WorldWideScience

Sample records for pig housing facilities

  1. Characterization of microbial communities in exhaust air treatment systems of large-scale pig housing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneke, J; Lee, N M; Gaul, T W; Van den Weghe, H F A

    2010-01-01

    Exhaust air treatment has gained importance as an essential factor in intensive livestock areas due to the rising emissions in the environment. Wet filter walls of multi-stage exhaust air treatment systems precipitate gaseous ammonia and dust particles from exhaust air in washing water. Microbial communities in the biomass developed in the washing water of five large-scale exhaust air treatment units of pig housing facilities, were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and 16S rDNA sequence analyses. No "standard" nitrifying bacteria were found in the washing water. Instead mainly α-Proteobacteria, aggregating β- and χ-Proteobacteria, a large number of Actinobacteria, as well as individual Planctomycetales and Crenarchaeota were detected after more than twelve months' operation. The main Proteobacteria species present were affiliated to the families Alcaligenaceae, Comamonadaceae and Xanthomonadaceae. Furthermore, we investigated the consumption of inorganic nitrogen compounds in the washing water of one exhaust air treatment unit during a fattening period with and without pH control. Maintaining the pH at 6.0 resulted in a ca. fivefold higher ammonium concentration and a ca. fourfold lower concentration of oxidized nitrogen compounds after the fattening period was finished.

  2. Air Motion and Thermal Environment in Pig Housing Facilities with Diffuse Inlet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lis

    A ventilation system with ambient air supply through diffuse ceiling used in pig production facilities is presented. The climatic conditions were examined both experimentally and numerically in an full scale experimental room and the inlet boundary conditions of the diffuse inlet were examined...... of thermal comfort in terms of the operative temperature of the occupational zone. A model of the boundary condition of the diffuse inlet is necessary because the inlet is a conglomeration of an inlet and a wall boundary condition. Two methods of modelling can be chosen, a model based on the determination...

  3. Climate control of natural ventilated pig houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontsema, J.; Straten, van G.; Salomons, L.; Klooster, van 't C.E.

    1996-01-01

    Ventilation in pig houses is important for maintaining a good climate for the welfare of animals and humans and for an optimal production. Mechanical ventilation has a good performance, since the ventilation rate can easily be controlled, but it is energy demanding, whereas natural ventilation is ch

  4. Aircraft Test & Evaluation Facility (Hush House)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Test and Evaluation Facility (ATEF), or Hush House, is a noise-abated ground test sub-facility. The facility's controlled environment provides 24-hour...

  5. The strategic facilities management organisation in housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Per Anker; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2012-01-01

    Two houses in the same street can be built in the same year, they can look the same, and still they might provide very different support for sustainable living. This article points to the Strategic Facilities Management Organisation (SFMO) as the most important concept, to understand and manage...... literature on sustainable facilities management, where it fills a gap as it deals with housing and strategic FM. Intended readers are those interested in housing administration and especially the transition of existing housing into more sustainable housing. Intended readers include building owners, policy...

  6. Hog and Pig Houses, Published in Not Provided, US Army.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hog and Pig Houses dataset as of Not Provided. Data by this publisher are often provided in Not Applicable coordinate system; in a Not Applicable projection;...

  7. The strategic facilities management organisation in housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Per Anker; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2012-01-01

    Two houses in the same street can be built in the same year, they can look the same, and still they might provide very different support for sustainable living. This article points to the Strategic Facilities Management Organisation (SFMO) as the most important concept, to understand and manage...... implementation of sustainable facilities management in housing administration. The concept provides a frame for understanding the roles and relations of tenants, owners, administrators and operators. The paper is based on a Danish research project on environmentally sound building operation including literature...... literature on sustainable facilities management, where it fills a gap as it deals with housing and strategic FM. Intended readers are those interested in housing administration and especially the transition of existing housing into more sustainable housing. Intended readers include building owners, policy...

  8. Measuring Satisfaction with Student Housing Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul U.M. Najib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In the past decade, resident satisfaction has been used as an important indicator in evaluating student housing quality and services. This study investigates the level of resident satisfaction with student housing facilities. In particular, it examines the level of student satisfaction with living accommodations at one of the leading universities in Malaysia. Approach: The residential satisfaction framework was based on post-occupancy evaluations and has been utilized in previous studies; we expand the framework to address physical and social variables. Face-to-face surveys were conducted with participants who were selected using a cluster sampling technique. Results: The results show a mean satisfaction level of 2.61, which indicates that students are generally satisfied with student housing facilities. This score was lower, however, than the results of previous studies. Conclusion: By assessing residential satisfaction among students, we hope to provide valuable feedback to housing administrators and facility managers of higher learning institutions, thus enabling them to improve their services and offer better housing facilities in the near future.

  9. Immunity in barren and enriched housed pigs differing in baseline cortisol concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, J; de Jong, IC; Prelle, IT; Koolhaas, JM; Prelle, Ina T.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2000-01-01

    It was shown in a recent study [7] that barren housed pigs (small pens, no substrate) have a blunted circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol as compared to enriched housed pigs (large pens with daily fresh bedding). In the light period, enriched housed pigs showed significantly higher concentrations o

  10. Climate control in pig houses/farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, J.M.; Verstegen, M.W.

    1988-11-01

    A lot of research is currently being performed to evaluate the best economically possible circumstances to stall animals like cows, pigs and chickens. At the Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen (Agricultural University in Wageningen, The Netherlands) a climate-respiration-unit has been built which enables studies on heat production of the animals, influence of temperature, temperature changes, draught etc. on meat production and well-being/health of the animals. 19 refs, 1 tab.

  11. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mobile or traveling housing facilities... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats...

  12. 9 CFR 3.79 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mobile or traveling housing facilities... Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.79 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities must...

  13. Evaluation of the air quality in pig housing facilities equipped with a liquid-solid separation system; Evaluation de la qualite de l'air dans les porcheries equipees d'un systeme de separation liquide-solide des dejections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavoie, J.; Beaudet, Y.; Letourneau, C. [Institut de recherche Robert-Sauve en sante et en securite du travail, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Godbout, S.; Lemay, S.; Belzile, M. [Institut de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Lachance, I. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Pouliot, F. [Centre de developpement du porc du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2006-05-15

    A new regulation regarding agricultural operations in Quebec was passed in June 2002. It stated the new standards for managing phosphorous generated from animal livestock. The regulation is intended to protect the environment, more specifically, water, soil and air quality. This new regulation stipulates that agricultural producers acquire a balanced phosphorous assessment by 2010. In order to achieve this, a system is needed to separate solid and liquid pig manure on a daily basis. Producers must also comply with environmental requirements on odour elimination and atmospheric control. The proposed solid-liquid separation system would improve the indoor and outdoor air quality at pig housing facilities by reducing toxic gas and bioaerosol formation. In addition, it would contribute to stream purification. The solid-liquid separation technique was successfully tested in a pilot project at a mini pig housing facility. It was concluded that type of separation equipment system could readily used for other types of animal farming, such as cattle raising. 41 refs., 13 tabs., 12 figs.

  14. 14 CFR 145.103 - Housing and facilities requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Materials, and Data § 145.103 Housing and facilities requirements. (a) Each certificated repair station must provide— (1) Housing for the facilities, equipment, materials, and personnel consistent with its ratings... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing and facilities requirements. 145...

  15. Control of individual daily growth in group housed pigs using feeding stations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, P.J.L.

    1996-01-01

    In this thesis, it was examined whether it is possible to control individual daily growth and carcass composition in group-housed pigs using feeding stations. A forelegs weighing system to estimate the daily individual body weight (BW) of group-housed pigs was developed and validated. In two experim

  16. Effect of manual feeding on the level of farmer's exposure to airborne contaminants in the confinement nursery pig house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Youn; Ko, Han-Jong; Kim, Hyeon-Tae; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Kim, Yoon-Shin; Roh, Young-Man

    2008-04-01

    The objective of the study is to demonstrate an effect of manual feeding on the level of farmer's exposure to airborne contaminants in the confinement nursery pig house. The levels of all the airborne contaminants besides respirable dust, total airborne fungi and ammonia were significantly higher in the treated nursery pig house with feeding than the control nursery pig house without feeding. Although there is no significant difference in respirable dust and total airborne fungi between the treatment and the control, their concentrations in the treated nursery pig house were also higher than the control nursery pig house. The result that the level of ammonia in the treated nursery pig house is lower than the control nursery pig house would be reasoned by the mechanism of ammonia generation in the pig house and adsorption property of ammonia to dust particles. In conclusion, manual feeding by farmer increased the exposure level of airborne contaminants compared to no feeding activity.

  17. Growth performance of pigs fed diets with and without tylosin phosphate supplementation and reared in a biosecure all-in all-out housing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lunen, T. A.

    2003-01-01

    Three hundred and eighty-four pigs, mean initial live weight of 20.8 kg, were assigned randomly to groups of 24 (12 females, 12 castrated males). Each group was randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments consisting of the same commercial barley-based diet, with or without the addition of tylosin phosphate. The barn where the animals were housed operates as an all-in all-out facility, and all pigs arrived on the same day as part of a group of 960 pigs. No new pigs were introduced into the facility during the period of this trial and pigs were sent to market over a 4-week period upon achieving a live weight of 110 kg. The pigs were weighed at the beginning of the trial and when they left the facility for slaughter. Feed consumption and incidence of disease, mortality, or both were recorded daily. At slaughter, carcass backfat depth over the last rib, 6.5 cm ventral to the dorsal midline (P-2 site); loin depth; carcass weight; predicted lean yield; and grade index were recorded. The sow herd supplying pigs to the unit was known to be free of the major swine diseases such as swine influenza, mycoplasma pneumonia, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), necroproliferative enteritis, and ascarids. A strict biosecurity protocol was employed to minimize the risk of introducing disease organisms into the unit. Prior to this study, no subtherapeutic antibiotics had been used in this facility. Tylosin phosphate supplementation had no significant effect on final weight, days on test, total gain, and daily gain. In both treatments, the pigs reached a mean market weight of 110.2 kg within 94.1 days, resulting in daily gains of the order of 950 grams per day. Due to the design of the trial, it was difficult to measure significant feed consumption effects. Feed consumption and conversion appeared to be similar for pigs in both treatment groups. At slaughter, tylosin phosphate supplementation appeared to significantly increase lean muscle content of the carcass as

  18. Effects of rearing and housing environment on behaviour and performance of pigs with different coping characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, J.E.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Schrama, J.W.; Wiegant, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    The availability of a rooting substrate may profoundly affect behaviour and welfare of pigs. Apart from their actual housing environment, also the conditions present in early life and individual characteristics may influence the behaviour of pigs. The present study investigated the relative importan

  19. Effects of sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance in group-housed weanling pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Schlegel, P.; Mul, A.J.; Ubbink-Blanksma, M.; Bruininx, E.M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effects of 2 high intensity sodium saccharine based sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance of group-housed weaned pigs, 198 26-d-old weanling pigs were given ad libitum access to 3 dietary treatments: containing no additional sweetener (Control), 150 mg sw

  20. Effects of sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance in group-housed weanling pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Schlegel, P.; Mul, A.J.; Ubbink-Blanksma, M.; Bruininx, E.M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effects of 2 high intensity sodium saccharine based sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance of group-housed weaned pigs, 198 26-d-old weanling pigs were given ad libitum access to 3 dietary treatments: containing no additional sweetener (Control), 150 mg

  1. Effect of increasing temparature on space requirements of group housed finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Vermeer, H.M.; Riel, van J.W.

    2012-01-01

    For groups of pigs to cope adequately with their housing conditions they need sufficient static space (occupied by the body of the pig), activity space (for movement between different functional areas and behaviours relating to these) and interaction space (for appropriate social behaviour). Estimat

  2. Odour and ammonia removal from pig house exhaust air using a biotrickling filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Mol, G.

    2004-01-01

    Odour from agricultural activities, such as the spreading of manure and the housing of animals, is increasingly being considered a nuisance in densely populated countries like the Netherlands. The objective of this research was to study the odour removal from pig house exhaust air by a biotrickling

  3. ERIC-PCR identification of the spread of airborne Escherichia coli in pig houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W; Chai, T J; Miao, Z M

    2010-02-15

    To understand the spread of microbial aerosols in pig houses, with Escherichia coli (E. coli) as indicator, the airborne E. coli in 4 pig houses and their surroundings at different points 10, 50m upwind and 10, 50, 100, 200 and 400m downwind respectively from the pig houses were collected, and the concentrations were calculated at each sampling point. Furthermore, the feces of pigs were collected to separate E. coli. The ERIC-PCR (Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-Polymerase Chain Reaction) technology was used to amplify the isolated E. coli DNA samples, then the amplified results were analyzed by NTSYS-pc (Version 2.10) to identify the similarity of isolated E. coli. The results showed that the airborne E. coli concentrations in indoor air of the 4 pig houses (21-35CFUm(-)(3) air) were much higher than those in upwind and downwind air (P0.05) at downwind distances. The ERIC-PCR results also showed that 52.4% of the fecal E. coli (four houses being respectively 2/4, 50%; 2/4, 50%; 3/6, 50%; 4/7, 57.1%) were identical to the indoor airborne E. coli isolates, and there was more than 90% similarity between the majority of E. coli (50%, 21/42) isolated from downwind air at 10, 50, 100 and 200m and those from indoor air or feces. It could be concluded that the aerosols in pig houses can spread to the surroundings, and thus effective measures should be taken to control and minimize the spread of microbial aerosols.

  4. 9 CFR 3.1 - Housing facilities, general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing facilities, general. 3.1 Section 3.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment,...

  5. 9 CFR 3.78 - 0utdoor housing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 0utdoor housing facilities. 3.78 Section 3.78 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment,...

  6. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outdoor housing facilities. 3.4 Section 3.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment,...

  7. 9 CFR 3.76 - Indoor housing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indoor housing facilities. 3.76 Section 3.76 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment,...

  8. 9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheltered housing facilities. 3.77 Section 3.77 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment,...

  9. 9 CFR 3.2 - Indoor housing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indoor housing facilities. 3.2 Section 3.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment,...

  10. 9 CFR 3.75 - Housing facilities, general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing facilities, general. 3.75 Section 3.75 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment,...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712 Section 75.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712 Bath...

  12. An Electronic Worker Service System of the Pig House Based on ATmega16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liu-An; Jin, Tian-Ming; Yu, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Hong, Tao

    Pork is very important for people in daily life. Quality of livestock environment is closely related to the growth of animals. To improve environmental quality, the paper designed an electronic worker service system of the pig house based on ATmega16, which consisted of 6 detection modules, wireless data collecting, GSM, time circuit, display, anti-th alarm and music player, etc. A small LAN was constructed by wireless transceiver module to test and collect data of temperature, humidity and harmful gas concentration in the pig house. If one detection point exists that harmful pollutant gases concentration exceeds the standard value, GSM module took a message for livestock farmers, so that farmers can promptly arrive at the pig house to ventilate or deal with manure in the pig house, which can effectively prevent from bad things. Time of pyroelectric detector deployment can be freely set, and intrusion information was timely sent to the users. The anti-th alarm function was achieved by the auxiliary light. The music playing module is open by timer module in order to soothing pigs' life state. All are suitable for small farms and can save human resources.

  13. Preliminary study of ammonia emissions from naturally ventilated fattening pig houses in the south-east China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, K.; Ye, Z.; Li, H. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou City (China). School of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on an experimental simulation in which ammonia emissions from naturally ventilated pig houses were monitored and the ventilation airflow rate was estimated. Two identical pig houses and the same number of pigs were used in the study. Natural ventilation was used in the experimental pig house while the reference pig house had mechanical ventilation. Both houses had the same air temperature and relative humidity. The ventilation airflow rate of the experimental pig house was estimated by calculating the ventilation airflow rate in the reference pig house. The ventilation airflow rate of the experimental pig house was also estimated based on heat pressure theory. The room air temperature and relative humidity were found to be related to inlet air temperature and relative humidity for both ventilation systems. After 19 days, the average air temperature in the room with mechanical ventilation was about 4.1 degrees C higher than inlet air temperature, but the relative humidity was lower by 7.1 per cent. In the room with natural ventilation, the average air temperature after 19 days was about 3.9 degrees C higher than inlet air temperature, but the relative humidity was lower by 4.3 per cent.

  14. Dynamic model for ammonia volatilization in housing with partially slatted floors, for fattening pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Elzing, A.

    1998-01-01

    A dynamic model was developed to simulate the ammonia volatilization from pig housing with partially slatted floors, where no litter is used. Simulated ammonia emission levels were compared with measured levels for 1 day in each 3-week period during two fattening periods of 15 weeks (one in winter a

  15. Dynamics of Air Temperature, Velocity and Ammonia Emissions in Enclosed and Conventional Pig Housing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Song

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the dynamics of air temperature and velocity under two different ventilation and housing systems during summer and winter in Korea. The NH3 concentration of both housing systems was also investigated in relation to the pig’s growth. The ventilation systems used were; negative pressure type for the enclosed pig house (EPH and natural airflow for the conventional pig house (CPH. Against a highly fluctuating outdoor temperature, the EPH was able to maintain a stable temperature at 24.8 to 29.1°C during summer and 17.9 to 23.1°C during winter whilst the CPH had a wider temperature variance during summer at 24.7 to 32.3°C. However, the temperature fluctuation of the CPH during winter was almost the same with that of EPH at 14.5 to 18.2°C. The NH3 levels in the CPH ranged from 9.31 to 16.9 mg/L during summer and 5.1 to 19.7 mg/L during winter whilst that of the EPH pig house was 7.9 to 16.1 mg/L and 3.7 to 9.6 mg/L during summer and winter, respectively. These values were less than the critical ammonia level for pigs with the EPH maintaining a lower level than the CPH in both winter and summer. The air velocity at pig nose level in the EPH during summer was 0.23 m/s, enough to provide comfort because of the unique design of the inlet feature. However, no air movement was observed in almost all the lower portions of the CPH during winter because of the absence of an inlet feature. There was a significant improvement in weight gain and feed intake of pigs reared in the EPH compared to the CPH (p<0.05. These findings proved that despite the difference in the housing systems, a stable indoor temperature was necessary to minimize the impact of an avoidable and highly fluctuating outdoor temperature. The EPH consistently maintained an effective indoor airspeed irrespective of season; however the CPH had defective and stagnant air at pig nose level during winter. Characteristics of airflow direction and pattern were

  16. Delivering Sustainable Facilities Management in Danish Housing Estates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Jensen, Per Anker

    2009-01-01

    management is supporting social, economical and environmental sustainable development. Sustainable facility management (SFM) is as an 'umbrella' for various ways of reducing flows of energy, water and waste in the daily operation of the buildings, for instance by regular monitoring the consumption, by using......Housing is an area, which ay a central role in sustainable development due to large resource consumption and as transition agent towards sustainable lifestyles. The aim is to evaluate current practice of housing administration in Denmark in order to evaluate if and how sustainable facilities......, but the entire FM‐setting including the ownership of the building, the organisation of daily operation, the roles and relation between stakeholders are equally important in order to utilise the monitoring as a mean for transformation towards sustainable buildings and lifestyles....

  17. Delivering Sustainable Facilities Management in Danish Housing Estates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Jensen, Per Anker

    2009-01-01

    Housing plays a central role in sustainable development due to large resource consumption and as transition agent towards sustainable lifestyles. The aim is to evaluate current practice of housing administration in Denmark in order to evaluate if and how sustainable facilities management...... is supporting social, economical and environmental sustainable development. Sustainable facility management (SFM) is as an 'umbrella' for various ways of reducing flows of energy, water and waste in the daily operation of the buildings, for instance by regular monitoring the consumption, by using 'green......-setting including the ownership of the building, the organisation of daily operation, the roles and relation between stakeholders are equally important in order to utilise the monitoring as a mean for transformation towards sustainable buildings and lifestyles....

  18. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de, P.; Ogink, N. W. M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in reducing emissions of airborne dust, total bacteria, ammonia, and CO2 from pig houses in winter. The three multi-stage scrubbers were one double-stage scrubber (acid stage+ bio-filter), one double-stage ...

  19. 14 CFR 145.105 - Change of location, housing, or facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Change of location, housing, or facilities..., Materials, and Data § 145.105 Change of location, housing, or facilities. (a) A certificated repair station... certificated repair station must operate while it is changing its location, housing, or facilities. ...

  20. An improved method for lifting and transporting anesthetized pigs within an animal facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher-Petersen, Camilla; Hammelev, Karsten Pharao; Flescher, Jens Erik

    2014-01-01

    Transporting anesthetized pigs in a laboratory setting often requires strenuous manual lifting, posing a hazard to the safety of animal care personnel and to the welfare of the pigs. The authors developed an improved approach to lifting and transporting anesthetized pigs weighing up to 350 kg using...... mechanical lifts. Different equipment was used to accommodate pigs of different sizes as well as the building designs of three animal facilities. Using the lifts, anesthetized pigs are carried on sheets to maintain their comfort while being transported. The approach refines previous methods for handling...

  1. Backtest type and housing condition of pigs influence energy metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geverink, N.A.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Wiegant, V.M.; Schrama, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    The behavioral response of piglets in a backtest early in life seems indicative of their coping strategy at a later age. Coping characteristics may depend on the interaction between backtest classification and housing conditions. We studied whether growth rate and partitioning of energy in adult gil

  2. Public Attitudes to Housing Systems for Pregnant Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E B Ryan

    Full Text Available Understanding concerns about the welfare of farm animals is important for the development of socially sustainable production practices. This study used an online survey to test how views on group versus stall housing for pregnant sows varied when Canadian and US participants were provided information about these systems, including access to scientific papers, YouTube videos, Google images, and a frequently-asked-questions page (S1 Appendix. Initial responses and changes in responses after accessing the information were analyzed from Likert scores of 242 participants and from their written comments. Participants were less willing to accept the use of gestation stalls after viewing information on sow housing. For example, initially 30.4% of respondents indicated that they supported the use of gestation stalls; this declined to 17.8% after participants were provided additional information. Qualitative analysis of comments showed that supporters of gestation stalls expressed concern about the spread of disease and aggression between animals in less confined systems, whereas supporters of group housing placed more emphasis on the sow's ability to interact socially and perform natural behaviors. These results point to public opposition to the use of gestation stalls, and indicate that the more that the public learns about gestation stalls the less willing they will be to accept their use.

  3. Bacterial community structure of a full-scale biofilter treating pig house exhaust air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Anja; Pedersen, Kristina Hadulla; Nielsen, Per Halkjær;

    2011-01-01

    Biological air filters represent a promising tool for treating emissions of ammonia and odor from pig facilities. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used to investigate the bacterial community structure and diversity in a full-scale biofilter...

  4. Hog and Pig Houses, Livestock, Published in 2005, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Steuben County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hog and Pig Houses dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2005. It is described...

  5. A Survey on the Gastrointestinal Parasites of Rabbit and Guinea Pig in a Laboratory Animal House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motamedi, G.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is documented evidence that infection in laboratory animals can often influence the outcome of experiments. All infections, apparent or inapparent, are likely to increase biological variability. As a research project concerning the diversity and distribution of parasites of rabbit and guinea pig in a conventional laboratory animal house, about 87 rabbits (from 700 and 105 guinea pigs (from 1500 were selected randomly from a Research, Production & Breeding of Laboratory Animals Department. Samples were collected between 19.02.2010 and 20.05.2011. The samples and animals were examined by dissection and flotation methods. In this study only one species of nematodes (Passalorus ambiguus: 6.9%; one species of protozoa (Eimeria spp.: 21.8% in rabbits and one species of nematodes (Paraspidodera Uncinata: 24.7%; one species of protozoa (Balantidium coli: 11.4% in guinea pigs were identified. However, there was not any cestodes or trematodes identified from this group of laboratory animals.

  6. Effects of housing conditions of slaughter pigs on some post mortem muscle metabolites and pork quality characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Hulsegge, B.; Klont, R.E.; Winkelman-Goedhart, H.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Kranen, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    The results of two experiments studying the effects of housing conditions on post mortem muscle metabolism and meat quality are presented. In the first experiment slaughter pigs (n = 71) from two different crossings, were raised at a density of 0.7 m(2)/animal, (10 pigs/pen) either with (enriched)

  7. Effects of fluoroquinolone treatment and group housing of pigs on the selection and spread of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Masaru; Sakemi, Yoko; Uchida, Ikuo; Tamura, Yutaka

    2014-06-04

    There are concerns that the use of fluoroquinolones (FQs) and group housing of food animals may contribute to the development of bacterial FQ resistance. Here, we studied the effects of administering FQ to pigs on the selection of FQ-resistant Campylobacter. Fifteen pigs were randomly allocated to either a group treated with FQs (enrofloxacin or norfloxacin), or an untreated control group. The number of FQ-resistant Campylobacter in feces was determined using appropriate selective agar containing enrofloxacin. FQ-resistant Campylobacter from samples of both groups were observed on days 3 and 4. These bacteria persisted for up to 21 days after treatment was discontinued. To evaluate the effect of group housing on the transmission of FQ-resistant Campylobacter, five pigs infected with FQ-sensitive Campylobacter pigs and one pig infected with FQ-resistant Campylobacter were housed together. On day 3, FQ-resistant Campylobacter were isolated from all six pigs. Moreover, FQ-resistant Campylobacter were isolated from environmental samples from the pen. These results indicate that the treatment of pigs with FQs selects for and spreads FQ-resistant Campylobacter among the pen. Therefore, responsible and prudent use of FQs at pig farms is required to prevent the emergence and transmission of FQ-resistant Campylobacter.

  8. Impact of hygiene of housing conditions on performance and health of two pig genetic lines divergent for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelet, A; Gondret, F; Merlot, E; Gilbert, H; Friggens, N C; Le Floc'h, N

    2017-06-27

    Pigs selected for high performance may be more at risk of developing diseases. This study aimed to assess the health and performance of two pig lines divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) (low RFI (LRFI) v. high RFI (HRFI)) and housed in two contrasted hygiene conditions (poor v. good) using a 2×2 factorial design (n=40/group). The challenge period (Period 1), started on week zero (W0) when 12-week-old pigs were transferred to good or poor housing conditions. At week 6 (W6), half of the pigs in each group were slaughtered. During a recovery period (Period 2) from W6 to W13 to W14, the remaining pigs (n=20/group) were transferred in good hygiene conditions before being slaughtered. Blood was collected every three (Period 1) or 2 weeks (Period 2) to assess blood indicators of immune and inflammatory responses. Pulmonary lesions at slaughter and performance traits were evaluated. At W6, pneumonia prevalence was greater for pigs housed in poor than in good conditions (51% v. 8%, respectively, Pfeed ratio were less affected by poor hygiene in LRFI pigs than in HRFI pigs (hygiene×line, P=0.001 and P=0.02, respectively). Low residual feed intake pigs in poor conditions ate more than the other groups (hygiene×line, P=0.002). Irrespective of the line, fasting plasma glucose concentrations were higher in poor conditions, whereas fasting free fatty acids concentrations were lower than in good conditions. At the end of Period 2, pneumonia prevalence was similar for both housing conditions (39% v. 38%, respectively). During Period 2, plasma protein concentrations were greater for pigs previously housed in poor than in good conditions during Period 1. Immune traits, gain-to-feed ratio, BW gain and feed consumption did not differ during Period 2. Nevertheless, at W12, BW of HRFI previously housed in poor conditions was 13.4 kg lower than BW of HRFI pigs (Pfeed efficient LRFI pigs was less impaired by poor hygiene conditions. This line was able to preserve its

  9. Influence of housing systems on stillbirth and mortality rate in preweaning pigs farrowed by different gilt breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Wellbrock

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the influence of housing systems on stillbirth and mortality rate in preweaning pigs farrowed by different gilt breeds. The investigation included first farrowings of 225 Large White (LW gilts, 297 Swedish Landrace (SL gilts and 260 crossbreed gilts (LWxSL in the period of five years. Despite of positive influence of straw through decreased number of stillborn pigs, especially in LW gilts, in further process of production until weaning, less appropriate microclimatic conditions developed in farrowing houses with straw, especially if accompanied with poor ventilation, can result with higher number of perished pigs and lower number of weaned pigs. Most sensible to unsuitable microclimatic conditions in straw bedded farrowing houses, according to the number of perished pigs before weaning, were the pigs from SL gilts, while the pigs from crossbreed gilts LWxSL were the most resistant. These results suggest that adding straw requires special attention on influence of such production on microclimate conditions in pigs’ biozone in order to maintain its initial benefits in the time of farrowing through the whole preweaning period, especially in pure breeds of gilts.

  10. Why are most EU pigs tail docked? Economic and ethical analysis of four pig housing and management scenarios in the light of EU legislation and animal welfare outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eath, R B; Niemi, J K; Vosough Ahmadi, B; Rutherford, K M D; Ison, S H; Turner, S P; Anker, H T; Jensen, T; Busch, M E; Jensen, K K; Lawrence, A B; Sandøe, P

    2016-04-01

    To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive by examining economic results of four management and housing scenarios, and by discussing their consequences for animal welfare in the light of legal and ethical considerations. The four scenarios compared are: 'Standard Docked', a conventional housing scenario with tail docking meeting the recommendations for Danish production (0.7 m2/pig); 'Standard Undocked', which is the same as 'Standard Docked' but with no tail docking, 'Efficient Undocked' and 'Enhanced Undocked', which have increased solid floor area (0.9 and 1.0 m2/pig, respectively) provision of loose manipulable materials (100 and 200 g/straw per pig per day) and no tail docking. A decision tree model based on data from Danish and Finnish pig production suggests that Standard Docked provides the highest economic gross margin with the least tail biting. Given our assumptions, Enhanced Undocked is the least economic, although Efficient Undocked is better economically and both result in a lower incidence of tail biting than Standard Undocked but higher than Standard Docked. For a pig, being bitten is worse for welfare (repeated pain, risk of infections) than being docked, but to compare welfare consequences at a farm level means considering the number of affected pigs. Because of the high levels of biting in Standard Undocked, it has on average inferior welfare to Standard Docked, whereas the comparison of Standard Docked and Enhanced (or Efficient) Undocked is more difficult. In Enhanced (or Efficient) Undocked, more pigs than in Standard Docked suffer from being tail bitten, whereas all the pigs avoid the acute pain of docking endured by the pigs in Standard Docked. We illustrate and discuss this ethical balance using

  11. THE EFFECT OF HOUSING ON THE OCCURANCE OF HIND LEG WEAKNESSES IN MARKET PIGS OF THREE GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Šegula

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Degenerative changes of joints due to osteoarthrosis in tarsal joint, peritarsitis, tarsal bursitis and asymmetry of claws was studied on legs of 175 commercial pigs, with prolonged fattening (250 days of age of three genotypes (landrace pigs-11, crosses between landrace females and large white males-12, crosses between female 12 and duroc male- 123 housed either individually on the zincifi ed metal slatted fl oor or in groups of 8-9 pigs on the concrete slatted fl oor. Degenerative changes due to osteoarthrosis (OATD in small joints of the hock - os tarsale tertium (T3, os tarsale quartum (T4, os metatarsale tertium (Mt3 and os metatarsale quatrum (Mt4 and due to the peritarsitis were signifi cantly more important in pigs housed individually (P<0.001. Individually housed pigs grew faster and were signifi cantly heavier for the similar slaughter age (P<0.001. The effect of genotype was only minor; the crosses 12 had lesser asymmetry of claws (P<0.001 than pigs 11 or 123, whereas crosses 123 had signifi cantly (P<0.005 less pronounced degenerative changes due to osteoarthrosis on Mt3 and T3.

  12. High-level vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium related to humans and pigs found in dust from pig breeding facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Teresa M; Pomba, Constança; Lopes, M Fátima Silva

    2013-01-25

    Environmental dust from animal breeding facilities was never screened for the presence of enterococci, nor of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), despite the possibility of being a vehicle of transmission of strains and antibiotic resistance genes between food-producing animals and man. Bio-security measures in pig facilities include disinfection with biocides to avoid the dissemination of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, namely enterococci and in particular VRE. We thus undertook collection of enterococci and VRE in a representative number of breeding pig facilities in Portugal (n=171) and analyzed their susceptibility to benzalkonium chloride (BC) and chlorhexidine (CHX). A prevalence of 15% of VRE was found, with 6% high-level resistance found, and MIC values for CHX and BC were similar to those commonly found among enterococcal isolates from related environments, 8 μg/ml and 4 μg/ml, respectively. Among the isolated high-level vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium carrying the vanA genotype, we found multilocus sequence types closely related to pig and human isolates from European countries and Brazil. These results strongly advise constant surveillance of this environment and its inclusion in future epidemiologic studies on VRE.

  13. The house fly (Musca domestica) as a potential vector of metazoan parasites caught in a pig-pen in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Maike; Klimpel, Sven; Sievert, Kai

    2009-03-09

    In the present study a total of 224 specimens of the synanthropic house fly (Musca domestica) were caught in a pig-pen of an organic farmer in Dormagen (Germany). The flies were examined for their potential as a carrier of metazoan parasites. On the exoskeletons and in the intestines of the flies the eggs and/or larvae of four endoparasite nematode species of domestic pigs (Ascaris suum, Strongyloides ransomi, Metastrongylus sp., undetermined Strongylida) were isolated. Also one ectoparasite species, the hog louse (Haematopinus suis), was detected on the exoskeleton of one fly. The analysis of the pig faeces as potential source revealed many eggs and larvae of nematodes. A high number of A. suum eggs (62.0% of all found nematode eggs), many eggs of strongylid nematodes (21.0%), some eggs of S. ransomi and few eggs of Trichuris suis were detected. However Metastrongylus sp. could not be identified in the faeces. Further laboratory experiments verified the potential of the house fly as a transmitter of the pig parasites A. suum and T. suis. In the intestines of 59 flies (49.2%) from 120 experimentally used house flies, nematode eggs of both nematode species were detected. The present study clearly demonstrates the potential of the house fly as a vector of metazoan pig parasites.

  14. Comparison between light scattering and gravimetric samplers for PM10 mass concentration in poultry and pig houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambra-López, María; Winkel, Albert; Mosquera, Julio; Ogink, Nico W. M.; Aarnink, André J. A.

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare co-located real-time light scattering devices and equivalent gravimetric samplers in poultry and pig houses for PM10 mass concentration, and to develop animal-specific calibration factors for light scattering samplers. These results will contribute to evaluate the comparability of different sampling instruments for PM10 concentrations. Paired DustTrak light scattering device (DustTrak aerosol monitor, TSI, U.S.) and PM10 gravimetric cyclone sampler were used for measuring PM10 mass concentrations during 24 h periods (from noon to noon) inside animal houses. Sampling was conducted in 32 animal houses in the Netherlands, including broilers, broiler breeders, layers in floor and in aviary system, turkeys, piglets, growing-finishing pigs in traditional and low emission housing with dry and liquid feed, and sows in individual and group housing. A total of 119 pairs of 24 h measurements (55 for poultry and 64 for pigs) were recorded and analyzed using linear regression analysis. Deviations between samplers were calculated and discussed. In poultry, cyclone sampler and DustTrak data fitted well to a linear regression, with a regression coefficient equal to 0.41, an intercept of 0.16 mg m-3 and a correlation coefficient of 0.91 (excluding turkeys). Results in turkeys showed a regression coefficient equal to 1.1 (P = 0.49), an intercept of 0.06 mg m-3 (P poultry and pig housing systems compared with cyclone pre-separators. Absolute, relative, and random deviations increased with concentration. DustTrak light scattering devices should be self-calibrated to investigate PM10 mass concentrations accurately in animal houses. We recommend linear regression equations as animal-specific calibration factors for DustTraks instead of manufacturer calibration factors, especially in heavily dusty environments such as animal houses.

  15. 78 FR 55282 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Healthcare Facility Documents: Notice of Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... concluded a 10-month process through which HUD solicited public comment to update 115 healthcare facility... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Healthcare Facility Documents: Notice of... published in the Federal Register a notice that announced that FHA's healthcare facility documents...

  16. Effects of two different dietary fermentable carbohydrates on activity and heat production in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, M.M.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Schrama, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of two sources of dietary fiber (DF) on behavior and heat production (HP) in group-housed growing pigs were studied. Twenty clusters of 14 barrows (50 kg) were fed one of 10 diets. Diets differed mainly in type,and content of fermentable DF (fDF) and in content of digestible starch. Five

  17. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Bakker, G.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14

  18. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Bakker, G.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14

  19. Size reduction of ammonia scrubbers for pig and poultry houses: Use of conditional bypass vent at high air loading rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Wagenberg, van A.V.; Mosquera, J.

    2006-01-01

    In The Netherlands, both acid and biological air scrubbers are used for removal of ammonia from exhaust air at pig and poultry houses. Current regulations require that scrubbers are dimensioned for treating the maximum airflow rate that may occur, so on average these systems are overdimensioned and

  20. Effects of two different dietary fermentable carbohydrates on activity and heat production in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, M.M.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Schrama, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of two sources of dietary fiber (DF) on behavior and heat production (HP) in group-housed growing pigs were studied. Twenty clusters of 14 barrows (50 kg) were fed one of 10 diets. Diets differed mainly in type,and content of fermentable DF (fDF) and in content of digestible starch. Five

  1. Comparison Between Light Scattering and Gravimetric samplers for PM10 mass concentration in Poultry and pig houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambra-Lopez, M.; Winkel, A.; Mosquera Losada, J.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare co-located real-time light scattering devices and equivalent gravimetric samplers in poultry and pig houses for PM10 mass concentration, and to develop animal-specific calibration factors for light scattering samplers. These results will contribute to evalu

  2. Impact of feed restriction on health, digestion and faecal microbiota of growing pigs housed in good or poor hygiene conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floc'h, N; Knudsen, C; Gidenne, T; Montagne, L; Merlot, E; Zemb, O

    2014-10-01

    Feed restriction could be a relevant strategy to preserve gut health, reduce systemic inflammatory response and finally limit antibiotic use. This study assessed the effect of feed restriction on growing pigs submitted to a moderate inflammatory challenge induced by the degradation of the environmental hygiene that is known to alter growth rate. The experiment was run on 80 pigs selected at 7 weeks of age according to a 2×2 factorial design: two feeding levels, ad libitum (AL) and feed restricted (FR) at 60% of AL, and two conditions of environmental hygiene, clean and dirty. Pigs were housed individually throughout the experiment. From 61 to 68 days of age (day 0 to 7), pigs were housed in a post weaning unit and feed restriction was applied to half of the pigs from day 0 to day 29. At 68 days of age (day 7 of the experiment), pigs were transferred in a growing unit where half of FR and half of AL pigs were housed in a dirty environment (poor hygiene) and the other half in a clean environment (good hygiene) until day 42. Growth performance was recorded weekly. Blood and faeces samples were collected to measure indicators of inflammation, nutrient digestibility and microbiota composition. Faecal consistency was monitored daily to detect diarrhoeas. Feed restriction decreased daily weight gain (-35% to -50%, Phygiene conditions. Poor hygiene conditions decreased growth performance (-20%, Phygiene conditions (Phygiene modified the profile of the faecal microbiota. In this study, feed restriction did not reduce the systemic inflammatory response caused by poor hygiene conditions despite the limitation of the occurrence of digestive disorders. However, our study opens discussions regarding the impact of hygiene and feed restriction on gut microbial communities and digestive health.

  3. Hierarchical Linear Modeling to Explore the Influence of Satisfaction with Public Facilities on Housing Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Chang Lee

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to explore the influence of satisfaction with public facilities on both individual residential and overall (or regional) levels on housing prices. The empirical results indicate that the average housing prices between local cities and counties exhibit significant variance. At the macro level, the explanatory power of the variable ¡§convenience of life¡¨ on the average housing prices of all counties and cities reaches the 5% significance level...

  4. Artificial pigs in space: using artificial intelligence and artificial life techniques to design animal housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricklin, W R; de Bourcier, P; Zhou, J Z; Gonyou, H W

    1998-10-01

    Computer simulations have been used by us since the early 1970s to gain an understanding of the spacing and movement patterns of confined animals. The work has progressed from the early stages, in which we used randomly positioned points, to current investigations of animats (computer-simulated animals), which show low levels of learning via artificial neural networks. We have determined that 1) pens of equal floor area but of different shape result in different spatial and movement patterns for randomly positioned and moving animats; 2) when group size increases under constant density, freedom of movement approaches an asymptote at approximately six animats; 3) matching the number of animats with the number of corners results in optimal freedom of movement for small groups of animats; and 4) perimeter positioning occurs in groups of animats that maximize their distance to first- and second-nearest neighbors. Recently, we developed animats that move, compete for social dominance, and are motivated to obtain resources (food, resting sites, etc.). We are currently developing an animat that learns its behavior from the spatial and movement data collected on live pigs. The animat model is then used to pretest pen designs, followed by new pig spatial data fed into the animat model, resulting in a new pen design to be tested, and the steps are repeated. We believe that methodologies from artificial-life and artificial intelligence can contribute to the understanding of basic animal behavior principles, as well as to the solving of problems in production agriculture in areas such as animal housing design.

  5. Blood parameters in fattening pigs fed whole-ear corn silage and housed in group pens or in metabolic cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, F; Petrera, F; Dal Prà, A; Rapetti, L; Malagutti, L; Galassi, G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of whole-ear corn silage (WECS) in diets for advanced fattening heavy pigs (substitution for part of the dry corn and wheat bran) allocated or not in metabolic cages on the main blood parameters. The high-moisture shelled corn is largely used in pig feeding while WECS is less often used despite the fact that it increases the DM crop yield. Three experimental diets were fed to 27 barrows (Italian Large White × Italian Duroc), with an average BW of 98.2 (±5.6) kg at the start of the trial, and randomly allotted to 3 experimental groups including a control diet (CON) containing cereal meals (corn, barley, and wheat, 80.2% DM in total), soybean meal (9% DM), wheat bran (8% DM), minerals and supplements (2.8% DM), and 2 diets containing WECS (15 or 30% DM referred to as 15WECS and 30WECS, respectively) in partial or complete substitution for wheat bran and corn meal. The pigs were randomly housed in 9 pens with 3 animals per pen and 3 pens per dietary treatment. Six pigs per each of the 3 treatments were moved from the pens to individual metabolic cages for 3 consecutive periods (2 pigs per treatment per period). Each period lasted 14 d, and blood was collected at the start and at the end of the periods. Blood was drawn from the jugular vein before feed distribution in the morning, at 14 d intervals, and analyzed for hematological, metabolic, and serum protein profiles. The effect of the metabolic cage housing was included in the statistical model to compare the results obtained in the 2 different environments of restrained and group-housed barrows. The WECS affected the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The main diet effect on plasma metabolites was recorded for plasma NEFA, with higher values in WECS diets compared with the CON. The metabolic cage housing affected both hematological (red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit) and metabolic (protein and

  6. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) in Young Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D E; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (ppleuropneumoniae in pigs. Enrichment positively influences behavioural state, immunological response and clinical outcome in pigs.

