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Sample records for piemonte oncology network

  1. Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN) was established in March 2015 with the goal to accelerate knowledge generation, synthesis and translation of oncologic emergency medicine research through multi-center collaborations.

  2. A local-area-network based radiation oncology microcomputer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, W.K.; Taylor, T.K.; Kumar, P.P.; Imray, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    The application of computerized technology in the medical specialty of radiation oncology has gained wide acceptance in the past decade. Recognizing that most radiation oncology department personnel are familiar with computer operations and terminology, it appears reasonable to attempt to expand the computer's applications to other departmental activities, such as scheduling, record keeping, billing, treatment regimen and status, etc. Instead of sharing the processing capability available on the existent treatment minicomputer, the radiation oncology computer system is based upon a microcomputer local area network (LAN). The system was conceptualized in 1984 and completed in March 1985. This article outlines the LAN-based radiation oncology computer system

  3. Continuous 5-fluorouracil infusion plus long acting octreotide in advanced well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. A phase II trial of the Piemonte Oncology Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizzi, Maria P; Ferretti, Benedetta; Alabiso, Oscar; Ciuffreda, Libero; Bertetto, Oscar; Papotti, Mauro; Dogliotti, Luigi; Berruti, Alfredo; Ferrero, Anna; Milanesi, Enrica; Volante, Marco; Castiglione, Federico; Birocco, Nadia; Bombaci, Sebastiano; Perroni, Davide

    2009-01-01

    Well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas are highly vascularized and may be sensitive to drugs administered on a metronomic schedule that has shown antiangiogenic properties. A phase II study was designed to test the activity of protracted 5-fluorouracil (5FU) infusion plus long-acting release (LAR) octreotide in patients with neuroendocrine carcinoma. Twenty-nine patients with metastatic or locally advanced well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma were treated with protracted 5FU intravenous infusion (200 mg/m 2 daily) plus LAR octreotide (20 mg monthly). Patients were followed for toxicity, objective response, symptomatic and biochemical response, time to progression and survival. Assessment by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria showed partial response in 7 (24.1%), stable disease in 20 (69.0%), and disease progression in 2 patients. Response did not significantly differ when patients were stratified by primary tumor site and proliferative activity. A biochemical (chromogranin A) response was observed in 12/25 assessable patients (48.0%); symptom relief was obtained in 9/15 symptomatic patients (60.0%). There was non significant decrease in circulating vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF) over time. Median time to progression was 22.6 months (range, 2.7-68.5); median overall survival was not reached yet. Toxicity was mild and manageable. Continuous/metronomic 5FU infusion plus LAR octreotide is well tolerated and shows activity in patients with well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. The potential synergism between metronomic chemotherapy and antiangiogenic drugs provides a rationale for exploring this association in the future. NCT00953394

  4. Continuous 5-fluorouracil infusion plus long acting octreotide in advanced well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. A phase II trial of the Piemonte Oncology Network

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    Ciuffreda Libero

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas are highly vascularized and may be sensitive to drugs administered on a metronomic schedule that has shown antiangiogenic properties. A phase II study was designed to test the activity of protracted 5-fluorouracil (5FU infusion plus long-acting release (LAR octreotide in patients with neuroendocrine carcinoma. Methods Twenty-nine patients with metastatic or locally advanced well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma were treated with protracted 5FU intravenous infusion (200 mg/m2 daily plus LAR octreotide (20 mg monthly. Patients were followed for toxicity, objective response, symptomatic and biochemical response, time to progression and survival. Results Assessment by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST criteria showed partial response in 7 (24.1%, stable disease in 20 (69.0%, and disease progression in 2 patients. Response did not significantly differ when patients were stratified by primary tumor site and proliferative activity. A biochemical (chromogranin A response was observed in 12/25 assessable patients (48.0%; symptom relief was obtained in 9/15 symptomatic patients (60.0%. There was non significant decrease in circulating vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF over time. Median time to progression was 22.6 months (range, 2.7-68.5; median overall survival was not reached yet. Toxicity was mild and manageable. Conclusion Continuous/metronomic 5FU infusion plus LAR octreotide is well tolerated and shows activity in patients with well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. The potential synergism between metronomic chemotherapy and antiangiogenic drugs provides a rationale for exploring this association in the future. Trial registration NCT00953394

  5. The National Cancer Institute's Physical Sciences - Oncology Network

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    Espey, Michael Graham

    In 2009, the NCI launched the Physical Sciences - Oncology Centers (PS-OC) initiative with 12 Centers (U54) funded through 2014. The current phase of the Program includes U54 funded Centers with the added feature of soliciting new Physical Science - Oncology Projects (PS-OP) U01 grant applications through 2017; see NCI PAR-15-021. The PS-OPs, individually and along with other PS-OPs and the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OCs), comprise the Physical Sciences-Oncology Network (PS-ON). The foundation of the Physical Sciences-Oncology initiative is a high-risk, high-reward program that promotes a `physical sciences perspective' of cancer and fosters the convergence of physical science and cancer research by forming transdisciplinary teams of physical scientists (e.g., physicists, mathematicians, chemists, engineers, computer scientists) and cancer researchers (e.g., cancer biologists, oncologists, pathologists) who work closely together to advance our understanding of cancer. The collaborative PS-ON structure catalyzes transformative science through increased exchange of people, ideas, and approaches. PS-ON resources are leveraged to fund Trans-Network pilot projects to enable synergy and cross-testing of experimental and/or theoretical concepts. This session will include a brief PS-ON overview followed by a strategic discussion with the APS community to exchange perspectives on the progression of trans-disciplinary physical sciences in cancer research.

  6. Personalized Network-Based Treatments in Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Xavier; Creixell, Pau; Radetskaya, Oxana

    2013-01-01

    Network medicine aims at unraveling cell signaling networks to propose personalized treatments for patients suffering from complex diseases. In this short review, we show the relevance of network medicine to cancer treatment by outlining the potential convergence points of the most recent technol...

  7. Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This paper collects some scientific research works on nuclear medicine developed in Ecuador. The main topics are: Brain metastases, computed tomography assessment; Therapeutic challenge in brain metastases, chemotherapy, surgery or radiotherapy; Neurocysticercosis and oncogenesis; Neurologic complications of radiation and chemotherapy; Cerebral perfusion gammagraphy in neurology and neurosurgery; Neuro- oncologic surgical patient anesthesic management; Pain management in neuro- oncology; Treatment of metastatic lesions of the spine, surgically decompression vs radiation therapy alone; Neuroimagining in spinal metastases

  8. Artificial neural networks for decision-making in urologic oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Theodore; Remzi, Mesut; Lykourinas, Michael; Djavan, Bob

    2003-06-01

    The authors are presenting a thorough introduction in Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and their contribution to modern Urologic Oncology. The article covers a description of Artificial Neural Network methodology and points out the differences of Artificial Intelligence to traditional statistic models in terms of serving patients and clinicians, in a different way than current statistical analysis. Since Artificial Intelligence is not yet fully understood by many practicing clinicians, the authors have reviewed a careful selection of articles in order to explore the clinical benefit of Artificial Intelligence applications in modern Urology questions and decision-making. The data are from real patients and reflect attempts to achieve more accurate diagnosis and prognosis, especially in prostate cancer that stands as a good example of difficult decision-making in everyday practice. Experience from current use of Artificial Intelligence is also being discussed, and the authors address future developments as well as potential problems such as medical record quality, precautions in using ANNs or resistance to system use, in an attempt to point out future demands and the need for common standards. The authors conclude that both methods should continue to be used in a complementary manner. ANNs still do not prove always better as to replace standard statistical analysis as the method of choice in interpreting medical data.

  9. Semantics-informed cartography: the case of Piemonte Geological Map

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    Piana, Fabrizio; Lombardo, Vincenzo; Mimmo, Dario; Giardino, Marco; Fubelli, Giandomenico

    2016-04-01

    In modern digital geological maps, namely those supported by a large geo-database and devoted to dynamical, interactive representation on WMS-WebGIS services, there is the need to provide, in an explicit form, the geological assumptions used for the design and compilation of the database of the Map, and to get a definition and/or adoption of semantic representation and taxonomies, in order to achieve a formal and interoperable representation of the geologic knowledge. These approaches are fundamental for the integration and harmonisation of geological information and services across cultural (e.g. different scientific disciplines) and/or physical barriers (e.g. administrative boundaries). Initiatives such as GeoScience Markup Language (last version is GeoSciML 4.0, 2015, http://www.geosciml.org) and the INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/Data_Specifications/INSPIRE_DataSpecification_GE_v3.0rc3.pdf (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, last version is 3.0 rc3, 2013), as well as the recent terminological shepherding of the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG) have been promoting information exchange of the geologic knowledge. Grounded on these standard vocabularies, schemas and data models, we provide a shared semantic classification of geological data referring to the study case of the synthetic digital geological map of the Piemonte region (NW Italy), named "GEOPiemonteMap", developed by the CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Torino (CNR IGG TO) and hosted as a dynamical interactive map on the geoportal of ARPA Piemonte Environmental Agency. The Piemonte Geological Map is grounded on a regional-scale geo-database consisting of some hundreds of GeologicUnits whose thousands instances (Mapped Features, polygons geometry) widely occur in Piemonte region, and each one is bounded by GeologicStructures (Mapped Features, line geometry). GeologicUnits and GeologicStructures have been spatially

  10. Experience of wireless local area network in a radiation oncology department.

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    Mandal, Abhijit; Asthana, Anupam Kumar; Aggarwal, Lalit Mohan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a wireless local area network (LAN) between different types of users (Radiation Oncologists, Radiological Physicists, Radiation Technologists, etc) for efficient patient data management and to made easy the availability of information (chair side) to improve the quality of patient care in Radiation Oncology department. We have used mobile workstations (Laptops) and stationary workstations, all equipped with wireless-fidelity (Wi-Fi) access. Wireless standard 802.11g (as recommended by Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ) has been used. The wireless networking was configured with the Service Set Identifier (SSID), Media Access Control (MAC) address filtering, and Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) network securities. We are successfully using this wireless network in sharing the indigenously developed patient information management software. The proper selection of the hardware and the software combined with a secure wireless LAN setup will lead to a more efficient and productive radiation oncology department.

  11. Encoding of Geological knowledge in the GeoPiemonte Map Data Base

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    Piana, Fabrizio; Lombardo, Vincenzo; Mimmo, Dario; Barale, Luca; Irace, Andrea; Mulazzano, Elia

    2017-04-01

    In modern digital geological maps and geo-database, namely those devoted to interactive WebGIS services, there is the need to make explicit the geological assumptions in the process of the design and compilation of the Map Geodatabase. The Geodatabase of the Piemonte Geological Map, which consists of several thousands of Geologic Units and Geologic Structures, was designed in a way suitable for linking the knowledge of the geological domain at hand to more general levels of knowledge, represented in existing Earth Sciences ontologies and in a domain ontology (OntoGeonous), specifically designed for the project, though with a wide applicability in mind. The Geologic Units and Geologic Structures of the GeoPiemonte Map have been spatially correlated through the whole region, referring to a non-formal hierarchical scheme, which gives the parental relations between several orders of Geologic Units, putting them in relations with some main Geologic Events. The scheme reports the subdivisions we did on the Alps-Apennines orogenic belt (which constitutes the Piemonte geological framework) on which the architecture of the GeoDB relied. This contribution describes how the two different knowledge levels (specific domain vs. general knowledge) are assimilated within the GeoPiemonte informative system, providing relations between the contents of the geodatabase and the encoded concepts of the reference ontologies. Initiatives such as GeoScience Markup Language (GeoSciML 4.01, 2016 (1) and INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, last version is 3.0, 2013) (2), as well as the recent terminological shepherding of the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG), provided us the authoritative standard geological source for knowledge encoding. Consistency and interoperability of geological data were thus sought, by classifying geologic features in an ontology-driven Data Model, while objects were described using GeoSciML controlled

  12. Personal identifiers in medical research networks: evaluation of the personal identifier generator in the Competence Network Paediatric Oncology and Haematology

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    Pommerening, Klaus

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Society for Paediatric Oncology and Haematology (GPOH and the corresponding Competence Network Paediatric Oncology and Haematology conduct various clinical trials. The comprehensive analysis requires reliable identification of the recruited patients. Therefore, a personal identifier (PID generator is used to assign unambiguous, pseudonymous, non-reversible PIDs to participants in those trials. We tested the matching algorithm of the PID generator using a configuration specific to the GPOH. False data was used to verify the correct processing of PID requests (functionality tests, while test data was used to evaluate the matching outcome. We also assigned PIDs to more than 44,000 data records from the German Childhood Cancer Registry (GCCR and assessed the status of the associated patient list which contains the PIDs, partly encrypted data items and information on the PID generation process for each data record. All the functionality tests showed the expected results. Neither 14,915 test data records nor the GCCR data records yielded any homonyms. Six synonyms were found in the test data, due to erroneous birth dates, and 22 synonyms were found when the GCCR data was run against the actual patient list of 2579 records. In the resulting patient list of 45,693 entries, duplicate record submissions were found for about 7% of all listed patients, while more frequent submissions occurred in less than 1% of cases. The synonym error rate depends mainly on the quality of the input data and on the frequency of multiple submissions. Depending on the requirements on maximally tolerable synonym and homonym error rates, additional measures for securing input data quality might be necessary. The results demonstrate that the PID generator is an appropriate tool for reliably identifying trial participants in medical research networks.

  13. Geodiversity action plans for the enhancement of geoheritage in the Piemonte region (north-western Italy

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    Elena Ferrero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A geoethical approach to geodiversity allows better understanding of the value of abiotic nature and enhances its conservation and development. Our basic assumption is that even during an economical crisis, geoheritage sites can serve both public and private interests. A set of nine strategic geothematic areas were chosen to represent the geodiversity of the Piemonte region, north-western Italy, each of which is characterized by great potential for scientific studies, enhancement of public understanding of science, recreational activities, and economic support to the local communities. Specialized research teams individuated critical aspects to advance our knowledge of the geological history of the Piemonte region, through climate and environmental changes, natural hazards, soil processes, and georesources. The scientific concepts and techniques were coupled with geodiffusion actions and products: not only geosites, but also museum collections, evidence of mining and quarrying activities, science exhibitions, and nature trails. The preliminary results have allowed action plans to be developed with local partners, to assess the geoheritage management requirements. A series of investigations were carried out to improve the visual representation of the geological processes and the evolutionary scenarios. Further outcomes of the project will include didactic tools for educators, schools, and the public in general.

  14. Il MUDE Piemonte - modello unico digitale per l’edilizia: un progetto organizzativo

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    Livio Mandrile

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Le tecnologie dell’informazione e della comunicazione consentono di affrontare la reingegnerizzazione dei processi amministrativi attraverso servizi informatici definiti “di cooperazione applicativa”, aprendo nuove prospettive per semplificare il rapporto fra cittadino e Pubbliche Amministrazioni e agevolare lo scambio di documenti e informazioni. Il MUDE Piemonte – modello unico digitale per l’edilizia - è un sistema informativo realizzato attraverso la collaborazione di tutti i livelli di governo del territorio regionale, che crea un archivio digitale delle pratiche edilizie presentate allo Sportello per l’Edilizia, utilizzando il mezzo telematico per l’interazione fra professionista e Pubblica Amministrazione e l’interscambio informativo fra le banche dati amministrative. Il MUDE Piemonte è un sistema che realizza un ambiente operativo di fruizione / aggiornamento della base di dati territoriali ed amministrativi ad uso di più soggetti ed enti e in costante evoluzione in ragione dell’apporto progettuale offerto da tutti gli attori coinvolti nei procedimenti autorizzativi edilizi.

  15. Gynecologic oncology training systems in europe: a report from the European network of young gynaecological oncologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gultekin, Murat; Dursun, Polat; Vranes, Boris

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to highlight some of the differences in training systems and opportunities for training in gynecologic oncology across Europe and to draw attention to steps that can be taken to improve training prospects and experiences of European trainees in gynecologic oncology....

  16. Systems Medicine in Oncology: Signaling Network Modeling and New-Generation Decision-Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Silvio; Riccardi, Giuseppe; Castagnino, Nicoletta; Tortolina, Lorenzo; Maffei, Massimo; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Nencioni, Alessio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Patrone, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Two different perspectives are the main focus of this book chapter: (1) A perspective that looks to the future, with the goal of devising rational associations of targeted inhibitors against distinct altered signaling-network pathways. This goal implies a sufficiently in-depth molecular diagnosis of the personal cancer of a given patient. A sufficiently robust and extended dynamic modeling will suggest rational combinations of the abovementioned oncoprotein inhibitors. The work toward new selective drugs, in the field of medicinal chemistry, is very intensive. Rational associations of selective drug inhibitors will become progressively a more realistic goal within the next 3-5 years. Toward the possibility of an implementation in standard oncologic structures of technologically sufficiently advanced countries, new (legal) rules probably will have to be established through a consensus process, at the level of both diagnostic and therapeutic behaviors.(2) The cancer patient of today is not the patient of 5-10 years from now. How to support the choice of the most convenient (and already clinically allowed) treatment for an individual cancer patient, as of today? We will consider the present level of artificial intelligence (AI) sophistication and the continuous feeding, updating, and integration of cancer-related new data, in AI systems. We will also report briefly about one of the most important projects in this field: IBM Watson US Cancer Centers. Allowing for a temporal shift, in the long term the two perspectives should move in the same direction, with a necessary time lag between them.

  17. Secular Trends of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: The Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta Register.

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    Chiò, Adriano; Mora, Gabriele; Moglia, Cristina; Manera, Umberto; Canosa, Antonio; Cammarosano, Stefania; Ilardi, Antonio; Bertuzzo, Davide; Bersano, Enrica; Cugnasco, Paolo; Grassano, Maurizio; Pisano, Fabrizio; Mazzini, Letizia; Calvo, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    This study reports the long-term epidemiologic trends of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) based on a prospective register. To examine the 20-year epidemiologic trends of ALS in the Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta regions of Italy. The Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta Register for ALS (PARALS) is an epidemiologic prospective register that covers 2 Italian regions (population of 4 476 931 inhabitants according to the 2011 census) from January 1, 1995, through December 31, 2014. Case ascertainment is based on multiple sources (neurologic departments, hospital discharge archives, and mortality records). Incidence rates are age and sex standardized for the Italian population of the 2011 census. Age-period-cohort (APC) analysis was performed using a Poisson regression model. The primary study outcomes were long-term incidence and prevalence rates of ALS using a prospective design and their determinants. During the study period, a total of 2702 patients (mean [SD] age at onset, 65.7 [11.1] years; 1246 [46.1%] female and 1456 [53.9%] male) received a diagnosis of ALS between 1995 and 2014, corresponding to a crude annual incidence rate of 3.03 per 100 000 population (95% CI, 2.85-3.23) and an adjusted incidence rate of 2.78 per 100 000 population (95% CI, 2.57-2.96). The age-adjusted incidence rate increased in the 2 decades of the study (1995-2004: 2.66; 95% CI, 2.50-2.83; 2005-2014: 2.89; 95% CI, 2.71-3.07; P = .04), mostly in women. The adjusted rate ratio of men to women decreased from 1.27:1 (1995-2004) to 1.17:1 (2005-2014). The analysis of deviance for the APC regression models indicated that the drift variable is relevant in explaining the variation of ALS incidence rates over time in the overall population (change in deviance, 4.6553; P = .03) and in women (change in deviance, 3.8821; P = .05) but not in men (change in deviance, 0.77215; P = .38). A total of 479 patients with ALS were alive and had not undergone tracheostomy at the prevalence day

  18. Procedure di controllo delle infezioni della ferita chirurgica nelle chirurgie generali della regione Piemonte

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    A. Castella

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduzione: le infezioni della ferita chirurgica (Surgical Site Infection=SSI presentano nelle realtà occidentali una frequenza relativa del 15 - 20% e tassi di incidenza dal 2 - 3% al 12 - 15%, in relazione alla classe di intervento. Concorrono all’insorgenza di SSI le condizioni cliniche del paziente, la durata della degenza pre operatoria, il tipo di intervento chirurgico, le pratiche assistenziali. Lo studio di queste ultime consente di individuare e analizzare quali procedure siano adottate fra quelle definite in letteratura di provata efficacia nella prevenzione delle SSI e quali siano di uso comune pur non esistendo per esse evidenza di efficacia. Obiettivo: descrivere e analizzare le procedure di controllo delle SSI messe in atto nelle chirurgie generali degli ospedali del Piemonte sotto il profilo assistenziale e ambientale.

    Materiale e metodi: lo studio prevede una settimana di osservazione nelle sale operatorie di chirurgia generale da parte di personale formato. Saranno indagati con schede appositamente strutturate: 1 tutti gli interventi, per rilevarne le caratteristiche e le misure di controllo pre e intraoperatorie rivolte al paziente; 2 i comportamenti degli operatori in sala; 3 i dati relativi al controllo ambientale. Al fine di poter confrontare oggettivamente le diverse situazioni sarà assegnato ad ogni valutazione un punteggio, sulla base delle evidenze di efficacia disponibili.

    Risultati: i dati raccolti consentiranno di evidenziare situazioni di inosservanza delle misure di controllo efficaci, disomogeneità di comportamenti fra presidi ospedalieri o intra “team” chirurgici, di avviare interventi di correzione attraverso produzione di documenti regionali e attività di formazione mirata.

  19. Development and usage of Geosites: new results from research and conservation activities in the Piemonte Region (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ghiraldi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a series of activities carried out by public institutions, whose aim is to identify possible ways of acquiring knowledge and of allowing enjoyment of the Piemonte Region’s geological heritage. The activities concern the inventory, the evaluation, the storage and the publication of information, both alphanumerical and geographical, in relation to geosites. A database accessible directly from Web and a Web-GIS application has been developed in order to supply valuable and comprehensive instruments for both, representing the results of research and promoting the knowledge of the geological heritage to a large number of people.

  20. Oncologic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, D.G.; Rubin, P.; Youker, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear medicine. Topics considered include the classification of cancers, oncologic diagnosis, brain and spinal cord neoplasms, lymph node metastases, the larynx and hypopharynx, thyroid cancer, breast cancer, esophageal cancer, bladder cancer, tumors of the skeletal system, pediatric oncology, computed tomography and radiation therapy treatment planning, and the impact of future technology on oncologic diagnosis

  1. Implementation of the Mosaic network in work flow and management of a service radiotherapy oncology; Implementacion de la red mosaiq en el flujo de trabajo y gestion de un servicio de oncologia radioterapica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Iracheta, L.; Casa de Julian, M. A. de la; Samper Ots, P.; Panas Cabrera, M. D. de las; Jimenez Gonzalez, J. M.

    2013-07-01

    The Mosaic network contains a number of powerful and versatile tools for configuring the work flow and management tailored to the needs and working methods of each Service of Radiation Oncology. (Author)

  2. Parent "cocoon" immunization to prevent pertussis-related hospitalization in infants: the case of Piemonte in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meregaglia, Michela; Ferrara, Lorenza; Melegaro, Alessia; Demicheli, Vittorio

    2013-02-06

    Pertussis incidence in Piemonte (Italy) is now at the lowest level ever reached (0.85 per 100,000 in 2010) but the disease is still endemic in infants (54 per 100,000 in 2005-2010). Parental "cocoon" immunization has been proposed in some countries (i.e. United States, France) as a measure to protect newborns from serious pertussis outcomes. We assessed the number needed to vaccinate (NNV) to prevent hospital admissions in infants (€100,000. The "cocoon" programme leads to net costs from a National Health Service (NHS) perspective (ROI<1). In contexts of low incidence and without reliable data on a high parent-attributable infant risk, the parental "cocoon" programme is poorly efficient and very resource intensive in preventing pertussis in infants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding, promoting and protecting geodiversity and geoheritage of the Piemonte region (Italy) through innovative techniques and public engagement in Earth Science studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco; Lozar, Francesca; Perotti, Luigi; Palomba, Mauro; Groppo, Chiara; Natalicchio, Marcello; Ghiraldi, Luca; Beltramo, Riccardo; Lombardo, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    The onset of Antropocene demonstrates the importance of considering both 1) geodiversity and 2) geoheritage as parts of the landscape "interfaces" where relationships between natural and socio-economic systems can be studied and interpreted. By definition: 1) is the variety, recognizable in nature ("diversity"), of geological features (rocks, minerals, fossils…), of geomorphological environments (and related forms and processes) and of soil characteristics; 2) is an integral part of the global natural heritage focusing on unique, special and representative sites of geological interests (geosites l.s.). In the Antropocene, both 1) and 2) hold a dynamic character, as the result of actions and interactions of natural and/or human factors. Therefore, geodiversity and geoheritage studies are essential for breaking down geological environments and human territories into their main parts and to understand the variables and mechanisms that control their changes. In this perspective, results of the multidisciplinary project PROGEO-Piemonte ("PROactive management of GEOlogical heritage in the Piemonte Region") are presented here: an innovative approach for assessing geodiversity in order to select areas of high potential value of geoheritage to be enhanced by targeted management actions. Since the geodiversity of Piemonte is materialized by elements of high scientific, educational, tourism, etc. value, the geosites where this geoheritage is preserved have been comprehensively analysed and characterized for encompassing both public and private interests. 9 strategic geothematic areas have been selected in the Piemonte Region to test this approach, and to improve social engagement aimed at protecting and promoting geodiversity ad geoheritage. The investigated areas represent the multifaceted geodiversity of Piemonte; each area is characterized by high potential for scientific studies, enhancement of public understanding of science, recreation activities and for economic

  4. Geodiversity, geoheritage and cultural landscape: an example from the Messinian geosites of the Piemonte region (NW-Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Enrico; Natalicchio, Marcello; Ghiraldi, Luca; Lozar, Francesca; Dela Pierre, Francesco; Giardino, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The Piemonte region (NW-Italy) contains a remarkable diversity of landscapes, some of them included in and protected by the World Heritage list, as well as some recently proposed geosites which testify the dramatic paleoevironmental, paleobiological and paleoclimatic event that occurred in the Mediterranean area around 6 Ma ago during the so-called Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). However the link between landform, geodiversity, geoheritage, and cultural landscape has not yet fully explored. The aims of this study, promoted by the multidisciplinary research project 'PROGEO-Piemonte' (PROactive management of GEOlogical heritage in the Piemonte region), are: 1) to analyse the link between geosites and recent landscape modification, 2) to reconstruct the landscape evolution and, through geotourism, 3) to promote geological knowledge in an area with great potential for tourism. The study area is located in the SE part of the Cuneo plain, at the foot of the Langhe hills, where heterogeneous landforms, mainly related to the Tanaro river piracy, are observed. The sediments recording the MSC event, mostly consisting of thick gypsum layers, have been recently studied by a multidisciplinary approach and the results allowed the detailed reconstruction of the MSC evolution in this region. Two maps have been produced to disseminate the geodiversity knowledge (the geological - landscape map) and to promote geotourism fruition (the geotouristic map). The geological - landscape map deals with different geological and geomorphologic issues thanks to illustrations of the main features of the Messinian deposits, their depositional environments and the exposed landforms. To underline the high geodiversity of the area, it has been divided into several geomorphologic sectors based of their characteristic landforms and evolution. In each of these sectors, geosites have been identified to clarify the comprehension of the related topics at the widest public: particularly, the geosites help

  5. Impiego degli Inibitori della Pompa protonica (IPP in Piemonte: indagine sulle abitudini prescrittive dei Medici di Medicina Generale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ceci

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs (Omeprazole, Lansoprazole, Pantoprazole, Rabeprazole and Esomeprazole, one of the most commonly prescribed classes of medications in the primary care setting, are considered a major advance in the treatment of acid-peptic diseases. In Italy PPIs are reimbursed by National Health Service on the basis of CUF (Commissione Unica del Farmaco 1 and 48 Notes. In 2002 and 2003 a significant increase in PPIs consumption and expenditure have been documented, showing differences between regions. The aim of this study is to investigate and monitor, at regional level, type and entity of PPIs use through a drug utilization study, evaluating prescribing behaviour and compliance of PPIs treatments with CUF Notes indications. The study has been carried out on a sample of 436 General Practitioners belonging to 22 Piemonte’s ASL (Aziende Sanitarie Locali. The data analysis shows that acid-related pathologies are significantly more common in patients with at least 50 years of age and the most frequent condition is represented by gastroesophageal reflux disease. Despite the general conditions of PPIs use by General Practitioners in terms of duration and dosage of therapy result in most cases (from 49% to 80% for duration and from 54% to 97% for dosage compliant with what proposed by CUF Notes, in some cases the same CUF Notes indications seem to be not observed. Consequently the Piemonte Region has decided to plan a guideline on PPIs rational use. Such guideline, expected to be introduced in the regional area, may also be considered as an instrument able to lead to a more appropriate expenditure for this drug class. Moreover, in order to control PPIs expenditure, pharmacoeconomic methodologies can be applied allowing to identify the most cost - effective active substance and therapeutic scheme, overcoming CUF Notes which consider all PPIs use under the same reimbursement conditions.

  6. Radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Radiation Oncology Division has had as its main objectives both to operate an academic training program and to carry out research on radiation therapy of cancer. Since fiscal year 1975, following a directive from ERDA, increased effort has been given to research. The research activities have been complemented by the training program, which has been oriented toward producing radiation oncologists, giving physicians short-term experience in radiation oncology, and teaching medical students about clinical cancer and its radiation therapy. The purpose of the research effort is to improve present modalities of radiation therapy of cancer. As in previous years, the Division has operated as the Radiation Oncology Program of the Department of Radiological Sciences of the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine. It has provided radiation oncology support to patients at the University Hospital and to academic programs of the University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus. The patients, in turn, have provided the clinical basis for the educational and research projects of the Division. Funding has been primarily from PRNC (approx. 40%) and from National Cancer Institute grants channeled through the School of Medicine (approx. 60%). Special inter-institutional relationships with the San Juan Veterans Administration Hospital and the Metropolitan Hospital in San Juan have permitted inclusion of patients from these institutions in the Division's research projects. Medical physics and radiotherapy consultations have been provided to the Radiotherapy Department of the VA Hospital

  7. A Call for New Communication Channels for Gynecological Oncology Trainees: A Survey on Social Media Use and Educational Needs by the European Network of Young Gynecological Oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Kamil; Lindemann, Kristina; Halaska, Michael J; Zapardiel, Ignacio; Laky, Rene; Chereau, Elisabeth; Lindquist, David; Polterauer, Stephan; Sukhin, Vladislav; Dursun, Polat

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess patterns in the use of social media (SM) platforms and to identify the training needs among European gynecologic oncology trainees. In 2014, a web-based survey was sent to 633 trainees from the European Network of Young Gynaecological Oncologists (ENYGO) database. The 14-item questionnaire (partially using a 1- to 5-point Likert scale) assessed respondents' use of SM and preference for workshop content and organization. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the mean scores reported for different items, and the internal reliability of the questionnaire was assessed by Cronbach α. In total, 170 ENYGO members (27%) responded to the survey. Of those, 91% said that they use SM platforms, mostly for private purposes. Twenty-three percent used SM professionally and 43% indicated that they would consider SM to be a clinical discussion forum. The respondents said that they would like updates on conferences and professional activities to be shared on SM platforms. Complication management, surgical anatomy, and state of the art in gynecologic oncology were identified as preferred workshops topics. The most frequently indicated hands-on workshops were laparoscopic techniques and surgical anatomy. Consultants attached a higher level of importance to palliative care education and communication training than trainees. The mean duration of the workshop preferred was 2 days. This report highlights the significance of ENYGO trainees' attachment to SM platforms. Most respondents expect ENYGO to use these online channels for promoting educational activities and other updates. Using SM for clinical discussion will require specific guidelines to secure professional and also consumer integrity. This survey confirms surgical management and the state of the art as important knowledge gaps, and ENYGO has tailored its activities according to these results. Future activities will further direct attention and resources to education in palliative care and

  8. Imaging Opportunities in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, James M.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Dunnick, N. Reed; Siegel, Eliot L.

    2011-01-01

    Interdisciplinary efforts may significantly affect the way that clinical knowledge and scientific research related to imaging impact the field of Radiation Oncology. This report summarizes the findings of an intersociety workshop held in October 2008, with the express purpose of exploring 'Imaging Opportunities in Radiation Oncology.' Participants from the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), American Association of physicists in Medicine (AAPM), American Board of Radiology (ABR), Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO), and Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) discussed areas of education, clinical practice, and research that bridge disciplines and potentially would lead to improved clinical practice. Findings from this workshop include recommendations for cross-training opportunities within the allowed structured of Radiology and Radiation Oncology residency programs, expanded representation of ASTRO in imaging related multidisciplinary groups (and reciprocal representation within ASTRO committees), increased attention to imaging validation and credentialing for clinical trials (e.g., through the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN)), and building ties through collaborative research as well as smaller joint workshops and symposia.

  9. Measuring the evolution and output of cross-disciplinary collaborations within the NCI Physical Sciences–Oncology Centers Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Jodi E.; Theisz, Katrina I.; Jensen, Unni S.; Jones, C. David; Ponomarev, Ilya; Sulima, Pawel; Jo, Karen; Eljanne, Mariam; Espey, Michael G.; Franca-Koh, Jonathan; Hanlon, Sean E.; Kuhn, Nastaran Z.; Nagahara, Larry A.; Schnell, Joshua D.; Moore, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Development of effective quantitative indicators and methodologies to assess the outcomes of cross-disciplinary collaborative initiatives has the potential to improve scientific program management and scientific output. This article highlights an example of a prospective evaluation that has been developed to monitor and improve progress of the National Cancer Institute Physical Sciences—Oncology Centers (PS-OC) program. Study data, including collaboration information, was captured through progress reports and compiled using the web-based analytic database: Interdisciplinary Team Reporting, Analysis, and Query Resource. Analysis of collaborations was further supported by data from the Thomson Reuters Web of Science database, MEDLINE database, and a web-based survey. Integration of novel and standard data sources was augmented by the development of automated methods to mine investigator pre-award publications, assign investigator disciplines, and distinguish cross-disciplinary publication content. The results highlight increases in cross-disciplinary authorship collaborations from pre- to post-award years among the primary investigators and confirm that a majority of cross-disciplinary collaborations have resulted in publications with cross-disciplinary content that rank in the top third of their field. With these evaluation data, PS-OC Program officials have provided ongoing feedback to participating investigators to improve center productivity and thereby facilitate a more successful initiative. Future analysis will continue to expand these methods and metrics to adapt to new advances in research evaluation and changes in the program. PMID:24808632

  10. Gli uccelli del Parco Nazionale della Val Grande e delle aree limitrofe (Verbano Cusio Ossola, Piemonte, Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Casale

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Il Parco Nazionale della Val Grande è un’area montuosa protetta sita nelle Alpi, nel Piemonte nord-orientale, Italia. L’area è stata designata quale Parco Nazionale nonché ZPS – Zona di Protezione Speciale secondo la Direttiva “Uccelli” e IBA – Important Bird Area secondo BirdLife International. L’area di studio ha una superficie di 45.873 ha che comprende il Parco Nazionale e le limitrofe Valle Intrasca, Valle Cannobina e Val Loana, i cui ambienti principali sono costituiti da vaste foreste di latifoglie e di conifere, ambienti rocciosi, brughiere, arbusteti e praterie alpine. Le cime più alte raggiungono i 2.300 m s.l.m. La maggior parte della sua superficie è selvaggia e disabitata. In questo lavoro viene riportato un elenco commentato degli uccelli noti per l’area e vengono inoltre forniti dati di sintesi relativi alle attività di monitoraggio condotte in anni recenti (2009-2014. I dati sono stati raccolti sia attraverso revisione bibliografica sia in forma originale, attraverso attività di ricerca sul campo. Queste ultime sono state condotte utilizzando i seguenti metodi: mappaggio dei territori (uccelli nidificanti degli ambienti aperti, punti d’ascolto (uccelli nidificanti, transetti lineari con uso di playback (rapaci notturni, Caprimulgus europaeus, Dryocopus martius, ricerca di campo non standardizzata in ambienti idonei alla nidificazione (Passeriformi nidificanti degli ambienti rocciosi, censimento primaverile di rapaci migratori lungo la rotta migratoria del Lago Maggiore e censimento autunnale di Passeriformi migratori attraverso i passi alpini. L’area ospita o ha ospitato 138 specie di Uccelli delle quali 97 nidificanti, 28 di interesse comunitario (Allegato I della Direttiva “Uccelli”, 42 SPEC - Species of European Conservation Concern secondo BirdLife International. L’area è di grande importanza per numerose specie di uccelli, specialmente per la nidificazione di specie di interesse

  11. A method for analyzing the business case for provider participation in the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program and similar federally funded, provider-based research networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Kristin L; Song, Paula H; Minasian, Lori; Good, Marjorie; Weiner, Bryan J; McAlearney, Ann Scheck

    2012-09-01

    The Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) plays an essential role in the efforts of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to increase enrollment in clinical trials. Currently, there is little practical guidance in the literature to assist provider organizations in analyzing the return on investment (ROI), or business case, for establishing and operating a provider-based research network (PBRN) such as the CCOP. In this article, the authors present a conceptual model of the business case for PBRN participation, a spreadsheet-based tool and advice for evaluating the business case for provider participation in a CCOP organization. A comparative, case-study approach was used to identify key components of the business case for hospitals attempting to support a CCOP research infrastructure. Semistructured interviews were conducted with providers and administrators. Key themes were identified and used to develop the financial analysis tool. Key components of the business case included CCOP start-up costs, direct revenue from the NCI CCOP grant, direct expenses required to maintain the CCOP research infrastructure, and incidental benefits, most notably downstream revenues from CCOP patients. The authors recognized the value of incidental benefits as an important contributor to the business case for CCOP participation; however, currently, this component is not calculated. The current results indicated that providing a method for documenting the business case for CCOP or other PBRN involvement will contribute to the long-term sustainability and expansion of these programs by improving providers' understanding of the financial implications of participation. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  12. Information technologies for radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, George T.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Electronic exchange of information is profoundly altering the ways in which we share clinical information on patients, our research mission, and the ways we teach. The three panelists each describe their experiences in information exchange. Dr. Michael Vannier is Professor of Radiology at the Mallinkrodt Institute of Radiology, and directs the image processing laboratory. He will provide insights into how radiologists have used the Internet in their specialty. Dr. Joel Goldwein, Associate Professor in the Department of Radiation Oncology at the University of Pennsylvania, will describe his experiences in using the World Wide Web in the practice of academic radiation oncology and the award winning Oncolink Web Site. Dr. Timothy Fox Assistant, Professor of Radiation Oncology at Emory University will discuss wide area networking of multi-site departments, to coordinate center wide clinical, research and teaching activities

  13. Validation of malayalam version of national comprehensive cancer network distress thermometer and its feasibility in oncology patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Biji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This study was designed to translate and validate the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN distress thermometer (DT in regional language " Malayalam" and to see the feasibility of using it in our patients. Aims: (1 To translate and validate the NCCN DT. (2 To study the feasibility of using validated Malayalam translated DT in Malabar Cancer center. Settings and Design: This is a single-arm prospective observational study. The study was conducted at author's institution between December 8, 2015, and January 20, 2016 in the Department of Cancer Palliative Medicine. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study carried out in two phases. In Phase 1, the linguistic validation of the NCCN DT was done. In Phase 2, the feasibility, face validity, and utility of the translated of NCCN DT in accordance with QQ-10 too was done. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc. Released 2007. SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc. was used for analysis. Results: Ten patients were enrolled in Phase 2. The median age was 51.5 years and 40% of patients were male. All patients had completed at least basic education up to the primary level. The primary site of cancer was heterogeneous. The NCCN DT completion rate was 100%. The face validity, utility, reliability, and feasibility were 100%, 100%, 100%, and 90%, respectively. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the Malayalam validated DT has high face validity, utility, and it is feasible for its use.

  14. Validation of Malayalam Version of National Comprehensive Cancer Network Distress Thermometer and its Feasibility in Oncology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biji, M S; Dessai, Sampada; Sindhu, N; Aravind, Sithara; Satheesan, B

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to translate and validate the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) distress thermometer (DT) in regional language " Malayalam" and to see the feasibility of using it in our patients. (1) To translate and validate the NCCN DT. (2) To study the feasibility of using validated Malayalam translated DT in Malabar Cancer center. This is a single-arm prospective observational study. The study was conducted at author's institution between December 8, 2015, and January 20, 2016 in the Department of Cancer Palliative Medicine. This was a prospective observational study carried out in two phases. In Phase 1, the linguistic validation of the NCCN DT was done. In Phase 2, the feasibility, face validity, and utility of the translated of NCCN DT in accordance with QQ-10 too was done. SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc. Released 2007. SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc.) was used for analysis. Ten patients were enrolled in Phase 2. The median age was 51.5 years and 40% of patients were male. All patients had completed at least basic education up to the primary level. The primary site of cancer was heterogeneous. The NCCN DT completion rate was 100%. The face validity, utility, reliability, and feasibility were 100%, 100%, 100%, and 90%, respectively. It can be concluded that the Malayalam validated DT has high face validity, utility, and it is feasible for its use.

  15. SU-F-T-237: The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC) Cooperatives Activities Supporting the NCI’s National Clinical Trial Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Galvin, J [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Newtown, PA (United States); Michalski, J [Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States); Rosen, M [University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); FitzGerald, T [University of Massachusetts Medical School, Lincoln, RI (United States); Knopp, M [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC) Cooperative has been active for the past two years supporting the National Clinical Trial Network and the details of that support are reported. Methods: There are six QA centers (Houston, Ohio, Philadelphia-RT, Philadelphia-DI, Rhode Island, St. Louis) providing an integrated RT and DI quality control program in support of the NCI’s clinical trials. The QA Center’s efforts are focused on assuring high quality data for clinical trials designed to improve the clinical outcomes for cancer patients worldwide. This program is administered through five core services: site qualification, trial design support, credentialing, data management, and case review. Results: IROC currently provides core support for 172 NCTN trials with RT, DI and RT/DI components. Many of these trials were legacy trial from the previous cooperative group program. IROC monitors nearly 1800 RT photon and 20 proton institutions. Over 28,000 beams outputs were monitored with 8% of the sites requiring repeat audits due to beam out of criteria. As part of credentialing, 950 QA phantoms have been irradiated, 515 imaging modalities evaluated and almost 4000 credentialing letters have been issued. In just year 2, 5290 RT and 4934 DI patient datasets were received (many using TRIAD) by IROC QA Centers to be prepared for review. During the past 2 years, a total of 6300 RT cases and 19,000 DI image sets were reviewed by IROC technical staff. To date, IROC has published 36 manuscripts. Conclusion: The QA services provided by IROC are numerous and are continually being evaluated for effectiveness, harmonized across all NCTN Groups and administered in an efficient and timely manner to enhance accurate and per protocol trial data submission. These efforts increase each NCTN Group’s ability to derive meaningful outcomes from their clinical trials. This work was supported by DHHS NIH grant 5U24CA180803.

  16. Evaluating application of the National Healthcare Safety Network central line-associated bloodstream infection surveillance definition: a survey of pediatric intensive care and hematology/oncology units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Aditya H; Miller, Marlene R; Gao, Cuilan; Rosenberg, Carol; Morrell, Gloria C; Coffin, Susan E; Huskins, W Charles

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the application of the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) definition in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and pediatric hematology/oncology units (PHOUs) participating in a multicenter quality improvement collaborative to reduce CLABSIs; to identify sources of variability in the application of the definition. Online survey using 18 standardized case scenarios. Each described a positive blood culture in a patient and required a yes- or-no answer to the question "Is this a CLABSI?" NHSN staff responses were the reference standard. Sixty-five US PICUs and PHOUs. Staff who routinely adjudicate CLABSIs using NHSN definitions. Sixty responses were received from 58 (89%) of 65 institutions; 78% of respondents were infection preventionists, infection control officers, or infectious disease physicians. Responses matched those of NHSN staff for 78% of questions. The mean (SE) percentage of concurring answers did not differ for scenarios evaluating application of 1 of the 3 criteria ("known pathogen," 78% [1.7%]; "skin contaminant, >1 year of age," 76% [SE, 2.5%]; "skin contaminant, ≤1 year of age," 81% [3.8%]; [Formula: see text]). The mean percentage of concurring answers was lower for scenarios requiring respondents to determine whether a CLABSI was present or incubating on admission (64% [4.6%]; [Formula: see text]) or to distinguish between primary and secondary bacteremia (65% [2.5%]; [Formula: see text]). The accuracy of application of the CLABSI definition was suboptimal. Efforts to reduce variability in identifying CLABSIs that are present or incubating on admission and in distinguishing primary from secondary bloodstream infection are needed.

  17. Neuro-Oncology Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BTTC are experts in their respective fields. Neuro-Oncology Clinical Fellowship This is a joint program with ... can increase survival rates. Learn more... The Neuro-Oncology Branch welcomes Dr. Mark Gilbert as new Branch ...

  18. Nanotechnology in Radiation Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrew Z.; Tepper, Joel E.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on atomic and molecular scales, is a relatively new branch of science. It has already made a significant impact on clinical medicine, especially in oncology. Nanomaterial has several characteristics that are ideal for oncology applications, including preferential accumulation in tumors, low distribution in normal tissues, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and clearance, that differ from those of small molecules. Because these properties are also well suited for applications in radiation oncology, nanomaterials have been used in many different areas of radiation oncology for imaging and treatment planning, as well as for radiosensitization to improve the therapeutic ratio. In this article, we review the unique properties of nanomaterials that are favorable for oncology applications and examine the various applications of nanotechnology in radiation oncology. We also discuss the future directions of nanotechnology within the context of radiation oncology. PMID:25113769

  19. Guidelines on oncologic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The present issue of European Journal of Radiology is devoted to guidelines on oncologic imaging. 9 experts on imaging in suspected or evident oncologic disease have compiled a broad survey on strategies as well as techniques on oncologic imaging. The group gives advice for detecting tumours at specific tumour sites and use modern literature to emphasize their recommendations. All recommendations are short, comprehensive and authoritative. (orig./MG)

  20. Career opportunities in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, L

    Oncology nursing offers nurses a wide range of opportunities. Nurses need a wide range of skills in order to care for patients who may have acute oncological illnesses or require palliative care. The nature of the nurse/patient relationship can be intense. Nurses generally find this enhances job satisfaction. The pressures exerted on nurses working in oncology can be immense. Oncology nursing is rewarding but very demanding and therefore the nurse has to be resourceful. Early career planning is advisable to take advantage of the opportunities that are currently available.

  1. Acute oncological emergencies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gabriel, J

    2012-01-01

    The number of people receiving systemic anti-cancer treatment and presenting at emergency departments with treatment-related problems is rising. Nurses will be the first point of contact for most patients and need to be able to recognise oncological emergencies to initiate urgent assessment of patients and referral to the acute oncology team so that the most appropriate care can be delivered promptly. This article discusses the role of acute oncology services, and provides an overview of the most common acute oncological emergencies.

  2. Basic radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyzadeoglu, M. M.; Ebruli, C.

    2008-01-01

    Basic Radiation Oncology is an all-in-one book. It is an up-to-date bedside oriented book integrating the radiation physics, radiobiology and clinical radiation oncology. It includes the essentials of all aspects of radiation oncology with more than 300 practical illustrations, black and white and color figures. The layout and presentation is very practical and enriched with many pearl boxes. Key studies particularly randomized ones are also included at the end of each clinical chapter. Basic knowledge of all high-tech radiation teletherapy units such as tomotherapy, cyberknife, and proton therapy are also given. The first 2 sections review concepts that are crucial in radiation physics and radiobiology. The remaining 11 chapters describe treatment regimens for main cancer sites and tumor types. Basic Radiation Oncology will greatly help meeting the needs for a practical and bedside oriented oncology book for residents, fellows, and clinicians of Radiation, Medical and Surgical Oncology as well as medical students, physicians and medical physicists interested in Clinical Oncology. English Edition of the book Temel Radyasyon Onkolojisi is being published by Springer Heidelberg this year with updated 2009 AJCC Staging as Basic Radiation Oncology

  3. Cancer Patients and Oncology Nursing: Perspectives of Oncology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Aim: Burnout and exhaustion is a frequent problem in oncology nursing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the aspects of oncology nurses about their profession in order to enhance the standards of oncology nursing. Materials and Methods: This survey was conducted with 70 oncology nurses working at ...

  4. Oncology Advanced Practitioners Bring Advanced Community Oncology Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Wendy H

    2016-01-01

    Oncology care is becoming increasingly complex. The interprofessional team concept of care is necessary to meet projected oncology professional shortages, as well as to provide superior oncology care. The oncology advanced practitioner (AP) is a licensed health care professional who has completed advanced training in nursing or pharmacy or has completed training as a physician assistant. Oncology APs increase practice productivity and efficiency. Proven to be cost effective, APs may perform varied roles in an oncology practice. Integrating an AP into an oncology practice requires forethought given to the type of collaborative model desired, role expectations, scheduling, training, and mentoring.

  5. Psychosocial Issues in Pediatric Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial oncology, a relatively new discipline, is a multidisciplinary application of the behavioral and social sciences, and pediatric psychosocial oncology is an emerging subspecialty within the domain of psychosocial oncology. This review presents a brief overview of some of the major clinical issues surrounding pediatric psychosocial oncology. PMID:23049457

  6. Metabolic complications in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sycova-Mila, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, a lot of space and time is devoted to the therapy of oncologic diseases itself. To reach the good therapy results, complex care of the oncologic patient is needed. Management of complications linked with the disease itself and management of complications emerged after administration of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or targeted therapy, plays a significant role. In addition to infectious, hematological, neurological, cardiac or other complications, metabolic complications are relatively extensive and serious. One of the most frequent metabolic complications in oncology is tumor lysis syndrome, hyperuricemia, hypercalcaemia and syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. (author)

  7. 76 FR 61713 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ...] Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food... of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee. General... adult oncology indication, or in late stage development in pediatric patients with cancer. The...

  8. Innovations in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    The series 'Medical Radiology - Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Oncology' is the successor to the well known 'Encyclopedia of Medical Radiology/Handbuch der medizinischen Radiologie'. 'Medical Radiology' brings the state of the art on special topics in a timely fashion. This volume 'Innovation in Radiation Oncology', edited by H.R. Withers and L.J. Peters, presents data on the development of new therapeutic strategies in different oncologic diseases. 57 authors wrote 32 chapters covering a braod range of topics. The contributors have written their chapters with the practicing radiation oncologist in mind. The first chapter sets the stage by reviewing the quality of radiation oncology as it is practiced in the majority of radiation oncology centers in the United States. The second chapter examines how we may better predict the possible causes of failure of conventional radiotherapy in order that the most appropriate of a variety of therapeutic options may eventually be offered to patients on an individual basis. The third chapter discussed how our therapeutic endeavors affect the quality of life, a problem created by our ability to be successful. Following these three introductory chapters there are 29 chapters by highly qualified specialists discussing the newest ideas in subjects of concern to the practicing radiation oncologist. With 111 figs

  9. Pediatric nuclear oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howman Giles, R.; Bernard, E.; Uren, R.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear medicine plays an important and increasing role in the management of childhood malignancy. This is particularly true in the solid tumours of childhood. It is also helpful in the management of the complications of cancer treatment such as the infections which often accompany immune suppression in oncology patients. Scintigraphy is a complementary investigation to other radiological techniques and adds the functional dimension to anatomical investigations such as CT, MRI and ultrasound. In selected malignancies radionuclides are also used in treatment. This review discusses the technical considerations relating to children and the specific techniques relating to pediatric oncology. Specific tumours and the various applications of radionuclides are discussed in particular lymphoma, primary bone tumours, soft tissue sarcomas, neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumour, brain tumours and leukemia. Uncommon tumours are also discussed and how radionuclides are useful in the investigation of various complications which occur in oncology patients

  10. Female Representation in the Academic Oncology Physician Workforce: Radiation Oncology Losing Ground to Hematology Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Awad A. [Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center University of Miami Health System, Miami, Florida (United States); Hwang, Wei-Ting [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Holliday, Emma B. [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chapman, Christina H.; Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Thomas, Charles R. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Deville, Curtiland, E-mail: cdeville@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: Our purpose was to assess comparative female representation trends for trainees and full-time faculty in the academic radiation oncology and hematology oncology workforce of the United States over 3 decades. Methods and Materials: Simple linear regression models with year as the independent variable were used to determine changes in female percentage representation per year and associated 95% confidence intervals for trainees and full-time faculty in each specialty. Results: Peak representation was 48.4% (801/1654) in 2013 for hematology oncology trainees, 39.0% (585/1499) in 2014 for hematology oncology full-time faculty, 34.8% (202/581) in 2007 for radiation oncology trainees, and 27.7% (439/1584) in 2015 for radiation oncology full-time faculty. Representation significantly increased for trainees and full-time faculty in both specialties at approximately 1% per year for hematology oncology trainees and full-time faculty and 0.3% per year for radiation oncology trainees and full-time faculty. Compared with radiation oncology, the rates were 3.84 and 2.94 times greater for hematology oncology trainees and full-time faculty, respectively. Conclusion: Despite increased female trainee and full-time faculty representation over time in the academic oncology physician workforce, radiation oncology is lagging behind hematology oncology, with trainees declining in recent years in radiation oncology; this suggests a de facto ceiling in female representation. Whether such issues as delayed or insufficient exposure, inadequate mentorship, or specialty competitiveness disparately affect female representation in radiation oncology compared to hematology oncology are underexplored and require continued investigation to ensure that the future oncologic physician workforce reflects the diversity of the population it serves.

  11. Female Representation in the Academic Oncology Physician Workforce: Radiation Oncology Losing Ground to Hematology Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Awad A.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Holliday, Emma B.; Chapman, Christina H.; Jagsi, Reshma; Thomas, Charles R.; Deville, Curtiland

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Our purpose was to assess comparative female representation trends for trainees and full-time faculty in the academic radiation oncology and hematology oncology workforce of the United States over 3 decades. Methods and Materials: Simple linear regression models with year as the independent variable were used to determine changes in female percentage representation per year and associated 95% confidence intervals for trainees and full-time faculty in each specialty. Results: Peak representation was 48.4% (801/1654) in 2013 for hematology oncology trainees, 39.0% (585/1499) in 2014 for hematology oncology full-time faculty, 34.8% (202/581) in 2007 for radiation oncology trainees, and 27.7% (439/1584) in 2015 for radiation oncology full-time faculty. Representation significantly increased for trainees and full-time faculty in both specialties at approximately 1% per year for hematology oncology trainees and full-time faculty and 0.3% per year for radiation oncology trainees and full-time faculty. Compared with radiation oncology, the rates were 3.84 and 2.94 times greater for hematology oncology trainees and full-time faculty, respectively. Conclusion: Despite increased female trainee and full-time faculty representation over time in the academic oncology physician workforce, radiation oncology is lagging behind hematology oncology, with trainees declining in recent years in radiation oncology; this suggests a de facto ceiling in female representation. Whether such issues as delayed or insufficient exposure, inadequate mentorship, or specialty competitiveness disparately affect female representation in radiation oncology compared to hematology oncology are underexplored and require continued investigation to ensure that the future oncologic physician workforce reflects the diversity of the population it serves.

  12. Female Representation in the Academic Oncology Physician Workforce: Radiation Oncology Losing Ground to Hematology Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Awad A; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Holliday, Emma B; Chapman, Christina H; Jagsi, Reshma; Thomas, Charles R; Deville, Curtiland

    2017-05-01

    Our purpose was to assess comparative female representation trends for trainees and full-time faculty in the academic radiation oncology and hematology oncology workforce of the United States over 3 decades. Simple linear regression models with year as the independent variable were used to determine changes in female percentage representation per year and associated 95% confidence intervals for trainees and full-time faculty in each specialty. Peak representation was 48.4% (801/1654) in 2013 for hematology oncology trainees, 39.0% (585/1499) in 2014 for hematology oncology full-time faculty, 34.8% (202/581) in 2007 for radiation oncology trainees, and 27.7% (439/1584) in 2015 for radiation oncology full-time faculty. Representation significantly increased for trainees and full-time faculty in both specialties at approximately 1% per year for hematology oncology trainees and full-time faculty and 0.3% per year for radiation oncology trainees and full-time faculty. Compared with radiation oncology, the rates were 3.84 and 2.94 times greater for hematology oncology trainees and full-time faculty, respectively. Despite increased female trainee and full-time faculty representation over time in the academic oncology physician workforce, radiation oncology is lagging behind hematology oncology, with trainees declining in recent years in radiation oncology; this suggests a de facto ceiling in female representation. Whether such issues as delayed or insufficient exposure, inadequate mentorship, or specialty competitiveness disparately affect female representation in radiation oncology compared to hematology oncology are underexplored and require continued investigation to ensure that the future oncologic physician workforce reflects the diversity of the population it serves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictors of Patient Satisfaction in Pediatric Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Josh; Burrows, James F; Ben Khallouq, Bertha; Rosen, Paul

    To understand key drivers of patient satisfaction in pediatric hematology/oncology. The "top-box" scores of patient satisfaction surveys from 4 pediatric hematology/oncology practices were collected from 2012 to 2014 at an integrated Children's Health Network. One item, "Likelihood of recommending practice," was used as the surrogate for overall patient satisfaction, and all other items were correlated to this item. A total of 1244 satisfaction surveys were included in this analysis. The most important predictors of overall patient satisfaction were cheerfulness of practice ( r = .69), wait time ( r = .60), and staff working together ( r = .60). The lowest scoring items were getting clinic on phone, information about delays, and wait time at clinic. Families bringing their children for outpatient care in a hematology/oncology practice want to experience a cheerful and collaborative medical team. Wait time at clinic may be a key driver in the overall experience for families with children with cancer. Future work should be directed at using this evidence to drive patient experience improvement processes in pediatric hematology/oncology.

  14. Do Women With Breast Cancer Who Choose Adjunctive Integrative Oncology Care Receive Different Standard Oncologic Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standish, Leanna J; Dowd, Fred; Sweet, Erin; Dale, Linda; Andersen, M Robyn

    2018-04-01

    To determine if women with breast cancer who choose adjunctive naturopathic oncology (NO) specialty care receive different standard oncologic treatment when compared with breast cancer patients who receive only standard care. Women with breast cancer stages 0 to 4, aged 18+ who spoke English and sought care from outpatient naturopathic doctor clinics were enrolled in an observational study of clinical and quality of life outcomes. Women who sought NO care 2 or more times within the first 2 years postdiagnosis were identified as NO cases. A matched comparison group of breast cancer patients were identified using the Western Washington Cancer Surveillance System(CSS). A longitudinal cohort design. In addition to self-report data, the CSS provided data on demographics, stage at the time of diagnosis, and initial treatment. Oncology medical records were abstracted in order to provide additional information on standard oncologic treatment for all participants. Cohorts were well matched with regard to demographic, histologic, and prognostic indicators at the time of diagnosis. Approximately 70% of women in both cohorts received standard oncologic care that met the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. There were no statistically significant differences between the cohorts in treatment received. Fewer women in the NO cohort with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer appear to have received antiestrogen therapy. Women in both cohorts appear to receive guideline-concordant care. However, women who receive adjunctive NO care may be less likely to receive antiestrogen therapy.

