Sample records for piezometry

  1. Microstructural analysis and calcite piezometry on hydrothermal veins: Insights into the deformation history of the Cocos Plate at Site U1414 (IODP Expedition 344) (United States)

    Brandstätter, Jennifer; Kurz, Walter; Rogowitz, Anna


    In this study we present microstructural data from hydrothermal veins in the sedimentary cover and the igneous basement recovered from Hole U1414A, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 344 (Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project), to constrain deformation mechanism operating in the subducting Cocos Plate. Cathodoluminescence studies, mechanical e-twin piezometry and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses of carbonate veins were used to give insights into the deformation conditions and to help to understand the tectonic deformation history of the Cocos Plate offshore Costa Rica. Analyses of microstructures in the sedimentary rocks and in the basalt of the igneous basement reveal brittle deformation, as well as crystal-plastic deformation of the host rock and the vein material. Cathodoluminescence images showed that in the basalt fluid flow and related precipitation occurred over several episodes. The differential stresses, obtained from two different piezometers using the same parameter (twin density), indicate various mean differential stresses of 49 ± 11 and 69 ± 30 MPa and EBSD mapping of calcite veins reveals low-angle subgrain boundaries. Deformation temperatures are restricted to the range from 170°C to 220°C, due to the characteristics of the existing twins and the lack of high-temperature intracrystalline deformation mechanisms (>220°C). The obtained results suggest that deformation occurred over a period associated with changes of ambient temperatures, occurrence of fluids and hydrofracturing, induced differential stresses due to the bending of the plate at the trench, and related seismic activity.

  2. Climatic and geologic controls on the piezometry of the Querença-Silves karst aquifer, Algarve (Portugal) (United States)

    Neves, Maria C.; Costa, Luis; Monteiro, José P.


    Karst aquifers in semi-arid regions, like Querença-Silves (Portugal), are particularly vulnerable to climate variability. For the first time in this region, the temporal structure of a groundwater-level time series (1985-2010) was explored using the continuous wavelet transform. The investigation focused on a set of four piezometers, two at each side of the S. Marcos-Quarteira fault, to demonstrate how each of the two sectors of the aquifer respond to climate-induced patterns. Singular spectral analysis applied to an extended set of piezometers enabled identification of several quasi-periodic modes of variability, with periods of 6.5, 4.3, 3.2 and 2.6 years, which can be explained by low-frequency climate patterns. The geologic forcing accounts for ~15 % of the differential variability between the eastern and western sectors of the aquifer. The western sector displays spatially homogenous piezometric variations, large memory effects and low-pass filtering characteristics, which are consistent with relatively large and uniform values of water storage capacity and transmissivity properties. In this sector, the 6.5-year mode of variability accounts for ~70 % of the total variance of the groundwater levels. The eastern sector shows larger spatial and temporal heterogeneity, is more reactive to short-term variations, and is less influenced by the low-frequency components related to climate patterns.

  3. The design and application of an inexpensive pressure monitoring system for shallow water level measurement, tensiometry and piezometry (United States)

    Greswell, Richard; Ellis, Paul; Cuthbert, Mark; White, Rachel; Durand, Véronique


    SummaryThe measurement of water level or pressure is often a key requirement in the study of hydrogeological, hydrological and soil science processes. Modern microelectronics can provide a range of solutions for the automated monitoring of water levels in boreholes, rivers as well as more specialised applications such as tensiometry. The advantages of stand-alone monitoring systems when compared to manual measurement approaches are well understood, especially when the point of measurement is remote or the frequency of perturbation is rapid. For this reason the combination of a pressure transducer and logging system within a single package has been widely adopted in commercially available systems. However, although the price of these devices continues to fall, they may still represent a significant cost for researchers on limited budgets. We therefore present a design for a simple, inexpensive (˜£30) but versatile pressure monitoring system which can interface to low-cost (£50-£70) data-loggers. We demonstrate how the design may be adapted for a range of field applications which include: river level measurements, tensiometers, permeameters and in situ river-bed piezometers. The performance of the system is assessed and for each application the specific design and examples of resulting data are described.

