of NOS, L-AA, significantly increased on-relaxations and reduced cholinergic motor responses which were induced by motilin or EM-A. However D-arginine (D-AA did not change the above response induced by motilin or EM-A. In the antral strips, motilin and EM-A only increased off

  17. Effect of motilin on the contractility of gastric smooth muscle via NO pathway in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiming WANG; Luo XU; Jiang LU

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the gastroprnkinetie effects of motilin and erythromycin A (EM-A) and its potential mechanism in guinea pigs Cavia porceUus in vitro. Guinea pig stomach strips were mounted under organ baths containing Krebs solution.Motilin,EM-A,N'-Nitrn-L-arginine (L-NNA),L-arginine (L-AA) were added to the bathing solution in a non-cumulative way.Then the effects of motilin and EM-A was studied during electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the absence and presence of L-NNA and L-AA in the gastric anturm and fundus of guinea pigs. In addition,we observed the co-expression of motilin receptors and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the gastric myenteric plexus of guinea pigs by fluo-immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the circular muscle tissues of the gastric fundus generated on-relaxations and off-contractions with the frequency of 1 -16 Hz. The on-responses induced a relaxation,partially mediated by the release of nitric oxide (NO) because addition of L-NNA turned the relaxations into cholinergically mediated contractions. The off-contractions were also cholinergically mediated as they disappeared under non-adrenergic,non-cholinergic (NANC) conditions using atropine and guanethidine. In fundic strips,motilin and EM-A induced on-relaxation and off-contraction and beth motilin ( 1 μmol/L) and EM-A ( 100 μmol/L) may significandy increased on-response and reduced off-response ( P < 0.05 ). And the effects of motilin on strip responses were significantly enhanced compared with EM-A. The on-responses could be reversed into a cholinergically mediated contraction by addition of NOS inhibitors L-NNA. In contrast,administration of substrate of NOS,L-AA,significantly increased on-relaxations and reduced cholinergic motor responses which were induced by motilin or EM-A. However D-arginine (D-AA) did not change the above response induced by motilin or EM-A. In the antral strips,motilin and EM-A only increased off-contractions. The response to

  18. Changing dietary calcium-phosphorus level and cereal source selectively alters abundance of bacteria and metabolites in the upper gastrointestinal tracts of weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Mann, Evelyne; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Wagner, Martin; Ritzmann, Mathias; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2013-12-01

    Several dietary ingredients may affect the bacterial community structure and metabolism in the porcine gut and may therefore influence animals' health and performance. This study investigated the effects of cereal source and calcium-phosphorus (CaP) level in the diet on bacterial microbiota and metabolites, nutrient intake, and gut environment in weaned pigs. Pigs (n=8/treatment) were fed wheat-barley- or corn-based diets with an adequate or high CaP level for 14 days. Effects on microbiota in the stomach, ileum, and midcolon were assessed using quantitative PCR. Data showed that Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter spp., and Helicobacter spp., which all contain highly immune reactive lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were abundant at all gut sites. Diet effects on bacteria and metabolites were moderate and occurred mainly in the upper gut, whereas no effects on bacteria, fermentation products, and LPS could be observed in the colon. Differences in carbohydrate intake with corn versus wheat-barley diets selectively stimulated Bifidobacterium in the stomach and ileum. There was a growth advantage for a few bacterial groups in the stomach and ileum of pigs fed the high versus adequate CaP level (i.e., gastric Enterobacteriaceae and ileal Enterococcus, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas, and Campylobacter). Interestingly, gastrointestinal pH was not affected by dietary CaP level. The present findings demonstrate the stability of the bacterial community and gut environment toward dietary changes even in young pigs. The results on stimulation of gastric and ileal Bifidobacterium by corn diets may be employed in nutritional strategies to support gut health after weaning.

  19. Angiotensin receptors and actions in guinea pig enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Hu, Hong-Zhen; Fang, Xiu-Cai; Liu, Sumei; Gao, Na; Xia, Yun; Wood, Jackie D

    2005-09-01

    Actions of ANG II on electrical and synaptic behavior of enteric neurons in the guinea pig small intestine were studied. Exposure to ANG II depolarized the membrane potential and elevated neuronal excitability. The number of responding neurons was small, with responses to ANG II in 32% of submucosal neurons and 25% of myenteric neurons. Hyperpolarizing responses were evoked by ANG II in 45% of the neurons. The hyperpolarizing responses were suppressed by alpha2-noradrenergic receptor antagonists, which suggested that the hyperpolarizing responses reflected stimulation of norepinephrine release from sympathetic neurons. Exposure to ANG II enhanced the amplitude and prolonged the duration of noradrenergic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials and suppressed the amplitude of both fast and slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials. The selective ANG II(1) receptor (AT1R) antagonists, ZD-7115 and losartan, but not a selective AT2R antagonist (PD-123319), suppressed the actions of ANG II. Western blot analysis and RT-PCR confirmed expression of AT1R protein and the mRNA transcript for the AT1R in the enteric nervous system. No expression of AT2R protein or mRNA was found. Immunoreactivity for AT1R was expressed by the majority of neurons in the gastric antrum and small and large intestine. AT1R immunoreactivity was coexpressed with calbindin, choline acetyltransferase, calretinin, neuropeptide Y, and nitric oxide synthase in subpopulations of neurons. The results suggest that formation of ANG II might have paracrine-like actions in the enteric nervous system, which include alterations in neuronal excitability and facilitated release of norepinephrine from sympathetic postganglionic axons. The enhanced presence of norepinephrine is expected to suppress fast and slow excitatory neurotransmission in the enteric microcircuits and to suppress neurogenic mucosal secretion.

  20. Glucagon-like peptides GLP-1 and GLP-2, predicted products of the glucagon gene, are secreted separately from pig small intestine but not pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1986-01-01

    identified in glucagon-producing cells of the pancreatic islets, and in glicentin-producing cells of the small intestine. Immunoreactive GLP-1 and 2 in intestinal extracts corresponded in molecular size to peptides synthesized according to the predicted structure. By reverse phase HPLC, intestinal......We developed specific antibodies and RIAs for glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2), two predicted products of the glucagon gene, and studied the occurrence, nature, and secretion of immunoreactive GLP-1 and GLP-2 in pig pancreas and small intestine. Immunoreactive GLP-1 and GLP-2 were...... and synthetic GLP-1 behaved similarly, whereas synthetic and intestinal GLP-2 differed. Pancreatic extracts contained a large peptide with both GLP-1 and GLP-2 immunoreactivity. Secretion was studied using isolated perfused pig pancreas during arginine stimulation, and isolated perfused pig ileum during either...

  1. Heat-treatment, phytase and fermented liquid feeding affect the presence of inositol phosphates in ileal digesta and phosphorus digestibility in pigs fed a wheat and barley diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Jørgensen, Henry; Tauson, A H

    2010-01-01

    -inositol pentakisphosphate-myo-inositol bisphosphate, InsP5-InsP2) at the distal ileum of pigs. Furthermore, the apparent ileal digestibility/degradability (AID) of phosphorus (P), InsP6-P and calcium (Ca) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca were studied. Pigs were fitted with a T-shaped ileal...... by total collection of faeces (ATTDTotal) and Cr2O3 (ATTDCr). InsP6 was completely degraded in diet 4 before feeding resulting in no InsP6-P being present in ileal digesta. InsP6-P concentration in ileal digesta decreased with increasing dietary levels of plant or microbial phytase in pigs fed the dry...

  2. Primary malignant neuroectodermal tumor of the ileum with predominantly uncommon pseudopapillary architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhihua; Zhang, Dandan; Li, Wencai; Zhang, Lan; Li, Zhen; Zhou, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor (GNET), a distinctive entity covering the characteristics of clear cell sarcoma (CCS) of gastrointestinal tract described recently, arising primarily in the ileum of a 33-year-old woman is reported. Histologically, the neoplasm involved the full thickness of the intestinal wall. Tumor cells, mainly displayed epithelioid or polygonal appearance with oval or round nuclei, arranged in strand, nested, and solid pattern with prominent pseudopapillary architecture instead of the familiar histological image with multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells. They were positive for vimentin, S-100, synaptophysin, CD56 and CD99 protein, but negative for AE1/AE3, EMA, CEA, LCA, Desmin, CK7, CK20, Villin, CgA, CD117, Dog-1, GFAP, Melan-A, HMB-45, CD34, CR, WT1, D2-40. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the presence of chromosomal translocation involving EWSR. The patients lived through a calm period after a tumor resection and 4 cycles of chemotherapy combining ifosfamide and epirubicin. This case demonstrates that GNET is a rare tumor in gastrointestinal tract, and furthermore, various misleading histological characteristics should been taken into consideration in the diagnosis.

  3. In vitro examination of potentized atropine sulfate dilutions on the contractility of the isolated rat ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegling-Vlitakis, Christiane; Martens, Holger; Lüdtke, Rainer

    2009-10-01

    Atropine sulphate, a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine (ACh) at muscarinic receptors, was first isolated from Atropa belladonna, one of the most used and best known homeopathic medicines. It has been suggested that high potencies of homeopathic atropine sulphate might have an influence on ACh-induced contraction of smooth muscles. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of homeopathic dilutions of atropine sulphate D6, D32, and D100 compared to the potentized diluents L6, L32, and L100 on ACh-induced contraction of isolated rat ileum. Forty-eight (48) ileal sections from 12 male Wistar rats were incubated in modified Krebs solutions, and the contractile activity responses to ACh obtained in the absence and presence of the test substances were recorded. Investigators and biometrician were completely blinded. No significant effects of atropine sulphate D6, D32, or D100 could be found (all p > 0.4 after Bonferoni-Holm correction) compared to the potentized diluents L6, L32, and L100, respectively. These figures did not change considerably even when strict a priori criteria were applied that define a measurement as valid and comparable. Our experiments could not replicate previous results on the effects of homeopathic atropine.

  4. Heat stress in growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy

    2005-01-01

    Compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are more sensitive to high environmental temperatures, because they cannot sweat and do not pant so well. Furthermore, fast-growing lean pigs generate more heat than their congeners living in the wild. This, in combination with confined housing, makes it difficult for these pigs to regulate their heat balance. Heat stressed pigs have low performance, poor welfare, and, by pen fouling, they give higher emissions of odour and ammonia.Above certain...

  5. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  6. Projections and neurochemical coding of motor neurones to the circular and longitudinal muscle of the guinea pig gastric corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, K; Reiche, D; Schemann, M

    2000-07-01

    The present study identified projection and neurochemical coding patterns of intrinsic circular (CMN) and longitudinal muscle motor neurones (LMN) in the guinea pig stomach by using the retrograde tracer DiI (1,1'-didodecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocya-nine perchlorate) in combination with the immunohistochemical demonstration of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), enkephalin (ENK), neuropeptide Y (NPY), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and substance P (SP). Populations of LMN and CMN had similar neurochemical coding and a clear polarity of projection. Taking all DiI-labeled cell bodies as 100%, ascending pathways exhibited the coding ChAT/- (CMN:14.7%/LMN: 18.3%), ChAT/ENK (15.7%/10.1%), ChAT/SP/+/-ENK (19.2%/16.4%), or ChAT/NPY (4.4%/7.6%); descending pathways had the coding NOS/- (13.8%/16.9%), NOS/NPY (9.9%/17%), NOS/ENK (4.4%/1.2%) or NOS/NPY/ENK (13.0%/5.5%). The relative contributions of these populations were not different between CMN and LMN. However, target-specific projection patterns were revealed: most LMN (82%) had longitudinal whereas most CMN (58%) had circumferential projection preferences. The results indicate that gastric circular and longitudinal muscle layers are innervated by ascending excitatory and descending inhibitory pathways in the myenteric plexus. The projection patterns of CMN and LMN were different and followed the orientation of the muscle layers. It is suggested that the specific muscle motor pathways in the gastric myenteric plexus coordinate the reflex-mediated phasic and tonic activity of gastric muscle layers.

  7. Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on amino acid, energy, and fiber digestibility and on hindgut fermentation of dietary fiber in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urriola, P E; Stein, H H

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure the effect of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on the digestibility of AA, energy, and fiber, on the fermentation of fiber, and on the first appearance of digesta at the end of the ileum, in the cecum, and in the feces of growing pigs fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Sixteen pigs (initial BW = 38.0 +/- 1.6 kg) were prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and a T-cannula in the cecum and allotted to 2 treatments. In period 1, all pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal diet. In periods 2, 3, and 4, pigs were fed the control diet or a diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS. First appearance of digesta at the end of the ileum, in the cecum, and over the entire intestinal tract was measured at the end of period 4. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients were measured, and the concentration of VFA was analyzed in ileal, cecal, and fecal samples. The AID of Lys (74.1%) in the DDGS diet was less (P dietary fiber (TDF) were not different between the 2 diets. The ATTD of GE (81.0%), NDF (57.2%), TDF (55.5%), and DM (81.7%) were less (P pigs fed the 2 diets. The pH of ileal and cecal digesta from pigs fed the DDGS diet (6.3 and 5.5) was greater (P pigs fed the control diet (5.8 and 5.3). The ATTD of DM, GE, ADF, NDF, and TDF did not change with collection period, but the AID of ADF, NDF, and TDF increased (P pigs fed the diet containing DDGS had less digestibility of Lys, GE, ADF, NDF, and TDF than pigs fed the control diet. The digestibility of DM and GE was not influenced by collection period, but the concentration of VFA in cecal digesta and feces increased with the length of time pigs received the diets.

  8. An in vitro method for recording single unit afferent activity from mesenteric nerves innervating isolated segments of rat ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, K A; Cervero, F

    1986-04-01

    A technique has been developed for recording single unit afferent activity from mesenteric nerves in isolated segments of rat distal ileum in vitro. The preparation consists of a 3-cm segment of ileum, containing a single neurovascular bundle, held horizontally in an organ bath. One end of the segment is attached to a tension transducer to record changes in longitudinal tension of the gut muscle and the other is connected to a pressure transducer to record changes in intra-luminal pressure. Electromyographic activity of the smooth muscle is recorded using glass-insulated tungsten microelectrodes inserted in the wall of the gut. Afferent nerve activity is recorded with a monopolar platinum wire electrode from filaments of the mesenteric nerves that run between the artery and vein supplying the segment. This preparation permits the detailed analysis of the electrical activity of intestinal afferent nerve fibres correlated with mechanical and chemical events occurring naturally in the gut or imposed experimentally on it.

  9. Ileum and colon perforation following peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis and high-dose calcium polystyrene sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chih-Chin; Tsai, Yi-Chiun; Chiang, Wen-Chih; Mao, Tsui-Lien; Kao, Tze-Wah

    2015-10-01

    A rare but severe complication, intestinal necrosis, has been reported after sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS; Kayexalate) and sorbitol intake. Some case reports described bowel perforation following calcium polystyrene sulfonate (CPS; Kalimate) administration. We report a case of ileum and colon perforation following peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis and high-dose Kalimate in a 59-year-old female patient. The patient had a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). During hospitalization for peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis, she developed hyperkalemia, and Kalimate was administered orally. However, severe abdominal distension and pain occurred just one day after Kalimate intake. An urgent surgery disclosed several perforations in the ileum and sigmoid colon. Pathology of the resected gut showed transmural necrosis and perforation with basophilic angulated crystals. The patient finally expired during hospitalization due to refractory septic shock.

  10. The gut microbiota engages different signaling pathways to induce Duox2 expression in the ileum and colon epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, F; Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    The epithelium is a first line of defense against microorganisms in the gut. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have an important role in controlling the normal gut microbiota and pathogenic bacteria. Dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) is an important source of hydrogen peroxide in the small and large intestine......, and the gut microbiota induces Duox2 expression. Here, we investigated the microbial regulation of Duox2 expression. We found that Duox2 was expressed by intestinal epithelial cells mainly in the tip of the epithelium. Duox2 expression was strongly induced by the presence of a normal microbiota in mice......, but not when germ-free mice were colonized with various commensal bacteria. Duox2 expression was more rapidly induced by the gut microbiota in the colon than in the ileum. Furthermore, we showed that regulation of Duox2 expression in the ileum involved TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein including interferon...

  11. Effect of virginiamycin on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids by growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L L; Kim, B G; Gramm, B R; Nimmo, R D; Stein, H H

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure the influence of virginiamycin on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA by growing pigs. Fifteen barrows were surgically equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and used in the experiment (initial BW = 35.0 +/- 2.7 kg). Animals were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 5 pigs per treatment during a 6-wk experiment. Dietary treatments included 1) a basal corn-soybean meal diet, 2) the basal diet supplemented with 11 mg/kg of virginiamycin, and 3) the basal diet supplemented with 22 mg/kg of virginiamycin. Pigs were fed their respective treatment diets during wk 2, 3, and 4, but during wk 1, 5, and 6, all pigs were fed the basal diet. Ileal samples were collected on d 6 and 7 of each week. Results showed that the AID of all indispensable AA, except Arg, His, and Ile, increased (P virginiamycin. Pigs fed 22 mg/kg of virginiamycin during wk 2, 3, and 4 had increased (P virginiamycin was withdrawn from the diet, regardless of the inclusion rate. In pooled data from wk 2, 3, and 4, the AID of CP, the mean of all indispensable AA, and Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Trp, and Val increased (linear, P virginiamycin was added to the diets, whereas a tendency (P virginiamycin to corn-soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs increases the AID of AA, but this effect is not maintained after the removal of virginiamycin from the diet.

  12. Moderate dietary protein restriction alters the composition of gut microbiota and improves ileal barrier function in adult pig model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peixin; Liu, Ping; Song, Peixia; Chen, Xiyue; Ma, Xi

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate impacts of dietary protein levels on gut bacterial community and gut barrier. The intestinal microbiota of finishing pigs, fed with 16%, 13% and 10% crude protein (CP) in diets, respectively, were investigated using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The ileal bacterial richness tended to decrease when the dietary protein concentration reduced from 16% to 10%. The proportion of Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 in ileum significantly decreased, whereas Escherichia-Shigella increased with reduction of protein concentration. In colon, the proportion of Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 and Turicibacter increased, while the proportion of RC9_gut_group significantly decreased with the dietary protein reduction. Notably, the proportion of Peptostreptococcaceae was higher in both ileum and colon of 13% CP group. As for metabolites, the intestinal concentrations of SCFAs and biogenic amines decreased with the dietary protein reduction. The 10% CP dietary treatment damaged ileal mucosal morphology, and decreased the expression of biomarks of intestinal cells (Lgr5 and Bmi1), whereas the expression of tight junction proteins (occludin and claudin) in 13% CP group were higher than the other two groups. In conclusion, moderate dietary protein restriction (13% CP) could alter the bacterial community and metabolites, promote colonization of beneficial bacteria in both ileum and colon, and improve gut barrier function. PMID:28252026

  13. Inflammatory responses in the muscle coat of stomach and small bowel in the postoperative ileus model of guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hong Kyu; Lee, Young Ju; Lee, Young Ho; Park, Jong Pil; Min, Kevin; Park, Hyojin

    2013-11-01

    Small intestinal function returns first after surgery, and then the function of the stomach returns to normal after postoperative ileus (POI). The aim of this study was to investigate inflammatory responses in the muscle coat of stomach and small intestine in guinea pig POI model. The distance of charcoal migration from pylorus to the distal intestine was measured. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical stain for calprotectin were done from the histologic sections of stomach, jejunum and ileum obtained at 3 and 6 hour after operation. Data were compared between sham operation and POI groups. The distance of charcoal migration was significantly reduced in the 3 and 6 hour POI groups compared with sham operated groups (pstomach of 3 hour POI groups compared with jejunum and ileum of POI groups or sham operated groups (pstomach of 3 hour POI groups compared with jejunum and ileum of POI groups or sham operated groups (pstomach. Postoperative ileus induced by cecal manipulation significantly increased the degree of inflammation and calprotectin positive cells in the muscle coat of stomach as a remote organ. The relevance of degree of inflammation and the recovery time of ileus should be pursued in the future research.

  14. Morphologic and quantitative study of the myenteric neurons of the jejunum of malnourished rats (Rattus norvegicus) Estudo morfológico e quantitativo dos neurônios mientéricos do jejuno de ratos desnutridos (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    MARCÍLIO HUBNER DE MIRANDA NETO; SONIA LUCY MOLINARI; SANDRA REGINA STABILLE; DÉBORA DE MELLO GONÇALES SANT'ANA; MARIA RAQUEL MARÇAL NATALI

    1999-01-01

    We studied the effects of maternal proteic desnutrition on the neurons of the myenteric plexus of the jejunum of rats from Rattus norvegicus species. It was used litters of female rats which received diet with normal proteic level during gestation and lactation (group NN), normal diet during gestation and hypoproteic diet during lactation (group ND); hypoproteic diet during gestation and normal diet during lactation (group DN); hypoproteic diet during both gestation and lactation (group DD). ...

  15. Effects of isolated and complex dietary fibre matrices in breads on carbohydrate digestibility and physicochemical properties of ileal effluent from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasprzak, Miroslaw Marek; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effects of content and structure of dietary fiber (DF) on the carbohydrate digestibility and physicochemical properties of ileal digesta, five bread diets were studied in an experiment with ileum-cannulated pigs in a crossover design. The diets consisted of two experimental breads...... effect of either DF content, structure, viscosity, or water-binding capacity on the ileal digestibility of starch, which was almost completely digested in the small intestine. Arabinoxylan and β-glucan were 11 and 81% degraded in the ileum, respectively, which resulted in a significant increase...... and decrease of ileal extract viscosities, respectively. It is concluded that the viscosity-elevating properties of soluble DF in breads and ileal digesta are strongly dependent on the content and structure of DF and degree of resistance toward microbial enzymes....

  16. BHA study in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtzen, G; Olsen, P

    1986-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was given to pregnant SPF pigs (Danish Landrace) in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day from mating to day 110 of the gestation period. The BHA was mixed in the diet (pelleted). Caesarean section was performed on gestation day 110. BHA affected neither the reproduction data nor the incidence of defects in the foetuses. Significantly lower weight gain was observed in the group of dams on the highest dose. Absolute and relative organ weights for the liver and thyroid gland showed a dose-related increase. Proliferative and parakeratotic proliferative changes of the stratified epithelium of the stomach were found in both control and treated pigs. In addition, proliferative and parakeratotic changes of the oesophageal epithelium were observed in a few pigs in the two groups on the highest doses. Papillomas were not found, and no changes of the glandular part of the stomach were observed.

  17. SMB myosin heavy chain knockout enhances tonic contraction and reduces the rate of force generation in ileum and stomach antrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian; Babu, Gopal J; Periasamy, Muthu; Eddinger, Thomas J

    2013-01-15

    The role of SMA and SMB smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms in tonic and phasic contractions was studied in phasic (longitudinal ileum and stomach circular antrum) and tonic (stomach circular fundus) smooth muscle tissues of SMB knockout mice. Knocking out the SMB MHC gene eliminated SMB MHC protein expression and resulted in upregulation of the SMA MHC protein without altering the total MHC protein level. Switching from SMB to SMA MHC protein expression decreased the rate of the force transient and increased the sustained tonic force in SMB((-/-)) ileum and antrum with high potassium (KPSS) but not with carbachol (CCh) stimulation. The increased tonic contraction under the depolarized condition was not through changes in second messenger signaling pathways (PKC/CPI-17 or Rho/ROCK signaling pathway) or LC(20) phosphorylation. Biochemical analyses showed that the expression of contractile regulatory proteins (MLCK, MLCP, PKCδ, and CPI-17) did not change significantly in tissues tested except for PKCα protein expression being significantly decreased in the SMB((-/-)) antrum. However, specifically activating PKCα with phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu) was not significantly different in knockout and wild-type tissues, with total force being a fraction of the force generation with KPSS or CCh stimulation in SMB((-/-)) ileum and antrum. Taken together, these data show removing the SMB MHC protein expression with a compensatory increase in the SMA MHC protein results in enhanced sustained KPSS-induced tonic contraction with a reduced rate of force generation in these phasic tissues.

  18. The role of NO and cGMP in antispasmodic activity of Ruta chalepensis leaf extract on rat ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazedi, A A; Dabir, N; Naseri, M K Gharib; Zadkarami, M R

    2010-01-15

    The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ruta chalepensis (Rutaceae) leaves on rat ileum contractility and possible mechanism(s) involved. Ruta chalepensis extract was prepared by maceration method (ethanol 70%). Terminal portion of ileum (2 cm) was dissected out from male Wistar rats and mounted in an organ bath containing air bubbled Tyrode solution with 1 g initial tension and ileal contraction induced by KCl (60 mM) was recorded. The spasmolytic effect of the cumulative concentrations of extracts (0.01-0.07 mg mL(-1)) was reduced after tissue incubation with L-NAME (100 microM, 20 min). Methylene blue (30 microM) reduced the extracts (0.01-0.07 mg mL(-1)) spasmolytic effect (p < 0.001). Furthermore, it seems that the portion relaxatory effect of Rue extract on the rat ileum may be due to nitric oxide and the antispasmodic activity of the extract was mainly through a cGMP-dependent mechanism.

  19. The gut microbiota engages different signaling pathways to induce Duox2 expression in the ileum and colon epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, F; Bäckhed, F

    2015-03-01

    The epithelium is a first line of defense against microorganisms in the gut. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have an important role in controlling the normal gut microbiota and pathogenic bacteria. Dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) is an important source of hydrogen peroxide in the small and large intestine, and the gut microbiota induces Duox2 expression. Here, we investigated the microbial regulation of Duox2 expression. We found that Duox2 was expressed by intestinal epithelial cells mainly in the tip of the epithelium. Duox2 expression was strongly induced by the presence of a normal microbiota in mice, but not when germ-free mice were colonized with various commensal bacteria. Duox2 expression was more rapidly induced by the gut microbiota in the colon than in the ileum. Furthermore, we showed that regulation of Duox2 expression in the ileum involved TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein including interferon-β (TRIF) and canonical nuclear factor-κB p50/p65 signaling, whereas regulation of Duox2 expression in the colon involved MyD88 and the p38 pathway. Collectively, these data indicate that the gut microbiota uses two distinct signaling pathways to induce Duox2 expression in the ileum and colon epithelium.