  15. Quality Assessment in Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Jeffrey M.; Das, Prajnan

    2012-01-01

    The movement to improve healthcare quality has led to a need for carefully designed quality indicators that accurately reflect the quality of care. Many different measures have been proposed and continue to be developed by governmental agencies and accrediting bodies. However, given the inherent differences in the delivery of care among medical specialties, the same indicators will not be valid across all of them. Specifically, oncology is a field in which it can be difficult to develop quality indicators, because the effectiveness of an oncologic intervention is often not immediately apparent, and the multidisciplinary nature of the field necessarily involves many different specialties. Existing and emerging comparative effectiveness data are helping to guide evidence-based practice, and the increasing availability of these data provides the opportunity to identify key structure and process measures that predict for quality outcomes. The increasing emphasis on quality and efficiency will continue to compel the medical profession to identify appropriate quality measures to facilitate quality improvement efforts and to guide accreditation, credentialing, and reimbursement. Given the wide-reaching implications of quality metrics, it is essential that they be developed and implemented with scientific rigor. The aims of the present report were to review the current state of quality assessment in oncology, identify existing indicators with the best evidence to support their implementation, and propose a framework for identifying and refining measures most indicative of true quality in oncologic care.

  16. Quality Assessment in Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Jeffrey M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Das, Prajnan, E-mail: prajdas@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The movement to improve healthcare quality has led to a need for carefully designed quality indicators that accurately reflect the quality of care. Many different measures have been proposed and continue to be developed by governmental agencies and accrediting bodies. However, given the inherent differences in the delivery of care among medical specialties, the same indicators will not be valid across all of them. Specifically, oncology is a field in which it can be difficult to develop quality indicators, because the effectiveness of an oncologic intervention is often not immediately apparent, and the multidisciplinary nature of the field necessarily involves many different specialties. Existing and emerging comparative effectiveness data are helping to guide evidence-based practice, and the increasing availability of these data provides the opportunity to identify key structure and process measures that predict for quality outcomes. The increasing emphasis on quality and efficiency will continue to compel the medical profession to identify appropriate quality measures to facilitate quality improvement efforts and to guide accreditation, credentialing, and reimbursement. Given the wide-reaching implications of quality metrics, it is essential that they be developed and implemented with scientific rigor. The aims of the present report were to review the current state of quality assessment in oncology, identify existing indicators with the best evidence to support their implementation, and propose a framework for identifying and refining measures most indicative of true quality in oncologic care.

  17. Nanomedicine in veterinary oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Yin; Rodriguez, Carlos O; Li, Yuanpei

    2015-08-01

    Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines medicine, engineering, chemistry, biology and material sciences to improve disease management and can be especially valuable in oncology. Nanoparticle-based agents that possess functions such as tumor targeting, imaging and therapy are currently under intensive investigation. This review introduces the basic concept of nanomedicine and the classification of nanoparticles. Because of their favorable pharmacokinetics, tumor targeting properties, and resulting superior efficacy and toxicity profiles, nanoparticle-based agents can overcome several limitations associated with conventional diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in veterinary oncology. The two most important tumor targeting mechanisms (passive and active tumor targeting) and their dominating factors (i.e. shape, charge, size and nanoparticle surface display) are discussed. The review summarizes published clinical and preclinical studies that utilize different nanoformulations in veterinary oncology, as well as the application of nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and imaging. The toxicology of various nanoformulations is also considered. Given the benefits of nanoformulations demonstrated in human medicine, nanoformulated drugs are likely to gain more traction in veterinary oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Molecular imaging in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, Otmar; Riemann, Burkhard (eds.) [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2013-02-01

    Considers in detail all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. Examines technological issues and probe design. Discusses preclinical studies in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. Presents current clinical use of PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and optical imagingWritten by acknowledged experts. The impact of molecular imaging on diagnostics, therapy, and follow-up in oncology is increasing significantly. The process of molecular imaging includes key biotarget identification, design of specific molecular imaging probes, and their preclinical evaluation, e.g., in vivo using small animal studies. A multitude of such innovative molecular imaging probes have already entered clinical diagnostics in oncology. There is no doubt that in future the emphasis will be on multimodality imaging in which morphological, functional, and molecular imaging techniques are combined in a single clinical investigation that will optimize diagnostic processes. This handbook addresses all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. The first section is devoted to technology and probe design, and examines a variety of PET and SPECT tracers as well as multimodality probes. Preclinical studies are then discussed in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. In the third section, diverse clinical applications are presented, and the book closes by looking at future challenges. This handbook will be of value to all who are interested in the revolution in diagnostic oncology that is being brought about by molecular imaging.

  19. Molecular imaging in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, Otmar; Riemann, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    Considers in detail all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. Examines technological issues and probe design. Discusses preclinical studies in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. Presents current clinical use of PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and optical imagingWritten by acknowledged experts. The impact of molecular imaging on diagnostics, therapy, and follow-up in oncology is increasing significantly. The process of molecular imaging includes key biotarget identification, design of specific molecular imaging probes, and their preclinical evaluation, e.g., in vivo using small animal studies. A multitude of such innovative molecular imaging probes have already entered clinical diagnostics in oncology. There is no doubt that in future the emphasis will be on multimodality imaging in which morphological, functional, and molecular imaging techniques are combined in a single clinical investigation that will optimize diagnostic processes. This handbook addresses all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. The first section is devoted to technology and probe design, and examines a variety of PET and SPECT tracers as well as multimodality probes. Preclinical studies are then discussed in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. In the third section, diverse clinical applications are presented, and the book closes by looking at future challenges. This handbook will be of value to all who are interested in the revolution in diagnostic oncology that is being brought about by molecular imaging.

  20. Use of electronic medical records in oncology outcomes research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gena Kanas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Gena Kanas1, Libby Morimoto1, Fionna Mowat1, Cynthia O’Malley2, Jon Fryzek3, Robert Nordyke21Exponent, Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA; 2Amgen, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA; 3MedImmune, Gaithersburg, MD, USAAbstract: Oncology outcomes research could benefit from the use of an oncology-specific electronic medical record (EMR network. The benefits and challenges of using EMR in general health research have been investigated; however, the utility of EMR for oncology outcomes research has not been explored. Compared to current available oncology databases and registries, an oncology-specific EMR could provide comprehensive and accurate information on clinical diagnoses, personal and medical histories, planned and actual treatment regimens, and post-treatment outcomes, to address research questions from patients, policy makers, the pharmaceutical industry, and clinicians/researchers. Specific challenges related to structural (eg, interoperability, data format/entry, clinical (eg, maintenance and continuity of records, variety of coding schemes, and research-related (eg, missing data, generalizability, privacy issues must be addressed when building an oncology-specific EMR system. Researchers should engage with medical professional groups to guide development of EMR systems that would ultimately help improve the quality of cancer care through oncology outcomes research.Keywords: medical informatics, health care, policy, outcomes

  1. «Ad faciendum et distrenpandum colores». Giorgio da Firenze e la pittura murale a olio in Piemonte nel Trecento / «Ad faciendum et distrenpandum colores». Giorgio da Firenze and the oil mural painting in Piemonte in the 14th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Oderzo Gabrieli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Il periferico Piemonte ospita dalla fine del Settecento un erudito dibattito su di una serie di documenti che testimoniano l’uso dell’olio in pittura murale da parte di un pittore toscano, Giorgio degli Agli, artista di corte dei Savoia tra il 1314 ed il 1348. L’analisi dei ricettari e dei trattati di tecnica artistica medievale rivela quanto fosse nota la possibilità di una pittura a olio o totalmente a tempera su muro, dalla Schedula di Teophilus fino al Manoscritto di Strasburgo. I documenti d’archivio inglesi trecenteschi confermano le quantità e i prezzi pagati nelle attestazioni piemontesi, sia per i pigmenti che per i leganti, dove uova, colla e olio sono ad faciendum et distrenpandum colores. Recenti campagne analitiche infine hanno permesso di riconoscere la presenza di leganti di natura organica tra i diversi strati della pellicola pittorica, rivelando una tradizione tecnica tutta oltralpina (a partire dal cantiere assisiate; fra questi, Jean de Grandson, collaboratore e allievo di Giorgio, nel ciclo della Camera Domini del Castello di Chillon (1342-1343 dipinge su muro proprio come se si trattasse di una tavola.   To the late eighteenth century, the peripheral Piedmont hosts a scholarly debate on a series of documents which demonstrate the use of oil in mural painting by a Tuscan painter, Giorgio degli Agli, court artist of the Savoy between 1314 and 1348. The analysis of medieval technique treaties reveals how was known the use of oil or tempera on wall painting, from the Schedule of Theophilus to the Manuscript in Strasbourg. The English fourteenth archive documents confirm the quantities and prices paid claims in Piedmont, both for the pigments to the medium, where eggs, glue and oil are used at faciendum et distrenpandum colores. Recent analytical campaigns finally made it possible to recognize the presence of organic media between the different film layers of paintings, revealing a whole transalpine technical tradition

  2. Pet in Clinical oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsche, A.; Grossman, G.; Santana, M.; Santana, C.; Halkar, R.; Garcia, E.

    2003-01-01

    The utility of the PET (positron emission tomography in clinical oncology has been recognized for more than two decades, locating it as a sensible technique for the diagnosis and the prognosis stratification of the oncology patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the PET in comparation to other image studies have demonstrated to be greater. For some years, there was a restriction of PET because of the high cost of the equipment and the cyclotrons. Nevertheless, the relation of cost/benefits is considered as a priority as this technique offers important clinical information. In this article the results observed when using it in diverse types of cancer, as well as the effectiveness shown in the pre-operating evaluation, the evaluation of residual disease, diagnosis of recurrences, pursuit and prognosis stratification of the patients with cancer. (The author)

  3. Quality in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlicki, Todd; Mundt, Arno J.

    2007-01-01

    A modern approach to quality was developed in the United States at Bell Telephone Laboratories during the first part of the 20th century. Over the years, those quality techniques have been adopted and extended by almost every industry. Medicine in general and radiation oncology in particular have been slow to adopt modern quality techniques. This work contains a brief description of the history of research on quality that led to the development of organization-wide quality programs such as Six Sigma. The aim is to discuss the current approach to quality in radiation oncology as well as where quality should be in the future. A strategy is suggested with the goal to provide a threshold improvement in quality over the next 10 years

  4. Pediatric oncologic endosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Yoon Jung; Goedecke, Jan; Muensterer, Oliver J

    2017-08-01

    Despite increasing popularity of minimal-invasive techniques in the pediatric population, their use in diagnosis and management of pediatric malignancy is still debated. Moreover, there is limited evidence to clarify this controversy due to low incidence of each individual type of pediatric tumor, huge diversity of the disease entity, heterogeneity of surgical technique, and lack of well-designed studies on pediatric oncologic minimal-invasive surgery. However, a rapid development of medical instruments and technologies accelerated the current trend toward less invasive surgery, including oncologic endosurgery. The aim of this article is to review current literatures about the application of the minimal-invasive approach for pediatric tumors and to give an overview of the current status, indications, individual techniques, and future perspectives.

  5. Oncology PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inubushi, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    At the beginning of this article, likening medical images to 'Where is Waldo?' I indicate the concept of diagnostic process of PET/CT imaging, so that medical physics specialists could understand the role of each imaging modality and infer our distress for image diagnosis. Then, I state the present situation of PET imaging and the basics (e.g. health insurance coverage, clinical significance, principle, protocol, and pitfall) of oncology FDG-PET imaging which accounts for more than 99% of all clinical PET examinations in Japan. Finally, I would like to give a wishful prospect of oncology PET that will expand to be more cancer-specific in order to assess therapeutic effects of emerging molecular targeted drugs targeting the 'hallmarks of cancer'. (author)

  6. Pediatric oncology in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jereb, B; Anzic, J

    1996-01-01

    Slovenia, a new country and formerly a part of Yugoslavia, has had its Childrens Hospital in Ljubljana since 1865. This became a part of the University Hospital in 1945, and in the early 1960s the Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology was established. The Oncological Institute of Slovenia was established in 1938 and has developed into a modern facility for comprehensive cancer care, research, and teaching. In close cooperation, established in the 1960s, a team from these two institutions takes care of the approximately 60 children per year who develop cancer in Slovenia. Consisting of pediatricians, radiation oncologists, pathologists, cytologists, surgeons, and other ad hoc specialists, the team meets at least twice weekly to plan treatment, follow the patients, discuss the results, and teach. All patients are subject to regular follow-up indefinitely. A separate team has been formed to study the late effects of cancer treatment on survivors, who by now are mostly adults.

  7. Neurologic complications in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pace

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurologic side effects related to cancer therapy are a common problem in oncology practice. These complications can negatively affect the management of the patient, because they can inhibit treatment and diminish quality of life. Therefore specific skills are required to recognise symptoms and clinical manifestations. This review focuses on the most common neurologic complications to improve physician’s familiarity in determining the aetiology of these symptoms.

  8. Integrative oncology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gary; Cassileth, Barrie

    2014-01-01

    Integrative oncology, the diagnosis-specific field of integrative medicine, addresses symptom control with nonpharmacologic therapies. Known commonly as "complementary therapies" these are evidence-based adjuncts to mainstream care that effectively control physical and emotional symptoms, enhance physical and emotional strength, and provide patients with skills enabling them to help themselves throughout and following mainstream cancer treatment. Integrative or complementary therapies are rational and noninvasive. They have been subjected to study to determine their value, to document the problems they ameliorate, and to define the circumstances under which such therapies are beneficial. Conversely, "alternative" therapies typically are promoted literally as such; as actual antitumor treatments. They lack biologic plausibility and scientific evidence of safety and efficacy. Many are outright fraudulent. Conflating these two very different categories by use of the convenient acronym "CAM," for "complementary and alternative therapies," confuses the issue and does a substantial disservice to patients and medical professionals. Complementary and integrative modalities have demonstrated safety value and benefits. If the same were true for "alternatives," they would not be "alternatives." Rather, they would become part of mainstream cancer care. This manuscript explores the medical and sociocultural context of interest in integrative oncology as well as in "alternative" therapies, reviews commonly-asked patient questions, summarizes research results in both categories, and offers recommendations to help guide patients and family members through what is often a difficult maze. Combining complementary therapies with mainstream oncology care to address patients' physical, psychologic and spiritual needs constitutes the practice of integrative oncology. By recommending nonpharmacologic modalities that reduce symptom burden and improve quality of life, physicians also enable

  9. Oncological image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sir Michael; Highnam, Ralph; Irving, Benjamin; Schnabel, Julia A

    2016-10-01

    Cancer is one of the world's major healthcare challenges and, as such, an important application of medical image analysis. After a brief introduction to cancer, we summarise some of the major developments in oncological image analysis over the past 20 years, but concentrating those in the authors' laboratories, and then outline opportunities and challenges for the next decade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunoscintigraphy in gynecological oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pateisky, N.

    1987-01-01

    Immunologic and radionuclide methods are used increasingly in diagnostics and therapy. This applies especially to problems of malignant diseases. Tumor localization diagnosis has gained much from immunoscintigraphy, a non-invasive method combining immunologic and nuclear medicine techniques. Activated monoclonal antibodies against tumorous antigens make it possible to show malignant tumors scintigraphically. An introduction is given to the technique as well as first results of applying immunoscintigraphy to gynecological oncology. (author)

  11. Encyclopedia of radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Luther W. [Drexel Univ. College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Yaeger, Theodore E. (eds.) [Wake Forest Univ. School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2013-02-01

    The simple A to Z format provides easy access to relevant information in the field of radiation oncology. Extensive cross references between keywords and related articles enable efficient searches in a user-friendly manner. Fully searchable and hyperlinked electronic online edition. The aim of this comprehensive encyclopedia is to provide detailed information on radiation oncology. The wide range of entries are written by leading experts. They will provide basic and clinical scientists in academia, practice and industry with valuable information about the field of radiation oncology. Those in related fields, students, teachers, and interested laypeople will also benefit from the important and relevant information on the most recent developments. Please note that this publication is available as print only or online only or print + online set. Save 75% of the online list price when purchasing the bundle. For more information on the online version please type the publication title into the search box above, then click on the eReference version in the results list.

  12. Quality Indicators in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Jeffrey M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Das, Prajnan, E-mail: prajdas@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Oncologic specialty societies and multidisciplinary collaborative groups have dedicated considerable effort to developing evidence-based quality indicators (QIs) to facilitate quality improvement, accreditation, benchmarking, reimbursement, maintenance of certification, and regulatory reporting. In particular, the field of radiation oncology has a long history of organized quality assessment efforts and continues to work toward developing consensus quality standards in the face of continually evolving technologies and standards of care. This report provides a comprehensive review of the current state of quality assessment in radiation oncology. Specifically, this report highlights implications of the healthcare quality movement for radiation oncology and reviews existing efforts to define and measure quality in the field, with focus on dimensions of quality specific to radiation oncology within the “big picture” of oncologic quality assessment efforts.

  13. Quality Indicators in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Jeffrey M.; Das, Prajnan

    2013-01-01

    Oncologic specialty societies and multidisciplinary collaborative groups have dedicated considerable effort to developing evidence-based quality indicators (QIs) to facilitate quality improvement, accreditation, benchmarking, reimbursement, maintenance of certification, and regulatory reporting. In particular, the field of radiation oncology has a long history of organized quality assessment efforts and continues to work toward developing consensus quality standards in the face of continually evolving technologies and standards of care. This report provides a comprehensive review of the current state of quality assessment in radiation oncology. Specifically, this report highlights implications of the healthcare quality movement for radiation oncology and reviews existing efforts to define and measure quality in the field, with focus on dimensions of quality specific to radiation oncology within the “big picture” of oncologic quality assessment efforts

  14. 78 FR 25304 - Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ..., USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On-Site Leased Workers From Source... Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), including on- site leased... of February 2013, Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology...

  15. The Radiation Therapy Oncology in the context of oncological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasdorf, P.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about the radiation therapy oncology in the context of oncological practice. The radiotherapy is a speciality within medicine that involves the generation, application and dissemination of knowledge about the biology, causes, prevention and treatment of the cancer and other pathologies by ionising radiation

  16. Medicinal cannabis in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Frederike K; de Jong, Floris A; Mathijssen, Ron H J; Erkens, Joëlle A; Herings, Ron M; Verweij, Jaap

    2007-12-01

    In The Netherlands, since September 2003, a legal medicinal cannabis product, constituting the whole range of cannabinoids, is available for clinical research, drug development strategies, and on prescription for patients. To date, this policy, initiated by the Dutch Government, has not yet led to the desired outcome; the amount of initiated clinical research is less than expected and only a minority of patients resorts to the legal product. This review aims to discuss the background for the introduction of legal medicinal cannabis in The Netherlands, the past years of Dutch clinical experience in oncology practice, possible reasons underlying the current outcome, and future perspectives.

  17. Radiation oncology in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Meredith; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2018-01-01

    In this article we provide an overview of the Canadian healthcare system and the cancer care system in Canada as it pertains to the governance, funding and delivery of radiotherapy programmes. We also review the training and practice for radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation therapists in Canada. We describe the clinical practice of radiation medicine from patients' referral, assessment, case conferences and the radiotherapy process. Finally, we provide an overview of the practice culture for Radiation Oncology in Canada. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Oncology information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yasushi; Nagase, Takahide

    2012-05-01

    Owing to new developments in Internet technologies, the amount of available oncology information is growing. Both patients and caregivers are increasingly using the Internet to obtain medical information. However, while it is easy to provide information, ensuring its quality is always a concern. Thus, many instruments for evaluating the quality of health information have been created, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The increasing importance of online search engines such as Google warrants the examination of the correlation between their rankings and medical quality. The Internet also mediates the exchange of information from one individual to another. Mailing lists of advocate groups and social networking sites help spread information to patients and caregivers. While text messages are still the main medium of communication, audio and video messages are also increasing rapidly, accelerating the communication on the Internet. Future health information developments on the Internet include merging patients' personal information on the Internet with their traditional health records and facilitating the interaction among patients, caregivers and health-care providers. Through these developments, the Internet is expected to strengthen the mutually beneficial relationships among all stakeholders in the field of medicine.

  19. Radiation oncology systems integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    ROLE7 is intended as a complementary addition to the HL7 Standard and not as an alternative standard. Attempt should be made to mould data elements which are specific to radiation therapy with existing HL7 elements. This can be accomplished by introducing additional values to some element's table-of-options. Those elements which might be specific to radiation therapy could from new segments to be added to the Ancillary Data Reporting set. In order to accomplish ROLE7, consensus groups need be formed to identify the various functions related to radiation oncology that might motivate information exchange. For each of these functions, the specific data elements and their format must be identified. HL7 is organized with a number of applications which communicate asynchronously. Implementation of ROLE7 would allow uniform access to information across vendors and functions. It would provide improved flexibility in system selection. It would allow a more flexible and affordable upgrade path as systems in radiation oncology improve. (author). 5 refs

  20. Molecular radio-oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild; Cordes, Nils (eds.) [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital

    2016-07-01

    This book concisely reviews our current understanding of hypoxia, molecular targeting, DNA repair, cancer stem cells, and tumor pathophysiology, while also discussing novel strategies for putting these findings into practice in daily clinical routine. Radiotherapy is an important part of modern multimodal cancer treatment, and the past several years have witnessed not only substantial improvements in radiation techniques and the use of new beam qualities, but also major strides in our understanding of molecular tumor biology and tumor radiation response. Against this backdrop, the book highlights recent efforts to identify reasonable and clinically applicable biomarkers using broad-spectrum tissue microarrays and high-throughput systems biology approaches like genomics and epigenomics. In particular, it describes in detail how such molecular information is now being exploited for diagnostic imaging and imaging throughout treatment using the example of positron emission tomography. By discussing all these issues in the context of modern radiation oncology, the book provides a broad, up-to-date overview of the molecular aspects of radiation oncology that will hopefully foster its further optimization.

  1. Oncology in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eav, S; Schraub, S; Dufour, P; Taisant, D; Ra, C; Bunda, P

    2012-01-01

    Cambodia, a country of 14 million inhabitants, was devastated during the Khmer Rouge period and thereafter. The resources of treatment are rare: only one radiotherapy department, renovated in 2003, with an old cobalt machine; few surgeons trained to operate on cancer patients; no hematology; no facilities to use intensive chemotherapy; no nuclear medicine department and no palliative care unit. Cervical cancer incidence is one of the highest in the world, while in men liver cancer ranks first (20% of all male cancers). Cancers are seen at stage 3 or 4 for 70% of patients. There is no prevention program - only a vaccination program against hepatitis B for newborns - and no screening program for cervical cancer or breast cancer. In 2010, oncology, recognized as a full specialty, was created to train the future oncologists on site at the University of Phnom Penh. A new National Cancer Center will be built in 2013 with modern facilities for radiotherapy, medical oncology, hematology and nuclear medicine. Cooperation with foreign countries, especially France, and international organizations has been established and is ongoing. Progress is occurring slowly due to the shortage of money for Cambodian institutions and the lay public. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Molecular radio-oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild; Cordes, Nils

    2016-01-01

    This book concisely reviews our current understanding of hypoxia, molecular targeting, DNA repair, cancer stem cells, and tumor pathophysiology, while also discussing novel strategies for putting these findings into practice in daily clinical routine. Radiotherapy is an important part of modern multimodal cancer treatment, and the past several years have witnessed not only substantial improvements in radiation techniques and the use of new beam qualities, but also major strides in our understanding of molecular tumor biology and tumor radiation response. Against this backdrop, the book highlights recent efforts to identify reasonable and clinically applicable biomarkers using broad-spectrum tissue microarrays and high-throughput systems biology approaches like genomics and epigenomics. In particular, it describes in detail how such molecular information is now being exploited for diagnostic imaging and imaging throughout treatment using the example of positron emission tomography. By discussing all these issues in the context of modern radiation oncology, the book provides a broad, up-to-date overview of the molecular aspects of radiation oncology that will hopefully foster its further optimization.

  3. Treatment response in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Batraki, Maria; Divgi, Chaitanya

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Currently, the evaluation of response to therapy in Oncology consists of determination of changes in size of lesions measurable by structural imaging, notably computerized tomography. These criteria, formalized using RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors), are the current standard for evaluation (http://www3.cancer. gov/dip/RECIST.htm). An increasing body of evidence suggests that functional changes in tumors precede structural changes, and that methodologies that measure such changes may be able to evaluate the potential of therapy, allowing for better and earlier selection of these potentially cytotoxic therapies. Nuclear Medicine imaging is distinguished by its ability to determine functional characteristics. These include: 1. Receptor status - for example, the presence of sodium iodide symporters detected by radioiodine or pertechnetate imaging, the presence of somatostatin or norepinephrine receptors by pentetreotide or metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) imaging respectively. Such imaging can help guide appropriate therapies with iodine-131, somatostatin analogues (radiolabeled or otherwise) or iodine-131 labeled mIBG. 2. Metabolic status - for example, glycolytic status (with fluorine-18 labeled fluorodeoxyglucose); amino acid metabolism (e.g. using carbon-11 labeled methionine), or tumor proliferation (using radiolabeled thymidine or deoxyuridine). These methods have advantages over structural imaging because in the vast majority of tumors, changes in the functional or molecular status of tumors are seen earlier than are structural changes. 3. Overall cellular status - these imaging agents are still in their early development but hold great promise for the determination of cellular viability. Annexin imaging is the archetype of such imaging modalities that predict the overall fate of the cell, in this instance its entry into the apoptotic pathway. This review will highlight the uses of functional imaging using radiotracers in all three

  4. Biosimilars: Considerations for Oncology Nurses
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizgirda, Vida; Jacobs, Ira

    2017-04-01

    Biosimilars are developed to be highly similar to and treat the same conditions as licensed biologics. As they are approved and their use becomes more widespread, oncology nurses should be aware of their development and unique considerations. This article reviews properties of biosimilars; their regulation and approval process; the ways in which their quality, safety, and efficacy are evaluated; their postmarketing safety monitoring; and their significance to oncology nurses and oncology nursing.
. A search of PubMed and regulatory agency websites was conducted for references related to the development and use of biosimilars in oncology. 
. Because biologics are large, structurally complex molecules, biosimilars cannot be considered generic equivalents to licensed biologic products. Consequently, regulatory approval for biosimilars is different from approval for small-molecule generics. Oncology nurses are in a unique position to educate themselves, other clinicians, and patients and their families about biosimilars to ensure accurate understanding, as well as optimal and safe use, of biosimilars.

  5. Mathematical oncology 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Gandolfi, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    With chapters on free boundaries, constitutive equations, stochastic dynamics, nonlinear diffusion–consumption, structured populations, and applications of optimal control theory, this volume presents the most significant recent results in the field of mathematical oncology. It highlights the work of world-class research teams, and explores how different researchers approach the same problem in various ways. Tumors are complex entities that present numerous challenges to the mathematical modeler. First and foremost, they grow. Thus their spatial mean field description involves a free boundary problem. Second, their interiors should be modeled as nontrivial porous media using constitutive equations. Third, at the end of anti-cancer therapy, a small number of malignant cells remain, making the post-treatment dynamics inherently stochastic. Fourth, the growth parameters of macroscopic tumors are non-constant, as are the parameters of anti-tumor therapies. Changes in these parameters may induce phenomena that a...

  6. Cost-utility analysis of the newly recommended adjuvant chemotherapy for resectable gastric cancer patients in the 2011 Chinese National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongqing, Tan; Liubao, Peng; Xiaohui, Zeng; Jianhe, Li; Xiaomin, Wan; Gannong, Chen; Siying, Wang; Lihui, Ouyang; Ziying, Zhao

    2014-03-01

    Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with capecitabine and oxaliplatin was first recommended for resectable gastric cancer patients in the 2011 Chinese National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Gastric Cancer, but the economic influence of this therapy in China is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy with capecitabine and oxaliplatin after a gastrectomy with extended (D2) lymph-node dissection, compared with a D2 gastrectomy alone, for patients with stage II-IIIB gastric cancer. On the basis of data from the CLASSIC trial, a Markov model was created to determine economic and clinical data for patients in the chemotherapy and surgery group (CSG) and the surgery-only group (SOG). The costs, presented in 2010 US dollars and estimated from the perspective of the Chinese health-care system, were obtained from the published literature and the local health system. The utilities were based on published literature. Costs, life years (LYs), quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were estimated. A lifetime horizon and a 3 % annual discount rate were used. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. For the base case, the CSG compared with SOG would increase LYs and QALYs in a 3-, 5-, 10- or 30-year time horizon (except the QALYs at 3 or 5 years). In the short run (such as in 3 or 5 years), the medical costs would increase owing to adjuvant chemotherapy of capecitabine plus oxaliplatin after D2 gastrectomy, but in the long run the costs would decline. The ICERs suggested that the SOG was dominant at 3 or 5 years and the CSG was dominant at 10 or 30 years. The one-way sensitivity analysis showed that the utility of disease-free survival for 1-10 years for the SOG and the cost of oxaliplatin were the most influential parameters. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis predicted a 98.6 % likelihood that the ICER

  7. Project reconversion Service Hospital Radiation Oncology Clinics-Medical School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarneti, A.; Levaggi, G.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: The Health Sector operates within the framework of Social Policy and it is therefore one of the ways of distribution of public benefit, like Housing, Education and Social Security. While public spending on health has grown in recent years, its distribution has been uneven and the sector faces funding and management problems. The Service Hospital Radiation Oncology has reduced its health care liavility , lack technological development and unsufficient human resources and training. Aim: developing an inclusive reform bill Service Hospital Radiation Oncology .Material and Methods: This project tends to form a network institutional, introducing concepts of evidence-based medicine, risk models, cost analysis, coding systems, system implementation of quality management (ISO-9000 Standards). Proposes redefining radiotherapy centers and their potential participation in training resource development goals humanos.Promueve scientific research of national interest. Separate strictly administrative function, management and teaching. The project takes into account the characteristics of demand, the need to order it and organize around her, institutional network system and within the Hospital das Clinicas own related services related to Service Hospital Radiation Oncology , Encourages freedom of choice, and confers greater equity in care. The project would managed by the Hospital Clínicas. Conclusions: We believe this proposal identifies problems and opportunities, Service Hospital Radiation Oncology proposes the development of institutional network under one management model

  8. Pediatric oncologic emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zietz, Hallie A.

    1997-01-01

    Oncologic emergencies arise in three ways: disease or therapy induced cytopenias; a space occupying lesion causing pressure on or obstruction of surrounding tissues; or leukemia or tumors creating life-threatening metabolic or hormonal problems. Knowledge of presenting signs and symptoms of these emergencies are essential in pediatric oncologic nursing. Neutropenia opens the door for all manner of infections, but the most life threatening is septicemia progressing to shock. A variety of organisms can cause septic shock in the neutropenic patient, but episodes are most often due to gram-negative organisms and the endotoxins they release. Shock, while still compensated, may present with a elevated or subnormal temperature, flushed, warm, dry skin, widening pulse pressure, tachycardia, tachypnoea and irritability, but without medical intervention will progress to hypo tension, cool, clammy extremities, decreased urinary out- put, and eventually to bradycardia and cardiogenic shock. Another emergency in the cytopenia category is bleeding as a result of thrombocytopenia. Of greatest concern is intracranial hemorrhage that may occur at platelet counts of less than 5,000/mm3. Space-occupying lesions of the chest may produce superior vena cava syndrome (SVGS), pleural and pericardial effusions, and cardiac tamponade. SVGS is most often caused by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and presents as cough, hoarseness, dyspnea, orthopnea and chest pain. Signs include swelling, plethora, cyanosis, edema of conjunctiva and wheezing. Pleural and pericardial effusions present with respiratory or cardiac distress as does cardiac tamponade. Abdominal emergencies arise because of inflammation, mechanical obstruction, hemorrhage (often from steroid induced ulcers), and perforation. Pain is the most common presenting symptom, although vital sign alterations, fever, blood in vomitus or stool, abdominal distension and cessation of flatus are also important components of the acute abdomen

  9. Global curriculum in surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are, C; Berman, R S; Wyld, L; Cummings, C; Lecoq, C; Audisio, R A

    2016-06-01

    The significant global variations in surgical oncology training paradigms can have a detrimental effect on tackling the rising global cancer burden. While some variations in training are essential to account for the differences in types of cancer and biology, the fundamental principles of providing care to a cancer patient remain the same. The development of a global curriculum in surgical oncology with incorporated essential standards could be very useful in building an adequately trained surgical oncology workforce, which in turn could help in tackling the rising global cancer burden. The leaders of the Society of Surgical Oncology and European Society of Surgical Oncology convened a global curriculum committee to develop a global curriculum in surgical oncology. A global curriculum in surgical oncology was developed to incorporate the required domains considered to be essential in training a surgical oncologist. The curriculum was constructed in a modular fashion to permit flexibility to suit the needs of the different regions of the world. Similarly, recognizing the various sociocultural, financial and cultural influences across the world, the proposed curriculum is aspirational and not mandatory in intent. A global curriculum was developed which may be considered as a foundational scaffolding for training surgical oncologists worldwide. It is envisioned that this initial global curriculum will provide a flexible and modular scaffolding that can be tailored by individual countries or regions to train surgical oncologists in a way that is appropriate for practice in their local environment. Copyright © 2016 Society of Surgical Oncology, European Society of Surgical Oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Future Research in Psycho-Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerling, Ute; Mehnert, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s psycho-oncology and psycho-oncological research have been systematically developed in many industrialized countries and have produced nationally and internationally accepted guidelines. In this article developments and challenges are presented and discussed. From the perspective of various oncological treatment options, different needs for further psycho-oncological research are considered.

  11. Global Health in Radiation Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodin, Danielle; Yap, Mei Ling; Grover, Surbhi

    2017-01-01

    programs. However, formalized training and career promotion tracks in global health within radiation oncology have been slow to emerge, thereby limiting the sustained involvement of students and faculty, and restricting opportunities for leadership in this space. We examine here potential structures...... and benefits of formalized global health training in radiation oncology. We explore how defining specific competencies in this area can help trainees and practitioners integrate their activities in global health within their existing roles as clinicians, educators, or scientists. This would also help create...... and funding models might be used to further develop and expand radiation oncology services globally....

  12. 75 FR 66773 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ...] Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food... of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee. General... or, are in late stage development for an adult oncology indication. The subcommittee will consider...

  13. 77 FR 57095 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ...] Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food... of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee. General... that are in development for an adult oncology indication. The subcommittee will consider and discuss...

  14. 78 FR 63222 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...] Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food... the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory... measures in the pediatric development plans of oncology products. The half-day session will provide an...

  15. 78 FR 63224 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...] Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food... of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee. General... oncology indications. The subcommittee will consider and discuss issues relating to the development of each...

  16. Establishment of the Asia Oncology Nursing Society (AONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Onishi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years, whenever an informal group of Asian oncology nurses gathered, they talked about their mutual desire to create an organization closer to their homes that would be similar to the European Oncology Nursing Society (EONS. They saw this as a means for more of their colleagues to learn about the latest in cancer nursing and to have a time and place to network among themselves. This message continued to gain strength whenever these nurses met at other international meetings such as the International Conference on Cancer Nursing (ICCN, the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC and the Oncology Nursing Society in US. A definite and planned step toward forming an Asian organization as the first meeting was taken on June 24 2011 when several Asian nurses were attending a MASCC meeting in Greece. The second meeting was held in Prague, Czech Republic, in conjunction with the 17 th ICCN meeting on September 10 2012, where the participants of the meeting included 21 oncology nurses from Asian countries. Finally, the first official meeting of the board directors from nine countries was held on November 21 2013 in Bangkok, Thailand. Now, and in the future, sharing and collaborating in the practice, education and research for oncology nursing in Asia is needed.

  17. Exercise Promotion in Geriatric Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhenn, Peggy S; Bryant, Ashley Leak; Mustian, Karen M

    2016-09-01

    Evidence of the benefits of exercise for people with cancer from diagnosis through survivorship is growing. However, most cancers occur in older adults and little exercise advice is available for making specific recommendations for older adults with cancer. Individualized exercise prescriptions are safe, feasible, and beneficial for the geriatric oncology population. Oncology providers must be equipped to discuss the short- and long-term benefits of exercise and assist older patients in obtaining appropriate exercise prescriptions. This review provides detailed information about professionals and their roles as it relates to functional assessment, intervention, and evaluation of the geriatric oncology population. This review addresses the importance of functional status assessment and appropriate referrals to other oncology professionals.

  18. Topics in clinical oncology. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepcek, P.

    1987-12-01

    The monograph comprising primarily papers on topical subjects of oncology and cancer research, contains also a selection of papers presented at the 2. Congress of the Czechoslovak Society of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Hygiene. Seven papers were selected on behalf of their subject related to clinical oncology. All of them were iputted in INIS; five of them deal with the scintiscanning of the skeleton of cancer patients, one with radioimmunodetection of tumors, and one with radionuclide lymphography. (A.K.)

  19. Urological oncology. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammon, J.; Karstens, J.H.; Rathert, P.

    1981-01-01

    The cooperation between urologists and radiologists has brought about new ideas for the therapy of malignant tumours of the urogenital tract. This and the development of new techniques of diagnosis and therapy has brought about a need for revision of present diagnostic and therapeutical conceptions. With the introduction of the TNM classification system for nearly all tumours of the urogenital system, it has become obligatory to have a list of indications for the various techniques to determine the T-, N-, or M-nature of a tumour. Except for tumours of the female genitals, also diagnosis and therapy are based on the new classification system. The use of computerized tomography will have to be re-evaluated. To say the least, it is a decisive aid in physical and technical irradiation planning. The fundamentals of systematic diagnosis and therapy are listed in a table. Cytostatic treatment and combined radio-/chemotherapy must be considered. Side-effects of radiotherapy and their treatment are of practical importance. Post-therapeutical treatment receives special attention. The documented cooperation between radiophysics, radiobiology, radiology, and urology has yielded new knowledge in the sense of a comprehensive conception of urological oncology. (orig./MG) [de

  20. [Donatori di Musica: when oncology meets music].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graiff, Claudio

    2014-10-01

    Donatori di Musica is a network of musicians - both physicians and volunteers - that was initially founded in 2009 with the aim to set up and coordinate classical music concerts in hospitals. This activity was initially started and led by the Oncology Departments at Carrara and Bolzano Hospitals, where high profile professional musicians make themselves available for concerts in support of Oncological in/out-patients of that specific Hospital. A live classical music performance is a deeply touching experience - particularly for those who live a critical condition like cancer. Main characteristics of Donatori di Musica concerts are: continuity (concerts are part of a regular and non-stopping music season); quality (concerts are held by well-established professional musicians); philanthropic attitude (musicians do not wear a suit and usually chat with patients; they also select an easy-to-listen program; a convivial event is usually organized after the performance with the aim of overcoming distinctions and barriers between physician and patient); no profit: musicians perform for free - travel expenses and/or overnight staying only can be claimed; concerts have free access for patients, their families and hospital staff.Patients and musicians therefore do get in close contact and music is able to merge each other experiences - with patients being treated by the beauty of music and musicians being treated theirselves by patients daily-life feedback. The Donatori di Musica experience is therefore able to help Medicine to retrieve its very first significance - the medical act regain that human and cultural dimension that seems to be abandoned in the last decades in favour of a mere technicism. This is the spirit and the deep significance of Donatori di Musica - «[…] the hope that Music can become a key support to medical treatments in every Oncology department» (by Gian Andrea Lodovici).

  1. Molecular imaging in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging is generally defined as noninvasive and quantitative imaging of targeted macromolecules and biological processes in living organisms. A characteristic of molecular imaging is the ability to perform repeated studies and assess changes in biological processes over time. Thus molecular imaging lends itself well for monitoring the effectiveness of tumor therapy. In animal models a variety of techniques can be used for molecular imaging. These include optical imaging (bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear medicine techniques. In the clinical setting, however, nuclear medicine techniques predominate, because so far only radioactive tracers provide the necessary sensitivity to study expression and function of macromolecules non-invasively in patients. Nuclear medicine techniques allows to study a variety of biological processes in patients. These include the expression of various receptors (estrogen, androgen, somatostatin receptors and integrins). In addition, tracers are available to study tumor cell proliferation and hypoxia. The by far most commonly used molecular imaging technique in oncology is, however, positron emission tomography (PET) with the glucose analog [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET). FDG-PET permits non-invasive quantitative assessment of the accelerated exogenous glucose use of malignant tumors. Numerous studies have now shown that reduction of tumor FDG-uptake during therapy allows early prediction of tumor response and patient survival. Clinical studies are currently underway to determine whether FDG-PET can be used to individualize tumor therapy by signaling early in the course of therapy the need for therapeutic adjustments in patients with likely non-responding tumors. (orig.)

  2. Current situation in gynecological oncology training in Spain: where we are and where we want to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Iserte, P; Minig, L; Zapardiel, I; Chiva, L; Laky, R; de Santiago, J

    2018-04-01

    It is important to know what a young gynecologic oncologist perceives as a need to achieve a good training in gynecologic oncology. This study aims to evaluate the level of training in gynecologic oncology in Spain. A Web-based anonymous questionnaire was sent via e-mail to Spanish trainees listed in European Network of Young Gynecological Oncology (ENYGO). The survey was developed in four sections: (1) general training in gynecologic oncology, (2) distribution of current clinical activity, (3) surgical training, and (4) perspective future gynecologic oncology. It contained 51 questions, with multiple-choice answers that had to be answered by the ENYGO members. The questionnaire was sent to 64 people listed in the ENYGO database. Of these, 37 members responded (response rate of 58%). Overall, more training in surgery is necessary, to perform radical oncological surgeries. It is claimed a sub-specialty recognition, to ensure an equalitarian and homogeneous training.

  3. Geriatric Oncology Program Development and Gero-Oncology Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mary Pat; DeDonato, Dana Marcone; Kutney-Lee, Ann

    2016-02-01

    To provide a critical analysis of current approaches to the care of older adults with cancer, outline priority areas for geriatric oncology program development, and recommend strategies for improvement. Published articles and reports between 1999 and 2015. Providing an interdisciplinary model that incorporates a holistic geriatric assessment will ensure the delivery of patient-centered care that is responsive to the comprehensive needs of older patients. Nursing administrators and leaders have both an opportunity and responsibility to shape the future of geriatric oncology. Preparations include workforce development and the creation of programs that are designed to meet the complex needs of this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Future of Gero-Oncology Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Sarah H

    2016-02-01

    To project the future of gero-oncology nursing as a distinct specialty, framed between analysis of current challenges and explication of prospective solutions. Peer-reviewed literature, policy directives, web-based resources, and author expertise. Oncology nursing faces several challenges in meeting the needs of older people living with cancer. Realigning cancer nursing education, practice, and research to match demographic and epidemiological realities mandates redesign. Viewing geriatric oncology as an optional sub-specialty limits oncology nursing, where older people represent the majority of oncology patients and cancer survivors. The future of gero-oncology nursing lies in transforming oncology nursing itself. Specific goals to achieve transformation of oncology nursing into gero-oncology nursing include assuring integrated foundational aging and cancer content across entry-level nursing curricula; assuring a gero-competent oncology nursing workforce with integrated continuing education; developing gero-oncology nurse specialists in advanced practice roles; and cultivating nurse leadership in geriatric oncology program development and administration along with expanding the scope and sophistication of gero-oncology nursing science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Don't neglect cultural diversity in oncology care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita

    2014-05-01

    The growing Hispanic population in the United States mandates the need for oncology providers to become more familiar with disease patterns and cultural belief systems that can impact cancer care. "Culturally competent care" should be the mandate of all providers. This comprises awareness of cultural differences, communication in a manner that the patient understands, and respect. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  6. American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn More Explore career opportunities in pediatric hematology/oncology Visit the ASPHO Career Center. Learn More Join ... Privacy Policy » © The American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology

  7. Innovative radiopharmaceuticals in oncology and neurology

    CERN Document Server

    Barbet, Jacques; Chérel, Michel; Guilloteau, Denis

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this Research Topic was to assemble a series of articles describing basic, preclinical and clinical research studies on radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine. The articles were written by attendees of the third Nuclear Technologies for Health Symposium (NTHS, 10th-11th March 2015, Nantes, Frances) under the auspices of the IRON LabEx (Innovative Radiopharmaceuticals for Oncology and Neurology Laboratory of Excellence). This French network, gathering approximately 160 scientists from 12 academic research teams (Funded by “investissements d’Avenir”), fosters transdisciplinary projects between teams with expertise in chemistry, radiochemistry, radiopharmacy, formulation, biology, nuclear medicine and medical physics. The 12 articles within this resulting eBook present a series of comprehensive reviews and original research papers on multimodality imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy; illustrating the different facets of studies currently conducted in these domains.

  8. 76 FR 58520 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food... of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee. General...

  9. [Vitamins and Minerals in Oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holch, Julian Walter; Michl, Marlies; Heinemann, Volker; Erickson, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    The use of vitamins and minerals to prevent cancer as well as their supportive use in oncological patients is widespread and often occurs without the knowledge of the treating physician. Beyond general recommendations with regard to a balanced and healthy diet, no evidence exists supporting the use of vitamins and minerals in the prevention of cancer. Furthermore, the diet of oncological patients should contain vitamins and minerals of the same quantity as for healthy individuals. In particular, there is currently no rationale for a high-dosage administration of antioxidants. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Positron emission tomography in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the current and potential uses of positron emission tomography in clinical medicine and research related to oncology. Assessment will be possible of metabolism and physiology of tumors and their effects on adjacent tissues. Specific probes are likely to be developed for target sites on tumors, including monoclonal antibodies and specific growth factors that recognize tumors. To date, most oncological applications of positron emission tomography tracers have been qualitative; in the future, quantitative metabolic measurements should aid in the evaluation of tumor biology and response to treatment

  11. PET/MR in oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balyasnikova, Svetlana; Löfgren, Johan; de Nijs, Robin

    2012-01-01

    of the challenges inherent in this new technology, but focus on potential applications for simultaneous PET/MR in the field of oncology. Methods and tracers for use with the PET technology will be familiar to most readers of this journal; thus this paper aims to provide a short and basic introduction to a number...... be applied together with PET increasing the amount of information about the tissues of interest. The potential clinical benefit of applying PET/MR in staging, radiotherapy planning and treatment evaluation in oncology, as well as the research perspectives for the use of PET/MR in the development of new...

  12. Integrated biophotonics in endoscopic oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Naoki; DaCosta, Ralph S.; Wilson, Brian C.; Marcon, Norman E.

    2009-02-01

    Gastrointestinal endoscopy has made great progress during last decade. Diagnostic accuracy can be enhanced by better training, improved dye-contrast techniques method, and the development of new image processing technologies. However, diagnosis using conventional endoscopy with white-light optical imaging is essentially limited by being based on morphological changes and/or visual attribution: hue, saturation and intensity, interpretation of which depends on the endoscopist's eye and brain. In microlesions in the gastrointestinal tract, we still rely ultimately on the histopathological diagnosis from biopsy specimens. Autofluorescence imaging system has been applied for lesions which have been difficult to morphologically recognize or are indistinct with conventional endoscope, and this approach has potential application for the diagnosis of dysplastic lesions and early cancers in the gastrointestinal tract, supplementing the information from white light endoscopy. This system has an advantage that it needs no administration of a photosensitive agent, making it suitable as a screening method for the early detection of neoplastic tissues. Narrow band imaging (NBI) is a novel endoscopic technique which can distinguish neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions without chromoendoscopy. Magnifying endoscopy in combination with NBI has an obvious advantage, namely analysis of the epithelial pit pattern and the vascular network. This new technique allows a detailed visualization in early neoplastic lesions of esophagus, stomach and colon. However, problems remain; how to combine these technologies in an optimum diagnostic strategy, how to apply them into the algorithm for therapeutic decision-making, and how to standardize several classifications surrounding them. 'Molecular imaging' is a concept representing the most novel imaging methods in medicine, although the definition of the word is still controversial. In the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy, the future of

  13. Cancer Patients and Oncology Nursing: Perspectives of Oncology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... findings of this study, nurses declared that working with cancer patients increase burnout, they are ..... of working in oncology to entire work life was 75.8% for nurses in the study .... This professional balance is important for ...

  14. Analysis of oncology research from 2001 to 2010: a scientometric perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hongfang; Yu, Qi; Bo, Xiaoming; Duan, Zhiguang

    2013-04-01

    Over the past half-century, the incidence of tumours has increased, resulting in cancer becoming one of the most lethal diseases in humans. In the present study, we elucidated the status of oncology research from 2001 to 2010. Studies published in 30 representative oncology journals were retrieved from the Web of Science (2001-2010) to compose our dataset. Knowledge domain visualisation, co-citation analysis and social network analysis methods were used. By mapping the oncology research performed from 2001 to 2010, we identified the primary research centres, including the top 20 institutions and countries and the 4 major oncology research fronts: i) the mechanism of abnormal oncogene expression; ii) tumour metastasis and angiogenesis; iii) the relationship between cancer cells and apoptosis; and iv) tumour vaccines. We also identified the 36 most collaborative academic communities, and multiple myeloma, angiogenesis and acute lymphocytic leukaemia were found to be the focuses of collaborative research in oncology from 2001 to 2010. Over the past 10 years, America has led oncology research, while China is the sole developing country to be ranked in the top 10. Analyses of the main research centres and forefronts may assist researchers in addressing these forefronts and ascertaining the developing trends in oncology. Analysis of the academic communities performing oncology research may provide scientific evidence and suggestions for policymakers to select the most prolific academic groups and leaders and to effectively manage and finance future oncology research. These selected groups and individuals will carry out additional joint undertakings and solve complex problems encountered in oncology research.

  15. Cardiotoxicity of oncological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlot, B.; Rzepecki, P.

    2010-01-01

    , also increase the risk of cardiotoxicity. These medicaments also cause hypetension, acute coronary syndromes and thromboembolic events. Monoclonal antibodies are also toxic for the heart. Anti-HER2 therapy blocks the receptor which normally protects the heart from impairing factors (such as ischaemia, toxins and adrenergic stimulation). Cardiological disturbances are one of the late complications of radiotherapy of the area of the chest and usually appear after more than 10 years calculating from the end of treatment. It is an essential problem especially in patients with breast cancer or with Hodgkin's lymphoma due to the long-term survivals in these groups. The related abnormalities were located mostly in the pericardium and coronary vessels, but may also involve the myocardium, the conducting system or valves of the heart. In chemotherapy departments, the oncologist has become responsible for the cardiotoxicity risk stratification in patients undergoing/planned for anti-cancer therapy and for the early recognition of cardiac complications. Monitoring of the left ventricular function is now an essential part of oncological procedures using cardiotoxic drugs. ACE inhibitors, ATI receptor blockers, beta-blockers, diuretics and digoxin are drugs of choice in heart failure therapy. The awareness of clinicians regarding the potential adverse effects on cardiac performance by several classes of drugs, particularly in patients with preexisting ventricular dysfunction, may contribute to timely diagnosis and prevention of drug-induced heart failure. (authors)

  16. Oncological emergencies for the internist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An oncologic emergency is defined as any acute, potentially life-threatening event, either directly or indirectly related to a patient′s cancer (ca or its treatment. It requires rapid intervention to avoid death or severe permanent damage. Most oncologic emergencies can be classified as metabolic, hematologic, structural, or side effects from chemotherapy agents. Tumor lysis syndrome is a metabolic emergency that presents as severe electrolyte abnormalities. The condition is treated with aggressive hydration, allopurinol or urate oxidase to lower uric acid levels. Hypercalcemia of malignancy is treated with aggressive rehydration, furosemide, and intravenous (IV bisphosphonates. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone should be suspected if a patient with ca presents with normovolemic hyponatremia. This metabolic condition usually is treated with fluid restriction and furosemide. Febrile neutropenia is a hematologic emergency that usually requires inpatient therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics, although outpatient therapy may be appropriate for low-risk patients. Hyperviscosity syndrome usually is associated with Waldenstrφm′s macroglobulinemia, which is treated with plasmapheresis and chemotherapy. Structural oncologic emergencies are caused by direct compression of surrounding structures or by metastatic disease. Superior vena cava syndrome is the most common structural oncological emergency. Treatment options include chemotherapy, radiation, and IV stenting. Epidural spinal cord compression can be treated with dexamethasone, radiation, or surgery. Malignant pericardial effusion, which often is undiagnosed in ca patients, can be treated with pericardiocentesis or a pericardial window procedure.

  17. La pianificazione paesaggistica in Piemonte. Approfondimenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi La Riccia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a systematic deep examination about the situation of landscape planning in Piedmont. This research is structured on the analysis and interpretation of legislative and planning instruments, by two fundamental approaches. On the one hand, there are the modalities by which landscape enters the regional legislation. On the other hand the research focuses on regional landscape planning instruments, like the Regional Territorial Plan (1997 and the new Regional Landscape Plan (2009, suggesting a comparison between cognitive, strategic and regulative dimensions. Finally, we find an in-depth examination about the question concerning landscape authorization, the sub-delegation to local authorities and main issues on implementation of regional strategies, public participation, the role on local identities and the methodology of identification of landscapes.

  18. Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; Fries, de; Skovlund, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social qualificati...

  19. Biophysical models in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, L.

    1984-01-01

    The paper examines and describes dose-time relationships in clinical radiation oncology. Realistic models and parameters for specific tissues, organs, and tumor types are discussed in order to solve difficult problems which arise in radiation oncology. The computer programs presented were written to: derive parameters from experimental and clinical data; plot normal- and tumor-cell survival curves; generate iso-effect tables of tumor-curative doses; identify alternative, equally effective procedures for fraction numbers and treatment times; determine whether a proposed course of treatment is safe and adequate, and what adjustments are needed should results suggest that the procedure is unsafe or inadequate; combine the physical isodose distribution with computed cellular surviving fractions for the tumor and all normal tissues traversed by the beam, estimating the risks of recurrence or complications at various points in the irradiated volume, and adjusting the treatment plan and fractionation scheme to minimize these risks

  20. PET/TAC in Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez V, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    From this presentation of PET-TAC in oncology the following advantages on the conventional PET are obtained: 1. More short study and stadium in one session. 2. It adds the information of both techniques. 3. Better localization of leisure: affected organ, stadium change (neck, mediastinum, abdomen). 4. Reduction of false positive (muscle, brown fat, atelectasis, pneumonias, intestine, urinary vials, etc.). 5. Reduction of negative false. 6. Reduction of not conclusive. 7. More understandable for other specialists. 8. Biopsies guide. 9. Planning radiotherapy

  1. Patient satisfaction in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zissiadis, Y.; Provis, A.; Dhaliwal, S.S.

    2003-01-01

    In this current economic climate where the costs of providing a good medical service are escalating, patients are demanding a higher level of service from the Radiation Oncology providers. This coupled with the rising level of patients' expectations make it absolutely paramount for Radiation Oncology providers to offer the best possible service to their patients. In order to do this, it is essential to assess the present level of patient satisfaction prior to deciding which aspects of the current service need to be changed. In this pilot study, we assess the level of patient satisfaction with aspects of the radiotherapy service and the level of patient anxiety both prior to and following radiotherapy at the Perth Radiation Oncology Centre. A questionnaire was created using a combination of the Information Satisfaction Questionnaire-1 (ISQ-1), the Very Short Questionnaire 9 (VSQ 9) and the State Trait Anxiety Index (STAI). One hundred new patients were studied, all of whom were to have radiotherapy with curative intent. The results of this study are reviewed in this presentation

  2. Clinical and Radiation Oncology. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurga, L.; Adam, Z.; Autrata, R.

    2010-01-01

    The work is two-volume set and has 1,658 pages. It is divided into 5 sections: I. Principles Clinical and radiation oncology. II. Hematological Malignant tumors. III. Solid tumors. IV. Treatment options metastatic Disease. V. Clinical practice in oncology. First volume contains following sections a chapters: Section I: Principles of clinical and radiation oncology, it contains following chapters: (1) The history of clinical/experimental and radiation oncology in the Czech Republic; (2) The history of clinical/experimental and radiation oncology in the Slovak Republic - development and development of oncology in Slovakia; (3) Clinical and radiation oncology as part of evidence-based medicine; (4) Molecular biology; (5) Tumor Disease; (6) Epidemiology and prevention of malignant tumors; (7) Diagnosis, staging, stratification and monitoring of patients in oncology; (8) Imaging methods in oncology; (9) Principles of surgical treatment of cancer diseases; (10) Symptomatology and signaling of malignant tumors - systemic, paraneoplastic and paraendocrine manifestations of tumor diseases; (11) Principles of radiation oncology; (12 Modeling radiobiological effects of radiotherapy; (13) Principles of anticancer chemotherapy; (14) Hormonal manipulation in the treatment of tumors; (15) Principles of biological and targeted treatment of solid tumors; (16) Method of multimodal therapy of malignant tumors; (17) Evaluation of treatment response, performance evaluation criteria (RECIST); (18) Adverse effects of cancer chemotherapy and the principles of their prevention and treatment; (19) Biological principles of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; (20) Design, analysis and ethical aspects of clinical studies in oncology; (21) Fundamentals of biostatistics for oncologists; (22) Information infrastructure for clinical and radiological oncology based on evidence; (23) Pharmacoeconomic aspects in oncology; (24) Respecting patient preferences when deciding on the strategy and

  3. Development of the Moffitt Cancer Network as a Telemedicine and Teleconferencing Educational Tool for Health Care Providers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krischer, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The Moffitt Cancer Network's (MCN) goal is to provide up-to-date oncology related information, resources, and education to oncology health care providers and researchers for the prevention and cure of cancer...

  4. Palliative Care: Delivering Comprehensive Oncology Nursing Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Constance

    2015-11-01

    To describe palliative care as part of comprehensive oncology nursing care. A review of the palliative care, oncology, and nursing literature over the past 10 years. Palliative care is mandated as part of comprehensive cancer care. A cancer diagnosis often results in distress in the physical, psychosocial, spiritual, and emotional domains of care. Oncology nurses are essential in providing palliative care from diagnosis to death to patients with cancer. They address the myriad aspects of cancer. With palliative care skills and knowledge, oncology nurses can provide quality cancer care. There are many opportunities in which oncology nurses can promote palliative care. Oncology nurses must obtain knowledge and skills in primary palliative care to provide comprehensive cancer care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. E-learning programs in oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degerfält, Jan; Sjöstedt, Staffan; Fransson, Per

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: E-learning is an established concept in oncological education and training. However, there seems to be a scarcity of long-term assessments of E-learning programs in oncology vis-á-vis their structural management and didactic value. This study presents descriptive, nationwide data from...... 2005 to 2014. E-learning oncology programs in chemotherapy, general oncology, pain management, palliative care, psycho-social-oncology, and radiotherapy, were reviewed from our databases. Questionnaires of self-perceived didactic value of the programs were examined 2008-2014. RESULTS: The total number.......6% (MDs: 64.9%; RNs: 66.8%; SHCAs: 77.7%) and as good by 30.6% (MDs: 34.5%; RNs: 32.4%; SHCAs: 21.5%) of the responders. CONCLUSIONS: This descriptive study, performed in a lengthy timeframe, presents high-volume data from multi-professional, oncological E-learning programs. While the E-learning paradigm...

  6. Continuing medical education in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvet, B.; Barillot, I.; Denis, F.; Cailleux, P.E.; Ardiet, J.M.; Mornex, F.