  7. Measuring cutaneous thermal nociception in group-housed pigs using laser technique - effects of laser power output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S.; Ladevig, Jan; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    of the metatarsus were examined using 15 gilts kept in one group and tested in individual feeding stalls after feeding. Increasing the power output led to gradually decreasing latency to respond (P ... are available, especially methodology which is applicable for pigs kept in group-housing without disturbing the daily routines of the animals. To validate a laser-based method to measure thermal nociception in group-housed pigs, we performed two experiments observing the behavioural responses toward cutaneous...... nociceptive stimulation from a computer-controlled CO2-laser beam applied to either the caudal part of the metatarsus on the hind legs or the shoulder region of gilts. In Exp. 1, effects of laser power output (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 W) on nociceptive responses toward stimulation on the caudal aspects...

  8. Effects of two different dietary fermentable carbohydrates on activity and heat production in group-housed growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnen, M M J A; Verstegen, M W A; Heetkamp, M J W; Schrama, J W

    2003-05-01

    The effects of two sources of dietary fiber (DF) on behavior and heat production (HP) in group-housed growing pigs were studied. Twenty clusters of 14 barrows (50 kg) were fed one of 10 diets. Diets differed mainly in type and content of fermentable DF (fDF) and in content of digestible starch. Five diets contained solvent-extracted coconut meal (SECM) and five diets contained soybean hulls (SBH) as the main fDF source. On an as-fed basis, pigs received 3.5, 13.2, 23.0, 32.7, or 42.4 g x kg(-0.75) x d(-1) of SECM or SBH. A total of 280 crossbred growing pigs were used, divided into clusters of 14 pigs each. Pigs were group-housed and fed at 2.5 times the assumed maintenance energy requirements. All clusters were fed similar amounts of NE, ileal-digestible protein and amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Consequently, DMI differed among diets because NE content decreased with increasing DF content. After a 32-d preliminary period, HP was measured per cluster during a 7-d experimental period in environmentally controlled respiration chambers. Behavior of the pigs was recorded using time-lapse video recordings during two different days within the experimental period. Intake of digestible starch and fDF was different (P average, pigs spent 153 min standing, 42 min sitting, 202 min lying on their chest, and 1,043 min lying on their flanks each day. Pigs fed SECM diets spent, on average, less time (P time spent on physical activity (i.e., standing plus sitting, 195 min/d) was not affected by diet. Total HP and resting HP were affected by diet and were on average lower (P averaged 65 kJ x kg(-0.75) x d(-1) and was not affected by diet. There was a linear relationship (P < 0.001) between fDF intake and HP, but there was no relationship between fDF intake and AHP. During different parts of the day, fDF intake also affected HP. The saving effect of physical activity on the NE values of fDF from SECM and SBH were 0.56 and 0.84 kJ/g of fDF intake, respectively. Neither of

  9. URBANIZATION, HOUSING AND INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES IN LAGOS, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FADAIRO Gabriel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide range of demand on Lagos as an urban centre and pragmatic approaches to complement the urbanization process and its attendant problems need urgent attention. The dynamism of Lagos as an urban centre cannot be stopped, but precautionary measures can be taken to nip the bud in the anticipated fallouts of this trend. The paper examines the urbanization, housing and the dearth of infrastructure in Lagos. Although the city of Lagos has over the years sprawled and has become a mega city, with the symptoms of urbanization being inadequately supplied. The paper further examines the provision of infrastructure in Lagos in the last decade. The government had commenced a total rebirth of the entire gamut of decay and social disintegration through the provisions of basic infrastructure. Projects executed by the state government with respect to urbanization, housing and infrastructure were examined. And recommendations on how to further meet future challenges in Lagos with regard to urbanization were proffered

  10. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM EXTRACTION (PUREX) FACILITY ALARACT DEMONSTRATION FOR FILTER HOUSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEBARON GJ

    2008-11-25

    This document presents an As Low As Reasonably Achievable Control Technology (ALARACT) demonstration for evaluating corrosion on the I-beam supporting filter housing No.9 for the 291-A-l emission unit of the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility, located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The PUREX facility is currently in surveillance and maintenance mode. During a State of Washington, Department of Health (WDOH) 291-A-l emission unit inspection, a small amount of corrosion was observed at the base of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter housing. A series of internal and external inspections identified the source of the corrosion material as oxidation of a small section of one of the carbon steel I-beams that provides support to the stainless steel filter housing. The inspections confirmed the corrosion is isolated to one I-beam support location and does not represent any compromise of the structural support or filter housing integrity. Further testing and inspections of the support beam corrosion and its cause were conducted but did not determine the cause. No definitive evidence was found to support any degradation of the housing. Although no degradation of the housing was found, a conservative approach will be implemented. The following actions will be taken: (1) The current operating filter housing No.9 will be removed from service. (2) The only remaining available filter housings (No.1, No.2, and No.3) will be placed in service. These filter housings have new HEPA filters fitted with stainless steel frames and faceguards which were installed in the spring of 2007. (3) Filter housings No.5 and No.10 will be put on standby as backups. To document the assessment of the unit, a draft ALARACT filter housing demonstration for the PUREX filter housing was prepared, and informally provided to WDOH on August 7, 2008. A follow up WDOH response to the draft ALARACT filter housing demonstration for the PUREX filter housing questioned whether

  11. 77 FR 38077 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement on a Proposed Boat-House Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ...-House Facility for Non-Motorized Boats, George Washington Memorial Parkway AGENCY: National Park Service... Impact Statement (EIS) to assess the impacts of constructing a boathouse facility and floating docks...

  12. Influence of housing conditions, number of farrowing and number of pigs in litter on weight loss in sows during lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladojević Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of housing conditions, number of farrowing and number of pigs in litter on weight loss in sows during lactation. The experiment included 60 sows, half breed developed by cross breeding of Big Yorkshire and Swedish Landrace in lactation. Body weight of the sows (kg was determined 2nd, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day after farrowing. On the basis of the obtained values, there was calculated the difference in body weight between two consecutive investigation periods. The sows were divided into two groups and held in different housing conditions: 30 of them were held in extensive, and other 30 sows in intensive way of farming. In regard to number of farrowing, the sows were divided into three groups: sows with one or two farrowing (group P1, n=20, with three or four farrowing (group P2, n=20, and sows that farrowed five or more times (P3,n=20. In regard to number of pigs in litter, the sows were divided into two groups: the first (Group I, n=30 with sows that had up to eight pigs, and the second (Group II, n=30 with sows that had nine or more pigs in litter. The obtained results showed that in all perids of the investigation during lactation, body weight in sows held in extensive farming conditions was statistically significantly higher compared to those from intensive farming conditions. On the other hand, the loss of body weight during lactation was significantly higher in sows from extensive in regard to intensive farming conditions in the first two weeks of lactation. The sows with bigger number of farrowing had greater body weight, compared to those with smaller number of farrowing. There was no statistically significant difference in body weight loss during lactation, between sows with different number of farrowing, but considering that the sows with less farrowings had significantly lower body weight, they consequently lost more weight in percentage. The sows with greater number of pigs

  13. Measuring the drinking behaviour of individual pigs housed in group using radio frequency identification (RFID)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the drinking behaviour of pigs may indicate health, welfare or productivity problems. Automated monitoring and analysis of drinking behaviour could allow problems to be detected, thus improving farm productivity. A high frequency radio frequency identification (HF RFID) system was designed to register the drinking behaviour of individual pigs. HF RFID antennas were placed around four nipple drinkers and connected to a reader via a multiplexer. A total of 55 growing-finishing pigs w...

  14. Effect of the dietary net energy concentration on feed intake and performance of growing-finishing pigs housed individually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiniou, N; Noblet, J

    2012-12-01

    The effect of dietary NE content on feed intake and performance of pigs was investigated using crossbred barrows with initial and final BW of approximately 35 and 110 kg, respectively. Pigs were housed individually and allowed ad libitum access to feed. Pigs were randomly allotted to 6 wheat and soybean meal-based diets (8.1, 8.7, 9.3, 9.9, 10.5, and 11.1 MJ NE/kg) with 16 pigs/diet. Ratios between standardized ileal digestible AA and NE were similar in all diets. Over the entire experiment, increase in dietary NE concentration was associated with a decreased ADFI (3.216, 3.216, 3.122, 2.910, 2.732, and 2.684 kg/d, respectively, for diets containing 8.1 to 11.1 MJ NE/kg; linear, P dietary NE increased from 8.1 to 11.1 MJ NE/kg (26.04, 27.98, 29.03, 28.81, 28.68, and 29.77 MJ/d, respectively; linear, P dietary NE concentration increased (1.046, 1.126, 1.135, 1.177, 1.156, and 1.152 kg/d, respectively, for diets containing 8.1 to 11.1 MJ NE/kg; linear and quadratic, P dietary NE concentration was associated with an increase in dressing percentage (76.5, 77.0, 77.4, 78.0, 78.2, and 78.4% of BW; linear, P dietary NE concentration increased from 8.1 to 11.1 MJ/kg, the G:F increased (0.326, 0.352, 0.364, 0.405, 0.425, and 0.428 kg/kg, respectively; linear, P dietary energy concentration. These results confirm the ability of individually housed pigs to adjust their spontaneous feed intake over a very wide range of NE concentrations (8.7 to 10.5 MJ/kg). Under commercial conditions, pigs may experience less variation in ADFI than the results obtained in this experiment because of differences in dietary energy concentrations. However, it seems that only a severe reduction in dietary energy concentration will be effective in restricting energy intake of pigs that are allowed ad libitum access to feed.

  15. Exposure levels of farmers and veterinarians to particulate matter and gases uring operational tasks in pig-fattening houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele Van Ransbeeck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to assess particulate matter (PM exposure levels for both the farmer and the veterinarian during different operational tasks in pig-fattening houses, and to estimate their exposure levels on a daily working basis (time-weighted average (TWA. The measured PM fractions were: inhalable and respirable PM, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1. The effects of pig age, pen floor type (conventional or low emission surface and cleaning of the pens on the personal PM exposure were also investigated. Indoor concentrations of NH[sub]3[/sub], CH[sub]4[/sub], and CO[sub]2[/sub] were additionally measured during some operational tasks. The results showed that personal exposure levels can become extremely high during some operational tasks performed by the farmer or veterinarian. The highest concentration levels were observed during feed shovelling and blood sampling, the lowest during the weighing of the pigs. For the farmer, the estimated TWA exposure levels of inhalable and respirable PM were 6.0 and 0.29 mg m[sup] -3[/sup] , respectively. These exposure levels for the veterinarian were, respectively, 10.6 and 0.74 mg m[sup] -3[/sup] . The PM concentration levels were mainly determined by the performed operational tasks. There was no significant effect of pig age, pen floor type, nor cleaning of the pens on the personal exposure levels.

  16. Exposure levels of farmers and veterinarians to particulate matter and gases during operational tasks in pig-fattening houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ransbeeck, Nele; Van Langenhove, Herman; Michiels, Annelies; Sonck, Bart; Demeyer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess particulate matter (PM) exposure levels for both the farmer and the veterinarian during different operational tasks in pig-fattening houses, and to estimate their exposure levels on a daily working basis (time-weighted average (TWA)). The measured PM fractions were: inhalable and respirable PM, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1. The effects of pig age, pen floor type (conventional or low emission surface) and cleaning of the pens on the personal PM exposure were also investigated. Indoor concentrations of NH3, CH4, and CO2 were additionally measured during some operational tasks. The results showed that personal exposure levels can become extremely high during some operational tasks performed by the farmer or veterinarian. The highest concentration levels were observed during feed shovelling and blood sampling, the lowest during the weighing of the pigs. For the farmer, the estimated TWA exposure levels of inhalable and respirable PM were 6.0 and 0.29 mg m(-3), respectively. These exposure levels for the veterinarian were, respectively, 10.6 and 0.74 mg m(-3). The PM concentration levels were mainly determined by the performed operational tasks. There was no significant effect of pig age, pen floor type, nor cleaning of the pens on the personal exposure levels.

  17. Across-sectional study of prescribing patterns in chronic psychiatric patients living in sheltered housing facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schorr, S.G.; Loonen, A.J.M.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; Taxis, K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze prescribing patterns of chronic psychiatric patients living in sheltered housing facilities, to identify the extent of polypharmacy and to estimate associated risks in this patient group. Methods: In a retrospective cross-sectional study the prescription data of 323 chronic psy

  18. Site Characterization Report ORGDP Diffusion Facilities Permanent Shutdown K-700 Power House and K-27 Switch Yard/Switch House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas R.J., Blanchard R.D.

    1988-06-13

    The K-700 Power House area, initially built to supply power to the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant was shutdown and disassembled in the 1960s. This shutdown was initiated by TVA supplying economical power to the diffusion plant complex. As a result of world wide over production of enriched, reactor grade U{sup 235}, the K-27 switch yard and switch house area was placed in standby in 1985. Subsequently, as the future production requirements decreased, the cost of production increased and the separation technologies for other processes improved, the facility was permanently shutdown in December, 1987. This Site Characterization Report is a part of the FY-88 engineering Feasibility Study for placing ORGDP Gaseous Diffusion Process facilities in 'Permanent Shutdown'. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy through Virgil Lowery of Headquarters--Enrichment and through Don Cox of ORO--Enrichment Operations. The primary purpose of these building or site characterization reports is to document, quantify, and map the following potential problems: Asbestos; PCB containing fluids; Oils, coolants, and chemicals; and External contamination. With the documented quantification of the concerns (problems) the Engineering Feasibility Study will then proceed with examining the potential solutions. For this study, permanent shutdown is defined as the securing and/or conditioning of each facility to provide 20 years of safe service with minimal expenditures and, where feasible, also serving DOE's needs for long-term warehousing or other such low-risk use. The K-700 power house series of buildings were either masonry construction or a mix of masonry and wood. The power generating equipment was removed and sold as salvage in the mid 1960s but the buildings and auxiliary equipment were left intact. The nine ancillary buildings in the power house area use early in the Manhattan Project for special research projects, were left intact minus the original special equipment

  19. Effect of gender, housing density and the interaction on growth performance and carcass and meat quality of pigs slaughtered at 110 kg body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Serrano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 228 crossbred pigs were used to investigate the effect of gender (gilts and barrows, density at housing (0.84 and 0.76 m2/pig and the interaction on growth performance and carcass and merit from 19.4 to 110 kg body weight. Feed intake of gilts increased as the space allowance decreased but no effect was observed in barrows (p<0.05 for the interaction. However, no interaction was observed for average daily gain or feed-to-gain ratio. Barrows had 2.4% less (p<0.01 carcass lean percentage but 9% more (p<0.05 intramuscular fat content than gilts. The concentration of linoleic acid in the outer layer of backfat was higher (p<0.05 for gilts than for barrows when pigs were allocated at 0.84 m2/pig, but no differences were observed at 0.76 m2/pig. Also, barrows had 2.7% more (p<0.05 total saturated fatty acids (SFA in the outer layer of backfat and lower monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA (p<0.01 and linoleic acid (p<0.05 content in the inner layer than gilts. Housing density did not affect any of the carcass quality traits studied but an increase in space allowance decreased (p<0.05 MUFA content in both layers. Pigs allocated at 0.84 m2/pig tended (p<0.10 to have higher SFA content in the inner layer than pigs allocated at 0.76 m2/pig. We concluded that gilts and barrows respond differently to space allocation in respect to feed intake and unsaturation of backfat. Housing density did not affect growth performance of pigs slaughtered at 110 kg but MUFA content decreased with increases in space allowance.

  20. [Sudden death of outdoor housed pigs caused by Clostridium novyi. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandowsky, A; Bodenthin, A; Seyboldt, C; Frölich, K

    2013-01-01

    In an outdoor pig-breeding unit of the Tierpark Arche Warder e. V. (Germany), 16 pigs of different age and sex died in October 2011. Necropsy findings revealed tympany, liver emphysema, subcutaneous oedema, haemopericardium, haemothorax, and intense gas bubble infiltrations in muscles. The stomachs were filled. The initial anaerobic bacteriological investigations gave negative results. In further analyses of tissue samples, the flagellin gene of C. novyi types A and B was detected using PCR. Based on the anatomical-pathological and bacteriological findings as well as PCR testing, a C. novyi infection was assumed to be the cause of the pig mortality.

  1. Serological evidence for hepatitis e virus infection in laboratory monkeys and pigs in animal facilities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Li, Tian-Cheng; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Ito, Kaori; Kita, Masakazu; Miyashita, Nobumoto; Arikawa, Jiro; Yagami, Kenichi; Asano, Masahide; Tezuka, Hideo; Suzuki, Noboru; Kurosawa, Tsutomu; Shibahara, Toshiyuki; Furuya, Masato; Mohri, Shirou; Sato, Hiroshi; Ohsawa, Kazutaka; Ibuki, Kentaro; Takeda, Naokazu

    2008-07-01

    In laboratory animal facilities, monkeys and pigs are used for animal experiments, but the details of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in these animals are unknown. The risk of infection from laboratory animals to humans has become a concern; therefore, much attention should be paid to the handling of these animals during their care and use, including surgical procedures performed on infected animals. In this connection, serum samples collected from 916 monkeys and 77 pigs kept in 23 animal facilities belonging to the Japanese Association of Laboratory Animal Facilities of National University Corporations (JALAN) and the Japanese Association of Laboratory Animal Facilities of Public and Private Universities (JALAP) in Japan were examined for the purpose of detecting antibodies to HEV and HEV RNA by using ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. One hundred and seven serum samples of 916 (11.7%) monkeys were positive for anti-HEV IgG, and 7 and 17 serum samples of 916 (0.8% and 5.3%) monkeys were positive for anti-HEV IgM and IgA, respectively. Thirty-six samples from 62 (58.1%) farm pigs were positive for anti-HEV IgG, whereas all samples tested from miniature pigs were negative (0/15, 0%). Seven samples from 62 (9.1%) farm pigs and 7 samples from 916 (0.8%) monkeys were positive for IgM antibody, but these HEV-IgM antibody positive serum samples were HEV-RNA negative by RT-PCR. The IgM antibody positive rate (9.1%) of farm pigs was much higher than that of monkeys (0.8%). These results suggest the relative levels of risk of HEV infection from these animals to animal handlers and researchers who work with them in laboratory animal facilities.

  2. Methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions from pigs housed on litter and from stockpiling of spent litter

    KAUST Repository

    Phillips, F. A.

    2016-05-05

    Mitigation of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions is a target area for the Australian Government and the pork industry. The present study measured methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) from a deep-litter piggery and litter stockpile over two trials in southern New South Wales, to compare emissions from housing pigs on deep litter with those of pigs from conventional housing with uncovered anaerobic effluent-treatment ponds. Emissions were measured using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, in conjunction with a backward Lagrangian stochastic model. Manure excretion was determined by mass balance and emission factors (EFs) were developed to report emissions relative to volatile solids and nitrogen (N) input. Nitrous oxide emissions per animal unit (1 AU ≤ 500 kg liveweight) from deep-litter sheds were negligible in winter, and 8.4 g/AU.day in summer. Ammonia emissions were 39.1 in winter and 52.2 g/AU.day in summer, while CH4 emissions were 16.1 and 21.6 g/AU.day in winter and summer respectively. Emission factors averaged from summer and winter emissions showed a CH4 conversion factor of 3.6%, an NH3-N EF of 10% and a N2O-N EF of 0.01 kg N2O-N/kg N excreted. For the litter stockpile, the simple average of summer and winter showed an EF for NH3-N of 14%, and a N2O-N EF of 0.02 kg N2O-N/kg-N of spent litter added to the stockpile. We observed a 66% and 80% decrease in emissions from the manure excreted in litter-based housing with litter stockpiling or without litter stockpiling, compared with conventional housing with an uncovered anaerobic effluent-treatment pond. This provides a sound basis for mitigation strategies that utilise litter-based housing as an alternative to conventional housing with uncovered anaerobic effluent-treatment ponds. © CSIRO 2016.

  3. Role of house flies in the ecology of Enterococcus faecalis from wastewater treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doud, C W; Scott, H M; Zurek, L

    2014-02-01

    Enterococci are important nosocomial pathogens, with Enterococcus faecalis most commonly responsible for human infections. In this study, we used several measures to test the hypothesis that house flies, Musca domestica (L.), acquire and disseminate antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent E. faecalis from wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF) to the surrounding urban environment. House flies and sludge from four WWTF (1-4) as well as house flies from three urban sites close to WWTF-1 were collected and cultured for enterococci. Enterococci were identified, quantified, screened for antibiotic resistance and virulence traits, and assessed for clonality. Of the 11 antibiotics tested, E. faecalis was most commonly resistant to tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin, and these traits were intra-species horizontally transferrable by in vitro conjugation. Profiles of E. faecalis (prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and virulence traits) from each of WWTF sludge and associated house flies were similar, indicating that flies successfully acquired these bacteria from this substrate. The greatest number of E. faecalis with antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (i.e., gelatinase, cytolysin, enterococcus surface protein, and aggregation substance) originated from WWTF-1 that processed meat waste from a nearby commercial meat-processing plant, suggesting an agricultural rather than human clinical source of these isolates. E. faecalis from house flies collected from three sites 0.7-1.5 km away from WWTF-1 were also similar in their antibiotic resistance profiles; however, antibiotic resistance was significantly less frequent. Clonal diversity assessment using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the same clones of E. faecalis from sludge and house flies from WWTF-1 but not from the three urban sites close to WWTF-1. This study demonstrates that house flies acquire antibiotic-resistant enterococci from WWTF and potentially

  4. Effects of dirty housing and a Typhimurium DT104 challenge on pig growth performance, diet utilization efficiency, and gas emissions from stored manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M M; Seelenbinder, K M; Ponder, M A; Deng, L; Rhoads, R P; Pelzer, K D; Radcliffe, J S; Maxwell, C V; Ogejo, J A; White, R R; Hanigan, M D

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to elucidate the effects of a dirty environment and a challenge plus associated environmental contamination on pig growth performance, diet utilization efficiency, and gas emissions (CO, NH, CH, NO, and HS) from stored manure. Twenty-four weaned barrows, aged 31 d at initiation of the trial, were randomly allotted to 3 different treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments were: pigs housed in cages with manure removed and cages washed daily (Clean); pigs housed in cages sprayed daily with manure slurry mixtures (Dirty); or pigs challenged with Typhimurium DT104 and housed in cages that were not washed, but manure was removed daily ( challenge). Rectal temperature, body weight, daily feed intake, manure output, manure composition, and gas emissions from stored manure were measured throughout the 24-d animal phase. The Dirty and challenge treatments were statistically compared to the Clean treatment to evaluate individual effects. Dirty housing tended to decrease ADG from d 1 to 24 ( = 0.06) but there were no other effects on pig performance compared with the Clean treatment. In contrast, a challenge was associated with a marked reduction in each of the measured indicators of pig performance. challenge increased the carbon to nitrogen ratio, ether extract, and lignin concentrations in excreted manure ( = 0.02, 0.01, 0.003, respectively), and increased manure and head space temperatures in manure tanks ( challenge was associated with increased emissions of CO, and NO and decreased emissions of HS per kilogram manure VS compared to the Clean treatment ( = 0.06, 0.03, 0.04, respectively). Collectively, these results indicated that a challenge and associated housing contamination caused depressed growth rate and increased manure gas emissions, while exposure to a Dirty environment slightly reduced growth performance and clearly increased manure gas emissions per unit of BW gain as compared to Clean control.

  5. Measuring the drinking behaviour of individual pigs housed in group using radio frequency identification (RFID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselyne, J; Adriaens, I; Huybrechts, T; De Ketelaere, B; Millet, S; Vangeyte, J; Van Nuffel, A; Saeys, W

    2016-09-01

    Changes in the drinking behaviour of pigs may indicate health, welfare or productivity problems. Automated monitoring and analysis of drinking behaviour could allow problems to be detected, thus improving farm productivity. A high frequency radio frequency identification (HF RFID) system was designed to register the drinking behaviour of individual pigs. HF RFID antennas were placed around four nipple drinkers and connected to a reader via a multiplexer. A total of 55 growing-finishing pigs were fitted with radio frequency identification (RFID) ear tags, one in each ear. RFID-based drinking visits were created from the RFID registrations using a bout criterion and a minimum and maximum duration criterion. The HF RFID system was successfully validated by comparing RFID-based visits with visual observations and flow meter measurements based on visit overlap. Sensitivity was at least 92%, specificity 93%, precision 90% and accuracy 93%. RFID-based drinking duration had a high correlation with observed drinking duration (R 2=0.88) and water usage (R 2=0.71). The number of registrations after applying the visit criteria had an even higher correlation with the same two variables (R 2=0.90 and 0.75, respectively). There was also a correlation between number of RFID visits and number of observed visits (R 2=0.84). The system provides good quality information about the drinking behaviour of individual pigs. As health or other problems affect the pigs' drinking behaviour, analysis of the RFID data could allow problems to be detected and signalled to the farmer. This information can help to improve the productivity and economics of the farm as well as the health and welfare of the pigs.

  6. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in reduci

  7. Effects of housing and individual coping characteristics in immune responses of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, J.E.; Parmentier, H.K.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Schrama, J.W.; Wiegant, V.M.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of environmental factors on immune responses may be influenced by coping characteristics of the individuals under study. The behavioral response of pigs in a so-called Backrest early in life seems indicative of their coping style at a later age. The present study investigated the effects

  8. Ammonia emissions from pig houses in The Netherlands, Denmark and France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Rom, H.B.; Dourmad, J.Y.

    1999-01-01

    In recent decades pig production has been intensified in most European countries. This has resulted in a surplus of manure and a serious concern about the effect of ammonia emissions on environmental acidification and the pollution of ground and surface water. In the Netherlands, Denmark and France

  9. A meta-analysis of the combined effect of housing and environmental enrichment characteristics on the behaviour and performance of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Averos, X.; Brossard, L.; Dourmad, J.Y.; Greef, de K.H.; Edge, H.L.; Edwards, S.A.; Meunier-Salaün, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    To quantify the combined effect of housing conditions and environmental enrichment on the behaviour and performance of pigs, a meta-analysis was performed using information from 45 experiments in 42 published manuscripts. Multiple regression models were applied to evaluate the effects of space allow

  10. Conventional Gymnasium vs. Geodesic Field House. A Comparative Study of High School Physical Education and Assembly Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    A description is presented of the design features of a high school's geodesic dome field house. Following consideration of various design features and criteria for the physical education facility, a comprehensive analysis is given of comparative costs of a geodesic dome field house and conventional gymnasium. On the basis of the study it would…

  11. THE EFFECT OF HOUSING SYSTEM ON THE INCIDENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITE INFESTATION IN PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna BARTOSIK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the intestinal parasite fauna occurring in pigs kept in different rearing conditions (group A – extremely extensive, B – extensive and C – intensive. In the period between March and July 2010, 345 samples of faeces from piglets (125, weaners (60, fatteners (94 and sows (66 were collected and tested, using standard coproscopic methods. Six parasitic species, belonging to phylum Nematoda (Strongyloides ransomi, Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum dentatum, Trichuris suum and to phylum Apicomplexa (Isospora suis and Eimeria debliecki were diagnosed. Eggs of Toxascaris leonina, a parasitic roundworm mostly affecting the members of the Canidae and Felidae families, not encountered in pigs until now, were found in the faeces of fatteners. The highest level of parasite invasion was recorded in pigs from group A and B; they were multi-species invasions. Parasitic species found in faeces not only bring economic losses, but they may also be dangerous for human health and life, which indicates the necessity to implement parasitological screening protocols, especially in the extensive rearing conditions.

  12. Classification of basic facilities for high-rise residential: A survey from 100 housing scheme in Kajang area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, Adi Irfan Che; Sairi, Ahmad; Tawil, Norngainy Mohd; Wahab, Siti Rashidah Hanum Abd; Razak, Muhd Zulhanif Abd

    2016-08-01

    High demand for housing and limited land in town area has increasing the provision of high-rise residential scheme. This type of housing has different owners but share the same land lot and common facilities. Thus, maintenance works of the buildings and common facilities must be well organized. The purpose of this paper is to identify and classify basic facilities for high-rise residential building hoping to improve the management of the scheme. The method adopted is a survey on 100 high-rise residential schemes that ranged from affordable housing to high cost housing by using a snowball sampling. The scope of this research is within Kajang area, which is rapidly developed with high-rise housing. The objective of the survey is to list out all facilities in every sample of the schemes. The result confirmed that pre-determined 11 classifications hold true and can provide the realistic classification for high-rise residential scheme. This paper proposed for redefinition of facilities provided to create a better management system and give a clear definition on the type of high-rise residential based on its facilities.

  13. Algorithms determining ammonia emission from buildings housing cattle and pigs and from manure stores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, S.G.; Zhang, G.Q.; Bannink, A.; Chadwick, D.; Misselbrook, T.; Harrison, R.; Hutchings, N.J.; Menzi, H.; Monteny, G.J.; Oenema, O.; Webb, J.

    2006-01-01

    Livestock excreta and manure stored in housing, in manure stores, in beef feedlots, or cattle hardstandings are the most important sources of ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere. There is a need to quantify the emission, to assess the effect of emission on NH3 and ammonium (NH4+) deposition to ecosystem

  14. Comparing environmental impact of air scrubbers for ammonia abatement at pig houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Jerke W.; Melse, Roland W.

    2017-01-01

    Intensive livestock production involves environmental emissions and impacts, including emission of greenhouse gases and ammonia leading to climate change and terrestrial acidification. Ammonia emission from animal housing systems can be reduced by introducing air scrubbers for cleaning the exhaus

  15. Housing and population sprawl near tailings storage facilities in the Witwatersrand: 1952 to current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A. Kneen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mining, tailings storage facilities (TSFs, dust pollution and growth in residential housing development are synonymous with the Witwatersrand, South Africa. Encroachment of housing onto land close to TSFs, i.e. areas rendered marginal because of the dust hazard and risk of structural failure, has continued unabated for decades, intensifying human exposure to windblown mineral dust. Recent research indicates that the finer milling used for modern gold extraction results in aeolian dust emanating from the TSFs which contributes to a higher proportion of inhalable particles in the source material. Air quality dispersion modelling, validated by ambient aerosol monitoring campaigns, indicates that episodic dust events generate particulate matter (PM10 and, specifically, quartz dust concentrations that are unhealthy at distances of up to 2 km downwind from TSFs. This contribution documented residential development from 1952 to 2011 (using historical aerial photographs, census data from 2001 and 2011 and ancillary information to determine the population exposed to dust emanations from the TSFs. Using the images, land use was classified into residential areas, TSF footprints and open areas, onto which a series of 500 m buffer zone contours were superimposed. The resulting statistics were used to assess the populations exposed to dust hazard within the defined buffer zones. Overall, housing development has experienced a growth of approximately 700% since 1952 at a rate of 14% per year. Analysis of recent monitoring campaign data has confirmed multiple occurrences of quartzrich inhalable dust in residential settings at levels that exceed occupational health standards, extrapolated to values for population exposure.

  16. Dietary manipulation to reduce aerial ammonia concentrations in nursery pig facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colina, J J; Lewis, A J; Miller, P S; Fischer, R L

    2001-12-01

    Two 4-wk trials (preliminary study) and three 5-wk trials (major study) were conducted to determine the effects of adding Yucca schidigera extract or anhydrous calcium chloride to nursery diets on the growth performance of nursery pigs and aerial ammonia concentration. The pigs were weaned between 13 and 15 d of age and had an initial BW of 3 to 6 kg. In each trial, pigs were allotted to three identical pig nursery rooms that were environmentally regulated. There were three diets (one diet per room): 1) control, containing 23% CP; 2) control plus 125 ppm of Yucca schidigera extract; and 3) control plus 1.95% anhydrous calcium chloride. Growth performance was recorded weekly. Aerial ammonia concentration was measured daily using aspiration detector tubes and during the last week of each trial using diffusion tubes. Manure samples were collected twice a week during the experimental period to determine ammonia and N concentrations and pH. Plasma urea concentration was determined in blood samples collected from the pigs at the end of each trial. Data were analyzed using split-plot and Latin square designs for the preliminary and major studies, respectively. Feed intake was similar among pigs fed all three diets. There were no differences in ADG and ADG/ADFI (G/F) between pigs fed the control diet and pigs fed the yucca extract diet (P > or = 0.41). In all trials, pigs fed the calcium chloride diet had lower ADG and G/F than pigs fed the other two diets (P yucca extract diet (P = 0.08) and the calcium chloride diet (P = 0.11). In the major study, aerial ammonia increased weekly (diet x week; P or = 0.10), manure ammonia and N concentrations (P > or = 0.50), and manure pH (P > or = 0.78). Although aerial ammonia concentrations were relatively low, the addition of Yucca schidigera extract or calcium chloride to the diet of nursery pigs reduced ammonia concentrations in the nursery rooms.

  17. 77 FR 21580 - Changes in Certain Multifamily Housing and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Premiums for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Premiums for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing... of the mortgage insurance premiums (MIPs) for certain Federal Housing Administration (FHA... return to the market by ensuring FHA is not under-pricing its risk. In addition to announcing MIPs for FY...

  18. Classification of High-Rise Residential Building Facilities: A Descriptive Survey on 170 Housing Scheme in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Wahab Siti Rashidah Hanum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-rise residential building is a type of housing that has multi-dwelling units built on the same land. This type of housing has become popular each year in urban area due to the increasing cost of land. There are several common facilities provided in high-rise residential building. For example playground, swimming pool, gymnasium, 24 hours security system such as CCTV, access card and so on. Thus, maintenance works of the common facilities must be well organised. The purpose of this paper is to identify the classification of facilities provided at high rise residential building. The survey was done on 170 high-rise residential schemes by using stratified random sampling technique. The scope of this research is within Klang Valley area. This area is rapidly developed with high-rise residential building. The objective of this survey is to list down all the facilities provided in each sample of the schemes. The result, there are nine classification of facilities provided for high-rise residential building.

  19. Air exchanges and indoor carbon dioxide concentration in Australian pig buildings: Effect of housing and management factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banhazi, T. M.; Stott, P.; Rutley, D.

    2011-01-01

    factors on the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and air exchange rates in 160 representative Australian pig buildings. CO(2) concentrations were measured, air changes per hour (ACH) were estimated using a CO(2) balance method, and structural and management parameters were recorded. The mean CO(2......(2) concentration. Air exchange rates were primarily affected by the type of ventilation, inlet height, stocking density, and building width and height. In conclusion, the equable Australian climate has allowed the construction of cheaper pig buildings, which provide an adequate environment for pig...

  20. Gaseous emissions, growth performance and pork quality of pigs housed in deep-litter system compared to concrete-floor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanshe; Hu, Jinjie; Zhang, Bin; Tan, Zhiliang

    2015-04-01

    This study measured gaseous emissions, growth performance and pork quality in a deep-litter system and concrete-floor system. Three hundred and twenty weaned piglets with an average body weight (BW) of 6.0 ± 0.3 kg were assigned randomly into three treatments. Treatments 1 and 2 included four pens with 20 pigs for each pen respectively in the deep-litter system, and the ratio of sawdust to chaff was 5:5 and 3:7 for treatments 1 and 2 respectively, the probiotics inoculated into the fermentation bedding for both treatments were composed of Saccharomycetes, Bacillus subtilis and Actinomycetes; treatment 3 was the conventional concrete-floor system including eight pens with 20 pigs for each pen. The concentration of NH3 and CO2 in the deep-litter system was significantly (P litter system was significantly (P litter system were significantly (P litter system had some animal welfare improvements and an odor nuisance reduction; in the meantime, pork quality also improved from the deep-litter system compared to the pigs housed in the concrete-floor system.

  1. Problem of relocation of citizens from unfit housing facilities exemplified by the regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unacheva Lyana Ruslanovna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of relocation of citizens from unfit and slum dwellings are considered. Residential property market analysis illustrating a house construction attenuation was performed. The problems of provision of quality and equivalent housing are touched, and the reasons for inaccessibility thereof are illustrated. Measures taken for control of quality of the provided houses are considered. Attention is drawn to development problems of the North Caucasus as an example of one of the problematic regions. For the system solution of the erected housing quality issue it is planned to introduce this year the obligation for a self-regulatory organization to have a permit for design and construction of low-rise buildings. It is necessary to focus on the quality of housing, on elimination of corruption, improvement of work of the body for the housing stock price formation, and the local self-governing authorities. The carried-out measures with due attention of regions’ authorities will enable to keep priority rates of the unfit dwelling liquidation and fulfil the general tasks set by the President and the RF Government.

  2. High prevalence of malaria in Zambezia, Mozambique: the protective effect of IRS versus increased risks due to pig-keeping and house construction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A Temu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: African countries are scaling up malaria interventions, especially insecticide treated nets (ITN and indoor residual spraying (IRS, for which ambitious coverage targets have been set. In spite of these efforts infection prevalence remains high in many parts of the continent. This study investigated risk factors for malaria infection in children using three malaria indicator surveys from Zambezia province, Mozambique. The impact of IRS and ITNs, the effects of keeping farm animals and of the construction material of roofs of houses and other potential risk factors associated with malaria infection in children were assessed. METHODS: Cross-sectional community-based surveys were conducted in October of 2006, 2007 and 2008. A total of 8338 children (ages 1-15 years from 2748 households were included in the study. All children were screened for malaria by rapid diagnostic tests. Caregiver interviews were used to assess household demographic and wealth characteristics and ITN and IRS coverage. Associations between malaria infection, vector control interventions and potential risk factors were assessed. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of malaria infection was 47.8% (95%CI: 38.7%-57.1% in children 1-15 years of age, less than a quarter of children (23.1%, 95%CI: 19.1%-27.6% were sleeping under ITN and almost two thirds were living in IRS treated houses (coverage 65.4%, 95%CI: 51.5%-77.0%. Protective factors that were independently associated with malaria infection were: sleeping in an IRS house without sleeping under ITN (Odds Ratio (OR= 0.6; 95%CI: 0.4-0.9; additional protection due to sleeping under ITN in an IRS treated house (OR = 0.5; 95%CI: 0.3-0.7 versus sleeping in an unsprayed house without a ITN; and parental education (primary/secondary: OR = 0.6; 95%CI: 0.5-0.7 versus parents with no education. Increased risk of infection was associated with: current fever (OR = 1.2; 95%CI: 1.0-1.5 versus no fever; pig keeping (OR

  3. Effect of housing system, slaughter weight and slaughter strategy on carcass and meat quality, sex organ development and androstenone and skatole levels in Duroc finished entire male pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fàbrega, E; Gispert, M; Tibau, J; Hortós, M; Oliver, M A; Furnols, M Font I

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of housing system (HS), slaughter weight (SW) and strategy (SS) on carcass a nd meat quality, sexual organ development and boar taint in entire males. Twelve pens of 10 pigs were used (two trials). Half of male pens were allowed visual contact with females (MF) and half with males (MM). Half MM or MF were slaughtered at 105 or 130 kg in trial 1, or penwise or by split marketing in trial 2 at 120 kg. Housing system showed no significant effect on carcass or meat quality. MF presented significantly longer testicles and heavier bulbourethral glands compared to MM. The distribution of androstenone and skatole levels was affected by SW but not by HS or SS, samples with androstenone >1 μg/g of the different groups falling within the range of 16 to 22%. All correlations between androstenone and sex organs were significant. Housing system and slaughter strategy did not reduce the risk of boar tainted carcasses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Resistance to Conventional and New Insecticides in House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) From Poultry Facilities in Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Naeem; Ali Shad, Sarfraz; Ismail, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., are pests of poultry facilities and have the ability to develop resistance against different insecticides. This study was conducted to assess the resistance status of house flies to pyrethroid, organophosphate, and novel chemistry insecticides from poultry facilities in Punjab, Pakistan. Five adult house fly populations were studied for their resistance status to selected conventional and novel chemistry insecticides. For four pyrethroids, the range of resistance ratios was 14-55-fold for cypermethrin, 11-45-fold for bifenthrin, 0.84-4.06-fold for deltamethrin, and 4.42-24-fold for lambda-cyhalothrin when compared with a susceptible population. Very low levels of resistance were found to deltamethrin compared with the other pyrethroids. For the three organophosphate insecticides, the range of resistance ratios was 1.70-16-fold for profenofos, 7.50-60-fold for chlorpyrifos, and 4.37-53-fold for triazophos. Very low levels of resistance were found to profenofos compared with the other insecticides. For five novel chemistry insecticides, the range of resistance ratios was 1.20-16.00-fold for fipronil, 3.73-7.16-fold for spinosad, 3.06-23-fold for indoxacarb, 0.96-5.88-fold for abamectin, and 0.56-3.07-fold for emamectin benzoate. Rotation of insecticides with different modes of action showing no or very low resistance may prevent insecticide resistance in house flies. Regular insecticide resistance monitoring and integrated management plans on poultry farms are required to prevent resistance development, field control failures, and environmental pollution. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. 基于物联网的保育猪舍环境监控系统%Environmental control system based on IOT for nursery pig house

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伟兴; 戴陈云; 黄鹏

    2012-01-01

    The microclimate environment in nursery pig house is important. In this thesis, an environmental control system based on internet of things (IOT) for nursery pig house was designed. In order to adjust the local microclimate environment in precise, wireless network of equipments like sensors and electronic hot plates were constructed. The network was based on ZigBee protocol. ARM embedded web server was used as control center. Management operation could extend from remote user into the nursery pig houses to realize the exchange of information between the environment and devices, as well as between the environment and remote user. B/S (Browser/Server) structure was used in the system, which could greatly simplify the client computer load and reduce system maintenance. The experimental results showed that the performance of the system was quite stable and the system satisfies the design requirements in real-time data acquisition wirelessly, environmental automatic control and environmental visualization control remotely. The monitoring system is suitable for precision environmental management for nursery pig house and has a good application prospect in automatic and intelligent livestock breeding industry.%保育猪舍内部小气候环境对确保仔猪的正常生长关系重大,该文基于物联网技术开发了保育舍环境可视化调控系统.采用Zigbee无线技术将舍内各保育床及周围设备组成无线网络系统,以ARM-LINUX嵌入式服务器为现场控制中心.系统依据分布于各保育床内的传感器获得的环境参数,精确调节各保育床内的小气候环境.通过WIFI无线技术将服务器与INTERNET无缝连接,使用户端延伸并扩展到猪舍及室内设备,实现环境与设备之间,环境与人之间进行信息交换.采用B/S(浏览器/服务器)模式,实现通过浏览器远程实时监控猪舍.试验结果表明,该系统性能稳定,信息无线采集、环境自动调控及远程可视化调控均达到

  6. Ergonomics analysis of the activity of boning shoulder in a pig slaughter-house in the city of Ipiranga-SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Lizandra Garcia Lupi; Pansera, Thaís Regina

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of workers suffering from occupational injuries has alerted health professionals and entrepreneurs. Enterprises are looking for improvements in production systems by investments in quality, technological innovations and in human resources that are capable and committed to the objectives and targets of the enterprise. This research was developed in a pig slaughter-house in the city of Ipiranga-SC, in the labor of boning shoulder of the pig, because this is the activity that presents more registers of complaints of pain and also probability of development of occupational diseases with cause in the enterprise.Tools of Ergonomics Analysis of Work were used, from interviews with workers to the application of LEST method in the activity analyzed. The necessity of immediate intervention in the work station was shown in the results, because of the high risk of prejudice to the health of the workers. Improvement actions must be done to satisfy the ergonomics requirements of NR 17 standard, attending the enterprise interests in the occupational diseases prevention.