  4. Anorectum piezometry and biofeedback treatment for functional constipation%直肠肛门测压与生物反馈治疗功能性便秘在临床中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴志毅; 易文全


    目的 探讨功能性便秘患者直肠肛门压力变化及生物反馈治疗对功能性便秘的疗效.方法 180例功能性便秘患者(便秘组)被纳入本研究,采用维迪胃肠肠动力检测和生物反馈仪行直肠肛门测压和生物反馈治疗,治疗前后分别对患者进行临床症状评分,并记录直肠、肛管静息压、肛管自主收缩持续时间及直肠肛门抑制反射域.60例无排便异常患者(对照组)作为正常对照,接受直肠肛门测压.结果 ①与正常对照组比较,功能性便秘患者直肠、肛管静息压、肛管自主收缩持续时间及直肠肛门抑制反射域值均明显增高(P<0.05).②治疗后便秘患者临床症状减轻,显效45例,有效96例,总有效率约78.3%.直肠、肛管静息压、肛管自主收缩持续时间及直肠肛门抑制反射域值降低(P<0.05).结论 功能性便秘患者存在直肠肛门压力异常,生物反馈治疗可通过改善直肠肛门压力异常达到治疗便秘的目的.%Objective To investigate the pressure of anorectum and the effects of biofeedback treatment in patient with functional constipation. Methods 180 patients were enlisted to take the biofeedback therapy by Weidi stomach ints-tine enterokinesia detection and biofeedback appearance in the clinic. Theclinic symptoms and anorectura resting prus-sure, independent duration of contraction of anal canal, anorectum inhibitory reflex value were recorded and compared before and after biofeedback therapy. 60 patients without defecation dysfunction were investigated as normal control. Results The anorectum resting prussure, independent duration of contraction of anal canal, anorectum inhibitory reflex value of patients with functional were higher than that of the normal control (P<0. 05). After biofeedback therapy, the symptoms improved. The total effective rate was 78. 3%. The anorectum resting prussure, independent duration of contraction of anal canal, anorectum inhibitory reflex value were decreased ( P<0. 05). Conclusion The anoructum prussure dysfunction can be reformed by biofeedback therapy.

  5. Thin Circular Diamond Membrane with Embedded Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers for Hybrid Spin-Mechanical Quantum Systems (United States)

    Ali Momenzadeh, S.; de Oliveira, Felipe Fávaro; Neumann, Philipp; Bhaktavatsala Rao, D. D.; Denisenko, Andrej; Amjadi, Morteza; Chu, Zhiqin; Yang, Sen; Manson, Neil B.; Doherty, Marcus W.; Wrachtrup, Jörg


    Coupling mechanical degrees of freedom to single well-controlled quantum systems has become subject to intense research recently. Here, we report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of a diamond architecture consisting of a high-quality thin circular diamond membrane with embedded near-surface nitrogen-vacancy centers (NVCs). To demonstrate this architecture, we employ the NVCs by means of their optical and spin interfaces as nanosensors of the motion of the membrane under static pressure and in-resonance vibration. We also monitor the static residual stress within the membrane using the same method. Driving the membrane at its fundamental resonance mode, we observe coupling of this vibrational mode to the spin of the NVCs. Our realization of this architecture can manifest the applications of diamond structures in 3D piezometry such as mechanobiology and vibrometry, as well as mechanically mediated spin-spin coupling in quantum-information science.

  6. Relaciones hidrogeologicas y medioambientales entre el mar mediterraneo, El saladar y el acuifero de agua amarga (provincia de alicante). Incidencia de las explotaciones de las desaladoras de alicante I Y II Y medidas correctoras (United States)

    Manteca, Ivan Alhama

    The Agua Amarga coastal aquifer, located in the south of Alicante province, has been subjected to successive anthropogenic actions: salt works activity (1925-1975) and water withdrawal to supply the Alicante I and II desalination plants (since 2003). These interventions have influenced the salinity and the flow regime. Due to the existence of a salt marsh of ecological interest linked to the aquifer, the 'Mancomunidad de los Canales del Taibilla' (agency responsible for the desalination plants) designed a piezometric network for monitoring piezometry and electrical conductivity (in operation since May 2008). Soil humidity and piezometrics levels have been recovered by means of a seawater pouring programme over the salt marsh (since December 2009),which represents the third anthropic intervention. In this memoria, we investigate the Agua Amarga coastal aquifer to develop a physical conceptual model. Firstly, the study area is characterized in relation to climatology, geology, geomorphology and hydrogeology, using published information, describing, in addition, the desalination plants catchment system. Next, based on hydrogeological studies prior to the start up of the desalination plants, the aquifer is characterized: type, lithology, hydraulic parameters, thickness, surface extension, etc. Water quantity relating to rainfall, water withdrawal and pourings over the salt marsh, have been integrated in conjunction with data from monthly piezometric campaigns. In adittion, in order to gain insight into the groundwater mixing processes, chemical and isotope analyses were carried out on meteoric water and groundwater samples taken at different locations. The results were used to elaborate a conceptual physical model and a water budget. As an extension tool to understand processes and assess aquifer management, a 3-D fluid-flow and solute-transport model is designed with SEAWAT. Also, the 2-D physical characterization of scenarios with seawater intrusion and salt flats is