    2012-01-01

    In France, continuing medical education (CME) and professional practice evaluation (PPE) became mandatory by law in July 2009 for all health professionals. Recently published decrees led to the creation of national specialty councils to implement this organizational device. For radiation oncology, this council includes the French Society for Radiation Oncology (SFRO), the National Radiation Oncology Syndicate (SNRO) and the Association for Continuing Medical Education in Radiation Oncology (AFCOR). The Radiation Oncology National Council will propose a set of programs including CME and PPE, professional thesaurus, labels for CME actions consistent with national requirements, and will organize expertise for public instances. AFCOR remains the primary for CME, but each practitioner can freely choose an organisation for CME, provided that it is certified by the independent scientific commission. The National Order for physicians is the control authority. Radiation oncology has already a strong tradition of independent CME that will continue through this major reform. (authors)

  7. A comparison of burnout among oncology nurses working in adult and pediatric inpatient and outpatient settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Shoni; Lind, Bonnie K; Sorensen, Celeste

    2013-07-01

    To investigate differences in burnout among oncology nurses by type of work setting, coping strategies, and job satisfaction. Descriptive. A metropolitan cancer center. A convenience sample of 74 oncology nurses. Participants completed a demographic data form, the Nursing Satisfaction and Retention Survey, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Burnout, coping strategies, job satisfaction, and oncology work setting (inpatient versus outpatient and adult versus pediatric). The participants most often used spirituality and coworker support to cope. Emotional exhaustion was lowest for youngest nurses and highest for outpatient RNs. Personal accomplishment was highest in adult settings. Job satisfaction correlated inversely with emotional exhaustion and the desire to leave oncology nursing. The findings support that the social context within the work environment may impact emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and that demographics may be more significant in determining burnout than setting. The findings raise questions of whether demographics or setting plays a bigger role in burnout and supports organizational strategies that enhance coworker camaraderie, encourage nurses to discuss high-stress situations, and share ways to manage their emotions in oncology settings. Spirituality and coworker relationships were positive coping strategies among oncology nurses to prevent emotional exhaustion. Nurses who rely on supportive social networks as a coping mechanism have lower levels of depersonalization. Age was inversely related to emotional exhaustion.

  8. Exercise therapy in oncology rehabilitation in Australia: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Amy M; Peiris, Casey L; Shields, Nora; Morgan, Delwyn; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-10-01

    Oncology rehabilitation improves outcomes for cancer survivors but little is known about program availability in Australia. The aims of this study were: to describe oncology rehabilitation programs in Australia: determine whether the exercise component of programs is consistent with guidelines: and to explore barriers and facilitators to program implementation. A sequential, explanatory mixed-methods study was completed in two phases: (1) a survey of Australian oncology rehabilitation programs; and (2) purposively sampled follow-up semistructured interviews with senior clinicians working in oncology rehabilitation who were involved with exercise prescription. Hospitals and/or cancer centers from 42 public hospital health networks (representing 163 hospitals) and 39 private hospitals were contacted to identify 31 oncology rehabilitation programs. All 31 surveys were returned (100% response rate). Programs were typically multidisciplinary, ran twice weekly, provided education and exercise and included self-management strategies. Exercise prescription and progression was patient centered and included a combination of resistance and aerobic training supplemented by balance, pelvic floor, and core stability exercises. Challenges to implementation included a lack of awareness of programs in the community and organizational barriers such as funding. Strong links with oncologists facilitated program referrals. Despite evidence to support oncology rehabilitation, there are few programs in Australia and there are challenges that limit it becoming part of standard practice. Programs that exist are multidisciplinary with a focus on exercise with the majority of programs following a cardiac rehabilitation model of care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Hyperthermia and hyperglycemia in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhavrid, Eh.A.; Osinskij, S.P.; Fradkin, S.Z.

    1987-01-01

    Consideration is being given to publication data and results of author's investigations into the effect of hyperthermia and hyperglycemia on physico-chemical characteristics and growth of various experimental tumors. Factors, modifying thermosensitivity, mechanisms of hyperthermia effect, various aspects of thermochimio- and thermoradiotherapy have been analyzed. Effect of artificial hyperglycemia on metabolism and kinetics of tumor and some normal cells is considered in detail. Many data, testifying to sufficient growth of efficiency of oncologic patient treatment under conditions of multimodality therapy including hyperthermia and hyperglycemia are presented

  10. Introduction to veterinary clinical oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Veterinary clinical oncology involves a multidisciplinary approach to the recognition and management of spontaneously occurring neoplasms of domestic animals. This requires some knowledge of the causes, incidence, and natural course of malignant disease as it occurs in domestic species. The purpose of this course is to acquaint you with the more common neoplastic problems you will encounter in practice, so that you can offer your clients an informed opinion regarding prognosis and possible therapeutic modalities. A major thrust will be directed toward discussing and encouraging treatment/management of malignant disease. Multimodality therapy will be stressed. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Implementing Genome-Driven Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, David M.; Taylor, Barry S.; Baselga, José

    2017-01-01

    Early successes in identifying and targeting individual oncogenic drivers, together with the increasing feasibility of sequencing tumor genomes, have brought forth the promise of genome-driven oncology care. As we expand the breadth and depth of genomic analyses, the biological and clinical complexity of its implementation will be unparalleled. Challenges include target credentialing and validation, implementing drug combinations, clinical trial designs, targeting tumor heterogeneity, and deploying technologies beyond DNA sequencing, among others. We review how contemporary approaches are tackling these challenges and will ultimately serve as an engine for biological discovery and increase our insight into cancer and its treatment. PMID:28187282

  12. Oncological Management and Pregnancy Outcomes in Women Diagnosed With Cancer During Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verheecke, Magali; Van Calsteren, Kristel; Fruscio, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Aims The effect of the increased awareness of the potential to treat cancer during pregnancy is currently unknown. Therefore we aimed to analyse the oncological management and the obstetrical and neonatal outcomes of patients treated in the last 20 years by members of the International Network...

  13. Oncological management and obstetric and neonatal outcomes for women diagnosed with cancer during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Haan, Jorine; Verheecke, Magali; Van Calsteren, Kristel

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Awareness is growing that cancer can be treated during pregnancy, but the effect of this change on maternal and neonatal outcomes is unknown. The International Network on Cancer, Infertility and Pregnancy (INCIP) registers the incidence and maternal, obstetric, oncological, and neonat...

  14. Art Therapy with an Oncology Care Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainis, Nancy A.

    2005-01-01

    Oncology nurses are particularly vulnerable to "burnout" syndrome due to the intensity of their work and the ongoing losses they experience while providing oncology care to their patients. High levels of stress in the workplace left untended lead to high job turnover, poor productivity, and diminished quality of care for patients.…

  15. Nursing 436A: Pediatric Oncology for Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Cynthia L.

    A description is provided of "Pediatric Oncology for Nurses," the first in a series of three courses offered to fourth-year nursing students in pediatric oncology. The first section provides a course overview, discusses time assignments, and describes the target student population. Next, a glossary of terms, and lists of course goals, long-range…

  16. 2016 President's Plenary International Psycho-Oncology Society: challenges and opportunities for growing and developing psychosocial oncology programmes worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travado, Luzia; Bultz, Barry D; Ullrich, Andreas; Asuzu, Chioma C; Turner, Jane; Grassi, Luigi; Jacobsen, Paul

    2017-09-01

    Consistent with the International Psycho-Oncology Society's (IPOS) vision and goals, we are committed to improving quality cancer care and cancer policies through psychosocial care globally. As part of IPOS's mission, upon entering "Official Relations" for a second term with the World Health Organization (WHO), IPOS has dedicated much attention to reaching out to countries, which lack formalized psychosocial care programmes. One of IPOS's strategies to accomplish this goal has been to bring psycho-oncology training programmes to low- and middle-income countries and regions. To this end, the IPOS Board approved a new position on the Board of Directors for a member from a low- to middle-income country (LMIC). The IPOS 2016 President's Plenary focused on challenges and opportunities that exist in growing and developing psychosocial oncology programmes worldwide. The plenary presentations highlight how IPOS and WHO have aligned their goals to help LMICs support cancer patients as an essential element of cancer and palliative care. IPOS country representatives are strongly supported in liaising with national health authorities and with WHO Country Representatives in LMICs. The plenary speakers discussed the role IPOS Federation has taken in building a global network of psychosocial leaders and the impact this had in assisting LMICs in meeting IPOS's psychosocial care objectives. The plenary highlighted the challenges of expanding psychosocial reach into these countries. One significant question remains: Can psychosocial guidelines be adapted to LMICs and regions? Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. [Therapeutic Aggressiveness and Liquid Oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R

    2017-01-01

    Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.

  18. Big data in oncologic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regge, Daniele; Mazzetti, Simone; Giannini, Valentina; Bracco, Christian; Stasi, Michele

    2017-06-01

    Cancer is a complex disease and unfortunately understanding how the components of the cancer system work does not help understand the behavior of the system as a whole. In the words of the Greek philosopher Aristotle "the whole is greater than the sum of parts." To date, thanks to improved information technology infrastructures, it is possible to store data from each single cancer patient, including clinical data, medical images, laboratory tests, and pathological and genomic information. Indeed, medical archive storage constitutes approximately one-third of total global storage demand and a large part of the data are in the form of medical images. The opportunity is now to draw insight on the whole to the benefit of each individual patient. In the oncologic patient, big data analysis is at the beginning but several useful applications can be envisaged including development of imaging biomarkers to predict disease outcome, assessing the risk of X-ray dose exposure or of renal damage following the administration of contrast agents, and tracking and optimizing patient workflow. The aim of this review is to present current evidence of how big data derived from medical images may impact on the diagnostic pathway of the oncologic patient.

  19. ONCOLOGY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cancer is characterized by a later stage of presentation.6 ... may be done as a result of the patient's age or family history on presentation to a ... This may frequently be the first time that the patient has a clinical breast ... and the diagnosis and treatment of their DCIS. ... conservation therapy (either ROLL or WLE), 10 required.

  20. Surgical Oncology Nursing: Looking Back, Looking Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Patrick C; Selanders, Louise

    2017-02-01

    To provide a historical perspective in the development of oncology nursing and surgical oncology as critical components of today's health care system. Review of the literature and Web sites of key organizations. The evolution of surgical oncology nursing has traversed a historical journey from that of a niche subspecialty of nursing that had very little scientific underpinning, to a highly sophisticated discipline within a very short time. Nursing continues to contribute its expertise to the encyclopedic knowledge base of surgical oncology and cancer care, which have helped improve the lives of countless patients and families who have had to face the difficulties of this diagnosis. An understanding of the historical context for which a nursing specialty such as surgical oncology nursing evolves is critical to gaining an appreciation for the contributions of nursing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A clinical intranet model for radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Ken; Fox, Tim; Davis, Larry

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: A new paradigm in computing is being formulated from advances in client-server technology. This new way of accessing data in a network is referred to variously as Web-based computing, Internet computing, or Intranet computing. The difference between an internet and intranet being that the former is for global access and the later is only for intra-departmental access. Our purpose with this work is to develop a clinically useful radiation oncology intranet for accessing physically disparate data sources. Materials and Methods: We have developed an intranet client-server system using Windows-NT Server 4.0 running Internet Information Server (IIS) on the back-end and client PCs using a typical World Wide Web (WWW) browser. The clients also take advantage of the Microsoft Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) standard for accessing commercial database systems. The various data sources used include: a traditional Radiation Oncology Information (ROIS) System (VARiS 1.3 tm ); a 3-D treatment planning system (CAD Plan tm ); a beam scanning system (Wellhoffer tm ); as well as an electronic portal imaging device (PortalVision tm ) and a CT-Simulator providing digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) (Picker AcQsim tm ). We were able to leverage previously developed Microsoft Visual C++ applications without major re-writing of source code for this. Results: With the data sources and development materials used, we were able to develop a series of WWW-based clinical tool kits. The tool kits were designed to provide profession-specific clinical information. The physician's tool kit provides a treatment schedule for daily patients along with a dose summary from VARiS and the ability to review portal images and prescription images from the EPID and Picker. The physicists tool kit compares dose summaries from VARiS with an independent check against RTP beam data and serves as a quick 'chart-checker'. Finally, an administrator tool kit provides a summary of periodic charging

  2. Tumor markers in clinical oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, S.

    2004-01-01

    The subtle differences between normal and tumor cells are exploited in the detection and treatment of cancer. These differences are designated as tumor markers and can be either qualitative or quantitative in their nature. That means that both the structures that are produced by tumor cells as well as the structures that are produced in excessive amounts by host tissues under the influence of tumor cells can function as tumor markers. Speaking in general, the tumor markers are the specific molecules appearing in the blood or tissues and the occurrence of which is associated with cancer. According to their application, tumor markers can be roughly divided as markers in clinical oncology and markers in pathology. In this review, only tumor markers in clinical oncology are going to be discussed. Current tumor markers in clinical oncology include (i) oncofetal antigens, (ii) placental proteins, (iii) hormones, (iv) enzymes, (v) tumor-associated antigens, (vi) special serum proteins, (vii) catecholamine metabolites, and (viii) miscellaneous markers. As to the literature, an ideal tumor marker should fulfil certain criteria - when using it as a test for detection of cancer disease: (1) positive results should occur in the early stages of the disease, (2) positive results should occur only in the patients with a specific type of malignancy, (3) positive results should occur in all patients with the same malignancy, (4) the measured values should correlate with the stage of the disease, (5) the measured values should correlate to the response to treatment, (6) the marker should be easy to measure. Most tumor markers available today meet several, but not all criteria. As a consequence of that, some criteria were chosen for the validation and proper selection of the most appropriate marker in a particular malignancy, and these are: (1) markers' sensitivity, (2) specificity, and (3) predictive values. Sensitivity expresses the mean probability of determining an elevated tumor

  3. Supportive care in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotman, M.; John, M.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation therapist, concerned with the disease process and all the technical intricacies of treatment, has usually not been involved in managing the supportive aspects of caring for the patient. Yet, of the team of medical specialists and allied health personnel required in oncology, the radiation therapist is the one most responsible for overseeing the total care of the cancer patient. At times this might include emotional support, prevention and correction of tissue dysfunction, augmentation of nutrition, metabolic and electrolyte regulation, rehabilitation, and vocational support. This chapter is a brief overview of a considerable volume of literature that has occupied the interest of a rather small group of physicians, nutritionists, and psychologists. The discussion highlights the special management problems of the normal-tissue effects of radiation, the related nutritional aspects of cancer care, and certain emotional and pathologic considerations

  4. Preclinical models in radiation oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahn Jenna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As the incidence of cancer continues to rise, the use of radiotherapy has emerged as a leading treatment modality. Preclinical models in radiation oncology are essential tools for cancer research and therapeutics. Various model systems have been used to test radiation therapy, including in vitro cell culture assays as well as in vivo ectopic and orthotopic xenograft models. This review aims to describe such models, their advantages and disadvantages, particularly as they have been employed in the discovery of molecular targets for tumor radiosensitization. Ultimately, any model system must be judged by its utility in developing more effective cancer therapies, which is in turn dependent on its ability to simulate the biology of tumors as they exist in situ. Although every model has its limitations, each has played a significant role in preclinical testing. Continued advances in preclinical models will allow for the identification and application of targets for radiation in the clinic.

  5. Communication competencies of oncology nurses in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskor, Nor Aida; Krauss, Steven Eric; Muhamad, Mazanah; Nik Mahmood, Nik Hasnaa

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on part of a large study to identify competencies of oncology nurses in Malaysia. It focuses on oncology nurses' communications-related competency. As an important cancer care team member, oncology nurses need to communicate effectively with cancer patients. Literature shows that poor communication can make patients feel anxious, uncertain and generally not satisfied with their nurses' care. This paper deliberates on the importance of effective communication by oncology nurses in the context of a public hospital. Four focus group discussions were used in this study with 17 oncology/cancer care nurses from Malaysian public hospitals. The main inclusion criterion was that the nurses had to have undergone a post-basic course in oncology, or have work experience as a cancer care nurse. The findings indicated that nurses do communicate with their patients, patients' families and doctors to provide information about the disease, cancer treatment, disease recurrence and side effects. Nurses should have good communication skills in order to build relationships as well as to provide quality services to their patients. The paper concludes by recommending how oncology nursing competencies can be improved.

  6. Pharmacy Instruction in Medical Oncology: Results of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cersosimo, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey concerning oncology instruction in pharmacy schools found it taught primarily as part of a course in medicinal chemistry/pharmacology or therapeutics. Twenty-one schools offer an oncology course, with others planning them. Oncology clerkships are currently available in 42 schools. Increased emphasis on oncology instruction is encouraged.…

  7. PET / MRI vs. PET / CT. Indications Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva González, Juan P.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid techniques in Nuclear Medicine is currently a field in full development for diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. With the recent advent of PET / MRI much it speculated about whether or not it is superior to PET / CT especially in oncology. The Conference seeks to clarify this situation by dealing issues such as: State of the art technology PET / MRI; Indications Oncology; Some clinical cases. It concludes by explaining the oncological indications of both the real and current situation of the PET / MRI. (author)

  8. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine and Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, Vincent; Weidlich, Georg A

    2018-04-13

    Artifical Intelligence (AI) was reviewed with a focus on its potential applicability to radiation oncology. The improvement of process efficiencies and the prevention of errors were found to be the most significant contributions of AI to radiation oncology. It was found that the prevention of errors is most effective when data transfer processes were automated and operational decisions were based on logical or learned evaluations by the system. It was concluded that AI could greatly improve the efficiency and accuracy of radiation oncology operations.

  9. Natural background radiation and oncologic disease incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burenin, P.I.

    1982-01-01

    Cause and effect relationships between oncologic disease incidence in human population and environmental factors are examined using investigation materials of Soviet and foreign authors. The data concerning US white population are adduced. The role and contribution of natural background radiation oncologic disease prevalence have been determined with the help of system information analysis. The probable damage of oncologic disease is shown to decrease as the background radiation level diminishes. The linear nature of dose-response relationspip has been established. The necessity to include the life history of the studied population along with environmental factors in epidemiological study under conditions of multiplicity of cancerogenesis causes is emphasized

  10. Robot-assisted surgery in gynecological oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Steffen E; Mosgaard, Berit J; Rosendahl, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Robot-assisted surgery has become more widespread in gynecological oncology. The purpose of this systematic review is to present current knowledge on robot-assisted surgery, and to clarify and discuss controversies that have arisen alongside the development and deployment. MATERIAL...... was performed by screening of titles and abstracts, and by full text scrutiny. From 2001 to 2016, a total of 76 references were included. RESULTS: Robot-assisted surgery in gynecological oncology has increased, and current knowledge supports that the oncological safety is similar, compared with previous...

  11. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steinbjørn

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) was established by the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group as a national clinical database. It was established for the purpose of supporting research and development in adult patients with primary brain tumors in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: DNOR has...... advantage of reporting indicators is the related multidisciplinary discussions giving a better understanding of what actually is going on, thereby facilitating the work on adjusting the national guidelines in the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group. CONCLUSION: The establishment of DNOR has optimized the quality...

  12. Clinical and Radiation Oncology. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurga, L.; Adam, Z.; Autrata, R.

    2010-01-01

    The work is two-volume set and has 1,658 pages. It is divided into 5 sections: I. Principles Clinical and radiation oncology. II. Hematological Malignant tumors. III. Solid tumors. IV. Treatment options metastatic Disease. V. Clinical practice in oncology. Second volume contains following sections a chapters: Section III: Solid nodes, it contains following chapters: (38) Central nervous system tumors; (39) Tumors of the eye, orbits and adnexas; (40) Head and neck carcinomas; (41) Lung carcinomas and pleural mesothelioma; (42) Mediastinal tumors; (43) Tumors of the esophagus; (44) Gastric carcinomas; (45) Carcinoma of the colon, rectum and anus; (46) Small intestinal cancer; (47) Liver and biliary tract carcinomas; (48) Tumors of the pancreas; (49) Tumors of the kidney and upper urinary tract; (50) Bladder tumors of the bladder, urinary tract and penis; (51) Prostate Carcinoma; (52) Testicular tumors; (53) Malignant neoplasm of the cervix, vulva and vagina; (54) Endometrial carcinoma; (55) Malignant ovarian tumors; (56) Gestational trophoblastic disease; (57) Breast carcinoma - based on a evidence-based approach; (58) Thyroid and parathyroid carcinomas; (59) Dental tumors of endocrine glands; (60) Tumors of the locomotory system; (61) Malignant melanoma; (62) Carcinomas of the skin and skin adnexa; (63) Malignant tumors in immunosuppressed patients; (64) Tumors of unknown primary localization; (65) Children's oncology; (66) Geriatric Oncology; (67) Principles of long-term survival of patients with medically and socially significant types of malignant tumors after treatment. Section IV: Options of metastic disease disease, it contains following chapters: (68) Metastases to the central nervous system; (69) Metastases in the lungs; (70) Metastases in the liver; (71) Metastases into the skeleton. Section V: Clinical practice in oncology, it contains following chapters: (72) Acute conditions in oncology; (73) Prevention and management of radiation and chemical toxicity

  13. The need for more workshops in laparoscopic surgery and surgical anatomy for European gynaecological oncology trainees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manchanda, Ranjit; Halaska, Michael J; Piek, Jurgen M

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to highlight the relative preference of European gynecologic oncology trainees for workshops that could support and supplement their training needs. METHODS: A Web-based survey was sent to 900 trainees on the European Network of Young Gynaecological...... to the survey, giving a 21% response rate. The 3 most important topics reported were laparoscopic surgery; surgical anatomy, and imaging techniques in gynecologic oncology. The Dendron plot indicated 4 different clusters of workshops (research related skills, supportive ancillary skills, related nonsurgical...... questionnaire was 0.78, which suggests good internal consistency/reliability. CONCLUSIONS: This report for the first time highlights the relative importance and significance European trainees attach to some of their training needs in gynecologic oncology. Laparoscopic surgery, surgical anatomy, and imaging...

  14. Oncology healthcare professionals' perspectives on the psychosocial support needs of cancer patients during oncology treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaz, Bruno E; Treharne, Gareth J; Knight, Robert G; Conner, Tamlin S; Perez, David

    2017-09-01

    This study explored oncology healthcare professionals' perspectives on the psychosocial support needs of diverse cancer patients during oncology treatment. Six themes were identified using thematic analysis. Healthcare professionals highlighted the importance of their sensitivity, respect and emotional tact during appointments in order to effectively identify and meet the needs of oncology patients. Participants also emphasised the importance of building rapport that recognises patients as people. Patients' acceptance of treatment-related distress and uncertainty was described as required for uptake of available psychosocial supportive services. We offer some practical implications that may help improve cancer patients' experiences during oncology treatment.

  15. Program for Critical Technologies in Breast Oncology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costa, Jose

    1997-01-01

    In Year 3 of The Program for Critical Technologies in Breast Oncology (PCTBO), we have expanded services that were initiated in July 1994 to establish a core technical and tissue procurement resource that: (1...

  16. The Evolution of Gero-Oncology Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Stewart M; Bryant, Ashley Leak; Puts, Martine

    2016-02-01

    This article summarizes the evolution of gero-oncology nursing and highlights key educational initiatives, clinical practice issues, and research areas to enhance care of older adults with cancer. Peer-reviewed literature, position statements, clinical practice guidelines, Web-based materials, and professional organizations' resources. Globally, the older adult cancer population is rapidly growing. The care of older adults with cancer requires an understanding of their diverse needs and the intersection of cancer and aging. Despite efforts to enhance competence in gero-oncology and to develop a body of evidence, nurses and health care systems remain under-prepared to provide high-quality care for older adults with cancer. Nurses must take a leadership role in integrating gerontological principles into oncology settings. Working closely with interdisciplinary team members, nurses should utilize available resources and continue to build evidence through gero-oncology nursing research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiation oncology: a primer for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Abigail T; Plastaras, John P; Vapiwala, Neha

    2013-09-01

    Radiation oncology requires a complex understanding of cancer biology, radiation physics, and clinical care. This paper equips the medical student to understand the fundamentals of radiation oncology, first with an introduction to cancer treatment and the use of radiation therapy. Considerations during radiation oncology consultations are discussed extensively with an emphasis on how to formulate an assessment and plan including which treatment modality to use. The treatment planning aspects of radiation oncology are then discussed with a brief introduction to how radiation works, followed by a detailed explanation of the nuances of simulation, including different imaging modalities, immobilization, and accounting for motion. The medical student is then instructed on how to participate in contouring, plan generation and evaluation, and the delivery of radiation on the machine. Lastly, potential adverse effects of radiation are discussed with a particular focus on the on-treatment patient.

  18. Collaborative Genomics Study Advances Precision Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaborative study conducted by two Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG) initiatives highlights the importance of integrating structural and functional genomics programs to improve cancer therapies, and more specifically, contribute to precision oncology treatments for children.

  19. Towards enhanced PET quantification in clinical oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaidi, Habib; Karakatsanis, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    is still a matter of debate. Quantitative PET has advanced elegantly during the last two decades and is now reaching the maturity required for clinical exploitation, particularly in oncology where it has the capability to open many avenues for clinical diagnosis, assessment of response to treatment...... and therapy planning. Therefore, the preservation and further enhancement of the quantitative features of PET imaging is crucial to ensure that the full clinical value of PET imaging modality is utilized in clinical oncology. Recent advancements in PET technology and methodology have paved the way for faster...... PET acquisitions of enhanced sensitivity to support the clinical translation of highly quantitative 4D parametric imaging methods in clinical oncology. In this report, we provide an overview of recent advances and future trends in quantitative PET imaging in the context of clinical oncology. The pros...

  20. Physiologic and psychobehavioral research in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, W H; Silberfarb, P M; Andersen, B L; Andrykowski, M A; Bovbjerg, D H; Burish, T G; Carpenter, P J; Cleeland, C; Dolgin, M; Levy, S M

    1991-02-01

    A major thrust in research in psychosocial oncology is the study of the interaction of psychologic and physiologic variables. This discussion reviews the current status and future directions of such research. Areas addressed include pain, nausea and vomiting with chemotherapy, sexuality, effects of cancer on psychologic and neuropsychologic function, impact of psychologic factors on cancer and its treatment, and psychoneuroimmunology. In addition, specific recommendations for strategies to facilitate research in these areas of psychosocial oncology are proposed.

  1. A Comprehensive Definition for Integrative Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Claudia M; Balneaves, Lynda G; Cardoso, Maria J; Cohen, Lorenzo; Greenlee, Heather; Johnstone, Peter; Kücük, Ömer; Mailman, Josh; Mao, Jun J

    2017-11-01

    Integrative oncology, which is generally understood to refer to the use of a combination of complementary medicine therapies in conjunction with conventional cancer treatments, has been defined in different ways, but there is no widely accepted definition. We sought to develop and establish a consensus for a comprehensive definition of the field of integrative oncology. We used a mixed-methods approach that included a literature analysis and a consensus procedure, including an interdisciplinary expert panel and surveys, to develop a comprehensive and acceptable definition for the term "integrative oncology." The themes identified in the literature and from the expert discussion were condensed into a two-sentence definition. Survey respondents had very positive views on the draft definition, and their comments helped to shape the final version. The final definition for integrative oncology is: "Integrative oncology is a patient-centered, evidence-informed field of cancer care that utilizes mind and body practices, natural products, and/or lifestyle modifications from different traditions alongside conventional cancer treatments. Integrative oncology aims to optimize health, quality of life, and clinical outcomes across the cancer care continuum and to empower people to prevent cancer and become active participants before,during, and beyond cancer treatment." This short and comprehensive definition for the term integrative oncology will facilitate a better understanding and communication of this emerging field. This definition will also drive focused and cohesive effort to advance the field of integrative oncology. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Current management of surgical oncologic emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosscher, Marianne R F; van Leeuwen, Barbara L; Hoekstra, Harald J

    2015-01-01

    For some oncologic emergencies, surgical interventions are necessary for dissolution or temporary relieve. In the absence of guidelines, the most optimal method for decision making would be in a multidisciplinary cancer conference (MCC). In an acute setting, the opportunity for multidisciplinary discussion is often not available. In this study, the management and short term outcome of patients after surgical oncologic emergency consultation was analyzed. A prospective registration and follow up of adult patients with surgical oncologic emergencies between 01-11-2013 and 30-04-2014. The follow up period was 30 days. In total, 207 patients with surgical oncologic emergencies were included. Postoperative wound infections, malignant obstruction, and clinical deterioration due to progressive disease were the most frequent conditions for surgical oncologic emergency consultation. During the follow up period, 40% of patients underwent surgery. The median number of involved medical specialties was two. Only 30% of all patients were discussed in a MCC within 30 days after emergency consultation, and only 41% of the patients who underwent surgery were discussed in a MCC. For 79% of these patients, the surgical procedure was performed before the MCC. Mortality within 30 days was 13%. In most cases, surgery occurred without discussing the patient in a MCC, regardless of the fact that multiple medical specialties were involved in the treatment process. There is a need for prognostic aids and acute oncology pathways with structural multidisciplinary management. These will provide in faster institution of the most appropriate personalized cancer care, and prevent unnecessary investigations or invasive therapy.

  3. Stress and burnout in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, K M; Holland, J C; Breitbart, W; Berenson, S; Dougherty, J; Ouellette-Kobasa, S; Lesko, L

    2000-11-01

    This article identifies the professional stressors experienced by nurses, house staff, and medical oncologists and examines the effect of stress and personality attributes on burnout scores. A survey was conducted of 261 house staff, nurses, and medical oncologists in a cancer research hospital, and oncologists in outside clinical practices. It measured burnout, psychological distress, and physical symptoms. Each participant completed a questionnaire that quantified life stressors, personality attributes, burnout, psychological distress, physical symptoms, coping strategies, and social support. The results showed that house staff experienced the greatest burnout. They also reported greater emotional exhaustion, a feeling of emotional distance from patients, and a poorer sense of personal accomplishment. Negative work events contributed significantly to level of burnout; however, having a "hardy" personality helped to alleviate burnout. Nurses reported more physical symptoms than house staff and oncologists. However, they were less emotionally distant from patients. Women reported a lower sense of accomplishment and greater distress. The four most frequent methods of relaxing were talking to friends, using humor, drinking coffee or eating, and watching television. One unexpected finding was that the greater the perception of oneself as religious, the lower the level of burnout. Thus, while the rewards of working in oncology are usually sufficient to keep nurses and doctors in the field, they also experience burnout symptoms that vary by gender and personal attributes. House staff are most stressed and report the greatest and most severe symptoms of stress. Interventions are needed that address the specific problems of each group.

  4. Oncologic imaging: kidney and ureter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClennan, B.L.; Balfe, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Malignant cancers of the kidney and ureter account for only 2 to 3% of all neoplasms in man. However, early diagnosis and treatment can have a profound effect on patient prognosis and survival. This article seeks to amalgamate a large body of information related to the pathology of primary renal tumors and metastatic disease with current imaging strategies to assist the clinician and enhance his understanding of the wide variety of modern imaging techniques available. Current tumor staging classifications are presented and the various imaging strategies are keyed to detection, definition and treatment options for tumors of the renal parenchyma and ureter. The strengths and limitations of all available imaging modalities are reviewed. An optimal approach to the imaging workup is developed with regard to availability, evolving technology and most importantly, cost efficacy. The controversies and conflicts in imaging and treatment options are explored while constructing a step by step approach that will be both flexible and utilitarian for the clinician faced with daily oncologic management choices

  5. Positron emission tomography in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, R.; Bentourkia, M.; Benard, F.

    2002-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography is a sophisticated molecular imaging technique, using a special scanner, that displays the functional status of tissues in the body at the cellular level (their metabolism). It is a diagnostic scan that provides the physician with information not available with traditional anatomic studies such as CT or MRI. PET can detect changes in cell function (disease) long before they are evident as physical (anatomic) changes seen on CT or MRI. In this way PET can add important information about many diseases allowing the physician to make a diagnosis often much earlier than with anatomic imaging techniques such as CT or MRI alone. In addition, in cases where an abnormality is noted on CT or MRI, PET can help differentiate benign changes from changes due to disease. PET scanning also typically images the entire body, unlike CT/MRI which is usually broken up into specific limited body section scans. All cells use glucose as an energy source but cancer cells use much more since they are growing much faster and out of control. This is the basis of imaging with F-18 FDG glucose, the radiotracer agent use in a PET oncology study. The abnormal, accelerated glucose used by cancer cells is detected by the PET scanner that processes the emissions from the F-18 FDG glucose by abnormally high levels of metabolism (tumor)

  6. Future directions in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, L.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Cancer treatment has evolved progressively over the years as a joint result of improvements in technology and better understanding of the biological responses of neoplastic and normal cells to cytotoxic agents. Although major therapeutic 'breakthroughs' are unlikely absent the discovery of exploitable fundamental differences between cancer cells and their normal homologs, further incremental improvements in cancer treatment results can confidently be expected as we apply existing knowledge better and take advantage of new research insights. Areas in which I can foresee significant improvements (in approximate chronological order) are as follows: better physical radiation dose distributions; more effective radiation and chemoradiation protocols based on radiobiological principles; more rational use of radiation adjuvants based on biologic criteria; use of novel targets and vectors for systemic radionuclide therapy; use of genetic markers of radiosensitivity to determine radiation dose tolerances; and use of radiation as a modulator of therapeutic gene expression. Radiation research has contributed greatly to the efficacy of radiation oncology as it is now practised but has even greater potential for the future

  7. Interventional radiology in pediatric oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffer, Fredric A.

    2005-01-01

    There are many radiological interventions necessary for pediatric oncology patients, some of which may be covered in other articles in this publication. I will discuss a number of interventions including percutaneous biopsy for solid tumor and hematological malignancy diagnosis or recurrence, for the diagnosis of graft versus host disease after stem cell or bone marrow transplantation, and for the diagnosis of complications of immunosuppression such as invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. In the past, tumor localization techniques have been necessary to biopsy or resect small lesions. However improved guidance techniques have allowed for more precise biopsy and the use of thermal ablation instead of excision for local tumor control. A percutaneously placed radio frequency, microwave, laser or cryogen probe can ablate the primary and metastatic tumors of the liver, lung, bone, kidney and other structures in children. This is an alternative treatment for the local control of tumors that may not be amenable to surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. I will also describe how chemoembolization can be used to treat primary or metastatic tumors of the liver that have failed other therapies. This treatment delivers chemotherapy in the hepatic artery infused with emboli to increase the dwell time and concentration of the agents

  8. Information Needs of Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Surgical Oncology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Jacqueline; Kacikanis, Anna; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Gallinger, Steven; Ruthig, Elke

    2017-09-01

    A marked knowledge gap exists concerning the information needs of hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) surgical oncology patients. We investigated the comprehensive information needs of this patient population, including the type and amount of information desired, as well as the preferred method of receiving information. A questionnaire was administered to patients being treated surgically for cancers of the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, or bile ducts at Toronto General Hospital, part of the University Health Network, in Toronto, Canada. The questionnaire examined patients' information needs across six domains of information: medical, practical, physical, emotional, social, and spiritual. Among 36 respondents, the importance of information and amount of information desired differed significantly by domain (both p < 0.001). This group of patients rated information in the medical and physical domains as most important, though they also desired specific items of information from the emotional, practical, and social domains. Patients' overwhelming preference was to receive information via a one-on-one consultation with a healthcare provider. It is important for healthcare providers working with HPB surgical oncology patients to be comprehensive when providing information related to patients' cancer diagnosis, prognosis, associated symptoms, and side effects of treatment. Certain emotional, practical, and social issues (e.g., fears of cancer recurrence, drug coverage options, relationship changes) should be addressed as well. Face-to-face interactions should be the primary mode of delivering information to patients. Our findings are being used to guide the training of healthcare providers and the development of educational resources specific to HPB surgical oncology patients.

  9. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group and American College of Radiology Imaging Network Randomized Phase 2 Trial of Neoadjuvant Preoperative Paclitaxel/Cisplatin/Radiation Therapy (RT) or Irinotecan/Cisplatin/RT in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma: Long-Term Outcome and Implications for Trial Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinberg, Lawrence R., E-mail: kleinla@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Catalano, Paul J. [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Forastiere, Arlene A. [Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Keller, Steven M. [Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Mitchel, Edith P. [Department of Medical Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Anne, Pramila Rani [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Benson, Al B. [Department of Medicine-Hematology/Oncology, Lurie Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: Toxicity, pathologic complete response, and long-term outcomes are reported for the neoadjuvant therapies assessed in a randomized phase 2 Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group and American College of Radiology Imaging Network trial for operable esophageal adenocarcinoma, staged as II-IVa by endoscopy/ultrasonography (EUS). Methods and Materials: A total of 86 eligible patients began treatment. For arm A, preoperative chemotherapy was cisplatin, 30 mg/m{sup 2}, and irinotecan, 50 mg/m{sup 2}, on day 1, 8, 22, 29 during 45 Gy radiation therapy (RT), 1.8 Gy per day over 5 weeks. Adjuvant therapy was cisplatin, 30 mg/m{sup 2}, and irinotecan, 65 mg/m{sup 2} day 1, 8 every 21 days for 3 cycles. Arm B therapy was cisplatin, 30 mg/m{sup 2}, and paclitaxel, 50 mg/m{sup 2}, day 1, 8, 15, 22, 29 with RT, followed by adjuvant cisplatin, 75 mg/m{sup 2}, and paclitaxel, 175 mg/m{sup 2}, day 1 every 21 days for 3 cycles. Stratification included EUS stage and performance status. Results: In arm A, median overall survival was 35 months, and 5-, 6-, and 7-year survival rates were 46%, 39%, and 35%, respectively, whereas for arm B, they were 21 months and 27%, 27%, and 23%, respectively. Median progression- or recurrence-free survival (PFS) was 39.8 months with a 3-year PFS of 50% for arm A and 12.4 months (P=.046) with 3-year PFS of 28% for arm B. Eighty percent of the observed incidents of progression occurred within 19 months. Survival did not differ significantly by EUS and performance status strata. Conclusions: Long-term survival was similar for both arms and did not appear superior to results achieved with other standard regimens.

  10. Cancer patients and oncology nursing: Perspectives of oncology nurses in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisli, S; Yuce, D; Karakilic, B; Kilickap, S; Hayran, M

    2017-09-01

    Burnout and exhaustion is a frequent problem in oncology nursing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the aspects of oncology nurses about their profession in order to enhance the standards of oncology nursing. This survey was conducted with 70 oncology nurses working at Hacettepe University Oncology Hospital. Data were collected between January-April 2012. Each participant provided a study form comprising questions about sociodemographic information; about difficulties, positive aspects and required skills for oncology nursing; and questions evaluating level of participation and clinical perception of oncology nursing. Mean age of nurses was 29.9 ± 5.7 years. More than half of the participants were married (51.4%) and 30% had at least one child. Percent of nurses working in oncology for their entire work life was 75.8%. Most frequently expressed difficulties were exhaustion (58.6%), coping with the psychological problems of the patients (25.7%), and frequent deaths (24.3%); positive aspects were satisfaction (37.1%), changing the perceptions about life (30%), and empathy (14.3%); and required skills were patience (60%), empathy (57.1%), and experience (50%). For difficulties of oncology nursing, 28.3% of difficulties could be attributed to job-related factors, 30.3% to patient-related factors, and 77% of difficulties to individual factors. The independent predictors of participation level of the nurses were self-thoughts of skills and positive aspects of oncology nursing. According to the findings of this study, nurses declared that working with cancer patients increase burnout, they are insufficient in managing work stress and giving psychological care to patients, but their job satisfaction, clinical skills and awareness regarding priorities of life has increased.

  11. Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: behavioral science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Robert B; Patel, Sunita K; Embry, Leanne; Hardy, Kristina K; Pelletier, Wendy; Annett, Robert D; Patenaude, Andrea; Lown, E Anne; Sands, Stephen A; Barakat, Lamia P

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral science has long played a central role in pediatric oncology clinical service and research. Early work focused on symptom relief related to side effects of chemotherapy and pain management related to invasive medical procedures. As survival rates improved, the focused has shifted to examination of the psychosocial impact, during and after treatment, of pediatric cancer and its treatment on children and their families. The success of the clinical trials networks related to survivorship highlights an even more critical role in numerous domains of psychosocial research and care. Within the cooperative group setting, the field of behavioral science includes psychologists, social workers, physicians, nurses, and parent advisors. The research agenda of this group of experts needs to focus on utilization of psychometrically robust measures to evaluate the impact of treatment on children with cancer and their families during and after treatment ends. Over the next 5 years, the field of behavioral science will need to develop and implement initiatives to expand use of standardized neurocognitive and behavior batteries; increase assessment of neurocognition using technology; early identification of at-risk children/families; establish standards for evidence-based psychosocial care; and leverage linkages with the broader behavioral health pediatric oncology community to translate empirically supported research clinical trials care to practice. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Precision oncology: origins, optimism, and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vinay; Fojo, Tito; Brada, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Imatinib, the first and arguably the best targeted therapy, became the springboard for developing drugs aimed at molecular targets deemed crucial to tumours. As this development unfolded, a revolution in the speed and cost of genetic sequencing occurred. The result--an armamentarium of drugs and an array of molecular targets--set the stage for precision oncology, a hypothesis that cancer treatment could be markedly improved if therapies were guided by a tumour's genomic alterations. Drawing lessons from the biological basis of cancer and recent empirical investigations, we take a more measured view of precision oncology's promise. Ultimately, the promise is not our concern, but the threshold at which we declare success. We review reports of precision oncology alongside those of precision diagnostics and novel radiotherapy approaches. Although confirmatory evidence is scarce, these interventions have been widely endorsed. We conclude that the current path will probably not be successful or, at a minimum, will have to undergo substantive adjustments before it can be successful. For the sake of patients with cancer, we hope one form of precision oncology will deliver on its promise. However, until confirmatory studies are completed, precision oncology remains unproven, and as such, a hypothesis in need of rigorous testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Don; Fairchild, Alysa; Keyes, Mira; Butler, Jim; Dundas, George

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada

  14. 2016 Updated American Society of Clinical Oncology/Oncology Nursing Society Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards, Including Standards for Pediatric Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuss, Michael N; Gilmore, Terry R; Belderson, Kristin M; Billett, Amy L; Conti-Kalchik, Tara; Harvey, Brittany E; Hendricks, Carolyn; LeFebvre, Kristine B; Mangu, Pamela B; McNiff, Kristen; Olsen, MiKaela; Schulmeister, Lisa; Von Gehr, Ann; Polovich, Martha

    2016-12-01

    Purpose To update the ASCO/Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards and to highlight standards for pediatric oncology. Methods The ASCO/ONS Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards were first published in 2009 and updated in 2011 to include inpatient settings. A subsequent 2013 revision expanded the standards to include the safe administration and management of oral chemotherapy. A joint ASCO/ONS workshop with stakeholder participation, including that of the Association of Pediatric Hematology Oncology Nurses and American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, was held on May 12, 2015, to review the 2013 standards. An extensive literature search was subsequently conducted, and public comments on the revised draft standards were solicited. Results The updated 2016 standards presented here include clarification and expansion of existing standards to include pediatric oncology and to introduce new standards: most notably, two-person verification of chemotherapy preparation processes, administration of vinca alkaloids via minibags in facilities in which intrathecal medications are administered, and labeling of medications dispensed from the health care setting to be taken by the patient at home. The standards were reordered and renumbered to align with the sequential processes of chemotherapy prescription, preparation, and administration. Several standards were separated into their respective components for clarity and to facilitate measurement of adherence to a standard. Conclusion As oncology practice has changed, so have chemotherapy administration safety standards. Advances in technology, cancer treatment, and education and training have prompted the need for periodic review and revision of the standards. Additional information is available at http://www.asco.org/chemo-standards .

  15. The work place educational climate in gynecological oncology fellowships across Europe: the impact of accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piek, Jurgen; Bossart, Michaela; Boor, Klarke; Halaska, Michael; Haidopoulos, Dimitrios; Zapardiel, Ignacio; Grabowski, Jacek; Kesic, Vesna; Cibula, David; Colombo, Nicoletta; Verheijen, Rene; Manchanda, Ranjit

    2015-01-01

    A good educational climate/environment in the workplace is essential for developing high-quality medical (sub)specialists. These data are lacking for gynecological oncology training. This study aims to evaluate the educational climate in gynecological oncology training throughout Europe and the factors affecting it. A Web-based anonymous survey sent to ENYGO (European Network of Young Gynecological Oncologists) members/trainees to assess gynecological oncology training. This included sociodemographic information, details regarding training posts, and a 50-item validated Dutch Residency Educational Climate Test (D-RECT) questionnaire with 11 subscales (1-5 Likert scale) to assess the educational climate. The χ test was used for evaluating categorical variables, and the Mann-Whitney U (nonparametric) test was used for continuous variables between 2 independent groups. Cronbach α assessed the questionnaire reliability. Multivariable linear regression assessed the effect of variables on D-RECT outcome subscales. One hundred nineteen gynecological oncological fellows responded. The D-RECT questionnaire was extremely reliable for assessing the educational environment in gynecological oncology (subscales' Cronbach α, 0.82-0.96). Overall, trainees do not seem to receive adequate/effective constructive feedback during training. The overall educational climate (supervision, coaching/assessment, feedback, teamwork, interconsultant relationships, formal education, role of the tutor, patient handover, and overall consultant's attitude) was significantly better (P = 0.001) in centers providing accredited training in comparison with centers without such accreditation. Multivariable regression indicated the main factors independently associated with a better educational climate were presence of an accredited training post and total years of training. This study emphasizes the need for better feedback mechanisms and the importance of accreditation of centers for training in

  16. [Psycho-oncology : the psyche and cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heussner, P; Hiddemann, W

    2012-11-01

    The relationships between the psyche and cancer are manifold. Psycho-oncology focuses on the psychological adjustment to life-threatening illnesses. Crises are not unusual in health care, but the perception of cancer is totally different because the diagnosis of cancer often results in an irrational shock reaction in all parties involved. A diagnosis of cancer is much more negatively perceived than any other incurable disease, such as cardiopathy or neuropathy with a comparable or worse prognosis. During the shock of having received a diagnosis of cancer, there is no awareness that cancer can be cured. Improvement of quality of life, identification of psychological distress and prevention of mental disorders are the main tasks of psycho-oncology. Psycho-oncological services are not longer regarded a luxury, but are recognized by health care politicians as being important. However, the financing of services remains unclear.

  17. The Evolution of Gero-Oncology Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Stewart M.; Bryant, Ashley Leak; Puts, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This article summarizes the evolution of gero-oncology nursing and highlights key educational initiatives, clinical practice issues, and research areas to enhance care of older adults with cancer. Data Sources Peer-reviewed literature, position statements, clinical practice guidelines, web-based materials, and professional organizations’ resources. Conclusion Globally, the older adult cancer population is rapidly growing. The care of older adults with cancer requires an understanding of their diverse needs and the intersection of cancer and aging. Despite efforts to enhance competence in gerooncology and to develop a body of evidence, nurses and healthcare systems remain under-prepared to provide high quality care for older adults with cancer. Implications for Nursing Practice Nurses need to take a leadership role in integrating gerontological principles into oncology settings. Working closely with interdisciplinary team members, nurses should utilize available resources and continue to build evidence through gero-oncology nursing research. PMID:26830263

  18. Review of optical coherence tomography in oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Xu, Yang; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2017-12-01

    The application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the field of oncology has been prospering over the past decade. OCT imaging has been used to image a broad spectrum of malignancies, including those arising in the breast, brain, bladder, the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts, the skin, and oral cavity, among others. OCT imaging has initially been applied for guiding biopsies, for intraoperatively evaluating tumor margins and lymph nodes, and for the early detection of small lesions that would often not be visible on gross examination, tasks that align well with the clinical emphasis on early detection and intervention. Recently, OCT imaging has been explored for imaging tumor cells and their dynamics, and for the monitoring of tumor responses to treatments. This paper reviews the evolution of OCT technologies for the clinical application of OCT in surgical and noninvasive interventional oncology procedures and concludes with a discussion of the future directions for OCT technologies, with particular emphasis on their applications in oncology.

  19. Confidence and authority through new knowledge: An evaluation of the national educational programme in paediatric oncology nursing in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergert, Pernilla; Af Sandeberg, Margareta; Andersson, Nina; Márky, Ildikó; Enskär, Karin

    2016-03-01

    There is a lack of nurse specialists in many paediatric hospitals in Sweden. This lack of competence is devastating for childhood cancer care because it is a highly specialised area that demands specialist knowledge. Continuing education of nurses is important to develop nursing practice and also to retain them. The aim of this study was to evaluate a Swedish national educational programme in paediatric oncology nursing. The nurses who participated came from all of the six paediatric oncology centres as well as from general paediatric wards. At the time of the evaluation, three groups of registered nurses (n=66) had completed this 2year, part-time educational programme. A study specific questionnaire, including closed and open-ended questions was sent to the 66 nurses and 54 questionnaires were returned. Answers were analysed using descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis. The results show that almost all the nurses (93%) stayed in paediatric care after the programme. Furthermore, 31% had a position in management or as a consultant nurse after the programme. The vast majority of the nurses (98%) stated that the programme had made them more secure in their work. The nurses were equipped, through education, for paediatric oncology care which included: knowledge generating new knowledge; confidence and authority; national networks and resources. They felt increased confidence in their roles as paediatric oncology nurses as well as authority in their encounters with families and in discussions with co-workers. New networks and resources were appreciated and used in their daily work in paediatric oncology. The programme was of importance to the career of the individual nurse and also to the quality of care given to families in paediatric oncology. The national educational programme for nurses in Paediatric Oncology Care meets the needs of the highly specialised care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gender Opportunities in Psychosocial Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscalzo, Matthew; Clark, Karen

    2018-01-01

    So much has happened since the original publication of this chapter. In some ways, the progress made in appreciating the full spectrum of sexual and gender expression has been uneven and in some nations, there has been serious regression and resulting repression. But overall, especially in the industrialized countries, there is much greater awareness of sex and gender and its importance in health and well being. In this updated chapter, we put sex and gender into a historical context that is relevant to psycho-oncology and that openly accepts that society overall, is highly conflicted when it comes to how women and men get the best out of each other, never mind how to best integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities. With the advent of more tailored treatments and strategic medicine, sex becomes much more important as a variable and this has led to greater scientific requirements to create protocols that integrate sex into all aspects of health from prevention, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship, and death. But we still have a very far way to go. There is a serious dearth of data on sex and gender in science overall and in cancer medicine specifically. Avoidance of discussions of sex and gender in medicine reflects the larger lingering societal discomfort with any discussion that links potential sex and gender differences with superiority. The data shows that there is more intrasexual than intersexual variation in men and women. When speaking about sex and gender the literature reflects that, on average, there are many differences, and although they are small, that when taken together, the impact may be quite robust. Sex and gender differences are relevant to how individuals, couples, and families experience and cope with serious illness; however these important and obvious variables are seldom taken into account when counseling seriously ill patients and their families. Cancer is a complex disease that brings into sharp relief the

  1. Board-Certified Oncology Pharmacists: Their Potential Contribution to Reducing a Shortfall in Oncology Patient Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignoffo, Robert; Knapp, Katherine; Barnett, Mitchell; Barbour, Sally Yowell; D'Amato, Steve; Iacovelli, Lew; Knudsen, Jasen; Koontz, Susannah E; Mancini, Robert; McBride, Ali; McCauley, Dayna; Medina, Patrick; O'Bryant, Cindy L; Scarpace, Sarah; Stricker, Steve; Trovato, James A

    2016-04-01

    With an aging US population, the number of patients who need cancer treatment will increase significantly by 2020. On the basis of a predicted shortage of oncology physicians, nonphysician health care practitioners will need to fill the shortfall in oncology patient visits, and nurse practitioners and physician assistants have already been identified for this purpose. This study proposes that appropriately trained oncology pharmacists can also contribute. The purpose of this study is to estimate the supply of Board of Pharmacy Specialties-certified oncology pharmacists (BCOPs) and their potential contribution to the care of patients with cancer through 2020. Data regarding accredited oncology pharmacy residencies, new BCOPs, and total BCOPs were used to estimate oncology residencies, new BCOPs, and total BCOPs through 2020. A Delphi panel process was used to estimate patient visits, identify patient care services that BCOPs could provide, and study limitations. By 2020, there will be an estimated 3,639 BCOPs, and approximately 62% of BCOPs will have completed accredited oncology pharmacy residencies. Delphi panelists came to consensus (at least 80% agreement) on eight patient care services that BCOPs could provide. Although the estimates given by our model indicate that BCOPs could provide 5 to 7 million 30-minute patient visits annually, sensitivity analysis, based on factors that could reduce potential visit availability resulted in 2.5 to 3.5 million visits by 2020 with the addition of BCOPs to the health care team. BCOPs can contribute to a projected shortfall in needed patient visits for cancer treatment. BCOPs, along with nurse practitioners and physician assistants could substantially reduce, but likely not eliminate, the shortfall of providers needed for oncology patient visits. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  2. Contemporary Trends in Radiation Oncology Resident Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Vivek; Burt, Lindsay; Gimotty, Phyllis A.; Ojerholm, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that recent resident research productivity might be different than a decade ago, and to provide contemporary information about resident scholarly activity. Methods and Materials: We compiled a list of radiation oncology residents from the 2 most recent graduating classes (June 2014 and 2015) using the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology annual directories. We queried the PubMed database for each resident's first-authored publications from postgraduate years (PGY) 2 through 5, plus a 3-month period after residency completion. We abstracted corresponding historical data for 2002 to 2007 from the benchmark publication by Morgan and colleagues (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;74:1567-1572). We tested the null hypothesis that these 2 samples had the same distribution for number of publications using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. We explored the association of demographic factors and publication number using multivariable zero-inflated Poisson regression. Results: There were 334 residents publishing 659 eligible first-author publications during residency (range 0-17; interquartile range 0-3; mean 2.0; median 1). The contemporary and historical distributions were significantly different (P<.001); contemporary publication rates were higher. Publications accrued late in residency (27% in PGY-4, 59% in PGY-5), and most were original research (75%). In the historical cohort, half of all articles were published in 3 journals; in contrast, the top half of contemporary publications were spread over 10 journals—most commonly International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics (17%), Practical Radiation Oncology (7%), and Radiation Oncology (4%). Male gender, non-PhD status, and larger residency size were associated with higher number of publications in the multivariable analysis. Conclusion: We observed an increase in first-author publications during training compared with historical data from the mid-2000s. These

  3. Contemporary Trends in Radiation Oncology Resident Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Vivek [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Burt, Lindsay [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Gimotty, Phyllis A. [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ojerholm, Eric, E-mail: eric.ojerholm@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that recent resident research productivity might be different than a decade ago, and to provide contemporary information about resident scholarly activity. Methods and Materials: We compiled a list of radiation oncology residents from the 2 most recent graduating classes (June 2014 and 2015) using the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology annual directories. We queried the PubMed database for each resident's first-authored publications from postgraduate years (PGY) 2 through 5, plus a 3-month period after residency completion. We abstracted corresponding historical data for 2002 to 2007 from the benchmark publication by Morgan and colleagues (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;74:1567-1572). We tested the null hypothesis that these 2 samples had the same distribution for number of publications using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. We explored the association of demographic factors and publication number using multivariable zero-inflated Poisson regression. Results: There were 334 residents publishing 659 eligible first-author publications during residency (range 0-17; interquartile range 0-3; mean 2.0; median 1). The contemporary and historical distributions were significantly different (P<.001); contemporary publication rates were higher. Publications accrued late in residency (27% in PGY-4, 59% in PGY-5), and most were original research (75%). In the historical cohort, half of all articles were published in 3 journals; in contrast, the top half of contemporary publications were spread over 10 journals—most commonly International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics (17%), Practical Radiation Oncology (7%), and Radiation Oncology (4%). Male gender, non-PhD status, and larger residency size were associated with higher number of publications in the multivariable analysis. Conclusion: We observed an increase in first-author publications during training compared with historical data from the mid-2000s. These

  4. Current management of surgical oncologic emergencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne R F Bosscher

    Full Text Available For some oncologic emergencies, surgical interventions are necessary for dissolution or temporary relieve. In the absence of guidelines, the most optimal method for decision making would be in a multidisciplinary cancer conference (MCC. In an acute setting, the opportunity for multidisciplinary discussion is often not available. In this study, the management and short term outcome of patients after surgical oncologic emergency consultation was analyzed.A prospective registration and follow up of adult patients with surgical oncologic emergencies between 01-11-2013 and 30-04-2014. The follow up period was 30 days.In total, 207 patients with surgical oncologic emergencies were included. Postoperative wound infections, malignant obstruction, and clinical deterioration due to progressive disease were the most frequent conditions for surgical oncologic emergency consultation. During the follow up period, 40% of patients underwent surgery. The median number of involved medical specialties was two. Only 30% of all patients were discussed in a MCC within 30 days after emergency consultation, and only 41% of the patients who underwent surgery were discussed in a MCC. For 79% of these patients, the surgical procedure was performed before the MCC. Mortality within 30 days was 13%.In most cases, surgery occurred without discussing the patient in a MCC, regardless of the fact that multiple medical specialties were involved in the treatment process. There is a need for prognostic aids and acute oncology pathways with structural multidisciplinary management. These will provide in faster institution of the most appropriate personalized cancer care, and prevent unnecessary investigations or invasive therapy.

  5. Neuro-oncology of CNS tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment modalities for neuro-oncologic diseases have made considerable advances in recent years. There is hardly a segment of the field of solid tumours that is experiencing such dynamic development with regard to basic scientific findings and clinical results. In the present book the world's leading experts have compiled the current practice-relevant knowledge of neuro-oncologic diseases. The book's clear structure and the uniform presentation of all chapters make this volume a valuable reference, especially for practice-oriented activities, allowing swift access to information about current treatment standards. Hence it will be of great value to both clinicians and researchers. (orig.)

  6. Oncology of Reptiles: Diseases, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Jane; Devau, Michael; Wilson-Robles, Heather; Hoppes, Sharman; Rech, Raquel; Russell, Karen E; Heatley, J Jill

    2017-01-01

    Based on necropsy review, neoplasia in reptiles has a comparable frequency to that of mammals and birds. Reptile neoplasia is now more frequently diagnosed in clinical practice based on increased use of advanced diagnostic techniques and improvements in reptilian husbandry allowing greater longevity of these species. This article reviews the current literature on neoplasia in reptiles, and focuses on advanced diagnostics and therapeutic options for reptilian patientssuffering neoplastic disease. Although most applied clinical reptile oncology is translated from dog and cat oncology, considerations specific to reptilian patients commonly encountered in clinical practice (turtles, tortoises, snakes, and lizards) are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrative oncology in Indian subcontinent: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, Ananthalakshmi; Janardhanan, Sunitha; Jeevakarunyam, Sathiyajeeva; Jeddy, Nadheem; Eagappan, Senthil

    2015-03-01

    Integrative oncology is a combination of one where complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) with conventional cancer treatment modalities is used to manage symptoms, control side-effects and improve the state of mental wellbeing. The ancient Indian medicinal approach in cancer treatment and management has a wide array of herbs and practices. There is an increasing demand for traditional and natural medicine by the cancer patients. The conventional oncologic surgeons and physicians should be aware of the role of cCAM that are available in Indian subcontinent and provide a treatment that focuses on the physical and mental state of wellness in combating cancer.

