WorldWideScience

Sample records for piezoelectric sensory mechanisms

  1. Piezoelectric materials mimic the function of the cochlear sensory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaoka, Takatoshi; Shintaku, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kawano, Satoyuki; Ogita, Hideaki; Sakamoto, Tatsunori; Hamanishi, Shinji; Wada, Hiroshi; Ito, Juichi

    2011-11-08

    Cochlear hair cells convert sound vibration into electrical potential, and loss of these cells diminishes auditory function. In response to mechanical stimuli, piezoelectric materials generate electricity, suggesting that they could be used in place of hair cells to create an artificial cochlear epithelium. Here, we report that a piezoelectric membrane generated electrical potentials in response to sound stimuli that were able to induce auditory brainstem responses in deafened guinea pigs, indicating its capacity to mimic basilar membrane function. In addition, sound stimuli were transmitted through the external auditory canal to a piezoelectric membrane implanted in the cochlea, inducing it to vibrate. The application of sound to the middle ear ossicle induced voltage output from the implanted piezoelectric membrane. These findings establish the fundamental principles for the development of hearing devices using piezoelectric materials, although there are many problems to be overcome before practical application.

  2. Analysis of Sensory/Active Piezoelectric Composite Structures in Thermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Saravanos, Dimitris A.

    1996-01-01

    Although there has been extensive development of analytical methods for modeling the behavior of piezoelectric structures, only a limited amount of research has been performed concerning the implications of thermal effects on both the active and sensory response of smart structures. Thermal effects become important when the piezoelectric structure has to operate in either extremely hot or cold temperature environments. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to extend the previously developed discrete layer formulation of Saravanos and Heyliger to account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response in modern smart composite beams. The mechanics accounts for thermal effects which may arise in the elastic and piezoelectric media at the material level through the constitutive equations. The displacements, electric potentials, and temperatures are introduced as state variables, allowing them to be modeled as variable fields through the laminate thickness. This unified representation leads to an inherent capability to model both the active compensation of thermal distortions in smart structures and the resultant sensory voltage when thermal loads are applied. The corresponding finite element formulation is developed and numerical results demonstrate the ability to model both the active and sensory modes of composite beams with heterogeneous plies with attached piezoelectric layers under thermal loadings.

  3. Fracture mechanics of piezoelectric and ferroelectric solids

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Daining

    2013-01-01

    Fracture Mechanics of Piezoelectric and Ferroelectric Solids presents a systematic and comprehensive coverage of the fracture mechanics of piezoelectric/ferroelectric materials, which includes the theoretical analysis, numerical computations and experimental observations. The main emphasis is placed on the mechanics description of various crack problems such static, dynamic and interface fractures as well as the physical explanations for the mechanism of electrically induced fracture. The book is intended for postgraduate students, researchers and engineers in the fields of solid mechanics, applied physics, material science and mechanical engineering. Dr. Daining Fang is a professor at the School of Aerospace, Tsinghua University, China; Dr. Jinxi Liu is a professor at the Department of Engineering Mechanics, Shijiazhuang Railway Institute, China.

  4. Mechanical Amplifier for a Piezoelectric Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James; Swain, Mark; Lawson, Peter; Calvet, Robert

    2003-01-01

    A mechanical amplifier has been devised to multiply the stroke of a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) intended for use at liquid helium temperatures. Interferometry holds the key to high angular resolution imaging and astrometry in space. Future space missions that will detect planets around other solar systems and perform detailed studies of the evolution of stars and galaxies will use new interferometers that observe at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. Phase-measurement interferometry is key to many aspects of astronomical interferometry, and PZTs are ideal modulators for most methods of phase measurement, but primarily at visible wavelengths. At far infrared wavelengths of 150 to 300 m, background noise is a severe problem and all optics must be cooled to about 4 K. Under these conditions, piezos are ill-suited as modulators, because their throw is reduced by as much as a factor of 2, and even a wavelength or two of modulation is beyond their capability. The largest commercially available piezo stacks are about 5 in. (12.7 cm) long and have a throw of about 180 m at room temperature and only 90 m at 4 K. It would seem difficult or impossible to use PZTs for phase measurements in the far infrared were it not for the new mechanical amplifier that was designed and built.

  5. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.A.; Hills, P.J.; Dick, K.M.; Jones, S.P.; Bright, P.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants additionally completed a paired-stimulus paradigm as a measure of auditory sensory gating. A correlational analysis revealed that several tasks correlated significantly with sensory gating. However once fluid intelligence and working memory were accounted for, only a measure of latent inhibition and accuracy scores on the continuous performance task showed significant sensitivity to sensory gating. We conclude that sensory gating reflects the identification of goal-irrelevant information at the encoding (input) stage and the subsequent ability to selectively attend to goal-relevant information based on that previous identification. PMID:26716891

  6. Piezoelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Lubitz, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials play a key role in an innovative market. Advances in applications derive from new materials and their development, as well as to new market requirements. This report elucidates these developments by a broad spectrum of examples, comprising ultrasound in medicine and defence industry, and frequency control.

  7. Fracture mechanics of piezoelectric solids with interface cracks

    CERN Document Server

    Govorukha, Volodymyr; Loboda, Volodymyr; Lapusta, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive study of cracks situated at the interface of two piezoelectric materials. It discusses different electric boundary conditions along the crack faces, in particular the cases of electrically permeable, impermeable, partially permeable, and conducting cracks. The book also elaborates on a new technique for the determination of electromechanical fields at the tips of interface cracks in finite sized piezoceramic bodies of arbitrary shape under different load types. It solves scientific problems of solid mechanics in connection with the investigation of electromechanical fields in piezoceramic bodies with interface cracks, and develops calculation models and solution methods for plane fracture mechanical problems for piecewise homogeneous piezoceramic bodies with cracks at the interfaces. It discusses the “open” crack model, which leads to a physically unrealistic oscillating singularity at the crack tips, and the contact zone model for in-plane straight interface cracks betw...

  8. Mechanical and Vibration Testing of Carbon Fiber Composite Material with Embedded Piezoelectric Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Wilmoth, Nathan G.; Kray, Nicholas; Gemeinhardt, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials have been proposed as a means of decreasing turbomachinery blade vibration either through a passive damping scheme, or as part of an active vibration control system. For polymer matrix fiber composite (PMFC) blades, the piezoelectric elements could be embedded within the blade material, protecting the brittle piezoceramic material from the airflow and from debris. Before implementation of a piezoelectric element within a PMFC blade, the effect on PMFC mechanical properties needs to be understood. This study attempts to determine how the inclusion of a packaged piezoelectric patch affects the material properties of the PMFC. Composite specimens with embedded piezoelectric patches were tested in four-point bending, short beam shear, and flatwise tension configurations. Results show that the embedded piezoelectric material does decrease the strength of the composite material, especially in flatwise tension, attributable to failure at the interface or within the piezoelectric element itself. In addition, the sensing properties of the post-cured embedded piezoelectric materials were tested, and performed as expected. The piezoelectric materials include a non-flexible patch incorporating solid piezoceramic material, and two flexible patch types incorporating piezoelectric fibers. The piezoceramic material used in these patches was Navy Type-II PZT.

  9. Fundamentals of piezoelectric sensorics mechanical, dielectric, and thermodynamical properties of piezoelectric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tichý, Jan; Kittinger, Erwin; Prívratská, Jana; Privatska, Jana; Janovec, Vaclav

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the physics of piezoleletric sensors in a straight-forward and easy-to-grasp way, from the fundamentals of phenomenological crystal physics through more complex concepts, to its explanation of several important piezoelectric materials.

  10. Use of piezoelectric multicomponent force measuring devices in fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A.; Stefan, K.

    1979-01-01

    The characterisitics of piezoelectric multicomponent transducers are discussed, giving attention to the advantages of quartz over other materials. The main advantage of piezoelectric devices in aerodynamic studies is their ability to indicate rapid changes in the values of physical parameters. Problems in the accuracy of measurments by piezoelectric devices can be overcome by suitable design approaches. A practical example is given of how such can be utilized to measure rapid fluctuations of fluid forces exerted on a circular cylinder mounted in a water channel.

  11. Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Analysis of a Curved Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Actuator with Sandwich Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Jiang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the problem of a curved functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP actuator with sandwich structure under electrical and thermal loads is investigated. The middle layer in the sandwich structure is functionally graded with the piezoelectric coefficient g31 varying continuously along the radial direction of the curved actuator. Based on the theory of linear piezoelectricity, analytical solutions are obtained by using Airy stress function to examine the effects of material gradient and heat conduction on the performance of the curved actuator. It is found that the material gradient and thermal load have significant influence on the electroelastic fields and the mechanical response of the curved FGP actuator. Without the sacrifice of actuation deflection, smaller internal stresses are generated by using the sandwich actuator with functionally graded piezoelectric layer instead of the conventional bimorph actuator. This work is very helpful for the design and application of curved piezoelectric actuators under thermal environment.

  12. Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Analysis of a Curved Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Actuator with Sandwich Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi; Zaman, Mostafa; Jiang, Liying

    2011-12-12

    In this work, the problem of a curved functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP) actuator with sandwich structure under electrical and thermal loads is investigated. The middle layer in the sandwich structure is functionally graded with the piezoelectric coefficient g 31 varying continuously along the radial direction of the curved actuator. Based on the theory of linear piezoelectricity, analytical solutions are obtained by using Airy stress function to examine the effects of material gradient and heat conduction on the performance of the curved actuator. It is found that the material gradient and thermal load have significant influence on the electroelastic fields and the mechanical response of the curved FGP actuator. Without the sacrifice of actuation deflection, smaller internal stresses are generated by using the sandwich actuator with functionally graded piezoelectric layer instead of the conventional bimorph actuator. This work is very helpful for the design and application of curved piezoelectric actuators under thermal environment.

  13. Modified Continuum Mechanics Modeling on Size-Dependent Properties of Piezoelectric Nanomaterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric nanomaterials (PNs are attractive for applications including sensing, actuating, energy harvesting, among others in nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS because of their excellent electromechanical coupling, mechanical and physical properties. However, the properties of PNs do not coincide with their bulk counterparts and depend on the particular size. A large amount of efforts have been devoted to studying the size-dependent properties of PNs by using experimental characterization, atomistic simulation and continuum mechanics modeling with the consideration of the scale features of the nanomaterials. This paper reviews the recent progresses and achievements in the research on the continuum mechanics modeling of the size-dependent mechanical and physical properties of PNs. We start from the fundamentals of the modified continuum mechanics models for PNs, including the theories of surface piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and non-local piezoelectricity, with the introduction of the modified piezoelectric beam and plate models particularly for nanostructured piezoelectric materials with certain configurations. Then, we give a review on the investigation of the size-dependent properties of PNs by using the modified continuum mechanics models, such as the electromechanical coupling, bending, vibration, buckling, wave propagation and dynamic characteristics. Finally, analytical modeling and analysis of nanoscale actuators and energy harvesters based on piezoelectric nanostructures are presented.

  14. Modified Continuum Mechanics Modeling on Size-Dependent Properties of Piezoelectric Nanomaterials: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi; Jiang, Liying

    2017-01-26

    Piezoelectric nanomaterials (PNs) are attractive for applications including sensing, actuating, energy harvesting, among others in nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS) because of their excellent electromechanical coupling, mechanical and physical properties. However, the properties of PNs do not coincide with their bulk counterparts and depend on the particular size. A large amount of efforts have been devoted to studying the size-dependent properties of PNs by using experimental characterization, atomistic simulation and continuum mechanics modeling with the consideration of the scale features of the nanomaterials. This paper reviews the recent progresses and achievements in the research on the continuum mechanics modeling of the size-dependent mechanical and physical properties of PNs. We start from the fundamentals of the modified continuum mechanics models for PNs, including the theories of surface piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and non-local piezoelectricity, with the introduction of the modified piezoelectric beam and plate models particularly for nanostructured piezoelectric materials with certain configurations. Then, we give a review on the investigation of the size-dependent properties of PNs by using the modified continuum mechanics models, such as the electromechanical coupling, bending, vibration, buckling, wave propagation and dynamic characteristics. Finally, analytical modeling and analysis of nanoscale actuators and energy harvesters based on piezoelectric nanostructures are presented.

  15. Mathematical model and characteristic analysis of hybrid photovoltaic/piezoelectric actuation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Li, Xiaonan; Ding, Jincheng; Yue, Honghao; Deng, Zongquan

    2016-12-01

    Photovoltaic materials can turn light energy into electric energy directly, and thus have the advantages of high electrical output voltages and the ability to realize remote or non-contact control. When high-energy ultraviolet light illuminates polarized PbLaZrTi (PLZT) materials, high photovoltages will be generated along the spontaneous polarization direction due to the photovoltaic effect. In this paper, a novel hybrid photovoltaic/piezoelectric actuation mechanism is proposed. PLZT ceramics are used as a photovoltaic generator to drive a piezoelectric actuator. A mathematical model is established to define the time history of the actuation voltage between two electrodes of the piezoelectric actuator, which is experimentally validated by the test results of a piezoelectric actuator with different geometrical parameters under irradiation at different light intensities. Some important characteristics of this novel actuation mechanism are analyzed and it can be concluded that (1) it is experimentally validated that there is no hysteresis between voltage and deformation which exists in a PLZT actuator; (2) the saturated voltage and response speed can be improved by using a multi-patch PLZT generator to drive the piezoelectric actuator; and (3) the initial voltage of the piezoelectric actuator can be acquired by controlling the logical switch between the PLZT and the piezoelectric actuator while the initial voltages increase with the rise of light intensity.

  16. Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of structured PZT-epoxy composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, N.K.; Ende, D.A. van den; Lafont, U.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Structured lead zirconium titanate (PZT)-epoxy composites are prepared by dielectrophoresis. The piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites as a function of PZT volume fraction are investigated and compared with the corresponding unstructured composites. The effect of poling voltage

  17. Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of structured PZT–epoxy composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnamkuzhakkal James, N.; Van den Ende, D.; Lafont, U.; Van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Structured lead zirconium titanate (PZT)–epoxy composites are prepared by dielectrophoresis. The piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites as a function of PZT volume fraction are investigated and compared with the corresponding unstructured composites. The effect of poling voltage

  18. Effects of mechanical deformation on energy conversion efficiency of piezoelectric nanogenerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jinho; Kim, Wook; Choi, Dukhyun; Cho, Seunghyeon; Kim, Chang-Wan; Kwon, Jang-Yeon; Kim, Hojoong; Kim, Seunghyun; Chang, Yoon-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric nanogenerators (PNGs) are capable of converting energy from various mechanical sources into electric energy and have many attractive features such as continuous operation, replenishment and low cost. However, many researchers still have studied novel material synthesis and interfacial controls to improve the power production from PNGs. In this study, we report the energy conversion efficiency (ECE) of PNGs dependent on mechanical deformations such as bending and twisting. Since the output power of PNGs is caused by the mechanical strain of the piezoelectric material, the power production and their ECE is critically dependent on the types of external mechanical deformations. Thus, we examine the output power from PNGs according to bending and twisting. In order to clearly understand the ECE of PNGs in the presence of those external mechanical deformations, we determine the ECE of PNGs by the ratio of output electrical energy and input mechanical energy, where we suggest that the input energy is based only on the strain energy of the piezoelectric layer. We calculate the strain energy of the piezoelectric layer using numerical simulation of bending and twisting of the PNG. Finally, we demonstrate that the ECE of the PNG caused by twisting is much higher than that caused by bending due to the multiple effects of normal and lateral piezoelectric coefficients. Our results thus provide a design direction for PNG systems as high-performance power generators. (paper)

  19. Phosphorene under strain:electronic, mechanical and piezoelectric responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drissi, L. B.; Sadki, S.; Sadki, K.

    2018-01-01

    Structural, electronic, elastic and piezoelectric properties of pure phosphorene under in-plane strain are investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The two critical yielding points are determined along armchair and zigzag directions. It is shown that the buckling, the band gap and the charge transfer can be controlled under strains. A semiconductor to metallic transition is observed in metastable region. Polar plots of Young's modulus, Poisson ratio, sound velocities and Debye temperature exhibit evident anisotropic feature of phosphorene and indicate auxetic behavior for some angles θ. Our calculations show also that phosphorene has both in-plane and out-of-plane piezoelectric responses comparable to known 2D materials. The findings of this work reveal the great potential of pure phosphorene in nanomechanical applications.

  20. Linear Analytical Solutions of Mechanical Sensitivity in Large Deflection of Unsymmetrically Layered Piezoelectric Plate under Pretension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Fu Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear analytical study on the mechanical sensitivity in large deflection of unsymmetrically layered and laterally loaded piezoelectric plate under pretension is conducted. von Karman plate theory for large deflection is utilized but extended to the case of an unsymmetrically layered plate embedded with a piezoelectric layer. The governing equations thus obtained are simplified by omitting the arising nonlinear terms, yielding a Bessel or modified Bessel equation for the lateral slope. Depending on the relative magnitude of the piezoelectric effect, for both cases, analytical solutions of various geometrical responses are developed and formulated via Bessel and modified Bessel functions. The associated ultimate radial stresses are further derived following lamina constitutive law to evaluate the mechanical sensitivity of the considered plate. For a nearly monolithic plate under a very low applied voltage, the results are in good agreement with those for a single-layered case due to pure mechanical load available in literature, and thus the present approach is checked. For a two-layered unsymmetric plate made of typical silicon-based materials, a sound piezoelectric effect is illustrated particularly in a low pretension condition.

  1. The dynamic characteristics of harvesting energy from mechanical vibration via piezoelectric conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Kang-Qi; Ming Zheng-Feng; Xu Chun-Hui; Chao Feng-Bo

    2013-01-01

    As an alternative power solution for low-power devices, harvesting energy from the ambient mechanical vibration has received increasing research interest in recent years. In this paper we study the transient dynamic characteristics of a piezoelectric energy harvesting system including a piezoelectric energy harvester, a bridge rectifier, and a storage capacitor. To accomplish this, this energy harvesting system is modeled, and the charging process of the storage capacitor is investigated by employing the in-phase assumption. The results indicate that the charging voltage across the storage capacitor and the gathered power increase gradually as the charging process proceeds, whereas the charging rate slows down over time as the charging voltage approaches to the peak value of the piezoelectric voltage across the piezoelectric materials. In addition, due to the added electrical damping and the change of the system natural frequency when the charging process is initiated, a sudden drop in the vibration amplitude is observed, which in turn affects the charging rate. However, the vibration amplitude begins to increase as the charging process continues, which is caused by the decrease in the electrical damping (i.e., the decrease in the energy removed from the mechanical vibration). This electromechanical coupling characteristic is also revealed by the variation of the vibration amplitude with the charging voltage. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  2. GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF A MECHANICAL FORWARD MOTION COMPENSATION SYSTEM CONTROLLED BY A PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVE

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    F. Collette

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Forward Motion Compensation (FMC systems have been designed to ensure the radiometric quality of motion acquisition in airborne cameras. If the radiometric benefits of FMC have been acknowledged, what are its effects on the geometrical properties of the camera? This paper demonstrates that FMC significantly improves geometrical properties of a camera. Aspects of FMC theory are discussed, with a focus on the near-lossless implementation of this technology into digital aerial camera systems. Among mechanical FMC technologies, the piezoelectric drive is proving to excel in dynamic positioning in both accuracy and repeatability. The patented piezoelectric drive integrated into Optech aerial camera systems allows for continuous and precise sensor motion to ensure exact compensation of the aircraft's forward motion. This paper presents findings that demonstrate the validity of this assertion. The paper also discusses the physical principles involved in motion acquisition. Equations are included that define the motion effect at image level and illustrate how FMC acts to prevent motion effects. The residual motion effect or compensation error is formulated and a practical computation applied to the more restrictive camera case. The assessment concludes that, in the range of airborne camera utilization, the mechanical FMC technique is free of "visible" error at both human eye and computer assessment level. Lastly, the paper proceeds to a detailed technical discussion of piezoelectric drives and why they have proven to be so effective as nanopositioning devices for optical applications. The effectiveness of the patented piezoelectric drives used to achieve FMC in Optech cameras is conclusively demonstrated.

  3. Relation of the external mechanical stress to the properties of piezoelectric materials for energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Soon-Jong; Kim, Min-Soo; Lee, Dae-Su; Song, Jae-Sung; Cho, Kyung-Ho

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the piezoelectric properties and the generation of voltage and power under the mechanical compressive loads for three types of piezoelectric ceramics 0.2Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.8Pb(Zr0.475Ti0.525)O3 (soft-PZT), 0.1Pb(Mg1/3Sb2/3)O3- 0.9Pb(Zr0.475Ti0.525)O3 (hard-PZT) and [0.675Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3]+5 wt% BaTiO3 (textured-PMNT). The piezoelectric d 33 coefficients of all specimens increased with increasing compressive load. The generated voltage and power showed a linear relation and square relation to the applied stress, respectively. These results were larger than those calculated using the simple piezoelectric equation due to the non-linear characteristics of the ceramics, so they were evaluated with a simple model based on a non-linear relation.

  4. Multifunctional Device based on phosphor-piezoelectric PZT: lighting, speaking, and mechanical energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghoon; Kang, Taewook; Lee, Wunho; Afandi, Mohammad M; Ryu, Jongho; Kim, Jongsu

    2018-01-10

    We demonstrated the tri-functional device based on all powder-processing methods by using ZnS powder as phosphor layer and piezoelectric material as dielectric layer. The fabricated device generated the electroluminescent (EL) light from phosphor and the sound from piezoelectric sheet under a supply of external electric power, and additionally harvested the reverse-piezoelectric energy to be converted into EL light. Under sinusoidal applied voltage, EL luminances were exponentially increased with a maximum luminous efficiency of 1.3 lm/W at 40 V and 1,000 Hz, and sound pressure levels (SPLs) were linearly increased. The EL luminances were linearly dependent on applied frequency while the SPLs showed the parabolic increase behavior below 1,000 Hz and then the flat response. The temperature dependence on EL luminances and SPLs was demonstrated; the former was drastically increased and the latter was slightly decreased with the increase of temperature. Finally, as an energy harvesting application, the piezoelectric-induced electroluminescence effect was demonstrated by applying only mechanical pressure to the device without any external electric power.

  5. Nonlinear dynamic response of electro-thermo-mechanically loaded piezoelectric cylindrical shell reinforced with BNNTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J H; Yang, J; Kitipornchai, S

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the nonlinear dynamic response of piezoelectric cylindrical shells reinforced with boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) under a combined axisymmetric electro-thermo-mechanical loading. By employing the classical Donnell shell theory, the von Kármán–Donnell kinematic relationship, and a piezo-elastic constitutive law including thermal effects, the nonlinear governing equations of motion of the shell are derived through the Reissner variational principle. The finite difference method and a time-integration scheme are used to obtain the nonlinear dynamic response of the BNNT-reinforced piezoelectric shell. A parametric study is conducted, showing the effects of geometrically nonlinear deformation, applied voltage, temperature change, mechanical load, BNNT volume fraction and boundary conditions on the nonlinear dynamic response. (paper)

  6. Electricity Generation Characteristics of Energy-Harvesting System with Piezoelectric Element Using Mechanical-Acoustic Coupling

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    Hirotarou Tsuchiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the electricity generation characteristics of a new energy-harvesting system with piezoelectric elements. The proposed system is composed of a rigid cylinder and thin plates at both ends. The piezoelectric elements are installed at the centers of both plates, and one side of each plate is subjected to a harmonic point force. In this system, vibration energy is converted into electrical energy via electromechanical coupling between the plate vibration and piezoelectric effect. In addition, the plate vibration excited by the point force induces a self-sustained vibration at the other plate via mechanical-acoustic coupling between the plate vibrations and an internal sound field into the cylindrical enclosure. Therefore, the electricity generation characteristics should be considered as an electromechanical-acoustic coupling problem. The characteristics are estimated theoretically and experimentally from the electric power in the electricity generation, the mechanical power supplied to the plate, and the electricity generation efficiency that is derived from the ratio of both power. In particular, the electricity generation efficiency is one of the most appropriate factors to evaluate a performance of electricity generation systems. Thus, the effect of mechanical-acoustic coupling is principally evaluated by examining the electricity generation efficiency.

  7. Fabrication of nano piezoelectric based vibration accelerometer for mechanical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, S.; Prasad, M. V. N.; Jayakumar, K.

    2016-05-01

    An electromechanical sensor unit has been fabricated using nano PZT embedded in PVDF polymer. Such a polymer nano composite has been used as vibration sensor element and sensitivity, detection of mechanical vibration, and linearity measurements have been investigated. It is found from its performance, that this nano composite sensor is suitable for mechanical sensing applications.

  8. Dynamic analysis of composite beam with piezoelectric layers under thermo-mechanical load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toudehdehghan, A.; Rahman, M. M.; Nagi, Farrukh

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the control of composite beam vibrations with sensor and actuator connected layers is considered with consideration of the effect of thermal environment. The coupling relation between electrical field and mechanical deformation with uncoupled thermal impact are used. The mathematical model of shear deformation (Timoshenko’s theory) has been applied and basic equations for piezoelectric sensors and actuators have been proposed. The equation of motion for the beam structure is obtained by the Hamilton principle and analyzed by finite element method. The control algorithm is based on proportional velocity control. Hence, the purpose of this article is to investigate the direct and inverse effects of piezoelectric on control of simply supported beam vibration under uniform temperature.

  9. Intramembrane Cavitation as a Predictive Bio-Piezoelectric Mechanism for Ultrasonic Brain Stimulation

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    Michael Plaksin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-intensity ultrasonic waves can remotely and nondestructively excite central nervous system (CNS neurons. While diverse applications for this effect are already emerging, the biophysical transduction mechanism underlying this excitation remains unclear. Recently, we suggested that ultrasound-induced intramembrane cavitation within the bilayer membrane could underlie the biomechanics of a range of observed acoustic bioeffects. In this paper, we show that, in CNS neurons, ultrasound-induced cavitation of these nanometric bilayer sonophores can induce a complex mechanoelectrical interplay leading to excitation, primarily through the effect of currents induced by membrane capacitance changes. Our model explains the basic features of CNS acoustostimulation and predicts how the experimentally observed efficacy of mouse motor cortical ultrasonic stimulation depends on stimulation parameters. These results support the hypothesis that neuronal intramembrane piezoelectricity underlies ultrasound-induced neurostimulation, and suggest that other interactions between the nervous system and pressure waves or perturbations could be explained by this new mode of biological piezoelectric transduction.

  10. Flexible nano-GFO/PVDF piezoelectric-polymer nano-composite films for mechanical energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Monali; Roy, Amritendu; Dash, Sukalyan; Mukherjee, Somdutta

    2018-03-01

    Owing to the persistent quest of renewable energy technology, piezoelectric energy harvesters are gathering considerable research interest due to their potential in driving microelectronic devices with small power requirement. Electrical energy (milli to microwatt range) is generated from mechanical counterparts such as vibrations of machines, human motion, flowing water etc. based on the principles of piezoelectricity. Flexible high piezoelectric constant (d33) ceramic/polymer composites are crucial components for fabricating these energy harvesters. The polymer composites composed of gallium ferrite nanoparticles and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as the matrix have been synthesized by solvent casting method. First, 8 wt. % PVDF was dissolved in DMF and then different compositions of GaFeO3 or GFO (10, 20, 30 wt. %) (with respect to PVDF only) nanocomposites were synthesized. The phase of the synthesized nanocomposites were studied by X- Ray diffraction which shows that with the increase in the GFO concentration, the intensity of diffraction peaks of PVDF steadily decreased and GFO peaks became increasingly sharp. As the concentration of GFO increases in the PVDF polymer matrix, band gap is also increased albeit to a small extent. The maximum measured output voltage and current during mechanical pressing and releasing conditions were found to be ~ 3.5 volt and 4 nA, respectively in 30 wt % GFO-PVDF composite, comparable to the available literature.

  11. On the use of non-MPB lead zirconium titanate (PZT) granules for piezoelectric ceramic–polymer sensorial composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaji Karapuzha, A.; Kunnamkuzhakkal James, N.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W.A.

    2016-01-01

    Modern flexible and sensitive sensors based on polymer–ceramic composites employ lead zirconate titanate (PZT) granulates having the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition as the piezo active ingredient, as this composition gives the best properties in fully ceramic piezoelectric sensors.

  12. On the use of non-MPB lead zirconium titanate (PZT) granules for piezoelectric ceramic–polymer sensorial composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaji Karapuzha, A.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, W.A.

    2016-01-01

    Modern flexible and sensitive sensors based on polymer–ceramic composites employ lead zirconate titanate (PZT) granulates having the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition as the piezo active ingredient, as this composition gives the best properties in fully ceramic piezoelectric sensors. In

  13. Sensory Entrainment Mechanisms in Auditory Perception: Neural Synchronization Cortico-Striatal Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameiro-Barbosa, Catia M; Geiser, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system displays modulations in sensitivity that can align with the temporal structure of the acoustic environment. This sensory entrainment can facilitate sensory perception and is particularly relevant for audition. Systems neuroscience is slowly uncovering the neural mechanisms underlying the behaviorally observed sensory entrainment effects in the human sensory system. The present article summarizes the prominent behavioral effects of sensory entrainment and reviews our current understanding of the neural basis of sensory entrainment, such as synchronized neural oscillations, and potentially, neural activation in the cortico-striatal system.

  14. Sensory Entrainment Mechanisms in Auditory Perception: Neural Synchronization Cortico-Striatal Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameiro-Barbosa, Catia M.; Geiser, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system displays modulations in sensitivity that can align with the temporal structure of the acoustic environment. This sensory entrainment can facilitate sensory perception and is particularly relevant for audition. Systems neuroscience is slowly uncovering the neural mechanisms underlying the behaviorally observed sensory entrainment effects in the human sensory system. The present article summarizes the prominent behavioral effects of sensory entrainment and reviews our current understanding of the neural basis of sensory entrainment, such as synchronized neural oscillations, and potentially, neural activation in the cortico-striatal system. PMID:27559306

  15. Modeling and optimization of a novel two-axis mirror-scanning mechanism driven by piezoelectric actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Zijian; Xu, Minglong; Feng, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-scanning mechanisms are a key component in optical systems for diverse applications. However, the applications of existing piezoelectric scanners are limited due to their small angular travels. To overcome this problem, a novel two-axis mirror-scanning mechanism, which consists of a two-axis tip-tilt flexure mechanism and a set of piezoelectric actuators, is proposed in this paper. The focus of this research is on the design, theoretical modeling, and optimization of the piezoelectric-driven mechanism, with the goal of achieving large angular travels in a compact size. The design of the two-axis tip-tilt flexure mechanism is based on two nonuniform beams, which translate the limited linear output displacements of the piezoelectric actuators into large output angles. To exactly predict the angular travels, we built a voltage-angle model that characterizes the relationship between the input voltages to the piezoelectric actuators and the output angles of the piezoelectric-driven mechanism. Using this analytical model, the optimization is performed to improve the angular travels. A prototype of the mirror-scanning mechanism is fabricated based on the optimization results, and experiments are implemented to test the two-axis output angles. The experimental result shows that the angular travels of the scanner achieve more than 50 mrad, and the error between the analytical model and the experiment is about 11%. This error is much smaller than the error for the model built using the previous method because the influence of the stiffness of the mechanical structure on the deformation of the piezoelectric stack is considered in the voltage-angle model. (paper)

  16. Study of Mechanical Disturbances in Superconducting Magnets using Piezoelectric Sensors and Quench Antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Artoos, K; Mompo, R; Siemko, A; Tommasini, D

    2003-01-01

    Mechanical disturbances in superconducting magnets were studied by recording and characterising the signals induced in piezo-electric ceramic sensors (piezos) and accelerometers by spontaneous acoustic emission (AE) during magnet excitation. The localisation of AE sources as recorded by the piezos corresponds to the localisation obtained by another, indirect technique, the so-called Quench Antenna. Dominant acoustic wave velocities along the magnet were measured by using selected piezos as active actuators. A mechanical disturbance energy calibration is shown and a way to estimate the minimum energy needed for quenching is proposed. A statistical approach is given in order to estimate the most probable amplitude of AE.

  17. Inertial piezoelectric linear motor driven by a single-phase harmonic wave with automatic clamping mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liangguo; Chu, Yuheng; Hao, Sai; Zhao, Xiaoyong; Dong, Yuge; Wang, Yong

    2018-05-01

    A novel, single-phase, harmonic-driven, inertial piezoelectric linear motor using an automatic clamping mechanism was designed, fabricated, and tested to reduce the sliding friction and simplify the drive mechanism and power supply control of the inertial motor. A piezoelectric bimorph and a flexible hinge were connected in series to form the automatic clamping mechanism. The automatic clamping mechanism was used as the driving and clamping elements. A dynamic simulation by Simulink was performed to prove the feasibility of the motor. The finite element method software COMSOL was used to design the structure of the motor. An experimental setup was built to validate the working principle and evaluate the performance of the motor. The prototype motor outputted a no-load velocity of 3.178 mm/s at a voltage of 220 Vp-p and a maximum traction force of 4.25 N under a preload force of 8 N. The minimum resolution of 1.14 μm was achieved at a driving frequency of 74 Hz, a driving voltage of 50 Vp-p, and a preload force of 0 N.

  18. Parametric Analysis and Experimental Verification of a Hybrid Vibration Energy Harvester Combining Piezoelectric and Electromagnetic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlong Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering coil inductance and the spatial distribution of the magnetic field, this paper developed an approximate distributed-parameter model of a hybrid energy harvester (HEH. The analytical solutions were compared with numerical solutions. The effects of load resistances, electromechanical coupling factors, mechanical damping ratio, coil parameters and size scale on performance were investigated. A meso-scale HEH prototype was fabricated, tested and compared with a stand-alone piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH and a stand-alone electromagnetic energy harvester (EMEH. The peak output power is 2.93% and 142.18% higher than that of the stand-alone PEH and EMEH, respectively. Moreover, its bandwidth is 108%- and 122.7%-times that of the stand-alone PEH and EMEH, respectively. The experimental results agreed well with the theoretical values. It is indicated that the linearized electromagnetic coupling coefficient is more suitable for low-level excitation acceleration. Hybrid energy harvesting contributes to widening the frequency bandwidth and improving energy conversion efficiency. However, only when the piezoelectric coupling effect is weak or medium can the HEH generate more power than the single-mechanism energy harvester. Hybrid energy harvesting can improve output power even at the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS scale. This study presents a more effective model for the performance evaluation and structure optimization of the HEH.

  19. Effect of electrical and mechanical poling history on domain orientation and piezoelectric properties of soft and hard PZT ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsilius, Mie; Granzow, Torsten; Jones, Jacob L

    2011-01-01

    The superior piezoelectric properties of all polycrystalline ferroelectrics are based on the extent of non-180 0 domain wall motion under electrical and mechanical poling loads. To distinguish between 180 0 and non-180 0 domain wall motion in a soft-doped and a hard-doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic, domain texture measurements were performed using x-ray and neutron diffraction after different loading procedures. Comparing the results to measurements of the remanent strain and piezoelectric coefficient allowed the differentiation between different microstructural contributions to the macroscopic parameters. Both types of ceramic showed similar behavior under electric field, but the hard-doped material was more susceptible to mechanical load. A considerable fraction of the piezoelectric coefficient originated from poling by the preferred orientation of 180 0 domains.

  20. Effect of electrical and mechanical poling history on domain orientation and piezoelectric properties of soft and hard PZT ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsilius, Mie; Granzow, Torsten; Jones, Jacob L.

    2011-02-01

    The superior piezoelectric properties of all polycrystalline ferroelectrics are based on the extent of non-180° domain wall motion under electrical and mechanical poling loads. To distinguish between 180° and non-180° domain wall motion in a soft-doped and a hard-doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic, domain texture measurements were performed using x-ray and neutron diffraction after different loading procedures. Comparing the results to measurements of the remanent strain and piezoelectric coefficient allowed the differentiation between different microstructural contributions to the macroscopic parameters. Both types of ceramic showed similar behavior under electric field, but the hard-doped material was more susceptible to mechanical load. A considerable fraction of the piezoelectric coefficient originated from poling by the preferred orientation of 180° domains.

  1. A Novel Arch-Shape Nanogenerator Based on Piezoelectric and Triboelectric Mechanism for Mechanical Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Xue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple and cost-effective approach was developed to fabricate piezoelectric and triboelectric nanogenerator (P-TENG with high electrical output. Additionally, pyramid micro structures fabricated atop a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS surface were employed to enhance the device performance. Furthermore, piezoelectric barium titanate (BT nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT were mixed in the PDMS film during the forming process. Meanwhile, the composition of the film was optimized to achieve output performance, and favorable toughness was achieved after thermal curing. An arch-shape ITO/PET electrode was attached to the upper side of the polarized composite film and an aluminum film was placed under it as the bottom electrode. With periodic external force at 20 Hz, electrical output of this P-TENG, reached a peak voltage of 22 V and current of 9 μA with a peak current density of 1.13 μA/cm2, which was six times that of the triboelectric generator without BT and MWCNT nanoparticles. The nanogenerator can be directly used to lighten 28 commercial light-emitting diodes (LEDs without any energy storage unit or rectification circuit under human footfalls.

  2. Transmission electron microscopy investigation of the microstructural mechanisms for the piezoelectricity in lead-free perovskite ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Cheng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Lead-free materials with superior piezoelectricity are in increasingly urgent demand in the current century, because the industrial standard Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-based piezoelectrics, which contain over 60 weight% of the toxic element lead, pose severe environmental hazards. Although significant research efforts have been devoted in the past decade, no effective lead-free substitute for Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 has been identified yet. One of the primary hindrances to the development of lead-free piezoelectrics lies in the ignorance of the microstructural mechanism for the electric-field-induced strains in the currently existing compositions. In this dissertation, the microstructural origin for the high piezoelectricity in (1-x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-xBaTiO3 [(1-x)BNT-xBT], the most widely studied lead-free piezoelectric system, has been elucidated.

  3. Pulsed laser deposited Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films with excellent piezoelectric and mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeer, H.; Nguyen, Duc Minh; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Woldering, L.A.; Abelmann, Leon; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    We present for the first time the combined measured piezoelectric and mechanical properties of epitaxial, (110) oriented Pb(ZrxTi1-x) (PZT) thin films grown on microfabricated silicon cantilevers using pulsed laser deposition (PLD, x=0.4, 0.52, 0.6 and 0.8). The grown PZT thin films develop a strong

  4. A piezoelectric transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    This work describes a modeling and design method whereby a piezoelectric system is formulated by two sets of second-order equations, one for the mechanical system, and the other for the electrical system, coupled through the piezoelectric effect. The solution to this electromechanical coupled system gives a physical interpretation of the piezoelectric effect as a piezoelectric transformer that is a part of the piezoelectric system, which transfers the applied mechanical force into a force-controlled current source, and short circuit mechanical compliance into capacitance. It also transfers the voltage source into a voltage-controlled relative velocity input, and free motional capacitance into mechanical compliance. The formulation and interpretation simplify the modeling of smart structures and lead to physical insight that aids the designer. Due to its physical realization, the smart structural system can be unconditional stable and effectively control responses. This new concept has been demonstrated in three numerical examples for a simple piezoelectric system.

  5. A novel vibration assisted polishing device based on the flexural mechanism driven by the piezoelectric actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilian Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration assisted polishing has widely application fields because of higher machining frequency and better polishing quality, especially the polishing with the non-resonant mode that is regarded as a kind of promising polishing method. This paper reports a novel vibration assisted polishing device, consisting of the flexible hinge mechanism driven by the piezoelectric actuators, which is suitable for polishing planes or curve surfaces with slow curvature. Firstly, the generation methods of vibration trajectory are investigated for the same frequency and different frequency signals’ inputs, respectively, and then the types of elliptic and Lissajous’s vibration trajectories are generated respectively. Secondly, a flexural mechanism consisting of the right circular flexible hinges and the leaf springs is developed to produce two-dimensional vibration trajectory. Statics and dynamics investigating of this flexible mechanism are finished in detail. The analytical models about input and output compliances of the flexural mechanism are established according to the matrix-based compliance modeling, and the dynamic model of the flexural mechanism based on the Euler-Lagrange equation is also presented. The finite element model of the flexural mechanism was established to carry out the numerical simulation in order to testify the rationality of device design. Finally, the polishing experiment is carried out to prove the effectiveness of the vibration device. The experimental results show that this novel vibration assisted polishing device developed in this study can remove more effectively the cutting marks left by last process and obviously reduce the workpiece surface roughness.

  6. An experimental evaluation of the fully coupled hysteretic electro-mechanical behaviour of piezoelectric actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, Mark [Department of Engineering, CERN, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Davino, Daniele, E-mail: davino@unisannio.it [Department of Engineering, University of Sannio, Benevento (Italy); Giustiniani, Alessandro; Masi, Alessandro [Department of Engineering, CERN, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-04-01

    Piezoelectrics are the most commonly used of the multifunctional smart materials in industrial applications, because of their relatively low cost and ease of use in electric and electronic oriented applications. Nevertheless, while datasheets usually give just small signal quasi-static parameters, their full potential can only be exploited only if a full characterization is available because the maximum stroke or the higher piezo coupling coefficients are available at different electro-mechanical biases, where often small signal analysis is not valid. In this paper a method to get the quasi-static fully coupled characterization is presented. The method is tested on a commercial piezo actuator but can be extended to similar devices.

  7. submitter An experimental evaluation of the fully coupled hysteretic electro-mechanical behaviour of piezoelectric actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Butcher, Mark; Giustiniani, Alessandro; Masi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectrics are the most commonly used of the multifunctional smart materials in industrial applications, because of their relatively low cost and ease of use in electric and electronic oriented applications. Nevertheless, while datasheets usually give just small signal quasi-static parameters, their full potential can only be exploited only if a full characterization is available because the maximum stroke or the higher piezo coupling coefficients are available at different electro-mechanical biases, where often small signal analysis is not valid. In this paper a method to get the quasi-static fully coupled characterization is presented. The method is tested on a commercial piezo actuator but can be extended to similar devices.

  8. A Novel Tunable Multi-Frequency Hybrid Vibration Energy Harvester Using Piezoelectric and Electromagnetic Conversion Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel tunable multi-frequency hybrid energy harvester (HEH. It consists of a piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH and an electromagnetic energy harvester (EMEH, which are coupled with magnetic interaction. An electromechanical coupling model was developed and numerically simulated. The effects of magnetic force, mass ratio, stiffness ratio, and mechanical damping ratios on the output power were investigated. A prototype was fabricated and characterized by experiments. The measured first peak power increases by 16.7% and 833.3% compared with that of the multi-frequency EMEH and the multi-frequency PEH, respectively. It is 2.36 times more than the combined output power of the linear PEH and linear EMEH at 22.6 Hz. The half-power bandwidth for the first peak power is also broadened. Numerical results agree well with the experimental data. It is indicated that magnetic interaction can tune the resonant frequencies. Both magnetic coupling configuration and hybrid conversion mechanism contribute to enhancing the output power and widening the operation bandwidth. The magnitude and direction of magnetic force have significant effects on the performance of the HEH. This proposed HEH is an effective approach to improve the generating performance of the micro-scale energy harvesting devices in low-frequency range.

  9. Design of efficient loadcell for measurement of mechanical impact by piezoelectric PVDF film sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Guin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conversion efficiency of mechanical impact into electrical voltage remains ever increasing demand for piezoelectric PVDF film sensor. For a given film sensor, the output voltage produced due to mechanical impact is highly dependent on the direction of stretching (or compressing and active area of the film sensor. More is the active area of the film; higher will be the output voltage. It is shown that the active area is significantly increased due to the ridge-like shape given at the inner surfaces of the plates of sandwich type loadcell and as a result of which higher conversion efficiency is obtained. The effectiveness of the ridge-like shape is confirmed statistically by conducting two factorial design of experiment in which shape and material of the loadcell are considered as the two factors with 2×4 matrix. In case of loadcell made of glass plates, more than 100% increase in the output voltage is observed for ridge-like shape in comparison to its plain counterpart. Both the bandwidth and frequency range of the output signal is found to be independent and dependent of the loadcell materials for indirect and direct impact with the loadcell respectively. The merits and demerits of the fabricated loadcells are discussed.

  10. Mechanisms responsible of sensory afferent projections into the hindbrain

    OpenAIRE

    Zecca, Andrea, 1985-

    2014-01-01

    Los animales perciben el mundo externo a través de los sistemas sensoriales. Estos consisten en: i) los receptores sensoriales que detectan estímulos externos; ii) las vías neuronales que transmiten la información sensorial al cerebro; y iii) las neuronas centrales organizadas en núcleos que procesan la información. Con el objetivo de estudiar la inervación selectiva de las regiones del rombencéfalo por las aferentes sensoriales, hemos mapado la representación topográfica de las proyecciones ...

  11. Electro-mechanical vibration analysis of functionally graded piezoelectric porous plates in the translation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Qing

    2018-02-01

    To provide reference for aerospace structural design, electro-mechanical vibrations of functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) plates carrying porosities in the translation state are investigated. A modified power law formulation is employed to depict the material properties of the plates in the thickness direction. Three terms of inertial forces are taken into account due to the translation of plates. The geometrical nonlinearity is considered by adopting the von Kármán non-linear relations. Using the d'Alembert's principle, the nonlinear governing equation of the out-of-plane motion of the plates is derived. The equation is further discretized to a system of ordinary differential equations using the Galerkin method, which are subsequently solved via the harmonic balance method. Then, the approximate analytical results are validated by utilizing the adaptive step-size fourth-order Runge-Kutta technique. Additionally, the stability of the steady state responses is examined by means of the perturbation technique. Linear and nonlinear vibration analyses are both carried out and results display some interesting dynamic phenomenon for translational porous FGPM plates. Parametric study shows that the vibration characteristics of the present inhomogeneous structure depend on several key physical parameters.

  12. Sensory dysfunction in fibromyalgia patients with implications for pathogenic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, E; Ekholm, J; Hansson, P

    1996-12-01

    This study, addressing etiologic and pathogenic aspects of fibromyalgia (FM), aimed at examining whether sensory abnormalities in FM patients are generalized or confined to areas with spontaneous pain. Ten female FM patients and 10 healthy, age-matched females participated. The patients were asked to rate the intensity of ongoing pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS) at the site of maximal pain, the homologous contralateral site and two homologous sites with no or minimal pain. Quantitative sensory testing was performed for assessment of perception thresholds in these four sites. Von Frey filaments were used to test low-threshold mechanoreceptive function. Pressure pain sensitivity was assessed with a pressure algometer and thermal sensitivity with a Thermotest. In addition the stimulus-response curve of pain intensity as a function of graded nociceptive heat stimulation was studied at the site of maximal pain and at the homologous contralateral site. FM patients had increased sensitivity to non-painful warmth (P painful sites and a tendency to increased sensitivity to non-painful cold (P pain (P pain (P pain (P tested sites. The stimulus-response curve was parallely shifted to the left of the curve obtained from controls (P pain (P pain compared to the homologous contralateral site. These findings could be explained in terms of sensitization of primary afferent pathways or as a dysfunction of endogenous systems modulating afferent activity. However, the generalized increase in sensitivity found in FM patients was unrelated to spontaneous pain and thus most likely due to a central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. The additional hyperphenomena related to spontaneous pain are probably dependent on disinhibition/facilitation of nociceptive afferent input from normal (or ischemic) muscles.

  13. Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of fatigue resistant, self-healing PZT–ionomer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, N K; Lafont, U; Van der Zwaag, S; Groen, W A

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric ceramic–polymer composites with 0–3 connectivity were fabricated using lead zirconium titanate (PZT) powder dispersed in an ionomer (Zn ionomer) and its reference ethylene methacrylic acid copolymer (EMAA) polymer matrix. The PZT–Zn ionomer and PZT–EMAA composites were prepared by melt extrusion followed by hot pressing. The effects of poling conditions such as temperature, time and electric field on the piezoelectric properties of the composites were investigated. The experimentally observed piezoelectric charge coefficient and dielectric constant of the composites were compared with theoretical models. The results show that PZT–Zn ionomer composites have better piezoelectric properties compared to PZT–EMAA composites. The static and fatigue properties of the composites were investigated. The PZT–Zn ionomer composites were found to have excellent fatigue resistance even at strain levels of 4%. Due to the self-healing capabilities of the ionomer matrix, the loss of piezoelectric properties after high strain tensile cyclic loading could be partially recovered by thermal healing. (paper)

  14. Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of fatigue resistant, self-healing PZT-ionomer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, N. K.; Lafont, U.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W. A.

    2014-05-01

    Piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites with 0-3 connectivity were fabricated using lead zirconium titanate (PZT) powder dispersed in an ionomer (Zn ionomer) and its reference ethylene methacrylic acid copolymer (EMAA) polymer matrix. The PZT-Zn ionomer and PZT-EMAA composites were prepared by melt extrusion followed by hot pressing. The effects of poling conditions such as temperature, time and electric field on the piezoelectric properties of the composites were investigated. The experimentally observed piezoelectric charge coefficient and dielectric constant of the composites were compared with theoretical models. The results show that PZT-Zn ionomer composites have better piezoelectric properties compared to PZT-EMAA composites. The static and fatigue properties of the composites were investigated. The PZT-Zn ionomer composites were found to have excellent fatigue resistance even at strain levels of 4%. Due to the self-healing capabilities of the ionomer matrix, the loss of piezoelectric properties after high strain tensile cyclic loading could be partially recovered by thermal healing.

  15. A classical mechanics model for the interpretation of piezoelectric property data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Andrew J., E-mail: a.j.bell@leeds.ac.uk [Institute for Materials Research, School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-14

    In order to provide a means of understanding, the relationship between the primary electromechanical coefficients and simple crystal chemistry parameters for piezoelectric materials, a static analysis of a 3 atom, dipolar molecule has been undertaken to derive relationships for elastic compliance s{sup E}, dielectric permittivity ε{sup X}, and piezoelectric charge coefficient d in terms of an effective ionic charge and two inter-atomic force constants. The relationships demonstrate the mutual interdependence of the three coefficients, in keeping with experimental evidence from a large dataset of commercial piezoelectric materials. It is shown that the electromechanical coupling coefficient k is purely an expression of the asymmetry in the two force constants or bond compliances. The treatment is extended to show that the quadratic electrostriction relation between strain and polarization, in both centrosymmetric and non-centrosymmetric systems, is due to the presence of a non-zero 2nd order term in the bond compliance. Comparison with experimental data explains the counter-intuitive, positive correlation of k with s{sup E} and ε{sup X} and supports the proposition that high piezoelectric activity in single crystals is dominated by large compliance coupled with asymmetry in the sub-cell force constants. However, the analysis also shows that in polycrystalline materials, the dielectric anisotropy of the constituent crystals can be more important for attaining large charge coefficients. The model provides a completely new methodology for the interpretation of piezoelectric and electrostrictive property data and suggests methods for rapid screening for high activity in candidate piezoelectric materials, both experimentally and by novel interrogation of ab initio calculations.

  16. A classical mechanics model for the interpretation of piezoelectric property data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a means of understanding, the relationship between the primary electromechanical coefficients and simple crystal chemistry parameters for piezoelectric materials, a static analysis of a 3 atom, dipolar molecule has been undertaken to derive relationships for elastic compliance s E , dielectric permittivity ε X , and piezoelectric charge coefficient d in terms of an effective ionic charge and two inter-atomic force constants. The relationships demonstrate the mutual interdependence of the three coefficients, in keeping with experimental evidence from a large dataset of commercial piezoelectric materials. It is shown that the electromechanical coupling coefficient k is purely an expression of the asymmetry in the two force constants or bond compliances. The treatment is extended to show that the quadratic electrostriction relation between strain and polarization, in both centrosymmetric and non-centrosymmetric systems, is due to the presence of a non-zero 2nd order term in the bond compliance. Comparison with experimental data explains the counter-intuitive, positive correlation of k with s E and ε X and supports the proposition that high piezoelectric activity in single crystals is dominated by large compliance coupled with asymmetry in the sub-cell force constants. However, the analysis also shows that in polycrystalline materials, the dielectric anisotropy of the constituent crystals can be more important for attaining large charge coefficients. The model provides a completely new methodology for the interpretation of piezoelectric and electrostrictive property data and suggests methods for rapid screening for high activity in candidate piezoelectric materials, both experimentally and by novel interrogation of ab initio calculations

  17. Native Cellulose Microfiber-Based Hybrid Piezoelectric Generator for Mechanical Energy Harvesting Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Mehebub; Mandal, Dipankar

    2016-01-27

    A flexible hybrid piezoelectric generator (HPG) based on native cellulose microfiber (NCMF) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as conducting filler is presented where the further chemical treatment of the cellulose and traditional electrical poling steps for piezoelectric voltage generation is avoided. It delivers a high electrical throughput that is an open circuit voltage of ∼30 V and power density ∼9.0 μW/cm(3) under repeated hand punching. We demonstrate to power up various portable electronic units by HPG. Because cellulose is a biocompatible material, suggesting that HPG may have greater potential in biomedical applications such as implantable power source in human body.

  18. Compliant Electrode and Composite Material for Piezoelectric Wind and Mechanical Energy Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A thin film device for harvesting energy from wind. The thin film device includes one or more layers of a compliant piezoelectric material formed from a composite of a polymer and an inorganic material, such as a ceramic. Electrodes are disposed on a first side and a second side of the piezoelectric material. The electrodes are formed from a compliant material, such as carbon nanotubes or graphene. The thin film device exhibits improved resistance to structural fatigue upon application of large strains and repeated cyclic loadings.

  19. Piezoelectric, Mechanical and Acoustic Properties of KNaNbOF5 from First-Principles Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Han

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a noncentrosymmetric crystal, KNaNbOF5, has attracted attention due to its potential to present piezoelectric properties. Although α- and β-KNaNbOF5 are similar in their stoichiometries, their structural frameworks, and their synthetic routes, the two phases exhibit very different properties. This paper presents, from first-principles calculations, comparative studies of the structural, electronic, piezoelectric, and elastic properties of the α and the β phase of the material. Based on the Christoffel equation, the slowness surface of the acoustic waves is obtained to describe its acoustic prosperities. These results may benefit further applications of KNaNbOF5.

  20. Cortical plasticity as a mechanism for storing Bayesian priors in sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köver, Hania; Bao, Shaowen

    2010-05-05

    Human perception of ambiguous sensory signals is biased by prior experiences. It is not known how such prior information is encoded, retrieved and combined with sensory information by neurons. Previous authors have suggested dynamic encoding mechanisms for prior information, whereby top-down modulation of firing patterns on a trial-by-trial basis creates short-term representations of priors. Although such a mechanism may well account for perceptual bias arising in the short-term, it does not account for the often irreversible and robust changes in perception that result from long-term, developmental experience. Based on the finding that more frequently experienced stimuli gain greater representations in sensory cortices during development, we reasoned that prior information could be stored in the size of cortical sensory representations. For the case of auditory perception, we use a computational model to show that prior information about sound frequency distributions may be stored in the size of primary auditory cortex frequency representations, read-out by elevated baseline activity in all neurons and combined with sensory-evoked activity to generate a perception that conforms to Bayesian integration theory. Our results suggest an alternative neural mechanism for experience-induced long-term perceptual bias in the context of auditory perception. They make the testable prediction that the extent of such perceptual prior bias is modulated by both the degree of cortical reorganization and the magnitude of spontaneous activity in primary auditory cortex. Given that cortical over-representation of frequently experienced stimuli, as well as perceptual bias towards such stimuli is a common phenomenon across sensory modalities, our model may generalize to sensory perception, rather than being specific to auditory perception.

  1. Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of fatigue resistant, self-healing PZT-ionomer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, N.K.; Lafont, U.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites with 0-3 connectivity were fabricated using lead zirconium titanate (PZT) powder dispersed in an ionomer (Zn ionomer) and its reference ethylene methacrylic acid copolymer (EMAA) polymer matrix. The PZT-Zn ionomer and PZT-EMAA composites were prepared by melt

  2. Ceramic piezoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszuwara, W.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic piezoelectric materials conert reversibility electric energy into mechanical energy. In the presence of electric field piezoelectric materials exhibit deformations up to 0.15% (for single crystals up to 1.7%). The deformation energy is in the range of 10 2 - 10 3 J/m 3 and working frequency can reach 10 5 Hz. Ceramic piezoelectric materials find applications in many modern disciplines such as: automatics, micromanipulation, measuring techniques, medical diagnostics and many others. Among the variety of ceramic piezoelectric materials the most important appear to be ferroelectric materials such as lead zirconate titanate so called PZT ceramics. Ceramic piezoelectric materials can be processed by methods widely applied for standard ceramics, i.e. starting from simple precursors e.g. oxides. Application of sol-gel method has also been reported. Substantial drawback for many applications of piezoelectric ceramics is their brittleness, thus much effort is currently being put in the development of piezoelectric composite materials. Other important research directions in the field of ceramic piezoelectric materials composite development of lead free materials, which can exhibit properties similar to the PZT ceramics. Among other directions one has to state processing of single crystals and materials having texture or gradient structure. (author)

  3. Sensory-motor responses to mechanical stimulation of the esophagus after sensitization with acid

    OpenAIRE

    Drewes, Asbjorn Mohr; Reddy, Hariprasad; Staahl, Camilla; Pedersen, Jan; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Gregersen, Hans

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Sensitization most likely plays an important role in chronic pain disorders, and such sensitization can be mimicked by experimental acid perfusion of the esophagus. The current study systematically investigated the sensory and motor responses of the esophagus to controlled mechanical stimuli before and after sensitization.

  4. Drilling, Coring and Sampling Using Piezoelectric Actuated Mechanisms: From the USDC to a Piezo-Rotary-Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01

    NASA exploration missions are increasingly including sampling tasks but with the growth in engineering experience (particularly, Phoenix Scout and MSL) it is now very much recognized that planetary drilling poses many challenges. The difficulties grow significantly with the hardness of sampled material, the depth of drilling and the harshness of the environmental conditions. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a number of piezoelectric actuated drills and corers were developed by the Advanced Technologies Group of JPL. The basic configuration that was conceived in 1998 is known as the Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC), and it operates as a percussive mechanism. This drill requires as low preload as 10N (important for operation at low gravity) allowing to operate with as low-mass device as 400g, use an average power as low as 2- 3W and drill rocks as hard as basalt. A key feature of this drilling mechanism is the use of a free-mass to convert the ultrasonic vibrations generated by piezoelectric stack to sonic impacts on the bit. Using the versatile capabilities f the USDC led to the development of many configurations and device sizes. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to remove cuttings. To reach meters deep in ice a wireline drill was developed called the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher and it was demonstrated in 2005 to penetrate about 2-m deep at Antarctica. Jointly with Honeybee Robotics, this mechanism is currently being modified to incorporate rotation and inchworm operation forming Auto-Gopher to reach meters deep in rocks. To take advantage of the ability of piezoelectric actuators to operate over a wide temperatures range, piezoelectric actuated drills were developed and demonstrated to operate at as cold as -200oC and as hot as 500oC. In this paper, the developed mechanisms

  5. Mechanisms of tactile sensory deterioration amongst the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedung, Lisa; El Rawadi, Charles; Arvidsson, Martin; Farcet, Céline; Luengo, Gustavo S; Breton, Lionel; Rutland, Mark W

    2018-04-19

    It is known that roughness-smoothness, hardness-softness, stickiness-slipperiness and warm-cold are predominant perceptual dimensions in macro-, micro- and nano- texture perception. However, it is not clear to what extent active tactile texture discrimination remains intact with age. The general decrease in tactile ability induces physical and emotional dysfunction in elderly, and has increasing significance for an aging population. We report a method to quantify tactile acuity based on blinded active exploration of systematically varying micro-textured surfaces and a same-different paradigm. It reveals that elderly participants show significantly reduced fine texture discrimination ability. The elderly group also displays statistically lower finger friction coefficient, moisture and elasticity, suggesting a link. However, a subpopulation of the elderly retains discrimination ability irrespective of cutaneous condition and this can be related to a higher density of somatosensory receptors on the finger pads. Skin tribology is thus not the primary reason for decline of tactile discrimination with age. The remediation of cutaneous properties through rehydration, however leads to a significantly improved tactile acuity. This indicates unambiguously that neurological tactile loss can be temporarily compensated by restoring the cutaneous contact mechanics. Such mechanical restoration of tactile ability has the potential to increase the quality of life in elderly.