  7. Lorraine's collieries impact and risk management: water management; Impacts et gestion des risques H.B.L. (Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine): gestion de l'eau

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    Metz, M. [Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine, SESA, 57 - Freyming Merlebach (France); Babot, Y. [ANTEA, 54 - Vandoeuvre Les Nancy (France)


    The Saar-Lorraine coal measures dip under the Lower Triassic Sandstone (LTS) towards the South West, in the Warndt area in the Saar and in the Lorraine coal-fields. The fissuring of the ground due to the caving technique has led to the waters of the LTS water table descending into the mine. The total quantity of water drained in 2001 was 45 Mm{sup 3} /year, leading to a piezometric surface decline in the upper water table to 100 m at MERLEBACH and MARIENAU, limited to a few tens of metres at La Houve. Caving does not leave a void and there is therefore no risk of post-mining subsidence. Flooding will have the effect of slightly lifting the ground by a few per cent of subsidence, and eliminating the risk of gas and fire long term, after degassing by means of shafts and boreholes whilst the waters are rising. The mines at FAULQUEMONT and FOLSCHWILLER (flooded for over 10 years) and La Houve are separate from each other underground, whereas MERLEBACH-MARIENAU-WARNDT (DSK) on the other hand are connected by galleries that form a mining hydraulic complex where dewatering must be stopped simultaneously. HBL and DSK have carried out predictive studies to assess the impact and compensatory measures required. The situation has been modeled using a model with LTS water table bi-layer, low gradient mining galleries, the vertical links between the water table and the mines calibrated on the current piezometry / flow rate situation. Supposing that all the mine workings are closed (shaft tops, Warndt-Luisenthal gallery), this would lead to the following phenomena: the upwelling of mineralized mine waters would produce plumes at the base of the water table, in some places exceeding the limits of potability (SO{sub 4}, Cl, Na, K) and therefore not being able to be drawn by drillings intended to supply drinking water, but for the most part being drained by the watercourses. increases in the piezometric level would cause underground flooding in the valley bottoms, and even permanent

  8. Subsurface geological modeling of Corrientes province (NE Argentina) and its relationships with the Guaraní Aquifer system function (United States)

    Mira, Andrés; Veroslavsky, Gerardo; Rossello, Eduardo; Vives, Luis; Rodríguez, Leticia


    From the integration results of geological and geophysical data, a subsurface geological model of the Corrientes province (Argentina) that allows visualizing its deep geological structure and how it affected the Guaraní Aquifer System (GAS) is presented. 44 boreholes, 21 geophysical surveys and 1366 depth data from a Bouguer gravity anomaly model have been used. The model was built from five layers easily distinguishable in the regional subsurface: basement, pre-GAS sediments (Paleozoic), GAS sediments (Triassic-Lower Cretaceous), basalts (Serra Geral Group, Lower Cretaceous) and post basaltic sediments. The resulting geometry shows a basement with a structural high, the Dorsal Asunción-Rio Grande, where the GAS and the basaltic layer are thinner and the Mesozoic sediments rise near the surface. It is an area prone to local recharge and regional discharge of the GAS and it is in line with the latest piezometry and groundwater chemical analysis. Furthermore, two important depocenters have been identified, Corrientes and Curuzú structural high blocks, with at least 3500 m of sedimentary and volcano-sedimentary deposits that suggest the existence of significant pre-carboniferous sediment units associated to ancient extensional structures of the early Paleozoic. The proposed model allows defining a lithostratigraphic column of Corrientes and gives new criteria to redraw the southwest limit of the GAS.