  20. Pig design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pasupuleti, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Pig makes Hadoop programming simple, intuitive, and fun to work with. It removes the complexity from Map Reduce programming by giving the programmer immense power through its flexibility. What used to be extremely lengthy and intricate code written in other high level languages can now be written in almost one tenth of the size using its easy to understand constructs. Pig has proven to be the easiest way to learn how to program Hadoop clusters, as evidenced by its widespread adoption. This comprehensive guide enables readers to readily use design patterns to simplify the creation of complex da

  1. Acute Aerobic Swimming Exercise Induces Distinct Effects in the Contractile Reactivity of Rat Ileum to KCl and Carbachol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Layanne C. da Cunha; de Souza, Iara L. L.; Vasconcelos, Luiz H. C.; Brito, Aline de Freitas; Queiroga, Fernando R.; Silva, Alexandre S.; da Silva, Patrícia M.; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade; da Silva, Bagnólia A.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise promotes short-term physiological changes in the intestinal smooth muscle associated to the ischemia-reperfusion process; however, few studies have demonstrated its effect on the intestinal contractile function. Thus, this work describes our observations regarding the influence of acute aerobic swimming exercise in the contractile reactivity, oxidative stress, and morphology of rat ileum. Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (SED) and acutely exercised (EX-AC) groups. Animals were acclimated by 10, 10, and 30 min of swimming exercise in intercalated days 1 week before exercise. Then they were submitted to forced swimming for 1 h with a metal of 3% of their body weight attached to their body. Animals were euthanized immediately after the exercise section and the ileum was suspended in organ baths for monitoring isotonic contractions. The analysis of lipid peroxidation was performed in order to determinate the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as a marker of oxidative stress, and intestinal smooth muscle morphology by histological staining. Cumulative concentration-response curves to KCl were altered in the EX-AC with an increase in both its efficacy and potency (Emax = 153.2 ± 2.8%, EC50 = 1.3 ± 0.1 × 10−2 M) compared to the SED group (Emax = 100%, EC50 = 1.8 ± 0.1 × 10−2 M). Interestingly, carbachol had its efficacy and potency reduced in the EX-AC (Emax = 67.1 ± 1.4%, EC50 = 9.8 ± 1.4 × 10−7 M) compared to the SED group (Emax = 100%, EC50 = 2.0 ± 0.2 × 10−7 M). The exercise did not alter the MDA levels in the ileum (5.4 ± 0.6 μ mol/mL) in the EX-AC compared to the SED group (8.4 ± 1.7 μ mol/mL). Moreover, neither the circular nor the longitudinal smooth muscle layers thickness were modified by the exercise (66.2 ± 6.0 and 40.2 ± 2.6 μm, respectively), compared to the SED group (61.6 ± 6.4 and 34.8 ± 3.7 μm, respectively). Therefore, the ileum sensitivity to contractile agents is differentially altered by the acute aerobic

  2. Lairage during transport of eighteen-kilogram pigs has an impact on innate immunity and commensal bacteria diversity in the intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J L; Minton, J E; Patterson, J A; Marchant Forde, J; Eicher, S D

    2008-05-01

    Long distance transportation may affect the health of pigs; thus, adding a rest stop (lairage) during long journeys may improve their well-being. The objective of this study was to determine whether a mid-journey lairage influenced swine innate immunity and intestinal microbial populations after a 16-h transport. Four replications were conducted, 1 in each of 4 seasons. Eighteen-kilogram pigs were housed in 16 pens (13 to 16 pigs/pen) with 8 pens/treatment. Lairage pigs were transported for 8 h, given a rest with food and water for 8 h, then transported for an additional 8 h. Continuous pigs were continuously transported for 16 h. Jugular blood samples and intestinal tissue and contents were collected from 16 pigs (8/treatment) on d 1, 3, 7, and 14 posttransport. Hematocrit and white blood cell counts were determined and neutrophil cell functions, including phagocytosis/oxidative burst and phagocytosis of latex beads and leukocyte phenotypic cell markers (CD14 and CD18), were analyzed using flow cytometry. Expression of toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 5; IL-8 (a cytokine that is a chemoattractant for neutrophils); CCL20 (a chemokine that is a chemoattractant for dendritic cells); and the antimicrobial peptide PR39 were determined from ileal and jejunal total RNA. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to determine shifts in intestinal microbial populations. Total white blood cell and granulocyte counts in continuous pigs were greater (P < 0.01) on d 1 than in lairage pigs. Phagocytosis of microbeads was greater in continuous (P < 0.05) than in lairage pigs on d 7. Expression of IL-8 in jejunum was greater (P < 0.05) for continuous than for lairage pigs on d 1. Expression of CCL20 in the ileum was greater (P < 0.05) on d 14 for the continuous pigs. Expression of PR39 was greatest (P < 0.05) in the jejunum of lairage pigs on d 3. Lairage pigs had a greater (P < 0.05) variation in microbial populations (lower similarity coefficient) in the jejunum contents on

  3. Determination of villous rigidity in the distal ileum of the possum (Trichosurus vulpecula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Feung Lim

    Full Text Available We investigated the passive mechanical properties of villi in ex vivo preparations of sections of the wall of the distal ileum from the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula by using a flow cell to impose physiological and supra-physiological levels of shear stress on the tips of villi. We directly determined the stress applied from the magnitude of the local velocities in the stress inducing flow and additionally mapped the patterns of flow around isolated villi by tracking the trajectories of introduced 3 µm microbeads with bright field micro particle image velocimetry (mPIV. Ileal villi were relatively rigid along their entire length (mean 550 µm, and exhibited no noticeable bending even at flow rates that exceeded calculated normal physiological shear stress (>0.5 mPa. However, movement of villus tips indicated that the whole rigid structure of a villus could pivot about the base, likely from laxity at the point of union of the villous shaft with the underlying mucosa. Flow moved upward toward the tip on the upper portions of isolated villi on the surface facing the flow and downward toward the base on the downstream surface. The fluid in sites at distances greater than 150 µm below the villous tips was virtually stagnant indicating that significant convective mixing in the lower intervillous spaces was unlikely. Together the findings indicate that mixing and absorption is likely to be confined to the tips of villi under conditions where the villi and intestinal wall are immobile and is unlikely to be greatly augmented by passive bending of the shafts of villi.

  4. In-feed macrolide Leucomycin (Leucomag 30% PR for prevention of proliferative enteropathy in experimentally infected pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Araújo França

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of orally administered leucomycin at 90 and 180ppm for the prevention of porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE in experimentally infected pigs. A total of 90 commercial five-week-old pigs were randomly assigned to receive leucomycin in feeding at 90 (T2, 180ppm (T3, or untreated (T1. All animals in the treated groups received medicated feed for 14 days starting one day before inoculation. Each pig was inoculated intragastrically with approximately 4.5x10(9 Lawsonia intracellularis in the form of porcine intestinal mucosal homogenate. Body weight, feed consumption and clinic signs were evaluated throughout the study. Necropsies and gross evaluation of intestines were performed in all animals on day 23 post-inoculation (pi or at death, and ileum samples were collected for immunohistochemistry (IHC for L. intracellularis. Clinical presentation of the disease was more evident in the non-medicated group (T1 than in the medicated ones (T2, T3 between days 16 and 21pi. Average daily gain, average daily feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency were better in groups treated with either dose of leucomycin. The total intestine lesion length per group (T1, T2 and T3 was 869, 473 and 331cm, respectively. The majority of the animals (84.4% were positive for L. intracellularis antigen in ileum sections stained by IHC. Under the conditions of this study, leucomycin administered in feed at 90 and 180ppm for 14 days was effective in improving performance of pigs inoculated with intestinal homogenate containing L. intracellularis.

  5. BHA STUDY IN PIGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, G.; Olsen, P.

    1986-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was given to pregnant SPF pigs (Danish Landrace) in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day from mating to day 110 of the gestation period. The BHA was mixed in the diet (pelleted). Caesarean section was performed on gestation day 110. BHA affected neither...

  6. Measuring emotions in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimert, I.

    2014-01-01

    Inonge Reimert monitored pig behaviors in positive and negative emotional states and compared the results. For her research, she used The Observer XT for behavioral annotation. She found very different behaviors to be associated with the two situations, such as play and tail wagging in the positive

  7. A Simple "Pig" Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  8. Oregano Essential Oil Improves Intestinal Morphology and Expression of Tight Junction Proteins Associated with Modulation of Selected Intestinal Bacteria and Immune Status in a Pig Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oregano essential oil (OEO has long been used to improve the health of animals, particularly the health of intestine, which is generally attributed to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. However, how OEO acts in the intestine of pig is still unclear. This study was aimed at elucidating how OEO promotes the intestinal barrier integrity in a pig model. Pigs were fed a control diet alone or one supplemented with 25 mg/kg of OEO for 4 weeks. The OEO-treated pigs showed decreased (P<0.05 endotoxin level in serum and increased (P<0.05 villus height and expression of occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1 in the jejunum. These results demonstrated that the integrity of intestinal barrier was improved by OEO treatment. The OEO-treated pigs had a lower (P<0.05 population of Escherichia coli in the jejunum, ileum, and colon than the control. This is in accordance with the greater inactivation (P<0.05 of inflammation, which was reflected by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, protein kinase B (Akt, and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB signaling pathways and expression of inflammatory cytokines in the jejunum. Our results show that OEO promotes intestinal barrier integrity, probably through modulating intestinal bacteria and immune status in pigs.

  9. Atypical slow waves generated in gastric corpus provide dominant pacemaker activity in guinea pig stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashitani, Hikaru; Garcia-Londoño, A Pilar; Hirst, G David S; Edwards, Frank R

    2005-12-01

    When intracellular recordings were made from the circular layer of the intact muscular wall of the isolated guinea pig gastric corpus, an ongoing regular high frequency discharge of slow waves was detected even though this region lacked myenteric interstitial cells. When slow waves were recorded from preparations consisting of both the antrum and the corpus, slow waves of identical frequency, but with different shapes, were generated in the two regions. Corporal slow waves could be distinguished from antral slow waves by their time courses and amplitudes. Corporal slow waves, like antral slow waves, were abolished by buffering the internal concentration of calcium ions, [Ca2+]i, to low levels, or by caffeine, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate or the chloride channel blocker DIDS. Corporal preparations demonstrated an ongoing discharge of unitary potentials, as has been found in all other tissues containing interstitial cells. The experiments show that the corpus provides the dominant pacemaker activity which entrains activity in other regions of the stomach and it is suggested that this activity is generated by corporal intramuscular interstitial cells.

  10. Regional variation in contribution of myenteric and intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal to generation of slow waves in mouse gastric antrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, G D S; Beckett, E A H; Sanders, K M; Ward, S M

    2002-05-01

    When intracellular recordings were made from the antral region of murine stomach, cells with three different patterns of electrical activity were detected. One group of cells generated follower potentials, the second group generated pacemaker potentials and the third group generated slow waves that consisted of primary and secondary components. Slow waves recorded in different regions of the gastric antrum had similar amplitudes but different characteristic shapes. At the greater curvature, slow waves had large initial components. Midway between the greater and lesser curvature, the amplitude of the initial component was reduced and at the lesser curvature an initial component was difficult to detect. When the distributions of myenteric (ICC-MY) and intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-IM) were determined, using an antibody to Kit, ICC-MY were found to be present at the greater curvature but were greatly reduced in density at the lesser curvature. In contrast, ICC-IM were found in the circular layer of each region. When recordings were made from the antrum of W/W(V) mice, which lack ICC-IM, incomplete slow waves were detected and their amplitudes fell from the greater to the lesser curvature. Again, a corresponding fall in the density of ICC-MY was detected. The observations indicate that the contribution of ICC-MY and ICC-IM to the generation of slow waves varies in different regions of the mouse gastric antrum.

  11. Neonatal lethality of neural crest cell-specific Rest knockout mice is associated with gastrointestinal distension caused by aberrations of myenteric plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hitomi; Hara, Akira; Oomori, Yoshiyuki; Shimizu, Yasutake; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Kunisada, Takahiro

    2014-10-01

    RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST), also known as NRSF (neuron-restrictive silencer factor), is a well-known transcriptional repressor of neural genes. Rest null mice have embryonic lethality which prevents further investigations of the functions of the Rest gene in vivo. We studied neonatal but not embryonic lethality that was characterized by gastrointestinal tract dilation in the neural crest cell (NCC)-specific Rest conditional knockout (CKO) mice. While no histological abnormalities except the thinning of the digestive tract as a consequence of the gas accumulation were found in the digestive tract of the mutant mice, they do not have proper gastric retention after oral dye administration and the reduction of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in NCC-derived myenteric plexus in the stomach was detected. High CO2 concentration in the dilated digestive tract of the Rest CKO mice indicates a failure of gut function by underdeveloped cholinergic transmission in the enteric nervous system. The observed gastrointestinal distension phenotype provides a model for understanding the genetic and molecular basis of NCC defects in humans.

  12. Important impacts of intestinal bacteria on utilization of dietary amino acids in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Xiang; Dai, Zhao-Lai; Zhu, Wei-Yun

    2014-11-01

    Bacteria in pig intestine can actively metabolize amino acids (AA). However, little research has focused on the variation in AA metabolism by bacteria from different niches. This study compared the metabolism of AA by microorganisms derived from the lumen and epithelial wall of the pig small intestine, aiming to test the hypothesis that the metabolic profile of AA by gut microbes was niche specific. Samples from the digesta, gut wall washes and gut wall of the jejunum and ileum were used as inocula. Anaerobic media containing single AA were used and cultured for 24 h. The 24-h culture served as inocula for the subsequent 30 times of subcultures. Results showed that for the luminal bacteria, all AA concentrations except phenylalanine in the ileum decreased during the 24-h in vitro incubation with a increase of ammonia concentration, while 4 AA (glutamate, glutamine, arginine and lysine) in the jejunum decreased, with the disappearance rate at 60-95 %. For tightly attached bacteria, all AA concentrations were generally increased during the first 12 h and then decreased coupled with first a decrease and then an increase of ammonia concentration, suggesting a synthesis first and then a catabolism pattern. Among them, glutamate in both segments, histidine in the jejunum and lysine in the ileum increased significantly during the first 12 h and then decreased at 24 h. The concentrations of glutamine and arginine did not change during the first 12 h, but significantly decreased at 24 h. Jejunal lysine and ileal threonine were increased for the first 6 or 12 h. For the loosely attached bacteria, there was no clear pattern for the entire AA metabolism. However, glutamate, methionine and lysine in the jejunum decreased after 24 h of cultivation, while glutamine and threonine in the jejunum and glutamine and lysine in the ileum increased in the first 12 h. During subculture, AA metabolism, either utilization or synthesis, was generally decreased with disappearance

  13. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine or N-carbamylglutamate enhances intestinal growth and heat shock protein-70 expression in weanling pigs fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Ruan, Zheng; Gao, Yunling; Yin, Yulong; Zhou, Xihong; Wang, Lei; Geng, Meimei; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao

    2010-08-01

    This study determined effects of dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) or N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) on intestinal health and growth in early-weaned pigs. Eighty-four Landrace x Yorkshire pigs (average body weight of 5.56+/-0.07 kg; weaned at 21 days of age) were fed for 7 days one of the three isonitrogenous diets: (1) a corn- and soybean meal-based diet (CSM), (2) CSM+0.08% NCG (0.08%), and (3) CSM+0.6% Arg. There were four pens of pigs per diet (7 pigs/pen). At the end of a 7-day feeding period, six piglets were randomly selected from each treatment for tissue collections. Compared with the control group, Arg or NCG supplementation increased (P<0.05): (1) Arg concentrations in plasma, (2) small-intestinal growth, (3) villus height in duodenum, jejunum and ileum, (4) crypt depth in jejunum and ileum, (5) goblet cell counts in intestinal mucosae, and (6) whole-body weight gain in pigs. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses revealed that both mRNA and protein levels for heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) were higher (P<0.05) in the intestinal mucosae of Arg- or NCG-supplemented pigs than in the control group. Furthermore, the incidence of diarrhea in the NCG group was 18% lower (P<0.01) than that in the control group. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with 0.6% Arg or 0.08% NCG enhances intestinal HSP70 gene expression, intestinal growth and integrity, and the availability of dietary nutrients for whole-body weight gain in postweaning pigs fed a CSM-based diet. Thus, Arg or NCG is a functional ingredient in the weaning diet to improve nutrition, health, and growth performance of these neonates.

  14. Significance of ultrasonography of the terminal ileum in moderate Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Jasna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aim: Crohn's disease (CD is a chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, involving any part of the gastrointestinal tract, and frequently followed by extra intestinal manifestations. The use of ultrasonography plays a significant role in diagnosing this disease, as well as in monitoring the effects of the therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the use of ultrasonographic diagnostics in the patients with moderate serious and the mild form of CD. Methods. The study involved 30 patients both sexes with CD of moderate form determined using the standard diagnostics, according to the Crohn's Disease Activity Index - CDAI ranging from 220−400. The patients were divided into two groups with CDAI > 320 (Ia, and CDAI between 220 and 320 (Ib, respectively. The Control group was made of 19 patients with the mildly active stage of the disease and the CDAI values in the range from 100−220. The patients were submitted to an ultrasonographic examination of the terminal ileum affected with CD in order to determine the length of the affected segment of intestine, the thickness of the wall, the changes of the structure of the wall, the changes of the surrounding mesenterium with the enlarged lymph nodes. CD complications, abscesses, and enteroenteral fistulas were investigated, too. Results. The comparison of the ultrasonographic findings of the three groups revealed that more serious clinical laboratory image of CD significantly correlated with the higher length of the affected segment (p < 0.001, higher thickness of the wall (p < 0.001, the higher number and the larger lymph nodes of the mesenterium (p < 0.001. Only the most serious patients were found to have abscess of the ileocecal area (Ia − 40%. There was no difference found between the groups regarding the occurrence of enteroenteral fistulas. Conclusion. Considering the obtained results and data from the literature, it could be concluded that an ultrasonographic

  15. Prostaglandin potentiates 5-HT responses in stomach and ileum innervating visceral afferent sensory neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sojin; Jin, Zhenhua; Lee, Goeun [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Seek; Park, Cheung-Seog [Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Young-Ho, E-mail: jinyh@khu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Prostaglandin E2 (PGE{sub 2}) effect was tested on visceral afferent neurons. • PGE{sub 2} did not evoke response but potentiated serotonin (5-HT) currents up to 167%. • PGE{sub 2}-induced potentiation was blocked by E-prostanoid type 4 receptors antagonist. • PGE{sub 2} effect on 5-HT response was also blocked by protein kinase A inhibitor KT5720. • Thus, PGE{sub 2} modulate visceral afferent neurons via synergistic signaling with 5-HT. - Abstract: Gastrointestinal disorder is a common symptom induced by diverse pathophysiological conditions that include food tolerance, chemotherapy, and irradiation for therapy. Prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) level increase was often reported during gastrointestinal disorder and prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors has been used for ameliorate the symptoms. Exogenous administration of PGE{sub 2} induces gastrointestinal disorder, however, the mechanism of action is not known. Therefore, we tested PGE{sub 2} effect on visceral afferent sensory neurons of the rat. Interestingly, PGE{sub 2} itself did not evoked any response but enhanced serotonin (5-HT)-evoked currents up to 167% of the control level. The augmented 5-HT responses were completely inhibited by a 5-HT type 3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron. The PGE{sub 2}-induced potentiation were blocked by a selective E-prostanoid type4 (EP{sub 4}) receptors antagonist, L-161,982, but type1 and 2 receptor antagonist AH6809 has no effect. A membrane permeable protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, KT5720 also inhibited PGE{sub 2} effects. PGE{sub 2} induced 5-HT current augmentation was observed on 15% and 21% of the stomach and ileum projecting neurons, respectively. Current results suggest a synergistic signaling in visceral afferent neurons underlying gastrointestinal disorder involving PGE{sub 2} potentiation of 5-HT currents. Our findings may open a possibility for screen a new type drugs with lower side effects than currently using steroidal prostaglandin

  16. Estimating fermentative amino acid catabolism in the small intestine of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus, D A; Cant, J P; de Lange, C F M

    2015-11-01

    Fermentative catabolism (FAAC) of dietary and endogenous amino acids (AA) in the small intestine contributes to loss of AA available for protein synthesis and body maintenance functions in pigs. A continuous isotope infusion study was performed to determine whole body urea flux, urea recycling and FAAC in the small intestine of ileal-cannulated growing pigs fed a control diet (CON, 18.6% CP; n=6), a high fibre diet with 12% added pectin (HF, 17.7% CP; n = 4) or a low-protein diet (LP, 13.4% CP; n = 6). (15)N-ammonium chloride and (13)C-urea were infused intragastrically and intravenously, respectively, for 4 days. Recovery of ammonia at the distal ileum was increased by feeding additional fibre when compared with the CON (P > 0.05) but was not affected by dietary protein (0.24, 0.39 and 0.14 mmol nitrogen/kg BW/day for CON, HF and LP, respectively; P 0.05)compared with CON. The two-pool model developed in the present study allows for estimation of FAAC but still has limitations. Quantifying FAAC in the small intestine of pigs, as well as other non-ruminants and humans, offers a number of challenges but warrants further investigation.

  17. Enhancement of immunohistochemical detection of Salmonella in tissues of experimentally infected pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rieger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the main pathogens compromising porcine and human health as well as food safety, because it is a prevailing source of foodborne infections due to contaminated pork. A prominent problem in the management of this bacteriosis is the number of subclinically infected carrier pigs. As very little is known concerning the mechanisms allowing Salmonella to persist in pigs, the objective of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical approach for the detection of salmonellae in tissue of pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Samples were obtained from a challenge trial in which piglets of the German Landrace were intragastrically infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (1.4-2.1x1010 CFU. Piglets were sacrificed on days 2 and 28 post infection. Tissue samples of jejunum, ileum, colon, ileocecal mesenteric lymph nodes (Lnn. ileocolici, and tonsils (Tonsilla veli palatini were fixed in Zamboni’s fixative and paraffin-embedded. Different immunohistochemical staining protocols were evaluated. Salmonella was detected in varying amounts in the tissues. Brown iron-containing pigments in the lymph nodes interfered with the identification of Salmonella if DAB was used as a staining reagent. Detergents like Triton X-100 or Saponin enhanced the sensitivity. It seems advisable not to use a detection system with brown staining for bacteria in an experimental setup involving intestinal damage including haemorrhage. The use of detergents appears to result in a higher sensitivity in the immunohistochemical detection of salmonellae.

  18. Enhancement of immunohistochemical detection of Salmonella in tissues of experimentally infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, J; Janczyk, P; Hünigen, H; Plendl, J

    2015-07-09

    Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the main pathogens compromising porcine and human health as well as food safety, because it is a prevailing source of foodborne infections due to contaminated pork. A prominent problem in the management of this bacteriosis is the number of subclinically infected carrier pigs. As very little is known concerning the mechanisms allowing Salmonella to persist in pigs, the objective of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical approach for the detection of salmonellae in tissue of pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Samples were obtained from a challenge trial in which piglets of the German Landrace were intragastrically infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (1.4-2.1x1010 CFU). Piglets were sacrificed on days 2 and 28 post infection. Tissue samples of jejunum, ileum, colon, ileocecal mesenteric lymph nodes (Lnn. ileocolici), and tonsils (Tonsilla veli palatini) were fixed in Zamboni's fixative and paraffin-embedded. Different immunohistochemical staining protocols were evaluated. Salmonella was detected in varying amounts in the tissues. Brown iron-containing pigments in the lymph nodes interfered with the identification of Salmonella if DAB was used as a staining reagent. Detergents like Triton X-100 or Saponin enhanced the sensitivity. It seems advisable not to use a detection system with brown staining for bacteria in an experimental setup involving intestinal damage including haemorrhage. The use of detergents appears to result in a higher sensitivity in the immunohistochemical detection of salmonellae.

  19. Roles of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger isoforms NCX1 and NCX2 in motility in mouse ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Kazuhiro; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Morioka, Ai; Yoshida, Natsuho; Teramoto, Midori; Tanioka, Kohta; Kita, Satomi; Hayashi, Satomi; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2016-10-01

    The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) is a plasma membrane transporter that is involved in regulating intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in various tissues. The physiological roles by which NCX influences gastrointestinal motility are incompletely understood, although its role in the heart, brain, and kidney has been widely investigated. In this study, we focused on the functions of the NCX isoforms, NCX1 and NCX2, in the motility of the ileum in the gastrointestinal tract. We investigated the response to electric field stimulation (EFS) in the longitudinal smooth muscle of the ileum obtained from wild-type mice (WT), NCX1-heterozygote knockout mice (NCX1 HET), NCX2 HET and smooth muscle-specific NCX1.3 transgenic mice (NCX1.3 Tg). EFS induced a phasic contraction that persisted during EFS and a tonic contraction that occurred after the end of EFS. We found that the amplitudes of the phasic and tonic contractions were significantly smaller in NCX2 HET, but not in NCX1 HET, compared to WT. Moreover, the magnitudes of acetylcholine (ACh)- and substance P (SP)-induced contractions of NCX2 HET, but not of NCX1 HET, were smaller compared to WT. In contrast, the amplitudes of the phasic and tonic contractions were greater in NCX1.3 Tg compared to WT. Similar to EFS, the magnitude of ACh-induced contraction was greater in NCX1.3 Tg than in WT. Taken together, our findings indicated that NCX1 and NCX2 play important roles in ileal motility and suggest that NCX1 and NCX2 regulate the motility in the ileum by controlling the sensitivity of smooth muscles to ACh and SP.

  20. The effect of boric acid on acethylcholine, bethanechol and potasssium-evoked responses on ileum of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, S; Turkmen, R; Yavuz, H

    2011-01-01

    1 The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of boric acid on contractions of rat isolated ileum. 2 Contractile responses expressed as Emax and pD2 for acetylcholine (10(-3)-10(-8) m, Ach), bethanechol (10(-3)-10(-8) m) and potassium (10-80 × 10(-3) m, KCl) were determined in the absence and presence of boric acid (10(-3); 5 × 10(-4); 10(-4) m). 3 The contractile response to Ach in the presence of verapamil (10(-6) or 10(-8) m) or in calcium-free Tyrode's solution was also determined in the absence and presence of boric acid. 4 Boric acid did not affect the contractile response to Ach, bethanechol or KCl. Single or cumulative treatment of boric acid did not affect ileum muscle contraction evoked by KCl. The atropine-resistant component of Ach-induced contraction and 4-diphenyl-acetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine methiodide-resistant component of bethanechol-induced contraction were not inhibited by boric acid (10(-3) m). The contractile response to Ach was reduced in calcium-free Tyrode's solution, and the contractile response was not affected by (10(-8) m). The addition of boric acid (10(-3) m) in combination with verapamil (10(-8) m) did not significantly affect the contractile response to Ach. 5 In conclusion, boric acid does not affect contractions induced by Ach, bethanechol or potassium in rat isolated ileum. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Acute small bowel obstruction as a result of a Meckel's diverticulum encircling the terminal ileum: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakor Avnesh S

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the developed world, small bowel obstruction accounts for 20% of all acute surgical admissions. The aetiology for majority of these cases includes postoperative adhesions and herniae. However, a relatively uncommon cause is a Meckel's diverticulum. Although this diagnosis is primarily reported in the adolescent population, it should also be considered in adults. Case Presentation In the present report, we present a rare case where a fit and healthy 74-year-old gentleman, with no previous history of abdominal surgery, presented with the cardinal symptoms and signs of small bowel obstruction as the result of a Meckel's diverticulum encircling his terminal ileum. Initial investigations included a supine abdominal x-ray showing dilated loops of small bowel and computerised tomographic imaging of the abdomen, which revealed a stricture in the terminal ileum of unknown aetiology. At laparotomy, multiple loops of distended small bowel were seen from the duodeno-jeujenal junction to the terminal ileum, which was encircled by a Meckel's diverticulum. The Meckel's diverticulum was then divided to release the obstruction, mobilised and subsequently removed. Finally, the small bowel contents were decompressed into the stomach and the nasogastric tube aspirated, before returning the loops of bowel into the abdomen in sequence. The patient made a good postoperative recovery and was discharged home 5 days later. Conclusion This report highlights the importance of considering a Meckel's diverticulum as a cause of small bowel obstruction in individuals from all age groups and especially in a person with no previous abdominal pathology or surgery.