  7. Changes in haptoglobin, C-reactive protein and pig-MAP during a housing period following long distance transport in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamano, Germana; Mellia, Elisabetta; Candiani, Denise; Ingravalle, Francesco; Bruno, Renato; Ru, Giuseppe; Doglione, Luca

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a housing period following long distance transport on haptoglobin (Hp), C-reactive protein (CRP) and pig major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) in swine. After transportation, 80 gilts were allotted to group A, B, C, or D. Blood samples were collected on arrival and 28 days later; additional samples were collected from Group C on day 14, and from Group D on days 3, 5 and 14. Acute phase proteins (APPs) in Group A were significantly lower on day 28 than on day 1; the opposite occurred in Group B because of a tail biting episode. In Group C, values remained elevated on day 14 and showed a reduction on day 28; in Group D elevated levels detected on day 14 were preceded by a decrease from days 1 to 5. The results indicate that stressors associated with transportation and new accommodation can cause an increase in APPs that could be useful indicators of welfare during transport and routine management.

  8. Influencing Factors of Ammonia Emissions from Pig Houses and Mitigation Techniques%影响猪场氨气排放的因素及控制措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新建; 吕刚; 任广志

    2012-01-01

    Pig houses are important sources for ammonia (NH3) emissions. For decades, investigations were carried out in determining the influencing factors and to point out opportunities of mitigation. The main factors influencing NH3 production are the floor type, the manure removal system, the climatic conditions inside the building, the diet composition and the feed efficiency of animals. Thus, the aims of this article are to describe the NH3 production process occurring in livestock manure and to specify the factors that impact on emissions from pig buildings, with focus on the effects of the housing and climate conditions, the animals, the diets and the manure removal strategies.%猪舍是环境中氨气排放的重要来源,多年来,许多研究者对影响氨气排放的因素以及减少其排放技术进行了研究.影响氨气排放的主要因素包括地板类型、粪污处理系统、猪舍环境条件、日粮组成以及饲喂技术等.论文主要综述了影响氨气排放的各种因子以及减少氨气排放的各种措施,为生产中减少氨气污染,提高猪的健康,节约资源等提供理论指导.

  9. 77 FR 26218 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Section 232 Healthcare Facility Insurance Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... reflect current policy and practices, and to improve accountability and strengthen risk management. DATES... important for improved risk management. The reserve account may be financed from mortgage proceeds, provided... operating the healthcare facility, and that the account must be with a financial institution whose deposits...

  10. Implications of food patch distribution on social foraging in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Liat Romme; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2010-01-01

    Feeding behaviour of social animals can be influenced by the spatial distribution of resources. In domestic housing facilities growing pigs will often be fed from feeding sites confined to a small area, i.e. effectively a clumping of food resources. In the present experiment we investigated how f...

  11. Performance of the "house doctor". Effect of physician-to-patient ratio on follow up in long-term care facilities.

    OpenAIRE

    Sloan, J P; Buchanan, B.

    1993-01-01

    Do physicians with many patients in a long-term care facility provide more timely follow up of their drug orders than those with only a few? We reviewed 60 charts at random in three intermediate care facilities. Physician practices fell into two distinct groups. Those with more than 17 patients followed up sooner than those with fewer than six. We recommend a "house doctor" model of care for patients whose follow up is poor.

  12. Validation of the Verbal and Social Interaction questionnaire: carers' focus in the carer-resident relationship in supported housing facilities for persons with psychiatric disabilities (VSI-SH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, D; Rask, M

    2013-04-01

    A questionnaire to measure the verbal and social interactions between carers and residents in supported housing facilities for persons with psychiatric disabilities has been developed. It is an adaptation of a questionnaire originally used in a forensic psychiatric setting. The aim of the present study was thus to investigate the construct validity and the reliability of this new version of the Verbal and Social Interactions questionnaire for use in supported housing facilities (VSI-SH). Two hundred and twenty-three carers from municipal and privately run housing facilities completed the questionnaire. A factor analysis was performed, which resulted in six factors. The number of items was reduced from the original 47 to 30 in order to minimize factorial complexity and multiple loadings. The reliability was tested with Cronbach's alpha and good internal consistency for the questionnaire and five of the six factors was found. The resulting six factors and the items were compared to the conceptual model and four of the six factors corresponded well with the categories in this original theoretical model. The questionnaire can be a useful contribution to the study of interactions between carers and residents in supported housing facilities for persons with psychiatric disabilities.

  13. Heat stress in growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy

    2005-01-01

    Compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are more sensitive to high environmental temperatures, because they cannot sweat and do not pant so well. Furthermore, fast-growing lean pigs generate more heat than their congeners living in the wild. This, in combination with confined housing, makes it difficult for these pigs to regulate their heat balance. Heat stressed pigs have low performance, poor welfare, and, by pen fouling, they give higher emissions of odour and ammonia.Above certain...

  14. Top-view recognition of individual group-housed pig based on Isomap and SVM%基于Isomap和支持向量机算法的俯视群养猪个体识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭依正; 朱伟兴; 马长华; 陈晨

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring behavior of pigs in a pen is possible both in group and at individual level. Data analysis at individual level, however, has more advantages. Identification of pigs is a necessary step towards analyzing the different behaviors of pigs individually. Some current computer vision systems that are used for video surveillance of group-housed pigs require that the pigs be marked. In this paper, using a top-view video sequence of group-housed pigs, a machine-vision technology method for recognizing individual pig is proposed. First, to recognize each individual pig, foreground detection and target extraction are conducted on a top-view video sequence of the group-housed pigs. Second, the training samples are established, and the color, texture and shape of the individual pig are extracted; through the combination of these features, a feature vector representing an individual pig is then built. Third, the combined features are fused using the Isomap algorithm, which reduces the feature dimension on the basis of the maximum retention of the effective recognition information. Finally, the features are trained and recognized using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier with an optimal kernel function. The videos used in the present study are collected from pig farms of the Danyang Rongxin Nongmu Development Company, which is the experimental base for the key discipline of Jiangsu University, i.e. agricultural electrification and automation. The pigs are monitored in a reconstructed experimental pigsty. The pigsty is 1 m high, 3.5 m long and 3 m wide. A camera is located above the pigsty with the height of 3 m over the ground. The camera is the FL3-U3-88S2C-C with an image resolution of 1760 × 1840 pixels from the Grey Point Company. The videos are captured from 8 AM to 5 PM. Over 5 days randomly chosen, we collect 6 sections of videos every day at random time, so there are a total of 30 videos randomly chosen in audio video interleaved (AVI) format. The frame

  15. Evaluation of an in-house TgSAG1 (P30) IgG ELISA for diagnosis of naturally acquired Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, L; Maksimov, P; Herrmann, D C; Bacigalupe, D; Rambeaud, M; Machuca, M; Moré, G; Basso, W; Schares, G; Venturini, M C

    2012-10-26

    Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan protozoan parasite which is able to infect a large variety of warm-blooded animals. Raw or undercooked pork has been regarded as an important source of infection for humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to diagnose natural T. gondii infection in swine using native affinity chromatography-purified T. gondii surface protein-1 (TgSAG1-ELISA) as antigen, comparing its performance to that of indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and immunoblotting (IB). To obtain a panel of sera showing the evolution of the antibody response in the time course 12 pigs were experimentally inoculated intravenously (iv) with tachyzoites of the T. gondii strains RH (clonal type I), ME49 (clonal type II) and NED (clonal type III) and serologically monitored for a period of 11 weeks. Both IFAT and ELISA showed a similar time course of antibody response to T. gondii; but by IFAT this response was characterized by rapidly rising titers with peaks at two weeks post inoculation (wpi), while the ELISA indices increased slowly and reached a maximum in most animals at five wpi. Three-hundred randomly selected sera from a total of 602 pigs of different ages derived from outdoor and indoor farms from Argentina were analyzed. Serum samples testing either positive or negative by both IFAT and IB were considered as "relative standards of comparison" (RSC). Sensitivity and specificity of TgSAG1-ELISA were obtained by a Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis and statistical agreement among serological tests was evaluated. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 160 of 300 sera (53.3%) by IB, in 133 of 300 (44.3%) by IFAT and in 123 of 300 sera (41%) by TgSAG1-ELISA. One hundred and eleven sera tested positive and 118 sera tested negative by both IFAT and IB (RSC); 103 of 111 positive RSC sera tested positive by TgSAG1-ELISA, and 116 of 118 negative RSC sera tested negative by TgSAG1-ELISA. Agreement

  16. Comparison of Indoor Air Quality between 2 Ventilation Strategies in a Facility Housing Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monts de Oca, Nicole A; Laughlin, Mitzi; Jenkins, John; Lockworth, Cynthia R; Bolton, Iris D; Brammer, David W

    2015-09-01

    Adequate indoor-air quality (IAQ)--defined by the temperature, relative humidity, and the levels of carbon dioxide, small particles, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)--is crucial in laboratory animal facilities. The ventilation standards for controlling these parameters are not well defined. This study assessed the effect of 2 ventilation strategies on IAQ in 2 rooms housing rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We hypothesized that using a demand-controlled ventilation (DCV) system with a baseline ventilation rate of less than 3 fresh-air changes per hour (ACH) would maintain IAQ comparable to or better than the traditional constant flow rate (CFR) system at 12 fresh ACH. During a 60-d study period, each of the 2 rooms operated 30 d on DCV and 30 d on CFR ventilation. In both rooms, temperatures remained more consistently within the established setpoint during the DCV phase than during the CFR phase. Relative humidity did not differ significantly between rooms or strategies. CO₂ was lower during the CFR phase than DCV phase. Small-particle and TVOC levels were lower during CFR in the larger (3060 ft(3)) room but not the smaller (2340 ft(3)) room. During the DCV phase, the larger room was at the baseline airflow rate over 99% of the time and the smaller room over 96% of the time. The DCV strategy resulted in a baseline airflow rate of less than 3 ACH, which in turn provided acceptable IAQ over 96% of the time; higher ventilation rates were warranted only during sanitation periods.

  17. Helminths of the guinea pig, Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Worm burdens were evaluated and compared in two groups of the guinea pig, Cavia poreellus (Linnaeus, 1758: animals of the first group were conventionally maintained in an institutional animal house and those of the second group were openly kept in pet shops in Brazil. Animals from both sources were infected only with the nematode Paraspidodera uncinata (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1914 (10% of prevalence in guinea pigs from lhe institutional facility and 40% in those animals from the pet shop. Other helminth samples recovered from Brazilian guinea pigs during 52 years and that are deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CHIOC were also analyzed. Paraspidodera uncinata and the cestode Monoecocestus parcitesticulatus Rêgo, 1960 were identified in these samples.

  18. Reactions of pigs to a hot environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    When compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are relatively sensitive to high environmental temperatures because the pig cannot sweat and is relatively poor at panting. Little information is available about the ambient temperatures above which group-housed pigs start to adapt their mechanism

  19. Heat stress in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,

    2005-01-01

    Compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are more sensitive to high environmental temperatures, because they cannot sweat and do not pant so well. Furthermore, fast-growing lean pigs generate more heat than their congeners living in the wild. This, in combination with confined housing, makes

  20. [Quality management in a clinical research facility: Evaluation of changes in quality in-house figures and the appraisal of in-house quality indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, Bile; Allekotte, Silke; Mösges, Ralph

    2016-12-01

    For long-term maintenance and improvement of quality within a clinical research institute, the implementation and certification of a quality management system is suitable. Due to the implemented quality management system according to the still valid DIN EN ISO 9001:2008 desired quality objectives are achieved effectively. The evaluation of quality scores and the appraisal of in-house quality indicators make an important contribution in this regard. In order to achieve this and draw quality assurance conclusions, quality indicators as sensible and sensitive as possible are developed. For this, own key objectives, the retrospective evaluation of quality scores, a prospective follow-up and also discussions establish the basis. In the in-house clinical research institute the measures introduced by the quality management led to higher efficiency in work processes, improved staff skills, higher customer satisfaction and overall to more successful outcomes in relation to the self-defined key objectives. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Design and Management of a Transgenic Facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bob Springsteen

    2001-01-01

    @@ In 1965, I was given the opportunity to manage a research animal colony. At that time, the animal colony consisted of numerous species, such as primates, dogs, cats, rab bits, guinea pigs, hamsters, rats, mice, and some farm animals as well. Over the years,this menagerie was reduced to mice and rab bits. The animal facility now houses 8 000mice, of which 80% are transgenics. In approximately six years, transgenic mice have become the mainstay of the Berkeley Lab animal facility, and this population continues to grow.

  2. The new asylums in the community: severely ill psychiatric patients living in psychiatric supported housing facilities. A Danish register-based study of prognostic factors, use of psychiatric services, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Pedersen, Marianne G; Pedersen, Carsten B;

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Reorganization of psychiatric treatment in Denmark involved a declining number of psychiatric long-stay beds and an increasing number of psychiatric supported housing facilities in the community. Very few studies have focused on the population in such facilities. METHODS: Informatio...

  3. The impact of hazardous industrial facilities on housing prices: A comparison of parametric and semiparametric hedonic price models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grislain-Letrémy, Céline; Katossky, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    on the housing values strongly differs among these three areas, even if the areas all surround chemical and petrochemical industries. We compare the results from both standard parametric and more flexible, semiparametric models of hedonic property. We show that the parametric model might structurally lead...

  4. 77 FR 16796 - Lead Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Activities in Target Housing and Child-Occupied Facilities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 745 Lead Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Activities in Target Housing and Child... requirements, training program accreditation requirements, and work practice standards for lead-based paint... the Arkansas lead-based paint program and passed a new statute establishing a State lead-based paint...

  5. Low temperature and dust favour in vitro survival of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae: time to revisit indirect transmission in pig housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, C; Loeffler, A; Holt, H R; Chang, Y M; Lloyd, D H; Nevel, A

    2017-01-01

    Porcine enzootic pneumonia (EP) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae adversely affects pig welfare and is associated with major economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. Transmission is predominantly by direct contact, but the role of indirect transmission remains poorly understood. This study examined survival of six M. hyopneumoniae isolates dried onto five different surfaces encountered in pig units and exposed to temperatures of 4, 25 and 37°C for up to 12 days. Survival of the organisms was determined by recovering the organism from the surface material and culturing in Friis broth. Data were analysed by logistic regression to identify factors influencing survival of M. hyopneumoniae. Maximum survival was 8 days for all isolates on at least one surface (except stainless steel) at 4°C and was limited to 2 days at 25 and 37°C. Overall, dust and polypropylene copolymer supported M. hyopneumoniae survival the longest when compared with other surface materials. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that M. hyopneumoniae can survive outside the host for at least 8 days. Understanding the transmission of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and optimizing biosecurity practices are keys to reducing the use of antimicrobial agents to control this pathogen. Direct transmission of the pathogen between pigs is the main route of spread and its lack of cell wall may compromise its resilience outside the host. The results from our study show that M. hyopneumoniae can survive for up to several days on dry surfaces and therefore may have the potential to infect pigs by indirect transmission. Factors influencing the survival of M. hyopneumoniae outside the host are further elucidated. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for specific pathogen free 6-week-old Hampshire-Yorkshire crossbred pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caitlin ACooper; Luis EMoraes; James DMurray; Sean DOwens

    2014-01-01

    Background:Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals depend on many factors, including age. A review of the literature highlights the lack of reference intervals for 6-wk-old specific pathogen free (SPF) Hampshire-Yorkshire crossbred pigs. For translational research, 6-wk-old pigs represent an important animal model for both human juvenile colitis and diabetes mellitus type 2 given the similarities between the porcine and human gastrointestinal maturation process. The aim of this study was to determine reference intervals for hematological and biochemical parameters in healthy 6-wk-old crossbred pigs. Blood samples were collected from 66 clinically healthy Hampshire-Yorkshire pigs. The pigs were 6 wks old, represented both sexes, and were housed in a SPF facility. Automated hematological and biochemical analysis were performed using an ADVIA 120 Hematology System and a Cobas 6000 C501 Clinical Chemistry Analyzer. Results:Reference intervals were calculated using both parametric and nonparametric methods. The mean, median, minimum, and maximum values were calculated. Conclusion:As pigs are used more frequently as medical models of human disease, having reference intervals for commonly measured hematological and biochemical parameters in 6-wk-old pigs will be useful. The reference intervals calculated in this study will aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of both naturally occurring and experimental y induced disease. In comparison to published reference intervals for older non SPF pigs, notable differences in leukocyte populations, and in levels of sodium, potassium, glucose, protein, and alkaline phosphatase were observed.

  7. Effects of marketing group on the variability of fresh loin, belly, and fresh and processed ham quality from pigs sourced from a commercial processing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to quantify the effect of marketing group (MG) on the variability of primal quality. Pigs (N=7,684) were slaughtered in 3 MGs from 8 barns. Pigs were from genetic selection programs focused on lean growth (L; group 1 n=1,131; group 2 n=1,466; group 3 n=1,030) or superior meat qua...

  8. Programming Pig

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  9. Examining mindfulness-based stress reduction: Perceptions from minority older adults residing in a low-income housing facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connolly Amy B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR programs are becoming increasingly common, but have not been studied in low income minority older populations. We sought to understand which parts of MBSR were most important to practicing MBSR members of this population, and to understand whether they apply their training to daily challenges. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 13 current members of an MBSR program. Participants were African American women over the age of 60 in a low-income housing residence. We tape recorded each session and subsequently used inductive content analysis to identify primary themes. Results and discussion Analysis of the focus group responses revealed three primary themes stress management, applying mindfulness, and the social support of the group meditation. The stressors they cited using MBSR with included growing older with physical pain, medical tests, financial strain, and having grandchildren with significant mental, physical, financial or legal hardships. We found that participants particularly used their MBSR training for coping with medical procedures, and managing both depression and anger. Conclusion A reflective stationary intervention delivered in-residence could be an ideal mechanism to decrease stress in low-income older adult's lives and improve their health.

  10. The ear skin temperature as an indicator of the thermal comfort of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Jørgensen, Erik; Dybkjær, Lise

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the ear skin temperature and the behaviour of pigs. Fifty-four pigs weighing 75 ± 5 kg were used in three replications (18 pigs per replication) and housed in pens (six pigs per pen) in a controlled climate facility. The room...... temperature was changed by 2 °C from 18 °C down to 10 °C and up again to 22 °C. The ear skin temperature (EST) was continuously recorded and the activity, lying posture, location and contact with pen mates were scored by 12 min scan sampling for 24 h at the set point temperatures 18 °C, 10 °C and 22 °C...... was the fully recumbent position. The room temperature affected the lying behaviour and the EST. With decreasing room temperature the pigs increased their contact to pen mates and fewer pigs were observed lying in the fully recumbent position. The EST decreased with decreasing room temperature, and the range...

  11. Effect of gestating sow body condition, feed refusals, and group housing on growth and feed intake in grower-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell-Kubiak, E; van der Waaij, E H; Bijma, P

    2013-08-01

    The main focus of this study was to identify sow gestation features that affect growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of their offspring during grower-finishing stage. Because the sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation, certain features (e.g., BW of the sow), feed refusals or gestation group, may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. Data on 17,743 grower-finishing pigs, coming from 604 sires and 681 crossbred sows, were obtained from the Institute for Pigs Genetics. Sow gestation features were collected during multiple gestations and divided into 3 clusters describing i) sow body condition (i.e., BW, backfat, and gestation length), ii) sow feed refusals (FR), the difference between offered and eaten feed during 3 periods of gestation: 1 to 28, 25 to 50, 45 to 80 d, and iii) sow group features (i.e., number of sows, and average parity). Sow gestation features were added to the base model 1 at a time to study their effect on GR and FI. Significant gestation features (P Gestation length had effect on GR [1.4 (g/d)/d; P = 0.04] and FI [6.8 (g/d)/d; P = 0.007]. Body weights of the sow at insemination [0.07 (g/d)/kg; P = 0.08], at farrowing [0.14 (g/d)/kg; P gestation and average FR during 45 to 80 d of gestation had negative effect on GR and when substantially increased had also a positive effect on FI. Sow FR from 1 to 28 d of gestation were not significant. Number of sows in gestation group had effect on FI [-9 (g/d)/group member; P = 0.04] and day sow entered group had an effect on GR [-0.9 (g/d)/day; P = 0.04]. Sow gestation features explained 1 to 3% of the total variance in grower-finishing pigs. Gestation features did explain phenotypic variance due to permanent sow and part of phenotypic variance due to common litter effects for FI but not for GR.

  12. Radiological protection issues during primary filter housing replacement in a high alpha, beta-gamma shielded facility at Dounreay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowat, D.; Watkin, T. [Radiation Protection Advisers, RWE NUKEM Ltd., Dounreay Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Dounreay, on the north coast of Scotland, was home to the United Kingdom Fast Breeder Reactor (F.B.R.) development programme. F.B.R. use excess, non-moderated ('fast') neutrons to convert (breed) uranium, in elements positioned at the outer edges of the reactor core, into plutonium which can then be used as fuel.Site construction began in 1955 and three reactors were built and operated; the Dounreay Materials Test Reactor (D.M.T.R.) 1958-1969, the Dounreay Fast Reactor (D.F.R.) 1959-1977 and the Prototype Fast Reactor (P.F.R.) 1974-1994. The D.F.R. was conventionally fuelled by highly enriched uranium whereas the P.F.R. used a ceramic form of plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) as its fuel. Dounreay was almost entirely self-sufficient in that a fuel cycle (chemical reprocessing) area was constructed complete with recovery plants, laboratories, waste storage and other support services buildings. Liquid plutonium nitrate product was sent to Sellafield, in Cumbria, to convert for future use, and the fuel elements were then fabricated at Springfields. Eventually, recovered P.F.R. plutonium was loaded back into the reactor, closing the fuel cycle. As a matter of interest for this paper, a Post Irradiation Examination (P.I.E.) facility, D2001, was built in the early 1960' s. The Plant was equipped with a suite of ten north and south side cells built to a high level of containment within which irradiated P.F.R. fuel could be remotely disassembled and examined. This work supported the continuing development of F.B.R. design and technology and the Plant has operated very successfully throughout its lifetime. A programme of improvement was implemented to enhance reliability, productivity and to modernize the facility to meet current nuclear and engineering standards. The experience of this work is detailed in this paper. (N.C.)

  13. Detection and Isolation of Swine Influenza A Virus in Spiked Oral Fluid and Samples from Individually Housed, Experimentally Infected Pigs: Potential Role of Porcine Oral Fluid in Active Influenza A Virus Surveillance in Swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Decorte

    Full Text Available The lack of seasonality of swine influenza A virus (swIAV in combination with the capacity of swine to harbor a large number of co-circulating IAV lineages, resulting in the risk for the emergence of influenza viruses with pandemic potential, stress the importance of swIAV surveillance. To date, active surveillance of swIAV worldwide is barely done because of the short detection period in nasal swab samples. Therefore, more sensitive diagnostic methods to monitor circulating virus strains are requisite.qRT-PCR and virus isolations were performed on oral fluid and nasal swabs collected from individually housed pigs that were infected sequentially with H1N1 and H3N2 swIAV strains. The same methods were also applied to oral fluid samples spiked with H1N1 to study the influence of conservation time and temperature on swIAV infectivity and detectability in porcine oral fluid.All swIAV infected animals were found qRT-PCR positive in both nasal swabs and oral fluid. However, swIAV could be detected for a longer period in oral fluid than in nasal swabs. Despite the high detectability of swIAV in oral fluid, virus isolation from oral fluid collected from infected pigs was rare. These results are supported by laboratory studies showing that the PCR detectability of swIAV remains unaltered during a 24 h incubation period in oral fluid, while swIAV infectivity drops dramatically immediately upon contact with oral fluid (3 log titer reduction and gets lost after 24 h conservation in oral fluid at ambient temperature.Our data indicate that porcine oral fluid has the potential to replace nasal swabs for molecular diagnostic purposes. The difficulty to isolate swIAV from oral fluid could pose a drawback for its use in active surveillance programs.

  14. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, van der J.

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples p

  15. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; Excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples

  16. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; Excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples p

  17. Transmission of different variants of PCV2 and viral dynamics in a research facility with pigs mingled from PMWS-affected herds and non-affected herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Kitt; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Kristensen, C.S.

    2009-01-01

    Post-weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS) has been identified in most swine-producing countries worldwide. The disease has resulted in significant health challenges and economic damage to the swine industry. The aim of this study was to determine horizontal transmission of porcine...... circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and to examine viral dynamics in pigs in a controlled PMWS transmission study. In the study pigs from PMWS-affected herds and non-affected herds were permitted to have close contact (same pen), nose-to-nose contact (to pigs in neighbouring pens) or no physical contact (pen across...

  18. Stress, endogenous opioids and stereotypies in tethered pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loijens, L.W.S.

    2002-01-01

    Tether housing of female pigs in narrow, individual boxes represents a chronic stressor for the animals. Pigs that are housed tethered often develop behavioural disturbances, such as stereotypies, and changes in physiological regulation. The results of the studies described in the present thesis con

  19. Hot house bad house

    OpenAIRE

    Azzopardi, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    Shaun Azzopardi met up with a team of researchers led by Eur. Ing. Charles Yousif to take the concrete block to the next level. It is more exciting than it sounds. Photography by Dr Edward Duca. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/hot-house-bad-house/

  20. Social rank influences the distribution of blood leukocyte subsets in female growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarvard, Bodil Margrethe; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl;

    2010-01-01

    reduced growth as compared to DOM pigs confirming their lower social status. Blood was sampled for immunological assessments immediately before grouping the pigs and again after the 5 weeks of social housing. White Blood Cell (WBC) counts, percentage of CD4 positive cells (CD4+), percentage of CD8......The effect of high (DOM) and low (SUB) social rank on blood immune variables was examined in female growing pigs. Pigs were mixed with unfamiliar pigs at 9 weeks of age and kept in stable groups of 4 pigs for 5 weeks. Social rank was determined using a feeding competition test. SUB pigs showed...... of social housing only. From the WBC counts it was found that the percentage of neutrophils was higher in SUB pigs and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was higher in DOM pigs. The percentage of CD4+ cells decreased with time in both DOM and SUB pigs, but only significantly in SUB pigs. The percentage...

  1. 新建住宅小区供电配套设施存在的问题及对策%Problems and Countermeasures Existing in Newly Built Residential Houses Distribution Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟新国

    2014-01-01

    分析了现阶段宁夏新建居民住宅小区供电配套设施现状,并指出了其存在的问题,给出了小区供电配套设施的建设范围和费用以及运维费用的测算原则。经典型小区实例测算,小区供电配套设施改革有效地排除了供电管理的隐患,改善了城市居民的用电质量。%Analysis was made to present newly built residential houses distribution facilities state in Ningxia, existing problems pointed out. This paper gave the building range and cost for houses distribution facilities and calculation principle of operation and maintenance. The actual calculation of typical houses shows that houses distribution facilities reformation has effectively excluded hidden troubles of power supply management, effectively improving power quality of urban resident.

  2. Bienestar Animal: Comportamiento productivo y salud de las crías de cerdos alojadas en tecnología Flat Deck - Animal Well-being: Productive behaviour and health of the breeding of pigs housed in technology Flat Deck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikel Díaz Gutierrez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenCon el objetivo de evaluar comportamiento productivo y de salud de las crías de cerdos alojados en tecnología Flat Deck se realiza el trabajo Bienestar Animal: Comportamiento productivo y de salud de las crías de cerdos alojadas en tecnología Flat Deck. Para ello se utilizaron 24 bóxer de maternidad de tecnología Flat Deck, de estos 12 de origen chino y 12 de origen español con características similares. Se analizaron un total de 1433 crías mestizas (cruce de hembras Yorkland entre la tercera y cuarta paridad con machos CC-21, L-35 y Duroc. De estas, 715 corresponden a la tecnología de origen chino y 718 a la tecnología de origen español, alojadas aproximadamente a 10 crías por bóxer. Se tuvo en cuenta el tamaño de la camada al nacer (TCN y peso al nacer (PN, peso al destete(PD y ganancia media diaria (GMD; además de los indicadores de salud(enfermos y muertes por tecnología. En los indicadores evaluadosinicialmente que no son influenciados por las tecnologías no sepresentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p>0,05. En los indicadores productivos por tecnología no se encontraron diferencia estadísticamente significativa, encontrándose las medias del peso al destete entre 7.08 y 7.15 y una ganancia media diaria de 219.11 y 221.09 respectivamente. No siendo así para los indicadores de salud, quien fue desfavorable para la tecnología de origen chino donde se presentaron 27 animales enfermos por encima de los enfermos en la tecnología de origen español.SummaryWith the objective of evaluating productive behaviour and of health of the breeding of pigs housed in technology Flat Deck he/she is carried out the work Animal Well-being: Productive behaviour and of health of the breeding of pigs housed in technology Flat Deck. For they were used it 24 boxers of technology maternity Flat Deck, of these 12 of Chinese origin and 12 of Spanish origin with characteristic similar. They were analyzed a total of 1433

  3. Development of turbinate lesions and nasal colonization by Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida during long-term exposure of healthy pigs to pigs affected by atrophic rhinitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Bäckström, L R; Brim, T A; Collins, M T

    1988-01-01

    Natural transmission of atrophic rhinitis from pigs from a herd with an endemic atrophic rhinitis problem to pigs from a herd free of atrophic rhinitis was demonstrated. Six replicates each with five pigs from the endemic atrophic rhinitis herd (Group A) and five pigs from the atrophic rhinitis-free herd (Group B) were housed together from 5 wk of age, with each replicate kept in isolation rooms maintained at optimal and controlled environmental conditions. Three replicates each with six pigs...

  4. Intra-unit correlations in seroconversion to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae at different levels in Danish multi-site pig production facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Dohoo, I.R.; Stryhn, H.;

    2004-01-01

    2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh). Based on the estimated variances, three newly described computational methods (model linearisation, simulation and linear modelling) and the standard method (latent-variable approach) were used to estimate the correlations (intra-class correlation components......, ICCs) between pigs in the same production unit regarding seroconversion. Substantially different values of ICCs were obtained from the four methods. However, ICCs obtained by the simulation and the model linearisation were quite consistent. Data used for estimation were collected from 1161 pigs from...

  5. Magnetics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetics Research Facility houses three Helmholtz coils that generate magnetic fields in three perpendicular directions to balance the earth's magnetic field....

  6. 24 CFR 891.220 - Prohibited facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited facilities. 891.220 Section 891.220 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Housing for the Elderly § 891.220 Prohibited facilities. Projects may not include facilities...

  7. Prevalence of extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections and assessment of sanitary conditions of pig slaughter slabs in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel

    2011-02-01

    A study was carried out to establish the prevalence of extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections and to assess the pig slaughter slab sanitary conditions in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania. A total of 24 privately owned pig slaughter slabs were assessed. All slaughter slabs were sub-standard; wrongly located, poorly designed and constructed and lacked most basic requirements for a slaughter house. Because of inadequate slaughtering, disposal and cleaning facilities, the slaughter slabs were under unhygienic condition with questionable safety, soundness and wholesomeness of the pork produced. Routine meat inspection procedures were used to detect extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections. Of the 731 examined pigs; 8.1%, 5.9% and 0.4% were infected with ascariosis, porcine cysticercosis and hydatidosis, respectively. It was noted that almost all slaughter pigs in Dar es Salaam originated from different regions. Based on the region of origin, the status of porcine cysticercosis was 8.2% for Dodoma (n = 98), 8.2% for Manyara (n = 260) and 6.9% for Mbeya (n = 116). This study disclosed the unhygienic sanitary condition prevailing in Dar es Salaam pig slaughter slabs and recommends that strategies should be devised to improve the situation. Porcine ascariosis and cysticercosis were widely prevalent and caused economic losses due to condemnations. Because of their zoonotic nature, the observed extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections in pig pose a public health risk among consumers. Thus, there is a need to introduce appropriate control measures of parasitic infections in pigs.

  8. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from swine production facilities in North America: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Powers, W; Murphy, J; Maghirang, R

    2014-04-01

    Literature on NH3 and H2S emissions from swine production facilities in North America was reviewed, and a meta-analysis was conducted on measured emissions data from swine houses and manure storage facilities as well as concentration data in the vicinity of swine production facilities. Results from more than 80 studies were compiled with results from the 11 swine sites in the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS). Data across studies were analyzed statistically using the MIXED procedures of SAS. The median emission rates from swine houses across various production stages and manure handling systems were 2.78 and 0.09 kg/yr per pig for NH3 and H2S, respectively. The median emission rates from swine storage facilities were 2.08 and 0.20 kg/yr per pig for NH3 and H2S, respectively. The size of swine farm that may trigger the need to report NH3 emissions under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) is 3,410 pigs on the basis of the median NH3 emission rate (4.86 kg/yr per pig), but the threshold can be as low as 992 pigs on the basis of the 90th-percentile emission rates (16.71 kg/yr per pig). Swine hoop houses had significantly higher NH3 emission rate (14.80 kg/yr per pig) than other manure-handling systems (P pig, P = 0.03). Farrowing houses had the highest H2S emission rate (2.50 kg/yr per pig), followed by gestation houses, and finishing houses had the lowest H2S emission rate (P < 0.01). Regression models for NH3 and H2S emission rates were developed for finishing houses with deep pits, recharge pits, and lagoons. The NH3 emission rates increased with increasing air temperature, but effects of air temperature on H2S emission rates were not significant. The recharge interval of manure pits significantly affected H2S but not NH3 emission rates. The H2S emission rates were also influenced by the size of the operation. Although NH3 and H2S concentrations at the edge of swine houses or lagoons were often higher than corresponding

  9. Review of wallowing in pigs: implications for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Most modern production systems, especially in temperate climates, do not offer wallowing facilities to pigs and, to date, this has neither generated much concern in welfare science nor public debate on pig welfare. Nevertheless, wallowing is a natural behaviour of pigs which may be important to them

  10. Review of wallowing in pigs: implications for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Most modern production systems, especially in temperate climates, do not offer wallowing facilities to pigs and, to date, this has neither generated much concern in welfare science nor public debate on pig welfare. Nevertheless, wallowing is a natural behaviour of pigs which may be important to

  11. Housing culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else; Scholkmann, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    On houses and their furniture and fittings, and on the study of this - with a comparison of rural, urban, monastic and aristocratic housing, and a special section on heating technologies.......On houses and their furniture and fittings, and on the study of this - with a comparison of rural, urban, monastic and aristocratic housing, and a special section on heating technologies....

  12. Thermal performance evaluation of the Northrop model NSC-01-0732 concentrating solar collector array at outdoor conditions. [Marshall Space Flight Center solar house test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The thermal efficiency of the concentrating, tracking solar collector was tested after ten months of operation at the Marshall Space Flight Center solar house. The test procedures and results are presented.

  13. Housing Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Baker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, an increasing number of households face problems of access to suitable housing in the private market. In response, the Federal and State Governments share responsibility for providing housing assistance to these, mainly low-income, households. A broad range of policy instruments are used to provide and maintain housing assistance across all housing tenures, for example, assisting entry into homeownership, providing affordability assistance in the private rental market, and the provision of socially owned and managed housing options. Underlying each of these interventions is the premise that secure, affordable, and appropriate housing provides not only shelter but also a number of nonshelter benefits to individuals and their households. Although the nonshelter outcomes of housing are well acknowledged in Australia, the understanding of the nonshelter outcomes of housing assistance is less clear. This paper explores nonshelter outcomes of three of the major forms of housing assistance provided by Australian governments—low-income mortgage assistance, social housing, and private rent assistance. It is based upon analysis of a survey of 1,353 low-income recipients of housing assistance, and specifically measures the formulation of health and well-being, financial stress, and housing satisfaction outcomes across these three assistance types. We find clear evidence that health, finance, and housing satisfaction outcomes are associated with quite different factors for individuals in these three major housing assistance types.

  14. Improved Pig Production and Performance in the Tropics | Enem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The consumption of white rather than red meat is being advocated ... The constraints to pig production in Nigeria are mainly based on social and religious beliefs. ... housing, feeding, health, and product marketing were discussed to enable a ...

  15. Molecular studies on pig cryptosporidiosis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeżutka, A; Kaupke, A; Kozyra, I; Pejsak, Z

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium intestinal parasites have been detected in farmed pigs worldwide. Infections are usually asymptomatic with a low number of oocysts shed in pig feces. This makes the recognition of infection difficult or unsuccessful when microscopic methods are used. The aim of this study was molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species in pig herds raised in Poland with regard to the occurrence of zoonotic species. In total, 166 pig fecal samples were tested. The examined pigs were aged 1 to 20 weeks. Overall, 39 pig farms were monitored for parasite presence. The detection and identification of Cryptosporidium DNA was performed on the basis of PCR-RFLP and nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplified 18 SSU rRNA and COWP gene fragments. Infected animals were housed in 21 (53.8%) of the pig farms monitored. The presence of Cryptosporidum was confirmed in 46 (27.7%) samples of pig feces. Among positive fecal samples, 34 (29.3%) were collected from healthy animals, and 12 (24%) from diarrheic pigs. Most infected animals (42.1%) were 2 to 3 months old. The following parasite species were detected: C. scrofarum, C. suis and C. parvum. Indeed, asymptomatic infections caused by C. scrofarum were observed in the majority of the herds. Mixed infections caused by C. suis and C. scrofarum were not common; however, they were observed in 8.6% of the positive animals. C. parvum DNA was found only in one sample collected from a diarrheic pig. The application of molecular diagnostic tools allowed for detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species in pigs. The sporadic findings of C. parvum are subsequent evidence for the contribution of pigs in the transmission of cryptosporidiosis from animals to humans.

  16. Review of wallowing in pigs: Description of the behaviour and its motivational basis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Wallowing, i.e. coating the body surface with mud, is a natural behaviour of pigs,commonly observed in feral pigs and wild boar, but rarely provided for in current housing systems for domestic pigs. Furthermore, in welfare science the subject has not been receiving much attention. This paper reviews

  17. Pelleting of diet ingredients: Diet selection and performance in choice-fed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was completed with individually housed growing pigs to examine whether pigs can compose their optimal diet when allowed a choice of three different pellets. Forty cross-bred pigs (20 castrates and 20 gilts) with an initial live weight of 22.0 ± 2.1 kg were allocated to either a

  18. Temperature and body weight affect fouling of pig pens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Stefanowska, J.; Huynh, T.T.T.

    2006-01-01

    Fouling of the solid lying area in pig housing is undesirable for reasons of animal welfare, animal health, environmental pollution, and labor costs. In this study the influence of temperature on the excreting and lying behavior of growing-finishing pigs of different BW (25, 45, 65, 85, or 105 kg) w

  19. Personalities in pigs: Individual characteristics and coping with environmental challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    There are indications that pigs may have difficulty in adapting to the constraints of intensive housing conditions. Pigs show a wide variation in adaptive responses when exposed to the same stressful situation. Aim of this thesis was to investigate whether the behavioural coping responses of young p

  20. Multivariate prediction of odor from pig production based on in-situ measurement of odorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Jonassen, Kristoffer E. N.; Løkke, Mette Marie; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.; Feilberg, Anders

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate a prediction model for odor from pig production facilities based on measurements of odorants by Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Odor measurements were performed at four different pig production facilities with and without odor abatement technologies using a newly developed mobile odor laboratory equipped with a PTR-MS for measuring odorants and an olfactometer for measuring the odor concentration by human panelists. A total of 115 odor measurements were carried out in the mobile laboratory and simultaneously air samples were collected in Nalophan bags and analyzed at accredited laboratories after 24 h. The dataset was divided into a calibration dataset containing 94 samples and a validation dataset containing 21 samples. The prediction model based on the measurements in the mobile laboratory was able to explain 74% of the variation in the odor concentration based on odorants, whereas the prediction models based on odor measurements with bag samples explained only 46-57%. This study is the first application of direct field olfactometry to livestock odor and emphasizes the importance of avoiding any bias from sample storage in studies of odor-odorant relationships. Application of the model on the validation dataset gave a high correlation between predicted and measured odor concentration (R2 = 0.77). Significant odorants in the prediction models include phenols and indoles. In conclusion, measurements of odorants on-site in pig production facilities is an alternative to dynamic olfactometry that can be applied for measuring odor from pig houses and the effects of odor abatement technologies.

  1. Aggression and affiliation during social conflict in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlink, Irene; Turner, Simon P; Ursinus, Winanda W; Reimert, Inonge; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Social conflict is mostly studied in relation to aggression. A more integral approach, including aggressive and affiliative behaviour as well as physiology, may however give a better understanding of the animals' experience during social conflict. The experience of social conflict may also be reflected in the spatial distribution between conspecifics. The objective was to assess the relationship between behaviour, physiology, and spatial integration in pigs (Sus scrofa) during social conflict. Hereto, 64 groups of pigs (9 wk of age) were studied in a 24 h regrouping test whereby pairs of familiar pigs were grouped with 2 unfamiliar pairs, in either barren or straw-enriched housing. Data on aggressive and affiliative behaviour, skin lesions, body weight, and haptoglobin could be summarized into three principal component analysis factors. These three factors were analysed in relation to spatial integration, i.e. inter-individual distances and lying in body contact. Pigs stayed up to 24 h after encounter in closer proximity to the familiar pig than to unfamiliar pigs. Pigs with a high factor 1 score were more inactive, gave little social nosing, had many skin lesions and a high body weight. They tended to space further away from the familiar pig (b = 1.9 cm; P = 0.08) and unfamiliar ones (b = 0.7 cm; P = 0.05). Pigs that were involved in much aggression (factor 2), and that had a strong increase in haptoglobin (factor 3), tended to be relatively most far away from unfamiliar pigs (b = 0.03 times further; P = 0.08). Results on lying in body contact were coherent with results on distances. Pigs in enriched housing spaced further apart than pigs in barren housing (Psocial conflict.

  2. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  3. Clay Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  4. Space Power Facility (SPF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Power Facility (SPF) houses the world's largest space environment simulation chamber, measuring 100 ft. in diameter by 122 ft. high. In this chamber, large...

  5. INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY REPORT FOR THE REACTOR BUILDING, HOT LABORATORY, PRIMARY PUMP HOUSE, AND LAND AREAS AT THE PLUM BROOK REACTOR FACILITY, SANDUSKY, OHIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erika N. Bailey

    2011-10-10

    In 1941, the War Department acquired approximately 9,000 acres of land near Sandusky, Ohio and constructed a munitions plant. The Plum Brook Ordnance Works Plant produced munitions, such as TNT, until the end of World War II. Following the war, the land remained idle until the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics later called the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) obtained 500 acres to construct a nuclear research reactor designed to study the effects of radiation on materials used in space flight. The research reactor was put into operation in 1961 and was the first of fifteen test facilities eventually built by NASA at the Plum Brook Station. By 1963, NASA had acquired the remaining land at Plum Brook for these additional test facilities

  6. Supplementation with a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product alters the metabolic response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in weaned pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would alter the metabolic response following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4+/-0.1 kg BW) were housed individually with ad libitum access to feed and water. Pigs were...