  9. Numerical simulation of groundwater level in a fractured porous medium and sensitivity analysis of the hydrodynamic parameters using grid computing: application of the plain of Gondo (Burkina Faso

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    Wenddabo Olivier Sawadogo


    Full Text Available The use of mathematical modeling as a tool for decision support is not common in Africa in solving development problems. In this article we talk about the numerical simulation of groundwater level of the plain of Gondo (Burkina Faso and the sensitivity analysis of the hydrodynamic parameters. The domain has fractures which have hydraulic coefficients lower than those of the rock. Our contribution is to bring brief replies to the real problem posed in the thesis of Mr. KOUSSOUBE [1]. Namely that what causes the appearance of the piezometric level observed and impact of surface water on the piezometry. The mathematical model of the flow was solved by programming the finite element method on FreeFem++[2]. A local refinement of the mesh at fracture was used. We then conduct a sensitivity analysis to see which hydrodynamic parameters influences much of the solution. The method used for the sensitivity analysis is based on the calculation of the gradient by the adjoint equation and requires great computational power. To remedy this, we used a technique of distributed computing and we launched our application to the Moroccan grid (magrid. This allowed us to reduce the computation time. The results allowed to highlight the role of fractures and contributions of surface water on the evolution of the piezometric level of the plain of Gondo and identified the parameters that greatly influence the piezometric level.

  10. Looking at Dauphiné twins in vein quartz as a potential paleostress indicator (United States)

    Sintubin, Manuel; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf


    Paleostress studies commonly call upon (1) a fault slip data inversion technique, (2) a calcite twin stress inversion technique, (3) recrystallized grain size piezometry for quartz, or (4) direct measurements of residual lattice strain. Recent advances in orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) have revealed that Dauphiné twinning is very common in quartz in naturally deformed quartz-bearing rocks in a wide range of tectonometamorphic conditions. It has long been known that mechanical Dauphiné twinning in quartz can be stress-induced. Based on the results of an extensive EBSD-OIM analysis on vein quartz, taken from well-studied early to late-orogenic veins in the High-Ardenne slate belt (Germany, Belgium), we explore the potential use of mechanical Dauphiné twins as a paleostress indicator, possibly completing our toolbox for reconstructing paleostresses in the Earth's crust. The vein quartz studied precipitated in low-grade tectonometamorphic conditions (~200-400°C), typical for the brittle-plastic transition zone at the base of the seismogenic crust (~7-15km). Quartz has only been weakly affected by low to moderate temperature (200 to 400°C) crystal-plastic deformation. The samples show grains with a high concentration of Dauphiné twin boundaries and others free of twin boundaries, thus being untwinned or completely twinned. This pattern depends on the crystallographic orientation. Twin boundaries are arrested by grain or subgrain boundaries, suggesting that Dauphiné twinning occurred on a pre-existing fabric that resulted from crystal-plastic deformation. An analysis of the orientation distribution of the rhombs in the twinned variant domains of individual quartz (sub-)grains reveals a particular preferred orientation of the poles to rhombs. We will discuss the possible significance of these observations with respect to paleostresses that may have caused the mechanical

  11. Hydrodynamic and salinity evolution of groundwaters during artificial recharge within semi-arid coastal aquifers: A case study of El Khairat aquifer system in Enfidha (Tunisian Sahel) (United States)

    Ketata, Mouna; Gueddari, Moncef; Bouhlila, Rachida


    In common with most coastal aquifers, the El Khairat aquifer suffers the imbalance between recharge and intense exploitation and the extent of agricultural activity. As it is part of the Tunisian Sahel, the Enfidha region has a semiarid climate with very irregular rainfall which makes the groundwater resources quite fragile. This region has major difficulties in managing its water resources which are in decline, especially since, for the last decades, their renewal by rainwater has no longer been sufficient to re-establish the equilibrium. In such a case, the artificial recharge of aquifers by water from dams is a credible alternative to preserve the water resources against marine intrusion and pronounced fall in the piezometric level. The present investigation, based on available data, is aimed to monitoring the piezometry of the El Khairat aquifer during artificial recharge operations (2002-2005) by water from the dam and to identify the impact of the artificial recharge on groundwater quality. The results of this monitoring have shown that the artificial recharge realized between 2002 and 2005, had for effect an increase of the piezometric level of the phreatic aquifer of +0.4 to +2.63 m, especially in the “Ain Garci” zone. The piezometric level of the deep aquifer has also recorded an important increase reaching +3.82 m. After artificial recharge of the aquifer, the spatial distribution of the salinity shows quite low salinity values (lower than 2 g/l) in the western and north-eastern parts of the aquifer, the zone of artificial recharge, whereas the highest ones are found especially in the coastal zones and at the boundaries of the Sebkha where they exceeded 3 g/l. Moreover, we note a slight salinity reduction toward a central zone of the aquifer. Indeed, the zone characterized by salinity lower than 2 g/l and situated near the recharge site becomes more extensive.