  2. Differences in time to peak carbachol-induced contractions between circular and longitudinal smooth muscles of mouse ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Samezawa, Nanako; Nishiyama, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2016-01-01

    The muscular layer in the GI tract consists of an inner circular muscular layer and an outer longitudinal muscular layer. Acetylcholine (ACh) is the representative neurotransmitter that causes contractions in the gastrointestinal tracts of most animal species. There are many reports of muscarinic receptor-mediated contraction of longitudinal muscles, but few studies discuss circular muscles. The present study detailed the contractile response in the circular smooth muscles of the mouse ileum. We used small muscle strips (0.2 mm × 1 mm) and large muscle strips (4 × 4 mm) isolated from the circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the mouse ileum to compare contraction responses in circular and longitudinal smooth muscles. The time to peak contractile responses to carbamylcholine (CCh) were later in the small muscle strips (0.2 × 1 mm) of circular muscle (5.7 min) than longitudinal muscles (0.4 min). The time to peak contractile responses to CCh in the large muscle strips (4 × 4 mm) were also later in the circular muscle (3.1 min) than the longitudinal muscle (1.4 min). Furthermore, a muscarinic M2 receptor antagonist and gap junction inhibitor significantly delayed the time to peak contraction of the large muscle strips (4 × 4 mm) from the circular muscular layer. Our findings indicate that muscarinic M2 receptors in the circular muscular layer of mouse ileum exert a previously undocumented function in gut motility via the regulation of gap junctions.

  3. The guinea-pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D

    1980-01-01

    14C ring-labelled hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid dissolved in acetone were applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (4 microgram/cm2). Percutaneous absorption was quantified by following the excretion of tracer in urine and faeces for 5 days. Absorption of hydrocortisone and benzoic acid...... was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the skin...

  4. Effects of different levels of Aloe vera gel as an alternative to antibiotic on performance and ileum morphology in broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mahdavi; Ahmad Zare Shahneh; Abolfazl Zarei; Babak Darabighane

    2011-01-01

    The present study attempts to analyze the effects of different levels of Aloe vera gel as an alternative to antibiotic, on performance and ileum morphology in broilers. Three hundred one-day old Ross 308 male broilers were used on a completely randomized design in 5 groups with 4 replicates, each consisting of 15 broilers. The groups included the control group (basal diet) and three groups with basal diet mixed with different levels of Aloe vera gel (1.5%, 2% and 2.5%). Finally, there was a g...

  5. Mucosal function of the perfused ileum in patients with and without diarrhoea and dumping after vagotomy and pyloroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, B H; Frederiksen, H J; Malchow-Møller, A

    1983-01-01

    Perfusion studies of the terminal ileum were performed in patients who had previously had vagotomy and pyloroplasty performed for peptic ulcer disease and who at follow-up study had either diarrhoea or dumping, or no symptoms (the control group). The aim was to elucidate possible pathophysiological....../l, in the intestinal lumen. In patients without symptoms or with dumping, water and sodium chloride were absorbed during the control perfusion. Addition of CDC reduced the absorption or evoked secretion. In patients with diarrhoea the control perfusion disclosed a large spontaneous ileal secretion...

  6. Localisation and neural control of the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from the isolated perfused porcine ileum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T N; Schmidt, P; Poulsen, S S

    2001-01-01

    extracts, CGRP-LI corresponded entirely to porcine CGRP plus smaller amounts of oxidised CGRP. Using isolated vascularly perfused segments of the ileum, we studied the release of CGRP-LI in response to electrical stimulation of the mixed extrinsic periarterial nerves and to infusion of different...... neuroblockers. In addition, the effect of infusion of capsaicin was studied. The basal output of CGRP-LI was 2.9+/-0.7 pmol/5 min (mean+/-S.D.). Electrical nerve stimulation (8 Hz) significantly increased the release of CGRP-LI to 167+/-16% (mean+/-S.E.M.) of the basal output (n=13). This response...

  7. Effects of probiotic bacteria on gastrointestinal motility in guinea-pig isolated tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matteo Massi; Patrizia Brigidi; Pierfranco Ioan; Roberta Budriesi; Alberto Chiarini; Beatrice Vitali; Karen M Lammers; Paolo Gionchetti; Massimo Campieri; Anthony Lembo

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the intestinal motility changes evoked by 8 bacterial strains belonging to Bifidobacterium,Lactobacillus and Streptococcus genera within the probiotic preparation VSL#3.METHODS: Ileum and proximal colon segments isolated from guinea-pigs were used as a study model.Entire cells and cell fractions (cell debris, cell wall fraction, cytoplasmatic fraction, proteinaceous and nonproteinaceous cytoplasmatic components) of VSL#3strains and, as controls, Escherichia coli, Salmonella aboni and Bacillus licheniforrnis were tested in this in vitro model.RESULTS: Among the bacterial cell fractions tested,only the cytoplasmatic fraction modified intestinal motility. Lactobacillus strains stimulated the contraction of ileum segment, whereas all probiotic strains tested induced proximal colon relaxation response. The non-proteinaceous cytoplasmatic components were responsible for the colon relaxation.CONCLUSION: The results obtained in this study suggest that the proximal colon relaxation activity showed by the probiotic bacteria could be one of the possible mechanisms of action by which probiotics exert their positive effects in regulating intestinal motility.

  8. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline with...... to the saline/oil emulsion. Placing of the challenge patches affected the response, as simultaneous chlorocresol challenge on the flank located 2 cm closer to the abdomen than the usual challenge site gave decreased reactions....

  9. The Pig PeptideAtlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselager, Marianne Overgaard; Codrea, Marius; Sun, Zhi;

    2016-01-01

    underrepresented in existing repositories. We here present a significantly improved build of the Pig PeptideAtlas, which includes pig proteome data from 25 tissues and three body fluid types mapped to 7139 canonical proteins. The content of the Pig PeptideAtlas reflects actively ongoing research within...... the veterinary proteomics domain, and this article demonstrates how the expression of isoform-unique peptides can be observed across distinct tissues and body fluids. The Pig PeptideAtlas is a unique resource for use in animal proteome research, particularly biomarker discovery and for preliminary design of SRM...

  10. Xenotransplantation and pig endogenous retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magre, Saema; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Bartosch, Birke

    2003-01-01

    Xenotransplantation, in particular transplantation of pig cells, tissues and organs into human patients, may alleviate the current shortage of suitable allografts available for human transplantation. This overview addresses the physiological, immunological and virological factors considered with regard to xenotransplantation. Among the issues reviewed are the merits of using pigs as xenograft source species, the compatibility of pig and human organ physiology and the immunological hindrances with regard to the various types of rejection and attempts at abrogating rejection. Advances in the prevention of pig organ rejection by creating genetically modified pigs that are more suited to the human microenvironment are also discussed. Finally, with regard to virology, possible zoonotic infections emanating from pigs are reviewed, with special emphasis on the pig endogenous retrovirus (PERV). An in depth account of PERV studies, comprising their discovery as well as recent knowledge of the virus, is given. To date, all retrospective studies on patients with pig xenografts have shown no evidence of PERV transmission, however, many factors make us interpret these results with caution. Although the lack of PERV infection in xenograft recipients up to now is encouraging, more basic research and controlled animal studies that mimic the pig to human xenotransplantation setting more closely are required for safety assessment.

  11. Effects of piperitenone oxide on the intestinal smooth muscle of the guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.C. Sousa

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of piperitenone oxide (PO, a major constituent of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa, on the guinea pig ileum. PO (30 to 740 µg/ml relaxed basal tonus without significantly altering the resting membrane potential. In addition, PO relaxed preparations precontracted with either 60 mM K+ or 5 mM tetraethylammonium in a concentration-dependent manner. At concentrations from 0.1 to 10 µg/ml PO potentiated acetylcholine-induced contractions, while higher concentrations (>30 µg/ml blocked this response. These higher PO concentrations also inhibited contractions induced by 60 mM K+. PO also blocked the components of acetylcholine contraction which are not sensitive to nifedipine or to solutions with nominal zero Ca2+ and EGTA. These results show that PO is a relaxant of intestinal smooth muscle and suggest that this activity may be mediated at least in part by an intracellular effect

  12. Intestinal adaptation after extensive small bowel resection: differential changes in growth and insulin-like growth factor system messenger ribonucleic acids in jejunum and ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, T R; Mantell, M P; Chow, J C; Rombeau, J L; Smith, R J

    1998-07-01

    The distal small bowel exhibits greater adaptive growth than proximal segments after partial small intestine resection. To explore this process, we evaluated adaptive cellularity, intestinal insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts, and effects of recombinant IGF-I treatment in jejunum and ileum of adult rats. Gastrostomy-fed animals underwent 80% jejuno-ileal resection or intestinal transection and reanastomosis without resection, followed by infusion of human recombinant IGF-I (2.4 mg/kgXday) or vehicle. After 7 days, resected rats demonstrated modest adaptive growth in jejunum and marked cell proliferation in ileum. Resection increased IGF-I mRNA in both jejunum (183%) and ileum (249%) and up-regulated IGFBP-4 mRNA levels in both tissues. IGFBP-3 mRNA fell significantly in ileum after resection. IGF-I infusion modestly increased ileal cellularity after resection, but had no effect in jejunum. IGF-I markedly increased IGFBP-3 mRNA levels in jejunum after both transection and resection. These data confirm that bowel resection induces greater adaptive growth in ileum than jejunum. IGF-I administration modestly increases ileal, but not jejunal, growth after resection. Increased levels of intestinal IGF-I and IGFBP-4 mRNA suggest roles for IGF-I and IGFBP-4 in mediating small bowel adaptation. Higher levels of jejunal IGFBP-3 mRNA may be related to limited jejunal vs. ileal growth after extensive jejuno-ileal resection.

  13. mGluR1 receptors contribute to non-purinergic slow excitatory transmission to submucosal VIP neurons of guinea-pig ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Pei Pei Foong

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP immunoreactive secretomotor neurons in the submucous plexus are involved in mediating bacterial toxin-induced hypersecretion leading to diarrhoea. VIP neurons become hyperexcitable after the mucosa is exposed to cholera toxin, which suggests that the manipulation of the excitability of these neurons may be therapeutic. This study used standard intracellular recording methods to systematically characterize slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs evoked in submucosal VIP neurons by different stimulus regimes (1, 3 and 15 pulse 30 Hz stimulation, together with their associated input resistances and pharmacology. All slow EPSPs were associated with a significant increase in input resistance compared to baseline values. Slow EPSPs evoked by a single stimulus were confirmed to be purinergic, however, slow EPSPs evoked by 15 pulse trains were non-purinergic and those evoked by 3 pulse trains were mixed. NK1 or NK3 receptor antagonists did not affect slow EPSPs. The group I mGluR receptor antagonist, PHCCC reduced the amplitude of purinergic and non-purinergic slow EPSPs. Blocking mGluR1 receptors depressed the overall response to 3 and 15 pulse trains, but this effect was inconsistent, while blockade of mGluR5 receptors had no effect on the non-purinergic slow EPSPs. Thus, although other receptors are almost certainly involved, our data indicate that there are at least two pharmacologically distinct types of slow EPSPs in the VIP secretomotor neurons: one mediated by P2Y receptors and the other in part by mGluR1 receptors.

  14. Influence of low doses of deoxynivalenol on histopathology of selected organs of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Ł; Wiśniewska, M; Gajecka, M; Obremski, K; Gajecki, M

    2009-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol is one of mycotoxins that are most frequently determined in animal feed manufactured in Poland. The examination of histopathological lesions concomitant with deoxynivalenol intoxication is difficult because of the common, often synergistic, reaction of this mycotoxin with other toxins, such as zearalenone or ochratoxin A, which has a strong nephrotoxic activity. The possibility of estimating histopathological lesions in the course of intoxication with pure toxin at various doses is therefore of interest. Dosages used in this experiment relate to clinical cases observed in feeding the animals with whole ration feed obtained by processing feedingstuffs contaminated with Fusarium moulds. However, concerning the fact of one-shot administration of clinically pure toxin, the main question was if it was a sufficient dose to cause changes in the histopathological picture of gastrointestinal tract organs. The experiment was carried out on 12 nursery pigs of mixed breed (Polish White Large x Polish White Ear-pendent) with an average body weigh of 35 kg. The experimental nursery pigs were divided into 3 groups: group I (n=4)--control; group II (n=4)--DON administered at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg b.w.; group III (n=4)--DON administered at a dose of 0.4 mg/kg b.w. After slaughter of the animals, macroscopic examination was performed and segments of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, liver and mesenteric lymph nodes were sampled and assigned for histopathological examination. The results obtained equate to the clinically observed signs in swine production involving some nutrient metabolism disturbances in the gastrointestinal tract in the course of deoxynivalenol mycotoxicosis. Histopathological examination of segments of the duodenum, the jejunum, the ileum, the liver and the lymph nodes indicate that the regressive lesions are more expressed in the experimental group treated with the highest concentration of deoxynivalenol.

  15. Histomorphometric characteristics of immune cells in small intestine of pigs perorally immunized with vaccine candidate F18ac+ nonenterotoxigenic E. coli strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Valpotic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Colidiarrhea and colienterotoxemia caused by F4+ and/or F18+ enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC strains are the most prevalent infections of suckling and weaned pigs. Here we tested the immunogenicity and protective effectiveness of attenuated F18ac+ non-ETEC vaccine candidate strain against challenge infection with F4ac+ ETEC strain by quantitative phenotypic analysis of small intestinal leukocyte subsets in weaned pigs. We also evaluated levamisole as an immune response modifier (IRM and its adjuvanticity when given in the combination with the experimental vaccine. The pigs were parenterally immunized with either levamisole (at days -2, -1 and 0 or with levamisole and perorally given F18ac+ non-ETEC strain (at day 0, and challenged with F4ac+ ETEC strain 7 days later. At day 13 the pigs were euthanatized and sampled for immunohistological/histomorphometrical analyses. Lymphoid CD3+, CD45RA+, CD45RC+, CD21+, IgA+ and myeloid SWC3+ cell subsets were identified in jejunal and ileal epithelium, lamina propria and Peyer’s patches using the avidin-biotin complex method, and their numbers were determined by computer-assisted histomorphometry. Quantitative immunophenotypic analyses showed that levamisole treated pigs had highly increased numbers of jejunal CD3+, CD45RC+ and SWC3+ cells (p<0.05 as compared to those recorded in nontreated control pigs. In the ileum of these pigs we have recorded that only CD21+ cells were significantly increased (p<0.01. The pigs that were treated with levamisole adjuvanted experimental vaccine had significantly increased numbers of all tested cell subsets in both segments of the small intestine. It was concluded that levamisole adjuvanted F18ac+ non-ETEC vaccine was a requirement for the elicitation of protective gut immunity in this model; nonspecific immunization with levamisole was less effective, but confirmed its potential as an IRM.

  16. Compound double ileoileal and ileocecocolic intussusception caused by lipoma of the ileum in an adult patient: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bicaj Besnik X

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The initial diagnosis of intussusception in adults very often can be missed and cause delayed treatment and possible serious complications. We report the case of an adult patient with complicated double ileoileal and ileocecocolic intussusception. Case presentation A 46-year-old Caucasian man was transferred from the gastroenterology service to the abdominal surgery service with severe abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. An abdominal ultrasound, barium enema, and abdominal computed tomography scan revealed an intraluminal obstruction of his ascending colon. Plain abdominal X-rays showed diffuse air-fluid levels in his small intestine. A double ileoileal and ileocecocolic intussusception was found during an emergent laparotomy. A right hemicolectomy, including resection of a long segment of his ileum, was performed. The postoperative period was complicated by acute renal failure, shock liver, and pulmonary thromboembolism. Our patient was discharged from the hospital after 30 days. An anatomical pathology examination revealed a lipoma of his ileum. Conclusions Intussusception in adults requires early surgical resection regardless of the nature of the initial cause. Delayed treatment can cause very serious complications.

  17. PGE2 triggers recovery of transmucosal resistance via EP receptor cross talk in porcine ischemia-injured ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blikslager, A T; Pell, S M; Young, K M

    2001-08-01

    16,16-Dimethyl-PGE2 (PGE2) may interact with one of four prostaglandin type E (EP) receptors, which signal via cAMP (via EP2 or EP4 receptors) or intracellular Ca(2+) (via EP1 receptors). Furthermore, EP3 receptors have several splice variants, which may signal via cAMP or intracellular Ca(2+). We sought to determine the PGE2 receptor interactions that mediate recovery of transmucosal resistance (R) in ischemia-injured porcine ileum. Porcine ileum was subjected to 45 min of ischemia, after which the mucosa was mounted in Ussing chambers. Tissues were pretreated with indomethacin (5 microM). Treatment with the EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 agonist PGE2 (1 microM) elevated R twofold and significantly increased tissue cAMP content, whereas the EP2 and EP4 agonist deoxy-PGE1 (1 microM) or the EP1 and EP3 agonist sulprostone (1 microM) had no effect. However, a combination of deoxy-PGE1 and sulprostone stimulated synergistic elevations in R and tissue cAMP content. Furthermore, treatment of tissues with deoxy-PGE1 and the Ca(2+) ionophore A-23187 stimulated synergistic increases in R and cAMP, indicating that PGE2 triggers recovery of R via EP receptor cross talk mechanisms involving cAMP and intracellular Ca(2+).

  18. Delayed initiation but not gradual advancement of enteral formula feeding reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC in preterm pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Ghoneim

    Full Text Available Enteral formula feeding is a risk factor for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC in premature infants, yet studies are conflicting regarding the safest timing for introduction and advancement of feeds. Our aim was to test the effects of early vs. late initiation and abrupt vs. gradual advancement of enteral feeding of an intact vs. hydrolyzed protein formula on NEC incidence and severity in preterm pigs. In Experiment 1, preterm pigs received total parenteral nutrition (TPN at birth with abrupt initiation of enteral formula feeds (50% full intake on d of life (DOL 2 (EA or 5 (LA while PN continued. Pigs were also fed formula containing either intact or hydrolyzed protein. In Experiment 2, preterm pigs received TPN at birth with enteral, hydrolyzed-protein formula feeds introduced on DOL 2 either abruptly (EA; 50% full feeds or gradually (EG; 10-50% full feeds over 5 d while PN continued. NEC incidence and severity were assessed based on macroscopic and histological scoring. In Experiment 1, NEC incidence (41% vs. 70%, P<0.05 and severity were reduced in LA vs. EA groups and LA was associated with a higher survival rate, daily weight gain and jejunum villus height. Piglets fed hydrolyzed vs. intact protein formula had lower stomach content weights and similar NEC incidence. In Experiment 2, NEC incidence and severity were not different between pigs the EG vs. EA group. Proinflammatory gene expression (IL-1β, IL-6 and S100A9 in the ileum was lower in both LA and EG vs. EA groups. In conclusion, delayed initiation but not gradual advancement of enteral feeding is protective against NEC in preterm pigs. Feeding hydrolyzed vs. intact protein formula improved gastric transit without affecting the NEC incidence.

  19. Heat stress in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,

    2005-01-01

    Compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are more sensitive to high environmental temperatures, because they cannot sweat and do not pant so well. Furthermore, fast-growing lean pigs generate more heat than their congeners living in the wild. This, in combination with confined housing, makes

  20. Diets high in resistent starch and arabinoxylan modulate digestion processes and SCFA pool size in the large intestine and faecal microbial composition in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of a high level of dietary fibre (DF) either as arabinoxylan (AX) or resistant starch (RS) on digestion processes, SCFA concentration and pool size in various intestinal segments and on the microbial composition in the faeces were studied in a model experiment with pigs. A total...... of thirty female pigs (body weight 63·1 (sem 4·4) kg) were fed a low-DF, high-fat Western-style control diet (WSD), an AX-rich diet (AXD) or a RS-rich diet (RSD) for 3 weeks. Diet significantly affected the digestibility of DM, protein, fat, NSP and NSP components, and the arabinose:xylose ratio, as well...... as the disappearance of NSP and AX in the large intestine. RS was mainly digested in the caecum. AX was digested at a slower rate than RS. The digesta from AXD-fed pigs passed from the ileum to the distal colon more than twice as fast as those from WSD-fed pigs, with those from RSD-fed pigs being intermediate (P

  1. L-Cysteine/D,L-homocysteine-regulated ileum motility via system L and B°(,+) transporter: Modification by inhibitors of hydrogen sulfide synthesis and dietary treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Satoshi; Nomura, Ryouya; Yanagihara, Madoka; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Fujino, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Horie, Syunji; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2015-10-05

    Previous studies including ours demonstrated that L-cysteine treatments decreased motility in gastrointestinal tissues including the ileum via hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is formed from sulfur-containing amino acids such as L-cysteine and L-homocysteine. However, the amino acid transport systems involved in L-cysteine/L-homocysteine-induced responses have not yet been elucidated in detail; therefore, we investigated these systems pharmacologically by measuring electrical stimulation (ES)-induced contractions with amino acids in mouse ileum preparations. The treatments with L-cysteine and D,L-homocysteine inhibited ES-induced contractions in ileum preparations from fasted mice, and these responses were decreased by the treatment with 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylate (BCH), an inhibitor of systems L and B°(,+). The results obtained using ileum preparations and a model cell line (PC12 cells) with various amino acids and BCH showed that not only L-cysteine, but also aminooxyacetic acid and D,L-propargylglycine, which act as H2S synthesis inhibitors, appeared to be taken up by these preparations/cells in L and B°(,+) system-dependent manners. The L-cysteine and D,L-homocysteine responses were delayed and abolished, respectively, in ileum preparations from fed mice. Our results suggested that the regulation of ileum motility by L-cysteine and D,L-homocysteine was dependent on BCH-sensitive systems, and varied depending on feeding in mice. Therefore, the effects of aminooxyacetic acid and D,L-propargylglycine on transport systems need to be considered in pharmacological analyses.

  2. Lack of megalin expression in adult human terminal ileum suggests megalin‐independent cubilin/amnionless activity during vitamin B12 absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Louise L.; Andersen, Rikke K.; Hager, Henrik; Madsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cubilin plays an essential role in terminal ileum and renal proximal tubules during absorption of vitamin B12 and ligands from the glomerular ultrafiltrate. Cubilin is coexpressed with amnionless, and cubilin and amnionless are mutually dependent on each other for correct processing to the plasma membrane upon synthesis. Patients with defects in either protein suffer from vitamin B12‐malabsorption and in some cases proteinuria. Cubilin lacks a transmembrane region and signals for endocytosis and is dependent on a transmembrane coreceptor during internalization. Amnionless has been shown to be able to mediate internalization of cubilin in a cell‐based model system. Cubilin has additionally been suggested to function together with megalin, and a recent study of megalin‐deficient patients indicates that uptake of cubilin ligands in the kidney is critically dependent on megalin. To further investigate the potential role of amnionless and megalin in relation to cubilin function in terminal ileum and vitamin B12 uptake, we initiated a study of CUBN/cubilin, AMN/amnionless, and LRP2/megalin expression in adult human terminal ileum. Our study is the first to reveal the expression pattern of cubilin, amnionless, and megalin in adult human terminal ileum, where cubilin and amnionless localize to the epithelial cells. Surprisingly, we did not detect any megalin protein in adult terminal ileum and consistently, only extremely low amounts of LRP2 mRNA. Our data therefore advocate that cubilin and amnionless act independently of megalin in adult terminal ileum and that the cubilin‐megalin interdependency accordingly should be considered as tissue and ligand specific. PMID:25052491

  3. Lack of megalin expression in adult human terminal ileum suggests megalin-independent cubilin/amnionless activity during vitamin B12 absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Louise L; Andersen, Rikke K; Hager, Henrik; Madsen, Mette

    2014-07-01

    Cubilin plays an essential role in terminal ileum and renal proximal tubules during absorption of vitamin B12 and ligands from the glomerular ultrafiltrate. Cubilin is coexpressed with amnionless, and cubilin and amnionless are mutually dependent on each other for correct processing to the plasma membrane upon synthesis. Patients with defects in either protein suffer from vitamin B12-malabsorption and in some cases proteinuria. Cubilin lacks a transmembrane region and signals for endocytosis and is dependent on a transmembrane coreceptor during internalization. Amnionless has been shown to be able to mediate internalization of cubilin in a cell-based model system. Cubilin has additionally been suggested to function together with megalin, and a recent study of megalin-deficient patients indicates that uptake of cubilin ligands in the kidney is critically dependent on megalin. To further investigate the potential role of amnionless and megalin in relation to cubilin function in terminal ileum and vitamin B12 uptake, we initiated a study of CUBN/cubilin, AMN/amnionless, and LRP2/megalin expression in adult human terminal ileum. Our study is the first to reveal the expression pattern of cubilin, amnionless, and megalin in adult human terminal ileum, where cubilin and amnionless localize to the epithelial cells. Surprisingly, we did not detect any megalin protein in adult terminal ileum and consistently, only extremely low amounts of LRP2 mRNA. Our data therefore advocate that cubilin and amnionless act independently of megalin in adult terminal ileum and that the cubilin-megalin interdependency accordingly should be considered as tissue and ligand specific.

  4. Técnica do aproveitamento da papila íleo-cecal naileostomia definitiva e na anastomose íleo-retal Technique of preserving the ileum-caecal papilla in the definitive ileostomy and ileum-rectal anastomose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcino Lázaro da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Quando se faz ileostomia com a papila, a perda líquida é bem menor e a irritação local às vezes é nula, podendo o paciente viver sem o uso da bolsa. OBJETIVO: Mostrar uma técnica operatória em que se preserva a papila na ileostomia ou na anastomose íleo-retal. Ela consta da preservação da vasculatura do ceco e íleo terminal e secção do ceco deixando-se 1 cm de orla na papila ileal que é fixada na pele por contra-abertura para ileostomia definitiva. Quando se resseca o cólon, a papila é anastomosada ao reto (íleo-papilo-retostomia. RESULTADOS: São bons, pois há diminuição do número de evacuações, da perda de líquidos nas fezes e da irritação epidérmica. CONCLUSÃO: O procedimento é exequível e traz resultados que melhoram a qualidade de vida do paciente.INTRODUCTION: When ileostomy is done with the ileum-caecal papilla, the liquid is decreased and happens much less local irritation and its possible that the patient can live without the use of the bag. OBJECTIVE: To show a surgical technique that preserves the papilla in ileostomy or ileo-rectal cancer. METHOD: It is done with the preservation of the vasculature of the cecum and terminal ileum; cecum section is made leaving 1 cm border, coronal, on the ileal papilla, which is fixed on the skin for a counter-opening for permanent ileostomy. When a colectomy is needed, the anastomosis can be made with the rectal stump (papilla-ileum-retostomy. RESULTS: They are good because there is a decrease in the number of bowel movements, loss of fluid in the stool and less epidermal irritation. CONCLUSION: The procedure is feasible and brings results that improve the quality of life of patients.