  8. Pharmacogenetics in the oncological clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, S.

    2004-01-01

    The genetic control of drug metabolism allows new insights into the bioavailability, toxicity, and efficacy of chemotherapy. In addition, molecular expression profiles of tumors offers the potential for targeted therapy to be directed more specifically to the biologic behavior of the cancer. Together these strategies are likely to change the practice of clinical oncology. However, appropriate clinical trials will be required to demonstrate the utility of these approaches before they are broadly implemented the biologic behavior of the cancer. Together these strategies are likely to change the practice of clinical oncology. However, appropriate clinical trials will be required to demonstrate the utility of these approaches before they are broadly implemented

  9. Fish Oncology: Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Nadeau, Marie-Eve; Groff, Joseph M

    2017-01-01

    The scientific literature contains a wealth of information concerning spontaneous fish neoplasms, although ornamental fish oncology is still in its infancy. The occurrence of fish neoplasms has often been associated with oncogenic viruses and environmental insults, making them useful markers for environmental contaminants. The use of fish, including zebrafish, as models of human carcinogenesis has been developed and knowledge gained from these models may also be applied to ornamental fish, although more studies are required. This review summarizes information available about fish oncology pertaining to veterinary clinicians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steinbjørn; Nielsen, Jan; Laursen, René J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively registered data on patients with gliomas since January 2009. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment of the DNOR and further to evaluate the database completen......BACKGROUND: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively registered data on patients with gliomas since January 2009. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment of the DNOR and further to evaluate the database...

  11. Oncology nursing in Cuba: report of the delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Lisa Kennedy; Leonard, Kathleen; Gross, Anne; Hartnett, Erin; Poage, Ellen; Squires, Jennifer; Ullemeyer, Vicki; Schueller, Mary; Stary, Susan; Miller, Mary Alice

    2012-08-01

    In December 2011, the first delegation of oncology nurses from the United States visited Havana, Cuba. The delegation included oncology nurses, educators, and leaders from across America and provided opportunities to learn about the healthcare system, cancer, and oncology nursing in Cuba. Delegation members attended lectures, toured facilities, and enjoyed Cuban culture. This exchange highlighted the similarities in cancer care and oncology nursing between countries and opened doors for future collaborations.

  12. The experiential world of the Oncology nurse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalena van Rooyen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In her experiential world, the oncology nurse experiences unique, challenging and rewarding relationships in a multidimensional, dynamic way. The aim of this study was to describe, from her viewpoint and perspective, how she experiences and reacts to this world. Through this study the researcher wants the oncology nurse’s voice to be heard, the richness of her story acknowledged and the derived data to be applied to the benefit of the field of oncology. In-depth, unstructured phenomenological interviews provided the saturated data from which the uniqueness of the world of the oncology nurse unfolded as the uniqueness of the oncology patients and their world emerged clearly. Findings show that the oncology nurse, attending to the cancer patients and their family, experiences many different relationships. The uniqueness of the oncology nurse-patient relationship is described as unlike any other nurse-patient relationship. The challenging interpersonal relationships with management and other members of the multiprofessional team, as experienced from the perspective of the oncology nurse, are also highlighted. Furthermore, a unifying intrapersonal relationship with the self was identified. This enables the oncology nurse to be both on the giving and receiving end of the intensely emotional environment she works in, explaining, at least partly, the high job satisfaction that permeated the interviews in this study. Recommendations for nursing practice, education and research were formulated. Opsomming In haar leefwêreld ondervind onkologieverpleegkundige unieke, uitdagende en belonende verhoudinge op ‘n multidimensionele en dinamiese wyse. Die doel van hierdie studie was om ‘n beskrywing van die onkologieverpleegkundige se ervarings van en reaksie op haar leefwêreld vanuit haar oogpunt en perspektief. Deur middel van hierdie studie wil die navorser die stem van die onkologieverpleegkundige gehoor laat word, die rykdom van haar verhaal erken en

  13. Audits of oncology units – an effective and pragmatic approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Audits of oncology units are part of all quality-assurance programmes. However, they do not always come across as pragmatic and helpful to staff. Objective. To report on the results of an online survey on the usefulness and impact of an audit process for oncology units. Methods. Staff in oncology units who ...

  14. Re-Engineering a Small Oncology Practice for Quality Using the ASCO Quality Oncology Practice Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Carolyn B.

    2013-01-01

    The field of quality improvement is expanding rapidly, and small oncology practices need to adapt and rise to future challenges. Additional quality measures from ASCO and other organizations will likely focus on palliative care, the Top Five, and electronic measures.

  15. CHONDROSARCOMA OF BONE - ONCOLOGIC AND FUNCTIONAL RESULTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLOON, CJM; VETH, RPH; PRUSZCZYNSKI, M; WOBBES, T; LEMMENS, JAM; VANHORN, J

    1994-01-01

    A retrospective review of 27 patients (21 males and 6 females) with chondrosarcoma of bone was performed to evaluate the oncologic and functional results. The average age of the patients was 48 years (range: 17-76). The tumor sites were pelvis in 10 cases, distal femur in 2, proximal tibia in 3, rib

  16. Gamma camera based FDG PET in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. H.

    2002-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography(PET) was introduced as a research tool in the 1970s and it took about 20 years before PET became an useful clinical imaging modality. In the USA, insurance coverage for PET procedures in the 1990s was the turning point, I believe, for this progress. Initially PET was used in neurology but recently more than 80% of PET procedures are in oncological applications. I firmly believe, in the 21st century, one can not manage cancer patients properly without PET and PET is very important medical imaging modality in basic and clinical sciences. PET is grouped into 2 categories; conventional (c) and gamma camera based ( CB ) PET. CB PET is more readily available utilizing dual-head gamma cameras and commercially available FDG to many medical centers at low cost to patients. In fact there are more CB PET in operation than cPET in the USA. CB PET is inferior to cPET in its performance but clinical studies in oncology is feasible without expensive infrastructures such as staffing, rooms and equipments. At Ajou university Hospital, CBPET was installed in late 1997 for the first time in Korea as well as in Asia and the system has been used successfully and effectively in oncological applications. Our was the fourth PET operation in Korea and I believe this may have been instrumental for other institutions got interested in clinical PET. The following is a brief description of our clinical experience of FDG CBPET in oncology

  17. Neuro-oncology Thallium 201 interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, M.; Latry, C.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Ducassou, D.; Guerin, J.; Maire, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    So and in spite of its histologic specificity absence, Tl 201 has an evident interest in neuro-oncology: for the low grade astrocytoma transformation diagnosis toward one higher grad; for the neoplasm residue and recidive diagnosis; and more generally as forecasted evolution element during the therapy. 2 figs., 4 tabs., 4 graphs

  18. Ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Kely Regina; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Schmidtt, Pablo Henrique; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; Tomaschewski-Barlem, Jamila Geri; da Rosa, Luciana Martins

    2015-01-01

    To know the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses. Descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach, performed in inpatient units and in chemotherapy out-patients units that provide assistance to oncological patients in two capitals in the South region of Brazil. Eighteen nurses participated in this study, selected by snowball sampling type. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out, which were recorded and transcribed, and then analyzed by thematic analysis. Two categories were established: when informing or not becomes a dilemma - showing the main difficulties related to oncological treatment information regarding health staff, health system, and infrastructure; to invest or not - dilemmas related to finitude - showing situations of dilemmas related to pain and confrontation with finitude. For the effective confrontation of the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses to occur, it is important to invest in the training of these professionals, preparing them in an ethical and human way to act as lawyers of the patient with cancer, in a context of dilemmas related mainly to the possibility of finitude.

  19. Current management of surgical oncologic emergencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscher, Marianne R. F.; van Leeuwen, Barbara L.; Hoekstra, Harald J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: For some oncologic emergencies, surgical interventions are necessary for dissolution or temporary relieve. In the absence of guidelines, the most optimal method for decision making would be in a multidisciplinary cancer conference (MCC). In an acute setting, the opportunity for

  20. Tumor relapse present in oncologic nasal repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez Chavez, Julio Cesar; Sanchez Wals, Lenia; Monzon Fernandez, Abel Nicolas; Morales Tirado, Roxana

    2009-01-01

    Tumor relapse is one of the more fearsome complications of the oncologic course and also to obscure the life prognosis, causing the loss of many reconstructions and of exhausting the repairing surgical possibilities. The aim of this study was to determine the relapse frequency, the repercussion on the repair and the subsequent medical course of patients operated on malign nasal tumors

  1. Use of alternative treatment in pediatric oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootenhuis, M. A.; Last, B. F.; de Graaf-Nijkerk, J. H.; van der Wel, M.

    1998-01-01

    The use of alternative treatment along with conventional cancer therapy is very popular. However, little is known about the use of alternative treatment in pediatric oncology. A study to determine which medical and demographic characteristics distinguish users from nonusers was conducted in a

  2. Present status and possibilities of radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, E [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Strahlenklinik; Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Poliklinik)

    1979-01-01

    A survey of the current methodical possibilities of radiation therapy within the limits of interdisciplinary oncology is given. Especially new forms of fractionation and current projects to augment the effect of radiation are discussed. The question of fast neutrons, electroaffine substances and local hyperthermia are dealt with.

  3. Clinical PET/MR Imaging in Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Andreas; Torigian, Drew A.

    2016-01-01

    . The question, therefore, arises regarding what the future clinical applications of PET/MR imaging will be. In this article, the authors discuss ways in which PET/MR imaging may be used in future applications that justify the added cost, predominantly focusing on oncologic applications. The authors suggest...

  4. Comparative oncology: Integrating human and veterinary medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer constitutes the major health problem both in human and veterinary medicine. Comparative oncology as an integrative approach offers to learn more about naturally occurring cancers across different species. Canine models have many advantages as they experience spontaneous disease, have many genes similar ...

  5. Precision medicine in oncology: New practice models and roles for oncology pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walko, Christine; Kiel, Patrick J; Kolesar, Jill

    2016-12-01

    Three different precision medicine practice models developed by oncology pharmacists are described, including strategies for implementation and recommendations for educating the next generation of oncology pharmacy practitioners. Oncology is unique in that somatic mutations can both drive the development of a tumor and serve as a therapeutic target for treating the cancer. Precision medicine practice models are a forum through which interprofessional teams, including pharmacists, discuss tumor somatic mutations to guide patient-specific treatment. The University of Wisconsin, Indiana University, and Moffit Cancer Center have implemented precision medicine practice models developed and led by oncology pharmacists. Different practice models, including a clinic, a clinical consultation service, and a molecular tumor board (MTB), were adopted to enhance integration into health systems and payment structures. Although the practice models vary, commonalities of three models include leadership by the clinical pharmacist, specific therapeutic recommendations, procurement of medications for off-label use, and a research component. These three practice models function as interprofessional training sites for pharmacy and medical students and residents, providing an important training resource at these institutions. Key implementation strategies include interprofessional involvement, institutional support, integration into clinical workflow, and selection of model by payer mix. MTBs are a pathway for clinical implementation of genomic medicine in oncology and are an emerging practice model for oncology pharmacists. Because pharmacists must be prepared to participate fully in contemporary practice, oncology pharmacy residents must be trained in genomic oncology, schools of pharmacy should expand precision medicine and genomics education, and opportunities for continuing education in precision medicine should be made available to practicing pharmacists. Copyright © 2016 by the

  6. The American Society for Radiation Oncology's 2015 Core Physics Curriculum for Radiation Oncology Residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmeister, Jay; Chen, Zhe; Chetty, Indrin J.; Dieterich, Sonja; Doemer, Anthony; Dominello, Michael M.; Howell, Rebecca M.; McDermott, Patrick; Nalichowski, Adrian; Prisciandaro, Joann; Ritter, Tim; Smith, Chadd; Schreiber, Eric; Shafman, Timothy; Sutlief, Steven; Xiao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Physics Core Curriculum Subcommittee (PCCSC) has updated the recommended physics curriculum for radiation oncology resident education to improve consistency in teaching, intensity, and subject matter. Methods and Materials: The ASTRO PCCSC is composed of physicists and physicians involved in radiation oncology residency education. The PCCSC updated existing sections within the curriculum, created new sections, and attempted to provide additional clinical context to the curricular material through creation of practical clinical experiences. Finally, we reviewed the American Board of Radiology (ABR) blueprint of examination topics for correlation with this curriculum. Results: The new curriculum represents 56 hours of resident physics didactic education, including a 4-hour initial orientation. The committee recommends completion of this curriculum at least twice to assure both timely presentation of material and re-emphasis after clinical experience. In addition, practical clinical physics and treatment planning modules were created as a supplement to the didactic training. Major changes to the curriculum include addition of Fundamental Physics, Stereotactic Radiosurgery/Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy, and Safety and Incidents sections, and elimination of the Radiopharmaceutical Physics and Dosimetry and Hyperthermia sections. Simulation and Treatment Verification and optional Research and Development in Radiation Oncology sections were also added. A feedback loop was established with the ABR to help assure that the physics component of the ABR radiation oncology initial certification examination remains consistent with this curriculum. Conclusions: The ASTRO physics core curriculum for radiation oncology residents has been updated in an effort to identify the most important physics topics for preparing residents for careers in radiation oncology, to reflect changes in technology and practice since

  7. From Passive to Active in the Design of External Radiotherapy Database at Oncology Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Ioan CERNEA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementation during 1997 of a computer network at Oncology Institute “Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuţă" from Cluj-Napoca (OICN opens the era of patient electronic file where the presented database is included. The database developed before 2000, used till December 2006 in all reports of OICN has collected data from primary documents as radiotherapy files. Present level of the computer network permits to change the sense of data from computer to primary document. Now the primary document is built firstly electronically inside the computer, and secondly, after validation is printed as a known document. The paper discusses the issues concerning safety, functionality and access derived.

  8. Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetty, Indrin J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Martel, Mary K., E-mail: mmartel@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jaffray, David A. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Benedict, Stanley H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California – Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Berbeco, Ross [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Deye, James [Radiation Research Programs, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Jeraj, Robert [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Kavanagh, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Krishnan, Sunil [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Nancy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Low, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California – Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Mankoff, David [Department of Radiology, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, Washington (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina Hospitals, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Ollendorf, Daniel [Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); and others

    2015-11-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective, personalized cancer treatment that has benefited from technological advances associated with the growing ability to identify and target tumors with accuracy and precision. Given that these advances have played a central role in the success of radiation therapy as a major component of comprehensive cancer care, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop entitled “Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology,” which took place at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, on June 13 and 14, 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss emerging technology for the field and to recognize areas for greater research investment. Expert clinicians and scientists discussed innovative technology in radiation oncology, in particular as to how these technologies are being developed and translated to clinical practice in the face of current and future challenges and opportunities. Technologies encompassed topics in functional imaging, treatment devices, nanotechnology, and information technology. The technical, quality, and safety performance of these technologies were also considered. A major theme of the workshop was the growing importance of innovation in the domain of process automation and oncology informatics. The technologically advanced nature of radiation therapy treatments predisposes radiation oncology research teams to take on informatics research initiatives. In addition, the discussion on technology development was balanced with a parallel conversation regarding the need for evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. The linkage between the need for evidence and the efforts in informatics research was clearly identified as synergistic.

  9. Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Indrin J; Martel, Mary K; Jaffray, David A; Benedict, Stanley H; Hahn, Stephen M; Berbeco, Ross; Deye, James; Jeraj, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Krishnan, Sunil; Lee, Nancy; Low, Daniel A; Mankoff, David; Marks, Lawrence B; Ollendorf, Daniel; Paganetti, Harald; Ross, Brian; Siochi, Ramon Alfredo C; Timmerman, Robert D; Wong, John W

    2015-11-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective, personalized cancer treatment that has benefited from technological advances associated with the growing ability to identify and target tumors with accuracy and precision. Given that these advances have played a central role in the success of radiation therapy as a major component of comprehensive cancer care, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop entitled "Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology," which took place at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, on June 13 and 14, 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss emerging technology for the field and to recognize areas for greater research investment. Expert clinicians and scientists discussed innovative technology in radiation oncology, in particular as to how these technologies are being developed and translated to clinical practice in the face of current and future challenges and opportunities. Technologies encompassed topics in functional imaging, treatment devices, nanotechnology, and information technology. The technical, quality, and safety performance of these technologies were also considered. A major theme of the workshop was the growing importance of innovation in the domain of process automation and oncology informatics. The technologically advanced nature of radiation therapy treatments predisposes radiation oncology research teams to take on informatics research initiatives. In addition, the discussion on technology development was balanced with a parallel conversation regarding the need for evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. The linkage between the need for evidence and the efforts in informatics research was clearly identified as synergistic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetty, Indrin J.; Martel, Mary K.; Jaffray, David A.; Benedict, Stanley H.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Berbeco, Ross; Deye, James; Jeraj, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Krishnan, Sunil; Lee, Nancy; Low, Daniel A.; Mankoff, David; Marks, Lawrence B.; Ollendorf, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective, personalized cancer treatment that has benefited from technological advances associated with the growing ability to identify and target tumors with accuracy and precision. Given that these advances have played a central role in the success of radiation therapy as a major component of comprehensive cancer care, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop entitled “Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology,” which took place at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, on June 13 and 14, 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss emerging technology for the field and to recognize areas for greater research investment. Expert clinicians and scientists discussed innovative technology in radiation oncology, in particular as to how these technologies are being developed and translated to clinical practice in the face of current and future challenges and opportunities. Technologies encompassed topics in functional imaging, treatment devices, nanotechnology, and information technology. The technical, quality, and safety performance of these technologies were also considered. A major theme of the workshop was the growing importance of innovation in the domain of process automation and oncology informatics. The technologically advanced nature of radiation therapy treatments predisposes radiation oncology research teams to take on informatics research initiatives. In addition, the discussion on technology development was balanced with a parallel conversation regarding the need for evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. The linkage between the need for evidence and the efforts in informatics research was clearly identified as synergistic.

  11. Integration of oncology and palliative care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, David; Kim, Yu Jung; Park, Ji Chan; Zhang, Yi; Strasser, Florian; Cherny, Nathan; Kaasa, Stein; Davis, Mellar P; Bruera, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Both the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology strongly endorse integrating oncology and palliative care (PC); however, a global consensus on what constitutes integration is currently lacking. To better understand what integration entails, we conducted a systematic review to identify articles addressing the clinical, educational, research, and administrative indicators of integration. We searched Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBase between 1948 and 2013. Two researchers independently reviewed each citation for inclusion and extracted the indicators related to integration. The inter-rater agreement was high (κ = 0.96, p oncology journals (59%) and in or after 2010 (64%, p oncology and PC. ©AlphaMed Press.

  12. The context of oncology nursing practice: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Debra; Strickland, Judith; Macdonald, Catherine; Butler, Lorna; Fitch, Margaret; Olson, Karin; Cummings, Greta

    2013-01-01

    In oncology, where the number of patients is increasing, there is a need to sustain a quality oncology nursing workforce. Knowledge of the context of oncology nursing can provide information about how to create practice environments that will attract and retain specialized oncology nurses. The aims of this review were to determine the extent and quality of the literature about the context of oncology nursing, explicate how "context" has been described as the environment where oncology nursing takes place, and delineate forces that shape the oncology practice environment. The integrative review involved identifying the problem, conducting a structured literature search, appraising the quality of data, extracting and analyzing data, and synthesizing and presenting the findings. Themes identified from 29 articles reflected the surroundings or background (structural environment, world of cancer care), and the conditions and circumstances (organizational climate, nature of oncology nurses' work, and interactions and relationships) of oncology nursing practice settings. The context of oncology nursing was similar yet different from other nursing contexts. The uniqueness was attributed to the dynamic and complex world of cancer control and the personal growth that is gained from the intense therapeutic relationships established with cancer patients and their families. The context of healthcare practice has been linked with patient, professional, or system outcomes. To achieve quality cancer care, decision makers need to understand the contextual features and forces that can be modified to improve the oncology work environment for nurses, other providers, and patients.

  13. Meeting the challenge of managed care - Part II: Designing a radiation oncology department and setting up a clinical practice program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halman, Marc A.; Szerlag, Chester

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Identify the business practices necessary to develop a successful radiation oncology department in the current health care environment. Course content will be of interest to new practitioners establishing first time programs or joining existing groups as well as experienced radiation oncologists who are challenged with redesigning programs to be competitive. Course Content: During this session, the following topics will be discussed: 1) Space planning and equipment selection 2) Personnel; creating efficiencies while promoting productivity 3) Professional and Technical Billing; establishing proper fee structures and coding procedures 4) Utilizing benchmarking as a tool to improve operations 5) Information technology in radiation oncology 6) Current and Future Trends: a) Oncology networks b) Reimbursement: managed care and capitation c) Downsizing d) Relative Value Units

  14. Value Frameworks in Oncology: Comparative Analysis and Implications to the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomiany, Mark; Madhavan, Priya; Kuehn, Michael; Richardson, Sasha

    2017-07-01

    As the cost of oncology care continues to rise, composite value models that variably capture the diverse concerns of patients, physicians, payers, policymakers, and the pharmaceutical industry have begun to take shape. To review the capabilities and limitations of 5 of the most notable value frameworks in oncology that have emerged in recent years and to compare their relative value and application among the intended stakeholders. We compared the methodology of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Value Framework (version 2.0), the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Evidence Blocks, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center DrugAbacus, the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review Value Assessment Framework, and the European Society for Medical Oncology Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale, using a side-by-side comparative approach in terms of the input, scoring methodology, and output of each framework. In addition, we gleaned stakeholder insights about these frameworks and their potential real-world applications through dialogues with physicians and payers, as well as through secondary research and an aggregate analysis of previously published survey results. The analysis identified several framework-specific themes in their respective focus on clinical trial elements, breadth of evidence, evidence weighting, scoring methodology, and value to stakeholders. Our dialogues with physicians and our aggregate analysis of previous surveys revealed a varying level of awareness of, and use of, each of the value frameworks in clinical practice. For example, although the ASCO Value Framework appears nascent in clinical practice, physicians believe that the frameworks will be more useful in practice in the future as they become more established and as their outputs are more widely accepted. Along with patients and payers, who bear the burden of treatment costs, physicians and policymakers have waded into the discussion of defining value in oncology care, as well

  15. The Evolving Role of Regional Radiation Oncology Societies in Resident Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Malcolm D

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study is to develop insight into how a regional radiation oncology organization like the New York Roentgen Society (NYRS) can best assist in the education and development of residents. From April to June 2012, an electronic survey was sent to all 41 post-graduate year 2-4 radiation oncology residents in the New York metropolitan area. Questions were formatted using Likert scales (ranging from 1 to 5), and the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to compare the mean ratings of each answer option. Surveys were completed by 34 residents (response rate 83 %). The three highest rated features that residents hope to get out of their membership in the NYRS included "networking" (mean 4.21), "career mentoring" (mean 4.18), and "education" (mean 4.15), all of which were rated significantly higher (p networking, career mentoring, and clinical educational content (particularly as it relates to boards review) from their regional radiation oncology society. These findings may be applicable to similar organizations in other cities, as a guide for future programming.

  16. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santanam, Lakshmi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hurkmans, Coen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brame, Scott; Straube, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Galvin, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tripuraneni, Prabhakar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Scripps Clinic, LaJolla, CA (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bosch, Walter, E-mail: wbosch@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Advanced Technology Consortium, Image-guided Therapy QA Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  17. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  18. Standardizing naming conventions in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were satisfactorily identified using this

  19. [Patient-centered care. Improvement of communication between university medical centers and general practitioners for patients in neuro-oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renovanz, M; Keric, N; Richter, C; Gutenberg, A; Giese, A

    2015-12-01

    Communication between university medical centers and general practitioners (GP) is becoming increasingly more important in supportive patient care. A survey among GPs was performed with the primary objective to assess their opinion on current workflow and communication between GPs and the university medical center. The GPs were asked to score (grades 1-6) their opinion on the current interdisciplinary workflow in the care of patients with brain tumors, thereby rating communication between a university medical center in general and the neuro-oncology outpatient center in particular. Questionnaires were sent to1000 GPs and the response rate was 15 %. The mean scored evaluation of the university medical center in general was 2.62 and of the neuro-oncological outpatient clinic 2.28 (range 1-6). The most often mentioned issues to be improved were easier/early telephone information (44 %) and a constantly available contact person (49 %). Interestingly, > 60 % of the GPs indicated they would support web-based tumor boards for interdisciplinary and palliative neuro-oncological care. As interdisciplinary care for neuro-oncology patients is an essential part of therapy, improvement of communication between GPs and university medical centers is indispensable. Integrating currently available electronic platforms under data protection aspects into neuro-oncological palliative care could be an interesting tool in order to establish healthcare networks and could find acceptance with GPs.

  20. End-of-life care in pediatric neuro-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallero, Stefano Gabriele; Lijoi, Stefano; Bertin, Daniele; Pittana, Laura Stefania; Bellini, Simona; Rossi, Francesca; Peretta, Paola; Basso, Maria Eleonora; Fagioli, Franca

    2014-11-01

    The management of children with cancer during the end-of-life (EOL) period is often difficult and requires skilled medical professionals. Patients with tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) with relapse or disease progression might have additional needs because of the presence of unique issues, such as neurological impairment and altered consciousness. Very few reports specifically concerning the EOL period in pediatric neuro-oncology are available. Among all patients followed at our center during the EOL, we retrospectively analyzed data from 39 children and adolescents with brain tumors, in order to point out on their peculiar needs. Patients were followed-up for a median time of 20.1 months. Eighty-two percent were receiving only palliative therapy before death. Almost half the patients (44%) died at home, while 56% died in a hospital. Palliative sedation with midazolam was performed in 58% of cases; morphine was administered in 51.6% of cases. No patient had uncontrolled pain. The EOL in children with advanced CNS cancer is a period of active medical care. Patients may develop complex neurological symptoms and often require long hospitalization. We organized a network-based collaboration among the reference pediatric oncology center, other pediatric hospitals and domiciliary care personnel, with the aim to ameliorate the quality of care during the EOL period. In our cohort, palliative sedation was widely used while no patients died with uncontrolled pain. A precise process of data collection and a better sharing of knowledge are necessary in order to improve the management of such patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. 7th annual congress of the Swiss Society of Nuclear Medicine (SGNM/SSMN). Main topic: imaging in oncology. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Program chart and compiled abstracts of the 7th annual congress of the Swiss Society of Nuclear Medicine (SGNM/SSMN). Session headers are: imaging in oncology: PET-CT; oncology: therapy; imaging in oncology: treatment response; oncology: peptides; oncology: basic scinence; imaging in oncology: bone and soft tissue tumors; instrumentation; oncology: imaging. (uke)

  2. Causative Organisms and Associated Antimicrobial Resistance in Healthcare-Associated, Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections From Oncology Settings, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Isaac; Freifeld, Alison G; Magill, Shelley S

    2016-05-15

    Recent antimicrobial resistance data are lacking from inpatient oncology settings to guide infection prophylaxis and treatment recommendations. We describe central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) pathogens and antimicrobial resistance patterns reported from oncology locations to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). CLABSI data reported to NHSN from 2009 to 2012 from adult inpatient oncology locations were compared to data from nononcology adult locations within the same hospitals. Pathogen profile, antimicrobial resistance rates, and CLABSI incidence rates per 1000 central line-days were calculated. CLABSI incidence rates were compared using Poisson regression. During 2009-2012, 4654 CLABSIs were reported to NHSN from 299 adult oncology units. The most common organisms causing CLABSI in oncology locations were coagulase-negative staphylococci (16.9%), Escherichia coli (11.8%), and Enterococcus faecium (11.4%). Fluoroquinolone resistance was more common among E. coli CLABSI in oncology than nononcology locations (56.5% vs 41.5% of isolates tested; P oncology compared to nononcology locations for fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli (rate ratio, 7.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.20-8.76) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (rate ratio, 2.27, 95% CI, 2.03-2.53). However, resistance rates for some organisms, such as Klebsiella species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were lower in oncology than in nononcology locations. Antimicrobial-resistant E. coli and E. faecium have become significant pathogens in oncology. Practices for antimicrobial prophylaxis and empiric antimicrobial therapy should be regularly assessed in conjunction with contemporary antimicrobial resistance data. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Neuroblastoma, a Paradigm for Big Data Science in Pediatric Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Brittany M; Balczewski, Emily A; Ung, Choong Yong; Zhu, Shizhen

    2016-12-27

    Pediatric cancers rarely exhibit recurrent mutational events when compared to most adult cancers. This poses a challenge in understanding how cancers initiate, progress, and metastasize in early childhood. Also, due to limited detected driver mutations, it is difficult to benchmark key genes for drug development. In this review, we use neuroblastoma, a pediatric solid tumor of neural crest origin, as a paradigm for exploring "big data" applications in pediatric oncology. Computational strategies derived from big data science-network- and machine learning-based modeling and drug repositioning-hold the promise of shedding new light on the molecular mechanisms driving neuroblastoma pathogenesis and identifying potential therapeutics to combat this devastating disease. These strategies integrate robust data input, from genomic and transcriptomic studies, clinical data, and in vivo and in vitro experimental models specific to neuroblastoma and other types of cancers that closely mimic its biological characteristics. We discuss contexts in which "big data" and computational approaches, especially network-based modeling, may advance neuroblastoma research, describe currently available data and resources, and propose future models of strategic data collection and analyses for neuroblastoma and other related diseases.

  4. Neuroblastoma, a Paradigm for Big Data Science in Pediatric Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany M. Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric cancers rarely exhibit recurrent mutational events when compared to most adult cancers. This poses a challenge in understanding how cancers initiate, progress, and metastasize in early childhood. Also, due to limited detected driver mutations, it is difficult to benchmark key genes for drug development. In this review, we use neuroblastoma, a pediatric solid tumor of neural crest origin, as a paradigm for exploring “big data” applications in pediatric oncology. Computational strategies derived from big data science–network- and machine learning-based modeling and drug repositioning—hold the promise of shedding new light on the molecular mechanisms driving neuroblastoma pathogenesis and identifying potential therapeutics to combat this devastating disease. These strategies integrate robust data input, from genomic and transcriptomic studies, clinical data, and in vivo and in vitro experimental models specific to neuroblastoma and other types of cancers that closely mimic its biological characteristics. We discuss contexts in which “big data” and computational approaches, especially network-based modeling, may advance neuroblastoma research, describe currently available data and resources, and propose future models of strategic data collection and analyses for neuroblastoma and other related diseases.

  5. 21st Century Cardio-Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin Chen Sheng, MD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiotoxicity is a well-established complication of oncology therapies. Cardiomyopathy resulting from anthracyclines is a classic example. In the past decade, an explosion of novel cancer therapies, often targeted and more specific than conventional therapies, has revolutionized oncology therapy and dramatically changed cancer prognosis. However, some of these therapies have introduced an assortment of cardiovascular (CV complications. At times, these devastating outcomes have only become apparent after drug approval and have limited the use of potent therapies. There is a growing need for better testing platforms, both for CV toxicity screening and for elucidating mechanisms of cardiotoxicities of approved cancer therapies. This review discusses the utility of available nonclinical models (in vitro, in vivo, and in silico and highlights recent advancements in modalities like human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for developing more comprehensive cardiotoxicity testing and new means of cardioprotection with targeted anticancer therapies.

  6. Radiolabeled antibodies in cancer. Oncology Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories through the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Radiolabeled antibodies--labeling and imaging techniques; Radiolabeled antibodies--carcinoembryonic antigen; Radiolabeled antibodies--alpha-fetoprotein; Radiolabeled antibodies--human chorionic gonadotropin; Radiolabeled antibodies--ferritin; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of colorectal tumors; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of malignant melanoma; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of urogenital tumors; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of thyroid tumors; Radiolabeled antibodies--other clinical studies; Radiolabeled antibodies--selected preclinical studies; Radiolabeled antibodies--reviews

  7. Radiation oncology a physicist's-eye view

    CERN Document Server

    Goitein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Radiation Oncology: A Physicist's-Eye View was written for both physicists and medical oncologists with the aim of helping them approach the use of radiation in the treatment of cancer with understanding, confidence, and imagination. The book will let practitioners in one field understand the problems of, and find solutions for, practitioners in the other. It will help them to know "why" certain approaches are fruitful while, at the same time, encouraging them to ask the question "Why not?" in the face of assertions that some proposal of theirs is impractical, unreasonable, or impossible. Unlike a textbook, formal and complete developments of the topics are not among the goals. Instead, the reader will develop a foundation for understanding what the author has found to be matters of importance in radiation oncology during over thirty years of experience. Presentations cover, in largely non-technical language, the principal physical and biological aspects of radiation treatment and address practical clinical c...

  8. Improving patient safety in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, William R.; Herman, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in the 1990s, and emphasized in 2000 with the release of an Institute of Medicine report, healthcare providers and institutions have dedicated time and resources to reducing errors that impact the safety and well-being of patients. But in January 2010 the first of a series of articles appeared in the New York Times that described errors in radiation oncology that grievously impacted patients. In response, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and the American Society of Radiation Oncology sponsored a working meeting entitled ''Safety in Radiation Therapy: A Call to Action''. The meeting attracted 400 attendees, including medical physicists, radiation oncologists, medical dosimetrists, radiation therapists, hospital administrators, regulators, and representatives of equipment manufacturers. The meeting was cohosted by 14 organizations in the United States and Canada. The meeting yielded 20 recommendations that provide a pathway to reducing errors and improving patient safety in radiation therapy facilities everywhere.

  9. PET/CT applications in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva González, Juan Perfecto; Martínez Ramírez, Aldo; Baum, Richard Paul

    2017-01-01

    PET means Positron Emission Tomography, it is a nuclear medicine technique in which radiopharmaceuticals labeled with positron emitters are used to obtain biochemical-metabolic images of the human body. The use of PET / CT contributes to obtain multimodal images that combine anatomical and metabolic information, allowing a more reliable diagnosis of a tumor or local or distant metastases in an organ or tissue. Other multimodal devices combine metabolic imaging with nuclear magnetic resonance. PET/CT is mainly used in Oncology (85-90%), Neurology, Cardiology, Inflammation and Infection although it is currently also used in different medical and surgical pathologies. The present work is aimed at showing what PET/CT is and how useful it is in Oncology. (author)

  10. Psycho-Oncology: A Patient's View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Prieto, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Culturally the most important, valued, and less stigmatized part of cancer care is the medical part: The surgeon cutting the tumors out and the oncologist leading the strategic decision-making of the medical treatments available. The least valued and stigmatized part of cancer remains the psychosocial care. This chapter describes-through the eyes of an academic, psychologist, stage IV melanoma patient, and patient advocate-how one patient navigated changing psycho-oncological needs from early stage-to-stage IV through a whole range of psychological interventions available. Her voice joins that of all cancer patients around the world whom are urgently calling for psycho-oncological care to be fully recognized as a central part of cancer treatment.

  11. MOSFET dosimetry on modern radiation oncology modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    The development of MOSFET dosimetry is presented with an emphasis on the development of a scanning MOSFET dosimetry system for modern radiation oncology modalities. Fundamental aspects of MOSFETs in relation to their use as dosemeters are briefly discussed. The performance of MOSFET dosemeters in conformal radiotherapy, hadron therapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy and microbeam radiation therapy is compared with other dosimetric techniques. In particular the application of MOSFET dosemeters in the characterisation and quality assurance of the steep dose gradients associated with the penumbra of some modern radiation oncology modalities is investigated. A new in vivo, on-line, scanning MOSFET read out system is also presented. The system has the ability to read out multiple MOSFET dosemeters with excellent spatial resolution and temperature stability and minimal slow border trapping effects. (author)

  12. Oncological mamoplasty in the Cancerology National Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caicedo, Jose; Nino, Alvaro

    1999-01-01

    The conservative surgery is analyzed in the breast cancer. As premise, it settles down that in the quadrantectomy, the breast should always be left aesthetic. The oncological mamoplasty is then a technique that should be considered and for it should always be left it margin oncology in the borders of the tumors, the surgeon should have experience and it is important to have a good pursuit. The surgery is bilateral and it doesn't leave scars in the superior quadrants. In this revision 53 patients were analyzed, keeping in mind that there are few reports on this technique or to proceed therapeutic in the literature. The procedures were carried out in their majority in patient pre menopauses and they were made inclusive in advanced states. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy were used in the treatment

  13. Value: A Framework for Radiation Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teckie, Sewit; McCloskey, Susan A.; Steinberg, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    In the current health care system, high costs without proportional improvements in quality or outcome have prompted widespread calls for change in how we deliver and pay for care. Value-based health care delivery models have been proposed. Multiple impediments exist to achieving value, including misaligned patient and provider incentives, information asymmetries, convoluted and opaque cost structures, and cultural attitudes toward cancer treatment. Radiation oncology as a specialty has recently become a focus of the value discussion. Escalating costs secondary to rapidly evolving technologies, safety breaches, and variable, nonstandardized structures and processes of delivering care have garnered attention. In response, we present a framework for the value discussion in radiation oncology and identify approaches for attaining value, including economic and structural models, process improvements, outcome measurement, and cost assessment. PMID:25113759

  14. Medicinal herbs and phytochitodeztherapy in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treskunov, Karp; Treskunova, Olga; Komarov, Boris; Goroshetchenko, Alex; Glebov, Vlad

    2003-01-01

    Application of clinical phytology in treatment of oncology diseases was limited by intensive development of chemical pharmaceuticals and surgery. The authors had set the task to develop the computer database for phytotherapy application. The database included full information on patient's clinical status (identified diseases, symptoms, syndromes) and applied phytotherapy treatment. Special attention was paid to the application of phyto preparations containing chitosan. The computer database contains information on 2335 patients. It supports reliable data on efficiency of phytotherapy in general and allows to evaluate the efficiency of some particular medicinal herbs and to develop efficient complex phyto preparations for treatment of specific diseases. The application of phytotherapy in treatment of oncology patients confirmed the positive effect on patient's quality of life. In conclusion it should be emphasized that the present situation of practical application of phytotherapy could be considered as unacceptable because of absence of necessary knowledge and practical experience in using phytotherapy in outpatient clinics, hospitals and medicinal centers.

  15. Psycho-oncology in Australia: a descriptive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butow, P; Dhillon, H; Shaw, J; Price, M

    2017-01-01

    Australia has a thriving Psycho-Oncology research and clinical community. In this article, the Australian health system in which Psycho-Oncology is embedded is described. Clinical Psycho-Oncology services are outlined, in terms of their composition, processes and reach. The development of the internationally ground-breaking Australian Psychosocial guidelines for the care of adults with cancer is described. Two large Psycho-Oncology organisations which are strongly linked to mainstream Oncology organisations are discussed: the Australian Psycho-Oncology Society (OzPos, a primarily clinician-led and focused organisation) and the Psycho-Oncology Co-operative Research Group (PoCoG, a national cancer clinical trial group). OzPos is a special interest group within the Clinical Oncology Society of Australia, while PoCoG is one of 14 cancer clinical trial groups funded by the national government. It is these strong connections with major multidisciplinary cancer organisations, and a culture of collaboration and co-operation, that have made Psycho-Oncology grow and thrive in Australia. Examples of large collaborative programs of Psycho-Oncology research are provided, as well as the mechanisms used to achieve these outcomes.

  16. Radiotherapy and immune reaction of oncologic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankina, V.Kh.; Sarkisyan, Yu.KH.

    1978-01-01

    Represented is a review of data accumulated in literature (1970-1976) on oppression of protection of oncologic patients and more oppression of immune reactions during radiotherapy. Underlined is the significance of studying immune homeostasis in a clinic of radiotherapy to evaluate total resistance of patients before the beginning and in the process of treatment. The prognostic significance of immunodepressive disturbances in patients with malignant tumors is elucidated

  17. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Steinbjørn Hansen Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital and Institute of Clinical Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Aim of database: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR was established by the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group as a national clinical database. It was established for the purpose of supporting research and development in adult patients with primary brain tumors in Denmark. Study population: DNOR has registered clinical data on diagnostics and treatment of all adult patients diagnosed with glioma since January 1, 2009, which numbers approximately 400 patients each year. Main variables: The database contains information about symptoms, presurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI characteristics, performance status, surgical procedures, residual tumor on postsurgical MRI, postsurgical complications, diagnostic and histology codes, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Descriptive data: DNOR publishes annual reports on descriptive data. During the period of registration, postoperative MRI is performed in a higher proportion of the patients (Indicator II, and a higher proportion of patients have no residual tumor after surgical resection of the primary tumor (Indicator IV. Further data are available in the annual reports. The indicators reflect only minor elements of handling brain tumor patients. Another advantage of reporting indicators is the related multidisciplinary discussions giving a better understanding of what actually is going on, thereby facilitating the work on adjusting the national guidelines in the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group. Conclusion: The establishment of DNOR has optimized the quality in handling primary brain tumor patients in Denmark by reporting indicators and facilitating a better multidisciplinary collaboration at a national level. DNOR provides a valuable resource for research. Keywords: brain neoplasms, brain cancer, glioma, clinical quality indicators

  18. Importance of nutrition in pediatric oncology

    OpenAIRE

    P C Rogers

    2015-01-01

    A nutritional perspective within pediatric oncology is usually just related to the supportive care aspect during the management of the underlying malignancy. However, nutrition has a far more fundamental importance with respect to a growing, developing child who has cancer as well as viewing cancer from a nutritional cancer control perspective. Nutrition is relevant to all components of cancer control including prevention, epidemiology, biology, treatment, supportive care, rehabilitation, and...

  19. Program for Critical Technologies in Breast Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    the tissues, and in a ethical manner that respects the patients’ rights . The Program for Critical Technologies in Breast Oncology helps address all of...diagnosis, database 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 148 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS...closer to clinical utility. Page 17 References Adida C. Crotty PL. McGrath J. Berrebi D. Diebold J. Altieri DC. Developmentally regulated

  20. Dose-response relationship in clinical oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehan, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The relationship of dose (and dose rate) to response and toxicity in clinical oncology is reviewed. The concepts expressed by some authors in dose-response studies in animal and human systems are reviewed briefly. Dose rate and tactics of conducting clinical studies are reviewed for both radiotherapy and various types of chemotherapeutic treatment. Examples are given from clinical studies in Hodgkin's disease, acute leukemia, and breast cancer that may prove useful in planning future clinical studies

  1. View and review on viral oncology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parolin Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To date, almost one and a half million cases of cancer are diagnosed every year in the US and nearly 560,000 Americans are expected to die of cancer in the current year, more than 1,500 people a day (data from the American Cancer Society at http://www.cancer.org/. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, roughly 20% of all cancers worldwide results from chronic infections; in particular, up to 15% of human cancers is characterized by a viral aetiology with higher incidence in Developing Countries. The link between viruses and cancer was one of the pivotal discoveries in cancer research during the past Century. Indeed, the infectious nature of specific tumors has important implications in terms of their prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. In the 21st Century, the research on viral oncology field continues to be vigorous, with new significant and original studies on viral oncogenesis and translational research from basic virology to treatment of cancer. This review will cover different viral oncology aspects, starting from the history of viral oncology and moving to the peculiar features of oncogenic RNA and DNA viruses, with a special focus on human pathogens.

  2. [The role of emotional labour in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szluha, Kornélia; Lazányi, Kornélia; Molnár, Péter

    2007-01-01

    Oncologists and related health care professionals (HCPs) do not only have to follow professional protocols in their everyday work, but also have to communicate proper attitudes towards patients suffering from malignant diseases. This task is often a heavier load than the implementation of professional activities themselves. The present article is based on a survey on HCP work motivation, employment parameters and correlations with emotional labour. Fifty oncology HCPs at Debrecen University Medical Health Sciences Centre volunteered to participate in this survey containing 20 simple-choice questions. More than 90 percent of HCPs make an effort to hide their emotional state, giving way to possible negative side effects. The survey showed significant differences between the level of emotional labour of those working in the field of oncology longer or shorter than ten years. Surface and deep emotional labour is more frequent among professionals already working in oncology for a longer period of time. This can serve us with explanation to the burn-out syndrome so frequent in this profession. To diminish the load of emotional labour, healthcare institutes have to aim at hiring employees that spontaneously fit the emotional and behavioural norms facing them, and do not need officially prescribed behavioural norms for everyday work. Their constant need for respect and appreciation of their values must be kept in mind, because the capability of genuine emotional labour diminishes parallel to the number of years spent in work.

  3. Lymphoscintigraphy in oncology: a rediscovered challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Olmos, R.A.; Hoefnagel, C.A. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Nieweg, O.E.; Jansen, L.; Rutgers, E.J.T.; Kroon, B.B.R. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Surgery; Borger, J. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Horenblas, S. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Urology

    1999-04-01

    The validation of the sentinel node concept in oncology has led to the rediscovery of lymphoscintigraphy. By combining preoperative lymphatic mapping with intraoperative probe detection this nuclear medicine procedure is being increasingly used to identify and detect the sentinel node in melanoma, breast cancer, and in other malignancies such as penile cancer and vulvar cancer. In the past lymphoscintigraphy has been widely applied for various indications in oncology, and in the case of the internal mammary lymph-node chain its current use in breast cancer remains essential to adjust irradiation treatment to the individual findings of each patient. In another diagnostic area, lymphoscintigraphy is also useful to document altered drainage patterns after surgery and/or radiotherapy; its use in breast cancer patients with upper limb oedema after axillary lymph-node dissection or in melanoma patients with lower-extremity oedema after groin dissection can provide information for physiotherapy or reconstructive surgery. Finally, the renewed interest in lymphoscintigraphy in oncology has led not only to the rediscovery of findings from old literature reports, but also to a discussion about methodological aspects such as tracer characteristics, image acquisition or administration routes, as well as to discussion on the study of migration patterns of radiolabelled colloid particles in the context of cancer dissemination. All this makes the need for standardized guidelines for lymphoscintigraphy mandatory. (orig.) With 10 figs., 1 tab., 56 refs.

  4. Workplace Bullying in Radiology and Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Jay R; Harolds, Jay A; Bluth, Edward I

    2017-08-01

    Workplace bullying is common in health care and has recently been reported in both radiology and radiation oncology. The purpose of this article is to increase awareness of bullying and its potential consequences in radiology and radiation oncology. Bullying behavior may involve abuse, humiliation, intimidation, or insults; is usually repetitive; and causes distress in victims. Workplace bullying is more common in health care than in other industries. Surveys of radiation therapists in the United States, student radiographers in England, and physicians-in-training showed that substantial proportions of respondents had been subjected to workplace bullying. No studies were found that addressed workplace bullying specifically in diagnostic radiology or radiation oncology residents. Potential consequences of workplace bullying in health care include anxiety, depression, and health problems in victims; harm to patients as a result of victims' reduced ability to concentrate; and reduced morale and high turnover in the workplace. The Joint Commission has established leadership standards addressing inappropriate behavior, including bullying, in the workplace. The ACR Commission on Human Resources recommends that organizations take steps to prevent bullying. Those steps include education, including education to ensure that the line between the Socratic method and bullying is not crossed, and the establishment of policies to facilitate reporting of bullying and support victims of bullying. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tumor Slice Culture: A New Avatar in Personalized Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0149 TITLE: Tumor Slice Culture: A New Avatar in Personalized Oncology PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Raymond Yeung...CONTRACT NUMBER Tumor Slice Culture: A New Avatar in Personalized Oncology 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0149 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...10 Annual Report 2017: Tumor Slice Culture: A new avatar for personalized oncology 1. INTRODUCTION: The goal of this research is to advance our

  6. Radiation Oncology in Undergraduate Medical Education: A Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, Kristopher E.B.; Duncan, Graeme

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To review the published literature pertaining to radiation oncology in undergraduate medical education. Methods and Materials: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE Daily Update and EMBASE databases were searched for the 11-year period of January 1, 1998, through the last week of March 2009. A medical librarian used an extensive list of indexed subject headings and text words. Results: The search returned 640 article references, but only seven contained significant information pertaining to teaching radiation oncology to medical undergraduates. One article described a comprehensive oncology curriculum including recommended radiation oncology teaching objectives and sample student evaluations, two described integrating radiation oncology teaching into a radiology rotation, two described multidisciplinary anatomy-based courses intended to reinforce principles of tumor biology and radiotherapy planning, one described an exercise designed to test clinical reasoning skills within radiation oncology cases, and one described a Web-based curriculum involving oncologic physics. Conclusions: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first review of the literature pertaining to teaching radiation oncology to medical undergraduates, and it demonstrates the paucity of published work in this area of medical education. Teaching radiation oncology should begin early in the undergraduate process, should be mandatory for all students, and should impart knowledge relevant to future general practitioners rather than detailed information relevant only to oncologists. Educators should make use of available model curricula and should integrate radiation oncology teaching into existing curricula or construct stand-alone oncology rotations where the principles of radiation oncology can be conveyed. Assessments of student knowledge and curriculum effectiveness are critical.

  7. Demands and Needs for Psycho-Oncological eHealth Interventions in Women With Cancer: Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwald, Johanna; Marwedel, Lennart; Junne, Florian; Ziser, Katrin; Schäffeler, Norbert; Gerstner, Lena; Wallwiener, Markus; Brucker, Sara Yvonne; Hautzinger, Martin; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin

    2017-11-24

    Over the last decade, a growing body of studies regarding the application of eHealth and various digital interventions has been published and are widely used in the psycho-oncological care. However, the effectiveness of eHealth applications in psycho-oncological care is still questioned due to missing considerations regarding evidence-based studies on the demands and needs in cancer-affected patients. This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the cancer-affected women's needs and wishes for psycho-oncological content topics in eHealth applications and whether women with cancer differ in their content topics and eHealth preferences regarding their experienced psychological burden. Patients were recruited via an electronic online survey through social media, special patient Internet platforms, and patient networks (both inpatients and outpatients, University Hospital Tuebingen, Germany). Participant demographics, preferences for eHealth and psycho-oncological content topics, and their experienced psychological burden of distress, quality of life, and need for psychosocial support were evaluated. Of the 1172 patients who responded, 716 were included in the study. The highest preference for psycho-oncological content topics reached anxiety, ability to cope, quality of life, depressive feelings, and adjustment toward a new life situation. eHealth applications such as Web-based applications, websites, blogs, info email, and consultation hotline were considered to be suitable to convey these content topics. Psychological burden did not influence the preference rates according to psycho-oncological content and eHealth applications. Psycho-oncological eHealth applications may be very beneficial for women with cancer, especially when they address psycho-oncological content topics like anxiety, ability to cope, depressive feelings, self-esteem, or adjustment to a new life situation. The findings of this study indicate that psycho-oncological eHealth applications are a

  8. Neuro-oncology: a selected review of ASCO 2016 abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Marc C

    2016-10-01

    ASCO 2016, 29 May-2 June 2016, Chicago, IL, USA The largest annual clinical oncology conference the American Society of Clinical Oncology is held in the USA and gives researchers and other key opinion leaders the opportunity to present new cancer clinical trials and research data. The CNS tumors section of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2016 covered various aspects of neuro-oncology including metastatic CNS diseases and primary brain tumors, presented via posters, oral talks and over 100 abstracts. This brief review selectively highlights presentations from this meeting in an organizational manner that reflects clinically relevant aspects of a large and multifaceted meeting.

  9. Subspecialist training in surgical gynecological oncology in the nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Sofie L; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Salvesen, Helga B

    2011-01-01

    To survey the centers that can provide subspecialty surgical training and education in gynecological oncology in the Nordic countries we developed an online questionnaire in cooperation with the Nordic Society of Gynecological Oncology. The link to the survey was mailed to 22 Scandinavian...... (74%) centers were interested in being listed for exchange of fellows. Our data show a large Nordic potential and interest in improving the gynecologic oncology standards and can be used to enhance the awareness of gynecological oncology training in Scandinavia and to facilitate the exchange...

  10. [Oncological emergencies in the emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpoeşu, Diana; Dumea, Mihaela; Durchi, Simona; Apostoae, F; Olaru, G; Ciolan, Mioara; Popa, O; Corlade-Andrei, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    to assess the profile and the characteristic of oncological patients, establishing management in patients with neoplasia presented in the emergency department (ED), the analysis of short-term movements in patients with neoplasia whilst in the ED. we performed a retrospective study on nonrandomized consecutive cases. The lot analysis included 1315 oncological patients admitted in the Emergency Department of the Clinical Emergency Hospital "St. Spiridon" Iaşi, in the period June 1st, 2009 - May 31st, 2010. 23.12% of the patients had high suspicion of neoplasia at the first visit to the ED. 67.07% of patients were in metastatic stage disease located as follows: liver metastasis 37.59%, lung metastasis 18.36%, lymph node metastasis 13, 29%. After processing the data there were found statistically significant correlations between the age of patients and the documented/suspected diagnosis of neoplasia (p = 0.01) in the sense that a neoplasia diagnosis in emergency was more frequent in people of young age. It should be mentioned that other studies rarely mention first diagnosis of neoplasia in emergency department with presence of complications. 1315 oncological patients presented in ED, almost a quarter of which presented high suspicion of neoplasia (still without histopathological confirmation) when in ED (23.12%). Most of them were aged male patients (over 65 years old), with tumors of the digestive system. A significant proportion (almost 60%) of these patients ended up in emergency due to complications and the therapy intended life support and pain management. Some of these patients were directed to further exploring and emergency outpatient therapy while 75% of patients were hospitalized after stabilization. Although we expected that the frequency of complications to be higher in patients previously diagnosed with cancer, data analysis showed no statistically significant differences (p = NS) between the rate of complications in patients previously diagnosed with

  11. Establishment of Database System for Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Sup; Lee, Chang Ju; Yoo, Soon Mi; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Woo Seok; Kang, Tae Young; Back, Geum Mun; Hong, Dong Ki; Kwon, Kyung Tae

    2008-01-01

    To enlarge the efficiency of operation and establish a constituency for development of new radiotherapy treatment through database which is established by arranging and indexing radiotherapy related affairs in well organized manner to have easy access by the user. In this study, Access program provided by Microsoft (MS Office Access) was used to operate the data base. The data of radiation oncology was distinguished by a business logs and maintenance expenditure in addition to stock management of accessories with respect to affairs and machinery management. Data for education and research was distinguished by education material for department duties, user manual and related thesis depending upon its property. Registration of data was designed to have input form according to its subject and the information of data was designed to be inspected by making a report. Number of machine failure in addition to its respective repairing hours from machine maintenance expenditure in a period of January 2008 to April 2009 was analyzed with the result of initial system usage and one year after the usage. Radiation oncology database system was accomplished by distinguishing work related and research related criteria. The data are arranged and collected according to its subjects and classes, and can be accessed by searching the required data through referring the descriptions from each criteria. 32.3% of total average time was reduced on analyzing repairing hours by acquiring number of machine failure in addition to its type in a period of January 2008 to April 2009 through machine maintenance expenditure. On distinguishing and indexing present and past data upon its subjective criteria through the database system for radiation oncology, the use of information can be easily accessed to enlarge the efficiency of operation, and in further, can be a constituency for improvement of work process by acquiring various information required for new radiotherapy treatment in real time.

  12. Psychosocial Impact of Personalized Therapies in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Georgia; Schulz-Kindermann, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Personalized medicine is a keyword in modern oncology summarizing biomarker-driven targeted therapies. Those novel agents enhance our therapeutic portfolio and offer new options for our patients. But the term is often misleading and implicates a tailored therapy to the individual person, but it rather means a treatment stratified on genetic characteristics of the tumor. Molecular therapies raise expectations of curability or long-term treatments making former life-threatening diseases to more chronic ones but this is true only for some patients. So we have to carefully communicate with our patients about the options and limitations of those modern therapies not to trigger disappointments.

  13. Clinical oncology based upon radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    This paper discussed the biological effects of radiation as physical energy, especially those of X-ray as electromagnetic radiation, by associating the position of clinical oncology with classical radiation cell biology as well as recent molecular biology. First, it described the physical and biological effects of radiation, cell death due to radiation and recovery, radiation effects at tissue level, and location information and dosage information in the radiotherapy of cancer. It also described the territories unresolved through radiation biology, such as low-dose high-sensitivity, bystander effects, etc. (A.O.)

  14. [Genetic therapy in oncology: ethical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, L M; Fazio, V M

    2001-01-01

    The more advanced oncologic therapies are directing toward new frontiers, on account of the remarkable undesirable effects of chemio- and radio-therapies. This new therapeutic experiences are of type biological (vaccines), or genic (substitution again genes with shutters meaning-tumoral). This therapies involve, to be effected, some ethical shrewdnesses: choice of the patient, the engineering modality of the genes, the transfer of the genes in cells of the exclusively somatic line, the elimination of the pathogenic risk of the vector virus, the obligatory use of sterile rooms, the attention to the administration of the drug, a legal issue of the judgment of notoriety.

  15. What do we measure in oncology PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Kyoung June; Kim, Seong Jang [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has come to the practice of oncology. It is known that {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET is more sensitive for the assessment of treatment response than conventional imaging. In addition, PET has an advantage in the use of quantitative analysis of the study. Nowadays, various PET parameters are adopted in clinical settings. In addition, a wide range of factors has been known to be associated with FDG uptake. Therefore, there has been a need for standardization and harmonization of protocols and PET parameters. We will introduce PET parameters and discuss major issues in this review.

  16. Nuclear oncology: From genotype to patient care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is the medical specialty best suited to translate the exploding body of knowledge obtained from research in genetics and molecular biology into the care of patients. This fourth annual nuclear oncology conference will address how this can be done and how positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) can be used in the care of patients with cancer or with increased genetic risk of developing cancer. The course will include illustrative patient studies showing how PET and SPECT can help in diagnosis, staging and treatment planning and monitoring of patients with cancer

  17. Oncology drug discovery: planning a turnaround.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniatti, Carlo; Jones, Philip; Graham, Hilary; Pagliara, Bruno; Draetta, Giulio

    2014-04-01

    We have made remarkable progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of cancer. This improved understanding has resulted in increasingly effective targeted therapies that are better tolerated than conventional cytotoxic agents and even curative in some patients. Unfortunately, the success rate of drug approval has been limited, and therapeutic improvements have been marginal, with too few exceptions. In this article, we review the current approach to oncology drug discovery and development, identify areas in need of improvement, and propose strategies to improve patient outcomes. We also suggest future directions that may improve the quality of preclinical and early clinical drug evaluation, which could lead to higher approval rates of anticancer drugs.