  12. Potentialites hydrogeologiques du synclinal de kourimat (Bassin D'essaouira, Maroc

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    Laftouhi, N.


    Full Text Available The synclinal basin of Kourimat, situated in the oriental part of Essaouira basin, shelters an aquiferous carbonate. This aquiferous represents the unique resource in water for the region. The study undertaken on this aquiferous has allowed us the characterize it viewpoint hydrodynamically, hydrogeologically and hydrogeochimically. The piezometric map of the system shows a senses of water flow underground of the southeast to the northwest. The hydraulic gradient varies from the upstream to the downstream. The evolution of the piezometry at one time watch of annual and seasonal fluctuations in connection with variations of precipitations. The results of chemical analyses have allowed to distinguish two aquiferious: the first is Cenomanian, the second is Turonian. Theses aquiferious were diffrenciated by there chemical facies and the origine of chemicals elements.La cuvette synclinale de Kourimat, située dans la partie orientale du bassin d'Essaouira, abrite un aquifere carbonaté constituant l'unique ressource en eau de la région. L'étude entreprise sur cet aquifere a permis de le caractériser de point de vue hydrodynamique, hydrogéologique et hydrogéochimique. La carte piézométrique du systeme montre un sens d'écoulement global du sud-est vers le nord-ouest. Le gradient hydraulique varie de l'amont vers l'aval. Les fluctuations piézométriques montrent une bonne corrélation avec les aléas climatiques. Les résultas de l'étude hydrochimique ont permis de mettre en évidence l'existence de deux nappes: la premiere dans le Cénomanien et l'autre dans le Turonien. Ces deux nappes se différencient par leurs facies chimiques et par l'origine des éléments en solution.

  13. Hydrogeological characterization of Itataia mine, Ceara, Brazil; Caracterizacao hidrogeologica da jazida de Itataia, CE

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    Silva, Jose Roberto de Alcantara e


    This work analyzes the geological-geotechnical-geophysical behavior, aiming to define the characteristics of a karstic-fissural aquifer in the mid-northern region of the State of Ceara, named as Itataia Phosphor-Uranium Deposit. This area is constituted of marbles and gneisses from Itataia Group, which are morphologically located at a higher point to the south and at a lower point to the north, related to Paleoproterozoic Era. Fracture system led to the implantation of two karstic marble phases, being the oldest from Cambrian Period and the most recent from Tertiary/Quaternary Period. Porosity is secondary to fractures, fissures and crushed zones which act as hydraulic channels for groundwater flow. Major geophysics defined conducting lines are controlled by normal fractures and faults in both N70 deg E and N80 deg W directions, and secondarily in both N10 deg E and N30 deg W directions, dipping 70 deg -85 deg into the northern quadrant of the main axes. Fault characteristics are typical of graben and horst patterns. Rocks in the area are distributed into three classes of geotechnical massif: healthy rock, moderately altered and fractured rock, and strongly altered and fractured rock. The latter occurs predominantly in the center of the area, from the soil surface to an average depth of 150 meters. Groundwater flow is characterized by fractures which enlarged by the karstic phenomenon dissolution, and then become closer as deeper they are. This flow may be slower or even discontinue in light of silty-argillaceous alteration material that fill the open fracture gaps. Water level is not lower than 5 m or higher than 90 m, averaging by 30 m ali over the area. The synoptic piezometry map shows a general south-north direction; however in the southwestern portion - the recharge zone - it takes the south direction, while in the southeastern portion it takes the southeast direction. (author)

  14. Tectonic Evolution of the Cretaceous Sava-Klepa Massif, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, based on field observations and microstructural analysis - Towards a new geodynamic Model (United States)