  5. Technology And Pregnant Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

  6. Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong

    2015-01-01

    This thesis, entitled “Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand”, presents many aspects of pig production in Thailand including the characteristics of pig farming system, distribution of pig population and pig farms, spatio-temporal distribution and risk of most important diseases in pig at present, and the suitability area for pig farming. Spatial distribution and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand were studied using time-series pig population data to des...

  7. Propagation of pacemaker activity in the guinea-pig antrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, G W; Hirst, G D S; Park, K J; Smith, C B; Sanders, K M; Ward, S M; Smith, T K

    2004-04-15

    Cyclical periods of depolarization (slow waves) underlie peristaltic contractions involved in mixing and emptying of contents in the gastric antrum. Slow waves originate from a myenteric network of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-MY). In this study we have visualized the sequence and propagation of Ca(2+) transients associated with pacemaker potentials in the ICC network and longitudinal (LM) and circular muscle (CM) layers of the isolated guinea-pig gastric antrum. Gastric antrum was dissected to reveal the ICC-MY network, loaded with Fluo-4 AM and activity was monitored at 37 degrees C. Ca(2+) waves propagated throughout the ICC-MY network at an average velocity of 3.24 +/- 0.12 mm s(-1) at a frequency of 4.87 +/- 0.16 cycles min(-1) (n= 4). The propagation of the Ca(2+) wave often appeared 'step-like', with separate regions of the network being activated after variable delays. The direction of propagation was highly variable (Delta angle of propagation 44.3 +/- 10.9 deg per cycle) and was not confined to the axes of the longitudinal or circular muscle. Ca(2+) waves appeared to spread out radially from the site of initiation. The initiating Ca(2+) wave in ICC-MY was correlated to secondary Ca(2+) waves in intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal, ICC-IM, and smooth muscle cells, and the local distortion (contraction) in a field of view. TTX (1 microm) had little effect on slow wave or pacemaker potential activity, but 2-APB (50 microm) blocked all Ca(2+) waves, indicating a pivotal role for intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Nicardipine (2 microm) eliminated the Ca(2+) transient generated by smooth muscle, but did not affect the fast upstroke associated with ICC-MY. These results indicate that slow waves follow a sequence of activation, beginning with the ICC-MY and ICC-IM network, followed later by a sustained Ca(2+) transient in the muscle layers that is responsible for contraction.

  8. Behavior of immunocastrated pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Kássia Silva dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of immunocastrated male pigs compared with females and castrated males during the period before and after full immunization. A total of 30 animals were divided into three treatments, with ten animals in each (females, barrows, and immunocastrated males. The experiment was divided into three periods: 70 to 80 days of age (period 1, 81 to 110 days of age (period 2, and 111 to 140 days of age (period 3. The behavior of animals during these stages was evaluated. Immunocastrated males showed a higher rate of aggressive and sexual behavior during period 2, which decreased after the second vaccine dose. Both barrows and immunocastrated males presented high locomotion in period 1, reducing the frequency of this activity in period 3. All analyzed animals had a higher level of activities such as drinking, playing, and sexual behavior in period 1 than in the other periods, decreasing during the experiment. The remaining behavioral responses did not differ between the studied categories. Immunocastrated males had higher proportions of undesirable behaviors (aggressive and sexual related to the surgically castrated males and females, and these were reduced after the second vaccine dose. Immunocastration is effective in the reduction of behaviors such as agonistic and sexual at the same levels observed in females and surgically castrated males. However, immunocastrated pigs are more subject to these undesirable behaviors before full immunization.

  9. Whipworms in humans and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawash, Mohamed Bayoumi Fahmy; Betson, Martha; Al-Jubury, Azmi

    2016-01-01

    -human primates suggesting a common African origin of the parasite, which then was transmitted to Asia and further to South America. On the other hand, there was no differentiation between pig-derived Trichuris from Europe and the New World suggesting dispersal relates to human activities by transporting pigs....... CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence for an African origin of T. trichiura which were then transmitted with human ancestors to Asia and further to South America. A host shift to pigs may have occurred in Asia from where T. suis seems to have been transmitted globally by a combination of natural host dispersal...

  10. Syncytial Variant of Nodular Sclerosis Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma of the Terminal Ileum in a Patient with Longstanding Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Bradley; Podoll, Mirna Bajramovic; Baumgartner, Erin Marie; Maley, Diana Haninger

    2016-01-01

    Primary Hodgkin lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract is an uncommon malignancy with few reported cases. Here we describe a rare variant of Hodgkin lymphoma presented in the gastrointestinal tract in association with Crohn's Disease.The patient is a 58 year old male with a 40 year history of formerly well-controlled Crohn's disease who presented with abdominal discomfort and constitutional symptoms. Computed tomography showed a 10 cm thickened segment of ileum and a dilated segment of small bowel. The patient underwent segmental resection, revealing a mass, which was diagnosed by pathology as nodular sclerosis classical Hodgkin lymphoma, syncytial variant.There are only 29 reported cases of syncytial variant of nodular sclerosis classical Hodgkin lymphoma. This is the second documented case of primary gastrointestinal syncytial variant of nodular sclerosis classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Further characterization of this entity is necessary.

  11. Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma presenting within a solitary anti-mesenteric dilated segment of ileum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storey Rowland

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is the third most common non-Hodgkin's lymphoma subtype. Clinical presentation is often insidious as a low-grade lesion and disease tends to remain localised for a long period of time. Ileal involvement is rare and presentation within an area of focal anti-mesenteric ileal wall dilation simulating a large diverticulum has not been reported. Case presentation A 59-year-old man of Caucasian origin presented to a general surgical outpatients clinic with an 18-month history of intermittent upper abdominal pain following meals. Following normal gastroscopy and abdominal ultrasound, a focally dilated segment of ileum was seen on computed tomography and further clarified by barium investigation. Histology of this segment demonstrated MALT lymphoma of the small bowel. Conclusion A solitary focally dilated segment of ileal wall may be neoplastic in nature and surgical resection needs to be considered.

  12. Herpes Simplex Virus Type II Infection of Ileum Mesothelium: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAC Medlicott

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV infection usually manifests in the immunocompromised. However, anecdotal examples of visceral HSV disease and viremia have complicated type I diabetes. A case of a 53-year-old type I diabetic patient with bowel obstruction one week subsequent to bronchitis is reported. At laparotomy, a perforated segment of ileum was associated with an adhesive peritoneal band. HSV cytopathic atypia and HSV immunohistochemical staining were confined to fibrocytes and mesothelial cells without involvement of the epithelium. Dissemination of symptomatic HSV pneumonia was verified by histology, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, polymerase chain reaction and direct fluorescence antibody. Intravenous acyclovir resolved symptoms. This is a novel documentation of HSV complicating ileal adhesive band disease. Furthermore, this case indicates that the HSV cytopathic effect is not unique to the epithelium. Disseminated infection can manifest in myofibrocytes and mesothelium, distinguishing it from standard epithelial atypia of localized HSV infection.

  13. Microbial community composition of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens as revealed by molecular and culture-based techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Engberg, R.M.; Leser, T.D.

    2006-01-01

    The microbial communities of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens from a conventional and an organic farm were investigated using conventional culture techniques as well as cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Eighty-five percent of the 557 cloned sequences were ...% of the cecal clones belonged to this cluster in conventional and organic broiler chickens, respectively. We were, however, able to recover a number of these phylotypes by cultivation, and the isolates were shown to be butyric acid producers. The investigation was a descriptive rather than a comparative study...... of 2 different rearing systems; however, several differences were observed. For instance, Clostridium perfringens was found in significantly higher numbers in the birds from the organic farm compared with the conventional broilers, probably due to the addition of salinomycin to the conventional feed...

  14. Taurocholate transport by brush-border membrane vesicles from the developing rabbit ileum: Structure/function relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, S.M.; Watkins, J.B.; Ling, S.C. (New York Medical College, Valhalla (USA))

    1990-05-01

    To examine the ontogenesis of bile acid transport in the rabbit ileum, brush-border membrane vesicles (12- to 20-fold purified) were prepared from 14- to 49-day-old animals. Taurocholate uptake was characterized by the emergence of secondary active, Na(+)-dependent transport at the start of weaning (21 days). Transient intravesicular accumulation (overshoot) of taurocholate occurred at 5-10 s of incubation, and the overshoot maximum increased significantly from 21 days (349.2 +/- 22.4 nmol/mg protein) to 35 days (569.0 +/- 84.3 nmol/mg protein; p less than 0.001), without further increase at maturity (49 days, not equal to 607.6 +/- 136.7 nmol/mg protein). No significant taurocholate active uptake component was noted at 14 days; however, ileal vesicles from sucklings showed carrier-mediated, Na+ D-glucose cotransport. In greater than or equal to 35-day-old rabbits, osmolarity studies at 20 s of incubation showed that only approximately 12% of (14C)taurocholate uptake was secondary to bile acid-to-membrane binding. Conversely, at 20 min, greater than 95% of radiolabel incorporation represented solute bound to the external and/or internal membrane surface. Arrhenius plots establish brush-border membrane taurocholate uptake as an intrinsic, lipid-dependent process, with a slope discontinuity between 24 and 28 degrees C, similar to the membrane lipid thermotropic transition region. Steady-state fluorescence polarization studies (1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene) demonstrate a temporal association between the maturation of taurocholate uptake and age-related decreases in ileal brush-border membrane fluidity. These data indicate that maturation of bile acid secondary active transport in the rabbit ileum may be regulated, at least in part, by changes in brush-border membrane lipid dynamics.

  15. Pacemaker shift in the gastric antrum of guinea-pigs produced by excitatory vagal stimulation involves intramuscular interstitial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, G D S; Dickens, E J; Edwards, F R

    2002-06-15

    Intracellular recordings were made from isolated bundles of the circular muscle layer of guinea-pig gastric antrum and the responses produced by stimulating intrinsic nerve fibres were examined. After abolishing the effects of stimulating inhibitory nerve terminals with apamin and L-nitroarginine (NOLA), transmural nerve stimulation often evoked a small amplitude excitatory junction potential (EJP) and invariably evoked a regenerative potential. Neurally evoked regenerative potentials had similar properties to those evoked in the same bundle by direct stimulation. EJPs and neurally evoked regenerative potentials were abolished by hyoscine suggesting that both resulted from the release of acetylcholine and activation of muscarinic receptors. Neurally evoked regenerative potentials, but not EJPs, were abolished by membrane hyperpolarization, caffeine and chloride channel blockers. In the intact antrum, excitatory vagal nerve stimulation increased the frequency of slow waves. Simultaneous intracellular recordings of pacemaker potentials from myenteric interstitial cells (ICC(MY)) and slow waves showed that the onset of each pacemaker potential normally preceded the onset of each slow wave but vagal stimulation caused the onset of each slow wave to precede each pacemaker potential. Together the observations suggest that during vagal stimulation there is a change in the origin of pacemaker activity with slow waves being initiated by intramuscular interstitial cells (ICC(IM)) rather than by ICC(MY).

  16. Investigation of the potential modulatory effect of biliverdin, carbon monoxide and bilirubin on nitrergic neurotransmission in the pig gastric fundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpaert, Erwin E; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Lefebvre, Romain A

    2002-12-20

    In porcine gastric fundus, we have investigated the colocalization of the bile pigment biosynthetic enzymes heme oxygenase-2 and biliverdin reductase with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), the effect of carbon monoxide (CO) on fundic circular smooth muscle and the possible modulatory effect of the bile pigments biliverdin and bilirubin on CO-mediated relaxations and on nitrergic relaxation. Heme oxygenase-2 and biliverdin reductase immunoreactivity was present in all nNOS containing myenteric neurons. CO induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of fundic circular smooth muscle strips, which was completely blocked by the specific guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1), biliverdin and bilirubin strongly enhanced the amplitude of the CO-induced relaxation. Tin protoporphyrin had no effect on electrically induced nitrergic relaxation, but spectrophotometric analysis learned that incubation of porcine gastric fundus circular muscle strips with tin protoporphyrin did not influence heme oxygenase activity. In conclusion, our data suggest that nitrergic neurons in the pig gastric fundus are able to produce biliverdin and bilirubin, and that these agents potentiate the relaxant effect of CO, which is formed concomitantly with biliverdin by heme oxygenase-2.

  17. Immunohistochemical localization of the antioxidant enzymes biliverdin reductase and heme oxygenase-2 in human and pig gastric fundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpaert, Erwin E; Timmermans, Jean Pierre; Lefebvre, Romain A

    2002-04-01

    The intrinsic antioxidant capacities of the bile pigments biliverdin and bilirubin are increasingly recognized since both heme degradation products can exert beneficial cytoprotective effects due to their scavenging of oxygen free radicals and interaction with antioxidant vitamins. Several studies have been published on the localization of the carbon monoxide producing enzyme heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2), which concomitantly generates biliverdin; histochemical data on the distribution of biliverdin reductase (BVR), converting biliverdin to bilirubin, are still very scarce in large mammals including humans. The present study revealed by means of immunohistochemistry the presence of BVR and HO-2 in mucosal epithelial cells and in the endothelium of intramural vessels of both human and porcine gastric fundus. In addition, co-labeling with the specific neural marker protein-gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) demonstrated that both BVR and HO-2 were present in all intrinsic nerve cell bodies of both submucous and myenteric plexuses, while double labeling with c-Kit antibody confirmed their presence in intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Our results substantiate the hypothesis that BVR, through the production of the potent antioxidant bilirubin, might be an essential component of normal physiologic gastrointestinal defense in man and pig.

  18. Investigation of the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers in mainland China by simulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linhai; Xu, Guoyan; Li, Qingguang; Hou, Bo; Hu, Wuyang; Wang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Dead pigs are a major waste by-product of pig farming. Thus, safe disposal of dead pigs is important to the protection of consumer health and the ecological environment by preventing marketing of slaughtered and processed dead pigs and improper dumping of dead pigs. In this study, a probability model was constructed for the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers by selecting factors affecting disposal. To that end, we drew on the definition and meaning of behavior probability based on survey data collected from 654 pig farmers in Funing County, Jiangsu Province, China. Moreover, the role of influencing factors in pig farmers' behavioral choices regarding the disposal of dead pigs was simulated by simulation experiment. The results indicated that years of farming had a positive impact on pig farmers' choice of negative disposal of dead pigs. Moreover, there was not a simple linear relationship between scale of farming and pig farmers' behavioral choices related to the disposal of dead pigs. The probability for farmers to choose the safe disposal of dead pigs increased with the improvement of their knowledge of government policies and relevant laws and regulations. Pig farmers' behavioral choice about the disposal of dead pigs was also affected by government subsidy policies, regulation, and punishment. Government regulation and punishment were more effective than subsidy. The findings of our simulation experiment provide important decision-making support for the governance in preventing the marketing of dead pigs at the source.

  19. Curcuma longa extract exerts a myorelaxant effect on the ileum and colon in a mouse experimental colitis model, independent of the anti-inflammatory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldini, Rita; Budriesi, Roberta; Roda, Giulia; Micucci, Matteo; Ioan, Pierfranco; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Sartini, Alessandro; Guidetti, Elena; Marocchi, Margherita; Cevenini, Monica; Rosini, Francesca; Montagnani, Marco; Chiarini, Alberto; Mazzella, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma has long been used as an anti-inflammatory agent in inflammatory bowel disease. Since gastrointestinal motility is impaired in inflammatory states, the aim of this work was to evaluate if Curcuma Longa had any effect on intestinal motility. The biological activity of Curcuma extract was evaluated against Carbachol induced contraction in isolated mice intestine. Acute and chronic colitis were induced in Balb/c mice by Dextran Sulphate Sodium administration (5% and 2.5% respectively) and either Curcuma extract (200 mg/kg/day) or placebo was thereafter administered for 7 and 21 days respectively. Spontaneous contractions and the response to Carbachol and Atropine of ileum and colon were studied after colitis induction and Curcuma administration. Curcuma extract reduced the spontaneous contractions in the ileum and colon; the maximal response to Carbachol was inhibited in a non-competitive and reversible manner. Similar results were obtained in ileum and colon from Curcuma fed mice. DSS administration decreased the motility, mainly in the colon and Curcuma almost restored both the spontaneous contractions and the response to Carbachol after 14 days assumption, compared to standard diet, but a prolonged assumption of Curcuma decreased the spontaneous and Carbachol-induced contractions. Curcuma extract has a direct and indirect myorelaxant effect on mouse ileum and colon, independent of the anti-inflammatory effect. The indirect effect is reversible and non-competitive with the cholinergic agent. These results suggest the use of curcuma extract as a spasmolytic agent.

  20. Pigs in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    Animals are rare topics in public health science texts and speech despite the fact that animal bodies and lives are woven into the health of human populations, and vice versa. Years of ethnographic and documentary research – following pigs and their humans in and out of biomedical research – made...... me mindful and watchful of the porous passages between animal and human bodies and environments that do not confine themselves to ‘national health programs’ directed towards a specific (human) population. These unrecognized species encounters and relationships, which exceed the conventional framework...... of public health, made me re-evaluate both what ‘public’ and what ‘health’ means in public health. In this commentary I provide a short personal account of that intellectual journey. I argue that entanglements between species make it urgent that public health scholars investigate the moral, socio...

  1. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...... with 30% (v/v) ethanol or saline, respectively. Relative viscosity was used as one measure of physical properties of the emulsion. Higher degrees of sensitization (but not rates) were obtained at the 48 h challenge reading with the oil/propylene glycol and oil/saline + ethanol emulsions compared...... to the saline/oil emulsion. Placing of the challenge patches affected the response, as simultaneous chlorocresol challenge on the flank located 2 cm closer to the abdomen than the usual challenge site gave decreased reactions....

  2. Structural variations in pig genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Paudel, Y. (2015). Structural variations in pig genomes. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands Structural variations are chromosomal rearrangements such as insertions-deletions (INDELs), duplications, inversions, translocations, and copy number variations (CNVs

  3. Brachyspira murdochii colitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Christensen, A. S.; Boye, Mette

    2010-01-01

    The weakly beta-hemolytic porcine spirochete Brachyspira murdochii is considered a normal intestinal commensal. In the present study, however, a field case of B murdochii–associated catarrhal colitis was identified in a pig, as characterized by extensive spirochetal colonization of the surface...... epithelium. Experimentally, 8 weaned pigs were challenged with the B murdochii isolate, reproducing catarrhal colitis in 2 animals. By applying fluorescent in situ hybridization using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting 23S rRNA, B murdochii organisms were found in high numbers and were...... closely associated with the surface epithelium in the pigs with catarrhal colitis. The results indicate that, when present in high numbers, B murdochii is low pathogenic for pigs....

  4. Whipworms in humans and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawash, Mohamed Bayoumi Fahmy; Betson, Martha; Al-Jubury, Azmi;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trichuris suis and T. trichiura are two different whipworm species that infect pigs and humans, respectively. T. suis is found in pigs worldwide while T. trichiura is responsible for nearly 460 million infections in people, mainly in areas of poor sanitation in tropical and subtropical...... areas. The evolutionary relationship and the historical factors responsible for this worldwide distribution are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to reconstruct the demographic history of Trichuris in humans and pigs, the evolutionary origin of Trichuris in these hosts and factors responsible...... for parasite dispersal globally. METHODS: Parts of the mitochondrial nad1 and rrnL genes were sequenced followed by population genetic and phylogenetic analyses. Populations of Trichuris examined were recovered from humans (n = 31), pigs (n = 58) and non-human primates (n = 49) in different countries...

  5. Effect of Indica Rice Diets Supplemented with Exogenous Enzyme on Growth and Digestion of Pigs Fed Paddy-Based Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Min-qi; XU Zi-rong; SUN Jian-yi

    2004-01-01

    Sixty growing pigs (Landrace × Jiaxing black) were used to study the effects of exogenous enzymes (including β -glucanase,xylanase and cellulase) supplemented to paddy-based diets on pig growth performance and digestion. With the supplementation of enzymes, average daily gain of pig was increased by 8.78%(P<0.05), feed gain radio was decreased by 9.42%(P<0.05), feed apparent digestibilities of crude protein, crude fat and crude fiber were increased by 17.32% (P<0.01), 16.04% (P<0.05) and 108.57%(P<0.01),the viscosity of jejunum, and ileum contents were reduced by 7.08%(P<0.01) and 6.78%(P<0.01), numbers of E. coli in feaces and diarrhoea morbidity were decreased by 81.29%(P<0.01 ) and 37.00%(P<0.05), and the activities of protelytic enzyme and α-amylase in duodenal contents were enhanced by 99.07% (P<0.05) and 18.38%(P<0.05), respectively.

  6. Discrepancies in microbiota composition along the pig gastrointestinal tract between in vivo observations and an in vitro batch fermentation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudry, C; Poelaert, C; Portetelle, D; Thewis, A; Bindelle, J

    2012-12-01

    In vitro fermentation models are increasingly used to assess prebiotic potential of novel indigestible carbohydrates (CHO). A trial was performed to assess the validity of such approaches by comparing the influence of fermentation of inulin and cellulose on microbiota in vivo and in vitro. Two semipurified diets based on 5% inulin or 5% cellulose were fed to 2 groups of four 25-kg pigs. After 3 wk, the pigs were slaughtered and digesta was sampled from jejunum, ileum, cecum, and 3 parts of the colon to measure pH and microbiota population. An in vitro gas fermentation test was also performed on inulin and cellulose using fresh feces of the experimental pigs as bacterial inoculum. The gas production kinetics were modeled and fermentation broth sampled after 5, 8, 12, 24, and 72 h. Bacterial DNA was extracted and quantitative PCR was performed to quantify total bacteria, lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, Bacteroides, Clostridium cluster I, and Escherichia coli. Total bacteria quantification was similar between both systems. In vivo, total bacteria increased (P 0.05) for both CHO. Evolutions of lactobacilli and Clostridium populations in both systems were also not consistent. This can be ascribed to specific bacterial properties as, for example, adhesive properties or sensitivity to sulfur reducing agent used in the in vitro model. As is, the in vitro model does not reflect properly changes in microbiota along the digestive tract induced by specific feed ingredients compared to in vivo observations.

  7. An investigation into the role of mucus thickness on mucoadhesion in the gastrointestinal tract of pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varum, Felipe J O; Veiga, Francisco; Sousa, João S; Basit, Abdul W

    2010-07-11

    Mucoadhesion in the gastrointestinal tract is a complex phenomenon and both formulation and physiological features need to be well understood and considered. Mucus thickness has been inferred to play a role in this process; however no definitive influence has been established. This study aimed to investigate the influence of mucus thickness on the mucoadhesion process, using a large animal (pig) as a model to closely resemble the human physiological features. The mucus thickness of different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of pig was fully measured by means of a histochemical method (hematoxilin/eosin) employing cryostat sections. Mucoadhesion was evaluated ex vivo on porcine mucosa by tensiometry using a polyacrylic acid polymer (Carbopol 974P NF) as a mucoadhesive model material, both in a dry and swollen state. Mucus was thickest in the stomach (body 67.9+/-54.7 microm) and mucus thickness increased from proximal to distal segments in both the small intestine (duodenum 25.9+/-11.8 microm, ileum 31.0+/-15.7 microm) and large intestine (caecum 19.4+/-8.7 microm, ascending colon 31.9+/-17.2 microm, descending colon 35.1+/-16.0 microm and rectum 40.8+/-12.5 microm). Swollen polymer exhibited lower mucoadhesion than the dry form in all sections analysed. Mucus thickness plays a role on the mucoadhesion, as thicker mucus provides deeper polymer chain diffusion and entanglements; however, other factors are also involved in this complex process.

  8. Dietary l-Arginine Supplementation Protects Weanling Pigs from Deoxynivalenol-Induced Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the positive effects of dietary supplementation with l-arginine (Arg on piglets fed a deoxynivalenol (DON-contaminated diet. A total of eighteen, 28-day-old healthy weanling pigs were randomly assigned into one of three groups: uncontaminated basal diet (control group, 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet (DON group and 6 mg/kg DON + 1% l-arginine (DON + ARG group. After 21 days of Arg supplementation, piglets in the DON and DON + ARG groups were challenged by feeding 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet for seven days. The results showed that DON resulted in damage to piglets. However, clinical parameters, including jejunal morphology, amino acid concentrations in the serum, jejunum and ileum, were improved by Arg (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the mRNA levels for sodium-glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1, glucose transporter type-2 (GLUT-2 and y+l-type amino acid transporter-1 (y+LAT-1 were downregulated in the DON group, but the values were increased in the DON + ARG group (p < 0.05. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with Arg exerts a protective role in pigs fed DON-contaminated diets.

  9. The plasticity of the defecation reflex pathway in the enteric nervous system of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsui, Renta; Kuniyasu, Hiroki; Matsuyoshi, Hiroko; Fujii, Hisao; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki; Takaki, Miyako

    2009-02-01

    The enteric nervous system, the "second" brain, is an independent nervous system that structurally resembles the "first" brain. Appropriate rectal distension elicits rectal (R-R) reflex contractions and simultaneous internal anal sphincter (R-IAS) reflex relaxations that together comprise the defecation reflex. The enteric nervous system, pelvic nerves and lumbar colonic nerves control both reflexes. Using the plasticity of enteric nervous pathways, a new therapy for repairing enteric neural dysfunction could be developed. In vivo experiments were performed on guinea pigs anesthetized with ethyl carbamate. We performed either a lower anterior resection as used for rectal cancer, without damaging the extrinsic nerves or a resection of a 2-cm segment of distal colon, 30 mm orally from the anal verge, with subsequent end-to-end one layer anastomosis of the exposed ends. The recovery of the defecation reflex was found to be the same in both the rectal transection and distal colonic resection procedures. Eight weeks after sectioning the intrinsic reflex nerve pathways in the rectum, the defecation reflex recovered to control levels, accompanied by a regeneration of the reflex pathways. The 5-HT(4) receptor agonist, mosapride (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg), significantly (P<0.01) enhanced the recovered defecation reflex at this stage. Two weeks after local treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF: 10(-6) g/ml) at the rectal anastomotic site, the R-IAS reflex relaxations recovered and some bundles of fine nerve fibers were able to be seen interconnecting the oral and anal ends of the myenteric plexus. Also surprisingly, new neurons were found to have generated from neural stem cells at the anastomotic ends. These new neurons had constructed mature enteric neural networks including ganglionic-like structures eight weeks after surgery. These results revealed the plasticity of enteric neurons, allowing the proposal of a new therapy for repairing enteric neural dysfunction

  10. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Najmul; Khan, M. S. U.; Hossain, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare...... with jaundice in the past 2 years. Pigs in Bangladesh demonstrated evidence of HEV infec-tion, and a history of jaundice was significantly more frequent in pig handlers. Identifying and genotyping HEV in pigs and pig handlers may provide further evidence of the pig’s role in zoonotic HEV transmission...