  6. Sensory Motor Mechanisms Unify Psychology: The Embodiment of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer eSoliman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor mechanisms can unify explanations at cognitive, social, and cultural levels. As an example, we review how anticipated motor effort is used by individuals and groups to judge distance: the greater the anticipated effort the greater the perceived distance. Anticipated motor effort can also be used to understand cultural differences. People with interdependent self-construals interact almost exclusively with in-group members, and hence there is little opportunity to tune their sensorimotor systems for interaction with out-group members. The result is that interactions with out-group members are expected to be difficult and out-group members are perceived as literally more distant. In two experiments we show a interdependent Americans, compared to independent Americans, see American confederates (in-group as closer; b interdependent Arabs, compared to independent Arabs, perceive Arab confederates (in-group as closer, whereas interdependent Americans perceive Arab confederates (out-group as farther. These results demonstrate how the same embodied mechanism can seamlessly contribute to explanations at the cognitive, social, and cultural levels.

  7. Sensory Gain Outperforms Efficient Readout Mechanisms in Predicting Attention-Related Improvements in Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ester, Edward F.; Deering, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Spatial attention has been postulated to facilitate perceptual processing via several different mechanisms. For instance, attention can amplify neural responses in sensory areas (sensory gain), mediate neural variability (noise modulation), or alter the manner in which sensory signals are selectively read out by postsensory decision mechanisms (efficient readout). Even in the context of simple behavioral tasks, it is unclear how well each of these mechanisms can account for the relationship between attention-modulated changes in behavior and neural activity because few studies have systematically mapped changes between stimulus intensity, attentional focus, neural activity, and behavioral performance. Here, we used a combination of psychophysics, event-related potentials (ERPs), and quantitative modeling to explicitly link attention-related changes in perceptual sensitivity with changes in the ERP amplitudes recorded from human observers. Spatial attention led to a multiplicative increase in the amplitude of an early sensory ERP component (the P1, peaking ∼80–130 ms poststimulus) and in the amplitude of the late positive deflection component (peaking ∼230–330 ms poststimulus). A simple model based on signal detection theory demonstrates that these multiplicative gain changes were sufficient to account for attention-related improvements in perceptual sensitivity, without a need to invoke noise modulation. Moreover, combining the observed multiplicative gain with a postsensory readout mechanism resulted in a significantly poorer description of the observed behavioral data. We conclude that, at least in the context of relatively simple visual discrimination tasks, spatial attention modulates perceptual sensitivity primarily by modulating the gain of neural responses during early sensory processing PMID:25274817

  8. Piezoelectric valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Serhiy Fedorovich

    2013-01-15

    A motorized valve has a housing having an inlet and an outlet to be connected to a pipeline, a saddle connected with the housing, a turn plug having a rod, the turn plug cooperating with the saddle, and a drive for turning the valve body and formed as a piezoelectric drive, the piezoelectric drive including a piezoelectric generator of radially directed standing acoustic waves, which is connected with the housing and is connectable with a pulse current source, and a rotor operatively connected with the piezoelectric generator and kinematically connected with the rod of the turn plug so as to turn the turn plug when the rotor is actuated by the piezoelectric generator.

  9. Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting Device Combined with Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-I Lu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectricity is a type of material that enables mechanical energy and electrical energy to be interchangeable, which can be divided into positive piezoelectric effect and inverse piezoelectric effect. The positive piezoelectric effect is that the electric dipole moment of material generates changes when the piezoelectric material is subjected to pressure, resulting in electrical energy. Conversely, the inverse piezoelectric effect is the process of electrical energy converted into mechanical energy.

  10. Notes on Piezoelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-03

    These notes provide a pedagogical discussion of the physics of piezoelectricity. The exposition starts with a brief analysis of the classical (continuum) theory of piezoelectric phenomena in solids. The main subject of the notes is, however, a quantum mechanical analysis. We first derive the Frohlich Hamiltonian as part of the description of the electron-phonon interaction. The results of this analysis are then employed to derive the equations of piezoelectricity. A couple of examples with the zinc blende and and wurtzite structures are presented at the end

  11. Propagation of SH waves in a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic plate: Effects of interfacial imperfection couplings and the related physical mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Hong-Xing [Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Imaging Technology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Li, Yong-Dong, E-mail: LYDbeijing@163.com [Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Imaging Technology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Academy of Armored Force Engineering, Beijing 100072 (China); Xiong, Tao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Academy of Armored Force Engineering, Beijing 100072 (China); Guan, Yong [Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Imaging Technology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China)

    2016-09-07

    The problem of dispersive SH wave in a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic plate that contains an imperfect interface is considered in the present work. An imperfection coupling model is adopted to describe the magnetic, electric and mechanical imperfections on the interface. A transcendental dispersion equation is derived and numerically solved to get the phase velocity. The validity of the numerical procedure is verified in a degenerated case. The effects of the coupled interfacial imperfections on the dispersion behavior of SH waves are discussed in detail and the related underlying physical mechanisms are explained. - Highlights: • SH-wave is investigated in a multiferroic plate with coupled interfacial imperfections. • SH-wave is affected by both interfacial imperfections and their inter-couplings. • Physical mechanisms of the effects are explained via energy transformations.

  12. Propagation of SH waves in a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic plate: Effects of interfacial imperfection couplings and the related physical mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Hong-Xing; Li, Yong-Dong; Xiong, Tao; Guan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The problem of dispersive SH wave in a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic plate that contains an imperfect interface is considered in the present work. An imperfection coupling model is adopted to describe the magnetic, electric and mechanical imperfections on the interface. A transcendental dispersion equation is derived and numerically solved to get the phase velocity. The validity of the numerical procedure is verified in a degenerated case. The effects of the coupled interfacial imperfections on the dispersion behavior of SH waves are discussed in detail and the related underlying physical mechanisms are explained. - Highlights: • SH-wave is investigated in a multiferroic plate with coupled interfacial imperfections. • SH-wave is affected by both interfacial imperfections and their inter-couplings. • Physical mechanisms of the effects are explained via energy transformations.

  13. Laminated piezoelectric transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez Carazo, Alfredo (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A laminated piezoelectric transformer is provided using the longitudinal vibration modes for step-up voltage conversion applications. The input portions are polarized to deform in a longitudinal plane and are bonded to an output portion. The deformation of the input portions is mechanically coupled to the output portion, which deforms in the same longitudinal direction relative to the input portion. The output portion is polarized in the thickness direction relative its electrodes, and piezoelectrically generates a stepped-up output voltage.

  14. Feasibility and repeatability of cold and mechanical quantitative sensory testing in normal dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Jessica D.; Williams, Morika D.; Freire, Mila; Griffith, Emily H.; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.

    2015-01-01

    Feasibility and inter-session repeatability of cold and mechanical quantitative sensory testing (QST) were assessed in 24 normal dogs. Cold thermal latencies were evaluated using a thermal probe (0 °C) applied to three pelvic limb sites. Mechanical thresholds were measured using an electronic von Frey anesthesiometer (EVF) and a blunt-probed pressure algometer (PA) applied to the dorsal aspect of the metatarsus. All QST trials were performed with dogs in lateral recumbency. Collection of cold QST data was easy (feasible) in 19/24 (79%) dogs. However, only 18.4%, 18.9% and 13.2% of cold QST trials elicited a response at the medial tibia, third digital pad and plantar metatarsal regions, respectively. Collection of mechanical QST data was easy (feasible) in 20/24 (83%) dogs for both EVF and PA. At consecutive sampling times, approximately 2 weeks apart, the average EVF sensory thresholds were 414 ± 186 g and 379 ± 166 g, respectively, and the average PA sensory thresholds were 1089 ± 414 g and 1028 ± 331 g, respectively. There was no significant difference in inter-session or inter-limb threshold values for either mechanical QST device. The cold QST protocol in this study was achievable, but did not provide consistently quantifiable results. Both mechanical QST devices tested provided repeatable, reliable sensory threshold measurements in normal, client-owned dogs. These findings contribute to the validation of the EVF and PA as tools to obtain repeated QST data over time in dogs to assess somatosensory processing changes. PMID:24268475

  15. The direct piezoelectric effect in the globular protein lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, A.; Noor, M. R.; Sweeney, J.; Casey, V.; Kholkin, A. L.; Silien, C.; Gandhi, A. A.; Soulimane, T.; Tofail, S. A. M.

    2017-10-01

    Here, we present experimental evidence of the direct piezoelectric effect in the globular protein, lysozyme. Piezoelectric materials are employed in many actuating and sensing applications because they can convert mechanical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. Although originally studied in inorganic materials, several biological materials including amino acids and bone, also exhibit piezoelectricity. The exact mechanisms supporting biological piezoelectricity are not known, nor is it known whether biological piezoelectricity conforms strictly to the criteria of classical piezoelectricity. The observation of piezoelectricity in protein crystals presented here links biological piezoelectricity with the classical theory of piezoelectricity. We quantify the direct piezoelectric effect in monoclinic and tetragonal aggregate films of lysozyme using conventional techniques based on the Berlincourt Method. The largest piezoelectric effect measured in a crystalline aggregate film of lysozyme was approximately 6.5 pC N-1. These findings raise fundamental questions as to the possible physiological significance of piezoelectricity in lysozyme and the potential for technical applications.

  16. Postharvest Chemical, Sensorial and Physical-Mechanical Properties of Wild Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Evica MRATINIĆ; Bojan POPOVSKI; Tomo MILOŠEVIĆ; Melpomena POPOVSKA

    2011-01-01

    Some chemical, sensorial and physical-mechanical properties of 19 apricot genotypes and Hungarian Best (control) such as moisture content, soluble solids content, titratable acidity ratio and their ratio, fruit and stone mass, flesh/stone ratio, fruit dimensions (length, width, thickness), arithmetic and geometric mean diameter, sphericity, surface area and aspect ratio were determined. Their application is also discussed. The highest moisture content and stone mass observed in X-1/1/04 and X...

  17. Sensory-motor responses to mechanical stimulation of the esophagus after sensitization with acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Asbjørn-Mohr; Reddy, Hariprasad; Staahl, Camilla; Pedersen, Jan; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Gregersen, Hans

    2005-07-28

    Sensitization most likely plays an important role in chronic pain disorders, and such sensitization can be mimicked by experimental acid perfusion of the esophagus. The current study systematically investigated the sensory and motor responses of the esophagus to controlled mechanical stimuli before and after sensitization. Thirty healthy subjects were included. Distension of the distal esophagus with a balloon was performed before and after perfusion with 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid for 30 min. An impedance planimetry system was used to measure cross-sectional area, volume, pressure, and tension during the distensions. A new model allowed evaluation of the phasic contractions by the tension during contractions as a function of the initial muscle length before the contraction (comparable to the Frank-Starling law for the heart). Length-tension diagrams were used to evaluate the muscle tone before and after relaxation of the smooth muscle with butylscopolamine. The sensitization resulted in allodynia and hyperalgesia to the distension volumes, and the degree of sensitization was related to the infused volume of acid. Furthermore, a nearly 50% increase in the evoked referred pain was seen after sensitization. The mechanical analysis demonstrated hyper-reactivity of the esophagus following acid perfusion, with an increased number and force of the phasic contractions, but the muscle tone did not change. Acid perfusion of the esophagus sensitizes the sensory pathways and facilitates secondary contractions. The new model can be used to study abnormal sensory-motor mechanisms in visceral organs.

  18. Piezoelectric Transformers: An Historical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Vazquez Carazo

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric transformers (PTs) are solid-state devices that transform electrical energy into electrical energy by means of a mechanical vibration. These devices are manufactured using piezoelectric materials that are driven at resonance. With appropriate design and circuitry, it is possible to step up and step down the voltages between the input and output sections of the piezoelectric transformer, without making use of magnetic materials and obtaining excellent conversion efficiencies. The...

  19. Energy collection via Piezoelectricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ch Naveen

    2015-01-01

    In the present days, wireless data transmission techniques are commonly used in electronic devices. For powering them connection needs to be made to the power supply through wires else power may be supplied from batteries. Batteries require charging, replacement and other maintenance efforts. So, some alternative methods need to be developed to keep the batteries full time charged and to avoid the need of any consumable external energy source to charge the batteries. Mechanical energy harvesting utilizes piezoelectric components where deformations produced by different means are directly converted to electrical charge via piezoelectric effect. The proposed work in this research recommends Piezoelectricity as a alternate energy source. The motive is to obtain a pollution-free energy source and to utilize and optimize the energy being wasted. Current work also illustrates the working principle of piezoelectric crystal and various sources of vibration for the crystal. (paper)

  20. Piezoelectric energy harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, Christopher A [Power Technology Branch, US Army, CERDEC, C2D, Ft. Belvoir, VA 22060-5816 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Piezoelectric materials can be used to convert oscillatory mechanical energy into electrical energy. This technology, together with innovative mechanical coupling designs, can form the basis for harvesting energy from mechanical motion. Piezoelectric energy can be harvested to convert walking motion from the human body into electrical power. Recently four proof-of-concept Heel Strike Units were developed where each unit is essentially a small electric generator that utilizes piezoelectric elements to convert mechanical motion into electrical power in the form factor of the heel of a boot. The results of the testing and evaluation and the performance of this small electric generator are presented. The generator's conversion of mechanical motion into electrical power, the processes it goes through to produce useable power and commercial applications of the Heel Strike electric generator are discussed. (author)

  1. Piezoelectric energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, Christopher A

    2009-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials can be used to convert oscillatory mechanical energy into electrical energy. This technology, together with innovative mechanical coupling designs, can form the basis for harvesting energy from mechanical motion. Piezoelectric energy can be harvested to convert walking motion from the human body into electrical power. Recently four proof-of-concept Heel Strike Units were developed where each unit is essentially a small electric generator that utilizes piezoelectric elements to convert mechanical motion into electrical power in the form factor of the heel of a boot. The results of the testing and evaluation and the performance of this small electric generator are presented. The generator's conversion of mechanical motion into electrical power, the processes it goes through to produce useable power and commercial applications of the Heel Strike electric generator are discussed.

  2. A comparison of the mechanical and sensory properties of baked and extruded confectionery products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Saba; Charalambides, Maria; Mohammed, Idris K.; Powell, Hugh

    2017-10-01

    Traditional baking is the most common way of producing confectionery wafers, however over the past few decades, the extrusion process has become an increasingly important food manufacturing method and is commonly used in the manufacturing of breakfast cereals and filled snack products. This study aims to characterise products made via each of these manufacturing processes in order to understand the important parameters involved in the resulting texture of confectionery products such as wafers. Both of the named processes result in brittle, cellular foams comprising of cell walls and cell pores which may contain some of the confectionery filling. The mechanical response of the cell wall material and the geometry of the products influence the consumer perception and preference. X-Ray micro tomography (XRT) was used to generate geometry of the microstructure which was then fed to Finite Element (FE) for numerical analysis on both products. The FE models were used to determine properties such as solid modulus of the cell walls, Young's modulus of the entire foam and to investigate and compare the microstructural damage of baked wafers and extruded products. A sensory analysis study was performed on both products by a qualified sensory panel. The results of this study were then used to draw links between the mechanical behaviour and sensory perception of a consumer. The extruded product was found to be made up of a stiffer solid material and had a higher compressive modulus and fracture stress when compared to the baked wafer. The sensory panel observed textural differences between the baked and extruded products which were also found in the differences of the mechanical properties of the two products.

  3. Development of Cell Culture Microdevice Actuated by Piezoelectric Thin Films for Delivering Mechanical Vibratory Stimuli to Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Y; Umegaki, G; Kawashima, T; Nagai, M; Shibata, T; Masuzawa, T; Kimura, T; Kishida, A

    2012-01-01

    In order to realize a cell culture microdevice actuated by piezoelectric thin films for on-chip regulation of cell functions, this paper reported on a feasibility study by using the microdevice with KOH-etched cavities surrounded by four (111) sidewalls as microchambers in order to introduce cells to be cultured. As a result, the vibration characteristic of the PZT actuator was improved by using an electric field -150 kV/cm at 70 C for 30 min in poling process. A feasibility study on cell culture for delivering mechanical vibratory stimuli to cells revealed the microdevice could be applicable to the culture with actual biological cells. In addition, it was found that O 2 -plasma treated parylene-C process could be applicable for obtaining homogeneous surface of cell culture microdevice.

  4. Stretchable piezoelectric nanocomposite generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi-Il; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Kim, Na Kyung; Lee, Keon Jae

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric energy conversion that generate electric energy from ambient mechanical and vibrational movements is promising energy harvesting technology because it can use more accessible energy resources than other renewable natural energy. In particular, flexible and stretchable piezoelectric energy harvesters which can harvest the tiny biomechanical motions inside human body into electricity properly facilitate not only the self-powered energy system for flexible and wearable electronics but also sensitive piezoelectric sensors for motion detectors and in vivo diagnosis kits. Since the piezoelectric ZnO nanowires (NWs)-based energy harvesters (nanogenerators) were proposed in 2006, many researchers have attempted the nanogenerator by using the various fabrication process such as nanowire growth, electrospinning, and transfer techniques with piezoelectric materials including polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer and perovskite ceramics. In 2012, the composite-based nanogenerators were developed using simple, low-cost, and scalable methods to overcome the significant issues with previously-reported energy harvester, such as insufficient output performance and size limitation. This review paper provides a brief overview of flexible and stretchable piezoelectric nanocomposite generator for realizing the self-powered energy system with development history, power performance, and applications.

  5. Sensory-specific clock components and memory mechanisms: investigation with parallel timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamache, Pierre-Luc; Grondin, Simon

    2010-05-01

    A challenge for researchers in the time-perception field is to determine whether temporal processing is governed by a central mechanism or by multiple mechanisms working in concert. Behavioral studies of parallel timing offer interesting insights into the question, although the conclusions fail to converge. Most of these studies focus on the number-of-clocks issue, but the commonality of memory mechanisms involved in time processing is often neglected. The present experiment aims to address a straightforward question: do signals from different modalities marking time intervals share the same clock and/or the same memory resources? To this end, an interval reproduction task involving the parallel timing of two sensory signals presented either in the same modality or in different modalities was conducted. The memory component was tested by manipulating the delay separating the presentation of the target intervals and the moment when the reproduction of one of these began. Results show that there is more variance when only visually marked intervals are presented, and this effect is exacerbated with longer retention delays. Finally, when there is only one interval to process, encoding the interval with signals delivered from two modalities helps to reduce variance. Taken together, these results suggest that the hypothesis stating that there are sensory-specific clock components and memory mechanisms is viable.

  6. Reliable Piezoelectricity in Bilayer WSe2 for Piezoelectric Nanogenerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Park, Jae Young; Cho, Eun Bi; Kim, Tae Yun; Han, Sang A; Kim, Tae-Ho; Liu, Yanan; Kim, Sung Kyun; Roh, Chang Jae; Yoon, Hong-Joon; Ryu, Hanjun; Seung, Wanchul; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Jaichan; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2017-08-01

    Recently, piezoelectricity has been observed in 2D atomically thin materials, such as hexagonal-boron nitride, graphene, and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Specifically, exfoliated monolayer MoS 2 exhibits a high piezoelectricity that is comparable to that of traditional piezoelectric materials. However, monolayer TMD materials are not regarded as suitable for actual piezoelectric devices due to their insufficient mechanical durability for sustained operation while Bernal-stacked bilayer TMD materials lose noncentrosymmetry and consequently piezoelectricity. Here, it is shown that WSe 2 bilayers fabricated via turbostratic stacking have reliable piezoelectric properties that cannot be obtained from a mechanically exfoliated WSe 2 bilayer with Bernal stacking. Turbostratic stacking refers to the transfer of each chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown WSe 2 monolayer to allow for an increase in degrees of freedom in the bilayer symmetry, leading to noncentrosymmetry in the bilayers. In contrast, CVD-grown WSe 2 bilayers exhibit very weak piezoelectricity because of the energetics and crystallographic orientation. The flexible piezoelectric WSe 2 bilayers exhibit a prominent mechanical durability of up to 0.95% of strain as well as reliable energy harvesting performance, which is adequate to drive a small liquid crystal display without external energy sources, in contrast to monolayer WSe 2 for which the device performance becomes degraded above a strain of 0.63%. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Altered sensory-weighting mechanisms is observed in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allard Paul

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scoliosis is the most common type of spinal deformity. In North American children, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS makes up about 90% of all cases of scoliosis. While its prevalence is about 2% to 3% in children aged between 10 to 16 years, girls are more at risk than boys for severe progression with a ratio of 3.6 to 1. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that idiopathic scoliosis interferes with the mechanisms responsible for sensory-reweighting during balance control. Methods Eight scoliosis patients (seven female and one male; mean age: 16.4 years and nine healthy adolescents (average age 16.5 years participated in the experiment. Visual and ankle proprioceptive information was perturbed (eyes closed and/or tendon vibration suddenly and then returned to normal (eyes open and/or no tendon vibration. An AMTI force platform was used to compute centre of pressure root mean squared velocity and sway density curve. Results For the control condition (eyes open and no tendon vibration, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients had a greater centre of pressure root mean squared velocity (variability than control participants. Reintegration of ankle proprioception, when vision was either available or removed, led to an increased centre of pressure velocity variability for the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients whereas the control participants reduced their centre of pressure velocity variability. Moreover, in the absence of vision, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis exhibited an increased centre of pressure velocity variability when ankle proprioception was returned to normal (i.e. tendon vibration stopped. The analysis of the sway density plot suggests that adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, during sensory reintegration, do not scale appropriately their balance control commands. Conclusion Altogether, the present results demonstrate that idiopathic scoliosis adolescents have difficulty in

  8. Mechanical and electrical strain response of a piezoelectric auxetic PZT lattice structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Tobias; Eichhorn, Franziska; Han, Guifang; Ebert, Kathrin; Wegener, Moritz; Roosen, Andreas; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi; Greil, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional auxetic lattice structure was fabricated from a PZT piezoceramic. Tape casted and sintered sheets with a thickness of 530 μm were laser cut into inverted honeycomb lattice structure with re-entrant cell geometry (θ = -25°) and poling direction oriented perpendicular to the lattice plane. The in-plane strain response upon applying an uniaxial compression load as well as an electric field perpendicular to the lattice plane were analyzed by a 2D image data detection analysis. The auxetic lattice structure exhibits orthotropic deformation behavior with a negative in-plane Poisson’s ratio of -2.05. Compared to PZT bulk material the piezoelectric auxetic lattice revealed a strain amplification by a factor of 30-70. Effective transversal coupling coefficients {{d}al}31 of the PZT lattice exceeding 4 × 103 pm V-1 were determined which result in an effective hydrostatic coefficient {{d}al}h 66 times larger than that of bulk PZT.

  9. Postharvest Chemical, Sensorial and Physical-Mechanical Properties of Wild Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evica MRATINIĆ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Some chemical, sensorial and physical-mechanical properties of 19 apricot genotypes and Hungarian Best (control such as moisture content, soluble solids content, titratable acidity ratio and their ratio, fruit and stone mass, flesh/stone ratio, fruit dimensions (length, width, thickness, arithmetic and geometric mean diameter, sphericity, surface area and aspect ratio were determined. Their application is also discussed. The highest moisture content and stone mass observed in X-1/1/04 and X-1/2/04, soluble solids content in ZO-1/03, titratable acidity in ZL-2/03, SS/TA ratio in ZL-1/03, and fruit mass and flesh/stone ratio in DL-1/1/04 genotype. The most number of genotypes have orange and deep orange skin and flesh colour, respectively, whereas sweet kernel taste was predominant in most genotypes. Regarding physical-mechanical properties, the superior fruit dimensions (length, width, thickness, arithmetic and geometric mean diameter and surface area observed in DL-1/1/04 genotype, whereas the highest sphericity and surface area observed in X-1/1/04 and X-1/2/04 genotypes. Also, the series of genotypes evaluated have better chemical, sensorial and physical-mechanical properties than Hungarian Best (control. Finally, information about these properties is very important for understanding the behaviour of the product during the postharvest operations.

  10. The wiring of developing sensory circuits - from patterned spontaneous activity to mechanisms of synaptic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Helen Leighton

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to accurately process incoming sensory stimuli, neurons must be organized into functional networks, with both genetic and environmental factors influencing the precise arrangement of connections between cells. Teasing apart the relative contributions of molecular guidance cues, spontaneous activity and visual experience during this maturation is on-going. During development of the sensory system, the first, rough organization of connections is created by molecular factors. These connections are then modulated by the intrinsically generated activity of neurons, even before the senses have become operational. Spontaneous waves of depolarisations sweep across the nervous system, placing them in a prime position to strengthen correct connections and weaken others, shaping synapses into a useful network. A large body of work now supports the idea that, rather than being a mere side-effect of the system, spontaneous activity actually contains information which readies the nervous system so that, as soon as the senses become active, sensory information can be utilized by the animal. An example is the neonatal mouse. As soon as the eyelids first open, neurons in the cortex respond to visual information without the animal having previously encountered structured sensory input (Cang et al., 2005a; Ko et al., 2013; Rochefort et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2012. In vivo imaging techniques have advanced considerably, allowing observation of the natural activity in the brain of living animals down to the level of the individual synapse. New (optogenetic methods make it possible to subtly modulate the spatio-temporal properties of activity, aiding our understanding of how these characteristics relate to the function of spontaneous activity. Such experiments have had a huge impact on our knowledge by permitting direct testing of ideas about the plasticity mechanisms at play in the intact system, opening up a provocative range of fresh questions. Here, we

  11. Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    En-Bo, Wei; Guo-Qing, Gu; Ying-Ming, Poon

    2010-01-01

    Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  12. Exploratory factor analysis for differentiating sensory and mechanical variables related to muscle-tendon unit elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro H. Chagas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Stretching exercises are able to promote adaptations in the muscle-tendon unit (MTU, which can be tested through physiological and biomechanical variables. Identifying the key variables in MTU adaptations is crucial to improvements in training. Objective To perform an exploratory factor analysis (EFA involving the variables often used to evaluate the response of the MTU to stretching exercises. Method Maximum joint range of motion (ROMMAX, ROM at first sensation of stretching (FSTROM, peak torque (torqueMAX, passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy were investigated in 36 participants during passive knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. Stiffness and energy values were normalized by the muscle cross-sectional area and their passive mode assured by monitoring the EMG activity. Results EFA revealed two major factors that explained 89.68% of the total variance: 53.13% was explained by the variables torqueMAX, passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy, whereas the remaining 36.55% was explained by the variables ROMMAX and FSTROM. Conclusion This result supports the literature wherein two main hypotheses (mechanical and sensory theories have been suggested to describe the adaptations of the MTU to stretching exercises. Contrary to some studies, in the present investigation torqueMAX was significantly correlated with the variables of the mechanical theory rather than those of the sensory theory. Therefore, a new approach was proposed to explain the behavior of the torqueMAX during stretching exercises.

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of ZnO Nanowire-based Piezoelectric Nanogenerators for Low Frequency Mechanical Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Vittrant, G.; Oshman, C.; Opoku, C.; Dahiya, A. S.; Camara, N.; Alquier, D.; Hue, L.-P. Tran Huu; Lethiecq, M.

    The present work investigates the possibility to charge a Lithium micro-battery (LiB) via direct conversion of ambient mechanical energy into electricity using piezoelectric ZnO nanowire (NW) based microgenerators (PGs). An estimate is provided for the power levels at the different stages of mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion chain, in the following areas: (1) PG output, (2) power management block and (3) LiB storage unit. Also covered in this work is the synthesis, which is a prerequisite for realising such PGs. ZnO NWs of 2 μm in length and 200 nm in diameter have been grown using a low temperature (PET substrates (25 × 25 mm2). Substrates containing bi-layer metal layers with dissimilar electro-negativities functioned as a galvanic cell in the growth nutrients, which acted as an electrolyte medium. This necessitated ZnO NWs growth on conductive surfaces, even in the absence of seed layers and/or substrate with specific lattice parameters. Finally, the assembly steps undertaken to realise the fully functional PGs are discussed, and the performances of the final PG are described thereafter. Subjecting such devices to a 10 Hz sinusoidal bending force resulted in a measured PG output of ∼56 mV peak to peak, on 1 MΩ resistive load.

  14. Mechanically induced strong red emission in samarium ions doped piezoelectric semiconductor CaZnOS for dynamic pressure sensing and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Peng, Dengfeng; Zhang, Hanlu; Yang, Xiaohong; Pan, Caofeng

    2017-07-01

    Piezoelectric semiconductor with optical, electrical and mechanical multifunctions has great potential applications in future optoelectronic devices. The rich properties and applications mainly encompass the intrinsic structures and their coupling effects. Here, we report that lanthanide ions doped piezoelectric semiconductor CaZnOS:Sm3+ showing strong red emission induced by dynamic mechanical stress. Under moderate mechanical load, the doped piezoelectric semiconductor exhibits strong visible red emission to the naked eyes even under the day light. A flexible dynamic pressure sensor device is fabricated based on the prepared CaZnOS:Sm3+ powders. The mechanical-induced emission properties of the device are investigated by the optical fiber spectrometer. The linear characteristic emissions are attributed to the 4G5/2→6H5/2 (566 nm), 4G5/2→6H7/2 (580-632 nm), 4G5/2→6H9/2 (653-673 nm) and 4G5/2→6H11/2 (712-735 nm) f-f transitions of Sm3+ ions. The integral emission intensity is proportional to the value of applied pressure. By using the linear relationship between integrated emission intensity and the dynamic pressure, the real-time pressure distribution is visualized and recorded. Our results highlight that the incorporation of lanthanide luminescent ions into piezoelectric semiconductors as smart materials could be applied into the flexible mechanical-optical sensor device without additional auxiliary power, which has great potential for promising applications such as mapping of personalized handwriting, smart display, and human machine interface.

  15. Piezoelectric Transformers: An Historical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Vazquez Carazo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric transformers (PTs are solid-state devices that transform electrical energy into electrical energy by means of a mechanical vibration. These devices are manufactured using piezoelectric materials that are driven at resonance. With appropriate design and circuitry, it is possible to step up and step down the voltages between the input and output sections of the piezoelectric transformer, without making use of magnetic materials and obtaining excellent conversion efficiencies. The initial concept of a piezoelectric ceramic transformer was proposed by Charles A. Rosen in 1954. Since then, the evolution of piezoelectric transformers through history has been linked to the relevant work of some excellent researchers as well as to the evolution in materials, manufacturing processes, and driving circuit techniques. This paper summarizes the historical evolution of the technology.

  16. Molecular and sensory mechanisms to mitigate sunlight-induced DNA damage in treefrog tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, André P; Lipinski, Victor M; Santos, Mauricio B; Santos, Caroline P; Jardim, Sinara S; Cechin, Sonia Z; Loreto, Elgion L S

    2015-10-01

    The increased incidence of solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation has been proposed as an environmental stressor, which may help to explain the enigmatic decline of amphibian populations worldwide. Despite growing knowledge regarding the UV-induced biological effects in several amphibian models, little is known about the efficacy of DNA repair pathways. In addition, little attention has been given to the interplay between these molecular mechanisms with other physiological strategies that avoid the damage induced by sunlight. Here, DNA lesions induced by environmental doses of solar UVB and UVA radiation were detected in genomic DNA samples of treefrog tadpoles (Hypsiboas pulchellus) and their DNA repair activity was evaluated. These data were complemented by monitoring the induction of apoptosis in blood cells and tadpole survival. Furthermore, the tadpoles' ability to perceive and escape from UV wavelengths was evaluated as an additional strategy of photoprotection. The results show that tadpoles are very sensitive to UVB light, which could be explained by the slow DNA repair rates for both cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6,4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6,4PPs). However, they were resistant to UVA, probably as a result of the activation of photolyases during UVA irradiation. Surprisingly, a sensory mechanism that triggers their escape from UVB and UVA light avoids the generation of DNA damage and helps to maintain the genomic integrity. This work demonstrates the genotoxic impact of both UVB and UVA radiation on tadpoles and emphasizes the importance of the interplay between molecular and sensory mechanisms to minimize the damage caused by sunlight. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Investigating electro-mechanical signals from collocated piezoelectric wafers for the reference-free damage diagnosis of a plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Jin; Park, Hyun Woo; Kim, Min Koo; Sohn, Hoon

    2011-01-01

    The electro-mechanical (EM) signals from piezoelectric (PZT) wafers are investigated for reference-free damage diagnosis so that a notch in a plate can be detected without requiring direct comparison with a baseline EM signal. Two identical PZT wafers collocated on both surfaces of a plate are utilized for extracting the mode-converted Lamb wave signals created by a notch. As harmonic input voltage signals are exerted on the collocated PZT wafers, the corresponding mode-converted Lamb wave signals become steady-state in the presence of damage. Applying fast Fourier transform to these mode-converted Lamb wave signals followed by a proper normalization, the EM signals associated with the mode conversion can be obtained. The theoretical finding of this paper is validated through spectral element simulations of a cantilever beam with a notch. The effects of the size and the location of the notch on the mode-converted EM signals are investigated as well. Finally, the applicability of the decomposed EM signals to reference-free damage diagnosis is discussed

  18. Microstructure and mechanical properties of stress-tailored piezoelectric AlN thin films for electro-acoustic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reusch, Markus, E-mail: markus.reusch@iaf.fraunhofer.de [Laboratory for Compound Semiconductor Microsystems, IMTEK - Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics, Tullastrasse 72, 79108 Freiburg (Germany); Cherneva, Sabina [Institute of Mechanics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 4, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Lu, Yuan; Žukauskaitė, Agnė; Kirste, Lutz; Holc, Katarzyna [Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics, Tullastrasse 72, 79108 Freiburg (Germany); Datcheva, Maria [Institute of Mechanics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 4, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Stoychev, Dimitar [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Lebedev, Vadim [Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics, Tullastrasse 72, 79108 Freiburg (Germany); Ambacher, Oliver [Laboratory for Compound Semiconductor Microsystems, IMTEK - Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics, Tullastrasse 72, 79108 Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Sputtered AlN thin films with minimized intrinsic stress gradient. • Gradual increase of N{sub 2} concentration during film growth. • No degradation of AlN film properties by changing process conditions. • 2D Raman mapping of nanoindentation area. - Abstract: Nanoindentation measurements along with atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and residual stress analyses on the basis of Raman measurements have been performed to characterize stress-tailored AlN thin films grown using reactive RF magnetron sputtering. The intrinsic stress gradient caused by the growing in-plane grain size along film thickness was minimized by increasing the N{sub 2} concentration in the Ar/N{sub 2} gas mixture during the growth process. The increase of N{sub 2} concentration did not degrade the device-relevant material properties such as crystallographic orientation, surface morphology, piezoelectric response, or indentation modulus. Due to comparable crystallographic film properties for all investigated samples it was concluded that mainly the AlN crystallites contribute to the mechanical film properties such as indentation modulus and hardness, while the film stress or grain boundaries had only a minor influence. Therefore, by tailoring the stress gradient in the AlN films, device performance, fabrication yield, and the design flexibility of electro-acoustic devices can be greatly improved.

  19. Learning Similar Actions by Reinforcement or Sensory-Prediction Errors Rely on Distinct Physiological Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Shintaro; Mawase, Firas; Celnik, Pablo

    2017-09-14

    Humans can acquire knowledge of new motor behavior via different forms of learning. The two forms most commonly studied have been the development of internal models based on sensory-prediction errors (error-based learning) and success-based feedback (reinforcement learning). Human behavioral studies suggest these are distinct learning processes, though the neurophysiological mechanisms that are involved have not been characterized. Here, we evaluated physiological markers from the cerebellum and the primary motor cortex (M1) using noninvasive brain stimulations while healthy participants trained finger-reaching tasks. We manipulated the extent to which subjects rely on error-based or reinforcement by providing either vector or binary feedback about task performance. Our results demonstrated a double dissociation where learning the task mainly via error-based mechanisms leads to cerebellar plasticity modifications but not long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity changes in M1; while learning a similar action via reinforcement mechanisms elicited M1 LTP-like plasticity but not cerebellar plasticity changes. Our findings indicate that learning complex motor behavior is mediated by the interplay of different forms of learning, weighing distinct neural mechanisms in M1 and the cerebellum. Our study provides insights for designing effective interventions to enhance human motor learning. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Neurogenetics of developmental dyslexia: from genes to behavior through brain neuroimaging and cognitive and sensorial mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascheretti, S; De Luca, A; Trezzi, V; Peruzzo, D; Nordio, A; Marino, C; Arrigoni, F

    2017-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a complex neurodevelopmental deficit characterized by impaired reading acquisition, in spite of adequate neurological and sensorial conditions, educational opportunities and normal intelligence. Despite the successful characterization of DD-susceptibility genes, we are far from understanding the molecular etiological pathways underlying the development of reading (dis)ability. By focusing mainly on clinical phenotypes, the molecular genetics approach has yielded mixed results. More optimally reduced measures of functioning, that is, intermediate phenotypes (IPs), represent a target for researching disease-associated genetic variants and for elucidating the underlying mechanisms. Imaging data provide a viable IP for complex neurobehavioral disorders and have been extensively used to investigate both morphological, structural and functional brain abnormalities in DD. Performing joint genetic and neuroimaging studies in humans is an emerging strategy to link DD-candidate genes to the brain structure and function. A limited number of studies has already pursued the imaging–genetics integration in DD. However, the results are still not sufficient to unravel the complexity of the reading circuit due to heterogeneous study design and data processing. Here, we propose an interdisciplinary, multilevel, imaging–genetic approach to disentangle the pathways from genes to behavior. As the presence of putative functional genetic variants has been provided and as genetic associations with specific cognitive/sensorial mechanisms have been reported, new hypothesis-driven imaging–genetic studies must gain momentum. This approach would lead to the optimization of diagnostic criteria and to the early identification of ‘biologically at-risk’ children, supporting the definition of adequate and well-timed prevention strategies and the implementation of novel, specific remediation approach. PMID:28045463

  1. Neurogenetics of developmental dyslexia: from genes to behavior through brain neuroimaging and cognitive and sensorial mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascheretti, S; De Luca, A; Trezzi, V; Peruzzo, D; Nordio, A; Marino, C; Arrigoni, F

    2017-01-03

    Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a complex neurodevelopmental deficit characterized by impaired reading acquisition, in spite of adequate neurological and sensorial conditions, educational opportunities and normal intelligence. Despite the successful characterization of DD-susceptibility genes, we are far from understanding the molecular etiological pathways underlying the development of reading (dis)ability. By focusing mainly on clinical phenotypes, the molecular genetics approach has yielded mixed results. More optimally reduced measures of functioning, that is, intermediate phenotypes (IPs), represent a target for researching disease-associated genetic variants and for elucidating the underlying mechanisms. Imaging data provide a viable IP for complex neurobehavioral disorders and have been extensively used to investigate both morphological, structural and functional brain abnormalities in DD. Performing joint genetic and neuroimaging studies in humans is an emerging strategy to link DD-candidate genes to the brain structure and function. A limited number of studies has already pursued the imaging-genetics integration in DD. However, the results are still not sufficient to unravel the complexity of the reading circuit due to heterogeneous study design and data processing. Here, we propose an interdisciplinary, multilevel, imaging-genetic approach to disentangle the pathways from genes to behavior. As the presence of putative functional genetic variants has been provided and as genetic associations with specific cognitive/sensorial mechanisms have been reported, new hypothesis-driven imaging-genetic studies must gain momentum. This approach would lead to the optimization of diagnostic criteria and to the early identification of 'biologically at-risk' children, supporting the definition of adequate and well-timed prevention strategies and the implementation of novel, specific remediation approach.

  2. Neural Mechanisms of Qigong Sensory Training Massage for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, Kristin K; Lundegard, Laura; Piepmeier, Aaron; Faurot, Keturah; Ruffino, Amanda; Jerger, Margaret A; Belger, Aysenil

    2018-01-01

    Despite the enormous prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), its global impact has yet to be realized. Millions of families worldwide need effective treatments to help them get through everyday challenges like eating, sleeping, digestion, and social interaction. Qigong Sensory Training (QST) is a nonverbal, parent-delivered intervention recently shown to be effective at reducing these everyday challenges in children with ASD. This study tested the feasibility of a protocol for investigating QST's neural mechanism. During a single visit, 20 children, 4- to 7-year-old, with ASD viewed images of emotional faces before and after receiving QST or watching a video (controls). Heart rate variability was recorded throughout the visit, and power in the high frequency band (0.15-0.4 Hz) was calculated to estimate parasympathetic tone in 5-s nonoverlapping windows. Cerebral oximetry of prefrontal cortex was recorded during rest and while viewing emotional faces. 95% completion rate and 7.6% missing data met a priori standards confirming protocol feasibility for future studies. Preliminary data suggest: (1) during the intervention, parasympathetic tone increased more in children receiving massage (M = 2.9, SD = 0.3) versus controls (M = 2.5, SD = 0.5); (2) while viewing emotional faces post-intervention, parasympathetic tone was more affected (reduced) in the massage group ( p  = 0.036); and (3) prefrontal cortex response to emotional faces was greater after massage compared to controls. These results did not reach statistical significance in this small study powered to test feasibility. This study demonstrates solid protocol feasibility. If replicated in a larger sample, these findings would provide important clues to the neural mechanism of action underlying QST's efficacy for improving sensory, social, and communication difficulties in children with autism.

  3. Integration of Plasticity Mechanisms within a Single Sensory Neuron of C. elegans Actuates a Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Josh D; Calvo, Ana C; Liu, Ping; Almoril-Porras, Agustin; Aljobeh, Ahmad; Torruella-Suárez, María Luisa; Ren, Ivy; Cook, Nathan; Greenwood, Joel; Luo, Linjiao; Wang, Zhao-Wen; Samuel, Aravinthan D T; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A

    2018-01-17

    Neural plasticity, the ability of neurons to change their properties in response to experiences, underpins the nervous system's capacity to form memories and actuate behaviors. How different plasticity mechanisms act together in vivo and at a cellular level to transform sensory information into behavior is not well understood. We show that in Caenorhabditis elegans two plasticity mechanisms-sensory adaptation and presynaptic plasticity-act within a single cell to encode thermosensory information and actuate a temperature preference memory. Sensory adaptation adjusts the temperature range of the sensory neuron (called AFD) to optimize detection of temperature fluctuations associated with migration. Presynaptic plasticity in AFD is regulated by the conserved kinase nPKCε and transforms thermosensory information into a behavioral preference. Bypassing AFD presynaptic plasticity predictably changes learned behavioral preferences without affecting sensory responses. Our findings indicate that two distinct neuroplasticity mechanisms function together through a single-cell logic system to enact thermotactic behavior. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Research on Effective Electric-Mechanical Coupling Coefficient of Sandwich Type Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducer Using Bending Vibration Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model on electromechanical coupling coefficient and the length optimization of a bending piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer are proposed. The piezoelectric transducer consists of 8 PZT elements sandwiched between four thin electrodes, and the PZT elements are clamped by a screwed connection between fore beam and back beam. Firstly, bending vibration model of the piezoelectric transducer is built based on the Timoshenko beam theory. Secondly, the analytical model of effective electromechanical coupling coefficient is built based on the bending vibration model. Energy method and electromechanical equivalent circuit method are involved in the modelling process. To validate the analytical model, sandwich type piezoelectric transducer example in second order bending vibration mode is analysed. Effective electromechanical coupling coefficient of the transducer is optimized with simplex reflection technique, and the optimized ratio of length of the transducers is obtained. Finally, experimental prototypes of the sandwich type piezoelectric transducers are fabricated. Bending vibration mode and impedance of the experimental prototypes are tested, and electromechanical coupling coefficient is obtained according to the testing results. Results show that the analytical model is in good agreement with the experimental model.

  5. Effects of fat content, pasteurization method, homogenization pressure, and storage time on the mechanical and sensory properties of bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Joyner, H S; Carter, B G; Drake, M A

    2018-04-01

    Fluid milk may be pasteurized by high-temperature short-time pasteurization (HTST) or ultrapasteurization (UP). Literature suggests that UP increases milk astringency, but definitive studies have not demonstrated this effect. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of pasteurization method, fat content, homogenization pressure, and storage time on milk sensory and mechanical behaviors. Raw skim (fat), 2%, and 5% fat milk was pasteurized in duplicate by indirect UP (140°C, 2.3 s) or by HTST pasteurization (78°C, 15 s), homogenized at 20.7 MPa, and stored at 4°C for 8 wk. Additionally, 2% fat milk was processed by indirect UP and homogenized at 13.8, 20.7, and 27.6 MPa and stored at 4°C for 8 wk. Sensory profiling, instrumental viscosity, and friction profiles of all milk were evaluated at 25°C after storage times of 1, 4, and 8 wk. Sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to determine protein structural changes in milk at these time points. Fresh HTST milk was processed at wk 7 for wk 8 evaluations. Ultrapasteurization increased milk sensory and instrumental viscosity compared with HTST pasteurization. Increased fat content increased sensory and instrumental viscosity, and decreased astringency and friction profiles. Astringency, mixed regimen friction profiles, and sensory viscosity also increased for UP versus HTST. Increased storage time showed no effect on sensory viscosity or mechanical viscosity. However, increased storage time generally resulted in increased friction profiles and astringency. Sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed increased denatured whey protein in UP milk compared with HTST milk. The aggregates or network formed by these proteins and casein micelles likely caused the increase in viscosity and friction profiles during storage. Homogenization pressure did not significantly affect friction behaviors, mechanical viscosity, or astringency; however

  6. Piezoelectric Structures and Low Power Generation Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irinela CHILIBON

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A short overview of different piezoelectric structures and devices for generating renewable electricity under mechanical actions is presented. A vibrating piezoelectric device differs from a typical electrical power source in that it has capacitive rather than inductive source impedance, and may be driven by mechanical vibrations of varying amplitude. Several techniques have been developed to extract energy from the environment. Generally, “vibration energy” could be converted into electrical energy by three techniques: electrostatic charge, magnetic fields and piezoelectric. Mechanical resonance frequency of piezoelectric bimorph transducers depends on geometric size (length, width, and thickness of each layer, and the piezoelectric coefficients of the piezoelectric material. Manufacturing processes and intended applications of several energy harvesting devices are presented.

  7. Structural integrity and failure mechanisms of a smart piezoelectric actuator under a cyclic bending mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Sung-Choong; Goo, Nam Seo

    2008-01-01

    Information on the onset and evolution of damage within materials is essential for guaranteeing the integrity of actuator systems. The authors have evaluated the structural integrity and the failure mechanisms of smart composite actuators with a PZT ceramic plate under electric cyclic loading. For this, two kinds of actuators, actuator 1 and actuator 2, were manufactured. Prior to the main testing, performance testing was performed on the actuators to determine their resonant frequencies. Electric cyclic tests were conducted up to twenty million cycles. An acoustic emission technique was used for monitoring the damage evolution in real time. We observed the extent of the damage after testing using scanning electron microscopy and reflected optical microscopy to support characteristics in the acoustic emission behavior that corresponded to specific types of damage mechanisms. It was shown that the initial damage mechanism of the smart composite actuator under electric cyclic loading originated from the transgranular micro-fatigue damage in the PZT ceramic layer. With increasing cycles, a local intergranular crack initiated and developed onto the surface of the PZT ceramic layer or propagated into the internal layer. Finally, short-circuiting led to the electric breakdown of the actuator. These results were different depending on the drive frequencies and the configuration of the actuators. Moreover, we differentiated between the aforementioned damage mechanisms via AE signal pattern analyses based on the primary frequency and the waveform. From our results, we conclude that the drive frequency and the existence of a protecting layer are dominant factors in the structural integrity of the smart composite actuator

  8. Ferroelectric mesocrystals of bismuth sodium titanate: formation mechanism, nanostructure, and application to piezoelectric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dengwei; Kong, Xingang; Mori, Kotaro; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Shinagawa, Kazunari; Feng, Qi

    2013-09-16

    Ferroelectric mesocrystals of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (BNT) with [100]-crystal-axis orientation were successfully prepared using a topotactic structural transformation process from a layered titanate H1.07Ti1.73O4·nH2O (HTO). The formation reactions of BNT mesocrystals in HTO-Bi2O3-Na2CO3 and HTO-TiO2-Bi2O3-Na2CO3 reaction systems and their nanostructures were studied by XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, SAED, and EDS, and the reaction mechanisms were given. The BNT mesocrystals are formed by a topotactic structural transformation mechanism in the HTO-Bi2O3-Na2CO3 reaction system and by a combination mechanism of the topotactic structural transformation and epitaxial crystal growth in the HTO-TiO2-Bi2O3-Na2CO3 reaction system, respectively. The BNT mesocrystals prepared by these methods are constructed from [100]-oriented BNT nanocrystals. Furthermore, these reaction systems were successfully applied to the fabrication of [100]-oriented BNT ferroelectric ceramic materials. A BNT ceramic material with a high degree of orientation, high relative density, and small grain size was achieved.

  9. FABRICATION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3–BaTiO3 LEAD-FREE PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAN YUSONG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric ceramics with 0.94Na0.5Bi0.5TO3–0.06BaTiO3 compositions were fabricated by solid state mixed oxide method and sintered at different temperatures varying from 1050°C to 1150°C to obtain dense ceramics. Phase analysis using X-ray diffraction showed tetragonal perovskite structure of Na0.5Bi0.5TO3 with no BaTiO3 peak detected. The SEM observation revealed that the crystal grain size of the piezoelectric ceramics is on the nano-size dimensions under all the sintering temperature. The study on the compressive mechanical characteristics showed that the compressive strength of the 0.94Na0.5Bi0.5TO3–0.06BaTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics increases with the rise of sintering temperature and sintering time. The change behavior of the compressive strength with the rise of cold pressure presents increasing firstly and then decreases.

  10. Exsanguination of turbot and the effect on fillet quality measured mechanically by sensory evaluation, and with computer vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, B.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Stien, L.H.; Foss, A.; Nortvedt, R.; Imsland, A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the impact of blood residues on the end quality of exsanguinated and unbled farmed turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), meat quality was evaluated using mechanical, sensory, and computer imaging techniques. The results show that exsanguination is important for improving the visual

  11. A program for undergraduate research into the mechanisms of sensory coding and memory decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calin-Jageman, R J

    2010-09-28

    This is the final technical report for this DOE project, entitltled "A program for undergraduate research into the mechanisms of sensory coding and memory decay". The report summarizes progress on the three research aims: 1) to identify phyisological and genetic correlates of long-term habituation, 2) to understand mechanisms of olfactory coding, and 3) to foster a world-class undergraduate neuroscience program. Progress on the first aim has enabled comparison of learning-regulated transcripts across closely related learning paradigms and species, and results suggest that only a small core of transcripts serve truly general roles in long-term memory. Progress on the second aim has enabled testing of several mutant phenotypes for olfactory behaviors, and results show that responses are not fully consistent with the combinitoral coding hypothesis. Finally, 14 undergraduate students participated in this research, the neuroscience program attracted extramural funding, and we completed a successful summer program to enhance transitions for community-college students into 4-year colleges to persue STEM fields.

  12. Piezoelectric MEMS: Ferroelectric thin films for MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Isaku

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have attracted attention as next-generation functional microdevices. Typical applications of piezoelectric MEMS are micropumps for inkjet heads or micro-gyrosensors, which are composed of piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films and have already been commercialized. In addition, piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEHs), which are regarded as one of the key devices for Internet of Things (IoT)-related technologies, are promising future applications of piezoelectric MEMS. Significant features of piezoelectric MEMS are their simple structure and high energy conversion efficiency between mechanical and electrical domains even on the microscale. The device performance strongly depends on the function of the piezoelectric thin films, especially on their transverse piezoelectric properties, indicating that the deposition of high-quality piezoelectric thin films is a crucial technology for piezoelectric MEMS. On the other hand, although the difficulty in measuring the precise piezoelectric coefficients of thin films is a serious obstacle in the research and development of piezoelectric thin films, a simple unimorph cantilever measurement method has been proposed to obtain precise values of the direct or converse transverse piezoelectric coefficient of thin films, and recently this method has become to be the standardized testing method. In this article, I will introduce fundamental technologies of piezoelectric thin films and related microdevices, especially focusing on the deposition of PZT thin films and evaluation methods for their transverse piezoelectric properties.

  13. Fracture-mechanical assessment of electrically permeable interface cracks in piezoelectric bimaterials by consideration of various contact zone models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, KP; Loboda, VV

    An interface crack with an artificial contact zone at the right-hand side crack tip between two piezoelectric semi-infinite half-planes is considered under remote mixed-mode loading. Assuming the stresses, strains and displacements are independent of the coordinate x(2), the expression for the

  14. An electro-mechanical impedance model of a cracked composite beam with adhesively bonded piezoelectric patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Cai, J. B.; Chen, W. Q.

    2011-01-01

    A model of a laminated composite beam including multiple non-propagating part-through surface cracks as well as installed PZT transducers is presented based on the method of reverberation-ray matrix (MRRM) in this paper. Toward determining the local flexibility characteristics induced by the individual cracks, the concept of the massless rotational spring is applied. A Timoshenko beam theory is then used to simulate the behavior of the composite beam with open cracks. As a result, transverse shear and rotatory inertia effects are included in the model. Only one-dimensional axial vibration of the PZT wafer is considered and the imperfect interfacial bonding between PZT patches and the host beam is further investigated based on a Kelvin-type viscoelastic model. Then, an accurate electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) model can be established for crack detection in laminated beams. In this model, the effects of various parameters such as the ply-angle, fibre volume fraction, crack depth and position on the EMI signatures are highlighted. Furthermore, comparison with existent numerical results is presented to validate the present analysis.

  15. Fatigue crack propagation under combined cyclic mechanical loading and electric field in piezoelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakihara, Kaori; Tanaka, Keisuke; Akiniwa, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yasuyoshi; Mukai, Hirokatsu

    2006-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation tests of PZT specimens were performed under cyclic four-point bending with and without superposition of electric fields. The specimens were poled in the longitudinal direction (PL specimens) perpendicular to the crack plane. The crack propagation rate for the case of open circuit was faster than that for the case of short circuit. The application of a negative or positive electric field parallel to the poling direction accelerated the crack propagation rate, and the amount of acceleration was larger for the case of the negative field. The change of the crack propagation rate with crack extension can be divided into three regions. In the region I, the crack propagation rate decreases with increasing crack length, and then turn to increase in the region III. In the region II, the propagation rate is nearly constant. The mechanisms of fatigue crack propagation were correlated to domain switching near the crack tip. The grain boundary fracture was predominant in the low-rate region, while transgranular fracture became abundant on the unstable fracture surface. (author)

  16. Applications of Piezoelectric Ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Applications of Piezoelectric Ceramics. Piezoelectric Actuators. Nano and Micropositioners. Vibration Control Systems. Computer Printers. Piezoelectric Transformers,Voltage Generators, Spark Plugs, Ultrasonic Motors,. Ultrasonic Generators and Sensors. Sonars, Medical Diagnostic. Computer Memories. NVFRAM ...

  17. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  18. Energy Harvesting From Low Frequency Applications Using Piezoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huidong; Tian, Chuan; Deng, Zhiqun

    2014-11-06

    This paper reviewed the state of research on piezoelectric energy harvesters. Various types of harvester configurations, piezoelectric materials, and techniques used to improve the mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency were discussed. Most of the piezoelectric energy harvesters studied today have focused on scavenging mechanical energy from vibration sources due to their abundance in both natural and industrial environments. Cantilever beams have been the most studied structure for piezoelectric energy harvester to date because of the high responsiveness to small vibrations.

  19. Piezoelectric Microstructured Fibers via Drawing of Multimaterial Preforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2017-06-06

    We demonstrate planar laminated piezoelectric generators and piezoelectric microstructured fibers based on BaTiO 3 -polyvinylidene and carbon-loaded-polyethylene materials combinations. The laminated piezoelectric generators were assembled by sandwiching the electrospun BaTiO 3 -polyvinylidene mat between two carbon-loaded-polyethylene films. The piezoelectric microstructured fiber was fabricated via drawing of the multilayer fiber preform, and features a swissroll geometry that have ~10 alternating piezoelectric and conductive layers. Both piezoelectric generators have excellent mechanical durability, and could retain their piezoelectric performance after 3 day's cyclic bend-release tests. Compared to the laminated generators, the piezoelectric fibers are advantageous as they could be directly woven into large-area commercial fabrics. Potential applications of the proposed piezoelectric fibers include micro-power-generation and remote sensing in wearable, automotive and aerospace industries.

  20. A nanoscale piezoelectric transformer for low-voltage transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sapan; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2014-11-12

    A novel piezoelectric voltage transformer for low-voltage transistors is proposed. Placing a piezoelectric transformer on the gate of a field-effect transistor results in the piezoelectric transformer field-effect transistor that can switch at significantly lower voltages than a conventional transistor. The piezoelectric transformer operates by using one piezoelectric to squeeze another piezoelectric to generate a higher output voltage than the input voltage. Multiple piezoelectrics can be used to squeeze a single piezoelectric layer to generate an even higher voltage amplification. Coupled electrical and mechanical modeling in COMSOL predicts a 12.5× voltage amplification for a six-layer piezoelectric transformer. This would lead to more than a 150× reduction in the power needed for communications.

  1. Characterization of a Piezoelectric Buzzer Using a Michelson Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, S.; Paetkau, M.

    2010-01-01

    A piezoelectric material generates an electric potential across its surface when subjected to mechanical stress; conversely, the inverse piezoelectric effect describes the expansion or contraction of the material when subjected to some applied voltage. Piezoelectric materials are used in devices such as doorbell buzzers, barbeque igniters, and…

  2. Tailored piezoelectric thin films for energy harvester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, X.

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials are excellent materials to transfer mechanical energy into electrical energy, which can be stored and used to power other devices. PiezoMEMS is a good way to combine silicon wafer processing and piezoelectric thin film technology and lead to a variety of miniaturized and

  3. Special topics in the theory of piezoelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jiashi

    2009-01-01

    Piezoelectricity has been a steadily growing field, with recent advances made by researchers from applied physics, acoustics, materials science, and engineering. This collective work presents a comprehensive treatment of selected advanced topics in the subject. The book is written for an intermediate graduate level and is intended for researchers, mechanical engineers, and applied mathematicians interested in the advances and new applications in piezoelectricity.

  4. Theoretical and experimental research on the influence of multiple piezoelectric effects on physical parameters of piezoelectric actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Shi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Compared with the traditional actuator of machinery and electricity, the piezoelectric actuator has the advantages of a compact structure, small volume, no mechanical friction, athermancy and no electromagnetic interference. Therefore, it has high application value in the fields of MEMS, bioengineering, medical science and so on. This article draws conclusions from the influence of multiple piezoelectric effects on the physical parameters (dielectric coefficient, equivalent capacity, energy conversion and piezoelectric coefficient of piezoelectric actuators. These data from theoretical and experimental research show the following: (1 The rate between the dielectric coefficient of piezoelectric in mechanical freedom and clamping is obtained from the secondary direct piezoelectric effect, which enhances the dielectric property, increases the dielectric coefficient and decreases the coefficient of dielectric isolation; (2 Under external field, E n ( ex = E 1 , exterior stress T = 0, that is to say, under the boundary condition of mechanical freedom, piezoelectric can store electric energy and elasticity, which obtains power density, elastic density and an electromechanical coupling factor; (3 According to the piezoelectric strain S i ( 1 , piezoelectric displacement D m ( 2 and piezoelectric strain S i ( 3 of multiple piezoelectric effects, when the dielectric coefficient of the first converse piezoelectric effect ε33 is 1326 and the dielectric coefficient of the secondary direct piezoelectric effect increases to 3336, the dielectric coefficient of the ceramic chip increases. When the piezoelectric coefficient of the first converse piezoelectric effect d33 is 595 and the piezoelectric coefficient of the secondary direct piezoelectric effect decreases to 240, the piezoelectric coefficient of the ceramic chip will decrease. It is of major significance both in the applications and in basic theory to research the influence of multiple piezoelectric

  5. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Spanner; Burhanettin Koc

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ult...