    Altmeyer, Tobias; Peternell, Mark; Prelević, Dejan; Köpping, Jonas


    The Balkan Peninsula was formed during the Mesozoic collision of Gondwana and Eurasia, associated with the closure of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean. As a result, two ophiolitic belts were formed: Dinaride-Hellenide ophiolitic belt in the southwest and the Vardar ophiolitic belt in the northeast. The bulk of Balkan ophiolites originated in the Jurassic (Robertson & Karamata, 1994), and only recently the Late Cretaceous Sava-zone ophiolites are discovered. Ophiolit-like outcrops of Mount Klepa in the Central Macedonia represents a part of Late Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere within the Sava Zone, comprising of pillow lavas, sheet flows, columns, hyaloclastites, dikes as well as cumulates. In this study we investigate the geodynamic setting and evolution of the Late Cretaceous Klepa Massif. Our working hypotheses we want to test is that Klepa Massif represents a new ocean opened through rifting after the closure of Tethyan ocean(s) and collision of Europe and Gondwana already in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. This hypothesis contradicts the accepted model suggesting that Sava ophiolites represent a relic of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean that closed in the Late Cretaceous. During detailed structural geology field studies, the ophiolitic rock sequence of Klepa Mountain area was mapped in several profiles and about 60 rock samples were taken. These field data in addition to the north-south trending outcrops of the Klepa ophiolite and the north-south trending shear zones which bound the Klepa basalt, lead to the assumption of the existence of a pull apart basin. With the help of microstructural analyses we will determine the deformation history and temperatures which also will be confirmed by the analyses of calcite twins (Ferril et al., 2004). Quartz grain size analysis of quartz bearing rocks, were used for stress piezometry. Furthermore, quartz crystal geometry and crystallographic orientations, which were measured with the Fabric Analyser G60 (Peternell et al., 2010), reveal

  15. Characterizing seasonal variability of storm events based on very high frequency monitoring of hydrological and chemical variables: comparing patterns in hot spots and hot moments for nutrient and sediment export (United States)

    Fovet, Ophelie; Thelusma, Gilbert; Humbert, Guillaume; Dupas, Rémi; Faucheux, Mikael; Gilliet, Nicolas; Hamon, Yannick; Jaffrezic, Anne; Grimaldi, Catherine; Gruau, Gerard


    Storm events are critical hot moments of emission for several dissolved and particulate chemical species at major stake for water quality (e.g. dissolved organic carbon DOC, suspended sediments, phosphorus). During such events, the solutes or particles are exported from heterogeneous sources through various pathways to stream leading to specific integrated signals at the outlet characterized by very short dynamics. This is merely true in headwater catchments where the total duration of such events ranges over 10h to 3 days, with very quick variations in stream flow and concentrations at the outlet occurring in a few hours. Thus for investigating properly event processes, high frequency monitoring of flow and water quality is required. We analysed 103 storm events in a 5 km2 agricultural headwater catchment, part of the AgrHys Observatory, on the basis of a 3-year-long data set which combined meterological (Rainfall), hydrological (flow and piezometry), and water quality (turbidity, conductivity, DOC and NO3 concentrations) data recorded at very high frequencies (from 1 to 20 min) thanks to dedicated sensors. We proposed a range of quantitative storm descriptors for characterizing input (rainfall), antecedent and initial conditions (groundwater levels and saturated area), and stream response in terms of level and dynamics of flow (Q), groundwater levels, and concentrations (C) but also the C-Q relationships. Three intra annual periods have been previously defined for base flow dynamic according to shallow groundwater table variations so that they correspond to different connectivity status in the catchment. The seasonal and inter-annual variability of the storm events have been analysed using the descriptors and based on these predefined periods. Results show that the hydrological flowpaths and the consequent storm chemistry were controlled by the hydrological base flow regime rather than by the rain input characteristics. This highlights that the exports of NO3

  16. Sustainability of urban systems and most important problems related to environmental geological components; Sostenibilita` dei sistemi urbani e principali problematiche geologico-territoriali: L`analisi di dati di caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarlenga, Francesco; Basili, Mauro; Del Ciello, Roberto [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente


    The most important aspects of environmental geology, related to the urban syatems are analysed in this paper; the term urban system is here preferred to urban environment, since the second one refers to a part of a complex system, that comprises social, economic, etc. environments. All the possible environmental impacts have been described to evaluate how the urban system is affected by the environmental geological components. They are subdivided into urban impacts on the environment and environmental impacts on the cities. The environmental changes induced by: quarries, natural surfaces waterproofing, drained marshes, subways for transportation networks, bridges and gully-holes, topography changes, natural hollows filling up and ground piles, loss of the natural conditions for river beds, loss of soils, falls in piezometry and connected subsistence phenomena, are classified into the firdt type of impacts, also defined as anthropic risks. The pollution of soils, surface waters (marine and fluvial), groundwater and the impact of watse management and their restorage were also dealth with. The geological risks have also been analyzed as pressure factors from the environmenton the cities. They are generally interrelated and in some cases added up. The main instruments to help monitor and manage the environment are also described. They are monitoring networks that constitute a part of the Informative Environmental Systems. A great relevance is given to the indicators and indexes of the environmental quality, either for the measurement of the quality of life that for the measurement of environmental sustainability of cities. The scientific use of such indicators and indexes is presently a subject of debate world-wide. The authors consider is correct to delineate concise indexes, obtained from state indicators for the quality of life. They are represented by the umber of days/per year in which a service was suspended, or the environment didn`t present the characteristics

  17. A hydrogeological study of the confined aquifers below the Boom Clay in NE-Belgium: combining a piezometric analysis with groundwater modelling (United States)

    Vandersteen, Katrijn; Gedeon, Matej


    For more than 35 years, SCKCEN has been investigating the possibility of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste disposal in the Boom Clay in north-eastern Belgium. This research, defined in the long term management programme for high-level and/or long-lived waste of ONDRAF/NIRAS, includes studying the regional hydrogeology of the aquifer systems surrounding the Boom Clay. In this context, a hydrogeological study of the confined aquifers below the Boom Clay was performed. To properly address the conceptual uncertainties related to the poorly characterized domain featuring large uncertainty in the forcing data, a combination of a piezometric data analysis and hydrogeological modelling was used. The study area represents the confined part of the groundwater system located stratigraphically below the Boom Clay in NE-Belgium. This so-called deep aquifer system includes, with increasing depth, parts of the Oligocene aquifer, the Bartoon aquitard system and the Ledo-Paniselian-Brusselian aquifer. Due to the considerable pumping from these aquifers in combination with a limited recharge to the deep aquifer system, a gradual decrease in groundwater levels has been observed in more than 30-year piezometric records. The analysis of the piezometry of the confined deep aquifer system allowed gaining more insight on the system response to the intensive pumping. Since the Oligocene aquifer has a significantly lower permeability compared to the Ledo-Paniselian-Brusselian aquifer, the Oligocene pumping triggers only local effects on groundwater levels. Hence, the regional effects (constant decrease of groundwater levels) in the Oligocene aquifer are presumably caused by pumping in the Ledo-Paniselian-Brusselian aquifer, whereby the hydraulically isolating Maldegem Formation (Bartoon aquitard) dampens these effects. The amount of this dampening is given by the spatial distribution of the hydraulic properties of the Maldegem Formation and/or its variable thickness. For the

  18. Development of olivine crystallographic preferred orientation in response to strain-induced fabric geometry (United States)

    Chatzaras, Vasileios; Kruckenberg, Seth C.; Cohen, Shaina M.; Medaris, L. Gordon, Jr.; Withers, Anthony C.; Bagley, Brian