  11. Metabolomic phenotyping of a cloned pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Morten Rahr; Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2011-01-01

    and possibly also phenotypes and this offer an extra level of experimental control which could possibly make them a desirable tool for intervention studies. Therefore, in the present study, we address how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning, through comparison of cloned pigs and normal...... outbred pigs. Results The metabolic phenotype of cloned pigs (n = 5) was for the first time elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic analysis of multiple bio-fluids including plasma, bile and urine. The metabolic phenotype of the cloned pigs was compared with normal outbred pigs (n...... = 6) by multivariate data analysis, which revealed differences in the metabolic phenotypes. Plasma lactate was higher for cloned vs control pigs, while multiple metabolites were altered in the bile. However a lower inter-individual variability for cloned pigs compared with control pigs could...

  12. Decreased expression of serotonin in the jejunum and increased numbers of mast cells in the terminal ileum in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if there are changes in serotonin(5-HT) levels, enterochromaffin (EC) cells and mast cells in small intestinal mucosa of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).METHODS: Diarrhea-predominant (IBS-D, n = 20), or constipation-predominant (IBS-C, n = 18) IBS patients and healthy controls (n=20) underwent colonoscopy and peroral small intestinal endoscopy, and mucosal samples were obtained at the descending part of the duodenum, proximal end of jejunum and terminal ileum. High-performance liquid chromatography electrochemistry and immunohistochemical methods were used to detect 5-HT content, EC cells and mast cells.RESULTS: (1) There were no differences in the number and distribution of EC cells between IBS patients and the normal group. (2) The mucosal 5-HT contents at the duodenum, jejunum and ileum in IBS-C patients were 182 ± 90, 122 ± 54, 61 ± 35 ng/mg protein,respectively, which were all lower than those in the normal group (256 ± 84, 188 ± 91, and 93 ± 45 ng/mg protein, respectively), with a significant difference at the jejunum (P<0.05). There were no differences in the small intestinal mucosal 5-HT contents between IBS-D patients and the normal group. The mucosal 5-HT contents at the duodenum were significantly higher than those at the ileum in the three groups (P<0.001). (3)The numbers of mast cells in patients with IBS-C and IBS-D at the ileum were 38.7 ± 9.4 and 35.8 ± 5.5/high power field (hpf), respectively, which were significantly more than that in the normal group (29.8 ± 4.4/hpf)(P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the numbers of mast cells at the other two parts between IBS patients and the normal group. The numbers of mast cells in IBS-C, IBS-D, and normal groups were all significantly higher at the ileum (38.7 ± 9.4, 35.8 ± 5.5,29.8 ± 4.4/hpf, respectively) than at the duodenum (19.6± 4.7, 18.5 ± 6.3, 19.2 ± 3.3/hpf, respectively, P < 0.001).CONCLUSION: The changes in the 5-HT signaling

  13. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

  14. Organophosphorus pesticides decrease M2 muscarinic receptor function in guinea pig airway nerves via indirect mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky J Proskocil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies link organophosphorus pesticide (OP exposures to asthma, and we have shown that the OPs chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion cause airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs 24 hr after a single subcutaneous injection. OP-induced airway hyperreactivity involves M2 muscarinic receptor dysfunction on airway nerves independent of acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, but how OPs inhibit neuronal M2 receptors in airways is not known. In the central nervous system, OPs interact directly with neurons to alter muscarinic receptor function or expression; therefore, in this study we tested whether the OP parathion or its oxon metabolite, paraoxon, might decrease M2 receptor function on peripheral neurons via similar direct mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Intravenous administration of paraoxon, but not parathion, caused acute frequency-dependent potentiation of vagally-induced bronchoconstriction and increased electrical field stimulation (EFS-induced contractions in isolated trachea independent of AChE inhibition. However, paraoxon had no effect on vagally-induced bradycardia in intact guinea pigs or EFS-induced contractions in isolated ileum, suggesting mechanisms other than pharmacologic antagonism of M2 receptors. Paraoxon did not alter M2 receptor expression in cultured cells at the mRNA or protein level as determined by quantitative RT-PCR and radio-ligand binding assays, respectively. Additionally, a biotin-labeled fluorophosphonate, which was used as a probe to identify molecular targets phosphorylated by OPs, did not phosphorylate proteins in guinea pig cardiac membranes that were recognized by M2 receptor antibodies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that neither direct pharmacologic antagonism nor downregulated expression of M2 receptors contributes to OP inhibition of M2 function in airway nerves, adding to the growing evidence of non-cholinergic mechanisms of OP neurotoxicity.

  15. Innovative gastric endoscopic muscle biopsy to identify all cell types, including myenteric neurons and interstitial cells of Cajal in patients with idiopathic gastroparesis: a feasibility study (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Elizabeth; Gostout, Christopher J; Wong Kee Song, Louis M; Szarka, Lawrence A; Kashyap, Purna C; Smyrk, Thomas C; Bingener, Juliane; Deters, Jodie L; Knipschield, Mary A; Bernard, Cheryl E; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2016-09-01

    The pathophysiology of some GI neuromuscular diseases remains largely unknown. This is in part due to the inability to obtain ample deep gastric wall biopsies that include the intermuscular layer of the muscularis propria (MP) to evaluate the enteric nervous system, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), and related cells. We report on a novel technique for gastric endoscopic muscle biopsy (gEMB). Patients with idiopathic gastroparesis were prospectively enrolled in a feasibility study by using a novel "no hole" gEMB. Main outcome measures were technical success, adverse events, and histologic confirmation of the intermuscular layer, including myenteric neurons and ICC. The gEMB was a double resection clip-assist technique. A site was identified on the anterior wall of the gastric body as recommended by the International Working Group on histologic techniques. EMR was performed to unroof and expose the underlying MP. The exposed MP was then retracted into the cap of an over-the-scope clip. The clip was deployed, and the pseudopolyp of MP created was resected. This resulted in a no-hole gEMB. Three patients with idiopathic gastroparesis underwent gEMB. Patients had severe delayed gastric emptying with a mean (± standard deviation [SD]) of 49 ± 16.8% of retained gastric contents at 4 hours. They had no history of gastric or small-bowel surgery and did not use steroids or other immunosuppressive drugs. The gEMB procedure was successfully performed, with no procedural adverse events. Postprocedural abdominal pain was controlled with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and opioid analgesics. Mean length of resected MP was 10.3 ± 1.5 mm. Mean procedure time was 25.7 ± 6 minutes. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of tissue samples confirmed the presence of both inner circular and outer longitudinal muscle, as well as the intermuscular layer. H&E staining showed reduced myenteric ganglia in 1 patient. In 2 patients, specialized immunohistochemistry was performed

  16. Accumulation of copper in the kidney of pigs fed high dietary zinc is due to metallothionein expression with minor effects on genes involved in copper metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetzsche, A; Schunter, N; Zentek, J; Pieper, R

    2016-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of high dietary zinc (Zn) oxide on trace element accumulation in various organs with special emphasis on the kidney. A total of 40 weaned piglets were allocated into two groups with 16 and 24 piglets each receiving a diet containing normal (NZn; 100mg Zn/kg) or high (HZn; 2,100mg Zn/kg) Zn concentration, respectively. After two weeks, eight piglets from each treatment were killed and organ samples were taken. Eight piglets from the remaining 16 pigs fed HZn diets were changed to NZn diets (CZn). All remaining piglets were killed after another two weeks for organ sampling. Trace element concentration was determined in the jejunum, liver, kidney, pancreas, bone (metacarpal IV), spleen, lung, thymus, tonsils and lymph nodes of jejunum, ileum and colon. Kidney mRNA expression of Zn transporter ZnT1 and ZIP4, genes involved in Cu metabolism (Ctr1, Atox1, SOD1, ATP7A, CCS, CP) and divalent metal ion transport (DMT1) and binding (MT-1a, MT-2b, MT-3) were determined. The Zn concentration in jejunum, liver, pancreas tissue and metacarpal IV was higher (Pkidney. No significant differences for Cu chaperones, Cu transporters and Cu-dependent factors were determined despite decreased expression of Atox1 after two weeks and increased Ctr1 expression over time in the HZn group. Expression of MT-1a, MT-2b and MT-3 were significantly higher in HZn fed pigs with most pronounced effects for MT-1a > MT-2b > MT-3. Gene expression of MTs in pigs fed CZn diets did not differ from pigs fed NZn diets. The data suggest that high dietary Zn feeding in pigs leads to Cu co-accumulation in the kidney of pigs with minor effect on genes relevant for Cu metabolism. In addition, the organ Zn and Cu accumulation is reversible after two weeks of withdrawal of high dietary Zn.

  17. Effect of dietary protein content on ileal amino acid digestibility, growth performance, and formation of microbial metabolites in ileal and cecal digesta of early-weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htoo, J K; Araiza, B A; Sauer, W C; Rademacher, M; Zhang, Y; Cervantes, M; Zijlstra, R T

    2007-12-01

    Diarrhea incidence in weaned pigs may be associated with the concentration of intestinal microbial metabolites (ammonia, amines, and VFA) that are influenced by dietary CP content. Three experiments were conducted to determine effects of a low-protein, AA-supplemented diet on ileal AA digestibility, growth performance, diarrhea incidence, and concentration of microbial metabolites in ileal and cecal digesta of pigs weaned at 14 d of age. In Exp. 1, 8 pigs fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum were assigned in a crossover design to 2 diets containing 24 or 20% CP using wheat, corn, full-fat soybeans, whey powder, fish meal, and blood plasma as the main ingredients. Supplemental AA were added to the diets to meet the AA standards according to the 1998 NRC recommendations. Chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. Diets were fed at 2.5 times the ME requirement for maintenance. The reduction of dietary CP decreased (P acid, isobutyric acid, isovaleric acid, total VFA, and putrescine concentrations by 28 to 39%. In Exp. 3, 32 pigs were assigned to 2 diets, similar to Exp. 1, according to a randomized complete block design. Pigs had free access to feed and water. Dietary CP content did not affect growth performance or fecal consistency scores during the 3-wk study, and diarrhea was not observed. The results of these experiments indicate that lowering the dietary CP content combined with supplementation of AA markedly reduced the production of potentially harmful microbial metabolites in cecal digesta of early-weaned pigs without affecting growth performance.

  18. Reactions of pigs to a hot environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    When compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are relatively sensitive to high environmental temperatures because the pig cannot sweat and is relatively poor at panting. Little information is available about the ambient temperatures above which group-housed pigs start to adapt their mechanism

  19. Fermentation of liquid diets for pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.

    2001-01-01

    In the last 30 years major changes occurred in pig nutrition. With the increasing size of the pig farms, manual feeding was replaced by automatic feeding systems. Most pigs were fed on dry diets, but during last the 15 years a clear tendency towards liquid feeding systems was observed. In the early

  20. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in t

  1. Respiratory health effects in pig farmers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes a cross-sectional study of risk factors of chronic respiratory health effects in pig farmers working in the South of the Netherlands. The study population comprised 100 pig farmers with and 100 pig farmers without chronic respiratory symptoms. Base-line lung function, non-speci

  2. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in t

  3. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in

  4. Morphoquantitative effects of acute diabetes on the myenteric neurons of the proximal colon of adult rats Efeitos morfoquantitativos do diabetes agudo sobre os neurônios mioentéricos do colo proximal de ratos adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Montserrat D.P. Furlan

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acute diabetes on the density and size of the myenteric neurons of the proximal colon of adult rats were investigated. The injection of streptozotocin was followed by a period of observation of seven days, during which the diabetic animals showed weight loss, excessive food and water intake, large urinary debt and hyperglicemia. The whole-mounts from the proximal colon were stained with the techniques of Giemsa and of the NADH-diaphorase, and the employment of these techniques made it possible to verify a decrease on the neuronal density and on the cell body size of the myenteric neurons in the colon of the diabetic rats. These observations were discussed in terms of the pathophysiology of the diabetes and the experimental protocol.Foram investigados os efeitos do diabetes agudo sobre a densidade e o tamanho dos neurônios mioentéricos do colo proximal de ratos adultos. À injeção de estreptozootocina seguiu-se um período de observação de sete dias, durante os quais os animais diabéticos apresentaram perda de peso, ingestão excessiva de alimento e água, grande débito urinário e hiperglicemia. Os preparados de membrana do colo proximal foram corados pelas técnicas de Giemsa e da NADH-diaforase. A aplicação dessas técnicas permitiu constatar uma redução da densidade neuronal e do tamanho do corpo celular dos neurônios mioentéricos no colo dos ratos diabéticos. Essas observações foram discutidas em termos da patofisiologia do diabetes e do protocolo experimental.

  5. Effects of a 3 strain -based direct-fed microbial and dietary fiber concentration on growth performance and expression of genes related to absorption and metabolism of volatile fatty acids in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, N W; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Walsh, M C; McCann, J C; Loor, J J; Stein, H H

    2017-01-01

    Effects of a -based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance, plasma tumor necrosis factor ɑ (TNFɑ), relative gene expression, and intestinal VFA concentrations in weanling pigs fed low- or high-fiber diets were evaluated. Two hundred pigs (initial BW: 6.31 ± 0.73 kg) were allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (5 pigs per pen and 10 pens per treatment). Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 diet types [low-fiber (LF) or high-fiber (HF)] and 2 concentrations of DFM (0 or 60 g DFM/t of feed). The DFM contained 1.5 × 10 cfu/g and was obtained from Danisco Animal Nutrition-DuPont Industrial Biosciences, Marlborough, UK. Phase 1 diets were fed for 2 wk post-weaning and phase 2 diets were fed over the following 29 d. Low fiber diets contained corn and soybean meal as main ingredients and HF diets contained corn, soybean meal, corn distillers dried grains with solubles (7.5 and 15.0% in phase 1 and 2, respectively), and wheat middlings (10.0%). Pigs and feed were weighed at the start and at the end of each phase, and ADG, ADFI, and G:F were calculated. At the conclusion of phase 2, blood was collected from 1 pig per pen and 1 pig per pen was sacrificed. Cecum and rectum contents were analyzed for VFA, and tissue samples were collected from the ileum, cecum, rectum, and liver to determine expression of genes related to absorption and metabolism of VFA using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Results indicated that feeding HF diets reduced ( ≤ 0.05) ADFI and ADG of pigs compared with feeding LF diets. Pigs fed DFM diets had improved ( ≤ 0.05) G:F compared with pigs fed non-DFM diets. Pigs fed LF diets had greater ( ≤ 0.05) BW at the end of phase 2 compared with pigs fed HF diets. The concentration of VFA in rectum contents was greater ( ≤ 0.05) in pigs fed LF diets than in pigs fed HF diets. The expression of in the rectum of pigs fed HF diets was greater ( ≤ 0.05) than for pigs fed LF diets, and pigs fed DFM

  6. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 Alleviates Food Allergic Manifestations in Sensitized Mice by Reducing IL-13 Expression Specifically in the Ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian W. Zuercher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Utilizing a food allergy murine model, we have investigated the intrinsic antiallergic potential of the Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 strain. Methods. BALB/c mice were sensitized at weekly intervals with ovalbumin (OVA plus cholera toxin (CT by the oral route for 7 weeks. In this model, an oral challenge with a high dose of OVA at the end of the sensitization period leads to clinical symptoms. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 was given to mice via the drinking water during sensitization (prevention phase or after sensitization (management phase. Results. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 administration to sensitized mice strikingly reduced allergic manifestations in the management phase upon challenge, when compared to control mice. No preventive effect was observed with the strain. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 significantly decreased relative expression levels of the Th-2 cytokine, IL-13, and associated chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin-1 and CCL17 (TARC in the ileum. No effect was observed in the jejunum. Conclusion/Significance. These results taken together designate Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 as a candidate probiotic strain appropriate in the management of allergic symptoms.

  7. Host genes related to paneth cells and xenobiotic metabolism are associated with shifts in human ileum-associated microbial composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to integrate human clinical, genotype, mRNA microarray and 16 S rRNA sequence data collected on 84 subjects with ileal Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis or control patients without inflammatory bowel diseases in order to interrogate how host-microbial interactions are perturbed in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. Ex-vivo ileal mucosal biopsies were collected from the disease unaffected proximal margin of the ileum resected from patients who were undergoing initial intestinal surgery. Both RNA and DNA were extracted from the mucosal biopsy samples. Patients were genotyped for the three major NOD2 variants (Leufs1007, R702W, and G908R and the ATG16L1T300A variant. Whole human genome mRNA expression profiles were generated using Agilent microarrays. Microbial composition profiles were determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3-V5 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16 S rRNA gene. The results of permutation based multivariate analysis of variance and covariance (MANCOVA support the hypothesis that host mucosal Paneth cell and xenobiotic metabolism genes play an important role in host microbial interactions.

  8. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 Alleviates Food Allergic Manifestations in Sensitized Mice by Reducing IL-13 Expression Specifically in the Ileum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuercher, Adrian W.; Weiss, Marietta; Holvoet, Sébastien; Moser, Mireille; Moussu, Hélène; van Overtvelt, Laurence; Horiot, Stéphane; Moingeon, Philippe; Nutten, Sophie; Prioult, Guénolée; Singh, Anurag; Mercenier, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Utilizing a food allergy murine model, we have investigated the intrinsic antiallergic potential of the Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 strain. Methods. BALB/c mice were sensitized at weekly intervals with ovalbumin (OVA) plus cholera toxin (CT) by the oral route for 7 weeks. In this model, an oral challenge with a high dose of OVA at the end of the sensitization period leads to clinical symptoms. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 was given to mice via the drinking water during sensitization (prevention phase) or after sensitization (management phase). Results. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 administration to sensitized mice strikingly reduced allergic manifestations in the management phase upon challenge, when compared to control mice. No preventive effect was observed with the strain. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 significantly decreased relative expression levels of the Th-2 cytokine, IL-13, and associated chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin-1) and CCL17 (TARC) in the ileum. No effect was observed in the jejunum. Conclusion/Significance. These results taken together designate Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 as a candidate probiotic strain appropriate in the management of allergic symptoms. PMID:21961022

  9. The effects of nabumetone, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, on cisplatin-induced 5-hydroxytryptamine release from the isolated rat ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, C; Minami, M; Hirafuji, M; Endo, T; Hamaue, N; Akita, K; Murakami, T; Kawaguchi, H

    2001-01-01

    In order to elucidate 5-HT release influenced by PGE2 in the background of the anticancer drug-induced emesis, the effect of nabumetone, a COX-2 inhibitor, on the release of 5-HT from the isolated rat ileum was investigated. PGE2 produced a concentration-dependent increase (10(-9) to 10 M) and decrease (10(-8) to 10(-6) M) in 5-HT release. Arachidonic acid also demonstrated a similar bell-shaped 5-HT release. The arachidonic acid-induced 5-HT release at 3 x 10(-6) M (313.04 +/- 25.90%) was significantly inhibited by the concomitant perfusion with BRL10720 (10(-6) M) (161.98 +/- 19.4%, pnabumetone, or indomethacin (3 x 10(-7) M)(190.01 +/- 16.19%, pnabumetone or BRL10720, but was not affected by the 3-day administration of dexamethasone. After 72 hours, however, the in vivo 3-days administration of nabumetone, BRL10720 or dexamethasone had no effect on the increase in ileal 5-HT levels induced by cisplatin. The use of COX-2 inhibitors to ameliorate delayed emesis induced by cisplatin-based anticancer chemotherapy has been proposed. On the other hand, there is a possibility that dexamethasone works through a mechanism other than 5-HT release in delayed emesis.

  10. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 alleviates food allergic manifestations in sensitized mice by reducing IL-13 expression specifically in the ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuercher, Adrian W; Weiss, Marietta; Holvoet, Sébastien; Moser, Mireille; Moussu, Hélène; van Overtvelt, Laurence; Horiot, Stéphane; Moingeon, Philippe; Nutten, Sophie; Prioult, Guénolée; Singh, Anurag; Mercenier, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing a food allergy murine model, we have investigated the intrinsic antiallergic potential of the Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 strain. BALB/c mice were sensitized at weekly intervals with ovalbumin (OVA) plus cholera toxin (CT) by the oral route for 7 weeks. In this model, an oral challenge with a high dose of OVA at the end of the sensitization period leads to clinical symptoms. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 was given to mice via the drinking water during sensitization (prevention phase) or after sensitization (management phase). Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 administration to sensitized mice strikingly reduced allergic manifestations in the management phase upon challenge, when compared to control mice. No preventive effect was observed with the strain. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 significantly decreased relative expression levels of the Th-2 cytokine, IL-13, and associated chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin-1) and CCL17 (TARC) in the ileum. No effect was observed in the jejunum. These results taken together designate Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 as a candidate probiotic strain appropriate in the management of allergic symptoms.

  11. Prostaglandins I2 and E2 have a synergistic role in rescuing epithelial barrier function in porcine ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blikslager, A T; Roberts, M C; Rhoads, J M; Argenzio, R A

    1997-10-15

    Prostaglandins (PG) are cytoprotective for gastrointestinal epithelium, possibly because they enhance mucosal repair. The objective of the present studies was to assess the role of prostaglandins in intestinal repair. Intestinal mucosa from porcine ileum subjected to 1 h of ischemia was mounted in Ussing chambers. Recovery of normal transepithelial electrical resistance occurred within 2 h, and continued to increase for a further 2 h to a value twice that of control. The latter response was blocked by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, and restored by addition of both carbacyclin (an analog of PGI2) and PGE2, whereas the addition of each alone had little effect. Histologically, prostaglandins had no effect on epithelial restitution or villous contraction, indicating that elevations in transepithelial resistance were associated with increases in paracellular resistance. Furthermore, prostaglandin-stimulated elevations in resistance were inhibited with cytochalasin D, an agent known to stimulate cytoskeletal contraction. Synergistic elevations in transepithelial resistance, similar to those of carbacyclin and PGE2, were also noted after treatment with cAMP and A23187 (a calcium ionophore). We conclude that PGE2 and PGI2 have a synergistic role in restoration of intestinal barrier function by increasing intracellular cAMP and Ca2+, respectively, which in turn signal cytoskeletal-mediated tight junction closure.

  12. Enteric Methane Emission from Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    The modern pig industry rely on relatively few feedstuffs mostly from cereals (corn, wheat, barley, oats, rye and rice), cereal co-products (different milling fractions, residues from biofuel and alcohol industries, etc.), cereal substitutes (tapioca, maniocca), legumes (peas, beans, lupins......), protein concentrates (meal or cakes of soybean, rape, sunflower, cotton) and co-products from the sugar and starch industries to produce compounds feeds. The classical pig diet can also be characterised as relatively concentrated but an increased demand of high energy cereals for direct human use...... and increased availability of fibre rich ingredients from, for instance, the feed milling or starch extraction/fermentation industries have promoted an increased utilisation of fibre rich co-products in the pig feeds (Serena et al. 2007). Especially pregnant sows may be supplied with fibre rich diets without...

  13. Mortality in kittens is associated with a shift in ileum mucosa-associated enterococci from Enterococcus hirae to biofilm-forming Enterococcus faecalis and adherent Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Borst, Luke; Stauffer, Stephen H; Suyemoto, Mitsu; Moisan, Peter; Zurek, Ludek; Gookin, Jody L

    2013-11-01

    Approximately 15% of foster kittens die before 8 weeks of age, with most of these kittens demonstrating clinical signs or postmortem evidence of enteritis. While a specific cause of enteritis is not determined in most cases, these kittens are often empirically administered probiotics that contain enterococci. The enterococci are members of the commensal intestinal microbiota but also can function as opportunistic pathogens. Given the complicated role of enterococci in health and disease, it would be valuable to better understand what constitutes a "healthy" enterococcal community in these kittens and how this microbiota is impacted by severe illness. In this study, we characterized the ileum mucosa-associated enterococcal community of 50 apparently healthy and 50 terminally ill foster kittens. In healthy kittens, Enterococcus hirae was the most common species of ileum mucosa-associated enterococci and was often observed to adhere extensively to the small intestinal epithelium. These E. hirae isolates generally lacked virulence traits. In contrast, non-E. hirae enterococci, notably Enterococcus faecalis, were more commonly isolated from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness. Isolates of E. faecalis had numerous virulence traits and multiple antimicrobial resistances. Moreover, the attachment of Escherichia coli to the intestinal epithelium was significantly associated with terminal illness and was not observed in any kitten with adherent E. hirae. These findings identify a significant difference in the species of enterococci cultured from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness compared to the species cultured from healthy kittens. In contrast to prior case studies that associated enteroadherent E. hirae with diarrhea in young animals, these controlled studies identified E. hirae as more often isolated from healthy kittens and adherence of E. hirae as more common and extensive in healthy kittens than in sick kittens.

  14. Lack of megalin expression in adult human terminal ileum suggests megalin‐independent cubilin/amnionless activity during vitamin B12 absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Louise L.; Andersen, Rikke K.; Hager, Henrik; Madsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cubilin plays an essential role in terminal ileum and renal proximal tubules during absorption of vitamin B12 and ligands from the glomerular ultrafiltrate. Cubilin is coexpressed with amnionless, and cubilin and amnionless are mutually dependent on each other for correct processing to the plasma membrane upon synthesis. Patients with defects in either protein suffer from vitamin B12‐malabsorption and in some cases proteinuria. Cubilin lacks a transmembrane region and signals for end...

  15. Efek Relaksasi Ekstrak Etanol Daun Pugun Tanoh (Curanga fel-terrae (Lour.) Merr.) Terhadap Kontraksi Otot Polos Ileum Marmut (Cavia porcellus) Terisolasi Secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Michi, Anddora

    2015-01-01

    Pugun Tanoh (Curanga fel-terrae (Lour.) Merr.) is a plant of Scropulariaceae family which is often used by the native people of Tiga Lingga village in Dairi Regency, North Sumatera Province, Indonesia to cure diarrhea and stomachache. This research aims to observe the relaxation effect of Pugun Tanoh leaf ethanol extract on the contraction of isolated guinea pig’s ileum by acetylcholine. This research was conducted using in vitro. The parameter measured in this research is the contract...