  6. High Temperature, High Power Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, StewarT.

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined. PMID:25111242

  7. Biodegradable Piezoelectric Force Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Eli J; Ke, Kai; Chorsi, Meysam T; Wrobel, Kinga S; Miller, Albert N; Patel, Avi; Kim, Insoo; Feng, Jianlin; Yue, Lixia; Wu, Qian; Kuo, Chia-Ling; Lo, Kevin W-H; Laurencin, Cato T; Ilies, Horea; Purohit, Prashant K; Nguyen, Thanh D

    2018-01-30

    Measuring vital physiological pressures is important for monitoring health status, preventing the buildup of dangerous internal forces in impaired organs, and enabling novel approaches of using mechanical stimulation for tissue regeneration. Pressure sensors are often required to be implanted and directly integrated with native soft biological systems. Therefore, the devices should be flexible and at the same time biodegradable to avoid invasive removal surgery that can damage directly interfaced tissues. Despite recent achievements in degradable electronic devices, there is still a tremendous need to develop a force sensor which only relies on safe medical materials and requires no complex fabrication process to provide accurate information on important biophysiological forces. Here, we present a strategy for material processing, electromechanical analysis, device fabrication, and assessment of a piezoelectric Poly-l-lactide (PLLA) polymer to create a biodegradable, biocompatible piezoelectric force sensor, which only employs medical materials used commonly in Food and Drug Administration-approved implants, for the monitoring of biological forces. We show the sensor can precisely measure pressures in a wide range of 0-18 kPa and sustain a reliable performance for a period of 4 d in an aqueous environment. We also demonstrate this PLLA piezoelectric sensor can be implanted inside the abdominal cavity of a mouse to monitor the pressure of diaphragmatic contraction. This piezoelectric sensor offers an appealing alternative to present biodegradable electronic devices for the monitoring of intraorgan pressures. The sensor can be integrated with tissues and organs, forming self-sensing bionic systems to enable many exciting applications in regenerative medicine, drug delivery, and medical devices.

  8. Physical-Mechanical characterization of cosmetic formulations and correlation between instrumental measurements and sensorial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, L S; Maia Campos, P M B G

    2017-10-01

    The correct choice of raw materials in the development of cosmetic formulations is essential for obtaining stable and pleasant skin care products. Therefore, rheological, texture and sensory analyses are important to understand the behaviour and stability of the formulations. In this context, the aim of this study was to develop cosmetic formulations containing or not (vehicle) UV filters and chicory root extract, to evaluate their stability as well as to characterize their physical and texture properties and correlate them with the sensory attributes. Four formulations containing organic UV filters and chicory extract, each alone or in combination, were developed and evaluated for 180 days with a cone and plate rheometer, a texture analyzer and consumer's sensorial analysis. Thus, the data obtained were correlated to observe the different influences. The developed formulations remained stable after 180 days regarding macroscopic aspects, organoleptic characteristics and pH values. The addition of the UV filters alone and in combination with the active substance resulted in significant increases in rheology properties, viscosity and consistency. The formulation with the active ingredient showed significant decreases in the texture parameters after 180 days, mainly due to its polysaccharide inulin. All formulations obtained high scores in sensorial parameters. A strong correlation was mainly found between spreadability and work of shear, and between the texture parameters. The raw materials strongly influenced the physical, texture and sensorial parameters. Finally, the UV filters showed a greater influence on the results of the formulations than the chicory root extract. In conclusion, the association of the mentioned methods allows the correct choice of ingredients and their combinations. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  9. Finite Element Analysis of Active and Sensory Thermopiezoelectric Composite Materials. Degree awarded by Northwestern Univ., Dec. 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jun

    2001-01-01

    Analytical formulations are developed to account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response of piezoelectric composite materials. The coupled response is captured at the material level through the thermopiezoelectric constitutive equations and leads to the inherent capability to model both the sensory and active responses of piezoelectric materials. A layerwise laminate theory is incorporated to provide more accurate analysis of the displacements, strains, stresses, electric fields, and thermal fields through-the-thickness. Thermal effects which arise from coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch, pyroelectric effects, and temperature dependent material properties are explicitly accounted for in the formulation. Corresponding finite element formulations are developed for piezoelectric beam, plate, and shell elements to provide a more generalized capability for the analysis of arbitrary piezoelectric composite structures. The accuracy of the current formulation is verified with comparisons from published experimental data and other analytical models. Additional numerical studies are also conducted to demonstrate additional capabilities of the formulation to represent the sensory and active behaviors. A future plan of experimental studies is provided to characterize the high temperature dynamic response of piezoelectric composite materials.

  10. Evidence for distinct mechanisms underlying attentional priming and sensory memory for bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkhuis, M A B; Kristjánsson, Á; Brascamp, J W

    2015-08-01

    Attentional selection in visual search paradigms and perceptual selection in bistable perception paradigms show functional similarities. For example, both are sensitive to trial history: They are biased toward previously selected targets or interpretations. We investigated whether priming by target selection in visual search and sensory memory for bistable perception are related. We did this by presenting two trial types to observers. We presented either ambiguous spheres that rotated over a central axis and could be perceived as rotating in one of two directions, or search displays in which the unambiguously rotating target and distractor spheres closely resembled the two possible interpretations of the ambiguous stimulus. We interleaved both trial types within experiments, to see whether priming by target selection during search trials would affect the perceptual outcome of bistable perception and, conversely, whether sensory memory during bistable perception would affect target selection times during search. Whereas we found intertrial repetition effects among consecutive search trials and among consecutive bistable trials, we did not find cross-paradigm effects. Thus, even though we could ascertain that our experiments robustly elicited processes of both search priming and sensory memory for bistable perception, these same experiments revealed no interaction between the two.

  11. Nanostructured piezoelectric energy harvesters

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, Joe

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a range of devices that use piezoelectricity to convert mechanical deformation into electrical energy and relates their output capabilities to a range of potential applications. Starting with a description of the fundamental principles and properties of piezo- and ferroelectric materials, where applications of bulk materials are well established, the book shows how nanostructures of these materials are being developed for energy harvesting applications. The authors show how a nanostructured device can be produced, and put in context some of the approaches that are being invest

  12. Giant piezoelectricity on Si for hyperactive MEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, S H; Park, J; Kim, D M; Aksyuk, V A; Das, R R; Bu, S D; Felker, D A; Lettieri, J; Vaithyanathan, V; Bharadwaja, S S N; Bassiri-Gharb, N; Chen, Y B; Sun, H P; Folkman, C M; Jang, H W; Kreft, D J; Streiffer, S K; Ramesh, R; Pan, X Q; Trolier-McKinstry, S; Schlom, D G; Rzchowski, M S; Blick, R H; Eom, C B

    2011-11-18

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) incorporating active piezoelectric layers offer integrated actuation, sensing, and transduction. The broad implementation of such active MEMS has long been constrained by the inability to integrate materials with giant piezoelectric response, such as Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PMN-PT). We synthesized high-quality PMN-PT epitaxial thin films on vicinal (001) Si wafers with the use of an epitaxial (001) SrTiO(3) template layer with superior piezoelectric coefficients (e(31,f) = -27 ± 3 coulombs per square meter) and figures of merit for piezoelectric energy-harvesting systems. We have incorporated these heterostructures into microcantilevers that are actuated with extremely low drive voltage due to thin-film piezoelectric properties that rival bulk PMN-PT single crystals. These epitaxial heterostructures exhibit very large electromechanical coupling for ultrasound medical imaging, microfluidic control, mechanical sensing, and energy harvesting.

  13. An improved resonantly driven piezoelectric gas pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yue; Liu, Yong; Liu, Jianfang; Jiao, Xiaoyang; Yang, Zhigang; Wang, Long

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric pumps have the potential to be used in a variety of applications, such as in air circulation and compression. However, piezoelectric membrane pumps do not have enough driving capacity, and the heat induced during the direct contact between the driving part and the gas medium cannot be dissipated smoothly. When the gas is blocked, the piezoelectric vibrator generates heat quickly, which may eventually lead to damage. Resonantly driven piezoelectric stack pumps have high performance but no price advantage. In this situation, a novel, resonantly driven piezoelectric gas pump with annular bimorph as the driver is presented. In the study, the working principle of the novel pump was analyzed, the vibration mechanics model was determined, and the displacement amplified theory was studied. The outcome indicates that the displacement amplification factor is related with the original displacement provided by the piezoelectric bimorph. In addition, the displacement amplification effect is related to the stiffness of the spring lamination, adjustment spring, and piezoelectric vibrator, as well as to the systematic damping factor and the driving frequency. The experimental prototypes of the proposed pump were designed, and the displacement amplification effect and gas output performance were measured. At 70 V of sinusoidal AC driving voltage, the improved pump amplified the piezoelectric vibrator displacement by 4.2 times, the maximum gas output flow rate reached 1685 ml/min, and the temperature of the bimorph remained normal after 2000 hours of operation when the gas medium was blocked.

  14. Piezoelectric energy harvesting through shear mode operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H; Sodano, Henry A

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials are excellent candidates for use in energy harvesting applications due to their high electromechanical coupling properties that enable them to convert input mechanical energy into useful electric power. The electromechanical coupling coefficient of the piezoelectric material is one of the most significant parameters affecting energy conversion and is dependent on the piezoelectric mode of operation. In most piezoceramics, the d 15 piezoelectric shear coefficient is the highest coefficient compared to the commonly used axial and transverse modes that utilize the d 33 and the d 31 piezoelectric strain coefficients. However, complicated electroding methods and challenges in evaluating the performance of energy harvesting devices operating in the shear mode have slowed research in this area. The shear deformation of a piezoelectric layer can be induced in a vibrating sandwich beam with a piezoelectric core. Here, a model based on Timoshenko beam theory is developed to predict the electric power output from a cantilever piezoelectric sandwich beam under base excitations. It is shown that the energy harvester operating in the shear mode is able to generate ∼50% more power compared to the transverse mode for a numerical case study. Reduced models of both shear and transverse energy harvesters are obtained to determine the optimal load resistance in the system and perform an efficiency comparison between two models with fixed and adaptive resistances. (paper)

  15. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards

  16. Piezoelectric materials for tissue regeneration: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Amir Hossein; Jaffe, Michael; Arinzeh, Treena Livingston

    2015-09-01

    The discovery of piezoelectricity, endogenous electric fields and transmembrane potentials in biological tissues raised the question whether or not electric fields play an important role in cell function. It has kindled research and the development of technologies in emulating biological electricity for tissue regeneration. Promising effects of electrical stimulation on cell growth and differentiation and tissue growth has led to interest in using piezoelectric scaffolds for tissue repair. Piezoelectric materials can generate electrical activity when deformed. Hence, an external source to apply electrical stimulation or implantation of electrodes is not needed. Various piezoelectric materials have been employed for different tissue repair applications, particularly in bone repair, where charges induced by mechanical stress can enhance bone formation; and in neural tissue engineering, in which electric pulses can stimulate neurite directional outgrowth to fill gaps in nervous tissue injuries. In this review, a summary of piezoelectricity in different biological tissues, mechanisms through which electrical stimulation may affect cellular response, and recent advances in the fabrication and application of piezoelectric scaffolds will be discussed. The discovery of piezoelectricity, endogenous electric fields and transmembrane potentials in biological tissues has kindled research and the development of technologies using electrical stimulation for tissue regeneration. Piezoelectric materials generate electrical activity in response to deformations and allow for the delivery of an electrical stimulus without the need for an external power source. As a scaffold for tissue engineering, growing interest exists due to its potential of providing electrical stimulation to cells to promote tissue formation. In this review, we cover the discovery of piezoelectricity in biological tissues, its connection to streaming potentials, biological response to electrical stimulation and

  17. Tetrodotoxin as a Tool to Elucidate Sensory Transduction Mechanisms: The Case for the Arterial Chemoreceptors of the Carotid Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constancio Gonzalez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Carotid bodies (CBs are secondary sensory receptors in which the sensing elements, chemoreceptor cells, are activated by decreases in arterial PO2 (hypoxic hypoxia. Upon activation, chemoreceptor cells (also known as Type I and glomus cells increase their rate of release of neurotransmitters that drive the sensory activity in the carotid sinus nerve (CSN which ends in the brain stem where reflex responses are coordinated. When challenged with hypoxic hypoxia, the physiopathologically most relevant stimulus to the CBs, they are activated and initiate ventilatory and cardiocirculatory reflexes. Reflex increase in minute volume ventilation promotes CO2 removal from alveoli and a decrease in alveolar PCO2 ensues. Reduced alveolar PCO2 makes possible alveolar and arterial PO2 to increase minimizing the intensity of hypoxia. The ventilatory effect, in conjunction the cardiocirculatory components of the CB chemoreflex, tend to maintain an adequate supply of oxygen to the tissues. The CB has been the focus of attention since the discovery of its nature as a sensory organ by de Castro (1928 and the discovery of its function as the origin of ventilatory reflexes by Heymans group (1930. A great deal of effort has been focused on the study of the mechanisms involved in O2 detection. This review is devoted to this topic, mechanisms of oxygen sensing. Starting from a summary of the main theories evolving through the years, we will emphasize the nature and significance of the findings obtained with veratridine and tetrodotoxin (TTX in the genesis of current models of O2-sensing.

  18. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  19. Effects of enzymes to improve sensory quality of frozen dough bread and analysis on its mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Pei, Dudu; Teng, Yuefei; Liang, Jianfen

    2018-01-01

    Baking quality of frozen dough is negatively affected by dough weakening and by a reduction in both yeast viability and activity during freezing and frozen storage. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of different enzymes, such as α-amylase, xylanase, celluase, glucose oxidase, and lipase on the texture and sensory quality of bread after frozen storage, as well as on dough properties, in terms of fermentation characteristics, freezable water contents and microstructure. Except for α-amylase, other enzymes improved the bread sensory quality and got higher overall acceptability, especially xylanase. Dough fermentative behavior showed that the maximum heights of frozen dough were increased by 33.2, 19.7 and 7.4%, respectively with xylanase, cellulase and lipase. Cellulase lowered gas holding ability of dough. Thermodynamic properties indicated that addition of enzyme decreased the freezable water contents in frozen dough. Scanning electronic microscopy revealed that freezing and frozen storage disrupted dough gluten network causing separation of starch granules from the gluten matrix. Inclusion of cellulase, xylanase and lipase made the frozen dough having a more continuous gluten network and smoother surface, and glucose oxidase increased the stability of the gluten work.

  20. Two different avian cold-sensitive sensory neurons: Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8)-dependent and -independent activation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A; Takahashi, K; Saito, S; Tominaga, M; Ohta, T

    2016-12-01

    Sensing the ambient temperature is an important function for survival in animals. Some TRP channels play important roles as detectors of temperature and irritating chemicals. There are functional differences of TRP channels among species. TRPM8 in mammals is activated by cooling compounds and cold temperature, but less information is available on the functional role of TRPM8 in avian species. Here we investigated the pharmacological properties and thermal sensitivities of chicken TRPM8 (cTRPM8) and cold-sensitive mechanisms in avian sensory neurons. In heterologously expressed cTRPM8, menthol and its derivative, WS-12 elicited [Ca 2+ ] i increases, but icilin did not. In chicken sensory neurons, icilin increased [Ca 2+ ] i, in a TRPA1-dependent manner. Icilin selectively stimulated heterologously expressed chicken TRPA1 (cTRPA1). Similar to mammalian orthologue, cTRPM8 was activated by cold. Both heterologous and endogenous expressed cTRPM8 were sensitive to mammalian TRPM8 antagonists. There are two types of cold-sensitive cells regarding menthol sensitivity in chicken sensory neurons. The temperature threshold of menthol-insensitive neurons was significantly lower than that of menthol-sensitive ones. The population of menthol-insensitive neurons was large in chicken but almost little in mammals. The cold-induced [Ca 2+ ] i increases were not abolished by the external Ca 2+ removal or by blockades of PLC-IP 3 pathways and ryanodine channels. The cold stimulation failed to evoke [Ca 2+ ] i increases after intracellular Ca 2+ store-depletion. These results indicate that cTRPM8 acts as a cold-sensor similar to mammals. It is noteworthy that TRPM8-independent cold-sensitive neurons are abundant in chicken sensory neurons. Our results suggest that most of the cold-induced [Ca 2+ ] i increases are mediated via Ca 2+ release from intracellular stores and that these mechanisms may be specific to avian species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gaze stabilization in chronic vestibular-loss and in cerebellar ataxia: interactions of feedforward and sensory feedback mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, M; Lehnen, N

    2014-01-01

    During gaze shifts, humans can use visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive feedback, as well as feedforward mechanisms, for stabilization against active and passive head movements. The contributions of feedforward and sensory feedback control, and the role of the cerebellum, are still under debate. To quantify these contributions, we increased the head moment of inertia in three groups (ten healthy, five chronic vestibular-loss and nine cerebellar-ataxia patients) while they performed large gaze shifts to flashed targets in darkness. This induces undesired head oscillations. Consequently, both active (desired) and passive (undesired) head movements had to be compensated for to stabilize gaze. All groups compensated for active and passive head movements, vestibular-loss patients less than the other groups (P feedforward mechanisms substantially contribute to gaze stabilization. Proprioception alone is not sufficient (gain 0.2). Stabilization against active and passive head movements was not impaired in our cerebellar ataxia patients.

  2. Engineered piezoelectricity in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Mitchell T; Reed, Evan J

    2012-02-28

    We discover that piezoelectric effects can be engineered into nonpiezoelectric graphene through the selective surface adsorption of atoms. Our calculations show that doping a single sheet of graphene with atoms on one side results in the generation of piezoelectricity by breaking inversion symmetry. Despite their 2D nature, piezoelectric magnitudes are found to be comparable to those in 3D piezoelectric materials. Our results elucidate a designer piezoelectric phenomenon, unique to the nanoscale, that has potential to bring dynamical control to nanoscale electromechanical devices.

  3. BIOMINERALOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF APATITE PIEZOELECTRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pawlikowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of apatite piezoelectricity was conducted in order to assess piezoelectric properties of bone. In the first stage, mineralogical analysis of different apatite crystals, regarding their purity and fitness for the experiments was performed. After the crystals had been chosen, 0.8 mm-thick plates were cut, perpendicular and parallel to the crystallographic Z axis. The plates were then polished and dusted with gold. Electrodes were attached to the opposite surfaces of the plates with conductive glue. So prepared plates were hooked up to the EEG machine used for measuring electrical activity in the brain. The plates were then gently tapped to observe and register currents generated in them. Acquired data was processed by subtracting from the resulting graphs those generated by a hand movement, without tapping the plate. Results indicate that apatite plates have weak piezoelectric properties. Observed phenomenon may be translated to bone apatite, which would explain, at least partially, piezoelectric properties of bone. Acquired results suggest that there is a relation between the mechanical workload of bones (bone apatite and theirelectrical properties. Considering the massive internal surface of bones, they may be treated as a kind of internal “antenna” reacting not only to mechanical stimuli, but to changes in electromagnetic field as well. Observed phenomena no doubt significantly influence the biological processes occurring in bones and the whole human body.

  4. Other ways of seeing: From behavior to neural mechanisms in the online “visual” control of action with sensory substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Michael J.; Gwinnutt, James; Dell’Erba, Sara; Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; de Sousa, Alexandra A.; Brown, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Vision is the dominant sense for perception-for-action in humans and other higher primates. Advances in sight restoration now utilize the other intact senses to provide information that is normally sensed visually through sensory substitution to replace missing visual information. Sensory substitution devices translate visual information from a sensor, such as a camera or ultrasound device, into a format that the auditory or tactile systems can detect and process, so the visually impaired can see through hearing or touch. Online control of action is essential for many daily tasks such as pointing, grasping and navigating, and adapting to a sensory substitution device successfully requires extensive learning. Here we review the research on sensory substitution for vision restoration in the context of providing the means of online control for action in the blind or blindfolded. It appears that the use of sensory substitution devices utilizes the neural visual system; this suggests the hypothesis that sensory substitution draws on the same underlying mechanisms as unimpaired visual control of action. Here we review the current state of the art for sensory substitution approaches to object recognition, localization, and navigation, and the potential these approaches have for revealing a metamodal behavioral and neural basis for the online control of action. PMID:26599473

  5. Electronically droplet energy harvesting using piezoelectric cantilevers

    KAUST Repository

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud Al

    2012-01-01

    A report is presented on free falling droplet energy harvesting using piezoelectric cantilevers. The harvester incorporates a multimorph clamped-free cantilever which is composed of five layers of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric thick films. During the impact, the droplet kinetic energy is transferred into the form of mechanical stress forcing the piezoelectric structure to vibrate. Experimental results show energy of 0.3 μJ per droplet. The scenario of moderate falling drop intensity, i.e. 230 drops per second, yields a total energy of 400 μJ. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  6. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Spanner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ultrasonic motors, inertia-drive, and piezo-walk-drive. In this review, a comprehensive summary of piezoelectric motors, with their classification from initial idea to recent progress, is presented. This review also includes some of the industrial and commercial applications of piezoelectric motors that are presently available in the market as actuators.

  7. Radial Field Piezoelectric Diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, R. G.; Effinger, R. T., IV; Copeland, B. M., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    A series of active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated and patterned with several geometrically defined Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE" and Interdigitated Ring Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is a radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezoceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field). Unlike other piezoelectric bender actuators, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements (several times that of the equivalent Unimorph) while maintaining a constant circumference. One of the more intriguing aspects is that the radial strain field reverses itself along the radius of the RFD while the tangential strain remains relatively constant. The result is a Z-deflection that has a conical profile. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of the 5 cm. (2 in.) diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic thickness, electrode type and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage at low frequencies. The unique features of these RFDs include the ability to be clamped about their perimeter with little or no change in displacement, the environmentally insulated packaging, and a highly repeatable fabrication process that uses commodity materials.

  8. The Botulinum Toxin as a Therapeutic Agent: Molecular Structure and Mechanism of Action in Motor and Sensory Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Dhaliwal, Harkiran Preet; Kukreja, Roshan Vijay; Singh, Bal Ram

    2016-02-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) produced by Clostridium botulinum is the most potent molecule known to mankind. Higher potency of BoNT is attributed to several factors, including structural and functional uniqueness, target specificity, and longevity. Although BoNT is an extremely toxic molecule, it is now increasingly used for the treatment of disorders related to muscle hyperactivity and glandular hyperactivity. Weakening of muscles due to peripheral action of BoNT produces a therapeutic effect. Depending on the target tissue, BoNT can block the cholinergic neuromuscular or cholinergic autonomic innervation of exocrine glands and smooth muscles. In recent observations of the analgesic properties of BoNT, the toxin modifies the sensory feedback loop to the central nervous system. Differential effects of BoNT in excitatory and inhibitory neurons provide a unique therapeutic tool. In this review the authors briefly summarize the structure and mechanism of actions of BoNT on motor and sensory neurons to explain its therapeutic effects and future potential. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Peripheral Neuropathic Pain: A mechanism-related organizing principle based on sensory profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Ralf; Maier, Christoph; Attal, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    with heat and cold hyperalgesia and mild dynamic mechanical allodynia. Cluster 3 (mechanical hyperalgesia, 24%) was characterized by a loss of small fiber function in combination with pinprick hyperalgesia and dynamic mechanical allodynia. All clusters occurred across etiologies but frequencies differed...

  10. Theoretical and Experimental Study on Secondary Piezoelectric Effect Based on PZT-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z H; Sun, B Y; Shi, L P

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to confirm the existence of secondary and multiple piezoelectric effect theoretically and experimentally. Based on Heckmann model showing the relationship among mechanical, electric and heat energy and the physical model on mechanical, electric, heat, and magnetic energy, theoretical analysis of multiple piezoelectric effect is made through four kinds of piezoelectric equations. Experimental research of secondary direct piezoelectric effect is conducted through adopting PZT-5 piles. The result of the experiment indicates that charge generated by secondary direct piezoelectric effect as well as displacement caused by first converse piezoelectric effect keeps fine linearity with the applied voltage

  11. Using Diffusion Bonding in Making Piezoelectric Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Frank E.

    2003-01-01

    and pressure for a specified curing time. The pressure, temperature, and time depend on the piezoelectric material selected. At the end of the diffusion-bonding process, the resulting laminated piezoelectric actuator is tested to verify the adequacy of the mechanical output as a function of an applied DC voltage.

  12. Optimal materials selection for bimaterial piezoelectric microactuators

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, P.; Spearing, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    Piezoelectric actuation is one of the commonly employed actuation schemes in microsystems. This paper focuses on identifying and ranking promising active material/substrate combinations for bimaterial piezoelectric (BPE) microactuators based on their performance. The mechanics of BPE structures following simple beam theory assumptions available in the literature are applied to evolve critical performance metrics which govern the materials selection process. Contours of equal performance are p...

  13. Electromechanical Modeling of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters

    OpenAIRE

    Erturk, Alper

    2009-01-01

    Vibration-based energy harvesting has been investigated by several researchers over the last decade. The ultimate goal in this research field is to power small electronic components (such as wireless sensors) by using the vibration energy available in their environment. Among the basic transduction mechanisms that can be used for vibration-to-electricity conversion, piezoelectric transduction has received the most attention in the literature. Piezoelectric materials are preferred in energy ha...

  14. Circuit for Driving Piezoelectric Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David P.; Chapsky, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an oscillator circuit for driving a piezoelectric transducer to excite vibrations in a mechanical structure. The circuit was designed and built to satisfy application-specific requirements to drive a selected one of 16 such transducers at a regulated amplitude and frequency chosen to optimize the amount of work performed by the transducer and to compensate for both (1) temporal variations of the resonance frequency and damping time of each transducer and (2) initially unknown differences among the resonance frequencies and damping times of different transducers. In other words, the circuit is designed to adjust itself to optimize the performance of whichever transducer is selected at any given time. The basic design concept may be adaptable to other applications that involve the use of piezoelectric transducers in ultrasonic cleaners and other apparatuses in which high-frequency mechanical drives are utilized. This circuit includes three resistor-capacitor networks that, together with the selected piezoelectric transducer, constitute a band-pass filter having a peak response at a frequency of about 2 kHz, which is approximately the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric transducers. Gain for generating oscillations is provided by a power hybrid operational amplifier (U1). A junction field-effect transistor (Q1) in combination with a resistor (R4) is used as a voltage-variable resistor to control the magnitude of the oscillation. The voltage-variable resistor is part of a feedback control loop: Part of the output of the oscillator is rectified and filtered for use as a slow negative feedback to the gate of Q1 to keep the output amplitude constant. The response of this control loop is much slower than 2 kHz and, therefore, does not introduce significant distortion of the oscillator output, which is a fairly clean sine wave. The positive AC feedback needed to sustain oscillations is derived from sampling the current through the

  15. Magnetoelectric effect in structures which consist from ferrimagnetic and piezoelectric components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koronovs'kij, V.Je.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) properties of the structure which consists from mechanically connected magnetostriction and piezoelectric plates were investigated on example of the yttrium-ferrite-garnet (YIG) - piezoelectric. The laser polarimeter is using

  16. Anomalous piezoelectricity in two-dimensional graphene nitride nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelisko, Matthew; Hanlumyuang, Yuranan; Yang, Shubin; Liu, Yuanming; Lei, Chihou; Li, Jiangyu; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Sharma, Pradeep

    2014-06-27

    Piezoelectricity is a unique property of materials that permits the conversion of mechanical stimuli into electrical and vice versa. On the basis of crystal symmetry considerations, pristine carbon nitride (C3N4) in its various forms is non-piezoelectric. Here we find clear evidence via piezoresponse force microscopy and quantum mechanical calculations that both atomically thin and layered graphitic carbon nitride, or graphene nitride, nanosheets exhibit anomalous piezoelectricity. Insights from ab inito calculations indicate that the emergence of piezoelectricity in this material is due to the fact that a stable phase of graphene nitride nanosheet is riddled with regularly spaced triangular holes. These non-centrosymmetric pores, and the universal presence of flexoelectricity in all dielectrics, lead to the manifestation of the apparent and experimentally verified piezoelectric response. Quantitatively, an e11 piezoelectric coefficient of 0.758 C m(-2) is predicted for C3N4 superlattice, significantly larger than that of the commonly compared α-quartz.

  17. Attack or attacked: The sensory and fluid mechanical constraints of copepods’ predator–prey interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    , and mechanisms for mobility of the parties involved. Here, I describe the mechanisms of sensing, escaping predators, and capturing prey in marine pelagic copepods. I demonstrate that feeding tradeoffs vary with feeding mode, and I describe simple fluid mechanical models that are used to quantify these tradeoffs......Many animals are predator and prey at the same time. This dual position represents a fundamental dilemma because gathering food often leads to increased exposure to predators. The optimization of the tradeoff between eating and not being eaten depends strongly on the sensing, feeding...

  18. Simulation Study on Material Property of Cantilever Piezoelectric Vibration Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For increasing generating capacity of cantilever piezoelectric vibration generator with limited volume, relation between output voltage, inherent frequency and material parameter of unimorph, bimorph in series type and bimorph in parallel type piezoelectric vibration generator is analyzed respectively by mechanical model and finite element modeling. The results indicate PZT-4, PZT- 5A and PZT-5H piezoelectric materials and stainless steel, nickel alloy substrate material should be firstly chosen.

  19. Miniature Piezoelectric Macro-Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Bonitz, Robert G.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Mass balances usually use a strain gauge that requires an impedance measurement and is susceptible to noise and thermal drift. A piezoelectric balance can be used to measure mass directly by monitoring the voltage developed across the piezoelectric balance, which is linear with weight or it can be used in resonance to produce a frequency change proportional to the mass change (see figure). The piezoelectric actuator/balance is swept in frequency through its fundamental resonance. If a small mass is added to the balance, the resonance frequency shifts down in proportion to the mass. By monitoring the frequency shift, the mass can be determined. This design allows for two independent measurements of mass. Additionally, more than one sample can be verified because this invention allows for each sample to be transported away from the measuring device upon completion of the measurement, if required. A piezoelectric actuator, or many piezoelectric actuators, was placed between the collection plate of the sampling system and the support structure. As the sample mass is added to the plate, the piezoelectrics are stressed, causing them to produce a voltage that is proportional to the mass and acceleration. In addition, a change in mass delta m produces a change in the resonance frequency with delta f proportional to delta m. In a microgravity environment, the spacecraft could be accelerated to produce a force on the piezoelectric actuator that would produce a voltage proportional to the mass and acceleration. Alternatively, the acceleration could be used to force the mass on the plate, and the inertial effects of the mass on the plate would produce a shift in the resonance frequency with the change in frequency related to the mass change. Three prototypes of the mass balance mechanism were developed. These macro-mass balances each consist of a solid base and an APA 60 Cedrat flextensional piezoelectric actuator supporting a measuring plate. A similar structure with 3 APA

  20. Evidence for glutamatergic mechanisms in the vagal sensory pathway initiating cardiorespiratory reflexes in the shorthorn sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundin, L; Turesson, J; Taylor, E W

    2003-03-01

    Glutamate is a major neurotransmitter of chemoreceptor and baroreceptor afferent pathways in mammals and therefore plays a central role in the development of cardiorespiratory reflexes. In fish, the gills are the major sites of these receptors, and, consequently, the terminal field (sensory area) of their afferents (glossopharyngus and vagus) in the medulla must be an important site for the integration of chemoreceptor and baroreceptor signals. This investigation explored whether fish have glutamatergic mechanisms in the vagal sensory area (Xs) that could be involved in the generation of cardiorespiratory reflexes. The locations of the vagal sensory and motor (Xm) areas in the medulla were established by the orthograde and retrograde axonal transport of the neural tract tracer Fast Blue following its injection into the ganglion nodosum. Glutamate was then microinjected into identified sites within the Xs in an attempt to mimic chemoreceptor- and baroreceptor-induced reflexes commonly observed in fish. By necessity, the brain injections were performed on anaesthetised animals that were fixed by 'eye bars' in a recirculating water system. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured using an arterial cannula positioned in the afferent branchial artery of the 3rd gill arch, and ventilation was measured by impedance probes sutured onto the operculum. Unilateral injection of glutamate (40-100 nl, 10 mmol l(-1)) into the Xs caused marked cardiorespiratory changes. Injection (0.1-0.3 mm deep) in different rostrocaudal, medial-lateral positions induced a bradycardia, either increased or decreased blood pressure, ventilation frequency and amplitude and, sometimes, an initial apnea. Often these responses occurred simultaneously in various different combinations but, occasionally, they appeared singly, suggesting specific projections into the Xs for each cardiorespiratory variable and local determination of the modality of the response. Response patterns related to

  1. A Piezoelectric Cryogenic Heat Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Amir E.; Sullivan, Dan F.

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios greater than 100 were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an optimized PZHS.

  2. Effect of mechanically deboned poultry meat content on technological properties and sensory characteristics of lamb and mutton sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Abel Massingue

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aimed to develop a value-added product concerning technological and sensory characteristics changes of the use of mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM as meat replacer in lamb and mutton emulsion-type sausages (mortadella. Methods Sausages were produced with lamb and mutton and with different contents of MDPM. Six treatments, using lamb or mutton and 0%, 30%, and 60% of MDPM in relation to the meat batter, were produced and analyzed for pH, proximal composition, calcium and residual nitrite content, water activity, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, instrumental color and texture profile. The sensory profile of the mortadella’s was also evaluated by acceptance test and check-all-that-applies (CATA analysis. Results The MDPM addition increased (p<0.05 fat, residual nitrite and calcium content in the all sausage formulations, but mutton sausage had (p<0.05 higher fat and lower moisture content than lamb sausage. The pH, water activity, TBARS index and color was not affected by MDPM additions, while the mutton sausages were significantly redder (higher a*, C*, and lower h° and darker (lower L* than lamb sausages. Adding up to 60% of MDPM reduced (p<0.05 sausages hardness and chewiness. Overall, the meat replacement by MDPM increased the sausages acceptance, but the mutton sausage with 30% of MDPM replacer were the most preferred. Consumers related that pink color, glossy appearance, poultry meat-like taste, soft texture, juicy and greasy mouth feel to all sausages contain MDPM according to CATA analysis. Conclusion Mutton from culled ewes can be utilized for mortadella production with 30% replacement of lean mutton and fat by MDPM.

  3. Effect of mechanically deboned poultry meat content on technological properties and sensory characteristics of lamb and mutton sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massingue, Armando Abel; de Almeida Torres Filho, Robledo; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; de Lemos Souza Ramos, Alcinéia; Fontes, Edimar Aparecida Filomeno; Perez, Juan Ramon Olalquiaga; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to develop a value-added product concerning technological and sensory characteristics changes of the use of mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM) as meat replacer in lamb and mutton emulsion-type sausages (mortadella). Sausages were produced with lamb and mutton and with different contents of MDPM. Six treatments, using lamb or mutton and 0%, 30%, and 60% of MDPM in relation to the meat batter, were produced and analyzed for pH, proximal composition, calcium and residual nitrite content, water activity, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), instrumental color and texture profile. The sensory profile of the mortadella's was also evaluated by acceptance test and check-all-that-applies (CATA) analysis. The MDPM addition increased (p<0.05) fat, residual nitrite and calcium content in the all sausage formulations, but mutton sausage had (p<0.05) higher fat and lower moisture content than lamb sausage. The pH, water activity, TBARS index and color was not affected by MDPM additions, while the mutton sausages were significantly redder (higher a *, C *, and lower h °) and darker (lower L *) than lamb sausages. Adding up to 60% of MDPM reduced (p<0.05) sausages hardness and chewiness. Overall, the meat replacement by MDPM increased the sausages acceptance, but the mutton sausage with 30% of MDPM replacer were the most preferred. Consumers related that pink color, glossy appearance, poultry meat-like taste, soft texture, juicy and greasy mouth feel to all sausages contain MDPM according to CATA analysis. Mutton from culled ewes can be utilized for mortadella production with 30% replacement of lean mutton and fat by MDPM.

  4. Shared Neural Mechanisms for the Evaluation of Intense Sensory Stimulation and Economic Reward, Dependent on Stimulation-Seeking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Agnes; Valton, Vincent; Rees, Geraint; Roiser, Jonathan P; Husain, Masud

    2016-09-28

    Why are some people strongly motivated by intense sensory experiences? Here we investigated how people encode the value of an intense sensory experience compared with economic reward, and how this varies according to stimulation-seeking preference. Specifically, we used a novel behavioral task in combination with computational modeling to derive the value individuals assigned to the opportunity to experience an intense tactile stimulus (mild electric shock). We then examined functional imaging data recorded during task performance to see how the opportunity to experience the sensory stimulus was encoded in stimulation-seekers versus stimulation-avoiders. We found that for individuals who positively sought out this kind of sensory stimulation, there was common encoding of anticipated economic and sensory rewards in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Conversely, there was robust encoding of the modeled probability of receiving such stimulation in the insula only in stimulation-avoidant individuals. Finally, we found preliminary evidence that sensory prediction error signals may be positively signed for stimulation-seekers, but negatively signed for stimulation-avoiders, in the posterior cingulate cortex. These findings may help explain why high intensity sensory experiences are appetitive for some individuals, but not for others, and may have relevance for the increased vulnerability for some psychopathologies, but perhaps increased resilience for others, in high sensation-seeking individuals. People vary in their preference for intense sensory experiences. Here, we investigated how different individuals evaluate the prospect of an unusual sensory experience (electric shock), compared with the opportunity to gain a more traditional reward (money). We found that in a subset of individuals who sought out such unusual sensory stimulation, anticipation of the sensory outcome was encoded in the same way as that of monetary gain, in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex

  5. Study the Postbuckling of Hexagonal Piezoelectric Nanowires with Surface Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Rahmani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric nanobeams having circular, rectangular and hexagonal cross-sections are synthesized and used in various Nano structures; however, piezoelectric nanobeams with hexagonal cross-sections have not been studied in detail. In particular, the physical mechanisms of the surface effect and the role of surface stress, surface elasticity and surface piezoelectricity have not been discussed thoroughly. The present study investigated post-buckling behavior of piezoelectric nanobeams by examining surface effects. The energy method was applied to post-buckling of hexagonal nanobeams and the critical buckling voltage and amplitude are derived analytically from bulk and surface material properties and geometric factors.

  6. Effect of garment design on piezoelectricity harvesting from joint movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin-Hee; Cho, Hyun-Seung; Park, Seon-Hyung; Song, Seung-Hwan; Yun, Kwang-Seok; Lee, Joo Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    The harvesting of piezoelectricity through the human body involves the conversion of mechanical energy, mostly generated by the repeated movements of the body, to electrical energy, irrespective of the time and location. In this research, it was expected that the garment design would play an important role in increasing the efficiency of piezoelectricity scavenged in a garment because the mechanical deformation imposed on the energy harvester could increase through an optimal design configuration for the garment parts supporting a piezoelectricity harvester. With this expectation, this research aimed to analyze the effect of the clothing factors, and that of human factors on the efficiency of piezoelectricity harvesting through clothing in joint movements. These analyses resulted in that the efficiency of the piezoelectricity harvesting was affected from both two clothing factors, tightness level depending upon the property of the textile material and design configuration of the garment part supporting the piezoelectricity harvesting. Among the three proposed designs of the garment part supporting the piezoelectricity harvesting, ‘reinforced 3D module design,’ which maximized the value of radius in the piezoelectricity harvester, showed the highest efficiency across all areas of the joints in the human body. The two human factors, frequency of movement and body part, affected the efficiency of the piezoelectricity harvesting as well. (paper)

  7. Mechanisms of Intentional Binding and Sensory Attenuation: The Role of Temporal Prediction, Temporal Control, Identity Prediction, and Motor Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gethin; Desantis, Andrea; Waszak, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Sensory processing of action effects has been shown to differ from that of externally triggered stimuli, with respect both to the perceived timing of their occurrence (intentional binding) and to their intensity (sensory attenuation). These phenomena are normally attributed to forward action models, such that when action prediction is consistent…

  8. Dielectric loss against piezoelectric power harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junrui; Shu-Hung Chung, Henry; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2014-09-01

    Piezoelectricity is one of the most popular electromechanical transduction mechanisms for constructing kinetic energy harvesting systems. When a standard energy harvesting (SEH) interface circuit, i.e., bridge rectifier plus filter capacitor, is utilized for collecting piezoelectric power, the previous literature showed that the power conversion can be well predicted without much consideration for the effect of dielectric loss. Yet, as the conversion power gets higher by adopting power-boosting interface circuits, such as synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI), the neglect of dielectric loss might give rise to deviation in harvested power estimation. Given the continuous progress on power-boosting interface circuits, the role of dielectric loss in practical piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH) systems should receive attention with better evaluation. Based on the integrated equivalent impedance network model, this fast track communication provides a comprehensive study on the susceptibility of harvested power in PEH systems under different conditions. It shows that, dielectric loss always counteracts piezoelectric power harvesting by causing charge leakage across piezoelectric capacitance. In particular, taking corresponding ideal lossless cases as references, the counteractive effect might be aggravated under one of the five conditions: larger dielectric loss tangent, lower vibration frequency, further away from resonance, weaker electromechanical coupling, or using power-boosting interface circuit. These relationships are valuable for the study of PEH systems, as they not only help explain the role of dielectric loss in piezoelectric power harvesting, but also add complementary insights for material, structure, excitation, and circuit considerations towards holistic evaluation and design for practical PEH systems.

  9. Understanding Central Mechanisms of Acupuncture Analgesia Using Dynamic Quantitative Sensory Testing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Ti Kong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the emerging translational tools for the study of acupuncture analgesia with a focus on psychophysical methods. The gap between animal mechanistic studies and human clinical trials of acupuncture analgesia calls for effective translational tools that bridge neurophysiological data with meaningful clinical outcomes. Temporal summation (TS and conditioned pain modulation (CPM are two promising tools yet to be widely utilized. These psychophysical measures capture the state of the ascending facilitation and the descending inhibition of nociceptive transmission, respectively. We review the basic concepts and current methodologies underlying these measures in clinical pain research, and illustrate their application to research on acupuncture analgesia. Finally, we highlight the strengths and limitations of these research methods and make recommendations on future directions. The appropriate addition of TS and CPM to our current research armamentarium will facilitate our efforts to elucidate the central analgesic mechanisms of acupuncture in clinical populations.

  10. On the coupling effects of piezoelectricity and flexoelectricity in piezoelectric nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwen He

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Flexoelectricity is a novel kind of electromechanical coupling phenomenon that is prevalent in all solid dielectrics and usually of vital importance in nanostructures and soft materials. Although the fundamental theory of flexoelectric solids and related beam or plate theories were extensively studied in recent years, the coupling effect of flexoelectricity and piezoelectricity in piezoelectric nanostructures has not been completely clarified yet. In the present work, a geometrically nonlinear piezoelectric plate model is established with a focus on the coupling effect. The constitutive equations for piezoelectric plates are derived under both the electrically short-circuit and open-circuit conditions. It is found that due to the coupling between flexoelectricity and piezoelectricity, stretching-bending coupling stiffness arises in the homogeneous plate and its specific value relies on the applied electrical boundary conditions. The effects of the flexoelectric-piezoelectric coupling on the effective mechanical behavior and the electromechanical behavior of nanobeams and nanoplates are also discussed. The developed model and presented results are expected to benefit the design and analysis of piezoelectric and flexoelectric devices and systems.

  11. Behavioural evidence for separate mechanisms of audiovisual temporal binding as a function of leading sensory modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecere, Roberto; Gross, Joachim; Thut, Gregor

    2016-06-01

    The ability to integrate auditory and visual information is critical for effective perception and interaction with the environment, and is thought to be abnormal in some clinical populations. Several studies have investigated the time window over which audiovisual events are integrated, also called the temporal binding window, and revealed asymmetries depending on the order of audiovisual input (i.e. the leading sense). When judging audiovisual simultaneity, the binding window appears narrower and non-malleable for auditory-leading stimulus pairs and wider and trainable for visual-leading pairs. Here we specifically examined the level of independence of binding mechanisms when auditory-before-visual vs. visual-before-auditory input is bound. Three groups of healthy participants practiced audiovisual simultaneity detection with feedback, selectively training on auditory-leading stimulus pairs (group 1), visual-leading stimulus pairs (group 2) or both (group 3). Subsequently, we tested for learning transfer (crossover) from trained stimulus pairs to non-trained pairs with opposite audiovisual input. Our data confirmed the known asymmetry in size and trainability for auditory-visual vs. visual-auditory binding windows. More importantly, practicing one type of audiovisual integration (e.g. auditory-visual) did not affect the other type (e.g. visual-auditory), even if trainable by within-condition practice. Together, these results provide crucial evidence that audiovisual temporal binding for auditory-leading vs. visual-leading stimulus pairs are independent, possibly tapping into different circuits for audiovisual integration due to engagement of different multisensory sampling mechanisms depending on leading sense. Our results have implications for informing the study of multisensory interactions in healthy participants and clinical populations with dysfunctional multisensory integration. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation

  12. Low-energy impact of adaptive cylindrical piezoelectric-composite shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanos, D.A. [University of Patras (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics; Christoforou, A.P. [Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-04-01

    A theoretical framework for analyzing low-energy impacts of laminated shells with active and sensory piezoelectric layers is presented, including impactor dynamics and contact law. The formulation encompasses a coupled piezoelectric shell theory mixing first order shear displacement assumptions and layerwise variation of electric potential. An exact in-plane Ritz solution for the impact of open cylindrical piezoelectric-composite shells is developed and solved numerically using an explicit time integration scheme. The active impact control problem of adaptive cylindrical shells with distributed curved piezoelectric actuators is addressed. The cases of optimized state feedback controllers and output feedback controllers using piezoelectric sensors are analyzed. Numerical results quantify the impact response of cylindrical shells of various curvatures including the signal of curved piezoelectric sensors. Additional numerical studies quantify the impact response of adaptive cylindrical panels and investigate the feasibility of actively reducing the impact force. (author)

  13. Development of a finite element model for the identification of mechanical and piezoelectric properties through gradient optimisation and experimental vibration data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araujo, A.; Soares, C.; Herskovits, J.

    2002-01-01

    With the increasing use of surface bonded piezoelectric sensors and actuators in laminated structures, rises the need for knowing accurate values for the resulting properties of these structures. The properties obtained through manufacturer data are in most of the cases not enough to predict...... the structural behaviour and implement efficient control algorithms for active noise and vibration control. To address this issue we propose a discrete finite element model, associated to gradient optimisation and to an inverse method using experimental vibration data to carry out the identification...... of electromechanical properties in composite plate specimens with surface bonded piezoelectric patches or layers. The properties to be determined are the elastic and piezoelectric constants of the structure's constituent materials. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Model and Design of a Power Driver for Piezoelectric Stack Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaberge M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A power driver has been developed to control piezoelectric stack actuators used in automotive application. An FEM model of the actuator has been implemented starting from experimental characterization of the stack and mechanical and piezoelectric parameters. Experimental results are reported to show a correct piezoelectric actuator driving method and the possibility to obtain a sensorless positioning control.

  15. When does mechanical plantar stimulation promote sensory re-weighing: standing on a firm or compliant surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preszner-Domjan, Andrea; Nagy, Edit; Szíver, Edit; Feher-Kiss, Anna; Horvath, Gyöngyi; Kranicz, Janos

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different types of mechanical stimulation of the sole on standing postural stability in healthy, young adults. Fifty subjects (34 women, 16 men; mean age 23 ± 2 (mean ± SE)) stood barefoot on fixed force plates both with open and closed eyes on firm surface and then on compliant surface (foam). A modified clinical test of sensory interaction on balance protocol was employed to assess the center of gravity (COG) excursions along anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) axes on each surface and visual condition. After the baseline measurement, a stimulation was applied with an elastic spiked layer topped to the firm and then foam surface, and the COG excursions were measured during the stimulation, and then at least 30 min after the stimulation of the spiked layer, we used 10 min of manual static and glide pressure applied to the plantar surface of both feet. Immediately after manual stimulation, static balance parameters were measured again. Results showed that after manual stimulation, the sway path with closed eyes decreased significantly on the AP and ML directions on firm surface conditions. The spiked layer caused significantly decreased sway path on firm platform in both directions, but it was ineffective on compliant surface. Our results established that the activation of plantar mechanoreceptors by 10-min manual stimulation can partially compensate subjects for the absence of visual input and the lack of accurate pressure information from the supporting surface, too.

  16. Neural Mechanisms of Cortical Motion Computation Based on a Neuromorphic Sensory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Kreem, Luma Issa; Neumann, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    The visual cortex analyzes motion information along hierarchically arranged visual areas that interact through bidirectional interconnections. This work suggests a bio-inspired visual model focusing on the interactions of the cortical areas in which a new mechanism of feedforward and feedback processing are introduced. The model uses a neuromorphic vision sensor (silicon retina) that simulates the spike-generation functionality of the biological retina. Our model takes into account two main model visual areas, namely V1 and MT, with different feature selectivities. The initial motion is estimated in model area V1 using spatiotemporal filters to locally detect the direction of motion. Here, we adapt the filtering scheme originally suggested by Adelson and Bergen to make it consistent with the spike representation of the DVS. The responses of area V1 are weighted and pooled by area MT cells which are selective to different velocities, i.e. direction and speed. Such feature selectivity is here derived from compositions of activities in the spatio-temporal domain and integrating over larger space-time regions (receptive fields). In order to account for the bidirectional coupling of cortical areas we match properties of the feature selectivity in both areas for feedback processing. For such linkage we integrate the responses over different speeds along a particular preferred direction. Normalization of activities is carried out over the spatial as well as the feature domains to balance the activities of individual neurons in model areas V1 and MT. Our model was tested using different stimuli that moved in different directions. The results reveal that the error margin between the estimated motion and synthetic ground truth is decreased in area MT comparing with the initial estimation of area V1. In addition, the modulated V1 cell activations shows an enhancement of the initial motion estimation that is steered by feedback signals from MT cells. PMID:26554589

  17. Neural Mechanisms of Cortical Motion Computation Based on a Neuromorphic Sensory System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luma Issa Abdul-Kreem

    Full Text Available The visual cortex analyzes motion information along hierarchically arranged visual areas that interact through bidirectional interconnections. This work suggests a bio-inspired visual model focusing on the interactions of the cortical areas in which a new mechanism of feedforward and feedback processing are introduced. The model uses a neuromorphic vision sensor (silicon retina that simulates the spike-generation functionality of the biological retina. Our model takes into account two main model visual areas, namely V1 and MT, with different feature selectivities. The initial motion is estimated in model area V1 using spatiotemporal filters to locally detect the direction of motion. Here, we adapt the filtering scheme originally suggested by Adelson and Bergen to make it consistent with the spike representation of the DVS. The responses of area V1 are weighted and pooled by area MT cells which are selective to different velocities, i.e. direction and speed. Such feature selectivity is here derived from compositions of activities in the spatio-temporal domain and integrating over larger space-time regions (receptive fields. In order to account for the bidirectional coupling of cortical areas we match properties of the feature selectivity in both areas for feedback processing. For such linkage we integrate the responses over different speeds along a particular preferred direction. Normalization of activities is carried out over the spatial as well as the feature domains to balance the activities of individual neurons in model areas V1 and MT. Our model was tested using different stimuli that moved in different directions. The results reveal that the error margin between the estimated motion and synthetic ground truth is decreased in area MT comparing with the initial estimation of area V1. In addition, the modulated V1 cell activations shows an enhancement of the initial motion estimation that is steered by feedback signals from MT cells.

  18. CdS decorated rGO containing PVDF electrospun fiber based piezoelectric nanogenerator for mechanical energy harvesting application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Krittish; Mandal, Dipankar

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a simple and facile route ofcadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticle (NPs) grafted reduced graphene oxide (rGO) synthesis. It is found that a pinch (0.25 wt%) of as synthesisedCdS/rGOnanocompositecan induce more than 90% of electroactive phases in the electrospunpoly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofiber. Moreover, CdS/rGO nanocomposite doped PVDF nanofiber based nanogenerator (NG) can generate an output voltage of approximately 4 V upon repetitive finger imparting. Thus, the NG can be used as a mechanical energy harvester and power source for portable electronic and optoelectronic wearable devices.

  19. Design and characterization of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yener, Serra

    one layer of ceramic and a brass teeth-like layer bonded on it. The displacement was amplified with the metal layer, the teeth of which were placed on the points of in-phase motion. The targeted application area is paper-feeding mechanism. In terms of application areas for the first design, a gas valve system and a micro vehicle were constructed. In addition, a new optical coherence tomography endoscope by utilizing the piezoelectric micromotor was designed. Finally, the prototype motor was integrated inside the camera of a cell phone to drive the zoom mechanism.

  20. Piezoelectrically Initiated Pyrotechnic Igniter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quince, Asia; Dutton, Maureen; Hicks, Robert; Burnham, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This innovation consists of a pyrotechnic initiator and piezoelectric initiation system. The device will be capable of being initiated mechanically; resisting initiation by EMF, RF, and EMI (electromagnetic field, radio frequency, and electromagnetic interference, respectively); and initiating in water environments and space environments. Current devices of this nature are initiated by the mechanical action of a firing pin against a primer. Primers historically are prone to failure. These failures are commonly known as misfires or hang-fires. In many cases, the primer shows the dent where the firing pin struck the primer, but the primer failed to fire. In devices such as "T" handles, which are commonly used to initiate the blowout of canopies, loss of function of the device may result in loss of crew. In devices such as flares or smoke generators, failure can result in failure to spot a downed pilot. The piezoelectrically initiated ignition system consists of a pyrotechnic device that plugs into a mechanical system (activator), which on activation, generates a high-voltage spark. The activator, when released, will strike a stack of electrically linked piezo crystals, generating a high-voltage, low-amperage current that is then conducted to the pyro-initiator. Within the initiator, an electrode releases a spark that passes through a pyrotechnic first-fire mixture, causing it to combust. The combustion of the first-fire initiates a primary pyrotechnic or explosive powder. If used in a "T" handle, the primary would ramp the speed of burn up to the speed of sound, generating a shock wave that would cause a high explosive to go "high order." In a flare or smoke generator, the secondary would produce the heat necessary to ignite the pyrotechnic mixture. The piezo activator subsystem is redundant in that a second stack of crystals would be struck at the same time with the same activation force, doubling the probability of a first strike spark generation. If the first

  1. Energy harvesting from low frequency applications using piezoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huidong; Tian, Chuan; Deng, Z. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to eliminate the replacement of the batteries of electronic devices that are difficult or impractical to service once deployed, harvesting energy from mechanical vibrations or impacts using piezoelectric materials has been researched over the last several decades. However, a majority of these applications have very low input frequencies. This presents a challenge for the researchers to optimize the energy output of piezoelectric energy harvesters, due to the relatively high elastic moduli of piezoelectric materials used to date. This paper reviews the current state of research on piezoelectric energy harvesting devices for low frequency (0–100 Hz) applications and the methods that have been developed to improve the power outputs of the piezoelectric energy harvesters. Various key aspects that contribute to the overall performance of a piezoelectric energy harvester are discussed, including geometries of the piezoelectric element, types of piezoelectric material used, techniques employed to match the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric element to input frequency of the host structure, and electronic circuits specifically designed for energy harvesters

  2. Thermal and mechanical quantitative sensory testing in Chinese patients with burning mouth syndrome--a probable neuropathic pain condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xueyin; Zhang, Jinglu; Fan, Yuan; Svensson, Peter; Wang, Kelun

    2015-01-01

    To explore the hypothesis that burning mouth syndrome (BMS) probably is a neuropathic pain condition, thermal and mechanical sensory and pain thresholds were tested and compared with age- and gender-matched control participants using a standardized battery of psychophysical techniques. Twenty-five BMS patients (men: 8, women: 17, age: 49.5 ± 11.4 years) and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy control participants were included. The cold detection threshold (CDT), warm detection threshold (WDT), cold pain threshold (CPT), heat pain threshold (HPT), mechanical detection threshold (MDT) and mechanical pain threshold (MPT), in accordance with the German Network of Neuropathic Pain guidelines, were measured at the following four sites: the dorsum of the left hand (hand), the skin at the mental foramen (chin), on the tip of the tongue (tongue), and the mucosa of the lower lip (lip). Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA with repeated measures to compare the means within and between groups. Furthermore, Z-score profiles were generated, and exploratory correlation analyses between QST and clinical variables were performed. Two-tailed tests with a significance level of 5 % were used throughout. CDTs (P < 0.02) were significantly lower (less sensitivity) and HPTs (P < 0.001) were significantly higher (less sensitivity) at the tongue and lip in BMS patients compared to control participants. WDT (P = 0.007) was also significantly higher at the tongue in BMS patients compared to control subjects . There were no significant differences in MDT and MPT between the BMS patients and healthy subjects at any of the four test sites. Z-scores showed that significant loss of function can be identified for CDT (Z-scores = -0.9±1.1) and HPT (Z-scores = 1.5±0.4). There were no significant correlations between QST and clinical variables (pain intensity, duration, depressions scores). BMS patients had a significant loss of thermal function but not

  3. Piezoelectric cantilever sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Wan Y. (Inventor); Shih, Wei-Heng (Inventor); Shen, Zuyan (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A piezoelectric cantilever with a non-piezoelectric, or piezoelectric tip useful as mass and viscosity sensors. The change in the cantilever mass can be accurately quantified by monitoring a resonance frequency shift of the cantilever. For bio-detection, antibodies or other specific receptors of target antigens may be immobilized on the cantilever surface, preferably on the non-piezoelectric tip. For chemical detection, high surface-area selective absorbent materials are coated on the cantilever tip. Binding of the target antigens or analytes to the cantilever surface increases the cantilever mass. Detection of target antigens or analytes is achieved by monitoring the cantilever's resonance frequency and determining the resonance frequency shift that is due to the mass of the adsorbed target antigens on the cantilever surface. The use of a piezoelectric unimorph cantilever allows both electrical actuation and electrical sensing. Incorporating a non-piezoelectric tip (14) enhances the sensitivity of the sensor. In addition, the piezoelectric cantilever can withstand damping in highly viscous liquids and can be used as a viscosity sensor in wide viscosity range.

  4. UNCOMMON SENSORY METHODOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensory science is the young but the rapidly developing field of the food industry. Actually, the great emphasis is given to the production of rapid techniques of data collection, the difference between consumers and trained panel is obscured and the role of sensory methodologists is to prepare the ways for evaluation, by which a lay panel (consumers can achieve identical results as a trained panel. Currently, there are several conventional methods of sensory evaluation of food (ISO standards, but more sensory laboratories are developing methodologies that are not strict enough in the selection of evaluators, their mechanism is easily understandable and the results are easily interpretable. This paper deals with mapping of marginal methods used in sensory evaluation of food (new types of profiles, CATA, TDS, napping.

  5. Piezoelectric transducer array microspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-12-19

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-speaker. The speaker is an array of micro-machined piezoelectric membranes, fabricated on silicon wafer using advanced micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n piezoelectric transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a circular shape structure. The membrane is made out four layers: 300nm of platinum for the bottom electrode, 250nm or lead zirconate titanate (PZT), a top electrode of 300nm and a structural layer of 50

  6. Loss Factor Characterization Methodology for Piezoelectric Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Yuan; Ural, Seyit O; Uchino, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The key factor for the miniaturization of piezoelectric devices is power density, which is limited by the heat generation or loss mechanisms. There are three loss components for piezoelectric vibrators, i.e., dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric losses. The mechanical quality factor, determined by these three factors, is the figure of merit in the sense of loss or heat generation. In this paper, quality factors of resonance and antiresonance for k 31 , k 33 , and k 15 vibration modes are derived, and the methodology to determine loss factors in various directions is provided. For simplicity, we focus on materials with ∞mm (equivalent to 6mm) crystal symmetry for deriving the loss factors of polycrystalline ceramics, and 16 different loss factors among total 20 can be obtained from the admittance/ impedance measurements.