  7. Effect of increasing amounts of straw on pigs' explorative behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Herskin, Mette S.; Forkman, Björn;

    2015-01-01

    According to European legislation, pigs must have permanent access to sufficient quantity of materialto enable manipulation activities. However, few studies have quantified how much straw is needed tofulfil the requirements of growing pigs. We investigated the effect of increasing amount of straw...... on pigs’manipulation of the straw, and hypothesised that after a certain point increasing straw amount will nolonger increase oral manipulation further. From 30 to 80 kg live weight, pigs were housed in 90 groups of18 pigs in pens (5.48 m × 2.48 m) with partly slatted concrete floor and daily provided...... with fresh uncutstraw onto the solid part of the floor. Experimental treatments were 10, 80, 150, 220, 290, 360, 430 or500 g straw per pig and day. At 40 and 80 kg live weight, the time spent in oral manipulation of the strawby three focal pigs per pen (large, medium and small sized) were recorded along...

  8. 77 FR 15650 - Fisher House and Other Temporary Lodging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... near a VA health care facility and was constructed by and donated to VA by the Fisher House Foundation... the Fisher House and other temporary lodging program(s) at the VA health care facility of jurisdiction... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 60 RIN 2900-AN79 Fisher House and Other Temporary Lodging AGENCY: Department...

  9. The Transportation and Lifting Facilities in Chongqing and the Industrialised Housing%重庆运输吊装能力和住宅产业化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭德精; 唐明清

    2001-01-01

    This article introduces that there are good basic conditions and big development space for the industrialized housing development in Chongqing Municipality-the biggest municipality in the country.And it introduces the capabilities of horizontal transportation by land or sea and vertical lifting in Chongqing. And it puts forward that is more economical, reliable and safer than which has the advantages of best weight lifting capacity, service radium. Lifting height and smallest site occupation and the assemble of bigger components even the whole industrialised house.%介绍世界上最大城市——中国重庆直辖市,在实现住宅产业化方面所具有的较好基础条件和较大发展空间等基本情况。介绍了重庆水、陆水平运输和垂直吊装的能力。提出了内爬式塔式起重机,比外墙附着式和行走式塔式起重机,具有使用经济、安全可靠,能最大限度地发挥起重能力、回转半径、起升高度和少占施工场地等优点,是实现住宅建设向高空发展、在住宅产业化中实现更大部件拼装,乃至实现套房整体吊装的首选设备。

  10. Evaluación del bienestar animal de cerdos en crecimiento-ceba alojados en sistema de cama profunda (Assessment of the animal welfare of growing-fattening pigs housed in deep bedding system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Martínez, Elizabeth

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe evaluó el bienestar animal de cerdos en crecimiento-ceba al utilizar la tecnología de crianza en cama profunda comparado con el sistema tradicional sobre piso de concreto en el Instituto de Investigaciones Porcinas de Cuba.SummaryIt was evaluated the animal welfare of growing-fattening pigs using the deep bedding technology compared with the traditional system on the concrete floor in the Swine Research Institute of Cuba.

  11. Herd-level risk factors for subclinical Salmonella infection in European finishing-pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dahl, J.; Stege, H.

    2004-01-01

    . Pigs produced in batches in herds with hygienic-lock facilities had >3-times lower odds for testing seropositive compared to pigs in herds where only one or neither factor was present. In herds where the caretaker(s) washed hands consistently before tending to the animals, pigs had 1.5-times lower odds...

  12. CDBG Housing Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to housing, including multifamily rehab, housing services, code enforcement, operation and repair of foreclosed property and public housing...

  13. Continuous in-house acidification affecting animal slurry composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Maibritt; Cocolo, Giorgia; Jonassen, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    . A full-scale study was therefore performed, comparing pig slurry from normal in-house slurry management with pig slurry from housing with daily in-house acidification to pH 5.5. The effect on organic, inorganic and particles was evaluated. Increasing dissolved P, Mg and Ca contents indicated mineral...... dissolution in acidified slurry. Acceleration of carbohydrate hydrolysis was indicated, while deceleration of microbial acidogenesis, acetogenesis, methanogenesis and sulphate reduction was indicated. The particles were larger following acidification treatment causing a lower viscosity, likely due...

  14. Evaluating the removal of pigs from a group and subsequent floor space allowance on the growth performance of heavy-weight finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, J R; Tokach, M D; DeRouchey, J M; Woodworth, J C; Goodband, R D; Dritz, S S

    2016-10-01

    A total of 1,092 finishing pigs (initially 36.3 kg) were used in a 117-d study to evaluate the impact of initial floor space allowance and removal strategy on the growth of pigs up to 140 kg BW. There were 4 experimental treatments with 14 pens per treatment. The first treatment provided 0.91 m per pig (15 pigs/pen). The other 3 treatments initially provided 0.65 m per pig (21 pigs/pen) with 3 different removal strategies. The second treatment (2:2:2) removed the 2 heaviest pigs from pens on d 64, 76, and 95 when floor space allowance was predicted to be limiting. Treatment 3 (2:4) removed the 2 heaviest pigs on d 76 and the 4 heaviest pigs on d 105. Treatment 4 (6) removed the heaviest 6 pigs on d 105. All pigs remaining in pens after removals were fed to d 117. Overall (d 0 to 117), pigs initially provided 0.91 m of floor space had increased ( strategy, but ADG was not different compared with pigs on the 2:2:2 removal strategy. Total BW gain per pen was greater ( strategies; however, feed usage per pig was greater ( strategies. Feed usage, on a pig or pen basis, was less ( strategy compared to pigs on the 2:4 or the 6 removal strategy. Income over feed and facility cost (IOFFC) was less ( strategies. Also, IOFFC was less ( strategies. In conclusion, increasing the floor space allowance or the time points at which pigs are removed from the pen improved the growth of pigs remaining in the pen; however, IOFFC may be reduced because fewer pigs are marketed from each pen (pigs stocked at 0.91 m throughout the study) or from reducing total weight produced (2:2:2 removal strategy).

  15. Noninfectious factors associated with pneumonia and pleuritis in slaughtered pigs from 143 farrow-to-finish pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fablet, C; Dorenlor, V; Eono, F; Eveno, E; Jolly, J P; Portier, F; Bidan, F; Madec, F; Rose, N

    2012-05-01

    A cross-sectional study involving 143 farrow-to-finish herds was carried out to identify herd-level noninfectious factors associated with pneumonia and pleuritis in slaughter pigs. Data related to herd characteristics, biosecurity, management and housing conditions were collected by questionnaire during a farm visit. Climatic conditions were measured over 20 h in the post-weaning and finishing rooms where the slaughter pigs were kept. After these on-farm investigations, the finishing pigs were examined at slaughter for lung lesions. A sample of 30 randomly selected pigs per herd was scored for pneumonia and pleuritis. Herds were grouped into three categories according to their pneumonia median score (class 1: ≤ 0.5; class 2: 0.53.75). For pleuritis, a herd was deemed affected if at least one pig had a high pleuritis score (≥ 3). A multinomial logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with pneumonia classes 2 and 3. A logistic regression for binary outcome was used to identify risk factors for severe pleuritis. An interval of less than four weeks between successive batches (OR=4.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.5-13.6, ppleuritis score was increased when the farrowing facilities were not disinsected (OR=2.7, 95% CI: 1.2-5.8, p=0.01), when tail docking was performed later than 1.5 days after birth (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.2-5.7, p=0.01) and if the piglets were castrated when more than 14 days old (OR=2.7, 95%CI: 1.1-6.8, p=0.03). A temperature range of less than 5°C for the ventilation control rate in the farrowing room (OR=2.7, 95% CI: 1.2-5.9, p=0.01), a mean temperature in the finishing room below 23°C (OR=3.0, 95% CI: 1.3-6.8, ppleuritis. The factors affecting pneumonia and pleuritis seemed to be different. All rearing steps from farrowing to finishing must be taken into account in any health programme aimed at controlling pneumonia and pleuritis and lung health may be improved through several pathways, i.e. correcting managerial and

  16. Technology And Pregnant Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

  17. White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Strong Again Rebuilding America’s Infrastructure Repeal and Replace Obamacare Standing Up For Our Law Enforcement Community Trade ... People Petitions Contact the White House Get Involved Obamacare: Share Your Story Getting Americans Back to Work ...

  18. Conformal house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas Aaby; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    fixed point. As a consistency check we recover the previously investigated bounds of the conformal windows when restricting to a single matter representation. The earlier conformal windows can be imagined to be part now of the new conformal house. We predict the nonperturbative anomalous dimensions...... at the infrared fixed points. We further investigate the effects of adding mass terms to the condensates on the conformal house chiral dynamics and construct the simplest instanton induced effective Lagrangian terms...

  19. Animal health and welfare in production systems for organic fattening pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Kristina; Bochicchio, Davide; Hegelund, Lene

    2014-01-01

    respiratory problems, skin lesions (including abscesses and hernias) and tail wounds compared to conventional pigs. On the other hand, remarks because of joint lesions and white spot livers were more common among organic pigs. The risk of parasitic infections in organic fattening pigs has been confirmed....... To control endoparasites, outdoor areas should be rotated with as long interval as possible, i.e. by including the pigs in the crop rotation. Outdoor housing with functional wallows and access to grass and roots or outdoor runs and roughage can enhance pig welfare and reduce pen-mate-directed oral activity...

  20. VA's expansion of supportive housing: successes and challenges on the path toward Housing First.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Erika Laine; Pollio, David E; Holmes, Sally; Schumacher, Joseph; White, Bert; Lukas, Carol Vandeusen; Kertesz, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is transitioning to a Housing First approach to placement of veterans in permanent supportive housing through the use of rental vouchers, an ambitious organizational transformation. This qualitative study examined the experiences of eight VA facilities undertaking this endeavor in 2012. A multidisciplinary team interviewed facility leadership, midlevel managers, and frontline staff (N=95 individuals) at eight VA facilities representing four U.S. regions. The team used a semistructured interview protocol and the constant comparative method to explore how individuals throughout the organizations experienced and responded to the challenges of transitioning to a Housing First approach. Frontline staff faced challenges in rapidly housing homeless veterans because of difficult rental markets, the need to coordinate with local public housing authorities, and a lack of available funds for move-in costs. Staff sought to balance their time spent on housing activities with intensive case management of highly vulnerable veterans. Finding low-demand sheltering options (that is, no expectations regarding sobriety or treatment participation, as in the Housing First model) for veterans waiting for housing presented a significant challenge to implementation of Housing First. Facility leadership supported Housing First implementation through resource allocation, performance monitoring, and reliance on midlevel managers to understand and meet the challenges of implementation. The findings highlight the considerable practical challenges and innovative solutions arising from a large-scale effort to implement Housing First, with particular attention to the experiences of individuals at all levels within an organization.

  1. Sustainable Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    The Danish public housing sector has more than 20 years of experience with sustainable facilities management based on user involvement. The paper outlines this development in a historical perspective and gives an analysis of different approaches to sustainable facilities management. The focus...... is on the housing departments and strateies for the management of the use of resources. The research methods used are case studies based on interviews in addition to literature studies. The paper explores lessons to be learned about sustainable facilities management in general, and points to a need for new...

  2. 24 CFR 891.315 - Prohibited facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited facilities. 891.315... Housing for Persons With Disabilities § 891.315 Prohibited facilities. This section shall apply to capital... facilities may not include infirmaries, nursing stations, spaces dedicated to the delivery of...

  3. Energy use in pig farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    This guide presents benchmark data on 'typical' and 'good practice' levels of energy consumption for pig farms in the UK. Benchmarks are valuable because they allow producers to compare their performance with other similar businesses. In addition, they also provide two other useful functions: They allow routine assessments to be made that show progress against a benchmark. Such appraisals are not restricted to year-on-year evaluations as they can be carried out quarterly, monthly or even weekly to track progress on a more frequent basis Opportunity assessments can be carried out. For example, if a facility is to be modified or upgraded, the effect of the change can be determined. Throughout this guide, the benchmarks and information are based on methods and techniques that minimise energy consumption whilst maintaining pig performance at an economically acceptable level. Pig farming in the UK is a complex and diverse business with a variety of facilities being used for each stage of production. Therefore, in order to give realistic guidelines, production has been broken down into several key areas to illustrate typical performance benchmarks. These production areas are: farrowing accommodation; weaning accommodation; finisher accommodation; feeding system; and waste handling. The guide has a detailed breakdown with graphs and data analysis.

  4. A New Way of Maintaining Disinfection of Laboratory Animal Barrier Environment and Housing Facilities%一种实验动物屏障环境及设施维持性消毒的新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶尤松; 代解杰; 仝品芬; 孙晓梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨实验动物屏障环境及设施维持性消毒的新方法.方法 用浓度为0.21 mg/m3的臭氧和1%的84消毒液或0.1%的新洁尔灭对实验动物屏障环境及设施进行维持性消毒;用血琼脂培养基进行落下菌培养.一周后观察血平皿内落下菌的个数.结果 经维持性消毒后.屏障环境空气落下菌检测平均为2.1个/血平皿,符合国标关于环境技术指标中沉降菌最大平均浓度的要求.结论 该种消毒方法有利于屏障环境微生物的控制,效果明显、操作简便、安全、利于推广.%Abstract: Objective To search a new way of laboratory animals barrier environment and housin facilities for maintaining disinfection. Method The following disinfectants were U8ed in this experiment :0. 21 mg/m3 ozone and 1% 84-disinfectant or 0. 1% bromogeramine. Then the falling bacteria was incubated for a week in 37 with blood agar medium, and the fallen bacteria count was carried out. Result The fallen bacterium in the barrier environment and housing facilities was average 2. I per plate after maimtaining disinfection,which was in keeping with the demands of environment technology target in national standard. Conclusion The disinfecting method was good for the control of barrier environment and housing facilitiess microbe, and it had the characten of effect obvious.operate simple、safe and use easy.

  5. Pigging ends freezeups in caustic piping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, R.; Gaines, A.

    1985-03-01

    Convent Chemical Corporation in Convent, LA produces and ships bulk quantities of chlorine and caustic soda (NaOH). The caustic soda is available in various grades, including a 50% aqueous solution that freezes at 56/sup 0/F. An extensive network of chemical-resistant polypropylene-lined steel pipe (without heat tracing) is used to transfer the caustic soda from the production area to storage tanks and to the loading facilities for tank trucks, rail tank cars and barges. A sudden drop in ambient temperature can cause freezeup of the caustic transfer pipes which may result in downtime of as much as a week. Convent plant engineers designed a pigging system for the outdoor caustic transfer lines in the tank farm and to the loading stations. The patented design pig, (internal pipeline cleaner) consists of a flexible, bullet-shaped cylinder of chemical-resistant polyurethane foam with strips of urethane rubber on the surface, or with a solid coating of the tough material. Fluid or gas pressure on the sealed concave base propels the flexible pig through the pipe, valves, elbows, and other fittings, and material ahead of the pig is discharged into an appropriate receiver. The pigging system has eliminated the caustic freezing and plugging problems since it was installed in the summer of 1981. The flexible pig, propelled by 80 psi air, is used to clear the pipelines whenever caustic is transferred during the winter months. The air-propelled pig is designed and sized to easily pass through restrictions in the piping system, such as reduced port plug valves, but was once stuck when it reached a section of pipe that had collapsed. A pig containing the Cobalt 60 nuclear element was inserted into the line to quickly locate the stuck pig with the Geiger counter. The faulty section of pipe was replaced with a new polypropylene lined spool piece.

  6. Sulfuric odorous compounds emitted from pig-feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Youn; Ko, Han Jong; Kim, Hyeon Tae; Kim, Yoon Shin; Roh, Young Man; Lee, Cheol Min; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Chi Nyon

    The objective of the study was to quantify the concentration and emission levels of sulfuric odorous compounds emitted from pig-feeding operations. Five types of pig-housing rooms were studied: gestation, farrowing, nursery, growing and fattening rooms. The concentration range of sulfuric odorous compounds in these pig-housing rooms were 30-200 ppb for hydrogen sulfide (H 2S), 2.5-20 ppb for methyl mercaptan (CH 3SH), 1.5-12 ppb for dimethyl sulfide (DMS; CH 3SCH 3) and 0.5-7 ppb for dimethyl disulfide (DMDS; CH 3S 2CH 3), respectively. The emission rates of H 2S, CH 3SH, DMS and DMDS were estimated by multiplying the average concentration (mg m -3) measured near the air outlet by the mean ventilation rate (m 3 h -1) and expressed either per area (mg m -2 h -1) or animal unit (AU; liveweight of the pig, 500 kg) (mg pig -1 h -1). As a result, the emission rates of H 2S, CH 3SH, DMS and DMDS in the pig-housing rooms were 14-64, 0.8-7.3, 0.4-3.4 and 0.2-1.9 mg m -2 h -1, respectively, based on pig's activity space and 310-723, 18-80, 9-39 and 5-22 mg AU -1 h -1, respectively, based on pig's liveweight, which indicates that their emission rates were similar, whether based upon the pig's activity space or liveweight. In conclusion, the concentrations and emission rates of H 2S were highest in the fattening room followed by the growing, nursery, farrowing and gestation rooms whereas those of CH 3SH, DMS and DMDS concentrations were largest in the growing room followed by the nursery, gestation and farrowing rooms.

  7. Active house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...

  8. House Slaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Rising house prices in China’s major cities is a major headache for people taking a first step on the property ladder and has led to a growing number sacrificing quality of life just to have a home of their own Closely watching the family’s spend- ing a

  9. SLAUGHTERING TRAITS OF PIGS REARED CONVENTIONALLY AND ON DEEP LITTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare slaughtering traits of two pig genotypes when reared in two different ways, and to determine the influence of pig housing on carcass characteristics and muscle tissue quality. The research was carried out on 68 fattening pigs of both sex, divided into two groups: the first group was kept on deep litter, and the second one was housed in flat deck pens without deep litter. Each group consisted of pigs of two genotypes, i.e. three-way crossbreeds of Large White and German Landrace (LW x GL in the dam line and of German Landrace and Pietrain (P in the sire line. At the end of the experiment, pigs were slaughtered and the following values were determined: the pH45 and pH24 values, electric conductivity values (EC45, EC24, the “a” and “b” carcass length, loin values and the values of backfat and muscle thickness, aiming to evaluate the share of muscular tissue in carcass by applying the two-points method. Pigs reared on deep litter had statistically significantly smaller live weights (P<0.05 and warm carcass weights in comparison to pigs reared on flat deck without deep litter. Pigs crossed with Pietrain, which were kept without deep litter had significantly thicker muscles than the ones crossed with German Landrace, kept on deep litter (P<0.05. Fattening pigs of both genotypes, reared without deep litter, had significantly smaller pH45 values in loins and in MLD, when compared to pigs crossed with Pietrain and kept on deep litter (P<0.05. The influence of genotype was statistically significant for the EC45 value in loin, as well as for the muscle thickness and percentage share of muscular tissue (P<0.05. Interaction between the way of fattening and genotype did not have any effect on carcass and meat quality.

  10. Indicators of positive and negative emotions and emotional contagion in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimert, I.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Kemp, B.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2013-01-01

    For the welfare of group-housed animals, such as pigs, the emotional state of an individual pig is relevant, but also the extent to which pen mates are affected by the distress or pleasure of other individuals, i.e. emotional contagion, a simple form of empathy. Therefore, indicators of positive and

  11. Indicators of positive and negative emotions and emotional contagion in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimert, I.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Kemp, B.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2013-01-01

    For the welfare of group-housed animals, such as pigs, the emotional state of an individual pig is relevant, but also the extent to which pen mates are affected by the distress or pleasure of other individuals, i.e. emotional contagion, a simple form of empathy. Therefore, indicators of positive and

  12. Effects of strawbedding on physiological responses to stressors and behavior in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, IC; Ekkel, ED; Van de Burgwal, JA; Lambooij, E; Korte, SM; Ruis, MAW; Koolhaas, JM; Blokhuis, Harry J.

    1998-01-01

    To study the effects of environmental enrichment on physiological responses to stressors and behavior in growing pigs, pigs were housed in either a poor environment (standard farrowing pens followed by standard rearing and fattening pens) or in an enriched environment (larger farrowing pens followed

  13. Spatial learning in pigs: effects of environmental enrichment and individual characteristics on behaviour and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Spruijt, B.M.; Wiegant, V.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of both environmental enrichment and individual behavioural characteristics on spatial cognitive capabilities of pigs, using a novel latent spatial learning paradigm based on Tolman's detour experiments (1948). Pigs were housed either in 'barren' pens or in pens e

  14. ATRF Houses the Latest DNA Sequencing Technologies | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer By the end of October, the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) will be one of the few facilities in the world to house all of the latest DNA sequencing technologies.

  15. Smallholder pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    -ranging of pigs and presence of neighbouring pigs were also identified as risk factors for the presence of lice. Three species of fleas were identified; Tunga penetrans, Echidnophaga gallinacea and Ctenocephalides canis. The prevalence of fleas was 5% and 13% within confined and free-range, respectively. Two pigs...

  16. Housing Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Measures to cool down China's red-hot housing market are sweeping the country. The State Council, China's cabinet, issued a circular in late May announcing an increase in the minimum down payment for a new apartment larger than 90 square meters to 30 percent from 20 percent and imposing a transaction tax on properties resold within five years of purchase, among others. One of the aims, according to the cir-

  17. 育肥猪舍用混凝土微缝地板的截面优化%Optimization of cross section of concrete narrow-gap slatted floor for fattening pig house

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玉涵; 陈刚; 施正香

    2013-01-01

      为解决现有混凝土微缝地板因截面设计不尽合理产生的承载力富余过大,导致实际生产中板体自重大、生产和运输成本高等问题.该文通过计算假定、截面和荷载转化的方法,对混凝土微缝地板的结构进行了理论剖析,对其制造材料、板体尺寸、配筋等进行了优化和力学性能计算.在截面面积减少3600 mm2、纵向钢筋面积减少213 mm2、混凝土的标号由 C30调至 C25的情况下,单块地板的正截面抗弯值为3.14 kN·m,斜截面抗剪值为3.56 kN,裂缝宽度值为0.167 mm,跨中截面挠度值为3.70 mm,均可满足育肥猪安全使用要求.优化后,单块地板混凝土使用量可节省0.01 m3,每平米地面铺设成本降低18%.%Aiming at solving problems of large own gravity and high transportation cost as well as the more needed bearing capacity of the concrete narrow-gap slatted floor caused by improperly design of the cross section, calculation hypothesis, conversion of cross section and load were carried out to analyze the structure of the concrete narrow-gap slatted floor in this study. It can be assumed that one fattening pig weights 100 kg on average and its four legs bear equal body weight. According to the dimension of the concrete narrow-gap slatted floor and fattening pigs, maximally, 10 pig legs can appear on one concrete narrow-gap slatted floor at the same time. The real cross section of the concrete narrow-gap slatted floor was changed into “T”cross section and 10 concentrated loads which were caused by legs were converted into continuous load in the calculation process. Based on the calculation results, it was concluded that the bearing capacity of the concrete narrow-gap slatted floor was larger than that needed. Therefore, optimization of materials, shape and dimension reinforcement of the narrow-gap slatted floor and mechanical calculation were done. After the optimization, for single narrow-gap slatted floor, the grade of the

  18. Analysis of the baseline survey on the prevalence of Salmonella in holdings with breeding pigs in the EU, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bole-Hribovšek, Vojislava; Chriél, Mariann; Davies, Robert;

    Salmonella is a major cause of food-borne illness in humans. Farm animals and foods of animal origin are important sources of human Salmonella infections. This European Union-wide Salmonella baseline survey was conducted in 2008 in holdings with breeding pigs. A total of 1,609 holdings housing...... and selling mainly breeding pigs (breeding holdings) and 3,508 holdings housing breeding pigs and selling mainly pigs for fattening or slaughter (production holdings) from 24 European Union Member States and two non-Member States, were randomly selected and included in the survey. In each selected breeding...

  19. Transgenesis for pig models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Soo-Young; Yoon, Ki-Young; Lee, Choong-Il; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Animal models, particularly pigs, have come to play an important role in translational biomedical research. There have been many pig models with genetically modifications via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, because most transgenic pigs have been produced by random integration to date, the necessity for more exact gene-mutated models using recombinase based conditional gene expression like mice has been raised. Currently, advanced genome-editing technologies enable us to generate specific gene-deleted and -inserted pig models. In the future, the development of pig models with gene editing technologies could be a valuable resource for biomedical research. PMID:27030199

  20. Aggression and affiliation during social conflict in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Camerlink

    Full Text Available Social conflict is mostly studied in relation to aggression. A more integral approach, including aggressive and affiliative behaviour as well as physiology, may however give a better understanding of the animals' experience during social conflict. The experience of social conflict may also be reflected in the spatial distribution between conspecifics. The objective was to assess the relationship between behaviour, physiology, and spatial integration in pigs (Sus scrofa during social conflict. Hereto, 64 groups of pigs (9 wk of age were studied in a 24 h regrouping test whereby pairs of familiar pigs were grouped with 2 unfamiliar pairs, in either barren or straw-enriched housing. Data on aggressive and affiliative behaviour, skin lesions, body weight, and haptoglobin could be summarized into three principal component analysis factors. These three factors were analysed in relation to spatial integration, i.e. inter-individual distances and lying in body contact. Pigs stayed up to 24 h after encounter in closer proximity to the familiar pig than to unfamiliar pigs. Pigs with a high factor 1 score were more inactive, gave little social nosing, had many skin lesions and a high body weight. They tended to space further away from the familiar pig (b = 1.9 cm; P = 0.08 and unfamiliar ones (b = 0.7 cm; P = 0.05. Pigs that were involved in much aggression (factor 2, and that had a strong increase in haptoglobin (factor 3, tended to be relatively most far away from unfamiliar pigs (b = 0.03 times further; P = 0.08. Results on lying in body contact were coherent with results on distances. Pigs in enriched housing spaced further apart than pigs in barren housing (P<0.001. The combined analysis of measures revealed animals that may either promote or slow down group cohesion, which may not have become clear from single parameters. This emphasizes the importance of an integral approach to social conflict.

  1. 29 CFR 500.135 - Certificate of housing inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant Workers Housing... this section, a facility or real property to be used for housing a migrant agricultural worker...

  2. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  3. Support Care Facility Prague House, Freshford, Kilkenny.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abidin, Zareena

    2013-01-01

    The START and SAPROF are newly developed fourth generation structured professional judgement instruments assessing strengths and protective factors. The DUNDRUM-3 and DUNDRUM-4 also measure positive factors, programme completion and recovery in forensic settings.

  4. Support Care Facility Prague House, Freshford, Kilkenny

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This inspection report sets out the findings of a monitoring inspection, the purpose of which was to monitor compliance with specific outcomes as part of a thematic inspection. This monitoring inspection was un-announced and took place over 1 day(s). The inspection took place over the following dates and times From: To: 10 July 2014 08:30 10 July 2014 14:00

  5. Reverse Ballistic Air Gun Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This custom-designed facility houses a suite of three air guns capable of generating accelerations up to 100,000 Gs and velocities up to 2,000 ft/s. In addition to a...

  6. Reverse Ballistic Air Gun Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This custom-designed facility houses a suite of three air guns capable of generating accelerations up to 100,000 Gs and velocities up to 2,000 ft/s. In addition to...

  7. Endoparasitos em cobaias (Cavia porcellus (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviidae provenientes de biotérios de criação e experimentação do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Endoparasites in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviidae from breeding and experimentation animal housing of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Casartelli Alves

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento sobre a prevalência e intensidade de infecção de endoparasitos em cobaias convencionais de linhagem Short Hair provenientes de biotérios de criação (A e experimentação (B do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, avaliando-se a eficácia das medidas de prevenção entre eles. Para a realização do estudo, utilizou-se exame direto de mucosa e do conteúdo intestinal, a técnica de tricromo de WHEATLEY e exames coproparasitológicos pelas técnicas de Ritchie e Kinyoun. Os parasitos encontrados através da técnica de exame direto da mucosa e do conteúdo intestinal e de tricromo de WHEATLEY com as respectivas prevalências foram: Balantidium sp. (78%, Cyathodinium sp. (68%, Eimeria caviae (38%, Paraspidodera uncinata (34% e Giardia muris (24%. Nos exames de fezes realizados pelas técnicas de Ritchie e Kinyoun, foram encontrados os seguintes parasitos com as respectivas prevalências no biotério A: E. caviae (74%, Balantidium sp. (68%, Cyathodinium sp. (68% e Cryptosporidium sp. (5%. No biotério B, observou-se: E. caviae (58%, Balantidium sp. (42%, Cyathodinium sp. (25% e G. muris (8%. A alta prevalência de endoparasitos nos biotérios sugere a necessidade de se rever a eficácia das barreiras sanitárias adotadas.This paper discusses the prevalence and intensity of infection of endoparasites in conventionally maintained Short Hair guinea pigs colonies from a breeding (A and an experimental (B facilities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It also evaluates the efficacy of the methods of prevention adopted by both facilities. The search of parasites was performed by direct examination of intestinal mucosa and its contents, WHEATLEY's trichrome method and coproparasitological examinations by Ritchie's and Kinyoun's techniques. The prevalences of endoparasites found throught direct examination of intestinal mucosa and its contents were: Balantidium sp. (78%, Cyathodinium sp. (68%, Eimeria caviae (38%, Paraspidodera

  8. 9 CFR 3.126 - Facilities, indoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, indoor. 3.126 Section 3... Mammals Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.126 Facilities, indoor. (a) Ambient temperatures. Temperature in indoor housing facilities shall be sufficiently regulated by heating or cooling to protect the...

  9. 24 CFR 3.410 - Comparable facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparable facilities. 3.410....410 Comparable facilities. A recipient may provide separate toilet, locker room, and shower facilities on the basis of sex, but such facilities provided for students of one sex shall be comparable to...

  10. Calibration Facilities for NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, T.S.

    2000-06-15

    The calibration facilities will be dynamic and will change to meet the needs of experiments. Small sources, such as the Manson Source should be available to everyone at any time. Carrying out experiments at Omega is providing ample opportunity for practice in pre-shot preparation. Hopefully, the needs that are demonstrated in these experiments will assure the development of (or keep in service) facilities at each of the laboratories that will be essential for in-house preparation for experiments at NIF.

  11. Pig Production in Tanzania: a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, RT.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania's 1.58 million pigs represent 3.7 per cent of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Some 99.5 per cent of pigs are kept by small producers in units averaging 3.04 animals (range 2-48. About 18 per cent of households with livestock own pigs, 93.7 per cent of these having a herd of less than 19 and 69.2 per cent own 9 or fewer head. Scavenging is the main feed source. Maize bran is the principle supplement but some owners provide oilseed cakes and minerals. Domestic pigs are not indigenous to Tanzania and derive mainly from late 19th/early 20th century introductions. There have been few imports of breeding stock since 1961. Poor management, in-breeding, inadequate nutrition and rudimentary veterinary attention lead to low output from late ages at first farrowing, long inter-birth intervals, small litters, slow growth and high mortality. Government policy is not applied in practice. Animals are slaughtered in primitive private facilities or household compounds with little concern for welfare or hygiene, often with no official inspection. Pigs can make a greater contribution to society but public and private sectors must provide additional support with particular attention to management, nutrition, health, welfare and food safety to achieve this.

  12. Pig model for diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a transgenic pig comprising a mutated IAPP gene and displaying a phenotype associated with diabetes. The invention also relates to a transgenic blastocyst, embryo, fetus, donor cell and/or cell nucleusderived from said transgenic pig. The invention further relates...... to use of the transgenic pig as a model system for studying therapy, treatment and/or prevention of diabetes....

  13. Effects of Changing to Individually Ventilated Caging on Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giral, Marta; Armengol, Clara; Sánchez-Gómez, Sonia; Gavaldà, Amadeu

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of changing to IVC housing on guinea pigs by recording several physiologic parameters in guinea pigs housed sequentially in open-top cages (OTC) and IVC. To register heart rate and locomotor activity, 10 male Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs implanted with telemetric transmitters were moved from OTC to new, freshly prepared OTC or IVC and subsequently monitored by telemetry during the 4 d after the first cage change. Body weight and food consumption were measured twice during the study. Comparison of data from OTC- and IVC-housed guinea pigs showed no relevant differences in heart rate (mean ± 1 SD; 213 ± 10 bpm and 207 ± 9 bpm, respectively) at any time point. In contrast, locomotor activity varied: whereas activity during the first 4 h after the change of cage type was greater in IVC-housed animals, that during the following 24 h was greater in OTC but was similar between groups thereafter. Animals housed in OTC consumed more food than did those in IVC and, under both conditions, consumption was statistically related to body weight changes. Together, these results show that a change to IVC housing induced only transient increases in locomotor activity in guinea pigs without a marked increase in heart rate but with a decrease in food consumption. Because decreased food consumption was the only stress-associated sign during the 4-d observation, longer studies are needed to ascertain the importance of this finding.

  14. Energy and nutrient cycling in pig production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Peter J.

    United States pig production is centered in Iowa and is a major influence on the economic and ecological condition of that community. A pig production system includes buildings, equipment, production of feed ingredients, feed processing, and nutrient management. Although feed is the largest single input into a pig production system, nearly 30% of the non-solar energy use of a conventional--mechanically ventilated buildings with liquid manure handling--pig production system is associated with constructing and operating the pig facility. Using bedded hoop barns for gestating sows and grow-finish pigs reduces construction resource use and construction costs of pig production systems. The hoop based systems also requires approximately 40% less non-solar energy to operate as the conventional system although hoop barn-based systems may require more feed. The total non-solar energy input associated with one 136 kg pig produced in a conventional farrow-to-finish system in Iowa and fed a typical corn-soybean meal diet that includes synthetic lysine and exogenous phytase is 967.9 MJ. Consuming the non-solar energy results in emissions of 79.8 kg CO2 equivalents. Alternatively producing the same pig in a system using bedded hoop barns for gestating sows and grow-finish pigs requires 939.8 MJ/pig and results in emission of 70.2 kg CO2 equivalents, a reduction of 3 and 12% respectively. Hoop barn-based swine production systems can be managed to use similar or less resources than conventional confinement systems. As we strive to optimally allocate non-solar energy reserves and limited resources, support for examining and improving alternative systems is warranted.

  15. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig with a higher translational value. Several brain disorders have been fully or partially modeled in the pig and this has further spurred an interest in having access to behavioral tasks for pigs, and in particular to cognitive tasks. Cognitive testing of pigs has been conducted for several years by a small group of farm animal welfare researchers, but it has only recently received interest in the wider neuroscience community. Several behavioral tasks have successfully been adapted to the pig, and valuable results have been produced. However, most tasks have only been established at a single research facility, and would benefit from further validation. This review presents the cognitive tasks that have been developed for pigs, their validation, and their current use.

  16. Carbon dioxide production in animal houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Joergensen, H.

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with carbon dioxide production from farm animals; more specifically, it addresses the possibilities of using the measured carbon dioxide concentration in animal houses as basis for estimation of ventilation flow (as the ventilation flow is a key parameter of aerial emissions from...... animal houses). The investigations include measurements in respiration chambers and in animal houses, mainly for growing pigs and broilers. Over the last decade a fixed carbon dioxide production of 185 litres per hour per heat production unit, hpu (i.e. 1000 W of the total animal heat production at 20o......C) has often been used. The article shows that the carbon dioxide production per hpu increases with increasing respiration quotient. As the respiration quotient increases with body mass for growing animals, the carbon dioxide production per heat production unit also increases with increased body mass...

  17. Carbon dioxide production in animal houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Joergensen, H.

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with carbon dioxide production from farm animals; more specifically, it addresses the possibilities of using the measured carbon dioxide concentration in animal houses as basis for estimation of ventilation flow (as the ventilation flow is a key parameter of aerial emissions from...... animal houses). The investigations include measurements in respiration chambers and in animal houses, mainly for growing pigs and broilers. Over the last decade a fixed carbon dioxide production of 185 litres per hour per heat production unit, hpu (i.e. 1000 W of the total animal heat production at 20o......C) has often been used. The article shows that the carbon dioxide production per hpu increases with increasing respiration quotient. As the respiration quotient increases with body mass for growing animals, the carbon dioxide production per heat production unit also increases with increased body mass...

  18. Supplementation of Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product can attenuate the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce stress and acute phase responses (APR) following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4±0.1 kilograms body weight) were housed individually in pens with ad libi...

  19. Battelle Primate Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, R E; Wierman, E L; Málaga, C A; Baer, J F; LeMieux, T P

    1991-05-01

    The Battelle Primate Facility houses one of the largest collections of neotropical primates in the United States. The facility is a research resource for undergraduate and graduate students. Battelle staff, as well as staff and faculty from U.S. and international institutions. Researchers have access to the animals for a variety of studies encompassing several disciplines, a large collection of preserved tissues, and an extensive biomedical database. The facility is a World Health Organization Collaborative Center for Clinical Pathology of Neotropical Primates and is involved with the Peruvian Primatological Project in Iquitos, Peru, which provides opportunities for research in primatology and conservation.

  20. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  1. TARP Monthly Housing Scorecard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Treasury and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) jointly produce a Monthly Housing Scorecard on the health of the nation’s housing market. The...

  2. The effects of ractopamine on the behavior and physiology of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant-Forde, J N; Lay, D C; Pajor, E A; Richert, B T; Schinckel, A P

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of ractopamine (RAC) on the behavior and physiology of pigs during handling and transport. Twenty-four groups of three gilts were randomly assigned to one of two treatments 4 wk before slaughter: finishing feed plus RAC (10 ppm) or finishing feed alone. Pigs were housed in the same building in adjacent pens with fully slatted floors and ad libitum access to feed and water. Behavioral time budgets were determined in six pens per treatment over a single 24-h period during each week. Behavioral responses of these pigs to routine handling and weighing were determined at the start of the trial and at the end of each week. Heart-rate responses to unfamiliar human presence were measured in all pigs and blood samples were taken from a single pig in each pen on different days during wk 4. At the end of wk 4, all pigs were transported for 22 min to processing. Heart rate was recorded from at least one pig per pen during transport and a postmortem blood sample was taken from those pigs that were previously sampled. During wk 1 and 2, RAC pigs spent more time active (P pigs exited the home pen voluntarily, they took longer to remove from the home pen, longer to handle into the weighing scale and needed more pats, slaps, and pushes from the handler to enter the scales. At the end of wk 4, RAC pigs had higher heart rates in the presence of an unfamiliar human (P pigs had higher circulating catecholamine concentrations (P pigs. Circulating cortisol concentrations and cortisol responses to transport did not differ between treatments. The results show that ractopamine affected behavior, heart rate, and catecholamine profile of finishing pigs and made them more difficult to handle and potentially more susceptible to handling and transport stress.

  3. Factors that influence pig production in Central Uganda - Case study of Nangabo Sub-County, Wakiso district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Muhanguzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the factors affecting pig production in Nangabo Sub-County, Wakiso District, Central Uganda. Materials and Methods: A total of 11% (1350/12783 of all households in the Nangabo Sub-County kept pigs. The systematic sampling technique was used to complete the list of all pig farming households. This was done by taking 10th farming household until 10% of all the farming households were sampled. A total of 135 farmers were interviewed with semi- structured questionnaire. Questionnaire data was entered into Microsoft Excel worksheet and trans-ferred into Statistical Package for Social Scientists Results: Results indicated that 49.6 % of the pigs were raised in the semi-intensive system while 31%, 12% and 8% of the farmers kept pigs on intensive, tethering and free range rearing systems respectively. Farmers that raised their pigs on what is hereby referred to as semi-intensive and intensive management systems allowed their pigs up to five and two hours of open foraging respectively. Ninety eight percent of the farmers provided housing to their pigs and the commonest pig houses were local mud houses and a few of them were tree shades. Majority of farmers (85.2% watered their pigs at least once a day. The major factors limiting pig production were; diseases and parasites mainly helminthosis and African swine fever (ASF. Others included; high costs of inputs, lack of capital, unstable availability of feed resources, inadequate advisory services and feed price fluctuation (maize bran, sow and weaner, lack of good quality breeding stock, poor and unorganized marketing, lack of enough land, high costs of veterinary medicines and inability to keep records. Additionally, lack of enough water and uncontrolled pig movement grossly limited the pig production in Wakiso district. Most Ugandans keep their pigs in peri-urban areas of Uganda. It was however, noted that there were important limitations for pig production in the country. To improve pig

  4. Performance of finishing pigs in hoop structures and confinement during winter and summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, M S; Harmon, J D

    2003-07-01

    Performance of finishing pigs in hoop structures or confinement during winter and summer was evaluated in Iowa. Hoops are large, tent-like shelters with cornstalks or straw for bedding. During summer and winter seasons for 3 yr (1998 to 2001), six trials were conducted using three hoop barns (designed for 150 pigs per pen, one pen per hoop) or a mechanically ventilated confinement barn with slatted floors (designed for 22 pigs per pen, six pens in the barn). A total of 3,518 pigs started the trials. Summer trials were June through October, and winter trials were December through April. Target stocking density was 1.11 m2/pig in hoops and 0.74 m2/pig in confinement. Identical corn-based diets were fed ad libitum from 16 to 118 kg for 127 d. Pigs were scanned before harvest for backfat and loin muscle area. When seasons were merged (season x housing interaction, P > or = 0.05), hoop-fed pigs had more backfat (21.8 +/- 0.3 vs 20.8 +/- 0.2 mm; P 3.0 +/- 0.2 cm2; P marketing (marketing from hoops (3.9 vs 1.3%; P = 0.01) than from confinement. Bedding use in hoops was 92 and 122 kg/pig for summer and winter, respectively. Performance of finishing pigs in bedded hoop structures depends in part on thermal environment.

  5. Stockperson attitudes toward pig euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rault, J-L; Holyoake, T; Coleman, G

    2017-02-01

    Euthanasia is a necessary act for any facility keeping live animals. Nevertheless, the crucial role and responsibility of the stockperson in deciding and conducting on-farm euthanasia has been overlooked. Stockperson characteristics and knowledge that lead to appropriate decision-making and the skills to competently perform the procedure remain to be identified. An important component of the stockperson's characteristics that predict behavior is the stockperson's attitudes. This preliminary study investigated the factors that influence stockperson attitudes toward the practice of on-farm euthanasia in the pork industry. A total of 120 stockpeople from 10 Australian pig farms (ranging in size from 50 to 4,754 sows and from 2 to 32 employees) completed a questionnaire based on focus group input to assess their attitudes toward euthanasia and decision processes. Factors identified included stockperson attitudes and attributes (empathy affect, empathy attribution, feeling bad about euthanizing, and negative attitudes to pigs), beliefs about the working environment (perceived time constraints and relying on others), and factors related to decision-making (comfortable with euthanasia, trouble deciding and avoid if possible, confidence, insufficient knowledge, seeking knowledge, and using sources to get advice). Numerous significant correlations were found between these variables. Furthermore, regression analyses showed confidence as the only significant predictor of being comfortable with euthanasia (12.5% of the variance; euthanasia ( euthanasia, which comprises both a decision-making process and the act itself, can adversely affect stockpeople. This preliminary study offers insights for implementation of successful practical and humane pig euthanasia protocols on farm. This will benefit stockperson well-being and animal well-being alike.