  16. Relaxant activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill. Nym. ex A.W. Hill, Apiaceae on isolated ileum of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branković Suzana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum is used in the traditional herbal medicine to treat intestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aqueous and ethanol extracts of parsley on spontaneous and acetylcholine induced contractions on isolated rat ileum. Material and methods. Wistar albino rats (250-300g were used in this study. The ileum portions were isolated out and cleaned off mesenteries. Preparations 2 cm long were mounted in 20 ml tissue baths containing Tyrode's solution maintained at 37ºC and aerated with a mixture of 5% carbon dioxide in oxygen. In the first part of experiments, contractile responses to the aqueous (ethanol extracts of parsley were recorded. In the second part, increasing concentrations of acetylcholine were added to the organ bath for a full concentration response curve and then concentration response curves were obtained after adding the aqueous (ethanol extracts of parsley. Results and discussion. Our results showed that aqueous (62.22±7.15% and ethanol (79.16±9.34% extracts of parsley in dose dependent manner decreased the tonus of spontaneous contractions of isolated rat ileum. The aqueous (32.16±2.75% and ethanol (53.96±4.86% extracts of parsley reduced the acetylcholine induced contraction, the reduction was greater with ethanol extract than with the aqueous one. Conclusion. It can be concluded that the aqueous and ethanol extracts of parsley exert antispasmodic activity on rat ileum. The relaxant effect of ethanol extract was better comparing to aqueous extract of parsley.

  17. Pre-Analytical Determination of the Effect of Extended Warm or Cold Ischaemia on RNA Stability in the Human Ileum Mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serene M L Lee

    Full Text Available The use of banked human tissue, obtained with informed consent after elective surgical procedures, represents a powerful model for understanding underlying mechanisms of diseases or therapeutic interventions and for establishing prognostic markers. However, donated tissues typically have varying times of warm ischaemia in situ due to blood arrest or cold ischaemia due to procurement and transportation. Hence, before using these tissues, it is important to carry out pre-analytical studies to ensure that they are representative of the in vivo state. In particular, tissues of the gastrointestinal tract have been thought to have low RNA stability. Therefore, this study aimed to determine if extended warm or cold ischaemia times and snap-freezing or banking in RNA stabilization solution affects RNA integrity or gene expression in human ileum mucosa. In short, ileum mucosa was collected for up to 1.5 h and 6 h of simulated warm or cold ischaemia respectively. Subsequently, RNA integrity and gene expressions were determined. It was found that RNA integrity remained high over the course of warm and cold ischaemia examined and there were in general no significant differences between snap-freezing and banking in RNA stabilization solution. Following the same trend, there were in general no significant changes in gene expressions measured (MYC, HIF1α, CDX, HMOX1 and IL1β. In conclusion, RNA in the ileum mucosa is maintained at a high integrity and has stable gene expression over the examined time course of warm or cold ischaemia when banked in RNA stabilization solution or snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. As the average warm and cold ischaemia times imposed by surgery and the process of tissue banking are shorter than the time period examined in this study, human ileum mucosa samples collected after surgeries could be used for gene expression studies.

  18. Fermentation of liquid diets for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, R.

    2001-01-01

    In the last 30 years major changes occurred in pig nutrition. With the increasing size of the pig farms, manual feeding was replaced by automatic feeding systems. Most pigs were fed on dry diets, but during last the 15 years a clear tendency towards liquid feeding systems was observed. In the early 80's the use of liquid co-products from the human food industry was introduced into pig nutrition. In the Netherlands, nowadays about 20% of the slaughter pigs and about 10% of the sows is fed a li...

  19. SPARQling Pig - Processing Linked data with Pig Latin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Stefan; Hose, Katja; Sattler, Kai-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    -defined functions while running on top of scalable distributed platforms. In doing so, these languages enable analytical tasks while avoiding the limitations of classical query languages such as SQL and SPARQL. However, the tuple-oriented view of general-purpose languages like Pig does not match very well...

  20. The role ofα- andβ- adrenergic receptors in the spasmolytic effects on rat ileum ofPetroselinum crispumLatifolum (parsley)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N MirzaieDamabi; AA Moazedi; SM Seyyednejad

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigatePetroselinum crispumLatifolum (parsley) for treating stomach and intestinal disorders in Iran.Methods:An80% ethanol extract was prepared from parsley seeds, and its antispasmodic activity assessed by measuring contractions of isolated ilea induced by60 mM potassium chloride(KCl). A piece of ileum from an adult male Wistar rat was dissected and mounted in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution, and ileum contractions were recorded by an isotonic transducer under one gram resting tension. The effect of parsley extract was measured in the presence of two antagonists’ of α- and β-adrenoceptors.Results: These experiments showed that parsley extract inhibited the response to 60 mMKCl in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.01,n=7). The spasmolytic effect of parsley extract was unaffected by1 μM phentolamine or1 μM propranolol.Conclusions: This study shows that parsley seed extract is a relaxant of isolated rat ileum and the relaxation effect of extract does not involved adrenergic receptors.

  1. Optical studies of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in the guinea-pig enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, A L; Nelson, M E; Lindstrom, J; Salzberg, B M

    2005-08-01

    Nicotinic transmission in the enteric nervous system (ENS) is extensive, but the role of individual nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes in the functional connectivity of its plexuses has been elusive. Using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against neuronal alpha3-, alpha4-, alpha3/alpha5-, beta2-, beta4- and alpha7-subunits, combined with radioimmunoassays and immunocytochemistry, we demonstrate that guinea-pig enteric ganglia contain all of these nAChR-subunits with the exception of alpha4, and so, differ from mammalian brain. This information alone, however, is insufficient to establish the functional role of the identified nAChR-subtypes within the enteric networks and, ultimately, their specific contributions to gastrointestinal physiology. We have used voltage-sensitive dyes and a high-speed CCD camera, in conjunction with specific antagonists to various nAChRs, to elucidate some of the distinct contributions of the individual subtypes to the behaviour of enteric networks. In the guinea-pig, the submucous plexus has the extraordinary advantage that it is virtually two-dimensional, permitting optical recording, with single cell resolution, of the electrical activity of all of its neurones. In this plexus, the block of alpha3beta2-, alpha3beta4- and/or alpha7-nAChRs always results in a decrease in the magnitude of the synaptic response. However, the magnitude of the fast excitatory post-synaptic potentials (epsps) evoked by electrical stimulation of a neighbouring ganglion varies from cell to cell, reflecting the differential expression of subunits already observed using mAbs, as well as the strengths of the activated synaptic inputs. At the same time, we observe that submucous neurones have a substantial mecamylamine (Mec)-insensitive (non-nicotinic) component to their fast epsps, which may point to the presence of purinergic or serotonergic fast epsps in this system. In the myenteric plexus, on the other hand, the antagonist-induced changes in the

  2. Preliminary Measurement of Internal Organs of Congjiang Fragrance Pig and Huanjiang Fragrance Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Xuelin; Duan; Yongbang; Zhang; Yi; Liu; Peiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Fragrance pig is a famous miniature local breed in China,which is similar to human on the aspects of physical structure,anatomy,nutrition,metabolism and blood biochemical indicators. The internal organs of Congjiang fragrance pig and Huanjiang fragrance pig with different month ages were weighed. The results showed that the proportion of stomach in body weight in Congjiang fragrance pig was higher than that in Min pig,Harbin white and Landrace,and the proportion of large intestine in body weight in Congjiang fragrance pig was also higher than that in ordinary pigs; the weights of heart,liver and kidney in 8- 10 months old Congjiang fragrance pig were similar to that in Chinese adults. This provided reference data for future in-depth development and utilization of fragrance pig.

  3. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  4. People, Pigs, Pork and Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Cecilie Agnete H

    , depending on whether they relate to an everyday or production context. Furthermore, some interesting national differences emerged, pointing at the need for more than one marketing strategy if pig welfare is to be supported through consumer demand. Overall, this thesis contributes with important findings...

  5. People, Pigs, Pork and Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Cecilie Agnete H

    , depending on whether they relate to an everyday or production context. Furthermore, some interesting national differences emerged, pointing at the need for more than one marketing strategy if pig welfare is to be supported through consumer demand. Overall, this thesis contributes with important findings...

  6. Improving efficiency in pig production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    important. The production of lean meat is shown to be improved significantly by adopting ... is interested in the biology of pig production, then biological efficiency and its .... scientific basis, I have calculated the economic effects of a number of ...

  7. Virtual dissection of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of computed tomography (CT) as a reference method for estimating the lean meat percentage (LMP) of pig carcasses. The current reference is manual dissection which has a limited accuracy due to variability between butchers. A contextual Bayesian classification scheme...

  8. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel is effective in a murine model of experimental Cryptosporidium parvum ultrastructural studies of the ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mathal, Ebtisam M; Alsalem, Afaf A

    2013-08-01

    The current treatments for cryptosporidiosis are ineffective, and there is an urgent need to search for more effective and safer alternatives. One such alternative may be treatments derived from natural resources. The pomegranate peel has been used effectively in traditional medicine to cure diarrhea and dysentery. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel suspension as a treatment for Cryptosporidium parvum infection. In this study, the effects of this treatment on the ultrastructure of both the intestinal epithelial layer of infected nursling mice and the parasite were observed with a transmission electron microscope. The histological study focused on the examination of the microvilli, columnar epithelium, goblet cells, lamina propria, and crypts of Lieberkuhn. Examination of the ileums of infected mice that received the pomegranate peel suspension demonstrated that the general structure of the ileal tissue of these mice was similar to that of the control group. In the infected mice treated with the suspension, but not the infected/untreated mice, there was an improvement in all ultrastructure aspects at 28days post-inoculation. The study of the ultrastructure of the parasite (C. parvum) in mice treated with the suspension showed that there was decomposition in the parasite to the extent that in some cases we were unable to identify the stage of the parasite due to the severe degeneration. Significant decomposition of the nutrition organ was also observed. Additionally, microgamonte and macrogamonte were not observed in the suspension-treated group, explaining the disappearance of the sexual phases of the parasite in the lumens of this group. In all, this examination demonstrated the restoration of the normal structures of villi and the disappearance of acute symptoms in the suspension-treated mice and showed that the suspension directly affected the parasite at various stages of its development and led to

  9. Effects of different levels of Aloe vera gel as an alternative to antibiotic on performance and ileum morphology in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mahdavi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to analyze the effects of different levels of Aloe vera gel as an alternative to antibiotic, on performance and ileum morphology in broilers. Three hundred one-day old Ross 308 male broilers were used on a completely randomized design in 5 groups with 4 replicates, each consisting of 15 broilers. The groups included the control group (basal diet and three groups with basal diet mixed with different levels of Aloe vera gel (1.5%, 2% and 2.5%. Finally, there was a group with basal diet plus 15 ppm antibiotic virginiamycin. The results obtained regarding performance of the broilers showed that Aloe vera gel groups brought about higher body weight gain and feed intake compared to the control group; however, no significant difference was observed in feed conversion ratio between the groups treated by Aloe vera gel and the control group (P>0.05. Although the antibiotic group showed better performance and heavier dressing percentage than the Aloe vera gel and the control groups, no significant difference was seen between the group treated by 2% Aloe vera gel and the antibiotic group regarding body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and dressing percentage (P>0.05. Among the Aloe vera gel groups, the 2% Aloe vera gel group had the largest villus height and the greatest villus height to crypt depth ratio compared to the antibiotic group (PAloe vera gel treatment may be recommended to achieve the best performance in broilers as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoter.

  10. The distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal in the ileum is not altered by infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyama Chatterjee, Gunther Vrolix, Eric Van Marck & Jean-Marie Vanderwinden

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC act as pacemakers that generate slowwaves and function as a relay between smooth muscle cells of the gastrointestinal (GI tract. Recentreports indicate the crucial role played by the ICC in defining GI motility during human diseasestatus like pyloric stenosis, Hirschsprung’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Experimental data showedthat Nippostrongylus infection in the rat caused an altered GI motility pattern accompanied by acomplete loss of ICC-deep muscular plexus. The aim of the present study was to delineate if ICCwere similarly affected during Schistosoma mansoni infections, thereby responsible for the disturbedGI motility patterns triggered in the afflicted mammalian host.Methods & results: Immunohistochemistry was done using whole mounts and sections from naïveand S. mansoni infected mice ileum. Primary antibodies detected Kit-immunoreactivity (Kit-irrepresenting ICC, PGP-9.5 (protein gene product 9.5 representing a neuronal marker, SK3 (ionicchannel marker for non-Kit fibroblast like cells, and Cx43 (gap junction protein representing amuscle marker. Single/double immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy depicted thatmuscle thickness (Cx43-ir and inflammatory infiltrate increased with infection. Kit-ir ICC andSK3-ir fibroblast like cells (FLC were present at all normal locations as seen in controls and duringacute and chronic stages of infection.Interpretation & conclusion: No disappearance of either ICC population was noted. A preferential(although not exclusive location of inflammatory infiltrate in contact with SK3-ir FLC in the musclelayer was observed. The present study thus delineated that ICC are not affected during S. mansoniinfections, and thereby may not be responsible for mediating the disturbed GI motility patternscaused by schistosomiasis.

  11. Metabolomic phenotyping of a cloned pig model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callesen Henrik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigs are widely used as models for human physiological changes in intervention studies, because of the close resemblance between human and porcine physiology and the high degree of experimental control when using an animal model. Cloned animals have, in principle, identical genotypes and possibly also phenotypes and this offer an extra level of experimental control which could possibly make them a desirable tool for intervention studies. Therefore, in the present study, we address how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning, through comparison of cloned pigs and normal outbred pigs. Results The metabolic phenotype of cloned pigs (n = 5 was for the first time elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomic analysis of multiple bio-fluids including plasma, bile and urine. The metabolic phenotype of the cloned pigs was compared with normal outbred pigs (n = 6 by multivariate data analysis, which revealed differences in the metabolic phenotypes. Plasma lactate was higher for cloned vs control pigs, while multiple metabolites were altered in the bile. However a lower inter-individual variability for cloned pigs compared with control pigs could not be established. Conclusions From the present study we conclude that cloned and normal outbred pigs are phenotypically different. However, it cannot be concluded that the use of cloned animals will reduce the inter-individual variation in intervention studies, though this is based on a limited number of animals.

  12. Pigs taking wing with transposons and recombinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Karl J; Carlson, Daniel F; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2007-01-01

    Swine production has been an important part of our lives since the late Mesolithic or early Neolithic periods, and ranks number one in world meat production. Pig production also contributes to high-value-added medical markets in the form of pharmaceuticals, heart valves, and surgical materials. Genetic engineering, including the addition of exogenous genetic material or manipulation of the endogenous genome, holds great promise for changing pig phenotypes for agricultural and medical applications. Although the first transgenic pigs were described in 1985, poor survival of manipulated embryos; inefficiencies in the integration, transmission, and expression of transgenes; and expensive husbandry costs have impeded the widespread application of pig genetic engineering. Sequencing of the pig genome and advances in reproductive technologies have rejuvenated efforts to apply transgenesis to swine. Pigs provide a compelling new resource for the directed production of pharmaceutical proteins and the provision of cells, vascular grafts, and organs for xenotransplantation. Additionally, given remarkable similarities in the physiology and size of people and pigs, swine will increasingly provide large animal models of human disease where rodent models are insufficient. We review the challenges facing pig transgenesis and discuss the utility of transposases and recombinases for enhancing the success and sophistication of pig genetic engineering. 'The paradise of my fancy is one where pigs have wings.' (GK Chesterton). PMID:18047690

  13. Yeast culture supplement during nursing and transport affects immunity and intestinal microbial ecology of weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedman, S M; Rostagno, M H; Patterson, J A; Yoon, I; Fitzner, G; Eicher, S D

    2011-06-01

    . coli counts. More pigs were positive for Salmonella on d 7 and 14 than on d 4, and more YY-TT pigs were positive (P = 0.07) on d 4. The number of bands for microbial amplicons in the ileum was greater for pigs in the control treatment than in the yeast treatment on d 0, and this number tended to decrease (P = 0.066) between d 1 and 14 for all pigs. Similarity coefficients for jejunal contents were greater (P = 0.03) for pigs fed NY than for those fed YY, but pigs fed YY had greater similarity coefficients for ileal (P = 0.001) and cecal (P = 0.058) contents. The number of yeast × transport × day interactions demonstrates the complexity of the stress and dietary relationship.

  14. High-level recombinant human lysozyme expressed in milk of transgenic pigs can inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli in the duodenum and influence intestinal morphology of sucking pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Lu

    Full Text Available Lysozyme is often used as a feed additive and acts as an antimicrobial protein that enhances immune function and defends against pathogenic bacteria in pigs. In this study, we genetically added recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ to sow milk by somatic cell nuclear transfer and investigated whether the presence of recombinant human lysozyme can influence intestinal microbiota and morphology in sucking pigs. We generated transgenic cloned pigs and the first-generation hybrids (F1 produced high levels of rhLZ in milk. The average concentration of rhLZ was 116.34 ± 24.46 mg/L in the milk of F1 sows, which was 1500-fold higher than that of the native pig lysozyme. In vitro, it was demonstrated that rhLZ in milk of transgenic pigs had enzyme levels at 92,272 ± 26,413 U/mL. In a feeding experiment, a total of 40 newborn piglets were nursed by four transgenic sows and four sibling non-transgenic sows (F1, with five piglets per gilt. The piglets were allowed to nurse for 21 days and the sow milk was the only source of nutrition for the piglets. All piglets were slaughtered on postnatal day 22. Six types of bacteria were cultured and analyzed to detect the impact of rhLZ on gut microbiota. The number of Escherichia coli in the duodenum of piglets reared by transgenic sows was significantly decreased (p<0.001 and their villus height to crypt depth ratio in the intestine were increased due to the significant decrease of crypt depth in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (p<0.001. Together, we successfully generated rhLZ transgenic cloned pigs and elevated lysozyme level in nuring piglets. The results of the feeding experiments demonstrated that rhLZ-enhanced milk can inhibit the growth of E. coli in the duodenum and positively influence intestinal morphology without adversely affecting weight gain or piglet growth.

  15. Effect of immune system stimulation and divergent selection for residual feed intake on digestive capacity of the small intestine in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshandeh, A; Dekkers, J C M; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; English, J; Gabler, N K

    2012-12-01

    Little is known of the consequences of divergent selection for residual feed intake (RFI) on intestinal digestion capacity, particularly during immune system stimulation (ISS). Our objective was to evaluate the impact of ISS and divergent selection for RFI on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent fecal digestibility (AFD) of nutrients and intestinal nutrient active transport and barrier function. Twenty-eight gilts (63 ± 4 kg BW) from low RFI (LRFI; n = 14) and high RFI (HRFI; n = 14) Yorkshire lines were randomly selected from the Iowa State University RFI herd. Following adaptation, 8 pigs in each line were injected intramuscularly and every 48 h for 7 d with increasing amounts of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ISS+). Remaining pigs were injected with saline (ISS-). Pigs were then euthanized and ileal digesta was collected for measuring AID of nutrients. Fecal samples were collected on a daily basis and pooled for measuring AFD of nutrients. A segment of ileum was used to measure nutrient transport and transepithelial resistance (TER) and/or barrier integrity by Ussing chambers. No effects of line or its interaction with ISS on AID of CP (N × 6.25) and OM, TER, and active nutrients transport were observed. However, ISS decreased (P < 0.05) and tended to (P < 0.1) decrease AID of CP and OM, respectively. Decrease in AFD of CP as result of ISS was greater in the LRFI line compared to the HRFI line (P < 0.05). Relative to ISS-, active glucose and P transport was greater in ISS+ pigs (P < 0.05). Genetic selection for LRFI increases the AFD but has no effect on AID of nutrients. It also reduces the total tract digestive capacity of growing pigs during ISS. Immune system stimulation affects both AID and AFD of dietary CP.

  16. Exploring pig raising in Bangladesh: implications for public health interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Luby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pigs are intermediate hosts and potential reservoirs of a number of pathogens that can infect humans. The objectives of this manuscript are to understand pig raising patterns in Bangladesh, interactions between pigs and humans, social stigma and discrimination that pig raisers experience and to explore the implications of these findings for public health interventions. The study team conducted an exploratory qualitative study by interviewing backyard pig raisers and nomadic herders (n = 34, observing daily interactions between pigs and humans (n = 18 and drawing seasonal diagrams (n = 6 with herders to understand the reasons for movement of nomadic herds. Pig raisers had regular close interaction with pigs. They often touched, caressed and fed their pigs which exposed them to pigs' saliva and feces. Herders took their pigs close to human settlements for scavenging. Other domestic animals and poultry shared food and sleeping and scavenging places with pigs. Since pigs are taboo in Islam, a majority of Muslims rejected pig raising and stigmatized pig raisers. This study identified several potential ways for pigs to transmit infectious agents to humans in Bangladesh. Poverty and stigmatization of pig raisers make it difficult to implement health interventions to reduce the risk of such transmissions. Interventions that offer social support to reduce stigma and highlight economic benefits of disease control might interest of pig raisers in accepting interventions targeting pig borne zoonoses.

  17. Exploring pig raising in Bangladesh: implications for public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Sarkar, Rouha Anamika; Gurley, Emily S; Uddin Khan, M Salah; Hossain, M Jahangir; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Pigs are intermediate hosts and potential reservoirs of a number of pathogens that can infect humans. The objectives of this manuscript are to understand pig raising patterns in Bangladesh, interactions between pigs and humans, social stigma and discrimination that pig raisers experience and to explore the implications of these findings for public health interventions. The study team conducted an exploratory qualitative study by interviewing backyard pig raisers and nomadic herders (n=34), observing daily interactions between pigs and humans (n=18) and drawing seasonal diagrams (n=6) with herders to understand the reasons for movement of nomadic herds. Pig raisers had regular close interaction with pigs. They often touched, caressed and fed their pigs which exposed them to pigs' saliva and feces. Herders took their pigs close to human settlements for scavenging. Other domestic animals and poultry shared food and sleeping and scavenging places with pigs. Since pigs are taboo in Islam, a majority of Muslims rejected pig raising and stigmatized pig raisers. This study identified several potential ways for pigs to transmit infectious agents to humans in Bangladesh. Poverty and stigmatization of pig raisers make it difficult to implement health interventions to reduce the risk of such transmissions. Interventions that offer social support to reduce stigma and highlight economic benefits of disease control might interest of pig raisers in accepting interventions targeting pig borne zoonoses.

  18. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  19. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF BLACK SLAVONIAN PIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Margeta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pairs (18 of microsatelite primers were used in this study to detect the genetic relationship within Black Slavonian Pig and between Turopolje Pig, Mangalitsa breed and Croatian Wild Pigs. The second goal of this study was to determine phylogenetic relationships among these breeds and some Asian and European pigs using the mtDNA D-loop sequence polymorphism. The third goal was to determine the MC1R genotype of Black Slavonian pigs and to find an efficient and simple PCR-RFLP method, based on differences in MC1R genotype, to distinguish between purebred Black Slavonian pigs and their crossings with commercial pig breeds and Wild Boars. Aiming to conduct microsatellite analysis each animal was genotyped for 18 microsatelite markers, chosen based on their quality, size, polymorphism and location on the porcine genome as proposed by the FAO. Two pairs of primers amplified a 511-bp fragment of control region between sites 15 390 and 15 900 (Mit1.F and Mit1.R and a 810-bp fragment between sites 15 825 and 16 634 (Mit2.F and Mi2.R were genotyped for mtDNA. Two primer pairs were used to amplify the majority of the single exon of MC1R gene aiming to determinate MC1R genotype of Black Slavonian pig. The first pair of primers, MERL1 and EPIG2, was used to amplify a 428-bp product from the 5’ half of the exon, whereas EPIG1 and EPIG3 amplified a 405-bp product from the 3’ half. Our results showed that the 18 microsatellites used in this study were useful markers to study genetic diversity among Croatian autochthonous pig breeds. This set of microsatellites may be used for identifying individuals and for genetic diversity studies for selection and conservation of the Black Slavonian pig, Turopolje pig and Mangalitsa breed. Genetic distances between populations made with Principal Component Analysis (PCA method noticed that studied populations are mostly clearly geneticaly defined. mtDNA analysis suggested that Black Slavonian and Turopolje pig showed

  20. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons in the guinea pig gastric corpus

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    For long it was believed that a particular population of enteric neurons, referred to as intrinsic primary afferent neuron (IPAN)s, encodes mechanical stimulation. We recently proposed a new concept suggesting that there are in addition mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN) that are multifunctional. Based on firing pattern MEN behaved as rapidly, slowly, or ultra-slowly adapting RAMEN, SAMEN, or USAMEN, respectively. We aimed to validate this concept in the myenteric plexus of the gastric co...

  1. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons in the guinea pig gastric corpus

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    For long it was believed that a particular population of enteric neurons, referred to as intrinsic primary afferent neuron (IPAN)s, encodes mechanical stimulation. We recently proposed a new concept suggesting that there are in addition mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN) that are multifunctional. Based on firing pattern MEN behaved as rapidly, slowly or ultra-slowly adapting RAMEN, SAMEN or USAMEN, respectively. We aimed to validate this concept in the myenteric plexus of the gastric corp...

  2. Comparative gastric morphometry of Muong indigenous and Vietnamese wild pigs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trang, Pham Hong; Ooi, Peck Toung; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Noordin, Mustapha Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    .... Due to the protective nature of procuring these pigs, a total of 12 Muong indigenous pigs and nine Vietnamese wild pigs stomach collected post mortem were analysed for selected biometric parameters and histology...

  3. Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase and aminopeptidase N are differentially regulated in the small intestine of the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Niels; Rossi, M; Troelsen, J T

    1993-01-01

    moderately from the duodenum to the terminal ileum, the amount of lactase-phlorizin hydrolase mRNA exhibited a sharp maximum in the proximal jejunum. For both enzymes, the level of protein synthesis, studied in cultured mucosal explants, correlated well with the level of mRNA, and no major variation in post......The longitudinal expression of two brush-border enzymes, lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.23/62) and aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), was studied in the small intestine of the post-weaned pig. Whereas the level of mRNA, encoding aminopeptidase N (relative to that of beta-actin), only varied...... in the gut lumen of pancreatic proteases. In neonatal animals, the level of mRNA for lactase-phlorizin hydrolase in both proximal and distal regions of the intestine was of the same magnitude as in the proximal jejunum of the post-weaned pigs. Our results point to two mechanisms that affect the expression...