  18. Internet utilization by radiation oncology patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, J.M.; Devine, P.; DeNittis, A.; Stambaugh, M.; Jones, H.; Goldwein, J.; Whittington, R.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Studies describing the use of the Internet by radiation oncology patients are lacking. This multi-institutional study of cancer patients presenting to academic (AC), community (CO) and veterans (VA) radiation oncology centers was designed to analyze the use of the Internet, predictive factors for utilization, and barriers to access to the Internet. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire evaluating the use of the Internet was administered to 921 consecutive patients presenting to radiation oncology departments at AC, CO and VA Medical Centers. The study included 436 AC patients (47%), 284 CO patients (31%), and 201 VA patients (22%). A computer was available at home to 427 patients (46%) and 337 patients (37%) had Email access. The mean age of the patient population was 64 years (range=14-93). Males represented 70% of the patient population. The most common diagnoses included prostate cancer (33%), breast cancer (13%), and lung cancer (11%). Results: Overall, 265/921 patients (29%) were using the Internet to find cancer related information. The Internet was used by 42% of AC patients, 25% of CO patients and only 5% of VA patients (p<.0001). A computer was available at home in 62% AC vs. 45% CO vs. 12% VA patients (p<.0001). Patients < 60 years were much more likely to use the Internet than older patients (p<.0001). Most of the Internet users considered the information either very reliable (22%) or somewhat reliable (70%). Most patients were looking for information regarding treatment of their cancer (90%), management of side effects of treatment (74%), alternative/complementary treatments (65%) and clinical trials (51%). Unconventional medical therapies were purchased over the Internet by 12% of computer users. Products or services for the treatment or management of cancer were purchased online by 12% of Internet users. Conclusion: A significant number of cancer patients seen in radiation oncology departments at academic and community medical centers

  19. Oncology of the ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunel Le Coz, Bertrand Jacques Thierry

    2006-01-01

    Ferret oncology is in full evolution. Many types of tumors are mentioned. They affect all the systems of the organism: the endocrine, hemo-lymphatic, integument, digestive, reproductive, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, nervous, urinary or respiratory systems. Insulinoma, adrenocortical tumors and lymphoma are the three mostly seen tumors. Complementary examination have been developed too. CBC, biochemistry, radiography and ultrasonography can now be completed by cytology, immunohistochemistry, endoscopies, scan, I.R.M. or scintigraphy. Treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy can be associated. They allow recovery or, if not a palliative solution. (author) [fr

  20. Medical legal aspects of radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, Terry J.

    1996-01-01

    The theoretical basis of, and practical experience in, legal liability in the clinical practice of radiation oncology is reviewed, with a view to developing suggestions to help practitioners limit their exposure to liability. New information regarding the number, size, and legal theories of litigation against radiation oncologists is presented. The most common legal bases of liability are then explored in greater detail, including 'malpractice', and informed consent, with suggestions of improving the specialty's record of documenting informed consent. Collateral consequences of suffering a malpractice claim (i.e., the National Practitioner Data Bank) will also be briefly discussed

  1. Labeling for Big Data in radiation oncology: The Radiation Oncology Structures ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibault, Jean-Emmanuel; Zapletal, Eric; Rance, Bastien; Giraud, Philippe; Burgun, Anita

    2018-01-01

    Leveraging Electronic Health Records (EHR) and Oncology Information Systems (OIS) has great potential to generate hypotheses for cancer treatment, since they directly provide medical data on a large scale. In order to gather a significant amount of patients with a high level of clinical details, multicenter studies are necessary. A challenge in creating high quality Big Data studies involving several treatment centers is the lack of semantic interoperability between data sources. We present the ontology we developed to address this issue. Radiation Oncology anatomical and target volumes were categorized in anatomical and treatment planning classes. International delineation guidelines specific to radiation oncology were used for lymph nodes areas and target volumes. Hierarchical classes were created to generate The Radiation Oncology Structures (ROS) Ontology. The ROS was then applied to the data from our institution. Four hundred and seventeen classes were created with a maximum of 14 children classes (average = 5). The ontology was then converted into a Web Ontology Language (.owl) format and made available online on Bioportal and GitHub under an Apache 2.0 License. We extracted all structures delineated in our department since the opening in 2001. 20,758 structures were exported from our "record-and-verify" system, demonstrating a significant heterogeneity within a single center. All structures were matched to the ROS ontology before integration into our clinical data warehouse (CDW). In this study we describe a new ontology, specific to radiation oncology, that reports all anatomical and treatment planning structures that can be delineated. This ontology will be used to integrate dosimetric data in the Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris CDW that stores data from 6.5 million patients (as of February 2017).

  2. Effectiveness of a psycho-oncology training program for oncology nurses: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yosuke; Okuyama, Toru; Uchida, Megumi; Umezawa, Shino; Nakaguchi, Tomohiro; Sugano, Koji; Ito, Yoshinori; Katsuki, Fujika; Nakano, Yumi; Nishiyama, Takeshi; Katayama, Yoshiko; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2016-06-01

    Oncology nurses are expected to play an important role in psychosocial care for cancer patients. The aim of this study was to examine whether a novel training program aimed at enhancing oncology nurses' ability to assess and manage common psychological problems in cancer patients would improve participants' self-reported confidence, knowledge, and attitudes regarding care of patients with common psychological problems (trial register: UMIN000008559). Oncology nurses were assigned randomly to either the intervention group (N = 50) or the waiting list control group (N = 46). The intervention group received a 16-h program, the content of which focused on four psychological issues: normal reactions, clinically significant distress, suicidal thoughts, and delirium. Each session included a role-play exercise, group work, and didactic lecture regarding assessment and management of each problem. Primary outcomes were changes in self-reported confidence, knowledge, and attitudes toward the common psychological problems between pre-intervention and 3 months post-intervention. Secondary outcomes were job-related stress and burnout. Intervention acceptability to participants was also assessed. In the intervention group, confidence and knowledge but not attitudes were significantly improved relative to the control group. No significant intervention effects were found for job- related stress and burnout. A high percentage (98%) of participants considered the program useful in clinical practice. This psycho-oncology training program improved oncology nurses' confidence and knowledge regarding care for patients with psychological problems. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Regulatory barriers to clinical trial enrollment of adolescent and young adult oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgenhauer, Judy; Hooke, Mary C

    2014-06-01

    Adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer may face unique challenges if they and their families wish to participate in clinical oncology trials. Regulatory guidelines and funding requirements put in place to protect patients may actually raise barriers to enrollment in clinical trials. Hospital age guidelines may need to be readdressed to better suit the needs of AYA patients. Finally, the creation of the National Clinical Trials Network will provide new opportunities for pediatric and medical oncologists to collaborate in the care of AYA patients. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Quality of systematic reviews in pediatric oncology - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundh, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L.; Jørgensen, Anders W.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. Methods: We identified eligible systematic reviews

  5. Pediatric Oncology Branch - training- resident electives | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resident Electives Select pediatric residents may be approved for a 4-week elective rotation at the Pediatric Oncology Branch. This rotation emphasizes the important connection between research and patient care in pediatric oncology. The resident is supervised directly by the Branch’s attending physician and clinical fellows. Residents attend daily in-patient and out-patient

  6. [Burnout effect on academic progress of Oncology medical residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ávila, Gabriel; Bello-Villalobos, Herlinda

    2014-01-01

    In the formative period of the courses taken in medical specializations, new and greater responsibilities are accepted by physicians in personal and academic spheres. The interaction of several factors that encompass the practice of these physicians could surpass their capacity to cope, causing on these professionals a high level of stress and professional exhaustion, which will affect their academic development. The objective of this research was to establish if the occupational stress of these medical residents affects their academic progress. We administered the Spanish version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) to 52 residents of three specializations in Oncology (Medical Oncology, Surgical Oncology, and Radio-Oncology). These residents accepted voluntarily at the same time of their third cognitive exam. The prevalence of burnout syndrome was 13.5 %, with a high frequency among medical residents of first degree. Medical Oncology residents showed a higher emotional exhaustion and lower personal fulfillment. Considering the three specializations, the academic progress was higher in the third year, with a significant difference to Surgical Oncology and Medical Oncology (p = 0.026 and 0.015, respectively). No significant difference was found between burnout syndrome, academic progress and sociodemographic characteristics. The presence of burnout syndrome does not affect the academic progress of Oncology medical residents.

  7. The experiential world of the oncology nurse | Van Rooyen | Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In her1 experiential world, the oncology nurse experiences unique, challenging and rewarding relationships in a multidimensional, dynamic way. The aim of this study was to describe, from her viewpoint and perspective, how she experiences and reacts to this world. Through this study the researcher wants the oncology ...

  8. Approaching airways in oncology surgery of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Rabassa, Sahily Irene; Diaz Mediondo, Miosotis; Diez Sanchez, Yanelys

    2013-01-01

    A descriptive prospective study was conducted in 'Maria Curie' Oncology Teaching Provincial Hospital during the period from January 2010 to December 2010. The sample included 210 patients studied with the purpose of identifying morbimortality of the difficult airway in Oncology Surgery of the head and neck in our institution

  9. Global Oncology; Harvard Global Health Catalyst summit lecture notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Nguyen, Paul

    2017-08-01

    The material presented in this book is at the cutting-edge of global oncology and provides highly illuminating examples, addresses frequently asked questions, and provides information and a reference for future work in global oncology care, research, education, and outreach.

  10. Effects of Age Expectations on Oncology Social Workers' Clinical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Annemarie; Choi, Namkee G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of oncology social workers' expectations regarding aging (ERA) and ERA with cancer (ERAC) on their clinical judgment. Methods: Oncology social workers (N = 322) were randomly assigned to one of four vignettes describing a patient with lung cancer. The vignettes were identical except for the patent's age…

  11. 75 FR 81283 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The meeting of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee scheduled for February 9, 2011, is...

  12. 77 FR 63839 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The meeting of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee Meeting scheduled for November 8, 2012, is...

  13. Navigation in musculoskeletal oncology: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Vernon Morris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Navigation in surgery has increasingly become more commonplace. The use of this technological advancement has enabled ever more complex and detailed surgery to be performed to the benefit of surgeons and patients alike. This is particularly so when applying the use of navigation within the field of orthopedic oncology. The developments in computer processing power coupled with the improvements in scanning technologies have permitted the incorporation of navigational procedures into day-to-day practice. A comprehensive search of PubMed using the search terms “navigation”, “orthopaedic” and “oncology” yielded 97 results. After filtering for English language papers, excluding spinal surgery and review articles, this resulted in 38 clinical studies and case reports. These were analyzed in detail by the authors (GM and JS and the most relevant papers reviewed. We have sought to provide an overview of the main types of navigation systems currently available within orthopedic oncology and to assess some of the evidence behind its use.

  14. Advances in imaging for oncology guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amies, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 30 years major improvements in medical imaging have played a significant role to help advance the management of oncology diseases. These advances have covered the continuum of care from screening, diagnosis, staging, treatment planning and intervention. More recently image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) has placed sophisticated imaging closer to the treatment event. The opportunity to improve care seems obvious; however the clinical benefits of IGRT are at present not easily proven and yet contribute to the complexity of treatment and the rising costs of care. It is proposed that this is in part due to the present immaturity of IGRT technology development, which is predominantly determined by the challenge of achieving precise delivery of radiation in one or many episodes (fractions) for very different diseases. There is no single type or mode of imaging that will be suitable to address all radiotherapy guidance challenges whether defined by the general criteria identified for a specific disease or the unique characteristics encountered with an individual patient. Finally the wide adoption of this or any medical technology general requires the attainment of a sufficient degree of safety and efficiency. I present the challenges faced by industry as well as select interesting technology based solutions and concepts that may help advance the field of oncology guidance

  15. Clinical outcomes research in gynecologic oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Alexander; Rauh-Hain, J Alejandro; Schorge, John O

    2017-09-01

    Clinical outcomes research seeks to understand the real-world manifestations of clinical care. In particular, outcomes research seeks to reveal the effects of pharmaceutical, procedural, and structural aspects of healthcare on patient outcomes, including mortality, disease control, toxicity, cost, and quality of life. Although outcomes research can utilize interventional study designs, insightful use of observational data is a defining feature of this field. Many questions in gynecologic oncology are not amenable to investigation in randomized clinical trials due to cost, feasibility, or ethical concerns. When a randomized trial is not practical or has not yet been conducted, well-designed observational studies have the potential to provide the best available evidence about the effects of clinical care. Such studies may use surveys, medical records, disease registries, and a variety of administrative data sources. Even when a randomized trial has been conducted, observational studies can be used to estimate the real-world effect of an intervention, which may differ from the results obtained in the controlled setting of a clinical trial. This article reviews the goals, methodologies, data sources, and limitations of clinical outcomes research, with a focus on gynecologic oncology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. [Introduction of emotional labour into oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazányi, Kornélia; Molnár, Péter; Szluha, Kornélia

    2007-06-03

    Health care professionals do not have emotional labour obligations in their employment contract. However, in everyday work it is often inevitable for them to change their true feelings. This is critically true for professionals treating chronic or cancer patients. The suitable emotional state of the treatment staff does not only influence the practitioner-patient relationship but the process of recovery as well. Depending on the way one might get into the appropriate emotional state, the literature distinguishes between surface, deep and genuine acting. While surface and deep emotional labour has numerous negative psychological consequences genuine acting is usually accompanied by positive side effects. For those working in the field of oncology, emotional labour is a part of the role expectations of the professionals. This is how the appropriate attitude is a fundamental part of the professionals' essence. For the in depth analysis of subjects related to emotional labour, the authors adopted ideas from L. Festinger 's cognitive dissonance theory. The best way to alleviate cognitive dissonance and the negative side effects of emotional labour is to prevent the emergence of them. Oncology professionals should fit their role expectations genuinely, without particular efforts. If this was impossible, or the particular life situations did not allow genuine acting, it is the employer's and the workmates' common duty to help professionals, to ease the load of emotional labour, to diminish the occurring cognitive dissonance with the help of appropriate recompense.

  17. Social Interaction and Collaboration among Oncology Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jane; Prentice, Dawn; McQuestion, Maurene

    2015-01-01

    Collaboration is a complex process influenced by organizational, professional, interpersonal, and personal factors. Research has demonstrated that collaboration may also be influenced by social factors. Nurses spend much of their time working in collaborative teams, yet little is known about how they socially interact in practice. This qualitative case study explored nurse perceptions of social interaction in relation to collaboration. Data were collected using telephone interviews and documentary reviews from fourteen oncology nurses employed at one cancer center in Canada. Thematic analysis revealed two themes: knowing you is trusting you and formal and informal opportunities. Nurses reported that social interaction meant getting to know someone personally as well as professionally. Social interaction was enacted inside of work during breaks/meals and outside of work at planned events. Social interaction was facilitated by having a long-term current and/or previous professional and personal relationship. The barriers to social interaction included a lack of time to get to know each other, workload issues, and poor interpersonal skills. Findings suggest that social interaction is an important factor in the collaborative relationship among oncology nurses. Nurse leaders need to promote social interaction opportunities and facilitate educational sessions to improve social and interpersonal skills.

  18. Maintenance of Certification for Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, Larry E.; Ang, Kian; Erickson, Beth; Harris, Jay; Hoppe, Richard; Leibel, Steve; Davis, Larry; Hattery, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance of Certification (MOC) recognizes that in addition to medical knowledge, several essential elements involved in delivering quality care must be developed and maintained throughout one's career. The MOC process is designed to facilitate and document professional development of American Board of Radiology (ABR) diplomates in the essential elements of quality care in Radiation Oncology and Radiologic Physics. ABR MOC has been developed in accord with guidelines of the American Board of Medical Specialties. All Radiation Oncology certificates issued since 1995 are 10-year, time-limited certificates; diplomates with time-limited certificates who wish to maintain specialty certification must complete specific requirements of the American Board of Radiology MOC program. Diplomates with lifelong certificates are not required to participate but are strongly encouraged to do so. Maintenance of Certification is based on documentation of participation in the four components of MOC: (1) professional standing, (2) lifelong learning and self-assessment, (3) cognitive expertise, and (4) performance in practice. Through these components, MOC addresses six competencies-medical knowledge, patient care, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice. Details of requirements for components 1, 2, and 3 of MOC are outlined along with aspects of the fourth component currently under development

  19. Apps for Radiation Oncology. A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Calero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Software applications executed on a smart-phone or mobile device (“Apps” are increasingly used by oncologists in their daily work. A comprehensive critical review was conducted on Apps specifically designed for Radiation Oncology, which aims to provide scientific support for these tools and to guide users in choosing the most suited to their needs. Material and methods: A systematic search was conducted in mobile platforms, iOS and Android, returning 157 Apps. Excluding those whose purpose did not match the scope of the study, 31 Apps were methodically analyzed by the following items: Objective Features, List of Functionalities, Consistency in Outcomes and Usability. Results: Apps are presented in groups of features, as Dose Calculators (7 Apps, Clinical Calculators (4, Tools for Staging (7, Multipurpose (7 and Others (6. Each App is presented with the list of attributes and a brief comment. A short summary is provided at the end of each group. Discussion and Recommendations: There are numerous Apps with useful tools at the disposal of radiation oncologists. The most advisable Apps do not match the more expensive. Three all-in-one apps seem advisable above all: RadOnc Reference (in English, Easy Oncology (in German and iOncoR (in Spanish. Others recommendations are suggested for specific tasks: dose calculators, treatment-decision and staging.

  20. The role of PDGF in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Minglun; Jendrossek, Verena; Belka, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was originally identified as a constituent of blood serum and subsequently purified from human platelets. PDGF ligand is a dimeric molecule consisting of two disulfide-bonded chains from A-, B-, C- and D-polypeptide chains, which combine to homo- and heterodimers. The PDGF isoforms exert their cellular effects by binding to and activating two structurally related protein tyrosine kinase receptors. PDGF is a potent mitogen and chemoattractant for mesenchymal cells and also a chemoattractant for neutrophils and monocytes. In radiation oncology, PDGF are important for several pathologic processes, including oncogenesis, angiogenesis and fibrogenesis. Autocrine activation of PDGF was observed and interpreted as an important mechanism involved in brain and other tumors. PDGF has been shown to be fundamental for the stability of normal blood vessel formation, and may be essential for the angiogenesis in tumor tissue. PDGF also plays an important role in the proliferative disease, such as atherosclerosis and radiation-induced fibrosis, regarding its proliferative stimulation of fibroblast cells. Moreover, PDGF was also shown to stimulate production of extracellular matrix proteins, which are mainly responsible for the irreversibility of these diseases. This review introduces the structural and functional properties of PDGF and PDGF receptors and discusses the role and mechanism of PDGF signaling in normal and tumor tissues under different conditions in radiation oncology

  1. Oncologic imaging of the genitourinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClennan, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Malignant neoplasms of the genitourinary (GU) tract account for a significant number of cancer-related deaths in man. For example, prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in adult males. Early diagnosis and treatment can have a profound effect on patient prognosis and survival. This paper examines the large body of information related to primary tumors of the kidney, bladder, and prostate, and their pattern of spread. Tumor oncology is discussed and related to the utility of available techniques, such as CT, MR imaging, and US. Imaging strategies are discussed that stress consideration of therapeutic efficacy and patient outcome. Current tumor staging and classification is presented and the various imaging strategies keyed to detection, definition, and treatment options for GU tract tumors. The strengths and limitations of modern imaging techniques are reviewed. An optimal approach to effective workup is developed with regard to availability, evolving technology, and cost efficacy. The controversies and conflicts in imaging and treatment options are explored while constructing a step-by-step approach that is both flexible and pragmatic for the clinician and radiologist faced daily with oncologic management choices

  2. The Value of Specialty Oncology Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Dana P; Jena, Anupam B; Lakdawalla, Darius N; Malin, Jennifer L; Malkin, Jesse D; Sun, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate patients' elasticity of demand, willingness to pay, and consumer surplus for five high-cost specialty medications treating metastatic disease or hematologic malignancies. Data Source/Study Setting Claims data from 71 private health plans from 1997 to 2005. Study Design This is a revealed preference analysis of the demand for specialty drugs among cancer patients. We exploit differences in plan generosity to examine how utilization of specialty oncology drugs varies with patient out-of-pocket costs. Data Collection/Extraction Methods We extracted key variables from administrative health insurance claims records. Principal Findings A 25 percent reduction in out-of-pocket costs leads to a 5 percent increase in the probability that a patient initiates specialty cancer drug therapy. Among patients who initiate, a 25 percent reduction in out-of-pocket costs reduces the number of treatments (claims) by 1–3 percent, depending on the drug. On average, the value of these drugs to patients who use them is about four times the total cost paid by the patient and his or her insurer, although this ratio may be lower for oral specialty therapies. Conclusions The decision to initiate therapy with specialty oncology drugs is responsive to price, but not highly so. Among patients who initiate therapy, the amount of treatment is equally responsive. The drugs we examine are highly valued by patients in excess of their total costs, although oral agents warrant further scrutiny as copayments increase. PMID:19878344

  3. [Artificial intelligence applied to radiation oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibault, J-E; Burgun, A; Giraud, P

    2017-05-01

    Performing randomised comparative clinical trials in radiation oncology remains a challenge when new treatment modalities become available. One of the most recent examples is the lack of phase III trials demonstrating the superiority of intensity-modulated radiation therapy in most of its current indications. A new paradigm is developing that consists in the mining of large databases to answer clinical or translational issues. Beyond national databases (such as SEER or NCDB), that often lack the necessary level of details on the population studied or the treatments performed, electronic health records can be used to create detailed phenotypic profiles of any patients. In parallel, the Record-and-Verify Systems used in radiation oncology precisely document the planned and performed treatments. Artificial Intelligence and machine learning algorithms can be used to incrementally analyse these data in order to generate hypothesis to better personalize treatments. This review discusses how these methods have already been used in previous studies. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute Thoracic Findings in Oncologic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Brett W; Erasmus, Jeremy J

    2015-07-01

    Cancer is the second most common cause of mortality in the United States, with >500,000 deaths reported annually. Acute or emergent findings in this group of patients can be a life-threatening phenomenon that results from malignancy or as a complication of therapy. In many cases, these events can be the first clinical manifestation of malignant disease. Oncologic emergencies have been classified as metabolic, hematologic, and structural emergencies. Within the thorax, most acute oncologic findings involve the lungs and airways in the form of drug toxicity, pulmonary infections, or malignant airway compression; the cardiovascular system in the form of pulmonary embolism, superior vena cava syndrome, cardiac tamponade, or massive hemoptysis; the mediastinum in the form of esophageal perforation, acute mediastinitis, or esophagorespiratory fistula; and the osseous spine and spinal cord in the form of invasion and cord compression. Given the life-threatening nature of many of these disease processes, awareness of such complications is critical to making an accurate diagnosis and formulating appropriate treatment strategies.

  5. Updates from the 2013 Society for Neuro-Oncology annual and World Federation for Neuro-Oncology quadrennial meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Rimas V; Amidei, Christina

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of a number of key clinical studies in infiltrating gliomas presented at the 2013 Society for Neuro-Oncology and World Federation of Neuro-Oncology joint meeting. This review focuses on efficacy results, including quality of life studies, from larger clinical trials in both high- and low-grade infiltrating gliomas.

  6. A Research Agenda for Radiation Oncology: Results of the Radiation Oncology Institute's Comprehensive Research Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: rjagsi@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brawley, Otis W. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Emory University, and American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Thomas, Charles R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, OR (United States); Lawton, Colleen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To promote the rational use of scarce research funding, scholars have developed methods for the systematic identification and prioritization of health research needs. The Radiation Oncology Institute commissioned an independent, comprehensive assessment of research needs for the advancement of radiation oncology care. Methods and Materials: The research needs assessment used a mixed-method, qualitative and quantitative social scientific approach, including structured interviews with diverse stakeholders, focus groups, surveys of American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) members, and a prioritization exercise using a modified Delphi technique. Results: Six co-equal priorities were identified: (1) Identify and develop communication strategies to help patients and others better understand radiation therapy; (2) Establish a set of quality indicators for major radiation oncology procedures and evaluate their use in radiation oncology delivery; (3) Identify best practices for the management of radiation toxicity and issues in cancer survivorship; (4) Conduct comparative effectiveness studies related to radiation therapy that consider clinical benefit, toxicity (including quality of life), and other outcomes; (5) Assess the value of radiation therapy; and (6) Develop a radiation oncology registry. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this prioritization exercise is the only comprehensive and methodologically rigorous assessment of research needs in the field of radiation oncology. Broad dissemination of these findings is critical to maximally leverage the impact of this work, particularly because grant funding decisions are often made by committees on which highly specialized disciplines such as radiation oncology are not well represented.

  7. A Research Agenda for Radiation Oncology: Results of the Radiation Oncology Institute’s Comprehensive Research Needs Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagsi, Reshma; Bekelman, Justin E.; Brawley, Otis W.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Michalski, Jeff M.; Movsas, Benjamin; Thomas, Charles R.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To promote the rational use of scarce research funding, scholars have developed methods for the systematic identification and prioritization of health research needs. The Radiation Oncology Institute commissioned an independent, comprehensive assessment of research needs for the advancement of radiation oncology care. Methods and Materials: The research needs assessment used a mixed-method, qualitative and quantitative social scientific approach, including structured interviews with diverse stakeholders, focus groups, surveys of American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) members, and a prioritization exercise using a modified Delphi technique. Results: Six co-equal priorities were identified: (1) Identify and develop communication strategies to help patients and others better understand radiation therapy; (2) Establish a set of quality indicators for major radiation oncology procedures and evaluate their use in radiation oncology delivery; (3) Identify best practices for the management of radiation toxicity and issues in cancer survivorship; (4) Conduct comparative effectiveness studies related to radiation therapy that consider clinical benefit, toxicity (including quality of life), and other outcomes; (5) Assess the value of radiation therapy; and (6) Develop a radiation oncology registry. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this prioritization exercise is the only comprehensive and methodologically rigorous assessment of research needs in the field of radiation oncology. Broad dissemination of these findings is critical to maximally leverage the impact of this work, particularly because grant funding decisions are often made by committees on which highly specialized disciplines such as radiation oncology are not well represented.

  8. Improving Healthcare in Pediatric Oncology: Development and Testing of Multiple Indicators to Evaluate a Hub-And-Spoke Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetti, Giulia; Bertorello, Nicoletta; Angelastro, Angela; Gianino, Paola; Bona, Gianni; Barbara, Affif; Besenzon, Luigi; Brach Del Prever, Adalberto; Pesce, Fernando; Nangeroni, Marco; Fagioli, Franca

    2017-06-01

    Purpose The hub-and-spoke is a new innovation model in healthcare that has been adopted in some countries to manage rare pathologies. We developed a set of indicators to assess current quality practices of the hub-and-spoke model adopted in the Interregional Pediatric Oncology Network in Northwest Italy and to promote patient, family, and professional healthcare empowerment. Methods Literature and evidence-based clinical guidelines were reviewed and multiprofessional team workshops were carried out to highlight some important issues on healthcare in pediatric oncology and to translate them into a set of multiple indicators. For each indicator, specific questions were formulated and tested through a series of questionnaires completed by 80 healthcare professionals and 50 pediatric patients and their parents. Results The results highlighted a positive perception of healthcare delivered by the hub-and-spoke model (M HP = 156, M Pat = 93, M Par = 104). Based on the participants' suggestions, some quality improvements have been implemented. Conclusions This study represents the first attempt to examine this new model of pediatric oncology care through the active involvement of patients, families, and healthcare professionals. Suggestions for adopting a hub-and-spoke model in pediatric oncology in other regions and countries are also highlighted.

  9. [Organizational wellbeing in the health sector: the Piemonte Region experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converso, Daniela; Baratti, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the Health Councillorship of the Piedmont region announced, in convention with the Psychology Department of the University of Turin, of the creation of "Workgroup for Safeguard of Organizational Wellbeing" composed by psychologists, occupational doctors, and superintendents for Prevention and Protection services. This group is aimed at promoting pilot experiences in the Health Units in order to prevent and combat psychosocial discomfort and to sustain workers' wellbeing. A complex intervention started in January 2009 and involved the personnel from Services for the Organization and Development of Human Resources, Personnel Services, Services for Occupational Medicine, Services of Communication, Quality Services, belonging to all of the Health Units from Piedmont, and of some structures operating within the national health service, for a total of 23 work groups. Based on the results produced and/or from the shared reflections in the classroom between the 23 groups, four main themes were singled out, corresponding to different levels and fields of interventions, in order to favour the contrast of psychosocial distress and to promote a culture of wellbeing, were adopted taking into account needs and cultural specificity of different Units' realities. The activities embarked on, inside every main theme represent, in the expectations of all the participants, good practices that could be spread to the different Local Health Units.

  10. American Society of Clinical Oncology Strategic Plan for Increasing Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkfield, Karen M; Flowers, Christopher R; Patel, Jyoti D; Rodriguez, Gladys; Robinson, Patricia; Agarwal, Amit; Pierce, Lori; Brawley, Otis W; Mitchell, Edith P; Head-Smith, Kimberly T; Wollins, Dana S; Hayes, Daniel F

    2017-08-01

    In December 2016, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Board of Directors approved the ASCO Strategic Plan to Increase Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce. Developed through a multistakeholder effort led by the ASCO Health Disparities Committee, the purpose of the plan is to guide the formal efforts of ASCO in this area over the next three years (2017 to 2020). There are three primary goals: (1) to establish a longitudinal pathway for increasing workforce diversity, (2) to enhance ASCO leadership diversity, and (3) to integrate a focus on diversity across ASCO programs and policies. Improving quality cancer care in the United States requires the recruitment of oncology professionals from diverse backgrounds. The ASCO Strategic Plan to Increase Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce is designed to enhance existing programs and create new opportunities that will move us closer to the vision of achieving an oncology workforce that reflects the demographics of the US population it serves.

  11. Augmented reality in laparoscopic surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, Stéphane; Soler, Luc; Mutter, Didier; Marescaux, Jacques

    2011-09-01

    Minimally invasive surgery represents one of the main evolutions of surgical techniques aimed at providing a greater benefit to the patient. However, minimally invasive surgery increases the operative difficulty since the depth perception is usually dramatically reduced, the field of view is limited and the sense of touch is transmitted by an instrument. However, these drawbacks can currently be reduced by computer technology guiding the surgical gesture. Indeed, from a patient's medical image (US, CT or MRI), Augmented Reality (AR) can increase the surgeon's intra-operative vision by providing a virtual transparency of the patient. AR is based on two main processes: the 3D visualization of the anatomical or pathological structures appearing in the medical image, and the registration of this visualization on the real patient. 3D visualization can be performed directly from the medical image without the need for a pre-processing step thanks to volume rendering. But better results are obtained with surface rendering after organ and pathology delineations and 3D modelling. Registration can be performed interactively or automatically. Several interactive systems have been developed and applied to humans, demonstrating the benefit of AR in surgical oncology. It also shows the current limited interactivity due to soft organ movements and interaction between surgeon instruments and organs. If the current automatic AR systems show the feasibility of such system, it is still relying on specific and expensive equipment which is not available in clinical routine. Moreover, they are not robust enough due to the high complexity of developing a real-time registration taking organ deformation and human movement into account. However, the latest results of automatic AR systems are extremely encouraging and show that it will become a standard requirement for future computer-assisted surgical oncology. In this article, we will explain the concept of AR and its principles. Then, we

  12. The Growth of Academic Radiation Oncology: A Survey of Endowed Professorships in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, Todd H.; Smith, Steven M.; Powell, Simon N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The academic health of a medical specialty can be gauged by the level of university support through endowed professorships. Methods and Materials: We conducted a survey of the 86 academic programs in radiation oncology to determine the current status of endowed chairs in this discipline. Results: Over the past decade, the number of endowed chairs has more than doubled, and it has almost tripled over the past 13 years. The number of programs with at least one chair has increased from 31% to 65%. Conclusions: Coupled with other indicators of academic growth, such as the proportion of graduating residents seeking academic positions, there has been clear and sustained growth in academic radiation oncology.

  13. Nonspecialty Nurse Education: Evaluation of the Oncology Intensives Initiative, an Oncology Curriculum to Improve Patient Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Kimberly A; Dunn, Sarah E; Chuang, Eliseu Y; Dorr, Victoria J; Thompson, Julie A; Smith, Sophia K

    2018-04-01

    A community hospital combined its medical and surgical patients with cancer on one unit, which resulted in nurses not trained in oncology caring for this patient population. The Oncology Intensives Initiative (ONCii) involved the (a) design and implementation of a daylong didactic boot camp class and a four-hour simulation session and (b) the examination of nurses' worries, attitudes, self-efficacy, and perception of interdisciplinary teamwork. A two-group, pre-/post-test design was implemented. Group 1 consisted of nurses who attended the didactic boot camp classes alone, whereas group 2 was comprised of nurses who attended the didactic boot camp classes and the simulation sessions. Results of data analysis showed a decrease in worries and an increase in positive attitudes toward chemotherapy administration in both groups, as well as an increase in self-efficacy among members of group 2.

  14. Assessment Tools for Peripheral Neuropathy in Pediatric Oncology: A Systematic Review From the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolik, Suzanne; Arland, Lesley; Hensley, Mary Ann; Schissel, Debra; Shepperd, Barbara; Thomas, Kristin; Rodgers, Cheryl

    Peripheral neuropathy is a known side effect of several chemotherapy agents, including vinca alkaloids and platinum-based chemotherapy. Early recognition and monitoring of this side effect is an important role of the pediatric oncology nurse. There are a variety of peripheral neuropathy assessment tools currently in use, but the usefulness of these tools in identifying and grading neuropathy in children varies, and there is currently no standardized tool in place to evaluate peripheral neuropathy in pediatric oncology. A systematic review was performed to identify the peripheral neuropathy assessment tools that best evaluate the early onset and progression of peripheral neuropathy in pediatric patients receiving vincristine. Because of the limited information available in pediatric oncology, this review was extended to any pediatric patient with neuropathy. A total of 8 studies were included in the evidence synthesis. Based on available evidence, the pediatric-modified Total Neuropathy Scale (ped-m TNS) and the Total Neuropathy Score-pediatric version (TNS-PV) are recommended for the assessment of vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy in children 6 years of age and older. In addition, several studies demonstrated that subjective symptoms alone are not adequate to assess for vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy. Nursing assessment of peripheral neuropathy should be an integral and regular part of patient care throughout the course of chemotherapy treatment.

  15. Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise in Radiation Oncology Plug and Play-The Future of Radiation Oncology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, May; Rengan, Ramesh; Curran, Bruce; Swerdloff, Stuart; Miettinen, Mika; Field, Colin; Ranjitkar, Sunita; Palta, Jatinder; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the processes and benefits of the integrating healthcare enterprises in radiation oncology (IHE-RO). Methods: The IHE-RO process includes five basic steps. The first step is to identify common interoperability issues encountered in radiation treatment planning and the delivery process. IHE-RO committees partner with vendors to develop solutions (integration profiles) to interoperability problems. The broad application of these integration profiles across a variety of vender platforms is tested annually at the Connectathon event. Demonstration of the seamless integration and transfer of patient data to the potential users are then presented by vendors at the public demonstration event. Users can then integrate these profiles into requests for proposals and vendor contracts by institutions. Results: Incorporation of completed integration profiles into requests for proposals can be done when purchasing new equipment. Vendors can publish IHE integration statements to document the integration profiles supported by their products. As a result, users can reference integration profiles in requests for proposals, simplifying the systems acquisition process. These IHE-RO solutions are now available in many of the commercial radiation oncology-related treatment planning, delivery, and information systems. They are also implemented at cancer care sites around the world. Conclusions: IHE-RO serves an important purpose for the radiation oncology community at large.

  16. Information technology resource management in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siochi, R Alfredo; Balter, Peter; Bloch, Charles D; Bushe, Harry S; Mayo, Charles S; Curran, Bruce H; Feng, Wenzheng; Kagadis, George C; Kirby, Thomas H; Stern, Robin L

    2009-09-02

    The ever-increasing data demands in a radiation oncology (RO) clinic require medical physicists to have a clearer understanding of the information technology (IT) resource management issues. Clear lines of collaboration and communication among administrators, medical physicists, IT staff, equipment service engineers and vendors need to be established. In order to develop a better understanding of the clinical needs and responsibilities of these various groups, an overview of the role of IT in RO is provided. This is followed by a list of IT related tasks and a resource map. The skill set and knowledge required to implement these tasks are described for the various RO professionals. Finally, various models for assessing one's IT resource needs are described. The exposition of ideas in this white paper is intended to be broad, in order to raise the level of awareness of the RO community; the details behind these concepts will not be given here and are best left to future task group reports.

  17. The Future of Precision Medicine in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, Lori M; Strotman, Lindsay N

    2016-09-01

    Precision medicine in oncology focuses on identifying which therapies are most effective for each patient based on genetic characterization of the cancer. Traditional chemotherapy is cytotoxic and destroys all cells that are rapidly dividing. The foundation of precision medicine is targeted therapies and selecting patients who will benefit most from these therapies. One of the newest aspects of precision medicine is liquid biopsy. A liquid biopsy includes analysis of circulating tumor cells, cell-free nucleic acid, or exosomes obtained from a peripheral blood draw. These can be studied individually or in combination and collected serially, providing real-time information as a patient's cancer changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Not only PET for oncological disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroa, V.E.; victoriasoroa@fibertel. com.ar; Velasques Espeche, M. del H.; Garcia, Luis M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Our data with oncological patients evaluated through planar and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) gamma cameras over a period of more than 20 years, confirms the value of this technique, although PET is superior in sensitivity. The greater availability of radiotracers labeled with In-111 and Tc-99m has helped in identifying malignant tissue more accurately. In Latin America availability of PET is restricted to one or two Nuclear Medicine Departments in few countries of the Region. Our aim was to reaffirm the value of planar and SPECT imaging in early diagnosis, in the oncological follow-up and determining response to treatment. Bone scan, a well established imaging modality for search of metastatic pathologies (breast, prostate, lung and kidney) forms more than 56% of the studies requested monthly in our Nuclear Medicine Departments. When solitary peripheral lesions are detected in ribs and long bones the orthopedic surgeon sometimes requires external skin marking for biopsy procedure (1-2%). Twenty-six percent of consultations are thyroid cancer, where different therapeutic doses of I-131 are administered. Gallium-67 scanning constitutes 8-10% of our workload. About 10 mCi (370 MBq) of radioactivity is administered, mainly for stratification and monitoring response of Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. Sentinel node detection (5-6% of patients) with different colloid preparations and hand-held probes is used in breast, melanoma, neck and head cancers. In our center we have achieved an accuracy rate of 92-94% in detecting Sentinel Lymph Nodes after three years of practice. The demand for scintimammography (in dense breasts and breast implants) for palpable masses, through planar scans is increasing. In-111 labeled somatostatin an analogue imaging for detection of neuro-endocrine tumors was seldom requested in our country because of their high cost, until the labeling methods were developed locally and transferred to private commercial

  19. Clinical quality assurance in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A quality assurance program in radiation oncology monitors and evaluates any departmental functions which have an impact on patient outcome. The ultimate purpose of the program is to maximize health benefit to the patient without a corresponding increase in risk. The foundation of the program should be the credo: at least do no harm, usually do some good and ideally realize the greatest good. The steep dose response relationships for tumor control and complications require a high degree of accuracy and precision throughout the entire process of radiation therapy. It has been shown that failure to control local disease with radiation may result in decreased survival and may increase the cost of care by a factor of 3. Therefore, a comprehensive quality assurance program which seeks to optimize dose delivery and which encompasses both clinical and physics components, is needed

  20. The Rise of Big Data in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessele, Kristen L

    2018-05-01

    To describe big data and data science in the context of oncology nursing care. Peer-reviewed and lay publications. The rapid expansion of real-world evidence from sources such as the electronic health record, genomic sequencing, administrative claims and other data sources has outstripped the ability of clinicians and researchers to manually review and analyze it. To promote high-quality, high-value cancer care, big data platforms must be constructed from standardized data sources to support extraction of meaningful, comparable insights. Nurses must advocate for the use of standardized vocabularies and common data elements that represent terms and concepts that are meaningful to patient care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The oncologic and the geriatric patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philotheou, Geraldine M

    2002-01-01

    The oncologic and the geriatric patient have special needs in the nuclear medicine department. The nuclear medicine technologists must be knowledgeable and compassionate when dealing with these patients. The diagnosis of cancer will have a sociological and psychological impact on the patient, to which the technologist must relate in an empathetic way. Furthermore, the technologist should take cognisance of the patient's physical condition and be able to modify the examination accordingly. Dealing with the geriatric patient should be correctly placed on the continuum between a gerontological and geriatric approach taking into consideration normal changes due to aging. The patient experience when undergoing the high technology nuclear medicine diagnostic procedure is unique and all effort must be made to ensure the success of the examination and the satisfaction of the patient (Au)

  2. Phantom Limb Pain in Pediatric Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick DeMoss

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Phantom limb pain (PLP is a prevalent problem for children and adolescents undergoing amputation due to cancer treatment. The symptoms are wide ranging from sharp to tingling. PLP in children typically lasts for a few minutes but can be almost constant and can be highly distressing. This focused review describes the characteristics, epidemiology, mechanisms, and evidence-based treatment of PLP in pediatric populations, focusing on pediatric cancer. In pediatric oncology, the administration of chemotherapy is a risk factor that potentially sensitizes the nervous system and predisposes pediatric cancer patients to develop PLP after amputation. Gabapentin, tricyclic antidepressants, opiates, nerve blocks, and epidural catheters have shown mixed success in adults and case reports document potential utility in pediatric patients. Non-pharmacologic treatments, such as mirror therapy, psychotherapy, and acupuncture have also been used in pediatric PLP with success. Prospective controlled trials are necessary to advance care for pediatric patients with PLP.

  3. [Quality assurance in head and neck medical oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digue, Laurence; Pedeboscq, Stéphane

    2014-05-01

    In medical oncology, how can we be sure that the right drug is being administered to the right patient at the right time? The implementation of quality assurance criteria is important in medical oncology, in order to ensure that the patient receives the best treatment safely. There is very little literature about quality assurance in medical oncology, as opposed to radiotherapy or cancer surgery. Quality assurance must cover the entire patient care process, from the diagnosis, to the therapeutic decision and drug distribution, including its selection, its preparation and its delivery to the patient (administration and dosage), and finally the potential side effects and their management. The dose-intensity respect is crucial, and its reduction can negatively affect overall survival rates, as shown in breast and testis cancers for example. In head and neck medical oncology, it is essential to respect the few well-standardized recommendations and the dose-intensity, in a population with numerous comorbidities. We will first review quality assurance criteria for the general medical oncology organization and then focus on head and neck medical oncology. We will then describe administration specificities of head and neck treatments (chemoradiation, radiation plus cetuximab, postoperative chemoradiation, induction and palliative chemotherapy) as well as their follow-up. Lastly, we will offer some recommendations to improve quality assurance in head and neck medical oncology.

  4. Attitudes of Chinese Oncology Physicians Toward Death with Dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Ping; Huang, Bo-Yan; Yi, Ting-Wu; Deng, Yao-Tiao; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yu-Qing; Zhang, Zong-Yan; Jiang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    Death with dignity (DWD) refers to the refusal of life-prolonging measures for terminally ill patients by "living wills" forms in advance. More and more oncology physicians are receiving DWD requests from advance cancer patients in mainland China. The study objective was to investigate the attitudes of Chinese oncology physicians toward the legalization and implementation of DWD. A questionnaire investigating the understanding and attitudes toward DWD was administered to 257 oncology physicians from 11 hospitals in mainland China. The effective response rate was 86.8% (223/257). The majority of oncology physicians (69.1%) had received DWD requests from patients. Half of the participants (52.5%) thought that the most important reason was the patients' unwillingness to maintain survival through machines. One-third of participants (33.0%) attributed the most important reason to suffering from painful symptoms. Most oncology physicians (78.9%) had knowledge about DWD. A fifth of respondents did not know the difference between DWD and euthanasia, and a few even considered DWD as euthanasia. The majority of oncology physicians supported the legalization (88.3%) and implementation (83.9%) of DWD. Many Chinese oncology physicians have received advanced cancer patients' DWD requests and think that DWD should be legalized and implemented. Chinese health management departments should consider the demands of physicians and patients. It is important to inform physicians about the difference between DWD and euthanasia, as one-fifth of them were confused about it.

  5. A Nationwide Medical Student Assessment of Oncology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Malcolm D; Patel, Krishnan R; Burt, Lindsay M; Hirsch, Ariel E

    2016-12-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA, but there is minimal data on how oncology is taught to medical students. The purpose of this study is to characterize oncology education at US medical schools. An electronic survey was sent between December 2014 and February 2015 to a convenience sample of medical students who either attended the American Society for Radiation Oncology annual meeting or serve as delegates to the American Association of Medical Colleges. Information on various aspects of oncology instruction at participants' medical schools was collected. Seventy-six responses from students in 28 states were received. Among the six most common causes of death in the USA, cancer reportedly received the fourth most curricular time. During the first, second, and third years of medical school, participants most commonly reported 6-10, 16-20, and 6-10 h of oncology teaching, respectively. Participants were less confident in their understanding of cancer treatment than workup/diagnosis or basic science/natural history of cancer (p oncology-oriented clerkship. During each mandatory rotation, Oncology education is often underemphasized and fragmented with wide variability in content and structure between medical schools, suggesting a need for reform.

  6. Physical Activity Promotion, Beliefs, and Barriers Among Australasian Oncology Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L; Pühringer, Petra; Olsen, Alicia; Sargeant, Sally; Jones, Lynnette M; Climstein, Mike

    2017-03-01

    To describe the physical activity (PA) promotion practices, beliefs, and barriers of Australasian oncology nurses and gain preliminary insight into how PA promotion practices may be affected by the demographics of the nurses.
. Cross-sectional survey.
. Australia and New Zealand.
. 119 registered oncology nurses.
. Self-reported online survey completed once per participant.
. Questions assessed the PA promotion beliefs (e.g., primary healthcare professionals responsible for PA promotion, treatment stage), PA benefits (e.g., primary benefits, evidence base), and PA promotion barriers of oncology nurses.
. Oncology nurses believed they were the major providers of PA advice to their patients. They promoted PA prior to, during, and post-treatment. The three most commonly cited benefits of PA for their patients were improved quality of life, mental health, and activities of daily living. Lack of time, lack of adequate support structures, and risk to patient were the most common barriers to PA promotion. Relatively few significant differences in the oncology nurses' PA promotion practices, beliefs, and barriers were observed based on hospital location or years of experience.
. Despite numerous barriers, Australasian oncology nurses wish to promote PA to their patients with cancer across multiple treatment stages because they believe PA is beneficial for their patients.
. Hospitals may need to better support oncology nurses in promoting PA to their patients and provide better referral pathways to exercise physiologists and physiotherapists.

  7. The Role of Oncology Nurses in Discussing Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocke, Susan A; Antognoli, Elizabeth; Daly, Barbara J; Jackson, Brigid; Fulton, Sarah E; Liu, Tasnuva M; Surdam, Jessica; Manne, Sharon; Meropol, Neal J

    2017-09-01

    To describe oncology nurses' experiences discussing clinical trials with their patients, and to assess barriers to these discussions.
. A qualitative study designed to elicit narratives from oncology nurses. 
. Community- and academic-based oncology clinics throughout the United States.
. 33 oncology nurses involved in direct patient care in community-based and large hospital-based settings. The sample was drawn from members of the Oncology Nursing Society. 
. In-depth interviews were conducted and analyzed using a 
immersion/crystallization approach to identify themes and patterns. The analyses highlight specific issues, examples, and contexts that present challenges to clinical trial discussions with patients.
. Oncology nurses view their roles as patient educators and advocates to be inclusive of discussion of clinical trials. Barriers to such discussions include lack of knowledge and strategies for addressing patients' common misconceptions and uncertainty about the timing of discussions.
. These data indicate that enabling nurses to actively engage patients in discussions of clinical trials requires educational interventions to build self-efficacy and close knowledge gaps. 
. Oncology nurses can play a critical role in advancing cancer care by supporting patients in decision making about clinical trial participation. This will require training and education to build their knowledge, reduce barriers, and increase their self-efficacy to fulfill this responsibility in various clinical settings.

  8. It takes chutzpah: oncology nurse leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, E

    1999-01-01

    Chutzpah, according to the Oxford Dictionary of Current English (1996) is a slang term from the Yiddish language which means shameless audacity. Chutzpah has been used to identify people with courage who take on situations that others avoid and somehow achieve the impossible. Tim Porter-O'Grady (1997) recently wrote that management is dead, and has been replaced by process leadership. Health care organizations have made shifts from hierarchical structures to process or program models where people have dual/multiple reporting/communication relationship. In this new orientation, management functions of controlling, directing, organizing and disciplining are replaced by process leadership functions of coordinating, facilitating, linking and sustaining (Porter O'Grady, 1997). Herein lies the challenge for oncology nurse leaders: "what lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny matters compared to what lies within us" (Ralph Waldo Emerson). Leadership is not a function of job title. The evidence for this is clear in current practice.... There are no/few positions of nurse leaders. Titles have changed to eliminate the professional discipline, and reflect a non-descript orientation. The new titles are process leaders, program leaders, professional practice leaders. Nurse leaders need new points of reference to take in the challenges of influencing, facilitating and linking. Those points of reference are: principle-centered leadership, integrity and chutzpah. This presentation will focus on examining current thinking, defining key characteristics and attributes, and using scenarios to illustrate the impact of leadership. We, as leaders in oncology nursing, must use chutzpah to make positive change and long-term gains for patient care and the profession of nursing.

  9. Faculty of Radiation Oncology 2010 workforce survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, John; Vukolova, Natalia

    2011-12-01

    This paper outlines the key results of the Faculty of Radiation Oncology 2010 workforce survey and compares these results with earlier data. The workforce survey was conducted in mid-2010 using a custom-designed 17-question survey. The overall response rate was 76%. The majority of radiation oncologist respondents were male (n = 212, 71%), but the majority of trainee respondents were female (n = 59, 52.7%). The age range of fellows was 32-92 years (median: 47 years; mean: 49 years) and that of trainees was 27-44 years (median: 31 years; mean: 31.7 years). Most radiation oncologists worked at more than one practice (average: two practices). The majority of radiation oncologists worked in the public sector (n = 169, 64.5%), with some working in 'combination' of public and private sectors (n = 65, 24.8%) and a minority working in the private sector only (n = 28, 10.7%). The hours worked per week ranged from 1 to 85 (mean: 44 h; median: 45 h) for radiation oncologists, while for trainees the range was 16-90 (mean: 47 h; median: 45 h). The number of new cases seen in a year ranged from 1 to 1100 (mean: 275; median: 250). Most radiation oncologists considered themselves generalists with a preferred sub-specialty (43.3%) or specialists (41.9%), while a minority considered themselves as generalists (14.8%). There are a relatively large and increasing number of radiation oncologists and trainees compared with previous years. The excessive workloads evident in previous surveys appear to have diminished. However, further work is required on assessing the impact of ongoing feminisation and sub-specialisation. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2011 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  10. Voluntary Informed Consent in Paediatric Oncology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekking, Sara A S; Van Der Graaf, Rieke; Van Delden, Johannes J M

    2016-07-01

    In paediatric oncology, research and treatments are often closely combined, which may compromise voluntary informed consent of parents. We identified two key scenarios in which voluntary informed consent for paediatric oncology studies is potentially compromised due to the intertwinement of research and care. The first scenario is inclusion by the treating paediatric oncologist, the second scenario concerns treatments confined to the research context. In this article we examine whether voluntary informed consent of parents for research is compromised in these two scenarios, and if so whether this is also morally problematic. For this, we employ the account of voluntary consent from Nelson and colleagues, who assert that voluntary consent requires substantial freedom from controlling influences. We argue that, in the absence of persuasion or manipulation, inclusion by the treating physician does not compromise voluntariness. However, it may function as a risk factor for controlling influence as it narrows the scope within which parents make decisions. Furthermore, physician appeal to reciprocity is not controlling as it constitutes persuasion. In addition, framing information is a form of informational manipulation and constitutes a controlling influence. In the second scenario, treatments confined to the research context qualify as controlling if the available options are restricted through manipulation of options. Although none of the influences is morally problematic in itself, a combination of influences may create morally problematic instances of involuntary informed consent. Therefore, safeguards should be implemented to establish an optimal environment for parents to provide voluntary informed consent in an integrated research-care context. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The need for psycho-oncological support for melanoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Simone; Teufel, Martin; Schaeffeler, Norbert; Keim, Ulrike; Garbe, Claus; Eigentler, Thomas Kurt; Zipfel, Stephan; Forschner, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Despite an increasing number of promising treatment options, only a limited number of studies concerning melanoma patients’ psycho-oncological distress have been carried out. However, multiple screening tools are in use to assess the need for psycho-oncological support. This study aimed first to identify parameters in melanoma patients that are associated with a higher risk for being psycho-oncologically distressed and second to compare patients’ self-evaluation concerning the need for psycho-oncological support with the results of established screening tools. We performed a cross-sectional study including 254 melanoma patients from the Center for Dermatooncology at the University of Tuebingen. The study was performed between June 2010 and February 2013. Several screening instruments were included: the Distress Thermometer (DT), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the patients’ subjective evaluation concerning psycho-oncological support. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify factors that indicate the need for psycho-oncological support. Patients’ subjective evaluation concerning the need for psycho-oncological support, female gender, and psychotherapeutic or psychiatric treatment at present or in the past had the highest impact on values above threshold in the DT. The odds ratio of patients’ self-evaluation (9.89) was even higher than somatic factors like female gender (1.85), duration of illness (0.99), or increasing age (0.97). Patients’ self-evaluation concerning the need for psycho-oncological support indicated a moderate correlation with the results of the screening tools included. In addition to the results obtained by screening tools like the DT, we could demonstrate that patients’ self-evaluation is an important instrument to identify patients who need psycho-oncological support. PMID:28906378

  12. Exploring oncology nurses' grief: A self-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C Barbour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncology nursing, like many other nursing fields, often provides nurses with the opportunity to get to know their patients and their families well. This familiarity allows oncology nurses to show a level of compassion and empathy that is often helpful to the patient and their family during their struggle with cancer. However, this familiarity can also lead to a profound sense of grief if the patient loses that struggle. This self-study provided me the opportunity to systematically explore my own experience with grief as an oncology nurse, helping me to identify specific stressors and also sources of stress release.

  13. (Dissatisfaction of health professionals who work with oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Bordignon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: identify sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work for health professionals who work with oncology. Methods: Qualitative research conducted with 31 professionals from a multidisciplinary health team who worked in an Oncology Inpatient Unit of a public hospital in the south of Brazil, using a semi-structured interview, analyzed according to Bardin’s proposal. Results: the main sources of job satisfaction emerged from the relationship between patients and health professionals. The dissatisfaction sources were connected to the working environment and conditions. Conclusion:. A humanized look to health professionals who work with oncology, with changes in their work environment seems to be relevant in the context investigated.

  14. Molecular level in silico studies for oncology. Direct models review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psakhie, S. G.; Tsukanov, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    The combination of therapy and diagnostics in one process "theranostics" is a trend in a modern medicine, especially in oncology. Such an approach requires development and usage of multifunctional hybrid nanoparticles with a hierarchical structure. Numerical methods and mathematical models play a significant role in the design of the hierarchical nanoparticles and allow looking inside the nanoscale mechanisms of agent-cell interactions. The current position of in silico approach in biomedicine and oncology is discussed. The review of the molecular level in silico studies in oncology, which are using the direct models, is presented.

  15. Requirements for radiation oncology physics in Australia and New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, L.; Fitchew, R.; Drew, J.

    2001-01-01

    This Position Paper reviews the role, standards of practice, education, training and staffing requirements for radiation oncology physics. The role and standard of practice for an expert in radiation oncology physics, as defined by the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM), are consistent with the IAEA recommendations. International standards of safe practice recommend that this physics expert be authorised by a Regulatory Authority (in consultation with the professional organisation). In order to accommodate the international and AHTAC recommendations or any requirements that may be set by a Regulatory Authority, the ACPSEM has defined the criteria for a physicist-in-training, a base level physicist, an advanced level physicist and an expert radiation oncology physicist. The ACPSEM shall compile separate registers for these different radiation oncology physicist categories. What constitutes a satisfactory means of establishing the number of physicists and support physics staff that is required in radiation oncology continues to be debated. The new ACPSEM workforce formula (Formula 2000) yields similar numbers to other international professional body recommendations. The ACPSEM recommends that Australian and New Zealand radiation oncology centres should aim to employ 223 and 46 radiation oncology physics staff respectively. At least 75% of this workforce should be physicists ( 168 in Australia and 35 in New Zealand). An additional 41 registrar physicist positions (34 in Australia and 7 in New Zealand) should be specifically created for training purposes. These registrar positions cater for the present physicist shortfall, the future expansion of radiation oncology and the expected attrition of radiation oncology physicists in the workforce. Registrar physicists shall undertake suitable tertiary education in medical physics with an organised in-house training program.The rapid advances in the theory and methodology of the new

  16. How to Develop a Cardio-Oncology Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipelisky, David; Park, Jae Yoon; Lerman, Amir; Mulvagh, Sharon; Lin, Grace; Pereira, Naveen; Rodriguez-Porcel, Martin; Villarraga, Hector R; Herrmann, Joerg

    2017-04-01

    Cardiovascular demands to the care of cancer patients are common and important given the implications for morbidity and mortality. As a consequence, interactions with cardiovascular disease specialists have intensified to the point of the development of a new discipline termed cardio-oncology. As an additional consequence, so-called cardio-oncology clinics have emerged, in most cases staffed by cardiologists with an interest in the field. This article addresses this gap and summarizes key points in the development of a cardio-oncology clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Industry Funding Among Leadership in Medical Oncology and Radiation Oncology in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Stella K; Ahmed, Awad A; Ileto, Jan; Zaorsky, Nicholas G; Deville, Curtiland; Holliday, Emma B; Wilson, Lynn D; Jagsi, Reshma; Thomas, Charles R

    2017-10-01

    To quantify and determine the relationship between oncology departmental/division heads and private industry vis-à-vis potential financial conflict of interests (FCOIs) as publicly reported by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Open Payments database. We extracted the names of the chairs/chiefs in medical oncology (MO) and chairs of radiation oncology (RO) for 81 different institutions with both RO and MO training programs as reported by the Association of American Medical Colleges. For each leader, the amount of consulting fees and research payments received in 2015 was determined. Logistic modeling was used to assess associations between the 2 endpoints of receiving a consulting fee and receiving a research payment with various institution-specific and practitioner-specific variables included as covariates: specialty, sex, National Cancer Institute designation, PhD status, and geographic region. The majority of leaders in MO were reported to have received consulting fees or research payments (69.5%) compared with a minority of RO chairs (27.2%). Among those receiving payments, the average (range) consulting fee was $13,413 ($200-$70,423) for MO leaders and $6463 ($837-$16,205) for RO chairs; the average research payment for MO leaders receiving payments was $240,446 ($156-$1,234,762) and $295,089 ($160-$1,219,564) for RO chairs. On multivariable regression when the endpoint was receipt of a research payment, those receiving a consulting fee (odds ratio [OR]: 5.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.22-13.65) and MO leaders (OR: 5.54; 95% CI: 2.62-12.18) were more likely to receive research payments. Examination of the receipt of consulting fees as the endpoint showed that those receiving a research payment (OR: 5.41; 95% CI: 2.23-13.99) and MO leaders (OR: 3.06; 95% CI: 1.21-8.13) were more likely to receive a consulting fee. Leaders in academic oncology receive consulting or research payments from industry. Relationships between oncology leaders and

  18. An Increase in Medical Student Knowledge of Radiation Oncology: A Pre-Post Examination Analysis of the Oncology Education Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, Ariel E.; Mulleady Bishop, Pauline; Dad, Luqman; Singh, Deeptej; Slanetz, Priscilla J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The Oncology Education Initiative was created to advance oncology and radiation oncology education by integrating structured didactics into the existing core radiology clerkship. We set out to determine whether the addition of structured didactics could lead to a significant increase in overall medical student knowledge about radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: We conducted a pre- and posttest examining concepts in general radiation oncology, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. The 15-question, multiple-choice exam was administered before and after a 1.5-hour didactic lecture by an attending physician in radiation oncology. Individual question changes, overall student changes, and overall categorical changes were analyzed. All hypothesis tests were two-tailed (significance level 0.05). Results: Of the 153 fourth-year students, 137 (90%) took the pre- and posttest and were present for the didactic lecture. The average test grade improved from 59% to 70% (p = 0.011). Improvement was seen in all questions except clinical vignettes involving correct identification of TNM staging. Statistically significant improvement (p ≤ 0.03) was seen in the questions regarding acute and late side effects of radiation, brachytherapy for prostate cancer, delivery of radiation treatment, and management of early-stage breast cancer. Conclusions: Addition of didactics in radiation oncology significantly improves medical students' knowledge of the topic. Despite perceived difficulty in teaching radiation oncology and the assumption that it is beyond the scope of reasonable knowledge for medical students, we have shown that even with one dedicated lecture, students can learn and absorb general principles regarding radiation oncology

  19. Compassion Fatigue: Exploring Early-Career Oncology Nurses' Experiences
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Brooke A; Sheppard, Kate G

    2017-06-01

    Oncology nurses have a higher risk and rate of compassion fatigue (CF) compared to professionals in other specialties. CF exhibits tangible negative outcomes, affecting nurses' health and professional practice.
. Early-career oncology nurses' unique CF experiences lack thorough scientific exploration. This secondary analysis seeks to qualitatively augment this paucity and illuminate targeted interventions.
. Open-ended interviews were conducted with five early-career inpatient oncology nurses. Subsequent transcripts were explored for CF themes secondarily using thematic analysis.
. Themes indicate that early-career oncology nurses enjoy connecting with patients and families, but over-relating, long patient stays, and high patient mortality rates trigger CF. Symptoms include internalizing patients' and families' pains and fears, being haunted by specific patient deaths, feeling emotionally depleted, assuming that all patients will die, and experiencing burnout, physical exhaustion, and hypervigilance protecting loved ones.