  6. Data Management Facility Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, Nicole N

    2014-06-30

    The Data Management Facility (DMF) is the data center that houses several critical Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility services, including first-level data processing for the ARM Mobile Facilities (AMFs), Eastern North Atlantic (ENA), North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Southern Great Plains (SGP), and Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites, as well as Value-Added Product (VAP) processing, development systems, and other network services.

  7. 24 CFR 982.609 - Congregate housing: Housing quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Types Congregate Housing § 982.609 Congregate housing: Housing quality standards. (a) HQS standards for... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congregate housing: Housing quality standards. 982.609 Section 982.609 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  8. The Comfort Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Daniels, Ole

    This report describes the results of the Comfort Houses measuring programme conducted by Aalborg University in the period 2008 to 2011. The results from the houses included in the project are examined in detail in 8 house-specific reports. All house-specific reports referred to in this report can...

  9. Leak detector PIG for oil pipelines; PIG detector de vazamentos em oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camerini, Daniel Almeida; Weid, Jean Pierre von der [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Estudos em Telecomunicacoes; Camerini, Claudio Soligo; Maia, Carlos Eduardo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2003-07-01

    The leakage detector pig was created with the purpose of detect and locate leakages in a preventive way. The fast detection of small leakages decreases the probability of larger leakages. By means of a differential pressure system based on pressure data acquired through the pig's running, using pressure sensors installed on the pig's vessel, small leakages are identified and its positions registered. This allows a quick intervention at the identified location. The working principle is based on the pressure difference caused by the leakage, which is read by the sensors. The polyurethane cups responsible by the pig's propulsion are of a special kind capable of sealing a constant volume of product among them. So, when the pig passes through a leakage, the pressure in the middle drops compared to those in front and hear, generating a characteristic signal thus permit identification. The first prototype was tested intensively at laboratory facilities, and in a test pipeline showing excellent results locating precisely all the simulated leakages. Defects from different sizes with different flow where simulated and measured. This work has the objective to present the tool, its potential, the test results, to discuss its efficiency in detect and locate leakages and the possibilities for the future. (author)

  10. Elimination of Salmonella typhimurium infection by the strategic movement of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J.; Wingstrand, Anne; Nielsen, B.

    1997-01-01

    Three field investigations were tarried out to assess the feasibility of raising salmonella-free finishers from pigs born in infected herds, by moving the pigs to clean and disinfected facilities before their expected exposure to the bacteria from the environment. Three herds with persistently high...... levels of subclinical infection with S typhimurium in the finishing pigs were used, They practised all-in all-out management in the nurseries and in the grower units, A total of 844 pigs were moved, either at weaning, from the nursery, or from the grower unit to newly built or rigorously cleaned...

  11. 24 CFR 1710.214 - Recreational facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recreational facilities. 1710.214... § 1710.214 Recreational facilities. (a) Submit a synopsis of the proposed plans and estimated cost of any proposed or partially constructed recreational facility disclosed in § 1710.114. This item should...

  12. 24 CFR 891.675 - Prohibited facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited facilities. 891.675... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.675 Prohibited facilities. The requirements for prohibited facilities for 202/162 projects are provided in § 891.315, except that Section 202/162...

  13. Association between transmission rate and disease severity for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Tijs J; Bouma, Annemarie; Daemen, Angeline J J M; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Stegeman, Arjan; Klinkenberg, Don

    2013-01-11

    A better understanding of the variation in infectivity and its relation with clinical signs may help to improve measures to control and prevent (clinical) outbreaks of diseases. Here we investigated the role of disease severity on infectivity and transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, a bacterium causing respiratory problems in pig farms. We carried out transmission experiments with 10 pairs of caesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived pigs. In each pair, one pig was inoculated intranasally with 5×10(6) CFUs of A. pleuropneumoniae strain 1536 and housed together with a contact pig. Clinical signs were scored and the course of infection was observed by bacterial examination and qPCR analysis of tonsillar brush and nasal swab samples. In 6 out of 10 pairs transmission to contact pigs was observed, but disease scores in contact infected pigs were low compared to the score in inoculated pigs. Whereas disease score was positively associated with bacterial load in inoculated pigs and bacterial load with the transmission rate, the disease score had a negative association with transmission. These findings indicate that in pigs with equal bacterial load, those with higher clinical scores transmit A. pleuropneumoniae less efficiently. Finally, the correlation between disease score in inoculated pigs and in positive contact pigs was low. Although translation of experimental work towards farm level has limitations, our results suggest that clinical outbreaks of A. pleuropneumoniae are unlikely to be caused only by spread of the pathogen by clinically diseased pigs, but may rather be the result of development of clinical signs in already infected pigs.

  14. Association between transmission rate and disease severity for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Tijs J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A better understanding of the variation in infectivity and its relation with clinical signs may help to improve measures to control and prevent (clinical outbreaks of diseases. Here we investigated the role of disease severity on infectivity and transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, a bacterium causing respiratory problems in pig farms. We carried out transmission experiments with 10 pairs of caesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived pigs. In each pair, one pig was inoculated intranasally with 5 × 106 CFUs of A. pleuropneumoniae strain 1536 and housed together with a contact pig. Clinical signs were scored and the course of infection was observed by bacterial examination and qPCR analysis of tonsillar brush and nasal swab samples. In 6 out of 10 pairs transmission to contact pigs was observed, but disease scores in contact infected pigs were low compared to the score in inoculated pigs. Whereas disease score was positively associated with bacterial load in inoculated pigs and bacterial load with the transmission rate, the disease score had a negative association with transmission. These findings indicate that in pigs with equal bacterial load, those with higher clinical scores transmit A. pleuropneumoniae less efficiently. Finally, the correlation between disease score in inoculated pigs and in positive contact pigs was low. Although translation of experimental work towards farm level has limitations, our results suggest that clinical outbreaks of A. pleuropneumoniae are unlikely to be caused only by spread of the pathogen by clinically diseased pigs, but may rather be the result of development of clinical signs in already infected pigs.

  15. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Types Shared Housing § 982.618 Shared housing: Housing quality standards. (a) Compliance with HQS. The... the unit available for use by the assisted family under its lease, meets the housing quality standards... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing...

  16. Physical activity-induced alterations on tissue lipid composition and lipid metabolism in fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, A; Rey, A I; Olivares, A; Cordero, G; Toldrá, F; López-Bote, C J

    2009-04-01

    In a first experiment one group of pigs was maintained in free-range conditions according to the traditional way in a Mediterranean forest (exercised-1) and another group was housed individually and received acorns (sedentary-1). In a second experiment two groups of pigs were fed a mixed diet for the whole experimental period. One of these groups was housed individually in 8m(2) pens (sedentary-2). The other group was housed in a corridor and forced to walk daily (exercised-2). The subcutaneous fat and neutral lipids of muscle from the exercised pigs fed acorns had higher C18:1n-9, MUFA, C18:1/C18:0, MUFA/SAT and lower C16:0 and SAT when compared with the fat from the pigs fed acorns in confinement. Those exercised animals fed the mixed diet had also lower C16:0 and SAT in subcutaneous fat and lower SAT and higher C18:2, C18:3, PUFA and MUFA/SAT in neutral lipids when compared with the sedentary pigs, which may indicate that delta-9-desaturase activity was higher in exercised than in sedentary pigs. Exercised pigs had higher acid and neutral esterases and lower neutral lipase activity than sedentary pigs. No differences in the α-tocopherol concentration and TBARS values of meat samples among the pigs that received a mixed diet either exercised or sedentary were observed. The moderate exercise reduced the postprandrial concentrations of triglycerides in plasma, but did not reduce other plasma levels.

  17. Tail biting in pigs: blood serotonin and fearfulness as pieces of the puzzle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winanda W Ursinus

    Full Text Available Tail biting in pigs is a widespread problem in intensive pig farming. The tendency to develop this damaging behaviour has been suggested to relate to serotonergic functioning and personality characteristics of pigs. We investigated whether tail biting in pigs can be associated with blood serotonin and with their behavioural and physiological responses to novelty. Pigs (n = 480 were born in conventional farrowing pens and after weaning at four weeks of age they were either housed barren (B or in straw-enriched (E pens. Individual pigs were exposed to a back test and novel environment test before weaning, and after weaning to a novel object (i.e. bucket test in an unfamiliar arena. A Principal Component Analysis on behaviours during the tests and salivary cortisol (novel object test only revealed five factors for both housing systems, labeled 'Early life exploration', 'Near bucket', 'Cortisol', 'Vocalizations & standing alert', and 'Back test activity'. Blood samples were taken at 8, 9 and 22 weeks of age to determine blood platelet serotonin. In different phases of life, pigs were classified as tail biter/non-tail biter based on tail biting behaviour, and as victim/non-victim based on tail wounds. A combination of both classifications resulted in four pig types: biters, victims, biter/victims, and neutrals. Generally, only in phases of life during which pigs were classified as tail biters, they seemed to have lower blood platelet serotonin storage and higher blood platelet uptake velocities. Victims also seemed to have lower blood serotonin storage. Additionally, in B housing, tail biters seemed to consistently have lower scores of the factor 'Near bucket', possibly indicating a higher fearfulness in tail biters. Further research is needed to elucidate the nature of the relationship between peripheral 5-HT, fearfulness and tail biting, and to develop successful strategies and interventions to prevent and reduce tail biting.

  18. Pressure mat analysis for detecting and quantifying lameness in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.

    2016-01-01

    Lameness is a common problem in modern swine industry, affecting both animal welfare and economic profit for the farmer. Animal welfare may be affected due to pain and the resulting reduced mobility. A lame pig may not be able to reach feeding and drinking facilities and may have a higher risk to be

  19. Effects of immunological castration (Improvest) on further processed belly characteristics and commercial bacon slicing yields of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, J M; Bohrer, B M; Schroeder, A L; Matulis, R J; Boler, D D

    2014-09-01

    Objectives were to compare fresh belly characteristics, further processed belly characteristics, and commercial bacon slicing yields of immunologically castrated (IC) barrows, IC barrows fed ractopamine hydrochloride (IC+RAC), physically castrated (PC) barrows, intact males, and gilts. One hundred eighty-eight bellies from pigs housed in single sex pens (n = 48) slaughtered at 130 kg ending live weight were evaluated for flop distance, length, width, thickness, and fatty acid composition. Bellies were injected, thermally processed, and sliced according to standard protocols at a USDA federally inspected facility. Complete slices were sorted by trained plant personnel. Then, sliced bellies were individually packaged to maintain anatomical orientation. The effects of treatments were analyzed as a generalized linear mixed model with pen of pigs serving as the experimental unit for all comparisons. Belly thickness was not different (P ≥ 0.11) in bellies from IC barrows (3.74 cm) compared with bellies from IC+RAC (3.60 cm), PC barrows (3.94 cm), or gilts (3.64 cm); however, bellies were 0.42 cm thicker (P bacon manufactured from IC barrows were less than both PC barrows and gilts.

  20. The Use of Bioaerosol Sampling for Airborne Virus Surveillance in Swine Production Facilities: A Mini Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin D; Lednicky, John A; Torremorell, Montserrat; Gray, Gregory C

    2017-01-01

    Modern swine production facilities typically house dense populations of pigs and may harbor a variety of potentially zoonotic viruses that can pass from one pig generation to another and periodically infect human caretakers. Bioaerosol sampling is a common technique that has been used to conduct microbial risk assessments in swine production, and other similar settings, for a number of years. However, much of this work seems to have been focused on the detection of non-viral microbial agents (i.e., bacteria, fungi, endotoxins, etc.), and efforts to detect viral aerosols in pig farms seem sparse. Data generated by such studies would be particularly useful for assessments of virus transmission and ecology. Here, we summarize the results of a literature review conducted to identify published articles related to bioaerosol generation and detection within swine production facilities, with a focus on airborne viruses. We identified 73 scientific reports, published between 1991 and 2017, which were included in this review. Of these, 19 (26.7%) used sampling methodology for the detection of viruses. Our findings show that bioaerosol sampling methodologies in swine production settings have predominately focused on the detection of bacteria and fungi, with no apparent standardization between different approaches. Information, specifically regarding virus aerosol burden in swine production settings, appears to be limited. However, the number of viral aerosol studies has markedly increased in the past 5 years. With the advent of new sampling technologies and improved diagnostics, viral bioaerosol sampling could be a promising way to conduct non-invasive viral surveillance among swine farms.

  1. Searching for Trichinella: not all pigs are created equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Each year, millions of pigs worldwide are tested for Trichinella spp. at slaughterhouses with negative results. Yet, thousands of people acquire trichinellosis by consuming pork. So, where is the problem? Testing for Trichinella spp. is often performed on the 'wrong' animals; while the parasites are mainly circulating in backyard and free-ranging pigs, herds kept under controlled management conditions are the ones tested. Veterinary services should: (i) introduce a risk-based surveillance system for Trichinella by documenting the control of housing conditions and feedstuff sources, and (ii) introduce a capillary network of field laboratories for monitoring the parasites in free-ranging and backyard pigs. Investment of funds into the education of farmers, hunters, and consumers should be a priority for public health services.

  2. Assisted Living Facilities, Senior Housing (subset of the County's Points Of Interest dataset), Published in 2007, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Anne Arundel County, OIT GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Assisted Living Facilities dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It...

  3. Proposal for multi-agency facility : High Desert Interagency Partnership

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a proposal to construct a multi-agency facility to house the High Desert Interagency Partnership. The facility would be on federally owned land in Hines,...

  4. Housing Data Base for Sustainable Housing Provision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    percentage of the people living in these estates are tenants and cannot afford to pay for the ... developments, prospective house occupiers should be determined first in order to obtain relevant ... researchers putting the figure for housing ... materials to type of building design (Adedeji & ... schemes have become profit driven.

  5. House Price, House Quality and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.; Boelhouwer, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The literature on housing markets suggest that periods of economic growth are characterised by a demand for better housing quality and increasing prices. The basic principles of the theory are that the short-run price fluctuations occur due to market imperfection, while over the long term, causality

  6. The Children at Beech Tree House.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Malcolm

    1979-01-01

    The article describes the program at Beech Tree House, an experimental unit providing short-term education for multihandicapped children (9 to 13 years old) with deviant behavior. Sections address the following components: referral and duration of stay, facilities, parents, use of punishment, and research. (SBH)

  7. Seropositivity for brucellosis in pigs in slaughter houses

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Diego C. [UNESP; Keila C.O.D. Garcia; Jane Megid

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo investigar a soropositividade para brucelose em suínos em abatedouros. Foram coletados 910 soros de suínos, procedentes de 30 propriedades, abatidos em frigoríficos da região central do estado de São Paulo, e submetidos às provas de soroaglutinaçao com antígeno tamponado acidificado (AAT) e 2-Mercaptoetanol (2-Me) objetivando determinar a ocorrência da enfermidade nesta espécie. do total de soros avaliados foram observados 25 (2,7%) animais reagentes ao A...

  8. Hematological Assessment in Pet Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus): Blood Sample Collection and Blood Cell Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Moore, David M; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Pet guinea pigs are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history and exam findings, diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, the volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal guinea pigs are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of guinea pig leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count.

  9. A methodology to select particle morpho-chemical characteristics to use in source apportionment of particulate matter from livestock houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambra-Lopez, M.; Hermosilla, T.; Aarnink, A.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Intensive poultry and pig houses are major point sources of particulate matter (PM) emissions. The knowledge on the contribution of individual sources to PM in different fractions is essential to improve PM reduction from livestock houses. We developed a methodology to investigate which input data

  10. Effect of floor type on the growth performance and health status of growing-finishing pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcimartin, M. A.; Ovejero, I.; Vazquez Minguela, J.; Daza, A.

    2008-07-01

    Using a factorial design: two full floor types, concrete vs. concrete waterproofed with resin (resin floor) and two slat types, concrete vs. metal, were used to house 72 pigs in four rooms (18 pigs room-1). During the experimental period which lasted from 22.9 kg to 112.7 kg live weight the four groups of pigs received the same feed. Growth, water consumption and health status of the pigs as well as subjective odour level inside the rooms were studied. The resin floor with metal slats tended (P < 0.1) to improve feed conversion efficiency and positively affected (P < 0.03) pig health. In the room with the resin floor and metal slats odour level was significantly lower than in the other three rooms. The potential predictive function for the relationship between average daily water consumption (WC, in L) and feed average daily intake (FADI, in kg) is WC = 2.692 x FADI{sup 1}.265. Odour level increased with pig live weight. The use of resin as an impermeable floor material is promising for housing growing, finishing pigs. (Author)

  11. Temperature Preference in IAF Hairless and Hartley Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleven, Gale A; Joshi, Prianca

    2016-03-01

    The Hairless strain of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) is the result of a spontaneous recessive mutation first identified at the Institute Armand Frappier (IAF) in 1978. Despite the longstanding availability of this strain, little is known about its thermoregulatory behavior. The aim of this study was to determine temperature preference in Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs by observing each strain in a ring-shaped apparatus containing a nonlinear temperature gradient. Temperatures were maintained by separately controlled heating mats lining the apparatus. Set point temperatures ranged from 24 to 38 °C. Guinea pigs (Hartley female, Hairless female, and Hairless male guinea pigs; n = 8 each group) were placed either singly or in pairs at 1 of the 8 randomized starting points within the apparatus. Subjects were observed for 30 min and coded for location within the temperature gradient by both frequency and duration. When placed singly in the apparatus, all 3 groups spent more time in the 30 °C zones. However, when placed as pairs with a cagemate, Hartley female guinea pigs spent more time in the cooler range of temperatures from 24 to 30 °C, whereas Hairless guinea pigs preferred a range of 30 to 38 °C. These results confirm a temperature preference of 30 ± 2 °C for both Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs when singly housed. However, data from the paired housing condition suggest that context plays an important role in thermoregulatory behavior.

  12. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  13. Risk factors for MRSA in fattening pig herds - a meta-analysis using pooled data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Sabine; Beißwanger, Elena; Käsbohrer, Annemarie; Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois

    2014-11-01

    The importance of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) as an infectious agent for humans has increased in recent years in Germany. Although it is well known that the prevalence of MRSA in pig farms is high, risk factors for the presence of MRSA in herds of fattening pigs are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate available data from previous studies on MRSA in fattening pigs in a meta-analysis to answer the question: What are the factors associated with the occurrence of MRSA in fattening pig herds? The studies on MRSA in pigs that were identified by literature research were heterogeneous with respect to the risk factors investigated and the type of herds focused on. Therefore we decided to carry out a pooling analysis on herd level rather than a typical meta-analysis. Eligible herd data were identified based on the published literature and communication with the authors. The final data set covered 400 fattening pig herds from 10 different studies and 12 risk factors. The prevalence of MRSA in the 400 fattening pig herds was 53.5%. Data were analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEE). The resulting multivariate model confirmed previously identified risk factors for MRSA in pig herds (herd size and herd type). It also identified further risk factors: group treatment of fattening pigs with antimicrobial drugs (OR=1.79) and housing fattening pig herds on at least partially slatted floors (OR=2.39) compared to plain floor. In contrast, according to the model, fattening pig herds on farms keeping other livestock along with pigs were less likely to harbor MRSA (OR=0.54). The results underline the benefits from a pooling analysis and cooperative re-evaluation of published data.

  14. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Carbon Excretion and Losses in Growing Pigs Fed Danish or Asian Diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Vu, T K V; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine inputs and outputs of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) and to estimate the nutrient losses during housing and storage in order to address these important parts of the whole manure management systems in pigs fed different diets.......The objectives of this study were to determine inputs and outputs of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) and to estimate the nutrient losses during housing and storage in order to address these important parts of the whole manure management systems in pigs fed different diets....

  15. Housing of Hobson's Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at policies implemented to improve troubled housing estates during more than two decades. Based on evaluations of implemented programmes and case studies the paper provides a basis for discussing a number of questions: • Why do we have troubled housing estates? • What...... is the definition of troubled housing estates? • Who lives on troubled housing estates? • Who owns and manages the troubled housing estates? • What have been the reasons behind improvement programmes for troubled housing estates? • What kind of improvement programmes have been implemented and with what kind...... of results? • Have improvement programmes changed the position of the estates on the local housing markets? • What are the changes in policies and results? • What are the perspectives for policy initiatives in the field of troubled housing estates?...

  16. How to Teach Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Joseph L.

    1977-01-01

    A list of topics and related field experiences accompany this description of an introductory undergraduate course on housing and society. Topics and community experiences are also outlined for a graduate course in advanced housing and interior design. (TA)

  17. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  18. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  19. Advanced Materials Growth and Processing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This most extensive of U.S. Army materials growth and processing facilities houses seven dedicated, state-of-the-art, molecular beam epitaxy and three metal organic...

  20. Low Speed Wind Tunnel Facility (LSWTF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: This facility consists of a large-scale, low-speed open-loop induction wind tunnel which has been modified to house a linear turbine cascade. A 125-hp...

  1. Advanced Materials Growth and Processing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This most extensive of U.S. Army materials growth and processing facilities houses seven dedicated, state-of-the-art, molecular beam epitaxy and three metal organic...

  2. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price b

  3. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price

  4. Situation-Based Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder

    2011-01-01

    Presentation of urban housing research on flexible housing types in the Copenhagen Region: Theoretical background, methodology, analyse of spatial organization, interviews and results. Cases: Pærehaven in Ølby, Køge and M-house in Ørestad, Copenhagen...

  5. Facilities & Leadership

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The facilities web service provides VA facility information. The VA facilities locator is a feature that is available across the enterprise, on any webpage, for the...

  6. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Authorities - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Public Housing was established to provide decent and safe rental housing for eligible low-income families, the elderly, and persons with disabilities. Public housing...

  7. Housing Space Quality towards Quality Of Life: A Case Study of Double Storey Terrace Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakar Aniza Abu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of every housing area is determined by its user satisfaction level, living there. The quality of the house, its spaces within the unit, housing neighbourhood and green open space can directly influence the quality of life. Limitation of space following high land cost in an urban area, evaluation of the housing environment as a whole including the green open space needs to be studied as it affects the residents’ satisfaction level. This study concentrates on spaces within a housing area to evaluate the residents’ level of satisfaction of the Taman Melati Mastika (TMM, Kuala Lumpur and to understand how they perceived their quality of life through the housing environment and the availability of green open space. Thus, this research was carried out through site observation and analysis, and self-administered questionnaire survey. 247 questionnaire surveys were distributed to the residents of TMM and (n=62 responded. When focused on the housing unit, this study provides insight on the types of outdoor spaces (front yard-front lane and backyard-back lane and their elements and utilization, and quality of housing spaces toward users’ quality of life in TMM, Kuala Lumpur. On the green open space, the assessment of the quality of life is based on three factors that are the safety level of the neighbourhood and park, health issues related to housing environment and park as well as the satisfaction on the housing amenities and park facilities. The result of this study suggests that the residents are satisfied with the existing spaces within their compound and adjacent to it and this lead towards the overall satisfaction living in the area. The quality of space and good utilisation of housing areas can lead towards a better quality of life in the Terrace housing area is confirmed.

  8. Spot-on Treatments of Diflubenzuron and Permethrin to Control a Guinea Pig Louse, Gliricola Porcelli (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (L.)) (Rodentia: Caviidae) are pets and laboratory animals. They can be infested by a chewing louse, Gliricola porcelli (Schrank) (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), which is fairly common in some animal rearing facilities, pet stores, and on wild guinea pigs. Infestation with G....

  9. BHA study in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtzen, G; Olsen, P

    1986-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was given to pregnant SPF pigs (Danish Landrace) in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day from mating to day 110 of the gestation period. The BHA was mixed in the diet (pelleted). Caesarean section was performed on gestation day 110. BHA affected neither the reproduction data nor the incidence of defects in the foetuses. Significantly lower weight gain was observed in the group of dams on the highest dose. Absolute and relative organ weights for the liver and thyroid gland showed a dose-related increase. Proliferative and parakeratotic proliferative changes of the stratified epithelium of the stomach were found in both control and treated pigs. In addition, proliferative and parakeratotic changes of the oesophageal epithelium were observed in a few pigs in the two groups on the highest doses. Papillomas were not found, and no changes of the glandular part of the stomach were observed.

  10. Biochemistry Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Biochemistry Facility provides expert services and consultation in biochemical enzyme assays and protein purification. The facility currently features 1) Liquid...

  11. Inadequate housing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two themes are evident in housing research in Ghana. One involves the study of how to increase the number of dwellings to correct the overall housing deficit, and the other focuses on how to improve housing for slum dwellers. Between these two extremes, there is relatively little research on why the existing buildings are poorly maintained. This paper is based on a review of existing studies on inadequate housing. It synthesises the evidence on the possible reasons for this neglect, makes a case for better maintenance and analyses possible ways of reversing the problem of inadequate housing.

  12. Dutch house price fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Haffner, M.E.A.; De Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price bubble ready to burst; (2) whether house prices will decline in response to the credit crisis that started in 2007; and (3) whether it is likely that house prices will decrease as a result of reform...

  13. Moodulmaja Passion House = "Passion House" modular home

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Moodulmaja Passion House. Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali innovatsioonipreemia 2013 kvaliteetse disaini ja perspektiivika arendustegevuse oskusliku sidumise eest. Arhitekt Eero Endjärv (Arhitekt11), sisearhitekt Hannelore Kääramees (Arhitekt11)

  14. Housing Data Base for Sustainable Housing Provision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology 10, 1, June 20 I 7. 53 ... (Adedayo, 2013). It was the expectation of ... factor responsible for the increase in housing demand in the city centres as .... many architects simply discuss with the client.

  15. Moodulmaja Passion House = "Passion House" modular home

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Moodulmaja Passion House. Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali innovatsioonipreemia 2013 kvaliteetse disaini ja perspektiivika arendustegevuse oskusliku sidumise eest. Arhitekt Eero Endjärv (Arhitekt11), sisearhitekt Hannelore Kääramees (Arhitekt11)

  16. Pig design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pasupuleti, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Pig makes Hadoop programming simple, intuitive, and fun to work with. It removes the complexity from Map Reduce programming by giving the programmer immense power through its flexibility. What used to be extremely lengthy and intricate code written in other high level languages can now be written in almost one tenth of the size using its easy to understand constructs. Pig has proven to be the easiest way to learn how to program Hadoop clusters, as evidenced by its widespread adoption. This comprehensive guide enables readers to readily use design patterns to simplify the creation of complex da

  17. Assisted Housing - Multifamily Properties - Assisted

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Multifamily Housing property portfolio consist primarily of rental housing properties with five or more dwelling units such as apartments or town houses, but...

  18. Terminology for houses and house remains

    OpenAIRE

    Rosberg, Karin

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain lucidity, it is essential to choose adequate terminology when speaking of prehistoric houses. The understanding of house construction requires a terminology with a focus on construction. Very often, archaeologists instead use a terminology with a focus on the remains, and use an inadequate terminology for constructions, indicating that they do not fully consider how the constructions work. The article presents some suggestions for adequate construction terminology.

  19. Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in a Captive Facility Housing White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), Bison (Bison Bison), Elk (Cervus Elaphus), Cattle (Bos Taurus) and Goats (Capra Hircus) in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    A captive wildlife research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) due to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection in late summer and early fall of 2007. RNA from EHDV was amplified by RT-PCR from the spleen and lung tissues...

  20. Are you real? Visual simulation of social housing by mirror image stimulation in single housed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Johannes; Richter, S Helene; Steinle, Jörg; Deubert, Gerald; Hellweg, Rainer; Gass, Peter

    2013-04-15

    Individual housing of social species is a common phenomenon in laboratory animal facilities. Single housing, however, is known to inflict social deprivation with a number of detrimental consequences. Aiming to improve housing conditions of single housed rodents, we investigated the simulation of social housing by mirrors in a series of behavioural experiments and biochemical parameters in mice. We found that chronic mirror-image stimulation increased exploratory behaviours in the holeboard and novel cage tests, but did not alter anxiety, locomotor, or depression-like behaviours. Moreover, no influence on visual recognition memory was observed. Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, a biomarker for enrichment effects, were unaltered. In line, mirror-image stimulation did not alter home cage behaviour in mice housed with and without mirrors when left undisturbed. Thus, though we found subtle behavioural effects after long-term mirror exposure, we conclude that the simulation of social housing by mirrors is not sufficient to gain the presumably beneficial outcomes induced by social housing.

  1. Effects of dietary fibers with different physicochemical properties on feeding motivation in adult female pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Carol Souza; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2012-09-10

    The satiating effects of dietary fiber may depend more on physicochemical properties of the fiber than on total fiber intake. These properties are expected to affect satiety feelings and feeding motivation due to different effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of fibers with varying physicochemical properties (bulkiness, viscosity and fermentability) on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets: lignocellulose (LC), pectin (PEC), resistant starch (RS), and control (C) without fiber, in four periods in a Latin square design. Each fiber was fed at a low (L) followed by a high (H) inclusion level (7 days each). At 1h, 3h, and 7h after the morning meal, feeding motivation was assessed in an operant test, where turning a wheel yielded multiple food rewards, and in a runway test, where walking a fixed U-shaped track yielded one food reward. Pigs were observed in their home pen for 6h, using 90-s instantaneous scan sampling. In the operant test, throughout the day feeding motivation was higher for pigs on PEC compared with pigs on LC. In the runway, feeding motivation increased particularly at 1h after the meal for pigs on PEC compared with pigs on RS. Also at 7h, feeding motivation tended to decrease for pigs on RS compared with pigs fed other diets. In their home pen, pigs on PEC showed more feeder-directed behavior compared with pigs on RS. In conclusion, PEC was the least satiating fiber. LC and RS, despite a lower supply of available energy, were the most satiating fibers, possibly due to their bulky and fermentation properties, respectively.

  2. Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in growing pigs in Kabale District in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Sofie; Poulsen, Idahella H; Nejsum, Peter; Olsen, Annette; Roepstorff, Allan; Rubaire-Akiiki, C; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2011-03-01

    During the last 30 years, pig production in Uganda and neighbouring counties has increased markedly. Pigs are mainly kept as a source of income for small-scale farmers; however, the pig production is subject to several constraints, one of them being worm infections. A study was carried out in rural communities in Kabale District in the South Western part of Uganda in September and October 2007 in order to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in pigs based on coprological examination. Fifty-six households were randomly selected and visited. Housing system and deworming history were recorded. Faeces was sampled from rectum of one to five pigs (age, 3-12 months) per household. A total of 106 pigs were examined coprologically of which 91% excreted nematode eggs. The following prevalences of nematode eggs were recorded: strongyles (89%), Ascaris suum (40%), Trichuris suis (17%) and spiruroid eggs (48%). On household level, rearing pigs on slatted floors in pens significantly reduced the faecal egg excretion of strongyle eggs with almost 80% (p=0.010) and a significant interaction between floor type and anthelmintic treatment was found for spiruroids (p=0.037). Fifteen T. suis egg positive pigs were selected for post-mortem examination of the gastrointestinal tract. The post-mortem examinations revealed that 93% pigs were infected with Oesophagostomum spp. (worm burden, min-max 10-2,180), 73% with A. suum (1-36), 67% with T. suis (6-58), and 20% with Hyostrongylus rubidus (worms not quantified). In general, nematode infections were widespread and polyparasitism common in pigs in Uganda. However, worm burdens were moderate which may be related to recent deworming or to the practice of rearing pigs on slatted floors in wooden elevated pens.

  3. Urban housing quality and its health implications in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... in the city to elicit information about the types of residential units occupied by the residents of the city and the facilities available in their ... Secondary data was obtained from documentary sources. ... Key Words: Housing, Quality, Poverty, Facilities and Planning ...

  4. Effect of Marital Status on Living Arrangements and Housing Preferences of Retired Women Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Elaine; Pynoos, Jon

    The Foundation to Assist California Teachers (FACT) is a non-profit organization which owns and operates retirement housing for teachers. To identify the demand for additional retirement housing facilities and explore "shared housing" alternatives, retired women teachers (N=2,740) in California completed a mail questionnaire which assessed: (1)…

  5. Effect of Marital Status on Living Arrangements and Housing Preferences of Retired Women Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Elaine; Pynoos, Jon

    The Foundation to Assist California Teachers (FACT) is a non-profit organization which owns and operates retirement housing for teachers. To identify the demand for additional retirement housing facilities and explore "shared housing" alternatives, retired women teachers (N=2,740) in California completed a mail questionnaire which assessed: (1)…

  6. BHA STUDY IN PIGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, G.; Olsen, P.

    1986-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was given to pregnant SPF pigs (Danish Landrace) in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day from mating to day 110 of the gestation period. The BHA was mixed in the diet (pelleted). Caesarean section was performed on gestation day 110. BHA affected neither...

  7. Measuring emotions in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimert, I.

    2014-01-01

    Inonge Reimert monitored pig behaviors in positive and negative emotional states and compared the results. For her research, she used The Observer XT for behavioral annotation. She found very different behaviors to be associated with the two situations, such as play and tail wagging in the positive

  8. A Simple "Pig" Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  9. 75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan...

  10. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease outbreak in a captive facility housing white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), cattle (Bos taurus), and goats (Capra hircus) in Colorado, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, Pauline; Kato, Cecilia; Reeves, Will K; Rhyan, Jack; Spraker, Terry; Gidlewski, Thomas; VerCauteren, Kurt; Salman, Mo

    2010-09-01

    An ungulate research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado, U.S.A., experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) because of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection from 20 August 2007 through 26 September 2007. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation from the spleen and lung tissues of two white-tailed deer. Virus neutralization tests were performed on pre- and postoutbreak sera from other species maintained in the same facility, including bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), domestic cattle (Bos taurus), and domestic goats (Capra hircus), as well as postoutbreak sera from the surviving white-tailed deer. Serum samples that represented all species in the facility neutralized EHDV-1 and EHDV-2 either before or after the outbreak. The animals that neutralized EHDV-1 did not neutralize EHDV-2. No clinical signs attributable to EHDV infection were noted in any of the species other than the deer during the outbreak. Although experimental EHDV infections have been reported in bison and elk, natural exposures have not been previously documented in these species in North America. The roles that elk, bison, cattle, and goats might play in the epidemiology of EHDV in a close-contact multispecies situation remain unknown.

  11. 76 FR 40741 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Mortgage Insurance Premiums for Multifamily Housing Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... 2011, this notice announces that the risk categories ] incurring positive credit subsidy obligations... positive credit subsidy risk categories: (1) Section 221(d)(3) new construction/substantial rehabilitation... Housing Programs, Health Care Facilities and Hospitals and Credit Subsidy Obligations for Fiscal Year...

  12. The teaching house officer.

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffman, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Although medical students on clinical ward rotations receive a large part of their education from house officers, very often house officers themselves have had little formal preparation as teachers. Because students and teachers work closely together under special conditions, unique educational situations are created where much more than factual information is conveyed. Although some house officers are "natural" teachers, others find such activities uncomfortable or burdensome. Most people, h...

  13. Sustainable Housing Renewal

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sitar; K. Krajnc

    2008-01-01

    Following the already proved models the sustainable planning culture is endangering several methods directed towards the needs of tenants in the existing post-war housing stock. The case-study of our project is the renewal of the multi stored building in the housing estate Metalna, Maribor/Tezno (1949). It is based on the sustainable renovation principle for the quality of sustainable housing in functional, technological and environmental point of view. According to it, the idea of the projec...

  14. MICROCLIMATIC INFLUENCE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF PIGS WITH RESPECT TO DIFFERENT CONDITIONS OF FATTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Margeta

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare productivity traits of two pig genotypes fattened in two different ways, on deep litter and in a conventional way (flat deck, and to determine whether there was microclimatic influence on the productivity traits of fattening pigs. The research was carried out on 57 fattening pigs of both sex, divided into two groups by their housing. Each group consisted of pigs of two genotypes, i.e. three-way crossbreeds of Large White and German Landrace (LW x GL in the dam line, and of German Landrace and Pietrain (P in the sire line. Pigs were fed ad libitum with isocaloric and isoprotein diets. During the whole experiment, temperature, air moisture, air circulation speed and the content of NH3 and CO2 were measured in pens. No statistically significant differences were recorded with respect to temperature, air moisture, air circulation speed and content of carbon dioxide (CO2 and ammonia (NH3 in the air in pens with deep litter and without it (P>0.05. Pigs housed without deep litter had statistically highly significant (P<0.01 higher final weights than pigs kept on deep litter. Pigs crossed with Pietrain as a terminal breed, kept in pens without deep litter, had statistically significantly higher (P<0.05 average daily gains than pigs of the same genotype kept on deep litter. In the finishing phase of fattening, group of pigs being kept in pens without deep litter had statistically higher average daily gains than pigs kept on deep litter (P<0.05. The way of fattening had statistically highly significant (P<0.001 influence on live weight of pigs in the first, second and fourth fattening phase. Average daily gains in the starting two fattening phases were significantly influenced by the way of fattening. Its influence was very highly significant (P<0.01 in the finishing phase of fattening. Noticeable effect of the genotype was determined only for live weights in the second phase of fattening. Genotype influence was not

  15. The architects house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The architects house is an article on Edward Heiberg's own house built in 1924. Edward Heiberg was a strong advocate of functionalism, and of the notion that hitherto individualistic and emotional architecture should be replaced by an objective function-based architecture with dwellings for every......The architects house is an article on Edward Heiberg's own house built in 1924. Edward Heiberg was a strong advocate of functionalism, and of the notion that hitherto individualistic and emotional architecture should be replaced by an objective function-based architecture with dwellings...

  16. Social Housing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig; Scanlon, Kath J

    2014-01-01

    Social housing is a cornerstone in the Danish welfare society and is accessible for all households. By law, social housing must be rented at cost rents, which are based on historical costs; rents do not respond to market forces. Social housing aims to provide good standard, secure and affordable...... for the individual associations as well as each housing estate. In principle, each estate and the association it belongs to must balance its books. An important feature of the sector is the build-up of a funding system which makes it possible to support the financing of major renovations and energy measures as well...

  17. Physical properties of particulate matter from animal houses-empirical studies to improve emission modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Ehab; Nannen, Christoph; Henseler, Jessica; Diekmann, Bernd; Gates, Richard; Buescher, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining and preserving the environment from pollutants are of utmost importance. Particulate matter (PM) is considered one of the main air pollutants. In addition to the harmful effects of PM in the environment, it has also a negative indoor impact on human and animal health. The specific forms of damage of particulate emission from livestock buildings depend on its physical properties. The physical properties of particulates from livestock facilities are largely unknown. Most studies assume the livestock particles to be spherical with a constant density which can result in biased estimations, leading to inaccurate results and errors in the calculation of particle mass concentration in livestock buildings. The physical properties of PM, including difference in density as a function of particle size and shape, can have a significant impact on the predictions of particles' behaviour. The aim of this research was to characterize the physical properties of PM from different animal houses and consequently determine PM mass concentration. The mean densities of collected PM from laying hens, dairy cows and pig barns were 1450, 1520 and 2030 kg m(-3), respectively, whilst the mass factors were 2.17 × 10(-3), 2.18 × 10(-3) and 5.36 × 10(-3) μm, respectively. The highest mass concentration was observed in pig barns generally followed by laying hen barns, and the lowest concentration was in dairy cow buildings. Results are presented in such a way that they can be used in subsequent research for simulation purposes and to form the basis for a data set of PM physical properties.

  18. Brain opioid receptor density relates to stereotypies in chronically stressed pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loijens, L.W.S.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Wiepkema, P.R.; Wiegant, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    Opioid receptor densities were measured in the hippocampus of chronically stressed (tethered) pigs to study the involvement of endogenous opioid systems in stereotypy performance. Three groups of animals were housed tethered for 2 (n = 12), 5.5 (n = 12) and 8-9 months (n = 8), respectively, and the

  19. Brain opioid receptor density relates to stereotypies in chronically stressed pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loijens, L.W.S.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Wiepkema, P.R.; Wiegant, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    Opioid receptor densities were measured in the hippocampus of chronically stressed (tethered) pigs to study the involvement of endogenous opioid systems in stereotypy performance. Three groups of animals were housed tethered for 2 (n = 12), 5.5 (n = 12) and 8-9 months (n = 8), respectively, and the

  20. Life cycle assessment of segregating fattening pig urine and feces compared to conventional liquid manure management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous emissions from in-house storage of liquid animal manure remain a major contributor to the environmental impact of manure management. Our aim was to assess the life cycle environmental consequences and reduction potential of segregating fattening pig urine and feces with an innovative V-belt

  1. Inoculation of weaned pigs with E. coli reduces depots of vitamin E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Vestergaard, Ellen-Margrethe; Højsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    60 mg all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate) and E. coli 0 149 inoculation (inoculation of 1 × 108 CFU on day 2 and 3 after weaning versus inoculation of vehicle). The pigs were housed individually during the experiment which lasted for 10 days from weaning at 7 weeks of age. Blood was sampled on day 1 (day...

  2. Longitudinal gait development and variability of growing pigs reared on three different floor types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakakis, S; Guy, J H; Warlow, O M E; Johnson, G R; Edwards, S A

    2014-02-01

    Biomechanical investigation into locomotor pathology in commercial pigs is lacking despite this being a major concern for the industry. Different floor types are used in modern, intensive pig production systems at different stages of the pigs' production cycle. The general perception holds that slatted and/or hard solid concrete surfaces are inferior to soft straw-covered floors regarding healthy musculoskeletal development. Previous studies have compared pigs housed on different floor types using clinical, subjective assessment of leg weakness and lameness. However, reliability studies generally report a low repeatability of clinical lameness scoring. The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess the long-term effect of pen floors, reflected in the biomechanical gait characteristics and associated welfare of the pigs. A cohort of 24 pigs housed on one of three different floor types was followed from 37 to 90 kg average liveweight, with gait analysis (motion capture) starting at 63 kg. The three floor types were fully slatted concrete, partly slatted concrete and deep straw-bedded surfaces, all located within the same building. Pigs underwent five repeated camera-based motion captures, 7 to 10 days apart, during which 3D coordinate data of reflective skin markers attached to leg anatomical landmarks were collected. Pigs walked on the same solid concrete walkway during captures. One-way ANOVA and repeated measures ANOVA were used to analyse the gait data. Results revealed changes over time in the spatiotemporal gait pattern which were similar in magnitude and direction for the pigs from different floor types. Significant increases in elbow joint flexion with age were observed in all pigs (P⩽0.050; +6°). There were few differences between floor groups, except for the step-to-stride ratio in the hind legs being more irregular in pigs housed on partly slatted floors (P=0.012; 3.6 times higher s.d.) compared with those on 5 to 10 cm straw-bedding in all

  3. Community-acquired MRSA and pig-farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voss Andreas

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sporadic cases of CA-MRSA in persons without risk-factors for MRSA carriage are increasing. Case presentation We report a MRSA cluster among family members of a pig-farmer, his co-workers and his pigs. Initially a young mother was seen with mastitis due to MRSA. Six months later her baby daughter was admitted to the hospital with pneumococcal otitis. After staying five days in hospital, the baby was found to be MRSA positive. At that point it was decided to look for a possible source, such as other family members and house-hold animals, including pigs on the farm, since those were reported as a possible source of MRSA earlier. Swabs were taken from the throat and nares of family members and co-workers. A veterinarian obtained swabs from the nares, throat and perineum of 10 pigs. Swabs were cultured following a national protocol to detect MRSA that included the use of an enrichment broth. Animal and human strains were characterized by PFGE, spa-typing, MLST analysis, SSCmec, AGR typing, and the detection for PVL, LukM, and TSST toxin genes. Three family members, three co-workers, and 8 of the 10 pigs were MRSA positive. With the exception of the initial case (the mother all persons were solely colonized, with no signs of clinical infections. After digestion with SmaI, none of the strains showed any bands using PFGE. All isolates belonged to spa type t108 and ST398. Conclusion 1. This report clearly shows clonal spread and transmission between humans and pigs in the Netherlands. 2. MLST sequence type 398 might be of international importance as pig-MRSA, since this type was shown earlier to be present in epidemiologically unrelated French pigs and pig-farmers. 3. Research is needed to evaluate whether this is a local problem or a new source of MRSA, that puts the until now successful Search and Destroy policy of the Netherlands at risk.