  4. Effect of fermentation of cereals on the degradation of polysaccharides and other macronutrients in the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholly, D M; Jørgensen, H; Sutton, A L; Richert, B T; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of the present investigation was to study the impact of fermentation of cereals on the degradation of polysaccharides and other macronutrients in the small intestine and total tract of growing pigs. Eight pigs (initial BW, 34.5 ± 0.9 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Pigs were cannulated and housed individually in metabolism pens during sample collection. The 4 cereal-based diets were nonfermented liquid barley (NFLB), nonfermented liquid wheat (NFLW), fermented liquid barley (FLB), and fermented liquid wheat (FLW). The fermented feeds were prepared by storing the dietary cereals (barley and wheat) and water [1:2.75 (wt/wt)] in a closed tank at 25 °C for 2 d, after which 50% of the volume was removed and replaced with an equal amount of fresh cereals and water after each afternoon meal. At the time of feeding (0730 and 1430 h), the remaining dietary ingredients were added. Water was added to the dry nonfermented feeds [1:1 (wt/wt)] immediately before feeding. The fermentation process reduced the amount of DM in both cereals (Pfermented cereals. There was an interaction of cereal and treatment for ileal flow of DM (P=0.014), OM (P=0.013), and protein (P=0.006), which were less in pigs fed the NFLB than the FLB diets, but unchanged in pigs fed the NFLW and FLW diets. Conversely, the ileal flow of protein was similar (P=0.605) in pigs fed the barley diets (average, 47.5 ± 1.7 g/kg of DMI) and increased with the FLW diet compared with the NFLW diet (43 vs. 35 g/kg of DMI, respectively). Ileal fat and CH(2)O digestibilities were 7.6 (P=0.002) and 8.9% (Pfermented than nonfermented diets (86.5 vs. 84.5%, respectively; PFermentation reduced (PFermentation had no effect (P=0.243) on the fecal digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides in either of the cereals but their digestibility was 10.0% greater (Pfermentation of cereal before feeding altered the dietary composition and influenced flow and composition of polysaccharides

  5. Dietary plant extracts alleviate diarrhea and alter immune responses of weaned pigs experimentally infected with a pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Che, T M; Almeida, J A S; Lee, J J; Bravo, D; Maddox, C W; Pettigrew, J E

    2013-11-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of 3 different plant extracts on diarrhea, immune response, intestinal morphology, and growth performance of weaned pigs experimentally infected with a pathogenic F-18 Escherichia coli (E. coli). Sixty-four weaned pigs (6.3±0.2 kg BW, and 21 d old) were housed in individual pens in disease containment chambers for 15 d: 4 d before and 11 d after the first inoculation (d 0). Treatments were in a 2×4 factorial arrangement: with or without an F-18 E. coli challenge (toxins: heat-labile toxin, heat-stable toxin b, and Shiga-like toxin 2; 10(10) cfu/3 mL oral dose; daily for 3 d from d 0) and 4 diets [a nursery basal diet (CON) or 10 ppm of capsicum oleoresin, garlic botanical, or turmeric oleoresin]. The growth performance was measured on d 0 to 5, 5 to 11, and 0 to 11. Diarrhea score (1, normal, to 5, watery diarrhea) was recorded for each pig daily. Frequency of diarrhea was the percentage of pig days with a diarrhea score of 3 or greater. Blood was collected on d 0, 5, and 11 to measure total and differential white blood cell counts and serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, C-reactive protein, and haptoglobin. On d 5 and 11, half of the pigs were euthanized to measure villi height and crypt depth of the small intestine and macrophage and neutrophil number in the ileum. The E. coli infection increased (Pdiarrhea score, frequency of diarrhea, white blood cell counts, serum TNF-α and haptoglobin, and ileal macrophages and neutrophils but reduced (Pdiarrhea score from d 0 to 2 and d 6 to 11 and frequency of diarrhea and decreased (Pdiarrhea score, frequency of diarrhea, and ileal macrophages compared with the CON. In conclusion, the 3 plant extracts tested reduced diarrhea and inflammation caused by E. coli infection, which may be beneficial to pig health.

  6. Jejunum and ileum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008302 The expression and effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine 7 receptor in brain and intestine of rats with irritable bowel syndrome. ZOU Baicang(邹百仓), et al. Dept Gastroenterol, 2nd Hosp, Xi′an Jiaotong Univ, Xi′an 710004. Chin J Dig 2008;28(3):153-158.Objective To investigate the expression and distribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine 7(5-HT7)receptor in brain and intestine of rats with different subtype of irritable bowel syndrome(IBS).Methods Forty-five SD rats

  7. Jejunum and ileum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005219 NOD2/CARD15 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to Crohn’s disease in Chinese Han population. GAO Min(高敏), et al. Dept Digestol, Sir Run Shaw Hosp, Sch Med, Zhejiang Univ, Hangzhou 310016. Chin J Intern Med, 2005;44(3): 210-212. Objective: Previous studies have shown NOD2/ CABD15 gene is the first susceptibility gene to

  8. 苯扎氯铵对食管下端肌间神经毁损效果的研究%The effect of benzalkonium chloride in the damage of the myenteric plexus of lower esophagus in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳民; 梁振; 李仲荣; 朱利斌; 刘征吉; 陈肖鸣

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察苯扎氯铵(BAC)毁损食管下端括约肌肌间神经的效果及毁损后不同时间神经组织的改变,为建立合适的贲门失迟缓症动物模型奠定基础.方法 80只健康的雄性SD大鼠随机分为二组:BAC组和生理盐水对照组各40只;开腹手术将0.4%BAC脑棉敷于大鼠食管下端30 min,术后1、2、4、8周分别处死大鼠,观察食管下端肌间神经组织的变化.结果 术后1周BAC组食管下端出现部分肌间神经元、神经纤维变性坏死;术后第二周肌间神经元密度为(1.25±1.58)个/横切面,与对照组(5.38±2.33)个/横切面相比,明显减少(P<0.01);术后4周和术后8周肌间神经元进一步减少,但这种减少与术后第二周的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).BAC对不同神经递质的神经元毁损为非选择性的.结论 0.4BAC能成功毁损大鼠食管下端肌间神经元,肌间神经元毁损的动物玎丁用于贲门失弛缓症实验研究.%Objective To establish the appropriate animal model of achalasia in the cardia and to observe the effect of Benzalkonium Chloride(BAC) in the damag of the myenteric plexus of lower esophagus in rats and the changes of neurons at different time points.Methods Eighty male SD rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups (40 rats respectively in the BAC group and control groups).The 0.4% benzalkonium chloride was applied on the lower esophagus for 30 minutes during the laparotomy on rats.The changes of the neuron in lower esophagus were observed under microscope after sacrifice of rats at 1,2,4 and 8 weeks respectively.Results One week after the operation,degeneration and necrosis were observed in parts of the neurons and the nerve fibers in the myenteric plexus of lower esophagus in the BAc group.Two weeks after the operation,density of neurons in BAC group was 1.25±0.71 neurons per cross section,which was significantly lower than that in the control group (5.38±2.33 neurons per cross section

  9. Anaerobic digestion of pig manure fibres from commercial pig slurry separation units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Triolo, Jin M.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of manure fibres (MF) from 17 commercially separated pig slurries and seven raw pig slurries were characterised in terms of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), protein, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The average lignocellulose concentration in manure fibres and pig slurries...

  10. Molecular studies on pig cryptosporidiosis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeżutka, A; Kaupke, A; Kozyra, I; Pejsak, Z

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium intestinal parasites have been detected in farmed pigs worldwide. Infections are usually asymptomatic with a low number of oocysts shed in pig feces. This makes the recognition of infection difficult or unsuccessful when microscopic methods are used. The aim of this study was molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species in pig herds raised in Poland with regard to the occurrence of zoonotic species. In total, 166 pig fecal samples were tested. The examined pigs were aged 1 to 20 weeks. Overall, 39 pig farms were monitored for parasite presence. The detection and identification of Cryptosporidium DNA was performed on the basis of PCR-RFLP and nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplified 18 SSU rRNA and COWP gene fragments. Infected animals were housed in 21 (53.8%) of the pig farms monitored. The presence of Cryptosporidum was confirmed in 46 (27.7%) samples of pig feces. Among positive fecal samples, 34 (29.3%) were collected from healthy animals, and 12 (24%) from diarrheic pigs. Most infected animals (42.1%) were 2 to 3 months old. The following parasite species were detected: C. scrofarum, C. suis and C. parvum. Indeed, asymptomatic infections caused by C. scrofarum were observed in the majority of the herds. Mixed infections caused by C. suis and C. scrofarum were not common; however, they were observed in 8.6% of the positive animals. C. parvum DNA was found only in one sample collected from a diarrheic pig. The application of molecular diagnostic tools allowed for detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species in pigs. The sporadic findings of C. parvum are subsequent evidence for the contribution of pigs in the transmission of cryptosporidiosis from animals to humans.

  11. Spectrophotometric retinal oximetry in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Karlsson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the validity of spectrophotometric retinal oximetry, by comparison to blood gas analysis and intra-vitreal measurements of partial pressure of oxygen (pO2). METHODS: Female domestic pigs were used for all experiments (n=8). Oxygen fraction in inspired air was changed using...... a mixture of room air, pure oxygen and pure nitrogen, ranging from 5% to 100% oxygen. Femoral arterial blood gas analysis and retinal oximetry was performed at each level of inspiratory oxygen fraction. Retinal oximetry was performed using a commercial instrument, the Oxymap Retinal Oximeter T1 (Oxymap ehf......, Reykjavik, Iceland). The device simultaneously acquires images at two wavelengths (570 nm and 600 nm) and specialized software automatically detects retinal blood vessels. In three pigs, invasive pO2-measurements were performed after the initial non-invasive measurements. RESULTS: Comparison of femoral...

  12. Guinea pig model of tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pushpa Gupta; U.D.Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Animal models are being developed for testing different vaccine candidates as well as testing of new antituber-cular since a long time.Mice,guinea pigs and rabbits are animals which are frequently used.Though each model has got its merits as well as demerits and each of them differ from human tuberculosis in one aspect or the other but none of the model completely mimics the human disease.Out of the different animal species, guinea pig model is one of the better models as it is very sensitive to M.tuberculosis infection but it has certain limitations like paucity of immunological reagents.However,it is the best model for tuberculosis research.

  13. Gut health in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pluske, J. R.; Hansen, Christian Fink; Payne, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disturbances can cause large economic losses in the pig industry. Diseases and conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that can cause economic loss have generally been controlled by the use of dietary (and or in the water) antimicrobial compounds, such as antibiotic feed a...... gastrointestinal 'health' requires consideration....... additives and (or) minerals such as zinc and copper. However the implementation of legislation in some parts of the world, for example the European Union, and a growing sentiment worldwide to reduce the use of dietary antimicrobial compounds, has caused a reassessment of measures to influence GIT 'health......' and caused enormous interest in alternative means to control diseases and conditions of the GIT. There are now available a wide array of products and strategies available to the pig industry that influence 'gut health'. The products in the market place are characterised predominately not only...

  14. Short-term effect of dietary yeast nucleotide supplementation on small intestinal enzyme activities, bacterial populations and metabolites and ileal nutrient digestibilities in newly weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, N; Eklund, M; Roth, S; Rink, F; Jezierny, D; Bauer, E; Mosenthin, R

    2012-08-01

    In previous studies, dietary nucleotides have been shown to improve performance in single-stomached animals by promoting the renewal of small intestine epithelial cells and by influencing the activity and composition of the microbial community in the digestive tract. The present experiment was carried out with 12 barrows weaned at the age of 18 days and fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. To determine short-term effects of dietary yeast nucleotides, the piglets received a grain-soybean meal-based basal diet with or without supplementation of 1 g/kg of a dried yeast product containing free nucleotides. Dietary supplementation with yeast did not affect bacterial numbers in the ileum as well as ileal concentrations of individual short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), total SCFA and total lactic acid (p > 0.05). Moreover, there was no effect of supplemental yeast nucleotides on ileal α-amylase, leucine amino peptidase, maltase and lactase activities (p > 0.05), as well as on ileal dry matter, crude protein and crude fibre digestibilities (p > 0.05). In conclusion, short-term supplementation with dietary yeast nucleotides did not affect microbial metabolite concentrations, bacterial numbers and enzyme activities in the ileal digesta as well as ileal nutrient digestibilities of newly weaned pigs.

  15. Effects of isolated and complex dietary fiber matrices in breads on carbohydrate digestibility and physicochemical properties of ileal effluent from pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Mirosław Marek; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2012-12-26

    To assess the effects of content and structure of dietary fiber (DF) on the carbohydrate digestibility and physicochemical properties of ileal digesta, five bread diets were studied in an experiment with ileum-cannulated pigs in a crossover design. The diets consisted of two experimental breads based on white wheat flour with added wheat arabinoxylan (AX) or with added isolated oat β-glucan (BG), which were compared with a low-DF commercial white wheat bread (WF) and two commercial high-DF, dark ground rye bread (GR) and rye bread with kernels (RK) as positive controls. There was no profound effect of either DF content, structure, viscosity, or water-binding capacity on the ileal digestibility of starch, which was almost completely digested in the small intestine. Arabinoxylan and β-glucan were 11 and 81% degraded in the ileum, respectively, which resulted in a significant increase and decrease of ileal extract viscosities, respectively. It is concluded that the viscosity-elevating properties of soluble DF in breads and ileal digesta are strongly dependent on the content and structure of DF and degree of resistance toward microbial enzymes.

  16. The site of net absorption of Ca from the intestinal tract of growing pigs and effect of phytic acid, Ca level and Ca source on Ca digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J Caroline; Walk, Carrie L; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardised digestibility of Ca in calcium carbonate and Lithothamnium calcareum Ca is not different regardless of the level of dietary Ca, and that phytic acid affects the digestibility of Ca in these two ingredients to the same degree. The objectives were to determine where in the intestinal tract Ca absorption takes place and if there are measurable quantities of basal endogenous Ca fluxes in the stomach, small intestine or large intestine. Diets contained calcium carbonate or L. calcareum Ca as the sole source of Ca, 0% or 1% phytic acid and 0.4% or 0.8% Ca. A Ca-free diet was also formulated and used to measure endogenous fluxes and losses of Ca. Nine growing pigs (initial body weight 23.8 ± 1.3 kg) were cannulated in the duodenum and in the distal ileum, and faecal, ileal and duodenal samples were collected. Duodenal endogenous fluxes of Ca were greater (p phytic acid, but decreased (p phytic acid, but may be affected by dietary Ca level depending on the Ca source. Calcium from calcium carbonate is mostly absorbed before the duodenum, but Ca from L. calcareum Ca is mostly absorbed in the jejunum and ileum.

  17. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  18. Fermented liquid feed for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Missotten, Joris; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël

    2010-01-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviat...

  19. Number and size of myenteric neurons of the duodenum of adult rats with acute diabetes Número e tamanho dos neurônios mientéricos do duodeno de ratos adultos com diabetes agudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA MONTSERRAT D.P. FURLAN

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study had as its purpose to assess the effects of acute diabetes induced by streptozotocin (35 mg/kg body weight on the number and size of the myenteric neurons of the duodenum of adult rats considering equally the antimesenteric and intermediate regions of the intestinal circumference. Experimental period extended for a week. Neuronal counts were carried out on the same number of fields of both regions of the duodenal circumference and measurements of neuronal and nuclear areas on equal numbers of cells. Number and size of the myenteric neurons stained with Giemsa were not significantly different between groups. On the other hand, the proportion of NADH-positive neurons increased from 18.54% on the controls to 39.33% on the diabetics. The authors discuss that this increased reactivity probably results from a greater NADH/NAD+ ratio, described in many tissues of diabetic animals, which has consequences on the modulation of the enzymes that use these cofactors and whose activity is detected by the NADH-diaphorase technique.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do diabetes agudo induzido por estreptozootocina (35 mg/kg de peso corporal sobre o número e tamanho dos neurônios mientéricos do duodeno de ratos adultos considerando de forma equivalente as regiões antimesentérica e intermediária da circunferência intestinal. O período experimental se estendeu por uma semana. As contagens neuronais foram feitas em igual número de campos nas duas regiões da circunferência duodenal e as mensurações das áreas neuronais e nucleares em igual número de células. O número e o tamanho dos neurônios corados por Giemsa não foram significativamente diferentes entre os grupos. Por outro lado, a proporção de neurônios NADH-positivos aumentou de 18,54% nos animais controles para 39,33% nos diabéticos. Os autores discutem que essa maior reatividade possivelmente resultou do aumento da proporção NADH/NAD+, descrita em diversos

  20. A consumer study of entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godt, Jannik; Kristensen, Kai; Poulsen, Carsten Stig;

    1996-01-01

    Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...... made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...

  1. Energy use in pig farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    This guide presents benchmark data on 'typical' and 'good practice' levels of energy consumption for pig farms in the UK. Benchmarks are valuable because they allow producers to compare their performance with other similar businesses. In addition, they also provide two other useful functions: They allow routine assessments to be made that show progress against a benchmark. Such appraisals are not restricted to year-on-year evaluations as they can be carried out quarterly, monthly or even weekly to track progress on a more frequent basis Opportunity assessments can be carried out. For example, if a facility is to be modified or upgraded, the effect of the change can be determined. Throughout this guide, the benchmarks and information are based on methods and techniques that minimise energy consumption whilst maintaining pig performance at an economically acceptable level. Pig farming in the UK is a complex and diverse business with a variety of facilities being used for each stage of production. Therefore, in order to give realistic guidelines, production has been broken down into several key areas to illustrate typical performance benchmarks. These production areas are: farrowing accommodation; weaning accommodation; finisher accommodation; feeding system; and waste handling. The guide has a detailed breakdown with graphs and data analysis.

  2. Mice lacking myosin IXb, an inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility gene, have impaired intestinal barrier function and superficial ulceration in the ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegan, Peter S; Chandhoke, Surjit K; Barone, Christina; Egan, Marie; Bähler, Martin; Mooseker, Mark S

    2016-04-01

    Genetic studies have implicated MYO9B, which encodes myosin IXb (Myo9b), a motor protein with a Rho GTPase activating domain (RhoGAP), as a susceptibility gene for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Moreover, we have recently shown that knockdown of Myo9b in an intestinal epithelial cell line impairs wound healing and barrier function. Here, we investigated whether mice lacking Myo9b have impaired intestinal barrier function and features of IBD. Myo9b knock out (KO) mice exhibit impaired weight gain and fecal occult blood (indicator of gastrointestinal bleeding), and increased intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis could be detected along the entire intestinal axis. Histologic analysis revealed intestinal mucosal damage, most consistently observed in the ileum, which included superficial ulceration and neutrophil infiltration. Focal lesions contained neutrophils and ultrastructural examination confirmed epithelial discontinuity and the deposition of extracellular matrix. We also observed impaired mucosal barrier function in KO mice. Transepithelial electrical resistance of KO ileum is >3 fold less than WT ileum. The intestinal mucosa is also permeable to high molecular weight dextran, presumably due to the presence of mucosal surface ulcerations. There is loss of tight junction-associated ZO-1, decreased lateral membrane associated E-cadherin, and loss of terminal web associated cytokeratin filaments. Consistent with increased Rho activity in the KO, there is increased subapical expression of activated myosin II (Myo2) based on localization of phosphorylated Myo2 regulatory light chain. Except for a delay in disease onset in the KO, no difference in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and lethality was observed between wild-type and Myo9b KO mice.

  3. Effects of Single Cell Protein Replacing Fish Meal in Diet on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Intestinal Morphology in Weaned Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Zhang

    2013-09-01

    .5% Prosin and 2.5% Protide diets than the pigs fed 5% Prosin and 5% Protide diets (p<0.05. Villus height in jejunum and ileum, and villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum were higher (p<0.05 in pigs fed CON, 2.5% Prosin and 2.5% Protide diets compared with the 5% Prosin and 5% Protide diets. Pigs fed CON diet had greater villus height to crypt depth ratio in the ileum than the pigs fed 5% Prosin and 5% Protide diets (p<0.05. In conclusion, although Prosin and Protide contained lower ME content and SID of AA than fish meal, Prosin and Protide replacing 50% of fish meal in diet with identical nutrient levels could obtain similar performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology in weaned pigs.

  4. GLP-1 Amidation Efficiency Along the Length of the Intestine in Mice, Rats and Pigs and in GLP-1 Secreting Cell Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Windeløv, Johanne Agerlin

    2014-01-01

    XXX: Measurements of plasma concentrations of the incretin hormone GLP-1 are complex because of extensive molecular heterogeneity. This is partly due to a varying and incompletely known degree of C-terminal amidation. Given that virtually all GLP-1 assays rely on a C-terminal antibody, it is esse......XXX: Measurements of plasma concentrations of the incretin hormone GLP-1 are complex because of extensive molecular heterogeneity. This is partly due to a varying and incompletely known degree of C-terminal amidation. Given that virtually all GLP-1 assays rely on a C-terminal antibody......, it is essential to know whether or not the molecule one wants to measure is amidated. We performed a detailed analysis of extractable GLP-1 from duodenum, proximal jejunum, distal ileum, caecum, proximal colon and distal colon of mice (n=9), rats (n=9) and pigs (n=8) and determined the degree of amidation...

  5. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sadraei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode′s solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS, KCl (80 mM and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM. The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37 °C and continuously gassed with O 2 . The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%, β-eudesmol (6.4 %, ρ-cymene (5.7%, caryophyllene oxide (3.6%, α-pinine (1.4% and α-phelandrene (1.1%. The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC 50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml, ACh (IC 50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml and EFS (IC 50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC 50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum.

  6. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alipour, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa) possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl (80 mM) and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM). The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%), β-eudesmol (6.4 %), ρ-cymene (5.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.6%), α-pinine (1.4%) and α-phelandrene (1.1%). The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum.

  7. Plastic bezoar in the terminal ileum: a case report and imaging findings; Plastibezoar no ileo terminal: relato de caso e aspectos de imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Gabriel Antonio de; Abikair Filho, Jorge [Hospital Infantil Nossa Senhora da Gloria, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Werlang, Henrique Zambenedetti [MedImagem, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: hzwerlang@gmail.com; Bergoli, Pedro Martins [SIDI - Servico de Investigacao Diagnostica, RS (Brazil)

    2006-04-15

    A 2 year old child presented with persistent abdominal pain and was referred to imaging studies. The abdominal ultrasound showed a hyper echogenic mass in the abdomen. Computed tomography scan showed a mass with very unusual density in the distal ileum. The patient was submitted to laparotomy and a large plastic bezoar was removed. In the medical literature, stomach bezoar, especially trichobezoar is a well known and described finding. No other case of plastic bezoar has been reported in similar imaging studies in the literature reviewed.(author)

  8. Metabolic component of the temperature-sensitivity of slow waves recorded from gastric muscle of the guinea-pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Eri; Kito, Yoshihiko; Hashitani, Hikaru; Suzuki, Hikaru

    2006-02-01

    The effects of changes in temperature on slow waves were investigated in smooth muscle tissues isolated from the guinea-pig gastric antrum. Within the range 24 degrees C to 42 degrees C, elevation of temperature increased the frequency and maximum rate of rise of the upstroke phase (dV/dt) of slow waves and decreased their duration, with no alteration to amplitude or resting membrane potential. These observations also applied to follower potentials and pacemaker potentials recorded from longitudinal muscle and myenteric interstitial cells, respectively. Slow waves were comprised of 1st and 2nd components, and the latency for generating the 2nd component was decreased exponentially by elevating temperature, reaching a stable value of about 1 s above 32 degrees C. The temperature coefficient was >2 for the frequency, dV/dt and latency of the 2nd component, about 1.7 for the duration and about 1 for amplitude. Potassium cyanide (KCN), an inhibitor of mitochondrial metabolic activity, reduced the frequency and duration of slow waves, with no alteration to other parameters (amplitude, dV/dt, latency). In the presence of 30 microM KCN, the temperature-dependency of the frequency of slow waves was diminished or abolished, while other parameters of slow waves remained unaltered. These results indicate that in slow waves the frequency may be related to metabolic activities, while the temperature-dependent changes in the dV/dt, latency for the 2nd component and duration of slow waves are produced largely by mechanisms other than metabolic activity.

  9. Nitric oxide enhances inhibitory synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability in guinea-pig submucous plexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Bornstein

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Varicosities immunoreactive for nitric oxide synthase (NOS make synaptic connections with submucosal neurons in the guinea-pig small intestine, but the effects of nitric oxide (NO on these neurons are unknown. We used intracellular recording to characterise effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor and nitro-L-arginine (NOLA, NOS inhibitor, on inhibitory synaptic potentials (IPSPs, slow excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs and action potential firing in submucosal neurons of guinea-pig ileum in vitro. Recordings were made from neurons with the characteristic IPSPs of non-cholinergic secretomotor neurons. SNP (100 μM markedly enhanced IPSPs evoked by single stimuli applied to intermodal strands and IPSPs evoked by trains of 2 – 10 pulses (30 Hz. Both noradrenergic (idazoxan-sensitive and non-adrenergic (idazoxan-insensitive IPSPs were affected. SNP enhanced hyperpolarizations evoked by locally applied noradrenaline or somatostatin. SNP did not affect slow EPSPs evoked by single stimuli, but depressed slow EPSPs evoked by stimulus trains. NOLA (100 μM depressed IPSPs evoked by 1-3 stimulus pulses and enhanced slow EPSPs evoked by trains of 2 – 3 stimuli (30 Hz. SNP also increased the number of action potentials and the duration of firing evoked by prolonged (500 or 1000 ms depolarizing current pulses, but NOLA had no consistent effect on action potential firing. We conclude that neurally released NO acts post-synaptically to enhance IPSPs and depress slow EPSPs, but may enhance the intrinsic excitability of these neurons. Thus, NOS neurons may locally regulate several secretomotor pathways ending on common neurons.

  10. Inducible nitric oxide synthase and guinea-pig ileitis induced by adjuvant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Seago

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought to establish a model of inflammatory bowel disease by augmenting the activity of the local immune system with Freund's complete adjuvant, and to determine if inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression and peroxynitrite formation accompanied the inflammatory condition. In anaesthetized guinea-pigs, a loop of distal ileum received intraluminal 50% ethanol followed by Freund's complete adjuvant. Control animals were sham operated. When the animals were killed 7 or 14 days later, loop lavage fluid was examined for nitrite and PGE2 levels; mucosal levels of granulocyte and macrophages were estimated by myeloperoxidase (MPO and N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (NAG activity, respectively. Cellular localization if iNOS and peroxynitrite formation were determined by immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibodies directed against peptide epitopes of mouse iNOS and nitrotyrosine, respectfully. Adjuvant administration resulted in a persistent ileitis, featuring gut thickening, crypt hyperplasia, villus tip swelling and disruption, and cellular infiltration. Lavage levels of PGE2 and nitrite were markedly elevated by adjuvant treatment. Immunoreactive iNOS and nitrotyrosine bordered on detectability in normal animals but were markedly evident with adjuvant treatment at day 7 and particularly day 14. Immunohistochemistry suggested that enteric neurons and epithelia were major sites of iNOS activity and peroxynitrite formation. We conclude that local administration of adjuvant establishes a chronic ileitis. Inducible nitric oxide synthase may contribute to the inflammatory process.