  20. Laparoscopic resection for low rectal cancer: evaluation of oncological efficacy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Diarmaid C

    2011-09-01

    Laparoscopic resection of low rectal cancer poses significant technical difficulties for the surgeon. There is a lack of published follow-up data in relation to the surgical, oncological and survival outcomes in these patients.

  1. IV. South-Bohemian Oncology Days. Survey of lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Oncology Days dealt with carcinomas in the urology field, particularly carcinomas of the kidneys, urinary bladder, and prostate. From among the contributions presented, 5 lectures devoted to the radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma were input to INIS. (P.A.)

  2. Integrated quantitative pharmacology for treatment optimization in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasselt, J.G.C. van

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and application of quantitative pharmacological models in oncology for treatment optimization and for the design and analysis of clinical trials with respect to pharmacokinetics, toxicity, efficacy and cost-effectiveness. A recurring theme throughout this

  3. Faculty of Radiation Oncology 2012 trainee survey: perspectives on choice of specialty training and future work practice preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, John; Le, Hien; Turner, Sandra; Munro, Philip; Vukolova, Natalia

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports the key findings of the first Faculty of Radiation Oncology survey of trainees dealing with experiences and perceptions on work practices and choice of specialty. The survey was conducted in mid 2012 using a 37-question instrument. This was distributed by email to 159 current trainees and advertised through the Radiation Oncology Trainees Committee and other channels. There were six email reminders. Respondents were reassured that their responses were anonymous. The overall response rate was 82.8%. Gender was balanced among respondents with 67 (51.5%) being male and 63 (48.5%) being female. The most common age bracket was the 31 to 35 years range. There were similar proportions of trainee responders in each of the five years of training. A substantial number of trainees held other degrees besides medical degrees. The large majority were satisfied with radiation oncology as a career choice and with the Training Network within which they were training. Interest in oncology patients, lifestyle after training and work hours were given as the major reasons for choosing radiation oncology as a career. Nearly half of trainees were interested in undertaking some of their training in a part-time capacity and working part time as a radiation oncologist in the future. Over 70% of trainees stated they were working 36-55 clinical hours per week with additional non-clinical tasks, after-hours work and on-call duties. Nearly half of all trainees reported having one or less hours of protected time per week. Nonetheless, 40% of respondents indicated they had enough time to pursue outside interests. Radiation treatment planning and maintaining currency in general medicine were considered the most difficult aspects of training in radiation oncology. Most respondents were keen on the concept of fostering a research mentor. In terms of views on practice after completion of training, the majority were interested in pursuing a fellowship, and nearly all expressed an

  4. Faculty of Radiation Oncology 2012 trainee survey: perspectives on choice of speciality training and future work practice preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, John; Le, Hien; Turner, Sandra; Munro, Philip; Vukolova, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the key findings of the first Faculty of Radiation Oncology survey of trainees dealing with experiences and perceptions on work practices and choice of specialty. The survey was conducted in mid 2012 using a 37-question instrument. This was distributed by email to 159 current trainees and advertised through the Radiation Oncology Trainees Committee and other channels. There were six email reminders. Respondents were reassured that their responses were anonymous. The overall response rate was 82.8%. Gender was balanced among respondents with 67 (51.5%) being male and 63 (48.5%) being female. The most common age bracket was the 31 to 35 years range. There were similar proportions of trainee responders in each of the five years of training. A substantial number of trainees held other degrees besides medical degrees. The large majority were satisfied with radiation oncology as a career choice and with the Training Network within which they were training. Interest in oncology patients, lifestyle after training and work hours were given as the major reasons for choosing radiation oncology as a career. Nearly half of trainees were interested in undertaking some of their training in a part-time capacity and working part time as a radiation oncologist in the future. Over 70% of trainees stated they were working 36–55 clinical hours per week with additional non-clinical tasks, after-hours work and on-call duties. Nearly half of all trainees reported having one or less hours of protected time per week. Nonetheless, 40% of respondents indicated they had enough time to pursue outside interests. Radiation treatment planning and maintaining currency in general medicine were considered the most difficult aspects of training in radiation oncology. Most respondents were keen on the concept of fostering a research mentor. In terms of views on practice after completion of training, the majority were interested in pursuing a fellowship, and nearly all expressed an

  5. Psycho-oncology in Korea: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Kwang-Min; Jung, Dooyoung; Shim, Eun-Jung; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Kim, Jong-Heun

    2017-01-01

    Psycho-oncology in Korea was introduced among the circle of consultation-liaison psychiatrists, in the 1990s. For almost 25 years, the field has been developing at a steady pace as the psychosocial needs of patients with cancer continue to increase. In this study, we review the history of psycho-oncology in Korea, in a chronological order, within the domains of clinical practice, research activity, training, and public policy. Before the 1990s, patients with cancer with psychiatric comorbidities were usually taken care of by consultation-liaison psychiatrists in general hospitals. In 1993, psycho-oncology was first introduced by psychiatrists. Psychologists, nurses, and social workers have also been increasingly involved in providing psychosocial care for patients with cancer. Professionals from various disciplines began to communicate, and agreed to found the Korean Psycho-Oncology Study Group (KPOSG) in 2006, the first academic society in this field. In 2009, National Cancer Center published the "Recommendations for Distress Management in Patients with Cancer", which are consensus-based guidelines for Korean patients. In 2014, the KPOSG was dissolved and absorbed into a new organization, the Korean Psycho-Oncology Society (KPOS). It functions as a center of development of psycho-oncology, publishing official journals, and hosting annual conferences. There are many challenges, including, low awareness of psycho-oncology, presence of undertreated psychiatric disorders in patients with cancer, shortage of well-trained psycho-oncologists, stigma, and suicide risk. It is important to improve the cancer care system to the extent that psycho-oncology is integrated with mainstream oncology. Considering the socio-cultural characteristics of Korean cancer care, a Korean model of distress management is being prepared by the KPOS. This article provides an overview of the development, current issues, and future challenges of psycho-oncology in Korea. Through its long journey

  6. Exploring the role of educational videos in radiation oncology practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dally, M.J.; Denham, J.W.; Boddy, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Patient, staff, and medical student education are essential components of modern radiation oncology practice. Greater involvement of patients in the clinical decision-making process, and the need for other health professionals to be more informed about radiation oncology, provided further demand on resources, despite ever increasing logistic constraints. Videos made by individual departments may augment traditional teaching methods and have applications in documenting clinical practice and response. 8 refs., 1 tab

  7. Understanding the role of physician assistants in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alicia C; Polansky, Maura N; Parker, Patricia A; Palmer, J Lynn

    2010-01-01

    To understand the deployment of physician assistants (PAs) in oncology. A recent analysis of the oncology workforce in the United States commissioned by ASCO predicted a significant shortage of providers by 2020. A descriptive study was undertaken using a Web-based questionnaire survey. Invited participants, including all PAs listed in the national PA database (n = 855) and all PAs at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX; n = 159), were mailed letters directing them to the Web-based survey. The study produced a 30% response rate. A total of 186 PAs worked in medical oncology (the population of interest). Of the respondents, 80% were women, mean age was 36 years, average time employed as a PA was 9.5 years (6.5 years in oncology), 55% had obtained a master's degree, four had completed a postgraduate oncology program, 91% reported that direct mentorship by a supervising physician was very important in obtaining oncology-based knowledge, and 61% reported that becoming fully competent in the practice of oncology required 1 to 2 years. The majority of PAs (78.5%) worked 33 to 50 hours per week, and 56% of those reported working 41 to 50 hours per week. Three fourths (77%) wrote chemotherapy orders, most requiring physician co-signature, and 69% prescribed schedule III to V controlled substances. Additional data were gathered regarding clinical duties, research, and teaching. Oncology PAs are used in multiple medical settings, and many assume high-level responsibilities. Future research addressing function and factors that limit use of PAs may allow for improved organizational efficiency and enhancement in the delivery of health care.

  8. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Apte, Sachin M.; Patel, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA) in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local ...

  9. CNAM: care and treatment aboard in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherif, Leila; Bayoudh, L.; Riahi, S.; Zarrad, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Tunisian National Health Insurance Fund (TNHIF) has 186 practitioners and advisers (physicians, dentists and pharmacists) in the service of medical supervision. These advisers are distributed on three levels (regional, district and national). In the present paper we have discussed the CNAM support in the different types of oncology (FSD (Fully Supported Disorders), Hospitalization, the scans, the radiation therapy, specific drugs and treatment abroad). We begin by presenting expenditures by year and age group for FSD and hospitalization in the private and the public sectors. We then give the conventional packages for scans, radiotherapy: either for CLAM or CRAM. Daily benefits for the sickness leave and the disability will be presented briefly. Then we will give the administrative process for the approval of the commission for specific medication. The medical advice is based on certain criteria that will be explained in the paper. In certain cases definitive medical advice needs to call for the recommendation of a national commission and oncology or different experts. The spending trend of the TNHIF from 2001 to 2012 will be discussed. TNHIF generally considered Herceptin, Nexavar Erbitaux as the main drugs for targeted therapies. We present for the treatment cost and expenditure trends for the first drug from 2008 to 2012 as well as the estimation for 2013, which increases from one year to year. For the treatment with the second and the third drug we give the evolution of expenditure between 2010 and 2012. Cancer is a serious disease that requires a costly multidisciplinary support for the patients. This support has changed the prognosis survival (see cases of healing). The financial coverage of this support can never be supported by the family (whatever the wealth level) without any TNHIF support. The real gain in survival and expenditure control are closely related to awareness and early detection of the disease. TNHIF usually intervenes in the financing of

  10. National Institutes of Health Funding in Radiation Oncology: A Snapshot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Michael; McBride, William H.; Vlashi, Erina [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); Pajonk, Frank, E-mail: fpajonk@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Currently, pay lines for National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants are at a historical low. In this climate of fierce competition, knowledge about the funding situation in a small field like radiation oncology becomes very important for career planning and recruitment of faculty. Unfortunately, these data cannot be easily extracted from the NIH's database because it does not discriminate between radiology and radiation oncology departments. At the start of fiscal year 2013 we extracted records for 952 individual grants, which were active at the time of analysis from the NIH database. Proposals originating from radiation oncology departments were identified manually. Descriptive statistics were generated using the JMP statistical software package. Our analysis identified 197 grants in radiation oncology. These proposals came from 134 individual investigators in 43 academic institutions. The majority of the grants (118) were awarded to principal investigators at the full professor level, and 122 principal investigators held a PhD degree. In 79% of the grants, the research topic fell into the field of biology, 13% in the field of medical physics. Only 7.6% of the proposals were clinical investigations. Our data suggest that the field of radiation oncology is underfunded by the NIH and that the current level of support does not match the relevance of radiation oncology for cancer patients or the potential of its academic work force.

  11. NIH funding in Radiation Oncology – A snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Michael; McBride, William H.; Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Currently, pay lines for NIH grants are at a historical low. In this climate of fierce competition knowledge about the funding situation in a small field like Radiation Oncology becomes very important for career planning and recruitment of faculty. Unfortunately, this data cannot be easily extracted from the NIH s database because it does not discriminate between Radiology and Radiation Oncology Departments. At the start of fiscal year 2013, we extracted records for 952 individual grants, which were active at the time of analysis from the NIH database. Proposals originating from Radiation Oncology Departments were identified manually. Descriptive statistics were generated using the JMP statistical software package. Our analysis identified 197 grants in Radiation Oncology. These proposals came from 134 individual investigators in 43 academic institutions. The majority of the grants (118) were awarded to PIs at the Full Professor level and 122 PIs held a PhD degree. In 79% of the grants the research topic fell into the field of Biology, in 13 % into the field of Medical Physics. Only 7.6% of the proposals were clinical investigations. Our data suggests that the field of Radiation Oncology is underfunded by the NIH, and that the current level of support does not match the relevance of Radiation Oncology for cancer patients or the potential of its academic work force. PMID:23523324

  12. National Institutes of Health Funding in Radiation Oncology: A Snapshot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, Michael; McBride, William H.; Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Currently, pay lines for National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants are at a historical low. In this climate of fierce competition, knowledge about the funding situation in a small field like radiation oncology becomes very important for career planning and recruitment of faculty. Unfortunately, these data cannot be easily extracted from the NIH's database because it does not discriminate between radiology and radiation oncology departments. At the start of fiscal year 2013 we extracted records for 952 individual grants, which were active at the time of analysis from the NIH database. Proposals originating from radiation oncology departments were identified manually. Descriptive statistics were generated using the JMP statistical software package. Our analysis identified 197 grants in radiation oncology. These proposals came from 134 individual investigators in 43 academic institutions. The majority of the grants (118) were awarded to principal investigators at the full professor level, and 122 principal investigators held a PhD degree. In 79% of the grants, the research topic fell into the field of biology, 13% in the field of medical physics. Only 7.6% of the proposals were clinical investigations. Our data suggest that the field of radiation oncology is underfunded by the NIH and that the current level of support does not match the relevance of radiation oncology for cancer patients or the potential of its academic work force

  13. National Institutes of Health funding in radiation oncology: a snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Michael; McBride, William H; Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

    2013-06-01

    Currently, pay lines for National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants are at a historical low. In this climate of fierce competition, knowledge about the funding situation in a small field like radiation oncology becomes very important for career planning and recruitment of faculty. Unfortunately, these data cannot be easily extracted from the NIH's database because it does not discriminate between radiology and radiation oncology departments. At the start of fiscal year 2013 we extracted records for 952 individual grants, which were active at the time of analysis from the NIH database. Proposals originating from radiation oncology departments were identified manually. Descriptive statistics were generated using the JMP statistical software package. Our analysis identified 197 grants in radiation oncology. These proposals came from 134 individual investigators in 43 academic institutions. The majority of the grants (118) were awarded to principal investigators at the full professor level, and 122 principal investigators held a PhD degree. In 79% of the grants, the research topic fell into the field of biology, 13% in the field of medical physics. Only 7.6% of the proposals were clinical investigations. Our data suggest that the field of radiation oncology is underfunded by the NIH and that the current level of support does not match the relevance of radiation oncology for cancer patients or the potential of its academic work force. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Recent developments of dual-energy CT in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, David; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Kachelriess, Marc [Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, Division of X-ray Imaging and CT, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) can amply contribute to support oncological imaging: the DECT technique offers promising clinical applications in oncological imaging for tumour detection and characterisation while concurrently reducing the radiation dose. Fast image acquisition at two different X-ray energies enables the determination of tissue- or material-specific features, the calculation of virtual unenhanced images and the quantification of contrast medium uptake; thus, tissue can be characterised and subsequently monitored for any changes during treatment. DECT is already widely used, but its potential in the context of oncological imaging has not been fully exploited yet. The technology is the subject of ongoing innovation and increasingly with respect to its clinical potential, particularly in oncology. This review highlights recent state-of-the-art DECT techniques with a strong emphasis on ongoing DECT developments relevant to oncologic imaging, and then focuses on clinical DECT applications, especially its prospective uses in areas of oncological imaging. circle Dual-energy CT (DECT) offers fast, robust, quantitative and functional whole-body imaging. (orig.)

  15. WE-H-BRB-00: Big Data in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    Big Data in Radiation Oncology: (1) Overview of the NIH 2015 Big Data Workshop, (2) Where do we stand in the applications of big data in radiation oncology?, and (3) Learning Health Systems for Radiation Oncology: Needs and Challenges for Future Success The overriding goal of this trio panel of presentations is to improve awareness of the wide ranging opportunities for big data impact on patient quality care and enhancing potential for research and collaboration opportunities with NIH and a host of new big data initiatives. This presentation will also summarize the Big Data workshop that was held at the NIH Campus on August 13–14, 2015 and sponsored by AAPM, ASTRO, and NIH. The workshop included discussion of current Big Data cancer registry initiatives, safety and incident reporting systems, and other strategies that will have the greatest impact on radiation oncology research, quality assurance, safety, and outcomes analysis. Learning Objectives: To discuss current and future sources of big data for use in radiation oncology research To optimize our current data collection by adopting new strategies from outside radiation oncology To determine what new knowledge big data can provide for clinical decision support for personalized medicine L. Xing, NIH/NCI Google Inc.

  16. WE-H-BRB-00: Big Data in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Big Data in Radiation Oncology: (1) Overview of the NIH 2015 Big Data Workshop, (2) Where do we stand in the applications of big data in radiation oncology?, and (3) Learning Health Systems for Radiation Oncology: Needs and Challenges for Future Success The overriding goal of this trio panel of presentations is to improve awareness of the wide ranging opportunities for big data impact on patient quality care and enhancing potential for research and collaboration opportunities with NIH and a host of new big data initiatives. This presentation will also summarize the Big Data workshop that was held at the NIH Campus on August 13–14, 2015 and sponsored by AAPM, ASTRO, and NIH. The workshop included discussion of current Big Data cancer registry initiatives, safety and incident reporting systems, and other strategies that will have the greatest impact on radiation oncology research, quality assurance, safety, and outcomes analysis. Learning Objectives: To discuss current and future sources of big data for use in radiation oncology research To optimize our current data collection by adopting new strategies from outside radiation oncology To determine what new knowledge big data can provide for clinical decision support for personalized medicine L. Xing, NIH/NCI Google Inc.

  17. Fifth nationwide survey on radiation oncology of China in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Weibo; Yuyun; Chen Bo; Tian Fenghua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: In order to find out the present status of Chinese Radiation Oncology, the Chinese Society of Radiation Oncology did the fifth nationwide survey on Radiation Oncology in China. Methods: Questionnaire forms had been sent through the board member of Chinese Society of Radiation Oncology to each center throughout the country. The forms, after filing, were returned for analysis. Results: On September 30th, 2006, there were 952 radiation oncology centers. They possess personnel: 5247 doctors including 2 110 residents, 1181 physicists, 6864 nurses, 4559 technicians and 1141 engineers. For equipment: There were 918 linear accelerators, 472 telecobalt units, 146 deep X-ray machine, 827 simulators, 214 CT simulators, 400 brachytherapy units, 400 treatment planning system, 796 dosimeters, 467 X-knife, 149 γ-knife (74 for head only, 75 for the head and body). Treatment: 35 503 beds (35 centers did not report the number of beds), 42 109 patients treated per day, 409 440 new patients were treated per year (no report from 45 centers). Conclusion: Radiation oncology has been developing rapidly in the last 5 years either in quantity or in quality. They are still being considered insufficient in proportion to our population. Training programs and development of QA and QC system ate needed. (authors)

  18. The American Society for Radiation Oncology's 2010 core physics curriculum for radiation oncology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ying; Bernstein, Karen De Amorim; Chetty, Indrin J; Eifel, Patricia; Hughes, Lesley; Klein, Eric E; McDermott, Patrick; Prisciandaro, Joann; Paliwal, Bhudatt; Price, Robert A; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Palta, Jatinder R

    2011-11-15

    In 2004, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) published its first physics education curriculum for residents, which was updated in 2007. A committee composed of physicists and physicians from various residency program teaching institutions was reconvened again to update the curriculum in 2009. Members of this committee have associations with ASTRO, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), and the American College of Radiology. Members reviewed and updated assigned subjects from the last curriculum. The updated curriculum was carefully reviewed by a representative from the ABR and other physics and clinical experts. The new curriculum resulted in a recommended 56-h course, excluding initial orientation. Learning objectives are provided for each subject area, and a detailed outline of material to be covered is given for each lecture hour. Some recent changes in the curriculum include the addition of Radiation Incidents and Bioterrorism Response Training as a subject and updates that reflect new treatment techniques and modalities in a number of core subjects. The new curriculum was approved by the ASTRO board in April 2010. We anticipate that physicists will use this curriculum for structuring their teaching programs, and subsequently the ABR will adopt this educational program for its written examination. Currently, the American College of Radiology uses the ASTRO curriculum for their training examination topics. In addition to the curriculum, the committee updated suggested references and the glossary. The ASTRO physics education curriculum for radiation oncology residents has been updated. To ensure continued commitment to a current and relevant curriculum, the subject matter will be updated again in 2 years. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Medical oncology future plan of the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology: challenges and future needs of the Spanish oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, F; Andres, R; Felip, E; Garcia-Campelo, R; Lianes, P; Llombart, A; Piera, J M; Puente, J; Rodriguez, C A; Vera, R; Virizuela, J A; Martin, M; Garrido, P

    2017-04-01

    The SEOM Future Plan is aimed at identifying the main challenges, trends and needs of the medical oncology speciality over the next years, including potential oncologist workforce shortages, and proposing recommendations to overcome them. The estimations of the required medical oncologists workforce are based on an updated Medical Oncologist Register in Spain, Medical Oncology Departments activity data, dedication times and projected cancer incidence. Challenges, needs and future recommendations were drawn from an opinion survey and an advisory board. A shortage of 211 FTE medical oncologist specialists has been established. To maintain an optimal ratio of 158 new cases/FTE, medical oncology workforce should reach 1881 FTE by 2035. Main recommendations to face the growing demand and complexity of oncology services include a yearly growth of 2.5% of medical oncologist's workforce until 2035, and development and application of more accurate quality indicators for cancer care and health outcomes measure.

  20. Radiation oncology physics: A handbook for teachers and students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podgorsak, E.B.

    2005-07-01

    Radiotherapy, also referred to as radiation therapy, radiation oncology or therapeutic radiology, is one of the three principal modalities used in the treatment of malignant disease (cancer), the other two being surgery and chemotherapy. In contrast to other medical specialties that rely mainly on the clinical knowledge and experience of medical specialists, radiotherapy, with its use of ionizing radiation in the treatment of cancer, relies heavily on modern technology and the collaborative efforts of several professionals whose coordinated team approach greatly influences the outcome of the treatment. The radiotherapy team consists of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, dosimetrists and radiation therapy technologists: all professionals characterized by widely differing educational backgrounds and one common link - the need to understand the basic elements of radiation physics, and the interaction of ionizing radiation with human tissue in particular. This specialized area of physics is referred to as radiation oncology physics, and proficiency in this branch of physics is an absolute necessity for anyone who aspires to achieve excellence in any of the four professions constituting the radiotherapy team. Current advances in radiation oncology are driven mainly by technological development of equipment for radiotherapy procedures and imaging; however, as in the past, these advances rely heavily on the underlying physics. This book is dedicated to students and teachers involved in programmes that train professionals for work in radiation oncology. It provides a compilation of facts on the physics as applied to radiation oncology and as such will be useful to graduate students and residents in medical physics programmes, to residents in radiation oncology, and to students in dosimetry and radiotherapy technology programmes. The level of understanding of the material covered will, of course, be different for the various student groups; however, the basic

  1. Impact of future technology on oncologic diagnosis: oncologic imaging and diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Over the past few years, the discipline of medical imaging has entered an evolutionary period that reflects primarily the introduction of computers and digital technology into the imaging process. Clinical applications of this evolution realized to date (e.g., transmission computed tomography, ultrasound and quantitative nuclear medicine) are only indicative of future developments that promise to increase the contributions of medical imaging in a very substantial manner. This increase in the area of oncologic diagnosis is one of the more exciting possibilities existing in medicine today

  2. Inpatient Hematology-Oncology Rotation Is Associated With a Decreased Interest in Pursuing an Oncology Career Among Internal Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C; Holland, Jimmie; Holcombe, Randall F

    2015-07-01

    The demand for hematologists and oncologists is not being met. We hypothesized that an inpatient hematology-oncology ward rotation would increase residents' interest. Potential reasons mitigating interest were explored and included differences in physician distress, empathy, resilience, and patient death experiences. Agreement with the statement "I am interested in pursuing a career/fellowship in hematology and oncology" was rated by residents before and after a hematology-oncology rotation, with 0 = not true at all, 1 = rarely true, 2 = sometimes true, 3 = often true, and 4 = true nearly all the time. House staff rotating on a hematology-oncology service from November 2013 to October 2014 also received questionnaires before and after their rotations containing the Connors-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, demographic information, and number of dying patients cared for and if a sense of meaning was derived from that experience. Fifty-six residents completed both before- and after-rotation questionnaires (response rate, 58%). The mean interest score was 1.43 initially and decreased to 1.24 after the rotation (P = .301). Female residents' mean score was 1.13 initially and dropped to 0.81 after the rotation (P = .04). Male residents' mean score was 1.71 initially and 1.81 after the rotation (P = .65). Decreased hematology-oncology interest correlated with decreased empathy; male interest decrease correlated with decreased resilience. An inpatient hematology-oncology ward rotation does not lead to increased interest and, for some residents, may lead to decreased interest in the field. Encouraging outpatient hematology-oncology rotations and the cultivation of resilience, empathy, and meaning regarding death experiences may increase resident interest. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  3. The American Society for Radiation Oncology's 2015 Core Physics Curriculum for Radiation Oncology Residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmeister, Jay, E-mail: burmeist@karmanos.org [Department of Oncology, Karmanos Cancer Center/Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Chen, Zhe [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Chetty, Indrin J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Dieterich, Sonja [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California – Davis, Sacramento, California (United States); Doemer, Anthony [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Dominello, Michael M. [Department of Oncology, Karmanos Cancer Center/Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Howell, Rebecca M. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); McDermott, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Nalichowski, Adrian [Karmanos Cancer Center, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Prisciandaro, Joann [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ritter, Tim [VA Ann Arbor Healthcare and the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Smith, Chadd [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Schreiber, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Shafman, Timothy [21st Century Oncology, Fort Myers, Florida (United States); Sutlief, Steven [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California – San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Xiao, Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Physics Core Curriculum Subcommittee (PCCSC) has updated the recommended physics curriculum for radiation oncology resident education to improve consistency in teaching, intensity, and subject matter. Methods and Materials: The ASTRO PCCSC is composed of physicists and physicians involved in radiation oncology residency education. The PCCSC updated existing sections within the curriculum, created new sections, and attempted to provide additional clinical context to the curricular material through creation of practical clinical experiences. Finally, we reviewed the American Board of Radiology (ABR) blueprint of examination topics for correlation with this curriculum. Results: The new curriculum represents 56 hours of resident physics didactic education, including a 4-hour initial orientation. The committee recommends completion of this curriculum at least twice to assure both timely presentation of material and re-emphasis after clinical experience. In addition, practical clinical physics and treatment planning modules were created as a supplement to the didactic training. Major changes to the curriculum include addition of Fundamental Physics, Stereotactic Radiosurgery/Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy, and Safety and Incidents sections, and elimination of the Radiopharmaceutical Physics and Dosimetry and Hyperthermia sections. Simulation and Treatment Verification and optional Research and Development in Radiation Oncology sections were also added. A feedback loop was established with the ABR to help assure that the physics component of the ABR radiation oncology initial certification examination remains consistent with this curriculum. Conclusions: The ASTRO physics core curriculum for radiation oncology residents has been updated in an effort to identify the most important physics topics for preparing residents for careers in radiation oncology, to reflect changes in technology and practice since

  4. Focused sound: oncological therapy for transformed tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mares, C. E.; Cordova F, T.; Hernandez, A.

    2017-10-01

    The restlessness of the human being involves observing and being critical through their senses, in particular a disturbance in the environment cause vibrations that can be registered by the sense of hearing through the eardrum, if what it produces is in the frequency of the audible sound. The distinction of the sound of the other forms of energy transfer is that the waves of the same quickly involve the progressive return of displacements or vibrations of the molecules in the medium that propagates. In this work a sweep of frequencies was made from infra sound to ultrasound in plants of different types with different thicknesses and two people in order to find the resonance of each of them and compare it with the resonances registered in text, which allowed evaluate the secondary effect of sound focused on the tissue of the leaves and in particular of people. We consider that there is potential for this focused sound modality if it is at the resonance frequency of the transformed tissue as a means of oncological therapy without affecting the neighboring cells. (Author)

  5. Lean oncology: a new model for oncologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montesarchio Vincenzo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The history of the term Lean is relatively recent and originates from the Toyota Production System (TPS. The term "Lean" means "thin", which refers to a mental process, operational, productive, no-frills, quick but not hasty, consequential to the previous event. The Lean process flows seamlessly into the result, eliminates unnecessary complications to the effect, prevents unnecessary equipment processes. The idea is to 'do more with less', like using the (few available resources in the most productive way possible, through the elimination of all types of waste that inevitably accompanies every stage of a production process. Lean management is primarily a management philosophy, a system of values and behaviors that goes beyond the mere application of the instrument and that, once internalized, will form the nucleus of the corporate culture. "Lean Oncology" is a term coined to identify a methodology of care and treatment to cancer patients, consisting on process simplification, streamlining of the organizational and routes of drug treatment, detection and elimination of waste. Its main objective is the centrality of the patient.

  6. Lean oncology: a new model for oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesarchio, Vincenzo; Grimaldi, Antonio Maria; Fox, Bernard A; Rea, Antonio; Marincola, Francesco M; Ascierto, Paolo A

    2012-04-25

    The history of the term Lean is relatively recent and originates from the Toyota Production System (TPS). The term "Lean" means "thin", which refers to a mental process, operational, productive, no-frills, quick but not hasty, consequential to the previous event. The Lean process flows seamlessly into the result, eliminates unnecessary complications to the effect, prevents unnecessary equipment processes. The idea is to 'do more with less', like using the (few) available resources in the most productive way possible, through the elimination of all types of waste that inevitably accompanies every stage of a production process. Lean management is primarily a management philosophy, a system of values and behaviors that goes beyond the mere application of the instrument and that, once internalized, will form the nucleus of the corporate culture. "Lean Oncology" is a term coined to identify a methodology of care and treatment to cancer patients, consisting on process simplification, streamlining of the organizational and routes of drug treatment, detection and elimination of waste. Its main objective is the centrality of the patient.

  7. 2009 Canadian Radiation Oncology Resident Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debenham, Brock, E-mail: debenham@ualberta.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Banerjee, Robyn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Fairchild, Alysa; Dundas, George [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Trotter, Theresa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Yee, Don [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Statistics from the Canadian post-MD education registry show that numbers of Canadian radiation oncology (RO) trainees have risen from 62 in 1999 to approximately 150 per year between 2003 and 2009, contributing to the current perceived downturn in employment opportunities for radiation oncologists in Canada. When last surveyed in 2003, Canadian RO residents identified job availability as their main concern. Our objective was to survey current Canadian RO residents on their training and career plans. Methods and Materials: Trainees from the 13 Canadian residency programs using the national matching service were sought. Potential respondents were identified through individual program directors or chief resident and were e-mailed a secure link to an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses. Results: The eligible response rate was 53% (83/156). Similar to the 2003 survey, respondents generally expressed high satisfaction with their programs and specialty. The most frequently expressed perceived weakness in their training differed from 2003, with 46.5% of current respondents feeling unprepared to enter the job market. 72% plan on pursuing a postresidency fellowship. Most respondents intend to practice in Canada. Fewer than 20% of respondents believe that there is a strong demand for radiation oncologists in Canada. Conclusions: Respondents to the current survey expressed significant satisfaction with their career choice and training program. However, differences exist compared with the 2003 survey, including the current perceived lack of demand for radiation oncologists in Canada.

  8. 2009 Canadian Radiation Oncology Resident Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debenham, Brock; Banerjee, Robyn; Fairchild, Alysa; Dundas, George; Trotter, Theresa; Yee, Don

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Statistics from the Canadian post-MD education registry show that numbers of Canadian radiation oncology (RO) trainees have risen from 62 in 1999 to approximately 150 per year between 2003 and 2009, contributing to the current perceived downturn in employment opportunities for radiation oncologists in Canada. When last surveyed in 2003, Canadian RO residents identified job availability as their main concern. Our objective was to survey current Canadian RO residents on their training and career plans. Methods and Materials: Trainees from the 13 Canadian residency programs using the national matching service were sought. Potential respondents were identified through individual program directors or chief resident and were e-mailed a secure link to an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses. Results: The eligible response rate was 53% (83/156). Similar to the 2003 survey, respondents generally expressed high satisfaction with their programs and specialty. The most frequently expressed perceived weakness in their training differed from 2003, with 46.5% of current respondents feeling unprepared to enter the job market. 72% plan on pursuing a postresidency fellowship. Most respondents intend to practice in Canada. Fewer than 20% of respondents believe that there is a strong demand for radiation oncologists in Canada. Conclusions: Respondents to the current survey expressed significant satisfaction with their career choice and training program. However, differences exist compared with the 2003 survey, including the current perceived lack of demand for radiation oncologists in Canada.

  9. Magnetic resonance tomography in oncological diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, Hans Henrik; Taksdal, Ingeborg

    2000-01-01

    MR is well suited for imaging in patients with malignant disease. It is the most sensitive and most specific method in the detection of skeletal metastases. It clearly demonstrates the extent of primary bone tumours and also reveals skip metastases and invasion into neighbouring joints, hence it is an important procedure when surgery of a bone tumour is planned. In case of a soft tissue tumour, MR is the preferable imaging modality because it demonstrates the anatomy and reveals the different tissue constituents. MR is the best method to show tumour manifestations in the central nervous system and it supplements cerebrospinal fluid examination in the detection of meningeal metastasis. MR is the method of choice if there is a cord compression. MR imaging is important in gynaecology and oncology. Cost savings have been reported due to reduced use of other diagnostic tests and expensive surgical procedures. New and faster techniques allow examination of the total body in less than 45 minutes. We expect that MR imaging will be increasingly used in the future in patients with malignant disease

  10. The Role of Tinzaparin in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakakos, Evangelos P; Vathiotis, Ioannis; Syrigos, Konstantinos

    2018-07-01

    Current guidelines recommend low-molecular-weight heparin treatment in patients with cancer with established venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of this article was to study the pharmacological properties and effectiveness of tinzaparin in patients with cancer as well as its potential anticancer properties. A search of PubMed and ScienceDirect databases up to March 2016 was carried out to identify published studies that detect the properties and use of tinzaparin in oncology. Protamine sulfate partially (60% to 65%) neutralized tinzaparin's anti-Xa activity. No dose adjustment of tinzaparin is needed even in patients with severe renal impairment and Creatinine Clearance ≥20 mL/min. Tinzaparin demonstrated a statistically significant decline in VTE recurrence at 1 year post the index thromboembolic event. A statistically significant reduction in minor bleeding rates was also described, whereas major bleeding events did not decrease in patients with cancer treated with tinzaparin versus those who received vitamin K antagonists. Tinzaparin treatment in patients suffering from deep vein thrombosis reduced the incidence of postthrombotic syndrome and venous ulcers. Tinzaparin's ability to prevent both metastatic dissemination of cancer cells and tumor angiogenesis has been delineated in preclinical research. Current data show that tinzaparin is safe and efficacious either for short-term or for long-term treatment of VTE in patients with cancer. Clinical trials are needed in order to examine the utility of tinzaparin in primary prevention of VTE and validate its potential anticancer advantages exhibited in preclinical research.

  11. Positron Emission Tomography (PET in Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gallamini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction in the early nineties as a promising functional imaging technique in the management of neoplastic disorders, FDG-PET, and subsequently FDG-PET/CT, has become a cornerstone in several oncologic procedures such as tumor staging and restaging, treatment efficacy assessment during or after treatment end and radiotherapy planning. Moreover, the continuous technological progress of image generation and the introduction of sophisticated software to use PET scan as a biomarker paved the way to calculate new prognostic markers such as the metabolic tumor volume (MTV and the total amount of tumor glycolysis (TLG. FDG-PET/CT proved more sensitive than contrast-enhanced CT scan in staging of several type of lymphoma or in detecting widespread tumor dissemination in several solid cancers, such as breast, lung, colon, ovary and head and neck carcinoma. As a consequence the stage of patients was upgraded, with a change of treatment in 10%–15% of them. One of the most evident advantages of FDG-PET was its ability to detect, very early during treatment, significant changes in glucose metabolism or even complete shutoff of the neoplastic cell metabolism as a surrogate of tumor chemosensitivity assessment. This could enable clinicians to detect much earlier the effectiveness of a given antineoplastic treatment, as compared to the traditional radiological detection of tumor shrinkage, which usually takes time and occurs much later.

  12. Decision making in radiation oncology. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jiade J.; Brady, Luther W.

    2011-01-01

    Decision Making in Radiation Oncology is a reference book designed to enable radiation oncologists, including those in training, to make diagnostic and treatment decisions effectively and efficiently. The orientation of this groundbreaking publication is entirely practical, in that the focus is on issues relating to cancer management. The design has been carefully chosen based on the belief that ''a picture is worth a thousand words'': Knowledge is conveyed through an illustrative approach using algorithms, schemas, graphics, and tables. Text is kept to a minimum, reducing the effort involved in reading while enhancing understanding. Detailed guidelines are provided for multidisciplinary cancer management as well as for radiation therapy techniques. In addition to the attention-riveting algorithms for diagnosis and treatment, strategies for the management of disease at individual stages are detailed for all the commonly diagnosed malignancies. Detailed attention is given to the core evidence that has shaped the current treatment standards and advanced radiation therapy techniques. Clinical trials that have yielded ''gold standard'' treatment and their results are documented in the schemas. Moreover, radiation techniques, including treatment planning and delivery, are also presented in an illustrative way. (orig.)

  13. Microwave ablation devices for interventional oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Robert C; Healey, Terrance T; Dupuy, Damian E

    2013-03-01

    Microwave ablation is one of the several options in the ablation armamentarium for the treatment of malignancy, offering several potential benefits when compared with other ablation, radiation, surgical and medical treatment modalities. The basic microwave system consists of the generator, power distribution system and antennas. Often under image (computed tomography or ultrasound) guidance, a needle-like antenna is inserted percutaneously into the tumor, where local microwave electromagnetic radiation is emitted from the probe's active tip, producing frictional tissue heating, capable of causing cell death by coagulation necrosis. Half of the microwave ablation systems use a 915 MHz generator and the other half use a 2450 MHz generator. To date, there are no completed clinical trials comparing microwave devices head-to-head. Prospective comparisons of microwave technology with other treatment alternatives, as well as head-to-head comparison with each microwave device, is needed if this promising field will garner more widespread support and use in the oncology community.

  14. Possibility of applying probiotics in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holec, V.; Holecova, A.; Holec, V.; Zajac, V.; Danihel, L.; Adamcikova, Z.; Mego, M.

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, which in the form of drugs or food supplements contribute to maintaining health-enhancing microbiological balance in the digestive tract of human or other host (1). Their effects closely related to natural function of the intestinal flora. Their application is associated with good tolerance and minimal risk. They could be well applied in therapy and especially in the prevention of many civilisation disorders,which include a significant proportion of the cancer diseases. We could think not only about their role in the actual prevention of these diseases, but also about their status as a complementary therapy for their potential use in the treatment of complications caused by aggressivity of the existing basic treatment and maybe also another essential use in the future. Obstacle for the possibility to their wider application in oncology is still a lack of experiences in these patients, mainly with regard to evoking the iatrogenic infection. The main assumption of their wider application is the availability of safe strains with proven clinical efficiency. (author)

  15. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallamini, Andrea, E-mail: gallamini.a@ospedale.cuneo.it [Department of Research and Medical Innovation, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice University, Nice Cedex 2-06189 Nice (France); Zwarthoed, Colette [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice University, Nice Cedex 2-06189 Nice (France); Borra, Anna [Hematology Department S. Croce Hospital, Via M. Coppino 26, Cuneo 12100 (Italy)

    2014-09-29

    Since its introduction in the early nineties as a promising functional imaging technique in the management of neoplastic disorders, FDG-PET, and subsequently FDG-PET/CT, has become a cornerstone in several oncologic procedures such as tumor staging and restaging, treatment efficacy assessment during or after treatment end and radiotherapy planning. Moreover, the continuous technological progress of image generation and the introduction of sophisticated software to use PET scan as a biomarker paved the way to calculate new prognostic markers such as the metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and the total amount of tumor glycolysis (TLG). FDG-PET/CT proved more sensitive than contrast-enhanced CT scan in staging of several type of lymphoma or in detecting widespread tumor dissemination in several solid cancers, such as breast, lung, colon, ovary and head and neck carcinoma. As a consequence the stage of patients was upgraded, with a change of treatment in 10%–15% of them. One of the most evident advantages of FDG-PET was its ability to detect, very early during treatment, significant changes in glucose metabolism or even complete shutoff of the neoplastic cell metabolism as a surrogate of tumor chemosensitivity assessment. This could enable clinicians to detect much earlier the effectiveness of a given antineoplastic treatment, as compared to the traditional radiological detection of tumor shrinkage, which usually takes time and occurs much later.

  16. Paving roads for new drugs in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaenker, Kurt S; Entschladen, Frank

    2009-06-01

    Low productivity and the escalating costs of drug development have been well documented over the past years. A fraction of new pre-clinical compounds successfully pass experimental test batteries, and less than 10% of these compounds that enter clinical trials ultimately make it to the market. These challenges in the "critical path" of drug development will be discussed for drugs in the field of oncology, regarding the i) the impact of FDA and EMEA guidelines, and ii) microdosing studies/phase 0 trials before a drug enters phase I to III, to inform drug development, compressing drug development timelines and decision-making for continuation into clinical trials. Moreover, this review should embark on i) how to find new key molecules involved in life-and-death decision of a cell, how ii) old drugs will have a revival for new indications, because of novel information for their mode of action, and iii) how the revolutionary advances - high-throughput technologies, gene therapy and the deciphering of the human genome - do have their potential to develop personalized therapy. Therapy has progressed from an age of administering herbal remedies and organ extracts to an era of meticulously planned drug discovery, when pharmaceutical industry was born in a Western understanding. The relevant patents are discussed.

  17. Provider volume and outcomes for oncological procedures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, S D

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Oncological procedures may have better outcomes if performed by high-volume providers. METHODS: A review of the English language literature incorporating searches of the Medline, Embase and Cochrane collaboration databases was performed. Studies were included if they involved a patient cohort from 1984 onwards, were community or population based, and assessed health outcome as a dependent variable and volume as an independent variable. The studies were also scored quantifiably to assess generalizability with respect to any observed volume-outcome relationship and analysed according to organ system; numbers needed to treat were estimated where possible. RESULTS: Sixty-eight relevant studies were identified and a total of 41 were included, of which 13 were based on clinical data. All showed either an inverse relationship, of variable magnitude, between provider volume and mortality, or no volume-outcome effect. All but two clinical reports revealed a statistically significant positive relationship between volume and outcome; none demonstrated the opposite. CONCLUSION: High-volume providers have a significantly better outcome for complex cancer surgery, specifically for pancreatectomy, oesphagectomy, gastrectomy and rectal resection.

  18. Functional MRI and CT biomarkers in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winfield, J.M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK Imaging Centre at the Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom); Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, MRI Unit, Sutton (United Kingdom); Payne, G.S.; DeSouza, N.M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK Imaging Centre at the Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Imaging biomarkers derived from MRI or CT describe functional properties of tumours and normal tissues. They are finding increasing numbers of applications in diagnosis, monitoring of response to treatment and assessment of progression or recurrence. Imaging biomarkers also provide scope for assessment of heterogeneity within and between lesions. A wide variety of functional parameters have been investigated for use as biomarkers in oncology. Some imaging techniques are used routinely in clinical applications while others are currently restricted to clinical trials or preclinical studies. Apparent diffusion coefficient, magnetization transfer ratio and native T{sub 1} relaxation time provide information about structure and organization of tissues. Vascular properties may be described using parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced CT, transverse relaxation rate (R{sub 2}*), vessel size index and relative blood volume, while magnetic resonance spectroscopy may be used to probe the metabolic profile of tumours. This review describes the mechanisms of contrast underpinning each technique and the technical requirements for robust and reproducible imaging. The current status of each biomarker is described in terms of its validation, qualification and clinical applications, followed by a discussion of the current limitations and future perspectives. (orig.)

  19. Palliative care and pediatric surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inserra, Alessandro; Narciso, Alessandra; Paolantonio, Guglielmo; Messina, Raffaella; Crocoli, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    Survival rate for childhood cancer has increased in recent years, reaching as high as 70% in developed countries compared with 54% for all cancers diagnosed in the 1980s. In the remaining 30%, progression or metastatic disease leads to death and in this framework palliative care has an outstanding role though not well settled in all its facets. In this landscape, surgery has a supportive actor role integrated with other welfare aspects from which are not severable. The definition of surgical palliation has moved from the ancient definition of noncurative surgery to a group of practices performed not to cure but to alleviate an organ dysfunction offering the best quality of life possible in all the aspects of life (pain, dysfunctions, caregivers, psychosocial, etc.). To emphasize this aspect a more modern definition has been introduced: palliative therapy in whose context is comprised not only the care assistance but also the plans of care since the onset of illness, teaching the matter to surgeons in training and share paths. Literature is very poor regarding surgical aspects specifically dedicated and all researches (PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane) with various meshing terms result in a more oncologic and psychosocial effort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuclear medicine in gynecologic oncology: Recent practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamki, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear medicine tests tell more about the physiological function of an organ that about its anatomy. This is in contrast to several other modalities in current use in the field of diagnostic imaging. Some of these newer modalities, such as computerized tomography (CT), offer a better resolution of the anatomy of the organ being examined. This has caused physicians to drift away from certain nuclear medicine tests, specifically those that focus primarily on the anatomy. When CT scanning is available, for instance, it is no longer advisable to perform a scintigraphic brain scan in search of metastasis;CT scanning is more accurate overall and more likely than a nuclear study to result in a specific diagnosis. In certain cases of diffuse cortical infections like herpes encephalitis, however, a scintiscan is still superior to a CT scan. Today's practice of nuclear medicine in gynecologic oncology may be divided into the three categories - (1) time-tested function-oriented scintiscans, (2) innovations of established nuclear tests, and (3) newer pathophysiological scintistudies. The author discusses here, briefly, each of these categories, giving three examples of each

  1. Photosensitizers and radiosensitizers in dermatology and oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, V.

    1979-01-01

    Two therapeutic modalities are currently of great interest, namely photo- and radiosensitization. Whereas photosensitizers only function in combination with ultraviolet (UV) light, radiosensitizers act only in combination with ionizing radiation. Because of the small UV penetration, up to a maximum of 0,5 mm, photosensitization can take place only at the surface of the body, i.e. the skin. Photosensitizers are applied in dermatology in order to optimize and improve the UV therapy of certain diseases (mainly psoriasis, mycosis fungoides and vitiligo). Radiosensitizers lead to an increase in sensitivity of the hypoxic and therefore radioresistant parts of tumours against X- and gamma-radiation. With sufficient concentration within the tumour, they can act where the radiation can reach, even in the deeper parts of the body. They represent a modern and useful aid to radiation oncology. Because of neurotoxic effects, however, their practical use is limited. A short review of the history, mechanisms of action, application and side-effects of these photo- and radiosensitizers is presented

  2. Photosensitizers and radiosensitizers in dermatology and oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruckner, V [Stellenbosch University, Parowvallei (South Africa). Departments of Medical Physics and Radiology

    1979-09-22

    Two therapeutic modalities are currently of great interest, namely photo- and radiosensitization. Whereas photosensitizers only function in combination with ultraviolet (UV) light, radiosensitizers act only in combination with ionizing radiation. Because of the small UV penetration, up to a maximum of 0,5 mm, photosensitization can take place only at the surface of the body, i.e. the skin. Photosensitizers are applied in dermatology in order to optimize and improve the UV therapy of certain diseases (mainly psoriasis, mycosis fungoides and vitiligo). Radiosensitizers lead to an increase in sensitivity of the hypoxic and therefore radioresistant parts of tumours against X- and gamma-radiation. With sufficient concentration within the tumour, they can act where the radiation can reach, even in the deeper parts of the body. They represent a modern and useful aid to radiation oncology. Because of neurotoxic effects, however, their practical use is limited. A short review of the history, mechanisms of action, application and side-effects of these photo- and radiosensitizers is presented.

  3. Internet-based communications in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldwein, Joel W.

    1996-01-01

    Currently, it is estimated that 40 million Americans have access to the Internet. The emergence of widely available software, inexpensive hardware and affordable connectivity have all led to an explosive growth in its use. Medicine in general and radiation oncology specifically are deriving great benefits from this technology. The use of this technology will result in a paradigm shift that is likely to change the way we all communicate. An understanding of the technology is therefore mandatory. The objectives of the course are to provide a practical introduction to the use of Internet technologies as they relate to our profession. The following topics will be reviewed. 1. A brief history of the Internet 2. Getting connected to the Internet 3. Internet venues - The Web, ftp, USENETS ... 4. Basic software tools - email, browsers ... 5. Specific Internet resources 6. Advanced Internet utilization 7. Business and the Internet 8. Intranet utilization 9. Philosophical and medicolegal issues 10. Predictions of the future Upon completion, the attendee will be familiar with the Internet, how it works, and how it can be used to fulfill the research, educational, and clinical care missions of our profession

  4. Decision making in radiation oncology. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jiade J. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Brady, Luther W. (eds.) [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2011-10-15

    Decision Making in Radiation Oncology is a reference book designed to enable radiation oncologists, including those in training, to make diagnostic and treatment decisions effectively and efficiently. The orientation of this groundbreaking publication is entirely practical, in that the focus is on issues relating to cancer management. The design has been carefully chosen based on the belief that ''a picture is worth a thousand words'': Knowledge is conveyed through an illustrative approach using algorithms, schemas, graphics, and tables. Text is kept to a minimum, reducing the effort involved in reading while enhancing understanding. Detailed guidelines are provided for multidisciplinary cancer management as well as for radiation therapy techniques. In addition to the attention-riveting algorithms for diagnosis and treatment, strategies for the management of disease at individual stages are detailed for all the commonly diagnosed malignancies. Detailed attention is given to the core evidence that has shaped the current treatment standards and advanced radiation therapy techniques. Clinical trials that have yielded ''gold standard'' treatment and their results are documented in the schemas. Moreover, radiation techniques, including treatment planning and delivery, are also presented in an illustrative way. (orig.)

  5. Metrics of hope: disciplining affect in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nik

    2015-03-01

    This article explores the emergence of a 'regime of hope' in the context of oncology care, practice and research. More specifically, my focus is the emergence, since the 1970s or so, of hope scales and indexes used to metricise the emotional states of cancer patients. These usually take the form of psychometric tests designed and deployed in order to subject affective life to calculative and rational scrutiny. This article locates this within the tensions of a 'turn' towards the emotions in critical social science literature. Scholarship has, for instance, been anxious not to deny the embodied reality of affectivity and the emotions. But it has been equally important to recognise the extent to which emotions are discursively ordered and structured as objects and effects of power. This article charts the emergence of hope scales historically alongside wider historical forces in the metrification of life and health and more specifically the emotions. It locates hope scales in a post-war climate of individual resilience and perseverant enterprise and the significance of hope as a naturalised vitalistic attribute of biopolitical life. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Hospitalization and other risk factors for depressive and anxious symptoms in oncological and non-oncological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fazio, Pasquale; Cerminara, Gregorio; Ruberto, Stefania; Caroleo, Mariarita; Puca, Maurizio; Rania, Ornella; Suffredini, Elina; Procopio, Leonardo; Segura-Garcìa, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Depression and anxiety are common in hospitalized patients. In particular, oncological patients might be vulnerable to depression and anxiety. The aim of this study is to assess and compare different variables and the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms between oncological and medically ill inpatients and to identify variables that can influence depressive and anxious symptoms during hospitalization of patients. A total of 360 consecutive hospitalized patients completed the following questionnaires: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Patients Health Questionnaire-9, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), 12-Item Short-Form Survey: physical component summary (PCS), and mental component summary (MCS). Patients were divided into oncological patients and non-oncological patients: groups 1 and 2. Only two significant differences were evident between the groups: the PCS of 12-item Short-form Survey was higher in non-oncological patient (p < 0.000), and the GHQ total score was higher in oncological patients. Variables significantly associated with HADS-D ≥ 8 were lower MCS, higher GHQ-12 score, lower PCS, more numerous previous hospitalizations, longer duration of hospitalization, and positive psychiatric family history. Variables significantly associated with HADS-A ≥ 8 were lower MCS, higher GHQ-12 score, positive psychiatric family history, longer duration of hospitalization, and younger age. Anxiety and depression symptoms in concurrent general medical conditions were associated with a specific sociodemographic profile, and this association has implications for clinical care. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Results of the Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs (ADROP) Survey of Radiation Oncology Residency Program Directors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Eleanor; Abdel-Wahab, May; Spangler, Ann E.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Amdur, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To survey the radiation oncology residency program directors on the topics of departmental and institutional support systems, residency program structure, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requirements, and challenges as program director. Methods: A survey was developed and distributed by the leadership of the Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs to all radiation oncology program directors. Summary statistics, medians, and ranges were collated from responses. Results: Radiation oncology program directors had implemented all current required aspects of the ACGME Outcome Project into their training curriculum. Didactic curricula were similar across programs nationally, but research requirements and resources varied widely. Program directors responded that implementation of the ACGME Outcome Project and the external review process were among their greatest challenges. Protected time was the top priority for program directors. Conclusions: The Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs recommends that all radiation oncology program directors have protected time and an administrative stipend to support their important administrative and educational role. Departments and institutions should provide adequate and equitable resources to the program directors and residents to meet increasingly demanding training program requirements.

  8. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Sachin M; Patel, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology-related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local insurance market. Recently, commercial payers have piloted various models of payment reform via oncology-specific clinical pathways, oncology medical homes, episode payment arrangements, and accountable care organizations. Despite the positive results of some pilot programs, adoption remains limited. The goals are to eliminate unnecessary variation in cancer treatment, provide coordinated patient-centered care, while controlling costs. Yet, meaningful payment reform in oncology remains elusive. As the largest payer for oncology services in the United States, CMS has the leverage to make cancer services more value based. Thus far, the focus has been around pricing of physician-administered drugs with recent work in the area of the Oncology Medical Home. Gynecologic oncology is a unique sub-specialty that blends surgical and medical oncology, with treatment that often involves radiation therapy. This forward-thinking, multidisciplinary model works to keep the patient at the center of the care continuum and emphasizes care coordination. Because of the breadth and depth of gynecologic oncology, this sub-specialty has both the potential to be disrupted by payment reform as well as potentially benefit from the aspects of reform that can align incentives appropriately to improve coordination. Although the precise future payment models are unknown at this time, focused engagement of gynecologic oncologists and the full care team is imperative to assure that the practice remains patient centered

  9. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Sachin M.; Patel, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology-related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local insurance market. Recently, commercial payers have piloted various models of payment reform via oncology-specific clinical pathways, oncology medical homes, episode payment arrangements, and accountable care organizations. Despite the positive results of some pilot programs, adoption remains limited. The goals are to eliminate unnecessary variation in cancer treatment, provide coordinated patient-centered care, while controlling costs. Yet, meaningful payment reform in oncology remains elusive. As the largest payer for oncology services in the United States, CMS has the leverage to make cancer services more value based. Thus far, the focus has been around pricing of physician-administered drugs with recent work in the area of the Oncology Medical Home. Gynecologic oncology is a unique sub-specialty that blends surgical and medical oncology, with treatment that often involves radiation therapy. This forward-thinking, multidisciplinary model works to keep the patient at the center of the care continuum and emphasizes care coordination. Because of the breadth and depth of gynecologic oncology, this sub-specialty has both the potential to be disrupted by payment reform as well as potentially benefit from the aspects of reform that can align incentives appropriately to improve coordination. Although the precise future payment models are unknown at this time, focused engagement of gynecologic oncologists and the full care team is imperative to assure that the practice remains patient centered

  10. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin eApte

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local insurance market. Recently, commercial payers have piloted various models of payment reform via oncology specific clinical pathways, oncology medical homes, episode payment arrangements, and accountable care organizations. Despite the positive results of some pilot programs, adoption remains limited. The goals are to eliminate unnecessary variation in cancer treatment, provide coordinated patient-centered care, while controlling costs. Yet, meaningful payment reform in oncology remains elusive. As the largest payer for oncology services in the United States, CMS has the leverage to make cancer services more value-based. Thus far, the focus has been around pricing of physician-administered drugs with recent work in the area of the Oncology Medical Home. Gynecologic oncology is a unique sub-specialty which blends surgical and medical oncology, with treatment that often involves radiation therapy. This forward-thinking, multi-disciplinary model works to keep the patient at the center of the care continuum and emphasizes care coordination. Because of the breadth and depth of gynecologic oncology, this sub-specialty has both the potential to be disrupted by payment reform as well as potentially benefit from the aspects of reform which can align incentives appropriately to improve coordination. Although the precise future payment models are unknown at this time, focused engagement of gynecologic oncologists and the full care team is imperative to assure that the

  11. Geriatric Assessment-Guided Care Processes for Older Adults: A Delphi Consensus of Geriatric Oncology Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohile, Supriya Gupta; Velarde, Carla; Hurria, Arti; Magnuson, Allison; Lowenstein, Lisa; Pandya, Chintan; O'Donovan, Anita; Gorawara-Bhat, Rita; Dale, William

    2015-09-01

    Structured care processes that provide a framework for how oncologists can incorporate geriatric assessment (GA) into clinical practice could improve outcomes for vulnerable older adults with cancer, a growing population at high risk of toxicity from cancer treatment. We sought to obtain consensus from an expert panel on the use of GA in clinical practice and to develop algorithms of GA-guided care processes. The Delphi technique, a well-recognized structured and reiterative process to reach consensus, was used. Participants were geriatric oncology experts who attended NIH-funded U13 or Cancer and Aging Research Group conferences. Consensus was defined as an interquartile range of 2 or more units, or 66.7% or greater, selecting a utility/helpfulness rating of 7 or greater on a 10-point Likert scale. For nominal data, consensus was defined as agreement among 66.7% or more of the group. From 33 invited, 30 participants completed all 3 rounds. Most experts (75%) used GA in clinical care, and the remainder were involved in geriatric oncology research. The panel met consensus that "all patients aged 75 years or older and those who are younger with age-related health concerns" should undergo GA and that all domains (function, physical performance, comorbidity/polypharmacy, cognition, nutrition, psychological status, and social support) should be included. Consensus was met for how GA could guide nononcologic interventions and cancer treatment decisions. Algorithms for GA-guided care processes were developed. This Delphi investigation of geriatric oncology experts demonstrated that GA should be performed for older patients with cancer to guide care processes. Copyright © 2015 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  12. Oncology Education in Medical Schools: Towards an Approach that Reflects Australia's Health Care Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Robert J

    2016-12-01

    Cancer has recently overtaken heart disease to become the number 1 cause of mortality both globally and in Australia. As such, adequate oncology education must be an integral component of medical school if students are to achieve learning outcomes that meet the needs of the population. The aim of this review is to evaluate the current state of undergraduate oncology education and identify how Australian medical schools can improve oncology learning outcomes for students and, by derivative, improve healthcare outcomes for Australians with cancer. The review shows that oncology is generally not well represented in medical school curricula, that few medical schools offer mandatory oncology or palliative care rotations, and that junior doctors are exhibiting declining oncology knowledge and skills. To address these issues, Australian medical schools should implement the Oncology Education Committee's Ideal Oncology Curriculum, enact mandatory oncology and palliative care clinical rotations for students, and in doing so, appreciate the importance of students' differing approaches to learning.