  4. The pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina eStenfeldt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The greatest proportion of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental investigations suggest that critical components of FMD pathogenesis, immunology, and vaccinology cannot be extrapolated from investigations performed in cattle to explain or predict outcomes of infection or vaccination in pigs. Furthermore, it has been shown that failure to account for these differences may have substantial consequences when FMD outbreaks occur in areas with dense pig populations. Recent experimental studies have confirmed some aspects of conventional wisdom by demonstrating that pigs are more susceptible to FMD virus (FMDV infection via exposure of the upper gastrointestinal tract (oropharynx than through inhalation of virus. The infection spreads rapidly within groups of pigs that are housed together, although efficiency of transmission may vary depending on virus strain and exposure intensity. Multiple investigations have demonstrated that physical separation of pigs is sufficient to prevent virus transmission under experimental conditions. Detailed pathogenesis studies have recently demonstrated that specialized epithelium within porcine oropharyngeal tonsils constitute the primary infection sites following simulated-natural virus exposure. Furthermore, epithelium of the tonsil of the soft palate supports substantial virus replication during the clinical phase of infection, thus providing large amounts of virus that can be shed into the environment. Due to massive amplification and shedding of virus, acutely infected pigs constitute a considerable source of contagion. FMDV infection results in modulation of several components of the host immune response. The infection is ultimately cleared in association with a strong humoral response and, in

  5. Detection of antibodies against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus GDVII strain in experimental guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häger, C; Glage, S; Held, N; Bleich, E M; Burghard, A; Mähler, M; Bleich, André

    2016-10-01

    A disease affecting guinea pigs called 'guinea pig lameness' characterized by clinical signs of depression, lameness of limbs, flaccid paralysis, weight loss and death within a few weeks was first described by Römer in 1911. After a research group in our facility kept laboratory guinea pigs from two different origins together in one room, lameness was observed in two animals. Further investigations revealed a serological immune response against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV; GDVII strain) in these animals. Histopathology of the lumbar spinal cord of these animals showed mononuclear cell infiltration and necrotic neurons in the anterior horn. Therefore, all guinea pigs from this contaminated animal unit, from other units in our facility, as well as from different European institutions and breeding centres were screened for antibodies directed against GDVII. Our investigations showed that approximately 80% of all guinea pigs from the contaminated animal unit were seropositive for GDVII, whereas animals from other separate units were completely negative. In addition, 43% of tested sera from the different European institutions and breeding centres contained antibodies against GDVII. The present data confirm that an unknown viral infection causes an immune response in experimental guinea pigs leading to seroconversion against GDVII and that guinea pigs from a commercial breeder are the source of the infection.

  6. Conformity of House Physical Condition and Socio-Economic Mobility in Post Disaster Resettlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggraeni Puspitaningtyas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mudflow disaster damage job opportunity, disrupt social life and settlement, thus requiring resettlement. Need to understand whether physical condition of resettlement is in accordance with background and housing preference of victim, due to significant differences of housing design. Aspects studied were characteristic of resettlement, physical condition of house and socio-economic mobility. Research was done using qualitative method. Technique of data collection was used retrospective interviews and observation. This research result indicates that most participants experienced conformity in house physical condition and socioeconomic mobility. Reason of unconformity condition is housing facility which has not meet housing standard.

  7. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birck, Malene M; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken M; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-10-11

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e.g., the saphenous and jugular veins, each technique containing both advantages and disadvantages(4,5). Here, we present four different blood sampling techniques for either conscious or anaesthetized guinea pigs. The procedures are all non-terminal procedures provided that sample volumes and number of samples do not exceed guidelines for blood collection in laboratory animals(6). All the described methods have been thoroughly tested and applied for repeated in vivo blood sampling in studies within our research facility.

  8. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  9. The guinea-pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D

    1980-01-01

    14C ring-labelled hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid dissolved in acetone were applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (4 microgram/cm2). Percutaneous absorption was quantified by following the excretion of tracer in urine and faeces for 5 days. Absorption of hydrocortisone and benzoic acid...... was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the skin...

  10. House Prices and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads

    This paper is the first to consider a large scale natural experiment to estimate the effect of taxes on house prices. We find that a 1 percentage-point increase in income tax rates lead to a drop in house prices of at most 2.2%. This corresponds to a tax capitalization for the average household o...

  11. Sustainable housing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hal, A.

    1998-01-01

    There is considerable variation in the extent to which environmental measures are adopted in housing construction in various European countries. Whereas sustainable housing is dearly part of day-to-day building practice in some countries, in others the topic seldom receives serious attention. None

  12. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  13. Dream house in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Asgaard

    2004-01-01

    This first book in the Utzon Library, which deals with Utzon's own houses, contains a number of drawings that have not previously been published. This is especially true of the four projects for his house in Bayview, Sydney, which unfortunately never got past the drawing stage, as Utzon had left ...

  14. Sustainable housing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hal, A.

    1998-01-01

    There is considerable variation in the extent to which environmental measures are adopted in housing construction in various European countries. Whereas sustainable housing is dearly part of day-to-day building practice in some countries, in others the topic seldom receives serious attention. None o

  15. Facility Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Z.; Walling, R.; Miller, N.; Du, P.; Nelson, K.

    2005-05-01

    Microgrids are receiving a considerable interest from the power industry, partly because their business and technical structure shows promise as a means of taking full advantage of distributed generation. This report investigates three issues associated with facility microgrids: (1) Multiple-distributed generation facility microgrids' unintentional islanding protection, (2) Facility microgrids' response to bulk grid disturbances, and (3) Facility microgrids' intentional islanding.

  16. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline with...... to the saline/oil emulsion. Placing of the challenge patches affected the response, as simultaneous chlorocresol challenge on the flank located 2 cm closer to the abdomen than the usual challenge site gave decreased reactions....

  17. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Slaug, Bjørn; Brandt, Åse

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients and their home environments. The instrument was translated...... from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently from each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  18. Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse

    2009-01-01

    Development and reliability testing of the Nordic Housing Enabler – an instrument for accessibility assessment of the physical housing. Tina Helle & Åse Brandt University of Lund, Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine (SE) and University College Northern Jutland, Occupational Therapy department (DK......). Danish Centre for Assistive Technology. Abstract. For decades, accessibility to the physical housing environment for people with functional limitations has been of interest politically, professionally and for the users. Guidelines and norms on accessible housing design have gradually been developed......, however, the built environment shows serious deficits when it comes to accessibility. This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of inter-rater reliability, when used in occupational therapy practice. The instrument was translated from...

  19. Sustainable Housing Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Gert Michael

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Housing Design. Integrating technical and housing quality aspects of sustainable architecture in civil engineering education. Summary An integrated design approach to sustainable architecture is outlined that combines concerns for zero energy building, good indoor climate and adequate...... phases. The outcome shows that integrated design further solutions where sustainable urban forms of settlement can be highly energy efficient while also attractive from a user perspective. Key words: Sustainable architecture, integrated design, zero-energy-housing, dense urban living. 1. Introduction...... constructions, private and public outdoor space, housing, urban and architectural quality. The educational framework, curriculum and inte-grated design methods are preconditions for optimizing a design process where technical criteria, functional concerns and housing quality are addressed from the initial...

  20. The Pig PeptideAtlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselager, Marianne Overgaard; Codrea, Marius; Sun, Zhi;

    2016-01-01

    underrepresented in existing repositories. We here present a significantly improved build of the Pig PeptideAtlas, which includes pig proteome data from 25 tissues and three body fluid types mapped to 7139 canonical proteins. The content of the Pig PeptideAtlas reflects actively ongoing research within...... the veterinary proteomics domain, and this article demonstrates how the expression of isoform-unique peptides can be observed across distinct tissues and body fluids. The Pig PeptideAtlas is a unique resource for use in animal proteome research, particularly biomarker discovery and for preliminary design of SRM...

  1. Xenotransplantation and pig endogenous retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magre, Saema; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Bartosch, Birke

    2003-01-01

    Xenotransplantation, in particular transplantation of pig cells, tissues and organs into human patients, may alleviate the current shortage of suitable allografts available for human transplantation. This overview addresses the physiological, immunological and virological factors considered with regard to xenotransplantation. Among the issues reviewed are the merits of using pigs as xenograft source species, the compatibility of pig and human organ physiology and the immunological hindrances with regard to the various types of rejection and attempts at abrogating rejection. Advances in the prevention of pig organ rejection by creating genetically modified pigs that are more suited to the human microenvironment are also discussed. Finally, with regard to virology, possible zoonotic infections emanating from pigs are reviewed, with special emphasis on the pig endogenous retrovirus (PERV). An in depth account of PERV studies, comprising their discovery as well as recent knowledge of the virus, is given. To date, all retrospective studies on patients with pig xenografts have shown no evidence of PERV transmission, however, many factors make us interpret these results with caution. Although the lack of PERV infection in xenograft recipients up to now is encouraging, more basic research and controlled animal studies that mimic the pig to human xenotransplantation setting more closely are required for safety assessment.

  2. Gestation group housing of sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.; Vermeer, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Group housing of gestating sows is currently replacing individual housing systems around the world. Modern group housing systems allow performance in groups to be equal to that in individual housing systems. A crucial element in the success of a housing system is the way in which it deals with

  3. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Developments - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The general location of an entire Public Housing Development. A distinct address is chosen to represent the general location of an entire Public Housing Development,...

  4. Risk factors associated with swine dysentery in East-European pig production units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko C.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the risk factors for swine dysentery in East-European middle-size to large farrow to finish units with separate breeding and grower-finisher facilities. Ten breeding animals (3-10% of the female inventory and 10 grower tinisher pigs (80-140 days-of age were sampled in each herd for polymerase chain reaction testing (PCR for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B hyo in their feces. Of 139 farrow to finish units, 51 (36.7% were positive, 49 (35,3% were negative, and 39 (28.1% were inconclusive for B hyo by PCR. In breeding subunits, twelve variables passed the screening criterion for risk factors (P<.2 for B hyo PCR positivity. The odds of the breeding subunits being B hyo PCR positive were 3.5 times greater when the grower-finisher subunit was positive and the fiber content of the diet was >6%. Use of "all in all out" farrowing policy and having >60% multiparous sows, each reduced the odds of being B hyo PCR positive about fourfold. In growing-finishing subunits, fourteen variables passed the screening criterion for risk factors (P<-2 for B hyo PCR positivity. B hyo PCR positive status of the breeding subunits and higher fiber content of the diet were the most influential variable, with the odds of the grower-finisher subunits being B hyo PCR positive almost eight times greater when the breeding subunit was also B hyo PCR positive. Grower-finisher B hyo PCR positivity was also associated with the percentage of pigs housed on concrete slats, with the odds of being positive 7.5 times higher for subunits where more that 70% of the animals were kept on concrete slats compared to all other floor types. There was a strong association between grower-finisher status and whether the animals were in outdoor lots with the odds of being B hyo PCR positive substantially lower for pigs in outdoor lots compared with all other surfaces.

  5. Effects of Transport at Weaning on the Behavior, Physiology and Performance of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhairi A. Sutherland

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transport of pigs to separate production facilities at the time of weaning is a common practice, primarily performed to reduce vertical transfer of disease and enhance production and overall farm efficiency. During transport, pigs are exposed to numerous stressors in conjunction with the stress experienced as a result of weaning. In this review, the behavioral and physiological response of pigs experiencing weaning and transport simultaneously will be described, including the effects of space allowance, season and transport duration. Based on the scientific literature, the gaps in the knowledge regarding potential welfare issues are discussed. Changes in behavior and physiology suggest that weaned pigs may experience stress due to transport. Space allowance, season and duration are aspects of transport that can have a marked impact on these responses. To date, the literature regarding the effects of transport on weaned pigs has primarily focused on the short term stress response and little is known about the effects of concurrent weaning and transport on other aspects of pig welfare including morbidity and mortality rates. Greater understanding of the short and long term consequences of transport on weaned pig welfare particularly in relation to factors such as trip duration, provision of feed and water, and best handling practices would benefit the swine industry. Furthermore, the development of guidelines and recommendations to enhance the short and long term welfare of weaned pigs in relation to transport are needed.

  6. Effect of vitamins E+C and taurine on the oxidative state of DNA in the liver of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, E.; Strawa, A.; Chwalibog, Andrzej;

    2004-01-01

    Growing pigs (n=21)at an initial liveweight of 30 kg were divided into three groups of 7 animals each and housed in individual cages for 100 days. The pigs were fed with similar diets (13.5 MJ ME and 178 g crude protein/kg) but with different additions of vitamins C+E and taurine. The antioxidative...... vitamins E and C supplied to diets with high energy concentrations (containing lard) can act as pro-oxidants on liver DNA in growing pigs. Taurine decreased the concentration of products from nucleotide oxidation, but in the presence of vitamin E and C, promoted hepatocyte lesions....

  7. Thermoregulatory responses during thermal acclimation in pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Paulo Henrique Reis Furtado; Noblet, Jean; Jaguelin-Peyraud, Yolande; Gilbert, Hélène; Mormède, Pierre; de Oliveira Donzele, Rita Flavia Miranda; Donzele, Juarez Lopes; Renaudeau, David

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and thermoregulatory responses during acclimation to high ambient temperature (Ta) of pigs from two lines selected for high (RFI+) or low (RFI-) residual feed intake with the hypothesis that RFI- pigs producing less heat would better tolerate high Ta. Pigs (50 kg initial body weight; 17 per line among which 10 of them were catheterized) were individually housed in a climatic-controlled room where Ta was maintained at 24.2 ± 0.4 °C during 7 days and thereafter at 30.4 ± 0.7 °C during 14 days. Irrespective of Ta, RFI- pigs had lower feed intake (ADFI) and similar average daily gain (ADG) than RFI+ pigs. Whatever the line, ADFI, ADG, and feed efficiency decreased with increased Ta. Overall, the Ta increase resulted in an increase in rectal temperature (RT), skin temperature (ST), and respiratory rate (RR) within the first 24-48 h and, subsequently, in a decrease followed by stabilization. The RT decrease during acclimation occurred 24 h earlier in RFI- pigs than in RFI+. Thyroid hormones and cortisol decreased at high Ta and it was similar in both lines. Based on performance and RT, ST, and RR responses, it seems that selection for low RFI tends to ameliorate pigs' tolerance to high Ta. Nevertheless, this selection does not induce significant differences between lines in endocrine and metabolite responses during thermal stress.

  8. Survey of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Noviello, Emilio; Ianniello, Davide; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Little information is available on the occurrence of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in cavies kept as pets in southern Italy. Fresh fecal samples were randomly collected from 60 guinea pigs housed in pet shops or privately owned. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to identify and count helminthic eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts/oocysts. In addition, the specimens were analyzed also by the Remel Xpect® Giardia/Cryptosporidium immunoassay. Intestinal parasites were detected in 19 out of 60 guinea pigs (31.7 %). Paraspidodera uncinata eggs were found in 13.3 % (8/60) of the rodents examined, Nippostrongylus-like eggs in 10 % (6/60), and finally Eimeria caviae oocysts were found in 10 % (6/60) of the animals. In one case, both E. caviae oocysts and P. uncinata eggs were found. None of the samples was positive for Cryptosporidium or Giardia. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first survey of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs in Italy.

  9. Sunlight exposure increases vitamin D sufficiency in growing pigs fed a diet formulated to exceed requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, B M; Ingold, B C; Young, J L; Fensterseifer, S R; Wechsler, P J; Austin, K J; Larson-Meyer, D E

    2017-04-01

    Traditional confinement practices limit exposure to sunlight and vitamin D synthesis, and vitamin insufficiency occurs even with dietary supplementation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of limited sun exposure on serum concentration of vitamin D and the expression of vitamin D synthesizing enzymes in the liver and kidney of pigs on a vitamin D sufficient diet. White-pigmented grower pigs (29.7 ± 2.3 kg) fed 15% CP diet ad libitum providing >1,200 IU vitamin D3/kg of feed were exposed to sunlight for 1 h each day at solar noon for 14 d at the spring equinox (March pigs, n = 10) or summer solstice (June pigs, n = 5) and again before slaughter in June (March pigs) and September (June pigs). Blood for the analysis of 25(OH)D was collected before and after sunlight exposure. Traditionally housed pigs served as controls. After initial sun exposure, blood samples were collected from June pigs daily for 5 d and weekly for 8 wk to determine vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D decay, respectively. Kidney and liver samples were collected from the June pigs at slaughter after sun exposure for analysis of messenger RNA expression of vitamin D binding protein and synthesizing/degrading enzymes. Average daily gain (ADG) was not influenced (P > 0.5) by sunlight exposure. June pigs had fewer days on feed, lower (P = 0.003) ADG and were slaughtered at a lighter (P Exposure to sunlight increased (P sunlight exposure increased serum concentration of 25(OH)D in March pigs by 200% and June pigs by 67%. Serum concentration of vitamin D3 was decreased (P exposure. Expression of vitamin D binding protein, vitamin D synthesizing CYP2R1, CYP27A1, CYP2D25, or degrading enzyme CYP24A1 were not influenced (P ≥ 0.19) by sunlight exposure. Expression of CYP27B1 was decreased (P = 0.04) in the kidney but tended to be increased (P = 0.06) in the liver after sun exposure. These results suggest limited sun exposure can efficiently increase serum concentration of vitamin D in growing pigs

  10. A 25 years experience of group-housed sows-reproduction in animal welfare-friendly systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Stig; Sjunnesson, Ylva; Hultén, Fredrik; Eliasson-Selling, Lena; Dalin, Anne-Marie; Lundeheim, Nils; Magnusson, Ulf

    2014-06-09

    Since January 1 2013, group housing of sows has been compulsory within the European Union (EU) in all pig holdings with more than ten sows. Sows and gilts need to be kept in groups from 4 weeks after service to 1 week before the expected time of farrowing (Article 3(4) of Directive 2008/120/EC on the protection of pigs). The legislation regarding group housing was adopted already in 2001 and a long transitional period was allowed to give member states and producers enough time for adaptation. Even so, group housing of sows still seems to be uncommon in the EU, and is also uncommon in commercial pig farming systems in the rest of the world. In this review we share our experience of the Swedish 25 years of animal welfare legislation stipulating that sows must be loose-housed which de facto means group housed. The two most important concerns related to reproductive function among group-housed sows are the occurrence of lactational oestrus when sows are group-housed during lactation, and the stress that is associated with group housing during mating and gestation. Field and clinical observations in non-lactating, group-housed sows in Sweden suggest that by making basic facts known about the pig reproductive physiology related to mating, we might achieve application of efficient batch-wise breeding without pharmacological interventions. Group housing of lactating sows has some production disadvantages and somewhat lower productivity would likely have to be expected. Recordings of behavioural indicators in different housing systems suggest a lower welfare level in stalled animals compared with group-housed ones. However, there are no consistent effects on the reproductive performance associated with different housing systems. Experimental studies suggest that the most sensitive period, regarding disturbance of reproductive functions by external stressors, is the time around oestrus. We conclude that by keeping sows according to the pig welfare-friendly Directive 2008

  11. A 25 years experience of group-housed sows–reproduction in animal welfare-friendly systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Since January 1 2013, group housing of sows has been compulsory within the European Union (EU) in all pig holdings with more than ten sows. Sows and gilts need to be kept in groups from 4 weeks after service to 1 week before the expected time of farrowing (Article 3(4) of Directive 2008/120/EC on the protection of pigs). The legislation regarding group housing was adopted already in 2001 and a long transitional period was allowed to give member states and producers enough time for adaptation. Even so, group housing of sows still seems to be uncommon in the EU, and is also uncommon in commercial pig farming systems in the rest of the world. In this review we share our experience of the Swedish 25 years of animal welfare legislation stipulating that sows must be loose-housed which de facto means group housed. The two most important concerns related to reproductive function among group-housed sows are the occurrence of lactational oestrus when sows are group-housed during lactation, and the stress that is associated with group housing during mating and gestation. Field and clinical observations in non-lactating, group-housed sows in Sweden suggest that by making basic facts known about the pig reproductive physiology related to mating, we might achieve application of efficient batch-wise breeding without pharmacological interventions. Group housing of lactating sows has some production disadvantages and somewhat lower productivity would likely have to be expected. Recordings of behavioural indicators in different housing systems suggest a lower welfare level in stalled animals compared with group-housed ones. However, there are no consistent effects on the reproductive performance associated with different housing systems. Experimental studies suggest that the most sensitive period, regarding disturbance of reproductive functions by external stressors, is the time around oestrus. We conclude that by keeping sows according to the pig welfare-friendly Directive 2008

  12. American Housing Survey (AHS) 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  13. Housing Affordability Data System (HADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Housing Affordability Data System (HADS) is a set of files derived from the 1985 and later national American Housing Survey (AHS) and the 2002 and later Metro...

  14. National Center for Healthy Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Search NCHH Resources Ask NCHH Blog Building Materials and Products Consumer Survey Healthcare Financing How Can We Help You? Additional Resources Healthy Housing Clearinghouse Healthy Housing Links Healthy Housing Videos Lead ...

  15. The Housing Bubble Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Baker

    2005-01-01

    This paper explains the basic facts about the current housing market. It lays out the evidence that the rise in housing prices constitutes a housing bubble - and explains what can be expected when it inevitably collapses.

  16. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kim Y; Michailides, Themis J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house

  17. House Fly (Musca domestica L. Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Y Hung

    Full Text Available House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the

  18. Geographic correlation between tapeworm carriers and heavily infected cysticercotic pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth E O'Neal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Sustainable community-based interventions are urgently needed to control transmission of the causative parasite, Taenia solium. We examined the geospatial relationship between live pigs with visible cysticercotic cysts on their tongues and humans with adult intestinal tapeworm infection (taeniasis in a rural village in northern Peru. The objective was to determine whether tongue-positive pigs could indicate high-risk geographic foci for taeniasis to guide targeted screening efforts. This approach could offer significant benefit compared to mass intervention. METHODS: We recorded geographic coordinates of all village houses, collected stool samples from all consenting villagers, and collected blood and examined tongues of all village pigs. Stool samples were processed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens indicative of active taeniasis; serum was processed by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for antibodies against T. solium cysticercosis (EITB LLGP and T. solium taeniasis (EITB rES33. FINDINGS: Of 548 pigs, 256 (46.7% were positive for antibodies against cysticercosis on EITB LLGP. Of 402 fecal samples, 6 (1.5% were positive for the presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens. The proportion of coproantigen-positive individuals differed significantly between residents living within 100-meters of a tongue-positive pig (4/79, 5.1% and residents living >100 meters from a tongue-positive pig (2/323, 0.6% (p = 0.02. The prevalence of taeniasis was >8 times higher among residents living within 100 meters of a tongue-positive pig compared to residents living outside this range (adjusted PR 8.1, 95% CI 1.4-47.0. CONCLUSIONS: Tongue-positive pigs in endemic communities can indicate geospatial foci in which the risk for taeniasis is increased. Targeted screening or presumptive treatment for taeniasis within

  19. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  20. Rental Housing Finance Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The purpose of the RHFS is to provide current and continuous measure of the financial health and property characteristics of single-family and multifamily rental...

  1. State Housing Revival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Government funded housing for people in need is a challenge many countries face around the world. This research investigates how to sustainably regenerate post-war suburban state housing in New Zealand, in particular, the suburb of Glen Innes in Auckland. Reviving the community and regenerating...... the buildings is essential for improving the overall quality of the neighbourhoods both socially and physically. Achieving this in a holistic sustainable manner illustrates that there are alternatives to demolition and new builds, as the answer to the current housing shortage problems. New Zealand is confronted...... with the dilemma of what to do with existing government-funded housing which are no longer socially or physically suitable for the current demographic. New Zealand has a large cultural diversity with many new immigrants from the Pacific Islands and Asia. There is a need for culturally flexible and inclusive...

  2. Gingerbread-House Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenaker, Charles E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a sixth-grade interdisciplinary geometry unit based on Charles Dickens's "A Christmas Carol". Focuses on finding area, volume, and perimeter, and working with estimation, decimals, and fractions in the context of making gingerbread houses. (ASK)

  3. Legislative Districts - House Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer represents the Arkansas State House of Representatives district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of...

  4. In-house (disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Pavey

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2007 UNHCR established an internal working group to look at developing in-house policies for people with disabilities both for the benefit of people of concern to us and for staff members.

  5. Rotating housing turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allouche, Erez; Jaganathan, Arun P.

    2016-10-11

    The invention is a new turbine structure having a housing that rotates. The housing has a sidewall, and turbine blades are attached to a sidewall portion. The turbine may be completely open in the center, allowing space for solids and debris to be directed out of the turbine without jamming the spinning blades/sidewall. The turbine may be placed in a generator for generation of electrical current.

  6. In a Private House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Volkov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article features the advantages of living in a private house, such as feeling of privacy and safety and redistribution of roles between spouses, which have a positive impact on the family relationships, housekeeping and raising children. Besides, living in the country allows to cut down expenses: energy efficiency of present-day building materials enables to build a warm private house with minimum expenditure on warming, and with the possibility to freely regulate the heating system.

  7. No Full House

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Housing provident funds are plagued by non-use and embezzlement Embezzlement on a grand scale is sending shock waves through the Chinese provident fund industry. During 2005, a host of incidents were made public, with several serious cases involving funds of over 100 million yuan ($12.5 million). Recently, Liu Xiangyang, Director of Hengyang Housing Provident Fund Center in central China's Hunan Province, was charged with the embezzlement of 253 mil

  8. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  9. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, T.; Nygren, C.; Slaug, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument was transla......This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument...... was translated from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers, and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently of each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  10. Overexpression of Histone Deacetylase 6 Enhances Resistance to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuyan; Li, Zhiguo; Wang, Meng; Liu, Lin; Tian, Kegong; Li, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically relevant viral pathogens in pigs and causes substantial losses in the pig industry worldwide each year. At present, PRRSV vaccines do not effectively prevent and control this disease. Consequently, it is necessary to develop new antiviral strategies to compensate for the inefficacy of the available vaccines. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is an important member of the histone deacetylase family that is responsible for regulating many important biological processes. Studies have shown that HDAC6 has anti-viral activities during the viral life cycle. However, whether HDAC6 overexpression enhances resistance to PRRSV in pigs remains unknown. In this study, we used a somatic cell cloning method to produce transgenic (TG) pigs that constitutively overexpress porcine HDAC6. These TG pigs showed germ line transmission with continued overexpression of HDAC6. In vitro, virus-challenged porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) overexpressed HDAC6, which suppressed viral gene expression and PRRSV production. In vivo, resistance to PRRSV in TG pigs was evaluated by direct or cohabitation mediated infection with a highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strain. Compared with non-TG (NTG) siblings, TG pigs showed a significantly lower viral load in the lungs and an extended survival time after infection with HP-PRRSV via intramuscular injection. In the cohabitation study, NTG pigs housed with challenged NTG pigs exhibited significantly worse clinical symptoms than the other three in-contact groups. These results collectively suggest that HDAC6 overexpression enhances resistance to PRRSV infection both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings suggest the potential involvement of HDAC6 in the response to PRRSV, which will facilitate the development of novel therapies for PRRSV. PMID:28052127

  11. Diagnoses and Treatments in Health-Classified Fattening Herds Rearing Pigs All In – All Out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloniemi H

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes diseases encountered, medications used and veterinary involvement in all in – all out finishing herds belonging to one pork production system. The finishing herds had a particular management and housing regime. The pigs originated from health classified farrowing units. Information on 207442 pigs was collected from 595 log books. Altogether 91% of the pigs received no treatments. Four percent of the batches of pigs were given antimicrobial mass medications. The local veterinarian visited the herds on average 2.6 times during the finishing period and made the diagnoses in more than half of the cases. At least one pig was affected with arthritis or tail biting in more than half of the batches, whereas locomotory diseases were recorded in one third of the batches. All other diagnoses were encountered in 1%-13% of the batches. Only a few pigs were treated individually in the affected groups. Antimicrobial drugs were given to 8% and other medicines to 0.7% of the pigs. The diagnosis was missing at least for one pig in 29% of the batches and the information about the medicine use in 8% of the treatments was missing. The study shows that it is possible to rear finishing pigs with only a small proportion of the animals needing treatments. The need of mass medications was low, because infectious diseases affecting the whole herd were uncommon. The recommendations for antimicrobial use given by the authorities had been followed quite well. The farmers and the veterinarians should be educated in order to realise the importance of proper record keeping.

  12. Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong

    2015-01-01

    This thesis, entitled “Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand”, presents many aspects of pig production in Thailand including the characteristics of pig farming system, distribution of pig population and pig farms, spatio-temporal distribution and risk of most important diseases in pig at present, and the suitability area for pig farming. Spatial distribution and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand were studied using time-series pig population data to des...

  13. Perception of the environmental impacts of current and alternative modes of pig production by stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jean; van der Werf, Hayo M G

    2003-08-01

    The current industrial pig production model is in crisis, due to its association with environmental pollution, doubtful product quality and lack of animal well-being. In Bretagne (France), a region of intensive pig production, a survey of seven stakeholder groups concerned with pig production was conducted, as part of a research programme dedicated to the assessment of the environmental impact of different modes of pig production. A very large majority of pig producers (93%) and their suppliers (100%) considers pig farms as an asset for the region, whereas a majority of scientists (58%), activists (78%) and consumers (54%) sees it as a handicap. Differences among stakeholder groups are minor with respect to the perceived importance of environmental and social issues. Stakeholders agree on the relative level of responsibility of pig farms with respect to specific problems. For all groups unpleasant odours and water quality come first with respect to responsibility, for most groups soil quality comes second, followed by product safety and air quality. For a future improved mode of pig production, 76% of pig producers and their suppliers prefer to adapt the current model, for all other groups the majority prefers an alternative model. While pig producers and their suppliers prefer a slurry-based housing system, all other groups prefer a straw-based system. Pig producers see the slurry-based system as technically superior and associate the straw-based system with poor working conditions, whereas consumers associate the slurry-based system in the first place with poor water quality and associate the straw-based system with less pollution. These results will be of use in the research programme on the environmental impact of modes of pig production, as they indicate the environmental impacts to be considered and their relative importance. The results will also help in deciding which options should be assessed. It is concluded that the poor image of the current pig

  14. Behavior of immunocastrated pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Kássia Silva dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of immunocastrated male pigs compared with females and castrated males during the period before and after full immunization. A total of 30 animals were divided into three treatments, with ten animals in each (females, barrows, and immunocastrated males. The experiment was divided into three periods: 70 to 80 days of age (period 1, 81 to 110 days of age (period 2, and 111 to 140 days of age (period 3. The behavior of animals during these stages was evaluated. Immunocastrated males showed a higher rate of aggressive and sexual behavior during period 2, which decreased after the second vaccine dose. Both barrows and immunocastrated males presented high locomotion in period 1, reducing the frequency of this activity in period 3. All analyzed animals had a higher level of activities such as drinking, playing, and sexual behavior in period 1 than in the other periods, decreasing during the experiment. The remaining behavioral responses did not differ between the studied categories. Immunocastrated males had higher proportions of undesirable behaviors (aggressive and sexual related to the surgically castrated males and females, and these were reduced after the second vaccine dose. Immunocastration is effective in the reduction of behaviors such as agonistic and sexual at the same levels observed in females and surgically castrated males. However, immunocastrated pigs are more subject to these undesirable behaviors before full immunization.

  15. Passive House Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, I.; Joosten, L.; Boonstra, C. [DHV Sustainability Consultants, Eindhoiven (Netherlands)

    2006-05-15

    PEP stands for 'Promotion of European Passive Houses' and is a consortium of European partners, supported by the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy and Transport. In this working paper an overview is given of Passive House solutions. An inventory has been made of Passive House solutions for new build residences applied in each country. Based on this, the most common basic solutions have been identified and described in further detail, including the extent to which solutions are applied in common and best practice and expected barriers for the implementation in each country. An inventory per country is included in the appendix. The analysis of Passive House solutions in partner countries shows high priority with regard to the performance of the thermal envelope, such as high insulation of walls, roofs, floors and windows/ doors, thermal bridge-free construction and air tightness. Due to the required air tightness, special attention must be paid to indoor air quality through proper ventilation. Finally, efficient ((semi-)solar) heating systems for combined space and DHW heating still require a significant amount of attention in most partner countries. Other basic Passive House solutions show a smaller discrepancy with common practice and fewer barriers have been encountered in partner countries. In the next section, the general barriers in partner countries have been inventoried. For each type of barrier a suggested approach has been given. Most frequently encountered barriers in partner countries are: limited know-how; limited contractor skills; and acceptation of Passive Houses in the market. Based on the suggested approaches to overcoming barriers, this means that a great deal of attention must be paid to providing practical information and solutions to building professionals, providing practical training to installers and contractors and communication about the Passive House concept to the market.

  16. Social Housing Provision in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsenkova, Sasha; Vestergaard, Hedvig

    The paper provides an overview of trends and processes of change affecting new social housing provision in Denmark with a focus on Copenhagen. The local responses are reviewed within the context of changes to the unitary national housing system that functions with a robust range of private and non......-profit housing providers, and a wide range of fiscal and regulatory instruments enhancing the competitive performance of the social housing sector. The research analyses recent housing policy measures and their impact on new social housing provision in Copenhagen. The emphasis is on the mix of housing policy...... instruments implemented in three major policy domains-fiscal, financial and regulatory-to promote the production of new social housing. The system of new social housing provision is examined as a dynamic process of interaction between public and private institutions defining housing policy outcomes...

  17. Whipworms in humans and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawash, Mohamed Bayoumi Fahmy; Betson, Martha; Al-Jubury, Azmi

    2016-01-01

    -human primates suggesting a common African origin of the parasite, which then was transmitted to Asia and further to South America. On the other hand, there was no differentiation between pig-derived Trichuris from Europe and the New World suggesting dispersal relates to human activities by transporting pigs....... CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence for an African origin of T. trichiura which were then transmitted with human ancestors to Asia and further to South America. A host shift to pigs may have occurred in Asia from where T. suis seems to have been transmitted globally by a combination of natural host dispersal...

  18. Domotics Project Housing Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Payán, Alejandro; García, Alfonso; Bosquet, Francisco

    2016-05-23

    This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated.

  19. Domotics Project Housing Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated.

  20. Slaughter house solid waste management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhenny Ratnawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The solid slaughter house waste (SSW in Indonesia is generally disposed of into open dumped landfill. This type of solid waste can cause odor and atmospheric pollution if discharged directly into the environment. Additionally, it may spread disease due to the nesting vectors, and the resulting leachate can lead to groundwater contamination. This paper reviews the characterization of slaughter house (SH types and SSW generation potential and to review the development of treatment technology of SSW and its application. The SH in Indonesia is divided into 3 classes, namely: 1 SH for large and small ruminants; 2 SH for poultry; 3 SH for pigs. Application technologies in Indonesia include compost and biogas technologies, and the use of rumen content for animal feed. Problem in biogas technology is generally caused by the high nitrogen content in the SSW. The most suitable raw material for biogas production is herbivore waste. The main advantages of using SSW for compost production are: the appropriate characteristics for composting process, free of hazardous contaminant, and appropriate composting technologies are available to reduce environmental problems caused by SSW. In addition, rumen content is considered to be a potential alternative for animal feed because have high content of amino acids (approximately 73.4% of the total protein and rich in vitamin B complex. Among the disadvantages, the composting process of SSW requires long time period and generate air pollutants, such as ammonia and hydrogen sulphide.

  1. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in Guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken Marie

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical feature...... not exceed guidelines for blood collection in laboratory animals(6). All the described methods have been thoroughly tested and applied for repeated in vivo blood sampling in studies within our research facility....... of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require...... repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e...

  2. Investigation of the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers in mainland China by simulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linhai; Xu, Guoyan; Li, Qingguang; Hou, Bo; Hu, Wuyang; Wang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Dead pigs are a major waste by-product of pig farming. Thus, safe disposal of dead pigs is important to the protection of consumer health and the ecological environment by preventing marketing of slaughtered and processed dead pigs and improper dumping of dead pigs. In this study, a probability model was constructed for the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers by selecting factors affecting disposal. To that end, we drew on the definition and meaning of behavior probability based on survey data collected from 654 pig farmers in Funing County, Jiangsu Province, China. Moreover, the role of influencing factors in pig farmers' behavioral choices regarding the disposal of dead pigs was simulated by simulation experiment. The results indicated that years of farming had a positive impact on pig farmers' choice of negative disposal of dead pigs. Moreover, there was not a simple linear relationship between scale of farming and pig farmers' behavioral choices related to the disposal of dead pigs. The probability for farmers to choose the safe disposal of dead pigs increased with the improvement of their knowledge of government policies and relevant laws and regulations. Pig farmers' behavioral choice about the disposal of dead pigs was also affected by government subsidy policies, regulation, and punishment. Government regulation and punishment were more effective than subsidy. The findings of our simulation experiment provide important decision-making support for the governance in preventing the marketing of dead pigs at the source.

  3. The book house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Henrik; Agger, Steen

    1989-01-01

    The BOOK HOUSE (and its predecessor, the BOOK AUTOMAT) are computer systems aimed at supporting library users in finding fiction. They are examples of systems using a cognitive work analysis as the basis for design and evaluation - and build on studies of the information retrieval task using actual...... user-librarian negotiations. These studies led to the identification of a set of strategies for searching and retrieving literature as well as a mutri-kimensional framework for classifying fiction. Both of these have been necessary prerequisites for the design of the BOOK HOUSE, a flexible on-line data...... base retrieval system for novice users - both adults and children. The use of icons within a spatial metaphor to facilitate direct manipulation of the displayed objects on the screen forms the basis for the interface in guiding the users' navigation in the BOOK HOUSE. This report, one of three...

  4. Situation based housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Welling, Helen; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2007-01-01

    of approaches to these goals. This working paper reviews not only a selection of new housing types, but also dwellings from the past, which each contain an aspect of changeability. Our study is based on information from users in the selected housing schemes, gathered from questionnaires, information about...... personal furnishing and zoning as well as interviews. The study is also based on analyses of the architectural configurations of space, light and materiality. Our main question is: can the goal of architectural quality be maintained together with greater possibilities for individual development...... research results will be employed to create a categorization of housing suitable for changing life conditions and with a strong emphasis on high architectural quality...

  5. Emissions of particulate matter from animal houses in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Albert; Mosquera, Julio; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W. G.; Ogink, Nico W. M.; Aarnink, André J. A.

    2015-06-01

    In the Netherlands, emissions from animal houses represent a major source of ambient particulate matter (PM). The objective of the present paper was to provide accurate and up to date concentrations and emission rates of PM10 and PM2.5 for commonly used animal housing systems, under representative inside and outside climate conditions and ventilation rates. We set up a national survey which covered 13 housing systems for poultry, pigs, and dairy cattle, and included 36 farms. In total, 202 24-h measurements were carried out, which included concentrations of inhalable PM, PM10, PM2.5, and CO2, ventilation rate, temperature, and relative humidity. On an animal basis, geometric mean emission rates of PM10 ranged from 2.2 to 12.0 mg h-1 in poultry and from 7.3 to 22.5 mg h-1 in pigs. The mean PM10 emission rate in dairy cattle was 8.5 mg h-1. Geometric mean emission rates of PM2.5 ranged from 0.11 to 2.41 mg h-1 in poultry and from 0.21 to 1.56 mg h-1 in pigs. The mean PM2.5 emission rate in dairy cattle was 1.65 mg h-1. Emissions are also reported per Livestock Unit and Heat Production Unit. PM emission rates increased exponentially with increasing age in broilers and turkeys and increased linearly with increasing age in weaners and fatteners. In laying hens, broiler breeders, sows, and dairy cattle, emission levels were variable throughout the year.

  6. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 325 Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Applied Chemistry Laboratory (325 Facility) houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and mixed hazardous waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials, and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed, low-level, and transuranic wastes generated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, particulate, and gas. Some of these materials are also heated during testing which can produce vapors. The research activities have been assigned to the following activity designations: High-Level Hot Cell, Hazardous Waste Treatment Unit, Waste Form Development, Special Testing Projects, Chemical Process Development, Analytical Hot Cell, and Analytical Chemistry. The following summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  7. GREEN CORE HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NECULAI Oana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Green Core House is a construction concept with low environmental impact, having as main central element a greenhouse. The greenhouse has the innovative role to use the biomass energy provided by plants to save energy. Although it is the central piece, the greenhouse is not the most innovative part of the Green Core House, but the whole building ensemble because it integrates many other sustainable systems as "waste purification systems", "transparent photovoltaic panels" or "double skin façades".

  8. Pigs in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    Animals are rare topics in public health science texts and speech despite the fact that animal bodies and lives are woven into the health of human populations, and vice versa. Years of ethnographic and documentary research – following pigs and their humans in and out of biomedical research – made...... me mindful and watchful of the porous passages between animal and human bodies and environments that do not confine themselves to ‘national health programs’ directed towards a specific (human) population. These unrecognized species encounters and relationships, which exceed the conventional framework...... of public health, made me re-evaluate both what ‘public’ and what ‘health’ means in public health. In this commentary I provide a short personal account of that intellectual journey. I argue that entanglements between species make it urgent that public health scholars investigate the moral, socio...

  9. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...... with 30% (v/v) ethanol or saline, respectively. Relative viscosity was used as one measure of physical properties of the emulsion. Higher degrees of sensitization (but not rates) were obtained at the 48 h challenge reading with the oil/propylene glycol and oil/saline + ethanol emulsions compared...... to the saline/oil emulsion. Placing of the challenge patches affected the response, as simultaneous chlorocresol challenge on the flank located 2 cm closer to the abdomen than the usual challenge site gave decreased reactions....