  7. Multilayer modal actuator-based piezoelectric transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao-Tien; Wu, Wen-Jong; Wang, Yen-Chieh; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2007-02-01

    An innovative, multilayer piezoelectric transformer equipped with a full modal filtering input electrode is reported herein. This modal-shaped electrode, based on the orthogonal property of structural vibration modes, is characterized by full modal filtering to ensure that only the desired vibration mode is excited during operation. The newly developed piezoelectric transformer is comprised of three layers: a multilayered input layer, an insulation layer, and a single output layer. The electrode shape of the input layer is derived from its structural vibration modal shape, which takes advantage of the orthogonal property of the vibration modes to achieve a full modal filtering effect. The insulation layer possesses two functions: first, to couple the mechanical vibration energy between the input and output, and second, to provide electrical insulation between the two layers. To meet the two functions, a low temperature, co-fired ceramic (LTCC) was used to provide the high mechanical rigidity and high electrical insulation. It can be shown that this newly developed piezoelectric transformer has the advantage of possessing a more efficient energy transfer and a wider optimal working frequency range when compared to traditional piezoelectric transformers. A multilayer piezoelectric, transformer-based inverter applicable for use in LCD monitors or portable displays is presented as well.

  8. Energy harvesting from radio frequency propagation using piezoelectric cantilevers

    KAUST Repository

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud

    2012-02-01

    This work reports an induced strain in a piezoelectric cantilever due to radio frequency signal propagation. The piezoelectric actuator is coupled to radio frequency (RF) line through a gap of 0.25 mm. When a voltage signal of 10 Vpp propagates in the line it sets an alternating current in the actuator electrodes. This flowing current drives the piezoelectric cantilever to mechanical movement, especially when the frequency of the RF signal matches the mechanical resonant frequency of the cantilever. Output voltage signals versus frequency for both mechanical vibrational and RF signal excitations have been measured using different loads.© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Piezoelectric MEMS resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Piazza, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces piezoelectric microelectromechanical (pMEMS) resonators to a broad audience by reviewing design techniques including use of finite element modeling, testing and qualification of resonators, and fabrication and large scale manufacturing techniques to help inspire future research and entrepreneurial activities in pMEMS. The authors discuss the most exciting developments in the area of materials and devices for the making of piezoelectric MEMS resonators, and offer direct examples of the technical challenges that need to be overcome in order to commercialize these types of devices. Some of the topics covered include: Widely-used piezoelectric materials, as well as materials in which there is emerging interest Principle of operation and design approaches for the making of flexural, contour-mode, thickness-mode, and shear-mode piezoelectric resonators, and examples of practical implementation of these devices Large scale manufacturing approaches, with a focus on the practical aspects associate...

  10. Piezoelectric Ceramics Characterization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan, T

    2001-01-01

    ... the behavior of a piezoelectric material. We have attempted to cover the most common measurement methods as well as introduce parameters of interest. Excellent sources for more in-depth coverage of specific topics can be found in the bibliography. In most cases, we refer to lead zirconate titanate (PZT) to illustrate some of the concepts since it is the most widely used and studied piezoelectric ceramic to date.

  11. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

  12. Reducing the capacitance of piezoelectric film sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Martín G., E-mail: mggonza@fi.uba.ar [Grupo de Láser, Óptica de Materiales y Aplicaciones Electromagnéticas (GLOMAE), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colón 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), C1425FQB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sorichetti, Patricio A.; Santiago, Guillermo D. [Grupo de Láser, Óptica de Materiales y Aplicaciones Electromagnéticas (GLOMAE), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colón 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-04-15

    We present a novel design for large area, wideband, polymer piezoelectric sensor with low capacitance. The large area allows better spatial resolution in applications such as photoacoustic tomography and the reduced capacitance eases the design of fast transimpedance amplifiers. The metalized piezoelectric polymer thin film is segmented into N sections, electrically connected in series. In this way, the total capacitance is reduced by a factor 1/N{sup 2}, whereas the mechanical response and the active area of the sensor are not modified. We show the construction details for a two-section sensor, together with the impedance spectroscopy and impulse response experimental results that validate the design.

  13. Reducing the capacitance of piezoelectric film sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Martín G.; Sorichetti, Patricio A.; Santiago, Guillermo D.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel design for large area, wideband, polymer piezoelectric sensor with low capacitance. The large area allows better spatial resolution in applications such as photoacoustic tomography and the reduced capacitance eases the design of fast transimpedance amplifiers. The metalized piezoelectric polymer thin film is segmented into N sections, electrically connected in series. In this way, the total capacitance is reduced by a factor 1/N"2, whereas the mechanical response and the active area of the sensor are not modified. We show the construction details for a two-section sensor, together with the impedance spectroscopy and impulse response experimental results that validate the design.

  14. Characterization of Piezoelectric Actuators for Flow Control over a Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossi, Karla M.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade, piezoelectric actuators as the active element in synthetic jets demonstrated that they could significantly enhance the overall lift on an airfoil. However, durability, system weight, size, and power have limited their use outside a laboratory. These problems are not trivial, since piezoelectric actuators are physically brittle and display limited displacement. The objective of this study is to characterize the relevant properties for the design of a synthetic jet utilizing three types of piezoelectric actuators as mechanical diaphragms, Radial Field Diaphragms, Thunders, and Bimorphs so that the shape cavity volume does not exceed 147.5 cubic centimeters on a 7centimeter x 7centimeter aerial coverage. These piezoelectric elements were selected because of their geometry, and overall free-displacement. Each actuator was affixed about its perimeter in a cavity, and relevant parameters such as clamped displacement variations with voltage and frequency, air velocities produced through an aperture, and sound pressure levels produced by the piezoelectric diaphragms were measured.

  15. Cantilever piezoelectric energy harvester with multiple cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S Srinivasulu Raju; M Umapathy; G Uma

    2015-01-01

    Energy harvesting employing piezoelectric materials in mechanical structures such as cantilever beams, plates, diaphragms, etc, has been an emerging area of research in recent years. The research in this area is also focused on structural tailoring to improve the harvested power from the energy harvesters. Towards this aim, this paper presents a method for improving the harvested power from a cantilever piezoelectric energy harvester by introducing multiple rectangular cavities. A generalized model for a piezoelectric energy harvester with multiple rectangular cavities at a single section and two sections is developed. A method is suggested to optimize the thickness of the cavities and the number of cavities required to generate a higher output voltage for a given cantilever beam structure. The performance of the optimized energy harvesters is evaluated analytically and through experimentation. The simulation and experimental results show that the performance of the energy harvester can be increased with multiple cavities compared to the harvester with a single cavity. (paper)

  16. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao

    2015-02-25

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  17. An MRI-compatible hand sensory vibrotactile system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fa; Lakshminarayanan, Kishor; Slota, Gregory P; Seo, Na Jin; Webster, John G

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the application of vibrotactile noise to the wrist or back of the hand has been shown to enhance fingertip tactile sensory perception (Enders et al 2013), supporting the potential for an assistive device worn at the wrist, that generates minute vibrations to help the elderly or patients with sensory deficit. However, knowledge regarding the detailed physiological mechanism behind this sensory improvement in the central nervous system, especially in the human brain, is limited, hindering progress in development and use of such assistive devices. To enable investigation of the impact of vibrotactile noise on sensorimotor brain activity in humans, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible vibrotactile system was developed to provide vibrotactile noise during an MRI of the brain. The vibrotactile system utilizes a remote (outside the MR room) signal amplifier which provides a voltage from –40 to +40 V to drive a 12 mm diameter piezoelectric vibrator (inside the MR room). It is portable and is found to be MRI-compatible which enables its use for neurologic investigation with MRI. The system was also found to induce an improvement in fingertip tactile sensation, consistent with the previous study. (note)

  18. Power enhancement of piezoelectric transformers by adding heat transfer equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Hao; Liu, Yuan-Ping; Vasic, Dejan; Wu, Wen-Jong; Costa, François; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2012-10-01

    It is known that piezoelectric transformers have several inherent advantages compared with conventional electromagnetic transformers. However, the maximum power capacity of piezoelectric transformers is not as large as electromagnetic transformers in practice, especially in the case of high output current. The theoretical power density of piezoelectric transformers calculated by stress boundary can reach 330 W/cm(3), but no piezoelectric transformer has ever reached such a high power density in practice. The power density of piezoelectric transformers is limited to 33 W/cm(3) in practical applications. The underlying reason is that the maximum passing current of the piezoelectric material (mechanical current) is limited by the temperature rise caused by heat generation. To increase this current and the power capacity, we proposed to add a thermal pad to the piezoelectric transformer to dissipate heat. The experimental results showed that the proposed techniques can increase by 3 times the output current of the piezoelectric transformer. A theoretical-phenomenological model which explains the relationship between vibration velocity and generated heat is also established to verify the experimental results.

  19. Thermo-mechanic and sensory properties of wheat and rye breads produced with varying concentration of the additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different concentrations of the complex additive containing emulsifiers, oxido-reductive substances and enzymes, on the rheological conditions of dough, and on the sensory properties of three groups of bread were investigated. The best initial quality and the lowest degree of protein network weakening had the dough obtained from mixed wheat and rye flours. The best expected baking properties were shown by the white wheat flour due to the least damage of its starch. The use of the additive has an effect on the absorption of water and on the majority of C-values of all sorts of flour. The amount of additive had a significant effect on the sensory properties of wheat bread crumb texture. Also, storage duration significantly affected (p <0.01 the sensory properties of integral wheat bread aroma-taste and the weighted mean score. The interaction of these two factors had no significant effect on any of sensory properties of the investigated groups of bread.

  20. Piezoelectric effects in biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.L.

    1976-03-01

    Precision methods have been developed for the simultaneous measurement of the complex piezoelectric stress constants and the electric conduction and polarization currents. Samples of Collagen, keratin, and chitin are prepared and measured in such a way to optimize the determination of the position and orientation of the electric dipole moments. The temperature and the hydration state of the samples are varied during the measurement of the piezoelectric constants in an effort to understand the role of water in biological material. Above 40 0 C, the inherent piezolectricity is enhanced by the water of hydration, in contrast to the more easily understood reduction observed at lower temperatures. Gelatin, which has no inherent piezoelectricity, displays a piezoelectricity proportional to the currents of conduction and polarization. An analysis of the new effect shows that it is a measure of the variation of the resistivity with deformation (d rho/dS - rho) in the same way that the electric field induced piezoelectricity is a measure of the variation of the dielectric constant with deformation (dk/dS + k). Both are sensitive to electric dipole relaxation effects. (Author) [pt

  1. Peritubular dentin lacks piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habelitz, S; Rodriguez, B J; Marshall, S J; Marshall, G W; Kalinin, S V; Gruverman, A

    2007-09-01

    Dentin is a mesenchymal tissue, and, as such, is based on a collagenous matrix that is reinforced by apatite mineral. Collagen fibrils show piezoelectricity, a phenomenon that is used by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) to obtain high-resolution images. We applied PFM to image human dentin with 10-nm resolution, and to test the hypothesis that zones of piezoactivity, indicating the presence of collagen fibrils, can be distinguished in dentin. Piezoelectricity was observed by PFM in the dentin intertubular matrix, while the peritubular dentin remained without response. High-resolution imaging of chemically treated intertubular dentin attributed the piezoelectric effect to individual collagen fibrils that differed in the signal strength, depending on the fibril orientation. This study supports the hypothesis that peritubular dentin is a non-collagenous tissue and is thus an exception among mineralized tissues that derive from the mesenchyme.

  2. Piezoelectric wave motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2001-07-17

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  3. Lead-Free Piezoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Nahm, Sahn

    2012-01-01

    Ecological restrictions in many parts of the world are demanding the elimination of Pb from all consumer items. At this moment in the piezoelectric ceramics industry, there is no issue of more importance than the transition to lead-free materials. The goal of Lead-Free Piezoelectrics is to provide a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals and developments in the field of lead-free materials and products to leading researchers in the world. The text presents chapters on demonstrated applications of the lead-free materials, which will allow readers to conceptualize the present possibilities and will be useful for both students and professionals conducting research on ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, smart materials, lead-free materials, and a variety of applications including sensors, actuators, ultrasonic transducers and energy harvesters.

  4. Piezoelectricity in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepler, R.G.; Anderson, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Piezoelectricity and related properties of polymers are reviewed. After presenting a historical overview of the field, the mathematical basis of piezo- and pyroelectricity is summarized. We show how the experimentally measured quantities are related to the changes in polarization and point out the serious inequlity between direct and converse piezoelectric coefficients in polymers. Theoretical models of the various origins of piezo- and pyroelectricity, which include piezoelectricity due to inhomogeneous material properties and strains, are reviewed. Relaxational effects are also considered. Experimental techniques are examined and the results for different materials are presented. Because of the considerable work in recent years polyimylidene fluoride, this polymer receives the majority of the attention. The numerous applications of piezo-and pyroelectric polymers are mentioned. This article concludes with a discussion of the possible role of piezo- and pyroelectricity in biological system

  5. Dielectric loss against piezoelectric power harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Junrui; Shu-Hung Chung, Henry; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectricity is one of the most popular electromechanical transduction mechanisms for constructing kinetic energy harvesting systems. When a standard energy harvesting (SEH) interface circuit, i.e., bridge rectifier plus filter capacitor, is utilized for collecting piezoelectric power, the previous literature showed that the power conversion can be well predicted without much consideration for the effect of dielectric loss. Yet, as the conversion power gets higher by adopting power-boosting interface circuits, such as synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI), the neglect of dielectric loss might give rise to deviation in harvested power estimation. Given the continuous progress on power-boosting interface circuits, the role of dielectric loss in practical piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH) systems should receive attention with better evaluation. Based on the integrated equivalent impedance network model, this fast track communication provides a comprehensive study on the susceptibility of harvested power in PEH systems under different conditions. It shows that, dielectric loss always counteracts piezoelectric power harvesting by causing charge leakage across piezoelectric capacitance. In particular, taking corresponding ideal lossless cases as references, the counteractive effect might be aggravated under one of the five conditions: larger dielectric loss tangent, lower vibration frequency, further away from resonance, weaker electromechanical coupling, or using power-boosting interface circuit. These relationships are valuable for the study of PEH systems, as they not only help explain the role of dielectric loss in piezoelectric power harvesting, but also add complementary insights for material, structure, excitation, and circuit considerations towards holistic evaluation and design for practical PEH systems. (fast track communications)

  6. Microfabricated Bulk Piezoelectric Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Oliver M.

    Piezoelectric voltage transformers (PTs) can be used to transform an input voltage into a different, required output voltage needed in electronic and electro- mechanical systems, among other varied uses. On the macro scale, they have been commercialized in electronics powering consumer laptop liquid crystal displays, and compete with an older, more prevalent technology, inductive electromagnetic volt- age transformers (EMTs). The present work investigates PTs on smaller size scales that are currently in the academic research sphere, with an eye towards applications including micro-robotics and other small-scale electronic and electromechanical sys- tems. PTs and EMTs are compared on the basis of power and energy density, with PTs trending towards higher values of power and energy density, comparatively, indicating their suitability for small-scale systems. Among PT topologies, bulk disc-type PTs, operating in their fundamental radial extension mode, and free-free beam PTs, operating in their fundamental length extensional mode, are good can- didates for microfabrication and are considered here. Analytical modeling based on the Extended Hamilton Method is used to predict device performance and integrate mechanical tethering as a boundary condition. This model differs from previous PT models in that the electric enthalpy is used to derive constituent equations of motion with Hamilton's Method, and therefore this approach is also more generally applica- ble to other piezoelectric systems outside of the present work. Prototype devices are microfabricated using a two mask process consisting of traditional photolithography combined with micropowder blasting, and are tested with various output electri- cal loads. 4mm diameter tethered disc PTs on the order of .002cm. 3 , two orders smaller than the bulk PT literature, had the followingperformance: a prototype with electrode area ratio (input area / output area) = 1 had peak gain of 2.3 (+/- 0.1), efficiency of 33 (+/- 0

  7. Surface effects on the electroelastic responses of a thin piezoelectric plate with nanoscale thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhi; Jiang Liying

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the electroelastic responses of a thin piezoelectric plate under mechanical and electrical loads with the consideration of surface effects. Surface effects, including surface elasticity, residual surface stress and surface piezoelectricity, are incorporated into the conventional Kirchhoff plate theory for a piezoelectric plate via the surface piezoelectricity model and the generalized Young-Laplace equations. Different from the results predicted by the conventional plate theory ignoring the surface effects, the proposed model predicts size-dependent behaviours of the piezoelectric thin plate with nanoscale thickness. It is found that surface effects have significant influence on the electroelastic responses of the piezoelectric nanoplate. This work is expected to provide more accurate predictions on characterizing nanofilm or nanoribbon based piezoelectric devices in nanoelectromechanical systems. (paper)

  8. Piezoelectric Accelerometers Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Bin; Bang, Lisbet Fogh

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the development of piezoelectric accelerometers using Finite Element (FE) approach. Brüel & Kjær Accelerometer Type 8325 is chosen as an example to illustrate the advanced accelerometer development procedure. The deviation between simulated results and measured results of Type...... 8325 are below 6%. It is proved that the specifications of the accelerometer can be effectively predicted using the FE method, especially when modifications of the accelerometer are required. The development process of piezoelectric accelerometers in Brüel & Kjær is becoming more efficient...

  9. Piezoelectric accelerometeres development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Bin

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the development of piezoelectric accelerometers using Finite Element (FE) approach. Brüel & Kjær Accelerometer Type 8325 is chosen as an example to illustrate the advanced accelerometer development procedure. The deviation between simulated results and measured results of Type...... 8325 are below 6%. It is proved that the specifications of the accelerometer can be effectively predicted using the FE method, especially when modifications of the accelerometer are required. The development process of piezoelectric accelerometers in Brüel & Kjær is becoming more efficient....

  10. A theory of piezoelectric laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giangreco, E.

    1997-01-01

    A theory of piezoelectric laminates is rationally derived from the three-dimensional Voigt theory of piezoelectricity. The present theory is a generalization to piezoelectric laminates of the Reissner-Mindlin-type layer-wise theory of elastic laminates. Both a differential formulation and a variational formulation of the piezoelectric laminate problem are presented. The proposed theory is adopted in the analysis of simple problems, in order to verify its effectiveness. The results it provides turn out to be in good agreement with the results supplied by the Voigt theory of piezoelectricity

  11. Induced piezoelectricity in isotropic biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, R L

    1976-01-01

    Isotropic material can be made to exhibit piezoelectric effects by the application of a constant electric field. For insulators, the piezoelectric strain constant is proportional to the applied electric field and for semiconductors, an additional out-of-phase component of piezoelectricity is proportional to the electric current density in the sample. The two induced coefficients are proportional to the strain-dependent dielectric constant (depsilon/dS + epsilon) and resistivity (drho/dS - rho), respectively. The latter is more important at frequencies such that rhoepsilonomega less than 1, often the case in biopolymers.Signals from induced piezoelectricity in nature may be larger than those from true piezoelectricity. PMID:990389

  12. Relevance of collagen piezoelectricity to "Wolff's Law": a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Andrew C; Grodzinsky, Alan J

    2009-09-01

    According to "Wolff's Law", bone is deposited and reinforced at areas of greatest stress. From a clinical perspective, this "law" is supported by the strong association between bone density and physical activity. From a mechanistic standpoint, however, the law presents a challenge to scientists seeking to understand how osteocytes and osteoblasts sense the mechanical load. In the 1960s, collagen piezoelectricity was invoked as a potential mechanism by which osteocytes could detect areas of greater stress but piezoelectricity diminished in importance as more compelling mechanisms, such as streaming potential, were identified. In addition, accumulating evidence for the role of fluid-related shear stress in osteocyte's mechanosensory function has made piezoelectricity seemingly more obsolete in bone physiology. This review critically evaluates the role of collagen piezoelectricity (if any) in Wolff's Law--specifically, the evidence regarding its involvement in strain-generated potentials, existing alternate mechanisms, the present understanding of bone mechanosensation, and whether piezoelectricity serves an influential role within the context of this newly proposed mechanism. In addition to reviewing the literature, this review generates several hypotheses and proposes future research to fully address the relevance of piezoelectricity in bone physiology.

  13. Influence of La in xPBBiN of ternary nanoceramic composite (1-x0.5PMN-0.5PZT-xPBBiN system by mechanic al activatio n technique for dielectric and piezoelectric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. CHANDRAMOULI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available (1-x[0.5Pb(Mg0.33Nb0.67O3-0.5Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47O3]-x[Pb0.557Ba0.38La0.022Bi0.02Nb2O6] with both perovskite and tungsten bronze structured composite have been synthesized through mechanical activation technique. The strong influence of lanthanum addition to the lead-barium-bismuth-niobate (xPBLBiN ceramics in perovskite structured (1-xPMN-PZT on structural and functional properties is confirmed. X-ray diffraction patterns studies showed that these complex composites consisted of perovskite Cubic with tungsten bronze Orthorhombic phases. La modification in PBBiN of a ternary system (1-xPMN-PZTxPBBiN revealed intensified orthorhombicity. As La increased the dielectric and piezoelectric properties tremendously increased in (1-xPMN-PZT-xPBLBiN nanoceramic composite. The optimum dielectric and piezoelectric properties (εRT = 2931, kp = 0.461 and d33 = 428 pC/N were found in x =0.4 composite. We achieved novel nanocomposites synthesized by high energy ball milling method and having binary structures in a single composite with excellent functional properties that can be used for energy harvesting applications.

  14. On the buckling behavior of piezoelectric nanobeams: An exact solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandaghian, Ali Akbar; Rahmaini, Omid

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, thermoelectric-mechanical buckling behavior of the piezoelectric nanobeams is investigated based on the nonlocal theory and Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The electric potential is assumed linear through the thickness of the nanobeam and the governing equations are derived by Hamilton's principle. The governing equations are solved analytically for different boundary conditions. The effects of the nonlocal parameter, temperature change, and external electric voltage on the critical buckling load of the piezoelectric nanobeams are discussed in detail. This study should be useful for the design of piezoelectric nanodevices.

  15. Effect of water on piezoelectricity in bone and collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, T G; Zimmerman, R L

    1975-01-01

    Interferometric measurements of bovine bone and tendon show that the values of the piezoelectric strain constant d14 decrease with hydration from the dry values of 0.2 X 10(-14) and 2.0 X 10(-14) m/V, respectively. The decrease of piezoelectricity in tendon is exponential with a characteristic hydration of 7% by weight from which an upper limit of the average molecular weight of the responsible electric dipole moments is deduced. The piezoelectricity in bone decreases relatively slowly with hydration indicating that the electric dipoles in bone collagen are subject to a different cancelling mechanism. PMID:1148359

  16. Fabrication of polypeptide-based piezoelectric composite polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, Dawnielle; West, James E.; Busch-Vishniac, Ilene J.; Yu, Seungju M.

    2008-01-01

    A new class of molecular composite piezoelectric material was produced by simultaneous poling and curing of a homogeneous solution comprising poly(γ-benzyl α,L-glutamate) and methylmethacrylate via corona discharge methods. This film exhibited high piezoelectricity (d 33 = 23 pC N -1 ), and its mechanical characteristics (modulus = 450 MPa) were similar to those of low molecular weight poly(methylmethacrylate). As it is produced via solution-based fabrication processes, the composite film is conducive to miniaturization for small sensors with integrated electronics, and could also potentially be used in piezoelectric coating applications

  17. All-solution-processed flexible thin film piezoelectric nanogenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sung Yun; Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Kyongjun [Program in Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Kim, Sang-Woo [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chong-Yun; Yoon, Seok-Jin [Electronic Materials Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youn Sang [Program in Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, 864-1 Iui-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-27

    An all-solution-processed flexible thin film piezoelectric nanogenerator is demonstrated using reactive zinc hydroxo-condensation and a screen-printing method. The highly elastic thin film allows the piezoelectric energy to be generated through the mechanical rolling and muscle stretching of the piezoelectric unit. This flexible all solution-processed nanogenerator is promising for use in future energy harvesters such as wearable human patches and mobile electronics. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Energy harvesting performance of piezoelectric ceramic and polymer nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Sam; Kar-Narayan, Sohini

    2015-08-28

    Energy harvesting from ubiquitous ambient vibrations is attractive for autonomous small-power applications and thus considerable research is focused on piezoelectric materials as they permit direct inter-conversion of mechanical and electrical energy. Nanogenerators (NGs) based on piezoelectric nanowires are particularly attractive due to their sensitivity to small-scale vibrations and may possess superior mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency when compared to bulk or thin-film devices of the same material. However, candidate piezoelectric nanowires have hitherto been predominantly analyzed in terms of NG output (i.e. output voltage, output current and output power density). Surprisingly, the corresponding dynamical properties of the NG, including details of how the nanowires are mechanically driven and its impact on performance, have been largely neglected. Here we investigate all realizable NG driving contexts separately involving inertial displacement, applied stress T and applied strain S, highlighting the effect of driving mechanism and frequency on NG performance in each case. We argue that, in the majority of cases, the intrinsic high resonance frequencies of piezoelectric nanowires (∼tens of MHz) present no barrier to high levels of NG performance even at frequencies far below resonance (materials properties, for comparing piezoelectric NG performance under strain-driven and stress-driven conditions respectively. These figures of merit permit, for the first time, a general comparison of piezoelectric nanowires for NG applications that takes into account the nature of the mechanical excitation. We thus investigate the energy harvesting performance of prototypical piezoelectric ceramic and polymer nanowires. We find that even though ceramic and polymer nanowires have been found, in certain cases, to have similar energy conversion efficiencies, ceramics are more promising in strain-driven NGs while polymers are more promising for stress-driven NGs

  19. Comprehensive nonlocal analysis of piezoelectric nanobeams with surface effects in bending, buckling and vibrations under magneto-electro-thermo-mechanical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Nejad, Salman; Boreiry, Mahya

    2018-03-01

    The bending, buckling and vibrational behavior of size-dependent piezoelectric nanobeams under thermo-magneto-mechano-electrical environment are investigated by performing a parametric study, in the presence of surface effects. The Gurtin-Murdoch surface elasticity and Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity theories are applied in the framework of Euler–Bernoulli beam theory to obtain a new non-classical size-dependent beam model for dynamic and static analyses of piezoelectric nanobeams. In order to satisfy the surface equilibrium equations, cubic variation of stress with beam thickness is assumed for the bulk stress component which is neglected in classical beam models. Results are obtained for clamped - simply-supported (C-S) and simply-supported - simply-supported (S-S) boundary conditions using a proposed analytical solution method. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effects of length, surface effects, nonlocal parameter and environmental changes (temperature, magnetic field and external voltage) on deflection, critical buckling load and natural frequency for each boundary condition. Results of this study can serve as benchmarks for the design and analysis of nanostructures of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic materials.

  20. Piezoelectric displacement in ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.; Cain, M.; Gee, M.

    1999-01-01

    This Good Practice Guide is intended to aid a user to perform displacement measurements on piezoelectric ceramic materials such as PZT (lead zirconium titanate) in either monolithic or multilayer form. The various measurement issues that the user must consider are addressed, and good measurement practise is described for the four most suitable methods. (author)

  1. Piezoelectric transducer array microspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Castro, David; Kosel, Jü rgen; Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    contains 2n piezoelectric transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a circular shape structure. The membrane is made out four layers: 300nm of platinum for the bottom electrode, 250nm or lead zirconate titanate (PZT

  2. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films and their applications for integrated capacitors, piezoelectric ultrasound transducers and piezoelectric switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, M; Boots, H; Kumar, B; Heesch, C van; Mauczok, R; Keur, W; Wild, M de; Esch, H van; Roest, A L; Reimann, K; Leuken, L van; Wunnicke, O; Zhao, J; Schmitz, G; Mienkina, M; Mleczko, M; Tiggelman, M

    2010-01-01

    Ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films are gaining more and more importance for the integration of high performance devices in small modules. High-K 'Integrated Discretes' devices have been developed, which are based on thin film ferroelectric capacitors integrated together with resistors and ESD protection diodes in a small Si-based chip-scale package. Making use of ferroelectric thin films with relative permittivity of 950-1600 and stacking processes of capacitors, extremely high capacitance densities of 20-520 nF/mm 2 , high breakdown voltages up to 140 V and lifetimes of more than 10 years at operating voltages of 5 V and 85 deg. C are achieved. Thin film high-density capacitors play also an important role as tunable capacitors for applications such as tuneable matching circuits for RF sections of mobile phones. The performance of thin film tuneable capacitors at frequencies between 1 MHz and 1 GHz is investigated. Finally thin film piezoelectric ultrasound transducers, processed in Si- related processes, are attractive for medical imaging, since they enable large bandwidth (>100%), high frequency operation and have the potential to integrate electronics. With these piezoelectric thin film ultrasound transducers real time ultrasound images have been realized. Finally, piezoelectric thin films are used to manufacture galvanic MEMS switches. A model for the quasi-static mechanical behaviour is presented and compared with measurements.

  3. Relationships among Sensory Responsiveness, Anxiety, and Ritual Behaviors in Children with and without Atypical Sensory Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Bar-Shalita, Tami; Mansour, Hanin; Dar, Reuven

    2017-08-01

    To explore relationships between sensory responsiveness, anxiety, and ritual behaviors in boys with typical and atypical sensory responsiveness. Forty-eight boys, ages 5-9 participated in the study (28 boys with atypical sensory responsiveness and 20 controls). Atypical sensory responsiveness was defined as a score of ≤154 on the Short Sensory Profile. Parents completed the Sensory Profile, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, and the Childhood Routines Inventory. Children with atypical sensory responsiveness had significantly higher levels of anxiety and a higher frequency of ritual behaviors than controls. Atypical sensory responsiveness was significantly related to both anxiety and ritual behaviors, with anxiety mediating the relationship between sensory modulation and ritual behaviors. The findings elucidate the potential consequences of atypical sensory responsiveness and could support the notion that ritual behaviors develop as a coping mechanism in response to anxiety stemming from primary difficulty in modulating sensory input.

  4. Postbuckling Investigations of Piezoelectric Microdevices Considering Damage Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhigang; Wang, Xianqiao

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric material has been emerging as a popular building block in MEMS devices owing to its unique mechanical and electrical material properties. However, the reliability of MEMS devices under buckling deformation environments remains elusive and needs to be further explored. Based on the Talreja's tensor valued internal state damage variables as well as the Helmhotlz free energy of piezoelectric material, a constitutive model of piezoelectric materials with damage is presented. The Kachanvo damage evolution law under in-plane compressive loads is employed. The model is applied to the specific case of the postbuckling analysis of the piezoelectric plate with damage. Then, adopting von Karman's plate theory, the nonlinear governing equations of the piezoelectric plates with initial geometric deflection including damage effects under in-plane compressive loads are established. By using the finite difference method and the Newmark scheme, the damage evolution for damage accumulation is developed and the finite difference procedure for postbuckling equilibrium path is simultaneously employed. Numerical results show the postbuckling behaviors of initial flat and deflected piezoelectric plates with damage or no damage under different sets of electrical loading conditions. The effects of applied voltage, aspect ratio of plate, thick-span ratio of plate, damage as well as initial geometric deflections on the postbuckling behaviors of the piezoelectric plate are discussed. PMID:24618774

  5. Do event-related potentials reveal the mechanism of the auditory sensory memory in the human brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näätänen, R; Paavilainen, P; Alho, K; Reinikainen, K; Sams, M

    1989-03-27

    Event-related brain potentials (ERP) to task-irrelevant tone pips presented at short intervals were recorded from the scalp of normal human subjects. Infrequent decrements in stimulus intensity elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN) which was larger in amplitude and shorter in latency the softer the deviant stimulus was. The results obtained imply memory representations which develop automatically and accurately represent the physical features of the repetitive stimulus. These memory traces appear to be those of the acoustic sensory memory, the 'echoic' memory. When an input does not match with such a trace the MMN is generated.

  6. Piezoelectric Composites by Solid Freeform Fabrication: A Nature-Inspired Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, A.; Akdoğan, E. K.

    Piezoelectrics and electrostrictors are indispensable materials for use in transducer technology, as they inherently possess both direct (sensing) and converse (actuation) effects. A piezoelectric/electrostrictive sensor converts a mechanical input (displacement or force) into a measurable electrical output through piezoelectric/electrostrictive energy conversion. In the case of a piezoelectric, an applied mechanical force (stress) induces a voltage across the terminals of the transducer. On the other hand, an applied mechanical force induces a change in the capacitance of an electrostrictive transducer that could be electrically detected. Hence, the mechanical to electrical energy conversion is accomplished directly when a piezoelectric is used, while the same is obtained indirectly if the electroactive material of choice is an electrostrictor. Conversely, both piezoelectric and electrostrictive materials develop an elastic strain under an applied electric field. The said elastic strain is linearly proportional to the applied field in a piezoelectric, whereas electrostrictive coupling involves the second-order (quadratic) coupling of electric field with elastic strain. While piezoelectricity is possible only in noncentrosymetric point groups, electrostriction is observed in all solids, which make it a much more general solid-state phenomenon. Sensing and actuation functions can coexist in a given transducer by the intelligent use of such materials. Piezoelectrics and electrostrictors, therefore, constitute the backbone of modern transducer technology, as mechanical to electric energy (and vice versa) conversion can be accomplished with great efficiency in a way that is second to none among all phenomena known to date [1,2].

  7. Development of a Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domm, Lukas N.

    2011-01-01

    The Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill is designed to core through rock using a combination of rotation and high frequency hammering powered by a single piezoelectric actuator. It is designed as a low axial preload, low mass, and low power device for sample acquisition on future missions to extraterrestrial bodies. The purpose of this internship is to develop and test a prototype of the Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill in order to verify the use of a horn with helical or angled cuts as a hammering and torque inducing mechanism. Through an iterative design process using models in ANSYS Finite Element software and a Mason's Equivalent Circuit model in MATLAB, a horn design was chosen for fabrication based on the predicted horn tip motion, electromechanical coupling, and neutral plane location. The design was then machined and a test bed assembled. The completed prototype has proven that a single piezoelectric actuator can be used to produce both rotation and hammering in a drill string through the use of a torque inducing horn. Final data results include bit rotation produced versus input power, and best drilling rate achieved with the prototype.

  8. Piezoelectric Zinc Oxide Based MEMS Acoustic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Arora

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic sensors exhibiting good sensitivity was fabricated using MEMS technology having piezoelectric zinc oxide as a dielectric between two plates of capacitor. Thin film zinc oxide has structural, piezoelectric and optical properties for surface acoustic wave (SAW and bulk acoustic wave (BAW devices. Oxygen effficient films are transparent and insulating having wide applications for sensors and transducers. A rf sputtered piezoelectric ZnO layer transforms the mechanical deflection of a thin etched silicon diaphragm into a piezoelectric charge. For 25-micron thin diaphragm Si was etched in tetramethylammonium hydroxide solution using bulk micromachining. This was followed by deposition of sandwiched structure composed of bottom aluminum electrode, sputtered 3 micron ZnO film and top aluminum electrode. A glass having 1 mm diameter hole was bonded on backside of device to compensate sound pressure in side the cavity. The measured value of central capacitance and dissipation factor of the fabricated MEMS acoustic sensor was found to be 82.4pF and 0.115 respectively, where as the value of ~176 pF was obtained for the rim capacitance with a dissipation factor of 0.138. The response of the acoustic sensors was reproducible for the devices prepared under similar processing conditions under different batches. The acoustic sensor was found to be working from 30Hz to 8KHz with a sensitivity of 139µV/Pa under varying acoustic pressure.

  9. Disrupted integration of sensory stimuli with information about the movement of the body as a mechanism explaining LSD-induced experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, Grzegorz R

    2017-03-01

    LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) is a model psychedelic drug used to study mechanism underlying the effects induced by hallucinogens. However, despite advanced knowledge about molecular mechanism responsible for the effects induced by LSD and other related substances acting at serotonergic 5-HT 2a receptors, we still do not understand how these drugs trigger specific sensory experiences. LSD-induced experience is characterised by perception of movement in the environment and by presence of various bodily sensations such as floating in space, merging into surroundings and movement out of the physical body (the out-of-body experience). It means that a large part of the experience induced by the LSD can be simplified to the illusory movement that can be attributed to the self or to external objects. The phenomenology of the LSD-induced experience has been combined with the fact that serotonergic neurons provide all major parts of the brain with information about the level of tonic motor activity, occurrence of external stimuli and the execution of orienting responses. Therefore, it has been proposed that LSD-induced stimulation of 5-HT 2a receptors disrupts the integration of the sensory stimuli with information about the movement of the body leading to perception of illusory movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of the gamma radiation dose rate on psychrotrophic bacteria, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and sensory characteristics of mechanically deboned chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Poliana P; Azevedo, Heliana; Cipolli, Kátia M V A B; Fukuma, Henrique T; Mourão, Gerson B; Roque, Cláudio V; Miya, Norma T; Pereira, José L

    2011-03-01

    Frozen samples of mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) with skin were irradiated with gamma radiation doses of 0.0 kGy (control) and 3 kGy at 2 different radiation dose rates: 0.32 kGy/h (3 kGy) and 4.04 kGy/h (3 kGy). Batches of irradiated and control samples were evaluated during 11 d of refrigerated (2 ± 1 °C) storage for the following parameters: total psychrotrophic bacteria count, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), evaluation of objective color (L*, a*, and b*) and a sensory evaluation (irradiated odor, oxidized odor, pink and brown colors). No statistical difference (P > 0.05) was found amongst the TBARS values obtained for the MDCM samples irradiated with dose rates of 0.32 and 4.04 kGy/h. There was a significant increase (P radiation to mechanically deboned chicken meat will provide the food industry with information concerning the definition of the best processing conditions to maximize the sensory and food quality.

  11. Calculation of intensity factors using weight function theory for a transversely isotropic piezoelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, In Ho; An, Deuk Man

    2012-01-01

    In fracture mechanics, the weight function can be used for calculating stress intensity factors. In this paper, a two dimensional electroelastic analysis is performed on a transversely isotropic piezoelectric material with an open crack. A plane strain formulation of the piezoelectric problem is solved within the Leknitskii formalism. Weight function theory is extended to piezoelectric materials. The stress intensity factors and electric displacement intensity factor are calculated by the weight function theory

  12. Propellant Flow Actuated Piezoelectric Igniter for Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollen, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A propellant flow actuated piezoelectric igniter device using one or more hammer balls retained by one or more magnets, or other retaining method, until sufficient fluid pressure is achieved in one or more charging chambers to release and accelerate the hammer ball, such that it impacts a piezoelectric crystal to produce an ignition spark. Certain preferred embodiments provide a means for repetitively capturing and releasing the hammer ball after it impacts one or more piezoelectric crystals, thereby oscillating and producing multiple, repetitive ignition sparks. Furthermore, an embodiment is presented for which oscillation of the hammer ball and repetitive impact to the piezoelectric crystal is maintained without the need for a magnet or other retaining mechanism to achieve this oscillating impact process.

  13. Functionalized gold nanoparticle supported sensory mechanisms applied in detection of chemical and biological threat agents: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Smart sensors are needed for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. ► Smart sensors detect analytes with rapid speed, high sensitivity and selectivity. ► Functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can potentially smart sense threat agents. ► Functionalized GNPs support multiple analytical methods for sensing threat agents. ► Threat agents of all types can be detected using functionalized GNPs. - Abstract: There is a great necessity for development of novel sensory concepts supportive of smart sensing capabilities in defense and homeland security applications for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. A smart sensor is a detection device that can exhibit important features such as speed, sensitivity, selectivity, portability, and more importantly, simplicity in identifying a target analyte. Emerging nanomaterial based sensors, particularly those developed by utilizing functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a sensing component potentially offer many desirable features needed for threat agent detection. The sensitiveness of physical properties expressed by GNPs, e.g. color, surface plasmon resonance, electrical conductivity and binding affinity are significantly enhanced when they are subjected to functionalization with an appropriate metal, organic or biomolecular functional groups. This sensitive nature of functionalized GNPs can be potentially exploited in the design of threat agent detection devices with smart sensing capabilities. In the presence of a target analyte (i.e., a chemical or biological threat agent) a change proportional to concentration of the analyte is observed, which can be measured either by colorimetric, fluorimetric, electrochemical or spectroscopic means. This article provides a review of how functionally modified gold colloids are applied in the detection of a broad range of threat agents, including radioactive substances, explosive compounds, chemical warfare agents, biotoxins, and

  14. Functionalized gold nanoparticle supported sensory mechanisms applied in detection of chemical and biological threat agents: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K.K., E-mail: Upadhyayula.Venkata@epa.gov [Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education (ORISE), MC-100-44, PO Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smart sensors are needed for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smart sensors detect analytes with rapid speed, high sensitivity and selectivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can potentially smart sense threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalized GNPs support multiple analytical methods for sensing threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threat agents of all types can be detected using functionalized GNPs. - Abstract: There is a great necessity for development of novel sensory concepts supportive of smart sensing capabilities in defense and homeland security applications for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. A smart sensor is a detection device that can exhibit important features such as speed, sensitivity, selectivity, portability, and more importantly, simplicity in identifying a target analyte. Emerging nanomaterial based sensors, particularly those developed by utilizing functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a sensing component potentially offer many desirable features needed for threat agent detection. The sensitiveness of physical properties expressed by GNPs, e.g. color, surface plasmon resonance, electrical conductivity and binding affinity are significantly enhanced when they are subjected to functionalization with an appropriate metal, organic or biomolecular functional groups. This sensitive nature of functionalized GNPs can be potentially exploited in the design of threat agent detection devices with smart sensing capabilities. In the presence of a target analyte (i.e., a chemical or biological threat agent) a change proportional to concentration of the analyte is observed, which can be measured either by colorimetric, fluorimetric, electrochemical or spectroscopic means. This article provides a review of how functionally modified gold colloids are applied in the detection of a broad

  15. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  16. Variable sensory perception in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Sarah M

    2018-03-01

    Autism is associated with sensory and cognitive abnormalities. Individuals with autism generally show normal or superior early sensory processing abilities compared to healthy controls, but deficits in complex sensory processing. In the current opinion paper, it will be argued that sensory abnormalities impact cognition by limiting the amount of signal that can be used to interpret and interact with environment. There is a growing body of literature showing that individuals with autism exhibit greater trial-to-trial variability in behavioural and cortical sensory responses. If multiple sensory signals that are highly variable are added together to process more complex sensory stimuli, then this might destabilise later perception and impair cognition. Methods to improve sensory processing have shown improvements in more general cognition. Studies that specifically investigate differences in sensory trial-to-trial variability in autism, and the potential changes in variability before and after treatment, could ascertain if trial-to-trial variability is a good mechanism to target for treatment in autism. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. High Performance Lead--free Piezoelectric Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Shashaank

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials find applications in number of devices requiring inter-conversion of mechanical and electrical energy.  These devices include different types of sensors, actuators and energy harvesting devices. A number of lead-based perovskite compositions (PZT, PMN-PT, PZN-PT etc.) have dominated the field in last few decades owing to their giant piezoresponse and convenient application relevant tunability. With increasing environmental concerns, in the last one decade, focus has be...

  18. Recent Progress on PZT Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Gyu Kang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting is the most effective way to respond to the energy shortage and to produce sustainable power sources from the surrounding environment. The energy harvesting technology enables scavenging electrical energy from wasted energy sources, which always exist everywhere, such as in heat, fluids, vibrations, etc. In particular, piezoelectric energy harvesting, which uses a direct energy conversion from vibrations and mechanical deformation to the electrical energy, is a promising technique to supply power sources in unattended electronic devices, wireless sensor nodes, micro-electronic devices, etc., since it has higher energy conversion efficiency and a simple structure. Up to now, various technologies, such as advanced materials, micro- and macro-mechanics, and electric circuit design, have been investigated and emerged to improve performance and conversion efficiency of the piezoelectric energy harvesters. In this paper, we focus on recent progress of piezoelectric energy harvesting technologies based on PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT materials, which have the most outstanding piezoelectric properties. The advanced piezoelectric energy harvesting technologies included materials, fabrications, unique designs, and properties are introduced to understand current technical levels and suggest the future directions of piezoelectric energy harvesting.

  19. Piezoelectric ceramic implants: in vivo results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J B; Kelly, B J; Kenner, G H; von Recum, A F; Grether, M F; Coffeen, W W

    1981-01-01

    The suitability of barium titanate (BaTiO3) ceramic for direct substitution of hard tissues was evaluated using both electrically stimulated (piezoelectric) and inactive (nonpolarized) test implants. Textured cylindrical specimens, half of them made piezoelectric by polarization in a high electric field, were implanted into the cortex of the midshaft region of the femora of dogs for various periods of time. Interfacial healing and bio-compatibility of the implant material were studied using mechanical, microradiographical, and histological techniques. Our results indicate that barium titanate ceramic shows a very high degree of biocompatibility as evidenced by the absence of inflammatory or foreign body reactions at the implant-tissue interface. Furthermore, the material and its surface porosity allowed a high degree of bone ingrowth as evidenced by microradiography and a high degree of interfacial tensile strength. No difference was found between the piezoelectric and the electrically neutral implant-tissue interfaces. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The excellent mechanical properties of barium titanate, its superior biocompatibility, and the ability of bone to form a strong mechanical interfacial bond with it, makes this material a new candidate for further tests for hard tissue replacement.

  20. A piezoelectric device for impact energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquelin, E; Adhikari, S; Friswell, M I

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies a piezoelectric impact energy harvesting device consisting of two piezoelectric beams and a seismic mass. The aim of this work is to find the influence of several mechanical design parameters on the output power of such a harvester so as to optimize its performance; the electrical design parameters were not studied. To account for the dynamics of the beams, a model including the mechanical and piezoelectric properties of the system is proposed. The impacts involved in the energy harvesting process are described through a Hertzian contact law that requires a time domain simulation to solve the nonlinear equations. A transient regime and a steady-state regime have been identified and the performance of the device is characterized by the steady-state mean electrical power and the transient electrical power. The time simulations have been used to study the influence of various mechanical design parameters (seismic mass, beam length, gap, gliding length, impact location) on the performance of the system. It has been shown that the impact location is an important parameter and may be optimized only through simulation. The models and the simulation technique used in this work are general and may be used to assess any other impact energy harvesting device

  1. Finite element modeling of piezoelectric elements with complex electrode configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, R; Schläpfer, B

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the material properties of piezoelectric materials strongly depend on the state of polarization of the individual element. While an unpolarized material exhibits mechanically isotropic material properties in the absence of global piezoelectric capabilities, the piezoelectric material properties become transversally isotropic with respect to the polarization direction after polarization. Therefore, for evaluating piezoelectric elements the material properties, including the coupling between the mechanical and the electromechanical behavior, should be addressed correctly. This is of special importance for the micromechanical description of piezoelectric elements with interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). The best known representatives of this group are active fiber composites (AFCs), macro fiber composites (MFCs) and the radial field diaphragm (RFD), respectively. While the material properties are available for a piezoelectric wafer with a homogeneous polarization perpendicular to its plane as postulated in the so-called uniform field model (UFM), the same information is missing for piezoelectric elements with more complex electrode configurations like the above-mentioned ones with IDEs. This is due to the inhomogeneous field distribution which does not automatically allow for the correct assignment of the material, i.e. orientation and property. A variation of the material orientation as well as the material properties can be accomplished by including the polarization process of the piezoelectric transducer in the finite element (FE) simulation prior to the actual load case to be investigated. A corresponding procedure is presented which automatically assigns the piezoelectric material properties, e.g. elasticity matrix, permittivity, and charge vector, for finite element models (FEMs) describing piezoelectric transducers according to the electric field distribution (field orientation and strength) in the structure. A corresponding code has been

  2. Analysis on and Optimization of a Circular Piezoelectric Composite Laminate for a Micro-Pump Driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Jianyuan; Wang, Weidong; Huang, Xinbo

    2002-01-01

    Among the various micro-pump actuation devices, piezoelectric composite laminate actuation has become an effective method. Due to lacking of analysis treatments, the design of this type micro-pump is in a great limitation. In this paper, an electromechanical-coupled mechanics model is established for the circle-flake micro-actuator. A kind of analysis and design method is presented that piezoelectric plate's radial strain induced by inverse piezoelectric effect is equivalently substituted with transverse stress on piezoelectric composite laminates. It is pointed out that the equivalent transverse load depends on the edge electric field distribution of parallel plate capacitor. The question has been solved that where the neutral plane in the piezoelectric composite laminates lies. Finally, an optimization design is developed on the radius ratio of piezoelectric-to-silicon plate radius by utilizing of FEA modeling

  3. Various aspects of the placement of a piezoelectric material in composite actuators, motors, and transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lierke, Ernst Gunter; Littmann, Walter; Morita, Takeshi; Hemsel, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials have found wide applications in technical systems. Most often, a combination of piezoelectric and other materials is advantageous. The position and the amount of the piezoelectric material within the overall system depends on various aspects, such as the maximum mechanical output to the load, the maximum electromechanical efficiency of the system, the maximum utilization of the piezoelectric material, the minimum self-heating of the piezoelectric material, and the controllability of the system, which might be key aspects for the optimization of the system design. For a composite longitudinal vibrator (bolted Langevin transducer), which is a base for many technical applications, this contribution shows in detail, how the above-mentioned aspects depend on the position and the volume of the piezoelectric material related to the mode shape.

  4. Calculations for Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers implies a solution of a boundary value problem, for a boay which consists of different materials, including a piezoelectric part. The problem is dynamic at frequencies, where a typical wavelength is somewhat less than the size of the body. Radiation...

  5. Piezoelectric Nanotube Array for Broadband High-Frequency Ultrasonic Transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Weng Heng; Yao, Kui; Chen, Shuting; Tay, Francis Eng Hock

    2018-03-01

    Piezoelectric materials are vital in determining ultrasonic transducer and imaging performance as they offer the function for conversion between mechanical and electrical energy. Ultrasonic transducers with high-frequency operation suffer from performance degradation and fabrication difficulty of the demanded piezoelectric materials. Hence, we propose 1-D polymeric piezoelectric nanostructure with controlled nanoscale features to overcome the technical limitations of high-frequency ultrasonic transducers. For the first time, we demonstrate the integration of a well-aligned piezoelectric nanotube array to produce a high-frequency ultrasonic transducer with outstanding performance. We find that nanoconfinement-induced polarization orientation and unique nanotube structure lead to significantly improved piezoelectric and ultrasonic transducing performance over the conventional piezoelectric thin film. A large bandwidth, 126% (-6 dB), is achieved at high center frequency, 108 MHz. Transmission sensitivity of nanotube array is found to be 46% higher than that of the monolithic thin film transducer attributed to the improved electromechanical coupling effectiveness and impedance match. We further demonstrate high-resolution scanning, ultrasonic imaging, and photoacoustic imaging using the obtained nanotube array transducers, which is valuable for biomedical imaging applications in the future.

  6. Energy harvesting “3-D knitted spacer” based piezoelectric textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, S.; Soin, N.; Shah, T. H.; Siores, E.

    2016-07-01

    The piezoelectric effect in Poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, was discovered over four decades ago and since then, significant work has been carried out aiming at the production of high p-phase fibres and their integration into fabric structures for energy harvesting. However, little work has been done in the area of production of “true piezoelectric fabric structures” based on flexible polymeric materials such as PVDF. In this work, we demonstrate “3-D knitted spacer” technology based all-fibre piezoelectric fabrics as power generators and energy harvesters. The knitted single-structure piezoelectric generator consists of high p-phase (~80%) piezoelectric PVDF monofilaments as the spacer yarn interconnected between silver (Ag) coated polyamide multifilament yarn layers acting as the top and bottom electrodes. The novel and unique textile structure provides an output power density in the range of 1.105.10 gWcm-2 at applied impact pressures in the range of 0.02-0.10 MPa, thus providing significantly higher power outputs and efficiencies over the existing 2-D woven and nonwoven piezoelectric structures. The high energy efficiency, mechanical durability and comfort of the soft, flexible and all-fibre based power generator is highly attractive for a variety of potential applications such as wearable electronic systems and energy harvesters charged from ambient environment or by human movement.

  7. Fabrication and calibration of a piezoelectric nanocomposite paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osho, Samuel; Wu, Nan; Aramfard, Mohammad; Deng, Chuang; Ojo, Olanrewaju

    2018-03-01

    A new liquid form piezoelectric nanocomposite paint material is fabricated with possible applications as dynamic strain sensors and/or piezoelectric transducers. The applied coating is in the form of low-cost paint, which is flexible and bonds strongly on a metallic surface after drying out via the solvent-casting method. The nanocomposite is produced by an ultrasonic mixture of varying percentages of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle water dispersion, poly vinyl acetate glue (PVA) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). ZnO nanoparticles are used as the piezoelectric sensing elements in a PVA matrix of the paint, while CNTs are introduced as robust bridge of ZnO particles enhancing the piezoelectricity and material properties. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirmed the linkages of ZnO nanoparticles in the composite by CNTs. Through piezoelectricity calibration, the optimum mixing ratio with the highest piezoelectricity is 78.1 wt% ZnO, 19.5 wt% PVA glue and 2.4 wt% multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Through nanoindentation tests for the characterization of the mechanical properties of the nano-composite paint, it is found that Young’s modulus and hardness reached a threshold point in the increment in the addition of CNTs to the paint before showing signs of decline. Detailed analysis and explanation of the calibration results and physical phenomenon are provided. The stable paint material is ready to be applied on rough area of engineering structures as sensor and transducer.

  8. Study of the effects of gamma radiation on the microbiological quality, lipid oxidation and sensory properties of mechanically deboned chicken meat throughout refrigerated and frozen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Heliana de Azevedo

    2002-01-01

    Mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) is widely used in traditional meat products such as sausages. The proceed of mechanical separation results in grinding of the bones, liberating the marrow and rupturing cells, thus making the MDCM a favorable medium for biochemical reactions and microbiological growth. Irradiation using a Co 60 source is one of the processes which has been developed aimed at reducing contamination by spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in foods. The main advantages of food irradiation are the possibilities of treating the already packaged products at refrigerated and frozen temperatures, ideal for a highly perishable product such as MDCM, which, being a ground, easily spoiled product, requires rapid cooling followed by freezing, immediately after processing. Processing with ionizing radiation results in chemical alterations in the food, including the production of volatile compounds and free radicals. Irradiation of meat in the frozen state reduces or eliminates the negative sensory effects of this process. In this context, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of gamma radiation at doses of 3.0 and 4.0 kGy, on the microbiological quality, lipid oxidation and sensory properties of MDCM, at the refrigerated (2 ± 1 deg C) and frozen (-18 ± 1 deg C) storage, The results showed that irradiation increased the shelf life of this raw material when stored under refrigeration, as compared to non-irradiated samples. Since doses of 3.0 kGy produced increases in the shelf life of refrigerated MDCM equal or greater than those produced by doses of 4.0 kGy, this dose was considered the most adequate for the irradiation of this raw material. According to the results of microbiological, chemical and sensorial testing in irradiated MDCM samples with doses of 3.0 kGy and 4.0 kGy, the material studied presented conditions that were adequate for human consumption during the 90 days of frozen storage, whereas samples of non-irradiated MDCM were shown to

  9. Repeated touch and needle-prick stimulation in the neonatal period increases the baseline mechanical sensitivity and postinjury hypersensitivity of adult spinal sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hoogen, Nynke J; Patijn, Jacob; Tibboel, Dick; Joosten, Bert A; Fitzgerald, Maria; Kwok, Charlie H T

    2018-03-08

    Noxious stimulation at critical stages of development has long-term consequences on somatosensory processing in later life, but it is not known whether this developmental plasticity is restricted to nociceptive pathways. Here, we investigate the effect of repeated neonatal noxious or innocuous hind paw stimulation on adult spinal dorsal horn cutaneous mechanical sensitivity. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes received 4 unilateral left hind paw needle pricks (NPs, n = 13) or 4 tactile (cotton swab touch) stimuli, per day (TC, n = 11) for the first 7 days of life. Control pups were left undisturbed (n = 17). When adult (6-8 weeks), lumbar wide-dynamic-range neuron activity in laminae III-V was recorded using in vivo extracellular single-unit electrophysiology. Spike activity evoked by cutaneous dynamic tactile (brush), pinch and punctate (von Frey hair) stimulation, and plantar receptive field areas were recorded, at baseline and 2 and 5 days after left plantar hind paw incision. Baseline brush receptive fields, von Frey hair, and pinch sensitivity were significantly enhanced in adult NP and TC animals compared with undisturbed controls, although effects were greatest in NP rats. After incision, injury sensitivity of adult wide-dynamic-range neurons to both noxious and dynamic tactile hypersensitivity was significantly greater in NP animals compared with TC and undisturbed controls. We conclude that both repeated touch and needle-prick stimulation in the neonatal period can alter adult spinal sensory neuron sensitivity to both innocuous and noxious mechanical stimulation. Thus, spinal sensory circuits underlying touch and pain processing are shaped by a range of early-life somatosensory experiences.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  10. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented.

  11. A Piezoelectric Shear Stress Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeyang; Saini, Aditya; Kim, Jinwook; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Zhu, Yong; Palmieri, Frank L.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a piezoelectric sensor with a floating element was developed for shear stress measurement. The piezoelectric sensor was designed to detect the pure shear stress suppressing effects of normal stress generated from the vortex lift-up by applying opposite poling vectors to the: piezoelectric elements. The sensor was first calibrated in the lab by applying shear forces and it showed high sensitivity to shear stress (=91.3 +/- 2.1 pC/Pa) due to the high piezoelectric coefficients of PMN-33%PT (d31=-1330 pC/N). The sensor also showed almost no sensitivity to normal stress (less than 1.2 pC/Pa) because of the electromechanical symmetry of the device. The usable frequency range of the sensor is 0-800 Hz. Keywords: Piezoelectric sensor, shear stress, floating element, electromechanical symmetry

  12. Sensory adaptation for timing perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-04-22

    Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception.

  13. Diaphragm Pump With Resonant Piezoelectric Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Kline-Schoder, Robert J.; Shimko, Martin A.

    2007-01-01

    A diaphragm pump driven by a piezoelectric actuator is undergoing development. This pump is intended to be a prototype of lightweight, highly reliable pumps for circulating cooling liquids in protective garments and high-power electronic circuits, and perhaps for some medical applications. The pump would be highly reliable because it would contain no sliding seals or bearings that could wear, the only parts subject to wear would be two check valves, and the diaphragm and other flexing parts could be designed, by use of proven methods, for extremely long life. Because the pump would be capable of a large volumetric flow rate and would have only a small dead volume, its operation would not be disrupted by ingestion of gas, and it could be started reliably under all conditions. The prior art includes a number piezoelectrically actuated diaphragm pumps. Because of the smallness of the motions of piezoelectric actuators (typical maximum strains only about 0.001), the volumetric flow rates of those pumps are much too small for typical cooling applications. In the pump now undergoing development, mechanical resonance would be utilized to amplify the motion generated by the piezoelectric actuator and thereby multiply the volumetric flow rate. The prime mover in this pump would be a stack of piezoelectric ceramic actuators, one end of which would be connected to a spring that would be part of a spring-and-mass resonator structure. The mass part of the resonator structure would include the pump diaphragm (see Figure 1). Contraction of the spring would draw the diaphragm to the left, causing the volume of the fluid chamber to increase and thereby causing fluid to flow into the chamber. Subsequent expansion of the spring would push the diaphragm to the right, causing the volume of the fluid chamber to decrease, and thereby expelling fluid from the chamber. The fluid would enter and leave the chamber through check valves. The piezoelectric stack would be driven electrically to

  14. Piezoelectric properties of zinc oxide nanowires: an ab initio study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, K K; Cicero, G; Catellani, A

    2013-11-29

    Nanowires made of materials with non-centrosymmetric crystal structures are expected to be ideal building blocks for self-powered nanodevices due to their piezoelectric properties, yet a controversial explanation of the effective operational mechanisms and size effects still delays their real exploitation. To solve this controversy, we propose a methodology based on DFT calculations of the response of nanostructures to external deformations that allows us to distinguish between the different (bulk and surface) contributions: we apply this scheme to evaluate the piezoelectric properties of ZnO [0001] nanowires, with a diameter up to 2.3 nm. Our results reveal that, while surface and confinement effects are negligible, effective strain energies, and thus the nanowire mechanical response, are dependent on size. Our unified approach allows for a proper definition of piezoelectric coefficients for nanostructures, and explains in a rigorous way the reason why nanowires are found to be more sensitive to mechanical deformation than the corresponding bulk material.