  13. Survey of Radiation Oncology Centres in Australia: report of the radiation oncology treatment quality program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klybaba, M.; Kenny, L.; Kron, T.; Harris, J.; O'Brien, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: One of the first steps towards the development of a comprehensive quality program for radiation oncology in Australia has been a survey of practice. This paper reports on the results of the survey that should inform the development of standards for radiation oncology in Australia. A questionnaire of 108 questions spanning aspects of treatment services, equipment, staff, infrastructure and available quality systems was mailed to all facilities providing radiation treatment services in Australia (n = 45). Information of 42 sites was received by June 2006 providing data on 113 operational linear accelerators of which approximately 2/3 are equipped with multi-leaf collimators. More than 75% of facilities were participating in a formal quality assurance (QA) system, with 63% following a nationally or internationally recognised system. However, there was considerable variation in the availability of policies and procedures specific to quality aspects, and the review of these. Policies for monitoring patient waiting times for treatment were documented at just 71% of all facilities. Although 85% of all centres do, in fact, monitor machine throughput, the number and types of efficiency measures varied markedly, thereby limiting the comparative use of these results. Centres identified workload as the single most common factor responsible for limiting staff involvement in both QA processes and clinical trial participation. The data collected in this 'snapshot' survey provide a unique and comprehensive baseline for future comparisons and evaluation of changes

  14. Corporate culture assessments in integrative oncology: a qualitative case study of two integrative oncology centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittring, Nadine; Pérard, Marion; Witt, Claudia M

    2013-01-01

    The offer of "integrative oncology" is one option for clinics to provide safe and evidence-based complementary medicine treatments to cancer patients. As known from merger theories, corporate culture and integration models have a strong influence on the success of such integration. To identify relevant corporate culture aspects that might influence the success in two highly visible integrative oncology clinics, we interviewed physicians, nurses, practitioners, and managers. All interviews (11 in a German breast cancer clinic and 9 in an integrative medicine cancer service in the USA) were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed with content analysis. According to the theoretical framework of mergers, each clinic selected a different integration type ("best of both worlds" and "linking"). Nonetheless, each developed a similar corporate culture that has a strong focus on research and safe and evidence-based treatments, and fosters a holistic and patient-centered approach. Structured communication within the team and with other departments had high relevance. Research was highlighted as a way to open doors and to facilitate a more general acceptance within the hospital. Conventional physicians felt unburdened by the provision of integrative medicine service but also saw problems in the time required for scheduled treatments, which often resulted in long waiting lists.

  15. Specialty Payment Model Opportunities and Assessment: Oncology Simulation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Chapin; Chan, Chris; Huckfeldt, Peter J; Kofner, Aaron; Mulcahy, Andrew W; Pollak, Julia; Popescu, Ioana; Timbie, Justin W; Hussey, Peter S

    2015-07-15

    This article describes the results of a simulation analysis of a payment model for specialty oncology services that is being developed for possible testing by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation at the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). CMS asked MITRE and RAND to conduct simulation analyses to preview some of the possible impacts of the payment model and to inform design decisions related to the model. The simulation analysis used an episode-level dataset based on Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) claims for historical oncology episodes provided to Medicare FFS beneficiaries in 2010. Under the proposed model, participating practices would continue to receive FFS payments, would also receive per-beneficiary per-month care management payments for episodes lasting up to six months, and would be eligible for performance-based payments based on per-episode spending for attributed episodes relative to a per-episode spending target. The simulation offers several insights into the proposed payment model for oncology: (1) The care management payments used in the simulation analysis-$960 total per six-month episode-represent only 4 percent of projected average total spending per episode (around $27,000 in 2016), but they are large relative to the FFS revenues of participating oncology practices, which are projected to be around $2,000 per oncology episode. By themselves, the care management payments would increase physician practices' Medicare revenues by roughly 50 percent on average. This represents a substantial new outlay for the Medicare program and a substantial new source of revenues for oncology practices. (2) For the Medicare program to break even, participating oncology practices would have to reduce utilization and intensity by roughly 4 percent. (3) The break-even point can be reduced if the care management payments are reduced or if the performance-based payments are reduced.

  16. Stress Levels of Nurses in Oncology Outpatient Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Woonhwa; Kiser-Larson, Norma

    2016-04-01

    Oncology nursing is often a source of substantial stress for nurses. Many nurses, particularly novice nurses, have inadequate preparation to care for patients at the end of life and their families. Unless nurses prevent or manage work-related stress by using effective coping strategies, oncology nursing staff will continue to suffer from burnout and compassion fatigue. The purpose of this article is to identify stress levels and stressful factors of nurses working in oncology outpatient units and to explore coping behaviors for work-related stress of oncology staff nurses in outpatient units. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used to identify stress levels and stressful factors for outpatient oncology nurses, investigate differences in stress levels among nurses' demographic characteristics, and explore coping behaviors of the nurses. Study participants (N = 40) included RNs and licensed practical nurses who completed the Nursing Stress Scale, three open-ended questions, and a demographic questionnaire. The highest sources of stress were workload and patient death and dying. Demographic variables of age and work experience in nursing showed a significant positive relationship to work-related stress scores. The three most frequently used coping behaviors were verbalizing, exercising or relaxing, and taking time for self. Continuing education programs on stress management are highly recommended. Outpatient oncology nurses should be nurtured and supported through tailored interventions at multiple levels to help them find effective coping strategies and develop self-care competencies. Although younger and less experienced nurses had lower mean stress scores than older and more experienced nurses, the continuing education programs and tailored interventions would be helpful for all oncology nursing staff.

  17. The Hedgehog-GLI pathway in embryonic development and cancer: implications for pulmonary oncology therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas-López, Leonel; Zúñiga, Joaquín; Arrieta, Oscar; Ávila-Moreno, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation and epigenetic mechanisms closely control gene expression through diverse physiological and pathophysiological processes. These include the development of germ layers and post-natal epithelial cell-tissue differentiation, as well as, involved with the induction, promotion and/or progression of human malignancies. Diverse studies have shed light on the molecular similarities and differences involved in the stages of embryological epithelial development and dedifferentiation processes in malignant tumors of epithelial origin, of which many focus on lung carcinomas. In lung cancer, several transcriptional, epigenetic and genetic aberrations have been described to partly arise from environmental risk factors, but ethnic genetic predisposition factors may also play a role. The classification of the molecular hallmarks of cancer has been essential to study and achieve a comprehensive view of the interaction networks between cell signaling pathways and functional roles of the transcriptional and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. This has in turn increased understanding on how these molecular networks are involved in embryo-layers and malignant diseases development. Ultimately, a major biomedicine goal is to achieve a thorough understanding of their roles as diagnostic, prognostic and treatment response indicators in lung oncological patients. Recently, several notable cell-signaling pathways have been studied based on their contribution to promoting and/or regulating the engagement of different cancer hallmarks, among them genome instability, exacerbated proliferative signaling, replicative immortality, tumor invasion-metastasis, inflammation, and immune-surveillance evasion mechanisms. Of these, the Hedgehog-GLI (Hh) cell-signaling pathway has been identified as a main molecular contribution into several of the abovementioned functional embryo-malignancy processes. Nonetheless, the systematic study of the regulatory epigenetic and

  18. Molecular oncology focus - Is carcinogenesis a 'mitochondriopathy'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ścińska Anna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mitochondria are sub-cellular organelles that produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS. As suggested over 70 years ago by Otto Warburg and recently confirmed with molecular techniques, alterations in respiratory activity and in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA appear to be common features of malignant cells. Somatic mtDNA mutations have been reported in many types of cancer cells, and some reports document the prevalence of inherited mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in cancer patients. Nevertheless, a careful reanalysis of methodological criteria and methodology applied in those reports has shown that numerous papers can't be used as relevant sources of data for systematic review, meta-analysis, or finally for establishment of clinically applicable markers. In this review technical and conceptual errors commonly occurring in the literature are summarized. In the first place we discuss, why many of the published papers cannot be used as a valid and clinically useful sources of evidence in the biomedical and healthcare contexts. The reasons for introduction of noise in data and in consequence - bias for the interpretation of the role of mitochondrial DNA in the complex process of tumorigenesis are listed. In the second part of the text practical aspects of mtDNA research and requirements necessary to fulfill in order to use mtDNA analysis in clinics are shown. Stringent methodological criteria of a case-controlled experiment in molecular medicine are indicated. In the third part we suggest, what lessons can be learned for the future and propose guidelines for mtDNA analysis in oncology. Finally we conclude that, although several conceptual and methodological difficulties hinder the research on mitochondrial patho-physiology in cancer cells, this area of molecular medicine should be considered of high importance for future clinical practice.

  19. Sport and oxidative stress in oncological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, K; Schwan, R; Bongartz, M; Bloch, W; Brixius, K; Baumann, F

    2011-12-01

    Oxidative stress is thought to be an important factor in the onset, progression and recurrence of cancer. In order to investigate how it is influenced by physical activity, we measured oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity (aoC) in 12 women with breast cancer and 6 men with prostate cancer, before and after long hiking trips. Before the hike, the men had a ROS-concentration of 1.8±0.6 mM H2O2 and an aoC of 0.7±0.6 mM Trolox-equivalent (Tro), while the women had a ROS-concentration of 3.1±0.7 mM H2O2 and an aoC of 1.2±0.2 mM Tro. After the hike, women showed no significant change in ROS and a significant increase in aoC (1.3±0.2 mM Tro), while the ROS concentration in men increased significantly (2.1±0.3 mM H2O2) and their aoC decreased (0.25±0.1 mM Tro). After a regenerative phase, the ROS concentration of the men decreased to 1.7±0.4 mM H2O2 and their aoC recovered significantly (1.2±0.4 mM Tro), while the women presented no significant change in the concentration of H2O2 but showed an ulterior increase in antioxidant capacity (2.05±0.43 mM Tro). From this data we conclude that physical training programs as for example long distance hiking trips can improve the aoC in the blood of oncological patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Informal patient payments in oncology practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomenko, Tetiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Europe, new cases of cancer are diagnosed in 4 million people yearly, of whom 837 000 die. In Ukraine of 160 000 new cases almost 100 000 die. With proper treatment, one third of cancer cases is curable, but informal payments (IPP in health care limit access to treatment. We aimed to explore the experience of people treated for cancer to identify obstacles in obtaining health care and the expert opinion about health care for cancer patients in Ukraine.METHODS: The study is exploratory. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 convenience sample patients or their relatives as well as with three experts between October 2011 – April 2012. RESULTS. Solicitation or receipt of IPP depends on the organizational culture. Respondents do not mind about IPP, but want this to be their own decision. IPP are often considered a “thank” to the medical staff for the service. The significant percentage of expenditures while in treatment for patients is due to purchases of medicines at their own expense. The problem of a long process of diagnostics and incomplete information by the medical staff about the stage of cancer and possible prognoses are essential for the respondents. According to experts not sufficient number of specialists and equipment for proper diagnosis and treatment is another problem. The attitude of medical staff to the patient with cancer largely depends on the personal features of the staff.CONCLUSIONS: Significant problems perceived by cancer patients are related to purchase of medicines at their own expense, structural and organizational features of hospitals, where they are staying for the treatment. Informal payments largely depend on the personal qualities of medical staff. The government must ensure fairness and equal access in getting care in oncology practice because it mainly affects the health of the nation.

  1. Geographic Analysis of the Radiation Oncology Workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneja, Sanjay; Smith, Benjamin D.; Gross, Cary P.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Roberts, Kenneth; Yu, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate trends in the geographic distribution of the radiation oncology (RO) workforce. Methods and Materials: We used the 1995 and 2007 versions of the Area Resource File to map the ratio of RO to the population aged 65 years or older (ROR) within different health service areas (HSA) within the United States. We used regression analysis to find associations between population variables and 2007 ROR. We calculated Gini coefficients for ROR to assess the evenness of RO distribution and compared that with primary care physicians and total physicians. Results: There was a 24% increase in the RO workforce from 1995 to 2007. The overall growth in the RO workforce was less than that of primary care or the overall physician workforce. The mean ROR among HSAs increased by more than one radiation oncologist per 100,000 people aged 65 years or older, from 5.08 per 100,000 to 6.16 per 100,000. However, there remained consistent geographic variability concerning RO distribution, specifically affecting the non-metropolitan HSAs. Regression analysis found higher ROR in HSAs that possessed higher education (p = 0.001), higher income (p < 0.001), lower unemployment rates (p < 0.001), and higher minority population (p = 0.022). Gini coefficients showed RO distribution less even than for both primary care physicians and total physicians (0.326 compared with 0.196 and 0.292, respectively). Conclusions: Despite a modest growth in the RO workforce, there exists persistent geographic maldistribution of radiation oncologists allocated along socioeconomic and racial lines. To solve problems surrounding the RO workforce, issues concerning both gross numbers and geographic distribution must be addressed.

  2. Geographic Analysis of the Radiation Oncology Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneja, Sanjay [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States); Department of General Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Roberts, Kenneth [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate trends in the geographic distribution of the radiation oncology (RO) workforce. Methods and Materials: We used the 1995 and 2007 versions of the Area Resource File to map the ratio of RO to the population aged 65 years or older (ROR) within different health service areas (HSA) within the United States. We used regression analysis to find associations between population variables and 2007 ROR. We calculated Gini coefficients for ROR to assess the evenness of RO distribution and compared that with primary care physicians and total physicians. Results: There was a 24% increase in the RO workforce from 1995 to 2007. The overall growth in the RO workforce was less than that of primary care or the overall physician workforce. The mean ROR among HSAs increased by more than one radiation oncologist per 100,000 people aged 65 years or older, from 5.08 per 100,000 to 6.16 per 100,000. However, there remained consistent geographic variability concerning RO distribution, specifically affecting the non-metropolitan HSAs. Regression analysis found higher ROR in HSAs that possessed higher education (p = 0.001), higher income (p < 0.001), lower unemployment rates (p < 0.001), and higher minority population (p = 0.022). Gini coefficients showed RO distribution less even than for both primary care physicians and total physicians (0.326 compared with 0.196 and 0.292, respectively). Conclusions: Despite a modest growth in the RO workforce, there exists persistent geographic maldistribution of radiation oncologists allocated along socioeconomic and racial lines. To solve problems surrounding the RO workforce, issues concerning both gross numbers and geographic distribution must be addressed.

  3. REVIEW OF APPROACHES TO IMMUNOTHERAPY IN ONCOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Tsarev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses modern ideas about the immune therapy of cancer — methods of treatment of oncological diseases based on immunological reactions of the organism to the appearance of malignant cells in it. This area is actively studied in clinical practice in the last decade, and some therapy has already been approved for use by regulators after promising results of clinical trials 3 phase.Immune therapy is based on antitumor immune cycle — the cascade of processes responsible for the immune system’s response to tumor cells. Involved regulatory mechanisms are targets for various therapies, the overall goal is to restore proper functioning of the cycle and to achieve the elimination of cancer cells.Currently, the most studied two types of immune therapy — checkpoint inhibitors and adaptive cell therapy. Checkpoint inhibitors increase the activity of body immune cells, reducing the inhibitory influence of the tumor microenvironment and the tumor cells themselves, which allowed them to get out from under the pressure of the immune system during the development of the disease. Adaptive cell therapy, in turn, allows to compensate the lack of active immune against tumor cells.Mechanisms of action determine the effectiveness of various therapies for different diseases, and for patients inside of one diagnosis. To determine the effectiveness of other treatment prior to a particular patient it is necessary to use the latest achievements in precision medicine, based on the search for new biomarkers and analyzing each patient separately. This approach will significantly reduce costs and save precious time for the patient. 

  4. Implementation of nanoparticles in therapeutic radiation oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Erik; Gabani, Prashant; Singh, Om V.

    2017-05-01

    Development and progress of cancer is a very complex disease process to comprehend because of the multiple changes in cellular physiology, pathology, and pathophysiology resulting from the numerous genetic changes from which cancer originates. As a result, most common treatments are not directed at the molecular level but rather at the tissue level. While personalized care is becoming an increasingly aim, the most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery, each of which has a high likelihood of resulting in rather severe adverse side effects. For example, currently used radiation therapy does not discriminate between normal and cancerous cells and greatly relies on the external targeting of the radiation beams to specific cells and organs. Because of this, there is an immediate need for the development of new and innovative technologies that help to differentiate tumor cells and micrometastases from normal cells and facilitate the complete destruction of those cells. Recent advancements in nanoscience and nanotechnology have paved a way for the development of nanoparticles (NPs) as multifunctional carriers to deliver therapeutic radioisotopes for tumor targeted radiation therapy, to monitor their delivery, and improve the therapeutic index of radiation and tumor response to the treatment. The application of NPs in radiation therapy has aimed to improve outcomes in radiation therapy by increasing therapeutic effect in tumors and reducing toxicity on normal tissues. Because NPs possess unique properties, such as preferential accumulation in tumors and minimal uptake in normal tissues, it makes them ideal for the delivery of radiotherapy. This review provides an overview of the recent development of NPs for carrying and delivering therapeutic radioisotopes for systemic radiation treatment for a variety of cancers in radiation oncology.

  5. Informational needs of gastrointestinal oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakos, Janet; Urowitz, Sara; Olmstead, Craig; Jusko Friedman, Audrey; Zhu, Jason; Catton, Pamela

    2015-12-01

    In response to the dearth of consumer health information for patients with gastrointestinal cancers, this study examined the informational needs of these patients to build a plan for future resource development. Although studies have examined informational needs of some such cancers, no published literature has investigated the comprehensive informational needs across all sites of gastrointestinal cancer. A cross-sectional needs assessment comprising a self-administered questionnaire was conducted at an ambulatory gastrointestinal oncology clinic in Toronto, Canada. Patient informational needs were measured, including importance of information, amount desired and preferred mode of delivery. Informational needs were grouped into six domains: medical, practical, physical, emotional, social and spiritual. Eighty-two surveys were analysed. The majority of the respondents were male (53.8%), over the age of 50 (77.8%), and born outside of Canada (51.9%). While many did not speak English as a child (46.3%), and do not speak English at home (22.2%), nearly all indicated comfort with receiving health information in English (97.5%). The majority of respondents were college educated (79.3%) and married (73%). Multiple cancer types were reported; the most common being colorectal (39%), followed by pancreatic (12%) and cancers of the gallbladder or bile duct (12%). Overall, respondents placed highest importance on medical information (P < 0.001). Preferred education modalities were pamphlets, websites and one-on-one discussions with health-care professionals. This study highlights the principal informational needs of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies, along with preferred modality for information delivery. This information will guide the development of educational resources for future patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Faculty of Radiation Oncology 2014 workforce census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, John; Munro, Philip L; James, Melissa

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the key findings of the Faculty of Radiation Oncology 2014 workforce census and compares the results with earlier surveys. The census was conducted in mid-2014 with distribution to all radiation oncologists, educational affiliates and trainees listed on the college database. There were six email reminders and responses were anonymous. The overall response rate was 76.1%. The age range of fellows was 32-96 (mean = 49 years, median = 47 years). The majority of the radiation oncologists were male (n = 263, 63%). The minority of radiation oncologists were of Asian descent (n = 43, 13.4%). Radiation oncologists graduated from medical school on average 23 years ago (median = 22 years). A minority of fellows (n = 66, 20%) held another postgraduate qualification. Most radiation oncologists worked, on average, at two practices (median = 2, range 1-7). Practising radiation oncologists worked predominantly in the public sector (n = 131, 49%), but many worked in both the public and private sectors (n = 94, 37%), and a minority worked in the private sector only (n = 38, 14%). The largest proportion of the workforce was from New South Wales accounting for 29% of radiation oncologists. Radiation oncologists worked an average of 43 h/week (median = 43 h, range 6-80). Radiation oncologists who worked in the private sector worked less hours than their public sector or public/private sector colleagues. (38.3 vs. 42.9 vs. 44.3 h, P = 0.042). Victorians worked the fewest average hours per week at 38 h and West Australians the most at 46 h/week. Radiation oncologists averaged 48 min for each new case, 17 min per follow up and 11 min for a treatment review. Radiation oncologists averaged 246 new patients per year (median = 250, range = 20-600) with men (average = 268), Western Australians (average = 354) and those in private practice seeing more (average = 275). Most radiation

  7. Use of imaging techniques in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, C.; Rudder, D.; Jimenez, P.

    2002-01-01

    Imaging techniques are used in radiation oncology for: disease diagnosis, tumor localization and staging, treatment simulation, treatment planning, clinical dosimetry displays, treatment verification and patient follow up. In industrialized countries, up to the 1970's, conventional radiology was used for diagnosis, simulation and planning. Gamma cameras helped tumor staging by detecting metastases. In the 1970's, simulators were developed for exclusive use in radiation oncology departments. Clinical dosimetry displays consisted mainly in axial dose distributions. Treatment verification was done placing films in the radiation beam with the patient under treatment. In the 1980's, 2-D imaging was replaced by 3-D displays with the incorporation of computerized tomography (CT) scanners, and in the 1990's of magnetic resonance imagers (MRI). Ultrasound units, briefly used in the 1960's for treatment planning purposes, were found again useful, mainly for brachytherapy dosimetry. Digital portal imagers allowed accurate treatment field verification. Treatment planning systems incorporated the capability of 'inverse planning', i.e. once the desired dose distribution is decided, the field size, gantry, collimator and couch angles, etc, can be automatically selected. At the end of the millennium, image fusion permitted excellent anatomical display of tumors and adjacent sensitive structures. The 2000's are seeing a change from anatomical to functional imaging with the advent of MRI units capable of spectroscopy at 3 Tesla and positron emission tomography (PET) units. In 2001 combined CT/PET units appeared in RT departments. In 2002, fusion of CT, MRI and PET images became available. Molecular imaging is being developed. The situation in developing countries is quite different. To start with, cancer incidence is different in developing and in industrialized countries. In addition, the health services pattern is different: Cancer treatment is mostly done in public institutions

  8. Significances and meanings of the musical identity of patients and relatives receiving oncological palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Araujo de Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This phenomenological study was structured on Heidegger’s theoretical-philosophical framework, with the objective of unveiling the significances and meanings of the musical identity of patients and relatives under oncological palliative care. Individual interviews were performed with 12 clients (seven patients and five relatives staying at the support residence of the Maringa Female Network Against Cancer. A total of eight musical meetings were performed between January and February of 2011. I understood that the musical identity of the evidenced beings refers to the religious and country music styles, that their significances and meanings are connected to their spirituality and the significant events of their historicity, and that their mood and reflection intermediated by music can influence their musical choice. I gave evidence to the need to consider the music identity and empowerment in musical choices, which carries existential, social, cultural, spiritual and family aspects as qualifying elements of nursing in palliative care. Descriptors: Nursing Care; Oncology Nursing; Music; Music Therapy; Palliative Care.

  9. Readability of American online patient education materials in urologic oncology: a need for simple communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthi, Amanda; Nielsen, Matthew E; Raynor, Mathew C; Woods, Michael E; Wallen, Eric M; Smith, Angela B

    2015-02-01

    To determine the readability levels of reputable cancer and urologic Web sites addressing bladder, prostate, kidney, and testicular cancers. Online patient education materials (PEMs) for bladder, prostate, kidney, and testicular malignancies were evaluated from the American Cancer Society, American Society of Clinical Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Urology Care Foundation, Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network, Prostate Cancer Foundation, Kidney Cancer Association, and Testicular Cancer Resource Center. Grade level was determined using several readability indices, and analyses were performed on the basis of cancer type, Web site, and content area (general, causes, risk factors and prevention, diagnosis and staging, treatment, and post-treatment). Estimated grade level of online PEMs ranged from 9.2 to 14.2 with an overall mean of 11.7. Web sites for kidney cancer had the least difficult readability (11.3) and prostate cancer had the most difficult readability (12.1). Among specific Web sites, the most difficult readability levels were noted for the Urology Care Foundation Web site for bladder and prostate cancer and the Kidney Cancer Association and Testicular Cancer Resource Center for kidney and testes cancer. Readability levels within content areas varied on the basis of the disease and Web site. Online PEMs in urologic oncology are written at a level above the average American reader. Simplification of these resources is necessary to improve patient understanding of urologic malignancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Practicing radiation oncology today - Part I: Meeting the challenge of managed care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botnick, Leslie E.; Cohen, Hilary H.; Hinkle, Milton; Rose, Christopher M.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: The change in health care delivery is forcing radiation oncologists to examine every aspect of how they organize themselves, deliver care, evaluate the quality of that care, and how they are reimbursed for this process. While managed care has been implicated as the new paradigm that will change the way that health care is delivered, the authors maintain that outcomes research may be just as important a stimulus for change. This course will attempt to examine how managed care and outcomes research are impacting upon radiation oncology practice, and what radiation oncologists can do to maintain patient care standards. This course will introduce certain concepts that will be discussed in subsequent courses on Informatics and Evaluating New Technology. Topics Covered: 1. The Managed Care Nomenclature Explained: HMO's, PPO's, POS's, Carve-Outs 2. Outcomes Research: What it can and cannot do 3. Moving from QA to CQI to Benchmarking 4. Using Analytical Tools to Evaluate Capital Purchases and Operational Requirements 5. Evaluating Staffing Needs: Traditional jobs, Cross-training, Outsourcing, Physician extenders 6. Introduction to Evaluation of Technology 7. Introduction to Evaluation of Informatics 8. Potential gains from Shared Services 9. Networking vs. Mergers vs. Oncology IPA's vs. MSO's 10. Evaluating Managed Care Strategies and Contracts

  11. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in paediatric oncology and non-oncology patients with diarrhoea in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijjawi, Nawal; Zahedi, Alireza; Kazaleh, Mahmoud; Ryan, Una

    2017-11-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a protozoan parasitic disease which affects human and animals worldwide. In adult immunocompetent individuals, cryptosporidiosis usually results in acute and self-limited diarrhoea; however, it can cause life threatening diarrhoea in children and immunocompromised individuals. In the present study, we compared the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and gp60 subtypes amongst paediatric oncology patients with diarrhoea (n=160) from King Hussein Medical Centre for Cancer in Jordan, and non-oncology paediatric patients with diarrhoea (n=137) from Al-Mafraq paediatric hospital. Microscopy results using modified acid fast staining identified a significantly (p≤0.05) higher prevalence of Cryptosporidium in paediatric oncology patients with diarrhoea (14.4% - 23/160), compared to non-oncology paediatric patients with diarrhoea only (5.1% - 7/137). With the exception of one sample, all microscopy-positive samples (n=29) and an additional 3/30 microscopy-negative controls were typed to species and subtype level at the 18S and gp60 loci, respectively. All Cryptosporidium positives were typed as C. parvum. Of the 22 typed Cryptosporidium positives from the paediatric oncology patients, 21 were subtyped as IIaA17G2R1 and one as IIaA16G2R1 C. parvum subtypes. The 7 typed positives from the paediatric patients from Al-Mafraq hospital were subtyped as IIaA17G2R1 (n=5) and IIaA16G2R1 (n=2). The 3 additional positives from the 30 microscopy negative control samples were subtyped as IIaA17G2R1. The high prevalence of the IIaA17G2R1 subtype, particularly amongst oncology patients, suggests that an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis may have been occurring in oncology patients during the collection period (April to December, 2016). New therapies for cryptosporidiosis in immunocompromised patients are urgently required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Attitudes and Perceptions of Surgical Oncology Fellows on ACGME Accreditation and the Complex General Surgical Oncology Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David Y; Flaherty, Devin C; Lau, Briana J; Deutsch, Gary B; Kirchoff, Daniel D; Huynh, Kelly T; Lee, Ji-Hey; Faries, Mark B; Bilchik, Anton J

    2015-11-01

    With the first qualifying examination administered September 15, 2014, complex general surgical oncology (CGSO) is now a board-certified specialty. We aimed to assess the attitudes and perceptions of current and future surgical oncology fellows regarding the recently instituted Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accreditation. A 29-question anonymous survey was distributed to fellows in surgical oncology fellowship programs and applicants interviewing at our fellowship program. There were 110 responses (79 fellows and 31 candidates). The response rate for the first- and second-year fellows was 66 %. Ninety-percent of the respondents were aware that completing an ACGME-accredited fellowship leads to board eligibility in CGSO. However, the majority (80 %) of the respondents stated that their decision to specialize in surgical oncology was not influenced by the ACGME accreditation. The fellows in training were concerned about the cost of the exam (90 %) and expressed anxiety in preparing for another board exam (83 %). However, the majority of the respondents believed that CGSO board certification will be helpful (79 %) in obtaining their future career goals. Interestingly, candidate fellows appeared more focused on a career in general complex surgical oncology (p = 0.004), highlighting the impact that fellowship training may have on organ-specific subspecialization. The majority of the surveyed surgical oncology fellows and candidates believe that obtaining board certification in CGSO is important and will help them pursue their career goals. However, the decision to specialize in surgical oncology does not appear to be motivated by ACGME accreditation or the new board certification.

  13. A citation anaysis of Chinese Journal of Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hua; Shi Shuxia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the academic level and the popularity of Chinese Journal of Radiation Oncology. Methods: According to the information of Chinese Medical Citation Index(CMCI), statistically analyzed the amount and distribution of the originals in Chinese Journal of Radiation Oncology cited by the journal included by CMCI. Results: The proportion of cited articles for original articles, short report and review were 73.8%, 58.1% and 60.7% respectively, and average cited numbers for them were 7.2, 3.0 and 3.4. The average of original articles cited by other researchers is 3.9, and there are more articles cited than other journal. The authors of these articles are from the 27 province/or municipalities, Beijing and Shanghai municipalities are in the front of Radiation Oncology research. There are 320 citing journals, and self-citing rate is 9.4%. Conclusions: The Chinese Journal of Radiation Oncology has published high quality articles, and has its own edition characteristics to keep its steady level of research. It is the one of the most important information resource for the radiation oncology researchers and the most important medical journal. (authors)

  14. Distance learning in the Applied Sciences of Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Michael B., E-mail: Michael.Barton@swsahs.nsw.gov.a [CCORE and the South Western Clinical School, Liverpool Hospital, University of NSW (Australia); Thode, Richard J [CCORE and the South Western Clinical School, Liverpool Hospital, University of NSW (Australia)

    2010-04-15

    Background: The major impediment to the expansion of oncology services is a shortage of personnel. Purpose: To develop a distance learning course for radiation oncology trainees. Materials: Under the sponsorship of the Asia Pacific Regional Cooperative Agreement administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a CD ROM-based Applied Sciences of Oncology (ASOC) distance learning course of 71 modules was created. The course covers communications, critical appraisal, functional anatomy, molecular biology, pathology. The materials include interactive text and illustrations that require students to answer questions before they can progress. The course aims to supplement existing oncology curricula and does not provide a qualification. It aims to assist students in acquiring their own profession's qualification. The course was piloted in seven countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America during 2004. After feedback from the pilot course, a further nine modules were added to cover imaging physics (three modules), informed consent, burnout and coping with death and dying, Economic analysis and cancer care, Nutrition, cachexia and fatigue, radiation-induced second cancers and mathematical tools and background for radiation oncology. The course was widely distributed and can be downloaded from (http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Training/Aso/register.html). ASOC has been downloaded over 1100 times in the first year after it was posted. There is a huge demand for educational materials but the interactive approach is labour-intensive and expensive to compile. The course must be maintained to remain relevant.

  15. Distance learning in the Applied Sciences of Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, Michael B.; Thode, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The major impediment to the expansion of oncology services is a shortage of personnel. Purpose: To develop a distance learning course for radiation oncology trainees. Materials: Under the sponsorship of the Asia Pacific Regional Cooperative Agreement administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a CD ROM-based Applied Sciences of Oncology (ASOC) distance learning course of 71 modules was created. The course covers communications, critical appraisal, functional anatomy, molecular biology, pathology. The materials include interactive text and illustrations that require students to answer questions before they can progress. The course aims to supplement existing oncology curricula and does not provide a qualification. It aims to assist students in acquiring their own profession's qualification. The course was piloted in seven countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America during 2004. After feedback from the pilot course, a further nine modules were added to cover imaging physics (three modules), informed consent, burnout and coping with death and dying, Economic analysis and cancer care, Nutrition, cachexia and fatigue, radiation-induced second cancers and mathematical tools and background for radiation oncology. The course was widely distributed and can be downloaded from (http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Training/Aso/register.html). ASOC has been downloaded over 1100 times in the first year after it was posted. There is a huge demand for educational materials but the interactive approach is labour-intensive and expensive to compile. The course must be maintained to remain relevant.

  16. Monitoring cancer stem cells: insights into clinical oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin SC

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ShuChen Lin,1,* YingChun Xu,2,* ZhiHua Gan,1 Kun Han,1 HaiYan Hu,3 Yang Yao,3 MingZhu Huang,4 DaLiu Min1 1Department of Oncology, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital East Campus, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2Department of Oncology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 3Department of Oncology, The Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 4Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs are a small, characteristically distinctive subset of tumor cells responsible for tumor initiation and progression. Several treatment modalities, such as surgery, glycolytic inhibition, driving CSC proliferation, immunotherapy, and hypofractionated radiotherapy, may have the potential to eradicate CSCs. We propose that monitoring CSCs is important in clinical oncology as CSC populations may reflect true treatment response and assist with managing treatment strategies, such as defining optimal chemotherapy cycles, permitting pretreatment cancer surveillance, conducting a comprehensive treatment plan, modifying radiation treatment, and deploying rechallenge chemotherapy. Then, we describe methods for monitoring CSCs. Keywords: cancer stem cells, glycolytic inhibition, watchful waiting, rechallenge, immunotherapy

  17. Results of an Oncology Clinical Trial Nurse Role Delineation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdom, Michelle A; Petersen, Sandra; Haas, Barbara K

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the relevance of a five-dimensional model of clinical trial nursing practice in an oncology clinical trial nurse population. 
. Web-based cross-sectional survey.
. Online via Qualtrics.
. 167 oncology nurses throughout the United States, including 41 study coordinators, 35 direct care providers, and 91 dual-role nurses who provide direct patient care and trial coordination.
. Principal components analysis was used to determine the dimensions of oncology clinical trial nursing practice.
. Self-reported frequency of 59 activities.
. The results did not support the original five-dimensional model of nursing care but revealed a more multidimensional model.
. An analysis of frequency data revealed an eight-dimensional model of oncology research nursing, including care, manage study, expert, lead, prepare, data, advance science, and ethics.
. This evidence-based model expands understanding of the multidimensional roles of oncology nurses caring for patients with cancer enrolled in clinical trials.

  18. Cross-Cultural Communication in Oncology: Challenges and Training Interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Orest; Sulstarova, Brikela; Singy, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    To survey oncology nurses and oncologists about difficulties in taking care of culturally and linguistically diverse patients and about interests in cross-cultural training.
. Descriptive, cross-sectional.
. Web-based survey.
. 108 oncology nurses and 44 oncologists. 
. 31-item questionnaire derived from preexisting surveys in the United States and Switzerland.
. Self-rated difficulties in taking care of culturally and linguistically diverse patients and self-rated interests in cross-cultural training.
. All respondents reported communication difficulties in encounters with culturally and linguistically diverse patients. Respondents considered the absence of written materials in other languages, absence of a shared common language with patients, and sensitive subjects (e.g., end of life, sexuality) to be particularly problematic. Respondents also expressed a high level of interest in all aspects of cross-cultural training (task-oriented skills, background knowledge, reflexivity, and attitudes). Nurses perceived several difficulties related to care of migrants as more problematic than physicians did and were more interested in all aspects of cross-cultural training. 
. The need for cross-cultural training is high among oncology clinicians, particularly among nurses.
. The results reported in the current study may help nurses in decision-making positions and educators in introducing elements of cross-cultural education into oncology curricula for nurses. Cross-cultural training should be offered to oncology nurses.

  19. Engineering and physical sciences in oncology: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael J; Jain, Rakesh K; Langer, Robert

    2017-11-01

    The principles of engineering and physics have been applied to oncology for nearly 50 years. Engineers and physical scientists have made contributions to all aspects of cancer biology, from quantitative understanding of tumour growth and progression to improved detection and treatment of cancer. Many early efforts focused on experimental and computational modelling of drug distribution, cell cycle kinetics and tumour growth dynamics. In the past decade, we have witnessed exponential growth at the interface of engineering, physics and oncology that has been fuelled by advances in fields including materials science, microfabrication, nanomedicine, microfluidics, imaging, and catalysed by new programmes at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), including the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), Physical Sciences in Oncology, and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Alliance for Nanotechnology. Here, we review the advances made at the interface of engineering and physical sciences and oncology in four important areas: the physical microenvironment of the tumour and technological advances in drug delivery; cellular and molecular imaging; and microfluidics and microfabrication. We discussthe research advances, opportunities and challenges for integrating engineering and physical sciences with oncology to develop new methods to study, detect and treat cancer, and we also describe the future outlook for these emerging areas.

  20. Complementary and alternative medicine for cancer patients: results of the EPAAC survey on integrative oncology centres in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Elio; Vita, Alessandra; Baccetti, Sonia; Di Stefano, Mariella; Voller, Fabio; Zanobini, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    %), to reduce side effects of iatrogenic menopause (8.8 %) and to improve anxiety and depression (5.9 %), gastrointestinal disorders (5 %), sleep disturbances and neuropathy (3.8 %). Mapping of the centres across Europe is an essential step in the process of creating a European network of centres, experts and professionals constantly engaged in the field of integrative oncology, in order to increase, share and disseminate the knowledge in this field and provide evidence-based practice.

  1. Nature-based care opportunities and barriers in oncology contexts: a modified international e-Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Sarah; O'Callaghan, Clare C; Schofield, Penelope

    2017-10-16

    To develop recommendations regarding opportunities and barriers for nature-based care in oncology contexts using a structured knowledge generation process involving relevant healthcare and design experts. Four-round modified electronic Delphi study. Oncology patients' nature-based recommendations, uncovered in preceding qualitative investigation, were included in the first round for the expert participants' consideration. Key items (opportunities and barriers) were developed using data aggregation and synthesis, followed by item prioritisation and 10-point Likert scale ranking (1=not important, 10=very important). Descriptive statistics were calculated to assess items of highest importance representing expert recommendations. Online Delphi process constituting an electronic international survey. A purposive sample of 200 potential panellists (recruitment target n=40) comprising healthcare practitioners, managers, designers, architects and researchers were invited to participate; experts were identified via research networks, snowballing and systematic literature review. 38 experts across seven countries (Australia, USA, UK, New Zealand, Canada, Denmark and Sweden) returned questionnaire 1, which determined consent and acceptance for participation. Initial response rate was 19%, and subsequent response rates were 84%, 82% and 84% for rounds 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The Delphi panel developed recommendations consisting of 10 opportunities and 10 barriers. The following opportunities were rated to be of highest importance: window views from clinical areas onto nature; outdoor settings, gardens and courtyards with easy and effortless access; and nature-based physical exercise adapted to patient requirements. Highest-rated barriers for nature-based oncology care included lack of knowledge and awareness about benefits of nature engagement and inaccessibility, not considering access requirements for the very sick and frail. Experts suggested and agreed on a set of

  2. Multi-disciplinary summit on genetics services for women with gynecologic cancers: A Society of Gynecologic Oncology White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Leslie M; Pothuri, Bhavana; Swisher, Elizabeth M; Diaz, John P; Buchanan, Adam; Witkop, Catherine T; Bethan Powell, C; Smith, Ellen Blair; Robson, Mark E; Boyd, Jeff; Coleman, Robert L; Lu, Karen

    2017-08-01

    To assess current practice, advise minimum standards, and identify educational gaps relevant to genetic screening, counseling, and testing of women affected by gynecologic cancers. The Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO) organized a multidisciplinary summit that included representatives from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), the American Society Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC), and patient advocacy groups, BrightPink and Facing our Risk of Cancer Empowered (FORCE). Three subject areas were discussed: care delivery models for genetic testing, barriers to genetic testing, and educational opportunities for providers of genetic testing. The group endorsed current SGO, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), and NSGC genetic testing guidelines for women affected with ovarian, tubal, peritoneal cancers, or DNA mismatch repair deficient endometrial cancer. Three main areas of unmet need were identified: timely and universal genetic testing for women with ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancers; education regarding minimum standards for genetic counseling and testing; and barriers to implementation of testing of both affected individuals as well as cascade testing of family members. Consensus building among all stakeholders resulted in an action plan to address gaps in education of gynecologic oncology providers and delivery of cancer genetics care. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Improving Oncology Quality Measurement in Accountable Care: Filling Gaps with Cross-Cutting Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valuck, Tom; Blaisdell, David; Dugan, Donna P; Westrich, Kimberly; Dubois, Robert W; Miller, Robert S; McClellan, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Payment for health care services, including oncology services, is shifting from volume-based fee-for-service to value-based accountable care. The objective of accountable care is to support providers with flexibility and resources to reform care delivery, accompanied by accountability for maintaining or improving outcomes while lowering costs. These changes depend on health care payers, systems, physicians, and patients having meaningful measures to assess care delivery and outcomes and to balance financial incentives for lowering costs while providing greater value. Gaps in accountable care measure sets may cause missed signals of problems in care and missed opportunities for improvement. Measures to balance financial incentives may be particularly important for oncology, where high cost and increasingly targeted diagnostics and therapeutics intersect with the highly complex and heterogeneous needs and preferences of cancer patients. Moreover, the concept of value in cancer care, defined as the measure of outcomes achieved per costs incurred, is rarely incorporated into performance measurement. This article analyzes gaps in oncology measures in accountable care, discusses challenging measurement issues, and offers strategies for improving oncology measurement. Discern Health analyzed gaps in accountable care measure sets for 10 cancer conditions that were selected based on incidence and prevalence; impact on cost and mortality; a diverse range of high-cost diagnostic procedures and treatment modalities (e.g., genomic tumor testing, molecularly targeted therapies, and stereotactic radiotherapy); and disparities or performance gaps in patient care. We identified gaps by comparing accountable care set measures with high-priority measurement opportunities derived from practice guidelines developed by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and other oncology specialty societies. We found significant gaps in accountable care measure sets across all 10 conditions. For

  4. Cardiac management of oncology patients clinical handbook for cardio-oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Baron Esquivias, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    This book is designed for clinical cardiologists and other physicians working with cardiac patients, where specific specialized teams of cardio-oncologists are not available and who are called to perform a clinical consultation to evaluate both the cardiac condition and the eligibility for chemotherapy or radiotherapy treatment, and to evaluate if a cancer treatment produces toxic effects on a patient treated with chemo or radiotherapy and if appearance of new symptoms is due to this treatment. In recent years, progress in oncologic therapy has resulted in important developments and the prognostic improvement of patients with malignancy. The cornerstone of chemotherapy are the anthracyclines (and the analogue Mitoxantrone), that are direct cellular toxic agents and that are among the most powerful anti-neoplastic drugs, but their cardiac toxicity is well known. Significant breakthroughs in cancer therapy have also been achieved with the introduction of signalling inhibitors, such as VEGF inhibitors, HERB2 inh...

  5. Metals as radio-enhancers in oncology: The industry perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottier, Agnés, E-mail: agnes.pottier@nanobiotix.com; Borghi, Elsa; Levy, Laurent

    2015-12-18

    Radio-enhancers, metal-based nanosized agents, could play a key role in oncology. They may unlock the potential of radiotherapy by enhancing the radiation dose deposit within tumors when the ionizing radiation source is ‘on’, while exhibiting chemically inert behavior in cellular and subcellular systems when the radiation beam is ‘off’. Important decision points support the development of these new type of therapeutic agents originated from nanotechnology. Here, we discuss from an industry perspective, the interest of developing radio-enhancer agents to improve tumor control, the relevance of nanotechnology to achieve adequate therapeutic attributes, and present some considerations for their development in oncology. - Highlights: • Oncology is a field of high unmet medical need. • Despites of its widespread usage, radiation therapy presents a narrow therapeutic window. • High density material at the nanoscale may enhance radiation dose deposit from cancer cells. • Metal-based nanosized radio-enhancers could unlock the potential of radiotherapy.

  6. Frontiers of biostatistical methods and applications in clinical oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Crowley, John

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art of biostatistical methods and their applications in clinical oncology. Many methodologies established today in biostatistics have been brought about through its applications to the design and analysis of oncology clinical studies. This field of oncology, now in the midst of evolution owing to rapid advances in biotechnologies and cancer genomics, is becoming one of the most promising disease fields in the shift toward personalized medicine. Modern developments of diagnosis and therapeutics of cancer have also been continuously fueled by recent progress in establishing the infrastructure for conducting more complex, large-scale clinical trials and observational studies. The field of cancer clinical studies therefore will continue to provide many new statistical challenges that warrant further progress in the methodology and practice of biostatistics. This book provides a systematic coverage of various stages of cancer clinical studies. Topics from modern cancer clinical ...

  7. Transforming Oncology Care: Developing a Strategy and Measuring Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Ponte, Patricia; Berry, Donna; Buswell, Lori; Gross, Anne; Hayes, Carolyn; Kostka, Judy; Poyner-Reed, Mary; West, Colleen

    2016-05-01

    To examine accountability and performance measurement in health care and present a case study that illustrates the link between goal setting and measurement and how a strategic plan can provide a framework for metric selection. National reports, literature review and institutional experience. Nurse leaders and clinicians in oncology settings are challenged to anticipate future trends in oncology care and create a culture, infrastructure, and practice environment that supports innovation, advancement of oncology nursing practice and excellence in patient- and family-centered care. Performance metrics assessing key processes and outcomes of care are essential to meet this challenge. With an increasing number of national organizations offering their version of key quality standards and metrics, it is critical for nurses to have a formal process in place to determine and implement the measures most useful in guiding change for a particular clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Managing patients with oncologic complications in the emergency department [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, David; McCurdy, Michael T; Nusbaum, Jeffrey; Gupta, Nachi

    2018-01-22

    As the prevalence of cancer continues to increase in the general population and improvements in cancer treatment prolong survival, the incidence of patients presenting to the emergency department with oncologic complications will, similarly, continue to rise. This issue reviews 3 of the more common presentations of oncology patients to the emergency department: metastatic spinal cord compression, tumor lysis syndrome, and febrile neutropenia. Signs and symptoms of these conditions can be varied and nonspecific, and may be related to the malignancy itself or to an adverse effect of the cancer treatment. Timely evidence-based decisions in the emergency department regarding diagnostic testing, medications, and arrangement of disposition and oncology follow-up can significantly improve a cancer patient's quality of life. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Emergency Medicine Practice.].

  9. Smoking Cessation Counseling Beliefs and Behaviors of Outpatient Oncology Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhauer, Suzanne C.; Tooze, Janet A.; Blackstock, A. William; Spangler, John; Thomas, Leslie; Sutfin, Erin L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Many cancer patients continue to smoke after diagnosis, increasing their risk for treatment complications, reduced treatment efficacy, secondary cancers, and reduced survival. Outpatient oncology providers may not be using the “teachable moment” of cancer diagnosis to provide smoking cessation assistance. Providers and Methods. Physicians and midlevel providers (n = 74) who provide outpatient oncology services completed an online survey regarding smoking cessation counseling behaviors, beliefs, and perceived barriers. Outpatient medical records for 120 breast, lung, head and neck, colon, prostate, and acute leukemia cancer patients were reviewed to assess current smoking cessation assessment and intervention documentation practices. Results. Providers reported commonly assessing smoking in new patients (82.4% frequently or always), but rates declined at subsequent visits for both current smokers and recent quitters. Rates of advising patients to quit smoking were also high (86.5% frequently or always), but oncology setting. PMID:22334454

  10. Measurement of nurses' workload in an oncology outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Alves de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand and the degree of patient care in oncological outpatient services, as well as the complexity of treatment have had an impact on the workload of nurses. This study aimed at measuring the workload and productivity of nurses in an oncological outpatient service. An observational study using a work sampling technique was conducted and included seven nurses working in an oncological outpatient service in the south-eastern region of Brazil. A total of 1,487 intervention or activity samples were obtained. Nurses used 43.2% of their time on indirect care, 33.2% on direct care, 11.6% on associated activities, and 12% on personal activities. Their mean productivity was 88.0%. The findings showed that nurses in this service spend most of their time in indirect care activities. Moreover, the productivity index in this study was above that recommended in the literature.

  11. Dor oncológica Oncologic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Alves Costa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A dor pode ser definida de várias formas, sendo habitualmente descrita como uma experiência sensorial e emocional desagradável associada a lesão tecidular real ou potencial, ou descrita em função de tal lesão. No doente oncológico, a dor pode estar relacionada com a neoplasia, com o seu tratamento, ou não ter relação com a doença neoplásica. A dor tem grande impacto no doente oncológico, significando agravamento do prognóstico ou morte próxima, daí a importância de uma abordagem e tratamento correctos. As opções para o tratamento farmacológico são várias, estando disponíveis analgésicos não opióides, opióides e co-analgésicos. Os autores pretendem com este artigo rever o tratamento farmacológico da dor e alertar para a importância do reconhecimento da dor como doença e da possibilidade de tratar e aliviar os doentes.Pain can be defined by several ways, but is usually describes as an unpleasant sensorial or emotional experience related to real or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. The cancer patient may experience pain related to the cancer itself, its treatment or not related at all with the oncologic disease. It has an extreme importance to the patient, as it is interpreted as a worsening of the prognosis or near death. Therefore it is extremely important a correct approach and treatment of cancer pain. Pain can be treated by pharmacologic, non-pharmacologic means and by more invasive procedures. The options for pharmacologic treatment are various, since nonopioid, opioid analgesics and co-analgesics. The authors present a review of the pharmacological treatment of cancer pain and alert to the importance of the recognition of pain as an illness and the possibility to be relieved.

  12. Practical perspectives of personalized healthcare in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Darren R; Wellings, Robert; Harbron, Christopher

    2012-09-15

    There is an increasing prevalence of drug-diagnostic combinations in oncology. This has placed diagnostic stakeholders directly into the complex benefit-risk, cost, value and uncertainty-driven development paradigm traditionally the preserve of the drug development community. In this review we focus on the delivery of the clinical data required to advance such drug-diagnostic combination development programmes and ultimately satisfy regulators and payors of the value of contemporaneous changes in diagnostic and treatment practice. Ideally all stakeholders would like to initially estimate, and ultimately specify, the comparative benefit-risk for a new treatment option with and without changing diagnostic practice. Hence, in an ideal world clinical trial design is focused on acquiring biomarker treatment interaction data. In this review we describe the key scientific and feasibility inputs required to design and deliver such trials and the drivers, advantages and disadvantages associated with departing from this model. We do not discuss the discovery of new biomarkers nor the analytical validation and marketing of diagnostic products. Following on from trial design we describe how subsequent success then depends upon the concepts that guide trial design being driven into the complex world of large, multinational clinical trial delivery. For every aspect of a traditional clinical drug trial such as supply, recruitment and adherence, there is a corresponding concept for the diagnostic element. In practice, this means that each patient's contribution to the decision making data-set is subject to double jeopardy (attrition on clinical outcome and biomarker status). Historically, this has led to significantly reduced power for detecting biomarker-treatment interactions, reduced decision making confidence and a waste of valuable human and financial resources. We describe recent practice changes and experience that have led to the successful delivery of such trials focusing

  13. The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Precision Medicine Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, L R; Seoane, J; Le Tourneau, C; Siu, L L; Marais, R; Michiels, S; Soria, J C; Campbell, P; Normanno, N; Scarpa, A; Reis-Filho, J S; Rodon, J; Swanton, C; Andre, F

    2018-01-01

    Precision medicine is rapidly evolving within the field of oncology and has brought many new concepts and terminologies that are often poorly defined when first introduced, which may subsequently lead to miscommunication within the oncology community. The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) recognises these challenges and is committed to support the adoption of precision medicine in oncology. To add clarity to the language used by oncologists and basic scientists within the context of precision medicine, the ESMO Translational Research and Personalised Medicine Working Group has developed a standardised glossary of relevant terms. Relevant terms for inclusion in the glossary were identified via an ESMO member survey conducted in Autumn 2016, and by the ESMO Translational Research and Personalised Medicine Working Group members. Each term was defined by experts in the field, discussed and, if necessary, modified by the Working Group before reaching consensus approval. A literature search was carried out to determine which of the terms, 'precision medicine' and 'personalised medicine', is most appropriate to describe this field. A total of 43 terms are included in the glossary, grouped into five main themes-(i) mechanisms of decision, (ii) characteristics of molecular alterations, (iii) tumour characteristics, (iv) clinical trials and statistics and (v) new research tools. The glossary classes 'precision medicine' or 'personalised medicine' as technically interchangeable but the term 'precision medicine' is favoured as it more accurately reflects the highly precise nature of new technologies that permit base pair resolution dissection of cancer genomes and is less likely to be misinterpreted. The ESMO Precision Medicine Glossary provides a resource to facilitate consistent communication in this field by clarifying and raising awareness of the language employed in cancer research and oncology practice. The glossary will be a dynamic entity, undergoing

  14. Trends in hospital-physician integration in medical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Jeffrey D; Dinan, Michaela A; Schulman, Kevin A

    2017-10-01

    Hospitals have rapidly acquired medical oncology practices in recent years. Experts disagree as to whether these trends are related to oncology-specific market factors or reflect a general trend of hospital-physician integration. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence, geographic variation, and trends in physicians billing from hospital outpatient departments in medical oncology with other specialties. Retrospective analysis of Medicare claims data for 2012 and 2013. We calculated the proportion of physicians and practitioners in the 15 highest-volume specialties who billed the majority of evaluation and management visits from hospital outpatient departments in each year, nationally and by state. We included 338,998 and 352,321 providers in 2012 and 2013, respectively, of whom 9715 and 9969 were medical oncologists. Among the 15 specialties examined, medical oncology had the highest proportion of hospital outpatient department billing in 2012 and 2013 (35.0% and 38.3%, respectively). Medical oncology also experienced the greatest absolute change (3.3%) between the years, followed by thoracic surgery (2.4%) and cardiology (2.0%). There was marked state-level variation, with the proportion of medical oncologists based in hospital outpatient departments ranging from 0% in Nevada to 100% in Idaho. Hospital-physician integration has been more pronounced in medical oncology than in other high-volume specialties and is increasing at a faster rate. Policy makers should take these findings into consideration, particularly with respect to recent proposals that may continue to fuel these trends.

  15. Developing a national radiation oncology registry: From acorns to oaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Jatinder R; Efstathiou, Jason A; Bekelman, Justin E; Mutic, Sasa; Bogardus, Carl R; McNutt, Todd R; Gabriel, Peter E; Lawton, Colleen A; Zietman, Anthony L; Rose, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    The National Radiation Oncology Registry (NROR) is a collaborative initiative of the Radiation Oncology Institute and the American Society of Radiation Oncology, with input and guidance from other major stakeholders in oncology. The overarching mission of the NROR is to improve the care of cancer patients by capturing reliable information on treatment delivery and health outcomes. The NROR will collect patient-specific radiotherapy data electronically to allow for rapid comparison of the many competing treatment modalities and account for effectiveness, outcome, utilization, quality, safety, and cost. It will provide benchmark data and quality improvement tools for individual practitioners. The NROR steering committee has determined that prostate cancer provides an appropriate model to test the concept and the data capturing software in a limited number of sites. The NROR pilot project will begin with this disease-gathering treatment and outcomes data from a limited number of treatment sites across the range of practice; once feasibility is proven, it will scale up to more sites and diseases. When the NROR is fully implemented, all radiotherapy facilities, along with their radiation oncologists, will be solicited to participate in it. With the broader participation of the radiation oncology community, NROR has the potential to serve as a resource for determining national patterns of care, gaps in treatment quality, comparative effectiveness, and hypothesis generation to identify new linkages between therapeutic processes and outcomes. The NROR will benefit radiation oncologists and other care providers, payors, vendors, policy-makers, and, most importantly, cancer patients by capturing reliable information on population-based radiation treatment delivery. Copyright © 2012 (c) 2010 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Strategies for improving care of oncologic patients: SHARE Project results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reñones Crego, María de la Concepción; Fernández Pérez, Dolores; Vena Fernández, Carmen; Zamudio Sánchez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Cancer treatment is a major burden for the patient and its family that requires an individualized management by healthcare professionals. Nurses are in charge of coordinating care and are the closest healthcare professionals to patient and family; however, in Spain, there are not standard protocols yet for the management of oncology patients. The Spanish Oncology Nursing Society developed between 2012 and 2014 the SHARE project, with the aim of establishing strategies to improve quality of life and nursing care in oncology patients. It was developed in 3 phases. First, a literature search and review was performed to identify nursing strategies, interventions and tools to improve cancer patients' care. At the second stage, these interventions were agreed within a group of oncology nursing experts; and at the third phase, a different group of experts in oncology care categorized the interventions to identify the ones with highest priority and most feasible to be implemented. As a result, 3 strategic actions were identified to improve nursing care during cancer treatment: To provide a named nurse to carry out the follow up process by attending to the clinic or telephonic consultation, develop therapeutic education with adapted protocols for each tumor type and treatment and ensure specific training for nurses on the management of the cancer patients. Strategic actions proposed in this paper aim to improve cancer patients' healthcare and quality of life through the development of advanced nursing roles based on a higher level of autonomy, situating nurses as care coordinators to assure an holistic care in oncology patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Audits of oncology units – an effective and pragmatic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Pierre Abratt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Audits of oncology units are part of all quality-assurance programmes. However, they do not always come across as pragmatic and helpful to staff. Objective. To report on the results of an online survey on the usefulness and impact of an audit process for oncology units. Methods. Staff in oncology units who were part of the audit process completed the audit self-assessment form for the unit. This was followed by a visit to each unit by an assessor, and then subsequent personal contact, usually via telephone. The audit self-assessment document listed quality-assurance measures or items in the physical and functional areas of the oncology unit. There were a total of 153 items included in the audit. The online survey took place in October 2016. The invitation to participate was sent to 59 oncology units at which staff members had completed the audit process. Results. The online survey was completed by 54 (41% of the 132 potential respondents. The online survey found that the audit was very or extremely useful in maintaining personal professional standards in 89% of responses. The audit process and feedback was rated as very or extremely satisfactory in 80% and 81%, respectively. The self-assessment audit document was scored by survey respondents as very or extremely practical in 63% of responses. The feedback on the audit was that it was very or extremely helpful in formulating improvement plans in oncology units in 82% of responses. Major and minor changes that occurred as a result of the audit process were reported as 8% and 88%, respectively. Conclusion. The survey findings show that the audit process and its self- assessment document meet the aims of being helpful and pragmatic.