  10. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; Borgsteede, F H M; Gaasenbeek, C P H

    2010-03-25

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharmaceutical approach to worm control. Therefore, phytotherapy could be an appropriate alternative. In the first experiment, a commercial available organic starter diet was supplemented with 3% of a herb mixture, adding 1% Thymus vulgaris, 1% Melissa officinalis and 1% Echinacea purpurea to the diet, or with 4% of a herb mixture, thereby adding the mentioned herbs plus 1% Camellia sinensis (black tea). A negative control group (no treatment) and a positive control group (treatment with conventional synthetic drug flubendazole) were included. In the second experiment, the anthelmintic properties against A. suum of three individual herbs, Carica papaya, Peumus boldus and Artemisia vulgaris, each in a dose of 1%, were tested. Pigs were infected with 1000 infective worm eggs each. Each experiment was performed with 32 individually housed growing pigs (8 replicates/treatment), which were monitored for 67 days. It was hypothesized that the herbs would block the cycles of the larvae, thereby preventing the development of adult worms. Therefore, phytogenic feed additives were not supplied during the whole experimental period, but only from the start until D39. Pigs were inoculated with infective worm eggs during five consecutive days (D17-D21). At D67 all pigs were dissected, whereafter livers were checked for the presence of white spots. Also numbers of worms in the small intestine were counted. In experiment 1, the numbers of worm-infected pigs were similar for both the herb supplemented (groups 3 and 4) and the unsupplemented (group 1) treatments (5-6 pigs of 8), while the treatment with flubendazole (group 2) resulted in 0 infected pigs. In experiment 2, herb addition (groups 2

  11. Estimation of the transmission dynamics of African swine fever virus within a swine house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. P.; Larsen, T. S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    The spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV) threatens to reach further parts of Europe. In countries with a large swine production, an outbreak of ASF may result in devastating economic consequences for the swine industry. Simulation models can assist decision makers setting up contingency plans......·00 (95% CI 0-1). Furthermore, we simulated the spread of ASFV within a pig house using a modified SEIR-model to establish the time from infection of one animal until ASFV is detected in the herd. Based on a chosen detection limit of 2·55% equivalent to 10 dead pigs out of 360, the disease would...

  12. Structural variations in pig genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Paudel, Y. (2015). Structural variations in pig genomes. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands Structural variations are chromosomal rearrangements such as insertions-deletions (INDELs), duplications, inversions, translocations, and copy number variations (CNVs

  13. Brachyspira murdochii colitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Christensen, A. S.; Boye, Mette

    2010-01-01

    The weakly beta-hemolytic porcine spirochete Brachyspira murdochii is considered a normal intestinal commensal. In the present study, however, a field case of B murdochii–associated catarrhal colitis was identified in a pig, as characterized by extensive spirochetal colonization of the surface...... epithelium. Experimentally, 8 weaned pigs were challenged with the B murdochii isolate, reproducing catarrhal colitis in 2 animals. By applying fluorescent in situ hybridization using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting 23S rRNA, B murdochii organisms were found in high numbers and were...... closely associated with the surface epithelium in the pigs with catarrhal colitis. The results indicate that, when present in high numbers, B murdochii is low pathogenic for pigs....

  14. Whipworms in humans and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawash, Mohamed Bayoumi Fahmy; Betson, Martha; Al-Jubury, Azmi;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trichuris suis and T. trichiura are two different whipworm species that infect pigs and humans, respectively. T. suis is found in pigs worldwide while T. trichiura is responsible for nearly 460 million infections in people, mainly in areas of poor sanitation in tropical and subtropical...... areas. The evolutionary relationship and the historical factors responsible for this worldwide distribution are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to reconstruct the demographic history of Trichuris in humans and pigs, the evolutionary origin of Trichuris in these hosts and factors responsible...... for parasite dispersal globally. METHODS: Parts of the mitochondrial nad1 and rrnL genes were sequenced followed by population genetic and phylogenetic analyses. Populations of Trichuris examined were recovered from humans (n = 31), pigs (n = 58) and non-human primates (n = 49) in different countries...

  15. Social housing and situation of Roma minority in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindita Xhillari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The right to social housing is sanctioned as a fundamental human right in a number of international instruments ratified by Albania, but currently this right does not find adequate protection in Albania’s legislation. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Affairs of the United Nations, has set standards concerning the right to adequate housing. The right to social housing should not be equated with having a roof over head, but should be seen as the right to live somewhere safely and with dignity. The right to social housing should be provided to all people regardless of their income and implemented in a manner consistent with their resources. Lack of an adequate legal framework of the right to housing, today has consequences on several issues as for examples the case of the eviction of Roma to the Lake area in Tirana, lack of adequate housing, families with low income, beneficiary families by the aid schemes, homeless women victims of domestic violence, or even the category of tenants housed in former state apartments. Through this paper we will seek to cover many issues and present some recommendations for the improvement and creation of facilities for vulnerable groups such as the Roma minority, in order to meet and set objective standards regarding social housing

  16. WILD PIGS: BIOLOGY, DAMAGE, CONTROL TECHINQUES AND MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, John; Brisbin, I. Lehr

    2009-12-31

    Savannah River Site (SRS), a 803 km{sup 2} federal nuclear facility, located in western South Carolina along the Savannah River. The SRS was a very appropriate facility to host this symposium. The SRS has been dealing with its wild pig problem since the early 1950s. A lot has been learned about these animals at the site over the ensuing decades. Between the USFS-SR, DOE-SR, SREL, and the site's management and operations contractor, which is currently Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, SRS organizations have conducted a wealth of research on this wild pig population, spanning a broad spectrum of topics and disciplines. In fact, the SRS wild pig population is among the most studied, and possibly is the best studied population of this invasive species found in the United States today. Unfortunately, with all of that work, the ultimate answer to controlling wild pigs and their impacts still has not been found. This volume represents the collected synopsis that was the goal of the aforementioned symposium.

  17. Mammography Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mammography Facility Database is updated periodically based on information received from the four FDA-approved accreditation bodies: the American College of...

  18. Health Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health facilities are places that provide health care. They include hospitals, clinics, outpatient care centers, and specialized care centers, such as birthing centers and psychiatric care centers. When you ...

  19. Canyon Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — B Plant, T Plant, U Plant, PUREX, and REDOX (see their links) are the five facilities at Hanford where the original objective was plutonium removal from the uranium...

  20. The effects of R-salbutamol on growth, carcass measures, and health of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant-Forde, J N; Lay, D C; Marchant-Forde, R M; McMunn, K A; Richert, B T

    2012-11-01

    A pure form of salbutamol has the potential to deliver positive production benefits to the swine industry. The aim of this experiment was to determine the effects of salbutamol on growth, carcass measures, and health of finishing pigs. The study used 192 pigs (89 ± 1 kg BW) housed in groups of 6 in 32 pens and assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: 1) control (CTL), 0 mg/kg salbutamol; 2) 2R, control diet with 2 mg/kg of the pure R-enantiomer of salbutamol; 3) 4R, control diet with 4 mg/kg of pure R-salbutamol; or 4) 8RS, control diet with 8 mg/kg of a 50:50 mixture of the R- and S-enantiomers. All diets were offered ad libitum for 4 wk. All pigs were weighed and pen feed intakes were recorded weekly. At slaughter, individual HCW and measurements of the 10th-rib loin muscle area (LMA), color, marbling, firmness, and back fat, last lumbar, and midline back fat depths were collected. Data were analyzed using Proc GLM of SAS, with pen as the experimental unit. Overall, 2R and 4R pigs had greater ADG than CTL pigs (P salbutamol-fed pigs had 5 to 6 kg greater HCW (P salbutamol-treated pigs. Taken together, these data indicate that as little as 2 mg/kg R-salbutamol has a positive effect on pig growth and carcass composition. However, the effects of salbutamol on meat quality require further research.

  1. Iowa House of Representatives District Boundaries for 2013 - 2022_85th - 89th General Assemblies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Iowa Legislative House district boundaries, enacted April 19, 2011, effective beginning with the elections in 2012 for the 85th General Assembly. The districts will...

  2. Housing price forecastability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Møller, Stig Vinther

    2012-01-01

    We examine US housing price forecastability using a common factor approach based on a large panel of 122 economic time series. We …nd that a simple three-factor model generates an explanatory power of about 50% in one-quarter ahead in-sample forecasting regressions. The predictive power of the mo...

  3. Housing Design: A Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leupen, B.; Mooij, H.

    2011-01-01

    This manual sheds light on every aspect of designing housing. The organization of the living space and the residential building is dealt with systematically, from the breadth, depth, stacking, access to dwellings and the urban ensemble. This revised edition has been expanded with 20 new exemplary pr

  4. The Helpful House

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Many everyday tasks are difficult—even impossible for people confined to wheelchairs.Now a unique house near Baltimore,Md., demonstrates how technology can make a building truly accessible. Developed by Volunteers for Medical Engineering in conjunction with several nonprofit organizations, Future Home takes advantage of off-the-shelf electronic controls that operate nearly all electrical and mechanical systems.

  5. Haunted by Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Two fourth-grade teachers presented the idea of using the author's art class to inspire the students to write creatively. The theme of scary stories needed an art project to match. The author immediately had a favorite lesson in mind. By putting a small twist on one of her standard "Frank Lloyd Wright House" projects, scary plans began to take…

  6. Housing Design: A Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leupen, B.; Mooij, H.

    2011-01-01

    This manual sheds light on every aspect of designing housing. The organization of the living space and the residential building is dealt with systematically, from the breadth, depth, stacking, access to dwellings and the urban ensemble. This revised edition has been expanded with 20 new exemplary pr

  7. Poultry housing and husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, H A

    2010-08-01

    1. In order to conduct this anniversary review, 10 excellent papers were carefully selected from the 148 available papers published on housing and husbandry in British Poultry Science (BPS) over the past 50 years. 2. The 10 selected papers on this subject covered mainly the housing and husbandry of laying hens, but two of them dealt with various aspects of broiler production. 3. Aspects of housing considered included a wide range of intensive and extensive systems of broiler and egg production. Specific topics included the effects of husbandry system on bird welfare, including skeletal damage in laying hens and contact dermatitis in broiler chickens, as well as the design and management of nest boxes, perches, feeders and drinkers, conventional laying cages (CCs), furnished laying cages (FCs) and non-cage systems (NCs). 4. A variety of the findings in these and related papers have enlightened our understanding of many aspects of poultry housing and husbandry; most of them have found application in the poultry industry and thus improved its efficiency.

  8. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  9. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  10. Schuepfen house, Schuepfen, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweifel, G.

    1999-07-01

    This row (terrace) house, incorporates a PV-powered closed-loop solar system constructed in 1985. It was rebuilt 10 years later to incorporate a water storage tank for domestic hot water production in the summer. The system delivers 2600 kWh of heat per year, saving approximately 450 kg of wood and 1200 kWh of electricity. (author)

  11. Social Housing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig; Scanlon, Kath J

    2014-01-01

    for the individual associations as well as each housing estate. In principle, each estate and the association it belongs to must balance its books. An important feature of the sector is the build-up of a funding system which makes it possible to support the financing of major renovations and energy measures as well...

  12. Housing First i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Lars; Dyrby, Therese Marie; Enemark, Morten Holm

    at borgeren får en intensiv social støtte i hverdagen. De evidensbaserede bostøttemetoder, der er anvendes sammen med Housing First-tilgangen er Critical Time Intervention (CTI), Intensive Case Management (ICM) og Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). Rapporten beskriver erfaringer omkring de ledelsesmæssige......Rapporten er en evaluering af arbejdet med at udbrede og forankre Housing First-indsatsen og tre evidensbaserede bostøttemetoder. Hovedprincippet i Housing First er, at udsatte borgere, der er endt i hjemløshed, får et permanent sted at bo allerede i starten af et indsatsforløb, samtidig med...... og organisatoriske rammer, målgruppen for indsatserne og om de konkrete indsatser i kommunerne. Evalueringen viser, at både borgere og kommuner har gode erfaringer med Housing First, men at især manglen på billige og passende boliger er en alvorlig barriere for udbredelsen af indsatsen. Evalueringen...

  13. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  14. Sanaa and density housing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Rui

    2012-01-01

    According to Green Metropolis wrote by David Owen, living smaller, closer, and driving less are the keys to sustainability. We should live more like Manhattan. This thesis analyses Gifu Kitagata Apartment Building designed by Sanaa studio, from architectural design aspect, as a great example to attract more people choose small apartments instead of big houses.

  15. Housing, neighbourhoods and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karin Wittebrood; Matthieu Permentier; with contributions from Fenne Pinkster

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Wonen, wijken en interventies Current Dutch neighbourhood policy is aimed at improving the position of 'priority neighbourhoods'. How successful is the policy proving? Does restructuring and the sale of social housing help? Does increasing the amount of green space and building

  16. The Children's House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Lili E.

    2013-01-01

    Lili Peller's "The Children's House" essay begins where Maria Montessori left off in her description of space articulations. Peller does not name Montessori specifically as she always had a desire to become independent in her own right as a neo-Freudian child analyst. But the Haus Der Kinder founded in summer of 1922 suggests a total…

  17. Doll's House Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Bob

    2009-01-01

    School physics rarely stands still for long. Environmental physics is now an option in some post-16 courses in England. The physics of environments, and in particular the built environment, offers a recognizable context in which to see the applications of physics at work. This article considers how a model doll's house might be used to help…

  18. Haunted by Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Two fourth-grade teachers presented the idea of using the author's art class to inspire the students to write creatively. The theme of scary stories needed an art project to match. The author immediately had a favorite lesson in mind. By putting a small twist on one of her standard "Frank Lloyd Wright House" projects, scary plans began to take…

  19. [Children outside house

    OpenAIRE

    Smithson, John Snowden, fl 1903

    2003-01-01

    Showing a row of children seated on the floor outside a house. Smithson has pencilled the following lecture notes: '12. Number of children. Volcanic rock. Afterwards tree tattooing - waist to knee not all done at once - sign of manhood - those not tattooed considered of no account'.

  20. An investigation into natural resistance to African swine fever in domestic pigs from an endemic area in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrith, M L; Thomson, G R; Bastos, A D S; Phiri, O C; Lubisi, B A; Du Plessis, E C; Macome, F; Pinto, F; Botha, B; Esterhuysen, J

    2004-12-01

    A population of domestic pigs in northern Mozambique with increased resistance to the pathogenic effects of African swine fever (ASF) virus was identified by the high prevalence of circulating antibodies to ASF virus. An attempt was made to establish whether the resistance in this population was heritable. Some of these pigs were acquired and transported to a quarantine facility and allowed to breed naturally. Offspring of the resistant pigs were transferred to a high security facility where they were challenged with two ASF viruses, one of which was isolated from one of the Mozambican pigs and the other a genetically closely-related virus from Madagascar. All but one of the 105 offspring challenged developed acute ASF and died. It therefore appears that the resistance demonstrated by these pigs is not inherited by their offspring, or could not be expressed under the conditions of the experiment. The question remains therefore as to the mechanism whereby pigs in the population from which the experimental pigs were derived co-existed with virulent ASF viruses.

  1. Effects of dietary soybean meal concentration on growth and immune response of pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochell, S J; Alexander, L S; Rocha, G C; Van Alstine, W G; Boyd, R D; Pettigrew, J E; Dilger, R N

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary soybean meal (SBM) concentration on the growth performance and immune response of pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Four experimental treatments included a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of 2 dietary SBM concentrations, 17.5% (LSBM) or 29% (HSBM), and 2 levels of PRRSV infection, uninfected sham or PRRSV infected. Sixty-four weanling pigs of split sex (21 d of age, 7.14 ± 0.54 kg) were individually housed in disease containment chambers. Pigs were provided a common diet for 1 wk postweaning before being equalized for BW and sex and allotted to 4 treatment groups with 16 replicate pigs per group. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 1 wk before receiving either a sham inoculation (sterile PBS) or a 1 × 10 50% tissue culture infective dose of PRRSV at 35 d of age (0 d postinoculation, DPI). Pig BW and feed intake were recorded weekly, and rectal temperatures were measured daily beginning on 0 DPI. Blood was collected on 0, 3, 7, and 14 DPI for determination of serum PRRSV load, differential complete blood cell counts, and haptoglobin and cytokine concentrations. Infection with PRRSV increased (P pigs throughout the infection period, with no influence of dietary SBM concentration. Pigs in the PRRSV-infected group had lower (P pigs. In the PRRSV-infected group, pigs fed HSBM tended to have improved ADG (P = 0.06) compared with pigs fed LSBM, whereas there was no influence of SBM concentration on growth of pigs in the uninfected group. At 14 DPI, PRRSV-infected pigs fed HSBM had a lower serum PRRSV load (P pigs fed LSBM. Serum haptoglobin and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations of PRRSV-infected pigs were lower (P pigs fed HSBM at 3 and 14 DPI, respectively, than in pigs fed LSBM. Overall, increasing the dietary SBM concentration modulated the immune response and tended to improve the growth of nursery pigs during a PRRSV infection.

  2. Plasma cortisol and noradrenalin concentrations in pigs: automated sampling of freely moving pigs housed in PigTurn versus manually sampled and restrained pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimizing the effects of restraint and human interaction on the endocrine physiology of animals is essential for collection of accurate physiological measurements. Our objective was to compare stress-induced cortisol (CORT) and noradrenalin (NorA) responses in automated versus manual blood sampling...

  3. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Buildings - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The approximate physical location of each individual Public Housing Building. If the building has more than one entrance or street address, the address of the...

  4. Control on Housing Segregation:Housing Modes and Public Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>1. Housing segregation:advocating or controlling?The phenomenon of housing segregation has become more and more obvious in Chinese cities in recent years; however, there is no agreement on whether it should

  5. Digestible and Metabolizable Energy Content of Crude Glycerin Originating from Different Sources in Growing Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) of various crude glycerins from different biodiesel production facilities were empirically determined in nursery pigs (10.4 kg initial body weight) in order to predict the DE and ME based on crude glycerin composition. Dietary treatments consisted of a...

  6. Analysis of strategic planning of Dutch pig farmers using a multivariate probit model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Berg, van den M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the factors underlying the probability that Dutch pig farmers have plans to (a) stop, (b) to increase farm size and/or (re)build a barn, (c) to improve the quality of the production process and (d) to make manure processing facility at the own farm. A computer-based questionnaire

  7. Appropriateness of the Health Standards of Houses in Isparta Province Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Uskun

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out in center of Isparta province in order to evaluation the appropriateness of housing health standards of houses and to determine the basic characteristics of inappropriate houses. In December 2005, randomize selected four hundred houses in province center were evaluated in point of building land characteristics, building materials, safe condition, bulk, sunlight and lighting, heating, washroom facilities by using housing evaluation checklist. Distribution of the inappropriate houses was analyzed according to the descriptive characteristics of houses. Descriptive statistics, chi-square and independent t test were used for statistical analyses of data. There was a built blockage of sunlight near 38.5% of houses. Approximately half of them whose windows were not appropriate location to take adequate sunlight. Frequently rental houses or house whose resident have low socioeconomic status were not built using building materials of good quality (p<0.05 and p<0.001; respectively. In this study, the basic problems of houses related housing health standards were determined as no homogeny heat, inadequate fire safety and taking inadequate sunlight. The results of the study have drawn attention to necessary of facilitation politics to hand a healthy house for persons have low economic status especially. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 151-160

  8. Appropriateness of the Health Standards of Houses in Isparta Province Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Uskun

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out in center of Isparta province in order to evaluation the appropriateness of housing health standards of houses and to determine the basic characteristics of inappropriate houses. In December 2005, randomize selected four hundred houses in province center were evaluated in point of building land characteristics, building materials, safe condition, bulk, sunlight and lighting, heating, washroom facilities by using housing evaluation checklist. Distribution of the inappropriate houses was analyzed according to the descriptive characteristics of houses. Descriptive statistics, chi-square and independent t test were used for statistical analyses of data. There was a built blockage of sunlight near 38.5% of houses. Approximately half of them whose windows were not appropriate location to take adequate sunlight. Frequently rental houses or house whose resident have low socioeconomic status were not built using building materials of good quality (p<0.05 and p<0.001; respectively. In this study, the basic problems of houses related housing health standards were determined as no homogeny heat, inadequate fire safety and taking inadequate sunlight. The results of the study have drawn attention to necessary of facilitation politics to hand a healthy house for persons have low economic status especially. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 151-160

  9. Regional variation in pig farmer awareness and actions regarding Japanese encephalitis in Nepal: implications for public health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Santosh; Joshi, Durga Datt; Ale, Anita; Sharma, Minu; Dahal, Meena; Shah, Yogendra; Pant, Dhan Kumar; Stephen, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that has pigs as the major amplifying hosts. It is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in people in Nepal and is spreading in its geographic distribution in that country. Pig farming is increasing in Nepal due to reducing cultural biases against pigs and government programs to support pig farming for poverty alleviation. Major strategies for JE prevention and control include education, vector control, and immunization of people and pigs. This study used a survey of 400 pig farmers in 4 areas of Nepal with different JE and pig farming histories to explore regional variations in farmer awareness and actions towards JE, the association of awareness and actions with farm and farmer variables, and the implications of these associations for public health education. Exposure to JE risk factors was common across pig farms and pig farming districts but there were significant district level differences in knowledge and practices related to on-farm JE risk reduction. Social factors such as literacy, gender, and cultural practices were associated with farmer attitudes, knowledge and practices for JE control. JE vaccine uptake was almost non-existent and mosquito control steps were inconsistently applied across all 4 districts. Income was not a determining factor of the differences, but all farmers were very poor. The low uptake of vaccine and lack of infrastructure or financial capacity to house pigs indoors or away from people suggest that farmer personal protection should be a priority target for education in Nepal. This study re-enforces the need to attack root causes of people's personal disease prevention behaviours and take into account local variation in needs and capacities when designing health or agriculture education programs.

  10. Regional variation in pig farmer awareness and actions regarding Japanese encephalitis in Nepal: implications for public health education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Dhakal

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that has pigs as the major amplifying hosts. It is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in people in Nepal and is spreading in its geographic distribution in that country. Pig farming is increasing in Nepal due to reducing cultural biases against pigs and government programs to support pig farming for poverty alleviation. Major strategies for JE prevention and control include education, vector control, and immunization of people and pigs. This study used a survey of 400 pig farmers in 4 areas of Nepal with different JE and pig farming histories to explore regional variations in farmer awareness and actions towards JE, the association of awareness and actions with farm and farmer variables, and the implications of these associations for public health education. Exposure to JE risk factors was common across pig farms and pig farming districts but there were significant district level differences in knowledge and practices related to on-farm JE risk reduction. Social factors such as literacy, gender, and cultural practices were associated with farmer attitudes, knowledge and practices for JE control. JE vaccine uptake was almost non-existent and mosquito control steps were inconsistently applied across all 4 districts. Income was not a determining factor of the differences, but all farmers were very poor. The low uptake of vaccine and lack of infrastructure or financial capacity to house pigs indoors or away from people suggest that farmer personal protection should be a priority target for education in Nepal. This study re-enforces the need to attack root causes of people's personal disease prevention behaviours and take into account local variation in needs and capacities when designing health or agriculture education programs.

  11. Characterisation of Early-Life Fecal Microbiota in Susceptible and Healthy Pigs to Post-Weaning Diarrhoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Samir; Gadonna-Widehem, Pascale; Rome, Véronique; Hamoudi, Dounia; Rhazi, Larbi; Lakhal, Lyes; Larcher, Thibaut; Bahi-Jaber, Narges; Pinon-Quintana, Arturo; Guyonvarch, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Early-life microbial exposure is of particular importance to growth, immune system development and long-lasting health. Hence, early microbiota composition is a promising predictive biomarker for health and disease but still remains poorly characterized in regards to susceptibility to diarrhoea. In the present study, we aimed to assess if gut bacterial community diversity and composition during the suckling period were associated with differences in susceptibility of pigs to post-weaning diarrhoea. Twenty piglets from 5 sows (4 piglets / litter) were weaned in poor housing conditions to challenge their susceptibility to post-weaning diarrhoea. Two weeks after weaning, 13 pigs exhibited liquid faeces during 2 or 3 days and were defined as diarrhoeic (D) pigs. The other 7 pigs did not have diarrhea during the whole post-weaning experimental periodand were defined as healthy (H) pigs. Using a molecular characterisation of fecal microbiota with CE-SSCP fingerprint, Next Generation Sequencing and qPCR, we show that D and H pigs were mainly discriminated as early as postnatal day (PND) 7, i.e. 4 weeks before post-weaning diarrhoea occurence. At PND 7 H pigs displayed a lower evenness and a higher abundance of Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminocacaceae and Lactobacillaceae compared to D pigs. The sPLS regression method indicates that these bacterial families were strongly correlated to a higher Bacteroidetes abundance observed in PND 30 H pigs one week before diarrhoea. These results emphasize the potential of early microbiota diversity and composition as being an indicator of susceptibility to post-weaning diarrhoea. Furthermore, they support the health promoting strategies of pig herds through gut microbiota engineering. PMID:28072880

  12. Characterisation of Early-Life Fecal Microbiota in Susceptible and Healthy Pigs to Post-Weaning Diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Samir; Gadonna-Widehem, Pascale; Rome, Véronique; Hamoudi, Dounia; Rhazi, Larbi; Lakhal, Lyes; Larcher, Thibaut; Bahi-Jaber, Narges; Pinon-Quintana, Arturo; Guyonvarch, Alain; Huërou-Luron, Isabelle L E; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa

    2017-01-01

    Early-life microbial exposure is of particular importance to growth, immune system development and long-lasting health. Hence, early microbiota composition is a promising predictive biomarker for health and disease but still remains poorly characterized in regards to susceptibility to diarrhoea. In the present study, we aimed to assess if gut bacterial community diversity and composition during the suckling period were associated with differences in susceptibility of pigs to post-weaning diarrhoea. Twenty piglets from 5 sows (4 piglets / litter) were weaned in poor housing conditions to challenge their susceptibility to post-weaning diarrhoea. Two weeks after weaning, 13 pigs exhibited liquid faeces during 2 or 3 days and were defined as diarrhoeic (D) pigs. The other 7 pigs did not have diarrhea during the whole post-weaning experimental periodand were defined as healthy (H) pigs. Using a molecular characterisation of fecal microbiota with CE-SSCP fingerprint, Next Generation Sequencing and qPCR, we show that D and H pigs were mainly discriminated as early as postnatal day (PND) 7, i.e. 4 weeks before post-weaning diarrhoea occurence. At PND 7 H pigs displayed a lower evenness and a higher abundance of Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminocacaceae and Lactobacillaceae compared to D pigs. The sPLS regression method indicates that these bacterial families were strongly correlated to a higher Bacteroidetes abundance observed in PND 30 H pigs one week before diarrhoea. These results emphasize the potential of early microbiota diversity and composition as being an indicator of susceptibility to post-weaning diarrhoea. Furthermore, they support the health promoting strategies of pig herds through gut microbiota engineering.

  13. SLUM, SQUATTER, AND QUASI-SQUATTER HOUSING DEPRAVITY IN YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arap Matinguny Adris, Suratman Worosuprojo, dan M. Baiquni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This studyaims at deepen our understanding of the slum-squatter housing issue in relation to thedifferences in household socio-economic factors. The theoretical basis of the study comes from literatureon self-help housing,consolidation, and marginality especially by J. Turner and colleagues. Threehousehold factors are key to the processes of taudification and consolidation in this city namely, income,dependency burden, and land tenureship.This studyattempts to synthesise a facility allocation model i.e. a Client-Oriented model; and to establish thetheoretical background of the concept of Self-Help housing advocated by Turner and friends. The study findsout that self-help housing as proposed by these researchers lacks a theoretical and philosophical setting. Inthis context, the study advances the Self-Care Ethic philosophy and a Covering Law theory as the departureof self-help and housing consolidation policies in urban settlements. With this in mind, the Client-Orientedmodel is instrumental because its purpose is to determine the degree of housing and facility in a settlement.

  14. Sustainable Housing Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sitar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the already proved models the sustainable planning culture is endangering several methods directed towards the needs of tenants in the existing post-war housing stock. The case-study of our project is the renewal of the multi stored building in the housing estate Metalna, Maribor/Tezno (1949. It is based on the sustainable renovation principle for the quality of sustainable housing in functional, technological and environmental point of view. According to it, the idea of the project was to improve the functionality of the building as well as of individual housing units. One of the main goals was to introduce the variety of space and typology of individual housing units. Beside, there was an intention to rebuild and redesign the green area, especially the problems of parking and playground for children. On the other hand, the project is introducing the low-energy renovation principle including new technologies, structural elements and materials. Two scenarios of technological renewal were suggested. The first one was a classical one using additional thermal insulation of the building envelope and fitting of new structural elements such as windows, doors, balconies, windbreaks etc. (Renewal 1. The second scenario, however, included the sunspace construction used as a new passive solar structural element, modifying the envelope (Renewal 2. The energy efficiency of the suggested scenarios were calculated according to the procedures given in EN 832 standard considering the attached sunspace as integral part of the building in first case and as a passive solar object adjacent to the thermal envelope of the building in the second case. The results show that the last case yields the most energy efficient renewal of the existing residential building.

  15. Is music enriching for group-housed captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)?

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Emma K.; Altschul, Drew; Körfer, Karoline; Benti, Benjamin; Kaeser, Amanda; Lambeth, Susan; Waller, Bridget M.; Katie. E. Slocombe

    2017-01-01

    Many facilities that house captive primates play music for animal enrichment or for caregiver enjoyment. However, the impact on primates is unknown as previous studies have been inconclusive. We conducted three studies with zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and one with group-housed chimpanzees at the National Centre for Chimpanzee Care to investigate the effects of classical and pop/rock music on various variables that may be indicative of increased welfare. Study one compared the beh...

  16. Preferred Supportive Services for Middle to Higher Income Retirement Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, Victor; Gelwicks, Louis E.

    1981-01-01

    Reports the service and facility feature preferences for retirement housing of middle and upper income elderly. Mandatory services and activities which require physical exertion were rejected, while security, convenient retail services, public transportation, and emergency health services are preferred. Underscores the importance of supportive…

  17. White House science council ponders measures to improve energy funding

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, D

    2003-01-01

    "The business strategy of the Energy Department's Office of Science is largely based on its 20-year plan for constructing or upgrading 28 facilities, most of them at department laboratories, DOE science chief Raymond Orbach told members of a White House advisory panel last week" (1 page).

  18. Experimental house at Porto. A thermally optimised house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalos, R.

    1988-12-01

    In Porto, Portugal's second largest city, the Casa Termicamente Optimizada was built in 1985 with the aim of testing the various types of passive utilization of solar energy and to determine their influence on solid-construction buildings. The house has a concrete skeleton with concrete walls of 20 cm thickness insulated with 5 cm polystyrene on the outside. The living rooms face south. Light comes in through the windows facing south. Storage facilities for storing this energy are sufficiently provided. The bedrooms have Trombe-wall of 2,5 m/sup 2/. The storage capacity of the building is increased by a water wall on the ground floor. It consists of 6 cylinders each of which has a diameter of 25 cm and is filled with 180 l of water. The 'solar elements' can be shaded during the summer. During winter time the shades serve to prevent radiation losses. In one year one could even do without additional heating. (BWI).

  19. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anna Bang; Elsgaard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source......Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment Technologies such as anaerobic digestion....... In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig...

  20. 76 FR 3925 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for Housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... Housing Approximately 1,750 Low-Security, Adult Male Inmates, That Are Predominantly Criminal Aliens at a... of inmates under the Criminal Alien Requirement 12 (CAR 12) solicitation, at a facility located in... house approximately 1,750 low- security, adult male inmates, that are predominantly criminal...

  1. Effects of bedding material on ammonia volatilization in a broiler house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia volatilization from poultry house bedding material is a major production issues because the buildup of ammonia within the facilities is a human health issue and can negatively impact the performance of the birds. Major operational cost is associated with the ventilation of poultry houses to ...

  2. Selection for Resistance to Imidacloprid in the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., continue to be a primary pest of livestock facilities worldwide. This pest also has shown a propensity for pesticide resistance development when under high selection pressures. In this study a house fly strain, FDm was created by a 20% contribution from each of fiv...

  3. Horizontal temperature distribution in a plus-energy house: cooling season measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the air and operative temperatures at different locations in a detached, one-story, single family, plus-energy house. The house was located in Denmark and it has been used as a full-scale experimental facility with heated dummies to simulate occupants living in...

  4. Governing farm animal welfare, governing stockmanship: a sociological analysis of the formulation and on-farm implementation of the EU group sow housing legislation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    EU pig welfare legislation required European pig farmers to shift from individual to group housing of pregnant sows by 1 January 2013. This requirement was principally designed to meet the sows’ needs for locomotion and interaction with conspecifics. This paper explored how the legislation affected everyday sow-farmer interaction, which influences farm animal welfare to an important degree. We started by analysing conceptualisations of sow welfare and sow-farmer relations as implicated in the...

  5. Comparative effects of level of dietary fiber and sanitary conditions on the growth and health of weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, L; Le Floc'h, N; Arturo-Schaan, M; Foret, R; Urdaci, M C; Le Gall, M

    2012-08-01

    There are conflicting results on the growth and health of weanling pigs (Sus scrofa) fed high-fiber diets, and responses may differ according to sanitary conditions. This study was conducted to explore the growth, health, and fecal microbiota of weanling pigs fed either low- or high-fiber diets in 2 different sanitary conditions. Forty-eight pigs weaned at 28 d of age were individually housed in "good" (clean) or "poor" (unclean) sanitary conditions. During 2 consecutive phases, pigs were fed 2 diets containing a low (control) or high level of fiber: 121 or 169 g/kg total dietary fiber (TDF) for Phase I and 146 or 217 g/kg for Phase II, which lasted 15 and 20 d, respectively. This led to 4 experimental treatments in Phase I in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (2 sanitary conditions × 2 diets) and 8 experimental treatments in Phase II in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (2 sanitary conditions × 2 diets in Phase I × 2 diets in Phase II). The poor sanitary conditions led to a reduced G:F (0.617 vs. 0.680 for poor and good sanitary conditions, respectively; P = 0.01) over the entire experimental period. The number of pigs with diarrhea in Phase I tended to be greater in the poor sanitary conditions with the high-fiber diet than the control diet (7 vs. 3 pigs, P = 0.07). Enterococcus was prominent in feces of these diarrheic pigs. At 5 wk after weaning, compared with good sanitary conditions, the fecal microbiota of pigs housed in poor sanitary conditions was characterized by more Lactobacillus (9.24 vs. 8.34 log cfu/g, P pigs in poor sanitary conditions contained more total VFA and proportionally more butyrate (9.7 vs. 5.7% for poor and good conditions, respectively, independently of dietary treatment, P pigs fed the high-fiber diet during Phase II contained less Enterococcus bacteria than pigs fed the control diet (4.06 vs. 4.56 log cfu/g; P = 0.05), and more total VFA with a decreased proportion of branched-chain fatty acids (5.0 vs. 6.1%; P = 0.006). To conclude

  6. Why pigs are free-roaming: Communities' perceptions, knowledge and practices regarding pig management and taeniosis/cysticercosis in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Andrew M; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Isaac K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2016-07-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis in many developing countries including Zambia. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. Socio-cultural determinants related to free range pig management and their implications for control of T. solium remain unclear. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, reported practices and knowledge regarding management of pigs and taeniosis/cysticercosis (including neurocysticercosis) in an endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia, and to identify possible barriers to pig related control measures such as pig confinement. A total of 21 focus group discussions on pig husbandry practices were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages from Petauke district. The findings reveal that the perception of pigs and their role in society (financial, agricultural and traditional), the distribution of the management tasks among the family members owning pigs (feeding, building kraal, seeking care) and environmental aspects (feed supply, presence of bush, wood use priorities, rainy season) prevailing in the study area affect pig confinement. People have a fragmented knowledge of the pork tapeworm and its transmission. Even if negative aspects/health risks of free-range pigs keeping are perceived, people are ready to take the risk for socio-economic reasons. Finally, gender plays an important role because women, and also children, seem to have a higher perception of the risks but lack power in terms of economic decision-making compared to men. Currently pig confinement is not seen as an acceptable method to control porcine cysticercosis by many farmers in Eastern Zambia, vaccination and treatment seemed to be more appropriate. Embedded in a One Health approach, disease control programs should therefore ensure a complementary appropriate set of control

  7. FEMA Housing Assistance Renters - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists aggregated, non-PII dataset of FEMA Housing Assistance Program for House Renters The data was generated by FEMA's ECIM (Enterprise Coordination...

  8. FEMA Housing Assistance Owners - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists aggregated, non-PII dataset of FEMA Housing Assistance Program for House Owners The data was generated by FEMA's ECIM (Enterprise Coordination...

  9. Allergy-Proof Your House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vent moisture outside. Temperature and humidity. Hot, humid houses are breeding grounds for dust mites and mold. ... Smoking. Don't allow smoking anywhere inside your house. References Allergens and irritants. National Institute of Environmental ...

  10. Public Housing Agency (PHA) Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The dataset contains current data on low rent and Section 8 units in PHA's administered by HUD. The Section 8 Rental Voucher Program increases affordable housing...

  11. HUD Approved Housing Counseling Agencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD sponsors housing counseling agencies throughout the country that can provide advice on buying a home, renting, defaults, foreclosures, and credit issues. This...

  12. Multifamily Housing Physical Inspection Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Real Estate Assessment Center conducts physical property inspections of properties that are owned, insured or subsidized by HUD, including public housing and...

  13. Public Housing Physical Inspection Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Real Estate Assessment Center conducts physical property inspections of properties that are owned, insured or subsidized by HUD, including public housing and...

  14. Endogenous phosphorus losses in growing-finishing pigs and gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikker, P; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Gerrits, W J J; Sips, V; Walvoort, C; van Laar, H

    2017-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diet composition, feeding level (FL), and BW on endogenous phosphorous losses (EPL) using growing-finishing (GF) pigs and sows. After an adaptation period, 48 GF pigs (initial BW 90.5 kg) and 48 just-weaned sows (initial BW 195 kg), both individually housed, were allotted to 12 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments were animal type (GF pigs or sows), diet composition (a semipurified starch (STA), inulin (INU), or lignocellulose (CEL) based low-P diet), and FL (2.0 or 3.0 kg/d). Digestibility of DM, OM, CP, crude fat, and carbohydrates (COH), and fecal P excretion (in g/d, mg/kg DMI, and g/(kg BW·d)) were determined using TiO as indigestible marker. Digestibility of OM and COH differed among diets ( sows and GF pigs that were fed the STA diet and the CEL diet, on the INU diet, sows had, compared with GF pigs, a greater digestibility of OM (92.2 vs. 87.2%) and COH (92.5 vs. 88.4%), respectively. Both BW and FL increased fecal P excretion (g/d). When expressed in mg/kg DMI, P excretion was higher in sows than in GF pigs on the STA diet (498 versus 236 mg/kg DMI), the INU diet (526 vs. 316 mg/kg DMI), and the CEL diet (928 vs. 342 mg/kg DMI). When expressed in mg/(kg BW·d), however, P excretion was similar in GF pigs and sows that were fed the STA diet and in those that were fed the INU diet, whereas it was greater in sows than in GF pigs that were fed the CEL diet (11.6 vs. 7.3 mg/(kg BW·d)). The results of this study indicate that EPL (mg/kg DMI) in pigs substantially increase with increasing BW. Application of EPL (mg/kg DMI) determined in GF pigs may underestimate EPL and therefore P requirements in gestating sows. Moreover, EPL is diet dependent and increases with an increasing content of dietary nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP). The degree of this increase may differ between sows and GF pigs and seems to depend on properties of dietary fiber.

  15. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Najmul; Khan, M. S. U.; Hossain, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare...... with jaundice in the past 2 years. Pigs in Bangladesh demonstrated evidence of HEV infec-tion, and a history of jaundice was significantly more frequent in pig handlers. Identifying and genotyping HEV in pigs and pig handlers may provide further evidence of the pig’s role in zoonotic HEV transmission...

  16. Metabolomic phenotyping of a cloned pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Morten Rahr; Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2011-01-01

    and possibly also phenotypes and this offer an extra level of experimental control which could possibly make them a desirable tool for intervention studies. Therefore, in the present study, we address how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning, through comparison of cloned pigs and normal...... outbred pigs. Results The metabolic phenotype of cloned pigs (n = 5) was for the first time elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic analysis of multiple bio-fluids including plasma, bile and urine. The metabolic phenotype of the cloned pigs was compared with normal outbred pigs (n...... = 6) by multivariate data analysis, which revealed differences in the metabolic phenotypes. Plasma lactate was higher for cloned vs control pigs, while multiple metabolites were altered in the bile. However a lower inter-individual variability for cloned pigs compared with control pigs could...

  17. Chronically infected wild boar can transmit genotype 3 hepatitis E virus to domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Josephine; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Fast, Christine; Groschup, Martin H; Eiden, Martin

    2015-10-22

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute hepatitis E in humans in developing countries, but sporadic and autochthonous cases do also occur in industrialized nations. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of genotype 3 (gt3) has been associated with the consumption of raw and undercooked products from domestic pig and wild boar. As shown recently, naturally acquired HEV gt3 replicates efficiently in experimentally infected wild boar and is transmissible from a wild boar to domestic pigs. Generally, following an acute infection swine suffer from a transient febrile illness and viremia in connection with fecal virus shedding. However, little is known about sub-acute or chronic HEV infections in swine, and how and where HEV survives the immune response. In this paper, we describe the incidental finding of a chronic HEVgt3 infection in two naturally infected European wild boar which were raised and housed at FLI over years. The wild boar displayed fecal HEV RNA excretion and viremia over nearly the whole observation period of more than five months. The animal had mounted a substantial antibody response, yet without initial clearance of the virus by the immune system. Further analysis indicated a subclinical course of HEV with no evidence of chronic hepatitis. Additionally, we could demonstrate that this chronic wild boar infection was still transmissible to domestic pigs, which were housed together with this animal. Sentinel pigs developed fecal virus shedding accompanied by seroconversion. Wild boar should therefore be considered as an important reservoir for transmission of HEV gt3 in Europe.

  18. Rethinking Space Design Standards Toward Quality Affordable Housing In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Nor Haniza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Provision of affordable housing is important to low- and middle-income population. A fit form of house will not only fulfil a basic human need for shelter, but it also contributes to physical and psychological well-being of the occupants. Excellent quality and affordable housing is an indication of a high quality of life. While writings exist on various aspects of the quality of affordable housing in Malaysia, discussion regarding space and design standards has scarcely been given any serious academic attention. Standards concerning residential development usually cover different aspects or stages of the development process. They can include planning standards, design standards, space standards and technical construction standards. The main concern of this paper is on space and design standards specifically. Space standard can be defined as a set of framework which dictates fixed internal space minimums. Meanwhile, design standard indicates design guidelines to ensure the functionality, comfortability and habitability of the house. This paper is concerned exclusively with indoor spaces of a house excluding external circulation spaces and service facilities (in case of strata housing. Its interest is in internal space as an aspect of housing quality. It can be concluded that one of the way forward will be to find the balance between providing adequate minimum spaces for resident satisfactions and having economic values for housing developers. This paper may be used as a valuable reference for authorities and policy makers to better address the best housing space design standards that would benefit not only the occupants, but also the local government and developers alike.