  15. Piezoelectric and dielectric properties of polymer-ceramic composites for sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this PhD thesis is to develop new routes and concepts for manufacturing piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites with adequate piezoelectric properties while retaining ease of manufacturing and mechanical flexibility and explore new possibilities to maximize especially the

  16. Accuracy and Multi Domain Piezoelectric Power Harvesting Model using VHDL-AMS and SPICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Silva Souza, Flavilene; Oki, N.; Filho, J.V.; Loendersloot, Richard; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a piezoelectric power harvesting model including both the mechanical and electrical domain. It includes a mechanical system, electrical interface, storage capacitor and load. Bridge rectifier, Parallel Synchronized Switch Harvesting on Inductor (P-SSHI) and Synchronous Electric

  17. Mechanical bending strength of (Bi0.5Na0.5 TiO3-based lead-Free piezoelectric ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Takahashi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available (Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 [BNT] is expected as one of candidate lead-free materials because these ceramics show relatively good high-power piezoelectric properties. In this study, we tried to understand the bending strength and fracture behavior of the BNT-based ceramics. To measure the bending strength, a three-point bending test on the basis of JIS was conducted using 12.0 × 4.0 × 1.0 mm3 specimens. An average bending strength, σA, of pure BNT ceramics sintered at 1100 °C for 2, 12 and 24 h were 217, 195 and 187 MPa, respectively. It is cleared that the σA increased with decreasing the sintering time, (grain size and pore size. We also investigated the bending strength of Nb2O5 doped BNT ceramics [BNT-Nb x, x = 0.05 ∼ 1.5 wt%] and MnCO3 doped BNT ceramics [BNT-Mn x, x = 0.5 and 1.0 wt%]. Values of the σA of BNT-Nb 0.5 and BNT-Mn 0.5 were 222, and 188 MPa, respectively. It is clarified that soft dopants (Nb can improve the bending strength of BNT-based ceramics. Additionally, hot-pressed BNT [HP-BNT] were sintered at 1050 °C for 5 h, and the σA of HP-BNT was 245 MPa.

  18. Centesimal, microbiological, and sensory characterization of fishburgers made with mechanically separated meat of tilapia Caracterização microbiológica, sensorial e centesimal de fishburgers de carne de tilápia mecanicamente separada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Júnior Pasquetti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the microbiological, sensory and centesimal characterization of four kinds of fishburgers elaborated with tilapia mechanically separated meat. The microbiological analyses showed that both raw material and fishburgers met the microbiological standards for products derived from fish and certified that the use of byproducts derived from fish processing is a form of aggregating value to a final product, with good acceptance by the consumer, assisting quality standards. It was not verified significant differences for the averages attributed for taste, aroma, softness, global appearance and purchase intention that ranged, respectively, from 7.14 to 7.44; 7.14 to 7.46; 7.30 to 7.42; 7.21 to 7.35; 3.86 to 3.98. All fish burgers were moderately and very accepted and did not have a preferred specific one. The results of purchase intention oscillated between “maybe would buy”/”wouldn’t buy” and “possibly would buy the product”. The physical-chemical analysis presented the following results: 15.50 to 16.14; 1.73 to 10.28 and 1.12 to 2.44 g/100 g for crude protein, ethereal extract and mineral matter, respectively. The unit cost ranged from R$ 0.36 to R$ 0.37 with yield of 12 units/kg, that denote the production viability.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as características microbiológicas, sensorial e centesimal de quatro tipos de fishburgers elaborados à base de carne de tilápia mecanicamente separada (CMS. As análises microbiológicas demonstraram que tanto a matéria-prima quanto os fishburgers atenderam aos padrões microbiológicos para derivados de pescado, constatando-se que a utilização de subprodutos de processamento do pescado é uma forma de agregar valor a um produto final, com boa aceitação pelo consumidor e atendendo aos padrões de qualidade. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para as médias atribuídas aos parâmetros sabor, aroma, maciez, aparência global e inten

  19. Piezoelectric trace vapor calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkouteren, R. Michael; Gillen, Greg; Taylor, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The design and performance of a vapor generator for calibration and testing of trace chemical sensors are described. The device utilizes piezoelectric ink-jet nozzles to dispense and vaporize precisely known amounts of analyte solutions as monodisperse droplets onto a hot ceramic surface, where the generated vapors are mixed with air before exiting the device. Injected droplets are monitored by microscope with strobed illumination, and the reproducibility of droplet volumes is optimized by adjustment of piezoelectric wave form parameters. Complete vaporization of the droplets occurs only across a 10 deg. C window within the transition boiling regime of the solvent, and the minimum and maximum rates of trace analyte that may be injected and evaporated are determined by thermodynamic principles and empirical observations of droplet formation and stability. By varying solution concentrations, droplet injection rates, air flow, and the number of active nozzles, the system is designed to deliver--on demand--continuous vapor concentrations across more than six orders of magnitude (nominally 290 fg/l to 1.05 μg/l). Vapor pulses containing femtogram to microgram quantities of analyte may also be generated. Calibrated ranges of three explosive vapors at ng/l levels were generated by the device and directly measured by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). These data demonstrate expected linear trends within the limited working range of the IMS detector and also exhibit subtle nonlinear behavior from the IMS measurement process

  20. Finite element analysis of vibration energy harvesting using lead-free piezoelectric materials: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuruddh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the performance of various piezoelectric materials is simulated for the unimorph cantilever-type piezoelectric energy harvester. The finite element method (FEM is used to model the piezolaminated unimorph cantilever structure. The first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT and linear piezoelectric theory are implemented in finite element simulations. The genetic algorithm (GA optimization approach is carried out to optimize the structural parameters of mechanical energy-based energy harvester for maximum power density and power output. The numerical simulation demonstrates the performance of lead-free piezoelectric materials in unimorph cantilever-based energy harvester. The lead-free piezoelectric material K0.5Na0.5NbO3-LiSbO3-CaTiO3 (2 wt.% has demonstrated maximum mean power and maximum mean power density for piezoelectric energy harvester in the ambient frequency range of 90–110 Hz. Overall, the lead-free piezoelectric materials of K0.5Na0.5NbO3-LiSbO3 (KNN-LS family have shown better performance than the conventional lead-based piezoelectric material lead zirconate titanate (PZT in the context of piezoelectric energy harvesting devices.

  1. Critical Role of Monoclinic Polarization Rotation in High-Performance Perovskite Piezoelectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Jun; Fan, Longlong; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Lalitha, K V; Rödel, Jürgen; Xing, Xianran

    2017-07-07

    High-performance piezoelectric materials constantly attract interest for both technological applications and fundamental research. The understanding of the origin of the high-performance piezoelectric property remains a challenge mainly due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. We perform in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction combined with 2D geometry scattering technology to reveal the underlying mechanism for the perovskite-type lead-based high-performance piezoelectric materials. The direct structural evidence reveals that the electric-field-driven continuous polarization rotation within the monoclinic plane plays a critical role to achieve the giant piezoelectric response. An intrinsic relationship between the crystal structure and piezoelectric performance in perovskite ferroelectrics has been established: A strong tendency of electric-field-driven polarization rotation generates peak piezoelectric performance and vice versa. Furthermore, the monoclinic M_{A} structure is the key feature to superior piezoelectric properties as compared to other structures such as monoclinic M_{B}, rhombohedral, and tetragonal. A high piezoelectric response originates from intrinsic lattice strain, but little from extrinsic domain switching. The present results will facilitate designing high-performance perovskite piezoelectric materials by enhancing the intrinsic lattice contribution with easy and continuous polarization rotation.

  2. Piezoelectric effect in strained quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, L.S.; Andre, R.; Cibert, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes some physical aspects of the piezoelectric effect which takes place in strained semiconductor heterostructures grown along a polar axis. First we show how piezoelectric fields can be accurately measured by optical spectroscopy. Then we discuss about the origin of the non-linear piezoelectric effect reported recently for CdTe, and maybe for InAs as well. Finally we compare excitonic effects in piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric quantum wells. (orig.)

  3. Dorsal root ganglion stimulation attenuates the BOLD signal response to noxious sensory input in specific brain regions: Insights into a possible mechanism for analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawela, Christopher P; Kramer, Jeffery M; Hogan, Quinn H

    2017-02-15

    Targeted dorsal root ganglion (DRG) electrical stimulation (i.e. ganglionic field stimulation - GFS) is an emerging therapeutic approach to alleviate chronic pain. Here we describe blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to noxious hind-limb stimulation in a rat model that replicates clinical GFS using an electrode implanted adjacent to the DRG. Acute noxious sensory stimulation in the absence of GFS caused robust BOLD fMRI response in brain regions previously associated with sensory and pain-related response, such as primary/secondary somatosensory cortex, retrosplenial granular cortex, thalamus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, and amygdala. These regions differentially demonstrated either positive or negative correlation to the acute noxious stimulation paradigm, in agreement with previous rat fMRI studies. Therapeutic-level GFS significantly attenuated the global BOLD response to noxious stimulation in these regions. This BOLD signal attenuation persisted for 20minutes after the GFS was discontinued. Control experiments in sham-operated animals showed that the attenuation was not due to the effect of repetitive noxious stimulation. Additional control experiments also revealed minimal BOLD fMRI response to GFS at therapeutic intensity when presented in a standard block-design paradigm. High intensity GFS produced a BOLD signal map similar to acute noxious stimulation when presented in a block-design. These findings are the first to identify the specific brain region responses to neuromodulation at the DRG level and suggest possible mechanisms for GFS-induced treatment of chronic pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a piezoelectric bone substitute material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bader, Yousef A.

    2000-01-01

    The thesis deals with the preparation and testing of ceramic compositions to be used as bone substitute. The proposed composition consisted of calcium enriched calcium phosphate, kaolin and barium titanate in different ratios. The homogeneous powder mixture was dry pressed at different pressures and fired at temperatures up to 1350 degC for different soaking times. The physical properties of the fired compacts that were tested are bulk density and porosity. These were determined as function of pressing pressure, firing temperature and soaking time for different compositions. The mechanical properties investigated were the ultimate compressive strength and Young's modulus, which were determined for different compositions and forming pressures. The electrical properties investigated were D.C. characteristics (resistivity) and A.C. characteristics (A.C. resistivity, dielectric constant, dielectric loss and loss tangent). The piezoelectric behaviour of the fired compacts was investigated and the piezoelectric coefficient (d) in the axial direction was obtained as a function of the percent barium titanate added. The development of piezoelectricity when barium titanate is added was interpreted, using XRD, as due to the formation of barium titanate silicate. Compositions determined as having properties comparable to those of natural bone, were tested for in vitro solubility in pure water and saline solution. The results obtained showed that the selected composition (containing 15% kaolin, 10% barium titanate, pressed at 35 MPa and fired at 1350 degC for two hours) has properties comparable to those of dry bone and a reasonable in vitro solubility. (author)

  5. LEAD-FREE BNKT PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moosavi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An actuator is a device that converts input energy into mechanical energy. According to various types of input energy, various actuators have been advanced. Displacement in the electromagnetic, hydraulic and pneumatic actuators achieve by moving a piston via electromagnetic force or pressure, however the piezoelectric actuator (piezoceramic plates displace directly. Therefore, accuracy and speed in the piezoelectric device are higher than other types of actuators. In the present work, the high-field electromechanical response of high-quality (1−x(Bi 0.5Na0.5TiO3–x(Bi0.5K0.5TiO3 samples abbreviated to BNKTx with x = 0.18, 0.20, 0.22 and 0.24 ceramic materials across its MPB was investigated. The piezoelectrics and actuation characteristics were characterized. Ourresults indicate that x = 0.20, indeed, constitutes the best choice for the MPB composition in the system. Maximum of remanent polarization (37.5 μC cm−2 was obtained for x=0.20. High-field electromechanical responses were also obtained for BNKT0.20 samples. This material exhibited giant field induced strains of 0.13% under 1 kV mm -1 at room temperature.

  6. Ultrahigh piezoelectricity in ferroelectric ceramics by design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Lin, Dabin; Chen, Zibin; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Wang, Jianli; Li, ChunChun; Xu, Zhuo; Huang, Qianwei; Liao, Xiaozhou; Chen, Long-Qing; Shrout, Thomas R.; Zhang, Shujun

    2018-03-01

    Piezoelectric materials, which respond mechanically to applied electric field and vice versa, are essential for electromechanical transducers. Previous theoretical analyses have shown that high piezoelectricity in perovskite oxides is associated with a flat thermodynamic energy landscape connecting two or more ferroelectric phases. Here, guided by phenomenological theories and phase-field simulations, we propose an alternative design strategy to commonly used morphotropic phase boundaries to further flatten the energy landscape, by judiciously introducing local structural heterogeneity to manipulate interfacial energies (that is, extra interaction energies, such as electrostatic and elastic energies associated with the interfaces). To validate this, we synthesize rare-earth-doped Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT), as rare-earth dopants tend to change the local structure of Pb-based perovskite ferroelectrics. We achieve ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients d33 of up to 1,500 pC N-1 and dielectric permittivity ɛ33/ɛ0 above 13,000 in a Sm-doped PMN-PT ceramic with a Curie temperature of 89 °C. Our research provides a new paradigm for designing material properties through engineering local structural heterogeneity, expected to benefit a wide range of functional materials.

  7. Model based analysis of piezoelectric transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsel, T; Priya, S

    2006-12-22

    Piezoelectric transformers are increasingly getting popular in the electrical devices owing to several advantages such as small size, high efficiency, no electromagnetic noise and non-flammable. In addition to the conventional applications such as ballast for back light inverter in notebook computers, camera flash, and fuel ignition several new applications have emerged such as AC/DC converter, battery charger and automobile lighting. These new applications demand high power density and wide range of voltage gain. Currently, the transformer power density is limited to 40 W/cm(3) obtained at low voltage gain. The purpose of this study was to investigate a transformer design that has the potential of providing higher power density and wider range of voltage gain. The new transformer design utilizes radial mode both at the input and output port and has the unidirectional polarization in the ceramics. This design was found to provide 30 W power with an efficiency of 98% and 30 degrees C temperature rise from the room temperature. An electro-mechanical equivalent circuit model was developed to describe the characteristics of the piezoelectric transformer. The model was found to successfully predict the characteristics of the transformer. Excellent matching was found between the computed and experimental results. The results of this study will allow to deterministically design unipoled piezoelectric transformers with specified performance. It is expected that in near future the unipoled transformer will gain significant importance in various electrical components.

  8. A new smart traffic monitoring method using embedded cement-based piezoelectric sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinrui; Lu, Youyuan; Lu, Zeyu; Liu, Chao; Sun, Guoxing; Li, Zongjin

    2015-01-01

    Cement-based piezoelectric composites are employed as the sensing elements of a new smart traffic monitoring system. The piezoelectricity of the cement-based piezoelectric sensors enables powerful and accurate real-time detection of the pressure induced by the traffic flow. To describe the mechanical-electrical conversion mechanism between traffic flow and the electrical output of the embedded piezoelectric sensors, a mathematical model is established based on Duhamel’s integral, the constitutive law and the charge-leakage characteristics of the piezoelectric composite. Laboratory tests show that the voltage magnitude of the sensor is linearly proportional to the applied pressure, which ensures the reliability of the cement-based piezoelectric sensors for traffic monitoring. A series of on-site road tests by a 10 tonne truck and a 6.8 tonne van show that vehicle weight-in-motion can be predicted based on the mechanical-electrical model by taking into account the vehicle speed and the charge-leakage property of the piezoelectric sensor. In the speed range from 20 km h −1 to 70 km h −1 , the error of the repeated weigh-in-motion measurements of the 6.8 tonne van is less than 1 tonne. The results indicate that the embedded cement-based piezoelectric sensors and associated measurement setup have good capability of smart traffic monitoring, such as traffic flow detection, vehicle speed detection and weigh-in-motion measurement. (paper)

  9. Model of a Piezoelectric Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenow, Debra

    2004-01-01

    It's difficult to control liquid and gas in propellant tanks in zero gravity. A possible a design would utilize acoustic liquid manipulation (ALM) technology which uses ultrasonic beams conducted through a liquid and solid media, to push gas bubbles in the liquid to desirable locations. We can propel and control the bubble with acoustic radiation pressure by aiming the acoustic waves on the bubble s surface. This allows us to design a so called smart tank in which the ALM devices transfer the gas to the outer wall of the tank and isolating the liquid in the center. Because the heat transfer rate of a gas is lower of that of the liquid it would substantially decrease boil off and provide of for a longer storage life. The ALM beam is composed of little wavelets which are individual waves that constructively interfere with each other to produce a single, combined acoustic wave front. This is accomplished by using a set of synchronized ultrasound transducers arranged in an array. A slight phase offset of these elements allows us to focus and steer the beam. The device that we are using to produce the acoustic beam is called the piezoelectric transducer. This device converts electrical energy to mechanical energy, which appears in the form of acoustic energy. Therefore the behavior of the device is dependent on both the mechanical characteristics, such as its density, cross-sectional area, and its electrical characteristics, such as, electric flux permittivity and coupling factor. These devices can also be set up in a number of modes which are determined by the way the piezoelectric device is arranged, and the shape of the transducer. For this application we are using the longitudinal or thickness mode for our operation. The transducer also vibrates in the lateral mode, and one of the goals of my project is to decrease the amount of energy lost to the lateral mode. To model the behavior of the transducers I will be using Pspice, electric circuit modeling tool, to

  10. Piezoelectric smart biomaterials for bone and cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jaicy; More, Namdev; Kalia, Kiran; Kapusetti, Govinda

    2018-01-01

    Tissues like bone and cartilage are remodeled dynamically for their functional requirements by signaling pathways. The signals are controlled by the cells and extracellular matrix and transmitted through an electrical and chemical synapse. Scaffold-based tissue engineering therapies largely disturb the natural signaling pathways, due to their rigidity towards signal conduction, despite their therapeutic advantages. Thus, there is a high need of smart biomaterials, which can conveniently generate and transfer the bioelectric signals analogous to native tissues for appropriate physiological functions. Piezoelectric materials can generate electrical signals in response to the applied stress. Furthermore, they can stimulate the signaling pathways and thereby enhance the tissue regeneration at the impaired site. The piezoelectric scaffolds can act as sensitive mechanoelectrical transduction systems. Hence, it is applicable to the regions, where mechanical loads are predominant. The present review is mainly concentrated on the mechanism related to the electrical stimulation in a biological system and the different piezoelectric materials suitable for bone and cartilage tissue engineering.

  11. Torsion sensing based on patterned piezoelectric beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Youngsu; You, Hangil

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the sensing characteristics of piezoelectric beams under torsional loads. We used partially patterned piezoelectric beams to sense torsion. In particular, the piezoelectric patches are located symmetrically with respect to the line of the shear center of the beam. The patterned piezoelectric beam is modeled as a slender beam, and its electrical responses are obtained by piezoelectric electromechanical equations. To validate the modeling framework, experiments are performed using a setup that forces pure torsional deformation. Three different geometric configurations of the patterned piezoelectric layer are used for the experiments. The frequency and amplitude of the forced torsional load are systematically varied in order to study the behavior of the piezoelectric sensor. Experimental results demonstrate that two voltage outputs of the piezoelectric beam are approximately out of phase with identical amplitude. Moreover, the length of the piezoelectric layers has a significant influence on the sensing properties. Our theoretical predictions using the model support the experimental findings.

  12. Structural Origins of Silk Piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Tuna; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L

    2011-02-22

    Uniaxially oriented, piezoelectric silk films were prepared by a two-step method that involved: (1) air drying aqueous, regenerated silk fibroin solutions into films, and (2) drawing the silk films to a desired draw ratio. The utility of two different drawing techniques, zone drawing and water immersion drawing were investigated for processing the silk for piezoelectric studies. Silk films zone drawn to a ratio of λ= 2.7 displayed relatively high dynamic shear piezoelectric coefficients of d(14) = -1.5 pC/N, corresponding to over two orders of magnitude increase in d(14) due to film drawing. A strong correlation was observed between the increase in the silk II, β-sheet content with increasing draw ratio measured by FTIR spectroscopy (C(β)∝ e(2.5) (λ)), the concomitant increasing degree of orientation of β-sheet crystals detected via WAXD (FWHM = 0.22° for λ= 2.7), and the improvement in silk piezoelectricity (d(14)∝ e(2.4) (λ)). Water immersion drawing led to a predominantly silk I structure with a low degree of orientation (FWHM = 75°) and a much weaker piezoelectric response compared to zone drawing. Similarly, increasing the β-sheet crystallinity without inducing crystal alignment, e.g. by methanol treatment, did not result in a significant enhancement of silk piezoelectricity. Overall, a combination of a high degree of silk II, β-sheet crystallinity and crystalline orientation are prerequisites for a strong piezoelectric effect in silk. Further understanding of the structural origins of silk piezoelectricity will provide important options for future biotechnological and biomedical applications of this protein.

  13. Energy harvesting performance of piezoelectric ceramic and polymer nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, Sam; Kar-Narayan, Sohini

    2015-01-01

    Energy harvesting from ubiquitous ambient vibrations is attractive for autonomous small-power applications and thus considerable research is focused on piezoelectric materials as they permit direct inter-conversion of mechanical and electrical energy. Nanogenerators (NGs) based on piezoelectric nanowires are particularly attractive due to their sensitivity to small-scale vibrations and may possess superior mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency when compared to bulk or thin-film devices of the same material. However, candidate piezoelectric nanowires have hitherto been predominantly analyzed in terms of NG output (i.e. output voltage, output current and output power density). Surprisingly, the corresponding dynamical properties of the NG, including details of how the nanowires are mechanically driven and its impact on performance, have been largely neglected. Here we investigate all realizable NG driving contexts separately involving inertial displacement, applied stress T and applied strain S, highlighting the effect of driving mechanism and frequency on NG performance in each case. We argue that, in the majority of cases, the intrinsic high resonance frequencies of piezoelectric nanowires (∼tens of MHz) present no barrier to high levels of NG performance even at frequencies far below resonance (<1 kHz) typically characteristic of ambient vibrations. In this context, we introduce vibrational energy harvesting (VEH) coefficients η S and η T , based on intrinsic materials properties, for comparing piezoelectric NG performance under strain-driven and stress-driven conditions respectively. These figures of merit permit, for the first time, a general comparison of piezoelectric nanowires for NG applications that takes into account the nature of the mechanical excitation. We thus investigate the energy harvesting performance of prototypical piezoelectric ceramic and polymer nanowires. We find that even though ceramic and polymer nanowires have been found, in

  14. Multilayer Piezoelectric Stack Actuator Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher M.; Aldrich, Jack B.; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xioaqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to use actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of fractions of a nanometer. For this purpose, multilayer piezoelectric stacks are being considered as actuators for driving these precision mechanisms. In this study, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and extreme temperatures and voltages. AC signal testing included impedance, capacitance and dielectric loss factor of each actuator as a function of the small-signal driving sinusoidal frequency, and the ambient temperature. DC signal testing includes leakage current and displacement as a function of the applied DC voltage. The applied DC voltage was increased to over eight times the manufacturers' specifications to investigate the correlation between leakage current and breakdown voltage. Resonance characterization as a function of temperature was done over a temperature range of -180C to +200C which generally exceeded the manufacturers' specifications. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators from one manufacturer were driven by a 60volt, 2 kHz sine-wave for ten billion cycles. The tests were performed using a Lab-View controlled automated data acquisition system that monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The measurements included the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current and the analysis of the experimental results will be presented.

  15. Actuators Using Piezoelectric Stacks and Displacement Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkenmeyer, Phillip; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    2015-01-01

    Actuators are used to drive all active mechanisms including machines, robots, and manipulators to name a few. The actuators are responsible for moving, manipulating, displacing, pushing and executing any action that is needed by the mechanism. There are many types and principles of actuation that are responsible for these movements ranging from electromagnetic, electroactive, thermo-mechanic, piezoelectric, electrostrictive etc. Actuators are readily available from commercial producers but there is a great need for reducing their size, increasing their efficiency and reducing their weight. Studies at JPL’s Non Destructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) Laboratory have been focused on the use of piezoelectric stacks and novel designs taking advantage of piezoelectric’s potential to provide high torque/force density actuation and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The actuators/motors that have been developed and reviewed in this paper are operated by various horn configurations as well as the use of pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The use of monolithic designs that pre-stress the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of compression stress bolt. These designs enable the embedding of developed solid-state motors/actuators in any structure with the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. Finite element modeling and design tools were used to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to simulate, design and fabricate novel actuators/motors. The developed actuators and performance will be described and discussed in this paper.

  16. Cambrian origin of the CYP27C1-mediated vitamin A1-to-A2 switch, a key mechanism of vertebrate sensory plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshedian, Ala; Toomery, Matthew B.; Pollock, Gabriel E.; Frederiksen, Rikard; Enright, Jennifer; McCormick, Stephen; Cornwall, M. Carter; Fain, Gordon L.; Corbo, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    The spectral composition of ambient light varies across both space and time. Many species of jawed vertebrates adapt to this variation by tuning the sensitivity of their photoreceptors via the expression of CYP27C1, an enzyme that converts vitamin A1 into vitamin A2, thereby shifting the ratio of vitamin A1-based rhodopsin to red-shifted vitamin A2-based porphyropsin in the eye. Here, we show that the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a jawless vertebrate that diverged from jawed vertebrates during the Cambrian period (approx. 500 Ma), dynamically shifts its photoreceptor spectral sensitivity via vitamin A1-to-A2 chromophore exchange as it transitions between photically divergent aquatic habitats. We further show that this shift correlates with high-level expression of the lamprey orthologue of CYP27C1, specifically in the retinal pigment epithelium as in jawed vertebrates. Our results suggest that the CYP27C1-mediated vitamin A1-to-A2 switch is an evolutionarily ancient mechanism of sensory plasticity that appeared not long after the origin of vertebrates.

  17. Control of piezoelectricity in amino acids by supramolecular packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Sarah; Stapleton, Aimee; Chovan, Drahomir; Mouras, Rabah; Gleeson, Matthew; McKeown, Cian; Noor, Mohamed Radzi; Silien, Christophe; Rhen, Fernando M F; Kholkin, Andrei L; Liu, Ning; Soulimane, Tewfik; Tofail, Syed A M; Thompson, Damien

    2018-02-01

    Piezoelectricity, the linear relationship between stress and induced electrical charge, has attracted recent interest due to its manifestation in biological molecules such as synthetic polypeptides or amino acid crystals, including gamma (γ) glycine. It has also been demonstrated in bone, collagen, elastin and the synthetic bone mineral hydroxyapatite. Piezoelectric coefficients exhibited by these biological materials are generally low, typically in the range of 0.1-10 pm V -1 , limiting technological applications. Guided by quantum mechanical calculations we have measured a high shear piezoelectricity (178 pm V -1 ) in the amino acid crystal beta (β) glycine, which is of similar magnitude to barium titanate or lead zirconate titanate. Our calculations show that the high piezoelectric coefficients originate from an efficient packing of the molecules along certain crystallographic planes and directions. The highest predicted piezoelectric voltage constant for β-glycine crystals is 8 V mN -1 , which is an order of magnitude larger than the voltage generated by any currently used ceramic or polymer.

  18. Control of piezoelectricity in amino acids by supramolecular packing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Sarah; Stapleton, Aimee; Chovan, Drahomir; Mouras, Rabah; Gleeson, Matthew; McKeown, Cian; Noor, Mohamed Radzi; Silien, Christophe; Rhen, Fernando M. F.; Kholkin, Andrei L.; Liu, Ning; Soulimane, Tewfik; Tofail, Syed A. M.; Thompson, Damien

    2018-02-01

    Piezoelectricity, the linear relationship between stress and induced electrical charge, has attracted recent interest due to its manifestation in biological molecules such as synthetic polypeptides or amino acid crystals, including gamma (γ) glycine. It has also been demonstrated in bone, collagen, elastin and the synthetic bone mineral hydroxyapatite. Piezoelectric coefficients exhibited by these biological materials are generally low, typically in the range of 0.1-10 pm V-1, limiting technological applications. Guided by quantum mechanical calculations we have measured a high shear piezoelectricity (178 pm V-1) in the amino acid crystal beta (β) glycine, which is of similar magnitude to barium titanate or lead zirconate titanate. Our calculations show that the high piezoelectric coefficients originate from an efficient packing of the molecules along certain crystallographic planes and directions. The highest predicted piezoelectric voltage constant for β-glycine crystals is 8 V mN-1, which is an order of magnitude larger than the voltage generated by any currently used ceramic or polymer.

  19. Proposition for sensorless self-excitation by a piezoelectric device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y.; Kokubun, Y.; Yabuno, H.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to realize self-excitation in an oscillator actuated by a piezoelectric device without a sensor. In general, the positive feedback associated with the oscillator velocity causes the self-excitation. Instead of measuring the velocity with a sensor, we utilize the electro-mechanical coupling effect in the oscillator and piezoelectric device. We drive the piezoelectric device with a current proportional to the linear combination of the voltage across the terminals of the piezoelectric device and its differential voltage signal. Then, the oscillator with the piezoelectric device behaves like a third-order system, which has three eigenvalues. The self-excitation can be realized because appropriate feedback gains can set two of the eigenvalues to be conjugate complex roots with a positive real part and the other eigenvalue to be a negative real root. To confirm the validity of the proposed method, we experimentally demonstrated the sensorless self-excitation and, as an application example, carried out mass sensing in a sensorless self-excited macrocantilever.

  20. Simulation of Piezoelectric Transformers with COMSOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2012-01-01

    In this work COMSOL is utilized to obtain the Mason lumped parameter model for a piezoelectric transformer (PT) design. The Mason lumped parameters are relevant in the design process of power converters. The magnitude of the impedance is simulated for a specific: interleaved multilayer thickness...... for simplifying the PT model are given in order to decrease the simulation time. This paper aims to aid electrical engineers with less knowledge within the field of mechanics, to be able to simulate a PT design with COMSOL and extract the key electrical parameters....

  1. Systematic modeling for free stators of rotary - Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojallali, Hamed; Amini, Rouzbeh; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2007-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model with complex elements is presented in this paper to describe the free stator model of traveling wave piezoelectric motors. The mechanical, dielectric and piezoelectric losses associated with the vibrator are considered by introducing the imaginary part to the equivalent...... circuit elements. The determination of the complex circuit elements is performed by using a new simple iterative method. The presented method uses information about five points of the stator admittance measurements. The accuracy of the model in fitting to the experimental data is verified by using...

  2. Enhanced piezoelectric operation of NiO/GaN heterojunction generator by suppressed internal carrier screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Dae Kyung; Kang, Jin-Ho; Ryu, Sang-Wan; Ha, Jun-Seok

    2017-01-01

    A NiO/GaN heterojunction piezoelectric generator was fabricated, and the improvement in device performance was analyzed. The electrical properties of NiO were varied by regulating the gas environment during sputtering. An optimized NiO layer was adopted for high piezoelectric voltage generation. Internal carrier screening was revealed to be the dominant mechanism degrading the piezoelectric performance, necessitating the suppression of carrier screening. The highly resistive NiO layer was advantageous in the suppression of carrier transport across the junction that screened the piezoelectric field. The maximum piezoelectric voltage and current density values obtained were 7.55 V and 1.14 µ A cm −2 , respectively. The power obtained was sufficient to operate a light-emitting diode combined with a charging circuit. (paper)

  3. On the Nonlinear Behavior of the Piezoelectric Coupling on Vibration-Based Energy Harvesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana L. Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration-based energy harvesting with piezoelectric elements has an increasing importance nowadays being related to numerous potential applications. A wide range of nonlinear effects is observed in energy harvesting devices and the analysis of the power generated suggests that they have considerable influence on the results. Linear constitutive models for piezoelectric materials can provide inconsistencies on the prediction of the power output of the energy harvester, mainly close to resonant conditions. This paper investigates the effect of the nonlinear behavior of the piezoelectric coupling. A one-degree of freedom mechanical system is coupled to an electrical circuit by a piezoelectric element and different coupling models are investigated. Experimental tests available in the literature are employed as a reference establishing the best matches of the models. Subsequently, numerical simulations are carried out showing different responses of the system indicating that nonlinear piezoelectric couplings can strongly modify the system dynamics.

  4. Quantitative Examination of Piezoelectric/Seismoelectric Anomalies from Near-Surface Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Eppelbaum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The piezoelectric and seismo-electrokinetic phenomena are manifested by electrical and electromagnetic processes that occur in rocks under the influence of elastic oscillations triggered by shots or mechanical impacts. Differences in piezoelectric properties between the studied targets and host media determine the possibilities of the piezoelectric/seismoelectric method application. Over a long time, an interpretation of obtained data is carried out by the use of methods developed in seismic prospecting. Examination of nature of piezoelectric/seismoelectric anomalies observed in subsurface indicates that these may be related (mainly to electric potential field. In this paper, it is shown that quantitative analysis of piezoelectric/seismoelectric anomalies may be performed by the advanced and reliable methodologies developed in magnetic prospecting. Some examples from mining geophysics (Russia and ancient metallurgical site (Israel confirm applicability of the suggested approach.

  5. BaTiO3-based piezoelectrics: Fundamentals, current status, and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, M.; Novak, N.; Rojas, V.; Patel, S.; Vaish, R.; Koruza, J.; Rossetti, G. A.; Rödel, J.

    2017-12-01

    We present a critical review that encompasses the fundamentals and state-of-the-art knowledge of barium titanate-based piezoelectrics. First, the essential crystallography, thermodynamic relations, and concepts necessary to understand piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity in barium titanate are discussed. Strategies to optimize piezoelectric properties through microstructure control and chemical modification are also introduced. Thereafter, we systematically review the synthesis, microstructure, and phase diagrams of barium titanate-based piezoelectrics and provide a detailed compilation of their functional and mechanical properties. The most salient materials treated include the (Ba,Ca)(Zr,Ti)O3, (Ba,Ca)(Sn,Ti)O3, and (Ba,Ca)(Hf,Ti)O3 solid solution systems. The technological relevance of barium titanate-based piezoelectrics is also discussed and some potential market indicators are outlined. Finally, perspectives on productive lines of future research and promising areas for the applications of these materials are presented.

  6. A database to enable discovery and design of piezoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maarten; Chen, Wei; Geerlings, Henry; Asta, Mark; Persson, Kristin Aslaug

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials are used in numerous applications requiring a coupling between electrical fields and mechanical strain. Despite the technological importance of this class of materials, for only a small fraction of all inorganic compounds which display compatible crystallographic symmetry, has piezoelectricity been characterized experimentally or computationally. In this work we employ first-principles calculations based on density functional perturbation theory to compute the piezoelectric tensors for nearly a thousand compounds, thereby increasing the available data for this property by more than an order of magnitude. The results are compared to select experimental data to establish the accuracy of the calculated properties. The details of the calculations are also presented, along with a description of the format of the database developed to make these computational results publicly available. In addition, the ways in which the database can be accessed and applied in materials development efforts are described. PMID:26451252

  7. Electrical Properties and Power Considerations of a Piezoelectric Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, T.; Ounaies, Z.; Tripp, J.; Tcheng, P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper assesses the electrical characteristics of piezoelectric wafers for use in aeronautical applications such as active noise control in aircraft. Determination of capacitive behavior and power consumption is necessary to optimize the system configuration and to design efficient driving electronics. Empirical relations are developed from experimental data to predict the capacitance and loss tangent of a PZT5A ceramic as nonlinear functions of both applied peak voltage and driving frequency. Power consumed by the PZT is the rate of energy required to excite the piezoelectric system along with power dissipated due to dielectric loss and mechanical and structural damping. Overall power consumption is thus quantified as a function of peak applied voltage and driving frequency. It was demonstrated that by incorporating the variation of capacitance and power loss with voltage and frequency, satisfactory estimates of power requirements can be obtained. These relations allow general guidelines in selection and application of piezoelectric actuators and driving electronics for active control applications.

  8. Analytical model for nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvesting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neiss, S; Goldschmidtboeing, F; M Kroener; Woias, P

    2014-01-01

    In this work we propose analytical expressions for the jump-up and jump-down point of a nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester. In addition, analytical expressions for the maximum power output at optimal resistive load and the 3 dB-bandwidth are derived. So far, only numerical models have been used to describe the physics of a piezoelectric energy harvester. However, this approach is not suitable to quickly evaluate different geometrical designs or piezoelectric materials in the harvester design process. In addition, the analytical expressions could be used to predict the jump-frequencies of a harvester during operation. In combination with a tuning mechanism, this would allow the design of an efficient control algorithm to ensure that the harvester is always working on the oscillator's high energy attractor. (paper)

  9. Modelling and Analysis of a New Piezoelectric Dynamic Balance Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Xun Xu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new piezoelectric dynamic balance regulator, which can be used in motorised spindle systems, is presented. The dynamic balancing adjustment mechanism is driven by an in-plane bending vibration from an annular piezoelectric stator excited by a high-frequency sinusoidal input voltage. This device has different construction, characteristics and operating principles than a conventional balance regulator. In this work, a dynamic model of the regulator is first developed using a detailed analytical method. Thereafter, MATLAB is employed to numerically simulate the relations between the dominant parameters and the characteristics of the regulator based on thedynamic model. Finally, experimental measurements are used to certify the validity of the dynamic model. Consequently, the mathematical model presented and analysed in this paper can be used as a tool for optimising the design of a piezoelectric dynamic balance regulator during steady state operation.

  10. Fundamental solutions in piezoelectricity. Penny-shaped crack solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyka, Ewa; Rogowski, Bogdan

    2006-01-01

    The problem of electroelasticity for piezoelectric materials is considered. For axially symmetric states three potentials are introduced, which determine the displacements, the electric potentials, the stresses, the components of the electric field vector and the electric displacements in a piezoelectric body. These fundamental solutions are utilized to solve the penny-shaped crack problem. Two cases of boundary-value problems are considered, namely the permeable and impermeable crack boundary conditions. Exact solutions are obtained for elastic and electric fields. The main results are the stress intensity factor for singular stress and the electric displacement intensity factor. The numerical results are presented graphically to show the influence of applied mechanical and electrical loading on the analyzed quantities and to clarify the effect of anisotropy of piezoelectric materials. It is show that the influence of anisotropy of the materials on these fields is significant

  11. A database to enable discovery and design of piezoelectric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maarten; Chen, Wei; Geerlings, Henry; Asta, Mark; Persson, Kristin Aslaug

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials are used in numerous applications requiring a coupling between electrical fields and mechanical strain. Despite the technological importance of this class of materials, for only a small fraction of all inorganic compounds which display compatible crystallographic symmetry, has piezoelectricity been characterized experimentally or computationally. In this work we employ first-principles calculations based on density functional perturbation theory to compute the piezoelectric tensors for nearly a thousand compounds, thereby increasing the available data for this property by more than an order of magnitude. The results are compared to select experimental data to establish the accuracy of the calculated properties. The details of the calculations are also presented, along with a description of the format of the database developed to make these computational results publicly available. In addition, the ways in which the database can be accessed and applied in materials development efforts are described.

  12. Impedance-based damage assessment using piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Mi-Sun; Yoo, Seung-Jae; Lee, In; Song, Jae-Hoon; Yang, Jae-Won

    2011-04-01

    Recently structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are being focused because they make it possible to assess the health of structures at real-time in many application fields such as aircraft, aerospace, civil and so on. Piezoelectric materials are widely used for sensors of SHM system to monitor damage of critical parts such as bolted joints. Bolted joints could be loosened by vibration, thermal cycling, shock, corrosion, and they cause serious mechanical failures. In this paper, impedance-based method using piezoelectric sensors was applied for real-time SHM. A steel beam specimen fastened by bolts was tested, and polymer type piezoelectric materials, PVDFs were used for sensors to monitor the condition of bolted joint connections. When structure has some damage, for example loose bolts, the impedance of PVDF sensors showed different tendency with normal structure which has no loose bolts. In the case of loose bolts, impedance values are decreased and admittance values are increased.

  13. JOINT RIGIDITY ASSESSMENT WITH PIEZOELECTRIC WAFERS AND ACOUSTIC WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Angela C.; Maji, Arup K.

    2010-01-01

    There has been an interest in the development of rapid deployment satellites. In a modular satellite design, different panels of specific functions can be pre-manufactured. The satellite can then be assembled and tested just prior to deployment. Traditional vibration testing is time-consuming and expensive. An alternative test method to evaluate the connection between two plates will be proposed. The method investigated and described employs piezoelectric wafers to induce and sense lamb waves in two aluminum plates, which were joined by steel brackets to form an 'L-Style' joint. Lamb wave behavior and piezoelectric material properties will be discussed; the experimental setup and results will be presented. A set of 4 piezoelectric ceramic wafers were used alternately as source and sensor. The energy transmitted was shown to correlate with a mechanical assessment of the joint, demonstrating that this method of testing is a feasible and reliable way to inspect the rigidity of joints.

  14. Characteristics of Response of Piezoelectric Actuators in Electron Flux Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C. Hadinata

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the working parameters of non-contact strain control for piezoelectric ceramics are evaluated. The piezoelectric material functions as an actuator that transforms electrical into mechanical energy, and the electrical input is carried out by electron flux on the positive surface. The sample is exposed to some quasi-static inputs, and its responses are recorded using strain gages. The data shows faster and more stable response in the positive regime, but significantly slower response with drift in the negative regime. An electron collector is introduced on the positive surface to enhance the response in the negative regime. Theoretical analyses of energy transfer and electron movements is discussed, and a string of working conditions for controlling the surface strain of piezoelectric material are given as conclusions.

  15. Active and passive damping based on piezoelectric elements -controllability issues-

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holterman, J.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; van Amerongen, J.; Jonker, Jan B.; Jonker, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    Piezoelectric elements are widely used for damping micro-vibrations in mechanical structures. Active damping can be realised robustly by means of collocated actuator-sensor-pairs, controlled so as to extract vibration energy. Excellent damping performance is possible as long as sufficient

  16. An Investigation of Finite Element Analysis (FEA on Piezoelectric Compliance in Ultrasonic Vibration Assisted Milling (UVAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Rasidi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element analysis for piezoelectric actuator has been developed in Ansys Software which are a program that can analyses and simulate the dynamic behaviour of piezoelectric. The Ultrasonic Vibration assisted Milling (UVAM experimental having a difficulty to investigate the effect of vibration mechanism where existence of error in material, mechanism and attachment of piezoelectric thus affect the amplitude and frequency of mechanical compliance during the machining of UVAM. This paper will investigate the modelling of piezoelectric compliance and follow the procedures of FEA to accurately predict the dynamic behaviour of compliance. The parameters for simulation of piezoelectric are voltage, electromechanical coupling and frequency. The compliance mechanism is model by using SolidWorks 2014 and imported to Ansys Mechanical APDL Software were the piezoelectric are embedded on the mechanism. Modal analysis and harmonic analysis has been used in order to obtain the mode shape and displacement. The displacement of the compliance mechanism will be compare between simulation and experimental. The dynamic behaviour was discussed in simulation to study the reliability of the compliance mechanism before it safely used in UVAM.

  17. Evolution of transverse piezoelectric response of lead zirconate titanate ceramics under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fei; Xu Zhuo; Wei Xiaoyong; Gao Junjie; Zhang, Chonghui; Yao Xi; Jin Li

    2009-01-01

    The piezoelectric properties of 31-mode resonators of lead zirconate titanate ceramics under hydrostatic pressure from 0.1 to 325 MPa were evaluated by a fitting method, in which mechanical loss was taken into account. Our results based on the fitting method showed a hydrostatic pressure independent tendency of the piezoelectric coefficient and the electromechanical coupling factor because the adopted PZT ceramic can be considered as a linear system in our experiment, while two misleading tendencies of piezoelectric coefficient were obtained based on the resonance method when ignoring the contribution of the mechanical loss. (fast track communication)

  18. Molecular mechanisms involved in cochlear implantation trauma and the protection of hearing and auditory sensory cells by inhibition of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi, Adrien A; Gupta, Chhavi; Van De Water, Thomas R; Bohorquez, Jorge E; Garnham, Carolyn; Bas, Esperanza; Talamo, Victoria Maria

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in electrode insertion trauma (EIT) and to test the otoprotective effect of locally delivered AM-111. An animal model of cochlear implantation. Guinea pigs' hearing thresholds were measured by auditory brainstem response (ABR) before and after cochlear implantation in four groups: EIT; pretreated with hyaluronate gel 30 minutes before EIT (EIT+Gel); pretreated with hyaluronate gel/AM-111 30 minutes before EIT (EIT+AM-111); and unoperated contralateral ears as controls. Neurofilament, synapsin, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-phalloidin staining for hair cell counts were performed at 90 days post-EIT. Immunostaining for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), activated caspase-3, CellROX, and phospho-c-Jun were performed at 24 hours post-EIT. ABR thresholds increased post-EIT in the cochleae of EIT only and EIT+Gel treated animals. There was no significant increase in hearing thresholds in cochleae from either EIT+AM-111 treated or unoperated control ears. AM-111 protection of organ of Corti sensory elements (i.e., hair cells [HCs], supporting cells [SCs], nerve fibers, and synapses) was documented at 3 months post-EIT. Immunostaining of 24-hour post-EIT specimens demonstrated increased levels of HNE in HCs and SCs; increased levels of CellROX and activation of caspase-3 was observed only in SCs, and phosphorylation of c-Jun occurred only in HCs of the EIT-only and EIT+Gel specimens. There was no immunostaining for either HNE, CellROX, caspase-3, or phospho-c-Jun in the organ of Corti specimens from AM-111 treated cochleae. Molecular mechanisms involved in programmed cell death of HCs are different than the ones involved in programmed cell death of SCs. Local delivery of AM-111 provided a significant level of protection against EIT-induced hearing losses, HC losses, and damage to neural elements. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Piezoelectric Templates – New Views on Biomineralization and Biomimetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitz, Nina; Eiben, Sabine; Atanasova, Petia; Domingo, Neus; Leineweber, Andreas; Burghard, Zaklina; Bill, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Biomineralization in general is based on electrostatic interactions and molecular recognition of organic and inorganic phases. These principles of biomineralization have also been utilized and transferred to bio-inspired synthesis of functional materials during the past decades. Proteins involved in both, biomineralization and bio-inspired processes, are often piezoelectric due to their dipolar character hinting to the impact of a template’s piezoelectricity on mineralization processes. However, the piezoelectric contribution on the mineralization process and especially the interaction of organic and inorganic phases is hardly considered so far. We herein report the successful use of the intrinsic piezoelectric properties of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to synthesize piezoelectric ZnO. Such films show a two-fold increase of the piezoelectric coefficient up to 7.2 pm V−1 compared to films synthesized on non-piezoelectric templates. By utilizing the intrinsic piezoelectricity of a biotemplate, we thus established a novel synthesis pathway towards functional materials, which sheds light on the whole field of biomimetics. The obtained results are of even broader and general interest since they are providing a new, more comprehensive insight into the mechanisms involved into biomineralization in living nature. PMID:27212583

  20. Study on the sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducer in thickness vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shuyu; Tian Hua

    2008-01-01

    A sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducer in thickness vibration is studied. The transducer consists of front and back metal masses, and coaxially segmented, thickness polarized piezoelectric ceramic thin rings. For this kind of sandwich piezoelectric transducers in thickness vibration, it is required that the lateral dimension of the transducer is sufficiently large compared with its longitudinal dimension so that no lateral displacements in the transducer can occur (laterally clamped). In this paper, the thickness vibration of the piezoelectric ceramic stack consisting of a number of identical piezoelectric ceramic thin rings is analysed and its electro-mechanical equivalent circuit is obtained. The resonance frequency equation for the sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducer in thickness vibration is derived. Based on the frequency equation, two sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducers are designed and manufactured, and their resonance frequencies are measured. It is shown that the measured resonance frequencies are in good agreement with the theoretical results. This kind of sandwich piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer is expected to be used in megasonic ultrasonic cleaning and sonochemistry where high power and high frequency ultrasound is needed

  1. Development, Characterization and Piezoelectric Fatigue Behavior of Lead-Free Perovskite Piezoelectric Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Eric Andrew

    Much recent research has focused on the development lead-free perovskite piezoelectrics as environmentally compatible alternatives to lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Two main categories of lead free perovskite piezoelectric ceramic systems were investigated as potential replacements to lead zirconate titanate (PZT) for actuator devices. First, solid solutions based on Li, Ta, and Sb modified (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) lead-free perovskite systems were created using standard solid state methods. Secondly, Bi-based materials a variety of compositions were explored for (1-x)(Bi 0.5Na0.5)TiO3-xBi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O 3 (BNT-BZT) and Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3-(Bi 0.5K0.5)TiO3-(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO 3 (BZT-BKT-BNT). It was shown that when BNT-BKT is combined with increasing concentrations of Bi(Zn1/2i1/2)O3 (BZT), a transition from normal ferroelectric behavior to a material with large electric field induced strains was observed. The higher BZT containing compositions are characterized by large hysteretic strains(> 0.3%) with no negative strains that might indicate domain switching. This work summarizes and analyzes the fatigue behavior of the new generation of Pb-free piezoelectric materials. In piezoelectric materials, fatigue is observed as a degradation in the electromechanical properties under the application of a bipolar or unipolar cyclic electrical load. In Pb-based materials such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT), fatigue has been studied in great depth for both bulk and thin film applications. In PZT, fatigue can result from microcracking or electrode effects (especially in thin films). Ultimately, however, it is electronic and ionic point defects that are the most influential mechanism. Therefore, this work also analyzes the fatigue characteristics of bulk polycrystalline ceramics of the modified-KNN and BNT-BKT-BZT compositions developed. The defect chemistry that underpins the fatigue behavior will be examined and the results will be compared to the existing body of work on PZT. It will

  2. Using Piezoelectric Devices to Transmit Power through Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2008-01-01

    A method denoted wireless acoustic-electric feed-through (WAEF) has been conceived for transmitting power and/or data signals through walls or other solid objects made of a variety of elastic materials that could be electrically conductive or nonconductive. WAEF would make it unnecessary to use wires, optical fibers, tubes, or other discrete wall-penetrating signal-transmitting components, thereby eliminating the potential for structural weakening or leakage at such penetrations. Avoidance of such penetrations could be essential in some applications in which maintenance of pressure, vacuum, or chemical or biological isolation is required. In a basic WAEF setup, a transmitting piezoelectric transducer on one side of a wall would be driven at resonance to excite ultrasonic vibrations in the wall. A receiving piezoelectric transducer on the opposite side of the wall would convert the vibrations back to an ultrasonic AC electric signal, which would then be detected and otherwise processed in a manner that would depend on the modulation (if any) applied to the signal and whether the signal was used to transmit power, data, or both. An electromechanical-network model has been derived as a computationally efficient means of analyzing and designing a WAEF system. This model is a variant of a prior model, known in the piezoelectric-transducer art as Mason's equivalent-circuit model, in which the electrical and mechanical dynamics, including electromechanical couplings, are expressed as electrical circuit elements that can include inductors, capacitors, and lumped-parameter complex impedances. The real parts of the complex impedances are used to account for dielectric, mechanical, and coupling losses in all components (including all piezoelectric-transducer, wall, and intermediate material layers). In an application to a three-layer piezoelectric structure, this model was shown to yield the same results as do solutions of the wave equations of piezoelectricity and acoustic

  3. Superior piezoelectric composite films: taking advantage of carbon nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Nasser; Araby, Sherif; Meng, Qingshi; Hsu, Hung-Yao; Yan, Cheng; Azari, Sara; Lee, Sang-Heon; Xu, Yanan; Ma, Jun; Yu, Sirong

    2014-01-31

    Piezoelectric composites comprising an active phase of ferroelectric ceramic and a polymer matrix have recently found numerous sensory applications. However, it remains a major challenge to further improve their electromechanical response for advanced applications such as precision control and monitoring systems. We here investigated the incorporation of graphene platelets (GnPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), each with various weight fractions, into PZT (lead zirconate titanate)/epoxy composites to produce three-phase nanocomposites. The nanocomposite films show markedly improved piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical responses (50%) besides an enhancement of ~200% in stiffness. The carbon nanomaterials strengthened the impact of electric field on the PZT particles by appropriately raising the electrical conductivity of the epoxy. GnPs have been proved to be far more promising in improving the poling behavior and dynamic response than MWNTs. The superior dynamic sensitivity of GnP-reinforced composite may be caused by the GnPs' high load transfer efficiency arising from their two-dimensional geometry and good compatibility with the matrix. The reduced acoustic impedance mismatch resulting from the improved thermal conductance may also contribute to the higher sensitivity of GnP-reinforced composite. This research pointed out the potential of employing GnPs to develop highly sensitive piezoelectric composites for sensing applications.

  4. Superior piezoelectric composite films: taking advantage of carbon nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, Nasser; Araby, Sherif; Meng, Qingshi; Hsu, Hung-Yao; Lee, Sang-Heon; Ma, Jun; Yan, Cheng; Xu, Yanan; Azari, Sara; Yu, Sirong

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites comprising an active phase of ferroelectric ceramic and a polymer matrix have recently found numerous sensory applications. However, it remains a major challenge to further improve their electromechanical response for advanced applications such as precision control and monitoring systems. We here investigated the incorporation of graphene platelets (GnPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), each with various weight fractions, into PZT (lead zirconate titanate)/epoxy composites to produce three-phase nanocomposites. The nanocomposite films show markedly improved piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical responses (50%) besides an enhancement of ∼200% in stiffness. The carbon nanomaterials strengthened the impact of electric field on the PZT particles by appropriately raising the electrical conductivity of the epoxy. GnPs have been proved to be far more promising in improving the poling behavior and dynamic response than MWNTs. The superior dynamic sensitivity of GnP-reinforced composite may be caused by the GnPs’ high load transfer efficiency arising from their two-dimensional geometry and good compatibility with the matrix. The reduced acoustic impedance mismatch resulting from the improved thermal conductance may also contribute to the higher sensitivity of GnP-reinforced composite. This research pointed out the potential of employing GnPs to develop highly sensitive piezoelectric composites for sensing applications. (paper)

  5. Piezoelectric multilayer actuator life test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Jones, Christopher M; Aldrich, Jack B; Blodget, Chad J; Moore, James D; Carson, John W; Goullioud, Renaud

    2011-04-01

    Potential NASA optical missions such as the Space Interferometer Mission require actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of nanometers. Commercially available multilayer piezoelectric stack actuators are being considered for driving these precision mirror positioning mechanisms. These mechanisms have potential mission operational requirements that exceed 5 years for one mission life. To test the feasibility of using these commercial actuators for these applications and to determine their reliability and the redundancy requirements, a life test study was undertaken. The nominal actuator requirements for the most critical actuators on the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) in terms of number of cycles was estimated from the Modulation Optics Mechanism (MOM) and Pathlength control Optics Mechanism (POM) and these requirements were used to define the study. At a nominal drive frequency of 250 Hz, one mission life is calculated to be 40 billion cycles. In this study, a set of commercial PZT stacks configured in a potential flight actuator configuration (pre-stressed to 18 MPa and bonded in flexures) were tested for up to 100 billion cycles. Each test flexure allowed for two sets of primary and redundant stacks to be mechanically connected in series. The tests were controlled using an automated software control and data acquisition system that set up the test parameters and monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The samples were driven between 0 and 20 V at 2000 Hz to accelerate the life test and mimic the voltage amplitude that is expected to be applied to the stacks during operation. During the life test, 10 primary stacks were driven and 10 redundant stacks, mechanically in series with the driven stacks, were open-circuited. The stroke determined from a strain gauge, the temperature and humidity in the chamber, and the temperature of each individual stack were recorded. Other properties of the stacks, including the

  6. Electronically droplet energy harvesting using piezoelectric cantilevers

    KAUST Repository

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2012-01-01

    A report is presented on free falling droplet energy harvesting using piezoelectric cantilevers. The harvester incorporates a multimorph clamped-free cantilever which is composed of five layers of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric thick films

  7. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power.

  8. Bar piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jiří; Pulpan, Půlpán; Rusin, Luboš

    2013-07-01

    Bar-shaped piezoelectric ceramic transformers (PTs) working in the longitudinal vibration mode (k31 mode) were studied. Two types of the transformer were designed--one with the electrode divided into two segments of different length, and one with the electrodes divided into three symmetrical segments. Parameters of studied transformers such as efficiency, transformation ratio, and input and output impedances were measured. An analytical model was developed for PT parameter calculation for both two- and three-segment PTs. Neither type of bar PT exhibited very high efficiency (maximum 72% for three-segment PT design) at a relatively high transformation ratio (it is 4 for two-segment PT and 2 for three-segment PT at the fundamental resonance mode). The optimum resistive loads were 20 and 10 kΩ for two- and three-segment PT designs for the fundamental resonance, respectively, and about one order of magnitude smaller for the higher overtone (i.e., 2 kΩ and 500 Ω, respectively). The no-load transformation ratio was less than 27 (maximum for two-segment electrode PT design). The optimum input electrode aspect ratios (0.48 for three-segment PT and 0.63 for two-segment PT) were calculated numerically under no-load conditions.

  9. Structured Piezoelectric Composites: Materials and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Ende, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The piezoelectric effect, which causes a material to generate a voltage when it deforms, is very suitable for making integrated sensors, and (micro-) generators. However, conventional piezoelectric materials are either brittle ceramics or certain polymers with a low thermal stability, which limits their practical application to certain specific fields. Piezoelectric composites, which contain an active piezoelectric (ceramic) phase in a robust polymer matrix, can potentially have better proper...

  10. An Implanted, Stimulated Muscle Powered Piezoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Beth; Gustafson, Kenneth; Kilgore, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    A totally implantable piezoelectric generator system able to harness power from electrically activated muscle could be used to augment the power systems of implanted medical devices, such as neural prostheses, by reducing the number of battery replacement surgeries or by allowing periods of untethered functionality. The features of our generator design are no moving parts and the use of a portion of the generated power for system operation and regulation. A software model of the system has been developed and simulations have been performed to predict the output power as the system parameters were varied within their constraints. Mechanical forces that mimic muscle forces have been experimentally applied to a piezoelectric generator to verify the accuracy of the simulations and to explore losses due to mechanical coupling. Depending on the selection of system parameters, software simulations predict that this generator concept can generate up to approximately 700 W of power, which is greater than the power necessary to drive the generator, conservatively estimated to be 50 W. These results suggest that this concept has the potential to be an implantable, self-replenishing power source and further investigation is underway.

  11. Piezoelectric nanomaterials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Menciassi, Arianna

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale structures and materials have been explored in many biological applications because of their novel and impressive physical and chemical properties. Such properties allow remarkable opportunities to study and interact with complex biological processes. This book analyses the state of the art of piezoelectric nanomaterials and introduces their applications in the biomedical field. Despite their impressive potentials, piezoelectric materials have not yet received significant attention for bio-applications. This book shows that the exploitation of piezoelectric nanoparticles in nanomedicine is possible and realistic, and their impressive physical properties can be useful for several applications, ranging from sensors and transducers for the detection of biomolecules to “sensible” substrates for tissue engineering or cell stimulation.