  11. Excitatory and inhibitory cholinergic effects of yohimbine on isolated guinea-pig small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Tacca, M; Tadini, P; Blandizzi, C; Bernardini, M C

    1988-08-01

    The interaction of yohimbine with the cholinergic intestinal system was investigated in the isolated guinea-pig ileum using a wide range of drug concentrations from 3 x 10(-13) to 2 x 10(-4) g/ml. Low concentrations of yohimbine (3 x 10(-13) to 3 x 10(-11) g/ml) caused dose-dependent contractions of the ileal longitudinal muscle, which were potentiated by eserine 1 x 10(-8) g/ml and prevented by tetrodotoxin 1 x 10(-6) g/ml or by atropine 1 x 10(-12) g/ml; methysergide and diphenydramine were ineffective up to 3 x 10(-7) g/ml dose. Submaximal stimulatory responses evoked by twitch stimulation or by acetylcholine were significantly potentiated by the same concentrations of yohimbine (3 x 10(-13) to 3 x 10(-11) g/ml) and blocked by atropine 1 x 10(-12) g/ml. By contrast, high concentrations of yohimbine (1 x 10(-6) to 2 x 10(-4) g/ml) displayed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on cholinergic responses. The stimulant effect of yohimbine seems to be indirect and mediated by the increase in the release of acetylcholine, while the inhibitory action may be due to a molecular interaction with the muscarinic receptors allowing non-specific receptor blockade.

  12. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-01-01

    In his interesting and informative book "Is That a Fact?," Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on…

  13. Evolution of pigs in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The research into the origins of domestic animals is of significance not only for understanding their development per se, but also for making clear the human society evolution. Although there are evidences to show that pigs were independently domesticated in a variety of places throughout the world, the detailed scenario of the origin and dispersal of domestic pigs in East Asia remains unclear.

  14. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Reeth, Van Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M.; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S.; Brown, Ian H.; Loeffen, Willie; Meulen, Van der Karen; Schlegel, Michael; Bublot, Michel; Kellam, Paul; Watson, Simon; Lewis, Nicola S.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Webby, Richard; Chen, Hualan; Vincent, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (

  15. Genetic diversity of 11 European pig breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavall, G.; Iannuccelli, N.; Legault, C.; Milan, D.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Andersson, L.; Fredholm, M.; Geldermann, H.; Foulley, J.L.; Chevalet, C.; Ollivier, L.

    2000-01-01

    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosi

  16. Synchronisation of the reproductive cycle in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.; Kirkwood, R.N.; Soede, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    An outline of procedures to synchronise oestrus and ovulation in pigs is described. The oestrus cycle of pigs can be synchronised depending on the stage of the reproductive cycle of these animals. Non-cyclic gilts shortly before puberty, can easily be synchronised by treatments with a mixture of 400

  17. Breeding for feed intake capacity in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eissen, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with feed intake capacity of pigs. By selection, breeding organizations try to achieve genetic improvement in production and reproduction efficiency. Future genetic improvement may become constrained by a limited feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows, respectively

  18. Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

  19. PET radioligand injection for pig neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord; Landau, Anne M.

    2017-01-01

    Pigs are useful models in neuroimaging studies with positron emission tomography. Radiolabeled ligands are injected intravenously at the start of the scan and in pigs, the most easily accessible route of administration is the ear vein. However, in brain studies the short distance between the brai...

  20. Inhibitory effects of the volatile oils of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels and Eucalyptus citriodora Hook (Myrtaceae) on the acetylcholine induced contraction of isolated rat ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, Ayinde Buniyamin; Josephine, Owolabi Omonkhelin

    2012-04-01

    Using steam distillation method, the volatile oils of Eucalyptus citriodora and Callistemon citrinus were obtained and their chromatographic profiles examined in hexane: ethylacetate (4:1; 7:3) and hexane-chloroform (7:3). The effects of the volatile oils on acetylcholine (Ach) induced contraction of the rat isolated ileum were investigated based on the ethnomedicinal use of the volatile oil of E. citriodora in treating diarrhoea. Relative to the weight of the fresh leaves (200g in each case), E. citriodora produced 0.75% of the volatile oil while the C. citrinus yielded 0.5%. Combination of hexane-ethylacetate (4:1) gave the best resolution of the constituents as E. citriodora produced six major spots while Callistemon citrinus produced three. The concentration-dependent contractions of the ileum produced by the increasing concentration of the Ach were observed to be remarkably attenuated in the presence of the volatile oils at 5 and 10 mg/ml. At 5mg/ ml, the volatile oils of E. citriodora and C. citrinus independently reduced the Ach maximum contraction to 74.11 ± 12.4 and 19.05 ± 5.17% respectively. At 10mg/ml, the volatile oils further significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the contraction induced by the Ach. The results obtained validated the ethnomedicinal use of the volatile oils particularly that of E. citriodora in reducing ilea contractions occasioned by diarrhoea. However, C. citrinus volatile oil seems to be more effective.

  1. Endocrine tumours in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Mayer, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Functional endocrine tumours have long been thought to be rare in guinea pigs, although conditions such as hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been documented with increasing frequency so the prevalence of hormonal disorders may have been underestimated. Both the clinical signs and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs appear to be very similar to those described in feline hyperthyroidism, and methimazole has been proven to be a practical therapy option. Hyperadrenocorticism has been confirmed in several guinea pigs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test using saliva as a non-invasive sample matrix; trilostane has been successfully used to treat a guinea pig with hyperadrenocorticism. Insulinomas have only rarely been documented in guinea pigs and one animal was effectively treated with diazoxide.

  2. Wild pig populations in the National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Francis J.

    1981-05-01

    Populations of introduced European wild boar, feral pigs, and combinations of both types (all Sus scrola L.) inhabit thirteen areas in the National Park Service system. All parks have relatively stable populations, with the exception of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which reported a rapidly expanding wild boar population. Suspected and documented impacts were apparently related to pig densities and sensitivity of the ecosystem; the three largest units with dense wild pig populations reported the most damage. Overall, wild pigs are a relatively minor problem for the Park Service; however, problems are severe in at least three parks, and there is potential for invasion of wild boars into several additional parks in the Appalachian Mountains. More specific information is needed on numbers of wild pigs and their impacts in the various parks.

  3. Aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtulini, S; Macchi, C; Ballanti, P

    2005-01-01

    The effect of intramuscular injection of 40 mg/2 ml aluminium hydroxide in the neck of pigs was examined in a number of ways. The investigation followed repeated slaughterhouse reports, according to which 64.8% of pigs from one particular farm were found at slaughter to have one or more nodules...... in the muscles of the neck (group slaughtered). The pigs had been injected with a vaccine containing 40 mg/2 ml dose of aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. Research consisted of two phases: first, an epidemiological study was carried out, aimed at determining the risk factors for the granulomas. The results...... and adjuvant) to pigs inoculated twice with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group water) and to pigs inoculated once with the adjuvant and once with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group adjuvant/water). Both studies agreed in their conclusions, which indicate that the high amount of aluminium hydroxide...

  4. The use of pigs in neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Nanna Marie; Moustgaard, Anette; Jelsing, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    increased considerably in recent years. The pig brain, which is gyrencephalic, resembles the human brain more in anatomy, growth and development than do the brains of commonly used small laboratory animals. The size of the pig brain permits the identification of cortical and subcortical structures...... by imaging techniques. Furthermore, the pig is an increasingly popular laboratory animal for transgenic manipulations of neural genes. The present paper focuses on evaluating the potential for modeling symptoms, phenomena or constructs of human brain diseases in pigs, the neuropsychiatric disorders...... in particular. Important practical and ethical aspects of the use of pigs as an experimental animal as pertaining to relevant in vivo experimental brain techniques are reviewed. Finally, current knowledge of aspects of behavioral processes including learning and memory are reviewed so as to complete the summary...

  5. Stockperson attitudes toward pig euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rault, J-L; Holyoake, T; Coleman, G

    2017-02-01

    Euthanasia is a necessary act for any facility keeping live animals. Nevertheless, the crucial role and responsibility of the stockperson in deciding and conducting on-farm euthanasia has been overlooked. Stockperson characteristics and knowledge that lead to appropriate decision-making and the skills to competently perform the procedure remain to be identified. An important component of the stockperson's characteristics that predict behavior is the stockperson's attitudes. This preliminary study investigated the factors that influence stockperson attitudes toward the practice of on-farm euthanasia in the pork industry. A total of 120 stockpeople from 10 Australian pig farms (ranging in size from 50 to 4,754 sows and from 2 to 32 employees) completed a questionnaire based on focus group input to assess their attitudes toward euthanasia and decision processes. Factors identified included stockperson attitudes and attributes (empathy affect, empathy attribution, feeling bad about euthanizing, and negative attitudes to pigs), beliefs about the working environment (perceived time constraints and relying on others), and factors related to decision-making (comfortable with euthanasia, trouble deciding and avoid if possible, confidence, insufficient knowledge, seeking knowledge, and using sources to get advice). Numerous significant correlations were found between these variables. Furthermore, regression analyses showed confidence as the only significant predictor of being comfortable with euthanasia (12.5% of the variance; euthanasia ( euthanasia, which comprises both a decision-making process and the act itself, can adversely affect stockpeople. This preliminary study offers insights for implementation of successful practical and humane pig euthanasia protocols on farm. This will benefit stockperson well-being and animal well-being alike.

  6. Stress susceptibility in pigs supplemented with ractopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde, N B; Dalla Costa, O A; Roça, R O; Guidoni, A L; Ludtke, C B; Oba, E; Takahira, R K; Lima, G J M M

    2013-09-01

    Ractopamine is a β-adrenergic agonist used as an energy repartitioning agent in the diets of finishing pigs. Most ractopamine studies are limited to evaluations of growth performance and meat quality, and there is little information on the effects of this additive on the behavior and welfare of pigs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate various indicators of stress caused by feeding diets containing ractopamine. One hundred seventy barrows and 170 gilts weighing 107.3 kg were allocated to 30 pens with 10 to 12 barrows or gilts per pen. Pigs were offered 1 of the 3 dietary treatments (0, 5, or 10 mg ractopamine/kg) for 28 d with 5 barrow pens and 5 gilt pens per treatment. Pigs were evaluated for behavior 3 d per week 1 wk before the initiation of the experiment and throughout the experiment. Each pig was classified into 1 of the 13 activities (drinking water, lying alone, lying in clusters, standing, nosing pig, sitting, feeding, biting pig, walking, exploring, running away, playing, and mounting pen mates) and also grouped into 1 of the 3 categories (calm, moving, and feeding themselves) based on those activities. At the end of the experiment, 3 pigs from each pen were slaughtered, and blood samples were collected during exsanguination to determine physiological indicators of stress (cortisol, lactate, and creatine-kinase enzymes). The incidence of skin and carcass lesions was determined at shoulder, loin, and ham. Ractopamine had no effect (P > 0.05) on pig behavior, total number of skin and carcass lesions, or blood concentrations of cortisol or lactate. However, there was an increase (P pigs receiving ractopamine-supplemented feed. This finding is consistent with the concept that ractopamine may cause muscular disorders, and this warrants further investigation.

  7. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable...... substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further...

  8. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in a threonine biomass product fed to weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F N; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Production of crystalline l-Thr results in the generation of a Thr biomass that contains more than 80% CP, 5.20% Lys, 5.10% Val, 4.52% Thr, 4.15% Ile, and 1.06% Trp. This Thr biomass product can possibly be used as a feed ingredient in diets fed to weanling pigs, but there is little information about the nutritional value of this product. The objective of this work was to determine the AA digestibility and energy concentration in Thr biomass and to compare these values to values obtained for fish meal in diets fed to pigs. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA were determined in Exp. 1. Nine pigs (initial BW: 13.4 ± 2.5 kg) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a triplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods in each square. One diet contained 20.0% Thr biomass as the sole source of AA, and a second diet contained 25.0% fish meal as the sole source of AA. The last diet was a N-free diet that was used to measure basal endogenous losses of AA and CP. Results indicated that the AID and SID of all AA except Trp, Gly, and Pro were greater (P biomass than in fish meal. In Exp. 2, 24 pigs (initial BW: 18.1 ± 3.5 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 3 diets. The first diet contained 96.4% corn, the second diet contained 79.3% corn and 17.0% Thr biomass, and the third diet contained 75.3% corn and 24.0% fish meal. Total collection of feces and urine was performed for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period, and all samples of ingredients, diets, feces, and urine were analyzed for GE. Digestible energy and ME were then calculated. The DE in the Thr biomass was greater (P biomass was also greater (P biomass is an excellent source of AA and ME. Therefore, the Thr biomass is a viable ingredient that can be used as an alternative to fish meal and possibly other animal proteins in diets for pigs.

  9. Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S; Jahangir Hossain, M; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers.

  10. MRSA CC398 in the pig production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Wolf, van der P.J.; Giessen, van de A.W.; Duijkeren, van E.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Nes, van A.; Mevius, D.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a distinct clone of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA CC398) was found in pigs and people in contact with pigs. The structure of the pig production chain in high technology pig husbandry enables pathogens to spread during animal trading, with an increasing prevalence in herd

  11. Specific hunger- and satiety-induced tuning of guinea pig enteric nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosen, Lina; Boesmans, Werend; Dondeyne, Marjan; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan; Vanden Berghe, Pieter

    2012-09-01

    Although hunger and satiety are mainly centrally regulated, there is convincing evidence that also gastrointestinal motor activity and hormone fluctuations significantly contribute to appetite signalling. In this study, we investigated how motility and enteric nerve activity are set by fasting and feeding. By means of video-imaging, we tested whether peristaltic activity differs in ex vivo preparations from fasted and re-fed guinea pigs. Ca(2+) imaging was used to investigate whether the feeding state directly alters neuronal activity, either occurring spontaneously or evoked by (an)orexigenic signalling molecules. We found that pressure-induced (2 cmH(2)O) peristaltic activity occurs at a higher frequency in ileal segments from re-fed animals (re-fed versus fasted, 6.12 ± 0.22 vs. 4.84 ± 0.52 waves min(-1), P = 0.028), even in vitro hours after death. Myenteric neuronal responses were tuned to the feeding status, since neurons in tissues from re-fed animals remained hyper-responsive to high K(+)-evoked depolarization (P < 0.001) and anorexigenic molecules (P < 0.001), while being less responsive to orexigenic ghrelin (P = 0.013). This illustrates that the feeding status remains ‘imprinted' ex vivo. We were able to reproduce this feeding state-related memory in vitro and found humoral feeding state-related factors to be implicated. Although the molecular link with hyperactivity is not entirely elucidated yet, glucose-dependent pathways are clearly involved in tuning neuronal excitability. We conclude that a bistable memory system that tunes neuronal responses to fasting and re-feeding is present in the enteric nervous system, increasing responses to depolarization and anorexigenic molecules in the re-fed state, while decreasing responses to orexigenic ghrelin. Unlike the hypothalamus, where specific cell populations sensitive to either orexigenic or anorexigenic molecules exist, the enteric feeding state-related memory system is present at the functional level

  12. Radiolabelling of phoneutria nigriventer spider toxin (Tx1): a tool to study its binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Diniz, Carlos Roberto; Nascimento, Marta Cordeiro [FUNED, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Maria Elena de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia

    1996-07-01

    The neurotoxin Tx1, isolated from the venom of the South American spider Phoneutria nigriventer produces tail elevation and spastic paralysis of posterior limbs after intracerebral ventricular injection in mice. Tx1 also produces ileum contraction in bioassay. We have investigated the binding of radioiodinated-Tx1 ({sup 125} I-Tx1) on the preparation of myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle membrane from guinea pig ileum (MPLM) as a tool to characterize the interaction of this neurotoxin with its site. The neurotoxin Tx1 was radioiodinated with Na{sup 125} I by the lactoperoxidase method. {sup 125} I-Tx1 specifically binds to a single class of noninteracting binding sites of high affinity (Kd= 3.5 x 10{sup -10} M) and low capacity (1.2 pmol/mg protein). The specific binding increased in parallel with the protein concentration. In competition experiments the ligands of ionic channels used (sodium, potassium and calcium) did not affect the binding of {sup 125} I-Tx1 to MPLM neither did the cholinergic ligands (hemicholinium-3, hexamethonium, d-tubocurarine and atropine). Another neurotoxin (Tx2-6, one of the isoforms of Tx2 pool) decreased toxin with MPLM and showed that toxin has a specific and saturable binding site in guinea pig ileum and this binding site appears to be related to the Tx2 site. (author)

  13. Comparative Gastric Morphometry of Muong Indigenous and Vietnamese Wild Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Hong Trang; Peck Toung Ooi; Abu Bakar Zakaria Zuki; Mustapha Mohamed Noordin

    2012-01-01

    It is hypothesized that despite sharing a similar habitat, the Muong indigenous and Vietnamese wild pigs may reveal different gastric morphology. Due to the protective nature of procuring these pigs, a total of 12 Muong indigenous pigs and nine Vietnamese wild pigs stomach collected post mortem were analysed for selected biometric parameters and histology. The result indicated that the stomach of the Vietnamese wild pig is broader with a bigger capacity and greater proportion of proper gastri...

  14. AN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY ON DISTRIBUTION OF ENTEROTOXINS OF ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI IN THE INTESTINE OF GUINEA-PIG%产毒性大肠杆菌毒素在豚鼠肠道定位的免疫组织化学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈清; 申洪; 王雅贤; 俞守义

    2001-01-01

    研究利用免疫组织化学方法对产毒性大肠杆菌(ETEC)感染豚鼠小肠组织中ETEC肠毒素的定位进行了研究。本研究结果表明,发病豚鼠从空肠到回肠明显充血、肿胀,但盲肠、结肠和直肠外观与对照组差别不明显。光镜下见到发病动物肠组织病变主要出现在空肠和回肠,以回肠最为严重。主要病理改变为水肿、炎症细胞浸润和充血。病变部位可以出现在粘膜层、粘膜下层、肌层和浆膜层。取回肠组织切片作免疫组织化学显示ETEC不耐热肠毒素(LT)和耐热肠毒素(ST),可见回肠粘膜表层、粘膜肌层、肌层及浆膜层均呈LT和ST阳性反应,分布弥漫。空白对照和正常豚鼠回肠组织均呈阴性结果。本研究表明,ETEC主要作用于空肠和回肠,尤其是回肠;回肠组织各层都有病变,且与肠毒素的分布一致,证明毒素的作用并不仅限于肠粘膜细胞。%Using immunohistochemical method, distribution of enterotoxins ofenterotoxigenic Escherichia coli( ETEC) in small intestine of the guinea pig infected with ETEC. The results showed t hat the jejunum and ileum of guinea pig infected were obviously hyperemia and ed ema. But no obvious changes were found in the cecum, colon and rectum between i nfecting animals and controls. Under light microscope, pathogenic changes were s een mainly in the jejunum and ileum. The changes mainly were edema, hyperemia an d inflammatory cell infiltration. The sections of ileum were detected by labi le heat enterotoxin(LT) and stable heat enterotoxin(ST) of ETEC. LT and ST were positive on the surface of mucous membrane, muscularis mucosa, tunica muscula ris and fibrosa in infecting guinea pig. The distribution of enterotoxins wer e diffuse and consistent with the histological lesions. No positive reaction was found in normal guinea pig and controls. The present results indicate that the locations of ETEC action were mainly in

  15. Pigging ends freezeups in caustic piping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, R.; Gaines, A.

    1985-03-01

    Convent Chemical Corporation in Convent, LA produces and ships bulk quantities of chlorine and caustic soda (NaOH). The caustic soda is available in various grades, including a 50% aqueous solution that freezes at 56/sup 0/F. An extensive network of chemical-resistant polypropylene-lined steel pipe (without heat tracing) is used to transfer the caustic soda from the production area to storage tanks and to the loading facilities for tank trucks, rail tank cars and barges. A sudden drop in ambient temperature can cause freezeup of the caustic transfer pipes which may result in downtime of as much as a week. Convent plant engineers designed a pigging system for the outdoor caustic transfer lines in the tank farm and to the loading stations. The patented design pig, (internal pipeline cleaner) consists of a flexible, bullet-shaped cylinder of chemical-resistant polyurethane foam with strips of urethane rubber on the surface, or with a solid coating of the tough material. Fluid or gas pressure on the sealed concave base propels the flexible pig through the pipe, valves, elbows, and other fittings, and material ahead of the pig is discharged into an appropriate receiver. The pigging system has eliminated the caustic freezing and plugging problems since it was installed in the summer of 1981. The flexible pig, propelled by 80 psi air, is used to clear the pipelines whenever caustic is transferred during the winter months. The air-propelled pig is designed and sized to easily pass through restrictions in the piping system, such as reduced port plug valves, but was once stuck when it reached a section of pipe that had collapsed. A pig containing the Cobalt 60 nuclear element was inserted into the line to quickly locate the stuck pig with the Geiger counter. The faulty section of pipe was replaced with a new polypropylene lined spool piece.

  16. Pig and guinea pig skin as surrogates for human in vitro penetration studies: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Ana M; Frasch, H Frederick

    2009-02-01

    Both human and animal skin in vitro models are used to predict percutaneous penetration in humans. The objective of this review is a quantitative comparison of permeability and lag time measurements between human and animal skin, including an evaluation of the intra and inter species variability. We limit our focus to domestic pig and rodent guinea pig skin as surrogates for human skin, and consider only studies in which both animal and human penetration of a given chemical were measured jointly in the same lab. When the in vitro permeability of pig and human skin were compared, the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) was 0.88 (Pskin permeability of 21% for pig and 35% for human, and an inter species average coefficient of variation of 37% for the set of studied compounds (n=41). The lag times of pig skin and human skin did not correlate (r=0.35, P=0.26). When the in vitro permeability of guinea pig and human skin were compared, r=0.96 (Phuman, and an inter species coefficient of variation of permeability of 41% for the set of studied compounds (n=15). Lag times of guinea pig and human skin correlated (r=0.90, Phuman skin was calculated for pig skin (n=50) and guinea pig skin (n=25). For pig skin, 80% of measurements fell within the range 0.3skin, 65% fell within that range. Both pig and guinea pig are good models for human skin permeability and have less variability than the human skin model. The skin model of choice will depend on the final purpose of the study and the compound under investigation.

  17. Development of molecular tools to differentiate Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) meat from exotic and local domestic pig meat

    OpenAIRE

    Kajal Kumar Jadav; Avadh Bihari Shrivastav; Nidhi Rajput

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Identification of wild pig and domestic pig is essential to prevent illegal poaching of wild pig and to implement Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. PCR-RFLP was used to differentiate Wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) from Domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) meat. Materials and Methods: DNA was isolated from meat samples of both the sub species and a fragment of Cytochrome b gene was amplified using universal primers and the PCR products were subjected to restriction digestion. Results: All ...

  18. The expression and significance of HAND2 in the myenteric plexus of the colon in patients with Hirschsprung′s disease%HAND2蛋白在先天性巨结肠肠壁肌间神经丛中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏飞; 秦克旺; 吴坤河; 史浩; 张磊

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究HAND2蛋白在先天性巨结肠症患儿肠壁肌间神经丛的表达情况,探讨HAND2蛋白与先天性巨结肠发病的关系.方法 应用免疫组化二步法染色检测46例先天性巨结肠患儿狭窄段、移行段、扩张段和正常段肠壁组织肌间神经丛中HAND2蛋白的表达,用计算机图像分析软件(Image ProPlus 6.0)计算HAND2蛋白在先天性巨结肠各段肠壁组织肌间神经丛的免疫组化阳性染色的平均光密度值.结果 HAND2蛋白在先天性巨结肠患儿正常肠壁组织的肌间神经丛有阳性表达,多呈强阳性;环形肌及纵行肌亦有表达,多呈中等强度阳性.狭窄段肌间神经丛中,未见有阳性染色的神经节细胞,可见肌间神经纤维表达呈弱阳性或阴性;在移行段与扩张段肌间神经丛中,可见较多阳性表达肌间神经节或神经纤维.分别与移行段、扩张段及正常段比较,狭窄段的平均光密度明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 狭窄段肠壁肌间神经丛中HAND2蛋白表达量降低,HAND2蛋白表达改变可能是先天性巨结肠的发病因素之一.%Objective To investigate the expression of HAND2 in the myenteric plexus of the colon in patients with Hirschsprung's disease (HD) , thus to study correlation between HAND2 and pathogenesis of HD. Methods The aganglionic , transitional, dilated and normal segments from the resected colon specimens of 46 patients with HD were collected for study. Immunohistochemistry was applied to assess the protein expression of HAND 2. Results In normal segments, HAND2 was strong positive in the myenteric plexus and median positive in muscle layers , including circular and longitudinal layers. No HAND2 positive ganglion cell was observed in the myenteric plexus in aganglionic segments , though weak positive or negative nerve fibers could be observed . HAND2 positive myenteric plexus were also observed in the transitional and dilated segments . Significant reduction

  19. Assessing pig body language: agreement and consistency between pig farmers, veterinarians, and animal activists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemelsfelder, F; Hunter, A E; Paul, E S; Lawrence, A B

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of qualitative behavior assessments (QBA) of individual pigs by 3 observer groups selected for their diverging backgrounds, experience, and views of pigs. Qualitative behavior assessment is a "whole animal" assessment approach that characterizes the demeanor of an animal as an expressive body language, using descriptors such as relaxed, anxious, or content. This paper addresses the concern that use of such descriptors in animal science may be prone to distortion by observer-related bias. Using a free-choice profiling methodology, 12 pig farmers, 10 large animal veterinarians, and 10 animal protectionists were instructed to describe and score the behavioral expressions of 10 individual pigs (sus scrofa) in 2 repeat sets of 10 video clips, showing these pigs in interaction with a human female. They were also asked to fill in a questionnaire gauging their experiences with and views on pigs. Pig scores were analyzed with generalized procrustes analysis and effect of treatment on these scores with ANOVA. Questionnaire scores were analyzed with a χ(2) test or ANOVA. Observers achieved consensus both within and among observer groups (P 0.90). The 3 groups also repeated their assessments of individual pigs with high precision (r > 0.85). Animal protectionists used a wider quantitative range in scoring individual pigs on dimension 2 than the other groups (P language. This supports the empirical nature of QBA in context of the wider anthropomorphism debate.

  20. Morphological and quantitative analysis of myenteric plexus neurons of intestinal bulb of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae Análise morfológica e quantitativa dos neurônios do plexo mientérico do bulbo intestinal de Cyprinus Carpio. (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Marega

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The myenteric plexus shows morphologic and quantitative variability in the alimentary canals of different species of animals. We have quantified and analyzed the morphology of the myenteric plexus of ten adult Cyprinus carpio intestinal bulbs, by means of histological cross sections stained with HE and Van Gieson methods, as well as Giemsa-stained whole mount preparations. The myenteric plexus, located between the longitudinal and circular layers of the muscular tunic, is formed by isolated neurons and ganglia. Percentages of small, medium and large neurons were 21%, 63.4% and 15.6%, respectively, with a prevalence of intermediary cytoplasmic basop