  19. Escherichia coli phytase improves growth performance of starter, grower, and finisher pigs fed phosphorus-deficient diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendza, J A; Dilger, R N; Adedokun, S A; Sands, J S; Adeola, O

    2005-08-01

    Corn-soybean meal-based diets, consisting of a high-P control (HPC) containing supplemental dicalcium phosphate (DCP), a basal diet containing no DCP, and the basal diet plus Escherichia coli phytase at 500 or 1,000 phytase units per kilogram (FTU/kg; as-fed basis) were fed to evaluate growth performance in starter, grower, and finisher pigs. Pigs were blocked by weight and gender, such that average weight across treatments was similar, with equal numbers of barrows and gilts receiving each treatment in each block. In Exp. 1, 48 pigs with an average initial BW of 11 kg, housed individually, with 12 pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 3 wk. Overall ADG and G:F were increased linearly (P < 0.05) by dietary phytase addition. Final BW and plasma P concentrations at 3 wk also increased linearly (P < 0.05). In Exp. 2, 128 pigs with an average initial BW of 23 kg, housed four pigs per pen, with eight pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 6 wk. A linear increase in response to phytase was noted for ADG and G:F in all three 2-wk periods, as well as overall (P < 0.05). Percentage of bone ash also showed a linear increase (P < 0.01). In Exp. 3, 160 pigs (53 kg), housed five pigs per pen, with eight pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 6 wk. A linear increase was detected for final BW, as well as ADG and G:F in the first and second 2-wk periods, and overall (P < 0.01). Twenty-four 15-kg individually housed pigs were used to evaluate total-tract nutrient digestibility in Exp. 4. Daily absorption of P linearly increased (P < 0.05) with phytase supplementation. Results of this research indicate that E. coli phytase is effective in liberating phytate P for uptake and utilization by starter, grower, and finisher pigs.

  20. Support Care Facility Prague House, Chapel Street, Freshford, Kilkenny.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Allen, Patrick B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infliximab is usually administered by two monthly intravenous (iv) infusions, therefore requiring visits to hospital. Adalimumab is administered by self subcutaneous (sc) injections every other week. Both of these anti-TNF drugs appear to be equally efficacious in the treatment of Crohn\\'s Disease and therefore the decision regarding which drug to choose will depend to some extent on patient choice, which may be based on the mode of administration.The aims of this study were to compare preferences in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients for two currently available anti-TNF agents and the reasons for their choices. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to IBD patients who had attended the Gastroenterology service (Ulster Hospital, Dundonald, Belfast, N. Ireland. UK) between January 2007 and December 2007. The patients were asked in a hypothetical situation if the following administering methods of anti-TNF drugs (intravenous or subcutaneous) were available, which drug route of administration would they choose. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-five patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were issued questionnaires, of these 78 questionnaires were returned (62 percent response). The mean age of respondent was 44 years. Of the total number of respondents, 33 patients (42 percent) preferred infliximab and 19 patients (24 percent) preferred adalimumab (p = 0.07). Twenty-six patients (33 percent) did not indicate a preference for either biological therapy and were not included in the final analysis. The commonest reason cited for those who chose infliximab (iv) was: "I do not like the idea of self-injecting," (67 percent). For those patients who preferred adalimumab (sc) the commonest reason cited was: "I prefer the convenience of injecting at home," (79 percent). Of those patients who had previously been treated with an anti-TNF therapy (n = 10, all infliximab) six patients stated that they would prefer infliximab if given the choice in the future (p = 0.75). CONCLUSIONS: There was a trend towards patient preference for infliximab (iv) treatment as opposed to adalimumab (sc) in patients with IBD. This difference may be due to the frequency of administration, mode of administration or differing \\'times in the market-place\\

  1. 9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... are in addition to, not in place of, all other requirements pertaining to climatic conditions in parts... moisture: (i) Indoor floor areas in contact with the animals; (ii) Outdoor floor areas in contact with the animals, when the floor areas are not exposed to the direct sun, or are made of a hard material such...

  2. Literacy Mediation in Neighbourhood Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between staff in Neighbourhood Houses, and the socially and educationally disadvantaged community members who visit Neighbourhood Houses, have been viewed through many lenses, including community development, social support, caring and compassion. This paper looks at Neighbourhood Houses as sites of pedagogical practice. More…

  3. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

  4. Renovation of social housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stina Rask; Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    an understanding of the built environment as a spatial continuum that is in constant alteration. When we engage in the renovation of a building, we inevitably enter into a dialogue with this continuum. The motivation to alter an existing building may be decay and change in the use, or, as has been the case...... in the renovation of social housing. Methodologically, this hypothesis is investigated by re-reading the task of energy renovation through the lens of tectonic architectural theory. Specifically, Eduard Sekler’s etymological distinction between structure, construction, and tectonics is developed as a framework...... for addressing the spatial implications and potentials of technical initiatives in contemporary energy renovations within the continuum described by Scott. The framework is applied in two case studies of recent energy renovations of social housing dwellings. Finally, the paper discusses whether the technical...

  5. Approaching the Macuti House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollien, Silje Erøy

    2011-01-01

    and flow of trade acrosss the Indian Ocean. Today the regional port is in Nacala, provincial capital is Nampula, and the only economic future for Ilha, currently a small sleepy city of ca 18.000 people on the island and 45.000 in the municipal district, seems to be tourism development. The little island...... for a strategy to intervene in the "macuti neighbourhoods", conserve the built environment and improve living conditions for the generally poor population living in crowded conditions with lack of suitable urban infrastructure. The macuti house, a type of semi-urban Swahili one story house built of mangrove...... "Moçambicanidade", an official cultural policy of strengthening a national identity. Now parts of "the community" in Ilha with cultural links northwards, may see new tourism routes along old trading routes and a new academic interest in the Indian Ocean as a cultural space, as an opportunity to redefine themselves...

  6. Housing characteristics 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

  7. [House dust mite allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, A; Pichler, C

    2012-04-01

    House dust mites can be found all over the world where human beings live independent from the climate. Proteins from the gastrointestinal tract- almost all known as enzymes - are the allergens which induce chronic allergic diseases. The inhalation of small amounts of allergens on a regular base all night leads to a slow beginning of the disease with chronically stuffed nose and an exercise induced asthma which later on persists. House dust mites grow well in a humid climate - this can be in well isolated dwellings or in the tropical climate - and nourish from human skin dander. Scales are found in mattresses, upholstered furniture and carpets. The clinical picture with slowly aggravating complaints leads quite often to a delayed diagnosis, which is accidently done on the occasion of a wider spectrum of allergy skin testing. The beginning of a medical therapy with topical steroids as nasal spray or inhalation leads to a fast relief of the complaints. Although discussed in extensive controversies in the literature - at least in Switzerland with the cold winter and dry climate - the recommendation of house dust mite avoidance measures is given to patients with good clinical results. The frequent ventilation of the dwelling with cold air in winter time cause a lower indoor humidity. Covering encasings on mattresses, pillow, and duvets reduces the possibility of chronic contact with mite allergens as well as the weekly changing the bed linen. Another option of therapy is the specific immunotherapy with extracts of house dust mites showing good results in children and adults. Using recombinant allergens will show a better quality in diagnostic as well as in therapeutic specific immunotherapy.

  8. LIGHT*HOUSE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjamin; Madsen, Jesper V;

    Med udgangspunkt i det konkrete byggeprojekt Light*house, der skal opføres på Århus havn, er der i projektet foretaget en række analyser til bestemmelse af de geotekniske egenskaber for den fede tertiære ler fra søvindmergel-formationen, som findes på lokaliteten til stor dybde. Søvindmerglens...

  9. Tubular biotricking filter for reduction of odour and ammonia from live stock facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter; Andersen, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    at three different pig facilities for treating ammonia and malodours compounds. The capacity was up to 12.000 m3. h-1 with a specific gas flow of 4.000  m3. h-1 pr. m3 of filter material. Nitrogen mass balances were made for all facilities and showing good correlation between incoming ammonia...

  10. Planning and Designing Today's Career Tech Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, James

    2010-01-01

    During the past 20 years, career and technical education (CTE) has gone through significant changes. CTE has evolved in response to the changes technology has had on the job market. Preparing students for high-tech, high-skill job opportunities is the new focus. The facilities that house these programs, however, have not kept pace with these…

  11. ROLES AND EFFICIENCY OF PARTICIPANTS IN PIG MARKETING IN THE NORTHERN PART OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ajala

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the performance of market participants in pig marketing in Zango-Kataf Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to describe the organizational pattern of pig marketing; identify the major problems militating against the marketing efficiency and evaluate the marketing margins of pig at various levels of the marketing channel/chain. The study investigated the pig marketing practices in this area through interviews with producers, rural assemblers, wholesalers, commission agents and retailers. The data collected were analyzed using costs and marketing margins to assess market performance. Empirical findings indicated that the difference (margin between the price received by producers and the retail price of pork and butchers’ sales of by-products was N4,192.40 (US $32.75 per head of pigs. This margin expressed as percentage of the sum of the price paid by pork consumers and by-products merchants was 22% and was shared by the intermediate agents in the marketing chain. Several factors perceived by participants in the market as limiting constraints to pig production and marketing are inadequate abattoir, absence of refrigerators, absence of standard weights and measures, high cost of transportation, lack of access to formal credit sources and lack of good roads. The study recommends the provision of credit facilities, installation of processing plants, use of weights and infrastructural developments in order to increase overall volume of the market.

  12. Fermentation of liquid diets for pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.

    2001-01-01

    In the last 30 years major changes occurred in pig nutrition. With the increasing size of the pig farms, manual feeding was replaced by automatic feeding systems. Most pigs were fed on dry diets, but during last the 15 years a clear tendency towards liquid feeding systems was observed. In the early

  13. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in t

  14. Respiratory health effects in pig farmers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes a cross-sectional study of risk factors of chronic respiratory health effects in pig farmers working in the South of the Netherlands. The study population comprised 100 pig farmers with and 100 pig farmers without chronic respiratory symptoms. Base-line lung function, non-speci

  15. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in t

  16. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in

  17. Asian Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahata, M.

    2011-04-01

    Asian underground facilities are reviewed. The YangYang underground Laboratory in Korea and the Kamioka observatory in Japan are operational and several astrophysical experiments are running. Indian Neutrino Observatory(INO) and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) are under construction and underground experiments are being prepared. Current activities and future prospects at those underground sites are described.

  18. Radiation induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, L.K.; Johnston, D.A.; Felleman, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    A brain weight deficit of about 70 mg was induced at doses of approximately 75-mGy and a deficit of 60 mg was induced at 100 mGy. This confirms the effects projected and observed by Wanner and Edwards. Although the data do not demonstrate a clear dose-response relationship between the 75-mGy and 100-mGy groups, the data are statistically consistent with a dose-response effect because of the overlapping confidence intervals. The lack of a statistically significant observation is most likely related to the small difference in doses and the limited numbers of animals examined. There are several factors that can influence the brain weight of guinea pig pups, such as caging and housing conditions, the sex of the animal, and litter size. These should be taken into account for accurate analysis. Dam weight did not appear to have a significant effect. The confirmation of a micrencephalic effect induced x rays at doses of 75-mGy during this late embryonic stage of development is consistent with the findings of small head size induced in those exposed prior to the eight week of conception at Hiroshima. This implies a mechanism for micrencephaly different from those previously suggested and lends credence to a causal relation between radiation and small head size in humans at low doses as reported by Miller and Mulvihill. 16 refs., 13 tabs.

  19. Enteric Methane Emission from Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    The modern pig industry rely on relatively few feedstuffs mostly from cereals (corn, wheat, barley, oats, rye and rice), cereal co-products (different milling fractions, residues from biofuel and alcohol industries, etc.), cereal substitutes (tapioca, maniocca), legumes (peas, beans, lupins......), protein concentrates (meal or cakes of soybean, rape, sunflower, cotton) and co-products from the sugar and starch industries to produce compounds feeds. The classical pig diet can also be characterised as relatively concentrated but an increased demand of high energy cereals for direct human use...... and increased availability of fibre rich ingredients from, for instance, the feed milling or starch extraction/fermentation industries have promoted an increased utilisation of fibre rich co-products in the pig feeds (Serena et al. 2007). Especially pregnant sows may be supplied with fibre rich diets without...

  20. Appeasing pheromone inhibits cortisol augmentation and agonistic behaviors during social stress in adult miniature pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Koori, Miyuki; Kikusui, Takefumi; Mori, Yuji

    2009-11-01

    Pairing and physical confrontation In adult sows causes social stress reactions and aggressive behaviors. Recently, maternal pig skin secretions were Isolated and a mixture containing several fatty acids, now called pig appeasing pheromone (PAP), was synthesized. In this study, we Investigated the effects of PAP on social and Immune stress response In adult female miniature pigs. PAP or vehicle solvents were sprayed Into the pens of Individually housed adult sows. A two-week exposure to the pheromone did not alter basal salivary Cortisol levels or clrcadlan rhythms. Following this treatment, the animals were paired and placed In a new pen that was divided with a wire-mesh fence. Although salivary cortisol Increased markedly In the vehicle-treated group, the PAP-treated group exhibited a drastic Inhibition of cortisol secretion. This effect was sustained even after they were allowed to physically Interact following fence removal. Moreover, the latency time of agonistic behaviors, such as escaping or biting, was significantly extended after PAP exposure. When lipopolysaccharide was Injected Intramuscularly, Cortisol levels, rectal temperatures, and lying time lengths Increased substantially. No differences were observed between the pheromone-treated and untreated groups. These results suggest that this synthetic pheromone alleviates social stress In adult pigs, although It does not affect Immune stress responses. Our findings demonstrate the potential benefit of this pheromone In field applications and clinical disciplines relating to adult female pigs.

  1. A Model of Housing Quality Determinants (HQD for Affordable Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaq Hyder Chohan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research identifies the design quality determinants and parameters for affordable housing in a developing metropolis, Karachi, Pakistan. The absence of quality housing in Karachi has resulted in a variety of factors including policy failure, violation of bylaws, housing scarcity and more low quality housing. The combination of these factors has resulted in poor housing design and construction and has lowered the overall quality of housing. Homeowners (end-users experience unplanned maintenance and repairs. This study provides a design quality model for use as a survey tool among professionals and endusers. This study resulted in a table of 24 quality determinants marked as Housing Quality Determinants (HQD grouped into eight sections. This research concludes that the existing design quality of affordable housing in Karachi could be enhanced by resolving problems related to design, construction, services, site development, neighbourhood and sustainability. The HQD model provides a platform for developing quality indicators of housing design and an opportunity for local and international design and construction professionals to rethink design in the context of housing quality. This article provides the development of the HQD framework (model.

  2. Toxoplasma gondii: Pig seroprevalence, associated risk factors and viability in fresh pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Laura; Gracia, María Jesús; Pérez-Arquillué, Consuelo; Lázaro, Regina; Herrera, Marta; Herrera, Antonio; Bayarri, Susana

    2016-07-15

    This study was conducted on 161 fattening pig farms located in Aragón (Northeast Spain). Serum samples from 1200 pigs were tested for antibodies against T. gondii by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Antibodies to T. gondii (≥1:20) were detected in 301 pigs (24.52%). The seroprevalence observed in the present study indicates a widespread exposure to T. gondii, as seropositive pigs were found in 96.67% of the farms studied although low pig titers were determined. Risk factors associated with T. gondii seroprevalence were presence of cats in or around the farms, presence of dogs around the facilities, low number of animals in the farms, poor hygiene and bad maintenance of the farms. Finally, it was observed that where rodent baits were used, Toxoplasma prevalence was lower. Risk management measures including control of cats and rodents on the farms, among others, could help to reduce the observed prevalence levels. By mouse bioassay, T. gondii was detected in 73.7% and isolated from 42.1% of seropositive pigs and a significant relation between the titers of pigs and the presence and viability of T. gondii in the tissues was found. The detection of T. gondii is not possible by currently practiced meat inspection. Nevertheless, the increased probability of detecting viable forms of T. gondii in tissues of pigs with titers ≥1: 80 could be used as the cutoff for discriminating higher risk animals, and could be used as an effective control tool for the industry of cured meat products. In practical terms, we propose that this value could be used as a critical limit in the HACCP system.

  3. Underground Facilities, Technological Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Spooner, N

    2010-01-01

    This report gives a summary overview of the status of international under- ground facilities, in particular as relevant to long-baseline neutrino physics and neutrino astrophysics. The emphasis is on the technical feasibility aspects of creating the large underground infrastructures that will be needed in the fu- ture to house the necessary detectors of 100 kton to 1000 kton scale. There is great potential in Europe to build such a facility, both from the technical point of view and because Europe has a large concentration of the necessary engi- neering and geophysics expertise. The new LAGUNA collaboration has made rapid progress in determining the feasibility for a European site for such a large detector. It is becoming clear in fact that several locations are technically fea- sible in Europe. Combining this with the possibility of a new neutrino beam from CERN suggests a great opportunity for Europe to become the leading centre of neutrino studies, combining both neutrino astrophysics and neutrino beam stu...

  4. Fermentation of liquid diets for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, R.

    2001-01-01

    In the last 30 years major changes occurred in pig nutrition. With the increasing size of the pig farms, manual feeding was replaced by automatic feeding systems. Most pigs were fed on dry diets, but during last the 15 years a clear tendency towards liquid feeding systems was observed. In the early 80's the use of liquid co-products from the human food industry was introduced into pig nutrition. In the Netherlands, nowadays about 20% of the slaughter pigs and about 10% of the sows is fed a li...

  5. SPARQling Pig - Processing Linked data with Pig Latin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Stefan; Hose, Katja; Sattler, Kai-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    -defined functions while running on top of scalable distributed platforms. In doing so, these languages enable analytical tasks while avoiding the limitations of classical query languages such as SQL and SPARQL. However, the tuple-oriented view of general-purpose languages like Pig does not match very well...

  6. Assessment of sanitary conditions of unregistered pig slaughter slabs and post mortem examination of pigs for Taenia solium metacestodes in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edia-Asuke, Agnes U; Inabo, Helen I; Umoh, Veronica J; Whong, Clement Mz; Asuke, Sunday; Edeh, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies document the prevalence of Taenia solium infections in Nigeria, yet these studies do not cover porcine cysticercosis in private home slaughter slabs where there is no routine meat inspection and backyard pig keeping, slaughtering and sale are common practice. An environmental and sanitary assessment was conducted within two unregistered home pig slaughter slabs in selected parts of the Kaduna metropolis in Nigeria. Slaughter premises were inspected for availability of basic facilities and questionnaires were used to elicit necessary informative data. Butchers were examined for taeniasis by stool microscopy and copro-antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA) to ascertain T. solium - taeniasis. Pigs slaughtered at the premises were examined for cysticerci. Home slaughter conditions were substandard, unhygienic and lacked the basic facilities of a proper slaughterhouse. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 9.3%. The butchers participating in the study had very poor knowledge of T. solium infections and 30% tested positive for taeniasis by copro-Ag ELISA at the time of the study. Home slaughter of pigs in the areas studied should be considered and integrated as a component of prevention and control programmes - particularly through educational interventions - in order to equip individuals involved with a good understanding of the risks associated with animal husbandry and human practices.

  7. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements.

  8. Proceedings of Concept House

    OpenAIRE

    Eekhout, M.

    2005-01-01

    At the TU Delft, faculty of Architecture, a new research group is active since January 2004, with the first PhD student starting at September 1 st 2004 onwards. The group is regularly growing and will exist for 5 years: up to 2010. The aim of the research group is to do a preliminary marketing first, to design, develop and research new Concept Houses, to build and test them as prototypes, to do a final marketing for use in the Netherlands and in Western Europe and to prepare the actual produc...

  9. Vigander house, Stavanger, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostvik, H. [Sunlab/ABB, Stavanger (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    Twenty solar buildings have been constructed in the Stavanger region, the majority with facade or roof- integrated solar air systems for space heating and/or heating of domestic hot water. The Vigander house is a typical example of architectural integration of a solar facade collector coupled to a hollow concrete floor heat distribution system. The concrete floor is 44 m{sup 2}. The system has been in uninterrupted service since 1989. The total additional costs for the whole system were US $2500 (ECU 2270). The occupants are extremely positive about the system. (author)

  10. House to house, shelter to shelter: experiences of black women seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patty R; Laughon, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Locating safe and affordable housing is a vital step for women who decide to leave their abuser. Without housing, many women, particularly those who live in poverty, are forced to remain in abusive relationships, accept inadequate or unsafe housing, or become homeless (Menard, 2001; Moses, 2010). Women who choose to leave their abusers are faced with multiple barriers in establishing their independence such as limited financial resources, mental illness, and the lack of affordable housing (Botein & Hetling, 2010), putting them at risk of revictimization. This pilot study explores the narratives of Black mothers currently residing at an emergency intimate partner violence shelter to discover their experiences in seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships with a focus on housing instability and mental health. Utilizing a qualitative descriptive design, four major themes emerged: (a) unstable/insecure housing over time, (b) limited support,

  11. Preliminary Measurement of Internal Organs of Congjiang Fragrance Pig and Huanjiang Fragrance Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Xuelin; Duan; Yongbang; Zhang; Yi; Liu; Peiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Fragrance pig is a famous miniature local breed in China,which is similar to human on the aspects of physical structure,anatomy,nutrition,metabolism and blood biochemical indicators. The internal organs of Congjiang fragrance pig and Huanjiang fragrance pig with different month ages were weighed. The results showed that the proportion of stomach in body weight in Congjiang fragrance pig was higher than that in Min pig,Harbin white and Landrace,and the proportion of large intestine in body weight in Congjiang fragrance pig was also higher than that in ordinary pigs; the weights of heart,liver and kidney in 8- 10 months old Congjiang fragrance pig were similar to that in Chinese adults. This provided reference data for future in-depth development and utilization of fragrance pig.

  12. Avoiding hypothermia in neonatal pigs: effect of duration of floor heating at different room temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, L J; Malmkvist, J; Kammersgaard, T; Jørgensen, E

    2013-01-01

    The effect of different farrowing room temperatures (15, 20, or 25°C), combined with floor heating (FH) at the birth site, on the postnatal rectal temperature of pigs, use of creep area, and latency to first colostrum uptake was investigated with 61 litters born by loose-housed sows. Pig rectal temperature was measured at birth, as well as at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 12, 24, and 48 h after birth. The drop in rectal temperature from birth to 0.5 h postpartum was less (Ptemperature of 25°C compared with 20 and 15°C. Minimum rectal temperature was less (Ptemperature to increase above 37°C was longer (Ptemperature was 15°C than 20 and 25°C. Rectal temperatures at 24 (Ptemperature of 15°C than 20 and 25°C. Duration of FH (12 or 48 h) did not influence (P>0.28) the rectal temperature at 24 or 48 h after birth. More pigs used the creep area 12 to 60 h after birth of the first pig at a room temperature of 15°C with 12 h FH compared with all other treatments. During the latter part of this period, more pigs stayed in the creep area also at 20°C with 12 h FH. After 60 h, more pigs (Plow compared with high room temperatures (15°C>20°C>25°C). Odds ratio of pigs dying before they had suckled was 6.8 times greater (P=0.03) at 15 than 25°C (95% CI of 1.3 to 35.5), whereas the odds ratio of dying during the first 7 d was 1.6 greater (P=0.05) for 48 vs. 12 h of FH (95% CI of 1.0 to 2.57), mainly due to more pigs being crushed. In conclusion, FH for 48 h was no more favorable than 12 h for pigs because the risk of hypothermia was equal in the 2 treatments, and the risk of dying increased with the longer FH duration. Increasing the room temperature to 25°C reduced hypothermia and the risk of pigs dying before colostrum intake.

  13. Allying health care and housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lillian

    2005-01-01

    There is a wealth of evidence that health is inextricably linked to housing. For instance, research has shown that those in substandard housing have poorer health outcomes than other groups, and they often must forgo costly medication in order to pay for housing. Further, the health care and housing concerns faced by the underserved often compound one another--people with poor health often have trouble maintaining housing, and those with substandard homes, in turn, often have trouble maintaining their health. Three groups are especially vulnerable to the health care risks associated with housing issues: children, seniors, and the chronically homeless. As the research suggests, substandard housing is a contributing factor to the U.S. health care crisis. Therefore, as part of its efforts to reform the nation's health care system, the ministry should address housing issues as well. Seven Catholic health systems are doing this through the Strategic Health Care Partnership. The partnership, in collaboration with Mercy Housing, enables the seven organizations to work together to create healthy communities. The partnership's key goal is to increase access to affordable housing and health care. Just providing homes often is not enough, however. A holistic approach, through which supportive services are offered to the underserved, is most effective.

  14. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  15. People, Pigs, Pork and Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Cecilie Agnete H

    , depending on whether they relate to an everyday or production context. Furthermore, some interesting national differences emerged, pointing at the need for more than one marketing strategy if pig welfare is to be supported through consumer demand. Overall, this thesis contributes with important findings...

  16. People, Pigs, Pork and Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Cecilie Agnete H

    , depending on whether they relate to an everyday or production context. Furthermore, some interesting national differences emerged, pointing at the need for more than one marketing strategy if pig welfare is to be supported through consumer demand. Overall, this thesis contributes with important findings...

  17. Improving efficiency in pig production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    important. The production of lean meat is shown to be improved significantly by adopting ... is interested in the biology of pig production, then biological efficiency and its .... scientific basis, I have calculated the economic effects of a number of ...

  18. Virtual dissection of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of computed tomography (CT) as a reference method for estimating the lean meat percentage (LMP) of pig carcasses. The current reference is manual dissection which has a limited accuracy due to variability between butchers. A contextual Bayesian classification scheme...

  19. Race, ethnicity, and noxious facilities: Environmental racism re- examined

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-10-01

    The charge has been made that hazardous facilities tend to be located in proximity to minority populations. This study uses a facility density measure for three categories of noxious facilities to examine the relationship between facilities and minority population concentrations. County-level data are used in a correlation analysis for African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians in the four major regions of the US. Even controlling for income and housing value, and limiting the data set to urban areas, consistent patterns of moderate to strong association of facility densities with minority population percentages are found.

  20. Increased and prolonged human norovirus infection in RAG2/IL2RG deficient gnotobiotic pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shaohua; Ryu, Junghyun; Wen, Ke; Twitchell, Erica; Bui, Tammy; Ramesh, Ashwin; Weiss, Mariah; Li, Guohua; Samuel, Helen; Clark-Deener, Sherrie; Jiang, Xi; Lee, Kiho; Yuan, Lijuan

    2016-04-27

    Application of genetically engineered (GE) large animals carrying multi-allelic modifications has been hampered by low efficiency in production and extended gestation period compared to rodents. Here, we rapidly generated RAG2/IL2RG double knockout pigs using direct injection of CRISPR/Cas9 system into developing embryos. RAG2/IL2RG deficient pigs were immunodeficient, characterized by depletion of lymphocytes and either absence of or structurally abnormal immune organs. Pigs were maintained in gnotobiotic facility and evaluated for human norovirus (HuNoV) infection. HuNoV shedding lasted for 16 days in wild type pigs, compared to 27 days (until the end of trials) in RAG2/IL2RG deficient pigs. Additionally, higher HuNoV titers were detected in intestinal tissues and contents and in blood, indicating increased and prolonged HuNoV infection in RAG2/IL2RG deficient pigs and the importance of lymphocytes in HuNoV clearance. These results suggest that GE immunodeficient gnotobiotic pigs serve as a novel model for biomedical research and will facilitate HuNoV studies.

  1. Increased and prolonged human norovirus infection in RAG2/IL2RG deficient gnotobiotic pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shaohua; Ryu, Junghyun; Wen, Ke; Twitchell, Erica; Bui, Tammy; Ramesh, Ashwin; Weiss, Mariah; Li, Guohua; Samuel, Helen; Clark-Deener, Sherrie; Jiang, Xi; Lee, Kiho; Yuan, Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Application of genetically engineered (GE) large animals carrying multi-allelic modifications has been hampered by low efficiency in production and extended gestation period compared to rodents. Here, we rapidly generated RAG2/IL2RG double knockout pigs using direct injection of CRISPR/Cas9 system into developing embryos. RAG2/IL2RG deficient pigs were immunodeficient, characterized by depletion of lymphocytes and either absence of or structurally abnormal immune organs. Pigs were maintained in gnotobiotic facility and evaluated for human norovirus (HuNoV) infection. HuNoV shedding lasted for 16 days in wild type pigs, compared to 27 days (until the end of trials) in RAG2/IL2RG deficient pigs. Additionally, higher HuNoV titers were detected in intestinal tissues and contents and in blood, indicating increased and prolonged HuNoV infection in RAG2/IL2RG deficient pigs and the importance of lymphocytes in HuNoV clearance. These results suggest that GE immunodeficient gnotobiotic pigs serve as a novel model for biomedical research and will facilitate HuNoV studies. PMID:27118081

  2. Biodegradation of pig manure by the housefly, Musca domestica: a viable ecological strategy for pig manure management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Čičková

    Full Text Available The technology for biodegradation of pig manure by using houseflies in a pilot plant capable of processing 500-700 kg of pig manure per week is described. A single adult cage loaded with 25,000 pupae produced 177.7±32.0 ml of eggs in a 15-day egg-collection period. With an inoculation ratio of 0.4-1.0 ml eggs/kg of manure, the amount of eggs produced by a single cage can suffice for the biodegradation of 178-444 kg of manure. Larval development varied among four different types of pig manure (centrifuged slurry, fresh manure, manure with sawdust, manure without sawdust. Larval survival ranged from 46.9±2.1%, in manure without sawdust, to 76.8±11.9% in centrifuged slurry. Larval development took 6-11 days, depending on the manure type. Processing of 1 kg of wet manure produced 43.9-74.3 g of housefly pupae and the weight of the residue after biodegradation decreased to 0.18-0.65 kg, with marked differences among manure types. Recommendations for the operation of industrial-scale biodegradation facilities are presented and discussed.

  3. Emission Facilities - Erosion & Sediment Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Erosion and Sediment Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control program. The following sub-facility types related to...

  4. Dutch notes on BAT (Best Available Techniques) for pig- and poultry intensive lifestock farms (draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, H.J.M.; Van de Weerdhof, A.M. [Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries, National Reference Centre Agriculture, Ede (Netherlands)

    1999-08-01

    This document describes available environmental control techniques for the pig- and poultry intensive lifestock farms. The purpose of this document is to support the identification of BAT for the European pig- and poultry housing, following the requirements of article 16 of the Council Directive 96/61, concerning Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC Directive), which has been adopted on 24 September 1996. In this document, an attempt is made to include all relevant environmental aspects of the presented techniques. In this way, the integral weighing of available techniques is facilitated. Economical aspects of presented techniques are given as well. This document comprises the following elements: Process description; Emissions, economics and energy demand; and Candidate Best Available Techniques The rules concerning covered manure storage and low emission housing are based on the Environmental Management Act. This act sees to the activities in the 'appliance', which is in fact the farmyard and the animal-housing. The permit based on the Environmental Management Act regulates the nuisance and the environmental effects in relation to the housing. Manure application does not take place in the appliance but the application techniques are also added in this document as extra information. Those measures which are based on the Manure Act and the Manure Relocation Act are not taken into account. The Netherlands will deliver separate information on these subjects.

  5. A Mobile Application for Smart House Remote Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Rajabzadeh, Amir; Jahromi, Zahra Forootan

    2010-01-01

    At the start of the second decade of 21th century, the time has come to make the Smart Houses a reality for regular use. The different parts of a Smart House are researched but there are still distances from an applicable system, using the modern technology. In this paper we present an overview of the Smart House subsystems necessary for controlling the house using a mobile application efficiently and securely. The sequence diagram of the mobile application connecting to the server application and also the use-cases possible are presented. The challenges faced in designing the mobile application and illustrating the updated house top plane view in that application, are discussed and solutions are adapted for it. Finally the designed mobile application was implemented and the important sections of it were described, such as the interactive house top view map which indicates the status of the devices using predefined icons. The facilities to manage the scheduled tasks and defined rules are also implemented in t...

  6. Influences of Phytoncide Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Profiles, Diarrhea Scores and Fecal Microflora Shedding in Weaning Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 140 weaning pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc, BW = 6.47±0.86 kg were used in a 5-wk growth trail to determine the effects of phytoncide supplementation on growth performance, nutrient apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD, blood profiles, diarrhea scores and fecal microflora shedding. Pigs were assigned randomly by BW into 5 treatments, dietary treatments were: i NC, basal diet; ii PC, NC+0.05% tylosin; iii EO, NC+0.1% essential oil; iv PP, NC+0.2% PP (phytoncide with 2% citric acid, and v PA, NC+0.2% PA (phytoncide. Each treatment had 7 replicate pens with 4 pigs per pen. All pigs were housed in pens with a self-feeder and nipple drinker to allow ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the experimental period. During 0 to 2 wks, supplementation with essential oil and PA decreased (p0.05 was observed in diarrhea scores among treatments. In conclusion, phytoncide can elevate feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, and improve the fecal Lactobacillus counts in weaning pigs. Our results indicated that the phytoncide could be used as a good antibiotics alternative in weaning pigs.

  7. The GALATEA Test-facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, I.; Doenmez, B.; Garbini, L.; Irlbeck, S.; Palermo, M.; Schulz, O.

    GALATEA is a test-facility designed to study the properties of Germanium detectors in detail. It is a powerful high precision tool to investigate bulk and surface effects in germanium detectors. A vacuum tank houses an infrared screened volume with a cooled detector inside. A system of three stages allowa a complete scan of the detector. At the moment, a 19-fold segmented Germanium detector is under investigation. The main feature of GALATEA is that there is no material between source and detector. This allows the usage of alpha and beta sources as well as of a laser beam to study surface effects. The experimental setup is described.

  8. Improvements in launchings and recipients of PIG in Malha de Gasodutos Nordeste Meridional; Melhorias nos lancamentos e recebedores de PIG da Malha de Gasodutos Nordeste Meridional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, Jairo A.C.; Lemos, Francisco A.C.; Lima, Artur W.R. de S. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the study that resulted in the preparation of a project for improvement of launchers and receivers of PIG in facilities maintained and operated by PETROBRAS S.A. (TRANSPETRO) in the Malha de Gasodutos Nordeste Meridional (Malha NEM). The improvements are part of the component in cleaner production system and reduce the risks of accidents and the costs of hazardous waste management.

  9. Malaysian Affordability Housing Policies Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Diwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing has always been a significant aspiration of family expression and distinctly priciest investment by household. It plays a momentous role in the country’s economy and so central to the societal well-being that is emplaced in the United Nation Universal declaration of Human rights. Yet in developed and developing world alike, cities struggle to provide decent housing for lower and middle income population. The provision of affordable housing is a major policy concern around the world with Malaysia being no exception; rising income hardly keep pace with price hike of housing unit and housing interventions has majorly concentrated on demand side leading to a non-responsive supply sector. Therefore, this paper highlights affordable housing issues pertaining Malaysia. It formulates Malaysian Map of affordability and conducts an evaluation of global housing schemes to better identify policy priorities for Malaysia. It’s significant to harmonize supply and demand side factors in the housing market to ensure that housing supply fits the needs of citizens based on the location, price and target group. In case of Malaysia supply oriented initiative are of urgency in short and medium run. This must be supported by long term demand side schemes in parallel. Convergence of these two factors is essential for a balanced equilibrium and obtaining affordability.

  10. Challenges for Large Housing Estates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    This paper examines policies and improvement programmes implemented to improve troubled housing estates during three decades. It is based on evaluations of implemented programmes conducted for the Danish ministry of housing and the National Building Fund as well as similar studies from other...... European countries. Case studies illustrate local developments and outcomes and are the base for questioning the original identification of problems and thus the chosen solutions. Perspectives for current policy initiatives in the field of troubled housing estates are discussed in a general housing market...

  11. Private Housing or Alternative Financing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Nick

    1999-01-01

    Explores the history of privatizing university housing and some current financing options, including use of developer and private foundations. Examples of successful alternative financing methods are highlighted. (GR)

  12. Challenges for Large Housing Estates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    This paper examines policies and improvement programmes implemented to improve troubled housing estates during three decades. It is based on evaluations of implemented programmes conducted for the Danish ministry of housing and the National Building Fund as well as similar studies from other...... European countries. Case studies illustrate local developments and outcomes and are the base for questioning the original identification of problems and thus the chosen solutions. Perspectives for current policy initiatives in the field of troubled housing estates are discussed in a general housing market...

  13. Social Housing: wood prefabrication techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Ferrante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Student housing, a particular and quite significant part of social housing, and innovation in processing and production of industrial building components made of a material (wood not adequately inquired: two fields of research that have been explored for a long time allowing here to share and compare experiences gained thus far. By a selection of samples of wooden student housing in Europe we have documented the performances of this material and we have underlined, at the same time, through what happens abroad, the need of an organic national social housing plan that can meet an unsatisfied demand and boost the construction industry during this particular stage of economic crisis.

  14. Fire Sales and House Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    We exploit a natural experiment in Denmark to investigate when forced sales lead to fire sale discounts. Forced sales result from sudden deaths of house owners in an institutional environment in which beneficiaries are forced to settle the estate, and hence sell the house, within 12 months. We...... and the urgency of the sale also affect the average discount: Discounts are larger when house prices contract, in thin markets where demand is lower, and when the sale is more likely to be a fire sale because of financial or liquidity constraints. Late fire sales are more likely when the house price...... forced sales lead to fire sale discounts....

  15. Toxocara cati larva migrans in domestic pigs--detected at slaughterhouse control in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca K; Mermer, Anna; Øines, Øivind

    2012-11-21

    Routine Trichinella meat inspection at the slaughterhouse detected one larva in a pooled batch of 100 pig samples. The larva was sent to the Norwegian Veterinary Institute (NVI) for species identification.Morphological examination revealed that the larva was not Trichinella spp. Molecular analysis was performed. PCR and sequencing of 5S/ITS identified the larva as Toxocara cati. A second round of digests was carried out at the meat inspection laboratory, in smaller batches to try to identify the infected animal. No further larvae were detected and it was not possible to identify which of the 100 animals the larva had come from. This is the first time that Toxocara cati has been reported in slaughterhouse pigs in Norway.Although the infected individual could not be identified, the meat originated from one of six potential farms. A small survey regarding rodent control and cats was sent to each of these farms. Cats had restricted access to food storage areas (two farms reported that cats had access) whilst none of the farms allowed cats into the production housing. Cats were, however, present on all the farms (mostly stray cats of unknown health status). Half of the farms also reported seeing rodents in the pig housing during the previous six months and half reported finding rodents in the feed and straw storage areas. We were unable to narrow down the source of infection - however contamination of food or bedding material, with cat faeces or infected rodents, in addition to the presence of infected rodents in pig housing remain potential routes of infection.

  16. Who now handles social housing provision - the role and performance of housing associations:

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Coatham

    1995-01-01

    In Britain, Housing Associations are organizations whose prime objectives are to develop and manage housing for people in housing need and who are on low incomes. They are sometimes referred to as the “voluntary housing sector” or the “third arm” of rented housing provisions, separate from private sector landlords and rented housing provided by statutory local (municipal) housing authorities. This article discusses the role of housing associations in the UK housing market.

  17. Energy production, nutrient recovery and greenhouse gas emission Potentials from Integrated Pig Manure Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2010-01-01

    of waste materials were considered. Data for the analyses were obtained from existing waste treatment facilities, experimental plants, laboratory measurements and literature. The assessment reveals that incineration combined with liquid/solid separation and drying of the solids is a promising management......Improper management of pig manure has resulted in environmental problems such as surface water eutrophication, ground water pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. This study develops and compares 14 alternative manure management scenarios aiming at energy and nutrient extraction. The scenarios...... based on combinations of thermal pretreatment, anaerobic digestion, anaerobic co-digestion, liquid/solid separation, drying, incineration, and thermal gasification were compared with respect to their energy, nutrient and greenhouse gas balances. Both sole pig manure and pig manure mixed with other types...

  18. Metabolomic phenotyping of a cloned pig model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callesen Henrik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigs are widely used as models for human physiological changes in intervention studies, because of the close resemblance between human and porcine physiology and the high degree of experimental control when using an animal model. Cloned animals have, in principle, identical genotypes and possibly also phenotypes and this offer an extra level of experimental control which could possibly make them a desirable tool for intervention studies. Therefore, in the present study, we address how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning, through comparison of cloned pigs and normal outbred pigs. Results The metabolic phenotype of cloned pigs (n = 5 was for the first time elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomic analysis of multiple bio-fluids including plasma, bile and urine. The metabolic phenotype of the cloned pigs was compared with normal outbred pigs (n = 6 by multivariate data analysis, which revealed differences in the metabolic phenotypes. Plasma lactate was higher for cloned vs control pigs, while multiple metabolites were altered in the bile. However a lower inter-individual variability for cloned pigs compared with control pigs could not be established. Conclusions From the present study we conclude that cloned and normal outbred pigs are phenotypically different. However, it cannot be concluded that the use of cloned animals will reduce the inter-individual variation in intervention studies, though this is based on a limited number of animals.

  19. Pigs taking wing with transposons and recombinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Karl J; Carlson, Daniel F; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2007-01-01

    Swine production has been an important part of our lives since the late Mesolithic or early Neolithic periods, and ranks number one in world meat production. Pig production also contributes to high-value-added medical markets in the form of pharmaceuticals, heart valves, and surgical materials. Genetic engineering, including the addition of exogenous genetic material or manipulation of the endogenous genome, holds great promise for changing pig phenotypes for agricultural and medical applications. Although the first transgenic pigs were described in 1985, poor survival of manipulated embryos; inefficiencies in the integration, transmission, and expression of transgenes; and expensive husbandry costs have impeded the widespread application of pig genetic engineering. Sequencing of the pig genome and advances in reproductive technologies have rejuvenated efforts to apply transgenesis to swine. Pigs provide a compelling new resource for the directed production of pharmaceutical proteins and the provision of cells, vascular grafts, and organs for xenotransplantation. Additionally, given remarkable similarities in the physiology and size of people and pigs, swine will increasingly provide large animal models of human disease where rodent models are insufficient. We review the challenges facing pig transgenesis and discuss the utility of transposases and recombinases for enhancing the success and sophistication of pig genetic engineering. 'The paradise of my fancy is one where pigs have wings.' (GK Chesterton). PMID:18047690

  20. Subsidized Housing, Public Housing, and Adolescent Violence and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Tamara G. J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the separate relationships of public housing residence and subsidized housing residence to adolescent health risk behavior. Data include 2,530 adolescents aged 14 to 19 who were children of the National the Longitudinal Study of Youth. The author used stratified propensity methods to compare the behaviors of each…