  12. Finite element simulation of piezoelectric transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, T; Kagawa, Y; Wakatsuki, N; Okamura, H

    2001-07-01

    Piezoelectric transformers are nothing but ultrasonic resonators with two pairs of electrodes provided on the surface of a piezoelectric substrate in which electrical energy is carried in the mechanical form. The input and output electrodes are arranged to provide the impedance transformation, which results in the voltage transformation. As they are operated at a resonance, the electrical equivalent circuit approach has traditionally been developed in a rather empirical way and has been used for analysis and design. The present paper deals with the analysis of the piezoelectric transformers based on the three-dimensional finite element modelling. The PIEZO3D code that we have developed is modified to include the external loading conditions. The finite element approach is now available for a wide variety of the electrical boundary conditions. The equivalent circuit of lumped parameters can also be derived from the finite element method (FEM) solution if required. The simulation of the present transformers is made for the low intensity operation and compared with the experimental results. Demonstration is made for basic Rosen-type transformers in which the longitudinal mode of a plate plays an important role; in which the equivalent circuit of lumped constants has been used. However, there are many modes of vibration associated with the plate, the effect of which cannot always be ignored. In the experiment, the double resonances are sometimes observed in the vicinity of the operating frequency. The simulation demonstrates that this is due to the coupling of the longitudinal mode with the flexural mode. Thus, the simulation provides an invaluable guideline to the transformer design.

  13. Observation of piezoelectricity in free-standing monolayer MoS₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanyu; Wang, Yuan; Xiao, Jun; Liu, Ming; Xiong, Shaomin; Wong, Zi Jing; Ye, Ziliang; Ye, Yu; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-02-01

    Piezoelectricity allows precise and robust conversion between electricity and mechanical force, and arises from the broken inversion symmetry in the atomic structure. Reducing the dimensionality of bulk materials has been suggested to enhance piezoelectricity. However, when the thickness of a material approaches a single molecular layer, the large surface energy can cause piezoelectric structures to be thermodynamically unstable. Transition-metal dichalcogenides can retain their atomic structures down to the single-layer limit without lattice reconstruction, even under ambient conditions. Recent calculations have predicted the existence of piezoelectricity in these two-dimensional crystals due to their broken inversion symmetry. Here, we report experimental evidence of piezoelectricity in a free-standing single layer of molybdenum disulphide (MoS₂) and a measured piezoelectric coefficient of e₁₁ = 2.9 × 10(-10) C m(-1). The measurement of the intrinsic piezoelectricity in such free-standing crystals is free from substrate effects such as doping and parasitic charges. We observed a finite and zero piezoelectric response in MoS₂ in odd and even number of layers, respectively, in sharp contrast to bulk piezoelectric materials. This oscillation is due to the breaking and recovery of the inversion symmetry of the two-dimensional crystal. Through the angular dependence of electromechanical coupling, we determined the two-dimensional crystal orientation. The piezoelectricity discovered in this single molecular membrane promises new applications in low-power logic switches for computing and ultrasensitive biological sensors scaled down to a single atomic unit cell.

  14. Nonlinear piezoelectricity in PZT ceramics for generating ultrasonic phase conjugate waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto; Kokubo; Sakai; Takagi

    2000-03-01

    We have succeeded in the generation of acoustic phase conjugate waves with nonlinear PZT piezoelectric ceramics and applied them to ultrasonic imaging systems. Our aim is to make a phase conjugator with 100% efficiency. For this purpose, it is important to clarify the mechanism of acoustic phase conjugation through nonlinear piezoelectricity. The process is explained by the parametric interaction via the third-order nonlinear piezoelectricity between the incident acoustic wave at angular frequency omega and the pump electric field at 2 omega. We solved the coupling equations including the third-ordered nonlinear piezoelectricity and theoretically derived the amplitude efficiency of the acoustic phase conjugation. We compared the efficiencies between the theoretical and experimental values for PZT ceramics with eight different compositions. Pb[(Zn1/3Nb2/3)(1 - x)Tix]O3 (X = 0.09, PZNT91/9) piezoelectric single crystals have been investigated for high-performance ultrasonic transducer application, because these have large piezoelectric constants, high electrical-mechanical coupling factors and high dielectric constants. We found that they have third-order nonlinear piezoelectric constants much larger than PZT and are hopeful that the material as a phase conjugator has over 100% efficiency.

  15. Three-dimensional piezoelectric fibrous scaffolds selectively promote mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaraju, Sita M; Shen, Yueyang; Elele, Ezinwa; Khusid, Boris; Eshghinejad, Ahmad; Li, Jiangyu; Jaffe, Michael; Arinzeh, Treena Livingston

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of electric fields in biological tissues has led to efforts in developing technologies utilizing electrical stimulation for therapeutic applications. Native tissues, such as cartilage and bone, exhibit piezoelectric behavior, wherein electrical activity can be generated due to mechanical deformation. Yet, the use of piezoelectric materials have largely been unexplored as a potential strategy in tissue engineering, wherein a piezoelectric biomaterial acts as a scaffold to promote cell behavior and the formation of large tissues. Here we show, for the first time, that piezoelectric materials can be fabricated into flexible, three-dimensional fibrous scaffolds and can be used to stimulate human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and corresponding extracellular matrix/tissue formation in physiological loading conditions. Piezoelectric scaffolds that exhibit low voltage output, or streaming potential, promoted chondrogenic differentiation and piezoelectric scaffolds with a high voltage output promoted osteogenic differentiation. Electromechanical stimulus promoted greater differentiation than mechanical loading alone. Results demonstrate the additive effect of electromechanical stimulus on stem cell differentiation, which is an important design consideration for tissue engineering scaffolds. Piezoelectric, smart materials are attractive as scaffolds for regenerative medicine strategies due to their inherent electrical properties without the need for external power sources for electrical stimulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 1D Piezoelectric Material Based Nanogenerators: Methods, Materials and Property Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Sun, Mei; Wei, Xianlong; Shan, Chongxin; Chen, Qing

    2018-03-23

    Due to the enhanced piezoelectric properties, excellent mechanical properties and tunable electric properties, one-dimensional (1D) piezoelectric materials have shown their promising applications in nanogenerators (NG), sensors, actuators, electronic devices etc. To present a clear view about 1D piezoelectric materials, this review mainly focuses on the characterization and optimization of the piezoelectric properties of 1D nanomaterials, including semiconducting nanowires (NWs) with wurtzite and/or zinc blend phases, perovskite NWs and 1D polymers. Specifically, the piezoelectric coefficients, performance of single NW-based NG and structure-dependent electromechanical properties of 1D nanostructured materials can be respectively investigated through piezoresponse force microscopy, atomic force microscopy and the in-situ scanning/transmission electron microcopy. Along with the introduction of the mechanism and piezoelectric properties of 1D semiconductor, perovskite materials and polymers, their performance improvement strategies are summarized from the view of microstructures, including size-effect, crystal structure, orientation and defects. Finally, the extension of 1D piezoelectric materials in field effect transistors and optoelectronic devices are simply introduced.

  17. Electronics for Piezoelectric Smart Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentin, D. J.; Tani, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper briefly presents work addressing some of the basic considerations for the electronic components used in smart structures incorporating piezoelectric elements. After general remarks on the application of piezoelectric elements to the problem of structural vibration control, three main topics are described. Work to date on the development of techniques for embedding electronic components within structural parts is presented, followed by a description of the power flow and dissipation requirements of those components. Finally current work on the development of electronic circuits for use in an 'active wall' for acoustic noise is introduced.

  18. Compositional dependence of the Young's modulus and piezoelectric coefficient of (110)-oriented pulsed laser deposited PZT thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeer, H.; Nguyen, Duc Minh; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Sardan Sukas, Ö.; Abelmann, Leon; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we report on the compositional dependence of the mechanical and piezoelectric properties of Pb(ZrₓTi₿₋ₓ)O₃ (PZT) thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). These films grow epitaxially on silicon with a (110) preferred orientation and have excellent piezoelectric

  19. Relaxor-PT Single Crystal Piezoelectric Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Relaxor-PbTiO3 piezoelectric single crystals have been widely used in a broad range of electromechanical devices, including piezoelectric sensors, actuators, and transducers. This paper reviews the unique properties of these single crystals for piezoelectric sensors. Design, fabrication and characterization of various relaxor-PT single crystal piezoelectric sensors and their applications are presented and compared with their piezoelectric ceramic counterparts. Newly applicable fields and future trends of relaxor-PT sensors are also suggested in this review paper.

  20. RELEVANCE OF COLLAGEN PIEZOELECTRICITY TO “WOLFF’S LAW”: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Andrew C.; Grodzinsky, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    According to “Wolff’s Law”, bone is deposited and reinforced at areas of greatest stress. From a clinical perspective, this “law” is supported by the strong association between bone density and physical activity. From a mechanistic standpoint, however, the law presents a challenge to scientists seeking to understand how osteocytes and osteoblasts sense the mechanical load. In the 1960’s, collagen piezoelectricity was invoked as a potential mechanism by which osteocytes could detect areas of greater stress but piezoelectricity diminished in importance as more compelling mechanisms, such as streaming potential, were identified. In addition, accumulating evidence for the role of fluid-related shear stress in osteocyte’s mechanosensory function has made piezoelectricity seemingly more obsolete in bone physiology. This review critically evaluates the role of collagen piezoelectricity (if any) in Wolff’s Law – specifically, the evidence regarding its involvement in strain-generated potentials, existing alternate mechanisms, the present understanding of bone mechanosensation, and whether piezoelectricity serves an influential role within the context of this newly proposed mechanism. In addition to reviewing the literature, this review generates several hypotheses and proposes future research to fully address the relevance of piezoelectricity in bone physiology. PMID:19286413

  1. An improved method for piezoelectric characterization of polymers for energy harvesting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusarova, E.; Gusarov, B.; Zakharov, D.; Bousquet, M.; Viala, B.; Cugat, O.; Delamare, J.; Gimeno, L.

    2013-12-01

    This work presents an improved method for measuring the direct piezoelectric voltage and energy of flexible polymers. Well-controlled stress is applied with a four-point bending system and voltage is measured in real open-circuit conditions. The presented method separates the piezoelectric part from the measurement part by introducing a mechanical switch, allowing instantaneous post-deformation discharge measurements. Oscilloscope and contact-less electrostatic voltmeter are compared. Direct piezoelectric measurements under open-circuit conditions have been performed on commercial PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) and its copolymers. Significant differences to data sheet values (close-circuit conditions) are reported and commented.

  2. Full Piezoelectric Multilayer-Stacked Hybrid Actuation/Transduction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ji; Jiang, Xiaoning; Zu, Tian-Bing

    2011-01-01

    The Stacked HYBATS (Hybrid Actuation/Transduction system) demonstrates significantly enhanced electromechanical performance by using the cooperative contributions of the electromechanical responses of multilayer, stacked negative strain components and positive strain components. Both experimental and theoretical studies indicate that, for Stacked HYBATS, the displacement is over three times that of a same-sized conventional flextensional actuator/transducer. The coupled resonance mode between positive strain and negative strain components of Stacked HYBATS is much stronger than the resonance of a single element actuation only when the effective lengths of the two kinds of elements match each other. Compared with the previously invented hybrid actuation system (HYBAS), the multilayer Stacked HYBATS can be designed to provide high mechanical load capability, low voltage driving, and a highly effective piezoelectric constant. The negative strain component will contract, and the positive strain component will expand in the length directions when an electric field is applied on the device. The interaction between the two elements makes an enhanced motion along the Z direction for Stacked-HYBATS. In order to dominate the dynamic length of Stacked-HYBATS by the negative strain component, the area of the cross-section for the negative strain component will be much larger than the total cross-section areas of the two positive strain components. The transverse strain is negative and longitudinal strain positive in inorganic materials, such as ceramics/single crystals. Different piezoelectric multilayer stack configurations can make a piezoelectric ceramic/single-crystal multilayer stack exhibit negative strain or positive strain at a certain direction without increasing the applied voltage. The difference of this innovation from the HYBAS is that all the elements can be made from one-of-a-kind materials. Stacked HYBATS can provide an extremely effective piezoelectric

  3. Cylindrical Piezoelectric Fiber Composite Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of piezoelectric devices has become widespread since Pierre and Jacques Curie discovered the piezoelectric effect in 1880. Examples of current applications of piezoelectric devices include ultrasonic transducers, micro-positioning devices, buzzers, strain sensors, and clocks. The invention of such lightweight, relatively inexpensive piezoceramic-fiber-composite actuators as macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators has made it possible to obtain strains and displacements greater than those that could be generated by prior actuators based on monolithic piezoceramic sheet materials. MFC actuators are flat, flexible actuators designed for bonding to structures to apply or detect strains. Bonding multiple layers of MFC actuators together could increase force capability, but not strain or displacement capability. Cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite (CPFC) actuators have been invented as alternatives to MFC actuators for applications in which greater forces and/or strains or displacements may be required. In essence, a CPFC actuator is an MFC or other piezoceramic fiber composite actuator fabricated in a cylindrical instead of its conventional flat shape. Cylindrical is used here in the general sense, encompassing shapes that can have circular, elliptical, rectangular or other cross-sectional shapes in the planes perpendicular to their longitudinal axes.

  4. V-stack piezoelectric actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelean, Emil V.; Clark, Robert L.

    2001-07-01

    Aeroelastic control of wings by means of a distributed, trailing-edge control surface is of interest with regards to maneuvers, gust alleviation, and flutter suppression. The use of high energy density, piezoelectric materials as motors provides an appealing solution to this problem. A comparative analysis of the state of the art actuators is currently being conducted. A new piezoelectric actuator design is presented. This actuator meets the requirements for trailing edge flap actuation in both stroke and force. It is compact, simple, sturdy, and leverages stroke geometrically with minimum force penalties while displaying linearity over a wide range of stroke. The V-Stack Piezoelectric Actuator, consists of a base, a lever, two piezoelectric stacks, and a pre-tensioning element. The work is performed alternately by the two stacks, placed on both sides of the lever. Pre-tensioning can be readily applied using a torque wrench, obviating the need for elastic elements and this is for the benefit of the stiffness of the actuator. The characteristics of the actuator are easily modified by changing the base or the stacks. A prototype was constructed and tested experimentally to validate the theoretical model.

  5. PZT Thin Film Piezoelectric Traveling Wave Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dexin; Zhang, Baoan; Yang, Genqing; Jiao, Jiwei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Weiyuan

    1995-01-01

    With the development of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), its various applications are attracting more and more attention. Among MEMS, micro motors, electrostatic and electromagnetic, are the typical and important ones. As an alternative approach, the piezoelectric traveling wave micro motor, based on thin film material and integrated circuit technologies, circumvents many of the drawbacks of the above mentioned two types of motors and displays distinct advantages. In this paper we report on a lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) piezoelectric thin film traveling wave motor. The PZT film with a thickness of 150 micrometers and a diameter of 8 mm was first deposited onto a metal substrate as the stator material. Then, eight sections were patterned to form the stator electrodes. The rotor had an 8 kHz frequency power supply. The rotation speed of the motor is 100 rpm. The relationship of the friction between the stator and the rotor and the structure of the rotor on rotation were also studied.

  6. Characterization of Piezoelectric Stacks for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher; Aldrich, Jack; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to actuate mechanisms to precision levels in the nanometer range and below. Co-fired multilayer piezoelectric stacks offer the required actuation precision that is needed for such mechanisms. To obtain performance statistics and determine reliability for extended use, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and high temperatures and voltages. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators were driven sinusoidally for up to ten billion cycles. An automated data acquisition system was developed and implemented to monitor each stack's electrical current and voltage waveforms over the life of the test. As part of the monitoring tests, the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current were measured to assess the operation degradation. This paper presents some of the results of this effort.

  7. Acoustofluidics 4: Piezoelectricity and application in the excitation of acoustic fields for ultrasonic particle manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dual, Jurg; Möller, Dirk

    2012-02-07

    Piezoelectric materials are widely used in the excitation of MHz frequency vibrations in devices for ultrasonic manipulation. An applied electrical voltage is transformed into mechanical stress, strain and displacement. Piezoelectric elements can be used in either a resonant or non-resonant manner. Depending on the desired motion the piezoelectric longitudinal, transverse or shear effects are exploited. Because of the coupling between electrical and mechanical quantities in the constitutive law the modelling of devices turns out to be quite complex. In this paper, the general equations that need to be used are delineated. For a one-dimensional actuator the underlying physics is described, including the consequences resulting for the characterization of devices. For a practical setup used in ultrasonic manipulation, finite element models are used to model the complete system, including piezoelectric excitation, solid motion and acoustic field. It is shown, how proper tailoring of transducer and electrodes allows selective excitation of desired modes.

  8. A New Piezoelectric Actuator Induces Bone Formation In Vivo: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Reis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vivo study presents the preliminary results of the use of a novel piezoelectric actuator for orthopedic application. The innovative use of the converse piezoelectric effect to mechanically stimulate bone was achieved with polyvinylidene fluoride actuators implanted in osteotomy cuts in sheep femur and tibia. The biological response around the osteotomies was assessed through histology and histomorphometry in nondecalcified sections and histochemistry and immunohistochemistry in decalcified sections, namely, through Masson's trichrome, and labeling of osteopontin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. After one-month implantation, total bone area and new bone area were significantly higher around actuators when compared to static controls. Bone deposition rate was also significantly higher in the mechanically stimulated areas. In these areas, osteopontin increased expression was observed. The present in vivo study suggests that piezoelectric materials and the converse piezoelectric effect may be used to effectively stimulate bone growth.

  9. Millipede-inspired locomotion through novel U-shaped piezoelectric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avirovik, Dragan; Butenhoff, Bryan; Priya, Shashank

    2014-01-01

    We report a novel piezoelectric motor that operates at a resonance frequency of 144 Hz, much lower than that of conventional ultrasonic motors, and meets the displacement and gait requirements for designing the locomotion mechanism of a millipede-inspired robot (millibot). The motor structure consists of two piezoelectric bimorphs arranged in a U-shaped configuration. Using the first bending mode for both the piezoelectric bimorphs an elliptical motion was obtained at the tip which led to the successful implementation of millipede inspired locomotion. At an input voltage of 70.7 V rms , the piezoelectric motor operating at resonance frequency was able to generate torque of 0.03 mN m, mechanical power of 0.84 mW and maximum velocity of 62 rad s −1 . Detailed discussion is provided about the principle of operation of the millibot. (technical note)

  10. Anomalous piezoelectric effects, found in the laboratory and reconstructed by numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Teisseyre

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Various rocks and minerals, which are not piezoelectric in the common sense, exhibit transient electric polarization in response to sudden changes in stress load. This anomalous piezoelectric effect differs from the regular, static piezoelectric response, in which electric charges appear as a result of crystal lattice deformation. The anomalous piezoelectricity is dynamic decaying in a few seconds or a few tens of seconds. However, in some materials different polarization properties are discovered. To explain certain aspects of the polarization signal increase and decay, some complicated mechanisms of electric charge generation and relaxation need to be assumed in their number ? concurrence of two or three relaxation processes. The hypothetical mechanisms are only mentioned, as the purpose of this work is to construct numerical models, behaving like the rocks investigated. Examples of experimental plots are shown together with the results of the numerical simulation of these experiments.

  11. Piezoelectric energy harvesting for powering low power electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, M.; Palosaari, J.; Hannu, J.; Juuti, J.; Jantunen, H. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Electrical and Information Engineering (Finland)). email: jajuu@ee.oulu.fi

    2009-07-01

    Although wireless data transmission techniques are commonly used in electronic devices, they still suffer from wires for the power supply or from batteries which require charging, replacement and other maintenance. The vision for the portable electronics and industrial measurement systems of the future is that they are intelligent and independent on their energy supply. The major obstacle in this path is the energy source which enables all other functions and 'smartness' of the systems as the computing power is also restricted by the available energy. The development of long-life energy harvesters would reduce the need for batteries and wires thus enabling cost-effective and environment friendlier solutions for various applications such as autonomous wireless sensor networks, powering of portable electronics and other maintenance-free systems. One of the most promising techniques is mechanical energy harvesting e.g. by piezoelectric components where deformations produced by different means is directly converted to electrical charge via direct piezoelectric effect. Subsequently the electrical energy can be regulated or stored for further use. The total mechanical energy in vibration of machines can be very large and usually only a fraction of it can be transformed to electrical energy. Recently, piezoelectric vibration based energy harvesters have been developed widely for different energy consumption and application areas. As an example for low energy device an piezoelectric energy harvester based on impulse type excitations has been developed for active RFID identification. Moreover, piezoharvester with externally leveraged mechanism for force amplification was reported to be able to generate mean power of 0.4 mW from backpack movement. Significantly higher power levels are expected from larger scale testing in Israel, where piezoelectric material is embedded under active walking street, road, airport or railroad. The energy is harvested from human or

  12. Failure of action potential propagation in sensory neurons: mechanisms and loss of afferent filtering in C-type units after painful nerve injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemes, Geza; Koopmeiners, Andrew; Rigaud, Marcel; Lirk, Philipp; Sapunar, Damir; Bangaru, Madhavi Latha; Vilceanu, Daniel; Garrison, Sheldon R.; Ljubkovic, Marko; Mueller, Samantha J.; Stucky, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2013-01-01

    The T-junction of sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is a potential impediment to action potential (AP) propagation towards the CNS. Using intracellular recordings from rat DRG neuronal somata during stimulation of the dorsal root, we determined that the maximal rate at which all of

  13. Vertical comb drive actuator for the measurement of piezoelectric coefficients in small-scale systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooldridge, J; Muniz-Piniella, A; Stewart, M; Shean, T A V; Weaver, P M; Cain, M G

    2013-01-01

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vertical levitation comb drive actuator has been created for the measurement of piezoelectric coefficients in thin/thick films or piezoelectrically active micro-scale components of other MEMS devices. The device exerts a dynamic force of 33 μN at an applied voltage of 100 V. The charge developed on the piezoelectric test device is measured using a charge sensitive pre-amplifier and lock-in technique, enabling measurements down to 1×10 −5 pC. The system was tested with ten different piezoelectric samples with coefficients in the range 70–1375 pC N −1 and showed a good correlation (r = 0.9997) to measurements performed with macroscopic applied stresses, and piezoelectric impedance resonance techniques. The measurement of the direct piezoelectric effect in micro- and nano-scale piezo-materials has been made possible using MEMS processing technology. This new application of a MEMS metrology device has been developed and fully characterized in order to accurately evaluate the functional properties of piezoelectric materials at the scale required in micro- to nano-scale applications. (paper)

  14. Electromechanical response of a curved piezoelectric nanobeam with the consideration of surface effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhi; Jiang Liying

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the electromechanical response of a curved piezoelectric nanobeam with the consideration of surface effects through the surface-layer-based model and the generalized Young-Laplace equations. For nanoscale piezoelectric structures, the surface effects also include surface piezoelectricity in addition to the residual surface stress and surface elasticity for elastic nanomaterials. A Euler-Bernoulli curved beam theory is used to get the explicit solutions for the electroelastic fields of a curved cantilever beam when subjected to mechanical and electrical loads. In order to apply the appropriate boundary conditions on the beam, effective axial force, shear force and moment are derived. The results indicate that the surface effects play a significant role in the electroelastic fields and the piezoelectric response of the curved piezoelectric nanobeam. It is also found that the coupling of the residual surface stress, the surface elasticity and the surface piezoelectricity may be dramatic despite that the influence of the individual one is small under some circumstances. This study is expected to be useful for design and applications of curved beam based piezoelectric nanodevices, such as the curved nanowires/nanobelts or nanorings as nanoswitches or nanoactuators for displacement control purpose.

  15. Role of Reversible Phase Transformation for Strong Piezoelectric Performance at the Morphotropic Phase Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Jun; Huang, Houbing; Fan, Longlong; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Deng, Jinxia; Chen, Long-Qing; Xing, Xianran

    2018-01-01

    A functional material with coexisting energetically equivalent phases often exhibits extraordinary properties such as piezoelectricity, ferromagnetism, and ferroelasticity, which is simultaneously accompanied by field-driven reversible phase transformation. The study on the interplay between such phase transformation and the performance is of great importance. Here, we have experimentally revealed the important role of field-driven reversible phase transformation in achieving enhanced electromechanical properties using in situ high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction combined with 2D geometry scattering technology, which can establish a comprehensive picture of piezoelectric-related microstructural evolution. High-throughput experiments on various Pb /Bi -based perovskite piezoelectric systems suggest that reversible phase transformation can be triggered by an electric field at the morphotropic phase boundary and the piezoelectric performance is highly related to the tendency of electric-field-driven phase transformation. A strong tendency of phase transformation driven by an electric field generates peak piezoelectric response. Further, phase-field modeling reveals that the polarization alignment and the piezoelectric response can be much enhanced by the electric-field-driven phase transformation. The proposed mechanism will be helpful to design and optimize the new piezoelectrics, ferromagnetics, or other related functional materials.

  16. A review of piezoelectric polymers as functional materials for electromechanical transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, Khaled S; Evoy, S; Sameoto, D

    2014-01-01

    Polymer based MEMS and microfluidic devices have the advantages of mechanical flexibility, lower fabrication cost and faster processing over silicon based ones. Also, many polymer materials are considered biocompatible and can be used in biological applications. A valuable class of polymers for microfabricated devices is piezoelectric functional polymers. In addition to the normal advantages of polymers, piezoelectric polymers can be directly used as an active material in different transduction applications. This paper gives an overview of piezoelectric polymers based on their operating principle. This includes three main categories: bulk piezoelectric polymers, piezocomposites and voided charged polymers. State-of-the-art piezopolymers of each category are presented with a focus on fabrication techniques and material properties. A comparison between the different piezoelectric polymers and common inorganic piezoelectric materials (PZT, ZnO, AlN and PMN–PT) is also provided in terms of piezoelectric properties. The use of piezopolymers in different electromechanical devices is also presented. This includes tactile sensors, energy harvesters, acoustic transducers and inertial sensors. (topical review)

  17. Development of optical phase shifter based on piezoelectric ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fusheng; Shen, Xiaoqin; Yao, Chunjuan; Leng, Changlin

    2005-02-01

    The phase shifter is necessary in the optical phase-shifting measurement. At present the phase shifter commonly used is approximately divided into the penetrance-type and the reflection-type. In this paper, a reflection-type phase shifter made of piezoelectric ceramic stackup assemble is developed. The assemble are constituted of the flat piezoelectric ceramic with parallel connection circuit and inline structure. The communication between the computer and MCU is by RS232. The D/A converter controlled by the MCU outputs 0~10V voltage. Then the voltage is amplified to 0~400V DC voltage by the designed linear DC amplifier. When this voltage loads on the piezoelectric ceramic stackup assemble, the assemble will axially extend 0~5mm. In this paper, the connecting types for the mechanical construction and circuit of the piezoelectric ceramic stackup assemble, the driving power and the DC amplifier with high linearity are all introduced. The whole system developed is standardized by using phase-interfering Michelson. The standardization and the practical application indicates that this system has excellent linearity and precision repeatability.

  18. Elastic Properties and Enhanced Piezoelectric Response at Morphotropic Phase Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cordero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The search for improved piezoelectric materials is based on the morphotropic phase boundaries (MPB between ferroelectric phases with different crystal symmetry and available directions for the spontaneous polarization. Such regions of the composition x − T phase diagrams provide the conditions for minimal anisotropy with respect to the direction of the polarization, so that the polarization can easily rotate maintaining a substantial magnitude, while the near verticality of the TMPB(x boundary extends the temperature range of the resulting enhanced piezoelectricity. Another consequence of the quasi-isotropy of the free energy is a reduction of the domain walls energies, with consequent formation of domain structures down to nanoscale. Disentangling the extrinsic and intrinsic contributions to the piezoelectricity in such conditions requires a high level of sophistication from the techniques and analyses for studying the structural, ferroelectric and dielectric properties. The elastic characterization is extremely useful in clarifying the phenomenology and mechanisms related to ferroelectric MPBs. The relationship between dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric responses is introduced in terms of relaxation of defects with electric dipole and elastic quadrupole, and extended to the response near phase transitions in the framework of the Landau theory. An account is provided of the anelastic experiments, from torsional pendulum to Brillouin scattering, that provided new important information on ferroelectric MPBs, including PZT, PMN-PT, NBT-BT, BCTZ, and KNN-based systems.

  19. Hybrid energy harvesting systems, using piezoelectric elements and dielectric polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornogolub, Alexandru; Cottinet, Pierre-Jean; Petit, Lionel

    2016-09-01

    Interest in energy harvesting applications has increased a lot during recent years. This is especially true for systems using electroactive materials like dielectric polymers or piezoelectric materials. Unfortunately, these materials despite multiple advantages, present some important drawbacks. For example, many dielectric polymers demonstrated high energy densities; they are cheap, easy to process and can be easily integrated in many different structures. But at the same time, dielectric polymer generators require an external energy supply which could greatly compromise their autonomy. Piezoelectric systems, on the other hand, are completely autonomous and can be easily miniaturized. However, most common piezoelectric materials present a high rigidity and are brittle by nature and therefore their integration could be difficult. This paper investigates the possibility of using hybrid systems combining piezoelectric elements and dielectric polymers for mechanical energy harvesting applications and it is focused mainly on the problem of electrical energy transfer. Our objective is to show that such systems can be interesting and that it is possible to benefit from the advantages of both materials. For this, different configurations were considered and the problem of their optimization was addressed. The experimental work enabled us to prove the concept and identify the main practical limitations.

  20. Elastic Properties and Enhanced Piezoelectric Response at Morphotropic Phase Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The search for improved piezoelectric materials is based on the morphotropic phase boundaries (MPB) between ferroelectric phases with different crystal symmetry and available directions for the spontaneous polarization. Such regions of the composition x−T phase diagrams provide the conditions for minimal anisotropy with respect to the direction of the polarization, so that the polarization can easily rotate maintaining a substantial magnitude, while the near verticality of the TMPBx boundary extends the temperature range of the resulting enhanced piezoelectricity. Another consequence of the quasi-isotropy of the free energy is a reduction of the domain walls energies, with consequent formation of domain structures down to nanoscale. Disentangling the extrinsic and intrinsic contributions to the piezoelectricity in such conditions requires a high level of sophistication from the techniques and analyses for studying the structural, ferroelectric and dielectric properties. The elastic characterization is extremely useful in clarifying the phenomenology and mechanisms related to ferroelectric MPBs. The relationship between dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric responses is introduced in terms of relaxation of defects with electric dipole and elastic quadrupole, and extended to the response near phase transitions in the framework of the Landau theory. An account is provided of the anelastic experiments, from torsional pendulum to Brillouin scattering, that provided new important information on ferroelectric MPBs, including PZT, PMN-PT, NBT-BT, BCTZ, and KNN-based systems. PMID:28793707

  1. Hybrid acoustic energy harvesting using combined electromagnetic and piezoelectric conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farid Ullah; Izhar

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports a novel hybrid acoustic energy harvester. The harvester utilizes both the electromagnetic and piezoelectric conversion mechanisms simultaneously to convert the ambient acoustical noise into electrical power for self-powered wireless sensor nodes. The proposed harvester is comprised of a Helmholtz resonator, two magnets mounted on a piezoelectric plate, and a wound coil located under the magnets. The harvester is characterized both under harmonic and real random acoustical excitations. In-lab, under harmonic acoustical excitation at a sound pressure level of 130 dB and frequency of 2.1 kHz, an optimum power of 2.86 μW (at 114 Ω optimum load) is obtained from electromagnetic conversion and 50 μW (at 1000 Ω optimum load) is generated by the piezoelectric harvester's part. Moreover, in real acoustical environment of a domestic electric generator the peak voltages of 40 and 123 mV are produced by the electromagnetic and piezoelectric portions of the acoustic energy harvester.

  2. On the optimum processing conditions of Pb(Zr x Ti1-x )O3: revealing the mechanisms to increase the piezoelectric coefficients up to 1100 pm V-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeibekis, M.; Vertsioti, G.; Stamopoulos, D.

    2016-03-01

    The ferroelectric compound family Pb(Zr x Ti1-x )O3 (PZT) is one of the most investigated and widely used piezoelectric materials. Optimization of the piezoelectric coefficients is observed for x ~ 0.52 (Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3) and is further promoted by the increase of grain size (GS). However, in some cases the piezoelectric properties of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 deteriorate upon processing due to the decrease of density, ρ, that is mostly ascribed to the appearance of byproduct phases. In the present study we discuss the influence of the processing conditions on the piezoelectric properties for polycrystalline Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3, specifically focusing on the sintering temperature, 1100 °C  ⩽  T sin  ⩽  1250 °C. To this end, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM), Archimedes’ method, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and a newly introduced local technique, based on a conventional optical microscope, which is further developed here to accommodate non-clamped specimens. The data obtained via this technique in the regime of relatively high electric fields evidence that the absolute piezoelectric coefficients, |d zi | (i  =  x, y) show a non-monotonic behavior with an unexpectedly high maximum value |d zi | ~ 1100 pm V-1 at T sin  =  1180 °C. These features are accompanied by a progressive increase of coercivity, reaching maximum value E C,i ~ 4.5-5.0 kV cm-1 (i  =  x, y) at T sin  =  1250 °C. To explain these findings, the |d zi | coefficients are compared with the microstructure and compositional information, coming from AFM, Archimedes’ method and XRD data. We conclude that the significantly high |d zi | values observed for samples prepared at T sin  =  1180 °C are motivated by the increase of mean GS, , while for T sin  >  1180 °C the decrease of density, ρ, ascribed to the appearance of byproduct phases, dominates and deteriorates |d zi |. These experimental results on |d zi |(T sin) are reliably

  3. A generic double-curvature piezoelectric shell energy harvester: Linear/nonlinear theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. F.; Hu, S. D.; Tzou, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    Converting vibration energy to useful electric energy has attracted much attention in recent years. Based on the electromechanical coupling of piezoelectricity, distributed piezoelectric zero-curvature type (e.g., beams and plates) energy harvesters have been proposed and evaluated. The objective of this study is to develop a generic linear and nonlinear piezoelectric shell energy harvesting theory based on a double-curvature shell. The generic piezoelectric shell energy harvester consists of an elastic double-curvature shell and piezoelectric patches laminated on its surface(s). With a current model in the closed-circuit condition, output voltages and energies across a resistive load are evaluated when the shell is subjected to harmonic excitations. Steady-state voltage and power outputs across the resistive load are calculated at resonance for each shell mode. The piezoelectric shell energy harvesting mechanism can be simplified to shell (e.g., cylindrical, conical, spherical, paraboloidal, etc.) and non-shell (beam, plate, ring, arch, etc.) distributed harvesters using two Lamé parameters and two curvature radii of the selected harvester geometry. To demonstrate the utility and simplification procedures, the generic linear/nonlinear shell energy harvester mechanism is simplified to three specific structures, i.e., a cantilever beam case, a circular ring case and a conical shell case. Results show the versatility of the generic linear/nonlinear shell energy harvesting mechanism and the validity of the simplification procedures.

  4. Transformative piezoelectric enhancement of P(VDF-TrFE) synergistically driven by nanoscale dimensional reduction and thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ico, G; Myung, A; Kim, B S; Myung, N V; Nam, J

    2018-02-08

    Despite the significant potential of organic piezoelectric materials in the electro-mechanical or mechano-electrical applications that require light and flexible material properties, the intrinsically low piezoelectric performance as compared to traditional inorganic materials has limited their full utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that dimensional reduction of poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) at the nanoscale by electrospinning, combined with an appropriate thermal treatment, induces a transformative enhancement in piezoelectric performance. Specifically, the piezoelectric coefficient (d 33 ) reached up to -108 pm V -1 , approaching that of inorganic counterparts. Electrospun mats composed of thermo-treated 30 nm nanofibers with a thickness of 15 μm produced a consistent peak-to-peak voltage of 38.5 V and a power output of 74.1 μW at a strain of 0.26% while sustaining energy production over 10k repeated actuations. The exceptional piezoelectric performance was realized by the enhancement of piezoelectric dipole alignment and the materialization of flexoelectricity, both from the synergistic effects of dimensional reduction and thermal treatment. Our findings suggest that dimensionally controlled and thermally treated electrospun P(VDF-TrFE) nanofibers provide an opportunity to exploit their flexibility and durability for mechanically challenging applications while matching the piezoelectric performance of brittle, inorganic piezoelectric materials.

  5. Shear wave propagation in piezoelectric-piezoelectric composite layered structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Mli Gaur

    Full Text Available The propagation behavior of shear wave in piezoelectric composite structure is investigated by two layer model presented in this approach. The composite structure comprises of piezoelectric layers of two different materials bonded alternatively. Dispersion equations are derived for propagation along the direction normal to the layering and in direction of layering. It has been revealed that thickness and elastic constants have significant influence on propagation behavior of shear wave. The phase velocity and wave number is numerically calculated for alternative layer of Polyvinylidene Difluoride (PVDF and Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT-5H in composite layered structure. The analysis carried out in this paper evaluates the effect of volume fraction on the phase velocity of shear wave.

  6. Comparative analysis of the planar capacitor and IDT piezoelectric thin-film micro-actuator models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Oliver J; Anjanappa, M; Freidhoff, Carl B

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of the analysis of similarly developed microactuators is presented. Accurate modeling and simulation techniques are vital for piezoelectrically actuated microactuators. Coupling analytical and numerical modeling techniques with variational design parameters, accurate performance predictions can be realized. Axi-symmetric two-dimensional and three-dimensional static deflection and harmonic models of a planar capacitor actuator are presented. Planar capacitor samples were modeled as unimorph diaphragms with sandwiched piezoelectric material. The harmonic frequencies were calculated numerically and compared well to predicted values and deformations. The finite element modeling reflects the impact of the d 31 piezoelectric constant. Two-dimensional axi-symmetric models of circularly interdigitated piezoelectrically membranes are also presented. The models include the piezoelectric material and properties, the membrane materials and properties, and incorporates various design considerations of the model. These models also include the electro-mechanical coupling for piezoelectric actuation and highlight a novel approach to take advantage of the higher d 33 piezoelectric coupling coefficient. Performance is evaluated for varying parameters such as electrode pitch, electrode width, and piezoelectric material thickness. The models also showed that several of the design parameters were naturally coupled. The static numerical models correlate well with the maximum static deflection of the experimental devices. Finally, this paper deals with the development of numerical harmonic models of piezoelectrically actuated planar capacitor and interdigitated diaphragms. The models were able to closely predict the first two harmonics, conservatively predict the third through sixth harmonics and predict the estimated values of center deflection using plate theory. Harmonic frequency and deflection simulations need further correlation by conducting extensive iterative

  7. A Capacitance-Based Methodology for the Estimation of Piezoelectric Coefficients of Poled Piezoelectric Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2010-01-01

    A methodology is proposed to estimate the piezoelectric coefficients of bulk piezoelectric materials using simple capacitance measurements. The extracted values of d33 and d31 from the capacitance measurements were 506 pC/N and 247 p

  8. Characterization of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    of previously fabricated MEMS piezoelectric energy harvesters and use the results to optimize an advanced finite element model to be used in...possibilities of using solar power and the piezoelectric effect to harvest energy [12]. The design goal was to develop an energy harvester with a resonant... The piezoelectric properties of AlN are also relatively constant over a wide range of temperatures [7]. AlN was further characterized

  9. Piezoelectric ceramic-reinforced metal matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Composite materials comprising piezoelectric ceramic particulates dispersed in a metal matrix are capable of vibration damping. When the piezoelectric ceramic particulates are subjected to strain, such as the strain experienced during vibration of the material, they generate an electrical voltage that is converted into Joule heat in the surrounding metal matrix, thereby dissipating the vibrational energy. The piezoelectric ceramic particulates may also act as reinforcements to improve the mec...

  10. Piezoelectric Transformer Characterization and Application of Electronic Ballast

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ray-Lee

    2001-01-01

    The characterization and modeling of piezoelectric transformers are studied and developed for use in electronic ballasts. By replacing conventional L-C resonant tanks with piezoelectric transformers, inductor-less piezoelectric transformer electronic ballasts have been developed for use in fluorescent lamps. The piezoelectric transformer is a combination of piezoelectric actuators as the primary side and piezoelectric transducers as the secondary side, both of which work in longitudinal o...

  11. Flexible Piezoelectric-Induced Pressure Sensors for Static Measurements Based on Nanowires/Graphene Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zefeng; Wang, Zhao; Li, Xinming; Lin, Yuxuan; Luo, Ningqi; Long, Mingzhu; Zhao, Ni; Xu, Jian-Bin

    2017-05-23

    The piezoelectric effect is widely applied in pressure sensors for the detection of dynamic signals. However, these piezoelectric-induced pressure sensors have challenges in measuring static signals that are based on the transient flow of electrons in an external load as driven by the piezopotential arisen from dynamic stress. Here, we present a pressure sensor with nanowires/graphene heterostructures for static measurements based on the synergistic mechanisms between strain-induced polarization charges in piezoelectric nanowires and the caused change of carrier scattering in graphene. Compared to the conventional piezoelectric nanowire or graphene pressure sensors, this sensor is capable of measuring static pressures with a sensitivity of up to 9.4 × 10 -3 kPa -1 and a fast response time down to 5-7 ms. This demonstration of pressure sensors shows great potential in the applications of electronic skin and wearable devices.

  12. Degenerated shell element for geometrically nonlinear analysis of thin-walled piezoelectric active structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinković, D; Köppe, H; Gabbert, U

    2008-01-01

    Active piezoelectric thin-walled structures, especially those with a notably higher membrane than bending stiffness, are susceptible to large rotations and transverse deflections. Recent investigations conducted by a number of researchers have shown that the predicted behavior of piezoelectric structures can be significantly influenced by the assumption of large displacements and rotations of the structure, thus demanding a geometrically nonlinear formulation in order to investigate it. This paper offers a degenerated shell element and a simplified formulation that relies on small incremental steps for the geometrically nonlinear analysis of piezoelectric composite structures. A set of purely mechanical static cases is followed by a set of piezoelectric coupled static cases, both demonstrating the applicability of the proposed formulation

  13. Optically Defined Modal Sensors Incorporating Spiropyran-Doped Liquid Crystals with Piezoelectric Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Lung Kuo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We integrated a piezoelectric sensing layer lamina containing liquid crystals (LC and spiropyran (SP in a LC/SP mixture to create an optically reconfigurable modal sensor for a cantilever beam. The impedance of this LC/SP lamina was decreased by UV irradiation which constituted the underlying mechanism to modulate the voltage externally applied to the piezoelectric actuating layer. Illuminating a specific pattern onto the LC/SP lamina provided us with a way to spatially modulate the piezoelectric vibration signal. We showed that if an UV illuminated pattern matches the strain distribution of a specific mode, a piezoelectric modal sensor can be created. Since UV illumination can be changed in situ in real-time, our results confirm for the first time since the inception of smart sensors, that an optically tailored modal sensor can be created. Some potential applications of this type of sensor include energy harvesting devices, bio-chips, vibration sensing and actuating devices.

  14. Piezoelectricity induced defect modes for shear waves in a periodically stratified supperlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliposyan, Davit

    2018-01-01

    Properties of shear waves in a piezoelectric stratified periodic structure with a defect layer are studied for a superlattice with identical piezoelectric materials in a unit cell. Due to the electro-mechanical coupling in piezoelectric materials the structure exhibits defect modes in the superlattice with full transmission peaks both for full contact and electrically shorted interfaces. The results show an existence of one or two transmission peaks depending on the interfacial conditions. In the long wavelength region where coupling between electro-magnetic and elastic waves creates frequency band gaps the defect layer introduces one or two defect modes transmitting both electro-magnetic and elastic energies. Other parameters affecting the defect modes are the thickness of the defect layer, differences in refractive indexes and the magnitude of the angle of the incident wave. The results of the paper may be useful in the design of narrow band filters or multi-channel piezoelectric filters.

  15. Piezoelectric Actuator with Frequency Characteristics for a Middle-Ear Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Ho; Cho, Jin-Ho

    2018-05-24

    The design and implementation of a novel piezoelectric-based actuator for an implantable middle-ear hearing aid is described in this paper. The proposed actuator has excellent low-frequency output characteristics, and can generate high output in a specific frequency band by adjusting the mechanical resonance. The actuator consists of a piezoelectric element, a miniature bellows, a cantilever membrane, a metal ring support, a ceramic tip, and titanium housing. The optimal structure of the cantilever-membrane design, which determines the frequency characteristics of the piezoelectric actuator, was derived through finite element analysis. Based on the results, the piezoelectric actuator was implemented, and its performance was verified through a cadaveric experiment. It was confirmed that the proposed actuator provides better performance than currently used actuators, in terms of frequency characteristics.

  16. Strong piezoelectricity in bioinspired peptide nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholkin, Andrei; Amdursky, Nadav; Bdikin, Igor; Gazit, Ehud; Rosenman, Gil

    2010-02-23

    We show anomalously strong shear piezoelectric activity in self-assembled diphenylalanine peptide nanotubes (PNTs), indicating electric polarization directed along the tube axis. Comparison with well-known piezoelectric LiNbO(3) and lateral signal calibration yields sufficiently high effective piezoelectric coefficient values of at least 60 pm/V (shear response for tubes of approximately 200 nm in diameter). PNTs demonstrate linear deformation without irreversible degradation in a broad range of driving voltages. The results open up a wide avenue for developing new generations of "green" piezoelectric materials and piezonanodevices based on bioactive tubular nanostructures potentially compatible with human tissue.

  17. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of a Rotary Piezoelectric Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El, Ghouti N.; Helbo, Jan

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, an enhanced equivalent circuit model of a rotary traveling wave piezoelectric ultrasonic motor "shinsei type USR60" is derived. The modeling is performed on the basis of an empirical approach combined with the electrical network method and some simplification assumptions about...... of the temperature on the mechanical resonance frequency is considered and thereby integrated in the final model for long term operations....

  18. Modal analysis of beam with piezoelectric sensors a actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemčík R.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available One dimensional finite element is developed for the analysis of structures with applied piezoelectric sensors and actuators, i.e. smart structures, mechanical behavior of which can be controlled in real-time. The element is based on Euler-Bernoulli theory and it assumes bilinear distribution of electric field potential. Mathematical model was implemented in MATLAB environment. Sensitivity analysis is carried out for the case of modal analysis with and without piezo patches.

  19. Size-dependent buckling and vibration behaviors of piezoelectric nanostructures due to flexoelectricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Xu; Hu, Shuling; Shen, Shengping

    2015-01-01

    The symmetry breaking of inversion in solid crystals will induce electric polarization in all solid crystals, which is well known as flexoelectricity. At the nanometer scale, due to the large ratio of surface to volume, piezoelectric structures always exhibit distinct mechanical and electrical behaviors compared with their bulk counterparts. In the current work, the effects of surface and flexoelectricity on the buckling and vibration of piezoelectric nanowires is investigated based on a continuum framework and the Euler–Bernoulli beam hypothesis. Analytical solutions of the electric field in the piezoelectric nanobeam subjected to electrical and mechanical loads are obtained with the surface, flexoelectric and nonlocal electric effects. Numeric simulations demonstrate that the Young’s modulus and bending rigidity of PZT and BaTiO 3 (BT) nanowires are enhanced by flexoelectricity. In addition, the critical buckling voltage is calculated with consideration of the effects of surface and flexoelectricity, and it is found that the effects of surface piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and residual surface stress play significant roles in determining the critical buckling voltage. Results obtained for the first resonance frequency also indicate that the effects of surface and flexoelectricity are more significant at a narrow range of beam thickness. The first resonance frequency of PZT and BT nanowires is also influenced by the residual surface stress and external applied voltage. The current work is expected to provide a fundamental study on the buckling and vibration behaviors of piezoelectric nanobeams, and it might also be helpful in devising piezoelectric nanowire-based nanoelectronics. (paper)

  20. Dynamic characteristics of a cyclic-periodic structure with a piezoelectric network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a cyclic-periodic structure with a piezoelectric network. In such a system, there is not only mechanical connection but also electrical connection between adjacent periodic sectors. The objective is to learn whether the presence of a piezoelectric network would change the dynamic characteristics of the system. The background of the research is about vibration reduction of a bladed disk in an aero-engine, and the system is simulated by a lumped parameter model. The dynamic equations of the system are derived, and then the analytical solution corresponding to the eigenvalue problem is given. The vibration responses to single traveling wave excitations (EO excitations and multiple traveling wave excitations (NEO excitations are studied. The results show that the presence of a piezoelectric network would change the natural frequencies of the system compared with those of the system with the piezoelectric shunt circuit. The forced response is sensitive to the connection type and the elements of the network. An energy analysis of the electro-mechanical coupling system has been performed to understand its dynamic behavior, and the following conclusion is obtained: a vibration reduction to excitations whose primary harmonic component is not zero can be achieved by a parallel piezoelectric network, while a reduction to other excitations should be based on a series piezoelectric network.

  1. A novel traveling wave piezoelectric actuated tracked mobile robot utilizing friction effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Shu, Chengyou; Jin, Jiamei; Zhang, Jianhui

    2017-03-01

    A novel traveling wave piezoelectric-actuated tracked mobile robot with potential application to robotic rovers was proposed and investigated in this study. The proposed tracked mobile robot is composed of a parallelogram-frame-structure piezoelectric transducer with four rings and a metal track. Utilizing the converse piezoelectric and friction effects, traveling waves were propagated in the rings and then the metal track was actuated by the piezoelectric transducer. Compared with traditional tracked mechanisms, the proposed tracked mobile robot has a simpler and more compact structure without lubricant, which eliminates the problem of lubricant volatilization and deflation, thus, it could be operated in the vacuum environment. Dynamic characteristics were simulated and measured to reveal the mechanism of actuating track of the piezoelectric transducer. Experimental investigations of the traveling wave piezoelectric-actuated tracked mobile robot were then carried out, and the results indicated that the robot prototype with a pair of exciting voltages of 460 Vpp is able to achieve a maximum velocity of 57 mm s-1 moving on the foam plate and possesses the obstacle crossing capability with a maximum height of 27 mm. The proposed tracked mobile robot exhibits potential to be the driving system of robotic rovers.

  2. High precision optical measurement of displacement and simultaneous determinations of piezoelectric coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Bryan M.; Malladi, Madhuri; Vadlamani, Ramya; Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar

    2016-09-01

    PZT are also well known for their applications in Micro Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS). It is necessary to study the piezoelectric coefficients of the materials accurately in order to design a sensor as an example, which defines their strain dependent applications. Systematic study of the electro mechanic displacement measurement was conducted and compared using a white light fiber optic sensor, a heterodyne laser Doppler vibrometer, and a homodyne laser interferometry setup. Frequency dependent measurement is conducted to evaluate displacement values well below and near the piezoelectric resonances. UHF-120 ultra-high frequency Vibrometer is used to measure the longitudinal piezoelectric displacement or x33 and the MTI 2000 FotonicTM Sensor is used to measure the transverse piezoelectric displacement or x11 over 100Hz to 2MHz. A Multiphysics Finite Element Analysis method, COMSOL, is also adopted in the study to generate a three dimensional electromechanical coupled model based on experimentally determined strains x33 and x11 as a function of frequency of the electric field applied. The full family of piezoelectric coefficients of the poled electronic ceramic PZT, d33, d31, and d15, can be then derived, upon satisfactory simulation of the COMSOL. This is achieved without the usual need of preparation of piezoelectric resonators of fundamental longitudinal, transversal, and shear modes respectively.

  3. Piezoelectric peptide-based nanogenerator enhanced by single-electrode triboelectric nanogenerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Nguyen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Peptide has recently been demonstrated as a sustainable and smart material for piezoelectric energy conversion. Although the power output was improved compared to other biomaterials, the use of a piezoelectric device alone can only capture the energy from the minute deformation in materials. In comparison, the triboelectric effect can convert mechanical energy from large motion. Consequently, utilizing both piezoelectric and triboelectric effects is of significant research interest due to their complementary energy conversion mechanisms. Here we demonstrated a hybrid nanogenerator that combined a peptide-based piezoelectric nanogenerator with a single-electrode triboelectric nanogenerator. Our device structure enabled the voltage and current outputs of each individual type of nanogenerator to be superposed in the hybrid nanogenerator, producing overall constructive outputs. The design of our device also enabled a simplified configuration of hybrid nanogenerator. This study is important not only for the enhancement of peptide-based piezoelectric device but also for the future design of hybrid piezoelectric and triboelectric nanogenerators.

  4. Piezoelectric motor development at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressly, Robert B.; Mentesana, Charles P.

    1994-11-01

    The Kansas City Division of AlliedSignal Inc. has been investigating the fabrication and use of piezoelectric motors in mechanisms for United States Department of Energy (DOE) weapons applications for about four years. These motors exhibit advantages over solenoids and other electromagnetic actuators. Prototype processes have been developed for complete fabrication of motors from stock materials, including abrasive machining of piezoelectric ceramics and more traditional machining of other motor components, electrode plating and sputtering, electric poling, cleaning, bonding and assembly. Drive circuits have been fabricated and motor controls are being developed. Laboratory facilities have been established for electrical/mechanical testing and evaluation of piezo materials and completed motors. Recent project efforts have focused on the potential of piezoelectric devices for commercial and industrial use. A broad range of various motor types and application areas has been identified, primarily in Japan. The Japanese have been developing piezo motors for many years and have more recently begun commercialization. Piezoelectric motor and actuator technology is emerging in the United States and quickly gaining in commercial interest. The Kansas City Division is continuing development of piezoelectric motors and actuators for defense applications while supporting and participating in the commercialization of piezoelectric devices with private industry through various technology transfer and cooperative development initiatives.

  5. Calculations for piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, H.

    1986-05-01

    Analysis of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers implies a solution of a boundary value problem, for a body which consists of different materials, including a piezoelectric part. The problem is dynamic at frequencies, where a typical wavelength is somewhat less than the size of the body. Radiation losses as well as internal losses may be important. Due to the complexity of the problem, a closed form solution is the exception rather than the rule. For this reason, it is necessary to use approximate methods for the analysis. Equivalent circuits, the Rayleigh-Ritz method, Mindlin plate theory and in particular the finite element method are considered. The finite element method is utilized for analysis of axisymmetric transducers. An explicit, fully piezoelectric, triangular ring element, with linear variations in displacement and electric potential is given. The influence of a fluid half-space is also given, in the form of a complex stiffness matrix. A special stacking procedure, for analysis of the backing has been developed. This procedure gives a saving, which is similar to that of the fast fourier transform algorithm, and is also wellsuited for analysis of finite and infinite waveguides. Results obtained by the finite element method are shown and compared with measurements and exact solutions. Good agreement is obtained. It is concluded that the finite element method can be a valueable tool in analysis and design of ultrasonic transducers. (author)

  6. A layered shell containing patches of piezoelectric fibers and interdigitated electrodes: Finite element modeling and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bjerregaard; Nielsen, Martin S.; Santos, Ilmar

    2017-01-01

    The work gives a theoretical and experimental contribution to the problem of smart materials connected to double curved flexible shells. In the theoretical part the finite element modeling of a double curved flexible shell with a piezoelectric fiber patch with interdigitated electrodes (IDEs......) is presented. The developed element is based on a purely mechanical eight-node isoparametric layered element for a double curved shell, utilizing first-order shear deformation theory. The electromechanical coupling of piezoelectric material is added to all elements, but can also be excluded by setting...... the piezoelectric material properties to zero. The electrical field applied via the IDEs is aligned with the piezoelectric fibers, and hence the direct d33 piezoelectric constant is utilized for the electromechanical coupling. The dynamic performance of a shell with a microfiber composite (MFC) patch...

  7. ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Guang; Xu, Tian-Le

    2011-01-19

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are members of the sodium-selective cation channels belonging to the epithelial sodium channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) family, act as membrane-bound receptors for extracellular protons as well as nonproton ligands. At least five ASIC subunits have been identified in mammalian neurons, which form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric channels. The highly proton sensitive ASIC3 channels are predominantly distributed in peripheral sensory neurons, correlating with their roles in multimodal sensory perception, including nociception, mechanosensation, and chemosensation. Different from other ASIC subunit composing ion channels, ASIC3 channels can mediate a sustained window current in response to mild extracellular acidosis (pH 7.3-6.7), which often occurs accompanied by many sensory stimuli. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that the sustained component of ASIC3 currents can be enhanced by nonproton ligands including the endogenous metabolite agmatine. In this review, we first summarize the growing body of evidence for the involvement of ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception and then discuss the potential mechanisms underlying ASIC3 activation and mediation of sensory perception, with a special emphasis on its role in nociception. We conclude that ASIC3 activation and modulation by diverse sensory stimuli represent a new avenue for understanding the role of ASIC3 channels in sensory perception. Furthermore, the emerging implications of ASIC3 channels in multiple sensory dysfunctions including nociception allow the development of new pharmacotherapy.

  8. Modeling and parametric analysis of a piezoelectric flexoelectric nanoactuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baroudi Sourour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of nanotechnology, nanoactuators have recently re-stimulated a surge of scientific interests in research communities. One of the interesting transduction mechanisms that showed high efficiency at the nanoscale was flexoelectricity. In fact, the flexoelectric effect in dielectric solids couples polarization and strain gradient, rather than polarization and strain for piezoelectricity, to convert mechanical stimulus into electricity and vice cersa. The objective of the current work is to develop a complete comprehensive electromechanical model of a nanobeam whose for piezoelectrically-actuated nanocantilever sensor in which both the flexoelectricity and piezoelectricity effects will be tzken into consideration. Starting from the enthalpy density function, the Hamilton’s principle is applied to drive the governing coupled equations with appropriate boundary conditions. Then, we investigate the free vibration of the mechanism by formulating the eigenvalue problem associated with the coupled partial differential equations. Using the Galerkin procedure we develop both the static and dynamic of our structure. The results show that a certain aspect ratio flexoelectric effect significantly increases the performance of the nanoactuator.

  9. Piezoelectric properties of zinc oxide nanowires: an ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korir, K K; Cicero, G; Catellani, A

    2013-01-01

    Nanowires made of materials with non-centrosymmetric crystal structures are expected to be ideal building blocks for self-powered nanodevices due to their piezoelectric properties, yet a controversial explanation of the effective operational mechanisms and size effects still delays their real exploitation. To solve this controversy, we propose a methodology based on DFT calculations of the response of nanostructures to external deformations that allows us to distinguish between the different (bulk and surface) contributions: we apply this scheme to evaluate the piezoelectric properties of ZnO [0001] nanowires, with a diameter up to 2.3 nm. Our results reveal that, while surface and confinement effects are negligible, effective strain energies, and thus the nanowire mechanical response, are dependent on size. Our unified approach allows for a proper definition of piezoelectric coefficients for nanostructures, and explains in a rigorous way the reason why nanowires are found to be more sensitive to mechanical deformation than the corresponding bulk material. (paper)

  10. Enhancement of the piezoelectric properties of sodium lanthanum bismuth titanate (Na0.5La0.5Bi4Ti4O15) through modification with cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunming; Wang Jinfeng; Zheng Limei; Zhao Minglei; Wang Chunlei

    2010-01-01

    The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical properties of B-site cobalt-modified sodium lanthanum bismuth titanate (Na 0.5 La 0.5 Bi 4 Ti 4 O 15 , NLBT) piezoelectric ceramics were investigated. The piezoelectric properties of NLBT ceramics can be enhanced by cobalt modifications. The NLBT ceramics modified with 0.2 wt.% cobalt trioxide (NLBT-C4) possess good piezoelectric properties, with piezoelectric coefficient d 33 of 27 pC/N, electromechanical coupling factors (k p and k t ) of 6.5% and 28.5%, and mechanical quality factor Q m (k p mode) of 3400. The Curie temperature T c of cobalt-modified NLBT ceramics was found to slightly higher than that of pure NLBT ceramics. A large dielectric abnormity in dielectric loss tan δ was observed in NLBT ceramics, which can be significantly suppressed by cobalt modification. Thermal annealing studies presented the cobalt-modified NLBT ceramics possess stable piezoelectric properties.