  18. Patient/Family Education for Newly Diagnosed Pediatric Oncology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landier, Wendy; Ahern, JoAnn; Barakat, Lamia P; Bhatia, Smita; Bingen, Kristin M; Bondurant, Patricia G; Cohn, Susan L; Dobrozsi, Sarah K; Haugen, Maureen; Herring, Ruth Anne; Hooke, Mary C; Martin, Melissa; Murphy, Kathryn; Newman, Amy R; Rodgers, Cheryl C; Ruccione, Kathleen S; Sullivan, Jeneane; Weiss, Marianne; Withycombe, Janice; Yasui, Lise; Hockenberry, Marilyn

    There is a paucity of data to support evidence-based practices in the provision of patient/family education in the context of a new childhood cancer diagnosis. Since the majority of children with cancer are treated on pediatric oncology clinical trials, lack of effective patient/family education has the potential to negatively affect both patient and clinical trial outcomes. The Children's Oncology Group Nursing Discipline convened an interprofessional expert panel from within and beyond pediatric oncology to review available and emerging evidence and develop expert consensus recommendations regarding harmonization of patient/family education practices for newly diagnosed pediatric oncology patients across institutions. Five broad principles, with associated recommendations, were identified by the panel, including recognition that (1) in pediatric oncology, patient/family education is family-centered; (2) a diagnosis of childhood cancer is overwhelming and the family needs time to process the diagnosis and develop a plan for managing ongoing life demands before they can successfully learn to care for the child; (3) patient/family education should be an interprofessional endeavor with 3 key areas of focus: (a) diagnosis/treatment, (b) psychosocial coping, and (c) care of the child; (4) patient/family education should occur across the continuum of care; and (5) a supportive environment is necessary to optimize learning. Dissemination and implementation of these recommendations will set the stage for future studies that aim to develop evidence to inform best practices, and ultimately to establish the standard of care for effective patient/family education in pediatric oncology.

  19. Community oncology in an era of payment reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, John V; Ward, Jeffery C; Hornberger, John C; Temel, Jennifer S; McAneny, Barbara L

    2014-01-01

    Patients and payers (government and private) are frustrated with the fee-for-service system (FFS) of payment for outpatient health services. FFS rewards volume and highly valued services, including expensive diagnostics and therapeutics, over lesser valued cognitive services. Proposed payment schemes would incent collaboration and coordination of care among providers and reward quality. In oncology, new payment schemes must address the high costs of all services, particularly drugs, while preserving the robust distribution of sites of service available to patients in the United States. Information technology and personalized cancer care are changing the practice of oncology. Twenty-first century oncology will require increasing cognitive work and shared decision making, both of which are not well regarded in the FFS model. A high proportion of health care dollars are consumed in the final months of life. Effective delivery of palliative and end-of-life care must be addressed by practice and by new models of payment. Value-based reimbursement schemes will require oncology practices to change how they are structured. Lessons drawn from the principles of primary care's Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) will help oncology practice to prepare for new schemes. PCMH principles place a premium on proactively addressing toxicities of therapies, coordinating care with other providers, and engaging patients in shared decision making, supporting the ideal of value defined in the triple aim-to measurably improve patient experience and quality of care at less cost. Payment reform will be disruptive to all. Oncology must be engaged in policy discussions and guide rational shifts in priorities defined by new payment models.

  20. VII National Congress of Spanish Radiotherapy and Oncology Association, Sevilla 20-22 October 1993 Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of Oncology Journal presents the 142 abstracts of VII National Congress of Spanish Radiotherapy and Oncology Association. The lectures were distributed into 3 groups: a) Radiochemotherapy b) Lymphoma c) Paliative radiotherapy and quality of life

  1. Meeting the challenge of managed care - Part I: Radiation oncology as an important part of multi-modal care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Christopher M.; Botnick, Leslie E.; Hinkle, Milton; Linden, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    every department do all (vs. most, vs. some) 'high tech' services? B. Advantages from centralization of physics services C. Advantages from bulk purchasing of maintenance services and supplies VII. Networking, Mergers, and Radiotherapy (Oncology) IPA's A. If shared services are efficient, why not just merge the practices B. The legal ins and outs C. Some practical advice VIII. Evaluating Managed Care Strategies and Contracts A. The legal ins and outs B. Perverse disincentives in contracting: discounted fee for service vs. Capitation C. Is case rate the answer? D. Can one (should one) protect oneself from PHO's and Oncology Networks? How does one distinguish between the 'good ones' from the 'bad ones'. IX. What's New for 1997-1998?

  2. Communication Skills Training in Pediatric Oncology: Moving Beyond Role Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feraco, Angela M.; Brand, Sarah R.; Mack, Jennifer W.; Kesselheim, Jennifer C.; Block, Susan D.; Wolfe, Joanne

    2018-01-01

    Communication is central to pediatric oncology care. Pediatric oncologists disclose life-threatening diagnoses, explain complicated treatment options, and endeavor to give honest prognoses, to maintain hope, to describe treatment complications, and to support families in difficult circumstances ranging from loss of function and fertility to treatment-related or disease-related death. However, parents, patients, and providers report substantial communication deficits. Poor communication outcomes may stem, in part, from insufficient communication skills training, overreliance on role modeling, and failure to utilize best practices. This review summarizes evidence for existing methods to enhance communication skills and calls for revitalizing communication skills training within pediatric oncology. PMID:26822066

  3. Implementing effective and sustainable multidisciplinary clinical thoracic oncology programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; Freeman, Richard K; Krasna, Mark J

    2015-08-01

    Three models of care are described, including two models of multidisciplinary care for thoracic malignancies. The pros and cons of each model are discussed, the evidence supporting each is reviewed, and the need for more (and better) research into care delivery models is highlighted. Key stakeholders in thoracic oncology care delivery outcomes are identified, and the need to consider stakeholder perspectives in designing, validating and implementing multidisciplinary programs as a vehicle for quality improvement in thoracic oncology is emphasized. The importance of reconciling stakeholder perspectives, and identify meaningful stakeholder-relevant benchmarks is also emphasized. Metrics for measuring program implementation and overall success are proposed.

  4. Perspectives on making big data analytics work for oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Naqa, Issam

    2016-12-01

    Oncology, with its unique combination of clinical, physical, technological, and biological data provides an ideal case study for applying big data analytics to improve cancer treatment safety and outcomes. An oncology treatment course such as chemoradiotherapy can generate a large pool of information carrying the 5Vs hallmarks of big data. This data is comprised of a heterogeneous mixture of patient demographics, radiation/chemo dosimetry, multimodality imaging features, and biological markers generated over a treatment period that can span few days to several weeks. Efforts using commercial and in-house tools are underway to facilitate data aggregation, ontology creation, sharing, visualization and varying analytics in a secure environment. However, open questions related to proper data structure representation and effective analytics tools to support oncology decision-making need to be addressed. It is recognized that oncology data constitutes a mix of structured (tabulated) and unstructured (electronic documents) that need to be processed to facilitate searching and subsequent knowledge discovery from relational or NoSQL databases. In this context, methods based on advanced analytics and image feature extraction for oncology applications will be discussed. On the other hand, the classical p (variables)≫n (samples) inference problem of statistical learning is challenged in the Big data realm and this is particularly true for oncology applications where p-omics is witnessing exponential growth while the number of cancer incidences has generally plateaued over the past 5-years leading to a quasi-linear growth in samples per patient. Within the Big data paradigm, this kind of phenomenon may yield undesirable effects such as echo chamber anomalies, Yule-Simpson reversal paradox, or misleading ghost analytics. In this work, we will present these effects as they pertain to oncology and engage small thinking methodologies to counter these effects ranging from

  5. Appropriateness criteria of FDG PET/CT in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Archi; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    18 Fluorine-2-fluoro-2-Deoxy-d-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) is a well-established functional imaging method widely used in oncology. In this article, we have incorporated the various indications for 18 FDG PET/CT in oncology based on available evidence and current guidelines. Growing body of evidence for use of 18 FDG PET/CT in select tumors is also discussed. This article attempts to give the reader an overview of the appropriateness of using 18 F-FDG PET/CT in various malignancies

  6. Exploring play therapy in pediatric oncology: a preliminary endeavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chari, Uttara; Hirisave, Uma; Appaji, L

    2013-04-01

    To discuss the benefits and feasibility of play therapy in pediatric oncology. This is highlighted through the use of a case report of non-directive play therapy with a 4 y- old girl, diagnosed with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. The outcome of play therapy was examined using a combination of qualitative and quantitative assessments. The benefits of play therapy with this child were manifested in better illness adjustment and general mental well-being, enhanced coping, and normalization. Having illustrated benefits of play therapy in pediatric oncology, this paper discusses its feasibility and proposes avenues for clinical practice and research endeavours.

  7. Positron emission tomography in oncology. Council on Scientific Affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the current and potential uses of positron emission tomography in clinical medicine and research related to oncology. Assessment will be possible of metabolism and physiology of tumors and their effects on adjacent tissues. Specific probes are likely to be developed for target sites on tumors, including monoclonal antibodies and specific growth factors that recognize tumors. To date, most oncological applications of positron emission tomography tracers have been qualitative; in the future, quantitative metabolic measurements should aid in the evaluation of tumor biology and response to treatment. 41 references

  8. Impact of radiation research on clinical trials in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, P.; Van Ess, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present an outline review of the history of the formation of the cooperative group called International Clinical Trials in Radiation Oncology (ICTRO), and the following areas are briefly discussed together with some projections for the direction of clinical trials in radiation oncology into the 1990s:- radiosensitizers, radioprotectors, and their combination, drug-radiation interactions, dose/time/fractionation, hyperthermia, biological response modifiers and radiolabelled antibodies, high LET, particularly neutron therapy, large field irradiation and interoperative irradiation, research studies on specific sites. (U.K.)

  9. Postoperative adjuvant therapy of breast cancer. Oncology Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories throughout the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Postoperative chemotherapy; Postoperative radiotherapy; Postoperative hormone therapy; Postoperative immunotherapy and chemoimmunotherapy; Postoperative multimodal therapy; Prognostic factors in postoperative adjuvant therapy

  10. Communication Skills Training in Pediatric Oncology: Moving Beyond Role Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feraco, Angela M; Brand, Sarah R; Mack, Jennifer W; Kesselheim, Jennifer C; Block, Susan D; Wolfe, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    Communication is central to pediatric oncology care. Pediatric oncologists disclose life-threatening diagnoses, explain complicated treatment options, and endeavor to give honest prognoses, to maintain hope, to describe treatment complications, and to support families in difficult circumstances ranging from loss of function and fertility to treatment-related or disease-related death. However, parents, patients, and providers report substantial communication deficits. Poor communication outcomes may stem, in part, from insufficient communication skills training, overreliance on role modeling, and failure to utilize best practices. This review summarizes evidence for existing methods to enhance communication skills and calls for revitalizing communication skills training within pediatric oncology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Machine learning in radiation oncology theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    El Naqa, Issam; Murphy, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    ​This book provides a complete overview of the role of machine learning in radiation oncology and medical physics, covering basic theory, methods, and a variety of applications in medical physics and radiotherapy. An introductory section explains machine learning, reviews supervised and unsupervised learning methods, discusses performance evaluation, and summarizes potential applications in radiation oncology. Detailed individual sections are then devoted to the use of machine learning in quality assurance; computer-aided detection, including treatment planning and contouring; image-guided rad

  12. Evidence-based integrative medicine in clinical veterinary oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raditic, Donna M; Bartges, Joseph W

    2014-09-01

    Integrative medicine is the combined use of complementary and alternative medicine with conventional or traditional Western medicine systems. The demand for integrative veterinary medicine is growing, but evidence-based research on its efficacy is limited. In veterinary clinical oncology, such research could be translated to human medicine, because veterinary patients with spontaneous tumors are valuable translational models for human cancers. An overview of specific herbs, botanics, dietary supplements, and acupuncture evaluated in dogs, in vitro canine cells, and other relevant species both in vivo and in vitro is presented for their potential use as integrative therapies in veterinary clinical oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. [Psychology, psychiatry and oncology: recent and future findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, D

    2006-01-01

    There is an important development of research at the interface of psychology, psychiatry and oncology. There are now precise knowledges about assessment and type of difficulties experimented by patients and their significant others. The content of psychological interventions needed to optimize quality of care is starting to be better defined. All this has certainly allowed the development of "psycho-oncology" as a new discipline. Our experience at the Jules Bordet Institute, Cancer Center of the University of Brussels, will be reported in this paper.

  14. Periodontium destruction associated with oncology therapy. Five case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation treatment to the head and neck and cytotoxic chemotherapy can produce deleterious side effects to the periodontium that are generally transient in nature, reversible, and do not result in permanently visible defects. However, combinations of the malignant disease itself, the direct and indirect effects of medical therapy and associated oral infections, along with local trauma can lead to periodontal tissue destruction with resulting permanent architectural defects. Five case reports illustrate destructive alterations of the periodontium that were associated with oncology therapy. Proposed guidelines for periodontal treatment of compromised individuals undergoing oncology therapies are suggested

  15. The Pocketable Electronic Devices in Radiation Oncology (PEDRO) Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bari, Berardino; Franco, P.; Niyazi, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    ) members of the national radiation or clinical oncology associations of the countries involved in the study. The 15 items investigated diffusion of MEDs (smartphones and/or tablets), their impact on daily clinical activity, and the differences perceived by participants along time. Results: A total of 386...... in young professionals working in radiation oncology. Looking at these data, it is important to verify the consistency of information found within apps, in order to avoid potential errors eventually detrimental for patients. “Quality assurance” criteria should be specifically developed for medical apps...

  16. Oncology residents' perspectives on communication skills and shared decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Rajiv; Aivas, Inge; Bourque, Jean-Marc; Tucker, Tara

    2010-12-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) and effective communication are essential components of cancer care. Residents in oncology-related specialties were surveyed about communication skills and SDM. The response rate was 77% (17/22), and 93% stated that communication skills were very important for their specialty. Most (76%) thought their communication skills were adequate, but areas of difficulty included discussing end-of-life issues, giving hope when the prognosis was bleak and dealing with hostile patients. Only 58% of respondents had heard the term SDM, and 29% were aware of its meaning. More SDM and communication training are required for future oncology physicians.

  17. Back to the Future for Clinical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabner

    1996-01-01

    Dear Colleague: I remember, but just barely, what it was like to practice medicine in the first half of this century. My Dad was a general practitioner in a very small farming community in central Illinois, with a hospital of six beds and a trusting clientele. His patients thought he knew how to do everything: deliver babies, set broken bones and take out an appendix. He was an advocate for his patients, not for an HMO or an insurance company. He derived great satisfaction from his practice and was comfortable in this role, up to a point, but knew that he frequently needed the help of specialists from Decatur, St. Louis, and the Mayo Clinic. As his experience and practice evolved, and as medicine itself changed, referrals became a sign of good practice and not an indication of weakness or inadequacy. Some doctors in our town continued to do more than they should have and resisted the trend, and their patients, many with blind faith in their doctor, suffered for it. Clearly, there were economic as well as emotional factors that contributed to this reluctance to ask for help. Clinical oncology is facing much the same situation today. Scientific and economic forces are revolutionizing medicine, but not always in compatible directions. Practice and research have evolved to the point where old patterns of practice are no longer optimal. Few cancer patients can be managed without the input, advice, and even direct involvement of specialists from sister disciplines. Thus, multimodality management of cancer patients is now the norm rather than the exception. At the same time, strong economic forces are dictating a movement in the opposite direction, undermining the strength of traditional academic centers and limiting choices, streamlining patient evaluation, and creating "pathways" to standardize patient management. Who should be setting the course for the cancer patient? We agree that it should not be a clerk at the other end of the phone at the HMO, a computerized

  18. Relationship between physicians' perceived stigma toward depression and physician referral to psycho-oncology services on an oncology/hematology ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Hyoung; Bae, Jae-Nam; Lim, Joohan; Lee, Moon-Hee; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Yi, Hyeon Gyu

    2018-03-01

    This study was performed to identify relationships between physicians' perceived stigma toward depression and psycho-oncology service utilization on an oncology/hematology ward. The study participants were 235 patients in an oncology/hematology ward and 14 physicians undergoing an internal medicine residency training program in Inha University Hospital (Incheon, South Korea). Patients completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and residents completed the Perceived Devaluation-Discrimination scale that evaluates perceived stigma toward depression. A total PHQ-9 score of ≥5 was defined as clinically significant depression. Physicians decided on referral on the basis of their opinions and those of their patients. The correlates of physicians' recommendation for referral to psycho-oncology services and real referrals psycho-oncology services were examined. Of the 235 patients, 143 had PHQ-9 determined depression, and of these 143 patients, 61 received psycho-oncology services. Physicians recommended that 87 patients consult psycho-oncology services. Multivariate analyses showed that lower physicians' perceived stigma regarding depression was significantly associated with physicians' recommendation for referral, and that real referral to psycho-oncology services was significantly associated with presence of a hematologic malignancy and lower physicians' perceived stigma toward depression. Physicians' perceived stigma toward depression was found to be associated with real referral to psycho-oncology services and with physician recommendation for referral to psycho-oncology services. Further investigations will be needed to examine how to reduce physicians' perceived stigma toward depression. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Chemical composition of groundwater/drinking water and oncological disease mortality in Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapant, S; Cvečková, V; Fajčíková, K; Dietzová, Z; Stehlíková, B

    2017-02-01

    This study deals with the analysis of relationship between chemical composition of the groundwater/drinking water and the data on mortality from oncological diseases (MOD) in the Slovak Republic. Primary data consist of the Slovak national database of groundwater analyses (20,339 chemical analyses, 34 chemical elements/compounds) and data on MOD (17 health indicators) collected for the 10-year period (1994-2003). The chemical and health data were unified in the same form and expressed as the mean values for each of 2883 municipalities within the Slovak Republic. Pearson and Spearman correlation as well as artificial neural network (ANN) methods were used for analysis of the relationship between chemical composition of groundwater/drinking water and MOD. The most significant chemical elements having influence on MOD were identified together with their limit values (limit and optimal contents). Based on the results of calculations, made through the neural networks, the following eight chemical elements/parameters in the groundwater were defined as the most significant for MOD: Ca + Mg (mmol l -1 ), Ca, Mg, TDS, Cl, HCO 3 , SO 4 and NO 3 . The results document the highest relationship between MOD and groundwater contents of Ca + Mg (mmol l -1 ), Ca and Mg. We observe increased MOD with low (deficit) contents of these three parameters of groundwater/drinking water. The following limit values were set for the most significant groundwater chemicals/parameters: Ca + Mg 1.73-5.85 mmol l -1 , Ca 60.5-196.8 mg l -1 and Mg 25.6-35.8 mg l -1 . At these concentration ranges, the mortality for oncological diseases in the Slovak Republic is at the lowest levels. These limit values are about twice higher in comparison with the current Slovak valid guideline values for the drinking water.

  20. Practicing radiation oncology in the current health care environment - Part III: Information systems for radiation oncology practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijewski, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: This course will review topics to be considered when defining an information systems plan for a department of radiation oncology. A survey of available systems will be presented. Computer information systems can play an important role in the effective administration and operation of a department of radiation oncology. Tasks such as 1) scheduling for physicians, patients, and rooms, 2) charge collection and billing, 3) administrative reporting, and 4) treatment verification can be carried out efficiently with the assistance of computer systems. Operating a department without a state of art computer system will become increasingly difficult as hospitals and healthcare buyers increasingly rely on computer information technology. Communication of the radiation oncology system with outside systems will thus further enhance the utility of the computer system. The steps for the selection and installation of an information system will be discussed: 1) defining the objectives, 2) selecting a suitable system, 3) determining costs, 4) setting up maintenance contracts, and 5) planning for future upgrades

  1. Comparison of Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) Measure Adherence Between Oncology Fellows, Advanced Practice Providers, and Attending Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jason; Zhang, Tian; Shah, Radhika; Kamal, Arif H; Kelley, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Quality improvement measures are uniformly applied to all oncology providers, regardless of their roles. Little is known about differences in adherence to these measures between oncology fellows, advance practice providers (APP), and attending physicians. We investigated conformance across Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) measures for oncology fellows, advance practice providers, and attending physicians at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center (DVAMC). Using data collected from the Spring 2012 and 2013 QOPI cycles, we abstracted charts of patients and separated them based on their primary provider. Descriptive statistics and the chi-square test were calculated for each QOPI measure between fellows, advanced practice providers (APPs), and attending physicians. A total of 169 patients were reviewed. Of these, 31 patients had a fellow, 39 had an APP, and 99 had an attending as their primary oncology provider. Fellows and attending physicians performed similarly on 90 of 94 QOPI metrics. High-performing metrics included several core QOPI measures including documenting consent for chemotherapy, recommending adjuvant chemotherapy when appropriate, and prescribing serotonin antagonists when prescribing emetogenic chemotherapies. Low-performing metrics included documentation of treatment summary and taking action to address problems with emotional well-being by the second office visit. Attendings documented the plan for oral chemotherapy more often (92 vs. 63%, P=0.049). However, after the chart audit, we found that fellows actually documented the plan for oral chemotherapy 88% of the time (p=0.73). APPs and attendings performed similarly on 88 of 90 QOPI measures. The quality of oncology care tends to be similar between attendings and fellows overall; some of the significant differences do not remain significant after a second manual chart review, highlighting that the use of manual data collection for QOPI analysis is an imperfect system, and there may

  2. Coping with moral distress in oncology practice: nurse and physician strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Lievrouw, An; Vanheule, Stijn; Deveugele, Myriam; De Vos, Martine; Pattyn, Piet; Van Belle, Simon; Benoit, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To explore variations in coping with moral distress among physicians and nurses in a university hospital oncology setting. Research Approach: Qualitative interview study. Setting: Internal medicine (gastroenterology and medical oncology), gastrointestinal surgery, and day clinic chemotherapy at Ghent University Hospital in Belgium. Participants: 17 doctors and 18 nurses with varying experience levels, working in three different oncology hospital settings. M...

  3. 76 FR 59167 - Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems Division, Concord, CA; Siemens Medical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems Division, Concord, CA; Siemens Medical Solutions USA... Solutions USA, Inc. (Siemens), Oncology Care Systems Division, Concord, California (subject firm). The...., Oncology Care Systems Division, Concord, California (TA-W-73,158) and Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc...

  4. CTD² Dashboard: a searchable web interface to connect validated results from the Cancer Target Discovery and Development Network* | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Target Discovery and Development (CTD2) Network aims to use functional genomics to accelerate the translation of high-throughput and high-content genomic and small-molecule data towards use in precision oncology.

  5. DEGRO 2012. 18. annual congress of the German Radiation Oncology Society. Radiation oncology - medical physics - radiation biology. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes the abstracts of the contributions and posters of the 18th annual congress of the German Radiation Oncology Society DEGRO 2012. The lectures covered the following topics: Radiation physics, therapy planning; gastrointestinal tumors; radiation biology; stererotactic radiotherapy/breast carcinomas; quality management - life quality; head-neck-tumors/lymphomas; NSCL (non-small cell lung carcinomas); pelvic tumors; brain tumors/pediatric tumors. The poster sessions included the following topics: quality management, recurrent tumor therapy; brachytherapy; breast carcinomas and gynecological tumors; pelvis tumors; brain tumors; stereotactic radiotherapy; head-neck carcinomas; NSCL, proton therapy, supporting therapy; clinical radio-oncology, radiation biology, IGRT/IMRT.

  6. Journey Toward High Reliability: A Comprehensive Safety Program to Improve Quality of Care and Safety Culture in a Large, Multisite Radiation Oncology Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Kristina Demas; Volz, Edna; Maity, Amit; Gabriel, Peter E; Solberg, Timothy D; Bergendahl, Howard W; Hahn, Stephen M

    2016-05-01

    High-reliability organizations (HROs) focus on continuous identification and improvement of safety issues. We sought to advance a large, multisite radiation oncology department toward high reliability through the implementation of a comprehensive safety culture (SC) program at the University of Pennsylvania Department of Radiation Oncology. In 2011, with guidance from safety literature and experts in HROs, we designed an SC framework to reduce radiation errors. All state-reported medical events (SRMEs) from 2009 to 2016 were retrospectively reviewed and plotted on a control chart. Changes in SC grade were assessed using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Hospital Survey. Outcomes measured included the number of radiation treatment fractions and days between SRMEs, as well as SC grade. Multifaceted safety initiatives were implemented at our main academic center and across all network sites. Postintervention results demonstrate increased staff fundamental safety knowledge, enhanced peer review with an electronic system, and special cause variation of SRMEs on control chart analysis. From 2009 to 2016, the number of days and fractions between SRMEs significantly increased, from a mean of 174 to 541 days (P safety framework. Our multifaceted initiatives, focusing on culture and system changes, can be successfully implemented in a large academic radiation oncology department to yield measurable improvements in SC and outcomes. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  7. Technology evaluation: SAGE, Genzyme molecular oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, J

    2001-02-01

    Genzyme Molecular Oncology (GMO) is using its SAGE (Serial Analysis of Gene Expression) combinatorial chemistry technology to screen compound libraries. SAGE is a high-throughput, high-efficiency method to simultaneously detect and measure the expression levels of genes expressed in a cell at a given time, including rare genes. SAGE can be used in a wide variety of applications to identify disease-related genes, to analyze the effect of drugs on tissues and to provide insights into disease pathways. It works by isolating short fragments of genetic information from the expressed genes that are present in the cell being studied. These short sequences, called SAGE tags, are linked together for efficient sequencing. The sequence data are then analyzed to identify each gene expressed in the cell and the levels at which each gene is expressed. This information forms a library that can be used to analyze the differences in gene expression between cells [293437]. By December 1999, GMO had identified a set of 40 genes from 3.5 million transcripts that were expressed at elevated levels in all cancer tissue but not seen in normal tissue. The company hope these may provide diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets. The studies also provided data furthering the understanding of the way cells use their genome [349968]. GMO has signed a collaborative agreement with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to search for new drug candidates in the field of cancer chemotherapy. The collaboration combines GMO's SAGE technology with the NCI's extensive array of 60 cell-based cancer screens. Under the agreement, the NCI will evaluate Genzyme's library consisting of one million compounds against selected cancer screens to identify compounds with anticancer properties [255082]. Xenometrix granted a license agreement for gene expression profiling to GMO in February 1999, giving company access to claims covered in issued US and European patents. The license is non-exclusive and covers the

  8. Nuclear oncology in a developing country: Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, K.S. von; Rubow, S.M.; Ellmann, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Namibia is a country with 1.8 million inhabitants of whom the majority have limited access to world-class medical facilities. On an average, 25% people in Namibia get cancer in their lifetime. Most cancers can be cured if detected early and treated more effectively when metastatic disease is localized or even excluded. Nuclear medicine techniques play an important role in the detection, staging and management of malignant disease. In Namibia, due to sun exposure, skin cancer (31%) tops the list of prevailing cancers. The next most common cancer is breast cancer (9%), followed by head and neck cancers (8%), prostate (7%), Kaposi sarcoma (7%) and cervical cancer (6%). AIDS is an ever growing problem in Namibia, and related cancers e.g. Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma are on the rise. A Nuclear Medicine Department was established at Windhoek Central Hospital in 1982. A nuclear physician, two nuclear medicine radiographers and a nursing sister staff the department. Equipment includes a Siemens Orbiter and an Elscint Apex SPX Helix gamma camera. Radiopharmaceuticals are obtained from suppliers in South Africa. There is a good working relationship between the Nuclear Medicine department and the clinicians, including the oncologists and surgeons. Therefore oncology patients are regularly referred for Nuclear Medicine procedures. Approximately 50% of all studies performed in the department are referred from oncologists. Investigations performed for breast cancer patients include scintimammography, sentinel node mapping with gamma probe. Bone scans and liver scans are used for the detection of metastases in patients with breast carcinoma and other cancers. In thyroid cancer patients, whole body radioiodine scans are done post-thyroidectomy to confirm the presence of a thyroid remnant and to detect local or distant metastases. Thallium and Sestamibi scans are performed to localize metastatic disease in thyroid cancer patients with a rising thyroglobulin level but a

  9. Group consensus peer review in radiation oncology: commitment to quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggar, W Neil; Bhandari, Rahul; Yang, Chunli Claus; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2018-03-27

    Peer review, especially prospective peer review, has been supported by professional organizations as an important element in optimal Radiation Oncology practice based on its demonstration of efficacy at detecting and preventing errors prior to patient treatment. Implementation of peer review is not without barriers, but solutions do exist to mitigate or eliminate some of those barriers. Peer review practice at our institution involves three key elements: new patient conference, treatment planning conference, and chart rounds. The treatment planning conference is an adaptation of the group consensus peer review model from radiology which utilizes a group of peers reviewing each treatment plan prior to implementation. The peer group in radiation oncology includes Radiation Oncologists, Physician Residents, Medical Physicists, Dosimetrists, and Therapists. Thus, technical and clinical aspects of each plan are evaluated simultaneously. Though peer review is held in high regard in Radiation Oncology, many barriers commonly exist preventing optimal implementation such as time intensiveness, repetition, and distraction from clinic time with patients. Through the use of automated review tools and commitment by individuals and administration in regards to staffing, scheduling, and responsibilities, these barriers have been mitigated to implement this Group Consensus Peer Review model into a Radiation Oncology Clinic. A Group Consensus Peer Review model has been implemented with strategies to address common barriers to effective and efficient peer review.

  10. In vivo imaging of apoptosis in oncology : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vangestel, Christel; Peeters, Marc; Mees, Gilles; Oltenfreiter, Ruth; Boersma, Hendrikus H; Elsinga, Philippus; Reutelingsperger, Chris; Van Damme, Nancy; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Van de Wiele, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    In this review, data on noninvasive imaging of apoptosis in oncology are reviewed. Imaging data available are presented in order of occurrence in time of enzymatic and morphologic events occurring during apoptosis. Available studies suggest that various radiopharmaceutical probes bear great

  11. Pediatric Oncology Branch - Support Services | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Support Services As part of the comprehensive care provided at the NCI Pediatric Oncology Branch, we provide a wide range of services to address the social, psychological, emotional, and practical facets of pediatric cancer and to support patients and families while they are enrolled in clinical research protocols.

  12. Breast cancer patients' presentation for oncological treatment: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Breast cancer patients are presenting at advanced stages for oncological treatment in Nigeria and World Health Organization predicted developing countries' breast cancer incidence and mortality to increase by year 2020. Methods: Prospective observational hospital based study that enrolled breast cancer ...

  13. 77 FR 31025 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug...

  14. 77 FR 37911 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing an amendment to the notice of meeting of the...

  15. 77 FR 58399 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug...

  16. 78 FR 13348 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug...

  17. 77 FR 32125 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug...

  18. 75 FR 9419 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug...

  19. 78 FR 48690 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug...

  20. 77 FR 5813 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug...

  1. 75 FR 71450 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing an amendment to the notice of a...

  2. Improving oncology nurses' communication skills for difficult conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Linda; Weinstein, Elizabeth

    2013-06-01

    When oncology nurses have strong communication skills, they play a pivotal role in influencing patient satisfaction, adherence to plans of care, and overall clinical outcomes. However, research studies indicate that nurses tend to keep communication with patients and families at a superficial, nontherapeutic level. Processes for teaching goals-of-care communication skills and for implementing skills into clinical practice are not clearly defined. Nurses at a large comprehensive cancer center recognized the need for help with this skill set and sought out communication experts to assist in providing the needed education. An educational project was developed to improve therapeutic communication skills in oncology nurses during goals-of-care discussions and giving bad news. The program was tailored to nurses and social workers providing care to patients in a busy, urban, academic, outpatient oncology setting. Program topics included exploring the patient's world, eliciting hopes and concerns, and dealing with conflict about goals. Sharing and discussing specific difficult questions and scenarios were encouraged throughout the program. The program was well attended and well received by oncology nurses and social workers. Participants expressed interest in the continuation of communication programs to further enhance skills.

  3. The role of resilience and mindful leadership in oncology nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishel, Cindy J

    2015-03-01

    When oncology nurses think of the word resilient, they often describe the term in the context of the patients and families they care for each day. When patients face a diagnosis of cancer, their lives have suddenly been altered in a frightening manner. Everything changes, and they must find a way to navigate the troubled waters ahead. 
.

  4. Tumor Slice Culture: A New Avatar in Personalized Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden...Achilles heel of personalized oncology. The objective of this proposal is to establish a robust, efficient, reproducible platform to interrogate drug...establish a robust, efficient, reproducible platform to interrogate the response of a given tumor to drugs (cytotoxics, kinase inhibitors, immune

  5. A blueprint for multidisciplinary fast track gastrointestinal oncology care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basta, Y.L.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, we have evaluated the implementation of two key concepts of the Gastro Intestinal oncology Center Amsterdam (GIOCA): multidisciplinary teams (MDT) and the fast delivery of care in fast track clinics (FTC). The first part of this thesis investigates the value of multidisciplinary

  6. Integrated quantitative pharmacology for treatment optimization in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hasselt, J.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and application of quantitative pharmacological models in oncology for treatment optimization and for the design and analysis of clinical trials with respect to pharmacokinetics, toxicity, efficacy and cost-effectiveness. A recurring theme throughout this thesis

  7. A framework for prescription in exercise-oncology research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, John P; Eves, Neil D; Christensen, Jesper F

    2015-01-01

    The field of exercise-oncology has increased dramatically over the past two decades, with close to 100 published studies investigating the efficacy of structured exercise training interventions in patients with cancer. Of interest, despite considerable differences in study population and primary ...

  8. 76 FR 82309 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug...

  9. 76 FR 11489 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug...

  10. 77 FR 25184 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug...

  11. 76 FR 44595 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug...

  12. 76 FR 82310 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug...

  13. 76 FR 65736 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug...

  14. 75 FR 75680 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug...

  15. Audits of oncology units – an effective and pragmatic approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    followed by a visit by an independent auditor to each unit to review the data in the .... or had responsibility in more than one oncology unit. The following ethical .... Allen D. Getting Things Done: The Art of Stress-Free Productivity. USA: Penguin ...

  16. Advances in radiation oncology in new millennium in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Charn Il

    2000-01-01

    The objective of recent radiation therapy is to improve the quality of treatment and the after treatment quality of life. In Korea, sharing the same objective, significant advancement was made due to the gradual increase of patient number and rapid increase of treatment facilities. The advancement includes generalization of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), application of linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and furthermore, the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Authors in this paper prospectively review the followings: the advancement of radiation oncology in Korea, the recent status of four-dimensional radiation therapy. IMRT, the concept of the treatment with biological conformity, the trend of combined chemoradiotherapy, the importance of internet and radiation oncology information management system as influenced by the revolution of information technology, and finally the global trend of telemedicine in radiation oncology. Additionally, we suggest the methods to improve radiotherapy treatment, which include improvement of quality assurance (QA) measures by developing Koreanized QA protocol and system, regional study about clinical protocol development for phase three clinical trial, suggestion of unified treatment protocol and guideline by academic or research societies, domestic generation of treatment equipment's or system, establishment of nationwide data base of radiation-oncology-related information, and finally pattems-of-care study about major cancers

  17. Advances in radiation oncology in new millennium in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Seung Jae [College of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Charn Il [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    The objective of recent radiation therapy is to improve the quality of treatment and the after treatment quality of life. In Korea, sharing the same objective, significant advancement was made due to the gradual increase of patient number and rapid increase of treatment facilities. The advancement includes generalization of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), application of linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and furthermore, the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Authors in this paper prospectively review the followings: the advancement of radiation oncology in Korea, the recent status of four-dimensional radiation therapy. IMRT, the concept of the treatment with biological conformity, the trend of combined chemoradiotherapy, the importance of internet and radiation oncology information management system as influenced by the revolution of information technology, and finally the global trend of telemedicine in radiation oncology. Additionally, we suggest the methods to improve radiotherapy treatment, which include improvement of quality assurance (QA) measures by developing Koreanized QA protocol and system, regional study about clinical protocol development for phase three clinical trial, suggestion of unified treatment protocol and guideline by academic or research societies, domestic generation of treatment equipment's or system, establishment of nationwide data base of radiation-oncology-related information, and finally pattems-of-care study about major cancers.

  18. Screening Patient Spirituality and Spiritual Needs in Oncology Nursing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, René; Schep-Akkerman, Annemiek; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To select 2 appropriate spiritual assessment tools and evaluate these by involving oncology nurses. Background. Spirituality is recognized as an important domain of cancer care. At admission, integration of spiritual assessment seems necessary. It is unclear what kind of spiritual assessment

  19. Screening patient spirituality and spiritual needs in oncology nursing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, R. van; Schep-Akkerman, A.E.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van

    2013-01-01

    AIM.: To select 2 appropriate spiritual assessment tools and evaluate these by involving oncology nurses. BACKGROUND.: Spirituality is recognized as an important domain of cancer care. At admission, integration of spiritual assessment seems necessary. It is unclear what kind of spiritual assessment

  20. Oncology Nurse Navigation: Results of the 2016 Role Delineation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubejko, Barbara G; Bellfield, Sonia; Kahn, Elisa; Lee, Carrie; Peterson, Nicole; Rose, Traudi; Murphy, Cynthia Miller; McCorkle, Michele

    2017-02-01

    In 2011, an oncology nurse navigator (ONN) role delineation survey (RDS) was conducted by the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) when the role was relatively new to oncology. Results did not demonstrate a unique skill set for the ONN; however, since then, the role has expanded. ONS and the Oncology Nursing Certification Corporation partnered in 2016 to complete an RDS of ONNs to redefine the role and determine the need for an ONN certification examination. A structured RDS was conducted using a formal consensus-building process. A survey was developed and released to examine the specific tasks, knowledge, and skills for the ONN as well as to determine which role possesses more responsibility for the tasks. The ONN role is evolving, and more was learned about its key tasks, including differences in the responsibilities of the ONN and the clinical or staff nurse. However, the RDS did not find an adequate difference in the knowledge required by the ONN and the clinical or staff nurse to support the need for a separate ONN certification.

  1. Sarcopenia and Postoperative Complication Risk in Gastrointestinal Surgical Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Casper; de Heer, Pieter; Bjerre, Eik D

    2018-01-01

    as prognostic tool in surgical oncology has not been established, and no consensus exists regarding assessment and management of sarcopenic patients. METHODS: We performed a systematic search for citations in EMBASE, Web of Science, and PubMed from 2004 to January 31, 2017. Random effects meta-analyses were...

  2. Oncology Social Workers' Attitudes toward Hospice Care and Referral Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Janet E.

    2004-01-01

    Members of the Association of Oncology Social Workers completed a survey, which included the Hospice Philosophy Scale (HPS) assessing the likelihood of the worker referring a terminally ill patient to hospice, background and experience, and demographics. The respondents held overwhelmingly favorable attitudes toward hospice philosophy and care,…

  3. Process mining in oncology using the MIMIC-III dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prima Kurniati, Angelina; Hall, Geoff; Hogg, David; Johnson, Owen

    2018-03-01

    Process mining is a data analytics approach to discover and analyse process models based on the real activities captured in information systems. There is a growing body of literature on process mining in healthcare, including oncology, the study of cancer. In earlier work we found 37 peer-reviewed papers describing process mining research in oncology with a regular complaint being the limited availability and accessibility of datasets with suitable information for process mining. Publicly available datasets are one option and this paper describes the potential to use MIMIC-III, for process mining in oncology. MIMIC-III is a large open access dataset of de-identified patient records. There are 134 publications listed as using the MIMIC dataset, but none of them have used process mining. The MIMIC-III dataset has 16 event tables which are potentially useful for process mining and this paper demonstrates the opportunities to use MIMIC-III for process mining in oncology. Our research applied the L* lifecycle method to provide a worked example showing how process mining can be used to analyse cancer pathways. The results and data quality limitations are discussed along with opportunities for further work and reflection on the value of MIMIC-III for reproducible process mining research.

  4. Radiation oncology in the era of precision medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild; Overgaard, Jens

    2016-01-01

    with preservation of health-related quality of life can be achieved in many patients. Two major strategies, acting synergistically, will enable further widening of the therapeutic window of radiation oncology in the era of precision medicine: technology-driven improvement of treatment conformity, including advanced...

  5. Characteristics of potential drug-related problems among oncology patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulsink, Arjan; Imholz, Alex L. T.; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.; Jansman, Frank G. A.

    Background Oncology patients are more at risk for drug related problems because of treatment with (combinations of) anticancer drugs, as they have a higher risk for organ failure or altered metabolism with progression of their disease. Objective The aim of this study was to characterize and to

  6. [Facebook in oncology. Review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneroni, Laura; Ferrari, Andrea; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Internet and particularly the so-called Web 2.0 are powerful tools of communication characterized by high user participation in the creation of content through various sites, such as those of social networking, where Facebook is the best known and most widely used. The aim of the present paper is to review the literature on the use of Facebook in health care. The international scientific literature of the past 10 years has been collected by major databases online. From the research were identified 262 articles of which 57 are considered relevant. The articles are schematically divided into three categories according to the topic: use of Facebook for psychosocial support for communication, for doctor-patient relationship, for institutional communication. The authors have identified the critical aspects and the possibility of using this tool in the communication and relationship between patients and health professionals. Despite the presence of critical issues, the use of social media is to be considered with interest and is worthy of study and research in the clinical setting. It should at the same time that health professionals are aware of the risks associated with the use of social networking but also trained in the use of the potential of these virtual tools that cannot replace real interactions but can support them.

  7. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  8. Publication status of contemporary oncology randomised controlled trials worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Pei; Liu, Xu; Lv, Jia-Wei; Li, Wen-Fei; Zhang, Yuan; Guo, Ying; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Mao, Yan-Ping; Ma, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the extent of selective publication in contemporary oncology randomised controlled trials (RCTs) worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the rates of publication and timely publication (within 24 months) for contemporary oncology RCTs from all over the world. We also investigated the trial characteristics associated with publication and timely publication. We identified all phase III oncology RCTs registered on ClinicalTrials.gov with a primary completion date between January 2008 and December 2012. We searched PubMed and EMBASE to identify publications. The final search date was 31 December 2015. Our primary outcome measure was the time to publication from the primary completion date to the date of primary publication in a peer-reviewed journal. We identified 598 completed oncology RCTs; overall, 398 (66.6%) had been published. For published trials, the median time to publication was 25 months (interquartile range, 16-37 months). Only 192 trials (32.1%) were published within 24 months. Timely publication was independently associated with trials completed late in 2012. Trials conducted in Asia and other regions were less likely to have timely publication, but trials conducted in different locations were all equally likely to be published. Industry- and NIH-funded trials were equally likely to be published timely or at any time after trial completion. Among 391 published trials with clear primary outcomes, there was a trend for timely publication of positive trials compared with negative trials. Despite the ethical obligations and societal expectations of disclosing findings promptly, oncology RCTs performed poorly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nursing Practice Environment and Outcomes for Oncology Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jingjing; Friese, Christopher R.; Wu, Evan; Aiken, Linda H.

    2012-01-01

    Background It is commonly assumed that oncology nurses experience high job-related burnout and high turnover because their work involves inherent stressors such as caring for patients with serious and often life-threatening illness. Objectives The objectives of this study were to examine the differences in outcomes such as job dissatisfaction and burnout between oncology nurses and medical-surgical nurses, and to identify factors that affect oncology nurse outcomes. Methods A secondary analysis of nurse survey data collected in 2006 including 4047 nurses from 282 hospitals in 3 states was performed; t test and χ2 test compared differences between oncology nurses and medical-surgical nurses in nurse outcomes and their assessments of nurse practice environment, as measured by the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index. Logistic regression models estimated the effect of nurse practice environment on 4 nurse-reported outcomes: burnout, job dissatisfaction, intention to leave the current position, and perceived quality of care. Results Oncology nurses reported favorable practice environments and better outcomes than did medical-surgical nurses. All 4 subscales of the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index studied were significantly associated with outcomes. Specifically, nurses who reported favorable nursing foundations for quality of care (eg, active in-service or preceptorship programs) were less likely to report burnout and leave their current position. Conclusions Better practice environments, including nurse foundations for quality care, can help to achieve optimal nurse outcomes. Implications for Practice Improving hospital practice environments holds significant potential to improve nurse well-being, retention, and quality of care. Specifically, hospitals should consider preceptor programs and continuing education and increase nurses’ participation in hospital decision making. PMID:22751101

  10. The IR Evolution in Oncology: Tools, Treatments, and Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baere, Thierry de, E-mail: thierry.debaere@gustaveroussy.fr [Gustave Roussy Cancer Center, Department of Interventional Radiology (France)

    2017-01-15

    Early focus of interventional oncologists was developing tools and imaging guidance, performing “procedures” acting as a skillful technician without knowledge of clinical patient outcomes, beyond post-treatment image findings. Interventional oncologists must deliver “treatments” and not “procedures”, and focus on clinically relevant outcomes, provide clinical continuity of care, which means stand at multidisciplinary tumor boards, see patients in consultation before treatment and for follow-up. Interventional oncologists have fought for the same “market” with surgery in a head to head, bloody competition called red ocean strategy in marketing terms, resulting in many aborted trials. Wide adoption of interventional oncology is facing the challenge to build evidence with overall survival as endpoint in randomized trials while the benefits of a treatment on overall survival are diluted by the effects of possible/inevitable subsequent therapies. Because interventional oncology is a disruptive force in medicine achieving same results as others (surgery) using different, less invasive approaches, patients where surgery is irrelevant can be target with a blue ocean strategy (to propose treatment where there is no competition). Recently interventional oncology has been included in the ESMO guidelines for colorectal cancer with oligometastatic disease with both surgical resection, and thermal ablation classified in the same category called “local ablative treatments”. Interventional oncologists have to shape the future by publications in oncologic journal, by being active members of oncology scientific societies, and use modern public megaphone (blog, video sharing, …) to disseminate information and let society know that interventional is not a me-too product but a disruptive treatment.

  11. The IR Evolution in Oncology: Tools, Treatments, and Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baere, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Early focus of interventional oncologists was developing tools and imaging guidance, performing "procedures" acting as a skillful technician without knowledge of clinical patient outcomes, beyond post-treatment image findings. Interventional oncologists must deliver "treatments" and not "procedures", and focus on clinically relevant outcomes, provide clinical continuity of care, which means stand at multidisciplinary tumor boards, see patients in consultation before treatment and for follow-up. Interventional oncologists have fought for the same "market" with surgery in a head to head, bloody competition called red ocean strategy in marketing terms, resulting in many aborted trials. Wide adoption of interventional oncology is facing the challenge to build evidence with overall survival as endpoint in randomized trials while the benefits of a treatment on overall survival are diluted by the effects of possible/inevitable subsequent therapies. Because interventional oncology is a disruptive force in medicine achieving same results as others (surgery) using different, less invasive approaches, patients where surgery is irrelevant can be target with a blue ocean strategy (to propose treatment where there is no competition). Recently interventional oncology has been included in the ESMO guidelines for colorectal cancer with oligometastatic disease with both surgical resection, and thermal ablation classified in the same category called "local ablative treatments". Interventional oncologists have to shape the future by publications in oncologic journal, by being active members of oncology scientific societies, and use modern public megaphone (blog, video sharing, …) to disseminate information and let society know that interventional is not a me-too product but a disruptive treatment.

  12. The IR Evolution in Oncology: Tools, Treatments, and Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baere, Thierry de

    2017-01-01

    Early focus of interventional oncologists was developing tools and imaging guidance, performing “procedures” acting as a skillful technician without knowledge of clinical patient outcomes, beyond post-treatment image findings. Interventional oncologists must deliver “treatments” and not “procedures”, and focus on clinically relevant outcomes, provide clinical continuity of care, which means stand at multidisciplinary tumor boards, see patients in consultation before treatment and for follow-up. Interventional oncologists have fought for the same “market” with surgery in a head to head, bloody competition called red ocean strategy in marketing terms, resulting in many aborted trials. Wide adoption of interventional oncology is facing the challenge to build evidence with overall survival as endpoint in randomized trials while the benefits of a treatment on overall survival are diluted by the effects of possible/inevitable subsequent therapies. Because interventional oncology is a disruptive force in medicine achieving same results as others (surgery) using different, less invasive approaches, patients where surgery is irrelevant can be target with a blue ocean strategy (to propose treatment where there is no competition). Recently interventional oncology has been included in the ESMO guidelines for colorectal cancer with oligometastatic disease with both surgical resection, and thermal ablation classified in the same category called “local ablative treatments”. Interventional oncologists have to shape the future by publications in oncologic journal, by being active members of oncology scientific societies, and use modern public megaphone (blog, video sharing, …) to disseminate information and let society know that interventional is not a me-too product but a disruptive treatment.

  13. Creating a Culture of Professional Development for Oncology Nursing in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Myungsun

    2016-01-01

    The importance of professional development of oncology nursing in Asia is growing along with growth in the cancer burden and disparity in cancer incidence and mortality between more- and less-developed regions, the latter of which includes most Asian countries. This paper proposes ways to advance the oncology nursing in terms of education, practice, and research in Asia. It also describes major challenges expected in developing and implementing a unique professional role for oncology nurses in Asia. This study will provide insights for Asian oncology nurses in developing culturally sensitive oncology nursing practices with limited health care resources.

  14. Oncology Nurses' Use of the Internet for Continuing Education: A Survey of Oncology Nursing Society Congress Attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Susan C.; Baird, Susan B.

    1999-01-01

    A survey to determine whether oncology nurses (n=670) use the Internet and for what purpose revealed that they use it for drug information, literature searches, academic information, patient education, and continuing education. Results suggest that continuing-education providers should pursue the Internet as a means of meeting the need for quick,…

  15. The use of biosimilar medicines in oncology - position statement of the Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology (SBOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, G S; Sternberg, C; Lopes, G; Chammas, R; Gifoni, M A C; Gil, R A; Araujo, D V

    2018-01-11

    A biosimilar is a biologic product that is similar to a reference biopharmaceutical product, the manufacturing process of which hinders the ability to identically replicate the structure of the original product, and therefore, it cannot be described as an absolute equivalent of the original medication. The currently available technology does not allow for an accurate copy of complex molecules, but it does allow the replication of similar molecules with the same activity. As biosimilars are about to be introduced in oncology practice, these must be evaluated through evidence-based medicine. This manuscript is a position paper, where the Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology (SBOC) aims to describe pertinent issues regarding the approval and use of biosimilars in oncology. As a working group on behalf of SBOC, we discuss aspects related to definition, labeling/nomenclature, extrapolation, interchangeability, switching, automatic substitution, clinical standards on safety and efficacy, and the potential impact on financial burden in healthcare. We take a stand in favor of the introduction of biosimilars, as they offer a viable, safe, and cost-effective alternative to the biopharmaceutical products currently used in cancer. We hope this document can provide valuable information to support therapeutic decisions that maximize the clinical benefit for the thousands of cancer patients in Brazil and can contribute to expedite the introduction of this new drug class in clinical practice. We expect the conveyed information to serve as a basis for further discussion in Latin America, this being the first position paper issued by a Latin American Oncology Society.

  16. Assessment of Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies in Oncology: Summary of the Oncology Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, James N.; Jacobson, Joseph O.; Vogel, Wendy H.; Griffith, Niesha; Wariabharaj, Darshan; Garg, Rekha; Zon, Robin; Stephens, Cyntha L.; Bialecki, Alison M.; Bruinooge, Suanna S.; Allen, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    To address oncology community stakeholder concerns regarding implementation of the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) program, ASCO sponsored a workshop to gather REMS experiences from representatives of professional societies, patient organizations, pharmaceutical companies, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Stakeholder presentations and topical panel discussions addressed REMS program development, implementation processes, and practice experiences, as well as oncology drug safety processes. A draft REMS decision tool prepared by the ASCO REMS Steering Committee was presented for group discussion with facilitated, goal-oriented feedback. The workshop identified several unintended consequences resulting from current oncology REMS: (1) the release of personal health information to drug sponsors as a condition for gaining access to a needed drug; (2) risk information that is not tailored—and therefore not accessible—to all literacy levels; (3) exclusive focus on drug risk, thereby affecting patient-provider treatment discussion; (4) REMS elements that do not consider existing, widely practiced oncology safety standards, professional training, and experience; and (5) administrative burdens that divert the health care team from direct patient care activities and, in some cases, could limit patient access to important therapies. Increased provider and professional society participation should form the basis of ongoing and future REMS standardization discussions with the FDA to work toward overall improvement of risk communication. PMID:23814522

  17. Corporate Culture Assessments in Integrative Oncology: A Qualitative Case Study of Two Integrative Oncology Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Mittring

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The offer of “integrative oncology” is one option for clinics to provide safe and evidence-based complementary medicine treatments to cancer patients. As known from merger theories, corporate culture and integration models have a strong influence on the success of such integration. To identify relevant corporate culture aspects that might influence the success in two highly visible integrative oncology clinics, we interviewed physicians, nurses, practitioners, and managers. All interviews (11 in a German breast cancer clinic and 9 in an integrative medicine cancer service in the USA were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed with content analysis. According to the theoretical framework of mergers, each clinic selected a different integration type (“best of both worlds” and “linking”. Nonetheless, each developed a similar corporate culture that has a strong focus on research and safe and evidence-based treatments, and fosters a holistic and patient-centered approach. Structured communication within the team and with other departments had high relevance. Research was highlighted as a way to open doors and to facilitate a more general acceptance within the hospital. Conventional physicians felt unburdened by the provision of integrative medicine service but also saw problems in the time required for scheduled treatments, which often resulted in long waiting lists.

  18. Quality Oncology Practice Initiative Can Guide and Improve Oncology Providers’ Training in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Decat Bergerot

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It has become crucial to translate scientific findings and to find ways by which to mobilize local resources to improve the quality and accessibility of cancer care in developing countries. This study seeks to provide insight into challenge through examining differences in clinician documentation of patients with cancer treated at a Brazilian Public University Hospital. Methods: ASCO Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI measures were used to examine the care provided in the departments of breast, colorectal, lymphoma, gynecology, and lung cancers. For this study, data from a representative sample of patients receiving chemotherapy in the previous month were extracted and quality of cancer care indicators examined. Results: Certain elements of medical care were consistently and appropriately documented, including cancer diagnosis and stage, chemotherapy planning, administration, and summary. In general, considering the specific cancer management measures, patients received recommended care in accordance with recognized guidelines. Despite this, a number of important gaps in care were identified, including the assessment and treatment of pain, documentation of chemotherapy intention, symptom and toxicity management, patients’ psychosocial status, and provision of a treatment summary at care completion. Conclusion: These findings are encouraging in terms of adherence to core treatment guidelines in cancer care in Brazil. However, results suggest important opportunities for improving care across a number of domains, many of which represent a challenge throughout both developing and developed countries. This study may also provide preliminary guidance for enhancing educational and training programs for professionals and students alike, to implement high-quality, comprehensive cancer care.

  19. Palliative care and palliative radiation therapy education in radiation oncology: A survey of US radiation oncology program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Randy L; Colbert, Lauren E; Jones, Joshua; Racsa, Margarita; Kane, Gabrielle; Lutz, Steve; Vapiwala, Neha; Dharmarajan, Kavita V

    The purpose of this study was to assess the state of palliative and supportive care (PSC) and palliative radiation therapy (RT) educational curricula in radiation oncology residency programs in the United States. We surveyed 87 program directors of radiation oncology residency programs in the United States between September 2015 and November 2015. An electronic survey on PSC and palliative RT education during residency was sent to all program directors. The survey consisted of questions on (1) perceived relevance of PSC and palliative RT to radiation oncology training, (2) formal didactic sessions on domains of PSC and palliative RT, (3) effective teaching formats for PSC and palliative RT education, and (4) perceived barriers for integrating PSC and palliative RT into the residency curriculum. A total of 57 responses (63%) was received. Most program directors agreed or strongly agreed that PSC (93%) and palliative radiation therapy (99%) are important competencies for radiation oncology residents and fellows; however, only 67% of residency programs had formal educational activities in principles and practice of PSC. Most programs had 1 or more hours of formal didactics on management of pain (67%), management of neuropathic pain (65%), and management of nausea and vomiting (63%); however, only 35%, 33%, and 30% had dedicated lectures on initial management of fatigue, assessing role of spirituality, and discussing advance care directives, respectively. Last, 85% of programs reported having a formal curriculum on palliative RT. Programs were most likely to have education on palliative radiation to brain, bone, and spine, but less likely on visceral, or skin, metastasis. Residency program directors believe that PSC and palliative RT are important competencies for their trainees and support increasing education in these 2 educational domains. Many residency programs have structured curricula on PSC and palliative radiation education, but room for improvement exists in

  20. Grade Inflation in Medical Student Radiation Oncology Clerkships: Missed Opportunities for Feedback?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, Surbhi; Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Sosnowicz, Stasha; Li, Jiaqi; Mitra, Nandita; Berman, Abigail T.; Baffic, Cordelia; Vapiwala, Neha; Freedman, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that medical student radiation oncology elective rotation grades are inflated and cannot be used to distinguish residency applicants. Methods and Materials: The records of 196 applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program in 2011 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The grades for each rotation in radiation oncology were collected and converted to a standardized 4-point grading scale (honors, high pass, pass, fail). Pass/fail grades were scored as not applicable. The primary study endpoint was to compare the distribution of applicants' grades in radiation oncology with their grades in medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics/gynecology core clerkships. Results: The mean United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score of the applicants was 237 (range, 188-269), 43% had additional Masters or PhD degrees, and 74% had at least 1 publication. Twenty-nine applicants were graded for radiation oncology rotations on a pass/fail basis and were excluded from the final analysis. Of the remaining applicants (n=167), 80% received the highest possible grade for their radiation oncology rotations. Grades in radiation oncology were significantly higher than each of the other 4 clerkships studied (P<.001). Of all applicants, 195 of 196 matched into a radiation oncology residency. Higher grades in radiation oncology were associated with significantly higher grades in the pediatrics core clerkship (P=.002). However, other medical school performance metrics were not significantly associated with higher grades in radiation oncology. Conclusions: Although our study group consists of a selected group of radiation oncology applicants, their grades in radiation oncology clerkships were highly skewed toward the highest grades when compared with grades in other core clerkships. Student grading in radiation oncology clerkships should be re-evaluated to incorporate more objective and detailed performance metrics to allow for