    The effect of finite strain ellipsoid geometry on crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) is well known for crustal minerals (e.g., quartz, calcite, biotite, and hornblende). In the upper mantle, however, it remains poorly constrained how strain and fabric may affect olivine CPO. We present data from a suite of 40 spinel peridotite xenoliths from Marie Byrd Land (west Antarctica), which support an interpretation that fabric geometry rather than deformation conditions control the development of olivine CPO. We use X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) to quantitatively determine spinel fabric (orientation and geometry). Olivine CPOs, determined by Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD), are plotted with respect to the XRCT-derived spinel foliation and lineation; this approach allows for the accurate, and unbiased, identification of CPO symmetries and types in mantle xenoliths. The combined XRCT and EBSD data show that the xenoliths are characterized by a range of fabric geometries (from oblate to prolate) and olivine CPO patterns; we recognize the A-type, axial-[010], axial-[100], and B-type patterns. The mantle xenoliths equilibrated at temperatures 779-1198 oC, as determined by 2-Px geothermometry. Using a geotherm consistent with the stability of spinel in all xenoliths, the range of equilibration temperatures occurs at depths between 39 and 72 km. Olivine recrystallized grain size piezometry reveals differential stresses ranging 2-60 MPa. Analysis of low-angle misorientation axes show a wide range in the distribution of rotation axes, with dominant {0kl}[100] slip. We use Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to estimate the water content in the xenolith with the B-type CPO pattern. FTIR analysis shows that the equilibrium H concentration in olivine is low (4-13 ppm H2O). Combining these data, we observe that olivine CPO symmetry is controlled neither by the deformation conditions (stress, temperature, pressure, water content) for the range of

  19. Selected topics of fluid mechanics (United States)

    Kindsvater, Carl E.


    The fundamental equations of fluid mechanics are specific expressions of the principles of motion which are ascribed to Isaac Newton. Thus, the equations which form the framework of applied fluid mechanics or hydraulics are, in addition to the equation of continuity, the Newtonian equations of energy and momentum. These basic relationships are also the foundations of river hydraulics. The fundamental equations are developed in this report with sufficient rigor to support critical examinations of their applicability to most problems met by hydraulic engineers of the Water Resources Division of the United States Geological Survey. Physical concepts are emphasized, and mathematical procedures are the simplest consistent with the specific requirements of the derivations. In lieu of numerical examples, analogies, and alternative procedures, this treatment stresses a brief methodical exposition of the essential principles. An important objective of this report is to prepare the user to read the literature of the science. Thus, it begins With a basic vocabulary of technical symbols, terms, and concepts. Throughout, emphasis is placed on the language of modern fluid mechanics as it pertains to hydraulic engineering. The basic differential and integral equations of simple fluid motion are derived, and these equations are, in turn, used to describe the essential characteristics of hydrostatics and piezometry. The one-dimensional equations of continuity and motion are defined and are used to derive the general discharge equation. The flow net is described as a means of demonstrating significant characteristics of two-dimensional irrotational flow patterns. A typical flow net is examined in detail. The influence of fluid viscosity is described as an obstacle to the derivation of general, integral equations of motion. It is observed that the part played by viscosity is one which is usually dependent on experimental evaluation. It follows that the dimensionless ratios known as

  20. Hydrodynamical, hydrochemical and isotopic characterization of the Kourimat aquifer system (Essaouira basin, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes, P.


    Full Text Available The synclinal basin of Kourimat, subdivided in two sub-basins (Igounzar in the North, and Zeltene in the South, is situated in the oriental part of Essaouira basin shelters a carbonate aquifer system contained in the limestones and dolomitic limestones of the Cenomanian and the Turonian. These ground waters represent the only drinking water and irrigation resource for the region.The geological formations outcropping in the studied area, start with the clay and marly formations of the terminal Jurassic in the south of Zelten watershed, and end with the sandy and loamy Quaternary formations in coastal areas in the Low Qsob watershed. The Middle and Upper Cretaceous (marl, fractured limestone, and dolomites represent the rest of the stratigraphic series especially in the areas of the Igrounzar watershed (up to 85% of the outcrops and in Zelten (up to 50%.The field occupation is not very significant. It basically consists of three types: 1 cultures (essentially cereals where it is possible (on the marly soils of the Cretaceous, the Quaternary and the Eocene; 2 uncovered areas corresponding to the fissured and karstic limestone outcrops of the Cretaceous and the Jurassic formations, and 3 forests (coniferous trees in the downstream part of the catchments area (Plio-quaternary soils and mountainous reinforcements of the Western High Atlas. Like for other undeveloped areas of Morocco, the Meskala basin is also subjected to an intensive deforestation (wood for heating and cooking.The study undertaken on the Cenomano-turonian aquifer has allowed us to characterize it from the hydrodynamical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical point of view. The piezometric map of the two regrouped aquifer levels shows water flow senses from the SE to the NW. The hydraulic gradient varies from upstream to downstream, being weak n the central zone relative to the best hydrodynamic characteristics. The time evolution of the piezometry shows annual and seasonal