  11. Sensory perception in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Caroline E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental condition, and little is known about its neurobiology. Much of autism research has focused on the social, communication and cognitive difficulties associated with the condition. However, the recent revision of the diagnostic criteria for autism has brought another key domain of autistic experience into focus: sensory processing. Here, we review the properties of sensory processing in autism and discuss recent computational and neurobiological insights arising from attention to these behaviours. We argue that sensory traits have important implications for the development of animal and computational models of the condition. Finally, we consider how difficulties in sensory processing may relate to the other domains of behaviour that characterize autism.

  12. Test rig with active damping control for the simultaneous evaluation of vibration control and energy harvesting via piezoelectric transducers

    OpenAIRE

    Perfetto, Sara; Rohlfing, Jens; Infante, Francesco; Mayer, Dirk; Herold, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric transducers can be used to harvest electrical energy from structural vibrations in order to power continuously operating condition monitoring systems local to where they operate. However, excessive vibrations can compromise the safe operation of mechanical systems. Therefore, absorbers are commonly used to control vibrations. With an integrated device, the mechanical energy that otherwise would be dissipated can be converted via piezoelectric transducers. Vibration absorbers are...

  13. Dynamic Electromechanical Coupling of Piezoelectric Bending Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa R. A. Nabawy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromechanical coupling defines the ratio of electrical and mechanical energy exchanged during a flexure cycle of a piezoelectric actuator. This paper presents an analysis of the dynamic electromechanical coupling factor (dynamic EMCF for cantilever based piezoelectric actuators and provides for the first time explicit expressions for calculation of dynamic EMCF based on arrangement of passive and active layers, layer geometry, and active and passive materials selection. Three main cantilever layer configurations are considered: unimorph, dual layer bimorph and triple layer bimorph. The actuator is modeled using standard constitutive dynamic equations that relate deflection and charge to force and voltage. A mode shape formulation is used for the cantilever dynamics that allows the generalized mass to be the actual mass at the first resonant frequency, removing the need for numerical integration in the design process. Results are presented in the form of physical insight from the model structure and also numerical evaluations of the model to provide trends in dynamic EMCF with actuator design parameters. For given material properties of the active and passive layers and given system overall damping ratio, the triple layer bimorph topology is the best in terms of theoretically achievable dynamic EMCF, followed by the dual layer bimorph. For a damping ratio of 0.035, the dynamic EMCF for an example dual layer bimorph configuration is 9% better than for a unimorph configuration. For configurations with a passive layer, the ratio of thicknesses for the passive and active layers is the primary geometric design variable. Choice of passive layer stiffness (Young’s modulus relative to the stiffness of the material in the active layer is an important materials related design choice. For unimorph configurations, it is beneficial to use the highest stiffness possible passive material, whereas for triple layer bimorph configurations, the passive

  14. Stratifying patients with peripheral neuropathic pain based on sensory profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollert, Jan; Maier, Christoph; Attal, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    In a recent cluster analysis, it has been shown that patients with peripheral neuropathic pain can be grouped into 3 sensory phenotypes based on quantitative sensory testing profiles, which are mainly characterized by either sensory loss, intact sensory function and mild thermal hyperalgesia and...... populations that need to be screened to reach a subpopulation large enough to conduct a phenotype-stratified study. The most common phenotype in diabetic polyneuropathy was sensory loss (83%), followed by mechanical hyperalgesia (75%) and thermal hyperalgesia (34%, note that percentages are overlapping...

  15. Optimal design of robust piezoelectric unimorph microgrippers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, David; Díaz-Molina, Alex; Sigmund, Ole

    2018-01-01

    Topology optimization can be used to design piezoelectric actuators by simultaneous design of host structure and polarization profile. Subsequent micro-scale fabrication leads us to overcome important manufacturing limitations: difficulties in placing a piezoelectric layer on both top and bottom...

  16. Development of High Performance Piezoelectric Polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joycelyn O.; St.Clair, Terry L.; Welch, Sharon S.

    1996-01-01

    In this work a series of polyimides are investigated which exhibit a strong piezoelectric response and polarization stability at temperatures in excess of 100 C. This work was motivated by the need to develop piezoelectric sensors suitable for use in high temperature aerospace applications.

  17. Structured Piezoelectric Composites : Materials and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The piezoelectric effect, which causes a material to generate a voltage when it deforms, is very suitable for making integrated sensors, and (micro-) generators. However, conventional piezoelectric materials are either brittle ceramics or certain polymers with a low thermal stability, which limits

  18. Experiments to Demonstrate Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jirí

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials are used in many current applications. The purpose of this paper is to explain the basic properties of pyroelectric and piezoelectric effects and demonstrate them in simple experiments. Pyroelectricity is presented on lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics as an electric charge generated by the temperature…

  19. LC Circuits for Diagnosing Embedded Piezoelectric Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattin, Richard L.; Fox, Robert Lee; Moses, Robert W.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2005-01-01

    A recently invented method of nonintrusively detecting faults in piezoelectric devices involves measurement of the resonance frequencies of inductor capacitor (LC) resonant circuits. The method is intended especially to enable diagnosis of piezoelectric sensors, actuators, and sensor/actuators that are embedded in structures and/or are components of multilayer composite material structures.

  20. Vibrations of Thin Piezoelectric Shallow Shells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two-dimensional eigenvalue problem.

  1. Variational principles for nonlinear piezoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Ramos, R.; Guinovart-Diaz, R. [Universidad de la Habana, Facultad de Matematica y Computacion, Vedado, Habana (Cuba); Pobedria, B.E. [Moscow State University M. V. Lomonosov, Composites Department, Moscow (Russian Federation); Padilla, P. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y en Sistemas (IIMAS), Cd. Universitaria, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Bravo-Castillero, J. [Universidad de la Habana, Facultad de Matematica y Computacion, Vedado, Habana (Cuba); Campus Estado de Mexico. Division de Arquitectura e Ingenieria, Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Atizapan de Zaragoza, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Maugin, G.A. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie. Case 162, UMR 7607 CNRS, Laboratoire de Modelisation en Mecanique, Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2004-12-01

    In the present paper, we consider the behavior of nonlinear piezoelectric materials by generalization for this case of the Hashin-Shtrikman variational principles. The new general formulation used here differs from others, because, it gives the possibility to evaluate the upper and lower Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for specific physical nonlinearities of piezoelectric materials. Geometrical nonlinearities are not considered. (orig.)

  2. Polymer-ceramic piezoelectric composites (PZT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassora, L.A.; Eiras, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Polymer-ceramic piezoelectric transducers, with 1-3 of connectivity were prepared with different concentration of ceramic material. Piezoelectric composites, with equal electromechanical coupling factor and acoustic impedance of one third from that ceramic transducer, were obtained when the fractionary volume of PZT reach 30%. (C.G.C.)

  3. Energy harvesting from vibration using a piezoelectric membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericka, M.; Vasic, D.; Costa, F.; Tliba, S. [Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, Systemes et Applications des Technologies de l' Information et de l' Energie (SATIE, UMR 8029), 94 - Cachan (France); Poulin, G. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Ingenieurs Electriciens de Grenoble, Laboratoire d' Automatique de Grenoble, 38 (France)

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we investigate the capability of harvesting the electric energy from mechanical vibrations in a dynamic environment through a piezoelectric membrane transducer. This transducer consists of 2 layers lead zirconate titanate (PZT)/brass, the brass layer is embedded over the whole circumference by epoxy adhesive. A very small vibration gives a consequent deformation of the membrane which generates electric energy. Due to the impedance matrices connecting the efforts and flows of the membrane, we have established the dynamic electric equivalent circuit of the transducer. In a first study and in order to validate theoretical results, we performed experiments with a vibrating machine moving a macroscopic 25 mm diameter piezoelectric membrane. A power of 1.8 mW was generated at the resonance frequency (2.58 kHz) across a 56 k{omega} optimal resistor and for a 2 g acceleration. (authors)

  4. Coupled polaritonic band gaps in the anisotropic piezoelectric superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng-Hua; Jiang, Zheng-Sheng; Chen, Tao; Jiang, Chun-Zhi; Lei, Da-Jun; Huang, Jian-Quan; Qiu, Feng; Yao, Min; Huang, Xiao-Yi

    2018-01-01

    Anisotropic piezoelectric superlattices (APSs) with the periodic arrangement of polarized anisotropic piezoelectric domains in a certain direction are presented, in which the coupled polaritonic band gaps (CPBGs) can be obtained in the whole Brillouin Zone and the maximum relative bandwidth (band-gap sizes divided by their midgap frequencies) of 5.1% can be achieved. The general characteristics of the APSs are similar to those of the phononic crystals composed of two types of materials, with the main difference being the formation mechanism of the CPBGs, which originate from the couplings between lattice vibrations along two different directions and electromagnetic waves rather than from the periodical modulation of density and elastic constants. In addition, there are no lattice mismatches because the APSs are made of the same material. Thus, the APSs can also be extended to the construction of novel acousto-optic devices.

  5. Piezoelectric micromotor based on the structure of serial bending arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jianhua; Cui, Tianhong; Shao, Peige; Wang, Liding

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents a new piezoelectric micromotor based on the structure of serial bending arms. Serial bending arms are composed of two piezoelectric bimorphs with one end fixed and the other end free, driven by two signals of a biased square wave with a phase difference of pi/2. The free end of a cantilever arm will move along an elliptic orbit so that the cantilever is used to drive a cylinder rotor. The rotor's end surface contacts the free end of the cantilever, resulting in the rotor's rotation. There are six serial bending arms anchored on the base. The driving mechanism of the micromotor is proposed and analyzed. A new micromotor prototype, 5 mm in diameter, has been fabricated and characterized. The maximum rotational speed reaches 325 rpm, and the output torque is about 36.5 microNm.

  6. Piezoelectric composite morphing control surfaces for unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohanian, Osgar J., III; Karni, Etan D.; Olien, Chris C.; Gustafson, Eric A.; Kochersberger, Kevin B.; Gelhausen, Paul A.; Brown, Bridget L.

    2011-04-01

    The authors have explored the use of morphing control surfaces to replace traditional servo-actuated control surfaces in UAV applications. The morphing actuation is accomplished using Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) piezoelectric actuators in a bimorph configuration to deflect the aft section of a control surface cross section. The resulting camber change produces forces and moments for vehicle control. The flexible piezoelectric actuators are damage tolerant and provide excellent bandwidth. The large amplitude morphing deflections attained in bench-top experiments demonstrate the potential for excellent control authority. Aerodynamic performance calculations using experimentally measured morphed geometries indicate changes in sectional lift coefficients that are superior to a servo-actuated hinged flap airfoil. This morphing flight control actuation technology could eliminate the need for servos and mechanical linkages in small UAVs and thereby increase reliability and reduce drag.

  7. Integration of Geometrical and Material Nonlinear Energy Sink with Piezoelectric Material Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Wei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel design by integrating geometrical and material nonlinear energy sink (NES with a piezoelectric-based vibration energy harvester under shock excitation, which can realize vibration control and energy harvesting. The nonlinear spring and hysteresis behavior of the NES could reflect geometrical and material nonlinearity, respectively. Two configurations of the piezoelectric device, including the piezoelectric element embedded between the NES mass and the single-degree-of-freedom system or ground, are utilised to examine the energy dissipated by damper and hysteresis behavior of NES and the energy harvested by the piezoelectric element. Similar numerical research methods of Runge-Kutta algorithm are used to investigate the two configurations. The energy transaction measure (ETM is adopted to examine the instantaneous energy transaction between the primary and the NES-piezoelectricity system. And it demonstrates that the dissipated and harvested energy transaction is transferred from the primary system to the NES-piezoelectricity system and the instantaneous transaction of mechanical energy occupies a major part of the energy of transaction. Both figurations could realize vibration control efficiently.

  8. A geometric parameter study of piezoelectric coverage on a rectangular cantilever energy harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R; McWilliam, S; Popov, A A

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a versatile model for optimizing the performance of a rectangular cantilever beam piezoelectric energy harvester used to convert ambient vibrations into electrical energy. The developed model accounts for geometric changes to the natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping in the structure. This is achieved through the combination of finite element modelling and a distributed parameter electromechanical model, including load resistor and charging capacitor models. The model has the potential for use in investigating the influence of numerous geometric changes on harvester performance, and incorporates a model for accounting for changes in damping as the geometry changes. The model is used to investigate the effects of substrate and piezoelectric layer length, and piezoelectric layer thickness on the performance of a microscale device. Findings from a parameter study indicate the existence of an optimum sample length due to increased mechanical damping for longer beams and improved power output using thicker piezoelectric layers. In practice, harvester design is normally based around a fixed operating frequency for a particular application, and improved performance is often achieved by operating at or near resonance. To achieve unbiased comparisons between different harvester designs, parameter studies are performed by changing multiple parameters simultaneously with the natural frequency held fixed. Performance enhancements were observed using shorter piezoelectric layers as compared to the conventional design, in which the piezoelectric layer and substrate are of equal length

  9. Enhanced piezoelectric properties of vertically aligned single-crystalline NKN nano-rod arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Oh, Seung-Min; Jung, Woo-Suk; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Nahm, Sahn; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-05-08

    Piezoelectric materials capable of converting between mechanical and electrical energy have a great range of potential applications in micro- and nano-scale smart devices; however, their performance tends to be greatly degraded when reduced to a thin film due to the large clamping force by the substrate and surrounding materials. Herein, we report an effective method for synthesizing isolated piezoelectric nano-materials as means to relax the clamping force and recover original piezoelectric properties of the materials. Using this, environmentally friendly single-crystalline NaxK1-xNbO3 (NKN) piezoelectric nano-rod arrays were successfully synthesized by conventional pulsed-laser deposition and demonstrated to have a remarkably enhanced piezoelectric performance. The shape of the nano-structure was also found to be easily manipulated by varying the energy conditions of the physical vapor. We anticipate that this work will provide a way to produce piezoelectric micro- and nano-devices suitable for practical application, and in doing so, open a new path for the development of complex metal-oxide nano-structures.

  10. Unexpectedly high piezoelectricity of Sm-doped lead zirconate titanate in the Curie point region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Shruti B; Nolan, Michelle M; Tutuncu, Goknur; Forrester, Jennifer S; Sapper, Eva; Esteves, Giovanni; Granzow, Torsten; Thomas, Pam A; Nino, Juan C; Rojac, Tadej; Jones, Jacob L

    2018-03-07

    Large piezoelectric coefficients in polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate (PZT) are traditionally achieved through compositional design using a combination of chemical substitution with a donor dopant and adjustment of the zirconium to titanium compositional ratio to meet the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). In this work, a different route to large piezoelectricity is demonstrated. Results reveal unexpectedly high piezoelectric coefficients at elevated temperatures and compositions far from the MPB. At temperatures near the Curie point, doping with 2 at% Sm results in exceptionally large piezoelectric coefficients of up to 915 pm/V. This value is approximately twice those of other donor dopants (e.g., 477 pm/V for Nb and 435 pm/V for La). Structural changes during the phase transitions of Sm-doped PZT show a pseudo-cubic phase forming ≈50 °C below the Curie temperature. Possible origins of these effects are discussed and the high piezoelectricity is posited to be due to extrinsic effects. The enhancement of the mechanism at elevated temperatures is attributed to the coexistence of tetragonal and pseudo-cubic phases, which enables strain accommodation during electromechanical deformation and interphase boundary motion. This work provides insight into possible routes for designing high performance piezoelectrics which are alternatives to traditional methods relying on MPB compositions.

  11. Direct observation of shear piezoelectricity in poly-l-lactic acid nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Smith

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric polymers are capable of interconverting mechanical and electrical energy, and are therefore candidate materials for biomedical applications such as sensors, actuators, and energy harvesters. In particular, nanowires of these materials are attractive as they can be unclamped, flexible and sensitive to small vibrations. Poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA nanowires have been investigated for their use in biological applications, but their piezoelectric properties have never been fully characterised, even though macroscopic films and fibres have been shown to exhibit shear piezoelectricity. This piezoelectric mode is particularly interesting for in vivo applications where shear forces are especially relevant, and is similar to what has been observed in natural materials such as bone and DNA. Here, using piezo-response force microscopy (PFM, we report the first direct observation of shear piezoelectricity in highly crystalline and oriented PLLA nanowires grown by a novel template-wetting method. Our results are validated using finite-element simulations and numerical analysis, which importantly and more generally allow for accurate interpretation of PFM signals in soft nanostructured materials. Our work opens up the possibility for the development of biocompatible and sustainable piezoelectric nanogenerators and sensors based on polymer nanowires.

  12. High-frequency performance for a spiral-shaped piezoelectric bimorph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang Sheng; Feng, Zhi Hua; Ma, Yu Ting; Pan, Qiao Sheng; Zhang, Lian Sheng; Liu, Yong Bin; He, Liang Guo

    2018-04-01

    Piezoelectric cantilever is suitable as an actuator for micro-flapping-wing aircraft. Higher resonant frequency brings about stronger flight energy, and the flight amplitude can be compensated by displacement-amplification mechanism, such as lever. To obtain a higher resonant frequency, straight piezoelectric bimorph was rolled into spiral-shaped piezoelectric bimorph with identical effective length in this study, which is verified in COMSOL simulations. Simulation results show that compared with the straight piezoelectric bimorph, the spiral-shaped piezoelectric bimorph with two turns has higher inherent frequencies (from 204.79 Hz to 504.84 Hz in terms of axial oscillation mode, and from 319.77 Hz to 704.48 Hz in terms of tangential torsional mode). The spiral-shaped piezoelectric bimorph is fabricated by a precise laser cutting process and consists of two turns with effective length of 60 mm, width of 2.5 mm, and thickness of 1.6 mm, respectively. With the excitation voltage of 100 Vpp applying an electric field across the thickness of the bimorph, the tip displacement of the actuator in the axial oscillation and tangential torsional modes are 85 μm and 15 μm, respectively.

  13. Direct observation of shear piezoelectricity in poly-l-lactic acid nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael; Calahorra, Yonatan; Jing, Qingshen; Kar-Narayan, Sohini

    2017-07-01

    Piezoelectric polymers are capable of interconverting mechanical and electrical energy, and are therefore candidate materials for biomedical applications such as sensors, actuators, and energy harvesters. In particular, nanowires of these materials are attractive as they can be unclamped, flexible and sensitive to small vibrations. Poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) nanowires have been investigated for their use in biological applications, but their piezoelectric properties have never been fully characterised, even though macroscopic films and fibres have been shown to exhibit shear piezoelectricity. This piezoelectric mode is particularly interesting for in vivo applications where shear forces are especially relevant, and is similar to what has been observed in natural materials such as bone and DNA. Here, using piezo-response force microscopy (PFM), we report the first direct observation of shear piezoelectricity in highly crystalline and oriented PLLA nanowires grown by a novel template-wetting method. Our results are validated using finite-element simulations and numerical analysis, which importantly and more generally allow for accurate interpretation of PFM signals in soft nanostructured materials. Our work opens up the possibility for the development of biocompatible and sustainable piezoelectric nanogenerators and sensors based on polymer nanowires.

  14. Ultrathin flexible piezoelectric sensors for monitoring eye fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Chaofeng; Wu, Shuang; Lu, Bingwei; Zhang, Yangyang; Du, Yangkun; Feng, Xue

    2018-02-01

    Eye fatigue is a symptom induced by long-term work of both eyes and brains. Without proper treatment, eye fatigue may incur serious problems. Current studies on detecting eye fatigue mainly focus on computer vision detect technology which can be very unreliable due to occasional bad visual conditions. As a solution, we proposed a wearable conformal in vivo eye fatigue monitoring sensor that contains an array of piezoelectric nanoribbons integrated on an ultrathin flexible substrate. By detecting strains on the skin of eyelid, the sensors may collect information about eye blinking, and, therefore, reveal human’s fatigue state. We first report the design and fabrication of the piezoelectric sensor and experimental characterization of voltage responses of the piezoelectric sensors. Under bending stress, the output voltage curves yield key information about the motion of human eyelid. We also develop a theoretical model to reveal the underlying mechanism of detecting eyelid motion. Both mechanical load test and in vivo test are conducted to convince the working performance of the sensors. With satisfied durability and high sensitivity, this sensor may efficiently detect abnormal eyelid motions, such as overlong closure, high blinking frequency, low closing speed and weak gazing strength, and may hopefully provide feedback for assessing eye fatigue in time so that unexpected situations can be prevented.

  15. Modelling of a bridge-shaped nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gafforelli, G; Corigliano, A; Xu, R; Kim, S G

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) energy harvesting is an attractive technology for harvesting small magnitudes of energy from ambient vibrations. Increasing the operating frequency bandwidth of such devices is one of the major issues for real world applications. A MEMS-scale doubly clamped nonlinear beam resonator is designed and developed to demonstrate very wide bandwidth and high power density. In this paper a first complete theoretical discussion of nonlinear resonating piezoelectric energy harvesting is provided. The sectional behaviour of the beam is studied through the Classical Lamination Theory (CLT) specifically modified to introduce the piezoelectric coupling and nonlinear Green-Lagrange strain tensor. A lumped parameter model is built through Rayleigh-Ritz Method and the resulting nonlinear coupled equations are solved in the frequency domain through the Harmonic Balance Method (HBM). Finally, the influence of external load resistance on the dynamic behaviour is studied. The theoretical model shows that nonlinear resonant harvesters have much wider power bandwidth than that of linear resonators but their maximum power is still bounded by the mechanical damping as is the case for linear resonating harvesters

  16. Multistage Force Amplification of Piezoelectric Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Zuo, Lei (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the disclosure include an apparatus and methods for using a piezoelectric device, that includes an outer flextensional casing, a first cell and a last cell serially coupled to each other and coupled to the outer flextensional casing such that each cell having a flextensional cell structure and each cell receives an input force and provides an output force that is amplified based on the input force. The apparatus further includes a piezoelectric stack coupled to each cell such that the piezoelectric stack of each cell provides piezoelectric energy based on the output force for each cell. Further, the last cell receives an input force that is the output force from the first cell and the last cell provides an output apparatus force In addition, the piezoelectric energy harvested is based on the output apparatus force. Moreover, the apparatus provides displacement based on the output apparatus force.

  17. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Y; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C M

    2016-10-06

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V -1 , ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  18. Applications of piezoelectric materials in oilfield services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujon, Nicolas; Hori, Hiroshi; Liang, Kenneth K; Sinha, Bikash K

    2012-09-01

    Piezoelectric materials are used in many applications in the oilfield services industry. Four illustrative examples are given in this paper: marine seismic survey, precision pressure measurement, sonic logging-while-drilling, and ultrasonic bore-hole imaging. In marine seismics, piezoelectric hydrophones are deployed on a massive scale in a relatively benign environment. Hence, unit cost and device reliability are major considerations. The remaining three applications take place downhole in a characteristically harsh environment with high temperature and high pressure among other factors. The number of piezoelectric devices involved is generally small but otherwise highly valued. The selection of piezoelectric materials is limited, and the devices have to be engineered to withstand the operating conditions. With the global demand for energy increasing in the foreseeable future, the search for hydrocarbon resources is reaching into deeper and hotter wells. There is, therefore, a continuing and pressing need for high-temperature and high-coupling piezoelectric materials.

  19. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V-1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  20. Neuropathic pain: is quantitative sensory testing helpful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumova, Elena K; Geber, Christian; Westermann, Andrea; Maier, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    Neuropathic pain arises as a consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system and is characterised by a combination of positive and negative sensory symptoms. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) examines the sensory perception after application of different mechanical and thermal stimuli of controlled intensity and the function of both large (A-beta) and small (A-delta and C) nerve fibres, including the corresponding central pathways. QST can be used to determine detection, pain thresholds and stimulus-response curves and can thus detect both negative and positive sensory signs, the second ones not being assessed by other methods. Similarly to all other psychophysical tests QST requires standardised examination, instructions and data evaluation to receive valid and reliable results. Since normative data are available, QST can contribute also to the individual diagnosis of neuropathy, especially in the case of isolated small-fibre neuropathy, in contrast to the conventional electrophysiology which assesses only large myelinated fibres. For example, detection of early stages of subclinical neuropathy in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus can be helpful to optimise treatment and identify diabetic foot at risk of ulceration. QST assessed the individual's sensory profile and thus can be valuable to evaluate the underlying pain mechanisms which occur in different frequencies even in the same neuropathic pain syndromes. Furthermore, assessing the exact sensory phenotype by QST might be useful in the future to identify responders to certain treatments in accordance to the underlying pain mechanisms.

  1. Piezoelectric materials as stimulatory biomedical materials and scaffolds for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Biranche; Blaker, Jonny J; Cartmell, Sarah H

    2018-04-16

    The process of bone repair and regeneration requires multiple physiological cues including biochemical, electrical and mechanical - that act together to ensure functional recovery. Myriad materials have been explored as bioactive scaffolds to deliver these cues locally to the damage site, amongst these piezoelectric materials have demonstrated significant potential for tissue engineering and regeneration, especially for bone repair. Piezoelectric materials have been widely explored for power generation and harvesting, structural health monitoring, and use in biomedical devices. They have the ability to deform with physiological movements and consequently deliver electrical stimulation to cells or damaged tissue without the need of an external power source. Bone itself is piezoelectric and the charges/potentials it generates in response to mechanical activity are capable of enhancing bone growth. Piezoelectric materials are capable of stimulating the physiological electrical microenvironment, and can play a vital role to stimulate regeneration and repair. This review gives an overview of the association of piezoelectric effect with bone repair, and focuses on state-of-the-art piezoelectric materials (polymers, ceramics and their composites), the fabrication routes to produce piezoelectric scaffolds, and their application in bone repair. Important characteristics of these materials from the perspective of bone tissue engineering are highlighted. Promising upcoming strategies and new piezoelectric materials for this application are presented. Electrical stimulation/electrical microenvironment are known effect the process of bone regeneration by altering the cellular response and are crucial in maintaining tissue functionality. Piezoelectric materials, owing to their capability of generating charges/potentials in response to mechanical deformations, have displayed great potential for fabricating smart stimulatory scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The growing

  2. Continuum theory for nanotube piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, P J; Sai, Na; Mele, E J

    2005-09-09

    We develop and solve a continuum theory for the piezoelectric response of one-dimensional nanotubes and nanowires, and apply the theory to study electromechanical effects in boron-nitride nanotubes. We find that the polarization of a nanotube depends on its aspect ratio, and a dimensionless constant specifying the ratio of the strengths of the elastic and electrostatic interactions. The solutions of the model as these two parameters are varied are discussed. The theory is applied to estimate the electric potential induced along the length of a boron-nitride nanotube in response to a uniaxial stress.

  3. Piezoelectric accelerometers with integral electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Levinzon, Felix

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an invaluable reference to Piezoelectric Accelerometers with Integral Electronics (IEPE). It describes the design and performance parameters of IEPE accelerometers and their key elements, PE transducers and FET-input amplifiers. Coverage includes recently designed, low-noise and high temperature IEPE accelerometers. Readers will benefit from the detailed noise analysis of the IEPE accelerometer, which enables estimation of its noise floor and noise limits. Other topics useful for designers of low-noise, high temperature silicon-based electronics include noise analysis of FET

  4. Theoretical Study of the Vibration Suppression on a Mistuned Bladed Disk Using a Bi-periodic Piezoelectric Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Deng, Pengcheng; Liu, Jiuzhou; Li, Chao

    2018-03-01

    The paper deals with the vibration suppression of a bladed disk with a piezoelectric network. The piezoelectric network has a different period (so called bi-period) from that of the bladed disk and there is no inductor in it. The system is simulated by an electromechanical lumped parameter model with two DOFs per sector. The research focuses on suppressing the amplitude magnification or reducing the vibration localization of the mistuned bladed disk. The dynamic equations of the system are derived. Both mechanical mistuning and electrical mistuning have been taken into account. The Modified Modal Assurance Criterion (MMAC) is used to evaluate the vibration suppression ability of the bi-periodic piezoelectric network. The Monte Carlo simulation is used to calculate the MMAC of the system with the random mistuning. As a reference, the forced responses of the bladed disk with and without the piezoelectric network are given. The results show that the piezoelectric network would effectively suppress amplitude magnification induced by mistuning. The vibration amplitude is even smaller than that of the tuned system. The robustness analysis shows that the bi-periodic piezoelectric network can provide a reliable assurance for avoiding the forced response amplification of the mistuned bladed disk. The amplified response induced by the mechanical mistuning with standard deviation 0.2 can be effectively suppressed through the bi-periodic piezoelectric network.

  5. Probabilistic sensory recoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazayeri, Mehrdad

    2008-08-01

    A hallmark of higher brain functions is the ability to contemplate the world rather than to respond reflexively to it. To do so, the nervous system makes use of a modular architecture in which sensory representations are dissociated from areas that control actions. This flexibility however necessitates a recoding scheme that would put sensory information to use in the control of behavior. Sensory recoding faces two important challenges. First, recoding must take into account the inherent variability of sensory responses. Second, it must be flexible enough to satisfy the requirements of different perceptual goals. Recent progress in theory, psychophysics, and neurophysiology indicate that cortical circuitry might meet these challenges by evaluating sensory signals probabilistically.

  6. Enhanced piezo-humidity sensing of a Cd-ZnO nanowire nanogenerator as a self-powered/active gas sensor by coupling the piezoelectric screening effect and dopant displacement mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Binwei; Fu, Yongming; Wang, Penglei; Zhao, Yayu; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2015-04-28

    Highly sensitive humidity sensing has been realized from a Cd-doped ZnO nanowire (NW) nanogenerator (NG) as a self-powered/active gas sensor. The piezoelectric output of the device acts not only as a power source, but also as a response signal to the relative humidity (RH) in the environment. The response of Cd-ZnO (1 : 10) NWs reached up to 85.7 upon exposure to 70% relative humidity, much higher than that of undoped ZnO NWs. Cd dopant can increase the number of oxygen vacancies in the NWs, resulting in more adsorption sites on the surface of the NWs. Upon exposure to a humid environment, a large amount of water molecules can displace the adsorbed oxygen ions on the surface of Cd-ZnO NWs. This procedure can influence the carrier density in Cd-ZnO NWs and vary the screening effect on the piezoelectric output. Our study can stimulate a research trend on exploring composite materials for piezo-gas sensing.

  7. Preisach model of hysteresis for the Piezoelectric Actuator Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zsurzsan, Tiberiu-Gabriel; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Zhang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    The Piezoelectric Actuator Drive (PAD) is a precise piezoelectric motor generating high-torque rotary motion, which employs piezoelectric stack actuators in a wobblestyle actuation to generate rotation. The piezoelectric stacked ceramics used as the basis for motion in the motor suffer from...

  8. Failure of action potential propagation in sensory neurons: mechanisms and loss of afferent filtering in C-type units after painful nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemes, Geza; Koopmeiners, Andrew; Rigaud, Marcel; Lirk, Philipp; Sapunar, Damir; Bangaru, Madhavi Latha; Vilceanu, Daniel; Garrison, Sheldon R; Ljubkovic, Marko; Mueller, Samantha J; Stucky, Cheryl L; Hogan, Quinn H

    2013-02-15

    The T-junction of sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is a potential impediment to action potential (AP) propagation towards the CNS. Using intracellular recordings from rat DRG neuronal somata during stimulation of the dorsal root, we determined that the maximal rate at which all of 20 APs in a train could successfully transit the T-junction (following frequency) was lowest in C-type units, followed by A-type units with inflected descending limbs of the AP, and highest in A-type units without inflections. In C-type units, following frequency was slower than the rate at which AP trains could be produced in either dorsal root axonal segments or in the soma alone, indicating that the T-junction is a site that acts as a low-pass filter for AP propagation. Following frequency was slower for a train of 20 APs than for two, indicating that a cumulative process leads to propagation failure. Propagation failure was accompanied by diminished somatic membrane input resistance, and was enhanced when Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) currents were augmented or when Ca(2+)-sensitive Cl(-) currents were blocked. After peripheral nerve injury, following frequencies were increased in axotomized C-type neurons and decreased in axotomized non-inflected A-type neurons. These findings reveal that the T-junction in sensory neurons is a regulator of afferent impulse traffic. Diminished filtering of AP trains at the T-junction of C-type neurons with axotomized peripheral processes could enhance the transmission of activity that is ectopically triggered in a neuroma or the neuronal soma, possibly contributing to pain generation.

  9. A Piezoelectric PZT Ceramic Mulitlayer Stack for Energy Harvesting Under Dynamic Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing; Siochi, Emilie J.; Kang, Jin Ho; Zuo, Lei; Zhou, Wanlu; Tang, Xiudong; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting transducers (PEHTs) are commonly used in motion/vibration energy scavenging devices. To date, most researchers have focused on energy harvesting at narrow bandwidths around the mechanical resonance frequency, and most piezoelectric harvesting devices reported in the literature have very low effective piezoelectric coefficient (d(sub eff)) (coefficients of about 100 pC/N. The level of harvested electrical power for CBPEHTs is on the order of microW even at resonance mode. In order to harvest more electrical energy across broader bandwidth, high effective piezoelectric coefficient structures are needed. In this study, we investigate a "33" longitudinal mode, piezoelectric PZT ceramic multilayer stack (PZT-Stack) with high effective piezoelectric coefficient for high-performance PEHTs. The PZT-Stack is composed of 300 layers of 0.1 mm thick PZT plates, with overall dimensions of 32.4 mm X 7.0 mm X 7.0 mm. Experiments were carried out with dynamic forces in a broad bandwidth ranging from 0.5 Hz to 25 kHz. The measured results show that the effective piezoelectric coefficient of the PZT-stack is about 1 X 10(exp 5) pC/N at off-resonance frequencies and 1.39 X 10(exp 6) pC/N at resonance, which is order of magnitude larger than that of traditional PEHTs. The effective piezoelectric coefficients (d(sub eff)) do not change significantly with applied dynamic forces having root mean square (RMS) values ranging from 1 N to 40 N. In resonance mode, 231 mW of electrical power was harvested at 2479 Hz with a dynamic force of 11.6 N(sub rms), and 7.6 mW of electrical power was generated at a frequency of 2114 Hz with 1 N(sub rms) dynamic force. In off-resonance mode, an electrical power of 18.7 mW was obtained at 680 Hz with a 40 N(sub rms) dynamic force. A theoretical model of energy harvesting for the PZT-Stack is established. The modeled results matched well with experimental measurements. This study demonstrated that high effective

  10. Piezoelectric Bimorph Cantilever for Vibration-Producing-Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Cheng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A device composed of a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever and a water electrolysis device was fabricated to realize piezoelectrochemical hydrogen production. The obvious output of the hydrogen and oxygen through application of a mechanical vibration of ~0.07 N and ~46.2 Hz was observed. This method provides a cost-effective, recyclable, environment-friendly and simple way to directly split water for hydrogen fuels by scavenging mechanical waste energy forms such as noise or traffic vibration in the environment.

  11. New design for inertial piezoelectric motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lige; Ge, Weifeng; Meng, Wenjie; Hou, Yubin; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Qingyou

    2018-03-01

    We have designed, implemented, and tested a novel inertial piezoelectric motor (IPM) that is the first IPM to have controllable total friction force, which means that it sticks with large total friction forces and slips with severely reduced total friction forces. This allows the IPM to work with greater robustness and produce a larger output force at a lower threshold voltage while also providing higher rigidity. This is a new IPM design that means that the total friction force can be dramatically reduced or even canceled where necessary by pushing the clamping points at the ends of a piezoelectric tube that contains the sliding shaft inside it in the opposite directions during piezoelectric deformation. Therefore, when the shaft is propelled forward by another exterior piezoelectric tube, the inner piezoelectric tube can deform to reduce the total friction force acting on the shaft instantly and cause more effective stepping movement of the shaft. While our new IPM requires the addition of another piezoelectric tube, which leads to an increase in volume of 120% when compared with traditional IPMs, the average step size has increased by more than 400% and the threshold voltage has decreased by more than 50 V. The improvement in performance is far more significant than the increase in volume. This enhanced performance will allow the proposed IPM to work under large load conditions where a simple and powerful piezoelectric motor is needed.

  12. Piezoelectric paint: characterization for further applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C; Fritzen, C-P

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric paint is a very attractive piezoelectric composite in many fields, such as non-destructive testing, or structural health monitoring. However, there are still many obstacles which restrict the real application of it. One of the main problems is that piezoelectric paint lacks a standard fabrication procedure, thus characterization is needed before use. The work presented here explores the characterization of piezoelectric paint. It starts with fabrication of samples with certain piezoelectric powder weight percentages. The microstructures of the samples are investigated by a scanning electron microscope; the results indicate that the fabrication method can produce high quality samples. This is followed by measurements of Young’s modulus and sensitivity. The piezoelectric charge constant d 31 is then deduced from the experimental data; the results agree well with a published result, which validates the effectiveness of the fabrication and characterization method. The characterized piezoelectric paint can expand its applications into different fields and therefore becomes a more promising and competitive smart material. (paper)

  13. Analyses of electromagnetic and piezoelectric systems for efficient vibration energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Z.; Smilek, J.; Rubes, O.

    2017-05-01

    The paper deals with analyses and evaluation of vibration energy harvesting systems which are based on electromagnetic and piezoelectric physical principles off electro-mechanical conversion. Energy harvesting systems are associated with wireless sensors and a monitoring of engineering objects. The most of engineering objects operate with unwanted mechanical vibrations. However, vibrations could provide an ambient source of energy which is converted into useful electricity. The use of electromagnetic and piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters is analyzed in this paper. Thee evaluated output power is used for a choice of the efficient system with respect to the character of vibrations and thee required power output.

  14. r-Shaped hybrid nanogenerator with enhanced piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mengdi; Zhang, Xiao-Sheng; Meng, Bo; Liu, Wen; Tang, Wei; Sun, Xuming; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Haixia

    2013-10-22

    Piezoelectric and triboelectric nanogenerators (NGs) have been proposed in the past few years to effectively harvest mechanical energy from the environment. Here, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer is placed under the aluminum electrode of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), thus forming an r-shaped hybrid NG. Micro/nanostructures have been fabricated on the PDMS surface and the aluminum electrodes of PVDF to enhance the output performance. Power densities of the piezoelectric part and the triboelectric part are 10.95 and 2.04 mW/cm(3), respectively. Moreover, influence of the triboelectric charges on the piezoelectric output voltage is investigated. Both finite element method simulations and experimental measurements are conducted to verify this phenomenon. The novel hybrid NG is also demonstrated as a power source for consumer electronics. Through one cycle of electric generation, 10 light-emitting diodes are lighted up instantaneously, and a 4-bit liquid crystal display can display continuously for more than 15 s. Besides, the device is integrated into a keyboard to harvest energy in the typing process.

  15. Piezoelectric touch-sensitive flexible hybrid energy harvesting nanoarchitectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dukhyun; Kim, Eok Su; Kim, Tae Sang; Lee, Sang Yoon; Choi, Jae-Young; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Keun Young; Lee, Kang Hyuck; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we report a flexible hybrid nanoarchitecture that can be utilized as both an energy harvester and a touch sensor on a single platform without any cross-talk problems. Based on the electron transport and piezoelectric properties of a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured thin film, a hybrid cell was designed and the total thickness was below 500 nm on a plastic substrate. Piezoelectric touch signals were demonstrated under independent and simultaneous operations with respect to photo-induced charges. Different levels of piezoelectric output signals from different magnitudes of touching pressures suggest new user-interface functions from our hybrid cell. From a signal controller, the decoupled performance of a hybrid cell as an energy harvester and a touch sensor was confirmed. Our hybrid approach does not require additional assembly processes for such multiplex systems of an energy harvester and a touch sensor since we utilize the coupled material properties of ZnO and output signal processing. Furthermore, the hybrid cell can provide a multi-type energy harvester by both solar and mechanical touching energies.

  16. Advanced model for fast assessment of piezoelectric micro energy harvesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele eArdito

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to present recent advances in modelling and design of piezoelectric energy harvesters, in the framework of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS. More specifically, the case of inertial energy harvesting is considered, in the sense that the kinetic energy due to environmental vibration is transformed into electrical energy by means of piezoelectric transduction. The execution of numerical analyses is greatly important in order to predict the actual behaviour of MEMS devices and to carry out the optimization process. In the common practice, the results are obtained by means of burdensome 3D Finite Element Analyses (FEA.The case of beams could be treated by applying 1D models, which can enormously reduce the computational burden with obvious benefits in the case of repeated analyses. Unfortunately, the presence of piezoelectric coupling may entail some serious issues in view of its intrinsically three-dimensional behaviour. In this paper, a refined, yet simple, model is proposed with the objective of retaining the Euler-Bernoulli beam model, with the inclusion of effects connected to the actual three-dimensional shape of the device. The proposed model is adopted to evaluate the performances of realistic harvesters, both in the case of harmonic excitation and for impulsive loads.

  17. Electrostrain in excess of 1% in polycrystalline piezoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Bastola; Malhotra, Jaskaran Singh; Pandey, Rishikesh; Yaddanapudi, Krishna; Nukala, Pavan; Dkhil, Brahim; Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2018-05-01

    Piezoelectric actuators transform electrical energy into mechanical energy, and because of their compactness, quick response time and accurate displacement, they are sought after in many applications. Polycrystalline piezoelectric ceramics are technologically more appealing than single crystals due to their simpler and less expensive processing, but have yet to display electrostrain values that exceed 1%. Here we report a material design strategy wherein the efficient switching of ferroelectric-ferroelastic domains by an electric field is exploited to achieve a high electrostrain value of 1.3% in a pseudo-ternary ferroelectric alloy system, BiFeO3-PbTiO3-LaFeO3. Detailed structural investigations reveal that this electrostrain is associated with a combination of several factors: a large spontaneous lattice strain of the piezoelectric phase, domain miniaturization, a low-symmetry ferroelectric phase and a very large reverse switching of the non-180° domains. This insight for the design of a new class of polycrystalline piezoceramics with high electrostrains may be useful to develop alternatives to costly single-crystal actuators.

  18. Size-dependent effective properties of anisotropic piezoelectric composites with piezoelectric nano-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ming-Juan; Fang, Xue-Qian; Liu, Jin-Xi; Feng, Wen-Jie; Zhao, Yong-Mao

    2015-01-01

    Based on the electro-elastic surface/interface theory, the size-dependent effective piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients of anisotropic piezoelectric composites that consist of spherically piezoelectric inclusions under a uniform electric field are investigated, and the analytical solutions for the elastic displacement and electric potentials are derived. With consideration of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the effective field method is introduced to derive the effective dielectric and piezoelectric responses in the dilute limit. The numerical examples show that the effective dielectric constant exhibits a significant variation due to the surface/interface effect. The dielectric property of the surface/interface displays greater effect than the piezoelectric property, and the elastic property shows little effect. A comparison with the existing results validates the present approach. (paper)

  19. The synaptic pharmacology underlying sensory processing in the superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, K E

    1999-10-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) is one of the most ancient regions of the vertebrate central sensory system. In this hub afferents from several sensory pathways converge, and an extensive range of neural circuits enable primary sensory processing, multi-sensory integration and the generation of motor commands for orientation behaviours. The SC has a laminar structure and is usually considered in two parts; the superficial visual layers and the deep multi-modal/motor layers. Neurones in the superficial layers integrate visual information from the retina, cortex and other sources, while the deep layers draw together data from many cortical and sub-cortical sensory areas, including the superficial layers, to generate motor commands. Functional studies in anaesthetized subjects and in slice preparations have used pharmacological tools to probe some of the SC's interacting circuits. The studies reviewed here reveal important roles for ionotropic glutamate receptors in the mediation of sensory inputs to the SC and in transmission between the superficial and deep layers. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors appear to have special responsibility for the temporal matching of retinal and cortical activity in the superficial layers and for the integration of multiple sensory data-streams in the deep layers. Sensory responses are shaped by intrinsic inhibitory mechanisms mediated by GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors and influenced by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These sensory and motor-command activities of SC neurones are modulated by levels of arousal through extrinsic connections containing GABA, serotonin and other transmitters. It is possible to naturally stimulate many of the SC's sensory and non-sensory inputs either independently or simultaneously and this brain area is an ideal location in which to study: (a) interactions between inputs from the same sensory system; (b) the integration of inputs from several sensory systems; and (c) the influence of non-sensory systems on

  20. Accessibility and sensory experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    and accessibility. Sensory accessibility accommodates aspects of a sensory disability and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to architectural experiences. In the context of architecture accessibility has become a design concept of its own. It is generally described as ensuring...... physical access to the built environment by accommodating physical disabilities. While the existing concept of accessibility ensures the physical access of everyone to a given space, sensory accessibility ensures the choice of everyone to stay and be able to participate and experience....

  1. The Possible Role of Dentin as a Piezoelectric Signal Generator by Determining the Elec-tromechanical Coupling Factor of Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atabak Shahidi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This article aimed at calculation of the electromechanical coupling factor of dentin which is an indicator of the effectiveness with which a piezoelectric material converts electrical en-ergy into mechanical energy, or vice versa. The hypothesis: The electro-mechanical coupling factor of dentin was determined in mode 11 and 33 by calculating the ratio of the produced electrical energy to the stored elastic energy in dentin under applied pressure. This study showed that the electromechanical coupling factor of dentin was affected by the direction of the applied force and the moisture content of dentin. Also dentin was a weak electromechanical energy converter which might be categorized as a piezoelectric pressure sensor.Evaluation of the hypothesis: Determination of the electrome-chanical coupling factor of dentin and its other piezoelectric constants is essential to investigate the biologic role of piezoelectricity in tooth.

  2. Vibration energy harvesting using piezoelectric unimorph cantilevers with unequal piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric lengths

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xiaotong; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y.

    2010-01-01

    We have examined a piezoelectric unimorph cantilever (PUC) with unequal piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric lengths for vibration energy harvesting theoretically by extending the analysis of a PUC with equal piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric lengths. The theoretical approach was validated by experiments. A case study showed that for a fixed vibration frequency, the maximum open-circuit induced voltage which was important for charge storage for later use occurred with a PUC that had a nonpiezo...

  3. Finite element analysis of piezoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrie, F.; Stewart, M.; Cain, M.; Gee, M.

    1999-01-01

    This guide is intended to help people wanting to do finite element analysis of piezoelectric materials by answering some of the questions that are peculiar to piezoelectric materials. The document is not intended as a complete beginners guide for finite element analysis in general as this is better dealt with by the individual software producers. The guide is based around the commercial package ANSYS as this is a popular package amongst piezoelectric material users, however much of the information will still be useful to users of other finite element codes. (author)

  4. Modeling and Tuning for Vibration Energy Harvesting using a Piezoelectric Bimorph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yongqing

    With the development of wireless sensors and other devices, the need for continuous power supply with high reliability is growing ever more. The traditional battery power supply has the disadvantage of limited duration of continuous power supply capability so that replacement for new batteries has to be done regularly. This can be quite inconvenient and sometimes quite difficult especially when the sensors are located in places not easily accessible such as the inside of a machine or wild field. This situation stimulates the development of renewable power supply which can harvest energy from the environment. The use of piezoelectric materials to converting environment vibration to electrical energy is one of the alternatives of which a broad range of research has been done by many researchers, focusing on different issues. The improvement of efficiency is one of the most important issues in vibration based energy harvesting. For this purpose different methods are devised and more accurate modeling of coupled piezoelectric mechanical systems is investigated. In the current paper, the research is focused on improving voltage generation of a piezoelectric bimorph on a vibration beam, as well as the analytical modeling of the same system. Also an initial study is conducted on the characteristics of the vibration of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire, which is a promising material for its coupled semiconducting and piezoelectric properties. The effect on the voltage generation by different placement of the piezoelectric bimorph on the vibrating beam is investigated. The relation between the voltage output and the curvature is derived which is used to explain the effect of placement on voltage generation. The effect of adding a lumped mass on the modal frequencies of the beam and on the curvature distribution is investigated. The increased voltage output from the piezoelectric bimorph by using appropriately selected mass is proved analytically and also verified by experiment. For

  5. Nanoscale characterization of isolated individual type I collagen fibrils: polarization and piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Yu, Min-Feng

    2009-02-25

    Piezoresponse force microscopy was applied to directly study individual type I collagen fibrils with diameters of approximately 100 nm isolated from bovine Achilles tendon. It was revealed that single collagen fibrils behave predominantly as shear piezoelectric materials with a piezoelectric coefficient on the order of 1 pm V(-1), and have unipolar axial polarization throughout their entire length. It was estimated that, under reasonable shear load conditions, the fibrils were capable of generating an electric potential up to tens of millivolts. The result substantiates the nanoscale origin of piezoelectricity in bone and tendons, and implies also the potential importance of the shear load-transfer mechanism, which has been the principle basis of the nanoscale mechanics model of collagen, in mechanoelectric transduction in bone.

  6. Actuation Using Piezoelectric Materials: Application in Augmenters, Energy Harvesters, and Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenoehrl, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric actuators are used in many manipulation, movement, and mobility applications as well as transducers and sensors. When used at the resonance frequencies of the piezoelectric stack, the actuator performs at its maximum actuation capability. In this Space Grant internship, three applications of piezoelectric actuators were investigated including hammering augmenters of rotary drills, energy harvesters, and piezo-motors. The augmenter shows improved drill performance over rotation only. The energy harvesters rely on moving fluid to convert mechanical energy into electrical power. Specific designs allow the harvesters more freedom to move, which creates more power. The motor uses the linear movement of the actuator with a horn applied to the side of a rotor to create rotational motion. Friction inhibits this motion and is to be minimized for best performance. Tests and measurements were made during this internship to determine the requirements for optimal performance of the studied mechanisms and devices.

  7. Flexoelectric Effect on Vibration of Piezoelectric Microbeams Based on a Modified Couple Stress Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjia Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel electric Gibbs function was proposed for the piezoelectric microbeams (PMBs by employing a modified couple stress theory. Based on the new Gibbs function and the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, the governing equations which incorporate the effects of couple stress, flexoelectricity, and piezoelectricity were derived for the mechanics of PMBs. The analysis of the effective bending rigidity shows the effects of size and flexoelectricity can greaten the stiffness of PMBs so that the natural frequency increases significantly compared with the Euler-Bernoulli beam, and then the mechanical and electrical properties of PMBs are enhanced compared to the classical beam. This study can guide the design of microscale piezoelectric/flexoelectric structures which may find potential applications in the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS.

  8. On the Energy Conversion Efficiency of Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Eun [Catholic University of Daegu, Kyungsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    To properly design and assess a piezoelectric vibration energy harvester, it is necessary to consider the application of an efficiency measure of energy conversion. The energy conversion efficiency is defined in this work as the ratio of the electrical output power to the mechanical input power for a piezoelectric vibration energy harvester with an impedance-matched load resistor. While previous research works employed the electrical output power for approximate impedance-matched load resistance, this work derives an efficiency measure considering optimally matched resistance. The modified efficiency measure is validated by comparing it with finite element analysis results for piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters with three different values of the electro-mechanical coupling coefficient. New findings on the characteristics of energy conversion and conversion efficiency are also provided for the two different impedance matching methods.

  9. Reliability study of Piezoelectric Structures Dedicated to Energy Harvesting by the Way of Blocking Force Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maaroufi, S; Parrain, F; Lefeuvre, E; Boutaud, B; Molin, R Dal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose an approach to study the reliability of piezoelectric structures and more precisely energy harvesting micro-devices dedicated to autonomous active medical implants (new generation pacemakers). The structure under test is designed as a bimorph piezoelectric cantilever with a seismic mass at its tip. Good understanding of material aging and mechanical failure is critical for this kind of system. To study the reliability and durability of the piezoelectric part we propose to establish a new accelerated methodology and an associated test bench where the environment and stimuli can be precisely controlled over a wide period of time. This will allow the identification of potential failure modes and the study of their impacts by the way of direct mechanical investigation based on stiffness and blocking force measurements performed periodically. (paper)

  10. Reliability study of Piezoelectric Structures Dedicated to Energy Harvesting by the Way of Blocking Force Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaroufi, S.; Parrain, F.; Lefeuvre, E.; Boutaud, B.; Dal Molin, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose an approach to study the reliability of piezoelectric structures and more precisely energy harvesting micro-devices dedicated to autonomous active medical implants (new generation pacemakers). The structure under test is designed as a bimorph piezoelectric cantilever with a seismic mass at its tip. Good understanding of material aging and mechanical failure is critical for this kind of system. To study the reliability and durability of the piezoelectric part we propose to establish a new accelerated methodology and an associated test bench where the environment and stimuli can be precisely controlled over a wide period of time. This will allow the identification of potential failure modes and the study of their impacts by the way of direct mechanical investigation based on stiffness and blocking force measurements performed periodically.

  11. Polymeric Nanofibers with Ultrahigh Piezoelectricity via Self-Orientation of Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Ma, Jing; Wu, Xiaoming; Lin, Liwei; Wang, Xiaohong

    2017-02-28

    Piezoelectricity in macromolecule polymers has been gaining immense attention, particularly for applications in biocompatible, implantable, and flexible electronic devices. This paper introduces core-shell-structured piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibers chemically wrapped by graphene oxide (GO) lamellae (PVDF/GO nanofibers), in which the polar β-phase nanocrystals are formed and uniaxially self-oriented by the synergistic effect of mechanical stretching, high-voltage alignment, and chemical interactions. The β-phase orientation of the PVDF/GO nanofibers along their axes is observed at atomic scale through high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and the β-phase content is found to be 88.5%. The piezoelectric properties of the PVDF/GO nanofibers are investigated in terms of piezoresponse mapping, local hysteresis loops, and polarization reversal by advanced piezoresponse force microscopy. The PVDF/GO nanofibers show a desirable out-of-plane piezoelectric constant (d 33 ) of -93.75 pm V -1 (at 1.0 wt % GO addition), which is 426% higher than that of the conventional pure PVDF nanofibers. The mechanism behind this dramatic enhancement in piezoelectricity is elucidated by three-dimensional molecular modeling.

  12. The origin of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Shujun; Yang, Tiannan; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Gang; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Jianli; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R.; Chen, Long-Qing (Penn); (Xian Jiaotong); (CIW); (Simon); (TRS Techn); (Wollongong)

    2016-12-19

    The discovery of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution single crystals is a breakthrough in ferroelectric materials. A key signature of relaxor-ferroelectric solid solutions is the existence of polar nanoregions, a nanoscale inhomogeneity, that coexist with normal ferroelectric domains. Despite two decades of extensive studies, the contribution of polar nanoregions to the underlying piezoelectric properties of relaxor ferroelectrics has yet to be established. Here we quantitatively characterize the contribution of polar nanoregions to the dielectric/piezoelectric responses of relaxor-ferroelectric crystals using a combination of cryogenic experiments and phase-field simulations. The contribution of polar nanoregions to the room-temperature dielectric and piezoelectric properties is in the range of 50–80%. A mesoscale mechanism is proposed to reveal the origin of the high piezoelectricity in relaxor ferroelectrics, where the polar nanoregions aligned in a ferroelectric matrix can facilitate polarization rotation. This mechanism emphasizes the critical role of local structure on the macroscopic properties of ferroelectric materials.

  13. The origin of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Shujun; Yang, Tiannan; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Gang; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Jianli; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R; Chen, Long-Qing

    2016-12-19

    The discovery of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution single crystals is a breakthrough in ferroelectric materials. A key signature of relaxor-ferroelectric solid solutions is the existence of polar nanoregions, a nanoscale inhomogeneity, that coexist with normal ferroelectric domains. Despite two decades of extensive studies, the contribution of polar nanoregions to the underlying piezoelectric properties of relaxor ferroelectrics has yet to be established. Here we quantitatively characterize the contribution of polar nanoregions to the dielectric/piezoelectric responses of relaxor-ferroelectric crystals using a combination of cryogenic experiments and phase-field simulations. The contribution of polar nanoregions to the room-temperature dielectric and piezoelectric properties is in the range of 50-80%. A mesoscale mechanism is proposed to reveal the origin of the high piezoelectricity in relaxor ferroelectrics, where the polar nanoregions aligned in a ferroelectric matrix can facilitate polarization rotation. This mechanism emphasizes the critical role of local structure on the macroscopic properties of ferroelectric materials.

  14. 3D optical printing of piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kanguk; Zhu, Wei; Qu, Xin; Aaronson, Chase; McCall, William R; Chen, Shaochen; Sirbuly, Donald J

    2014-10-28

    Here we demonstrate that efficient piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials can be optically printed into three-dimensional (3D) microstructures using digital projection printing. Piezoelectric polymers were fabricated by incorporating barium titanate (BaTiO3, BTO) nanoparticles into photoliable polymer solutions such as polyethylene glycol diacrylate and exposing to digital optical masks that could be dynamically altered to generate user-defined 3D microstructures. To enhance the mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of the composites, the BTO nanoparticles were chemically modified with acrylate surface groups, which formed direct covalent linkages with the polymer matrix under light exposure. The composites with a 10% mass loading of the chemically modified BTO nanoparticles showed piezoelectric coefficients (d(33)) of ∼ 40 pC/N, which were over 10 times larger than composites synthesized with unmodified BTO nanoparticles and over 2 times larger than composites containing unmodified BTO nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes to boost mechanical stress transfer efficiencies. These results not only provide a tool for fabricating 3D piezoelectric polymers but lay the groundwork for creating highly efficient piezoelectric polymer materials via nanointerfacial tuning.

  15. High-performance piezoelectric nanogenerators for self-powered nanosystems: quantitative standards and figures of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenzhuo

    2016-03-01

    Harvesting energies from the atmosphere cost-effectively is critical for both addressing worldwide long-term energy needs at the macro-scale, and achieving the sustainable maintenance-free operation of nanodevices at the micro-scale (Wang and Wu 2012 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51 11700-21). Piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) technology has demonstrated its great application potential in harvesting the ubiquitous and abundant mechanical energy. Despite of the progress made in this rapidly-advancing field, a fundamental understanding and common standard for consistently quantifying and evaluating the performance of the various types of piezoelectric NGs is still lacking. In their recent study Crossley and Kar-Narayan (2015 Nanotechnology 26 344001), systematically investigated dynamical properties of piezoelectric NGs by taking into account the effect of driving mechanism and load frequency on NG performance. They further defined the NGs’ figures of merit as energy harvested normalized by applied strain or stress for NGs under strain-driven or stress-driven conditions, which are commonly seen in the vibrational energy harvesting. This work provides new insight and a feasible approach for consistently evaluating piezoelectric nanomaterials and NG devices, which is important for designing and optimizing nanoscale piezoelectric energy harvesters, as well as promoting their applications in emerging areas e.g. the internet of things, wearable devices, and self-powered nanosystems.

  16. Crocodylians evolved scattered multi-sensory micro-organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background During their evolution towards a complete life cycle on land, stem reptiles developed both an impermeable multi-layered keratinized epidermis and skin appendages (scales) providing mechanical, thermal, and chemical protection. Previous studies have demonstrated that, despite the presence of a particularly armored skin, crocodylians have exquisite mechanosensory abilities thanks to the presence of small integumentary sensory organs (ISOs) distributed on postcranial and/or cranial scales. Results Here, we analyze and compare the structure, innervation, embryonic morphogenesis and sensory functions of postcranial, cranial, and lingual sensory organs of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and the spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus). Our molecular analyses indicate that sensory neurons of crocodylian ISOs express a large repertoire of transduction channels involved in mechano-, thermo-, and chemosensory functions, and our electrophysiological analyses confirm that each ISO exhibits a combined sensitivity to mechanical, thermal and pH stimuli (but not hyper-osmotic salinity), making them remarkable multi-sensorial micro-organs with no equivalent in the sensory systems of other vertebrate lineages. We also show that ISOs all exhibit similar morphologies and modes of development, despite forming at different stages of scale morphogenesis across the body. Conclusions The ancestral vertebrate diffused sensory system of the skin was transformed in the crocodylian lineages into an array of discrete multi-sensory micro-organs innervated by multiple pools of sensory neurons. This discretization of skin sensory expression sites is unique among vertebrates and allowed crocodylians to develop a highly-armored, but very sensitive, skin. PMID:23819918

  17. Neuromorphic sensory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Chii; Delbruck, Tobi

    2010-06-01

    Biology provides examples of efficient machines which greatly outperform conventional technology. Designers in neuromorphic engineering aim to construct electronic systems with the same efficient style of computation. This task requires a melding of novel engineering principles with knowledge gleaned from neuroscience. We discuss recent progress in realizing neuromorphic sensory systems which mimic the biological retina and cochlea, and subsequent sensor processing. The main trends are the increasing number of sensors and sensory systems that communicate through asynchronous digital signals analogous to neural spikes; the improved performance and usability of these sensors; and novel sensory processing methods which capitalize on the timing of spikes from these sensors. Experiments using these sensors can impact how we think the brain processes sensory information. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sensory evaluation techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meilgaard, Morten; Civille, Gail Vance; Carr, B. Thomas

    1991-01-01

    ..., #2 as a textbook for courses at the academic level, it aims to provide just enough theoretical background to enable the student to understand which sensory methods are best suited to particular...

  19. Cryogenic Rotary Piezoelectric Motor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Piezoelectric motors operate on the principal of high frequency oscillation of high force precision ceramic elements. The high power oscillations are converted to...

  20. Polarization Stability of Amorphous Piezoelectric Polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C.; Ounaies, Z.; Su, J.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Harrison, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    Amorphous polyimides containing polar functional groups have been synthesized and investigated for potential use as high temperature piezoelectric sensors. The thermal stability of the piezoelectric effect of one polyimide was evaluated as a function of various curing and poling conditions under dynamic and static thermal stimuli. First, the polymer samples were thermally cycled under strain by systematically increasing the maximum temperature from 50 C to 200 C while the piezoelectric strain coefficient was being measured. Second, the samples were isothermally aged at an elevated temperature in air, and the isothermal decay of the remanent polarization was measured at room temperature as a function of time. Both conventional and corona poling methods were evaluated. This material exhibited good thermal stability of the piezoelectric properties up to 100 C.

  1. NMR and optical studies of piezoelectric polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, V.H.; Tuthill, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    Progress is reported in several areas dealing with piezoelectric (electroactive) polymers (mostly vinylidene fluoride, trifluoroethylene, copolymers, PVF 2 ) and liquid crystals. Optical studies, neutron scattering, NMR, thermal, theory and modeling were done

  2. Development of piezoelectric composites for transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, A.

    1994-07-01

    For the past decade and a half, many different types of piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites have been developed intended for transducer applications. These diphasic composites are prepared from non-active polymer, such as epoxy, and piezoelectric ceramic, such as PZT, in the form of filler powders, elongated fibers, multilayer and more complex three-dimensional structures. For the last four years, most of the efforts have been given to producing large area and fine scale PZT fiber composites. In this paper, processing of piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites with various connectivity patterns are reviewed. Development of fine scale piezoelectric composites by lost mold, injection molding and the relic method are described. Research activities of different groups for preparing large area piezocomposites for hydrophone and actuator applications are briefly reviewed. Initial development of electrostrictive ceramics and composites are also

  3. Cryogenic Rotary Piezoelectric Motor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Piezoelectric motors operate on the principal of converting the high-frequency oscillation of high-force, precision ceramic elements into useful continuous motion....

  4. Robust Tracking Control for a Piezoelectric Actuator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salah, M; McIntyre, M; Dawson, D; Wagner, J

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a hysteresis model-based nonlinear robust controller is developed for a piezoelectric actuator, utilizing a Lyapunov-based stability analysis, which ensures that a desired displacement...

  5. Electric poling-assisted additive manufacturing process for PVDF polymer-based piezoelectric device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new additive manufacturing (AM) process to directly and continuously print piezoelectric devices from polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymeric filament rods under a strong electric field. This process, called ‘electric poling-assisted additive manufacturing or EPAM, combines AM and electric poling processes and is able to fabricate free-form shape piezoelectric devices continuously. In this process, the PVDF polymer dipoles remain well-aligned and uniform over a large area in a single design, production and fabrication step. During EPAM process, molten PVDF polymer is simultaneously mechanically stresses in-situ by the leading nozzle and electrically poled by applying high electric field under high temperature. The EPAM system was constructed to directly print piezoelectric structures from PVDF polymeric filament while applying high electric field between nozzle tip and printing bed in AM machine. Piezoelectric devices were successfully fabricated using the EPAM process. The crystalline phase transitions that occurred from the process were identified by using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscope. The results indicate that devices printed under a strong electric field become piezoelectric during the EPAM process and that stronger electric fields result in greater piezoelectricity as marked by the electrical response and the formation of sharper peaks at the polar β crystalline wavenumber of the PVDF polymer. Performing this process in the absence of an electric field does not result in dipole alignment of PVDF polymer. The EPAM process is expected to lead to the widespread use of AM to fabricate a variety of piezoelectric PVDF polymer-based devices for sensing, actuation and energy harvesting applications with simple, low cost, single processing and fabrication step. (paper)

  6. Integrated 3D printing and corona poling process of PVDF piezoelectric films for pressure sensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoejin; Torres, Fernando; Wu, Yanyu; Villagran, Dino; Lin, Yirong; Tseng, Tzu-Liang(Bill

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel process to fabricate piezoelectric films from polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer using integrated fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing and corona poling technique. Corona poling is one of many effective poling processes that has received attention to activate PVDF as a piezoelectric responsive material. The corona poling process occurs when a PVDF polymer is exposed to a high electric field created and controlled through an electrically charged needle and a grid electrode under heating environment. FDM 3D printing has seen extensive progress in fabricating thermoplastic materials and structures, including PVDF. However, post processing techniques such as poling is needed to align the dipoles in order to gain piezoelectric properties. To further simplify the piezoelectric sensors and structures fabrication process, this paper proposes an integrated 3D printing process with corona poling to fabricate piezoelectric PVDF sensors without post poling process. This proposed process, named ‘Integrated 3D Printing and Corona poling process’ (IPC), uses the 3D printer’s nozzle and heating bed as anode and cathode, respectively, to create poling electric fields in a controlled heating environment. The nozzle travels along the programmed path with fixed distance between nozzle tip and sample’s top surface. Simultaneously, the electric field between the nozzle and bottom heating pad promotes the alignment of dipole moment of PVDF molecular chains. The crystalline phase transformation and output current generated by printed samples under different electric fields in this process were characterized by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and through fatigue load frame. It is demonstrated that piezoelectric PVDF films with enhanced β-phase percentage can be fabricated using the IPC process. In addition, mechanical properties of printed PVDF was investigated by tensile testing. It is expected to expand the use of additive

  7. A piezoelectric-based infinite stiffness generation method for strain-type load sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shuwen; Shao, Shubao; Xu, Minglong; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Under certain application conditions like nanoindentation technology and the mechanical property measurement of soft materials, the elastic deformation of strain-type load sensors affects their displacement measurement accuracy. In this work, a piezoelectric-based infinite stiffness generation method for strain-type load sensors that compensates for this elastic deformation is presented. The piezoelectric material-based deformation compensation method is proposed. An Hottinger Baldwin Messtechnik GmbH (HBM) Z30A/50N load sensor acts as the foundation of the method presented in this work. The piezoelectric stack is selected based on its size, maximum deformation value, blocking force and stiffness. Then, a clamping and fixing structure is designed to integrate the HBM sensor with the piezoelectric stack. The clamping and fixing structure, piezoelectric stack and HBM load sensor comprise the sensing part of the enhanced load sensor. The load-deformation curve and the voltage-deformation curve of the enhanced load sensor are then investigated experimentally. Because a hysteresis effect exists in the piezoelectric structure, the relationship between the control signal and the deformation value of the piezoelectric material is nonlinear. The hysteresis characteristic in a quasi-static condition is studied and fitted using a quadratic polynomial, and its coefficients are analyzed to enable control signal prediction. Applied arithmetic based on current theory and the fitted data is developed to predict the control signal. Finally, the experimental effects of the proposed method are presented. It is shown that when a quasi-static load is exerted on this enhanced strain-type load sensor, the deformation is reduced and the equivalent stiffness appears to be almost infinite. (paper)

  8. The dynamic modeling and design improvement of a piezoelectric exciter of a touch screen device for efficient tactile feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young-Min; Kim, Kwang-Joon

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric exciters have been receiving greater attention recently as a vibration source for tactile feedback in devices with touch screens, such as a mobile phones, in place of DC motors due to lower energy consumption and smaller volume. Their insufficient excitation level, however, still remains a problem. In this paper, dynamic modeling and design improvement of a piezoelectric exciter are presented. The excitation performance is defined as the acceleration response at the center of a touch screen per electric power and to be maximized around 250 Hz where the index finger is most sensitive. The piezoelectric exciter consists of a z-shaped metal beam, a piezoelectric layer on the long horizontal segment and an adhesive layer between the short horizontal segment and the touch screen. Assuming that the piezoelectric exciter is attached onto a rigid ground due to its low mechanical impedance compared with that of the touch screen, the piezoelectric exciter is dynamically modeled by applying Hamilton's principle, where the adhesive layer is treated as a distributed stiffness. The touch screen is modeled approximately as a simply supported beam such that it may have the same fundamental natural frequency and bending stiffness as the screen based on measurements. The performance improvement is focused on the change of five geometric parameters of the piezoelectric exciter: length of the long horizontal segment, thickness of the piezoelectric layer, thickness of the elastic metal layer, width of the beams and tip mass. The procedure to improve the performance of the piezoelectric exciter via dynamic modeling is presented together with experimental results on a prototype. Effectiveness of the design modification and limitations in practice are further discussed as well

  9. In situ health monitoring of piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Scott L. (Inventor); Drouant, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An in situ health monitoring apparatus may include an exciter circuit that applies a pulse to a piezoelectric transducer and a data processing system that determines the piezoelectric transducer's dynamic response to the first pulse. The dynamic response can be used to evaluate the operating range, health, and as-mounted resonance frequency of the transducer, as well as the strength of a coupling between the transducer and a structure and the health of the structure.

  10. Base Metal Co-Fired Multilayer Piezoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisheng Gao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectrics have been widely used in different kinds of applications, from the automobile industry to consumer electronics. The novel multilayer piezoelectrics, which are inspired by multilayer ceramic capacitors, not only minimize the size of the functional parts, but also maximize energy efficiency. Development of multilayer piezoelectric devices is at a significant crossroads on the way to achieving low costs, high efficiency, and excellent reliability. Concerning the costs of manufacturing multilayer piezoelectrics, the trend is to replace the costly noble metal internal electrodes with base metal materials. This paper discusses the materials development of metal co-firing and the progress of integrating current base metal chemistries. There are some significant considerations in metal co-firing multilayer piezoelectrics: retaining stoichiometry with volatile Pb and alkaline elements in ceramics, the selection of appropriate sintering agents to lower the sintering temperature with minimum impact on piezoelectric performance, and designing effective binder formulation for low pO2 burnout to prevent oxidation of Ni and Cu base metal.

  11. Analysis of active piezoelectric energy harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang CUI

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing piezoelectric traps are designed for a narrow frequency range of vibration, but the surrounding environment has a very wide frequency range, and the frequency may also be subject to change, causing the problem of difficult to achieve energy capture or capture inefficiency. In order to solve problem, a new T-type piezoelectric cantilever is proposed as a capture energy structure in the paper. To begin with the aspects of structural design and circuit design, the static analysis, modal analysis and resonance analysis of the structure are carried out and the natural frequency and excitation frequency of the device are analyzed. The design and calculation of the power consumption and the loss of the components of the circuit are analyzed by the simulation and verification of the active capture energy circuit, and the active and passive techniques are compared and analyzed, the simulation of the active capture circuit is verified by analyzing the power consumption of the circuit and the maximum power obtained by the active technology is 5 times of that of the passive technology. And then the voltage-controlled active boundary control method can be used for interface circuit design, taking the initiative to use each piezoelectric transduction cycle triggered by the electrical boundary conditions to effectively increase the input piezoelectric pump energy, and then increase output power. The way of utilizing the active trapping of piezoelectric materials is innovated, which has a positive effect on the development of piezoelectric traps.

  12. Multimodal piezoelectric devices optimization for energy harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Acciani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of the piezoelectric effect to convert ambient vibration into useful electrical energy constitutes one of the most studied areas in Energy Harvesting (EH research. This paper presents a typical cantilevered Energy Harvester device, which relates the electrical outputs to the vibration mode shape easily. The dynamic strain induced in the piezoceramic layer results in an alternating voltage output. The first six modes of frequencies and the deformation pattern of the beam are carried out basing on an eigenfrequency analysis conducted by the MEMS modules of the COMSOL Multiphysic® v3.5a to perform the Finite Element Analysis of the model. Subsequently, the piezoelectric material is cut around the inflection points to minimize the voltage cancellation effect occurring when the sign changes in the material. This study shows that the voltage produced by the device, increases in as the dimensions of the cuts vary in the piezoelectric layer. Such voltage reaches the optimum amount of piezoelectric material and cuts positioning. This proves that the optimized piezoelectric layer is 16% more efficient than the whole piezoelectric layer.

  13. Tubular fluoropolymer arrays with high piezoelectric response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Sergey; Eder-Goy, Dagmar; Biethan, Corinna; Fedosov, Sergey; Xu, Bai-Xiang; von Seggern, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    Polymers with electrically charged internal air cavities called ferroelectrets exhibit a pronounced piezoelectric effect and are regarded as soft functional materials suitable for sensor and actuator applications. In this work, a simple method for fabricating piezoelectret arrays with open-tubular channels is introduced. A set of individual fluoroethylenepropylene (FEP) tubes is compressed between two heated metal plates. The squeezed FEP tubes are melted together at +270 °C. The resulting structure is a uniform, multi-tubular, flat array that reveals a strong piezoelectric response after a poling step. The fabricated arrays have a high ratio between piezoelectrically active and non-active areas. The optimal charging voltage and stability of the piezoelectric coefficients with pressures and frequency were experimentally investigated for two specific array structures with wall thickness of 50 and 120 μm. The array fabricated from 50 μm thick FEP tubes reveals a stable and high piezoelectric coefficient of {d}33 = 120-160 pC N-1 with a flat frequency response between 0.1 Hz and 10 kHz for pressures between 1 and 100 kPa. An increase of wall thickness to 120 μm is accompanied by a more than twofold decrease in the piezoelectric coefficient as a result of a simultaneously higher effective array stiffness and lower remanent polarization. The obtained experimental results can be used to optimize the array design with regard to the electromechanical performance.

  14. Non linear effects in piezoelectric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonnard, P.

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The static and dynamic non-linear behaviours of a soft and a hard zirconate titanate composition are investigated in this paper as a function of electrical and mechanical fields. The calculated Rayleigh coefficients show that they are similar for the permittivity ε T33 and the piezoelectric constant and nul for the voltage constant d33 and the compliance at zero D (D = dielectric displacement. A non-linear electromechanical equivalent circuit is built up with components proportional to D. Finally an extended model to non-Rayleigh type behaviours is proposed.

    Los comportamientos no lineales estáticos y dinámicos de composiciones blandas y duras de titanato circonato de plomo se investigan en este trabajo en función de campos eléctricos y mecánicos. Los coeficientes de Rayleigh calculados son similares para la permitividad εT33 y la constantes piezoléctrica d33 y nulos para la constante g33 y la complianza a D cero (D=desplazamiento dieléctrico. Se construye un circuito electromecánico no lineal equivalente con componentes proporcionales a D. Finalmente se propone un modelo extendido a comportamientos de tipo no-Rayleigh.

  15. A measurement method for piezoelectric material properties under longitudinal compressive stress–-a compression test method for thin piezoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Lae-Hyong; Lee, Dae-Oen; Han, Jae-Hung

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new compression test method for piezoelectric materials to investigate changes in piezoelectric properties under the compressive stress condition. Until now, compression tests of piezoelectric materials have been generally conducted using bulky piezoelectric ceramics and pressure block. The conventional method using the pressure block for thin piezoelectric patches, which are used in unimorph or bimorph actuators, is prone to unwanted bending and buckling. In addition, due to the constrained boundaries at both ends, the observed piezoelectric behavior contains boundary effects. In order to avoid these problems, the proposed method employs two guide plates with initial longitudinal tensile stress. By removing the tensile stress after bonding a piezoelectric material between the guide layers, longitudinal compressive stress is induced in the piezoelectric layer. Using the compression test specimens, two important properties, which govern the actuation performance of the piezoelectric material, the piezoelectric strain coefficients and the elastic modulus, are measured to evaluate the effects of applied electric fields and re-poling. The results show that the piezoelectric strain coefficient d 31 increases and the elastic modulus decreases when high voltage is applied to PZT5A, and the compression in the longitudinal direction decreases the piezoelectric strain coefficient d 31 but does not affect the elastic modulus. We also found that the re-poling of the piezoelectric material increases the elastic modulus, but the piezoelectric strain coefficient d 31 is not changed much (slightly increased) by re-poling

  16. Theoretical modeling and equivalent electric circuit of a bimorph piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammoura, Firas; Kim, Sang-Gook

    2012-05-01

    An electric circuit model for a circular bimorph piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (PMUT) was developed for the first time. The model was made up of an electric mesh, which was coupled to a mechanical mesh via a transformer element. The bimorph PMUT consisted of two piezoelectric layers of the same material, having equal thicknesses, and sandwiched between three thin electrodes. The piezoelectric layers, having the same poling axis, were biased with electric potentials of the same magnitude but opposite polarity. The strain mismatches between the two layers created by the converse piezoelectric effect caused the membrane to vibrate and, hence, transmit a pressure wave. Upon receiving the echo of the acoustic wave, the membrane deformation led to the generation of electric charges as a result of the direct piezoelectric phenomenon. The membrane angular velocity and electric current were related to the applied electric field, the impinging acoustic pressure, and the moment at the edge of the membrane using two canonical equations. The transduction coefficients from the electrical to the mechanical domain and vice-versa were shown to be bilateral and the system was shown to be reversible. The circuit parameters of the derived model were extracted, including the transformer ratio, the clamped electric impedance, the spring-softening impedance, and the open-circuit mechanical impedance. The theoretical model was fully examined by generating the electrical input impedance and average plate displacement curves versus frequency under both air and water loading conditions. A PMUT composed of piezoelectric material with a lossy dielectric was also investigated and the maximum possible electroacoustical conversion efficiency was calculated.

  17. Revisiting the Characterization of the Losses in Piezoelectric Materials from Impedance Spectroscopy at Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador M. González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic devices using the piezoelectric effect contain piezoelectric materials: often crystals, but in many cases poled ferroelectric ceramics (piezoceramics, polymers or composites. On the one hand, these materials exhibit non-negligible losses, not only dielectric, but also mechanical and piezoelectric. In this work, we made simulations of the effect of the three types of losses in piezoelectric materials on the impedance spectrum at the resonance. We analyze independently each type of loss and show the differences among them. On the other hand, electrical and electronic engineers include piezoelectric sensors in electrical circuits to build devices and need electrical models of the sensor element. Frequently, material scientists and engineers use different languages, and the characteristic material coefficients do not have a straightforward translation to those specific electrical circuit components. To connect both fields of study, we propose the use of accurate methods of characterization from impedance measurements at electromechanical resonance that lead to determination of all types of losses, as an alternative to current standards. We introduce a simplified equivalent circuit model with electrical parameters that account for piezoceramic losses needed for the modeling and design of industrial applications.

  18. Piezoelectricity enhancement and bandstructure modification of atomic defect-mediated MoS2 monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sheng; Rice, Quinton; Neupane, Tikaram; Tabibi, Bagher; Li, Qiliang; Seo, Felix Jaetae

    2017-09-13

    Piezoelectricity appears in the inversion asymmetric crystal that converts mechanical deformation to electricity. Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcolgenide (TMDC) monolayers exhibit the piezoelectric effect due to inversion asymmetry. The intrinsic piezoelectric coefficient (e 11 ) of MoS 2 is ∼298 pC m -1 . For the single atomic shift of Mo of 20% along the armchair direction, the piezoelectric coefficient (e 11 ) of MoS 2 with 5 × 5 unit cells was enhanced up to 18%, and significantly modified the band structure. The single atomic shift in the MoS 2 monolayer also induced new energy levels inside the forbidden bandgap. The defect-induced energy levels for a Mo atom shift along the armchair direction are relatively deeper than that for a S atom shift along the same direction. This indicates that the piezoelectricity and band structure of MoS 2 can be engineered by a single atomic shift in the monolayer with multi unit cells for piezo- and opto-electric applications.

  19. Deflection of Cross-Ply Composite Laminates Induced by Piezoelectric Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sheng Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupling effects between the mechanical and electric properties of piezoelectric materials have drawn significant attention for their potential applications as sensors and actuators. In this investigation, two piezoelectric actuators are symmetrically surface bonded on a cross-ply composite laminate. Electric voltages with the same amplitude and opposite sign are applied to the two symmetric piezoelectric actuators, resulting in the bending effect on the laminated plate. The bending moment is derived by using the classical laminate theory and piezoelectricity. The analytical solution of the flexural displacement of the simply supported composite plate subjected to the bending moment is solved by using the plate theory. The analytical solution is compared with the finite element solution to show the validation of present approach. The effects of the size and location of the piezoelectric actuators on the response of the composite laminate are presented through a parametric study. A simple model incorporating the classical laminate theory and plate theory is presented to predict the deformed shape of the simply supported laminate plate.

  20. A piezoelectric fibre composite based energy harvesting device for potential wearable applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallow, L M; Luo, J K; Siores, E; Patel, I; Dodds, D

    2008-01-01

    Rapid technological advances in nanotechnology, microelectronic sensors and systems are becoming increasingly miniaturized to the point where embedded wearable applications are beginning to emerge. A restriction to the widespread application of these microsystems is the power supply of relatively sizable dimensions, weight, and limited lifespan. Emerging micropower sources exploit self-powered generators utilizing the intrinsic energy conversion characteristics of smart materials. 'Energy harvesting' describes the process by which energy is extracted from the environment, converted and stored. Piezoelectric materials have been used to convert mechanical into electrical energy through their inherent piezoelectric effect. This paper focuses on the development of a micropower generator using microcomposite based piezoelectric materials for energy reclamation in glove structures. Devices consist of piezoelectric fibres, 90–250 µm in diameter, aligned in a unidirectional manner and incorporated into a composite structure. The fibres are laid within a single laminate structure with copper interdigitated electrodes assembled on both sides, forming a thin film device. Performances of devices with different fibre diameters and material thicknesses are investigated. Experiments are outlined that detail the performance characteristics of such piezoelectric fibre laminates. Results presented show voltage outputs up to 6 V which is considered enough for potential applications in powering wearable microsystems

  1. Theoretical modeling and experimental validation of a torsional piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feng; Zhou, Wanlu; Kaluvan, Suresh; Zhang, Haifeng; Zuo, Lei

    2018-04-01

    Vibration energy harvesting has been extensively studied in recent years to explore a continuous power source for sensor networks and low-power electronics. Torsional vibration widely exists in mechanical engineering; however, it has not yet been well exploited for energy harvesting. This paper presents a theoretical model and an experimental validation of a torsional vibration energy harvesting system comprised of a shaft and a shear mode piezoelectric transducer. The piezoelectric transducer position on the surface of the shaft is parameterized by two variables that are optimized to obtain the maximum power output. The piezoelectric transducer can work in d 15 mode (pure shear mode), coupled mode of d 31 and d 33, and coupled mode of d 33, d 31 and d 15, respectively, when attached at different angles. Approximate expressions of voltage and power are derived from the theoretical model, which gave predictions in good agreement with analytical solutions. Physical interpretations on the implicit relationship between the power output and the position parameters of the piezoelectric transducer is given based on the derived approximate expression. The optimal position and angle of the piezoelectric transducer is determined, in which case, the transducer works in the coupled mode of d 15, d 31 and d 33.

  2. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT–polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Ende, D A; Van de Wiel, H J; Groen, W A; Van der Zwaag, S

    2012-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical failure or depolarization, especially at elevated temperatures. In this work, three kinds of ceramic–polymer composite piezoelectric materials were evaluated and compared against state-of-the-art piezoelectric materials. The new composites are unstructured and structured composites containing granular lead zirconate titanate (PZT) particles or PZT fibers in a polyurethane matrix. The composites were used to build energy harvesting patches which were attached to a tire and tested under simulated rolling conditions. The energy density of the piezoelectric ceramic–polymer composite materials is initially not as high as that of the reference materials (a macro-fiber composite and a polyvinylidene fluoride polymer). However, the area normalized power output of the composites after temperature and strain cycling is comparable to that of the reference devices because the piezoelectric ceramic–polymer composites did not degrade during operation. (paper)

  3. Revisiting the Characterization of the Losses in Piezoelectric Materials from Impedance Spectroscopy at Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Amador M; García, Álvaro; Benavente-Peces, César; Pardo, Lorena

    2016-01-26

    Electronic devices using the piezoelectric effect contain piezoelectric materials: often crystals, but in many cases poled ferroelectric ceramics (piezoceramics), polymers or composites. On the one hand, these materials exhibit non-negligible losses, not only dielectric, but also mechanical and piezoelectric. In this work, we made simulations of the effect of the three types of losses in piezoelectric materials on the impedance spectrum at the resonance. We analyze independently each type of loss and show the differences among them. On the other hand, electrical and electronic engineers include piezoelectric sensors in electrical circuits to build devices and need electrical models of the sensor element. Frequently, material scientists and engineers use different languages, and the characteristic material coefficients do not have a straightforward translation to those specific electrical circuit components. To connect both fields of study, we propose the use of accurate methods of characterization from impedance measurements at electromechanical resonance that lead to determination of all types of losses, as an alternative to current standards. We introduce a simplified equivalent circuit model with electrical parameters that account for piezoceramic losses needed for the modeling and design of industrial applications.

  4. Note: Motor-piezoelectricity coupling driven high temperature fatigue device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z C; Du, X J; Zhao, H W; Ma, X X; Jiang, D Y; Liu, Y; Ren, L Q

    2018-01-01

    The design and performance evaluation of a novel high temperature fatigue device simultaneously driven by servo motor and piezoelectric actuator is our focus. The device integrates monotonic and cyclic loading functions with a maximum tensile load of 1800 N, driving frequency of 50 Hz, alternating load of 95 N, and maximum service temperature of 1200 °C. Multimodal fatigue tests with arbitrary combinations of static and dynamic loads are achieved. At temperatures that range from RT to 1100 °C, the tensile and tensile-fatigue coupling mechanical behaviors of UM Co50 alloys are investigated to verify the feasibility of the device.

  5. Linear and nonlinear piezoelectric shunting strategies for vibration mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltani P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies linear and nonlinear piezoelectric vibration absorbers that are designed based on the equal-peak method. A comparison between the performance of linear mechanical and electrical tuned vibration absorbers coupled to a linear oscillator is first performed. Nonlinearity is then introduced in the primary oscillator to which a new nonlinear electrical tuned vibration absorber is attached. Despite the frequency-energy dependence of nonlinear oscillations, we show that the nonlinear absorber is capable of effectively mitigating the vibrations of the nonlinear primary system in a large range of forcing amplitudes.

  6. Multimodal electromechanical model of piezoelectric transformers by Hamilton's principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Clement; Pigache, Francois

    2009-11-01

    This work deals with a general energetic approach to establish an accurate electromechanical model of a piezoelectric transformer (PT). Hamilton's principle is used to obtain the equations of motion for free vibrations. The modal characteristics (mass, stiffness, primary and secondary electromechanical conversion factors) are also deduced. Then, to illustrate this general electromechanical method, the variational principle is applied to both homogeneous and nonhomogeneous Rosen-type PT models. A comparison of modal parameters, mechanical displacements, and electrical potentials are presented for both models. Finally, the validity of the electrodynamical model of nonhomogeneous Rosen-type PT is confirmed by a numerical comparison based on a finite elements method and an experimental identification.

  7. Timoshenko beam model for buckling of piezoelectric nanowires with surface effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the buckling behavior of piezoelectric nanowires under distributed transverse loading, within the framework of the Timoshenko beam theory, and in the presence of surface effects. Analytical relations are given for the critical force of axial buckling of nanowires by accounting for the effects of surface elasticity, residual surface tension, and transverse shear deformation. Through an example, it is shown that the critical electric potential of buckling depends on both the surface stresses and piezoelectricity. This study may be helpful in the characterization of the mechanical properties of nanowires and in the calibration of the nanowire-based force sensors. PMID:22453063

  8. Low-temperature DC-contact piezoelectric switch operable in high magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenbacher, T; Doser, M; Kellerbauer, A; Pribyl, W

    2013-01-01

    A piezoelectric single-pole single-throw (SPST) switch has been developed, since there is no satisfying commercial low-resistance, high current DC-contact RF switch available which is operable at 4.2K and in a high magnetic field of at least 0.5T. This piezoelectric switch shows very low insertion loss of less than -0.1dB within a bandwidth of 100MHz when operated at 4.2K. The switch could also be used to mechanically disconnect and connect electrodes or electrical circuits from one another.

  9. Low-temperature DC-contact piezoelectric switch operable in high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenbacher, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.kaltenbacher@cern.ch [Physics and Accelerator Departments, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Institute of Electronics, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 12, 8010 Graz (Austria); Caspers, Fritz; Doser, Michael [Physics and Accelerator Departments, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kellerbauer, Alban [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Pribyl, Wolfgang [Institute of Electronics, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 12, 8010 Graz (Austria)

    2013-11-21

    A piezoelectric single-pole single-throw (SPST) switch has been developed, since there is no satisfying commercial low-resistance, high current DC-contact RF switch available which is operable at 4.2 K and in a high magnetic field of at least 0.5 T. This piezoelectric switch shows very low insertion loss of less than −0.1 dB within a bandwidth of 100 MHz when operated at 4.2 K. The switch could also be used to mechanically disconnect and connect electrodes or electrical circuits from one another.

  10. Characterization of Multilayer Piezoelectric Actuators for Use in Active Isolation Mounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Hooker, Matthew W.

    1997-01-01

    Active mounts are desirable for isolating spacecraft science instruments from on-board vibrational sources such as motors and release mechanisms. Such active isolation mounts typically employ multilayer piezoelectric actuators to cancel these vibrational disturbances. The actuators selected for spacecraft systems must consume minimal power while exhibiting displacements of 5 to 10 micron under load. This report describes a study that compares the power consumption, displacement, and load characteristics of four commercially available multilayer piezoelectric actuators. The results of this study indicate that commercially available actuators exist that meet or exceed the design requirements used in spacecraft isolation mounts.

  11. Invariant manifolds and the parameterization method in coupled energy harvesting piezoelectric oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Energy harvesting systems based on oscillators aim to capture energy from mechanical oscillations and convert it into electrical energy. Widely extended are those based on piezoelectric materials, whose dynamics are Hamiltonian submitted to different sources of dissipation: damping and coupling...... in Hamiltonian systems and hence could be very useful in energy harvesting applications. This article is a first step towards this goal. We consider two piezoelectric beams submitted to a small forcing and coupled through an electric circuit. By considering the coupling, damping and forcing as perturbations, we...

  12. Electrical admittance of piezoelectric parallelepipeds: application to tensorial characterization of piezoceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Diallo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the characterization of functional properties, including determination of mechanical and electrical losses, of piezoelectric materials using only one sample and one measurement. First, the natural resonant frequencies of a piezoelectric parallelepiped are calculated and the electrical admittance is determined from calculations of the charge quantity on both electrodes of the parallelepiped. A first validation of the model is performed using a comparison with Mason's model. Results are reported for a PMN-34.5PT ceramic cube and a good agreement is found between experimental admittance measurements and their modeling. The functional properties of the PMN-34.5PT are then extracted.

  13. Electrical admittance of piezoelectric parallelepipeds: application to tensorial characterization of piezoceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diallo, O.; Bavencoffe, M.; Feuillard, G. [Laboratoire GREMAN UMR CNRS 7347. École Nationale d’Ingénieurs du Val de Loire Université François Rabelais de Tours 3 Rue de la Chocolaterie BP 3410 41034 BLOIS CEDEX France (France); Clezio, E. Le; Delaunay, T. [Institut d’Electronique du Sud UMR CNRS 5214 IES - MIRA case 082Université Montpellier 2 Place Eugène Bataillon 34095 MONTPELLIER CEDEX 5 France (France)

    2014-01-15

    This work deals with the characterization of functional properties, including determination of mechanical and electrical losses, of piezoelectric materials using only one sample and one measurement. First, the natural resonant frequencies of a piezoelectric parallelepiped are calculated and the electrical admittance is determined from calculations of the charge quantity on both electrodes of the parallelepiped. A first validation of the model is performed using a comparison with Mason's model. Results are reported for a PMN-34.5PT ceramic cube and a good agreement is found between experimental admittance measurements and their modeling. The functional properties of the PMN-34.5PT are then extracted.

  14. Sensory Testing in Patients With Postthoracotomy Pain Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads Utke; Ringsted, Thomas K; Kehlet, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    pain syndrome [PTPS (n=14)]. The primary outcome was investigation of the areas of sensory dysfunction, evaluated twice by dynamic sensory mapping with metal rollers and a brush. RESULTS:: In PTPS patients, sensory dysfunction was present on the surgical side, and in 12 of 14 patients MISD......OBJECTIVES:: Mirror-image sensory dysfunction (MISD) has not been systematically characterized in persistent postoperative pain. METHODS:: The presence of MISD was evaluated with standardized stimuli, in preoperative patients scheduled for a thoracotomy (n=14) and in patients with postthoracotomy...... of the PTPS patients experienced mirror pain. DISCUSSION:: MISD is a common finding in PTPS patients and deserves further study involving mechanism and clinical implications....

  15. Use of the piezoelectric film for the determination of cracks and defects - the passive and active electric potential CT method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, S; Sakagami, T; Suzuki, T; Maeda, T; Nakatani, K

    2008-01-01

    The passive and active electric potential CT method was proposed by using piezoelectric film for identification of cracks and defects. This method is based on the principle of mutual conversion between mechanical strains and electric potential of piezoelectric material. A smart-layer was constructed using the piezoelectric film, and attached on a structure with a defect. When the structure was subjected to a mechanical load, the electric potential distribution appeared passively on the piezoelectric film due to the direct piezoelectric effect. The defect can be identified from the distribution with the help of inverse analysis. It was found that the crack could be identified reasonably, although the defect depth was not well estimated for the defects located far from the layer. When the electric signal was input to the smart-layer, acoustic wave was actively emitted from the layer due to the inverse piezoelectric effect, and a reflected wave was received on the layer. It was found that the depth of the defect could be estimated well. The simultaneous use of the passive method and the active method is promising for the identification of the defect.

  16. Flexible Piezoelectric Generators by Using the Bending Motion Method of Direct-Grown-PZT Nanoparticles on Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin Kyu; Jeon, Do Hyun; Cho, Sam Yeon; Kang, Sin Wook; Lim, Jongsun; Bu, Sang Don

    2017-10-07

    Recently, composite-type nanogenerators (NGs) formed from piezoelectric nanostructures and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), have become one of the excellent candidates for future energy harvesting because of their ability to apply the excellent electrical and mechanical properties of CNTs. However, the synthesis of NG devices with a high proportion of piezoelectric materials and a low polymer content, such as of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), continues to be problematic. In this work, high-piezoelectric-material-content flexible films produced from Pb(Zr,Ti)O₃ (PZT)-atomically-interconnected CNTs and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) are presented. Various physical and chemical characterization techniques are employed to examine the morphology and structure of the materials. The direct growth of the piezoelectric material on the CNTs, by stirring the PZT and CNT mixed solution, results in various positive effects, such as a high-quality dispersion in the polymer matrix and addition of flexoelectricity to piezoelectricity, resulting in the enhancement of the output voltage by an external mechanical force. The NGs repeatedly generate an output voltage of 0.15 V. These results present a significant step toward the application of NGs using piezoelectric nanocomposite materials.

  17. Flexible Piezoelectric Generators by Using the Bending Motion Method of Direct-Grown-PZT Nanoparticles on Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Kyu Han

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, composite-type nanogenerators (NGs formed from piezoelectric nanostructures and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs, have become one of the excellent candidates for future energy harvesting because of their ability to apply the excellent electrical and mechanical properties of CNTs. However, the synthesis of NG devices with a high proportion of piezoelectric materials and a low polymer content, such as of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, continues to be problematic. In this work, high-piezoelectric-material-content flexible films produced from Pb(Zr,TiO3 (PZT-atomically-interconnected CNTs and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE are presented. Various physical and chemical characterization techniques are employed to examine the morphology and structure of the materials. The direct growth of the piezoelectric material on the CNTs, by stirring the PZT and CNT mixed solution, results in various positive effects, such as a high-quality dispersion in the polymer matrix and addition of flexoelectricity to piezoelectricity, resulting in the enhancement of the output voltage by an external mechanical force. The NGs repeatedly generate an output voltage of 0.15 V. These results present a significant step toward the application of NGs using piezoelectric nanocomposite materials.

  18. Optimization of a piezoelectric linear motor in terms of the contact parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Hyun-Phill; Kim, Sangsig; Kang, Chong-Yun; Kim, Hyun-Jai; Yoon, Seok-Jin

    2005-01-01

    The contact kinetics of piezoelectric linear motors determines the operational characteristics like speed and torque or transmitted mechanical power and efficiency. Piezoelectric linear motors are driven by tangential stress in the interface between tip of shaking beam and slider. A good contact between the tip and slider is necessary for a reliable analysis of the motor, which is needed for the optimization of its performance. The piezoelectric linear motor was fabricated and the characteristics of the motor were investigated by external conditions such as tip shape with different curvatures and contact force between the tip and the slider. It was found in this investigation that the optimal curvature of the tip and the contact force are curvature of 1 and 10, respectively, for the high actuating speed, and curvature of 1 and 40 N, respectively, for the high actuating force. Finally, tip shape has an influence on the characteristics of linear motor

  19. Determination of maximum power transfer conditions of bimorph piezoelectric energy harvesters

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al

    2012-07-23

    In this paper, a method to find the maximum power transfer conditions in bimorph piezoelectric-based harvesters is proposed. Explicitly, we derive a closed form expression that relates the load resistance to the mechanical parameters describing the bimorph based on the electromechanical, single degree of freedom, analogy. Further, by taking into account the intrinsic capacitance of the piezoelectric harvester, a more descriptive expression of the resonant frequency in piezoelectric bimorphs was derived. In interest of impartiality, we apply the proposed philosophy on previously published experimental results and compare it with other reported hypotheses. It was found that the proposed method was able to predict the actual optimum load resistance more accurately than other methods reported in the literature. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  20. Electrical percolation threshold of magnetostrictive inclusions in a piezoelectric matrix under simulated sintering conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Antoine Joseph; Barbero, Ever J.

    2018-03-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) composites can be produced by embedding magnetostrictive H particles in a piezoelectric E matrix derived from a piezoelectric powder precursor. Previously, using a bi-disperse hard-shell model (Barbero and Bedard in Comput Part Mech, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40571-017-0165-4), it has been shown that the electrical percolation threshold of the conductive H phase can be increased by decreasing the piezoelectric E particle size, relative to the H phase particle size, and by increasing short-range affinity between the E and H particles. This study builds on our previous study by exploring what happens during sintering of the ME composite when either the H or E particles undergo deformation. It was found that deformation of the H particles reduces the percolation threshold, and that deformation of E particles increases inter-phase H-E mechanical coupling, thus contributing to enhancing of ME coupling.

  1. Towards a digital sound reconstruction MEMS device: Characterization of a single PZT based piezoelectric actuator

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we report the fabrication and characterization of a single piezoelectric actuator for digital sound reconstruction. This work is the first step towards the implementation of a true digital micro-loudspeaker by means of an array of acoustic actuators. These actuators consist of a flexible membrane fabricated using polyimide, which is actuated using a Lead-Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic layer working in the d31 actuation mode. The dimensions of the membrane are of 1mm diameter and 4μm in thickness, which is capable of being symmetrically actuated in both upward and downward directions, due to the back etch step releasing the membrane. Our electrical characterization shows an improvement in the polarization of the piezoelectric material after its final etch patterning step, and our mechanical characterization shows the natural modes of resonance of the stacked membrane. © 2015 IEEE.

  2. Low cost fabrication of polymer composite (h-ZnO + PDMS) material for piezoelectric device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akanksha; Das, Sonatan; Bharathkumar, Mareddi; Revanth, D.; Karthik, ARB; Sudhakara Sastry, Bala; Ramgopal Rao, V.

    2016-07-01

    Flexible piezoelectric composites offer alternative and/or additional solutions to sensor, actuator and transducer applications. Here in this work, we have successfully fabricated highly flexible piezoelectric composites with poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS) using herbal zinc oxide (h-ZnO) as filler having weight fractions up to 50 wt.% by solution casting of dispersions of h-ZnO in PDMS. Excellent piezo properties (Resonant frequency 935 Hz, d*33 29.76 pm V-1), physiochemical properties (Wurtzite structure ZnO, 380 nm absorbance) and mechanical properties (Young modulus 16.9 MPa) have been optimized with theoretical simulations and observed experimentally for h-ZnO + PDMS. As such, the demonstrated piezoelectric PDMS membranes combined with the excellent properties of these composites open new ways to ‘soft touch’ applications and could serve as a variety of soft and sensitive electromechanical transducers, which are desired for a variety of sensor and energy harvesting applications.

  3. Analysis of an x-ray mirror made from piezoelectric bimorph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Li, Ming; Tang, Shanzhi; Gao, Junxiang; Zhang, Weiwei; Zhu, Peiping

    2017-07-01

    Theoretical analysis of the mechanical behavior of an x-ray mirror made from piezoelectric bimorph is presented. A complete two-dimensional relationship between the radius of curvature of the mirror and the applied voltage is derived. The accuracy of this relationship is studied by comparing the figures calculated by the relationship and Finite Element Analysis. The influences of several critical parameters in the relationship on the radius of curvature are analyzed. It is found that piezoelectric coefficient d31 is the main material property parameter that dominates the radius of curvature, and that the optimal thickness of PZT plate corresponding to largest bending range is 2.5 times of that of faceplate. It is demonstrated that the relationship is helpful for us to complete the primary design of the x-ray mirror made from piezoelectric bimorph.

  4. A Methodological Review of Piezoelectric Based Acoustic Wave Generation and Detection Techniques for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric transducers have a long history of applications in nondestructive evaluation of material and structure integrity owing to their ability of transforming mechanical energy to electrical energy and vice versa. As condition based maintenance has emerged as a valuable approach to enhancing continued aircraft airworthiness while reducing the life cycle cost, its enabling structural health monitoring (SHM technologies capable of providing on-demand diagnosis of the structure without interrupting the aircraft operation are attracting increasing R&D efforts. Piezoelectric transducers play an essential role in these endeavors. This paper is set forth to review a variety of ingenious ways in which piezoelectric transducers are used in today’s SHM technologies as a means of generation and/or detection of diagnostic acoustic waves.

  5. Control of free-edge interlaminar stresses in composite laminates using piezoelectric actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Bin; Soo Kim, Heung

    2014-01-01

    The control of free-edge interlaminar stresses in laminated composite structures using a stress function-based approach is proposed. The assumed stress fields satisfy pointwise traction and free boundary conditions at surfaces. Governing equations are derived using the principle of complementary virtual work. A general eigenvalue solution procedure was adopted to obtain accurate stress states of the laminated composite structure. The results obtained from the proposed method were compared with those obtained by three-dimensional finite element analyses. It was found that interlaminar stresses generated by mechanical loadings could be significantly reduced by applying proper electric fields to piezoelectric actuators, which were surface bonded or embedded in composite laminates. Locations of piezoelectric actuators also influenced the distributions of interlaminar stresses. The results provided that piezoelectric actuators have potential in the application to actively control interlaminar stresses in composite laminates. (paper)

  6. The role played by the Coulombic traction for an interface crack in dissimilar piezoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qun; Chen Yiheng

    2008-01-01

    The role played by the Coulombic traction for an interface crack in dissimilar piezoelectric materials is clarified. Based on the extended Stroh theory, the Coulombic traction, usually neglected in piezoelectric fracture, is imposed on the interface crack surfaces. It is found that the low-capacitance medium (air or vacuum) inside the crack gap yields some large Coulombic traction as compared to the applied mechanical loading whether the remanent polarization of piezoelectric material is considered or not. Thus, previous investigations based on the traction-free condition underestimate the role of the Coulombic traction and in turn may yield unexpected errors for the effective stress intensity factor (SIF) and energy release rate (ERR) at the crack tip. (technical note)

  7. Equivalent circuit and optimum design of a multilayer laminated piezoelectric transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuxiang; Carazo, Alfredo Vazquez; Park, Seung Ho

    2011-12-01

    A multilayer laminated piezoelectric Pb(Zr(1-x)Ti(x))O(3) (PZT) ceramic transformer, operating in a half- wavelength longitudinal resonant mode (λ/2 mode), has been analyzed. This piezoelectric transformer is composed of one thickness-polarized section (T-section) for exciting the longitudinal mechanical vibrations, two longitudinally polarized sections (L-section) for generating high-voltage output, and two insulating layers laminated between the T-section and L-section layers to provide insulation between the input and output sections. Based on the piezoelectric constitutive and motion equations, an electro-elasto-electric (EEE) equivalent circuit has been developed, and correspondingly, an effective EEE coupling coefficient was proposed for optimum design of this multilayer transformer. Commercial finite element analysis software is used to determine the validity of the developed equivalent circuit. Finally, a prototype sample was manufactured and experimental data was collected to verify the model's validity.

  8. One-shot Design of Radial Mode Piezoelectric Transformer for Magneticless Power Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Kaspar Sinding; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2011-01-01

    mathematical problem has been solved, that directly links wanted electrical specifications to the mechanical dimensions of a radial mode piezoelectric transformer. The novel outcome of this study is that the soft switching ability is directly linked to the ratio between the active volume of the primary......Piezoelectric Transformer based resonant power converters are an attractive alternative to magnetic power converters in applications requiring a power level currently less than 100W. Among the benefits are a power density up to 40W/cm3, a low profile, reduced radiated EMI and high system efficiency...... due to zero voltage switching commutation. The main criteria to take advantage of these benefits are, despite the fact that a PT is a piezoelectric capacitor, is optimization the transformer to behave inductively as a means to avoid excessive hard switching losses. With this objective, the inverse...

  9. Surface oxidation: an effective way to induce piezoelectricity in 2D black phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiabin; Zhao, Ting; He, Chaoyu; Zhang, Kaiwang

    2018-03-01

    In this letter, first-principles methods are employed to investigate the elastic stiffness and piezoelectric tensors of surface-oxidized black phosphorene. Our results show that the piezoelectric coefficients d 11 and d 12 for surface-oxidized black phosphorene are 88.54 pm V-1 and  -1.94 pm V-1, respectively, which are comparable to those of group-IV monochalcogenides and more remarkable than those of the experimentally viable h-BN and MoS2. These results indicate that surface-oxidization is an effective way to make black phosphorene into an excellent piezoelectric material for potential applications in sensors, actuators, electric field generators and any other applications requiring electrical and mechanical energy conversion. We expect further experimental exploration on this interesting result to confirm our predictions.

  10. Membrane potential correlates of sensory perception in mouse barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachidhanandam, Shankar; Sreenivasan, Varun; Kyriakatos, Alexandros; Kremer, Yves; Petersen, Carl C H

    2013-11-01

    Neocortical activity can evoke sensory percepts, but the cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We trained mice to detect single brief whisker stimuli and report perceived stimuli by licking to obtain a reward. Pharmacological inactivation and optogenetic stimulation demonstrated a causal role for the primary somatosensory barrel cortex. Whole-cell recordings from barrel cortex neurons revealed membrane potential correlates of sensory perception. Sensory responses depended strongly on prestimulus cortical state, but both slow-wave and desynchronized cortical states were compatible with task performance. Whisker deflection evoked an early (sensory response that was encoded through cell-specific reversal potentials. A secondary late (50-400 ms) depolarization was enhanced on hit trials compared to misses. Optogenetic inactivation revealed a causal role for late excitation. Our data reveal dynamic processing in the sensory cortex during task performance, with an early sensory response reliably encoding the stimulus and later secondary activity contributing to driving the subjective percept.

  11. Self-Powered Active Sensor with Concentric Topography of Piezoelectric Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin Kuen; Huang, Zih Ming; Wang, Bo Sheng; Li, Shan Chien

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we demonstrated a flexible and self-powered sensor based on piezoelectric fibers in the diameter range of nano- and micro-scales. Our work is distinctively different from previous electrospinning research; we fabricated this apparatus precisely via near-field electrospinning which has a spectacular performance to harvest mechanical deformation in arbitrary direction and a novel concentrically circular topography. There are many piezoelectric devices based on electrospinning polymeric fibers. However, the fibers were mostly patterned in parallel lines and they could be actuated in limited direction only. To overcome this predicament, we re-arranged the parallel alignment into concentric circle pattern which made it possible to collect the mechanical energy whenever the deformation is along same axis or not. Despite the change of topography, the output voltage and current could still reach to 5 V and 400 nA, respectively, despite the mechanical deformation was from different direction. This new arbitrarily directional piezoelectric generator with concentrically circular topography (PGCT) allowed the piezoelectric device to harvest more mechanical energy than the one-directional alignment fiber-based devices, and this PGCT could perform even better output which promised more versatile and efficient using as a wearable electronics or sensor.

  12. Analysis on Coupled Vibration of a Radially Polarized Piezoelectric Cylindrical Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coupled vibration of a radially polarized piezoelectric cylindrical transducer is analyzed with the mechanical coupling coefficient method. The method has been utilized to analyze the metal cylindrical transducer and the axially polarized piezoelectric cylindrical transducer. In this method, the mechanical coupling coefficient is introduced and defined as the stress ratio in different directions. Coupled vibration of the cylindrical transducer is regarded as the interaction of the plane radial vibration of a ring and the longitudinal vibration of a tube. For the radially polarized piezoelectric cylindrical transducer, the radial and longitudinal electric admittances as functions of mechanical coupling coefficients and angular frequencies are derived, respectively. The resonance frequency equations are obtained. The dependence of resonance frequency and mechanical coupling coefficient on aspect ratio is studied. Vibrational distributions on the surfaces of the cylindrical transducer are presented with experimental measurement. On the support of experiments, this work is verified and provides a theoretical foundation for the analysis and design of the radially polarized piezoelectric cylindrical transducer.

  13. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT-polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Wiel, H.J. van de; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2012-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical

  14. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT–polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.A.; Van de Wiel, H.J.; Groen, W.A.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2011-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical

  15. Contribution of large-sized primary sensory neuronal sensitization to mechanical allodynia by upregulation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated channels via cyclooxygenase 1 cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Yang, Fei; Wang, Yan; Fu, Han; Yang, Yan; Li, Chun-Li; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Lin, Qing; Chen, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Under physiological state, small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons are believed to mediate nociceptive behavioral responses to painful stimuli. However, recently it has been found that a number of large-sized neurons are also involved in nociceptive transmission under neuropathic conditions. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms that large-sized DRG neurons mediate nociception are poorly understood. In the present study, the role of large-sized neurons in bee venom (BV)-induced mechanical allodynia and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Behaviorally, it was found that mechanical allodynia was still evoked by BV injection in rats in which the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1-positive DRG neurons were chemically deleted. Electrophysiologically, in vitro patch clamp recordings of large-sized neurons showed hyperexcitability in these neurons. Interestingly, the firing pattern of these neurons was changed from phasic to tonic under BV-inflamed state. It has been suggested that hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated channels (HCN) expressed in large-sized DRG neurons contribute importantly to repeatedly firing. So we examined the roles of HCNs in BV-induced mechanical allodynia. Consistent with the overexpression of HCN1/2 detected by immunofluorescence, HCNs-mediated hyperpolarization activated cation current (I h ) was significantly increased in the BV treated samples. Pharmacological experiments demonstrated that the hyperexcitability and upregulation of I h in large-sized neurons were mediated by cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1)-prostaglandin E2 pathway. This is evident by the fact that the COX-1 inhibitor significantly attenuated the BV-induced mechanical allodynia. These results suggest that BV can excite the large-sized DRG neurons at least in part by increasing I h through activation of COX-1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Piezoelectrically and triboelectrically hybridized self-powered sensor with applications to smart window and human motion detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiin-Kuen Fuh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid generator, derived from the concurrent adoption of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle, called a Hybridized Self-Powered sensor (HSPS. A new integration of print circuit board (PCB technology-based piezoelectric generator (PG concurrently adopted the direct-write, near-field electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF nano/micro-fibers as piezoelectric source materials. On the other hand, triboelectric nanogenerators have the advantages of a high output performance with a simple structure which is also concurrently combined with the PG. The working mechanism of the HSPS includes the PCB-based substrate mounted with parallel aligned piezoelectric PVDF fibers in planar configuration which first bended and generated the electric potential via the effect of piezoelectricity. In what follows, the deformation of a cylindrical rolled-up piezoelectric structure is exercised, and finally, the triboelectric contact of Cu and PTFE layers is physically rubbed against each other with a separation to induce the triboelectric potential. This hybridized generator with a double domed shape design simultaneously combines piezoelectric output and triboelectric output and offers a built-in spacer with automatically spring back capability, which produces a peak output voltage of 100 V, a current of 4 μA, and a maximum power output of 450 nW. A self-powered smart window system was experimentally driven through finger-induced strain of HSPS, showing the optical properties with reversibly tunable transmittances. This research is a substantial advancement in the field of piezoelectric PVDF fibers integration toward the practical application of the whole self-powered system.

  17. Piezoelectrically and triboelectrically hybridized self-powered sensor with applications to smart window and human motion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Li, Shan-Chien; Chen, Chun-Yu

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid generator, derived from the concurrent adoption of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle, called a Hybridized Self-Powered sensor (HSPS). A new integration of print circuit board (PCB) technology-based piezoelectric generator (PG) concurrently adopted the direct-write, near-field electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nano/micro-fibers as piezoelectric source materials. On the other hand, triboelectric nanogenerators have the advantages of a high output performance with a simple structure which is also concurrently combined with the PG. The working mechanism of the HSPS includes the PCB-based substrate mounted with parallel aligned piezoelectric PVDF fibers in planar configuration which first bended and generated the electric potential via the effect of piezoelectricity. In what follows, the deformation of a cylindrical rolled-up piezoelectric structure is exercised, and finally, the triboelectric contact of Cu and PTFE layers is physically rubbed against each other with a separation to induce the triboelectric potential. This hybridized generator with a double domed shape design simultaneously combines piezoelectric output and triboelectric output and offers a built-in spacer with automatically spring back capability, which produces a peak output voltage of 100 V, a current of 4 μA, and a maximum power output of 450 nW. A self-powered smart window system was experimentally driven through finger-induced strain of HSPS, showing the optical properties with reversibly tunable transmittances. This research is a substantial advancement in the field of piezoelectric PVDF fibers integration toward the practical application of the whole self-powered system.

  18. Design of fixed frequency controlled radial-mode stacked disk-type piezoelectric transformers for DC/DC converter applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuan-Ping; Vasic, Dejan; Costa, François; Wu, Wen-Jong; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new design procedure to determine the optimal size of a piezoelectric transformer (PT) for DC/DC converter applications. We examined several parameters, which allows us to produce a piezoelectric transformer with optimal efficiency and which has an optimal range for regulating voltage. The characteristics of a piezoelectric transformer (PT) are well known when the load impedance is a pure resistor. However, when piezoelectric transformers are used in AC/DC or DC/DC converter applications, it requires the presence of a rectifier circuit block. A rectifier is usually a nonlinear device which does not act like a pure resistor. We began by modeling a full-wave rectifier directly in order to understand the design constraint variables such as the maximum mechanical current, the piezoelectric transformer configuration, and the energy balance of the PT configuration. In our final design, a stacked disk-type piezoelectric transformer with radial-mode vibration was chosen due to the large number of design parameters required. In our new design procedure, instead of just looking at the typical optimal loading condition of the PT, we used the concept of a maximum mechanical current to determine the new optimal efficiency which is suitable for voltage regulation. From our results we found that the size of the piezoelectric transformer and efficiency are trade-offs which means that they have an inverse relationship. In summary, we developed a new design procedure to determine the optimal size of a piezoelectric transformer, which we found to be small but with high efficiency so as to provide an optimal range for regulating voltage

  19. Adaptive piezoelectric sensoriactuators for active structural acoustic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipperman, Jeffrey Stuart

    1997-09-01

    A new transducer technology with application to active control systems, modal analysis, and autonomous system health monitoring, is brought to fruition in this work. It has the advantages of being lightweight, potentially cost-effective, self-tuning, has negligible dynamics, and most importantly (from a robustness perspective), it provides a colocated sensor/actuator pair. The transducer consists of a piezoceramic element which serves as both an actuator and a sensor and will be referred to in this work as a sensoriactuator. Simple, adaptive signal processing in conjunction with a voltage controlled amplifier, reference capacitor, and a common-mode rejection circuit extract the mechanical response from the total response of the piezoelectric sensoriactuator for sensing. The digital portion of the adaptive piezoelectric sensoriactuator merely serves to tune the circuit, avoiding the potentially destabilizing effects of introducing a digital delay in the signal path, when used for feedback control applications. Adaptive compensation of the sensoriactuator is necessary since the signal to noise ratio is typically greater than 40 dB, making it prohibitive to tune the circuit manually. In addition, the constitutive properties of piezoceramics vary with time and environment, necessitating that the circuit be periodically re-tuned. The analog portion of the hardware is based upon op-amp circuits and an AD632 analog multiplier chip, which serves as both a voltage controlled amplifier (VCA) and a common mode rejection (CMR) circuit. A single coefficient least-mean square (LMS) adaptive filter continuously adjusts the gain of the VCA circuit as necessary. Nonideal behavior of piezoceramics is discussed along with methods to counter the consequential deterioration in circuit performance. A multiple input multiple output (MIMO) implementation of the adaptive piezoelectric sensoriactuator is developed using orthogonal white noise training signals for each sensoriactuator. Two

  20. Study of dielectric and piezoelectric properties of CNT reinforced PZT-PVA 0-3 composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Prince; Prajapat, Rampratap; Manmeeta, Saxena, Dhiraj

    2016-05-01

    Ferroelectric ceramic/polymer composites have the compliance of polymers which overcome the problems of brittleness in ceramics. By imbedding piezoelectric ceramic powder into a polymer matrix, 0-3 composites with good mechanical properties and high dielectric breakdown strength can be developed. The obtained composites of 0-3 connectivity exhibit the piezoelectric properties of ceramics and flexibility, strength and lightness of polymer. These composites can be used in vibration sensing and transducer applications specially as piezoelectric sensors. A potential way to improve piezoelectric& dielectric properties of theses composites is by inclusion of another conductive phase in these composites as reported in the literature. In present work, we prepared PZT-PVA 0-3 composites with 60% ceramic volume fraction reinforced with CNTs with volume ranging from 0 to 1.5 vol%. These CNT reinforced composites were obtained using hot press method with thickness of 200 µm having 0-3 conductivity. These composites were poled applying DC voltage. Dielectric properties of these samples were obtained in a wide frequency range (100 Hz to 1 Mhz) at room temperature. The piezoelectric properties of these composites were analyzed by measuring piezoelectric charge constants (d33). The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of these composites were studied as a function of CNT volume content. In these reinforced composites, CNTs act as a conductive filler dispersed in the matrix which in turn facilitates poling and results in an increase of the piezoelectric properties of the composite due to formation of percolation path through the composites. With a CNT content of 0.3 vol.% in PZT/PVA/CNTs, an increase of 61.3 % was observed in piezoelectric strain factors (d33). In these CNT reinforced composites, a substantial increase (approx. 67%) was also observed in dielectric constant and approximately 89% increase was observed in dielectric loss factor. Results so obtained are in the good